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Full text of "Buddhist legends;"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/buddhistlegends01burluoft 



THE HARVARD ORIENTAL SERIES 

VOLUME TWENTY-EIGHT 



Ihe volumes of the Harvard Oriental 
Series are printed at the expense of funds 
given to Harvard University by Henry 
Clarke Warren (1854-1899), of Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. The third volume, War- 
ren's Buddhisniy is a noble monument to his 
courage in adversity and to his scholarship. 
The Series, as a contribution to the work 
of enabling the Occident to understand the 
Orient, is the fruit of an enlightened liber- 
ality which now seems to have been an 
almost prophetic anticipation on his part 
of a great political need. 



A brief account of Mr. Warren's life is given at the end 
of volume 30. Also a list of the volumes of the Series, 
with titles and descriptions. This is followed by a partial 
list of Public Libraries in which the Series may be found. 



HARVARD ORIENTAL SERIES 

EDITED 
WITH THE COOPERATION OF VARIOUS SCHOLARS 

BY 

CHARLES ROCKWELL LANMAN 

Professor at Harvard University; Honorary Fellow of the Asiatic Society of 

Bengal, of France, of England, and of Germany; Corresponding Member of the 

Society of Sciences at Gottingen, the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the 

AcadSmie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres of the Institute of France 



l^olume ^tDentp=€isf)t 



CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

Harbarb Winihtviity l^xti^ 

1921 






BUDDHIST LEGENDS 

tHran^lateb from tije original ^ali text ot tlje 

DHAMMAPADA COMMENTARY 
BY 

EUGENE WATSON BURLINGAME 

Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; sometime 

Harrison Fellow for Research, University of Pennsylvania, and 

Johnston Scholar in Sanskrit, Johns Hopkins University; 

Lecturer on Pali (1917-1918) in Yale University 



^ 



PART 1 : Introduction ; Synopses ; Translation of Books 1 and 2 
With a photogravure of a palm-leaf manuscript 



CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

?|artiarb Winihtxiitp ^regg 

1921 




Volumes 28 and 29 and 30, first issue : 1000 copies each 
Copyright, 1921, by the Harvard University Press 




Composed on the monotype, and printed from electrotype plates, by 
The University Press : John Wilson & Son, Incorporated, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 



TO MY MOTHER AND MY BROTHER 



He whose heart is unwetted by the rain of Itist, 
He whose heart is unsinged by the fire of ill-will. 
He who has renounced both good and evil, 
He who is vigilant, such a man has nothing to fear, 

DOME are reborn on earth, evil-doers go to hell. 

The righteous go to heaven, Arahats pass to Nibbdna. 

IJY self alone is evil done, by self alone does one suffer. 
By self alone is evil left undone, by self alone does one 

obtain Salvation. 
Salvation and Perdition depend upon self; no man can 

save another. 

1 HE shunning of all evil, the doing of good. 

The cleansing of the heart : this is the Religion of the Buddhas. 

One should overcome anger with kindness; 
One should overcome evil with good; 
One should overcome the niggard with gifts. 
And the speaker of falsehood with truth. 

Dhammapada 39, 126, 165, 183, 223 



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Kisa Gotami seeks mustard-seed to cure her dead child 

Pali text, in Burmese letters, of Story 13, Book 8, Volume 29 
Page 485 of the Burmese edition, described below, page 67 
For the same in Roman letters, see Norman's edition, 2.272.12- 



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44 
Kisa Gotami seeks mustard-seed to cure her dead child 

Pali text, in Cingalese letters, of Story 13, Book 8, Volume 29 
Page 346 of the Cingalese edition, described below, page 67 
For the same in Roman letters, see Norman's edition, 2.273.6- 



PREFATORY NOTE 

I wish to thank Professor Morris Jastrow, Jr., Librarian of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, and his assistants, and Dr. M. L. Raney, 
Librarian of the Johns Hopkins University, for generous facihties 
afforded me in the loan of books. I am greatly indebted also to Mr. 
Albert J. Edmunds of Philadelphia, author of Buddhist and Christian 
Gospels, and of a translation of the Dhammapada, for the loan of 
many rare and valuable books from his private collection, at present 
deposited in the Library of Bryn Mawr College. I have also to thank 
Mrs. C. A. F. Rhys Davids, Honorary Secretary of the Pali Text 
Society, for her kindness in sending to me, as fast as issued, the ad- 
vance sheets of the Society's edition of the text of the Dhammapada 
Commentary. 

During the progress of the work, more particularly during my years 
of residence at the Johns Hopkins University as Johnston Scholar in 
Sanskrit, Professor Maurice Bloomfield has greatly assisted me with 
hints and suggestions of the highest value with reference to correct 
philological method as applied to the interpretation of Indie texts. I 
am especially indebted to Professor Bloomfield for assistance in solv- 
ing many difficult problems in the comparative grammar of Sanskrit 
and Pali, in Pali lexicography, and in the history of the religions of 
India; and for innumerable suggestions relating to the handling of 
Hindu legends and folk-tales and to the analytical study of psychic 
motifs recurring in Hindu fiction. For this generous assistance I wish 
to express to him my most grateful thanks. 



XV 



NOTE FOR LIBRARIANS AND CATALOGUERS 

Dhamma-pada, or Way of Righteousness, is the name of one of the canonical 
books of the Buddhist Sacred Scriptures. It is written in the Pali language. It con- 
sists of 423 stanzas. These are reputed to be the very words of the Buddha. 

The Dhammapada Commentary (in Pali, Dhammapad-Attha-katha) is ascribed to 
Buddhaghosa, the greatest of all the Buddhist scholastics. This ascription is without 
due warrant, as appears from the translator's Introduction, page 60. The Commen- 
tary purports to tell us "where, when, why, for what purpose, with reference to what 
situation, with reference to what person or persons" Buddha uttered each one of these 
stanzas — see page 27. In so doing, the author of the Commentary narrates 299 
legends or stories. These stories are the preponderating element of the Commentary, 
and it is these which are here translated. 

The Library of Congress issues printed catalogue-cards made to follow rules now 
generally approved by the best experts. The cards for this work bear the serial num- 
ber 20-27590, and the main entry is Dhammapadatthakatha. Complete sets of these 
cards may be had (at a nominal price of 12 cents for each set of 8) upon application 
to "The Library of Congress — Card Division, Washington, D. C." But (to foreign 
librarians, at least) the suggestion may be welcome that this work be recorded in 
Library Catalogues under the following eight entries: 

Burlingame, Eugene Watson Buddhist Legends 

Dhammapad-Attha-katha Dhammapada Commentary 

Buddhaghosa Warren, Henry Clarke, 1854-1899 (as subject of Memorial) 

Harvard Oriental Series Lanman, C. R., 1850- (as editor, and as author of Memorial) 

MEANING OF REFERENCES IN THE HEAD-LINES 

The references in square brackets at the inside upper corners of the Translation are 
intended to be read across from the left-hand page to the right-hand page. They 
show the portions of the original Pali text (in the edition of H. C. Norman: hence 
the "N.") the translation of which is contained upon any two pages that face each 
other, — that is, contained between the first line of a left-hand page of the Transla- 
tion and the last line of the next right-hand page. Thus, in this volume, pages 194 
and 195 contain the translation of that portion of the Pali text which begins in Nor- 
man's edition at volume 1, page 83, line 14, and ends at page 85, line 24. — In num- 
bering the lines of the pages of the original, the Vagga-headings (in capitals) and 
story-headings (in capitals and small capitals), added by the Editor, have not been 
counted, and of course not the head-lines of the pages. 

NOTE AS TO PRONOUNCING THE PALI NAMES 

Short a, as in organ, or like the u in but. The other vowels, as in the key-words 
far, pin, pique, pull, rule, (and roughly) they, so. Pronounce c like ch in church, and 
j as in judge. The "aspirates" are true aspirates: thus, th, dh, ph, as in hothouse, 
madhouse, uphill. They are not spirants, as in thin, graphic. The underdotted t, d, n, 
etc. are pronounced (by the Hindus, at least) with the tip of the tongue turned up 
and drawn back. Dotted m indicates nasalization of the preceding vowel. 



The completed manuscript of this translation was delivered by the 
author, January 10, 1917 



CONTENTS 

VOLUME 28, PAGE 

Five stanzas translated from the Dhamma-pada ix 

Photogravure of a Cingalese palm-leaf manuscript 

Mounted on a guard between pages x and xi 

Facsimile of a page of Pali text in Burmese letters xii 

Facsimile of a page of Pali text in Cingalese letters xiii 

Prefatory note xv 

Note for Librarians and Cataloguers xvii 



INTRODUCTION 

§ 1. Legendary life of the Buddha 

a. Birth amid rejoicing of angels 1 

h. The Buddhist Simeon 2 

c. Youth and marriage 2 

d. Resolve to seek after Nibbana 2 

e. The Great Retirement 3 

/. The Great Struggle 3 

g. The Enlightenment 4 

h. Ministry and death 6 

i. Buddhist-Christian parallels 9 

§ 2. Teachings of the Buddha 

a. The Beginningless Round of Existences 14 

6. The motive of the Religious Life 15 

c. Impermanence, Suffering, Unreality 15 

d. The Four Noble Truths regarding Suffering 16 

e. The Noble Eightfold Path to Nibbana 17 

§ 3. Practice of Meditation 19 

§ 4. Dhammapada: its place in the Buddhist Canon 25 

§ 5. Dhammapada Commentary : general character and structure of parts . . 26 
§ 6. Subject-matter and motifs of the stories 

a. Karma and Rebirth . . 29 e. Legends of the Saints 43 

h. Other motifs 34 /. Stories of seven-year-old novices . 44 

c. Humorous stories ... 36 g. Stories of good and evil spirits . 44 

d. Animal stories .... 42 

§ 7. Literary relations of the Dhammapada Commentary: its relation to 

a. The Four Agamas ... 45 d. Buddhaghosa's Works 48 

h. The Vinaya 46 e. The Jataka Book 52 

c. The Udana 47 /. Dhammapala's Commentaries . . 56 

§8. Date of the Dhammapada Commentary : 450 a. d 57 

§9. Authorship of this Commentary imknown; not by Buddhaghosa .... 59 



XX Contents of Volume 28, 

VOLtTME 28, PAGE 

§ 10. References to stories of this Commentary in Milindapanha 60 

§ 11. Parallels to Story-cycle of Udena 62 

§ 12. Parallels to Dhammapada Commentary stories in Sanskrit and Tibetan . 63 

§ 13. Hardy's Legends of Gotama Buddha (Cingalese) 64 

§ 14. Rogers's Buddhaghosha's Parables (Burmese) 65 

§ 15. Previous translations of Dhammapada and of parts of Commentary ... 66 

§ 16. Editions of the text of the Dhammapada Commentary 67 

§ 17. Brief list of books on the life and teachings of the Buddha 68 



SYNOPSES OF THE LEGENDS OR STORIES 

The synopses occupy pages 71 to 141 of Volume 28 
A detailed Table of Contents of this portion of the work is uncalled for 
The page at which the synopsis of any given story begins is given below, with a 
capital letter S and in parentheses 



TRANSLATION OF THE LEGENDS OR STORIES 

The Table of Contents of this portion of the work may advantageously be made to 
serve also as a finding-index: 

1. For the place of the Synopsis of a given story (see above) ; 

2. For the Dhammapada-Stanza [numbers in brackets] to which the story 

relates; 

3. For the place of the text of the story in Norman's edition (N) ; and 

4. For the same in the Rangoon or Burmese edition (B) ; and 

5. For the same in the Colombo or Cingalese edition (C). — Accordingly, 

For each Story, there is given, in each odd line, 

1. The number of the Story in the Book, 

2. An English title, 

3. The page (in parentheses and with an S prefixed) of the Synopsis, and 

4. The page at which the Translation begins. — And 

For each Story, there is given, in each even line, 

1. Its Pali title, 

2. The number [in brackets] of the stanza to which the Story relates, 
2 a. As counted from the beginning of the Book concerned, and 

2 b. As counted from the beginning of the Dhammapada (so Fausboll), 

8. The volume and page (with N prefixed) of the Pali text in Norman's edition, 

4. The page (with B prefixed) of the Pali text in the Burmese edition, and 

5. The page (with C prefixed) of the Pali text in the Cingalese edition. 



Book 1 xxi 
Book I. Pairs, Yamaka Vagga. Volume 28 

STORY PAGE 

1. "If thine eye offend thee, pluck it out" (S 71) 146 

Cakkhupala thera [1 = 1], N i. 3; B 44; C 1 

1 a. Story of the Past: The wicked physician and the woman (S 71) .... 158 

2. Why cry for the moon.? (S 72) 159 

Matthakundali [2 = 2], N i. 25; B 58; C 12 

3. Tissa the Fat (S 72) 166 

Thulla Tissa thera [3-4 = 3-4], N i. 37; B 67; C 18 

3 a. Story of thePast: Devala andNarada (S 72) 167 

4. " Not hatred for hatred " (S 73) 170 

Kali yakkhini [5 = 5], N i. 45; B 72; C 22 

5. The quarrelsome monks of Kosambi (S 73) 175 

Kosambaka bhikkhu [6 = 6], N i. 53; B 77; C 26 

5 a. Quarrel among the monks (S 73) 176 

5 h. The Buddha, the elephant, and the monkey (S 74) 179 

6. Kala junior and Kala senior (S 74) 184 

Culla Kala Maha Kala ca [7-8 = 7-8], N i. 66; B 84; C 33 

7. Devadatta wears an unbecoming robe (S 74) 189 

Devadatta [9-10 = 9-10], N i. 77; B 91; C 38 

7 a. Story of the Past: The elephant-hunter and the noble elephant (S 75) . . 191 

8. The Chief Disciples (S 75) 193 

Aggasavaka [11-12 = 11-12], N i. 83; B 95; C 41 

8 a. Life of the Buddha (S 75) 193 

8 h. Life of Upatissa (Sariputta) and Kolita (Moggallana) (S 75) 198 

8 c. Story of the Past: Kala junior and Kala senior (S 75) 204 

8(i. Story of the Past: Yasa and fifty-four companions (S 75) 205 

8e. Story of the Past: Thirty noble youths (S 76) 206 

8/. Story of the Past: Three brothers Kassapa (S 76) 206 

8 g. Story of the Past : Sarada and Sirivaddha (S 76) 210 

9. Nanda the Elder (S 76) ". 217 

Nanda thera [13-14; 13-14], N i. 115; B 116; C 58 

9 a. Nanda becomes a monk in spite of himself (S 76) 217 

9 6. Nanda and the celestial nymphs (S 76) 220 

9 c. Story of the Past: Kappa ta and the donkey (S 77) 224 

10. Cunda the pork-butcher (S 77) 225 

Cunda sukarika [15 = 15], N i. 125; B 123; 'C 64 

11. The righteous lay brother (S 77) 228 

Dhammika upasaka [16 = 16], N i. 129; B 125; C m 

12. Devadatta's career (S 77) 230 

Devadatta [17 = 17], N i. 133; B 128; C 68 

12 a. Retirement from the world of the six princes (S 77) 230 

12 6. Devadatta's wicked deeds (S 78) 234 

13. Lady Sumana (S 78) 242 

Sumana devi [18 = 18], N i. 151; B 139; C 77 

14. Two brethren (S 78) 244 

Dve sahayaka bhikkhu [19-20 = 19-20], N i. 154; B 141; C 78 



xxii Contents of Volume 28, Book 2 

Book n. Heedfulness, Appamada Vagga. Volume 28 

STORY PAGE 

1. Story -cycle of King Udena or Udayana (S 79) 247 

Udena-vatthu [1-3 = 21-23], N i. 161; B 145; C 81 

Part 1. Birth and youthful career of Udena (S 79) 247 

Udena-uppatti, N i. 161; B 145; C 81 

Part 2. Birth and youthful career of Ghosaka (S 79) 252 

Ghosaka-setthi-uppatti, N i. 169; B 150; C 85 

Story of the Past: Kotuhalaka casts away his son (S 79) 252 

Story of the Present : Ghosaka is cast away seven times (S 80) .... 256 

Part 3. Birth and youthful career of SamavatI (S 81) 266 

Samavatl-uppatti, N i. 187; B 162; C Q5 

Part 4. Winning of Vasuladatta by Udena (S 81) 270 

Vasuladatta-vatthu, N i. 191; B 166; C 97 

Story of the Past: Canda Pajjota wins the five conveyances (S 82) . 272 

Part 5. Rejection of Magandiya by the Buddha (S 82) 274 

Magandiya-vatthu, N i. 199; B 170; C 101 

Part 6. Death of Samavati and Magandiya, and explanation (S 82) . . . 277 
Samavatiya Magandiyaya ca marana-paridipaka, N i. 203; B 173; C 103 

Treasurers, monks, and tree-spirit (S 82) and Story of the Past (S 82) . 277 

Conversion of SamavatI by Khujjutara (S 83) 281 

Magandiya's plot against Samavati and the Buddha (S 83) 282 

Burning of Samavati and punishment of Magandiya (S 84) 288 

Story of the Past: Samavatl's former deed (S 84) 290 

Story of the Past: Khujjuttara's former deeds (S 84) 292 

2. The voice of a rich man (S 84) 293 

Kumbhaghosaka setthi [4 = 24], N i. 231; B 190; C 116 

3. Little Wayman (S 84) 299 

CuUa Panthaka thera [5 = 25], N i. 239; B 195; C 120 

3 a. Birth of Little Wayman (S 84) 299 

3 b. Little Wayman as a monk (S 84) 301 

3 c. Story of the Past: Teacher, young man, and King of Benares (S 85) . . 306 

4. Simpletons' Holiday (S 86) 310 

Balanakkhattaghuttha [6-7 = 26-27], N i. 256; B 205; C 128 

5. Kassapa the Great (S 86) 311 

Maha Kassapa thera [8 = 28], N i. 258; B 207; C 130 

6. Two brethren (S 86) 312 

Dve sahayaka bhikkhu [9 = 29], N i. 260; B 208; C 131 

7. How Magha became Sakka (S 86) 313 

Magha [10 = 30)], N i. 263; B 210; C 132 

7 a. Story of the present: Mahali's question (S 86) 313 

7 b. Story of the Past: How Magha became Sakka (S 86) 315 

8. A monk attains Arahatship (S 87) 325 

Afiftatara bhikkhu [11 = 31], N i. 281; B 221; C 140 

9. Tissa of the Market-town (S 87) 326 

Nigamavasi Tissa thera [12 = 32], N i. 283; B 222; C 141 

9 a. Story of the Past: Sakka and the parrot (S 87) 327 



Contents of Volume 29, Books 3-4- xxiii 

Book III. Thoughts, Citta Vagga. Volume 29 

STOKT PAGE 

1. Elder Meghiya (S 88) 1 

Meghiya thera [1-2 = 33-34], N i. 287; B 224; C 143 

2. The mind-reader (S 88) 1 

Annatara bhikkhu [3 = 35], N i. 290; B 226; C 145 

3. A discontented monk (S 88) -8 

Annatara bhikkhu [4 = 36], N i. 297; B 232; C 149 

4. Nephew Sangharakkhita (S 88) 10 

Bhagineyya Sangharakkhita thera [5 = 37], N i. 300; B 234; C 151 

5. Elder Thought-controlled (S 88) 12 

Cittahattha thera [6-7 = 38-39], N i. 305; B 236; C 154 

5 a. Story of the Past: Kuddala and his spade (S 89) 15 

6. Monks and tree-spirits (S 89) 17 

Pancasata vipassaka bhikkhu [8 = 40], N i. 313; B 241; C 158 

7. Cruelty a cause of boils (S 89) 20 

Putigatta Tissa thera [9 = 41], N i. 319; B 245; C 160 

7 a. Story of the Past: The cruel fowler (S 89) 21 

8. Nanda the herdsman (S 89) 22 

Nanda gopala [10 = 42], N i. 322; B 248; C 162 

9. Mother of two and father of two (S 89) 23 

Soreyya thera [11 = 43], N i. 325; B 249; C 164 

Book IV. Flowers, Puppha Vagga. Volume 29 

1. The soil of the heart (S 90) 29 

Pathavikathapasuta pancasata bhikkhu [1-2 = 44-45], N i. 333; B 254; C 167 

2. A monk attains Arahatship (S 90) 29 

Maricikammatthanika thera [3 = 46], N i. 335; B 256; C 168 

3. Vidudabha wreaks vengeance on the Sakiyas (S 90) 30 

Vidudabha [4 = 47], N i. 337; B 257; C 169 

3 a. Story of the Past: Kesava, Kappa, Narada, King of Benares (S 91) ... 34 

4. Husband-honorer [S 92] 46 

Patipujika [5 = 48], N i. 362; B 272; C 181 

5. Niggardly Kosiya (S 93) 49 

Macchariya Kosiya setthi [6 = 49], N i. 366; B 274; C 183 

6. Pathika the Naked Ascetic (S 93) 54 

Pathika Ajlvaka [7 = 50], N i. 376; B 280; C 187 

7. The king and the King of Kings (S 93) 56 

Chattapani upasaka [8-9 = 51-52], N i. 380; B 283; C 189 

8. Marriage of Visakha (S 94) 59 

Visakha [10 = 53], N i. 384; B 286; C 191 

8 a. Story of the Past: Visakha's Earnest Wish (S 95) 82 

9. Elder Ananda's question (S 95) 84 

Ananda-thera-panha [11-12 = 54-55], N i. 420; B 308; C 209 

10. Sakka gives alms to Kassapa the Great (S 95) 86 

Maha-Kassapa-thera-pindapata-dinna [13 = 56], N i. 423; B 310; C 210 

11. Godhika attains Nibbana (S 95) 90 

Godhika-thera-parinibbana [14 = 57], N i. 431; B 315; C 214 



xxiv Contents of Volume 29, 

STORY PAGE 

12. Sirigutta and Garahadinna (S Q5) 92 

Garahadinna [15-16 = 58-59], N i. 434; B 317; C 216 

Book V. The Simpleton, Bala Vagga. Volume 29 

1. The king and the poor man with a beautiful wife (S 96) 100 

Annatara purisa [1 = 60], N ii. 1; B 324; C 221 

1 a. Story of the Past: The Hell Pot (S 96) 106 

1 h. Story of the Past: The King of Benares and Queen Dinna (S 96) .... 108 

1 c. Story of the Past: The woman who killed a ewe (S 97) 110 

2. The rebelhous pupil (S 97) Ill 

Maha-Kassapa-therassa saddhiviharika [2 = 61], N ii. 19; B 335; C 230 

2 a. Story of the Past: The monkey and the singUa bird (S 97) 114 

3. A Jonah in the house (S 97) 115 

Ananda setthi [3 = 62], N ii. 25; B 339; C 233 

3 a. The niggardly treasurer (S 97) 115 

3 6. Sequel: A Jonah in the house (S 97) 115 

4. The pickpocket (S 97) 117 

Ganthibhedaka cora [4 = 63], N ii. 29; B 342; C 235 

5. The wise fool (S 97) 117 

Udayi thera [5 = 64], N ii. 30; B 343; C 235 

6. From vice to virtue (S 97) 118 

Timsamatta Patheyyaka bhikkhu [6 = 65], N ii. 32; B 344; C 236 

7. A leper is tempted to deny his faith (S 97) 119 

Suppabuddha kutthi [7 = 66], N ii. 33; B 345; C 237 

7o. Story of the Past: The four youths and the courtezan (S 98) 120 

7 6. Story of the Past: The insolent youth (S 98) 120 

8. A farmer is unjustly accused of theft (S 98) 121 

Kassaka [8 = 67], N ii. 37; B 347; C 238 

9. Sumana the gardener (S 98) 123 

Sumana malakara [9 = 68], N ii. 40; B 349; C 240 

10. Rape of Uppalavanna (S 98) 127 

Uppalavanna therl [10 = 69], N ii. 48; B 353; C 243 i 

11. Jambuka the Naked Ascetic (S 98) 130 

Jambuka Ajivaka [11 = 70], N ii. 52; B 355; C 245 

11 o. Story of the Past: The jealous monk (S 98) 130 

11 6. Story of the Present: Jambuka the Naked Ascetic (S 98) 132 

12. The snake-ghost and the crow-ghost (S 99) 137 

Ahipeta [12 = 71], N ii. 63; B 363; C 251 

12 a. Story of the Past: The crow-ghost (S 99) 138 

12 6. Story of the Past: The snake-ghost (S 99) 139 

13. The sledge-hammer ghost (S 99) 140 

Satthikuta-peta [13 = 72], N ii. 68; B 366; C 253 

13 a. Story of the Past: The stone-thrower and his pupil (S 99) 141 

14. Citta and Sudhamma (S 99) 144 

Citta-Sudhamma [14-15 = 73-74], N ii. 74; B 369; C 256 

14 a. Story of the Past: Citta's deed in a former birth (S 100) 149 



Booh 4 to Book 7 xxv 

8TORT PAGE 

15. A seven-year-old novice wins all hearts (S 100) 150 

Vanavasi Tissa thera [16 = 75], N ii. 84; B 376; C 261 

15 a. Story of the Past: The poor Brahman (S 100) 150 

15 b. Story of the Present: The novice Tissa (S 100) 151 

Book VI. The Wise Man, Pandita Vagga. Volume 29 

1. A poor man wins spiritual treasure (S 101) 163 

Radha thera [1 = 76], N ii. 104; B 389; C 271 

1 a. Story of the Past: The grateful elephant (S 101) 164 

2. The insolent monks (S 101) 165 

Assajipunabbasuka bhikkhu [2 = 77], N ii. 108; B 392; C 272 

3. The insolent monk (S 101) 166 

Channa thera [3 = 78], N ii. 110; B 393; C 274 

4. Kappina the Great, Elder (S 101) 167 

Maha Kappina thera [4 = 79], N ii. 112; B 394; C 275 

4 a. Story of the Past: Weavers and householders (S 101) 167 

4 b. Story of the Present: King Kappina and Quten Anoja (S 101) 169 

5. Pandita the novice (S 101) 176 

Pandita samanera [5 = 80], N ii. 127; B 403; C 281 

5 a. Story of the Past: Sakka and the poor man (S 101) 176 

5 b. Story of the Present: Pandita, the seven-year-old novice (S 101) .... 184 

6. Unshaken as a rock (S 102) 189 

Lakuntaka Bhaddiya thera [6 = 81], N ii. 148; B 415; C 291 

7. After the storm, calm (S 102) 190 

Kana-mata [7 = 82], N ii. 149; B 416; C 292 

8. A pack of vagabonds (S 102) 193 

Pancasata bhikkliu [8 = 83], N ii. 153; B 418; C 294 

9. Husband and wife (S 102) 194 

Dhammika thera [9 = 84], N ii. 157; B 420; C 295 

10. " Few there be that find it " (S 102) 195 

Dhammasavana [10-11 = 85-86], N ii. 159; B 422; C 296 

11. Abandon the dark state (S 102) 196 

Pancasata agantuka bhikkhu [12-14 = 87-89], N ii. 161; B 423; C 297 

Book Vn. The Arahat, Arahanta Vagga. Volume 29 

1. The Tathagata suffers not (S 102) 197 

Jivaka-panha [1 = 90], N ii. 164; B 424; C 298 

2. Free from attachment (S 102) 198 

Maha Kassapa thera [2 = 91], N ii. 167; B 426; C 299 

3. A monk stores food (S 103) 200 

Belatthislsa thera [3 = 92], N ii. 170; B 428; C 301 

4. The monk and the goddess (S 103) 201 

Anuruddha thera [4 = 93], N ii. 173; B 429; C 302 

5. Sakka honors a monk (S 103) 202 

Maha Kaccayana thera [5 = 94], N ii. 176; B 431; C 303 

6. A fancied slight (S 103) 203 

Sariputta thera [6 = 95], N ii. 178; B 432; C 304 



xxvi Contents of Volume 29, 

8TOBT PAGE 

7. The loss of an eye (S 103) 205 

KosambivasI-Tissa-thera-samanera [7 = 96], N ii. 182; B 435; C 306 . . 

8. Not by the faith of another (S 103) 208 

Sariputta thera [8 = 97],Nii. 186; B437; C308| 

9. Elder Revata of the acacia forest (S 103) 209 

Khadiravaniya Revata thera [9 = 98], N ii. 188; B 438; C 309 

9 a. Revata becomes a monk (S 103) 209 

9 h. The Buddha visits Revata (S 103) 211 

9 c. Story of the Past: The offering of honey and the siege of a city (S 103) 214 

10. A courtezan tempts a monk (S 104) 217 

Annatara itthi [10 = 99], N ii. 201; B 445; C 314 

Book VIII. Thousands, Sahassa Vagga. Volume 29 

1. A public executioner (S 104) 218 

Tambadathika coraghataka [1 = 100], N ii. 203; B 446; C 315 

2. Conversion of Bahiya Daruclriya (S 104) 222 

Bahiya Daruclriya thera [2 = 101], N ii. 209; B 450; C 318 

2 a. Digression: Story of the Past (S 104) 222 

3. The maiden who married a thief (S 104) 227 

KundalakesI theri [3-4 = 102-103], N ii. 217; B 454; C 322 

4. Gain and loss (S 105) 232 

Anattha-pucchaka brahmana [5-6 = 104-105], N ii. 227; B 459; C 326 

5. Sariputta's uncle (S 105) '. 233 

Sariputta-therassa matula brahmana [7 = 106], N ii. 230; B 461; C 327 

6. Sariputta's nephew (S 105) 234 

Sariputta-therassa bhagineyya [8 = 107], N ii. 232: B 462; C 328 

7. Sariputta's friend (S 105) 235 

Sariputta-therassa sahayaka brahmana [9 = 108], N ii. 233; B. 463; C 328 

8. The lad whose years increased (S 105) 235 

Dighayu kumara [10 = 109], N ii. 235; B 464; C 329 

9. Samkicca the novice (S 105) 238 

Samkicca samanera [11 = 110], N ii. 240; B 466; C 331 

9 a. Digression: How Samkicca got his name (S 105) .• 238 

9 h. Sequel: The novice Atimuttaka (S 106) 245 

10. The monk and the thieves (S 106) 246 

Khanu Kondanna thera [12 = 111], N ii. 254; B 474; C 337 

11. On the razor's edge (S 106) 247 

Sappadasa thera [13 = 112], N ii. 256; B 475; C 338 

11 a. Story of the Past: Discontented and covetous (S 106) 249 

12. Patacara is bereft of all her family (S 106) 250 

Patacara theri [14 = 113], N ii. 260; B 478; C 340 

13. Kisa GotamI seeks mustard seed to cure her dead child (S 107) 257 

Kisa GotamI [15 = 114], N ii. 270; B 484; C 344 

13 a. Kisa GotamI marries the son of a rich merchant (S 107) 257 

13 h. Kisa GotamI seeks mustard seed to cure her dead child (S 107) 258 

14. The widow Bahuputtika and her ungrateful children (S 107) 260 

Bahuputtika then [16 » 115], N ii. 276; B 487; C 347 



Book 7 to Book 10 xxvii 

Book IX. Evil, Papa Vagga. Volume 29 

STORY PAGE 

1. The Brahman with a single robe (S 107) 262 

CuUa Ekasataka brahmana [1 = 116], N iii. 1; B 488; C 348 

2. A discontented monk (S 108) . 264 

Seyyasaka thera [2 = 117], N iii. 5; B 491; C 350 

3. Goddess and monk (S 108) . 265- 

Laja devadhlta [3 = 118], N iii. 6; B 492; C 351 

4. Anathapindika and the goddess (S 108) 268 

Anathapindika setthi [4-5 = 119-120], N iii. 9; B 494; C 353 

5. The monk who failed to keep his requisites in order (S 108) 271 

Asannataparikkhara bhikkliu [6 = 121], N iii. 15; B 497; C 355 

6. Treasurer Catfoot (S 108) 272 

Bilalapadaka setthi [7 = 122], N iii. 17; B 498; C 356 

7. Merchant Great- Wealth (S 108) 274 

Mahadhana vanija [8 = 123], N iii. 21; B 501; C 358 

8. The enchanted hunter (S 108) 276 

Kukkutamitta [9 = 124], N iii. 24; B 502; C 359 ' 

8 a. Story of the Past: The city treasurer and the country treasurer (S 109) . 280 

9. The hunter who was devoured by his own dogs (S 109) 282 

Koka sunakhaluddaka [10 = 125], N iii. 31; B 507; C 362 

9 a. Story of the Past: Wicked physician, boys, and poisonous snake (S 109) . 283 

10. The jeweler, the monk, and the heron (S 109) 284 

Manikarakulupaga Tissa thera [11 = 126], N iii. 34; B 509; C 364 

11. Three parties of monks (S 109) 286 

Tayo bhikkhu [12 = 127], N iii. 38; B 511; C 366 

11a. Story of the Present: Crow burned (S 109) 286 

11 6. Story of the Present: Woman cast overboard (S 109) 287 

11 c. Story of the Present: Monks imprisoned (S 109) 288 

11 rf. Story of the Past: Ox burned (S 109) 289 

11 e. Story of the Past: Dog drowned (S 109) 289 

11/. Story of the Past: Lizard imprisoned (S 109) 290 

12. Suppabuddha insults the Teacher (S 109) 291 

Suppabuddha Sakka [13 = 128], N iii. 44; B 515; C 369 

Book X. The Rod or Punishment, Danda Vagga. Volume 29 

1. The Band of Six (S 110) 294 

Chabbaggiya [1 = 129], N iii. 48; B 517; C 370 

2. The Band of Six (S 110) 294 

Chabbaggiya [2 = 130], N iii. 49; B 518; C 371 

3. A company of boys (S 110) 295 

Sambahula kumara [3-4 = 131-132], N iii. 50; B 519; C 371 

4. The monk and the phantom (S 110) 296 

Kundadhana thera [5-6 = 133-134], N iii. 52; B 519; C 372 

4 a. Story of the Past: The goddess who took the form of a woman (S 110) . 296 

5. Visakha and her companions keep Fast-day (S 110) 300 

Visakhadinam upasikanam Uposathakamma [7 = 135], N iii. 58; B 523; C 375 



xxviii Contents of Volumes 29 and SO, 

STORY PAGE 

6. The boa-constrictor ghost (S 110) 300 

Ajagara peta [8 = 136], N iii. 60; B 524; C 37 

6 a. Story of the Past: The treasurer Sumangala and the thief (S 110) . . . 301 

7. Death of Moggallana the Great (S 110) 304 

Maha Moggallana thera [9-12 = 137-140], N iii. 65; B 527; C 378 

7 a. Story of the Past: The son who killed his parents (S 110) 306 

8. The monk of many possessions (S 110) 308 

Bahubhandika bhikkhu [13 = 141], N iii. 72; B 531; C 381 

8 a. Story of the Past: Prince Mahimsasa, Princes Moon and Sun (S 110) . . 309 

9. Santati the king's minister (S 111) 312 

Santati mahamatta [14 = 142], N iii. 78; B 535; C 384 

9 a. Story of the Past: The preacher of the Law and the king (S 111) . . . . 314 

10. The monk and the ragged garment (S 111) 316 

Pilotika thera [15-16 = 143-144], N iii. 84; B 538; C 387 

11. Sukha the novice (S 111) 318 

Sukha samanera [17 = 145], N iii. 87; B 540; C 388 

11a. Story of the Past: The treasurer Gandha, the laborer Bhattabhatika, 

and the Private Buddha (S 111) 318 

116. Story of the Present: Sukha the novice (S 111) 324 

Book XI. Old Age, Jara Vagga. Volume 29 

1. Visakha's companions intoxicate themselves (S 112) 328 

Visakhaya sahayika [1 = 146], N iii. 100; B 548; C 394 

2. The Teacher cures a monk of love (S 112) * . . . . 330 

Sirima [2 = 147], N iii. 104; B 550; C 396 

3. The aged nun (S 112) 334 

Uttara theri [3 = 148], N iii. 110; B 554; C 398 

4. A company of over-confident monks (S 112) 335 

Sambahula adhimanika bhikkhu [4 = 149], N iii. Ill; B 555; C 399 

5. The nun and the phantom (S 112) 336 

Janapada-KalyanI Rupa-Nanda therl [5 = 150], N iii. 113; B 55Q\ C 400 

6. Queen Mallika and her dog (S 112) 340 

Mallika devi [6 = 151], N iii. 119; B 559; C 403 

7. The monk who always said the wrong thing (S 112) 343 

Laludayi thera [7 = 152], N iii. 123; B 561; C 404 

7 a. Story of the Past: Aggidatta, Somadatta, and the king (S 112) 343 

8. Elder Ananda's Stanzas (S 113) 345 

Ananda-therassa Udana-gatha [8-9 = 153-154], N iii. 127; B 564; C 406 

9. Great- Wealth, the treasurer's son (S 113) 346 

Mahadhana setthiputta [10-11 = 155-156], N iii. 129; B 565; C 407 

Book Xn. Self, Atta Vagga. Volume 29 

1. Prince Bodhi and the magic bird (S 113) 34,9 

Bodhi rajakumara [1 = 157], N iii. 134; B 568; C 409 

1 a. The prince, the builder, and the magic bird (S 113) 349 

16. The prince entertains the Buddha (S 113) 350 

1 c. Story of the Past: The man who ate bird's eggs (S 113) 351 



Book 10 to Book 13 xxix 

STOBY VOLXTME 29, PAGE 

2. The greedy monk (S 113) 352 

Upananda Sakyaputta thera [2 = 158], N iii. 139; B 571; C 412 

2 a. Story of the Past: The otters and the jackal (S 113) 353 

3. "Beyedoersof the word" (S 113) 354 

Padhanika Tissa thera [3 = 159], N iii. 142; B 573; C 414 

4. "And hate not his father and mother" (S 113) 356 

Kumara-Kassapa-mata theri [4 = 160], N iii. 144; B 574; C 415 

4 a. Birth of Kumara Kassapa (S 113) 356 

4 6. "And hate not his father and mother" (S 114) 358 

5. Killing of Maha Kala (S 114) 359 

Maha Kala upasaka [5 = 161], N iii. 149; B 578; C 417 

5 a. Story of the Past: The soldier and the man with a beautiful wife (S 114) . 360 

6. Devadatta seeks to slay the Tathagata (S 114) 362 

Devadatta [6 = 162], N iii. 152; B 579; C 419 

7. Devadatta seeks to cause a schism in the Order (S 114) 863 

Sanghabheda-parisakkana [7 = 163], N iii. 154; B 580; C 419 

8. The jealous monk (S 114) 363 

Kala thera [8 = 164], N iii. 155; B 581; C 420 

9. Courtezans save a layman's life (S 114) 365 

CuUa Kala upasaka [9 = 165], N iii. 157; B 583; C 421 

10. By righteousness men honor the Buddha (S 114) 366 

Atta-d-attha thera [10 = 166], N iii. 158; B 584; C 422 

Book Xni. The World, Loka Vagga. Volume 30 

1. A young girl jests with a young monk (S 115) 1 

Annatara dahara bhikkhu [1 = 167], N iii. 161; B 585; C 423 

2. The Buddha visits Kapila (S 115) 2 

Suddhodana [2-3 = 168-169], N iii. 163; B 587; C 424 

3. Five hundred monks attain Insight (S 115) 4 

Pancasata vipassaka bhikkhu [4 = 170], N iii. 165; B 588; C 425 

4. Prince Abhaya loses his nautch-girl (S 115) 4 

Abhaya rajakumara [5 = 171], N iii. 166; B 539; C 426 

5. The monk with a broom (S 115) 5 

Sammunjani thera [6 = 172], N iii. 168; B 590; C 427 

6. Conversion of the robber Finger-garland (S 115) 6 

Angulimala thera [7 = 173], N iii. 169; B 591; C 428 

7. The weaver's daughter (S 116) 14 

Pesakara-dhlta [8 = 174], N iii. 170; B 592; C 428 

8. Thirty monks (S 116) 18 

Timsa bhikkhu [9 = 175], N iii. 176; B 595; C 431 

9. Cinca falsely accuses the Buddha (S 116) 19 

Cinca manavika [10 = 176], N iii. 178; B 5m; C 432 

9 a. Story of the Past: The lewd woman and the virtuous youth (S 117) ... 22 

10. Gifts beyond Compare (S 117) 24 

Asadisadana [11 = 177], N iii. 183; B 600; C 434 

11. Virtue bought and paid for (S 117) 28 

Kala Anathapindika-putta [12 = 178], N iii. 189; B 603; C 437 



XXX Contents of Volume 30, 

Book XIV. The EnKghtened, Buddha Vagga. Volume 30 

STORY PAGE 

1. The Buddha has naught to do with women (S 117) 31 

Magandiya or Mara-dhitaro [1-2 = 179-180], N iii. 193; B 606; C 439 

1 a. The Buddha spurns the maiden Magandiya (S 117) 31 

1 6. The Buddha spurns the Daughters of Mara (S 118) 33 

2. The Twin Mu-acle (S 118) 35 

Yamaka Patihariya or Devorohana [3 = 181], N iii. 199; B 609; C 442 

2 a. Pindola Bharadvaja performs a miracle (S 118) 35 

2 h. The Buddha promises to perform a miracle (S 118) 38 

2 c. Preliminary miracles (S 118) 41 

2 d. The Buddha performs the Twin Miracle (S 118) 45 

2 e. The Ascent of the Buddha to the World of the Thirty-three (S 118) ... 47 
2/. The Descent of the Buddha and attendant deities (S 119) 52 

3. The king of the dragons and his daughter (S 119) 56 

Erakapatta nagaraja [4 = 182], N iii. 230; B 628; C 456 

4. How did the Seven Buddhas keep Fast-day.? (S 119) 60 

Ananda-thera-uposatha-panha [5-7 = 183-185], N iii. 236; B 632; C 459 

5. The Buddha cures a monk of discontent (S 119) 61 

Anabhirata bhikkhu [8-9 = 186-187], N iii. 238; B 633; C 460 

6. The monk and the dragon (S 119) 63 

Aggidatta brahmana [10-14 = 188-192], N iii. 241; B 635; C 462 

7. Whence come men of noble birth.?* (S 119) . . . < 67 

Ananda-thera-pucchita-panha [15 = 193], N iii. 247; B 639; C 465 

8. What is the pleasantest thing in the world? (S 119) 67 

Sambahula bhikkhu [16 = 194], N iii. 249; B 640; C 466 

9. Honor to whom honor is due (S 120) 68 

Kassapa-Dasabalassa suvannacetiya [17-18 = 195-196], N iii. 250; B 
[omitted]; C 466 

Book XV. Happmess, Sukha Vagga. Volume 30 

1. A quarrel among brethren (S 120) 70 

Nati-kalaha-vupasamana [1-3 = 197-199], N iii. 254; B 641; C 468 

2. Mara possesses villagers (S 120) 72 

Mara [4 = 200], N iii. 257; B 643; C 470 

3. Defeat of the King of Kosala (S 120) 73 

KosaJa-ranno parajaya [5 = 201], N iii. 259; B 644; C 470 

4. "Look not on a woman to lust after her" (S 120) 73 

Afiiiatara kuladarika [6 = 202], N iii. 260; B 645; C 471 

5. The Buddha feeds the hungry (S 120) 74 

Afiiiatara upasaka [7 = 203], N iii. 261; B 646; C 472 

6. On moderation in eatmg (S 120) 76 

Pasenadi Kosala raja [8 = 204], N iii. 264; B 648; C 473 

7. By righteousness men honor the Buddha (S 120) 78 

Tissa thera [9 = 205], N iii. 267; B 650; C 474 

8. Sakka ministers to the Buddha (S 120) 79 

Sakka-upatthana [10-12 - 206-208], N iii. 269; B 651; C 475 



Book ll^ to Book 17 xxxi 

Book XVI. Objects of Affection, Piya Vagga. Volume 30 

BTOBY PAGE 

1. Mother and father and son (S 121) 81 

Tayo pabbajita [1-3 = 209-211], N iii. 273; B 653; C 477 

2. The Buddha comforts the afflicted (S 121) 83 

Annatara kutumbika [4 = 212], N iii. 276; B 655; C 479 

3. The Buddha comforts the afflicted (S 121) 84 

Visakha [5 = 213], N iii. 278; B 656; C 480 

4. The Licchavi princes and the courtezan (S 121) 85 

Licchavl [6 = 214], N iii. 279; B 657; C 480 

5. The golden maiden (S 121) . . . .• 86 

Anitthigandha Kumara [7 = 215], N iii. 281; B 658; C 481 , 

6. Set not your heart on worldly possessions (S 121) 88 

Annatara brahmana [8 = 216], N iii. 284; B 660; C 482 

7. Kassapa wins a basket of cakes (S 121) 90 

Pancasata daraka [9 = 217], N iii. 286; B 662; C 484 

8. The Elder who had attained the Fruit of the Third Path (S 121) ... . 91 
Anagami thera [10 = 218], N iii. 288; B 663; C 485 

9. Nandiya attains heavenly glory (S 121) 92 

Nandiya [11-12 = 219-220], N iii. 290; B 664; C 486 

Book XVn. Anger, Kodha Vagga. Volume 30 

1. How anger marred a maiden's looks (S 122) 95 

RohinI khattiyakaiina [1 = 221], N iii. 295; B 666; C 488 

1 o. The maiden with blotches on her face (S 122) 95 

1 h. Story of the Past: The jealous queen and the nautch-girl (S 122) .... 96 

Ic. Sequel: The celestial nymph (S 122) 97 

2. The tree-spirit and the monk (S 122) 98 

Annatara bhikkhu [2 = 222], N iii. 299; B 669; C 489 

3. The poor man and his daughter (S 122) 99 

Uttara upasika [3 = 223], N iii. 302; B 670; C 491 

3 a. Punna acquires merit (S 122) 99 

3 h. Uttara and Sirima (S 122) 103 

4. Do trifling acts of merit lead to heaven.'' (S 123) 107 

Maha-Moggallana-thera-panha [4 = 224], N iii. 314; B 677; C 496 

5. A Brahman greets the Buddha as his son (S 123) 108 

Saketaka brahmana [5 = 225], N iii. 317; B 678; C 497 

6. It is the giver that makes the gift (S 123) Ill 

Punna dasi [6 = 226], N iii. 321; B 681; C 498 

7. Nothing, too much, and too little (S 123) 113 

Atula upasaka [7-10 = 227-230], N iii. 325; B 683; C 500 

8. The Band of Six (S 123) 115 

Chabbaggiya bhikkhu [11-14 = 231-234], N iii. 330; B 685; C 502 



xxxii Contents of Volume 30, 

Book XVin. Blemishes, Mala Vagga. Volume 30 

STORY PAGE 

1. The cow-killer and his son (S 123) 116 

Goghataka-putta [1-4 = 235-238], N iii. 332; B 686; C 503 

2. Little by little (S 123) 119 

Annatara brahmana [5 = 239], N iii. 338; B 690; C 506 

3. The louse that would have his own (S 124) 120 

Tissa thera [6 = 240], N iii. 341; B 691; C 507 

4. Pride-goeth before a fall (S 124) 122 

Laludayi thera [7 = 241], N iii. 344; B 693; C 508 

5. The wickedness of women (S 124) 124 

Annatara kulaputta [8-9 = 242-243], N iii. 348; B 695; C 510 

6. Courtesy and rudeness (S 124) 124 

CuUa Sari [10-11 = 244-245], N iii. 351; B 697; C 511 

7. All of the precepts are hard to keep (S 124) 125 

Pancasata upasaka [12-14 = 246-248], N iii. 355; B 699; C 512 

8. The fault-findmg novice (S 124) 126 

Tissa dahara [15-16 = 249-250], N iii. 357; B 700; C 513 

9. The inattentive laymen (S 124) 127 

Panca upasaka [17 = 251], N iii. 360; B 702; C 515 

10. Treasurer Ram (S 124) 130 

Mendaka setthi [18 = 252], N iii. 363; B 704; C 516 

10 a. Frame-story begun: The Buddha visits Treasurer Ram (S 124) 130 

10 h. How did Treasurer Ram get his name.'' (S 124) 130 

10 c. Story of the Past: How he came to possess golden rams (S 124) 130 

10 d. Story of the Past: How he and his family gained magical power (S 124) . 132 

10 e. Treasurer Ram and his family exhibit their magical power (S 124) . . . 136 

10/. Frame-story concluded: Treasurer Ram goes to meet the Buddha (S 125) 137 

11. The fault-findmg monk (S 125) 138 

Ujjhanasanni thera [19 = 253], N iii. 376; B 711; C 522 [numbered 122] 

12. Is there a path through the air.? (S 125) 139 

Subhadda paribbajaka [20-21 = 254-255], N iii. 377; B 712; C 522 * 

Book XIX. The Righteous, Dhammattha Vagga. Voliune 30 

1. The unjust judges (S 125) 140 

Vinicchaya-mahamacca [1-2 = 256-257], N iii. 380; B 713; C 523 * 

2. The Band of Six (S 125) 140 

Chabbaggiya bhikkhu [3 = 258], N iii. 382; B 714; C 524 * 

3. Not therefore is a man praised for his much speaking (S 125) 141 

Ekuddana thera [4 = 259], N iii. 384; B 715; C 525 * 

4. Can a young monk be an "Elder"? (S 125) 142 

Lakuntaka Bhaddiya thera [5-6 = 260-261], N iii. 387; B 716; C 526 * 

5. What is an accomplished gentleman? (S 125) 143 

Sambahula bhikkhu [7-8 = 262-263], N iii. 388; B 717; C 526 * 

6. It is not tonsure that makes the monk (S 125) 144 

Hatthaka [9-10 = 264-265], N iii. 390; B 718; C 527 * 

• In C, pages 622-529 are misnumbered as 122-129. 



Book 18 to Book 21 xxxiii 

STORY PAGE 

7. What is it that makes the monk? (S 125) 145 

Annatara brahmana [11-12 = 266-267], N iii. 392; B 719; C 528* 

8. It is not silence that makes the sage (S 125) 145 

Titthiya [13-14 = 268-269], N iii. 393; B 720; C 529* 

9. Noble is as noble does (S 125) 146 

Ariya balisika [15 = 270], N iii. 396; B 722; C 530 

10. Be not puffed up (S 126) 147 

Sambahula siladi-sampanna bhikkhu [16-17 = 271-272], N iii. 398; B 722; 
C530 

Book XX. The Path, Magga Vagga. Volume 30 

1. The Eightfold Path is the best of paths (S 126) 149 

Pancasata bhikkhu [1-4 = 273-276], N iii. 401; B 724; C 531 

2. Impermanence (S 126) 150 

Anicca-lakkhana [5 = 277], N iii. 405; B 725; C 533 

3. SuflFering (S 126) 150 

Dukkha-lakkhana [6 = 278], N iii. 406; B 726; C 533 

4. UnreaUty (S 126) 151 

Anatta-lakkhana [7 = 279], N iii. 406; B 726; C [omitted] 

5. Do not postpone until to-morrow (S 126) 151 

Padhanakammika Tissa thera [8 = 280], N iii. 407; B 727; C 534 

6. The pig-ghost (S 126) 153 

Sukara peta [9 = 281], N iii. 410; B 728; C 535 

6 a. Story of the Past: The destroyer of friendships (S 126) 154 

7. Pothila the Empty-head (S 126) 157 

Pothila thera [10 = 282], N iii. 417; B 732; C 538 

8. The old monks and the old woman (S 127) 159 

Sambahula mahallaka bhikkhu [11-12 = 283-284], N iii. 421; B 734; C 539 

8 a. Story of the Past: KakaJataka (S 127) 160 

9. "Thegrasswithereth, the flower fadeth" (S 127) 161 

Suvannakara thera [13 = 285], N iii. 425; B 736; C 541 

10. Thou shalt surely die (S 127) 164 

Mahadhana vanija [14 = 286], N iii. 429; B 738; C 543 

11. The bereaved mother and the pinch of mustard seed (S 127) 165 

Kisa Gotami [15 = 287], N iii. 432; B 740; C 544 

12. The woman who was bereft of all her family (S 127) ^ 166 

Patacara [16-17 = 288-289], N iii. 434; B 741; C 545 

Book XXI. Miscellaneous, Pakinnaka Vagga. Volume 30 

1. The Ascent of the Ganges (S 127) 168 

Gangarohana [1 = 290], N iii. 436; B 742; C 546 

10. Story of the Past: The Brahman Samkha (S 127) 174 

2. " Not hatred for hatred " (S 127) 176 

Kukkutandakhadika [2 = 291], N iii. 449; B 749; C 551 

3. The monks who were given to vanities (S 127) 178 

Bhaddiya-bhikkhu [3-4 = 292-293], N iii. 451; B 751; C 552 

* la C, pages 522-529 are misnumbered as 122-129. 



xxxiy Contents of Volume SO, 

STOHT PAGD 

4. The monk who had killed his mother and father (S 128) 178 

Lakuntaka Bhaddiya thera [5-6 = 294-295], N iii. 453; B 752; C 553 

5. The youth and the demons (S 128) 179 

Darusakatika-putta [7-12 = 296-301], N iii. 455; B 753; C 555 

6. The Vajjian prince who became a monk (S 128) 182 

Vajjiputtaka bhikkhu [13 = 302], N iii. 460; B 756; C 557 

7. Citta the faithful layman (S 128) 183 

Citta gahapati [14 = 303], N iii. 463; B 758; C 558 

8. Culla Subhadda the virtuous (S 128) 184 

Culla Subhadda [15 = 304], N iii. 465; B 759; C 559 

9. The soUtary monk (S 128) 187 

Ekavihari thera [16 = 305], N iii. 471; B 762; C 562 

Book XXII. Hell, Niraya Vagga. Volume 30 

1. Murder of Sundari (S 128) 189 

Sundarl paribbajika [1 = 306], N iii. 474; B 763; C 563 

2. The skeleton-ghost (S 128) 191 

Duccarita-phalanubhavana-satta [2 = 307], N iii. 479; B 766; C 565 

3. Magic for meat (S 129) 192 

Vaggumudatiriya bhikkhu [3 = 308], N iii. 480; B 767; C 565 

4. The man whom women loved (S 129) 193 

Khema [4-5 = 309-310], N iii. 481; B 767; C 566 

4 a. Story of the Past: Khema's Earnest Wish (S 129) 193 

5. The presumptuous monk (S 129) 194 

Dubbaca bhikkhu [6-8 = 311-313], N iii. 483; B 769; C 567 

6. The jealous woman (S 139) 194 

Issapakata itthi [9 = 314], N iii. 486; B 770; C 568 

7. Fortify yourself like a city (S 129) 195 

Sambahula bhikkhu [10 = 315], N iii. 487; B 771; C 569 

8. Degrees of nakedness (S 129) 196 

Nigantha [11-12 = 316-317], N iii. 489; B 772; C 570 

9. Children visit the Buddha (S 129) 197 

Titthiya-savaka [13-14 = 318-319], N iii. 492; B 773; C 571 

Book XXm. The Elephant, Naga Vagga. Volume 30 

1. The sectaries insult the Buddha (S 129) 199 

Attanam arabbha kathitam [1-3 = 320-322], N iv. 1; B 775; C 572 

2. The monk who had been an elephant- trainer (S 129) 200 

Hatthacariya-pubbaka bhikkhu [4 = 323], N iv. 5; B 777; C 573 

3. The old Brahman and his sons (S 130) 201 

Parijinna-brahmana-putta [5 = 324], N iv. 7; B 777; C 574 

3 a. Story of the Past: Matuposaka Nagaraja Jataka (S 130) 204 

4. On moderation in eating (S 130) 206 

Pasenadi Kosala [6 = 325], N iv. 15; B 782; C 577 

5. The novice and the ogress (S 130) 207 

Sanu samanera [7 = 326], N iv. 18; B 783; C 578 



Book 21 to Booh 25 xxxv 

STORT PAGE 

6. An elephant sticks fast in the mud (S 130) 211 

Paveyyaka (Baddheraka) hatthi [8 = 327], N iv. 25; B 786; C 581 

7. An elephant waits upon the Buddha (S 130) 211 

Sambahula bhikkhu [»-ll = 328-330], N iv. 26; B 787; C 581 

8. Mara tempts the Buddha (S 130) 213 

Mara [12-14 = 331-333], N iv. 31; B 790; C 583 

Book XXIV. Thirst or Craving, Tanha Vagga. Volume 30 

1. Redfish (S 130) 215 

Kapilamaccha [1-4 = 334-337], N iv. 37; B 792; C 585 

1 a. Story of the Past: The insolent monk. The bandits (S 130) 215 

1 6. Story of the Present: Fishermen, and the fish with stinking breath (S 131) 217 

2. The young sow (S 131) 219 

Sukarapotika [5-10 = 338-343], N iv. 46; B 797; C 589 

3. The renegade monk (S 131) 221 

Vibbhanta bhikkhu [11 = 344], N iv. 52; B 800; C 592 

4. The prison-house (S 131) 223 

Bandhanagara [12-13 = 345-346], N iv. 53; B 802; C 593 

4 a. Story of the Past: Husband and wife (S 131) 223 

5. Beauty is but skin-deep (S 131) . 225 

Khema theri [14 = 347], N iv. 57; B 804; C 594 

6. The youth who married a female acrobat (S 131) 226 

Uggasena setthiputta [15 = 348], N iv. 59; B 805; C 595 

6 a. Story of the Past: A joke in earnest (S 131) 230 

7. Young Archer the Wise (S 132) 231 

CuUa Dhanuggaha pandita [16-17 = 349-350], N iv. Q5; B 809; C 599 

7 a. Story of the Past: Young Archer the Wise (S 132) 232 

8. Mara seeks in vain to frighten Rahula (S 132) 234 

Mara [18-19 = 351-352], N iv. 69; B 812; C 601 

9. The skeptical ascetic (S 132) 235 

Upaka Ajivaka [20 = 353], N iv. 71; B 814; C 602 

10. The Summum Bonum (S 132) 236 

Sakka-panha [21 = 354], N iv. 73; B 814; C 603 

11. Treasurer Childless (S 132) 239 

Aputtaka setthi [22 = 355], N iv. 76; B 817; C 605 

11a. Story of the Past: The niggardly treasurer (S 132) 240 

12. The greater and the lesser gift (S 132) 242 

Ankura [23-26 = 356-359], N iv. 80; B 819; C 606 

Book XXV. The Monk, Bhikkhu Vagga. Volume 30 

1. Guard the doors of the senses (S 132) 243 

Paftca bhikkhu [1-2 = 360-361], N iv. 83; B 821; C 607 

la. Story of the Past: Takkasila Jataka (S 132) 243 

2. The goose-killing monk (S 132) 244 

Hamsaghataka bhikkhu [3 = 362], N iv. 86; B 823; C 609 

2 a. Story of the Past: Kurudhamma Jataka (S 133) 245 



xxxvi Contents of Volume 30, 

STORY PAGE 

3. The monk who failed to hold his tongue (S 133) 247 

Kokalika [4 = 363], N iv. 91; B 825; C 611 

3 a. Story of the Past: The talkative tortoise, Bahubhani (Kacchapa) Jataka 

(S133) '. 248 

4. By righteousness men honor the Buddha (S 133) 249 

Dhammarama thera [5 = 364], N iv. 93; B 827; C 613 

5. The traitor monk (S 133) 250 

Vipakkhasevaka bhikkhu [6-7 = 365-366], N iv. 95; B 828; C 613 

5 a. Story of the Past: Elephant Damsel-face, Mahilamukha Jataka (S 133) 251 

6. The Brahman who gave the gifts of first-fruits (S 133) 252 

Pancaggadayaka brahmana [8 = 367], N iv. 98; B 830; C 615 

7. The conversion of a pack of thieves (S 133) 254 

Sambahula bhikkhu [9-17 = 368-376], N iv. 101; B 832; C 616 

8. "The grass withereth, the flower fadeth" (S 134) 259 

Pancasata bhikkhu [18 = 377], N iv. 112; B 838; C 621 

9. The monk whose mother was a lioness (S 134) 259 

Santakaya thera [19 = 378], N iv. 113; B 839; C 622 

10. The monk and the ragged garment (S 134) 260 

Nangalakula thera [20-21 = 379-380], N iv. 115; B 840; C 623 

11. " Whosoever beholds the Law, he beholds me " (S 134) 262 

Vakkali thera [22 = 381], N iv. 117; B 842; C 624 

12. The novice and the dragon (S 134) 264 

Sumana samanera [23 = 382], N iv. 120; B 843; C 625 

12 a. Story of the Past: Poor man Annabhara and rich man Sumana (S 134) 264 
12 6. Story of the Present: Anuruddha retires from the world (S 134) .... 267 
12 c. Story of the Present: The novice Sumana and the dragon (S 135) .... 270 

Book XXVI. The Brahman, Brahmana Vagga. Volume 30 

1. Brahman Great-Joy (S 135) 276 

Pasadabahula brahmana [1 = 383], N iv. 138; B 854; C 633 

2. What are the " Two States "? (S 135) 277 

Sambahula bhikkhu [2 = 384], N iv. 139; B 855; C 633 

3. What is the " Far Shore "? (S 135) 277 

Mara [3 = 385], N iv. 140; B 855; C 634 

4. What is a Brahman? (S 135) 277 

Aniiatara brahmana [4 = 386], N iv. 141; B 856; C 634 

5. The Buddhas shine both day and night (S 135) 278 

Ananda thera [5 = 387], N iv. 142; B 857; C 635 

6. What is a monk? (S 135) 279 

Annatara pabbajita [6 = 388], N iv. 144; B 858; C 636 

7. The patient subdues the violent (S 135) 279 

Sariputta thera [7-8 = 389-390], N iv. 145; B 858; C 636 

8. Maha PajapatI GotamT receives the Precepts (S 136) 281 

Maha PajapatI GotamI [9 = 391], N iv. 149; B 860; C 638 

9. Reverence to whom reverence is due (S 136) 282 

Sariputta thera [10 = 392], N iv. 150; B 861; C 638 



Book 25 to Book 26 xxxvii 

8TORT VOLUME 30, PAGE 

10. What is a Brahman? (S 136) 282 

Jatila brahmana [11 = 393], N iv. 151; B 862; C 639 

11. The trickster Brahman (S 136) 283 

Kuhaka brahmana [12 = 394], N iv. 152; B 863; C 639 

11 a. Story of the Past: The false ascetic and the king of the lizards (S 136) . . 284 

12. Kisa GotamI, Wearer of Refuse-rags (S 136) 285 

Kisa GotamI [13 = 395], N iv. 154; B 865; C 641 

13. What is a Brahman.? (S 136) 286 

Eka brahmana [14 = 396], N iv. 158; B 865; C 641 

14. Uggasena the acrobat (S 136) 286 

Uggasena [15 = 397], N iv. 159; B 866; C 642 [numbered 624] 

15. A tug of war (S 136) 287 

Dve brahmana [16 = 398], N iv. 160; B 867; C 642* 

16. The patient subdues the insolent (S 136) 288 

Akkosa Bharadvaja [17 = 399], N iv. 161; B 867; C 643* 

17. Sariputta is reviled by his mother (S 137) 289 

Sariputta thera [18 = 400], N iv. 164; B 869; C 644 * 

18. Are not the Arahats creatures of flesh and blood ? (S 137) 290 

Uppalavanna therl [19 = 401], N iv. 166; B 870; C 645 * 

19. A slave lays down his burden (S 137) 291 

Annatara brahmana [20 = 402], N iv. 167; B 871; C 645 * 

20. Khema the Wise (S 137) 292 

Khema bhikkhuni [21 = 403], N iv. 168; B 871; C 646 * 

21. The monk and the goddess (S 137) 292 

PabbharavasI Tissa thera [22 = 404], N iv. 169; B 872; C 646* 

22. The monk and the woman (S 137) 295 

Annatara bhikkhu [23 = 405], N iv. 174; B 874; C 648 * 

23. The four novices (S 137) 297 

Cattaro samanera [24 = 406], N iv. 176; B 876; C 649 * 

24. Did Big Wayman yield to anger? (S 137) 299 

Maha Panthaka thera [25 = 407], N iv. 180; B 878; C 651 * 

25. The force of habit (S 137) 300 

Pilindavaccha thera [26 = 408], N iv. 181; B 879; C 651* 

26. The monk who was accused of theft (S 137) 301 

Annatara thera [27 = 409], N iv. 183; B 880; C 652* 

27. Sariputta is misunderstood (S 138) 302 

Sariputta thera [28 = 410], N iv. 184; B 881; C 653* 

28. Moggallana is misunderstood (S 138) 303 

Moggallana thera [29 = 411], N iv. 185; B 881; C 653* 

29. Renounce both good and evil (S 138) 303 

Revata thera [30 = 412], N iv. 186; B 882; C 654 * 

30. Elder Moonlight (S 138) 303 

Candabha thera [31 = 4lS], N iv. 187; B 883; C 654 * 

30 a. Story of the Past: A forester presents a moon -disk (S 138) 304 

30 6. Story of the Present: Brahman Moonlight (S 138) 305 

* In C, pages 642-673 are misnumbered as 624-655. 



xxxviii Contents of Volume 30, Book 26 

STOBT VOLUME 30, PAOB 

31. Seven years in the womb (S 138) 307 

Sivali thera [32 = 414], N iv. 192; B 885; C 656 * 

32. A courtezan tempts the monk Ocean-of-Beauty (S 138) 308 

Sundarasamudda thera [33 = 415], N iv. 194; B 887; C 657* 

33. Jotika and Jatila (S 139) 313 

Jatila thera [34 = 416], N iv. 199; B 890; C 660 * 

33 a. Story of the Past: Jotika in his previous existence as Aparajita (S 139) . 313 

33 6. Story of the Present: The treasurer Jotika (S 139) 319 

33 c. Story of the Present: Elder Jatila (S 139) 325 

33 d. Story of the Past: The goldsmith and his three sons (S 140) 329 

34. Ajatasattu attacks Jotika's palace (S 140) 332 

Jotika thera [34 = 416], N iv. 221; B 905; C 671 * 

35. The monk who was once a mime (S 140) 333 

Natapubbaka thera [35 = 417], N iv. 224; B 906; C 672* 

36. The monk who was once a mime (S 140) 334 

Natapubbaka thera [36 = 418], N iv. 225; B 907; C 672* 

37. The skull-tapper (S 140) 334 

Vanglsa thera [37-38 = 419-420], N iv. 226; B 907; C 673* 

38. Husband and wife (S 140) 336 

Dhammadinna theri [39 = 421], N iv. 229; B 909; C 674 

39. Angulimala the fearless (S 141) 338 

Angulimala thera [40 = 422], N iv. 231; B 911; C 675 

40. It is the giver that makes the gift (S 141) 339 

Devahita brahmana [41 = 423], N iv. 232; B 911; C 676 



Index to Volumes 28, 29, and 30 341 

* In C, pages 64S8-673 are misnumbered as 624-655. 



INTRODUCTION 

§ 1. Legendary life of the Buddha 

§ 1 a. Birth amid rejoicing of angels. The legends and stories of 
this collection assume a knowledge on the part of the reader of at least 
the principal facts and legends of the life of the Buddha as set forth in 
the Sacred Scriptures.^ The Buddha was Lorn in 563 b.c. and died in 
483.^ His father was Suddhodana, king of the Sakiya clan in Kapila- 
vatthu, and his mother was Queen Maya, daughter of the king of the 
neighboring Koliya clan. He was born in the Lumbini Garden near 
Kapilavatthu, his mother standing upright at his birth and support- 
ing herself by a branch of a Sal-tree.^ In the Nalaka Sutta of the Sutta 
Nipata,"* one of the oldest of old Buddhist books, we read that at his 
birth the angels rejoiced and sang. The aged seer Asita asked them, 
*' Why doth the company of angels rejoice.'^ " They replied, " He that 
shall become Buddha is bom in the village of the Sakiyas for the 
welfare and happiness of mankind; therefore are we joyful and ex- 
ceeding glad." 

^ For a brief account of the divisions, contents, and date of the Sacred Scriptures 
of the Buddhists, see T. W. Rhys Davids's article Buddhism in Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica, 11th ed. Cf. also Introduction, § 4. For a more comprehensive account, see 
M. Winternitz, Geschichte der Indischen Litteratur: ii. 1, Die Buddhistische Litteratur, 
pp. 1-139. Winternitz gives a useful bibliography of the subject at p. 1, note 1. Rhys 
Davids holds that the Four Greater Nikayas and the greater part of such books of the 
Lesser Nikaya as Itivuttaka and Sutta Nipdta are as old as 400 B.C., and that of the 
Vinaya, Maha Vagga and Culla Vagga, i-x, are as old as 300 B.C. Most scholars con- 
sider these dates too early, but there are the best of reasons for believing the greater 
part of these books to be anterior to the Inscriptions of Asoka; that is to say, older 
than 250 B.C. The Jdtaka Book represented by FausboU's text is a recension made in 
Ceylon in the early part of the fifth century a.d., but contains a vast amount of mate- 
rial many centuries older. For translations of the Sacred Books, see Introduction, 
§ 17, paragraph 3. 

^ On the date of the Buddha, see J. F. Fleet, Inscriptions {Indian), in Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, vol. xiv. p. 624, col. 1, and bibliography in Winternitz, p. 2, note 1. 

^ On the birth of the Buddha, see Digha, 14: i. 16-30; Majjhima, 123; Ahgut- 
tara, ii. 1301^-13126; Niddnakathd, Jdtaka, i. 4721-5332; translated by Rhys Davids, 
Buddhist Birth Stories, pp. 58-68; by Warren, Buddhism in Translaiions, pp. 38-48. 
On the subject in general, see E. Windisch, Buddhas Geburt. 

* Sutta Nipdta, iii. 11, part 1 (Stanzas 679-698). 



2 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§ib- 

§ 1 b. The Buddhist Simeon.^ Asita went to Suddhodana's resi- 
dence and said, '* Where is the child? I too wish to see him." The 
Sakiyas showed him the child. When Asita saw the child, he rejoiced 
and was exceeding glad. And he took him in his arms and said, 
"Incomparable is he! preeminent among men!" But remembering 
his own departure, he became sorrowful and wept tears. Said the 
Sakiyas, " Is any adversity in store for the child .^^ " *' No," replied 
Asita, " this child shall attain Supreme Enlightenment; he shall be- 
hold Nibbana; out of love and compassion for the multitude he shall 
set in motion the Wheel of the Law; far and wide shall his Religion 
be dispersed. But as for me, I have not long to live in this world; 
ere these things shall come to pass, death will be upon me. I shall not 
hear the Law from the Peerless Champion. Therefore am I stricken 
with woe, overwhelmed with sorrow, afflicted with grief." 

§ 1 c. Youth and marriage.^ When the child was five days old, 
he was named Siddhattha. Seven Brahmans prophesied that he 
would become either a Universal Monarch or a Buddha. But the 
eighth, Kondanna, perceiving that the child possessed the Infallible 
Signs of a Future Buddha, prophesied that he would become a Buddha. 
On the same day each of eighty thousand kinsmen dedicated a son to 
his service. Seven days after his birth his mother died, and he was 
reared by his aunt and stepmother, Maha Pajapati Gotaml. In his 
nineteenth year he was married to his own cousin Yasodhara, daughter 
of Suddhodana. He passed his youth amid luxury and splendor, in 
three mansions appropriate to the three seasons, surrounded by forty 
thousand nautch-girls, like a very god surrounded by troops of celes- 
tial nymphs. In his twenty-ninth year he beheld the Four Ominous 
Sights : an Old Man, a Sick Man, a Corpse, and a Monk. Thereupon 
he resolved to become a monk. 

§ 1 d. Resolve to seek after Nibbana.^ At this time word was 
brought to him that his wife had given birth to a son. "Rahula is 
born!" he exclaimed, "a Bond is bom!" Therefore his son was 
named Rahula. As he entered the city in state, Kisa Gotaml, a 

^ Sutta Nipdta, iii. 11, part 1. Derived from the same source is Niddnakathd, 
Jaiaka, i. 54^^55^^: translated by Rhys Davids, Buddhist Birth Stories, pp. 68-71; 
by Warren, Buddhism in Translations, pp. 4&-51. 

^ Niddnakathd, Jaiaka, i. 55^^-59^^: translated, Buddhist Birth Stories, pp. 71-78; 
Buddhism in Translations, pp. 51-57. See also Digha, 14: ii. lG-30; Ahguttara, i. 
145-146; Majjhima, 26: i. 163. 

^ Niddnakathd, Jdtaka, i. GO'^^'-GV*: translated, Buddhist Birth Stories, pp. 79-80; 
Buddhism in Translations, pp. 58-60. 



-§if] Legendary life of the Buddha 3 

maiden of the Warrior caste, cried out, *' Happy the mother, happy 
the father, happy the wife, of such as he! " Thought the Future 
Buddha, *' She says that the heart is thus made happy {nihhdyati). 
Now what must be extinguished {nihhuta) that the heart may be 
happy {nibbuta)? " Then the answer came to him, " When the Fire 
of Lust, Hatred, and Delusion is extinguished (nibbuta), then only is 
the heart truly happy (nibbuta). She has taught me a good lesson. 
For I am in search of happiness (nibbdna). This very day I must 
renounce the house-life, retire from the world, become a monk, and 
seek after True Happiness (Nibbdna). 

§ 1 e. The Great Retirement.^ Returning to his palace, he lay 
down on his bed, and troops of nautch-girls came in and began to 
dance and sing. But the Future Buddha no more took pleasure in 
them and fell asleep. Waking in the night, he beheld those nautch- 
girls asleep, and disgusted by their loathsome appearance, resolved to 
make the Great Retirement immediately. So rising from his bed, he 
called his charioteer Channa and ordered him to saddle his horse 
Kanthaka. " I will just take a look at my son," thought the Future 
Buddha, and opened the door of his wife's apartment. But fearing that, 
if he woke his wife, he might be prevented from carrying out his resolu- 
tion, he closed the door again and departed without seeing his son. 

Mounted on his horse Kanthaka and accompanied by his charioteer 
Channa, he passed out of the city gate, an angel opening the gate. 
Mara the Evil One offered him Universal Sovereignty if he would 
abandon his purpose, but the Future Buddha rebuked the Tempter 
and passed on. But the Evil One ever followed him, watching his op- 
portunity. The Future Buddha proceeded to the river Anoma, where 
he received the Eight Requisites of a monk from an angel and dismissed 
Channa and Kanthaka. Channa returned sorrowfully to the city, 
but Kanthaka died of a broken heart. The Future Buddha spent the 
next seven days in Antipiya Mango Grove in the enjoyment of the 
bliss of monkliood. 

§ 1 f. The Great Struggle. ^ From Anupiya Mango Grove the 

^ Niddnakathd, Jdtaka, i. 61^*-65, end: translated, Buddhist Birth Stories, pp. 
80-87; Buddhism in Translations, pp. 60-67. See also Majjhima, 26: i. 163. 

^ Niddnakathd, Jdtaka, i. 66^-68^: translated, Buddhist Birth Stories, pp. 87-91; 
Buddhism in Translations, pp. 67-71. The story of the Buddlia's visit to Rajagaha 
and interview with Bimbisara is derived from Sutta Nipdta, iii. 1, Pabbajjd Sutta, and 
Commentary, as is expressly stated at Jdtaka, i. QQ^^~^^. For the story of the Buddha's 
student-days under Alara Kalama and TJddaka, see Majjhima, 26: i. 163-166. For 
the story of the Great Struggle, see Majjhima, 36, and Majjhimxi, 12 (last half) : i. 



4 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§ if- 

Future Buddha went on foot to Rajagaha, the capital of King Bimbi- 
sara, and made his round for alms from door to door. Bimbisara, 
pleased with his deportment, offered him his kingdon. But the Future 
Buddha refused his offer, declaring that he had renounced all for the 
sake of attaining Supreme Enlightenment. Bimbisara then requested 
him, so soon as he should become a Buddha, to visit his kingdom first, 
and the Future Buddha gave him his promise so to do. The Future 
Buddha then attached himself to Alara Kalama and Uddaka Rama- 
putta, teachers of the Yoga philosophy. But becoming convinced that 
the Yoga discipline was not the Way of Salvation, he abandoned the 
practice of it. The Future Buddha then proceeded to Uruvela, and 
attended by Kondanna and four other monks, entered upon the Great 
Struggle. 

For six years he engaged in prolonged fasts and other austerities, 
hoping thus to win mastery over self and Supreme Enlightenment. 
While thus engaged, he was approached and tempted to abandon 
the Great Struggle by Mara the Evil One, accompanied by his 
Nine Hosts, namely, Lust, Discontent, Hunger and Thirst, Craving, 
Sloth and Laziness, Cowardice, Doubt, Hypocrisy and Stupidity, 
Gain, Fame, Honor, and Glory Falsely Obtained, Exaltation of Self, 
and Contempt of Others. But the Future Buddha rebuked the Evil 
One, and he departed. One day, while absorbed in trance induced by 
suspension of the breath, he became utterly exhausted and fell in a 
swoon. His five companions believed him to be dead, and certain 
deities went to his father. King Suddhodana, and so informed him. 
But the king refused to believe this, declaring that his son could not 
die before attaining Enlightenment. The Future Buddha, convinced 
that fasting and other forms of self-mortification were not the Way of 
Salvation, abandoned the Great Struggle. Thereupon his five com- 
panions, regarding him as a backslider, deserted him and went to the 
Deer-park near Benares. 

§ 1 g. The Enlightenment.^ One night the Future Buddha beheld 

77*'-81. For the story of the Temptation by Mara, see Sutta Nipdta, iii. 2, Padhdna 
Sutta. 

^ The first two paragraphs are derived from Niddnakathd, Jdtaka, i. 68^-81*'': 
translated, Buddhist Birth Stories, pp. 91-111; the story of the EnHghtenment is also 
translated in Buddhism in Translations, pp. 71-83. For much simpler accounts of 
the Enlightenment, see Dlgha, 14: ii. 30-35, and Majjhima, 26: i. 167. The story 
of the Temptation of the Buddha by the Daughters of Mara is derived from Samyutta, 
iv. 3. 5. This story is alluded to in Sutta Nipdta, Stanza 835. A connected account 
of the Buddha's life from the Enlightenment to the reception of Sariputta and Mog- 



-§ig] Legendary life of the Buddha 5 

five visions. After considering their purport, he came to the following 
conclusion, " This very day I shall attain Enlightenment." So on the 
evening of the following day he seated himself under a banyan-tree 
and formed the following resolution, " Let my skin, my nerves, and 
my bones dry up, and likewise my flesh and blood; but until I attain 
Supreme Enlightenment, I will not leave this seat! " Mara the Evil 
One endeavored to drive him from his seat with the Nine Rains, 
namely, wind, rain, rocks, weapons, blazing coals, hot ashes, sand, 
mud, and darkness. But the Future Buddha sat unmoved. Mara 
then approached the Future Buddha and commanded him to leave 
his seat. But the Future Buddha refused and rebuked him. There- 
upon the Evil One left him, and troops of angels came and honored 
him. In the first watch of the night the Future Buddha obtained 
Knowledge of Previous Existences; in the middle watch. Supernatu- 
ral Vision; and in the last watch. Knowledge of the Causes of Craving, 
Rebirth, and Suffering. Thus did he attain Supreme Enlightenment 
and become a Buddha. Thereupon he breathed forth the Song of 
Triumph of all the Buddhas. 

For seven days the Buddha sat motionless on the Throne of En- 
lightenment, experiencing the Bliss of Deliverance. After spending 
four weeks in earnest thought near the Tree of Wisdom (the Bo-tree), 
he spent the fifth week at the Goatherd's Banyan-tree. Here he was 
tempted by the three daughters of Mara the Evil One, namely. Crav- 
ing, Discontent, and Lust. But he repulsed their advances, saying to 
them, " Begone! The Exalted One has put away Lust, Ill-will, and 
Delusion." The sixth and seventh weeks were spent at the Mucalinda- 
tree and the Rajayatana-tree respectively. On the last day of the 
seventh week he received his first converts, two merchants named 
Tapussa and Bhallika. He then returned to the Goatherd's Banyan- 
tree. 

Here, according to the Maha-Parinibbana Sutta,^ Mara the Evil 
One tempted him to accomplish his decease, saying, " Let the Exalted 
One now pass into Supreme Nibbana." But the Buddha resisted the 
temptation, declaring that he should not accomplish his decease until 
his Religion had been preached far and wide.^ But according to the 

gallana into the Order is given in the Vinaya, Mahd Vagga, i. 1-24. The Niddnakathd 
follows this account in the mam. 

1 Dlgha, 16: ii. 112-114. 

» Cf. Dlgha, 16: ii. 104-106; SamyvUa, li. 10: v. 260-262; Uddna, vi. 1: 63-64. 



6 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§ig- 

Vinaya,^ the Mahapadana Sutta,^ the Ariyapariyesana Sutta,^ and 
the Nidanakatha,^ the Buddha was assailed by doubt as to the wis- 
dom of preaching a ReHgion so profound and diflScult of comprehen- 
sion to a race in the bondage of desire. The more he considered the 
matter, the more his heart incHned to a Hfe of inaction and the less to 
the preaching of the Law. Thereupon Brahma, fearing that the world 
would be lost, approached him and besought him to make known what 
he had himself received. Out of compassion for mankind the Buddha 
granted his request. 

§ 1 h. Ministry and death.^ Thought the Buddha, " To whom 
shall I first preach the Law.^^ " Immediately he thought of his former 
teacher Alara Kalama. But a deity told him that Alara Kalama had 
been dead for seven days. Then he thought of Uddaka Ramaputta. 
But a deity told him that Uddaka Ramaputta had died that very 
evening. Then he thought of the five monks who had been his com- 
panions, and perceiving by the power of Supernatural Vision that they 
were residing in the Deer-park near Benares, he resolved to go thither 
and set in motion the Wheel of the Law. On his way thither he met 
TJpaka the Naked Ascetic. " Who are you.? " inquired Upaka. " I 
am the Supreme Buddha." Upaka expressed neither approval nor 
disapproval. " It may be," he remarked, and walked away shaking 
his head and wagging his tongue.^ 

When the five monks saw him approaching, they exclaimed, " Here 
comes the backslider! Pay no attention to him! " But the Buddha 
so completely suffused the hearts of those monks with love that they 
arose from their seats and prostrated themselves before his feet. To 
these five monks the Buddha then preached his first sermon, the Dis- 
course on the Four Noble Truths; to wit, the Nature of Suffering, the 
Origin of Suffering, the Cessation of Suffering, and the Noble Eight- 
fold Path as the Way thereto. The five monks perceived that whatso- 
ever comes into existence, that must also cease to be, and requested 
the Buddha to receive them into his Order. Thereupon the Buddha 
founded his Order of Monks by saying in a formal manner to the five, 

^ Vinaya, Mahd Vagga, i. 5. 

2 Dlgha, 14: ii. 35-40. 

3 Majjhima, 26: i. 167-169. 

* Jataka, i. 81. 

* Niddnakathd, Jataka, i. 81**-94, end: translated, Buddhist Birth Stories, pp. 
111-133. The Niddnakathd follows closely Vinaya, Mahd Vagga, i. 6-24, and Culla 
Vagga, vi. 4. For the death of the Buddha,, see Dlgha, 16. . 

' Cf. story xxiv. 9. 



-§ih] Legendary life of the Buddha 7 

" Come, monks! lead the Holy Life, to the utter extinction of SuflFer- 
ing." The Buddha then preached to the five monks the Discourse on 
Unreahty. Through this sermon they were freed from the Contam- 
inations, that is to say, lust, desire for existence, and ignorance of the 
Truths, and thus attained Arahatship. 

At that time there lived in Benares a rich young man named Yasa: 
He possessed three mansions appropriate to the three seasons and 
lived amid luxury and splendor, with a large retinue of nautch-girls. 
One night he beheld those nautch-girls asleep, and disgusted by their 
loathsome appearance, resolved to abandon the house-life for the 
houseless life of a monk. So leaving his house, he came to the Buddha 
by night and said, " How distressing! how oppressing! " Said the 
Buddha, " Here is naught that distresses or oppresses. Come, Yasa, 
sit down; let me teach you the Law." So saying, the Buddha preached 
the Law of Morality to the rich young man, discoursing on the duty 
of almsgiving, the Moral Precepts, the folly of gratifying the lusts of 
the flesh, and the benefits to be gained by renouncing the same. Then, 
perceiving that the rich young man possessed the dispositions of mind 
and heart requisite to the understanding of the Law of Deliverance, 
he preached to him the Sublime Discourse of all the Buddhas, namely. 
Suffering, the Origin and Cessation thereof, and the Way of Salvation. 
Yasa and his fifty-four companions were established in Arahatship. 
There were thus, exclusive of the Buddha, Sixty Arahats in the world. 

And the Buddha said to the Sixty, " I am freed from all fetters, both 
divine and human. Ye also are freed from all fetters, both divine and 
human. Go forth and journey from place to place, for the welfare of 
many, for the happiness of many, out of compassion for the world, for 
the benefit and welfare and happiness of angels and men. Go no two 
of you together. Preach the Law, sound in the beginning, sound in the 
middle, sound in the end, in the spirit and in the letter. Proclaim the 
Holy Life in all its fullness and purity." So saying, he sent the Sixty 
into all the world. He himself set out for Uruvela. On the way 
thither he halted in a forest, and meeting thirty young nobles who 
were seeking a woman, he converted them and received them into the 
Order. In Uruvela he converted the three brothers Kassapa, members 
of the Order of Jatilas, together with their thousand followers. Pass- 
ing on to Gayaslsa, where he established his new converts in Arahat- 
ship by means of the Discourse on Fire, he proceeded to Rajagaha in 
order to redeem his promise to King Bimbisara. 

The king received the Buddha with every mark of courtesy and 



8 Introduction to stories of Dkammapada Commentary [§ih- 

reverence, hearkened to the Law, and together with his retinue ob- 
tained the Fruit of Conversion. The king formally presented to the 
Buddha his own pleasure garden, Bamboo Grove, and the Buddha and 
the Congregation of Monks there entered upon residence. While the 
Buddha was in residence at Bamboo Grove, there came to him two 
monks who had for some time been disciples of Sanjaya, but who had 
recently obtained the Fruit of Conversion through the preaching of 
Assaji. These two monks were elevated by the Buddha to the rank of 
his two Chief Disciples and were thereafter known as Sariputta and 
Moggallana.^ From Bamboo Grove the Buddha went to his father's 
city, Kapilavatthu, and there received into the Order his own son Ra- 
hula and his own half-brother Nanda.^ From Kapilavatthu he re- 
turned to Rajagaha, tarrying by the way at Anupiya Mango Grove 
and there receiving many converts, among others the Six Princes. 
At Rajagaha he converted the rich merchant Anathapindika, who 
thereupon purchased the Jetavana Grove, paying for it as many gold 
pieces as were required to cover the ground, and presented it to him. 
The Buddha accepted the gift and entered upon residence at the Jeta- 
vana. With this event closes the second year of his ministry. 

For forty-five years the Buddha journeyed from place to place in 
this manner, preaching and teaching. The three months of the rains 
he always spent at the Jetavana or at Bamboo Grove or in some other 
one place. His missionary journeys took him up and down the valley 
of the Ganges, throughout the old kingdoms of Magadha and Kosala 
in the eastern part of North India. At no time did he go farther than 
250 miles from Benares. To this period of his life belong the great 
majority of the acts and discourses, both real and fictitious, attributed 
to him, not only in the Sacred Scriptures, but also in this and other 
later collections of legends and stories. 

Among the more interesting legends and stories of this collection 
relating to this particular period of his life are the following: i. 5, 
Quarrel among the monks of Kosambi and residence in Protected 
Forest with a noble elephant; i. 12 b. Intrigues of Devadatta against 
the Buddha and King Bimbisara; iv. 3, Annihilation of the Sakiyas 
by Vidudabha; xiii. 6, Conversion of the robber Finger-garland 
(Angulimala) ; xiii. 9 and xxii. 1, Confutation of false charges brought 
against the Buddha by suborned nuns; xiv. 2, Twin Miracle, 
Ascent to Heaven, and Descent from Heaven; xv. 1, Abatement of 

' Story i. 8 contains a brief outline of the entire Niddnakathd to this point 
« Cf. story i. 9. 



-§ii] Legendary life of the Buddha 9 

quarrel between the Sakiyas and the Koliyas; xxi. 1, Abatement of 
the Three Plagues at Vesali; and xxiii. 8, which tells how, while 
the Buddha was residing in a forest-hut in the Himalaya, he was 
tempted by Mara the Evil One to exercise sovereignty and to trans- 
mute the Himalaya mountains into gold. The Buddha died in 483 B.C. 
near the city of Kusinara, his end being hastened by a meal consisting 
of truffles. His body was cremated with pomp and ceremony, and 
the relics were divided among princes and nobles. 

§11. Buddhist-Christian parallels. The many striking parallels 
between passages in the Buddhist Scriptures and passages in the New 
Testament have for many years attracted the attention of Indologists 
and students of the History of Religions.^ The theory of Buddhist 
loans in the New Testament has been advocated by several scholars, 
notably R. Seydel,^ G. A. van den Bergh van Eysinga,^ and A. J. Ed- 
munds.^ In one form or another it has won the acceptance of many 
distinguished scholars, among others O. Pfleiderer,^ E. Kuhn,^ R. 
Pischel,^ and R. Garbe.^ M. Winternitz admits the possibiHty of such 

' For a bibliography of this interesting and important subject, see M. Winter- 
nitz, History of Buddhist Literature, p. 280, note 1. Since Wintemitz's book was 
written Garbe has announced his adhesion to Edmunds's loan theory. See note 8. 

^ R. Seydel, Das Evangelium von Jesu in seinen Verhaltnissen zu Buddha-Sage und 
Buddha-Lehre, Ivcipzig, 1882. Die Buddha-Legende und das Leben Jesu nach den 
Evangelien, emeute Priifung ihres gegenseitigen Verhaltnisses, Leipzig, 1884; 2 
Auflage, mit erganzenden Anmerkungen von Martm Seydel, Weimar, 1897. Cf. 
Winternitz, 1. c, p. 278. 

^ G. A. van den Bergh van Eysinga, Indische Einfliisse auf evangelische Erzdh- 
lungen, Gottingen, 1904; 2 Auflage, 1909. Cf. Winternitz, 1. c, p. 279. 

* A. J. Edmunds, Buddhist and Christian Gospels, now first compared from the 
originals, 4th ed., edited by M. Anesaki, Philadelphia, 1908-09. Cf. Winternitz, 1. c, 
pp. 279 ff . See also the following papers by Edmunds : Buddhist Loans to Christianity, 
in Monist, 22. 1912, pp. 129-138; The Progress of Buddhist Research, in Monist, 22. 
1912, pp. 633-635; The Accessibility of Buddhist Lore to the Christian Evangelists, in 
Monist, 23. 1913, pp. 517-522; The Buddhist Origin of Luke's Penitent Thief, in Ofen 
CouH, 28. 1914, pp. 287-291. 

* O. Pfleiderer, Religion und Religionen, Mlinchen, 1906. Die Entstehung des 
Christentums, 2 Auflage, Munchen, 1907. 

^ E. Kuhn, in Nachwort to Bergh van Eysinga's work, pp. 102 S. 

'' R. Pischel, Deutsche Literaturzeitung, 1904, col. 2938 ff. Pischel here says: 
"Die Frage, ob sich uberhaupt indische Einfliisse in der evangelischen Erzahlungslit- 
teratur finden, kann heute nicht mehr verneint werden." See also Pischel, Leben 
und Lehre des Buddha, in the Series Aus Natur und Geisteswelt, 2 Auflage, Leipzig, 
1910, pp. 17-19. At p. 18, referring to the story of Simeon, Pischel says: "Eine 
Entlehnimg ist hier sehr wahrscheinlich, und der Weg ist jetzt nicht mehr so schwer 
nachzuweisen wie friiher." He then discusses at some length the bearings of recent 
discoveries in Turkestan on the subject. 

* R. Garbe, Indien und das Christentum, Tiibingen, 1914, chap, i, pp. 47 ff. 



10 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§ li- 

loans,* and H. Oldenberg, who formerly rejected the theory, now 
holds that the theory can neither be proved nor disproved.^ Of 
the opponents of the theory, E. Windisch presents the strongest 
arguments.^ 

The most striking of these parallels are the following: 

1. Infancy legends 

a. Rejoicing of angels at nativity. 

b. Asita-Simeon. 

Sutta Nipata, iii. 11, part 1 (679-698); St. Luke ii. 8-14, 25-35. 
translated. Introduction, § 1 a-b. 

See Edmunds, BCG., i. 77-89, 181-191; Monist, 22. 1912, pp. 129-131. Edmunds 
translates manussaloke hitasukhatdya jdto, "is bom for weal and welfare in the world 
of men." The correct translation is, "is bom for the weal and welfare of mankind." 
Cf. Digha, ii. 1041"'*; Samyutta, v. 259^^^°; Uddna, p. 62, last two lines; Itivuttaka, 
p. 11, last two lines. On the locative construction involved, see Whitney's Sanskrit 
Grammar, § 303 a. 

The loan theory is accepted by Pischel, Leben und Lehre des Buddha, pp. 17-19; 
Wintemitz, History of Buddhist Literature, p. 281; Garbe, Indien und das Christentum, 
chap, i, pp. 47 S. (translated, Monist, 24. 1914, pp. 481 ff.). 

2. Mission of Sixty (Seventy) 

Vinaya, Mahd Vagga, i. 11; translated, St. Luke, x. 1. 

Introduction, § 1 A, paragraph 4. Cf. 
Niddnakathd, Jdtaka, i. 82^*-^. 

See Edmunds, BCG., i. 224-229. 



(translated, Monist, 24. 1914, pp. 481 ff.). Garbe expresses himself as follows: "Ich 
wende mich nunmehr zu den Fallen — es sind vier an der Zahl — , bei denen ich mich 
nach langer Ueberlegung davon Uberzeugt habe, dass buddhistischer Einfluss in 
den Erzahlungen der Evangelien nicht zu leugnen ist. Diese Ueberzeugung fusst im 
ersten und zweiten Fall wesentlich auf deren neuester Darstellung aus Edmunds* 
Feder." The "four cases" are: 1. The Asita-Simeon legend; 2. Temptations by the 
Evil One; 3. Peter's walking on the water; 4. Multiplication of the loaves. The paper 
by Edmunds referred to is his paper in the Monist, 22. 1912, pp. 129-138. 

^ M. Wintemitz, History of Buddhist Literature, pp. 281 f. 

^ H. Oldenberg, Die Indische Religion, in Die Religionen des Orients, Teil i, Ab- 
teilung iii. 1, of Die Kultur der Gegenwart. At p. 80 Oldenberg refers to the loan theory 
as follows: "... das Eindringen buddhistischer Elemente in die Evangelien — eine 
weder zu erweisende noch zu widerlegende Hypothese, die ich meinerseits eher unwahr- 
scheinlich finden mochte." 

^ E. Windisch, Mara und Buddha, chap, ix; Buddhas Geburt, chap. xiL 



-§ii] Legendary life of the Buddha 11 

3. Conversion of robber 
Majjhima, 86; translated. Story xiii. 6. St. Luke, xxiii. 39-43. 

See Edmunds, The Buddhist Origin of Luke's Penitent Thief, in Open Court, 28. 
1914, pp. 287-291. 

4. Feeding of five hundred (five thousand) 

Introduction to Jdtaka 78: i. 345-349; St. Matthew xiv. 15-21. 

translated, Story iv. 5. St. Mark vi. 35-44. 

St. Luke ix. 13-17. 

St. John vi. 5-14. 

The loan theory is accepted by Garbe, Indien und das Christentum, chap, i 
(translated, Monist, 24. 1914, pp. 491^92). 

5. Walking on the sea 

Introduction to Jdtaka 190: i. Ill; St. Matthew xiv. 28-31; 

cf. the Act of Truth in Story vi. 4. cf. St. Matthew xiv. 22-27, 

St. Mark vi. 45-54, 
St. John vi. 15-21. 

The loan theory is accepted by Garbe, Indien und das Christentum, chap, i (trans- 
lated, Monist, 24. 1914, pp. 488^91). 

6. Temptations by the Evil One 

a. As the Future Buddha is about to make the Great Retirement, 
the Evil One urges him to abandon his purpose, assuring him that in 
such case he will attain Universal Sovereignty. 

Niddnakathd, Jdtaka, i. 63""^^*; cf. Introduction, § 1 e, paragraph 2. This legend 
is from a late source and is probably derived from the first of the two legends marked g. 

b. While the Future Buddha is engaged in the prolonged fasts and 
austerities of the Great Struggle, he is tempted to abandon the Strug- 
gle by the Evil One, accompanied by his Nine Hosts, namely, Lust, 
Discontent, Hunger and Thirst, Craving, Sloth and Laziness, Coward- 
ice, Doubt, Hypocrisy and Stupidity, Gain, Fame, Honor, and Glory 
Falsely Obtained, Exaltation of Self, and Contempt of Others. 

Sutta Nipdta, iii. 2; cf. Introduction, § 1/, paragraph 2. Cf. also Lalitavistara, 
xviii. This legend is from an early source, as is also its sequel d. See Windisch, Mdra 
und Buddha, chap, i, pp. 1-32, also pp. 304-315. 

c. Immediately before the Enlightenment, the Evil One attempts 
to drive the Future Buddha from his seat with the Nine Rains, namely. 



12 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§ii- 

wind, rain, rocks, weapons, blazing coals, hot ashes, sand, mud, and 
darkness. 

Niddnakathd, Jdtaka, i. 71^^-72'^; cf. Introduction, § 1 jr, paragraph 1. Cf. also 
Lalitavistara, xxi. This legend is from a late source and is probably derived from b. 

d. In the fifth week after the Enlightenment, the Buddha is 
tempted by the three daughters of the Evil One, namely, Craving, 
Discontent, and Lust. 

Samyutta, iv. 3. 5; cf. Introduction, § 1 ^, paragraph 2. Cf. also Sutta Nipdta, 
Stanza 835. This legend is from an early source and forms a sequel to b. Craving, 
Discontent, and Lust are numbered among the Nine Hosts of Mara in b. See Win- 
disch, Mara und Buddha, pp. 119-124. 

e. In the eighth week after the Enlightenment, the Buddha is as- 
sailed by doubt as to the wisdom of preaching a Religion so profound 
and difficult of comprehension to a race in the bondage of desire. 
The more he considers the matter, the more his heart incHnes to a life 
of inaction. 

Vinaya, Mahd Vagga, i. 5; Dlgha, 14: ii. 35-40; Majjhima, 26: i. 167-169; 
Niddnakathd, Jdtaka, i. 81 ; cf . Introduction, § 1 </, paragraph 3. This legend is from 
an early source and is probably the original of/. Doubt and Sloth-and-Laziness are 
numbered among the Nine Hosts of Mara in b. 

/. According to other accounts, the Buddha is at this time tempted 
by the Evil One to accomplish his decease. 

Digha, 16: ii. 112-114; cf. Introduction, § 1 ^, paragraph 3. Cf. also Lalitavis- 
tara, xxiv: p. 489; Divy dvaddna, xvii: p. 202. This legend is probably a later form of 
e. See Windisch, Mara und Buddha, chap, ii, especially pp. 35, 46, 66, 67; also p. 213. 
Windisch proves that the order of development of this temptation is as follows: 
Lalitavistara, xxiv; Uddna, vi. 1; Digha, 16; Divydvaddna, xvii. 

g. While the Buddha is residing in a forest-hut in the Himalaya, 
he is tempted by the Evil One to exercise sovereignty and to trans- 
mute the Himalaya mountains into gold. 

Samyutta, iv. 2. 10; translated. Story xxiii. 8. This legend is from an early source 
and is probably the original of a. See Windisch, Mdra und Buddha, pp. 107-109. 

h. Three months before his death, the Buddha is tempted by the 
Evil One to accomplish his decease immediately. 

Digha, 16: ii. 104-106. Cf. Samyutta, Ii. 10: v. 260-262, and Uddna, vi. 1: 63- 
64. Cf. also Divydvaddna, xvii: p. 202. As Windisch remarks {Mdra und Buddha, 
p. 67), this temptation at the end of the Buddha's life is meaningless. It is of course 
a duplicate of /. 



-§ii] Legendary life of the Buddha 13 

The following is a brief outline of Edmunds's theory: ^ 

Both religions are independent in the main, but out of eighty-nine chapters in the 
Gospels, the equivalent of one, mostly in the Gospel according to St. Luke, is colored 
by a knowledge of Buddhism. The sections thus colored especially are: 

a. The rejoicing of angels at the nativity, and the Simeon episode. (See 1. Infancy 
legends.) 

h. The three temptations in St. Luke iv. 1-13 and St. Matthew iv. 1-11. Edmunds 
calls these: a, temptation to assume empire; h, temptation to transmute matter; 
c, temptation to commit suicide. (See the last two of the eight legends outlined in 6. 
Temptations by the Evil One.) 

c. The seventy missionaries. (See 2. Mission of Sixty.) 

d. The penitent thief. (See 3. Conversion of robber.) 

At the beginning of the Christian era there were four great powers : the Chinese, 
the Hindus, the Parthians, and the Romans. Between the Chinese and the Parthians, 
and extending into parts of India, was a fifth power: the Indo-Scythian empire. This 
was the seat of an aggressive missionary Buddhism, at that time the most powerful 
religion in the world. Coins of these Indo-Scythian Buddhist kings, especially those 
of Kanishka, have come down to our own time, some of them bearing the image of the 
Buddha, together with his name in Greek letters. The Gentile Evangelist St. Luke 
was a physician of Antioch, a great international metropolis and the terminus of the 
Chinese silk-trade. There is every reason to believe that he had seen these coins and 
that he was familiar with the principal legends of the Buddha's life. India, Bactria, 
and the eastern part of the Parthian empire were covered with his temples. On these 
temples were sculptured scenes of the Buddha's life, and one of the characters por- 
trayed was a converted robber. Recent finds in Central Asia prove that at the begin- 
ning of the Christian era the Buddhist Scriptures were being translated into Sogdian 
and Tokharish, vernaculars of the Parthian empire, the buffer state between Palestine 
and India. Parthians were present at Pentecost. 

While Edmunds's argument lacks the element of finality, the fol- 
lowing conclusions, in the main favorable to his theory, seem to be 
warranted by the evidence: 

The Christian Evangelists, more particularly the Gentile Evan- 
gelist St. Luke, probably had access to the principal legends of the 
Buddha's life. The legend of the rejoicing of angels at the nativity 
and the story of Simeon are probably colored by Buddhist influence. 
The assumption that St. Luke was acquainted with the Buddhist 
legend of the conversion of a robber is a not unlikely explanation of 
the discrepancy between St. Mark xv. 32 and St. Luke xxiii. 39-43. 

^ See Buddhist and Christian Gospels, i. 111-164; also Monist, 22. 1912, pp. 633- 
635; Monist, 23. 1913, pp. 517-522; Open Court, 28. 1914, pp. 287-291. On trade- 
relations between India and the West at the Christian era, see W. H. Schoff, The 
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, New York, 1912. See also Schoff's papers in Monist, 
22. 1912, pp. 138-149, 638; JAOS., 35. 1915, pp. 31-41. A good introduction to the 
recent explorations in Central Asia is Sir M. Aurel Stein's Ruins of Desert Caihay, 2 
vols., London, 1912. 



14 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§ li- 
lt seems probable that the accounts of the temptations are to some 
extent colored by Buddhist influence.^ 



§ 2. Teachings of the Buddha 

§ 2 a. The Beginningless Round of Existences. The primary 
mission of the Buddha was to deliver mankind from the frightful 
jungle or ocean of the Round of Existences. In the Anamatagga 
Samyutta ^ he is represented as saying : Without conceivable begin- 
ning is this Round of Existences; unknown is a starting-point in the 
past of beings impeded by the Impediment of Ignorance, fettered by 
the Fetter of Craving, passing, coursing, from birth to birth. The 
ancestors of a man are more numerous than all the blades of grass 
and sticks and branches and leaves in India; more numerous than 
all the particles of dust that compose the earth. The tears shed, the 
mother's milk drunk by a man in his previous states of existence, 
are more abundant than all the water contained in the four great 
oceans. 

How long is a cycle of time? Longer than it would take a range of 
mountains a league in length, a league in breadth, a league in height, 
of solid rock, without a cleft, without a crack, to waste and wear away, 
were it to be wiped once a century with a silken cloth; longer than it 
would take a heap of mustard-seed of the same dimensions to disappear 
were a single seed to be removed once a century. Of cycles of time as 
long as this there have elapsed many hundreds of cycles, many thou- 
sands of cycles, many hundreds of thousands of cycles. Indeed, it is 
impossible to count them in terms of cycles or hundreds of cycles or 
thousands of cycles or hundreds of thousands of cycles. For exam- 
ple, were each of four centenarians to call to mind a hundred thousand 

^ Edmunds deals only with the legends marked g and h in the table of parallels 
given above. Edmunds calls the third temptation a temptation "to commit suicide." 
Neither h nor its original/, however, is a temptation to commit suicide, in the strict 
sense of the word. Moreover, / is probably a later form of e, which is a temptation to 
sloth, pure and simple. On the Christian side the temptation to leap from a pinnacle 
of the temple is in no sense a temptation to suicide, but rather to pride and vanity. 
The Buddhist parallels are not g and h, but b and jr. In 6 the Buddha, emaciated and 
hungry, is assailed by the Evil One, accompanied by his Nine Hosts, the Third being 
Hunger and Thirst and the Ninth being Gain, Fame, Honor, and Glory Falsely Ob- 
tained, Exaltation of Self, and Contempt of Others. The correspondence between 
thus temptation and the temptations recorded by St. Luke and St. Matthew hardly 
needs to be pointed out. Yet Edmunds does not even mention it. 

* Samyutta, xv. 



-§2c] Teachings of the Buddha 15 

cycles of time every day of his life, all four would die or ever they could 
count them all. 

The cycles of time that have elapsed are more numerous than all 
the sands that lie between the source and the mouth of the Ganges. 
The bones left by a single individual in his passage from birth to birth 
during a single cycle of time would form a pile so huge that were all 
the mountains of Vepulla-range to be gathered up and piled in a heap, 
that heap of mountains would appear as naught beside it. The head 
of every man has been cut off so many times in his previous states of 
existence, either as a human being or as an animal, as to cause him to 
shed blood more abundant than all the water contained in the four 
great oceans. For so long a time as this, concludes the Buddha, you 
have endured suffering, you have endured agony, you have endured 
calamity. In view of this, you have every reason to feel disgust and 
aversion for all existing things and to free yourselves from them. 

§ 2 b. The motive of the Religious Life. The motive of the Reli- 
gious Life is expressly declared to be the hope of obtaining deliverance 
from this frightful Round of Existences, the hope of attaining Nibbana. 
In the Rathavinita Sutta,^ Sariputta is represented as asking Punna 
Mantaniputta, " What is the motive of the Religious Life.? Do we live 
the Religious Life for the sake of purity of conduct .f* " " No." " For 
the sake of purity of heart.?" "No." " Of purity of belief ? " "No." 
" Of purity of certitude? " " No." " Of purity of insight through 
knowledge of what is the Way and what is not the Way.? " " No." 
" Of purity of insight through knowledge of the Path? " " No." 
" For the sake of purity of insight through knowledge? " " No." 
All these things are necessary, but they are only the means to an end. 
" For the sake of what, then, do we live the Religious Life? " " That 
we may, through detachment from the things of this world, attain 
Supreme Nibbana." 

§ 2 c. Impermanence, Suffering, Unreality. For, according to the 
Buddha, the things of this world, and the things of heaven as well, 
possess the following Three Characteristics: Impermanence, Suffer- 
ing, and Unreality. All things are transitory. In all things inheres 
suffering. There is no soul. Moreover, the Supreme Being is a fiction 
of the imagination. There are few finer bits of humor in all literature 
than the famous passage in the Kevaddha Sutta^ in which is related 
the journey of a monk to the World of Brahma to obtain an answer to 

^ Majjhima, 24. 

2 Dlgha, 11. Cf. also Digha, 1; Majjhima, 49; Samyutta, vi. 1. 4; Jdtaka 405. 



16 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§2c- 

a question which troubled him. The monk first put his question to 
the gods of the retinue of the Four Great Kings. They replied, 
" Neither do we know. But there are Four Great Kings who are more 
powerful and mighty than we. They might know." The monk next 
put his question to the Four Great Kings. They referred him to the 
Thirty-three Gods. They referred him to their king, Sakka. The 
monk, after visiting six heavens in vain, finally went to the seventh 
heaven, the highest of all, the World of Brahma. And having put his 
question to the gods of the retinue of Brahma, he received the follow- 
ing reply, " Neither do we know. But there is Brahma, Great Brahma, 
the Supreme Being, the Invincible, the All-Seeing, the Subduer, the 
Lord, the Maker, the Creator, the Ancient of Days, the Conqueror, 
the Ruler, the Father of all that are and are to be. He is more power- 
ful and mighty than we. He might know." So the monk waited for 
the glory of Brahma to appear and then put his question. Brahma 
replied, " I am Brahma, Great Brahma, the Supreme Being, the In- 
vincible, the All-Seeing, the Subduer, the Lord, the Maker, the Cre- 
ator, the Ancient of Days, the Conqueror, the Ruler, the Father of all 
that are and are to be." Said the monk, " I did not ask you this 
question. I asked you that other." Then Brahma took that monk by 
the arm, led him aside, and said this to him, " Monk, the gods of my 
retinue imagine that there is nothing I do not know, nothing I do not 
see. Therefore I did not give you a direct answer to your question in 
their presence. But, monk, neither do I know the answer to your 
question. Go to the Buddha, and whatever answer he gives you, 
that you may safely believe." 

§ 2 d. The Four Noble Truths regarding Suffering. There are 
two extremes, declares the Buddha in his first sermon,^ which the 
monk should not pursue: devotion to the pleasures of sense, and the 
practice of self-mortification. A Middle Way, which avoids both of 
these extremes, has been discovered by the Tathagata. It makes for 
insight, for knowledge; it conduces to tranquillity, to higher wisdom, 
to enlightenment, to Nibbana. It is the Noble Eightfold Path, to wit: 
Right Views (the Four Noble Truths), Right Resolution (to renounce 
the lusts of the flesh, to bear malice towards none, and to injure no 
living creature). Right Speech, Right Conduct, Right Means of Live- 
lihood, Right Exertion, Right Mindfulness (Heedfulness), Right Con- 
centration (the Practice of Meditation). 

* Vinaya, Maha Vagga, i. 6. 17-22. 



-§2e] Teachings of the Buddha 17 

The Noble Truth regarding Suffering is this : Birth is Suffering, the 
Decrepitude of Old Age is Suffering, Disease is Suffering, Death is 
Suffering, Association with Enemies is Suffering, Separation from 
Friends is Suffering, Failure to Obtain What One Desires is Suffering; 
in brief, the Five Elements of Being Which Spring from Attachment 
are involved in Suffering. The Noble Truth regarding the Origin of 
Suffering is this: It is Craving that leads to Rebirth; Craving for 
Sensual Pleasure, Craving for Existence, Craving for Wealth. The 
Noble Truth regarding the Cessation of Suffering is this: It ceases 
when Craving ceases. The Noble Truth regarding the Way to the 
Cessation of Suffering is this : It is the Noble Eightfold Path. 

§ 2 e. The Noble Eightfold Path to Nibbana. Ridiculing the idea 
of a Supreme Being, denying the existence of the soul, declaring that 
men ought not to be satisfied merely with a life of good works leading 
to rebirth in heaven, the Buddha urged his hearers to renounce the 
house-life, the life of the laity, and to adopt the houseless life, the life 
of the monk and nun. He taught that every living being had passed 
through states of existence as impossible to number as the sands of 
the sea; that in each of these states of existence he had endured the 
sufferings of birth, old age, disease, death, association with enemies, 
separation from friends, and failure to obtain what he desired; that 
the cause of rebirth and of the sufferings connected therewith was 
Craving; that rebirth and the sufferings of repeated existences would 
come to an end only when Craving had been plucked up by the root 
and utterly destroyed; that the Way of Escape from the Round of 
Existences and the sufferings thereof was the Noble Eightfold Path. 

The Noble Eightfold Path may briefly be described as follows: 
Since a correct diagnosis of maladies and the application of proper 
remedies are essential to the cure of spiritual and physical ills, the 
seeker after Salvation, which is of course Escape from the Round of 
Existences, Nibbana, must first accept the Four Noble Truths.^ He 
must resolve to renounce the lusts of the flesh, to bear malice towards 
none, to refrain from injuring a single living creature, and to cherish 
love for all living creatures without respect of kind or person. He 
must observe the Moral Precepts in thought, word, and deed, walking 
in the Way of Righteousness with Energy and Heedfulness. He must 
finally, by the Practice of Meditation, so grasp, fix in mind, and com- 

^ The Buddha expressly says {Vinaya, Mahd Vagga, vi. 29): "It is because both 
I and you did not understand and comprehend these Four Noble Truths that we have 
run this long and weary course of the Round of Existences." 



18 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§ Re- 
prehend, the Three Characteristics of all existing things, Imperma- 
nence, Suffering, and Unreality, as to eradicate utterly the cause of 
rebirth and suffering, namely, Craving. By so doing he becomes what 
is called an Arahat, obtains Supernatural Knowledge and the Super- 
natural Powers, and attains the Nibbana of the Living. At death the 
Five Elements of Being of which he is composed are utterly destroyed. 
His Past Deeds, by the power of which, under other circumstances, a 
new individual would immediately come into existence, are likewise 
utterly destroyed. He has at last attained the Summum Bonum, 
Deliverance from the Round of Existences, Supreme Nibbana. 

Not the Practice of Meditation in and by itself, it will be observed, 
nor yet the Practice of Morality in and by itself, is the Buddha's Way 
of Salvation. The Way of Salvation is the Practice of Meditation 
based upon Morality. There is no other Way to Nibbana. On neither 
of these two points, of course, is the Buddha's teaching wholly original. 
The Buddha, like all other religious teachers, built on the foundations 
of the past, selecting, rejecting, adding, and combining. The faith 
and practice of Buddhism have much in common with other Indian 
systems of philosophy and religion, not to speak of extra-Indian sys- 
tems. Nevertheless the system of meditation and the code of morality 
which the Buddha gave his followers contain at least two original con- 
tributions to the development of the religious thought of India of the 
highest importance. They are the Doctrine of the Middle Way be- 
tween extremes and the Doctrine of Love for all living creatures 
(Metta). 

For example, the Jains taught the Doctrine of Non-Injury; the 
doctrine, namely, that it is a wicked thing to injure man, animal, or 
plant. But this doctrine, noble as it is, they carried to what was per- 
haps a logical, but for all that, quite absurd extreme. The Buddha 
also taught the Doctrine of Non-Injury, but took pains to confine it 
within reasonable limits.^ He condemned the killing of animals even 

' What may be the genesis of this holy horror of injuring and killing we do not 
know for certain. But we know what it was not. It was not, as has frequently been 
asserted by uninformed persons, fear of injuring a deceased relative in animal form and 
thus incurring his vengeance. There is not a word in all the Sacred Scriptures of the 
Buddhists which would afford the slightest justification for such a theory. It is quite 
probable that fundamentally and essentially there is nothing moral or religious about 
it at all. Even a European or an American shrinks from treading on a caterpillar. 
In a country like India the sight and smell of death in revolting and horrible forms, 
the ever-present sp)ectacle, for example, of insects and creeping things trodden under- 
foot, carcasses of animals in various stages of decay, and exposed corpses, cannot but 
arouse physical repulsion for death and horror of death-dealing acts. What may be in 



-§3] Practice of meditation 19 

for food, but did not altogether forbid the eating of flesh and fish. 
But he was not satisfied merely to condemn the injuring and killing of 
living creatures; he taught no such merely negative doctrine. In- 
stead he taught the most sublime doctrine that ever fell from the lips 
of a human being; the doctrine, namely, of love for all living creatures 
without respect of kind or person and for the whole visible creation: 
A man must love his fellow-man as himself, returning good for evil and 
love for hatred. But this is not all. He must extend his love to the 
fishes of the sea and the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air, 
to the plants and the trees, to the rivers and the mountains. A 
man must not kill his fellow-man even in self-defense. All war is 
unholy. 

The Doctrine of the Middle Way between the two extremes of self- 
indulgence and self-mortification, which was preached for the first 
time in India by the Buddha, illustrates in a most striking manner, 
not only the spirit of moderation which pervades his teaching, but also 
the points of contact between his own teachings and the teachings of 
his predecessors and contemporaries. Pischel has shown that the 
Buddha derived the materials for his system of meditation from the 
Yoga system of philosophy and self-discipline. The ascetic practices 
of the Yoga system, however, many of which were as horrible methods 
of self-torture as can well be imagined, the Buddha rejected in their 
entirety, as having no spiritual value whatever.^ But again the Yoga 
system emphasized the importance of Right Conduct, while the related 
Saihkhya system emphasized the importance of Right Knowledge to 
the exclusion of all else. The Buddha emphasized the importance 
of both. Now the beginning of the Noble Eightfold Path is Right 
Knowledge, the middle is Right Conduct and Right Meditation, and 
the end is Nibbana. Not one of these elements is new. Yet the Noble 
Eightfold Path is new. 

§ 3. Practice of Meditation 

Since the Religion of the Buddha knows no God, prayer forms no 
part of the religious life and is not even mentioned. Frequent men- 
tion is made of the Earnest Wish, which is simply the formal expres- 

origin merely squeamishness and disgust would easily and quickly take on a moral 
and religious character. Disgust is indeed one of the most powerful motives of the 
Religious Life in Buddhism. 

^ For a brief account of Hindu Asceticism, see A. S. Geden, in Hastings, Ency- 
clopaedia of Religion and Ethics, ii. 87-96. 



20 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§3- 

sion of an intense desire for advantage of some kind in a later exist- 
ence. But this Earnest Wish is not in any sense a prayer, for it is not 
addressed to any deity, much less to a Supreme Being. The Earnest 
Wish sometimes takes on high religious character. For example, in 
i. 8 the Future Buddha is said to have attained Enlightenment as the 
fruit of an Earnest Wish made under twenty-four previous Buddhas, 
and many other examples are given. 

However, the Earnest Wish as a religious act always accompanies 
a work of merit, and is thus analogous to the Intention with which a 
Catholic performs a work of merit, as when a priest celebrates Mass or 
a lay person hears Mass or gives alms for a certain Intention. The 
Earnest Wish also plays an interesting role in the avenging of murder. 
In i. 4, V. 7, and viii. 2 the victim of a brutal murder, in each case a 
woman, utters at the moment of death the Earnest Wish that she may 
be reborn as an ogress, able to wreak vengeance on her murderer. 
Here again the Earnest Wish is religious in character, for the Wish 
becomes the instrument, and the maker of the Wish the agent, of the 
Power of Past Deeds by which, in a later existence, the murderer 
reaps the fruit of his sin. 

For the ordinary purposes of everyday life the Act of Truth sup- 
plies, to some extent at least, the place of prayer. An Act of Truth is 
simply a formal declaration of fact, accompanied by a command that 
the purpose of the agent shall be accomplished. For example, in 
xvii. 3 b a, jealous woman throws boiling oil on Uttara. Uttara 
makes the following Act of Truth, *' If I cherish anger towards her, 
may this oil burn me; if not, may it not burn me." The boiling oil 
becomes to her like cold water. Other examples are given in vi. 4 6 
and xiii. 6. Frequent mention is made also of prayers and vows to 
deities and spirits, for the purpose of obtaining temporal blessings or 
averting disaster of some kind. But neither the Earnest Wish nor the 
Act of Truth nor yet prayers and vows to deities and spirits have any 
part in the religious life strictly so called. The place of Prayer is sup- 
plied by the Practice of Meditation. 

Meditation, in the Buddhist sense of the word, is not mere desul- 
tory reflection, but a severe exercise in attention, discipline of will and 
mind, and concentration of thought. The Practice of Meditation, 
based on Morality and leading to the Higher Wisdom, is as essential 
to the attainment of Nibbana according to the Buddhist scheme of 
Salvation as are Mental Prayer, Meditation, and the Sacraments of 
Penance and the Eucharist to final perseverance according to the Cath- 



-§3] 



Practice of meditation 



21 



olic scheme. But whereas the Practice of Meditation, is superimposed 
on the Catholic system, anything like methodical meditation being 
unknown before the fifteenth century, it is the Way of Salvation par 
excellence in the Buddhist scheme. It thus corresponds, although not 
in kind, at least in dignity and importance, to the Greater Sacraments 
of the Church rather than to the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius 
Loyola and similar Catholic systems of meditation. 

The system of Meditation in vogue in Ceylon in the early part of the 
fifth century a.d. is outlined and described in minute detail by Buddha- 
ghosa in the Second Part of his Visuddhi-Magga. To this system of 
Meditation constant reference is made in the legends and stories of this 
collection. The novice is taken in hand by a preceptor, who studies 
his disposition and temperament and assigns him a Subject of Medi- 
tation suited to his needs, choosing one of the following 

Forty Subjects of Meditation 



Ten Pleasing 


Ten Disgusting 


Ten Reflections 


Ten Higher States 


The Kasinas 










The Corpses: 


The Triad: 


Four Exalted States: 


Four Elements: 


11 Bloated 


21 Buddha 


31 Love 


1 Earth 


12 Purple 


22 Doctrine 


32 Compassion 


2 Water 


13 Festering 


23 Order 


33 Joy 


3 Fire 


14 Fissured 




34 Indifference 


4 Wind 


15 Gnawed 


24 Morality 






16 Scattered 


25 Generosity 


Four Formless States 


Four Colors: 


17 Pounded and 


26 Deities and 


35 Infinity of Space 


5 Blue 


Scattered 


Spirits 


36 Infinity of Con 


6 YeUow 


18 Bloody 


27 Death 


sciousness 


7 Red 


19 W^ormy 


28 Body 


37 Nothingness 


8 White 


20 Bony 


29 Li- and Out- 


38 Neither Con- 






Breathing 


sciousness nor 


Light and Space: 




30 Quiescence 


Unconsciousness 


9 Light 








10 Glimpse 






One Realization: oi 


of Sky 






the 

39 Loathsomeness o] 
Food 

One Analysis: of the 

40 Four Elements 



The Ten Disgusting Subjects (11-20) and Meditation on the Thirty- 
two Constituent Parts of the Body (28) lead to the First Trance. The 
first three of the Four Exalted States (31-33) lead to the Third Trance. 



22 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§3- 

The Ten Kasinas (1-10), the Meditation on In- and Out-Breathing (29), 
the last of the Four Exalted States (34), and the Four Formless States 
(35-38) lead to the Fourth Trance. Ten Subjects of Meditation do 
not lead to the Trances at all : the first seven and the last of the Ten 
Reflections (21-27, 30), Realization of the Loathsomeness of Food 
(39), and Analysis of the Four Elements (40). These Trances are of 
course nothing but self-induced hypnotic states. The Four Trances 
and the Four Formless States are counted as the Eight Attainments. 
The Forty Subjects of Meditation and the Four Trances lead to De- 
tachment and to the Cessation of Craving; that is to say, to the de- 
struction of the cause of Rebirth and Suffering, to Deliverance from 
the Round of Existences, to Nibbana. 

The novice retires to a quiet, secluded spot, preferably his own cell 
or a forest solitude, seats himself cross-legged, and begins his Medita- 
tion. More likely than not his preceptor* has directed him to meditate 
on the Impurity of the Body, this Subject of Meditation being re- 
garded as particularly efficacious in enabling the young to overcome 
the temptations of the flesh. Summoning up all the powers of his will 
and concentrating his attention, he begins to repeat the Formula of 
the Thirty-two Constituent Parts of the Body. This Formula he re- 
peats, not once only, but hundreds and hundreds of times. Gradually 
the thought comes to his mind that the body, outwardly fair and 
beautiful, is in point of fact utterly impure and vile, a mere assem- 
blage of decaying elements, transitory and perishable. Having ob- 
tained this mental reflex, he enters into a state of supernatural ecstasy 
and calm, the First Trance. 

Very possibly his preceptor will next assign him the Earth-Kasina. 
The novice drives four stakes into the ground, spreads them basket wise, 
and stretches a piece of cloth or a skin over them. He then kneads a 
disk of light-red clay, a few inches in diameter, and places it on the 
frame. Having so done, he seats himself cross-legged at a short dis- 
tance from the frame, fixes his eyes on the disk, and begins his Medita- 
tion. He considers the worthlessness of the pleasures of sense, reflects 
on the virtues of the Buddha, the Law, and the Order, and concen- 
trates his mind on the element of earth, repeating its various names 
and dwelling on the thought that his body is naught but earth. He 
gazes steadfastly at the disk, sometimes with his eyes open, sometimes 
with his eyes closed. As soon as the disk appears equally visible, 
whether his eyes are open or closed, and he has thus obtained the 
proper mental reflex, he rises from his seat, goes to his place of abode. 



-§3) Practice of meditation 23 

and develops the reflex. Having entered into the ecstasy and calm of 
the First Trance, he considers and investigates his Subject of Medita- 
tion. Having so done, he abandons consideration and investigation, 
and thus enters into the Second Trance. Freeing himself from ecstasy, 
he enters into the supernatural calm of the Third Trance. From the 
Third Trance he passes into the Fourth Trance, becoming utterly in- 
different to pleasure and pain alike. 

In XX. 9 we read that the son of a goldsmith once became a monk 
under Elder Sariputta. Sariputta, desiring to enable the youth to 
ward off the attacks of lust, directed him to meditate on the Impurity of 
the Body. The youth failed miserably in his meditations. Sariputta, 
not knowing what was the matter, took him to the Buddha. The 
Buddha surveyed the previous states of existence of the youth and per- 
ceived that in five hundred successive states of existence the youth 
had been reborn in the family of that same goldsmith. Knowing that 
in all these states of existence the youth had wrought flowers and other 
beautiful objects in ruddy gold, the Buddha concluded that Meditation 
on a Disgusting Subject was entirely unsuitable for him; that he must 
be assigned a Pleasant Subject. 

Accordingly the Buddha created a lotus of gold, gave the lotus to 
the young monk, and told him to set it up on a heap of sand, to sit 
down cross-legged before it, and to repeat the words, " Blood-red! 
blood-red! " The young monk did so. He had no difficulty whatever 
in developing all Four Trances. The Buddha, desiring to assist the 
young monk to develop Specific Attainment to the uttermost, caused 
the lotus to wither. Immediately the young monk thought, " If 
things which have no attachment for the world thus decay and die, 
how much more will living beings who are attached to the world decay 
and die! " Thus he came to realize the Three Characteristics of all 
things, namely, Impermanence, Suffering, and Unreality. 

In ii. 3 b the Buddha gives Little Wayman a clean cloth and 
directs him to face the East, rub the cloth, and repeat the words, 
" Removal of Impurity! " After Little Wayman has rubbed the cloth 
for a time, he observes that it has become soiled, and thus obtains the 
mental reflex of Impermanence. This was because in a previous state 
of existence he obtained the reflex of Impermanence by contemplat- 
ing a cloth which had become soiled by the sweat of his brow. The 
Buddha appears to him in a vision and says, " Impurity is Lust, 
Hatred, Delusion. Remove these." Little Wayman immediately at- 
tains Arahatship. 



24 Introduction to stories of Dhamma'pada Commentary [§3- 

In i. 6 Maha Kala obtains the mental reflex of Impermanence by 
contemplating the destruction by fire of the corpse of a beautiful girl. 
In i. 8 rf we are told that Yasa, in a previous state of existence, ac- 
quired a sense of the Impurity of the Body by contemplating the 
corpse of a pregnant woman. For this reason, the moment he beheld 
the loathsome appearance of his sleeping nautch-girls, he became dis- 
gusted with the pleasures of sense and obtained the concept of Im- 
purity and Impermanence. In iii. 5 we are told that Cittahattha, 
disgusted with the revolting appearance of his pregnant wife as she 
lay asleep, which reminded him of nothing so much as that of a bloated 
corpse, instantly obtained the mental reflex of Impermanence. 

In xi. 5 and xxiv. 5 vain women obtain the mental reflex of de- 
cay and death by contemplating the decay and death of a phantom 
woman. In x. 10 and xxv. 10 a monk attains Arahatship by con- 
templating a ragged garment which he wore as a layman. In xxv. 8 
we are told that some monks, while engaged in meditation, observed 
jasmine flowers, which had blossomed that very morning, dropping 
from their stems. Thereupon they thought, " So also will we obtain 
release from Lust, Hatred, and Delusion." Applying themselves to 
meditation with renewed energy, they attained Arahatship. 

In ii. 8 we read of a monk who failed miserably in the Practice of 
Meditation. Resolving to ask the Buddha to assign him a Subject 
better suited to his needs, he set out to return to the Buddha. On the 
way he saw a forest-fire. Hastily climbing a bare mountain, he watched 
the fire, concentrating his mind on the following thought, " Even as 
this fire advances, consuming all obstacles both great and small, so 
also ought I to advance, consuming all obstacles both great and small 
by the Fire of Knowledge of the Noble Path." He immediately at- 
tained Arahatship. Under similar circumstances, in iv. 2 and xiii. 3, 
monks see a mirage and a waterfall and concentrate their minds on 
the following thoughts, " Even as this mirage appears substantial to 
those that are far off, but vanishes on nearer approach, so also is this 
existence unsubstantial by reason of birth and decay. Just as these 
bubbles of foam form and burst, so also is this existence formed and so 
also does it burst." In viii. 12 a nun obtains a mental reflex of Im- 
permanence, Decay, and Death by contemplating vanishing drops of 
water, and in viii. 13 by contemplating a flickering lamp. In viii. 
11 a discontented monk resolves to commit suicide and applies the 
razor to his throat. As he reflects on his past conduct, he perceives 
that it is flawless. Thereupon a thrill of joy pervades his whole body. 



-§4] Dhavimapada: its place in the Buddhist canon 25 

Suppressing the feeling of joy and developing Insight, he attains 
Arahatship together with the Supernatural Faculties. 



§ 4. Dhammapada: its place in the Buddhist Canon 

The Sacred Scriptures of the Buddhists fall into three principal- 
divisions: Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, and Abhidhamma Pitaka. 
The Vinaya Pitaka consists of the Books of Discipline of the Order of 
Monks founded by the Buddha. Incidentally it contains an account' 
of the first two years of his ministry and of many other interesting 
events in his career. The Abhidhamma Pitaka contains a systematic 
exposition of what may be called the Buddhist psychology of sensation; 
with it we are not concerned. The Sutta Pitaka, the largest of the three 
divisions, contains the Books of Doctrine. The Sutta Pitaka consists 
of five groups, called Nikayas, namely, Four Nikayas the Greater and 
One Nikaya the Less. 

The first Four Nikayas (also called Agamas) are as follows: (1) 
Digha, (2) Majjhima, (3) Sarbyutta, (4) Aiiguttara. The Digha and 
Majjhima contain the long and medium-length discourses of the 
Buddha respectively. These are cast in the form of dialogues, some- 
what after the manner of the Dialogues of Plato. The Saihyutta and 
Anguttara contain explanations of points of doctrine, arranged in 
catechism fashion according to topic and number respectively. The 
Lesser Nikaya, called the Khuddaka, consists of fifteen books, grouped 
in three pentads. Of these fifteen books, perhaps the most interesting 
and important are the Jatakas, or Buddhist Birth Stories; the Sutta 
Nipata, a collection of poetical dialogues and epic pieces (probably the 
oldest single book in the entire Canon) ; the Udana, or Solemn Utter- 
ances of the Buddha (antique verse, together with a prose commentary 
ranking as canonical); and the Dhammapada. 

The Dhammapada is an anthology of 423 Sayings of the Buddha in/ 
verse. This anthology is divided into twenty-six parts, or books! 
(vaggas), the arrangement of the Stanzas being by subjects. These 
Stanzas are for the most part taken from other books of the Pali 
canon and embody, if not the very words of the Buddha's utterance, 
at least the actual spirit of his teaching.^ In one recension or another 
the Dhammapada was dispersed throughout the Buddhist world. 

^ See the Introduction to F. Max Miiller's translation of the Dhammapada, in 
Sacred Books of the East, vol. x; also Wintemitz, History of Buddhist Literature, 
pp. 63-65. 



26 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§4- 

The most noteworthy versions, in addition to the Pali version, are the 
four Chinese versions from the Sanskrit, the earhest of which, an anthol- 
ogy of 500 Stanzas, was brought from India in 223 a.d. and, together 
with the rest of the Tripitaka, printed from blocks in 972 a.d., nearly 
seven centuries before Gutenberg.^ Unfortunately this version has 
never been translated into any Occidental language. Next in impor- 
tance is the Tibetan Udanavarga, also from the Sanskrit. The Udana- 
varga, which corresponds closely to the Udana and the Dhammapada 
of the Pali Tipitaka, was many years ago translated into English by 
W. W. Rockhill. Fragments of other versions of the Dhammapada 
are among the finds of recent explorations in Central Asia. 

§ 5. Commentary: general character and structure of parts 

From Vedic times Hindu commentators have delighted to intro- 
duce illustrative stories into their commentaries. The Brahmanas, 
like the Talmud, abound in quaint and interesting tales. In the case of 
commentaries on Vedic and Sanskrit texts the principal purpose of the 
author is, as might be expected, to interpret and explain the words of the 
text. Since it frequently happens that a good story illustrates the mean- 
ing of a word or passage even better than a philological discussion, the 
author always allows himself the liberty of introducing such stories as 
may serve his purpose. At the same time he is careful to subordinate 
the element of fiction to his main purpose, namely, the exegesis of the 
text. He never introduces a good story merely for the sake of the story. 

The tendency of commentators on the Pali texts, however, is just 
the reverse. The verbal glosses begin to shrink, both in size and im- 
portance, and the stories begin to grow. Finally, as in the case of the 
Dhammapada Commentary, the exegesis of the text becomes a matter 
of secondary importance altogether and is relegated to the back- 
ground. Ostensibly at least, and in name and form, the commentary 
remains a commentary. But in point of fact, and to all intents and 
purposes, what was once a commentary has become nothing more or 
less than a huge collection of legends and folk-tales. 

Such a commentary is the Dhammapada Commentary. Osten- 
sibly it is a commentary on the Stanzas of the Dhammapada. The 
author or compiler or translator says this very solemnly in the Intro- 

* See Bunyiu Nanjio, Catalogue of the Chinese Translation of the Bvddhist Tripi- 
^ka. (There is a copy of this valuable and. important work in the Library of the 
Peabody Institute, Baltimore.) 



-§5] Dhammapada Commentary: its character and structure 27 

ductory and Concluding Stanzas. There exists, he says. In the Island 
of Ceylon, an erudite Commentary on the Dhammapada which has 
been handed down from time immemorial. But it is in the Cingalese 
language, and is therefore of use only to the few. The suggestion has 
been made to him by Elder Kumara Kassapa that, were it to be trans- 
lated into Pali, it would conduce to the welfare of the whole world.. 
The suggestion seems to him to be a good one, and he purposes to 
carry it into effect. It Is his intention, therefore, to translate this Cin- 
galese Commentary into Pali. He will thus make clear everything that 
has not been made clear in the Stanzas themselves, whether in letter 
or in word. The rest he will also tell in Pali, but more freely, in 
accordance with the spirit of the Stanzas. 

Just what he means by the last statement is not at once apparent. 
But a study of the Commentary as a whole, in its relation to the 
Sacred Scriptures and to other Commentaries, makes his meaning 
abundantly plain. The reader will wish to know, first of all, who uttered 
the Stanza. He must be told that every one of the Stanzas is the very 
Word of the Buddha himself. But this will not satisfy his curiosity. 
He will ask many other questions about the Stanza; such, for example, 
as the following: Where was it uttered.'' when.'* why.'' for what pur- 
pose.'' with reference to what situation.'' with reference to what person 
or persons.'' The commentator will satisfy the reader's curiosity on 
all of these points. He is thoroughly familiar with the Sacred Scrip- 
tures, and the Sacred Scriptures tell him that the Stanza was uttered 
either on one certain occasion or on any number of different occasions. 
He is familiar also with voluminous Commentaries, both In Pali and 
in Cingalese. Moreover, he has at his command the Immense store- 
house of Hindu legend. 

If a legend or story which he finds in the Sacred Scriptures or Com- 
mentaries can be improved on by alteration or expansion or compres- 
sion, he makes such changes in it as suit his purpose. If a story will 
do very well just as it stands, he copies it word for word, sometimes 
telling where he got it, but more often not. Or it may suit his purpose 
better to tell the story in his own words, introducing original touches 
here and there. Or he may have heard a good story from a traveler 
or a sailor or a villager or a fellow-monk. No matter where he read the 
story, no matter where he heard it, no matter what Its character, it 
becomes grist for his mill.^ Some of the stories he tells sound as though 

^ For a detailed discussion of the author's methods of handling motifs and story 
material generally, see Story v. 1, note 1. 



28 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§5- 

they had come out of drinking-tavems, and it is quite possible that 
they did. Like Kipling's Homer, " Wot 'e thought 'e might require, 
*e went and took." Not only does he display good judgment in select- 
ing stories, and consummate skill in adapting them to his purpose, 
but he is also a first-rate story-teller on his own account. Many of 
the best stories cannot be traced to other sources, and of these at least 
a considerable number are doubtless original. 

It will be observed that he does not claim to be the author of the 
verbal glosses. It is well for his reputation that he does not. Semi- 
occasionally a gloss is of some assistance in the interpretation of the 
text. But more often than not the glosses are not only of no assist- 
ance whatever, but are positively misleading. Words and expressions 
from eight to ten centuries old, whose meaning and history are per- 
fectly well known to us, the glossographer, whoever he may be, inter- 
prets after the manner of the scholastics of the fifth century a.d. Such 
etymologies as he gives are, like all other Hindu etymologies, the mer- 
est puns and utterly valueless. The problem of really difficult words, 
he generally evades, either by not noticing the words at all, or by the 
familiar expedient of including the term defined in the definition. 
There are only two glosses of any real interest or value in the entire 
collection: the long glosses on Stanzas 324 and 354 (end of Stories 
xxiii. 3 and xxiv. 10 respectively). These have been translated in 
full. As an illustration of the glossographer's stupid handling of diffi- 
cult words, the short gloss on Stanza 415 (near the end of Story xxvi. 
32) has been translated. All other glosses have been omitted from the 
translation. 

The author or redactor or compiler of these legends and stories 
appears to have used as his models chiefly the prose-and-verse Udana 
and the prose-and-verse Jataka Book. In most cases there is no 
organic connection between the prose and the verse of the Udana, and 
the same remark applies to the Dhammapada Commentary. So far 
as the stories of this collection conform to the type of the prose-and- 
verse Udana, and a very large number do, no more need be said of them 
than that they consist of a Stanza and an illustrative tale. The struc- 
ture of such stories as conform to the prose-and-verse Jataka type, 
which form the bulk of the collection, is much more complex. Ordi- 
narily each story of this type consists of eight subdivisions, as follows: 
(1) citation of the stanza (gatha) to which the story relates; (2) men- 
tion of the person or persons with reference to whom the story was 
told; (3) story proper; or, more strictly. Story of the Present (pac- 



-§6a] The stories: their subject-matter and motifs 29 

cuppanna-vatthu), closing with the utterance of the (4) stanza or 
stanzas; (5) word-for-word commentary or gloss on the stanza; 
(6) brief statement of the spiritual benefits which accrued to the hearer 
or hearers; ^ (7) Story of the Past; or, more accurately. Story of Pre- 
\'ious Existences (atita-vatthu) ; (8) identification of the personages 
of the Story of the Past with those of the Story of the Present. Some- 
times the Story of the Past precedes the Story of the Present, and not 
infrequently more than one Story of the Past is given. 

§ 6. Subject-matter and motifs of the stories 

§ 6 a. Fruit of Past Deeds and Rebirth as motifs. As in other 
collections of Hindu tales, the psychic motif and literary device most 
frequently employed is the Fruit of Past Deeds and Rebirth. It is no 
exaggeration to say that in each and every story it is at least the osten- 
sible purpose of the writer to illustrate the truth of the maxim, " What- 
soever a man soweth, that shall he also reap." Every story is in a very 
strict, although by no means narrow, sense a " moral tale." Sometimes, 
it is true, the obligation to point a moral weighs so heavily upon the 
writer that he deliberately spoils a good story for the sake of the 
moral. But this is infrequently the case. Ordinarily he selects, re- 
models, and invents, with the utmost freedom, stories of all sorts and 
kinds, ranging all the way from stories of heroic virtue and sanctity 
to stories of unspeakable villainy and unbelievable wickedness, moved 
apparently by one and only one consideration, namely, that of telling 
the best story he can think of. 

The earth is always ready to yawn and swallow up a sinner, and the 
Avici hell to envelop him with its flames. The troubles and woes of a 
sinner are frequently more amusing and picturesque than the evil 
deeds that brought them upon him. A sinner is certain to be punished 
sooner or later. If retribution does not overtake him in one state of 
existence, it surely will in a later state. The wqrse a man behaves in 
one state of existence, the better the chance to tell a good story about 
him in a later state. It will thus be apparent that the requirement that 
each story shall be a " moral tale," far from hampering or restricting 

* This enumeration of spiritual benefits generally takes the following form: "At 
the conclusion of the stanza (or discourse), that monk (or layman) was established in 
the Fruit of Conversion, and many others in the Fruits of the Second and Third Paths. 
The company present also profited thereby." Since this formula adds nothing to the 
story, and the repetition of it becomes very wearisome, it has been omitted in the 
translation. 



30 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§6a- 

the story-teller, opens up to him a field of immense possibilities. Some- 
times even the temporary discomfiture of a sinner or the conversion of a 
sinner from his evil ways is a more effective device in the hands of the 
story-teller than his punishment. There are few more effective denoue- 
ments in the world's fiction than the disproof of the false accusation 
brought against the Buddha by the wandering nun Cinca (xiii. 9) 
and the conversion of the robber Angulimala (xiii. 6). 

A correct understanding of the Buddhist doctrine of the Fruit of 
Past Deeds is essential to a just appreciation of its importance and 
effectiveness as a psychic motif and literary device. Good deeds, works 
of merit, a life of righteousness conformed to the ethical teachings of 
the Buddha, lead to happiness and prosperity in this life, and at death 
to rebirth either in a happier human estate or in one of the heavens. 
To be sure, this is not Salvation, for Salvation is Escape from the 
Round of Existences, Attainment of Nibbana. Not Morality, but the 
Practice of Meditation, is the Way of Salvation, although of course 
Morality is the indispensable prerequisite to the Practice of Meditation. 
The merely moral man, however, will forever remain in the Round of 
Existences, and is therefore in a very real sense as far from Salvation 
as the sinner. But the Practice of Meditation, leading to Attainment 
of Nibbana, while not without value as a literary motif, is of slight 
importance as compared with the Fruit of Past Deeds, more particularly 
the Fruit of Evil Deeds, and with it we are not chiefly concerned. 

Just as good deeds lead to happiness, both here and hereafter, so 
evil deeds lead to sorrow and pain and adversity in this life, and at 
death to rebirth in one of the hells, in the animal kingdom, in the 
world of ghosts, or in the world of the fallen deities. The power of past 
deeds (kammabala), whether of the accumulated merit of good deeds 
(punna) or of the accumulated merit of evil deeds (apunna), is supe- 
rior to all other powers spiritual or physical, l^uman or superhuman. 
No man or deity or devil can stay the operation of the power of past 
deeds; there is no forgiveness of sins; every evil deed must be wiped 
out with the blood and tears of the evildoer. Moreover, as the Buddha 
makes abundantly clear in the Fifteenth Samyutta, the Round of 
Existences is without conceivable beginning; of it no starting-point 
in the past is known. Nor will there ever be an end of it for any 
human being unless by the Practice of Meditation, pursued with 
Energy and Heedfulness, he tear up by the roots and utterly destroy 
Craving, the cause of it. Now it is the burden of the Buddha's com- 
plaint that most men walk in ways of wickedness, few in the way of 



-§6a] The stories: their subject-matter and motifs 31 

righteousness, and fewer still in the Way of Salvation. It is therefore 
not surprising that in Buddhist works of fiction, as in Hindu fiction in 
general, such extensive use should be made of this motif of the Fruit 
of Past Deeds; there is simply no limit to its possibilities as an instru- 
ment in the hands of the story-teller. A glance at a few of the most 
interesting instances of its employment in the legends and stories of 
this collection will make this abundantly clear. 

In ii. 7 we are told that Sakka (Indra), King of the Thirty-three 
Gods, was at one time a Brahman youth named Magha, and that 
Magha obtained rebirth as Sakka by fulfilling Seven Vows. The rest 
of the Thirty-three Gods were in their human estate associated with 
Magha in the performance of works of merit. Vissakamma (the In- 
dian Vulcan) was a common carpenter. Likewise three virtuous women 
of Magha's household, by the performance of works of merit, obtained 
rebirth as wives of Sakka. The fourth, thinking it a sufiBcient distinc- 
tion to be a cousin of Magha, did nothing but adorn herself and was 
therefore reborn as a crane. However, by observing the Five Precepts 
evcQ to the point of abstaining from the eating of live fish, she obtained 
rebirth as a potter's daughter; by persevering in the observance of 
the Five Precepts, she obtained rebirth as an Asura maiden and even- 
tually became one of Sakka's wives. 

The story of the seven marvelous escapes from death of the luck- 
child Ghosaka (ii. 1. 2) well illustrates, often in a most amusing way, 
the great variety of ways in which this motif is frequently employed 
within the limits of a single story. Ghosaka, in a previous existence as 
Kotuhalaka, cast his young son away in time of famine and was reborn 
as a dog. Dying of a broken heart for love of a Private Buddha, be- 
cause of his straightforwardness and lack of deceit (which, the writer 
remarks, distinguish dogs from human beings), he was reborn as a god 
in the Heaven of the Thirty-three. In consequence of indulging in the 
pleasures of sense, he was reborn as the son of a courtezan. Because 
in his existence as Kotuhalaka he cast his own son away, he was him- 
self cast away seven times. Because in his existence as a dog he made 
friends with a Private Buddha, he was miraculously preserved from 
death. The daughter of a rich man, because in his existence as Kotu- 
halaka she was his wife, fell in love with him at first sight and married 
him. 

In xxvi. 33 d we are told that one day a monk who was an Arahat 
stopped at the house of a goldsmith to solicit gold for the erection of the 
shrine of the Buddha Kassapa. At that moment the goldsmith was 



32 Introduction to stories of Dhamma'pada Commentary [§6a- 

engaged in a quarrel with his wife. Irritated at the sight of the monk, 
he said angrily to his wife, " Throw your Teacher into the water! " 
As the fruit of this sin, in seven successive existences he was cast into 
the water on the day of his birth. But because he made reparation for 
the insult by offering three vessels of golden flowers at the shrine of the 
Buddha, a mountain of gold uprose for him in his seventh existence as 
Jatila. 

The power of habit is considered to be the fruit of past deeds. 
In xxvi. 25 we are told that the monks once complained to the 
Buddha that one of their fellows was in the habit of accosting every- 
body he met with the epithet commonly applied to outcasts. The 
Buddha, after surveying the previous existences of the accused monk, 
informed his accusers that in five hundred successive existences the 
monk had been reborn as a Brahman, and that he used the epithet, 
not out of ill-will, but simply from the force of habit. There is a similar 
explanation in xviii. 9 of the various attitudes of five laymen while 
the Buddha was preaching. In five hundred successive existences the 
first had been a dragon, and therefore fell asleep; the second had been 
an earthworm, and therefore dug the earth with his finger; the third 
had been a monkey, and therefore shook a tree; the fourth had been 
an astrologer, and therefore gazed at the sky; the fifth had been a re- 
peater of the Veda, and therefore listened attentively. 

All manner of physical disabilities are looked upon as the fruit of 
past deeds. In xvii. 1 we read of a maiden who suffered from an 
eruption of the skin because in a previous existence as a queen, in a 
fit of jealousy and anger, she had ruined the complexion of a nautch- 
girl. In iii. 7 a monk suffers from an eruption of the skin because in a 
previous existence as a fowler he had been guilty of cruelty to birds. 
In v. 7 we are told that a youth once spat upon a Private Buddha. 
Moreover, in company with three other youths, he once murdered a 
courtezan for her jewels. At the moment of death the courtezan made 
the Earnest Wish that she might be reborn as an ogress, able to kill 
her murderers. The youth, because he spat upon a Private Buddha, 
was reborn as a leper. One day, shortly after he had obtained the 
Fruit of Conversion, he was set upon by a heifer and kicked in the 
head. As a matter of fact, the heifer was none other than the courte- 
zan, who had been reborn as an ogress and who had disguised herself 
as a heifer to get revenge. 

In i. 1 a a wicked physician blinds a woman who attempts to cheat 
him out of his fee for curing her of an affection of the eyes. In his next 



-§6a] The stories: their subject-matter and motifs 33 

existence as a monk he attains Arahatship and loses his eyesight at 
one and the same moment. In ix. 9 a wicked physician who was seek- 
ing employment for his services would have allowed a snake to bite 
some small boys. But one of the boys threw the snake on the physi- 
cian's head, and he was bitten to death. In his next existence as a, 
hunter he tonnented a monk and was devoured by his own dogs. In 
V. 3 a niggard is reborn as a monstrosity and is forced to beg his food 
from door to door. In xxiv. 1 an insolent monk is reborn as a fish 
with a bad breath. In vii. 9 c Sivali remained in the womb of his 
mother for seven days and seven months and seven years for no other 
reason than that in a previous existence he once blockaded a city and 
reduced the inhabitants to starvation. 

The killing of animals, no less than the murder of human beings, 
brings down upon the guilty person's head the direst forms of retribu- 
tion. In V. 1 c a queen once killed a ewe for food, and was reborn in 
hell. Afterwards, since the fruit of her wicked deed was not yet ex- 
hausted, her own head was cut off just as many times as there were hairs 
in the ewe's fleece. In i. 10 a pig-killer goes stark mad and for seven 
days crawls about his house, squealing and grunting like a pig. Dying, 
he is reborn in the Avici hell. In xviii. 1 a cow-killer cuts off the tongue 
of a live ox, has it cooked, and sits down to eat. The moment he places 
a piece of ox-tongue in his mouth, his own tongue is cleft in twain and 
falls out of his mouth. Going sta,rk mad, he crawls about on his hands 
and knees, bellowing like an ox. Dying, he is reborn in the Avici hell. 
In xii. 1 c we are told that because in a previous state of existence 
Prince Bodhi ate some bird's eggs he was destined to remain childless 
all his life. In xxiv. 11a rich man remains childless because he once 
killed his nephew for his money. 

In x. 7 Moggallana the Great, one of the Two Chief Disciples of 
the Buddha, is torn limb from limb by brigands and his bones ground 
into powder because in a previous existence he killed his mother and 
father. In xii. 5 Maha Kala, a faithful layman, is beaten to death 
because in a previous existence he beat a traveler to death in order to 
obtain possession of his wife. In ix. 11 a crow is burned to a crisp in 
mid-air because in a previous existence as a farmer he burned a lazy 
ox to death ; the wife of a sea-captain is cast overboard as a Jonah be- 
cause in a previous existence she drowned her dog; and seven monks 
are imprisoned in a cave for seven days because in a previous exist- 
ence as young cowherds they thoughtlessly allowed a lizard to remain 
imprisoned in an ant-hill for seven days. Revenge pursued through 



34 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [lea- 
successive existences, the motive power being supplied by the Earnest 
Wish, is the theme of i. 4 and xxi. 2. In iii. 9, in consequence of 
expressing a wicked wish, a man is transformed into a woman, and 
thus is created the extraordinary situation of one and the same person 
being both the father and the mother of children. The writer remarks 
in the most matter-of-fact sort of way that there are no men who have 
not been women at some time or other, and no women who have not, 
at some time or other, been men. 

§ 6 b. Other motifs.^ Among the motifs found in this collection 
which are most frequently repeated in both Hindu and European fic- 
tion are the following: 

Act of Truth: ^ curse, i. 3 a; to cross rivers on dry foot, vi. 4 6; to ease childbirth, xiii. 

6 (cf. xxvi. 31); to cool boiling oil, xvii. 3 b. 
Arrow pierces five himdred warriors at once; on removing armor, they fall dead, iv. 3. 
Arrow turns back, ii. 1. 6. 

Bad company mars manners, xxv. 5 o. 

Baling out the ocean, xx. 8 a. 

Beauty fades, xi. 5, xxiv. 5. 

Braggart, but of humble origin, xviii. 8. 

Bow requiring a thousand men to string, ii. 1. 6, iv. 3. 

Captive king and captor's daughter, ii. 1. 4. 

Change of sex, iii. 9. 

Charm inadvertently recited, disperses robbers and saves king's life, ii. 3 c. 

Charm to attract and banish elephants, ii. 1. 1, ii. 1. 4. 

Charmed life borne by luck-child, ii. 1. 2. 

Child's query, "Have we no relatives?" ii. 3 a, iv. 3. 

Conflict between Devas and Asuras, ii. 7 6. 

Cure for death, viii. 13 6. 

Cure for gluttony, xv. 6, xxiii. 4. 

Cure for love, xi. 2. 

Daughter her father's senior, i. 13. 

Daughter of rich man falls in love with her inferior: with hunter, ix. 8; with slave, ii. 

3 a, viii. 12; with thief, viii. 3. 
David and Uriah, v. 1. 
Death-warrant borne by self, ii. 1. 2. 

^ On the subject of repeated motifs in Hindu fiction, see the following papers by 
Professor Maurice Bloomfield: On Recurring Psychic Motifs in Hindu Fiction, and 
the Laugh and Cry Motif, in Journal of the American Oriental Society, 36. 1916, pp. 54- 
89; On Talking Birds in Hindu Fiction, in Festschrift fur Ernst Windisch, pp. 349-361 ; 
The Character and Adventures of Mvladeva, in Proceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society, 52. 1913, pp. 616-650. 

* For a discussion of this motif, see E. W. Burlingame, The Act of Truth (Sacca- 
kiriya) ; a Hindu Spell and its Employment as a Psychic Motif in Hindu Fiction, in 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1917. 



-§6b] The stories: their subject-matter and motifs 35 

Delayed pursuit, ii. 1.4. 
Destroyer of friendships, xx. 6 a. 
Disloyal children: daughters, viii. 14; sons, xxiii. 3. 
"Don't count your chickens before they 're hatched," iii. 4. 

Drunkenness: drunken Asuras, ii. 7 6; drunken prince, x, 9, xiii. 4; drunken asses, 
vi. 8; drunken women, xi. 1; drunkenness of Suppabuddha, ix. 12. 

Earnest Wish, i. 4 (xxi. 2), i. 8, iv. 8 a, v. 7, viii. 2. 
Enchanted hunter, ix. 8. 

Fakirs : bat-wing, xxvi. 1 1 ; with radiance from navel, xxvi, 30 6 ; skvdl-tapper, xxvi. 37. 
False accusation of Buddha by suborned nuns, xiii. 9, xxii. 1. 
Fruit of Past Deeds, see Introduction, § 6 a. 

Golden maiden, xvi. 5. 

Haimted forest, i. 1, iii. 6. 

Haunted p>ool, x. 8 a. 

Head splitting into seven pieces, i. 1, i. 3, xiii. 10. 

Heir in disguise, ii. 2. 

Homesickness, iv. 3 a, xxi. 6. 

Hunger-strike {dhdra-upaccheda) , viii. 3, xv. 3, xvi. 6. 

"I have conquered!" iii. 5, ix. 1. 

Identification: by footprint, ii. 1. 5 (cf. xiv. 1), ix. 8; by ring and mantle, ii. 1. 1; by 
the voice, ii. 2. 

Jealous woman maltreats rival, xvii. 1 b, xxii. 6. 

Jonah, v. 3, ix. 9, ix. 11 6. 

Joseph and Potiphar's wife, xiii. 9 a. 

King in disguise eavesdropping, ii. 3 c. 

Laugh, ii. 1. 2 (p. 265), xvii. 3 b. 
Laugh and cry, v. 16 c. 

Cf . also Smile. 
Lioness mother of a human being, xxv. 9. 
Longing of pregnancy, iv. 3. 

Magic bird, xii. 1 a. 
Mind-reading, iii. 2, ii. 1. 6. 
*^Moses in the bulrushes, xxvi. 33 c. 
Multiplication of food by miracle, iv. 5, xviii. 10. 
Multiplic9,tion of men by miracle, ii. 3 6. 

Niggardliness, i. 2, iv. 5. 

Oath to wash bench with human blood, iv. 3. 

Pious fraud, ii. 7 6, iv. 10. 

Pride goeth before a fall, i. 3, i. 14, v. 5, vi, 3, xviii. 4, xviii. 8. 



36 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§6b- 

Rebirth, see Introduction, § 6 a. 

Reflection in jeweled walls frightens warriors, xxvi. 34. 

Removed, yet unremoved, xxvi. 23. 

Riddling charm, ii. 3 c. 

Riddling injunctions, iv. 8, xxi. 8. 

fiddling phrases, ix. 8, i. 13. 

Riddling questions, xiii. 7. 

Riddling song, xiv. 3. 

Slip of tongue, ii. 1. 2, xi. 7. 

Smile of Buddha, x. 9, xi. 9, xxiv. 2, xxvi. 32. 

Smile of Moggallana, v. 12, v. 13, x. 6, xx. 6, xxii. 2. 

Sounds of evil omen, v. 1. 

Spit-fire monk and dragon, xiv. 6. 

"Strike, but hear!" ix. 10. 

Substitution of live cocks for dead cocks, ii. 1, 6. 

Substitution of letter, ii. 1. 2. 

Sword breaks, viii. 9 a. 

Sycophants and rich youth, xi. 9. 

Talkative tortoise, xxv. 3 a. 

Talkativeness cured by tossing pellets of dung into the mouth, v. 13 a. 
Transmutation of baser substances into gold, viii. 13 a, xvii. 3 a, xxiii. 8. 
Treacherous wife, xxiv. 7 a. 

Vow to spirits, i. 1, v. 1 6, viii. 3, viii. 9. 

"We were three, we were two, I alone am left," ii. 1. 3. 

Women and monks: former wives, i. 6; innocent monk beaten by husband, xxvi. 22; 

phantom woman, x. 4; St. Antony motif, vii. 10, xxvi. 32. 
Wooden elephant filled with warriors, ii. 1. 4. 

§ 6 c. Humorous stories. The book abounds in humorous stories 
and amusing situations. Niggardhness, drunkenness, pride, and the 
temptations of women are favorite themes. In i. 2 we read of a Brah- 
man, very appropriately named Never-Gave, of disposition so niggardly 
that when he wished to have a pair of ear-rings made for his son, he 
beat out the gold himself to save the expense of employing a gold- 
smith; when his son was attacked by jaundice, he refused the request 
of his wife that a physician be called, for fear of having to pay him 
his fee, but inquiring of various physicians what remedies they were 
accustomed to prescribe for such and such ailments, prescribed for his 
son himself; and when, as the result of his treatment, his son grew 
steadily worse and was about to die, he carried him out of the house 
and laid him down on the terrace, fearing that persons who called to 
see his dying son might get a glimpse of the wealth the house contained. 
When his son died, he had the body burned, and went daily to the 



-§6c] The stories: their subject-matter and motifs 37 

burning-ground and wept and lamented. The son, reborn as a deity, 
decided to teach the father a lesson, and resuming human form, 
went to the burning-ground and wept and lamented also. " Why are 
you weeping.'^ " inquired the father. " I want the sun and the moon," 
replied the son. " You are a fool." " But which of us is the bigger, 
fool, I who weep for what exists, or you who weep for what does not 
exist.? " 

In iv. 5 we read of another miser, a rich man named Niggardly. 
One day he saw a half -starved countryman eating a round cake stuffed 
with sour gruel. The sight made him hungry; but for fear that, if he 
said anything to his wife, many others might wish to eat with him and 
his substance might thus be wasted, he walked about all day long, en- 
during the pangs of hunger as best he could, until finally he was forced 
to take to his bed. His wife begged him to tell her what was the matter 
with him, suggesting that perhaps the king or some member of his 
household might be the cause of his woe. *' Nothing of the sort." 
" Then perhaps you have a craving for something." When Niggardly 
heard this, he was struck dumb. Finally he admitted that he should 
like a round cake to eat. " Why did n't you tell me so before.f^ I will 
bake enough cakes for all the residents of the street." " Why for 
them.'' " " Then enough for you and your children and your wife." 
" Why for them.? " " Then enough for you and me." " Why for you.? " 
" Very well, I will bake just enough for you." But for fear others 
might get wind of the fact that there was cooking going on in the 
house, Niggardly compelled his wife to bake the cake on the top floor 
of the house. By direction of the Buddha, Elder Moggallana flew 
through the air to Niggardly's house and stood poised in the air out- 
side of the window. When Niggardly saw the Elder, knowing very 
well that he had come for food, he sputtered and blustered, declaring 
that, for all the Elder's pains, he should get nothing. Finally the 
Elder began to belch forth smoke, whereupon Niggardly said to his 
wife, " Cook one tiny little cake for him and let's get rid of him. But 
each cake his wife baked grew bigger than the previous one, and when 
his wife tried to take a single cake from the basket, the cakes all stuck 
together. In despair Niggardly presented cakes, basket, and all to 
the Elder. 

We are told in ii. 7 6 that when Magha and his thirty-two compan- 
ions were reborn in the World of the Thirty-three as Sakka and the 
Devas, the Asuras prepared strong drink to welcome the new deities. 
Sakka and his companions would not touch it, but the Asuras got very 



38 Introduction to stories of Dhamma'pada Commentary [§6c- 

drunk. Then Sakka gave the signal, and his companions picked up the 
Asuras by the heels and flung them into the abyss. We read in x. 9 
that King Pasenadi, pleased with his Prime Minister Santati, turned 
over his kingdom to him for seven days and gave him a nautch-girl. 
For seven days Santati steeped himself in liquor, and on the seventh 
day, magnificently adorned, seated on the back of the state elephant, 
set out for the bathing-place on the river. Even the Buddha smiled 
when he saw him, for he knew that he was destined on that very day 
to pass into Nibbana. Returning from the river, Santati seated him- 
self in his drinking-hall, and his nautch-girl stepped on the stage and 
began to dance and sing. Now the nautch-girl had fasted for seven 
days to improve her figure, and suddenly dropped dead of heart- 
failure. " Look to the lady! " cried Santati. " She is dead." In- 
stantly, says the text, all the liquor he had drunk during the preceding 
week vanished away like drops of water in a red-hot potsherd. 

In xi. 1 we read that on a certain drinking festival five hundred 
men of Savatthi intrusted their wives to Visakha and went on a spree 
for seven days. On the eighth day the drum announced resumption 
of work, and the men obeyed. But their wives, discovering that a 
great quantity of liquor remained, drank it surreptitiously and became 
uproariously drunk. In order to escape punishment at the hands of 
their husbands, they took to their beds and pretended to be sick. 
But their husbands discovered what was the matter with them and 
beat them well. At a subsequent drinking festival they accompanied 
Visakha to the monastery, carrying jugs of liquor under their cloaks. 
After drinking the liquor, they seated themselves in the Hall of Truth 
in the presence of the Buddha. Visakha requested the Buddha to 
preach the Law to them. But those same women were so drunk that 
their bodies swayed back and forth, and suddenly they took it into 
their heads to dance and sing. An evil spirit, seeing his opportunity, 
took possession of them. Immediately some of them clapped their 
hands and laughed, while others began to dance. The Buddha sent 
forth a ray of light from his eyebrow, and straightway there was black 
darkness. So terribly were those women frightened, says the text, 
that instantly the strong drink within their bellies dried up. In ix. 12 
we are told that the Buddha's father-in-law, Suppabuddha, because 
of a fancied grievance, intoxicated himself, sprawled in the street, and 
refused to allow the Buddha to pass. Seven days later, because of this 
insult, Suppabuddha fell down seven flights of stairs, was swallowed 
up by the earth, and was reborn in the Avici hell. 



-§6c] The stories: their subject-matter and motifs 39 

Amusing stories of pride, insolence, and obstinacy are i. 3, i. 14, 
V. 5, vi. 3, xviii. 4, and xviii. 8. In i. 3 we have an account of the 
haughty behavior of Elder Tissa, a cousin of the Buddha, towards 
some monks who came to pay their respects to him. Even when the 
Buddha directed Tissa to apologize to the monks, he refused to do so; 
whereupon the Buddha, remarking that this was not the first timfe 
Tissa had proved intractable, related the story of Devala and Narada 
(i. 3 a). This story, one of the most entertaining and interesting in 
the entire collection, begins with a quarrel between two monks, cul- 
minates in curse and counter-curse, and ends with the avoidance of 
the consequences of the curse by the guilty monk by means of a trick. 
In xviii. 4 a proud monk is driven away with sticks and stones and 
falls into a cesspool. In xviii. 8 we have the age-long story of the 
youth of humble origin, who, when away from home, finds fault with 
everything and everybody and boasts and brags about how much better 
things are at home. 

In i. 6 we read of the attempts of the former wives of two brothers 
who had become monks to recover their husbands. The two wives of 
the younger brother made their husband the butt of their ridicule, 
tore off his monastic robes, clothed him in white robes, and thus suc- 
ceeded in their purpose. Now while the younger brother had only two 
wives, the older brother had eight, and the monks therefore expressed 
the opinion that the older brother would immediately succumb to their 
wiles. The Buddha, however, assured them that they were wrong. 
And so they were. For when the eight wives of the older brother 
sought to strip him of his monastic robes, he put forth his supernatural 
power, flew up into the air, and thus escaped from their clutches. 

One of the most delightful stories in the entire collection is i. 9, 
the story of Nanda. Nanda became a monk in spite of himself, be- 
came dissatisfied with the Religious Life, and was won to complete 
obedience by the promise of a retinue of celestial nymphs, just as in a 
previous existence as a recalcitrant donkey he was won to obedience 
by the promise of a beautiful mate. Another good story is iii. 2, which 
turns on mind-reading. A monk is entertained in the house of a 
female lay disciple, who, as an Arahat, has the power of reading the 
thoughts of others. The monk has but to think of his needs, and his 
host immediately supplies them. But suddenly the thought occurs to 
him, " If I should entertain a single sinful thought, my host would 
doubtless seize me by the topknot and treat me like a criminal. I had 
best leave this house." And this he does, returning to the Buddha. 



40 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§6c- 

The Buddha, however, sends him back, admonishing him to control 
his thoughts. In no long time the monk attains Arahatship. One day, 
curious to know what may have been the relations between him and 
his host in previous existences, he calls up before his mind ninety-nine 
previous existences, and to his horror perceives that in each of these 
existences his host murdered him. " Oh, what a sinner she has been! " 
thinks the monk. " Call up one more existence," replies his host from 
her own chamber. The monk obeys. Calling up before his mind the 
hundredth existence, he perceives that in that existence she spared his 
life. Thereat he rejoices greatly and immediately passes into Nibbana. 
The St. Antony motif is effectively employed in vii. 10 and xxvi. 32. 

Common stupidity is, as might be expected, the theme of several 
ludicrous stories. In iv. 4 we are told that a hundred of our years are 
equal to a night and a day in the World of the Thirty-three Gods. 
One day Garland-wearer, a deity resident in the World of the Thirty- 
three, is informed that although men live only a hundred years, they 
are ever heedless and given to wicked ways. " Can it be possible that 
men are so stupid! " he exclaims. In i. 8 6 Upatissa and Kolita in- 
vite their former teacher San jay a to accompany them to the Buddha. 
" No," replies Sanjaya, " I am too old to become anybody's pupil. 
Let the wise men go to the wise monk Gotama, and let the stupid come 
to stupid me." In xi. 7 a a young farmer spends an entire year learn- 
ing a single stanza which he is to recite by way of petition to the king. 
The stanza closes with the words, " Pray give me another ox." When, 
however, the young farmer recites the stanza before the king, following 
his usual habit of saying the wrong thing instead of the right thing, 
he closes his petition as follows, " Pray take my other ox." 

In ii. 3 c we read of another young man who was so stupid that his 
teacher despaired of ever teaching him anything. But wishing to pro- 
vide him with some means of earning his living, his teacher taught him 
a charm, impressing upon him the importance of repeating it constantly, 
to avoid forgetting it. And this was the charm, '* You 're rubbing! 
you 're rubbing! why are you rubbing.'^ I know too!" By this charm, 
recited inadvertently, the young man frightens robbers out of his 
house, and the king is saved from death at the hands of his barber. 
Out of gratitude the king appoints the young man Prime Minister. 
In ii. 1. 4 we read of another charm which did not work so well. King 
Udena had an elephant-charm which had always worked admirably 
until one day he tried it on what turned out to be a wooden elephant, 
posted on his frontier to entrap him. The wooden elephant was fitted 



-§6c] The stories: their subject-matter and motifs 41 

with mechanical appliances worked from the inside by sixty men and 
could move very rapidly. Moreover, its belly contained also a quan- 
tity of elephant-dung, which the men inside dumped at regular inter- 
vals. King Udena suddenly found himself the captive of his rival. 
King Canda Pajjota, who, it appears, had resorted to this ruse to get 
possession of Udena's elephant-charm. Udena refused to teach him the 
charm unless he would pay him homage, but agreed to teach it to 
another. Canda Pajjota seated Udena on one side of a curtain and his 
own daughter on the other side, first telling Udena that his pupil was 
a hunchback and telling his daughter that her teacher was a leper. 
But Canda Pajjota lost both charm and daughter when Udena, in a 
fit of impatience, cried out, " Dunce of a hunchback! " and his pupil 
in indignation asked him to look and see for himself that she was no 
such thing. 

In iv. 12 we are told that a disciple of the Buddha, angered by 
the repeated assertions of a friend that the Jain ascetics knew all about 
the past, the present, and the future, and could tell unerringly just 
what was going to happen and just what was not going to happen, re- 
solved to teach those same ascetics a good lesson. So first preparing a 
trap for them, he invited them to his house. Suddenly they were all 
tipped over backwards and flung heels over head into a ditch filled 
with filth. In V. 13 a a cripple, seated behind a curtain, cures a house- 
priest of talkativeness by tossing pellets of goat's dung into his mouth. 
In iii. 4 a discontented young monk, who has resolved to return to the 
life of a layman, muses on ways and means of earning a living as he 
stands and fans his uncle. Roused to a high pitch of anger at the 
thought that his future wife may disobey him, he swings his fan vigor- 
ously and brings it down on the head of the older monk. The older 
monk, who happens to be his uncle, knowing the thoughts that are 
passing through the mind of his nephew, calmly remarks, " Nephew, 
you did n't succeed in hitting your wife; but why should an old monk 
suffer for it.^* " In viii. 10 a monk enters into a state of trance. A 
pack of thieves mistake him for the trunk of a tree, pile their sacks on 
his head and body, and lie down to sleep. In the morning they discover 
their mistake, beg the monk's pardon, and are converted. 

There is grim humor in the ruse by which, in ii. 1. 6, King Udena 
makes Magandiya confess her guilt to the crime of causing the death 
by fire of Samavatl. " Whoever did this deed must have loved me 
greatly." "It was I." "I am delighted! Send for your relatives, 
and I will reward you all properly." Thereupon many persons in no 



42 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§6c- 

way related to Magandiya come forward and claim relationship. 
When the king has them all in his power, he causes them to be tor- 
tured and put to death. Grim humor attaches also to the device by 
which, in xi. 2, the Buddha cures a monk of love. It appears that a 
monk once fell in love with the female lay disciple Sirima, a former 
courtezan. Sirima sickened and died. By order of the Buddha the 
corpse was exposed for four days and then offered to the highest bidder. 
No one would take her, even as a gift. " See," said the Buddha, " this 
woman used to bring a thousand pieces of money a night; but now 
there is no one who will take her, even as a gift." The monk was cured 
of love. 

Many amusing stories are told about Sakka, the king of the gods. 
In xxvi. 23 Sakka, disguised as an old Brahman, finds himself an un- 
welcome guest in the house of another Brahman. " Put him out! '* 
cries the Brahman's wife. The Brahman tries to, but Sakka refuses 
to stir from where he sits. Then the Brahman's wife suggests, " You 
take hold of one arm and I '11 take hold of the other." The Brahman 
and his wife manage to drag him out of the house. But as soon as they 
turn around, they see Sakka sitting just where he sat before, waving 
his hands back and forth! In xvii. 1 c four deities quarrel over the 
possession of a celestial nymph and refer the decision to Sakka. The 
moment Sakka looks upon the nymph he desires her for himself. So 
he says to the four deities, " What manner of thoughts have arisen 
within you since you saw this nymph.'* " The first replies that his 
thoughts have been as restless as a battle-drum; the second, that his 
thoughts have run wild like a mountain torrent; the third, that 
his eyes have popped out like the eyes of a crab; the fourth, that his 
thoughts have been as restless as the banner on a shrine. Says Sakka, 
** Friends, I see that your thoughts are all on fire. My decision is 
that I will take her for myself." 

§ 6 d. Animal stories. The elephant appears more frequently in 
the stories of this collection than any other animal. Perhaps the best 
elephant-story in the book is i. 5 b, in which are related at length the 
ministrations of the noble elephant Parileyyaka to the Buddha during 
the residence of the latter in Protected Forest. A monkey attempts 
to imitate the elephant, but comes to grief. When the Buddha takes 
leave of the elephant, the elephant dies of a broken heart, just as does 
the dog in ii. 1. 2 and the horse Kanthaka in the Nidanakatha. In 
i. 7 a a noble elephant, instead of crushing a hunter, rebukes him. 
Trained elephants appear in ii. 1. 1, ii. 7 b, and xiii. 10. In vi. 1 a 



-§6e] The stories: their subject-matter and motifs 43 

we read of an elephant who presented his son to some carpenters to 
show his gratitude to them for removing a thorn from his foot. In 
xxiii. 3 a the homesick elephant Dhanapala will not eat for love of 
his mother. In xxv. 5 a we read of the elephant Damsel-face, who 
behaved very well with the well-behaved, but very badly with the 
ill-behaved. In xxiii. 6 we read of a warrior-elephant who stuck 
fast in the mud. His keeper arrayed himself as for battle and caused 
the battle-drum to be beaten. The moment the warrior-elephant 
heard the battle-call he made a tremendous effort and pulled himself 
out of the mud. In xiii. 10 a rogue elephant, holding a parasol in his 
trunk, is led up to the monk Angulimala. Now Angulimala, before his 
conversion, was a notorious brigand and murderer. When, therefore, 
the rogue elephant is led up to the former brigand, he is immediately 
cowed. He thrusts his tail between his legs, drops both his ears, 
closes his eyes, and stands motionless. " What a way for a rogue 
elephant to behave! " remarks the king. In ii. lb an elephant re- 
fuses to trample the virtuous. Similarly in ii. 1. 2 a bull and draft- 
oxen refuse to trample the child Ghosaka, and a she-goat gives him 
suck. In ii. 1. 1 and viii. 12 birds mistake human beings for pieces 
of meat and carry them off. Perhaps the most entertaining animal 
stories in the collection are i. 9 c, the story of the recalcitrant donkey; 
xii. 2 a, the story of the otters and the jackal; and xxvi. 11 a, the 
^tory of the ascetic and the lizard. The wail of a louse is the theme 
of xviii. 3. 

§ 6 e. Legends of the Saints. Especially noteworthy among the 
many legends of heroic sanctity found in the collection are the fol- 
lowing: iv. 8, Visakha; viii. 12, Patacara; viii. 13 6, Kisa Gotami; 
xiii. 6, Angulimala; and xiii. 7, The Weaver's Daughter. Visakha, 
a young woman of remarkable beauty, profound wisdom, and noble 
character, daughter of the wealthy Dhanaiijaya and a disciple of the 
Buddha, is married to Punnavaddhana, son of the wealthy Migara, 
an adherent of the Jains. The story turns in a measure on the inter- 
pretation by Visakha of Ten Riddling Injunctions given her by her 
father within the hearing of her father-in-law. Visakha's whole life 
is devoted to good works, and she lives to be a hundred and twenty 
years old. Patacara, daughter of a wealthy merchant, runs away from 
home with her lover and in the course of time gives birth to two chil- 
dren. Her husband is bitten to death by a snake, one of her children 
is carried off by a hawk and the other swept away by a river, and her 
mother and father and brother perish in a whirlwind. Driven mad by 



44 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§6e- 

her sufferings, she is restored to sanity by the Buddha and attains 
Arahatship. Kisa Gotami, daughter of a poverty-stricken house, 
loses her child by death and asks the Buddha for medicine wherewith 
to cure him. The Buddha tells her to obtain a pinch of mustard-seed 
in some house wherein no one has ever died. By degrees it dawns upon 
her that she has undertaken a futile task. When she returns to the 
Buddha and tells him that her quest has been in vain, the Buddha 
comforts her, admonishing her that death is common to all living 
beings. She too attains Arahatship. Angulimala, a notorious brigand 
and murderer, was converted by the Buddha and became a model 
disciple. The Weaver's Daughter meditated on death for three years, 
answered correctly Four Riddling Questions asked her by the Buddha, 
and died on the same day. 

§ 6 f . Stories of seven-year-old novices. One of the finest groups 
of stories in the collection is a group of six stories relating to seven-year- 
old novices. In v. 15 we read of a seven-year-old novice who acquired 
four names: Tissa, Food-giver, ' Blanket-giver, and Forest-dweller. 
Tissa won all hearts, received gifts in profusion, and walked with the 
Buddha. In vi. 5 we read of a novice named Wiseman and in x. 11 6 
of a novice named Happy, these names being given to them by reason 
of the fact that, from the day they were born, wisdom and happiness 
prevailed in their respective households. The two stories are closely 
similar and turn on the motif of the Practice of Meditation. The 
story of Spearman, viii. 9, a story of unusual interest for a variety of 
reasons, tells of the miraculous birth and miraculous preservation from 
death of another seven-year-old novice. In xxv. 12 c we read of the 
adventures of the novice Flower with a dragon. The story of the Four 
Novices, xxvi. 23, is one of the most amusing stories in the collection. 

§ 6 g. Stories of good and evil spirits. Stories of benevolent and 
kindly tree-spirits, who, however, sometimes show resentment to the 
monks for intruding into their forest solitudes, are the following: i. 1, 
ii. 1. 6, iii. 6, vii. 9, xvii. 2, xix. 3. Allusions to the offering of human 
sacrifice to spirits of forest and mountain are contained in v. 1 6, 
viii. 3, and viii. 9 a. Man-eating ogres and ogresses appear in i. 4 
(cf. xxi. 2) and x. 8 a. Instances of demoniacal possession are xi. 1, 
XV. 2, xxiii. 5, and xxvi. 21. The last two are plain cases of epileptic 
seizure. Stories of ghosts are the following: v. 12, v. 13, x. 6, xx. 6, 
xxii. 2. 



-§7a] Dhammapada Commentary: its literary relations 45 

§ 7. Literary relations of the Dhammapada Commentary 

§ 7 a. Relation to the Four Agamas. The Dhammapada Commen- 
tary derives only a few stories from the Digha, Majjhima, and An- 
guttara Nikayas. The story of the visit of Subhadda to the Buddha 
on his deathbed (xviii. 12) is derived from the Maha-Parinibbana 
Sutta of the Digha (16. 23-30), and the story of the entertainment of 
the Buddha by Bodhi-rajakumara (xii. 1) is derived either from the 
Sutta of the same name in the Majjhima (85) or from the Vinaya 
(Culla Vagga, v. 21). From the Anguttara are derived the following 
stories: iii. 1, Meghiya; iv. 9, Anandathera-panha (almost word for 
word); vii. 6, Sariputta; and (through the medium of Jataka 40) the 
first page of ix. 4, Anathapindika. 

From the Sarhyutta are derived seventeen stories, fifteen of them 
almost word for word. Brief outlines of Sarayutta stories are: xv. 2, 
Mara, and xxii. 2, Atthisarakhalikapetadayo. Verbally identical with 
the Sarayutta, or nearly so, are the following: Introduction to ii. 7, 
Mahalipanha; iv. 11, Godhika; Introduction to v. 12, Ahipeta; In- 
troduction to V. 13, Satthikutapeta; Introduction to x. 6, Ajagara- 
peta; xv. 6, Pasenadi Kosala; Introduction to xx. 6, Sukarapeta; 
xxi. 6, Vajjiputtaka; xxiii. 3, Parijinnabrahmanaputta; xxiii. 5, 
Sanu samanera; xxiii. 8, Mara; xxiv. 11, Aputtaka setthi; xxv. 11, 
Vakkali; xxvi. 16, Akkosaka; and xxvi. 40, Devahita. Five of these 
stories are stories about petas and are taken from the Lakkhana 
Sarayutta. It is possible that this group of stories forms the con- 
necting link between the Lakkhana Sarayutta and the prose stories 
of the Petavatthu Commentary. 

Synoptical Table A 

A star means that the correspondence is close 

Samyutta Nikaya Dhammapada Commentary 

i. 4. 3. 7, last stanza *iii. 22V»-^^ = iv. 81*"^ 

iii. 1. 9. 2-3: i. 75-76 *ii. 7^"" 

iii. 2. 3: i. 81-82 *xv. 6: iii. 264-267 

*xxiii. 4: iv. 15-17 (brief) 

iii. 2. 10: i. 91-92 *xxiv. 11: iv. 76-79 

iv. 2. 8: i. 113-114 *xv. 2: iii. 257-259 

iv. 2. 10: i. 116-117 *xxiii. 8: iv. 31-33 

iv. 3. 3: i. 120-122 *iv. 11: i. 431-433 

vi. 1. 10: i. 149-153 iv. 91^ (reference) 

vii. 1. 1: i. 160-161 *xxvi. 16: iv. 161^63 



46 Introduction to stories of Dhamma'pada Commentary [§7a- 
Samyutta Nikaya Dhammapada Commentary 

vii. 2. 3: i. 174-175 *xxvi. 40: iv. 233 

vii. 2. 4: i. 175-177 *xxiii. 3: iv. 7-13 

viii. 12, last stanza *iv. 127**-i9 

ix. 9: i. 201-202 *xxi. 6: iii. 460-462 

X. 5: i. 208-209 *xxiii. 5: iv. 18-25 

xi. 2. 3: i. 230-231 *ii. 7 a: i. 263i3-265i5 

XV : ii. 178-193 *ii. 32i«6 (reference) 

xix: ii. 254-262 *v. 12: ii. 64 

*v. 13: ii. 6820-698 
*x. 6: iii. 60"-61" 
*xx. 6: iii. 410^1-41 1^^ 
*xxii. 2: iii. 479 
xxii. 84: iii. 106-109 i. Sl^^^^ (reference) 

xxii. 87: iii. 119-124 *xxv. 11: iv. 117-119 

§ 7 b. Relation to the Vinaya. From the Vinaya are derived the 
following seventeen stories of the Dhammapada Commentary: i. 5, 
Kosambaka bhikkhu; the story of Sariputta and Moggallana in i. 8; 
the story of Rahula in i. 9; i. 12, Devadatta; v. 14, Citta and Su- 
dhamma; vi. 2, Assajipunabbasuka; vi. 3, Channa; vi. 8, Disorderly 
monks; vii. 3, Monk stores food; ix. 2, Seyyasaka; x. 1, Chabbaggiya; 
X. 2, Chabbaggiya; xii. 1, Bodhi-rajakumara; xii. 7, Devadatta; the 
story of Pindola in xiv. 2; xvii. 2, Monk and tree-spirit; xvii. 8, Chab- 
baggiya; and xviii. 10, Mendaka the Magician. The story of the 
monks' quarrel in i. 5 is almost word for word the same as Jataka 428, 
which in turn is derived from the Vinaya; the account of the Buddha's 
sojourn in the forest in the same story is derived immediately from 
the Vinaya. The story of Rahula in i. 9 is almost word for word the 
same as the corresponding story in the Nidanakatha, which in turn 
is derived from the Vinaya. 



Synoptical Table B 
Maha Vagga, Vinaya Dhammapada Commentary 

i. 6. 7-9: i. 8 xxiv. 9: iv. 71-72 

i. 14: i. 23-24 " ii. 32"-i2 (reference) 

i. 23-24.4: i. 392*-43^ i. 8 6: i. 88"-962i 

i. 54. 1-2, 4-5: i. 828-l^ 82'°-836 i. 116"-118i (through 

Jataka, i. 91'7-92i8) 

V. 6: i. 1889-1898 xvii. 8: iii. 330 

V. 8. 1: i. 1901-" iii. 4511^^2 (quotation) 

V. 34: i. 240*^245'^ xviii. 10: iii. 363-375 

vi. 23. 1-9: i. 216-218 L 41 li"'" 

viii. 1 : i. 268-281 ii. 164« (reference) 



-§7c] Dhammapada Commentary: its literary relations 47 



Maha Vagga, Vinaya 

viii. 15: i. 290-294 
X. 1-5: i. 337-357 

CuUa Vagga, Vinaya 

i. 13: ii. 9'^~13'^ 

i. 18: ii. IS^a-lS^" 

V. 8: ii. 110-112 

V. 21: ii. 127-129 

vi. 11: ii. 166-167 

vii. 1-4: ii. 180-203 

vii. 2. 5, stanza 

vii. 3. 17: ii. 198^^-^^ 

xi. 1. 12-16: ii. 2909-292^' 

Parajika, Vinaya 

i. 1-4: iii. 1-11 
iv. 1: iii. 87-91 

Samghadisesa, Vinaya 

i. 1: iii. 110-112 

Pacittiya, Vinaya 

xi. 1: iv. 34 
xxxiv. 1: iv. 78-79 
xxxviii. 1 : iv. 86-87 
Ixxiv. 1: iv. 145-146 
Ixxv. 1: iv. 146-147 



Dhammapada Commentary 

i. 4082 

i. 5: i. 53-65 (pp. 53-56 

through Jataka, iii. 486-587) 



vi. 2: ii. 108-109 
V. 14: ii. 74-83 
iii. 19912-20322 
xii. 1 6: iii. 136-137 
X. 1: iii. 48-49 
i. 12: i. 133-150 
iii. 15622-23 
xii. 7: iii. 154 
vi. 3: ii. 110-112 



vi. 8: ii. 153-155 
xxii. 3: iii. 480-481 



ix. 2: iii. 5 



xvii. 2: iii. 299-302 
ii. 1491° (reference) 
vii. 3: ii. 170-173 
x. 1 : iii. 48-49 
X. 2: iii. 49-50 



§ 7 c. Relation to the Udana. The Udana is the source of twelve 
stories of the Dhammapada Commentary and contains parallels to 
three more. Two stories, i. 9, Nanda, and xxvi. 31, Sivali, are almost 
word for word the same as the Udana. In three stories, ii. 1. 6, Sama- 
vatl, iv. 10, Maha Kassapa, and v. 7, Suppabuddha kutthi, the Udana 
is referred to by name and the prose of the Udana is quoted. The fol- 
lowing six stories are free versions of Udana stories: iii. 8, Nanda 
gopala; viii. 2, Bahiya Daruciriya; xvi. 3, Visakha; xxiv. 1, Kapila- 
maccha; xxv. 7, Sona Kotikanna; and xxvi. 25, Pilindavaccha. 
The story of Sundari, xxii. 1, is almost word for word the same as the 
Introduction to Jataka 285, which in turn is derived from the Udana. 
Parallel to stories of the Udana are the story of Buddha and the ele- 
phant in i. 5, derived from the Vinaya (Maha Vagga, x. 4. 6-7) ; the 
story of Devadatta's schism in i. 12, also derived from the Vinaya 
(Culla Vagga, vii. 3. 17); and the story of Meghiya, iii. 1, derived from 



48 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§7c- 

the Anguttara. About one third of the Udana is embodied in the 
Dhammapada Commentary. 



Synoptical Table C 



Udana 

i. 10: 6-9 

Bahiya Daruciriya 

ii. 8: 15-18 

Suppavasa 

iii. 2: 21-24 

Nanda 

iii. 3: 24-27 

Yasoja 

iii. 6: 28-29 

Pilindavaccha 

iii. 7: 29-30 

Maha Kassapa 

iv. 1 : 34-37 

Meghiya 

iv. 3: 38-39 

gopalaka 

iv. 5: 41-42 

PalUeyyaka 

iv. 8: 43-45 

Sundari 

v. 3: 48-50 

Suppabuddha kutthi 

V. 6: 57-59 

Sona Kotikanna 

V. 8: 60-61 

Devadatta 

vii. 10: 79 

Samavati 

viii. 8: 91-92 

Visakha 



Dhammapada Commentary 

viii. 2: ii. 20^217 

xxvi. 31 : iv. 192-194 

Sivali 

i. 9: i. 115-125 

xxiv. 1 : iv. 37-46 
Kapilamaccha 
xxvi. 25: iv. 181-182 

iv. 10: i. 423-430 

iii. 1: i. 287-289 

iii. 8: i. 322-325 
Nanda gopala 
(i. 5) : i. 561^5916 
Parileyyaka 
xxii. 1: iii. 474-478 

V. 7: ii. 33-37 

XXV. 7: iv. 101-112 

(i. 12): i. 141-142 

(ii. 1. 6): i. 221-222 

xvi. 3: iii. 278-279 



§ 7 d. Relation to the Works of Buddhaghosa. So little of Buddha- 
ghosa's work has been published that no more than a brief sketch of 
the relation of the Dhammapada Commentary to his writings is here 
possible. The principal works of Buddhaghosa are the Visuddhi- 
Magga and the Commentaries on the Digha, Majjhima, Samyutta, 
and Anguttara Nikayas. The approximate date of the Visuddhi- 
Magga is 410 a.d. The rest of his works are later, for they presuppose 
the existence of the Visuddhi-Magga and frequently refer to it. 



-§7d] Dhammapada Commentary: its literary relations 49 

The Dhammapada Commentary is demonstrably later than the 
works of Buddhaghosa, for much the same reason that the Commen- 
taries on the four greater Nikayas are later than the Visuddhi-Magga. 
Nothing is more certain than that the Jataka Book is earlier than the 
Dhammapada Commentary. The Dhammapada Commentary refers 
frequently to the Jataka and contains from forty to fifty stories de- 
rived from it, nearly one half of them being verbally identical with 
Jataka stories. If, therefore, references occur in the Jataka Book to 
the Commentaries of Buddhaghosa, the priority of the latter both to 
the Jataka Book and to the Dhammapada Commentary is clearly 
established. The Jataka Book refers at least twice to Commentaries 
of Buddhaghosa: at i. 131^^"^^ to Anguttara Commentary and at 
V. 38^"^ to Sarhyutta Commentary. 

Moreover, there is evidence in the Dhammapada Commentary it- 
self of the existence of Buddhaghosa's Commentaries. The story of 
Sanu the novice, xxiii. 5: iv. 18-25, is almost word for word the same 
as the story of Sanu in the Commentary on Sarhyutta x. 5 (see Dham- 
mapada Commentary, iv. ^55, note 1). At iv. 91'*"* Dhammapada 
Commentary refers to the Kokalika Sutta and to the Commentary 
thereon; that is to say, either to Samyutta vi. 1. 10 and Commentary 
or to Sutta-Nipata iii. 10 and Commentary. The Dhammapada Com- 
mentary makes such extensive use of Sarhyutta material, taking over 
more than a dozen stories of the Samyutta word for word, that the 
reference is probably to the Samyutta and to the Samyutta Commen- 
tary. The balance of probability in favor of the Samyutta is still 
further increased by the fact that the form of the name given as the 
title of the Sutta is Kokalika in the Dhammapada Commentary and 
in the Samyutta, but Kokaliya in the Sutta-Nipata. 



Synoptical Table D 1 

The Commentaries on the Dhammapada, Theri-Gatha, and An- 
guttara have the following stories in common: 

Dhammapada Therl-Gatha Anguttara 

Commentary Commentary Commentary 

1 KundalakesI viii. 3: ii. 217-227 xlvi. 9»-102 JRAS., 1893, pp. 771-785 

2 Patacara viii. 12: ii. 260-270 xlvii. 108-112 " " " 552-560 

3 Kisa Gotami viii. 13: ii. 270-275 kiii. 174-176 " " " 791-796 

4 Nanda xi. 5: iii. 113-119 xli. 80-86 " " " 763-766 

5 Khema xxiv. 5: iv. 57-59 Iii. 126-128 " " "527-532 

6 Dhammadinna xxvi. 38: iv. 229-231 xii. 15-16 " " " 560-566 



50 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§7d- 

A comparison of the text of the Theri-Gatha Commentary with the 
text of the Dhammapada Commentary and of the Anguttara Cgmmen- 
tary reveals the fact that in the case of Stories 1, 3, 5, and 6 the Theri- 
Gatha Commentary follows the Anguttara Commentary, frequently 
word for word; but that in the case of Stories 2 and 4 the compiler of 
the Theri-Gatha Commentary uses both the Anguttara Commentary 
and the Dhammapada Commentary as authorities. 

In Story 2, Patacara, Th. 2. cm. 108^-109* follows A. cm. almost 
word for word; but Th. 2. cm. 109^-1 12^^ is almost word for word the 
same as Dh. cm. ii. 262^^-27011. In Story 4, Nanda, Th. 2. cm. 80^^- 
SV^ follows A. cm. almost word for word; but Th. 2. cm. 81l^-82^ 
although much briefer than Dh. cm., is almost word for word the same 
as Dh. cm. iii. 113^-118". Nanda is called Janapada-Kalyani Rupa- 
Nanda in Dh. cm. and A. cm,, and Sundarl Nanda Janapada-Kalyani 
in Th. 2. cm. Abhirupa-Nanda (Th. 2'. cm. xix) is her double, just as 
Vasitthl (Th. 2. cm. li) is Patacara's double. Story 5, Khema, is 
similar to Story 4, Nanda. 

A comparison of the text of the Dhammapada Commentary with 
the text of the Anguttara Commentary tends to show that in every 
ease the Dhammapada Commentary version and the Anguttara 
Commentary version are derived independently of each other from a 
common original. The Story of the Past, a prominent feature of the 
Anguttara Commentary versions, is entirely lacking in the Dhamma- 
pada Commentary version of Stories 1, 3, 4, and 5, and is only briefly 
referred to in the same version of Stories 2 and 6. 

Synoptical Table D 2 

Dhammapada Commentary Title Anguttara Commentary * 

i. 8bg: i. 96-97, 104-112 Aggasavaka i. 2-3: 91-100 

i. 8c: i. 97-99 AflM-Kondaflna i. 1: 84-88 

i. 9: i. 115-125 Nanda iv. 8: 190-192 

ii. 1: i. 169-191, 199-231 Udena (Parts 2, 3, 5, 6) vii. 3-4: 249-264 

ii. 3: i. 239-255 CuUa Panthaka ii. 1-2: 129-135 

iv. 8: i. 384-420 Visakha vii. 2: 241-249 

V. 14: ii. 74-83 Citta-Sudhamma vi. 3: 229-231 

vi. 4: ii. 112-127 Maha Kappina iv. 9: 192-196 

vii. 9: ii. 188-200 (cf. xxvi. 31) Khadiravaniya Revata ii. 5: 137-141 

viii. 2: ii. 209-217 Bahiya Daruciriya iii. 8: 170-173 

viii. 3: ii. 217-227 Kundalakesi v. 9: 220-224 

* The references are to the native subdivisions of the Commentary on the Etad- 
agga Vagga and to the pages of the Colombo edition of 1904. 



-§7d] Dhammapada Commentary: its literary relations 



51 



Dhammapada Commentary 



Title 



Anguttara Commentary 



viii. 12: ii. 260-270 




Patacara 




V. 4: 213-215 


viii. 13: ii. 270-275 




Kisa GotamI 




V. 12: 225-227 


ix. 1: iii. 1-5 




CuUa Ekasataka 




i. 4: 102-104 


xi. 5: iii. 113-119 




Nanda (Janapada 


-Kalyani) 


V. 6: 217-218 


xiv. 2: iii. 199-230 




Yamaka Patihariya 


Introd.: 77-79 


xvii. 3: iii. 302-314 




Uttara 




vii. 5: 264-268 


xvii. 5: iii. 317-321 




Nakulapita 




vi. 10: 238-239 


xxiv. 5 : iv. 57-59 




Khema 




v. 2: 205-207 


XXV. 7: iv. 101-112 




Sona-Katiyani 




vii. 8: 270-271 


XXV. 11: iv. 117-119 




Vakkali 




ii. 10: 152-153 


xxvi. 25: iv. 181-182 




Pilindavaccha 




iii. 7: 169-170 


xxvi. 31 : iv. 192-194 (cf. vii. 


.9) 


Sivali 




ii. 9: 149-152 


xxvi. 37: iv. 226-228 




Vangisa 




iii. 4: 163-165 


xxvi. 38: iv. 229-231 




Dhammadiima 




v. 5: 215-217 



In every case the two versions appear to be derived independently 
of each other from a common original. It is perhaps worthy of note 
that the first three and last three pages of the Cullasetthi Jataka are 
verbally identical with Buddhaghosa's version of the story of Culla 
Panthaka.^ 

Versions of all of the six stories which go to make up the story of 
Udena, ii. 1: i. 161-231, occur in the writings of Buddhaghosa. For 
Buddhaghosa's version of Parts 2, 3, 5, and 6, see his Anguttara 
Commentary, pages 249-264, as noted above. The story of the birth 
and youthful career of Udena (cf. ii. 1. 1) and the story of the winning 
of Vasuladatta by Udena (cf. ii. 1. 4) are related briefly in the Com- 
mentary on Majjhima 85 (see F. Lacote, Essai sur Gunddhya et la 
Brhatkathd, p. 251). The story of the compassing of Samavati's death 
by Magandiya (cf . ii. 1. 6: i. 210-231) is related briefly in Visuddhi- 
Magga, xii. 169 ff. Visuddhi-Magga, xii. 149 ff., contains a brief out- 
line of the story of the death of Moggallana (cf. x. 7: iii. 65-71). 
These stories of Buddhaghosa and the parallel stories in the Dhamma- 
pada Commentary are undoubtedly drawn from a common source. 

The Khuddaka-Patha Commentary is the only work of Buddha- 
ghosa which has been published in its entirety. Buddhaghosa is un- 
doubtedly the author of it, for it closely resembles, in language and 



^ Compare Jataka 4 (i. 114-123) with Anguttara Commentary 129-135. That the 
redactor of the Jataka Book has borrowed most of his story from the Anguttara 
Commentary is plain from the reference to the Anguttara Commentary at Jataka 
i. 131^'. The compiler of the Dhammapada Commentary has in turn borrowed the 
story of Culla Panthaka (ii. S ah) from the Jataka Book, and while still retaining the 
Jataka stanza, has substituted an entirely different Story of the Past. 



52 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§7d- 

style, Buddhaghosa's better known writings and frequently quotes 
from the Visuddhi-Magga and from the principal Commentaries of 
Buddhaghosa. Three stories of the Dhammapada Commentary are 
derived from the Khuddaka-Patha Commentary. The story of Sari- 
putta and Moggallana, i. 100^^-1042\ is substantially the same story 
as Khuddaka-Patha Commentary, 202^-206^. The story of the monks 
and the tree-spirits, iii. 6: i. 313-316, is a much abbreviated version 
of Khuddaka-Patha Commentary, 232^-2352^, 25125-25220. The story 
of the Buddha's visit to Vesali, xxi. 1 : iii. 436-439, is almost word for 
word the same as Khuddaka-Patha Commentary, 16022-165^°, 19622- 
201^. At 129^^21 Buddhaghosa refers to the stories of Sumana the 
gardener, Mallika, and others as instances of benefits received for ren- 
dering honor to whom honor is due, and at 1292^-1302^ he gives an out- 
line of the story of Sumana referred to. It is in all respects the same 
as Dhammapada Commentary, v. 9 : ii. 40-47, save only that the latter 
version lacks the cliche of the Buddha's smile. Here again Buddha- 
ghosa and the compiler of the Dhammapada Commentary have drawn 
from the same source. 

§ 7 e. Relation to the Jataka Book. The Dhammapada Commen- 
tary is more intimately related to the Jataka Book than to any other 
book, canonical or uncanonical, and derives a greater amount of mate- 
rial from the Jataka than from all other known sources combined. 
Over fifty stories of the Dhammapada Commentary, representing from 
one fifth to one quarter of its bulk, are either derivatives of Jataka 
stories or close parallels. In addition many other Jataka stories are 
referred to and many Jataka stanzas are quoted. For example, in 
i. 12, fourteen Jatakas are referred to and twelve stanzas are quoted. 

Verbally identical with Jataka stories, or nearly so, are the follow- 
ing: story of the monks' quarrel in i. 5; story of Rahula in i. 9; story 
of Culla Panthaka in ii. 3 (Story of the Past entirely different) ; story 
of Sakka and the parrot in ii. 9; iv. 3, Vidudabha; iv. 5, Macchariya- 
kosiya; ix. 4, Anathapindika (brief); x. 8, Bahubhandika; xiii. 9, 
Cinca; xv. 1, Natikalahavupasamana (brief); xvii. 5, Saketa brah- 
mana; xx. 8, Sambahula mahallaka; xxii. 1, Sundarl; xxiv. 4, Ban- 
dhanagara; xxv. 2, Hamsaghataka; and story of tortoise and geese in 
XXV. 3. Closely following the Jataka versions, but yet not word for 
word, are the following: v. 2, Kassapa's companion; story of the stone- 
thrower in V. 13; ix. 9 a, Physician, boys, and snake; xii. 4, Birth of 
Kumara Kassapa; xxvi. 32, Sundarasamudda. 

Free versions of Jataka stories are the following: i. 2, Matthakun- 



-§7c] Dhammapada Commentary: its literary relations 53 

dali; i. 7, Devadatta (more detailed); i. 12, Devadatta (very free); 
story of Magha in ii. 7; iii. 5, Cittahattha; iv. 3 a, Kesava; story of 
Hell-Pot in V. 1; vi. 7, Mother of Kana; vi. 8, Pack of vagabonds; 
vii. 9 c, Sivali's previous states of existence; x. 7, Death of Moggal- 
lana; xi. 1, Visakha's companions (very free); xi. 7, Laludayi; xii. 2, 
Upananda; xii. 3, Padhanikatissa (very free); xiv. 2, Twin Miracle 
(much longer and more detailed); xvi. 5, Anitthigandha; xviii. 5, 
Discontented monk; xviii. 8, Tissadahara; xx. 5, Padhanakammika; 
xxiv. 7, Culla Dhanuggaha; xxiv. 11, Aputtaka setthi; xxv. 1, Panca 
bhikkhu; xxv. 5, Vipakkhasevaka; xxvi. 11, Kuhaka brahmana; 
xxvi. 31, Sivali. Similar stories: i. 3 a, Devala and Narada, is similar 
to the story of Jatimanta and the Bodhisatta in Jataka 497; v. 1 c. 
Woman and ewe, is similar to Jataka 18; viii. 3, Kundalakesi, is 
similar to Jataka 419, Sulasa; xvi. 2, Loss of a son, is similar to Intro- 
duction to Jataka 354. 

Synoptical Table E 

The letter I signifies that the correspondence is with the Introduction to the 
Jataka (Story of the Present) ; the letter J that the correspondence is with the Jataka 
proper (Story of the Past). An asterisk (*) signifies that the correspondence is close. 
References are to the number of the story and to the volume and page of the text. 

Jataka Book Dhammapada Commentary 

4:1.114-120 (I*) ii. 3: i. 239-250 
Cullaka Setthi Culla Panthaka 

6:1.126-133 (I* J*) x. 8 : iii. 72-78 
Devadhamma Bahubhandika 

12: i. 145-149 (I*) xii. 4: iii. 144-149 
Nigrodhamiga Kumara Kassapa 

14: i. 156-159 (I*) xxvi. 32: iv. 194-199 
Vataniiga Sundarasamudda 

18: i. 166-168 (J) v. 1 c: ii. 17i^l8i< 

Matakabhatta Woman and ewe 

26:1.185-188 (I) xxv. 5: iv. 95-97 

Mahilamukha Vipakkhasevaka 

31: i. 198-206 (J) ii. 7: i. 263-281 
Kulavaka Magha 

40:1.226-231 ' (I) ix. 4: iii. 9-15 

Khadirangara Anathapindika 

65: i. 301-302 (I J) xviii. 5: iii. 348-351 
Anabhirati Ailnatara kulaputta 

68: i. 308-310 (I* J*) xvii. 5: iii. 317-321 
Saketa Saketa 

70: 1. 311-315 (I J) ill. 5: i. 305-313 
Kuddala Cittahattha 



54 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§7( 



Jataka Book 

71: i. 316-319 

Varana 

78: i. 345-349 

nilsa 

80: i. 355-356 

Bhimasena 

96: i. 393-401 

Telapatta 

100: i. 407-408 

Asatarupa 

107: i. 418-420 
Salittaka 



119: i. 435 
Akalaravi 

137: i. 477-480 

Babbu 

138: i. 480-482 

Godha 

146:1.497-499 

Kaka 

182: ii. 92-94 

Samgamavacara 

183: ii. 95-97 

Valodaka 

201 : ii. 139-141 
Bandhanagara 
211: ii. 164-167 
Somadatta 

215: ii. 175-178 
Kacchapa 
221: ii. 196-199 
Kasava 
263: ii. 328 
Culla Palobhana 

276: ii. 365-381 
Kurudhamma 
285: ii. 415-417 
Manisukara 

314: iii. 43-48 
Story of the Hell-Pot 
321: iii. 71-74 
Kutidusaka 



Dhammapada Commentary 



(I) 


XX. 5: iii. 407-410 




Padhanakammika Tissa 


(I*) 


iv. 5: i. 366-376 




Macchariya Kosiya 


(I) 


xviii. 8: iii. 357-359 




Tissa dahara 


(J) 


XXV. 1 : iv. 83-86 




Paiica bhikkhu 


(I) 


xxvi. 31:iv. 192-194 




Sivali 


(J) 


vii. 9 c: ii. 196-200 


(J*) 


V. 13 a: ii. 68-73 




Satthikutapeta 


(I*) 


XXV. 2: iv. 86-88 




Hamsaghataka 


(D 


xii. 3: iii. 142-144 




Padhanika Tissa 


(I J) 


vi. 7: ii. 149-153 




Kana-mata 


(J) 


xxvi. 11: iv. 152-156 




Kuhaka 


(IJ*) 


XX. 8: iii. 421-425 




Sambahula mahallaka 


(I*) 


i. 9:i. 115-122 




Narida 


(I J) 


vi. 8: ii. 153-157 




Pack of vagabonds 


(I* J*; 


) xxiv. 4: iv. 53-57 




Bandhanagara 


(IJ) 


xi. 7: iii. 123-127 




Laludayi 


(IJ*) 


XXV. 3: iv. 91-93 




Kokalika 


(I J) 


i. 7: i. 77-83 




Devadatta 


(J) 


xvi. 5: iii. 281-284 




AnJtthigandha 


(I* J) 


XXV. 2: iv. 86-90 




Hamsaghataka 


(I*) 


xxii. 1 : iii. 474-478 




Sundari 


(I J) 


v. 1 : ii. 1-19 



(I* J) v. 2: ii. 19-25 
Kassapa's pupil 



-§7el Dhammapada Commentary: its literary relations 55 



Jataka Book 


Dhammapada Commentary 


325: iii. 84-86 


(J) 


xxvi. 11: iv. 152-156 


Godha 




Kuhaka brahmana 


328: iii. 93-94 


(J) 


xvi. 5: iii. 281-284 


Ananusociya 




Anitthigandha 


346: iii. 142-145 


(J) 


iv. 3 a: i. 342-345 


Kesava 




Kesava 


354: iii. 162-168 


(I) 


xvi. 2: iii. 276-278 


Uraga 




Annatara kutumbika 


367: iii. 202-203 


(J*) 


ix. 9 a: iii. 33 


Saliya 




Physician, boys, and snake 


374: iii. 219-224 


(IJ) 


xxiv. 7: iv. 65-69 


Culla Dhanuggaha 




Culla Dhanuggaha 


390: iii. 299-303 


(I J) 


xxiv. 11: iv. 76-80 


Maj'^haka 




Aputtaka setthi 


400: iii. 332-336 


(I J) 


xii. 2: iii. 139-142 


Dabbhapuppha 




Upananda 


419: iii. 435-438 


(J) 


viii. 3:ii. 217-227 


Sulasa 




KundalakesI 


428: iii. 486-490 


(I*) 


i. 5: i. 53-66 


Quarrel of the monks at Kosambi 






429: iii. 491^94 


(J*) 


ii. 9: i. 283-286 


Mahasuka 




NigamavasI Tissa 


449: iv. 59-62 


(IJ) 


i. 2: i. 25-37 


Mattakundali 




Matthakundali 


454: iv. 79-87 


(J) 


i. 2: i. 25-37 


Ghata 




Matthakundali 


455: iv. 90-95 


(J) 


xxiii. 3: iv. 13-15 


Matiposaka 




Verbal gloss 


465: iv. 144-153 


(I*) 


iv. 3: i. 337-362 


Bhaddasala 




Vidudabha 


466: iv. 158-159 


a) 


i. 12: i. 133-150 


Samuddavanija 




Devadatta 


472: iv. 187-196 


(I* J) 


xiii. 9: iii. 178-183 


Maha Paduma 




Cifica 


483: iv. 263-267 


(D 


xiv. 2: iii. 199-230 


Sarabhamiga 




Yamaka Patihariya 


497: iv. 388-389 


(J) 


i. 3 a: i. 39-43 


Jatimanta 




Devala 


507: iv. 469 


(J) 


xvi. 5: iii. 281-284 


Maha Palobhana 




Anitthigandha 


512: v. 11 


(D 


xi. l:iii. 100-103 


Kumbha 




Drunken women 


522: V. 125-127 


a) 


X. 7: iii. 65-71 


Sarabhanga 




Maha Moggallana 


531 : V. 282-285 


(J) 


xvi. 5 : iii. 281-284 


Kusa 




Anitthigandha 



5& Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§7e- 
Jataka Book Dhammapada Commentary 

533: V. 333-337 (I) i. 12: i. 133-150 

CuUa hamsa Devadatta 

536: V. 412-416 (I*) xv. 1 : iii. 254-257 
Kunala Natikalahavupasamana 

536: V. 43328-4348 (J*) xxvi. 32: iv. 194-199 
Kunala Sundarasamudda 

542: vi. 129-131 (I) i. 12: i. 133-150 

Khandahala Devadatta 

§ 7 f . Relation to the Commentaries of Dhammapala. Internal 
evidence proves conclusively that the Commentaries of Dhammapala 
on the Thera-Gatha, Theri-Gatha, Vimanavatthu, and Petavatthu 
are later than the Dhammapada Commentary. Dhammapala refers 
to the Dhammapada Commentary four times in Thera-Gatha Com- 
mentary (cxc, ccv, ccxxx, ccxl) and once in Vimanavatthu Commen- 
tary (iii. 8). Thera-Gatha Commentary refers (xxvi) to Therl-Gatha 
Commentary as yet to come, and Vimanavatthu Commentary is re- 
ferred to four times by Petavatthu Commentary.^ Internal evidence 
further proves that between twenty-five and thirty stories contained 
in these four Commentaries are derived from the Dhammapada 
Commentary. 

From the Dhammapada Commentary are derived most of the 
following stories of the Thera-Gatha Commentary: Ix, Sivali; Ixii, 
Vajjiputta; Ixvi, Meghiya; Ixviii, Ekudaniya; Ixix, Channa; xcv, 
Cakkhupala; cxxxvi, Maha Kala; cxxxix, Nanda; clxxviii, Yasoja; 
cxc, Jambuka; ccv, Vakkali; ccxv, Sappadasa; ccxix, Sumana; ccxxiv, 
Sundarasamudda; ccxxxv, Maha Kappina; ccxl, Sarakicca; cclix, 
Sariputta; and cclxiv, Vangisa. Dhammapala names the Dhamma- 
pada Commentary as the source of stories cxc and ccxl, and Anguttara 
Commentary and Dhammapada Commentary as the sources of story 
ccv. 

In two stories of the Therl-Gatha Commentary, xli and xlvii, 
Dhammapala employs both Anguttara Commentary and Dhamma- 
pada Commentary as authorities. In the case of story xli, Nanda, 
the first fourteen lines are almost word for word the same as Anguttara 
Commentary; the rest of the story, although briefer than the original, 
is almost word for word the same as Dhammapada Commentary. 
Similarly in the story of Patacara, xlvii, the first page is almost word 
for word the same as Anguttara Commentary; but the last four pages 

' See Petavatthu Commentary, 7^^^, 92"-", 2446-i«, 257'^". 



-§8] Dhammapada Commentary: its date, about 4-50 A. D. 57 

are almost word for word the same as Dhammapada Commentary. 
For further details, see Introduction, § 7 rf. 

Four stories of the Vimanavatthu Commentary are derived from the 
Dhammapada Commentary, vii. 9, Matthakundali, is a free version of 
Dhammapada Commentary, i. 2. Verbally identical with Dhamma- 
pada Commentary are stories i. 15, Uttara (= Dh. cm. xvii. S); 
i. 16, Sirima (= Dh. cm. xi. 2); and v. 2, Revati (= Dh. cm. xvi. 9, 
Nandiya). Three stories of the Petavatthu Commentary are derived 
from the Dhammapada Commentary: i. 3, Putimukha (from Dh. cm. 
XX. 6); iv. 15 (cf. iv. 1), story of the Hell-Pot (from Dh. cm. v. 1); 
iv. 16, Satthikuta (from Dh. cm. v. 13). 



Synoptical Table F 



Psalms of the Brethren 



Dhammapada Commentary 



xxxix. 43-44 


Tissa 


i. 3: i. 37-45 


xliv. 4&-49 


Sanu 


xxiii. 5: iv. 18-25 


Ix. 60-62 


Sivali 


xxvi. 31: iv. 192-194 
(vii. 9 6): ii. 192-195 


bdi. 63 


Vajjiputta 


xxi. 6: iii. 460-463 


kvi. 67 


Meghiya 


iii. 1 : i. 287-289 


kviii. 68-69 


Ekudaniya 


xix. 3: iii. 384-386 


xcv. 88-89 


Cakkhupala 


i. 1 : i. 3-24 


cxxxvi. 123-124 


Maha Kala 


i. 6: i. 66-77 


cxxxix. 126-127 


Nanda 


i. 9:i. 115-125 


clxxviii. 166-167 


Yasoja 


xxiv. 1 : iv. 37-46 


cxc. 179-180 


Jambuka 


V. 11: ii. 52-63 


ccv. 197-200 


Vakkali 


xxv. 11: iv. 117-119 


ccxv. 214-215 


Sappadasa 


viii. 11: ii. 256-260 


ccxix. 220-221 


Sumana 


(xxv. 12) : iv. 129-137 


ccxxiv. 228-230 


Sundarasamudda 


xxvi. 32: iv. 194-198 


ccxxx. 241 refers to 




iv. 12: i. 434-447 


cexxxv. 254-257 


Maha Kappiua 


vi. 4:ii. 112-127 


ccxl. 266-268 


Sarhkicca 


viii, 9: ii. 240-253 


cclix. 340-342 


Sariputta 


(i. 8) : i. 88-96 


cclxiv. 395-397 


Vanglsa 


xxvi. 37: iv. 226-228 



§ 8. Date of the Dhammapada Commentary: 450 a.d. 

The facts brought out in the preceding discussion of the relation 
of the Dhammapada Commentary to the works of Buddhaghosa, to 
the Jataka Book, and to the Commentaries of Dhammapala make it 
abundantly clear that the works with which we are chiefly concerned 
must be arranged in the following chronological order: 



58 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§8- 

1. Buddhaghosa's Visuddhi-Magga and Commentaries, 410- 
432 A.D.i 

2. Jataka Book (Jataka-Atthavannana) ; redactor unknown.^ 

3. Dhammapada Commentary (Dhammapada-Atthakatha) ; com- 
piler unknown.^ 

4. Dhammapala's Commentaries, latter part of fifth century a.d.^ 
An apparently naive remark by the compiler of the Dhammapada 

Commentary in the story of the Hell-Pot, v. 1, gives us a possible 
clew to the date of the work. At the end of the story of the four adul- 
terers, ii. 11^^"^^, he remarks, " Although the four wicked wights have 
been sinking in the Pot ever since King Pasenadi Kosala heard those 
sounds, not even yet (ajjdpi) have a thousand years elapsed." 

If Pasenadi is the king so often referred to as warring with Ajata- 
sattu, we may set 500 B.C. as his approximate date.^ The remark 
referred to would then be good evidence that the Dhammapada Com- 
mentary was composed between 450 and 500 a.d. Moreover, the par- 
ticle api would seem to indicate that at the time of writing the period 
of a thousand years was not quite up, but nearly so. 

The evidence furnished by this remark agrees perfectly with the 
evidence we find in the Dhammapada Commentary regarding the 
chronological order of Buddhaghosa's works, Jataka Book, Dhamma- 
pada Commentary, and Dhammapala's Commentaries. It is certain 
that the Dhammapada Commentary is later than the Jataka Book, 
and that the Jataka Book is later than the works of Buddhaghosa. 
Now the date of Buddhaghosa's Hterary activity is approximately 
410-432 A.D. Therefore we shall probably be not far from right if we 
fix 440 A.D. as the approximate date of the redaction of the Jataka 
Book and 450 a.d. as the approximate date of the Dhammapada 
Commentary. 

* For Buddhaghosa's life and work, see Rhys Davids's articles in the Encyclo- 
jxiedia Britannica and in Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. Cf. also 
Wintemitz, History of Buddhist Literature, pp. 152-154, 157-161, 164-166. 

^ On the Jataka Book, see Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, chap, xi, pp. 189-209; 
Wintemitz, History of Buddhist Literature, pp. 89-127, 153-154; and Wintemitz's 
article in Hastings, Encyclopaedia. 

^ On the Dhammapada Commentary, cf . "Wintemitz, History of Buddhist Literature, 
pp. 153-157, and his article on the Jataka, in Hastings, Encyclopaedia. 

* On Dhammapala, see Wintemitz, History of Buddhist Literature, pp. 161-164, 
and Rhys Davids's article in Hastings, Encyclopaedia. According to Rhys Davids, 
Dhammapala flourished in the last quarter of the fifth century A.D. 

' On Pasenadi, see Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, pp. 8-11. Vincent A. Smith, 
Early History of India, 2d ed., p. 44, puts Ajatasattu at 500-475 B.C. 



-§9] Dhammapada Commentary is of unknown authorship 59 



§ 9. Authorship of the Dhammapada Commentary 

The authorship of the Dhammapada Commentary is ascribed in the 
colophon to Buddhaghosa. This colophon, however, is the only evi- 
dence the four volumes of text contain that such is the case. The 
question is one which affects not only the Dhammapada Commentary, 
but the Jataka Commentary as well. Indeed, so closely does the 
Dhammapada Commentary resemble the Jataka Commentary, both 
in form and content, and so dependent on the Jataka Commentary is 
the Dhammapada Commentary, that the problem of their authorship 
is a single problem, not to be divided, and best approached from the 
side of the Jataka. 

Buddhaghosa expressly names himself as the author of the Visuddhi- 
Magga, the Commentary on the Vinaya Pitaka, and the Commentaries 
on the four greater Nikayas in the introductory stanzas to these works. 
In the Gandhavamsa, a Burmese work of the seventeenth century a.d., 
he is also named as the author of the Commentaries onthePatimokkhas, 
Abhidhamma Pitaka, Khuddaka-Patha, Dhammapada, Sutta-Nipata, 
Jataka, and Apadana.^ In the second part of chapter xxxvii of the 
Mahavamsa, which contains an account of Buddhaghosa's literary 
career, the yet more sweeping statement is made that Buddhaghosa 
" translated all the Cingalese Commentaries into Pali." ^ 

Rhys Davids, in discussing the authorship of the Jataka Commen- 
tary, argues that this statement by no means implies that Buddha- 
ghosa is the author of all the Commentaries we possess.^ In his 
opinion Buddhaghosa would certainly not have begun work on the 
Jataka Commentary before completing Visuddhi-Magga, Vinaya 
Commentary, and the Commentaries on the four greater Nikayas. 
Yet this is practically what we are asked to believe. Otherwise we 
should expect to find in the introductory stanzas to the Jataka Com- 
mentary at least a reference to Buddhaghosa's principal works. As 
a matter of fact, while three elders are there mentioned with respect, 
there are no references to Buddhaghosa's teachers in India and Cey- 
lon and no allusions to his conversion, journey from India, or previous 
writings. The argument from silence seems to Rhys Davids to be 
convincing. 

1 Gandhavamsa, JPTS., 1886, p. 59. 

2 Text in Andersen's Pali Reader, part 1, pp. 113-114 (114"-28). 
^ See Rhys Davids, Bvddhist Birth Stories, pp. Ixiii-lxvi. 



60 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§9- 

Fausboll, referring to the statement of the Gandhavamsa that 
Buddhaghosa is the author of the Jataka Commentary, argues that 
while it is certain that Buddhaghosa is the author of the Visuddhi- 
Magga, the Commentary on the Vinaya, and the Commentaries on 
the four greater Nikayas, it is incredible that he should have written 
six others equally long, especially if he remained only three years in 
Ceylon and was not only a translator, but also an independent writer.^ 

The arguments of Rhys Davids and Fausboll are convincing and 
apply also to the Dhammapada Commentary.^ Indeed, on account of 
the dependent relation of the Dhammapada Commentary to the 
Jataka Commentary, they apply with even greater force to the Dham- 
mapada Commentary. But the strongest argument of all is this: 
The Jataka Commentary and the Dhammapada Commentary differ 
so widely in language and style from the genuine works of Buddha- 
ghosa as to make it in the highest degree improbable that he is the 
author of either of them.^ The cumulative force of these three argu- 
ments is irresistible. 

Buddhaghosa is not the author of the Jataka Commentary or of 
the Dhammapada Commentary. Their authors are unknown. 

§ 10. References to Dhammapada Commentary stories in 
Milindapafiha iv and vi 

It has long been the opinion of scholars that, while Books ii and iii 
of the Milindapafiha date from the beginning of the Christian era. 
Books iv-vii and parts of Book i are as late as the fifth century a.d.^ 
Books iv-vii are full of references to the Jataka Book, and Books iv 
and vi refer to many stories and legends found only in fifth century 
Commentaries. The publication of the Dhammapada Commentary 

* See the Postscriptum to Fausboll's edition of the Jataka, vol. vii. pp. viii-ix. 
^ Cf. Wintemitz, History of Buddhist Literature, pp. 152-154. 

^ In Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, vol. ii. p. 886, col. 2, Rhys 
Davids says of the Jataka Commentary and the Dhammapada Commentary: "In both 
style and matter each of these books differs from the other, and from such portions of 
the works of Buddhaghosa as are accessible to us." The last half of this statement is 
quite correct, but the first half is utterly wrong. The Jataka Book and the Dhammapada 
Commentary are so similar in language and style and subject-matter as to arouse the 
suspicion that they are by the same author. There is no absolute proof that this is 
the case, however. See Introduction, § 7 e. For a comparative study of the Dham- 
mapada Commentary and Ahguttara Commentary versions of a typical story, see E. 
Hardy, Story of the Merchant Ghosaka, in JRAS., 1898, pp. 741-794. 

* See Schrader, Fragen des Konigs Menandros, Einleitung, pp. vii-xxxv; also 
Wintemitz, History of Buddhist Literature, pp. 139-146. 



-§10] References to stories of this work in Milindapanha 



61 



enables us to identify a considerable number of these stories. Book 
iv, at p. 115 of the text and p. 291, refers to a group of seven stories, 
and Book vi, at p. 350, to a group of ten additional stories, all of which 
(with a single exception) occur either in the Dhammapada Commen- 
tary or in the Jataka Book or in the Vimanavatthu Commentary. 
Most of these stories, however, occur in the Dhammapada Commentary 
and nowhere else. 

The Dhammapada Commentary stories referred to are as follows: 
i. 2, Matthakundali; (possibly) iv. 8, Suppiya; iv. 12, Garahadinna; 
V. 3, Ananda setthi; v. 9, Sumana malakara; v. 11, Jambuka ajlvaka; 
ix. 1, Ekasataka brahmana; xi. 2, Sirima nagarasobhini; xiii. 7, 
Pesakaradhita; xvii. 3, Punna bhataka; xvii. 5, Saketa-brahmanassa 
alahanadassana; xvii. 6, Punna dasi; xxi. 8, Cula Subhadda. In addi- 
tion Milindapanha at 349^^ 350^, and 350^ refers respectively to the 
three principal legends of the Dhammapada Commentary version of 
the Twin Miracle, xiv. 2; namely, 1. Twin Miracle, 2. Preaching of the 
Abhidhamma in the World of the Thirty- three, 3. Descent to earth of 
the Buddha and attendant deities. Most of the references at Milin- 
dapanha 349 appear to be to the Commentary on the Sutta-Nipata. 

These references are of little assistance in fixing the date of tlie 
Dhammapada Commentary, but tend to prove that Books iv-vii of 
Milindapanha are as late as the beginning of the sixth century a.d. 





Synoptical Table G 




I Milindapanha 


Dhammapada 


Other Com- Milindapanha 


11512-16 


Commentary 


mentaries 




1* Sumana malakara 


V. 9: ii. 40-47 




29|19-21 


2* Ekasataka brahmana 


ix. 1: iii. 1-5 


A. cm. 102-104 


29121-23 


3* Punna bhataka 


xvii. 3: iiL 302-307 




2919-11 


4 Mallika devi 




Ja. cm. iii. 405-406 


29117-19 


5 Gopalamata 






29111-14 


6 Suppiya upasika 


(iv. 8):i. 411«-i" 


(Cf. Vin. 1. 217i''-218i'') 


29114-17 


7* Punna dasi 


xvii. 6: iii. 321-325 


Ja. cm. ii. 286-287 




II Milindapanha 








350^-1^ 








1* Sumana malakara 


V. 9: ii. 40-47 (47'8) 


See Story 1 above 




2* Garahadinna 


iv. 12: i. 434-447 (446") 






3* Ananda setthi 


V. 3: ii. 25-29 (29') 






4* Jambuka ajivaka 


V. 11: ii. 52-63 (63") 






5 Manduka devaputta 




Vv. cm. 216-219 (2192«) 




6* Mattakundali " 


i. 2: i. 25-37 (37^) 


Vv. cm. 322-330 (33033); 
Ja. cm. iv. 59-62 





62 Introduction to stories of Dhammayada Commentary [§io- 

II Milindapanha Dhammapada Other Com- 

35Q9-15 Commentary mentaries 

7 Sulasa nagarasobhini Ja. cm. iii. 435-439 

8* Sirima " xi. 2: iii. 104-109 (109") 

9* Pesakaradhlta xiii. 7: iii. 170-176 (175i») 

10* Cu|a Subhadda xxi. 8: iii. 465^71 (4716) 

11* Saketa-brahmanassa xvii. 5: iii. 317-321 (3201") j^ cm. i. 308-310 

alahanadassana 

§ 11. Parallels to Story-Cycle of Udena * 

The story of Udena is the longest, and in many respects the most 
interesting, of all the stories of the Dhammapada Commentary. It 
is in reality a cycle of six stories of. diverse origin and character, deal- 
ing with the fortunes of Udena, his principal treasurer, and his three 
queen-consorts. Only two of the stories are mainly concerned with 
the fortunes of Udena, the rest being introduced by simple and "familiar 
literary devices. The story of the fortunes of Udena in the Dhamma- 
pada Commentary stands in much the same relation to the embedded 
stories as the frame-story of Udena in the Kathasaritsagara to the 
rest of the collection. Parallels to one or more of the stories are found 
in Buddhaghosa's Visuddhi-Magga, Buddhaghosa's Commentaries on 
the Majjhima and Anguttara, the Divyavadana, Kathasaritsagara, 
and other Sanskrit collections, and the Tibetan Kandjur. The kernel 
of two of the stories is derived from the Sutta-Nipata and the Udana. 

Story ii. 1. 1: i. 161-169 relates the circumstances of the birth and 
youthful career of Udena. The same story is related briefly by Buddha- 
ghosa in his Commentary on Majjhima 85 (see Lacote, p. 251). A 
somewhat different version of the story is found in chapter ix of the 
Kathasaritsagara. 

Story ii. 1. 2: i. 169-187 relates the seven marvelous escapes from 
death of the luck-child Ghosaka, and is preceded by an account of 
Ghosaka's previous kamma. The same story is related in detail by 
Buddhaghosa in his Commentary on the Etadagga Sutta of the 
Anguttara.^ For a comparative study of the two versions, see E. 
Hardy, JRAS., 1898, pp. 741-794. Parallels occur in many 
Sanskrit collections, and in fact in almost all of the literatures of the 
world. For a comparative study of the Oriental versions, see J. Schick, 
Das Gliickskind mit dem Todeshrief? 

^ See F. Lacdte, Essai sur Gunddhya et la Brhatkathd, pp. 247-273. 
' See footnote number 1 on next page. 

' J. Schick, Corpus Hamleticum (Berlin, 1912) : 1 Abteilung, 1 Band, Das Gliicks- 
kind mit dem Todesbri^, Orientalische Fassungen. 



-§12] Parallels to Story-Cycle of Udena 63 

Story ii. 1. 3: i. 187-191 relates the circumstances under which 
Samavati became one of the queen-consorts of Udena.^ Similar in all 
respects is the story of Pradyota and ^anta (Samavati) in the Kand- 
jur. See A. Schiefner, Mahdkdtjdjana und Konig Tskanda-Pradjota: ^ 
V, Epidemic zu Udshdshajinl (pp. 14-17). 

Story ii. 1. 4: i. 191-199 relates the capture of Udena by Canda- 
Pajjota and the winning of Vasuladatta by Udena. Close parallels 
to this story occur in the Kathasaritsagara and Kandjur. See Katha- 
saritsagara, frame-story of chapters xi-xiv; and Schiefner, Mahdkat- 
jdjana, xv, Udaj ana's Gefangennehmung und Rettung (pp. 35-40). 
The same story is related very briefly by Buddhaghosa in his Commen- 
tary on Majjhima 85 (see Lacote, p. 251). 

Story ii. 1. 5 : i. 199-203 (cf. xiv. 1 : iii. 193-199) relates the Buddha's 
rejection of Magandiya's offer of his daughter in marriage. The source 
of this story is Sutta-Nipata, iv. 9, or some derivative thereof.^ A close 
parallel is Divyavadana, xxxvi, part 1, pp. 515-529. For a Sanskrit 
parallel from Eastern Turkestan, see A. F. R. Hoernle, JRAS., 1916, 
pp. 709 ff. 

Story ii.' 1. 6: i. 208-231 relates the compassing of Samavatl's 
death by Magandiya, and is preceded by the stories of the three treas- 
m'ers, the monks and the tree-spirit, and Khujjuttara.^ A close parallel 
to this story is Divyavadana, xxxvi, part 2, pp. 529-544. Brief out- 
lines of the story occur in Buddhaghosa's Visuddhi-Magga, xii. 
169_ ff., and in Schiefner, Lehensheschreihung Qdkjamuni's (from the 
Kandjur), p. 47 (247). The burning of Samavati and her five hundred 
women is the subject of Udana, vii. 10. The Dhammapada Com- 
mentary quotes the Udana-passage word for word. 

§ 12. Parallels to Dhammapada Commentary stories in Sanskrit 
(Divyavadana) and Tibetan (Kandjur) 

The Divyavadana contains four parallels to stories of the Dhamma- 
pada Commentary. The story of Mendhaka, chaps, ix-x, pp. 123-135, 
is a close parallel to the Dhammapada Commentary story of Mendaka, 
xviii. 10: iii. 363-376. The story of the Twin Miracle in Divyavadana, 
chap, xii, pp. 143-166, is closer to Jataka 483: iv. 263-267, than to 

^ Buddhaghosa's version of Parts 2, 3, 5, and 6 of the Udena-cycle is found in 
his Anguttara Commentary at pages 249-264, as stated above at p. 50, Synoptical 
Table D 2. — Postscript footnote. 

^ Memoires de Vacademie imperiale des sciences de St.-Petersbourg, viie serie, tome 
xxii. No. 7. 



64 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§12- 

Dhammapada Commentary, xiv. 2: iii. 199-230. The Divyavadana 
version of the story of Culla Panthaka, Cudapaksha, chap, xxxv, 
pp. 483-515, differs materially from the version common to Jataka 
4: i. 114-120, and Dhammapada Commentary, ii. 3: i. 239-250. The 
Story of the Past is the story of the mouse-merchant, as in the Jataka. 
Part 1 of the story of Makandika, chap, xxxvi, pp. 515-529, is a close 
parallel to the story of Magandiya in Dhammapada Commentary, 
xiv. 1: iii. 193-199 (cf. ii. 1. 5: i. 199-203). Part 2 of the story of 
Makandika, chap, xxxvi, pp. 529-544, is a close parallel to the story 
of the compassing of Samavati's death by Magandiya in Dhamma- 
pada Commentary, ii. 1. 6: i. 213-231. In Divyavadana, Magandiya's 
motive is jealousy; in Dhammapada Commentary, it is hatred of the 
Buddha. On Divyavadana, xxxvi, see Lacote, pp. 258-262. 

The Tibetan Kandjur exhibits parallels to stories of our collection. 
Thus three stories in Schiefner, Mahdkdtjdjana und Konig Tshanda- 
Pradjota, are strikingly similar to stories of the Dhammapada Com- 
mentary. Stories v and xv, corresponding respectively to Dhamma- 
pada Commentary, ii. 1. 3 and ii. 1. 4, have been discussed above. 
The third story, xix, Pradjota's Traume und deren Deutung durch 
Mahakatjajana, relates Maha Katyayana's interpretation of twelve 
words heard and eight visions seen in a dream by King Pradyota. 
It is a striking parallel to the story in Dhammapada Commentary, 
v. 1: ii. 1-12, and Jataka 314: iii. 43-48, of the Buddha's interpre- 
tation of four syllables heard by King Pasenadi; to the story in 
Jataka 418: iii. 428-434, of the Bodhisatta's interpretation of eight 
sounds heard by the King of Benares; and to the Buddha's interpre- 
tation of the sixteen dreams of King Pasenadi in Jataka 77: i. 334- 
346. Stories xix-xx form a striking parallel to the story of the king's 
dreams in Bidpai's Fables. See Keith-Falconer, Introduction, pp. 
xxxi-xxxiii, and translation, pp. 219-247; also KnatchbuU's transla- 
tion, pp. 314-338. 

§ 13. Hardy's Legends of Gotama Buddha (Cingalese) 

Chapter vii of Robert Spence Hardy's Manual of Buddhism con- 
tains fifty-two legends of Gotama Buddha, representing in bulk 
nearly one half of the work. Most of these legends are derived from 
a Cingalese translation of the Jataka Book or from medieval Cinga- 
lese collections of legends and stories. From a comparison of the con- 
tents of the Dhammapada Commentary with the contents of this 



-§14] Parallels in Sanskrit, Tibetan, Cingalese, Burmese 



65 



chapter it appears likely that nearly one half of Hardy's Legends are 
indirectly, through the medium of medieval Cingalese collections, de- 
rived from the Dhammapada Commentary. The correspondences are 
indicated in the following table: 

Hardy's Legends of 
Gotama Buddha 

Number Page (Ed. 2) 



10 

[11 
12 
17 
18 
19 
21 
29 
30 
31 
32 
35 
36 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
45 
49 
50 



200-203 

203-210 

210-212 

226-234 

234-242 

242-244] 

257-261 

284-286 

287-290 

290-292 

292-294 

296-297 

297-298 

300-308 

308-313 

313-314 

314-317 

317-320 

326-333 

337-340 

349-351 

351-352* 



Subject 


Dhammapaxia 




Commentary 




Book 


Story 


Sariputta and Moggallana 




86 


Buddha visits Kapila 




9 a] 


Nanda and Rahula 




9a-b 


Visakha 


iv 


8 


Anuruddha-Sumana 


XXV 


12 


Buddha visits Vesali 


xxi 


1 


Angulimala 


xiii 


6 


Cinca 


xiii 


9 


Mind-reading 


iii 


2 


Bandhula 


iv 


3 


Vasabhakhattiya 


iv 


3 


Chattapani 


iv 


7 


Asadisadana 


xiii 


10 


Yamakapatihariya 


xiv 


2a-d 


<< 


xiv 


2e-/ 


Aggidatta 


xiv 


6 


Sounds of evil omen 


V 


1 


Sakiyas and Koliyas 


XV 


1 


Devadatta and Ajatasattu 


i 


12 


Death of Devadatta 


i 


12 


Death of Moggallana 


X 


7 


Suppabuddha 


ix 


12 



§ 14. Rogers's Buddhaghosha's Parables (Burmese) 

In 1870 Captain T. Rogers published under the title Buddhaghosha's 
Parables an English translation of twenty-nine Burmese legends and 
stories. Of these, jfifteen are late Burmese versions of legends and sto- 
ries of the Dhammapada Commentary. The correspondences are 
indicated in the following table: 

Buddhaghosha's Parables 

Chapter Page 



1-11 
12-17 
18-24 
25-31 
32-60 



Title 


Dhammapada 




Commentary 




Book Story 


Cakkhupala 


i 1 


Maddhakundali 


i 2 


Tissa Thera * 


i 3 


CuUa Kala and Maha Kala 


i 6 


Udena * 


ii 1 



^ The story of Ghosaka is omitted and the story of Samavati is compressed into 
one para,graph. 



Chapter Page 


6 


61-71 


7 


iiz-n 


8 


78-86 


9 


87-97 


10 


98-102 


11 


103-104 


12 


105-106 


13 


107-119 


15 


125-135 


24 


160-163 



Commentary 


Book 


Story 


ii 


3 


V 


15 


vi 


4 


vi 


5 


viii 


13 


xxi 


2 


xxiv 


2 


XXV 


12 


V 


1 


xxiv 


10 



66 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§14- 
Buddhaghosha's Parables Title 



CuUa Panthaka 

Probationer Tissa 

Maha Kappina Thera 

Probationer Pandita 

Kisa GotamI 

Girl and Hen 

Hen and Little Sow 

CuUa Sumana 

Hell-Pot 

Dhammadana 

§ 15. Previous translations of Dhammapada and of parts of 

Commentary 

The Dhammapada has been translated many times. The following 
list contains the titles and names of authors of all the complete trans- 
lations: Pali into Latin: Dhammapadam, V. Fausboll, Hauniae, 1855. 
Revision of the same: The Dhammapada, V. Fausboll, London, 1900. 
Pali into English: Buddha^ s Dhammapada, or Path of Virtue, F. Max 
Miiller (in the Introduction to Captain T. Rogers, Buddhaghosha's 
Parables), London, 1870. Also the following revisions of the same: 
The Dhammapada, F. Max Miiller, forming part 1 of volume x of the 
Sacred Books of the East, 1st ed., Oxford, 1881; 2d ed., Oxford, 1898. 
Dhammapada, James Gray, 1st ed., Rangoon, 1881; 2d ed., Calcutta, 
1887. Hymns of the Faith (Dhammapada), Albert J. Edmunds, 
Chicago, 1902. The Buddha's Way of Virtue, in the Wisdom of the East 
Series, W. D. C. Wagiswara and K. J. Saunders, New York, 1912. 
Pali into German: Das Dhammapadam, A. Weber, in ZDMG., 14. 
1860; reprinted in Indische Streifen, 1. 1868. Worte der Wahrheit, 
L. V. Schroeder, Leipzig, 1892. Der Wahrheitspfad, K. E. Neumann, 
Leipzig, 1893. Pali into French: Le Dhammapada, Fernand H<i, 
Paris, 1878. Pali into Italian: II Dhammapada, P. E. Pavolini, Mai- 
land, 1908. Sanskrit into Chinese into English: Texts from the Bud- 
dhist Canon, commonly known as Dhammapada, Samuel Beal, London, 
1878. Sanskrit into Tibetan into English: Uddnavarga, W. W. Rock- 
hill, London, 1883. 

Only a few of the stories of the Dhammapada Commentary have 
ever been translated. The first four stories are translated by C. Duroi- 
selle in volume ii of the review Buddhism, Rangoon, 1905-08. The 
first two stories are translated by Godefroy de Blonay and Louis de la 



-§16] Translations of Dhamma'pada, and from Commentary 67 

Vallee Poussin in the Revue de V Histoire des Religions, 26. 1892. Stories 
i. 5 and iv. 3 are translated by the same scholars in the same Revue, 
29. 1894. Warren, Buddhism in Translations, contains iv. 4 (pp. 264- 
267), i-v. 8 (pp. 451-481), iv. 11 (pp. 380-383), x. 7 (pp. 221-226), xvii. 2 
(pp. 430-431), and xxv. 2 (pp. 432-433). A translation of the story of 
Ghosaka (ii. 1. 2, Story of the Present) by E. Hardy is given in JRAS., 
1898, pp. 741-794. For an analysis of the stories of Books i-iv, see 
my paper, Buddhaghosa's Dhammapada Commentary, in Proceedings 
of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 45, pp. 467-550. For 
translations of parallel stories in the Jdtaka Book, see the Cambridge 
translation into English, or J. Dutoit's translation into German. 
The German version is vastly superior to the English. 

§ 16. Editions of the text of the Dhammapada Commentary 

In 1855 extracts from the Commentary were published by V. Faus- 
boll in his edition of the Dhammapada. These extracts form the basis 
of the admirable translations by H. C. Warren in Buddhism in Trans- 
lations (see Introduction, § 15, paragraph 2). In 1906 the Pali Text 
Society began the publication of a complete edition of the text, under 
the editorship of H. C. Norman of Benares. The contents and date 
of publication of the several installments are as follows: Vol. i, part 1, 
containing Book i, 1906. Vol. i, part 2, containing Books ii-iv, 1909. 
Vol. ii, containing Books v-viii, 1911. Vol. iii, containing Books ix- 
xxii, 1912. Vol. iv, containing Books xxiii-xxvi, 1914. Vol. v. In- 
dexes, 1915. Much to the regret of all students of Pali literature, 
Professor Norman died on April 11, 1913, before the publication of the 
fourth and last volume of the text. The revision of the last three or 
four sheets of the text and the copying and revision of the Indexes was 
completed by a pupil of Norman's, Pandit Lakshman Shastri Tailang. 
There are two excellent native editions of the Commentary: a Bur- 
mese edition by U Yan, Rangoon, 1903, and a Cingalese edition by 
W. Dhammananda Maha Thera and M. Nanissara Thera, Colombo, 
1898-1908. The Pali Text Society edition of the Commentary con- 
tains so many errors, the result not only of careless proof-reading, but 
of failure to exercise good judgment and common sense in the choice 
of readings, that the translator has been obliged to rely mainly on the 
Burmese native edition. The readings of this edition are generally 
given (although not always correctly) in the footnotes of the London 
edition. 



68 Introduction to stories of Dhammapada Commentary [§ 17- 

§ 17. Brief list of books on the life and teachings of the Buddha 

Many books have been written about the Buddha, but not many 
good ones. Bibliography: Buddhism, a list of references in the New 
York Pubhc Library. Compiled by Ida A. Pratt, New York Public 
Library, 1916. On the life of the Buddha, see T. W. Rhys Davids's 
article Buddha in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed., and A. S. 
Geden's article Buddha in Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and 
Ethics. On the teachings of the Buddha, see Rhys Davids's article 
Buddhism in the Britannica. The best handbook of the life and teach- 
ings of the Buddha is R. Pischel, Leben und Lehre des Buddha, in the 
Series Av^ Natur und Geisteswelt, Band 109, 2 Auflage, Leipzig, 1910. 
The following books will also be found useful: T. W. Rhys Davids, 
Buddhism: its History and Literature, in American Lectures on the 
History of Religions, New York and London, 1904. Edmund Hardy, 
Der Buddhismus nach dlteren Pdli-Werken dargestellt, Miinster, 1890. 
Edmund Hardy's brief manual Buddha in the Sammlung Goschen, 
Leipzig, 1905. Hermann Oldenberg, Buddha: Sein Leben, seine 
Lehre, seine Gemeinde, 6 Auflage, Stuttgart und Berlin, 1914. Reginald 
S. Copleston, Buddhism, Primitive and Present, in Magadha and Cey- 
lon, 2d ed., London, 1908. H. Kern, Manual of Indian Buddhism, in 
the Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie, Strassburg, 1896. 

On Primitive Buddhism in its relation to other Indian religions, 
see G. F. Moore, History of Religions, vol. i, chap, ii, and H. Oldenberg, 
Die Indische Religion, in Die Religionen des Orients, Teil i, Abteilung 
iii. 1, of Die Kultur der Gegenwart. For a comprehensive sketch of 
Buddhism as a world-reUgion, see H. Hackmann, Buddhism as a Reli- 
gion, in Probsthain's Oriental Series, vol. ii, London, 1910. On the early 
history of Buddhism in India, see T. W. Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, 
in The Story of the Nations, London and New York ,1911. On the history 
of the Buddhist sects, see Rhys Davids's article Hlnaydna in Hastings, 
Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. On the Buddhist literature, see 
M. Winternitz, Die Buddhistische Litteratur, in Geschichte der Indischen 
Litteratur, Zweiter Band, Erste Halfte, Leipzig, 1913; also A. A. Mac- 
donell's article Literature (Buddhist) in Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Re- 
ligion and Ethics, and Rhys Davids's article Buddhism in the Britannica. 

Translations of Selections: H. C. Warren, Buddhism in Transla- 
tions, in Harvard Oriental Series, vol. iii, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
Sixth Issue, 1915; J. Dutoit, Das Leben des Buddha, Leipzig, 1906; 
K. SeidenstUcker, Pali- Buddhismus in Ubersetzungen, Breslau, 1911; 
M. Winternitz, Buddhismus, in A. Bertholet, Religionsgeschichtliches 



-§ 17] Books on Buddha's life and teachings 69 

Lesebuch, Tubingen, 1908. Complete Translations of Texts: Of the 
Vinaya, Pdtimokkha, Mahd Vagga, and Culla Vagga have been trans- 
lated by T. W. Rhys Davids and H. Oldenberg in Sacred Books of the 
East, vols, xiii, xvii, and xx. Of the Dlgha, Suttas 1-13 (vol. i) have 
been translated by K. E. Neumann, Die Reden Gotamo Buddhos aus 
der Idngeren Sammlung Dlghanikdyo des Pdli-Kanons, I Band, Miin- 
chen, 1907; Suttas 1-23 (vols, i-ii) by T. W. Rhys Davids, Dialogues 
of the Buddha, vols, i-ii (vols, ii-iii of the Sacred Books of the Buddhists) , 
London, 1899, 1910. The entire Majjhima has been translated by 
K. E. Neumann, Die Reden Gotamo Buddhos aus der mittleren Samm- 
lung Majjhimanikdyo des Pdli-Kanons, 3 Bde., Leipzig, 1896-1902; 
Suttas 1-50 have been translated into English by the Bhikkhu Sllacara, 
Discourses of Gotama the Buddha, vols, i-ii, London, 1912, 1913. Of 
the Ahguttara, Nipdtas 1-3 (vol. i) have been translated by E. R. J. 
Gooneratne, Galle, Ceylon, 1913. For translations of the Dhamma- 
pada, see Introduction, § 15. The Uddna has been translated by 
D. M. Strong, London, 1902. The Itivuttaka has been translated by 
J. H. Moore, Sayings of the Buddha, New York, 1908. The Sutta 
Nipdta has been translated by V. Fausboll, part 2 of volume x of the 
Sacred Books of the East, 1st ed., Oxford, 1881; 2d ed., Oxford, 1898; 
also by K. E. Neumann, Die Reden Gotamo Buddhos aus der Samm- 
lung der Bruchstiicke Suttanipdto des Pdli-Kanons, Leipzig, 1905, 2 
Auflage, 1911. The Thera-Gdthd and Theri-Gdthd have been trans- 
lated by K. E. Neumann, Die Lieder der Monche und Nonnen Gotamo 
Buddhos, Berlin, 1899; also, together with the greater part of the 
stories in prose from the Commentaries of Dhammapdla, by Mrs. C. A. 
F. Rhys Davids, Psalms of the Early Buddhists: i. Psalms of the 
Sisters {Theri-Gdthd Commentary), London, 1909; ii, Psalms of the 
Brethren {Thera-Gdthd Commentary), London, 1913. Of the Jdtdka 
Book there are two complete translations: the Cambridge translation 
into English and the far superior translation into German of J. Dutoit. 
The Niddnakathd has been translated by T. W. Rhys Davids, Bud- 
dhist Birth Stories, London, 1880. The Milindapanha has been trans- 
lated by T. W. Rhys Davids in Sacred Books of the East, vols, xxxv, 
xxxvi. — Addendtun. Dlghanikdya in Auswahl uhersetzt by R. Otto 
Franke, Gottingen, 1913. Suttas 1-5, 8, 9, 11, 13, 16, 21, 26, 27. 



SYNOPSES OF THE LEGENDS OF THE 
DHAMMAPADA COMMENTARY 

Book I. Pairs, Yamaka Vagga 

1. "If thine eye offend thee, pluck it out" [i. 1 = 1]. A householder of 
Savalthi makes a vow to a tree-spirit, whereby he becomes the father of two sons. 
Because the tree was protected (paHta) by him, he names his sons Maha Pala and Culla 
Fala. When the sons reach manhood, their parents set them up in households of their 
own. At this time the Buddha takes up his residence at Jetavana, and establishes 
the multitude in the Way to Heaven and the Way to Deliverance. The Noble Dis- 
ciples j)erform two duties daily: before breakfast, they give alms; after breakfast, 
bearing offerings, they go to Jetavana monastery to hear the Law. One day Maha 
Pala accompanies them to the monastery, and is so impressed by the Buddha's sermon 
that he decides to retire from the world and become a monk. Taking leave of his 
younger brother, he retires from the world and is admitted to the Order. 

After five years have passed, he comes to the Buddha and asks him how many 
are the Burdens of the Religious Life. On being told that there are two: the Burden 
of Study of the Scriptures, and the Burden of the Practice of Meditation, he chooses 
the latter as being better suited to his advanced years. The Buddha gives him a Sub- 
ject of Meditation, and accompanied by sixty monks, he retires to a distant village 
and enters upon residence for the season of the rains. The villagers obtain the privilege 
of entertaining them, and a physician offers them his services. Maha Pala, on learn- 
ing that the monks intend to avail themselves of all of the Four Postures (walking, 
standing, sitting, lying), takes a vow not to lie down. After encouraging each other 
to observe Heedfulness, the monks devote themselves to the Practice of Meditation. 

At the end of the first month, Maha Pala's eyes begin to trouble him. The 
physician treats him, but as he never lies down to rest, the treatment does him no good. 
However, he resolutely keeps his vow, and one night, at one and the same moment, 
loses his eyesight and attains Arahatship. At the end of the rainy season the monks 
attain Arahatship, and express a desire to see the Teacher. Maha Pala, knowing that 
there is a forest on the way haunted by evil spirits, and fearing that he may be a 
hindrance to them, sends them on ahead, directing them to ask his brother Culla Pala 
to send some one to lead him, and to greet the Buddha and the Eighty Chief Elders in 
his name. Culla Pala sends his nephew Palita. As Palita is leading his blind uncle 
through the forest, he hears the voice of a woman singing. Palita excuses himself, 
goes to her, and breaks his vow of chastity. Maha Pala dismisses him. Sakka king 
of gods sees Maha Pala's plight, disguises himself as a wayfarer, and leads the blind 
Elder to Savatthi. One night after a heavy rain, the blind Elder takes a walk in the 
cloister and tramples many insects to death. Visiting monks report the matter to 
the Buddha, who replies that as the Elder did not see the insects, he is innocent of 
offense. The monks then ask how it happened that the Elder, although predestined 
to Arahatship, lost the sight of his eyes. The Buddha relates the following 

1 a. Story of the Past: The wicked physician and the woman. A woman of 
Benares promises to become the slave of a physician if he will cure her of an affection 



72 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

of the eyes. The physician cures her; but the woman, repenting of her bargain, 
attempts to deceive him by telling him that her eyes are worse than ever. In revenge 
the physician gives her an (ointment that makes her blind. That physician was Maha 
Pala. 

2. Why cry for the moon? [i. 2 = 2]. A niggardly Brahman named Never-Gave 
has an only son, whom he dearly loves. Desiring to give his son a pair of ear-rings, 
but at the same time to avoid unnecessary expense, he beats out the gold himself and 
makes him a pair, wherefore the people call the boy Bumished-Ear-rings, Mattha- 
kundali. When the boy is sixteen years of age, he has an attack of jaundice. The 
mother wishes to have a physician called, but the father demurs at the thought of 
paying him his fee, inquires of various physicians what remedies they are accustomed 
to prescribe for such and such ailments, and prescribes for him himself. The boy 
grows steadily worse, and is soon at the point of death. Realizing this, and fearing 
that those who come to see his son may also see the wealth the house contains, the 
Brahman carries his son outside and lays him down on the terrace. 

The Exalted One, arising from a Trance of Great Compassion, and surveying the 
world with the Eye of a Buddha, beholds Matthakundali. Foreseeing that the sick 
youth, and through him, many others, will attain the Fruit of Conversion, the Buddha 
visits him. After making an Act of Faith in the Buddha, the youth dies and is reborn 
in the World of the Thirty-three. The father has the body of his son burned, and 
goes daily to the burning-ground and weeps and laments. Matthakundali, desiring 
to convert his father, resumes human form, goes to the burning-ground, and weeps 
and laments also. The Brahman asks the youth why he weeps. The youth replies, 
" I want the sun and the moon." The Brahman tells him that he is a simpleton. 
" But which of us is the bigger simpleton," asks the youth, " I, who weep for what 
exists, or you, who weep for what does not exist? " The youth then reveals his identity, 
and tells his father that he attained his present glory by making an Act of Faith in 
the Buddha. The Brahman is immediately converted. The Brahman invites the 
Buddha and his monks to take a meal with him. The Buddha accepts. The Brahman 
asks the Buddha whether it is possible to obtain rebirth in Heaven by a mere Act 
of Faith. The Buddha replies in the aflSrmative, and to convince the bystanders, 
summons Matthakundali, who appears in all his glory and confirms the Buddha's 
statement. 

3. Tissa the Fat [i. 3-4 = 3-4]. Tissa, a kinsman of the Buddha, lives on the 
food of the Buddhas, and grows to be fat and well-liking. One day he so far presumes 
on his kinship with the Buddha as to snub some monks who come to pay their respects. 
When the monks show their resentment of his treatment of them, he tells them who 
he is, and threatens to extirpate their whole race. The monks complain to the Buddha, 
who directs Tissa to apologize. This Tissa refuses to do. The monks remark that 
Tissa is obstinate and intractable, whereupon the Buddha tells them that it is not 
the first time Tissa has shown himself obstinate and intractable. So saying, he relates 
the following 

3 a. Story of the Past: Devala and Narada. Two ascetics, Devala and Narada, 
obtain lodging for the night in the same rest-house. After Narada has lain down, 
Devala, in order to start a quarrel by causing Narada to stumble over him in the 
dark, lies down in the doorway. Narada, having occasion to go out during the night, 
treads on Devala's matted locks. Devala then changes his position, turning com- 
pletely around and putting his head where his feet had been. When Narada returns, 
he treads on Devala's neck. Devala thereupon curses Narada, saying, " When the 
sun rises to-morrow, may your head split into seven pieces! " Narada then pronounces 
the following counter-curse, " When the sun rises to-morrow, may the head of the 
guilty man split into seven pieces!" But foreseeing that the curse will light up>on 



Synopses of stories of Book 1 73 

Devala, Narada takes pity on him, and by his sup>ematural power prevents the sun 
from rising. 

By reason of the darkness, the people are unable to pursue their wonted occupa- 
tions, and request the king to cause the sun to rise for them. The king, knowing that 
he has committed no sin, concludes that the darkness must have been caused by a 
quarrel of the monks. He learns the circumstances of the quarrel from Narada, who 
tells him that Devala can escape the consequences of the curse by begging his pardon. 
This Devala refuses to do. The king, by main force, compels Devala to do so. Narada 
forgives him, but tells the king that inasmuch as Devala did not beg his pardon of 
his own free will, the king must take Devala to a certain pond, put a lump of clay on 
top of his head, and make him stand in the water up to his neck. The king does so. 
Narada then tells Devala that he is about to put forth his magical power and cause 
the sun to rise; that the moment the sun rises, he must duck in the water, rise in a 
different place, and go his way. As soon as the sun's rays touch the lump of clay, it 
splits mto seven pieces, whereupon Devala ducks in the water, rises in a different 
place, and goes his way. Devala was the obstinate monk. 

4. *• Not hatred for hatred " [i. 5 = 5]. A barren wife, knowing that her 
rival wife, if she bears a child, will become sole mistress of the household, mixes a 
drug in her rival's food, and causes two successive abortions. On the third attempt, 
she kills both mother and child. Just before the mother dies, she utters the prayer 
that she may be reborn as an ogress, able to devour the children of her p>ersecutor. 
Thereafter, in three successive states of existence, the fruitful and the barren wife 
return hatred for hatred. 

The Fruitful Wife is reborn as a Cat. The Barren Wife is reborn as a Hen. The 
Cat eats the eggs of the Hen, who prays that in her next existence she may be able 
to devour the offspring of her enemy. 

The Barren Wife, at the end of her existence as a Hen, is reborn as a Leopardess. 
The Fruitful Wife, at the end of her existence as a Cat, is reborn as a Doe. Thrice 
the Doe brings forth young, and thrice the Leopardess devours the Doe's oflFspring. 
The Doe prays that in her next existence she may be able to devour the offspring of 
her enemy. 

The Fruitful Wife, at the end of her existence as a Doe, is reborn as an Ogress. 
The Barren Wife, at the end of her existence as a Leopardess, is reborn in Savatthi 
as the daughter of a respectable family. The Ogress devours the first and the second 
child of the Young Woman. When, however, the Yoimg Woman is about to give birth 
to her third child, she eludes her enemy by going to the house of her father. Here 
she gives birth to her child in safety. A few days later, while the mother is sitting 
in the groimds of the monastery, suckling the child, she sees the Ogress approaching. 
The terrified mother, seizing the child, flees, closely pursued by the Ogress, into the 
very presence of the Teacher. The Teacher, learning the circumstances of the quarrel, 
says to the Ogress, " Why do you return hatred for hatred? Love your enemies." 
The Ogress is converted. Thereafter the two live as friends. 

5. The quarrelsome monks of Kosambi [i. 6 = 6]. 

5 a. Quarrel among the monks. A preacher of the Law is reproved by a student 
of the Discipline for leaving water in the bath-room. On being informed that the 
offense was miintentional, the student of the Discipline assures the preacher of the 
Law that he is guiltless. Immediately afterwards, however, he tells his own pupils 
that the preacher of the Law has committed sin and is without conscience in the 
matter. Thereupon ensues a quarrel in which monks, nuns, the unconverted, and 
deities from the lowest heaven to the highest, are involved. The Buddha, informed 
of the circumstances of the quarrel, sends word to the monks to patch up their differ- 
ences. This they refuse to do. The Buddha then goes to them in person and ad- 



74 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

monishes them. Still they refuse to be reconciled. Disheartened by his failure to 
restore harmony, he leaves them, and goes quite alone to the village of Balaka the 
salt-maker, where he discourses to Eider Bhagu on the solitary life; thence to Eastern 
Bamboo Deer-park, where he discourses to the Three Youths on the bliss of the 
sweets of concord; and from there to Protected Forest. The lay brethren of Kosambi, 
learning the cause of the Teacher's departure, retaliate on the monks by withdrawing 
their support. The monks apologize to the lay brethren, but the latter refuse to accept 
their apology until they have made peace with the Buddha. Since, however, the rainy 
season is at its height, they are unable to go to the Teacher, and have a very vmcom- 
fortable time as a result. The Buddha spends the rainy season pleasantly, attended 
by an elephant. 

5 b. The Buddha, the elephant, and the monkey. A noble elephant named 
Parileyyaka, who has left his herd on account of the excessive annoyances to which 
he has been subjected, comes to Protected Forest and performs all of the major and 
minor duties for the Teacher. When the Teacher makes his alms-pilgrimage to the 
village, the elephant accompanies him to the village, and after the Teacher has made 
his round, accompanies him back. During the night he paces back and forth in the 
forest with a club in his trunk, protecting the Teacher from attacks of wild beasts. 
(Hence the forest came to be called Protected Forest.) The elephant's attentions to 
the Teacher excite in a monkey the desire to do likewise. One day the monkey finds 
some wild honey and presents it to the Teacher. After the monkey has removed 
some insects, the Teacher eats the honey. The monkey is so delighted that he leaps 
from branch to branch, and dances about in great glee. The branches break, down 
he falls on a stump, and is impaled. Dying, he is reborn in the World of the Thirty- 
three. 

5 a. Quarrel among the monks, concluded. When the Teacher's residence in 
the forest becomes known, Anathapindika and others request Ananda to procure 
from them the privilege of hearing the Teacher. Ananda, accompanied by five 
hundred monks, goes to the forest. Parileyyaka assumes a threatening attitude, but 
abandons it at the command of his master. Ananda presents Anathapindika's petition, 
and the Buddha directs the monks to set out for Savatthi. Parileyyaka gives forest- 
fruits to the monks, and seeks to delay the Teacher's departure. As the Teacher 
passes out of his sight, he dies of a broken heart, and is reborn in the World of the 
Thirty-three. When the Teacher arrives at Savatthi, the monks of Kosambi go 
thither to beg his pardon. The Teacher humiliates the quarrelsome monks by direct- 
ing them to lodge apart from the rest. Thereupon they prostrate themselves at his 
feet and beg his pardon. The Teacher reproves them for their sinful conduct, and 
admonishes them on the necessity of self-restraint. 

6. Kala junior and Kala senior, Culla Kala Maha Kala ca [i. 7-8 = 7-8]. Two 
caravan-drivers, Kala senior and Kala junior, retire from the world, the former from 
conviction, the latter with the intention of returning to the world and taking his 
brother with him. Kala senior becomes a Burning-grounder and attains Arahatship 
by contemplating the corpse of a beautiful girl. Kala junior pines for son and wife. 
When the Teacher visits their native town, Kala junior, who has charge of the seating 
arrangements, is subjected to such ridicule by his two wives that he then and there 
leaves the Order. Since Kala senior has eight wives, the monks express their opinion 
that he also will succiunb. The Teacher assures them that they are mistaken. Kala 
senior escapes from the clutches of his wives by soaring up into the air. 

7. Devadatta wears an unbecoming robe [i. 9-10 = 9-10]. A layman of Rajagaha, 
hearing Sariputta preach on the twofold duty of giving alms and inciting others to 
give alms, extends an invitation to the Elder and his retinue, and enlists the assistance 
of the citizens. A certain householder gives a costly robe with the understanding that 



Synopses of stories of Book 1 15 

if the supply of food proves insuflBcient, the robe may be sold and the proceeds devoted 
to the purchase of more food. The supply of food proves sufficient, and the layman 
asks his fellows to whom the robe shall be given. The question is submitted to popular 
vote, with the result that as between Sariputta and Devadatta there is a majority 
of four in favor of the latter. But as soon as Devadatta puts on the robe, every one 
remarks that it is not at all becoming to him, and would have suited Sariputta much 
better. When the matter is reported to the Teacher, he remarks that it is not the first 
time Devadatta has worn an unbecoming robe, and tells the following 

7 a. Story of the Past: The elephant-hunter and the noble elephant. An elephant- 
hunter one day sees several thousand elephants fall on their knees before some Private 
Buddhas. Concluding that it is the yellow robe that inspires their reverence, he steals 
a yellow robe, and sits beside the elephant-traU with spear in hand and upper robe 
drawn over his head. By this ruse he kills the last elephant in line. Subsequently 
the Future Buddha is reborn as an elephant, and becomes the leader of the herd. 
One day the hunter throws his spear at him and darts behind a tree. The Great 
Being resists the temptation to crush his enemy, and contents himself with remarking 
that the hunter has put on robes that ill become him. The elephant-himter was 
Devadatta. 

8. The Chief Disciples [i. 11-12 = 11-12]. 

8 a. Life of the Buddha. The Future Buddha, after receiving recognition at 
the hands of twenty-four Buddhas beginning with Dipankara, and after fulfilling the 
Perfections, is reborn in the Tusita heaven. Urged by the deities to save the world, 
he makes the Five Great Observations, is bom of Queen Maya, passes his youth in 
splendor and luxury in three mansions appropriate to the three seasons, beholds the 
Four Ominous Sights, resolves to become a monk, renounces son and wife, is greeted 
by Kisa GotamI, makes the Great Retirement and the Great Struggle, defeats the 
hosts of Mara, and attains Omniscience under the Bo-tree. At the request of Maha 
Brahma he sets in motion the Wheel of the Law and converts the Five Monks, Yasa 
and Fifty-four Companions, the Thirty Noble Youths, and the Three Brothers 
Kassapa; subsequently he visits King Bimbisara and accepts from him the gift of 
Bamboo Grove monastery; here he enters upon residence, and here Sariputta and 
MoggaUana visit him. 

8 b. Life of Upatissa (Sariputta) and Kolita (Moggallana). Upatissa and Kolita 
were bom on the same day, and were brought up amid great luxury. They acquired 
a sense of Impermanence while witnessing Mountain-top festivities, and were for a 
time disciples of Sanjaya. Converted to the Religion of the Buddha by Assaji, after 
an unsuccessful attempt to persuade Sanjaya to accompany them, they visit the 
Buddha, who admits them to the Order and makes them his Chief Disciples. The other 
disciples accuse the Buddha of favoritism in bestowing the highest dignity on new- 
comers and passing over what they allege to be the prior claims of the Five Monks, 
Yasa and Fifty-four Companions, the Thirty Noble Youths, and the Three Brothers 
Kassapa. The Buddha denies that he shows favoritism and declares that as is his 
wont, in the case of these Five Groups of persons, he bestows that for which they 
have made their Earnest Wish. By way of illustration he relates the following 

8 c. Story of the Past: Culla Kala and Maha Kala. Anfta-Kondaiina in his 
existence as Culla Ka|a bestowed the gift of first-fruits nine times on the Buddha 
Vipassi and for seven days gave abvmdant alms to the Buddha Padumuttara, making 
the Earnest Wish that he might be the first to comprehend the Law. 

8 d. Story of the Past: Yasa and Fifty-fovir Companions. Yasa and his com- 
panions performed many works of merit in the dispensation of a previous Buddha, 
making the Earnest Wish to attain Arahatship. Li a later dispensation they acquired 
a sense of Impurity by contemplating the corpse of a pregnant woman. Because of 



76 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

this, Yasa acquired a sense of Impurity in the women's apartments, and both he and 
his companions developed Specific Attainment. 

8 e. Story of the Past: Thirty Noble Youths. The Thirty Noble Youths made 
their Earnest Wish to attain Arahatship imder previous Buddhas, and performed 
works of merit. In a later dispensation they were reborn as thirty evil-doers, but on 
hearing the admonition addressed to Tundila, kept the Five Precepts for sixty thousand 
years. 

8 f. Story of the Past: Three Brothers Kassapa. Uruvela-Kassapa, Nadl- 
Kassapa, and Gaya-Kassapa entertained their eldest brother the Buddha Phussa, 
and made the Earnest Wish to attain Arahatship. After undergoing rebirth as deities 
during ninety-two cycles of time, they obtained the fulfillment of their Wish. The 
Three Ascetics of the Matted Locks, who were their serving-men, diverted to their 
own use the food which they had been directed to bestow in alms. In consequence 
of this sia, they were reborn as ghosts during four Buddha-intervals, and suffered 
from hunger and thirst. They came and begged food and drink of the Buddha Kaku- 
sandha, who referred them to the Buddha Konagamana, who referred them to the 
Buddha Kassapa, who prophesied that in the dispensation of his successor Gotama, 
their kinsman Bimbisara would grant them relief by making over to them the merit 
of alms given to the Teacher. Thus at last they obtained celestial food and drink and 
robes, and became deities. 

8 g. Story of the Past: Sarada and Sirivaddha. Sariputta, and Moggallana 
were bom as Sarada and Sirivaddha respectively at the time when the Buddha Anoma- 
dassl appeared in the world. Sarada retired from the world with seventy-four thousand 
followers, entertained the Buddha, and held the flower-parasol over him for seven 
days, making the Earnest Wish that he might thereby become the Chief Disciple of 
a Buddha. Upon receiving assurance that his Wish would be fulfilled, he sent word 
to Sirivaddha to make his Wish for the place of Second Disciple. Thereupon Siri- 
vaddha entertained the Buddha and made his Earnest Wish for the place of Second 
Disciple. Thus Sariputta and Moggallana obtained only that for which they had 
made their Earnest Wish under Anomadassl. 

Sariputta and Moggallana then relate their experiences from Mountain-top 
festivities to their final interview with Sanjaya. The Buddha contrasts the attitude 
of Sanjaya with that of his own faithful followers. 

9. Nanda the Elder [i. 13-14 = 13-14]. 

9 a. Nanda becomes a monk in spite of himself. After the events related in 
the preceding story, the Buddha visits his father Suddhodana and establishes him 
in the Fruits of the First Two Paths. On the following day, while the festivities con- 
nected with Nanda's marriage are in progress, the Buddha enters the house for alms, 
places his bowl in Nanda's hands, wishes him happiness, and departs without taking 
his bowl. So profound is Nanda's reverence for the Teacher that he dares not ask 
him to take his bowl, but expecting that he will ask for it sooner or later, follows him 
to the head of the stairs, to the foot of the stairs, and into the courtyard. Here Nanda 
wishes to turn back, but the Teacher goes straight ahead, and Nanda, much against 
his will, follows. Nanda's bride, Country-Beauty, runs after him with tears streaming 
down her face and hair half combed, and begs him to return. But the Teacher still 
gives no indication that he wishes to have his bowl returned, and Nanda follows him 
to the monastery. Here the Teacher asks Nanda whether he wishes to become a 
monk, and Nanda, in spite of himself, answers, " Yes." The Teacher then makes a 
monk of him. 

9 b. Nanda and the celestial nymphs. After receiving his son Rahula into the 
Order, and establishing his father in the Fruit of the Third Path, the Teacher enters 
upon residence at Jetavana. Nanda becomes dissatisfied with the Religious Life, 



Synopses of stories of Book 1 77 

and resolves to return to the world. The Teacher, learning that it is because of his 
love for Country-Beauty, takes him by the arm, leads him to a burnt field, and shows 
him a singed she-monkey, without ears, nose, and tail, sitting on a stump. He then 
conducts him to the Heaven of the Thirty-three and shows him five hundred pink- 
footed celestial nymphs. " Nanda, which do you consider the more beautiful, Country- 
Beauty or these nymphs? " " Reverend Sir, Country-Beauty is as far inferior to these 
nymphs as she is superior to that singed she-monkey." " Cheer up, Nanda; I guaran- 
tee that you will win these nymphs if you persevere in the Religious Life." The 
Teacher allows his promise to become known to the monks, whereupon they subject 
Nanda to such intense ridicule that he applies himself to meditation with redoubled 
energy, and in a short time attains Arahatship. He then goes to the Teacher and 
tells him that he wishes to release him from his promise. The Teacher replies that he 
was released from his promise the moment Nanda attained Arahatship. The Teacher 
remarks that this is not the first time Nanda has been won to obedience by the lure 
of the opposite sex, and relates the following 

9 c. Story of the Past: Kappata and the donkey. A merchant of Benares 
named Kappata makes a journey to TakkasUa with a load of pottery. While he is 
disposing of his wares, he lets his donkey run loose. The donkey, seeing a female of 
his sp>ecies, makes up to her. The female donkey greets him in a friendly manner and 
commiserates him on his hard lot. As a result of her talk, he becomes dissatisfied with 
his job, and refuses to return with his master. His master, finding that threats only 
make the donkey more stubborn, offers to procure him a mate. By this promise the 
donkey is immediately won over. The donkey was Nanda. 

10. Cunda the pork-butcher [i. 15 = 15]. Cunda the pork-butcher, after a 
course of evil conduct lasting fifty-five years, was attacked by a pecuhar malady, and 
while he yet lived, the fire of Avici uprose before him. For seven days he crawled 
about the house on his hands and knees, grunting like a pig, and on the seventh day 
died and was reborn in the Avici hell. 

11. The righteous lay brother [i. 16 = 16]. While a righteous lay brother, lying 
on his death-bed, listens to the Law, a host of deities, visible to none but him, drive up 
in their chariots and invite him to accompany them. The layman, wishing to hear 
the Law, says to the deities, " Stop!" The monks, mistaking his meaning, arise and 
depart. The layman's children begin to weep. The layman, to confirm their faith, 
jierforms a miracle, admonishes tliem, and stepping into a celestial chariot, is reborn 
as a deity. 

12. Devadatta's career [i. 17 = 17]. 

12 a. Retirement from the world of the six princes. While the Future Buddha 
is in residence at Anupiya Mango Grove, eighty thousand kinsmen observe on his 
person the Characteristics of a Tathagata, and each dedicates a son to his service. 
In the course of time all of these youths become monks, with the exception of Bhaddiya, 
Anuruddha, Ananda, Bhagu, Kimbila, and Devadatta. Anuruddha's brother Maha 
Nama urges Anuruddha to become a monk, promising if he will do so, to follow his 
example. Anuruddha, who has been brought up in such luxury that he does not even 
know the meaning of the word is n't, naturally does not know the meaning of the 
word monk, and therefore asks his brother for an explanation. Maha Nama explains 
the meaning of the word. Anuruddha replies that he is too delicate to become a 
monk. Maha Nama then suggests that he learn farming. But Anuruddha, who 
does not even know where boiled rice comes from, naturally does not know the mean- 
ing of the word farming, and therefore asks his brother to explain the word to him. 
Maha Nama explains to Anuruddha what is implied by the word. Anuruddha, aghast 
at the endless routine of manual labor, decides after all that he wUl become a monk. 
His mother gives her pexmission on condition that he i)ersuade his friend King Bhaddiya 



78 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

to do the same. Bhaddiya finally consents. Thereupon the six princes, accompanied 
by the barber Upali, visit the Teacher and are admitted to the Order. 

12 b. Devadatta's wicked deeds. When the Teacher and the Congregation of 
Monks enter upon residence at Kosambi, the people seek out aU of the Chief Disciples 
except Devadatta. Devadatta, knowing that neither King Bimbisara nor King 
Pasenadi will have anything to do with him, makes common cause with Bimbisara 's 
son Ajatasattu. Overmastered by pride, he proposes to the Buddha to turn over the 
Congregation of Monks to him. The Buddha rejects his proposal and causes public 
proclamation to be made concerning him at Rajagaha. In resentment Devadatta goes 
to Ajatasattu and says, " You kill your father and become king, and I will kill the 
Exalted One and become Buddha." When Ajatasattu is established in his kingdom, 
Devadatta makes three attempts on the life of the Buddha. First he hires assassins 
to kill him, but they desert their posts and obtain the Fruit of Conversion. Then he 
climbs to the top of Mount Vulture Peak and hurls down a rock, but succeeds only 
in woimding the Teacher. Finally he despatches the elephant Nalagiri against him, 
but Ananda stands in the breach and the Teacher subdues the elephant. Devadatta 
then goes to the Teacher and makes the Five Demands, but is again repulsed. Finally 
he causes a schism in the Order by persuading five himdred monks to join him. But 
Sariputta and Moggallana convince them of the error of their course by preaching and 
j)erforming miracles before them, and return with them through the air. During the 
Teacher's residence at Rajagaha, he relates many Jatakas about Devadatta's evil 
deeds in previous states of existence. Devadatta suffers from sickness for nine months, 
at the end of which, realizing that his end is near, he is overwhelmed with remorse, 
and resolves to make his peace with the Teacher. So he causes himself to be carried 
in a litter to Jetavana. The Teacher refuses to see him. When he raises himself 
from the litter and places his feet on the groimd, the earth gives way and slowly 
swallows him up. As his jaws touch the earth, he cries out, " I seek refuge in the 
Buddha." Thereupon the Teacher makes a monk of Devadatta, prophesying that at 
the end of a himdred thousand cycles of time he will be reborn as a Private Buddha 
named Atthissara. After the earth has swallowed up Devadatta, he is reborn in the 
Avici hell. 

13. Lady Sutnana [i. 18 = 18]. Anathapindika's youngest daughter Sumana 
dies of grief because of her failure to obtain a husband. Just before death she addresses 
her father as " youngest brother." Anathapindika, overwhelmed with grief, goes to 
the Buddha and tells him what has happened, dwelling on the fact that his daughter 
talked incoherently before she died. " Not at all," replied the Teacher, " for she had 
attained the Fruit of the Second Path, while you have attained only the Fruit of 
Conversion." 

14. Two brethren [i. 19-20 = 19-20]. Two youths retire from the world to- 
gether. The older assumes the Burden of Insight and attains Arahatship; the younger 
assumes the Burden of Study, acquires the Tipitaka, and becomes renowned as a 
preacher of the Law. Overmastered Avith pride, the younger monk resolves to seize 
the first opportimity to ask his senior some embarrassing questions. When the older 
monk comes to visit the Teacher, the latter, knowing what is in the mind of the 
younger monk, asks both monks several questions. The younger monk fails to answer 
a single question the Teacher asks him about the Paths, but the older monk answers 
all of the questions correctly. 



Synopses of stories of Books 1-2 79 



Book n. Heedftilness, Appamada Vagga 

1. Story-Cycle of King Udena or Udayana [ii. 1-3 = 21-23]. 

Part 1. Birth and youthful career of Udena. Two kings named Allakappa and 
Vethadipaka retire from the world and become forest-hermits. Vethadlpaka dies and 
is reborn as a deity. Desiring to see his brother, he disguises himself as a wayfarer 
and pays him a visit. Allakappa tells him that he is much annoyed by elephants. 
Vethadipaka gives him a lute to charm elephants with, and teaches him the proper 
spells. 

At this time Parantapa is King of Kosambi. One day the king and the queen 
are sitting in the open air, basking themselves in the sun. The queen, who is great 
with child, is wearing the king's scarlet blanket. As they chat together, the queen 
removes the king's signet-ring from his finger and slips it on her own. At that moment 
a monster bird, mistaking the queen for a piece of meat, swoops down, catches up 
the queen in his talons, carries her off to the forest, and deposits her in the fork of 
a banyan tree. The following morning she gives birth to a son, whom she calls Udena. 

Not far from the banyan tree is the hermitage of Allakappa. The latter, discover- 
ing mother and child, escorts them to the hermitage. The mother, fearing that should 
the hermit leave them, they would die in the forest, seduces the hermit to violate his 
vow of chastity. Thereafter the two live together as husband and wife. One day 
the hermit observes the occultation of Parantapa's star, and informs the queen that 
the King of Kosambi is dead. The queen bursts into tears, reveals her identity, and 
expresses regret that her son should be deprived of sovereignty. The hermit promises 
so to arrange matters that her son shall receive his lawful inheritance. 

Accordingly the hermit gives the boy the elephant-charming lute, and teaches 
him the proper speUs. The mother teUs the boy that he is son of Parantapa, King 
of Kosambi, and directs him to go to Kosambi and claim his kingdom, telling him that 
in case the citizens refuse to recognize him, he is to show them his father's blanket and 
signet-ring. Udena sets out with a host of warrior-elephants, invests the city, and 
proclaims, " Give me battle or the kingdom." Then, asserting his royal birth, he 
shows the blanket and the ring, whereupon the citizens open the gate of the city and 
confer upon him the ceremonial sprinkling of a king. 

Part 2. Birth and youthful career of Ghosaka. 

Story of the Past: Kotuhalaka casts his son away. There was once a famine in 
the kingdom of Ajita, and a man named Kotuhalaka, thinking to get a living in 
Kosambi, set out for that city with his young son Kapi and his wife Kali. On the way 
their provisions give out, and they are well nigh exhausted. Kotuhalaka proposes to 
cast the child away, but his wife protests, suggesting that they carry him by turns. 
While Kotuhalaka is carrying the child, he allows his wife to precede him, and secretly 
casts the child away. When the wife discovers what the husband has done, she forces 
him to recover the child. (In consequence of having cast his child away on this one 
occasion, Kotuhalaka was himself cast away seven times in a later existence.) 

Continuing their journey, they arrive at the house of a herdsman. The herdsman 
sets abundant food before them, and then sits down to eat his own meal. Kotuhalaka 
watches the herdsman feed a bitch that lies under his stool, and envies the bitch her 
lot. During the night Kotuhalaka dies of indigestion, and is conceived in the womb of 
the bitch whose lot he envied. Kotuhalaka's widow bestows alms regularly on a 
Private Buddha. After a time the bitch gives birth to a single pup. The Private 
Buddha feeds the pup with his own hand, and as a result the pup becomes so fond of 
the Private Buddha that he performs all manner of services for him. Later on the 
Private Buddha takes leave of the herdsman, and flies away through the air. There- 



80 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

upon the pup sets up a howl of grief and dies of a broken heart. Because of his affec- 
tion for the Private Buddha, the pup is reborn as a deity named Ghosaka in the World 
of the Thirty-three. 

Story of the Present: Ghosaka is cast away seven times and miraculously pre- 
served from death. In consequence of having devoted himself to the pleasures of 
sense, Ghosaka passes from the World of the Thirty-three and is conceived in the 
womb of a courtezan of Kosambi. 

Ghosaka is cast away the first time. When the child is bom, and the courtezan 
leams that it is a boy, she causes him to be cast away on a refuse-heap. A passer-by 
takes a fancy to the child and carries him home with him. 

That day there is a conjunction of a constellation, and the Treasurer of Kosambi, 
meeting an astrologer, asks him what the sign betokens. The astrologer replies^ " A 
boy has been bom in this city to-day who will one day become the principal treasurer 
of the city." Since the treasurer's wife is at that time great with child, the treasurer 
immediately sends word to find out whether she has been delivered or no. Learning 
that she has not yet been delivered, the treasurer orders a slave- woman to find the 
boy and fetch him to him. Having gained possession of the boy, the treasurer forms 
the following resolution, " If a daughter is born to me, I will marry her to this boy, and 
make him treasurer; but if a son is bom to me, I will kill him." A few days later his 
wife gives birth to a son. The treasurer then sets about to carry out his plan. 

Ghosaka is cast away the second time. The treasurer causes Ghosaka to be 
laid at the door of the cattle-pen, hoping that he will be trampled to death. But when 
the cattle come out, the bull halts and stands over him, allowing the cows to pass out 
on either side of him, and the herdsman takes him home. 

Ghosaka is cast away the third time. The treasurer recovers Ghosaka, and 
causes him to be laid in the caravan trail, hoping that he will either be trampled by 
the oxen or crushed to death by the wheels of the carts. But when the oxen see the 
boy, they stop of their own accord. The leader picks up the boy and carries him off. 

Ghosaka is cast away the fourth time. The treasurer recovers Ghosaka, and 
causes him to be laid under a bush in the buming-ground. Along comes a goatherd 
with his goats. The goatherd's suspicions are aroused by the peculiar actions of a 
she-goat. On making an investigation, he discovers the boy and rescues him. 

Ghosaka is cast away the fifth time. The treasurer recovers Ghosaka, and 
causes him to be thrown down a precipice. But the boy drops into a bamboo thicket, 
and is rescued by a reed-maker. 

Ghosaka is cast away the sixth time. In spite of the treasurer's attempts on 
his life, Ghosaka lives and thrives and grows to manhood. One day the treasurer 
goes to a potter, gives him a thousand pieces of money, tells him that he wishes to get 
rid of a certain base-bom son, and orders the potter, when the boy comes to him on 
the following day with a message, to kill him, chop his body into small pieces, and 
throw the remains into the chatty. This the potter agrees to do. The next day the 
treasurer directs Ghosaka to carry the following message to the potter, " Finish the 
job my father gave you yesterday." As Ghosaka is on his way to the potter's, the 
treasurer's own son calls to him and offers to carry the message to the potter if Ghosaka 
will take his place in a game of marbles and make an effort to win back for him a 
stake he has lost. Thus Ghosaka and his foster-brother exchange places, and the 
treasurer's own son carries his father's message to the potter and is killed. 

Ghosaka is cast away the seventh time. The treasurer, unable longer to look 
Ghosaka straight in the face, writes the following letter to the superintendent of his 
hundred villages, " This is my base-bom son; kill him, and throw him into the cess- 
pool." This letter the treasurer fastens to the hem of Ghosaka's garment and directs 
Ghosaka to carry to its destination. (The treasurer had never taught Ghosaka to 



Story-Cycle o/ King Udena, Book 2 81 

read, for he expected sooner or later to kill him.) Ghosaka, by direction of his foster- 
father, stops for breakfast at the house of a certain country treasurer. The treasurer's 
wife takes a fancy to him, and the treasurer's beautiful daughter falls in love with 
him. (The treasurer's daughter was Ghosaka's wife in his former existence as Kotu- 
halaka.) The treasurer's daughter discovers that Ghosaka is carrying his own death- 
warrant, removes it, and substitutes another letter of her own composition, reading as 
follows, " This is my son Ghosaka. Procure presents for him from my hundred 
villages. Prepare a festival for him in honor of his marriage with the daughter of the 
country treasurer. Build him a two-storeyed house in the center of the village wherein 
he resides. Send me-word that you have done thus and so." The superintendent, on 
receiving the letter, immediately does as he is told. 

When the treasurer learns how miserably his last attempt has failed, he remarks, 
" What I would do, that I do not; what I would not do, that I do." He sickens, and 
is soon at the point of death. Ghosaka, accompanied by his wife, visits his foster- 
father in his last moments. As the treasurer is about to die, he lifts up his voice, 
intending to say, " I do not give my wealth to my son Ghosaka." But by a slip of 
the tongue he says instead, " I do give." King Udena confirms Ghosaka in his inherit- 
ance, and appoints him principal treasurer of the city. When Ghosaka learns from 
his wife how narrow was his escape from death, he resolves to forsake the life of Heed- 
lessness, and to live the life of Heedfulness. 

Part 3. Birth and youthful career of Samavati. Ghosaka, treasurer of Kosambi, 
and Bhaddavatiya, treasurer of Bhaddavati, exchange presents, and become fast 
friends. Subsequently a pestilence breaks out at Bhaddavati, and Bhaddavatiya, 
together with his wife and daughter, sets out for Kosambi, intending to ask Ghosaka 
for assistance. Arriving at Kosambi, they obtain lodging in a rest-house at the city- 
gate. On the following day the daughter goes to Ghosaka's refectory for food. " How 
many portions will you have? " " Three." That night her father dies. " How many 
portions will you have.'* " "Two." That night her mother dies. " How many portions 
will you have.'*" " One." A householder named Mitta, observing that she asks for 
less each day, remarks, " At last you know the capacity of your belly!" The whole 
story then comes out. Mitta takes pity on her, and adopts her as his own daughter. 
She renders such valuable assistance in the administration of Ghosaka's refectory as 
to attract the attention of Ghosaka himself, who, upon learning that she is the daughter 
of Bhaddavatiya, adopts her as his own daughter. One day King Udena sees her, 
falls in love with her, and marries her. 

Part 4. Winning of Vasuladatta. Another of Udena's queen-consorts is Vasula- 
datta, daughter of Canda Pajjota, King of Ujjeni. Udena gains possession of her in 
the following way: Udena is a great lover of elephants. Canda Pajjota wishes to 
take him prisoner. He therefore has a mechanical elephant made of wood, puts sixty 
men inside of it, and turns the wooden elephant loose on Udena's frontier. Udena 
mounts his elephant and starts out in pursuit, twanging his lute and uttering spells. 
But the wooden elephant refuses to be charmed, and Udena is drawn into an ambuscade 
and captured. Canda Pajjota keeps his enemy ui prison for three days, and then 
offers to release him if he will divulge his elephant-charm. Udena expresses willing- 
ness to do so if Canda Pajjota will pay him homage. This Canda Pajjota refuses to 
do. " But will you divulge the charm to another, if the other will pay you homage.'* " 
" Yes." " Well then, there is a hunchbacked woman in our house; she will sit behind 
a curtain; you remain outside and teach her the charm." " Very well." Canda 
Pajjota then says to his daughter, the beautiful Princess Vasuladatta, " There is a 
leper who knows a priceless charm; you sit behind a curtain; he will remain outside 
and teach you the charm. Then teach it to me." (Canda Pajjota employs this 
stratagem for fear of their cohabiting.) Vasuladatta learns very slowly. One day 



82 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

Udena loses his patience and exclaims, "Dunce of a hunchback!" Vasuladatta 
retorts angrily, " Villain of a leper, how dare you call such as I ' hunchback '? " Udena 
lifts the fringe of the curtain, and the secret is out. Vasuladatta yields her 
chastity to Udena, and from that time on there is no more learning of charms. Udena 
oflFers to make Vasuladatta one of his queen-consorts if she will save his life. Vasula- 
datta tells her father that in order to perfect herself in the charm, it will be necessary 
for her to dig a certain medicinal root in the dead of night, and requests him to place 
a door and a riding-elephant at her disposal. Canda Pajjota places at her disposal 
a certain female elephant, one of Five Conveyances he came to possess as the fruit 
of alms bestowed on a Private Buddha in a previous existence. One day, when Canda 
Pajjota is away from home, Udena fills several leather sacks with gold and silver, puts 
them on the back of the female elephant, assists Vasuladatta to mount, and away 
they go. When Canda Pajjota learns what has happened, he sends out a force in 
pursuit. Udena opens the sacks and scatters coins along the way. Canda Pajjota's 
men delay pursuit to pick them up, and Udena has no difficulty in escaping. On 
reaching Kosambi, Udena raises Vasuladatta to the rank of queen-consort. 

Part 5. Rejection of Magandiya by the Buddha. Another of Udena's queen- 
consorts is Magandiya, daughter of the Brahman Magandiya. One day the Buddha 
comes to the place where the Brahman is tending the sacred fire. The Brahman is 
so impressed with the majestic appearance of the visitor that he then and there oflFers 
him his daughter in marriage. The Buddha makes no reply, but walks away, leaving 
a footprint. The Brahman goes home, and returns with his wife and daughter. The 
Brahman's wife, after studying the footprint, declares that it is not the footprint of 
one who follows the Five Lusts. The Brahman, however, seeing the Buddha, renews 
his oflFer. The Buddha then tells the Brahman that from the Great Retirement to 
the Session under the Banyan-tree, Mara pursued him relentlessly, only to be defeated 
at every point; that Mara's daughters then tempted him in various forms without 
exciting in him the lust of the flesh, and that nothing would induce him to touch 
Magandiya even with the sole of his foot. Magandiya ever after cherishes the most 
bitter hatred of the Buddha. The Brahman and his wife commit Magandiya to the 
care of her uncle, and retire from the world. The uncle presents her to King Udena. 
The king immediately falls in love with her and marries her, raising her to the rank 
of queen-consort. 

Part 6. Death of Samavati and of Magandiya, and the explanation thereof. 

Treasurers, monks, and tree-spirit. At this time there are living in Kosambi 
three treasurers, Ghosaka, Kukkuta, and Pavariya. These treasurers provide food 
for a company of monks during the season of the rains for several years. At the 
beginning of one rainy season the monks take up their abode under a huge banyan 
tree. The monks have but to wish for water or food, and their wish is immediately 
fulfilled by the tree-spirit. The monks express a wish to see the tree-spirit, whereupon 
the tree splits open and out he comes. The monks ask the spirit what he did to get 
his power. The spirit relates the following 

Story of the Past: Tree-spirit's former deed. The spirit was once the servant 
of Anathapindika. One Fast-day, Anathapindika, upon learning that his servant 
had not been told the significance of the day, ordered a meal to be prepared for him. 
The servant observed that no one else was eating, learned the reason why, and fol- 
lowed suit. He then went out and did his day's work, was taken sick, and died that 
very night. " My master," said the spirit, " was devoted to the Buddha, the Law, 
and the Order. It was through him, and in consequence of my observance of P'ast- 
day, that I was reborn as a powerful tree-spirit." End of Story of the Past. 

The monks immetliately seek refuge in the Buddha, the Law, and the Order. On 
the following day they inform the three treasurers that the Buddha, the Law, and the 



Story-Cycle of King Udena, Book 2 83 

Order have appeared in the world, and that they mtend to visit the Teacher. The 
monks visit the Teacher, listen to the Law, and attain Arahatship. The three treas- 
urers Ghosaka, Kukkuta, and Pavariya also visit the Teacher, listen to the Law, and 
are converted. Returning to Kosambi, they erect Ghosita, Kukkuta, and Pavariya 
monasteries. Here the Teacher visits them, dividing his time equally among the 
three. After the treasurers have entertained the Teacher for a time, their gardener 
Sumana asks and receives permission to entertain him for a single day. 

Conversion of Samavati by Khujjuttara. At this time King Udena is in the habit 
of giving Queen Samavati eight pieces of money daily to buy flowers with. This 
money the queen turns over to a female slave named Hunchback, Khujjuttara, who 
goes regularly to the gardener Sumana's and spends four pieces on flowers, pocketing 
the remainder. On the day of the Teacher's visit to Sumana, Khujjuttara is con- 
verted, and spends the entire amount on flowers. The queen asks her how she comes 
to return with so many flowers, and the whole story comes out. From that time on, 
Khujjuttara steals no more, but becomes as it were a mother to Samavati, going 
regularly to hear the Law, and returning and preaching the Law to Samavati. As 
a result, Queen Samavati and her retinue are converted. 

Magandiya's plot against Samavati and the Buddha. Samavati expresses a 
desire to see the Teacher. At the suggestion of Khujjuttara she makes holes in the 
walls of the royal palace, and renders homage to the Teacher from within. Magandiya 
comes to know of this, and actuated by hatred of the Teacher, resolves to get even 
both with the Teacher and with Samavati. Accordingly she tells King Udena that 
Samavati has made holes in the walls of the palace for the purpose of killing him. The 
king, however, refuses to believe her. She then determines to drive the Teacher out 
of the city, and to this end employs ruflSans to follow him about and heap abuse upon 
him. Ananda proposes to the Teacher to go elsewhere, but this the Teacher declines 
to do, comparing himself to an elephant engaged in the fray. After seven days the 
uproar ceases, and Magandiya, realizing that she can do nothing against the Teacher, 
renews her determination to destroy the women who are his supporters. 

Magandiya procures from her uncle eight live cocks and eight dead cocks, and 
presents the live cocks to Udena, suggesting that he ask Samavati to cook them for 
him. Udena does so, and Samavati sends back word that she and her followers do 
not take life. " Now," says Magandiya, " see whether she will cook them for the 
monk Gotama." Magandiya secretly substitutes the dead cocks for the live cocks, 
and Samavati immediately complies with the king's request. " See," says Magandiya, 
" they won't do it for the likes of you. Still you would n't believe that their inclina- 
tion was towards another." The king, however, still refuses to believe her. 

At this time the king divides his time equally among his three consorts, spending 
a week in the apartment of each. Magandiya, knowing that the king will go on the 
following day to Samavatl's apartment, carrying with him as usual the lute which 
Allakappa gave him, procures a snake from her uncle, and puts it in the lute, stopping 
the op>ening with a bunch of flowers. She then tells the king that she has had a bad 
dream, and pretending to be solicitous for his safety, begs him not to go to Samavatl's 
apartment. The king, disregarding her warning, goes to Samavatl's apartment, and 
Magandiya, in spite of his protests, accompanies him. The king places the lute beside 
his pillow, and lies down on the bed. Magandiya secretly removes the flowers, and 
out comes the snake. At this Magandiya screams as if in terror, and openly accuses 
Samavati and her attendants of seeking to kiU their sovereign. At last the king is 
convinced, and now believes everything Magandiya has told him. 

Samavati urges her attendants to cherish no bitter feelings towards the king or 
Magandiya. The king takes his bow, which requires a thousand soldiers to string, 
and shoots a poisoned arrow at Samavatl's breast. But so great is the power of 



84 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

Samavati's love that the arrow turns back, and as it were penetrates the king's heart. 
Thereupon the king prostrates himself at Samavati's feet and cries out, " Be thou 
my refuge!" Samavati replies, " In whom I myself have sought refuge, in him do 
thou also seek refuge." The king then seeks refuge in the Buddha, the Law, and the 
Order, and gives generous gifts. 

Burning of Samavati and punishment of Magandiya. Magandiya then instigates 
her uncle to set fire to Samavati's palace. Samavati and her five hundred attendants 
perish in the flames. The king, learning that Magandiya is the guilty person, causes 
her to be tortured and put to death, together with all her kinsfolk and friends. The 
Buddha then relates the following 

Stories of the Past: Samavati and her attendants were burned to death because 
in a previous existence they attempted to burn a Private Buddha to death. Khujjut- 
tara became a hunchback by mocking a Private Buddha, attained the Fruit of Con- 
version by waiting upon some Private Buddhas, and became an errand-girl because 
she once asked a nun to do a menial service for her. 

In conclusion the Buddha declares that the Heedless, though they live a hundred 
years, are yet dead; that the Heedful, whether they be dead or alive, are yet alive. 
Magandiya, while she yet Uved, was dead already; Samavati and her attendants, 
. though they be dead, yet are they alive. The Heedful never die. 

2. The voice of a rich man [ii. 4 = 24]. The plague breaks out in Rajagaha, 
and the principal treasurer and his wife are attacked. Realizing that they are about 
to die, they bid farewell to their son Kumbhaghosaka, directing him to flee for his 
life and return later and dig up their treasure. The son spends twelve years in a 
jungle, returns, and finds the treasure undisturbed. But reflecting that since no one 
knows him, he may be subjected to annoyance if he digs it up and begins to spend it, 
he decides to make his own living, and obtains a position as a foreman. One day the 
king hears his voice, and exclaims, " That is the voice of some rich man." A female 
slave overhears the remark and offers for a consideration to make the king master of 
his wealth. She obtains lodging for herself and daughter in Kumbhaghosaka's house, 
and seduces Kumbhaghosaka to violate her daughter. She then contracts a marriage 
between the two, and Kumbhaghosaka is obliged to dig up some of the treasure to 
defray the expenses of the wedding festivities. In this way the whole story comes 
out. But the king, instead of confiscating Kumbhaghosaka's wealth, praises him for 
his wisdom, confiirms him in his inheritance, and gives him his daughter in marriage. 

3. Little Wayman [ii. 5 = 25]. 

3 a. Birth of Little Wayman. The daughter of a treasurer of Rajagaha yields 
her chastity to a slave, and fearing that she will be discovered, runs away with him. 
When the time of her deUvery is at hand, she expresses a desire to return to her parents. 
But her lover, fearing to accompany her, puts her off from day to day, imtil finally 
she takes matters into her own hands and starts out alone. The pains of travail 
come upon her by the way, and she gives birth to a son, whom she therefore calls 
Wayman. After a time the same thing happens again. The yoimger son is called 
Little Wayman, the older Big Wayman. Big Wayman, hearing his playmates speak 
of their uncles and grandfathers, asks his mother whether he has any, and if so, why 
they do not go to see them. The mother suggests to the father that they pay her 
parents a visit, and the father consents to accompany her as far as the city. Her 
parents refuse to see her, but receive the children into their household. Big Wayman 
accompanies his grandfather to hear the Teacher, and one day expresses a desire to 
become a monk. 

3 b. Little Wayman as a monk. Big Wayman is received into the Order, attains 
Arahatship, and in turn receives Little Wayman into the Order. Little Wayman, in 
consequence of having ridiculed a dullard monk in a previous existence, is imable to 



Synopses of stories of Book 2 85 

master a single Stanza in the course of four months, and is therefore expelled from the 
monastery by his brother. Little Wayman, however, does not abandon the religious 
life. One day Jivaka Komarabhacea invites the five hundred monks to take a meal 
with him. Big Wayman accepts in behalf of all but Little Wayman. Little Wayman, 
hearing his brother speak thus, decides to return to the world. The Teacher, aware 
of his intention, conducts him into the Perfumed Chamber, gives him a cloth, and 
directs him to face the East, rub the cloth, and say, " Removal of Impurity!" After 
Little Wayman has rubbed the cloth for a time, he observes that it has become soiled, 
and thus acquires a sense of Impermanence. The Teacher appears to him and says, 
" Impurity is I^ust, Hatred, Delusion; remove them." Little Wayman immediately 
attains Arahatship. 

When Jivaka offers W^ater of Donation to the Teacher, the latter informs him that 
there are monks in the monastery. Jivaka sends a servant to find out. At that 
moment Little Wayman by an exercise of supernatural power fills the Mango Grove 
with a thousand monks. The servant returns with the news that the Grove is full 
of monks. The Teacher directs him to summon Little Wayman. The servant goes 
to the Grove and calls out, " Little Wayman, come hither!" At this the cry goes up 
from a thousand throats, " Here I am!" The servant returns and makes his report 
to the Teacher. The Teacher directs him to take by the hand the first who says that 
he is Little Wayman. The rest immediately vanish, and the servant returns with 
his man. After the meal Little Wayman returns thanks, and the Teacher and his 
monks withdraw. In the evening the monks discuss the incidents of the day. The 
Teacher informs them that in a previous existence also Little Wayman was a dullard 
and won success through his assistance. So saying, he relates the following 

3 c. Story of the Past: The world-renowned teacher, the young man, and the 
King of Benares. A young man of Benares once went to Takkasila and became the 
pupil of a world-renowned teacher. Although faitliful to duty, he was such a dullard 
that after a long term of residence he was unable to repeat a single Stanza. Finally 
he becomes discouraged and decides to go back home. His teacher, grateful to him 
for the assistance he has rendered him, teaches him a charm, telling him that it will 
insure him a living, and directing him to repeat it over and over again to avoid the 
possibihty of forgetting it. And this is the charm: " You 're rubbing! you 're rubbing! 
why are you rubbmg.'* I know too! " Shortly after the young man's return to Benares, 
the King of Benares makes an examination of his own thoughts, words, and deeds, to 
discover whether he has been guilty of any fault. Seeing no fault, but reflecting that 
one never sees his own faults, he decides to ascertain the candid opinion of his sub- 
jects, and for this purpose puts on a disguise and goes about the streets eavesdropping. 
The first house the king comes to is that of the young man. The khig observes that 
some tunnel-thieves are in the act of breaking into the house. The noise awakens 
the young man, who begins to repeat his charm, and the thieves flee. 

The king, seeing the thieves fleeing and hearing the words of the charm, makes 
note of the house, and on the following day sends for the young man, learns the charm 
from him, and gives him a thousand pieces of money. That very day the Prime 
Minister goes to the royal barber, gives him a thousand pieces of money, and says to 
him, " The next time you shave the king, cut his throat; then you shall be Prime 
Minister, and I shall be king." The barber agrees to the bargain. While the barber 
is sharpening his razor, the king begins to repeat the charm. The barber, thinking 
that the king is aware of his intention to kill him, throws away his razor, falls at the 
feet of the king in terror, and begs the king to pardon him. The king thereupon com- 
pels the barber to reveal the plot, banishes the Prime Minister, and appoints in his 
place the young man who taught him the charm. At that time Little Wajinan was 
the young man, and the Buddha was the world-renowned teacher. 



86 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

4. Simpletons' Holiday [ii. 6-7 = 26-27]. On Simpletons' Holiday it was the 
practice of ignorant people who knew no better to give themselves up to license for a 
period of seven days, uttering all manner of coarse talk, and desisting only on the 
payment of bribes. During this period of disorder, the Teacher and the monks re- 
mained within the monastery. 

5. Kassapa the Great [ii. 8 = 28]. . On a certain occasion Elder Kassapa the 
Great endeavors by the exercise of Supernatural Vision to obtain comprehension of 
Birth and Rebirth. The Teacher appears to him and admonishes him that only a 
Buddha is able to comprehend the Totality of Existences. 

6. Two brethren [ii. 9 = 29]. Two brethren obtain a Subject of Meditation 
from the Teacher and retire to the forest. One of them is heedful, and attains Arahat- 
ship; the other is heedless and lazy. The Teacher praises the heedful monk and 
rebukes the heedless monk. 

7. How Magha became Sakka [ii. 10 = 30]. 

7 a. Story of the Present: Mahali's question. A Licchavi prince named Mahali 
comes to the Teacher and asks him whether he has ever seen Sakka. The Teacher 
replies in the affirmative, teUs Mahali how Sakka came to receive his Seven Titles^ 
and enumerates the Seven Vows by the performance of which Sakka attained Sakka- 
ship. Mahali desires to hear the whole story. The Teacher thereupon relates the 
following 

7 b. Story of the Past: How Magha became Sakka. Once upon a time a youth 
named Magha went about his native village in the kingdom of Magadha doing all 
manner of good works, and in the course of time gathered others about him, until 
finally there were thirty-three persons in the village keeping the Five Precepts and 
doing works of merit. The village headman took a dislike to them and arraigned 
them before the king, alleging that they were a company of robbers. The king 
ordered them to be trampled by elephants. But the elephants refused to trample 
them. The king then summoned the youths, told them the charge the village head- 
man had brought against them, and asked them what they had to say. On hearing 
their story, he asked them to pardon him, made the village headman their slave, 
gave them a riding-elephant, and placed the entire resources of the village at their 
disjxjsal. 

At this the youths rejoiced greatly, and resolved to aboimd yet more in good 
works. Summoning a carpenter, they caused him to erect a rest-house at the junction 
of four highways. Because they had lost all desire for women, they refused to allow 
women to share in the work. Now there were four women living in Magha 's house, 
Joy, Thoughtful, Goodness, and WeUbom. Goodness bribed the carpenter to give 
her the chief share in the building of the rest-house. The carpenter gave her the 
pinnacle. The thirty-three youths built thirty-three seats. Magha planted an 
Ebony-tree, and imder the tree set up a stone seat. Joy provided a bathing-pool, 
and Thoughtful a flower-garden. Wellborn, thinking it a sufficient distinction to be 
a cousin of Magha, did nothing but adorn herself. Magha, having fulfilled the Seven 
Vows, was reborn as Sakka king of gods. Magha's companions were also reborn 
there, the carpenter being reborn as Vissakamma. 

Now at this time there were Asuras dwelling in the World of the Thirty-three, 
and when they learned that new gods had been reborn there, they prepared strong 
drink for them. Sakka forbade his companions to touch it, and they obeyed him; 
but the Asuras got very dnmk. Then Sakka gave the signal, and his companions 
picked up the Asuras by the heels and flung them head-foremost into the abyss. 
Thereupon there sprang up at the foot of Mount Sineru the Palace of the Asuras and 
the Tree that is called Pied Trumpet Flower. And when the conflict between the 
Gods and the Asuras was over, and the Asuras had been defeated, there sprang into 



Synopses of stories of Book 2 87 

existence the City of the Thirty-three, crowned with a magnificent palace called the 
Palace of Victory. A Coral-tree sprang up to correspond with the Ebony-tree which 
Magha had planted, and at the foot thereof, to correspond with the stone seat he had 
set up, stood Sakka's Yellowstone Throne. The elephant was reborn as Eravana. 
Eravana created gigantic water-pots for each member of Sakka's retinue. When 
Goodness, Joy, and Thoughtful died, they were reborn in the World of the Thirty- 
three; and as the fruit of their good works there arose a mansion named Goodnes,s, a 
bathing-pool named Joy, and a creeper-grove named Thoughtful. 

When Wellborn died, she was reborn as a crane in a mountain cave. Sakka went 
to her in disguise, conducted her to the World of the Thirty-three, let her see her 
former companions, and assured her that she could attain equal happiness by keeping 
the Five Precepts. This she promised to do. After a few days Sakka, desiring to test 
her sincerity, lay down on the sand in the form of a fish. The crane, believing it to 
be dead, took it in her beak. As she was about to swallow it, the fish wriggled its 
tail. The crane immediately dropped it. Three times Sakka employed this stratagem, 
and three times the crane, discovering that the fish was alive, refused to eat it. Sakka 
resumed his proper form, praised the crane, and departed. At the end of her existence 
as a crane. Wellborn was reborn iu Benares as a potter's daughter. Sakka disguised 
himself as a peddler, filled a cart with jewels in the form of cucumbers, and drove 
into the city, offering to give his cucumbers to whoever kept the Precepts. Only the 
potter's daughter understands his meaning. Sakka reveals himself to her, gives her 
the jewels, praises her, and departs. 

At the end of her existence as a potter's daughter. Wellborn is reborn in the 
World of the Asuras as the daughter of Vepacitti, king of the Asuras and a bitter 
enemy of Sakka. One day Vepacitti assembles the hosts of the Asuras and directs 
his daughter to choose a husband. Sakka, disguised as an aged Asura, sits down in 
the outer circle of the assembly. The maiden immediately throws the wreath of 
flowers over his head. Sakka takes her by the hand, shouts out, " I am Sakka," and 
flies up into the air. The Asuras cry out, " We have been fooled by old Sakka," and 
start up in pursuit. Sakka's charioteer MataU brings up the chariot Victory, and 
Sakka, after assisting Wellborn to mount, sets out for the City of the Gods. When 
they reach the forest of the Silk-cotton Trees, the fledglings of the Garuda birds, 
fearing that they will be crushed, shriek aloud. Sakka thereupon commands, " Let 
not these creatures perish on my account; turn back the chariot." The Asuras 
abandon the pursuit, and Sakka bears Wellborn to the City of the Gods. 

8. A monk attains Arahatship [ii. 11 = 31]. A monk who has been unsuccessful 
in the Practice of Meditation sees a forest-fire. Hastily climbing a bare mountain, 
he watches the fire, and concentrates his mind on the following thought, " Even as 
this fire advances, consuming all obstacles both great and small, so also ought I to 
advance, consuming all obstacles both great and small by the Fire of Knowledge of 
the Noble Path." He immediately attains Arahatship. 

9. Tissa of the Market-town [ii. 12 = 32]. Tissa of the Market-town acquires 
the reputation of being frugal, contented, pure, resolute. The Teacher remarks that 
Tissa 's good qualities are the result of association with himself, and relates the following 

9 a. Story of the Past: Sakka and the parrot. Once upon a time many parrots 
lived in a grove of fig-trees. The king-parrot, when the fruits of the tree in which he 
lived had withered away, ate whatever he found remaining, and being very happy 
and contented, remained where he was. Sakka determined to put him to the test, 
and by his supernatural power withered up the tree. Perceiving that this made no 
diflFerence at all to the Parrot, Sakka decided to grant him a boon. Accordingly, 
disguised as a royal goose, he went to the parrot and asked him why his heart de- 
lighted in a tree that was withered and rotten. The parrot replied, " This tree has 



88 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

been good to me in the past. Why should I desert it now? " Thereupon Sakka caused 
the tree to bloom anew and to bear ambrosial fruit. 

Book m. Thoughts, Citta Vagga 

1. Elder Meghiya [iii. 1-2 = 33-34]. By reason of attachment to the Three 
Evil Thoughts, Elder Meghiya is unable to practice Exertion. The Teacher admonishes 
iim that a monk must never permit himself to be controlled by his thoughts. 
/ 2. The mind-reader [iii. 3 = 35]. A lay sister provides a company of monks 
/ with food and lodging during the rainy season. The monks instruct her in the Practice 
/ of Meditation, and she attains Arahatship together with the Supernatural Faculties. 
As she is thus able to read their thoughts, she is so successful in her ministrations 
that in no long time they too attain Arahatship. The monks return to the Teacher 
loud in their praises of the lay sister, remarking that no sooner did they wish for such 
and such food than she immediately supplied it. A certain monk, overhearing the 
j remark, desires himself to enjoy so pleasant an experience. Accordingly he obtains 
I a Subject of Meditation from the Teacher, and goes to her house. He finds every- 
1 thing exactly as represented, but fearing that should he entertain a single sinful thought, 
I the lay sister might seize him by the topknot and do him harm, returns to the Teacher. 
{ The Teacher admonishes him to control his thoughts, and sends him back. In only 
a few days the Elder attains Arahatship. Calling up before his mind ninety-nine 
previous existences, he perceives that in each of these existences the lay sister mur- 
dered him. "Oh, what a sinner she has been!" thinks he. At the same moment 
the lay sister, sitting in her own chamber, becomes aware of what is passing through 
his mind. " Call up one more existence," says she. By the power of Supernatural 
I Audition the monk immediately hears what she says. Calling up before his mind 
I the hundredth existence, he perceives that she spared his life. Thereat he rejoices 
^greatly, and straightway passes into Nibbana. 

3. A discontented monk [iii. 4 = 36]. A faithful layman becomes a monk, but 
soon grows discontented over the multitudinous duties imposed upon him. The 
Teacher admonishes him that if he will only guard his thoughts, everything else will 
take care of itself. 

4. Nephew Sangharakkhita [iii. 5 = 37]. Nephew SaJagharakkhita presents 
Uncle Sangharakkhita with a set of robes. The uncle, hav-ing already a complete set 
of robes, declines the present. The nephew is so disappointed that he resolves to 
return to the life of a householder. As he stands beside his uncle, fanning him, he 
ponders ways and means of earning a living. Finally the following thought occurs 
to him, •* 1 will sell this robe and buy a she-goat. I will sell the she-goat's young and 
accumulate some capital. Then I will get me a wife. She will bear me a son, and I 
will name him after my uncle. Then I will set out with son and wife to visit my 
uncle. My wife will insist on carrying the child, and lacking the necessary strength, 
will let him fall. I will then beat her with my stick." So saying, the nephew swings 
his fan and brings it down on the head of his uncle. The latter rebukes him, and he 
starts to run away. But young monks rim after him, catch him, and bring him before 
the Teacher. The Teacher admonishes him to control his thoughts. 

5. Elder Thought-controlled [iii. 6-7 = 38-39]. A youth of Savatthi becomes 
a monk to obtain an easy livelihood. Tiring of the monastic life, he returns to the 
world. Six times he becomes a monk, and as many times returns to the world. The 
monks therefore call him Thought-controlled, Cittahattha. In the meantime hLs 
wife becomes pregnant. For the seventh time he decides to become a monk. As he 
enters his room to put on his yellow robe, he sees his wife abed and asleep. Her 
apijearance is so repulsive to him that he then and there grasps the thought of Im- 



Synopses of stories of Book 3 89 

permanence and Suffering. In a very few days he attains Arahatship. The monks 
express surprise that a youth predestined to Arahatship should abandon the monastic 
life so many times. The Teacher remarks that in a previous existence he, the 
Teacher, did the same thing himself, and relates the following 

5 a. Story of the Past: Kuddala and his spade. A wise man named Kuddala 
once renounced the monastic life six times, all because of a blunt spade which he had 
used to till the ground. Finally Kuddala made up his mind to put temptation out of 
his way. So taking the spade to the bank of the Ganges, he closed his eyes and threw 
it into the water. As he did so, he cried with a loud voice, " I have conquered!" At 
that moment along came the King of Benares, returning from a successful campaign. 
The king heard Kuddala's exclamation of triumph, and asked him what he meant. 
Kuddala replied, " The victory you have won will have to be won again. But I liave 
conquered the enemy Desire, and he will never conquer me again." Kuddala preached 
the Law to the king, whereupon the king and his retinue retired from the world, his 
royal enemy shortly afterwards following his example. 

6. Monks and tree-spirits [iii. 8 = 40]. Five hundred monks obtain a Subject 
of Meditation from the Teacher and retire to a forest to meditate. Tree-spirits, 
desiring to get rid of the monks, cause them to see bodiless heads and headless trunks, 
to hear voices of demons, and to catch all manner of diseases. The monks return to 
the Teacher and relate their experiences. " I will provide you with a Weapon," 
replies the Teacher. Thereupon he recites the Metta Sutta, and instructs the monks 
to return to the forest and do the same. The monks follow his instructions, the hearts 
of the tree-spirits are suffused with love, and the monks quickly attain Insight. 

7. Cruelty a cause of boils [iii. 9 =41]. Tissa is attacked by boils, and his 
condition becomes so desperate that his fellow-residents, unable to do anything for 
him, cast him out, and he lies on the ground without a protector. The Buddlia goes 
to him, and bathes him with warm water, alleviating his sufferings. Then he preaches 
to him, and he attains Arahatship. The monks express surprise that a youth pre- 
destined to Arahatship should be visited with such an affliction. The Buddha informs 
them that it is the result of evil deeds committed in a previous existence, and relates 
the following 

7 a. Story of the Past: The cruel fowler. A fowler, fearing that if he killed 
and kept the birds he did not sell, they would rot, and desiring to prevent his captive 
birds from taking flight, used to break their bones and pile the birds in a heap. One day 
he gave alms to a monk. The fowler was Tissa. Because of his cruelty, he suffered 
from boils in a later existence; because he gave alms to a monk, he attained Arahat- 
ship. 

8. Nanda the herdsman [iii. 10 = 42]. Nanda the herdsman entertains the 
Teacher for seven days. When the Teacher departs, Nanda accompanies him on his 
way for a considerable distance, and then turns back. On the way back he is hit by 
a stray arrow and killed. The monks remark that had the Teacher not gone to visit 
Nanda, the latter would have escaped death. The Teacher replies that under no 
circumstances could Nanda have escaped death. (No one asks the Teacher about 
Nanda's deed in a previous existence, and therefore the Teacher says nothing'about it.) 

9. Mother of two and father of two [iii. 11 = 43]. A treasurer's son named 
Soreyya, accompanied by a friend, drives out of the city of Soreyya to bathe. Soreyya, 
seeing Elder Maha Kaccayana putting on his mantle, thinks to himself, " Oh, that 
this Elder might become my wife! Else may the hue of my wife's body become like 
the hue of his body!" Instantly Soreyya is transformed into a wcMnan. The woman 
Soreyya goes to Takkasila, is married to the son of a treasurer of that city, and becomes 
the mother of two sons. (There are no men who have not been women at some time or 
other; and no women who have not, at some time or other, been men. Elder Ananda 



90 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

once commitled adultery in an existence as a blacksmith, and as a result spent many 
existences as a woman. Women may obtain rebirth as men by performing works of 
merit.) So the woman Soreyya, who as the man Soreyya was already the father of 
two sons, becomes the mother of two more, making four children in all. At this time 
Soreyya's carriage-companion comes to Takkasila and is entertained by the woman 
Soreyya. The guest expresses surprise that his host should be so kind to him, and 
inquires whether she knows him. Soreyya then tells him the whole story. The guest 
suggests that Soreyya beg the Elder's pardon, assuring her that if she will do so, 
everything will be all right again. Soreyya begs the Elder's pardon, and is instantly 
transformed into a man again. The Elder admits Soreyya to the Order. Soreyya 
commits the two sons of whom he is the mother to the care of their father, and returns 
to Savatthi with the Elder. When the inhabitants leam what has happened, they 
are much excited, and come to Soreyya and ask him, " You are the mother of two 
sons, and the father of two as well; for which pair of sons have you the stronger 
affection? " Soreyya replies, " For the sons of whom I am the mother." Subsequently 
he attains Arahatship. Then he replies, " My affections are set on no one." The 
Teacher praises him for his reply. 

Book IV. Flowers, Puppha Vagga 

1. The soil of the heart [iv. 1-2 = 44-45]. The Teacher rebukes a company 
of monks who are discussing different varieties of soil, telling them that they might 
better be occupied with tilling the soil of the heart. 

2. A monk attains Arahatship [iv. 3 = 46]. A monk who has been unsuccessful 
in the Practice of Meditation, seeing a mirage, concentrates his mind on the following 
thought, " Even as this mirage appears substantial to those that are far off, but van- 
ishes on nearer approach, so also is this existence unsubstantial by reason of birth 
and decay." Seeing a waterfall, he reflects, " Just as these bubbles of foam form and 
burst, so also is this existence formed and so also does it burst." He immediately 
attains Arahatship. 

3. Vidudabha wreaks vengeance on the Sakiyas [iv. 4 = 47]. At Savatthi 
lives Prince Pasenadi, son of the King of Kosala; at Vesali, Prince Mahali, of the 
Licchavi line; at Kusinara, Prince Bandhula, son of the King of the Mallas. These 
three princes resort to a world-renowned teacher at Takkasila for instruction, and, 
chancing to meet in a rest-house, become firm friends. After acquiring the various 
arts, they take leave of their teacher and return to their homes. The King of Kosala 
is so pleased with his son's attainments that he makes him king. Mahali devotes 
himself to the task of educating the Licchavi princes, but over-exerts himself and 
loses the sight of his eyes. The princes erect a gate for him, and remain his devoted 
pupils. Bandhula receives a slight at the hands of the Malla princes, which makes 
him so angry that he determines to kill them and seize the throne. Informed by his 
mother and father that as the kingdom of the MaUas is an hereditary kingdom, his 
plan is bound to fail, he goes to Savatthi and takes up his residence in the household 
of his friend King Pasenadi. Pasenadi makes him Commander-in-chief of his army. 

One day King Pasenadi sees several thousand monks pass through the street. 
Learning that they are on their way to breakfast at the houses of Anathapindika, Culla 
Anathapindika, Visakha, and Suppavasa, the king goes to the Teacher and asks for 
the privilege of entertaining the monks. For seven days the king gives alms to the 
Teacher and the Congregation of Monks; and on the seventh day asks the Teacher 
to come regularly to his house thereafter. The Teacher declines the invitation on the 
ground that many desire the Buddhas to visit them, and sends Ananda in his place. 
For seven days the king serves Ananda and his monks in person, but on the following 



Synopses of stories of Book 4- 91 

<lays is so inattentive to their needs that they drop off one by one, until finally Ananda 
alone is left. At this the king is much offended, and goes to the Teacher and com- 
plains. The Teacher exonerates the monks from blame, and tells the king frankly 
that the monks lack confidence in him. Then, addressing the monks, the Teacher 
explains that a family must possess Nine Distinctive Marks to be entitled to the 
privilege of entertaining monks. Continuing, he remarks that just so in times past 
wise men went to a place worthy of their confidence. So saying, he relates the following 

3 a. Story of tibe Past: Kesava, Kappa, Narada, and the King of Benares. A 
king named Kesava once renounced his throne, and together with five hundred re- 
tainers adopted the life of an ascetic. Kappa, the keeper of his jewels, also retired 
from the world and became his pupil. Kesava accepted the offer of the King of 
Benares to entertain him and his retinue during the season of the rains. But elephants 
so annoyed the monks with their cries that the monks dropped off one by one, untU 
finally Kesava was left alone with his pupil Kappa. After a time even Kappa was 
unable to stand the noise any longer, and left his master. Thereupon Kesava fell 
sick, and begged the king to send him back to his pupils. The king immediately did 
so, sending Narada and three other ministers with him. Kesava immediately re- 
<;overed his health. When Narada asked him how he hked an ascetic's fare, after 
eating the rich food of a king, Kesava replied that he was now completely happy, 
since, after all, a sense of security and confidence is the main thing. End of Story of 
the Past. 

Thereupon King Pasenadi bethinks himself how best to regain the confidence of 
the monks. Concluding that the best way is to take to himself as wife the daughter 
of some kinsman of the Buddha, he sends ambassadors to the Sakiyas, requesting 
one of their daughters in marriage. The King of the Sakiyas sends Vasabhakhattiya, 
daughter of Maha Nama by a slave- woman. King Pasenadi marries her, and in the 
course of time she becomes the mother of a son. Pasenadi sends word to his grand- 
mother to give the child a name. She selects the name Vallabha (Beloved) ; but the 
messenger, being a httle deaf, understands her to say Vidudabha, and so reports to 
the king. Accordingly the child is named Vidudabha. When Vidudabha is seven 
years old, he begins to ask his mother questions about her family; and one day, when 
he has reached the age of sixteen, he expresses the wish to visit his grandparents. 
Vasabhakhattiya reluctantly consents to let him go, taking the precaution to send 
ahead of him the following letter, " I am happy where I am; for the sake of my hus- 
band, say notliing to him." Vidudabha sets out with a large retinue. 

When the Sakiya princes learn of Vidudabha 's approaching visit, they decide 
not to render homage to him, and therefore send away all of the princes who are 
younger than he. When Vidudabha inquires why no one renders homage to him, it 
is explained to him that all those about him are his seniors. One day, however, a 
female slave, while engaged in scrubbing Vidudabha's seat, remarks contemptuously, 
"The seat of the son of the slave-woman Vasabhakhattiya!" A soldier overhears 
the remark, and in a short time it becomes common gossip. When it comes to the 
ears of Vidudabha, he swears the following oath, " As these Sakiyas now wash my 
bench with water, so will I, when I become king, wash it with their blood!" When 
Vidudabha returns to Savatthi, and King Pasenadi learns that Vasabhakhattiya is 
really the daughter of a slave- woman, he is filled with rage, and degrades Vidudabha 
and his mother to the position of slaves. Later, however, on the strength of the 
Buddha's declaration that the family of the father affords the only true measure of 
social position, the king restores them to their former rank. 

At this time Bandhula, Commander-in-chief of King Pasenadi's army, dismisses 
his wife Mallika on the ground of barrenness. The Teacher bids her return to her 
husband, and straightway she conceives a child. One day the longing of pregnancy 



92 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

comes upon her, and she says to her husband, " I long to bathe in the lotus tank of 
Vesali, and to drink the water thereof." Bandhula takes his bow, which requires a 
thousand men to strmg, assists Mallika to mount the chariot, and drives to Vesali. 
Driving away the guards, and tearing down the iron grating about the tank, he admits 
his wife to the lotus tank; and when she has bathed and drunk, drives back by the 
way he came. The Licchavi princes, angered by Bandhula's insolence, mount their 
chariots, five himdred strong, and set out to capture Bandhula. Bandhula waits 
until the file of chariots is so straight that but one chariot-front appears to view; and 
then, stringing his mighty bow, shoots an arrow. The arrow passes through the body 
of every one of the five hundred men. Notwithstanding, they continue the pursuit. 
But Bandhula stops his chariot and cries out, " You are all dead men ! I will not fight 
with the dead." " Do we look like dead men.'' " " Loosen the girdle of your leader." 
They do so, and immediately he falls down dead. The rest return to their homes, 
arrange their affairs for death, and take off their armor, whereupon they all fall down 
dead. 

Sixteen times Mallika bears twin sons to Bandhula, and all of them become 
mighty men. Bandhula by his upright conduct incurs the enmity of unjust judges, 
who go to the king and accuse him of disloyalty. The king orders Bandhula and his 
sons to proceed to the frontier to put down an insurrection, and at the same time 
suborns men to kill them on their return. Thus Bandhula and his sons are murdered. 
News of the murder is brought to Mallika on the morning of the day on which she 
has invited the Chief Disciples to be her guests. During the meal one of the servants 
drops a dish and breaks it. Sariputta says to her, " Heed it not." Mallika draws 
from a fold of her dress the letter she received that morning, and replies, " If I heed 
not the murder of my husband and my two and thirty sons, I am not likely to heed 
the breaking of a mere dish." Mallika addresses her sons' wives, assuring them that 
as their husbands had hved blameless lives, their sudden end must be understood as 
the fruit of evil deeds committed in previous existences, and urging them to cherish 
no bitter feehngs against the king. The king, up)on learning that the charges brought 
against Bandhula are false, makes such amends as he can to Mallika. 

King Pasenadi appoints to the post of Commander-in-chief a nephew of Bandhula, 
named Dighakarayana. Dighakarayana does not forget that Pasenadi caused his uncle 
to be murdered, and bides his time for revenge. One day, while the Teacher is in 
residence in a neighboring village, Pasenadi sets out with a small body-guard to pay 
him a visit. As the king is about to enter the Perfumed Chamber, he hands the royal 
insignia to Dighakarayana. The latter immediately hastens to Savatthi and pro- 
claims Vidudabha king. Vidudabha remembers the oath he swore against the Sakiyas, 
and sets out with a large force, intending to kiU them all. The Teacher, aware of the 
imf)ending destruction of his Idnsmen, seats himself under the shade of a small tree 
near Kapilavatthu. Thrice Vidudabha sees him and turns back. The fourth time, 
the Teacher, knowing that because in a previous existence his kinsmen threw poison 
into the water, they must needs be slain, goes no more to the tree. So Vidudabha goes 
forth to slay his enemies. The Sakiyas, as kinsmen of the Buddha, are unwilling to 
slay any of their enemies, and therefore make only a show of resistance. Vidudabha 
destroys them utterly, and washes his bench with their blood. 

Maha Nama, rather than eat with Vidudabha, commits suicide. By reason of 
his merit he is translated to the Abode of the Nagas, where he remains for twelve 
years. Vidudabha searches for him in vain, and then sets out on his return journey. 
At nightfall Vidudabha pitches camp in the bed of the river Aciravatt. During the 
night a violent storm arises, the bed of the river is filled with a raging torrent, and 
Vidudabha and his retinue p«-ish in the waters. 

4. Husband-honorer [iv. 5 = 48]. While the deity Garland-wearer b disporting 



Synopses of stories of Book -4 93 

himself in the Garden of the Thirty-three, one of his wives passes from that state of 
existence and is reborn in Savatthi. Remembering her former estate, she performs 
many works of merit, making the Earnest Wish that she may be reborn as Garland- 
wearer's wife. When she marries, her devotion to her husband is so marked that she 
becomes known as Husband-honorer. When she dies, she is reborn as Garland-wearer's 
wife. When she passed from the World of the Thirty-three, it was morning, and even 
now it is only evening. When she tells Garland-wearer that men live only a hmidred 
years, and that, in spite of the shortness of human life, men are ever heedless, he is 
greatly surprised and perturbed. The Teacher, drawing a lesson from Husband- 
honorer 's life, warns the monks of the shortness of human life. 

5. Niggardly Kosiya [iv. 6 = 49]. A niggardly treasurer desires to eat a cake, 
but for fear of having to share it with his neighbors, compels his wife to do the cooking 
on the seventh storey of his house. The Teacher bids Moggallana transport the 
treasurer, his wife, and the cake to Jetavana. All of a sudden the treasurer sees 
Moggallana, poised in the air, looking in through the window. Moggallana indicates 
that he wishes to have something to eat. The treasurer blusters and threatens and 
refuses to give him anything. Finally, in hope of getting rid of the Elder, the 
treasurer bids his wife cook one little cake for him. But each cake his wife cooks 
grows bigger than the previous one, and when his wife tries to take a single cake from 
the basket, the cakes all stick together. In despair the treasurer presents cakes, 
basket, and all, to the Elder. The Elder preaches the Law to the treasurer and his 
wife, dwelling on the importance of almsgiving, and then transports the treasurer, 
his wife, and the cakes to Jetavana. The Teacher and his five hundred monks eat 
as much as they desire, and yet there is no end to the cakes that remain. After listen- 
ing to the Teacher, the treasurer and his wife are established in the Fruit of Con- 
version, and the treasurer spends his entire wealth in the Religion of the Buddha. .The 
Teacher informs the monks that this is not the first time Moggallana has converted 
the treasurer, and relates the Uhsa Jataka. 

6. Pathika the Naked Ascetic [iv. 7 = 50]. A Naked Ascetic seeks to prevent 
the wife of a certain householder from hearing the Buddha. Accordingly she decides 
to invite the Teacher to her house, and sends her young son to deliver the message. 
The Naked Ascetic discovers where the boy is going, and tells him to give the Teacher 
wrong directions, assuring him that if the Teacher fails to come, both he and the boy 
will have all the more to eat. The boy does as the Naked Ascetic tells him, but the 
Teacher, knowing the way of himself, comes at the appointed time. The Naked 
Ascetic is greatly provoked, reviles his benefactor, and leaves the house. The Teacher, 
observing that the mind of his hostess is agitated, urges her to pay no attention to 
the sins of others, but to give heed to her own shortcomings. 

7. The king and the King of Kings [iv. 8-9 = 51-52]. When King Pasenadi 
Kosala comes to pay his respects to the Teacher, Chattapani withholds homage. 
The king is provoked, but the Teacher justifies Chattapani's conduct, and the king 
says nothing more about it. One day the king sees Chattapani pass through the court- 
yard, and causes him to be summoned within. Chattapani lays aside his parasol and 
sandals, and comes into the king's presence without them. The king remarks that 
at last Chattapani seems to have found out that he is a king. Chattapani replies 
that he always knew it. The king then asks him why he withheld homage on the day 
when he went to see the Teacher. Chattapani replies that since he was seated in the 
presence of the King of Kings, it was not fitting that he should rise on seeing the king 
of one of his provinces. The king, satisfied by his answer, asks Chattapani to preach 
the Law in the women's apartments. Chattapani, not being a monk, declines. At 
the request of the king, the Teacher deputes Ananda to preach in the palace. Mallika 
learns quickly, but Vasabhakhattiya makes little progress. 



94 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

8. Marriage of Visakhi [iv. 10 = S3]. Visakha is the daughter of Dhanafijaya, 
a treasurer of the city of Bhaddiya. Dhanafijaya, at the request of King Pasenadi 
Kosala, removes to the kingdom of Kosala, and settles in Saketa, not far from Savatthi. 
By this time Visakha, who attained the Fruit of Conversion at the age of seven, has 
reached marriageable age. At Savatthi lives Punnavaddhana, son of the treasurer 
Migara. Punnavaddhana agrees to marry a girl possessed of the Five Beauties, if 
such can be foimd. Eight Brahmans devote themselves to the task of finding such a 
girl, and one day, seeing Visaklia, and discovering that she is possessed of the Five 
Beauties, go to her father and ask her hand in marriage. Dhanafijaya consents, and 
the Brahmans inform Migara. Migara and Pasenadi, accompanied by their reti- 
nues, pay a visit to Dhanafijaya. In the meantime Dhanafijaya causes a magnifi- 
cent parure to be made for his daughter, and provides her with a splendid dowry. When 
it is time for Visakha to go, her father enjoins upon her the observance of the following 
Ten Injunctions: The indoor fire is not to be carried outside; the outdoor fire is not 
to be carried inside; give only to him that gives; give not to him that gives not; give 
both to him that gives, and to him that gives not; sit happily; eat happily; sleep 
happily; tend the fire; honor the household divinities. Migara happens to be sitting 
in the next room, and overhears all that Dhanafijaya says. Dhanafijaya then appoints 
eight sponsors for Visakha, and directs them to try her in case any charges are brought 
against her. He then entrusts her to the care of King Pasenadi and the treasurer, who 
return with her to Savatthi. So Visakha, arrayed in her magnificent parure, and 
accompanied by a splendid retinue, enters Savatthi in the train of the king, and 
immediately wins the hearts of all the inhabitants. 

That night Visakha's thoroughbred mare gives birth to a foal, whereupon Visakhfi 
rises from her bed, goes to the stable, and bathes the mare. At this her father-in-law 
is much displeased. Now Migara is a supporter of the Naked Ascetics of the Jain 
Order, and when the Naked Ascetics learn that a disciple of the monk Gotama has 
become the wife of his son, they urge him to expel her from the house. Subsequently, 
at the close of a day on which Migara has entertained the Naked Ascetics, he over- 
hears Visakha remark that he is eating " stale fare." Migara then and there orders 
her out of the house. Visaklia, however, claims the right of being tried before her 
eight sponsors. Accordingly Migara causes the sp)onsors to be summoned, and brings 
three charges agaiast his daughter-in-law: first, that she has accused him of eating 
what is unclean; secondly, that she left the house at night; thirdly, that she has 
performed the work of menials. Visakha clears herself of guilt on the first count by 
explaining that all she meant to say was that he was living on stale merit instead of 
acquiring fresh merit; she then explains that she left the house at night for the sole 
purpose of attending her mare; the third charge is dropped. 

Migara then asks Visakha to explain the meaning of the Ten Injunctions. Visakhfi 
explains them as follows: " The indoor fire is not to be carried outside," means that 
a wife must say nothing about the faults of her father-in-law or her husband. " The 
outdoor fire is not to be carried inside," means that a wife must not tell her father-in- 
law or her husband anything ill she hears of them. " Give only to him that gives," 
means that one should give only to those that return borrowed articles. " Give not 
to him that gives not," means that one should not give to those that do not return 
borrowed articles. " Give both to him that gives, and to him that gives not," means 
that when poor folk seek assistance, one should give to them, whether or not they are 
able to repay. " Sit happily," means that a wife must not remain sitting when she 
sees her husband or his parents. " Eat happily," means that a wife must not eat 
imtil she has served her husband and his parents. " Sleep happily," means that a 
wife must not go to bed in advance of her husband and his parents. " Tend the fire," 
means that a wife must reverence her husband and his parents as a flame of fire. 



Synopses of stories of Book 4- 95 

** Honor the household divinities," means that a wife must look upon her husband 
and his parents as her divinities. 

ThereupwDn Migara, finding no fault in Visakha, begs her to pardon him. Visakha 
does so, but tells him that now that she has been cleared of all charges, it is her inten- 
tion to leave his house. She consents to stay, however, on condition that she shall 
be allowed to entertain the Buddha. On the occasion of the Buddha's first visit, 
Migara and his wife are established in the Fruit of Conversion. Visakha's life abounds 
in good works, and she lives to be a hundred and twenty years old. She endeavors to 
sell her magnificent parure, intending to devote the proceeds to the Order; but finding 
that no one else is rich enough to buy it, makes up the price herself, and erects a splen- 
did monastery. The Teacher informs the monks that Visakha's happiness is the 
result of good works performed in previous existences, and relates the following —■•'^ 

8 a. Story of the Past : Visakha's Earnest Wish. In the dispensations of previous 
Buddhas, Visakha gave alms and made the following Earnest Wish, " May I receive 
the Eight Boons at the hands of some future Buddha, and may I be the foremost of 
the women entitled to provide him with the Four Requisites." 

9. Elder Anasda's question [iv. 11-12 = 54-55]. Elder Ananda asks the 
Teacher, " Is there any perfume that goes against the wind?" The Teacher replies, 
" Certainly, the perfume of good works." 

10. Sakka gives alms to Elassapa the Great [iv. 13 = 56]. Sakka's five hundred 
wives endeavor to obtain the privilege of giving alms to Kassapa the Great, but the 
Elder refuses their request on the ground that he prefers to allow the poor to accumulate 
merit by so doing. When Sakka learns this, he disguises himself as an old weaver and 
gives alms to the Elder. When the Elder discovers that Sakka has deceived him, he 
reproaches him. But Sakka explains that he hopes by the performance of this and 
other good works to outshine certain other deities. 

11. Godhika attains Nibbana [iv. 14 = 57]. Elder Godhika, finding himself 
impeded in the practice of Ecstatic Meditation by a certain disease, draws a razor and 
cuts his throat, passing at once to Nibbana. Mara, in the form of a pillar of smoke, 
seeks his rebirth-consciousness. The Buddha informs him that he is engaged in a 
futile task. 

12. Sirigutta and Garahadlnna [iv. 15-16 = 58-59]. At Savatthi live two 
friends, Sirigutta, a disciple of the Buddha, and Garahadinna, a disciple of the Naked 
Ascetics of the Jain Order. Garahadinna reproaches Sirigutta for visiting the monk 
Gotama, and urges him to transfer his allegiance to the Naked Ascetics, principally 
on the ground that the Naked Ascetics know everybody's thoughts, words, and 
actions, and can therefore teU just what is going to happen, and just what is not 
going to happen. Sirigutta invites the Naked Ascetics to his house, and resolves to 
put them to the test. Accordingly he has a ditch dug and filled with filth, ropes 
stretched longitudinally over the ditch, and the seats so placed, with the front legs 
resting on the ground, and the back legs resting on the ropes, that the instant the 
heretics sit down, they will be tipped over backwards and precipitated into the ditch. 
When the Naked Ascetics visit him, this very thing happens. Garahadinna resolves 
to get revenge by humiliating the Buddha and his disciples. He employs much the 
same stratagem, except that instead of filling the ditch with filth, he has it filled with 
glowing coals. But the Buddha, by an exercise of supernatural power, causes an 
enormous lotus-flower to spring up from the bed of coals. And sitting thereon, sur- 
rounded by his five hundred monks, he creates an abundant supply of food, and 
preaches the Law. Grarahadiona, Sirigutta, and many others attain the Fruit of 
Conversion. 



96 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 



Book V. The Simpleton, Bala Vagga 

1. The king and the poor man with a beautiful wife [v. 1 = 60]. King Pasenadi 
Kosala falls in love with the beautiful wife of a certain poor man. He determines to 
kill the man and take his wife. He therefore appoints the man a servant in his house- 
hold, hoping that the man will commit some fault and give him a plausible excuse for 
killing him. Finding no fault in the man, the king orders him to go to the country of 
the dragons, procure water-lilies and red earth, and return to him at bathing-time. 
The poor man goes hastily to the country of the dragons, makes over to the dragons 
the merit of offerings of rice to a traveler and to the fish in the water, and implores 
the dragons to give him water-lilies and red earth. The king of the dragons appears 
to him in the guise of an old man and answers his prayer. King Pasenadi has the door 
of his palace closed before bathing-time, fearing that if the poor man should obtain 
what he sent him for, his purpose would not succeed. The poor man returns at bathing- 
time, and finding the door of the palace closed, places the red earth on the threshold, 
hangs the flowers over the door, and calls upon everybody to witness that he has 
executed the king's order. That night, as the king lies sleepless on his bed, consumed 
with passion as he thinks of the woman, he hears four terrible sounds. The Brahmans 
play upon his fears and persuade him to order the sacrifice of every kind of living 
creature. Queen Mallika rebukes him for his credulity and conducts him to the 
Buddha. The Buddha informs the king that the sounds he heard were uttered by 
sinners in torment, and relates the following 

1 a. Story of the Past: The Hell Pot. In the dispensation of the Buddha 
Kassapa, four sons of wealthy merchants committed adultery for twenty thousand 
years. When they died, they were reborn in the Avici hell, where they suffered torment 
during the interval between two Buddhas. Since the fruit of their evil deeds was not 
yet exhausted, they were reborn in the Hell Pot. In the course of thirty thousand 
years they reached the bottom, and after thirty thousand years more they came to the 
rim. Desiring to give expression of their remorse, they opened their lips and began 
to speak. But after uttering one single syllable apiece, they flopped over and sank 
back again into the Hell Pot. The Buddha completed the stanzas which the four 
sinners had left uncompleted ; and the king, brought to a realization of his wickedness, 
resolved nevermore to set his heart on another man's wife. The king ordered the 
release of the victims brought for the sacrifice. The Buddha informed the monks that 
it was not the first time Queen Mallika had saved the lives of the innocent, and related 
the following 

1 b. Story of the Past: The King of Benares and Queen Dinna. The heir 
apparent of the King of Benares vowed to offer the blood of a hundred kings and a 
hundred queens to a tree-spirit if he came into the kingdom on the death of his father. 
When he became King of Benares, he captured the hundred kings and hundred queens 
and prepared to fulfill his vow. Queen Dinna, consort of King Uggasena, was great 
with child, and the King of Benares therefore released her. The tree-spirit, knowing 
that the King of Benares was acting on the conviction that he had captured the kings 
and queens with his assistance, and desiring to prevent him from carrying out his 
purpose, sought the advice of Sakka. Acting on Sakka's advice, the tree-spirit threat- 
ened to leave his abode on the ground that the king had violated his promise by releas- 
ing Queen Dinna. The King of Benares immediately summoned Queen Dinna. Queen 
Dinna refused to pay obeisance either to the King of Benares or to the tree-spirit, 
and convinced the King of Benares that the tree-spirit had had nothing to do with his 
success. As the Queen spoke, she first wept and then laughed. The King asked her 
the reason for this, and the Queen related the following 



Synopses of stories of Book 5 97 

1 c. Story of the Past: The woman who killed a ewe. In a previous state of 
existence, Queen Dinna killed a ewe for food. As a punishment for this wicked deed, 
she was reborn in hell. Afterwards, since the fruit of her wicked deed was not yet 
exhausted, her own head was cut off just as many times as there were hairs in the 
ewe's fleece. The thought of the suffering which she had endured made her weep, and 
the joy which she felt over her release made her exult. The king was thus brought to 
a realization of the enormity of the deed he was minded to commit, and immediately 
ordered the release of the hundred kings and the hundred queens. 

2. The rebellious pupil [v. 2 =61]. The Elder Kassapa has two pupils. One 
of them performs his duties faithfully, but the other shirks his duties and seeks to 
take credit for work really done by his brother-pupil . One day the faithless pupil 
obtains food from a supporter of the Elder on the plea that the Elder has sent liim for 
it, and then eats it himself. The Elder, discovering his deceit, rebukes him. In order 
to show his resentment of the rebuke, the faithless pupil sets fire to the Elder's hut. 
The Buddha, learning of the occurrence, informs the monks that it is not the first 
time he has destroyed a dwelling-place, and relates the following 

2 a. Story of the Past: The monkey and the singila bird, Kutidusaka Jataka. 
A singila bird reproached a monkey for his inconstancy. The monkey, to show his 
resentment of the rebuke, destroyed the bird's nest. The singila bird was Kassapa, 
and the monkey was the rebellious pupil. 

3. A Jonah in the house [v. 3 =62]. 

3 a. The niggardly treasurer. Ananda, a niggardly treasurer, admonishes his 
son Mulasiri not to let the pennies slip through his fingers. Some time afterwards, 
he shows his son his five great stores of treasure, dies, and is reborn as a monstrosity 
in a community of Candalas. The king appoints Mulasiri treasurer. 

3 b. Sequel: A Jonah in the house. From the day the monstrosity is bom, the 
community of Candalas receives no more wages, and has not a mouthful of rice to eat. 
Concluding that this is due to the presence of a Jonah among them, the Candalas 
make an mvestigation, discover the monstrosity, and expel mother and son from 
the conununity. The monstrosity is forced to beg his food from door to door. One 
day he enters the house in which he once Uved as master. Mulasiri's young sons take 
fright at the monstrosity, and the servants seize their former master, drag him out 
of the house, and fling him on a pile of rubbish. Just at that moment the Buddha 
passes the house. The Buddha informs Mulasiri that the monstrosity is none other 
than his own father. Mulasiri will not believe him. The Buddha directs the mon- 
strosity to point out his five stores of treasure to his son. The monstrosity does so, 
and Mulasiri believes and seeks refuge in the Buddha. 

4. The pickpocket [v. 4 =63]. Two thieves go to hear the Law. One of them 
is converted, and the other picks a pocket. The pickpocket calls his companion a 
simpleton for failing to take advantage of such a golden opportunity. 

5. The wise fool [v. 5 = 64]. The Elder Udayi used to sit m the Seat of the Law 
after the Great Elders had left the Hall of Truth. Some visiting monks, thinking 
that he must be a man of learning, questioned him, and discovered that he was 
a simpleton. 

6. From vice to virtue [v. 6 = 65], The Buddha meets thirty youths in a grove, 
where they have gone seeking a woman. They at once obey the command to follow 
him, and in a very short time attain Arahatship. The monks comment on the sudden- 
ness of their conversion. The Teacher remarks that it is the fruit of merit acquired in 
a previous existence, and relates the Tundila Jataka. 

7. A leper is tempted to deny his faith [v. 7 = 66]. A leper listens to the Law 
and attains the Fruit of Conversion. In order to test the sincerity of his conversion, 
Sakka promises him limitless wealth if he will deny his faith. The leper indignantly 



98 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

refuses to do so. The leper approaches the Buddha, retires, and sets out for his home* 
When he has gone but a Httle way, he is kicked by a young heifer and killed. 

7 a. Story of the Past: The fotir youths and the courtezan. Four youths, after 
taking their pleasure with a courtezan, plotted to rob and kill her. The courtezan 
overheard the plot, and when the youths were about to kill her, prayed that she 
might be reborn as an ogress, able to kiU them even as they were killing her. One 
of these youths was the leper. The courtezan was the ogress, disguised as a heifer. 

7 b. Story of the Past: The insolent youth. Suppabuddha was reborn as a 
leper because in a previous state of existence he had spat upon a Private Buddha. 

8. A fanner is unjustly accused of theft [v. 8 = 67]. A pack of thieves rob a 
house, and divide their spoils in a field. One of the thieves drops in the field a purse 
which he has secreted in a fold of his garment, without noticing his loss. The Buddha 
goes to the field with the Elder Ananda, and in the hearing of the farmer, makes a 
veiled reference to the purse. The farmer discovers the purse and buries it. The 
owners of the stolen property trail the thieves to the field, recover the purse, and 
accuse the farmer of having robbed the house. As the farmer is being led to the place 
of execution, he repeats the words uttered by the Buddha. The executioners take 
him to the king, and the truth comes out. Thus does the Buddha save an honest 
farmer from being convicted of theft on circumstantial evidence. 

9. Sumana the gardener [v. 9 = 68]. One day Sumana, gardener to King 
Bimbisara, honors the Buddha with eight measures of jasmine flowers intended for 
the king. The Buddha proclaims throughout the city the meritorious deed of the 
gardener, and the king rewards him with eightfold gifts. 

.10. Rape of Uppalavanna [v. 10 = 69]. A maiden of wondrous beauty rejects 
all of her suitors, becomes a nun, and attains Arahatship. She takes up her residence 
alone in a forest hermitage. A former suitor, learning her whereabouts, goes to the 
hermitage and assaults her. The Buddlia preaches to the monks on the transitoriness- 
of sinful pleasures. On a subsequent occasion the monks raise the question whether 
Arahats are to be blamed for gratifyuig their passions. The Buddha admonishes 
them that sexual passion no more adheres to the Arahat than a drop of water to a 
lotus-leaf. The Buddha persuades Kling Pasenadi Kosala to erect a convent for the 
nuns within the city, and forbids the nuns thenceforth to reside in the forest. 

11. Jambvika the Naked Ascetic [v. 11 = 70]. 

11a. Story of the Past: The jealous monk. In the dispensation of the Buddha 
Kassapa, a resident monk, jealous of the attentions of his supporter to a visiting monk, 
reviles him. He tells him that he might better eat excrement than eat food given him. 
by the layman, that he might better tear out his hair than permit it to be shaved by 
the layman's barber, that he might better go naked than wear a robe given him 
by the layman, and that he might better lie on the ground than on the bed provided by 
the layman. The visiting monk departs without making a reply. 

11 b. Story of the Present: Jambuka the Naked Ascetic. The jealous monk 
is reborn in a well-to-do household of Rajagaha. From the day he can walk, he- 
refuses to eat ordinary food and eats only his own excrement. When he grows older, 
he goes naked and makes his bed on the ground. His parents decide that he is fit to- 
live only with the Naked Ascetics. The Naked Ascetics admit him to their Order, 
placing him in a pit up to his neck, and tearing out his hair with a palmyra comb. Jam- 
buka refuses to accompany the Naked Ascetics on their rounds for alms, but waits 
imtil his brethren are out of sight, and then goes to the public jakes and makes a. 
meal of excrement. When people come to defecate, he stands on one foot, resting the. 
other on the knee, leaning on a rock, his mouth wide open in the direction of the wind. 
When people ask him why he stands in this posture, he replies that he is a wmd-eater 
practicing austerities. He steadfastly refuses to accept food. One day, however, he 



Synopses of stories of Book 5 99 

places on the tip of his tongue with the tip of a blade of kusa grass some butter and 
honey, dismissing the people with the assurance that their gift will avail to their ever- 
lasting salvation. Thus he spends fifty-five years of his life. One day the Buddha 
visits him, taking up his abode in a cave near by. In the night the Buddha is waited 
upon by the Four Great Kings, Sakka, and Brahma. On the following morning, in 
reply to Jambuka's questions, the Buddha proclaims his superiority to all of these 
deities. The Buddha then admonishes Jambuka, establishing him in Arahatship. 

12. The snake-ghost and the crow-ghost [v. 12 = 71]. As Moggallana descends 
Mount Vulture-peak with Lakkhana, Moggallana smiles. Lakkhana asks him why 
he smiles. Moggallana replies that he will tell him as soon as they are in the presence 
of the Teacher. When they are in the presence of the Teacher, Lakkhana repeats 
his question. Moggallana tells him he saw a snake-ghost all aflame. On another 
occasion Moggallana saw a crow-ghost. Moggallana asked him about his former deed, 
and the crow-ghost related the following 

12 a. Story of the Past: The crow-ghost. " In the dispensation of the Buddha 
Kassapa I was a crow. I once ate three mouthfuls of food which remained over and 
above to monks who had eaten. As the result of this misdeed, I was reborn in the 
Avici hell. Afterwards, since the fruit of my misdeed was not yet exhausted, I was 
reborn as a crow-ghost." End of Story of the crow-ghost. 

The Buddha corroborates Moggallana's statement regardmg the snake-ghost, 
and declares that he himself saw the same ghost as he sat on the Throne of Enlighten- 
ment. The monks ask the Buddha to teU them about his former deed, and the Buddha 
relates the following 

12 b. Story of the Past: The snake-ghost. The leaf -hut of a Private Buddha 
once stood on the bank of the river near Benares, and every morning and evening 
the residents of the city trooped thither with offerings. In so doing, they trampled 
the field of a certain farmer. The farmer protested, but without avail. Finally the 
farmer became so angry that he set fire to the Private Buddha's hut. The people 
were indignant, and taking up sticks and stones, beat the farmer to death. The 
farmer was reborn in the Avici hell, and afterwards was reborn as a snake-ghost. 

13. The sledge-hammer ghost [v. 13 = 72]. Under the same circumstances as 
in the preceding story, Moggallana sees a ghost belabored about the head with sledge- 
hammers. The Buddha relates the following 

13 a. Story of the Past: The stone-thrower and his pupil. A cripple who was 
an adept at the art of throwing stones, made his living by cutting the leaves of a banyan 
tree in the shape of animals of various kinds. His skill attracted the attention of the 
king, who was troubled by a talkative house-priest. The king employed the cripple 
to stop the mouth of the house-priest by tossing pellets of goat's dung into the mouth 
of the house-priest while the latter was talking. The king was so pleased at the success 
of his plan, that he rewarded the cripple with eightfold gifts. The cripple's rise in the 
world led another man to become his pupil. The cripple admonished his pupil to 
hit nothing possessed of mother or father or other kin. The pupil, seeing a Private 
Buddha, threw a stone at him. The Private Buddha passed into Nibbana. The 
indignant people beat the stone-thrower to death. He was reborn in the Avici hell, 
and afterwards, as a ghost, belabored about the head with sledge-hammers. 

14. Citta and Sudhamma [v. 14-15 = 73-74]. The layman Citta entertains 
Mahanama and the Chief Disciples and gives generous gifts. Sudhamma, a monk 
resident in Citta's household, becomes jealous of the layman, and insults him. The 
Buddha rebukes Sudhamma and directs him to beg Citta's pardon. Sudhamma does 
so. Citta visits the Buddha. When he salutes the Buddha, there is a rain of flowers 
from heaven. Citta is honored by the Buddha, deities, and men. The Buddha relates 
the following 



100 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

14 a. Story of the Past: Citta's deed in a former birth. In the dispensation of 
the Buddha Kassapa, Citta was reborn as a hunter. One day he presented offerings 
of food and flowers to a monk, making the Earnest Wish that his heart might be glad- 
dened in subsequent births by presents and by flowers rained from heaven. 

15. A seven-year-old novice wins all hearts [v. 16 = 75]. 

15 a. Story of the Past: The poor Brahman. Sariputta visits Mahasena, a 
poor Brahman. Mahasena, having no alms to give him, hides himself. Later on he 
receives a portion of rice porridge and gives it all to Sariputta, making the Earnest 
Wish that he may receive happiness in the next life. 

15 b. Story of the Present: The novice Tissa. Mahasena is conceived in the 
womb of the wife of a supporter of the Elder Sariputta. The expectant mother longs 
to entertaua the monks and satisfies her longing. On the day of the child's birth he 
presents a blanket to Sariputta. He is named Tissa after the Elder, whose name as 
a layman was Upatissa. When Tissa is seven years old, he becomes a novice of the 
Elder Sariputta. For seven days his parents give alms. On the eighth day the novice 
accompanies the monks to the city for alms. The citizens present him with five hundred 
cushions and five hundred portions of food. On the following day they come to the 
monastery and repeat their offering. Thus in two days the novice receives a thousand 
cushions and a thousand portions of food. These he presents to the monks, who give 
him the name Tissa the Food-giver. 

One day the novice notices the monks warming themselves by the fire, and invites 
them to accompany him to the city for blankets. So monks to the number of a thou- 
sand set out under the leadership of a seven-year-old novice. He receives five hundred 
blankets without the city and five hundred within. A shop-keeper, warned by a 
niggard that a novice is collecting blankets, hides two costly blankets. But when the 
novice comes in sight, the shop-keeper takes a fancy to him, and straightway presents 
him with the two blankets. The novice returns to the monastery with a thousand 
blankets, and presents them all to the monks, who give him the name Tissa the Blanket- 
giver. 

The novice receives a Subject of Meditation from the Buddha and fares forth 
twenty leagues into the forest. Meeting an old man at the gate of a village, he inquires 
of him whether there is a forest hermitage in the neighborhood. The old man answers 
in the affirmative, and taking a fancy to the child, escorts him to the hermitage with 
the most respectful attentions. The old man then goes to the village and proclaims 
to the villagers that Tissa the Forest-dweller has taken up his residence at the hermit- 
age. Thus did a novice receive four names in seven years. The novice wins the hearts 
of all the villagers. In the third month of residence he attains Arahatship. The 
Chief Disciples with a retinue of forty thousand monks visit the novice. The novice 
preaches the Law to the multitude. There is a difference of opinion among the sup- 
porters of the novice as to the merits of his discourse. The Buddha visits the village 
and reconciles their differences. The novice walks with the Buddha and talks with 
him. They ascend a mountain together, and the Buddha asks him what thought 
comes into his mind as he gazes upon the Great Ocean. The novice replies that he is 
reminded of the tears of sorrow which he has shed in previous births. The Buddha 
asks him what thought most impresses him as he dwells in his cave. The novice 
replies that he is reminded of the times when he has died and when his body has been 
laid on the groimd. The Buddha remarks that there is no spot on earth where men 
have not died, and relates the Upasalhaka Jataka. 

Digression: But Elder Ananda, in order to prevent a quarrel between his sup- 
porters over the possession of his relics, passed into Nibbana in mid-air. 

Story of the Present completed: The Buddha asks the novice his impressions of 
the forest. The novice replies that he has come to love the forest. The Buddha returns 



Synopses of stories of Books 5-6 101 

to the Jetavana, while the novice remains in the forest. The monks express surprise 
that the novice should renoimce gain and honor to remain in the forest. 

Book VI. The Wise Man, Pandita Vagga 

1. A poor man wins spiritual treasure [vi. 1 =76]. Sariputta receives into the 
Order a poor man who once gave him a ladleful of his food. The poor man prove§ to 
be a model disciple. The monks comment on Sariputta's grateful recognition of the 
poor man's gift. The Buddha remarks that it is not the first time Sariputta has shown 
himself grateful, and relates the following 

1 a. Story of the Past: The grateful elephant, Alinacitta Jataka. An elephant 
runs a thom into his foot, and some carpenters remove it. The elephant out of grate- 
fulness serves the carpenters and presents his son to them. The grateful elephant 
was Sariputta. 

2. The insolent monks [vi. 2 = 77]. Certain monks are guilty of disorderly 
conduct. The Buddha directs the Chief Disciples to admonish and instruct them. 

3. The insolent monk [vi. 3 =78]. Elder Channa is boastful and insolent, and 
the Buddha can do nothing with him. After the Buddha has passed into Nibbana, 
Elder Ananda inflicts upon Channa the punishment known as " brahmadanda." 
Channa is overwhelmed with remorse, and in no long time attains Arahatship. 

4. Kappina the Great [vi. 4 = 79]. 

4 a. Story of the Past: Weavers and householders. Kappina made his Earnest 
Wish at the feet of the Buddha Padumuttara. In a later birth he was reborn as the 
senior of a commvmity of weavers. The senior weaver and his wife, assisted by the 
community, once entertained a thousand Private Buddhas. In the dispensation of 
the Buddha Kassapa, they were reborn as householders of Benares. One day the 
community of householders went to hear the Law. Just then it began to rain. Unable 
to find shelter in the monastery, they determined to erect a monastery. When the 
monastery was completed, they presented it to the monks and gave abundant alms. 
The wife of the senior householder presented a garment of the color of anoja flowers 
and a casket of anoja flowers to the Buddha, and made an Earnest Wish. 

4 b. Story of the Present: King Kappina and Queen Anoja. The householders 
are reborn in the city of KukkutavatI, the senior householder and his wife as the kuig 
and queen respectively, and the others in the households of courtiers. King Kappma 
and his thousand courtiers and Queen Anoja and her thousand ladies-in-waiting, hear- 
ing of the appearance in the world of the Buddha, the Law, and the Order, give 
splendid gifts, set out to visit the Buddha, cross three rivers on dry foot by making 
Acts of Truth, and retire from the world. The Elder Kappina exclaims wherever he 
goes, " Oh happiness!" The monks conclude that he has in mind the happmess of 
ruling. The Buddha informs them that the Elder refers to the happiness of Nibbana. 

5. Pandita the novice [vi. 5 = 80]. 

5 a. Story of the Past: Sakka and the poor man. A poor man and his wife, 
assisted by Sakka, entertain the Buddha Kassapa. A rain of jewels falls upon his 
house, and urns of treasure come to light therein. 

5 b. Story of the Present: Pandita, the seven-year-old novice. The poor man 
is conceived in the womb of the wife of a supporter of Elder Sariputta. The expectant 
mother longs to entertain the monks and satisfies her longuig. From the child's 
conception, those of the household who were stupid or deaf or dumb became wise, 
and therefore he is given the name Wiseman, Pandita. When he is seven years old, 
he becomes a novice of Elder Sariputta. One day he accompanies the Elder on his 
rounds, sees ditch-diggers, fletchers, and carpenters at work, and asks the Elder many 
questions. The ease with which men control inanimate things suggests to the novice 



102 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

the thought of so controlling his reason as to win Arahatship, Pandita takes leave of 
the Elder, requesting him to bring him the choicest portions of redfish, returns to his 
cell, and engages in meditation. At the command of Sakka, the Four Great Kings 
drive the noisy birds from the monastery park and keep watch over the four quarters, 
and the moon and the sun stand still. Sakka guards the string of the door, and the 
Buddha keeps watch over the gate. The Elder brings the choicest portions of redfish, 
and the Teacher asks him four questions. Pandita overhears the Elder's answers 
and attains Arahatship. 

6. Unshaken as a rock [vi. 6 =81]. Novices pull the hair and tweak the nose 
and ears of a dignified monk. The monk shows no resentment. The Buddha com- 
pares him to a solid rock. 

7. After the stonn, calm [vi. 7 = 82]. The mother of Kana is so generous to 
the monks that she is forced to send Kana to her husband empty-handed. Kana's 
husband puts her away, and takes to himself another wife. Kana, furiously angry, 
reviles the monks. The Buddha talks with her and calms her. The king adopts Kana, 
and one of his nobles marries her. The Buddha informs the monks that it is not the 
first time he has persuaded Kana to obey him, and relates the Babbu Jataka. 

8. A pack of vagabonds [vi. 8 =83]. The Buddha, accompanied by five hundred 
monks, visits Veranja, and at the invitation of the Brahman Veranja enters upon 
residence. Mara takes possession of the Brahman, and causes him to forget his 
obligations to the Buddha. The monks, despite the scarcity of food, live in tran- 
quillity. The Buddha returns to Jetavana with the monks. The monks permit a 
pack of vagabonds to live within the monastery enclosure. The vagabonds misbehave 
themselves within the very shadow of the monastery. The Buddha remarks that it is 
not the first time these vagabonds have so conducted themselves, and relates the 
Valodaka Jataka. 

9. Husband and wife [vi. 9 = 84]. A householder asks his wife for permission 
to retire from the world. His wife asks him not to do so until she has given birth to 
her child. He waits until the child is old enough to walk, and then asks her again. 
She then asks him to wait until the child comes of age. Despairing of ever getting her 
permission, he retires from the world, and in no long time attains Arahatship. Subse- 
quently both son and wife follow his example. 

10. " Few there be that find it " [vi. 10-11 = 85-86]. A company of people 
resolve to spend the night listening to the Law, but one after another falls away. 

11. Abandon the dark state [vi. 12-14 = 87-89]. The Buddha admonishes 
fifty visiting monks. 

Book Vn. The Araliat, Arahanta Vagga 

1. The Tathagata suffers not [vii. 1 = 90]. Devadatta wounds the Buddha. 
Jivaka applies an astringent, binds up the wound, and promises to return. He returns 
after the gate is closed, and is unable to enter. In the mommg he asks the Buddha 
whether he did not suffer intense pain. The Buddha replies that the Tathagata suffers 
not. 

2. Free from attachment [vii. 2 =91]. WhUe the other monks are scalding 
their bowls and dyeing their robes, preparatory to setting out on an alms-pilgrimage 
with the Buddha, Elder Kassapa washes his robes. The other monks accuse Kassapa 
of being attached to the households of his kinsfolk and retainers. The Buddha directs 
Kassapa to remain in charge of the monastery, and reproves the other monks, telling 
them that Kassapa is free from attachment. He then relates the story of Kassapa's 
Earnest Wish in a previous birth. 



Synopses of stories of Books 6-7 103 

3. A monk stores food [vii. 3 = 92]. A certain monk stores food for future use. 
The Buddha forbids the practice. 

4. The monk and the goddess [vii. 4 = 93]. A goddess, who in a previous state 
of existence was the daughter of Elder Anuruddha, gives him robes, and incites the 
villagers to give him food in abundance. The monks are offended, thinking that the 
Elder wishes to show how many relatives and retainers he has. The Buddha informs 
them that the Elder received these offerings through the supernatural power of a 
goddess. 

5. Sakka honors a monk [vii. 5 = 94]. Sakka renders high honor to Elder 
Kaccayana the Great. The monks are offended, and accuse Sakka of showing favorit- 
ism. The Buddha reproves the monks, and declares that those who, like Kaccayana, 
keep the doors of their senses guarded, are dear alike to gods and men. 

6. A fancied slight [vii. 6 = 95]. A monk takes a dislike to Elder Sariputta 
because of a fancied slight. An assembly of the monks is convoked, the Elder enumer- 
ates his own virtues, and everything ends well. 

7. The loss of an eye [vii. 7 = 96]. A certain Elder accidentally puts out the 
-eye of his novice. The novice, however, shows neither anger nor resentment. The 
Buddha praises the novice for his self-restraint. 

8. Not by the faith of another [vii. 8 = 97]. The Buddha asks Sariputta whether 
he believes that faith terminates in the Deathless. Sariputta answers that he does 
not go by the faith of the Exalted One in this matter. The monks misunderstand his 
answer and accuse him of refusing to beheve the words of the Buddha. The Buddha 
corrects their mistake and informs them that Sariputta has by himself realized the 
Paths and the Fruits. 

9. Elder Revata of the acacia forest [vii. 9 = 98], 

9 a. Revata becomes a monk. After all of Sariputta 's brothers and sisters, 
except his yoimgest brother Revata, have retired from the world, the mother seeks 
to bind Revata with the tie of marriage. Revata, however, outwits his mother, leaves 
his bride, and becomes a monk. He withdraws to an acacia forest and there attains 
Arahatship. 

9 b. The Buddha visits Revata. The Buddha and Elder Sariputta set out to 
visit Revata with a company of monks of whom Sivali is one. The forest deities 
entertain the monks on the way, and Revata entertains them in the forest, all because 
of the merit of Sivali. Two old monks resident in the forest complain that the Buddha 
shows favoritism to Revata. The Buddha, by an exercise of supernatural power, 
causes forgetfulness to overcome the old monks. The old monks wander hither and 
thither in the forest, and acacia thorns pierce their feet. The old monks stop at 
Visakha's house for alms, and tell her that the discomforts of life in the acacia forest 
beggar description. Two young monks describe the forest as a place of heavenly 
delight. When the Buddha returns from the forest, Visakha repeats to him the two 
contradictory statements. The Buddha declares that wherever Arahats reside, that 
spot is full of delight. Subsequently the monks ask the Buddha why Sivali remained 
in his mother's womb for seven days and seven months and seven years; why he was 
tormented in hell; and how he came to reach the pinnacle of gain and honor. The 
Buddha relates the following 

9 c. Story of the Past: The offering of honey and the siege of a city. In the 
dispensation of the Buddha VipassI, a king and his subjects vie with one another in 
making offerings to the Buddha. A certain countryman buys a comb of honey for a 
thousand pieces of money and presents it to the Buddha. In a later existence as King 
of Benares, he lays siege to a certain city for seven years and seven months. His 
mother, learning that he has blockaded the four principal gates of the city and left 
the lesser gates open, sends word to him to close the lesser gates and blockade the city 



104 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

completely. The king does so. On the seventh day the residents of the besieged city 
kill their king, and hand over the kingdom to the invader. Because Sivali in his 
previous existence as a king besieged this city, he was reborn in hell, and because he 
closed the lesser gates he remained in the womb of his mother for seven days and seven 
months and seven years; because in his previous existence as a countryman he gave 
the comb of honey to the Buddha, he reached the pinnacle of gain and honor. 

10. A courtezan tempts a monk [vii. 10 =99]. A monk enters a garden to 
meditate. A courtezan goes thither to meet her lover. Her lover fails to keep his 
appointment. The disappointed courtezan, seeing the monk, performs indecent 
acts before him and arouses his passions. The Buddha appears in a vision to the 
monk and admonishes him. The monk attains Arahatship. 

Book VIII. Thousands, Sahassa Vagga 

1. A public executioner [viii. 1 = 100]. A bloodthirsty villain seeks admission 
to a band of thieves. The thieves refuse to admit him because of his inordinate cruelty. 
He ingratiates himself with a pupil of the ringleader and is finally admitted. The 
thieves are captured and sentenced to death. The citizens offer to spare the life of 
the thief who will put his brethren to death. All refuse the offer except the newest 
member of the band. The bloodthirsty villain puts his brethren to death, and acts 
as public executioner for fifty-five years. When he becomes infirm, the citizens remove 
him from office. Sariputta preaches to him and converts him. When he dies, he is 
reborn in the heaven of the Tusita gods. The monks express surprise that so blood- 
thirsty a villain should be reborn in heaven. The Buddha informs them that it was 
because he obtained a good spiritual counselor. 

2. Conversion of Bahiya Daruciriya [viii. 2 = 101]. Bahiya Daruciriya suffers 
shipwreck and swims to land at Supparaka Port. Clothing himself in the bark of 
trees, he goes about the city and is acclaimed as an Arahat. As he ponders in his 
mind the meaning of the title and asks himself whether he is really one of the Arahats, 
a deity who was a former blood-relative of his directs him to visit the Buddha at 
Savatthi. 

2 a. Digression: Story of the Past. The deity was a " former blood-relative " 
of Bahiya Daruciriya in the sense that in the dispensation of the Buddha Kassapa 
the two were fellow-members of a band of seven monks who climbed a mountain and 
attained Arahatship. 

2. Conversion of Bahiya Daruciriya, concluded: Bahiya Daruciriya obeys the 
command of the deity, hastens to Savatthi, hearkens to the Law, and attains Arahat- 
ship. As he is seeking bowl and robe, an ogress in the form of a young heifer strikes 
him, and he passes into Nibbana. 

3. The maiden who married a thief [viii. 3-4 = 102-103]. A treasurer's daughter 
looks out of her window, sees a thief being led to the place of execution, and falls in 
love with him. She takes to her bed and informs her parents that she will starve her- 
self to death unless she can have the thief for her husband. Her father bribes the king's 
officer to put another to death instead of the thief, and gives his daughter in marriage 
to the thief. The thief soon tires of his wife, and determines to kill her and take her 
jewels. He pretends to his wife that he saved his own life by vowing an offering to 
the deity of Robbers' Cliff, and asks her to accompany him to the top of the mountain 
that he may fulfill his vow. When they reach the top of the mountain, the thief tells 
his wife that he intends to kill her and take her jewels. The wife retains her presence 
of mind, and asks the thief to permit her to pay obeisance to him for the last time. 
When he is off his guard, she seizes him and flings him over the cliff. He is dashed to 
pieces against the rocks and killed. 



Synopses of stories of Book 8 105 

Not daring to return home, she enters the forest, and coming to a hermitage of 
nuns of a sectarian Order, she retires from the world and becomes a nun. Having 
learned a thousand questions and answers, she goes about the country bearing in her 
hand a branch of the rose-apple tree, challenging all comers to match questions and 
answers with her. Coming to Savatthi, she plants her branch before the city gate, 
and enters the city for alms. A troop of young lads gather about the branch, waiting 
for something to happen. Sariputta comes out of the city and tells the lads to trample 
the branch under their feet. Sariputta answers all of the nun's questions, and then 
baffles her and converts her to the true faith by asking her the single question, " What 
is 'One '?" The monks express surprise that so few words should effect the con- 
version of a woman with the past of the sectarian nun. 

4. Gain and loss [viii. 5-6 = 104-105]. A gambler asks the Buddha a question 
about gain and loss. The Buddha admonishes the gambler to consider spiritual gain 
and loss. 

5. Sariputta's imcle [viii. 7 = 106]. The Buddha converts Sariputta's imcle, 
who has given alms to the Naked Ascetics in the hope that he may thus attain the 
World of Brahma. 

6. Sariputta's nephew [viii. 8 = 107], The Buddha converts Sariputta's nephew, 
who has tended the sacrificial fire in the hope that he may thus attain the World of 
Brahma. 

7. Sariputta's friend [viii. 9 = 108]. The Buddha converts Sariputta's friend, 
who has tended the sacrificial fire in the hope that he may thus attain the World of 
Brahma. 

8. The lad whose years increased [viii. 10 = 109], Vessavana promises an 
ogre who has served him for twelve years that he shall receive the young son of a certain 
Brahman at the end of seven days. A sectarian monk informs the Brahman that his 
son is destined to die in seven days. At the monk's suggestion the Brahman asks 
the Buddha whether there is any way of averting his son's fate. The Buddha directs 
the Brahman to make preparations for the recitation of Paritta. The Brahman does 
so. By direction of the Buddha the monks recite Paritta for seven days and seven 
nights. The Buddha, having cheated the ogre of his prey, predicts that the lad will 
live for a hundred and twenty years. He thus receives the name Lad- Whose- Years- 
Increased, Ayuvaddhana. 

9. Samkicca the novice [viii. 11 = 110]. Thirty men of Savatthi become 
monks, receive a Subject of Meditation from the Buddha, and ask leave to retire to 
the forest. The Buddha reflects that they will be in danger of harm through a certain 
vagabond, unless they are accompanied by the novice Sarhkicca. 

9 a. Digression: How Samkicca got his name. Samkicca was a seven-year-old 
novice of Elder Sariputta. While he was yet in the womb, his mother died and her 
body was cremated. Her unborn child, however, was untouched by the fire. The body- 
burners removed the unborn child from the funeral pile, pierced it with spears, and 
threw it back on the coals. The flesh of the child was burned away, but there appeared 
on top of the coals, sitting as it were in the calyx of a lotus flower, a little boy that 
looked like a silver image. Because the pupil of one of his eyes had been pierced with 
a spear (samku), he received the name Samkicca. When Samkicca was seven years 
old, he learned of his miraculous escape from death, retired from the world, became a 
novice of Elder Sariputta, and attained Arahatship. 

The Buddha directs the thirty monks to see Elder Sariputta before they leave 
for the forest. Sariputta directs them to take the novice Samkicca with them. The 
monks, accompanied by the novice Samkicca, retire to the forest and enter upon 
residence. They make an agreement to spend their time in solitude, and in case any 
monk falls sick, to assemble on the stroke of the bell. One day the monks take pity 



106 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

on a vagabond and give him food. The vagabond waits upon the monks for two 
months, and then departs without asking leave of his hosts. As he is on his way- 
through the forest, he is captured by a band of thieves. The thieves prepare to kill 
him and to make a votive offering of his flesh and blood to the forest deity. The 
captive begs them to spare his life, declaring that he is a mere vagabond, and suggests 
that they kill and sacrifice the monks in his stead. He directs them to the place of 
residence of the monks, and instructs them to strike the bell. The thieves strike the 
bell, and the monks assemble. The thieves demand a victim. Each of the monks, 
from the oldest to the youngest, offers himself as a willing victim. The novice Sarbkicca 
insists upon accompanying the thieves. The ringleader strikes the novice with his 
sword, and the sword bends in two. He strikes him again, and the sword splits from 
hilt to tip like a palm-leaf. The thief prostrates himself before the novice. The novice 
preaches the Law to the thieves, and one and all retire from the world. The novice, 
accompanied by his retinue of monks, visits his brethren, and is received with expres- 
sions of joy. He then visits the Buddha. Later on he is admitted to full membership 
in the Order. When Saiiikicca has been a monk for ten years, he receives his nephew 
Atimuttaka as a novice. 

9 b. Sequel : The novice Atimuttaka. WTiile the novice Atimuttaka is on his 
"way through the forest, he is captured by thieves, who threaten to kill him and make 
an offering of his blood. He converts them, and they release him on condition that 
he shall tell no one their whereabouts. The novice sees his mother and father going 
straight towards the thieves, but keeps his promise to the thieves and refrains from 
warning his parents. His parents reproach him. The thieves praise him and become 
his disciples. 

10. The monk and the thieves [viii. 12 = 111]. A certain monk enters into a 
state of trance. A pack of thieves mistake him for the trunk of a tree, pile their sacks 
on his head and body, and sleep in a circle about him aU night long. In the morning 
they discover their mistake, beg his pardon, and are converted. 

11. On the razor's edge [viii. 13 = 112], A discontented monk tries to commit 
suicide by letting a snake bite him. The snake, however, refuses to bite. The monk 
then applies a razor to his throat. At that moment he attains Arahatship. 

11 a. I Story of the Past: Discontented and covetous. In a previous state of 
existence also this monk suffered from discontent. One day he was cured of discontent 
by the discovery that a brother monk was scheming to get possession of his monastic 
utensils. 

12. Patacara is bereft of all her family [viii. 14 = 113]. Patacara, the daughter 
of a wealthy merchant of Savatthi, runs away with her page. They take up their 
abode in a distant village, the husband tilling the soil and the wife performing the 
duties of the household. Patacara conceives a child, and requests her husband to take 
her home. The husband, fearing the vengeance of his wife's parents, puts her off from 
day to day. One day Patacara sets out for her home alone. Her husband follows her 
and overtakes her. She gives birth to her child by the wayside and returns with her 
husband. By and by she conceives a second child, makes the same request of her 
husband, and receives the same answer. Again she sets out alone for her home, and 
again her husband follows her and overtakes her. Just as the birth-pains come upon 
her a fearful storm arises. She begs her husband to find her a place out of the rain. 
Her husband leaves her to seek materials for a shelter. He is bitten to death by a 
poisonous snake. Patacara, alone, amid the flashes of lightning and the rumbling of 
thunder, gives birth to a second child. In the morning she finds the dead body of her 
husband. One of her children is carried off by a hawk, and the other is swept away 
by the river. As she proceeds to the city of Savatthi, she learns from a traveler that 
her mother and father and brother have perished in a whirlwind. Afar off she sees the 



Synopses of stories of Books 8-9 107 

smoke of the funeral pyre. Instantly she goes mad, strips herself of her garments, and 
wanders hither and thither naked. Presently she comes into the presence of the 
Buddha. The Buddha bids her to return to her right mind. Instantly she returns 
to her right mind, crouches on the ground, and seeks refuge in the Buddha. A by- 
stander throws his cloak over her. The Buddha calms her sorrow, admonishing her 
that in previous states of existence she has shed tears of sorrow more abundant than 
the waters contained in the four oceans. Patacara attains the Fruit of Conver- 
sion and becomes a nun. By meditating on vanishing drops of water, she attains 
Arahatship. 

13. Kisa Gotami seeks mustard seed to cure her dead child [viii. IS = 114]. 

13 a. Kisa Gotami marries the son of a rich meichant. One day all the wealth 
belonging to a rich merchant of Savatthi turns into charcoal. A friend of his directs 
him to expose the charcoal for sale, telling him that under certain conditions the char- 
coal wUl turn into gold and silver. The daughter of a poverty-stricken house, known 
by reason of the leanness of her body as Kisa Gotami, stops at the door of his bazaar 
and asks him how he comes to be selling gold and silver. Taking a handful of the 
cliarcoal, she places it in the hands of the merchant, whereupon it turns into gold and 
silver. The merchant marries Kisa Gotami to his son. He then gathers up his wealth, 
what was previously charcoal turning into gold and silver at his touch, and gives it 
all to her. 

13 b. Kisa Gotami seeks mustard seed to cure her dead child. In the course 
of time Kisa Gotami gives birth to a son. The child dies as soon as he is old enough 
to walk. Kisa Gotami, having never seen death before, forbids the body to be removed 
to the burning-groimd, and taking her dead child on her hip, goes from house to 
house seeking medicine for her dead child. Every one thinks her crazy. A certain 
wise man sends her to the Buddha. Kisa Gotami asks the Buddha whether he knows 
of medicine for her child. The Buddha replies that he does. The Buddha then directs 
her to procure a pinch of white mustard seed, cautioning her that she must procure 
it from a household no member of which has ever died. At every house she is told, 
" The living are few, but the dead are many." By degrees she comes to realize that 
she has taken upon herself a futile task. She returns to the Buddha without the 
mustard seed. The Buddha comforts her, admonishing her that death is common to 
all living beings. Kisa Gotami attains the Fruit of Conversion and becomes a mm. 
One evenmg she watches a flickering lamp in the Hall of Confession. The thought is 
impressed upon her mind that the life of human beings flickers out precisely as does 
the light of the lamp. Taking this for her Subject of Meditation, she concentrates 
her mind on the thought and attains Arahatship. 

14. The widow Bahuputtika and her ungrateful children [viii. 16 = US]. A 
widow with seven sons and seven daughters divides her property among her children, 
on the assurance of her sons that they will look after her. Her daughters and her 
daughters-in-law drive her from the houses of her sons. The widow thereupon becomes 
a nun and attains Arahatship. 



Book IX. Evil, Papa Vagga 

1. The Brahman with a single robe [ix. 1 = 116]. A Brahman and his wife 
possess a single undergarment each, and a single upper garment between them. One 
night the Brahman goes to hear the Law, and is seized with a desire to present the 
upper garment to the Teacher. Thereupon ensues a struggle between selfish and 
generous impulses which lasts through the three watches of the night. Finally the 
Brahman lays the upper garment at the feet of the Teacher, exclaiming, " I have 



108 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

conquered! " King Pasenadi Kosala hears the Brahman's cry, asks him for an explana- 
tion, and upon learning what he has done, rewards him handsomely. 

2. A discontented monk [ix. 2 = 117]. The Teacher rebukes a monk who 
aUowed himself to fall into the sin of discontent many times. 

3. Goddess and monk [ix. 3 = 118]. A young woman gives alms to Elder 
Kassapa the Great, dies of the bite of a snake, and is reborn as a goddess. For three 
daj'^s she secretly cares for the Elder's cell. When the Elder discovers that he has 
been waited upon by a goddess, he asks her to desist, that there may be no occasion 
for gossip. The goddess remonstrates, whereupon the Elder, losing his patience, snaps 
his fingers at her. The Teacher, without excusing the Elder, explains to the goddess 
the attitude of the Elder. 

4. Anathapindika and the goddess [ix. 4-5 = 119-120]. The treasurer Anatha- 
pindika loses the greater part of his fortune, but keeps up his gifts to the Teacher. 
The goddess who resides over his gate reproaches him for his extravagant almsgiving, 
and urges him to abandon the Teacher and devote himself to business. The treasurer 
rebukes the goddess, and banishes her from his house. The goddess repents of her 
words, restores the treasurer's fortune, and seeks pardon from the treasurer and the 
Teacher. 

5. The monk who failed to keep his requisites in order [ix. 6 = 121]. A monk 
who failed to keep his requisites in order, is summoned before the Teacher, and ex- 
presses little concern over what he has done, saying that he has committed only a 
shght fault. The Teacher rebukes him for regarding an evil deed as a small matter. 

6. Treasurer Catfoot [ix. 7 = 122]. A layman listens to a sermon on alms- 
giving, invites the Teacher and his monks to a meal, and urges the people to give 
ahns according to their means. A treasurer, believing that the layman is imposing 
on the people, gives him only a very small portion of alms, and on the following day 
goes to the layman's house intending to kill him in case he blames him for the small- 
ness of his gift. The layman, however, prays that all who have given alms may receive 
a rich reward. The treasurer repents of his harsh judgment and asks pardon of the 
layman. The Teacher, learning of the incident, discourses on the high value of a small 
gift. 

7. Merchant Great-Wealth [ix. 8 = 123]. A merchant sets out with his caravan, 
accompanied by five hundred monks, and halts for the night in a village at the entrance 
to the forest. A pack of thieves who are lying in wait for him send one of their number 
to find out his plans. The thief goes to a friend living in the village, learns from him 
that the merchant intends to set out on the third day, and so informs his companions. 
The villager tells the merchant that thieves are planning to attack him, whereupon 
the merchant decides to return home. The thieves learn of the merchant's decision 
through the villager, and immediately post themselves on the road leading in the 
opposite direction. The villager so informs the merchant, who then decides to remain 
where he is. The monks take leave of the merchant, go to the Teacher, and relate 
the whole story to him. 

8. The enchanted htmter [ix. 9 = 124]. A rich man's daughter looks out of her 
window, sees a hunter pass through the street, and falls in love with him. Learning 
through her slave that he expects to leave the city on the following day, she leaves 
the house secretly, joins him on the road, and elopes with him. Seven sons are bom 
to them, and in the course of time marry and set up households of their own. One 
day the Teacher, perceiving that the hunter and his sons and daughters-in-law are 
ripe for conversion, goes to where the nets are spread, leaves a footprint, and sits 
down under a bush. The hunter, having caught nothing, suspects that some one is 
setting the animals free; and when he sees the Teacher, draws his bow. By the 
power of the Teacher he is unable to release the arrow and remams rooted to the spot. 



Synopses of stories of Book 9 109 

The same thing happens to his seven sons. The wife comes and exclaims, in riddling 
phrase, " Do not kill my father! " The hunter and his sons ask pardon of the Teacher 
and become his disciples. The monks complain that the wife, although a disciple of 
the Teacher, has assisted her husband to take life, but the Teacher assures them that 
such is not the case. 

8 a. Story of the Past: The city treasurer and the country treasiurer. In a 
previous state of existence a country treasurer bid against a city treasurer for the 
principal share in the building of a shrine for the relics of the Buddha Kassapa. When 
the city treasurer bid more than the country treasurer possessed, the latter offered to 
devote himself to the service of the shrine, together with his wife and his seven sons 
and seven daughters-in-law. The himter was the country treasurer. 

9. The hunter who was devoured by his own dogs [ix. 10 = 125]. A hunter 
meets a monk, bags no game, blames the monk, and sets his dogs on him. The monk 
climbs a tree, and the hunter pierces the soles of his feet with the point of an arrow. 
The monk's cloak falls upon the hunter, completely covering him. The dogs, thinking 
that the monk has fallen from the tree, devour their own master. The monk, fearing 
that blame may attach to him, consults the Teacher. The Teacher reassures the 
monk and relates the following 

9 a. Story of the Past: Wicked physician, boys, and poisonous snake. A 
physician seeking employment for his services would have allowed a snake to bite 
some little boys. But one of the boys threw the snake on the head of the physician, 
and he was bitten to death. The physician was the hunter. 

10. The jeweler, the monk, and the heron [ix. 11 = 126]. A jeweler's pet heron 
swallows a jewel before the eyes of a monk. The jeweler accuses the monk of having 
taken it, and when the latter denies his guilt, the jeweler beats him on the head until 
the blood flows. The heron drinks the blood of the monk, and the jeweler in anger 
kicks the heron out of the way and kills him. Then the monk tells the jeweler that 
the jewel was swallowed by the heron. The jeweler rips open the crop of the heron, 
finds the jewel, and asks the monk to pardon him for his hasty judgment. The monks 
ask the Teacher about the future state of the heron, the jeweler, the jeweler's wife, and 
the monk. 

11. Three parties of monks [ix. 12 = 127]. Three parties of monks set out to 
visit the Teacher, and each party meets with a strange experience by the way. 11a. 
The first party sees a crow burned to a crisp in mid-air. lib. The second party sees 
the wife of a sea-captain cast overboard. 11 c. Seven monks composing the third 
party are imprisoned in a cave for seven days. All three parties meet on the road, 
visit the Teacher together, and ask him to explain matters to them. The Teacher 
relates the following Stories of the Past: lid. The crow in a previous existence as 
a farmer of Benares once burned a lazy ox to death, lie. The wife of a sea-captain 
drowned her dog in a previous existence. 11 f. The seven monks were once seven 
young cowherds who thoughtlessly allowed a lizard to remain imprisoned in an ant-hill 
for seven days. The monks then ask the Teacher whether there is any place where 
it is possible to escape from the consequences of an evil deed. The Teacher replies in 
the negative. 

12. Suppabuddha insults the Teacher [ix. 13 = 128]. Suppabuddha, angered 
at the Teacher because the latter renounced his daughter and assumed an attitude 
of hostility to his son, intoxicates himself, sprawls in the street, and refuses to let the 
Teacher pass. The Teacher utters the prediction that on the seventh day Suppa- 
buddha will be swallowed up by the earth at the foot of his stairway. Suppabuddha 
leams of the Teacher's prediction, and imprisons himself on the top floor of his palace, 
causing the door to be barred and the stairway to be removed. On the seventh day 
his spirited horse breaks loose. As he starts for the door, all of the doors open of their 



110 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

own accord, the stairways return to their proper places, his own guards seize him by 
the neck and throw him down, and when he lands at the foot of the stairway, the 
earth opens and swallows him up, and he is reborn in the Avici hell. 

Book X. The Rod or Punishment, Danda Vagga 

1. The Band of Six [x. 1 = 129]. The Six Monks quarrel with the Seventeen 
Monks and strike them. The Teacher promulgates the precept regarding the deliver- 
ing of blows. 

2. The Band of Six [x. 2 = 130]. The Six Monks quarrel with the Seventeen 
Monks and strike them. Thereupon the Seventeen Monks make threatening gestures. 
The Teacher promulgates the precept regarding the making of threatening gestures. 

3. A company of boys [x. 3-4 = 131-132]. The Teacher reproves some boys 
for beating a snake with a stick. 

4. The monk and the phantom [x. 5-6 = 133-134]. A certain monk was accom- 
panied wherever he went by the phantom of a woman, invisible to the monk himself, 
but visible to everybody else. 

4 a. Story of the Past: The goddess who took the form of a woman. In a previ- 
ous state of existence this monk was a goddess who caused a breach between two 
companion-monks by taking the form of a woman and making it appear that one of 
the monks had sinned with her. End of Story of the Past. 

The monks ask the king to expel the monk from his kingdom. The king investi- 
gates the matter, discovers that the woman is a phantom, and out of pity for the 
monk provides him with shelter. The monk, reproached by his brethren, reviles 
them. The Teacher admonishes him to hold his tongue. 

5. Visakha and her companions keep Fast-day [x. 7 = 135]. Visakha asks her 
companions why they keep Fast-day. The Teacher comments on their answers. 

6. The boa-constrictor ghost [x. 8 = 136]. Moggallana describes a ghost in the 
form of a boa-constrictor which he saw in torment. The Teacher relates the following 

6 a. Story of the Past: The treasvirer Simiaiigala and the thief. A thief takes 
a dislike to the treasurer, and seven times bums his field, mutilates his cattle, and 
bums his house. Finally he bums the Perfumed Chamber. The treasurer joyfully 
builds another. The thief determines to kill him. The treasurer makes over to the 
thief the merit acquired by his almsgiving. The thief asks the treasurer for pardon. 
The ghost in the form of a boa-constrictor was none other than this thief. 

7. Death of Moggallana the Great [x. 9-12 = 137-140]. The envious sectaries 
hire thieves to kill Moggallana. The Elder escapes the first time through the key -hole, 
the second time through the peak of the house. On their third attempt the thieves 
capture him, tear him limb from limb, and reduce his bones to powder. The Elder 
clothes himself with meditation as with a garment, takes leave of the Teacher, and 
passes into Nibbana. King Ajatasattu sends spies to catch the thieves. The thieves 
betray themselves in a tavern, and are captured and burnt alive. 

7 a. Story of the Past: The son who killed his parents. A wife takes a dislike 
to her husband's parents. The husband lures his parents into a forest and kills them. 
The son who killed his parents was Moggallana. 

8. The monk of many possessions [x. 13 = 141]. The Teacher rebukes a monk 
for indulging in luxuries. Angered at the rebuke, the monk strips off his outer garment 
and stands before the assemblage wearing only a loin-cloth. The Teacher expresses 
surprise at his action, and relates the following 

8 a. Story of the Past: Prince Mahimsasa and the princes Moon and Sun. The 
Future Buddha was reborn as Prince Mahimsasa, eldest son of the King of Benares. 
He had a younger brother named Prince Moon. On the death of their mother the 



Synopses of stories of Book 10 111 

king takes a second wife, who gives birth to Prince Sun. The king promises the queen 
a boon, and she asks that her own son be given the kingdom. The king refuses, and 
fearing that the queen may harm his own children, sends them to the forest, telling 
them to return and take the kingdom when he is dead. Prince Sun accompanies them 
of his own accord. In the forest is a lake haimted by a water-demon who has received 
permission from Vessavana to devour all those who cannot define the term " godlike." 
Princes Sim and Moon are imprisoned by the water-demon. Prince Mahimsasa defines 
the term, converts the water-demon, and recovers his two brothers. On the death of 
the king. Prince Mahimsasa returns to Benares, accompanied by his two brothers 
and the water-demon, and takes the kingdom. 

9. Santati the king's minister [x. 14 = 142]. As a reward for suppressing a 
rebellion. King Pasenadi gives Santati his kingdom for seven days and presents him 
with a nautch girl. For seven days Santati steeps himself in liquor, and on the seventh 
day sets out for the river, moimted on the state elephant. The Teacher predicts 
that Santati will attain Arahatship and pass into Nibbana on that very day. The 
sectaries scoff and the orthodox rejoice. Santati returns to his drinking-hall and 
watches his nautch girl sing and dance. The nautch girl suddenly drops dead. Santati 
is at once sobered, and overwhelmed with grief goes to the Teacher. After listening 
to a brief discourse, Santati attains Arahatship and asks leave of the Teacher to pass 
into Nibbana. The Teacher requests him first to declare to the multitude his meritori- 
ous deed in a previous birth. So Santati rises into the air to the height of seven palm- 
trees, and sitting cross-legged relates the following 

9 a. Story of the Past : The preacher of the Law and the king. In the dispensation 
of the Buddha VipassI I was reborn in the city of BandhumatI and became a preacher 
of the Law. My meritorious deeds attracted the attention of the king, and he rewarded 
me handsomely. 

Story of tile Present concluded: Santati applies himself to meditation on the 
element of fire, enters into a state of trance, and passes into Nibbana. Flames of fire 
consume his body, and his relics float to the ground. The monks ask the Teacher what 
title is most appropriate to Santati. 

10. The Monk and the ragged garment [x. 15-16 = 143-144]. A monk over- 
comes discontent and attains Arahatship by contemplating a ragged garment which 
he wore as a layman. 

11. Sukha the novice [x. 17 = 145]. 

11a. Story of the Past: The treasurer Gandha, the' laborer Bhattabhatika, and 
the Private Buddha. The treasurer Gandha resolves to spend his wealth in luxurious 
living before he dies. As he dines in state on the day of full moon, a poor villager 
asks him for his bowl of rice. Gandha refuses to give him the rice. The villager enters 
the treasurer's service and by working for three years earns a bowl of rice. Thus he 
gains the name Bhattabhatika. He presents the bowl of rice to a Private Buddha. 

lib. Story of the Present : Sukha the novice. In the dispensation of the present 
Buddha, Bhattabhatika is reborn in the household of a supporter of Elder Sariputta. 
From the day of his conception no member of the household experiences sorrow, and 
therefore he is given the name Happy, Sukha. When he is seven years old, he becomes 
a novice of Elder Sariputta. One day he accompanies the Elder on his rounds, sees 
ditch-diggers, fletchers, and carpenters at work, and asks the Elder many questions. 
The ease with which men control inanimate things suggests to the novice the thought 
of so controlling his reason as to win Arahatship. Sukha takes leave of the Elder, 
requesting him to bring him food of a hundred flavors, returns to his cell, and engages 
in meditation. At the command of Sakka, the Four Great Kings drive the noisy birds 
from the monastery park and keep watch over the four quarters, and the moon and 
the sunstand still. Sakka guards the string of the door, and the Buddha keeps watch 



112 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

over the gate. The Elder brings food of a hundred flavors, and the Teacher asks him 
four questions. Sukha overhears the Elder's answers and attains Arahatship. 

Book XI. Old Age, Jara Vagga 

1. Visakha's companions intoxicate themselves [xi. 1 = 146]. Five hundred 
clansmen entrust their wives to Visakha, and carouse for seven days. Their wives 
drink the liquor which remains and become intoxicated. To escape punishment, they 
feign sickness, but their husbands find them out and beat them. Subsequently they 
accompany Visakha to the monastery, carrying jugs of liquor concealed under their 
cloaks, drink the liquor secretly, become intoxicated, and commit gross improprieties 
in the presence of the Teacher. The Teacher subdues them with a ray of light from 
his eyebrow and reproves them. 

2. The Teacher cures a monk of love [xi. 2 = 147]. The courtezan Sirima offends 
against the lay disciple Uttara, obtains pardon, and attains the Fruit of Conversion. 
From that time on she gives regularly the Eight Ticket-foods. A monk falls in love 
with her, abandons his monastic duties, and refuses to take food. Sirima sickens and 
dies. By order of the Teacher the corpse is exposed for four days and offered for sale 
to the highest bidder. No one will take her even as a gift. The Teacher points to the 
corpse, and comments on the fact that her price was once a thousand pieces of money 
a night. The monk is cured of love. 

3. The aged nun [xi. 3 = 148]. The Teacher addresses an aged nun who stumbles 
and falls. 

4. A company of over-confident monks [xi. 4 = 149]. Five hundred over-confi- 
dent monks are directed to meditate in a burning-ground. Their passions are aroused 
by contemplating the fresh corpses. The Teacher reproves them. 

5. The nun and the phantom [xi. 5 = 150]. Janapada-Kalyani became a nun, 
not because of faith, but solely out of regard for her kinsfolk, all of whom had adopted 
the religious life. Because of her beauty she bore the name Rupananda. Fearing 
that the Teacher might reproach her for her beauty, she avoided meeting him face 
to face. One day she goes to the monastery, mingling in the throng so that the Teacher 
will not see her. The Teacher creates the form of a beautiful woman, and causes her 
to pass through old age, disease, and death. Nanda is thus brought to a realization 
of the impermanence of all things. The Teacher compares the body to a city of bones. 

6. Queen Mallika and her dog [xi. 6 = 151]. Queen Mallika goes to the bath- 
house with her pet dog, and commits the sin of bestiaUty. The king looks out of the 
palace window and sees her in the act. When the <jueen returns, the king rebukes 
her. The queen denies the accusation, and declares it to be a fact that whoever enters 
the bath-house appears double when seen from the window. To prove her statement, 
the queen has the king himself enter the bath-house. As soon as the king does so, 
the queen shouts to him from the window, asking him what he means by like mis- 
doing with a she-goat. The king then believes the explanation given him by the queen. 
When Mallika dies, she is tormented in hell for seven days as a punishment for her 
sin, and afterwards is reborn in the World of the Tusita Gods as a reward for her many 
good deeds. The king asks the Teacher where she has been reborn, and the Teacher 
tells him. The Teacher inspects the king's chariots, and comments on their decay. 

7. The monk who always said the wrong thing [xi. 7 = 152]. A certain monk 
always says the wrong thing instead of the right thing. When the monks tell the 
Teacher of the mistakes he makes, the Teacher relates the following 

7 a. Story of the Past: Aggidatta, Somadatta, and the king. A Brahman named 
Aggidatta had a son named Somadatta. Aggidatta tilled the soil, and Somadatta 
waited on the king. Aggidatta had two oxen. One day one of them died, and the 



Synopses of stories of Books 11-12 113 

Brahman requested his son to ask the king for another. Somadatta, not wishing to 
presume upon the king's favor, insisted that the Brahman should go himself, and 
carefully instructed him how to act and what to say, teaching him a stanza ending 
with the words, " Pray give me another ox." The Brahman spent a year learning 
the stanza, but in presenting his petition to the king, said, " Pray take my other ox." 
The king smiled, and asked Somadatta how many oxen he had. " As many as you 
have given us," he replied. Pleased with the answer, the king presented the Brahman 
with sixteen oxen and other valuable gifts. Aggidatta was the monk who always" said 
the wrong thing, and Somadatta was the Future Buddha. 

8. Elder Ananda's stanzas [xi. 8-9 = 153-154]. In answer to a question of 
Elder Ananda, the Teacher recites the stanzas he recited on the Throne of Wisdom. 

9. Great-Wealth, the treasurer's son [xi. 10-11 = 155-156]. Mahadhana falls 
into the hands of sycophants, and spends his fortune in riotous living. Reduced to 
penury in old age, he begs his food from door to door. The Teacher points him out to 
Elder Ananda, and comments on his foUies and wasted opportimities. 

BookXn. Self , Atta Vagga 

1. Prince Bodhi and the magic bird [xii. 1 = 157]. 

1 a. The prince, the builder, and the magic bird. A builder erects a mag- 
nificent palace for a prince. For fear he may build a similar palace for another, the 
prince determines to kill him. He confides his plan to a friend, who informs the 
builder. The builder thereupon shuts himself up in his workshop and fashions a 
huge wooden bird. When the bird is finished, the builder and his wife and children 
step inside of the bird, and the bird flies out of the window. 

1 b. The prince entertains the Buddha. The prince gives a festival in honor of 
the completion of the palace, and invites the Buddha. Now the prince is childless, 
and therefore spreads mats on the floor, knowing that if he is destined to obtain 
children, the Buddha will tread on the mats; otherwise not. The Buddha refuses to 
enter the house until the prince has rolled up the mats. The prince asks the Buddha 
why he is destined to remain childless, and the Buddha relates the following 

1 c. Story of the Past: The man who ate bird's eggs. A ship is wrecked at sea, 
and all on board are lost, except two persons, a man and his wife, who escape in safety 
to a neighboring island. The man and his wife, finding nothing else to eat, satisfy 
their hunger by eating bird's eggs. The man who ate bird's eggs wfis Prince Bodhi. 

2. The greedy monk [xii. 2 = 158]. A greedy monk, skilled to teach the Law, 
visits one monastery after another and amasses a large number of robes and other 
requisites. As a fitting climax, he settles a dispute between two young monks over a 
fair division of two robes and a costly blanket, by awarding each of the monks a robe 
and himself taking the costly blanket. The moiiks complain to the Teacher, who 
relates the following 

2 a. Story of the Past: The otters and the jackal. Two otters catch a redfish, 
and unable to effect a division satisfactory to both of them, appeal to a jackal for a 
decision. The jackal awards the head to one of the otters, the tail to the other, and 
takes the meaty portions for himself. The jackal was the greedy monk. 

3. " Be ye doers of the word " [xii. 3 = 159]. A certain monk admonishes 
his fellows to apply themselves diligently to the practice of meditation, and himself 
spends the night in sleep. The monks discover his deceit and complain to the Teacher, 
who relates the Akalaravi-kukkuta Jataka. 

4. ** And hate not his father and mother " [xii. 4 = 160], 

4 a. Birth of Ktunara Kassapa. A young wife, already pregnant, although she 
does not know it, becomes a nun of the faction of Devadatta. The nuns observe that 



114 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

she is pregnant and inform Devadatta, who directs that she be expelled from the Order. 
The nun appeals to the Buddha, a court is convened, Visakha examines the nun, and 
her innocence is established. The nun gives birth to a son, who is adopted by the king. 
The youth is admitted to the Order, receiving the name Kumara Kassapa, and attains 
Arahatship. 

4 b. "And hate not his father and mother." For twelve years his mother grieves 
because of separation from her son. One day she meets him in the street and greets 
him affectionately. The son, fearing that if he returns her greeting it will prove her 
imdoing, hardens his heart and speaks harshly to her. The mother uproots her affec- 
tion for her son and straightway attains Arahatship. The Teacher relates the Ni- 
grodha Miga Jataka. 

5. Killing of Maha Kala [xii. 5 = 161]. As the layman Maha Kala, who has 
spent the night at the monastery listening to the Law, stands on the bank of the 
monastery pool, bathing his face, a thief runs by, and drops his spoils at the layman's 
feet. The pursuers of the thief, mistaking the layman for the real thief, seize him and 
beat him to death. Some monks find the layman's body, and report the incident to 
the Teacher, who thereupon relates the following 

5 a. Story of the Past : The soldier and the man with a beautiful wife. A soldier, 
posted at the entrance to a forest to escort travelers back and forth, falls in love with 
the beautiful wife of a certain traveler. He inveigles the traveler into his house, 
places a precious stone in his carriage, and then accuses him of having stolen it. The 
traveler is convicted of the crime and is beaten to death. The soldier was the layman. 

6. Devadatta seeks to slay the Tathagata [xii. 6 = 162]. Devadatta seeks to 
slay the Tathagata. 

7. Devadatta seeks to cause a schism in the Order [xii. 7 = 163 J. Devadatta 
informs Ananda that he intends henceforth to keep Fast-day and to carry on the busi- 
ness of the Order apart from the Exalted One. 

8. The jealous monk [xii. 8 = 164]. A certain monk dissuades a female lay 
disciple from going to hear the Teacher, fearing that if she does so, she will have no 
further use for him. One day the woman breaks with him, goes to the monastery, and 
listens to the Law. The monk follows her to the monastery, and urges the Teacher 
to modify his discourse to the woman. The Teacher rebukes him. 

9. Courtezans save a layman's life [xii. 9 = 165]. As the layman CuUa Kala, 
who has spent the night at the monastery listening to the Law, stands on the bank of 
the monastery pool, bathing his face, thieves run by and drop their spoils at the lay- 
man's feet. The owners of the stolen property, mistaking the layman for one of the 
thieves, seize him and beat him. Passing courtezans obtain his release. 

10. By righteousness men honor the Buddha [xii. 10 = 166]. From the day 
when the Teacher announces that in four months he will pass into Nibbana, seven 
hundred monks spend their time in attendance upon him. And gathering in little 
groups, they ask each other, " What are we to do?" But a certain monk named 
Attadattha resolves to strive the more earnestly for the attainment of Arahatship. 
Accordingly Attadattha goes no more with the other monks. The monks, misunder- 
standing his motive, tell the Teacher that Attadattha has no affection for him. The 
Teacher admonishes them as follows: " Every other monk should show his affection 
for me just as Attadattha has done. For they that honor me with perfumes and 
garlands, honor me not; but they that practice the Higher and the Lower Law, they 
alone truly honor me." 



Synopses of stories of Books 12-13 115 



Book Xm. The World, Loka Vagga 

1. A young girl jests with a young monk [xiii. 1 = 167]. While Visakha's grand- 
daughter is straining water for a young monk, she sees the reflection of her face in 
the water- vessel and laughs. The young monk also sees the reflection of her face and 
laughs. Thereupon the young girl remarks playfully, " He that laughs is a cut-he9,d." 
The young monk is deeply offended, and bitter words follow. Both Visakha and the 
Elder strive in vain to soothe the young monk's wounded feelings. Just then the 
Teacher draws near, and Visakha relates the circumstances of the quarrel. The 
Teacher delivers a mild rebuke to the young girl and thus wins over the young monk. 

2. The Buddha visits Kapila [xiii. 2-3 = 168-169]. On the occasion of the 
Buddha's first visit to Kapila, he creates a jeweled walk in mid-air, whereon he paces 
back and forth preaching the Law. All his kinsfolk do reverence to him, and a shower 
of rain faUs upon them. The Teacher relates the Vessantara Jataka. \ His kinsfolk 
depart without extending an invitation to him. On the following day the Teacher 
enters his father's city, and following the example of previous Buddhas, makes his 
round for alms from house to house. The king his father reproaches him, but the 
Teacher declares that he is but following the example of previous Buddhas. 

3. Five hundred monks attain Insight [xiii. 4 = 170]. Five hundred monks 
attain Insight by contemplating a mirage and bubbles of water. 

4. Prince Abhaya loses his nautch-girl [xiii. 5 = 171]. King Bimbisara rewards 
his son Prince Abhaya for suppressing a rebellion by giving him a nautch-girl and con- 
ferring the kingdom on him for seven days. On the eighth day, while the nautch-girl 
is dancing before the prince, she suddenly drops dead. Overwhelmed with sorrow, 
the prince seeks consolation from the Teacher. The Teacher consoles him. 

5. The monk with a broom [xiii. 6 = 172]. A certain monk spent all of his time 
sweeping the rooms of the monastery. Admonished by the Elder Revata to devote a 
portion of his time to the practice of meditation, he obeyed the Elder's admonition 
and in a short time attained Arahatship. 

6. Conversion of the robber Finger-garland [xiii. 7 = 173]. A bloodthirsty 
robber infested the realm of King Pasenadi Kosala. He killed man after man, and 
wore a garland made of their fingers. One day the Buddha set out on the highway 
where this robber lurked. Warned that as many as forty men at a time had perished 
at the hands of this robber, the Buddha continued on his way in silence. When the 
robber saw the Buddha, he determined to kill him, and arming himself, followed close 
behind him. Then the Buddha effected such an exercise of supernatural power that 
although the robber was hurrying with all his might and the Buddha himself was 
walking at his ordinary gait, the robber was unable to catch up with him. Dumfounded, 
the robber caUed out, "Stand still, hermit!" Continuing his walk, the Buddha 
replied, "I stand still! Stand still yourself!" "What do you mean.'*" asked the 
robber. The Buddha replied, " I abide steadfast evermore, for I am merciful to all 
Uving beings. But you are merciless to living beings. Therefore I stand still, but 
you do not stand still." Thereupon the robber flung away his weapons and became a 
monk. 

The king's subjects complained of the depredations of the robber and begged the 
king to adopt repressive measures. The king went to the Buddha, told him his troubles, 
and confessed that he was unable to subdue the robber. The Buddha asked the king 
what he would do were he to see this same robber in the robes of a monk. The king 
replied that he would treat him with the respect due a monk. The Buddha pointed to 
a monk who sat quite near him, and said, " Here he is ! " The king was terror-stricken. 
The Buddha assured him that he had nothing to fear. The king, recovering his 



116 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

composure, paid his respects to the monk, and expressing to the Buddha his surprise 
at the conversion of the robber, took his leave. 

One day, as the Elder Finger-garland was making his round, he saw a woman in 
the throes of childbirth. "Alas, living beings must needs suffer!" thought he, and 
returning to the Teacher, told him of his experience. The Teacher directed him to go 
and say to the woman, " From the day I was bom I have never deliberately deprived 
living beings of life. If this be true, may health be to you, health to your unborn 
child." The Elder protested that this would be a deliberate falsehood. Then the 
Teacher told him to say, " From the day I was born of the Noble Birth." The Elder 
did so, and the woman was safely delivered of her child. 

Shortly afterwards the Elder attained Arahatship. One day as he was making 
his round in Savatthi, he was hit by a clod of earth, a stick, and a stone. The Teacher 
explained to him that this was the result of his evil deeds, on account of which he 
might have been tormented in Hell for many thousands of years. After breathing 
forth many Solemn Utterances the Elder passed into Nibbana. The monks discussed 
among themselves the Elder's place of rebirth, and the Teacher informed them that 
he had passed into Nibbana. The monks expressed surprise that one who had com- 
mitted so many murders should pass into Nibbana. 

7. The weaver's daughter [xiii. 8 = 174], The Teacher once visited Alavi and 
urged the people to meditate upon death. With one exception, all those who heard 
his discourse remained absorbed in their worldly affairs as before. But a certain 
weaver's daughter did naught else for three years but meditate upon death. When 
the Teacher visited Alavi three years later, the people flocked to the monastery, and 
the weaver's daughter was all eagerness to see him. Just then her father set out for 
his workshop and ordered her to replenish the shuttle and bring it to him with all 
speed. So she sat down and replenished the shuttle. Meanwhile the Teacher waited 
for her to come. On her way to her father's workshop she stopped at the monastery. 
The Teacher asked her four questions, and she answered them all correctly. These 
were the four: " Whence comest thou.''" " I know not." " Whither goest thou?" 
" I know not." " Thou knowest not.'* " " I know." " Thou knowest? " " I know 
not." When the multitude murmured, the Teacher asked her to explain her answers, 
which she did as follows : " I know not whence came I when I was reborn here. I know 
not where I shall be reborn. I know that I shall surely die. I know not at what time 
I shall die." The Teacher then pronounced a stanza, at the conclusion of which she 
was established in the Fruit of Conversion. She then took her shuttle-basket and 
went to her father's workshop, finding him asleep. As her father awoke, he gave the 
loom a puU. The tip of the loom struck the maiden in the breast and killed her. 
The father, overcome with grief, sought consolation of the Teacher, entered the Order, 
and shortly afterwards attained Arahatship. 

8. Thirty monks [xiii. 9 = 175]. Thirty monks visit the Teacher, attain Arahat- 
ship, and depart through the air. 

9. Cinca falsely accuses the Buddha [xiii. 10 = 176]. The envious sectaries 
conspire with a wandering nun named Ciftca to bring a charge of incontinence against 
the Buddha. In the evening, when the disciples are returning from Jetavana, she 
walks in the direction of Jetavana. When the disciples ask her where she is going, she 
tells them that it is none of their business. Having spent the night at the monastery 
of the sectaries, she walks back in the morning when the disciples are on their way 
to Jetavana. When they ask her where she has spent the night, she returns the same 
answer. After a month or two, she declares openly that she spends the night with the 
Buddha in the Perfumed Chamber. After three or four months have passed, she 
wraps her belly about with bandages to create the impression that she is pregnant, 
and declares that she has conceived a child by the Buddha. When eight or nine 



Synopses of stories of Books 13-14- 117 

months have passed, she fastens a disk of wood to her belly, produces swellings all 
over her body by pounding herself with the jaw-bone of an ox, and going to the Hall 
of Truth, publicly accuses the Buddha of being responsible for her condition. The 
Buddha replies, " Sister, whether that which you have said be true or false, that is 
known only to you and to me." At that moment Sakka approaches with four deities 
in the form of little mice. With one bite of their teeth the mice sever the cords with 
which the disk of wood is fastened to the belly of the woman, the disk falls upon her 
feet, cutting off all of her toes, the earth yawns and swallows her up, and she is reborn 
in the Avici hell. On the following day the monks comment on the incident, and the 
Teacher relates the following 

9 a. Story of the Past: The lewd woman and the virtuous youth, Maha Padtuna 
Jataka. In a previous state of existence Cinca was the chief consort of the king, the 
fellow of the mother of the Future Buddha. She invited the Great Being to lie with 
her, and when he refused to do so, falsely accused him before the king. The king 
caused the youth to be flung from Robbers' Cliff, but the deity of the mountain saved 
his life, and entrusted him to the care of the King of the Dragons. Subsequently the 
youth retired to the Himalaya and adopte<i the life of a religious. The king, learning 
where he was, went to him and offered him his kingdom. The youth refused. The 
king, discovering the falsity of the charge, caused the wicked queen to be flung from 
Robbers' Cliff. 

10. Gifts beyond Compare [xiii. 11 = 177]. Kmg Pasenadi Kosala and his 
subjects bestow alms six times in succession, each striving to outdo the other. Finally 
the king bestows the Gifts beyond Compare, spending thereon fourteen crores of 
treasure in a single day. Five hundred elephants stand beside the monks, each bearing 
a parasol in his trunk. A rogue elephant is placed beside Angulimala; the elephant 
behaves perfectly, and Angulimala shows no signs of fear. Of the king's two ministers, 
Kala expresses regret that the king should expend so much money on offerings, while 
Junha is filled with joy. The Teacher refrains from pronouncing words of thanks- 
giving appropriate to the gifts which the king has presented, lest Kala's head split 
into seven pieces. The king, grievously disappointed, asks the Teacher for an explana- 
tion. The Teacher reassures the king, and contrasts the attitudes of Kala and Junha. 

11. Virtue bought and paid for [xiii. 12 = 178]. Anathapindika has a son named 
Kala who is irreligious and disobedient. He promises to give him a thousand pieces 
of money if he will memorize a single Sacred Stanza. Kala goes to the Teacher, 
memorizes the stanza, and is established in the Fruit of Conversion. The king, 
pleased with the demeanor of his son, offers him the thousand pieces of money in the 
presence of the Teacher. The son refuses to accept the money. The Teacher com- 
ments on the high excellence of the Fruit of Conversion. 



Book XIV. The Enlightened, Buddha Vagga 

1. The Buddha has naught to do with women [xiv. 1-2 = 179-180]. 

1 a. The Buddha spurns the maiden Magandiya. A Brahman named Ma- 
gandiya offers to give the Buddha his beautiful daughter Magandiya to wife. The 
Buddha makes no reply, but moves away from the spot, leaving a footprint. The Brah- 
man goes home and returns with his wife and daughter. The Brahman's wife examines 
the footprint and declares it to be the footprint of one who has renounced the lusts 
of the flesh. When the Brahman presents his daughter to the Buddha, the Buddha 
spurns her and tells the Brahman that he has naught to do with women. By way 
of illustration he tells the Brahman the story of his temptation by the daughters of 
Mara. 



118 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

1 b. The Buddha spurns the Daughters of Mara. From the day of the Great 
Retirement, Mara pursues the Buddha relentlessly for seven years. Then Mara's 
three daughters assume each the forms of a hundred women of various ages, and 
tempt the Buddha six times. The Buddha, however, spurns them. 

2. The Twm Miracle [xiv. 3 = 181]. 

2 a. Pindola Bharadvaja performs a miracle. A treasurer of Rajagaha finds a 
block of red-sandalwood in the Ganges, fashions it in the form of a bowl, suspends 
the bowl from a series of bamboos, and offers to give it to whoever can fly through the 
air and take it. Six religious teachers, of whom Nathaputta is the most conspicuous, 
seek in vain to obtain the bowl. Pindola Bharadvaja flies around the city of Rajagaha, 
balancing on his toe a rock as big as the city itself, and wins the bowl. The Buddha 
rebukes Pindola, and forbids his disciples to perform any more miracles. 

2 b. The Buddha promises to perform a miracle. The sectaries rejoice, thinking 
that the Buddha will consider himself bound by his own precept. The Buddha assures 
King Bimbisara that such is not the case, and promises the king to perform a miracle 
at Savatthi four months later. The sectaries pursue the Buddha to Savatthi, erect 
a pavilion, and proclaim their intention of performing a miracle. King Pasenadi Kosala 
offers to erect a pavilion for the Buddha. The Buddha informs the king that Sakka 
will erect a pavilion for him, and that he will perform his miracle at the foot of Ganda's 
mango tree. The sectaries straightway tear up by the roots all of the mango trees for 
a league around. 

2 c. Preliminary miracles. By command of the Buddha, Ganda, the king's 
gardener, plants a mango, and straightway there springs up a mango tree fifty cubits 
in height. By command of Sakka the deity Wind-cloud uproots the pavilion of the 
sectaries, the deity Sun scorches them with his rays, and the deity Wind-cloud sprinkles 
them with dust and rain. Naked as they are, they flee helter-skelter; and the naked 
ascetic Purana Kassapa commits suicide and is reborn in the Avici hell. The Buddha 
creates a jeweled walk in the sky. A multitude assembles, covering a space thirty-six 
leagues in extent, and many disciples, wishing to share the Teacher's burden, offer 
to perform miracles. Among those who offer to perform miracles are Gharani, Culla 
Anathapindika, Cira, Cunda, Uppalavanna, and Moggallana. MoggaUana offers to 
swallow Mount Sineru, to roll up the earth like a mat, to spin the earth like a potter's 
wheel, to place the earth in his left hand and remove the inhabitants elsewhere, and 
to pace back and forth in the air carrying the earth balanced on Moxmt Sineru like an 
umbrella. The Buddha declines assistance, declares that he must bear his own bur- 
den, and relates the Kanha Usabha Jataka and the Nandi Visala Jataka. 

2 d. The Buddha performs the Twin Miracle. As the Buddha paces back and 
forth along the jeweled walk, preaching the Law to the multitude, he causes at one 
and the same time flames of fire and streams of water to proceed forth from every pore 
of his body. Moreover he creates a double, who exchanges question and answer with 
him, who sits when he stands, and stands when he sits. 

2 e. The Ascent of the Buddha to the World of the Thirty-three. In three strides 
the Buddha ascends to the World of the Thirty-three, and seats himself upon the 
Yellowstone throne. Anuruddha informs the multitude that the Buddha has ascended 
to the World of the Thirty-three to expound the Abhidhamma to his mother, and 
that he will return in three months. The multitude accordingly pitches camp m the 
open air against his return. According to instructions previously received from the 
Buddha, Moggallana expounds the Law to the multitude, and Culla Anathapindika 
provides them with food. As the Buddha sits on the Yellowstone throne, his mother 
sits on his right hand, the deity Indaka on his right, and the deity Afikura on his left. 
Indaka outshines Ankura because, although in a previous state of existence Ankura 
set up a row of braziers twelve leagues long and gave abundant alms, Indaka once 



Synopses of stories of Book 14- 119 

gave a monk a spoonful of his own food. The Buddha expounds the Abhidhamma for 
the benefit of his mother for the space of three months without interruption, creating 
a double to take his place whenever he has occasion to leave. Sariputta ascends to 
the World of the Thirty-three, receives the Abhidhamma from the lips of the Teacher, 
and returning to the world, expounds the seven books to the five hundred monks who 
compose his retinue. These five hundred monks are the first to receive the Abhi- 
dhamma because in a previous state of existence as little bats they listened to the 
recitation of the Abhidhamma by two monks. 

2 f. The Descent of the Buddha and attendant deities. Seven days before the 
festival of Pavarana the waiting multitude request the Elder Moggallana to ascertain 
when the Buddha will descend from the World of the Thirty-three. Moggallana 
ascends to the World of the Thirty-three and learns from the Buddha that he will 
descend with attendant deities at the gate of the city of Samkassa after seven days. 
On the festival of Pavarana the Buddha, standing on the summit of Mount Sineru, 
performs the Twin Miracle, surveys countless thousands of worlds, and descends to 
earth. The Buddha himself descends on a ladder of jewels, the Thirty-three deities 
on a ladder of gold to the right, and Maha Brahma on a ladder of silver to the left. 
Sariputta is the first to greet the Buddha, who pronounces the stanza " They that 
are devoted to meditation," establishing Sariputta's retinue in Arahatship. The 
Buddha puts questions to his disciples, praises Sariputta's answer, and relates the 
Parosahassa Jataka. 

3. The king of the dragons and his daughter [xiv. 4 = 182]. A monk breaks off 
a blade of grass, and dying unconfessed, is reborn as a dragon. Subsequently a 
daughter is bom to him. The dragon places his daughter within his hood and causes 
her to dance and sing a riddling stanza. Uttara sings in reply a stanza taught him 
by the Buddha. The dragon, knowing from the stanza that a Buddha has appeared 
in the world, visits the Buddha, and teUs him his story. The Buddha discourses on 
the difficulty of attaining rebirth as a human being. 

4. How did the Seven Buddhas keep Fast-day? [xiv. 5-7 = 183-185]. Ananda 
asks the Buddha how the Seven Buddhas observed Fast-day. The Buddha replies 
that their mode of keeping Fast-day was the same, and that they admonished their 
hearers with the same stanzas. 

5. The Buddha cures a monk of discontent [xiv. 8-9 = 186-187]. The father 
of a young monk dies, leaving him a hundred pieces of money. The monk becomes 
discontented, and decides to leave the Order. The Buddha proves to him that tlie 
money which he has inherited is insuflBcient to satisfy his desires, and relates the 
Mandhatu Jataka. 

6. The monk and the dragon [xiv. 10-14 = 188-192], Aggidatta, the house- 
priest of Maha Kosala, retires from the world and adopts the life of a hermit. He 
instructs the monks of his retinue, in case they are troubled with unlawful thoughts, 
to fill a jar with sand and empty it in a certain place. A great heap of sand arises, 
and Ahicchatta king of the dragons takes possession of it. Aggidatta urges his disciples 
to seek refuge in mountains and forests as a means of obtaining release from suffermg. 
The Buddha and Elder Moggallana visit Aggidatta. Moggallana obtains leave of 
Aggidatta to spend the night on the heap of sand. Moggallana and the dragon spit 
fire at each other, and the dragon is put to rout. The people are amazed at Moggal- 
lana's power. Moggallana modestly points to the Buddha as his Teacher, and the 
Buddha discourses on the Refuges. 

7. Whence come men of noble birth? [xiv. 15 = 193]. Ananda asks the Buddha 
from what region come men of noble birth. The Buddha replies, " The Central 
Region." 

8. What is the pleasantest thing in the world? [xiv. 16 = 194]. The Buddha 



120 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

admonishes some monks who are discussing the question, " What is the pleasantest 
thing in the world?" 

9. Honor to whom honor is due [xiv. 17-18 = 195-196]. A Brahman reverences 
a certain shrine, but omits to reverence the Buddha. The Buddha praises him, and 
admonishes the monks to render honor to whom honor is due. 

Book XV. Happiness, Sukha Vagga 

1. A quarrel among brethren [xv. 1-3 = 197-199]. The Sakiyas and the KoHyas 
quarrel over the diversion of the waters of the river Rohinl. The Buddha rebukes 
them and puts a stop to the quarrel. 

2. Mara possesses villagers [xv. 4 = 200]. The Buddha enters the village 
Pancasala to preach the Law to five hundred maidens. Mara possesses the bodies 
of the villagers so that they give the Buddha no alms. The Buddha rebukes Mara. 

3. Defeat of the King of Kosala [xv. 5 = 201]. The King of Kosala, thrice 
defeated in battle by his nephew Ajatasattu, takes to his bed and refuses to eat. 
The matter is reported to the Buddha, who comments on the evils which follow both 
victory and defeat. 

4. " Look not on a woman to lust after her " [xv. 6 = 202]. The Buddha 
attends a wedding. The young husband, fired with lust for his bride, ignores the 
Buddha. The Buddha causes the bride to vanish from the sight of her husband, and 
admonishes the husband on the evils of the lusts of the flesh. 

5. The Buddha feeds the hungry [xv. 7 = 203]. The Buddha goes to Alavi to 
preach the Law to a certain poor man. The poor man goes to seek his ox which was 
lost, and the Buddha waits for him to return. When he returns, the Buddha, observing 
that he is hungry, directs that food be given to him. The monks murmur, and the 
Buddha rebukes them. 

6. On moderation in eating [xv. 8 = 204]. King Pasenadi Kosala visits the 
Buddha, suffering from over-indulgence in food. The Buddha admonishes the king 
on the evils of over-eating and pronounces two stanzas on the subject, which the 
king is imable to memorize. The Buddha therefore causes the king's nephew to 
memorize the stanzas and to pronounce them before the king at meal-time. The 
king takes the hint, diminishes his food, and improves in health. Later on the king 
visits the Buddha and tells him how much he has improved in health and spirits. 

7. By righteousness men honor the Buddha [xv. 9 = 205]. From the day 
when the Teacher announces that in four months he will pass into Nibbana, seven 
hundred monks of his retinue are overwhelmed with fear, and gather in little groups 
and ask each other, " What are we to do? " But a certain monk named Tissa resolves 
to strive the more earnestly for the attainment of Arahatship. Accordingly he adopts 
the Four Postures and keeps residence by himself. The monks, misvmderstanding 
his motive, tell the Teacher that Tissa has no affection for him. The Teacher ad- 
monishes them as follows : " Only he that is like Tissa has real affection for me. For 
though men honor me with perfumes and garlands, they honor me not. But they that 
practice the Higher and the Lower Law, they alone truly honor me." 

8. Sakka ministers to the Buddha [xv. 10-12 = 206-208]. At the close of the 
Buddha's life, when he is suffering from an attack of dysentery, Sakka comes and 
ministers to him. When the monks express surprise at Sakka's ministrations, the 
Buddha tells them that Sakka is merely returning favor for favor. To make the 
matter clear, the Buddha tells the monks the story of how Sakka once came to him 
terrified with the fear of death and of how he reassured him. 



Synopses of stones of Books 15-16 121 



Book XVI. Objects of Affection, Piya Vagga 

1. Mother and father and son [xvi. 1-3 = 209-211]. A youth retires from the 
world, in spite of the opposition of his parents. His father and mother follow his 
example. Mother and father and son, even after their retirement from the world, 
are unable to remain apart. The Buddha reproves them for not suppressing human 
affections. 

2. The Buddha comforts the affUcted [xvi. 4 = 212]. A certain layman loses 
his son, and is unable to restrain his grief. The Buddha visits him and comforts him, 
admonishing him that death is common to all. The Buddha urges the layman to 
meditate upon death after the example of wise men of old, and relates the Uraga Jataka. 

3. The Buddha comforts the afflicted [xvi. 5 = 213]. Visakha loses her grand- 
daughter Datta, and is unable to restrain her grief. The Buddha asks her to consider 
how many persons die daily, and convinces her that grief is unprofitable. 

4. The Licchavi princes and the courtezan [xvi. 6 = 214]. The Licchavi princes 
fall to fighting over the possession of a courtezan, and are carried into the city on 
litters. The Buddha comments on the evils of the lusts of the flesh. 

5. The golden maiden [xvi. 7 = 215]. A youth with a repugnance for women 
causes a golden image to be made in the form of a woman of surpassing beauty, offering 
to marry the maiden who possesses equal beauty, if such can be found. Brahmans 
find a maiden whose beauty far surpasses the beauty of the image, and so report to the 
youth's parents. The youth is all eagerness to see her. As the Brahmans are con- 
ducting her to the house of her future husband, she suddenly drops dead. The youth 
is inconsolable, takes to his bed, and refuses to eat. The Buddha convinces the j'outh 
that love is the cause of his grief, and establishes him in the Fruit of Conversion. 

6. Set not your heart on worldly possessions [xvi. 8 = 216]. A Brahman promises 
the Buddha, in case his crop prospers, to divide with him. When he is on the point 
of fulfilling his promise, a severe storm ruins his crop. The Brahman, overcome with 
grief, takes to his bed and refuses to eat. The Buddha convinces him that desire is 
the cause of his grief, and establishes him in the Fruit of Conversion. 

7. Kassapa wins a basket of cakes [xvi. 9 = 217]. Some youths carrying baskets 
of cakes on their shoulders pass the Buddha and his retinue without so much as offering 
them a cake. But when Elder Kassapa appears, they are all poUteness and offer him 
everything they have. The Buddha comments approvingly on the delight with which 
men honor a monk like Kassapa. 

8. The Elder who had attained the Fruit of the Third Path [xvi. 10 = 218]. An 
Elder who has attained the Fruit of the Third Path, dies without answering a question 
his brother monks asked him with reference to his attainment of Specific Attainment. 
The monks carry their grief to the Buddha, who comforts them, assuring them that 
their brother has been reborn in the Pure Abode. 

9. Nandiya attains heavenly glory [xvi. 11-12 = 219-220]. Nandiya marries 
his uncle's daughter, inherits great wealth, and erects a dwelling for the monks. As 
the result of this gift, a palace of jewels arises in the World of the Thirty-three. One 
day Moggallana visits the World of the Thirty-three, and is informed by celestial 
nymphs that the palace is the result of Nandiya's gift. Returning to the world of 
men, he asks the Buddha whether men may attain heavenly glory even in this life. 
The Buddha reminds him of what he has seen with his own eyes, and adds that when 
a man who has wrought works of merit goes to the next world, he is greeted by the 
deities as warmly as a man who has been long absent from home is greeted by his 
kinsfolk. 



122 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 



Book XVn. Anger, Kodha Vagga 

1. How anger marred a maiden's looks [xvii. 1 =221]. 

1 a. The maiden with blotches on her face. Elder Anuruddha once visits 
Kapilavatthu and is greeted by all of his kinsfolk except his sister Rohini, who remams 
at home on account of an eruption of the skin. The Elder causes her to be summoned, 
and admonishes her to p)erform works of merit. He suggests that she build an 
assembly-hall. Rohini follows her brother's advice, and the eruption immediately 
disappears. Subsequently Rohini entertains the Buddha. The Buddha informs her 
that anger was the cause of her skin-disease, and relates the following 

1 b. Story of the Past: The jealous queen and the nautch-girl. The chief con- 
sort of the Kmg of Benares once took a dislike to a nautch-girl, and determined to get 
even with her. So she reduced a number of large ripe scabs to powder, and covered 
the girl's body with the powder. The result was that the girl's body became covered 
with sores. The jealous queen was Rohini. 

1 c. Sequel: The celestial nymph. As the result of her gift of an assembly-hall, 
Rohini is reborn as a celestial nymph. Four deities quarrel over her, but yield her 
to Sakka. She becomes Sakka's darling and delight. 

2. The tree-spirit and the monk [xvii. 2 = 222]. A certain monk determines to 
build him a lodging, and sets about to cut down a tree. The tree-spirit begs him to 
desist, but he refuses to do so. The spirit, thinking that the sight of her child will 
touch the monk, places her child on a branch of the tree. The monk, imable to check 
the force of his upraised axe, cuts off the arm of the child. The tree-spirit restrains 
her impulse to kill the monk, and reports the matter to the Buddha. The Buddha 
commends her for her self-restraint, and assigns her another tree. 

3. The poor man and his daughter [xvii. 3 = 223]. 

3 a. Punna acquires merit. A poor man named Punna worked for the treasurer 
Sumana, and his wife and daughter Uttara were servants in the treasurer's household. 
On a certain holiday Punna directs his wife to prepare a double portion of rice, and 
spends the morning plowing as usual. Sariputta goes to the field where Punna is 
plowing, and Punna gives him a toothstick and strains water for him. Punna's 
wife sets out for the field with her husband's meal, but meeting Sariputta, gives him 
the rice. Returning home, she prepares a second portion of rice for her husband, takes 
the rice to him, and explains the reason for her delay. Punna, overjoyed at what he 
has heard, but utterly weary, lies down and goes to sleep. 

When Punna awakens the following morning, he discovers that the field which 
he plowed the previous day has turned to gold. He mforms the king, who orders 
that the gold be hauled to the palace. As the king's men gather up the gold, they say, 
" This is the property of the king." Immediately the gold turns to dust. The king 
orders them to say, " This is the property of Punna," and inunediately the dust turns 
to gold again. The king appoints Punna treasurer, bestows aU of the wealth upon 
him, and gives him a site for a house. Punna builds him a house, entertains the 
Buddha, and together with his wife and daughter Uttara, attains the Fruit of 
Conversion. 

3 b. Uttara and Sirima. Uttara becomes the wife of the treasurer Sumana's son. 
Now the treasurer Sumana and all the members of his household were unbelievers; 
and Uttara. was iniable for some time to perform any of the duties of her religion. 
Finally, at the suggestion of her father, she installs the courtezan Sirima in her house- 
hold as her husband's mistress, and her husband consents to the arrangement. Sirima 
lives in the house for a fortnight, quite ignorant of her real position in the house- 
hold, imagining herself to be the real mistress of the household. Uttara spends her 



Synopses of stories of Books 17-18 123 

time in the kitchen, preparing food for the monks. Her husband sees her and laughs. 
Sirima sees him laugh, and furiously jealous of Uttara, enters the kitchen and throws 
boiling ghee on her head. Uttara escapes injury by making an Act of Truth. The 
serving-women belabor Sirima with blows, but Uttara rescues her and bathes her with 
hot water and oil. Sirima then realizes that her position m the household is that of a 
concubine, repents of her act, and asks Uttara to pardon her. Uttara promises to 
pardon her if the Buddha will pardon her. The Buddha admonishes Sirima that 
anger should be overcome with kindness, and pronounces a stanza, establishing her 
in the Fruit of Conversion. 

4. Do trifling acts of merit lead to heaven? [xvii. 4 = 224]. Moggallana goes 
to heaven and asks the deities to tell him through what acts of merit they attained 
heavenly glory. The deities mention trifling acts of merit, such as telling the truth, 
not getting angry, giving small gifts. Moggallana returns to earth and asks the Buddha 
whether such trifling acts of merit really lead to heaven. The Buddha assures him 
that they do. 

5. A Brahman greets the Buddha as his son [xvii. 5 = 225]. The Buddha is 
entertained by an old Brahman and his wife, who greet him as their son. Thp monks 
express surprise that the Buddha should acquiesce in this form of address. The Buddha 
tells them that in five hundred states of existence the Brahman and his wife were his 
father and motlier, in five hundred more his uncle and aunt, and in five hundred more 
his grandfather and grandmother. The old Brahman and his wife attain Arahatship 
and pass into Nibbana. The Buddha follows their bodies to the buming-groimd, and 
discourses to the monks on the bliss of Nibbana. 

6. It is the giver that makes the gift [xvii. 6 = 226]. A female slave presents 
the Buddha with a cake made of rice-dust. The Buddha accepts the cake, and relates 
to the monks the Kundaka-sindhavapotaka Jataka. 

7. Nothing, too much, and too little [xvii. 7-10 = 227-230]. The layman Atula 
blames Revata for saying nothing, Sariputta for saying too much, and Ananda for 
saying too little. The Buddha admonishes him that no one deserves unqualified blame, 
and no one unqualified praise. 

8. The Band of Six [xvii. 11-14 = 231-234]. The Six Monks put on wooden 
shoes and make a great clatter. The Buddha admonishes the monks to restrain them- 
selves in deeds, words, and thoughts. 



Book XVIII. Blemishes, Mala Vagga 

1. The cow-kUler and his son [xviii. 1^ = 235-238]. A cow-killer, angered at 
the failure of his wife to provide beef for his supper, cuts off the tongue of a live ox, 
has it cooked, and sits down to eat. The moment he places a piece of ox- tongue in 
his mouth, his own tongue is cleft in twain and falls out of his mouth. The cow-killer 
crawls about on his hands and knees, bellowing like an ox, dies shortly afterwards, 
and is reborn in the Avici hell. The son flees in terror to Takkasila, and becomes 
apprenticed to a goldsmith. The goldsmith so admires the young man's work that 
he gives him his daughter in marriage. Subsequently the cow-killer's son goes to 
live with his own sons, who have become disciples of the Buddha. One day his sons 
entertain the Buddha, who admonishes the father to make provision for his journey 
to the next world. 

2. Little by little [xviii. 5 = 239]. A certain Brahman clears away the grass 
from the place where the monks vest themselves, covers the place with sand, erects 
a pavilion and a hall, and gives a festival in honor of the completion of the hall. The 
Buddha praises the Brahman for laying up spiritual treasure little by little. 



124 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

3. The louse that would have his own [xviii. 6 = 240]. A certain monk is 
presented with a coarse cloth eight cubits in length. From this material his sister 
weaves a fine cloth nine cubits in length, and the monk has a robe made of it. He 
dies suddenly in the night, and is reborn as a louse in his own robe. When the monks 
undertake to divide the robe among them, the louse runs back and forth screaming, 
" These monks are stealing my property." The Teacher hears his words by Super- 
natural Audition, and directs the robe to be laid aside for seven days. On the seventh 
day the louse dies, and is reborn in the World of the Tusita gods. On the eighth day 
the Teacher directs the robe to be divided among the monks, explains the reason for 
the delay, and discourses on the corroding effect of desire. 

4. Pride goeth before a fall [xviii. 7 = 241]. A certam monk boasts of his ability 
to expoimd the Law, but fails miserably when put to the test. His indignant hearers 
drive him away with sticks and stones, and he falls into a cesspool. The Teacher tells 
the monks that it is not the first time he has wallowed in a cesspool, and relates the 
Sukara Jataka. 

5. The wickedness of women [xviii. 8-9 = 242-243]. A young man who has 
been greatly embarrassed by the wicked ways of his wife, visits the Buddha. The 
Buddha compares women to rivers, and relates the Anabhirati Jataka. 

6. Coiuiiesy and rudeness [xviii. 10-11 = 244-245]. A certain monk receives 
a portion of choice food, and offers it to an Elder. The Elder walks away without 
so much as thanking him. The Buddha contrasts the easy life of the shameless with 
the hard life of the modest. 

7. All of the precepts are hard to keep [xviii. 12-14 = 246-248]. Five hundred 
laymen, each of whom keeps one of the precepts, fall into a dispute as to which of 
the precepts is the hardest to keep. The Buddha admonishes them that all of the 
precepts are hard to keep. 

8. The fault-finding novice [xviii. 15-16 = 249-250]. A certain monk finds 
fault with everybody, and boasts about his kinsfolk. The monks send some novices 
to look up his antecedents, and the novices report that he is of humble origin. The 
Buddha informs the monks that it is not the first time the novice has so conducted 
himself, and relates the Katahaka Jataka. 

9. The inattentive laymen [xviii. 17 =251]. Five laymen go to the monastery 
to hear the Law. During the Buddha's sermon the first falls asleep, the second digs 
the earth with his fimger, the third shakes a tree, the fourth gazes at the sky, the fifth 
alone listens to the Law. The Buddha informs Ananda that in five hundred successive 
existences the first was a dragon, the second an earthworm, the third a monkey, the 
fourth an astrologer, and the fifth a repeater of the Veda. What they did, they did 
from the force of habit. 

10. Treasurer Ram [xviii. 18 = 252]. 

10 a. Frame-Story begun: The Buddha visits Treasurer Ram. 

10 b. How did Treasurer Ram get his name? Treasurer Ram was so called 
because he possessed golden rams. 

10 c. Story of the Past: How Treasiu-er Ram came to possess golden rams. 
In the dispensation of the Buddha Vipassi Treasurer Ram erected an elephant-stable 
ornamented with golden rams. 

10 d. Story of the Past: How Treastu-er Ram and his family came to possess 
magical power. In the present dispensation Treasurer Ram and his family presented 
a pint-pot of rice in time of famine to a Private Buddha, each member of the family 
making an Earnest Wish. Treasurer Ram's granaries were immediately filled to over- 
flowing, and both he and his family were endowed with magical power. 

10 e. Treasurer Ram and his family exhibit their magical power. Treasurer 
Ram causes his granaries to be swept, bathes his head, sits down at the door of each 



Synopses of stories of Books 18-19 125 

granary, looks up at the sky, and one after another his granaries are filled with ruddy 
rice. His wife adorns herself, prepares a pint-pot of boiled rice, doles out rice with a 
golden spoon to all who come, and the pint-pot of rice suffers no diminution. His son 
bathes his head, fills a purse with a thousand pieces of money, doles out money to 
all who come, and the thousand pieces of money suffer no diminution. His daughter- 
in-law adorns herself, fills a basket with seed-rice, doles out seed-rice to all who come, 
and the basket of seed-rice suffers no diminution. His slave adorns himself, yokes 
his oxen, and plows seven furrows at once. 

10 a. Frame-Story concluded: Treasurer Ram goes forth to meet the Buddha. 
The sectaries find fault with the Buddha and seek to restrain Treasurer Ram from 
going forth to meet him. The Buddha remarks that the sectaries find in others faults 
which do not exist, but fail to see their own faults. 

11. The fault-finding monk [xviii. 19 = 253]. The Buddha reproves a monk 
who found fault with everybody. 

12. Is there a path through the air? [xviii. 20-21 = 254-255]. A wandering 
monk asks the Buddha three questions, all of which the Buddha answers in the 
negative. 

Book XDt. The Righteous, Dhammattha Vagga 

1. The unjust judges [xix. 1-2 = 256-257]. Some monks see some judges taking 
bribes and depriving lawful owners of their property unjustly. The Buddha dis- 
courses on the true meaning of " righteous." 

2. The Band of Six [xix. 3 = 258]. The Six Monks insult some young monks 
and novices. The latter complain to the Buddha, who ^discourses on the meaning of 
" wise." 

3. Not therefore is a man praised for his much speaking [xix. 4 = 259]. The 
forest-deities applaud an Arahat who recites a single stanza, but withhold applause 
from two monks who recite the Law at length. The two monks complain to the 
Buddha, who comments on the meaning of " versed in the Law." 

4. Can a young monk be an "Elder"? [xix. 5-6 = 260-261]. Some monks 
express surprise that the Teacher should apply the title " Elder " to a young monk. 
The Teacher explains what he means by the title. 

5. What is an accomplished gentleman? [xix. 7-8 = 262-263]. The Buddha re- 
proves some monks who pride themselves on their good address. 

6. It is not tonsure that makes the monk [xix. 9-10 = 264-265]. Whenever 
Hatthaka was defeated in an argument, he would invite his opponent to resume the 
argument at such and such a place and time. He would then go to the place before 
the appointed time and proclaim that his opponent's absence was a virtual confession 
of defeat. The Buddha reproved him and remarked that it is not tonsure that makes 
the monk. 

7. What is it that makes the monk? [xix. 11-12 = 266-267]. A Brahman be- 
comes a sectarian monk, and asks the Buddha why he does not call him a monk. 

8. It is not silence that makes the sage [xix. 13-14 = 268-269]. In the first 
period of Enlightenment, whereas the sectarian monks express their thanks and good 
wishes to those who have entertained them, the orthodox monks depart with never a 
word of thanks. The people murmur, and the monks report the matter to the Buddha. 
The Buddha enjoins upon the monks the saying of thanksgivings. The sectaries com- 
plain that whereas they keep silence, as befits sages, their opponents deliver lengthy 
discourses. The Buddha remarks that he does not call a man a sage merely because 
he keeps silence. 

9. Noble is as noble does [xix. 15 = 270]. A fisherman, seeing the Buddha, 



126 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

throws away his hook and Une. The Buddha asks him his name, and learning that it 
is " Noble," reproves him for taking the lives of living creatures, and remarks that 
noble is as noble does, 

10. Be not puffed up [xix. 16-17 = 271-272]. The Buddha reproves a party 
of monks who are puffed up because of their spiritual attainments, and admonishes 
them that they must be satisfied with nothing less than the attainment of Arahatship. 



Book XX. The Path, Magga Vagga 

1. The Eightfold Path is the best of paths [xx. 1-4 = 273-276]. Fifty monks 
engage in a conversation about the paths over which they have traveled. The Buddha 
admonishes them to apply themselves to the task of entering upon the Noble Eight- 
fold Path. 

2. Impennanence [xx. 5 = 277]. The Buddha, knowing that certain monks 
meditated upon Impermanence in a previous birth, directs them to meditate upon 
Impermanence. 

3. Suffering [xx. 6 = 278]. The Buddha, knowing that certain monks meditated 
upon Suffering in a previous birth, directs them to meditate upon Suffering. 

4. Unreality [xx. 7 = 279]. The Buddha, knowmg that certain monks meditated 
upon Unreality in a previous birth, directs them to meditate upon Unreality. 

5. Do not postpone until to-morrow [xx. 8 = 280]. Five hundred monks retire 
to the forest to meditate. One falls away, but the rest attain Arahatship. The monks 
return to the Teacher, who has a kind word for everybody except the monk who has 
fallen away. The monk renews his determination to attain Arahatship, and walks 
up and down the cloister all night long. Becommg drowsy, he stumbles against a 
stone seat and breaks his thigh. As his fellow-monks are on their way to take a meal 
at the house of a certain layman, they hear the groans of the unfortunate monk, and 
stop and minister to him. They are thus prevented from receiving promised offerings. 
The Teacher remarks that it is not the first time this monk has prevented his fellows 
from receiving promised offerings, and relates the Varana Jataka. He then discourses 
on the evil of procrastination. 

6. The pig-ghost [xx. 9 = 281]. As Moggallana is descending Mount Vulture 
Peak with Lakkhana, Moggallana smiles. Lakkhana asks him why he smiles. Mog- 
gallana replies that he will tell him as soon as they are in the presence of the Teacher. 
When they are in presence of the Teacher, Lakkhana repeats his question. Mog- 
gaUana tells him that he saw a ghost in the form of a pig. The Buddha corroborates 
his statement, and declares that he himself saw the same ghost as he sat on the Throne 
of Enlightenment. The monks ask the Buddha to tell them about his former deed, 
and the Buddha relates the following 

6 a. Story of the Past: The destroyer of friendships. Two monks lived together 
in peace and harmony until a preacher of the Law destroyed their mutual friendship 
and confidence by telling each of them that the other had made insinuations of evil 
concerning him. When a hundred years had passed, the two monks discovered that 
the preacher of the Law had lied to them, drove him from their dwelling, and renewed 
their friendship. The destroyer of friendships was febom as a ghost in the form of a 

pig- 

7. Pothila the Empty-head [xx. 10 = 282]. The Buddha fires the determination 
of a certain monk to attain Arahatship by calling him " Empty-head." A seven-year- 
old novice tests the monk's willingness to obey by ordering him to leap into a pool of 
water, robes and all. The monk obeys, listens to the admonition of the novice, and 
after hearing a stanza uttered by an apparition of the Buddha, attains Arahatship. 



Synopses of stories of Books 20-21 127 

8. The old monks and the old woman [xx. 11-12 = 283-284]. Some old monks 
are befriended by an old woman, the former wife of one of their number. When the 
old woman dies, the old monks are inconsolable. The Buddha relates the following 

8 a. Story of the Past: Klka Jataka. In a previous state of existence the old 
monks were a flock of crows. One day the mate of one of their number got very drimk, 
and was swept out to sea and drowTied. The crows set to work to bale out the sea 
with their beaks, but finally gave up the attempt. 

9. The grass withereth, the flower fadeth [xx. 13 = 285]. A goldsmith's son,"who 
has meditated on Impurity without success, attains Arahatship by contemplating 
withering leaves and fading flowers. 

10. Thou shalt surely die [xx. 14 = 286]. A merchant sets out on a journey, 
but is halted by a flood. So he pitches camp by the bank of a river, and decides to 
remain there for a full year. The Buddha, knowing that the man is destined to die in 
seven days, sends Elder Ananda to him, and afterwards preaches to him in person. 

11. The bereaved mother and the pinch of mustard seed [xx. 15 = 287]. The 
Buddha admonishes a mother who has sought a pinch of mustard seed as medicine for 
her dead child. 

12. The woman who was bereft of all her family [xx. 16-17 = 288-289]. The 
Buddha admonishes a woman who has lost all the members of her family by death. 

Book XXI. Miscellaneous, Pakinnaka Vagga 

1. The Ascent of the Ganges [xxi. 1 = 290]. Vesali is devastated by famine, 
evil spirits, and pestilence. The Licchavi prince Mahali requests the Buddha to visit 
the city and abate the plagues. The Buddha consents. King Bimbisara prepares a 
road from Rajagaha to the Ganges, and escorts the Buddha in state to the bank of 
the river. The Buddha descends the Ganges. The Licchavi princes prepare a road 
from the Ganges to Vesali, and escort the Buddha to their city, bestowing on him 
honors double those bestowed by the king. Sakka and the deities descend, and the 
evil spirits flee away. By direction of the Buddha, the Elder Ananda recites the Jewel 
Sutta, and the plagues abate. The Buddha is honored by men, deities, and Nagas. 
The Buddha ascends the Ganges, and is received by the king with honors double those 
rendered by the Licchavi princes. The king escorts the Buddha back to Rajagaha. 
The monks express amazement at the supernatural power of the Buddha. The Buddha 
tells them that the honors accorded him are the result of a slight offering which he 
made in a previous state of existence, and relates the following 

1 a. Story of the Past: The Brahman Saihkha. The Brahman Samkha had a 
son named Susima who became a Private Buddha. When Suslma died, Sathklia made 
offerings at his shrine. Samkha was the Future Buddha. 

2. " Not hatred for hatred " [xxi. 2 = 291]. A girl eats the eggs of a hen. The 
hen conceives a grudge against her, and prays that she may be reborn as an ogress, 
able to devour the children of her enemy. The hen is reborn as a cat, the girl is reborn 
as a hen, and the cat eats the eggs of the hen. The hen is reborn as a leopardess, the 
cat is reborn as a doe, and the leopardess eats the young of the doe. In five himdred 
successive states of existence, they return hatred for hatred. Finally the girl who 
ate the eggs of a hen is reborn as a young woman of Savatthi, and the hen is reborn as 
an ogress. The ogress devours two children of the young woman, and is about to 
seize the third when the young woman seeks refuge in the monastery. The Buddha 
admonishes them to return good for evil. 

3. The monks who were given to vanities [xxi. 3-4 = 292-293]. The monks of 
Bhaddiya were given to the wearing of all manner of ornamental shoes, and neglected 
their religious duties. The Buddha reproved them. 



128 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

4. The monk who had killed his mother and father [xxi. 5-6 = 294-295]. The 
Buddha points out a monk who has killed his mother and father. 

5. The youth and the demons [xxi. 7-12 = 296-301]. A youth wins victories 
in his sports and escapes from the power of a demon by meditating on the Buddha 
and ejaculating, " Praise be to the Buddha." 

6. The Vajjian prince who became a monk [xxi. 13 = 302]. A Vajjian prince 
who became a monk hears festive music and becomes discontented. 

7. Citta, the faithful layman [xxi. 14 = 303]. A jealous monk insults a faithful 
layman and is rebuked by the Buddha. The layman presents alms to the Buddha, 
and is rewarded by deities and men. [Excerpt from v. 14.] 

8. Culla Subhadda the virtuous [xxi. 15 = 304]. CuUa Subhadda, daughter of 
Anathapindika, marries the son of Ugga, a sectarian. Anathapindika presents his 
daughter with a dowry, gives her Ten Admonitions, and provides her with eight 
sponsors to clear her of such charges as may be brought against her. She enters her 
husband's city in state, winning the hearts of the citizens by her virtues and her charm. 
Her father-in-law entertains the Naked Ascetics, and invites her to do them reverence. 
Out of modesty she refuses, and her father-in-law directs her to be put out of the 
house. She summons her sponsors and explains the situation to them. Her mother- 
in-law asks her to describe her own monks, and she does so. Her mother-in-law asks 
to see her monks. So she invites the Buddha and his monks and entertains them. 
The Buddha expounds the Law, and Ugga is established in the Fruit of Conversion. 

9. The solitary monk [xxi. 16 = 305]. The Buddha praises the life of solitude. 



BookXXn. Hell, Niraya Vagga 

1. Murder of Sundari [xxii. 1 = 306]. The envious sectaries conspire with the 
wandering nun Sundari to cast reproach upon the Buddha. In the evening, when the 
throngs are returning to the city from Jetavana, she walks in the direction of Jetavana, 
and when the people ask her where she is going, she replies that she is on her way to 
Jetavana to spend the night alone with the hermit Gotama in the Perfumed Chamber. 
Having spent the night in some monastery belonging to the sectaries, she walks back 
in the morning in full view of the throngs on their way to Jetavana. After a few days 
the sectaries suborn villains to kill Sundari and throw her body on a heap of rubbish 
near the Perfumed Chamber. The sectaries then report to the king that Sundari 
has disappeared, and tell him that they suspect the disciples of the Buddha of havmg 
murdered her in order to conceal their master's misdeeds. The king permits them to 
make a search for her body. They remove the body from the rubbish-heap and carry 
it into the city on a litter, proclaiming publicly that the disciples of the Buddha have 
murdered her. The inhabitants of the city revile the monks, and the monks report 
the matter to the Buddha. The Buddha discourses on the evil end of liars. The king 
sends out his men to investigate the murder. The murderers betray themselves in a 
tavern while imder the influence of strong drink. The king's men arrest the murderers 
and arraign them before the king. The murderers confess their guilt and implicate 
the sectaries. The king orders the execution of the sectaries. 

2. The skeleton-ghost [xxii. 2 = 307]. As Moggallana is descending Mount 
Vulture Peak with Lakkhana, Moggallana suddenly smiles. Lakkhana asks him why 
he smiles. Moggallana replies that he will tell him as soon as they are in the presence 
of the Teacher. When they are in the presence of the Teacher, Lakkhana repeats 
his question, and Moggallana tells him that he saw a ghost in the form of a skeleton, 
a monk soaring through the air with his body all aflame, and other of their co-religion- 
ists, five in all, tormented with fire. The Teacher informs the monks that these men 



Synopses of stories of Books 21-23 129 

retired from the world in the dispensation of the Buddha Kassapa and 'failed to act 
according to their profession. 

3. Magic for meat [xxii. 3 = 308]. The Buddha reproves some monks for 
praising each other as possessors of supernatural powers for the sake of the belly. 

4. The man whom women loved [xxii. 4-5 = 309-310]. Anathapindika's nephew 
Khema was such a handsome youth that all tlie women who saw him fell madly 
in love with him. He spent most of his time running after other men's wives. ,The 
king was unable to turn him from his evil ways, but the Buddha converted him. 

4 a. Story of the Past: Khema's Earnest Wish. Khema's attractiveness to 
women was due to the fact that in a previous existence he made an Earnest Wish that 
all of the women who saw him might fall in love with him. 

5. The presumptuous monk [xxii. 6-8 = 311-313]. A monk thoughtlessly 
breaks off a blade of grass. Troubled in mind, he consults a brother monk. The 
second monk makes light of the offense of the first monk, and deliberately seizes a clump 
of grass with both of his hands and pulls it up. The Buddha rebukes the presumptuous 
monk. 

6. The jealous woman [xxii. 9 = 314]. A jealous woman's husband lies with a 
female servant. The jealous woman binds her rival hand and foot, cuts off her nose 
and ears, and shuts her up in an inner chamber. Then she goes with her husband to 
hear the Law. The female servant is released by relatives of the woman, goes to the 
monastery, and tells the Buddha what has happened. The Buddha discourses on 
the folly of evil deeds. 

7. Fortify yourself like a city [xxii. 10 = 315]. The inhabitants of a frontier 
country are so busily engaged in fortifying their city that they find no opportunity 
to minister properly to some visiting monks. The monks relate their experiences to 
the Buddha, who admonishes them to fortify themselves like a city. 

8. Degrees of nakedness [xxii. 11-12 = 316-317]. Some monks, seeing a com- 
pany of Naked Ascetics of the Jain order (Niganthas), express the opinion that the 
Niganthas are superior to the Acelakas, since the Niganthas wear at least a covermg 
in front, while the Acelakas go entirely naked. The Niganthas hasten to explain that 
their sole reason for wearing any covering is to keep the dust and dirt from falhng 
into the vessels in which they receive their food. 

9. Children visit the Buddha [xxii. 13-14 = 318-319]. The sectaries administer 
an oath to their children not to salute the monks or to enter their monastery. One 
day, as the children are playing outside of the Jetavana monastery, they become 
thirsty, and send the son of a lay disciple to the monastery for water. The layman's 
son goes to the monastery, salutes the Buddha, and tells him the circumstances of 
his visit. The Buddha tells him to send the other boys to the monastery for their 
drink. The boys all come and have their drink. The Buddha chooses a subject 
suited to their understanding, discourses to them, and establishes them in the Refuges. 
Eventually their parents also become disciples of the Buddha. 

Book XXm. The Elephant, Naga Vagga 

1. The sectaries insult the Buddha [xxiii. 1-3 = 320-322]. At the instigation 
of Magandiya, the sectaries follow the Buddha about and shout insulting epithets at 
him. Ananda suggests that they flee to another city, but the Buddha rejects his 
suggestion and compares himself to an elephant that has entered the fray. [Excerpt 
from ii. 1, part 6.] 

2. The monk who had been an elephant-trainer [xxiii. 4 = 323]. A monk who 
had once been an elephant-trainer, stands by the bank of a river, watching an elephant- 
tamer break in an elephant. Observing that the elephant-tamer is not succeeding 



130 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

very well, the monk remarks to some of his fellow-monks that if the elephant-tamer 
would only wound the elephant in such and such a place, he could very quickly teach 
him the trick he wishes to teach him. The elephant-tamer hears the remark, follows 
the monk's suggestion, and soon compels the elephant to submit to his will. The 
monks report the incident to the Buddha. The Buddha rebukes him, telling him that 
he has all he can do to tame himself. 

3. The old Brahman and his sons [xxiii. 5 = 324]. An old Brahman divides 
half of his wealth among his four sons when they marry. When the Brahman's wife 
dies, the sons induce the father to divide the remainder of his wealth among them. 
The Brahman's daughters-in-law drive him from the houses of his sons. At the sug- 
gestion of the Buddha the Brahman recites his troubles before the assembled Brah- 
mans. The Brahmans threaten to kill the sons. The sons thereafter take proper care 
of their father. The Brahman makes an offering of thanksgiving to the Buddha. At 
the Brahman's suggestion his sons entertain the Buddha. The Buddha praises the 
Brahman's sons for their tender care of their father, and relates the following 

3 a. Story of the Past: Matuposaka Nagaraja Jataka. The elephant Dhanapala 
refused to eat in captivity for love of his mother. 

4. On moderation in eating [xxiii. 6 = 325]. King Pasenadi Kosala, suffering 
from over-indulgence in food, visits the Buddha. The Buddha admonishes the king 
on the evils of over-eating, and directs the king's nephew to recite a certain stanza 
before the king at meal-time. The king takes the hint, diminishes his food, and 
improves in health. [Excerpt from xv. 6.] 

5. The novice and the ogress [xxiii. 7 = 326]. A model novice makes over the 
merit he acquires by intoning the Sacred Word to his mother and father. On attaining 
manhood, he becomes discontented, resolves to leave the Order, and goes to the house 
of his mother. His mother remonstrates with him, but to no avail. An ogress wha 
was his mother in a previous state of existence, takes possession of him, and wrings 
his neck until he falls to the ground, writhing and foaming at the mouth. When he 
recovers his senses, his mother urges him to return to the Order, and this he does. 
The Buddha admonishes him to restrain his thoughts. 

6. An elephant sticks fast in the mud [xxiii. 8 = 327]. An elephant sticks fast 
ia the mud. His keeper shows himself to the elephant with his head arrayed as for 
battle, and causes the battle-drum to be beaten. The elephant immediately exerts 
himself to the utmost and extricates himself from the mud. The monks report the 
incident to the Buddha, who admonishes them to extricate themselves from the 
quagmire of the evil passions. 

7. An elephant waits upon the Buddha [xxiii. 9-11 = 328-330]. The Buddha 
takes up his residence in the forest, and is waited upon by a noble elephant. Ananda, 
accompanied by many disciples and monks, goes to the forest. The monks ask the 
Buddha whether he has not endured much hardship. The Buddha replies that he has 
been waited upon by a noble elephant, and remarks that whoever obtains such a 
companion may well live alone. [Excerpt from i. 5.] 

8. Mara tempts the Buddha [xxiii. 12-14 = 331-333]. Mara tempts the Buddha 
to exercise sovereignty and to transmute matter iato gold. The Buddha rebukes Mara 
and admonishes him. 

Book XXIV. Thirst or Craving, Tanha Vagga 

1. Redfish [xxiv. 1-1 = 334r-337]. 

1 a. Story of the Past: The insolent monk. The bandits. A certain monk, 
drunk with the intoxication of great learning, and overcome by desire of gain, behaved 
in an insolent manner towards his fellows. The monk was reborn in the Avici hell^ 



Synopses of stories of Books 23-2 If 131 

Five hundred bandits took upon themselves the precepts and were reborn in the World 
of the Gods. 

1 b. Story of the Present : The fishermen, and the fish with a stinking breath. 
The insolent monk is reborn as a fish with scales of ruddy gold, but with a stinking 
breath. The bandits are reborn as fishermen. The fishermen inclose the fish in their 
net and take it to the king. The king takes it to the Buddha. The Buddha informs 
the king that because in a previous state of existence the fish preached the Word of 
the Buddha, therefore it has scales of ruddy gold, but because the fish was guilty of 
insolence, therefore it has a stinking breath. To confirm the faith of his hearers, the 
Buddha lets the fish tell its own story. The Buddha admonishes his hearers to walk 
in heedfulness. 

2. The yoiuig sow [xxiv. 5-10 = 338-343]. A young woman passes through 
thirteen successive births. In one of these births she is a young sow. The Buddha 
relates her previous history. In her thirteenth birth she marries the mmister of King 
Gamanl the Wicked, retires from the world, and attains Arahatship. 

3. The renegade monk [xxiv. 11 = 344]. A monk returns to the world and joins 
a pack of thieves. One day he is captured. As he is on his way to the place of execu- 
tion, a certain Elder admonishes him to consider once more the Subject of Meditation 
which he formerly employed. The renegade monk applies himself to meditation and 
enters into the fourth trance. The executioners take their places around him, but he 
exhibits not the slightest sign of fear. The executioners report the matter to the king, 
who orders his release. The renegade monk, even as he lies on the red-hot spikes, 
attains Arahatship, and proceeds through the air to the Buddha. 

4. The prison-house [xxiv. 12-13 = 345-346]. Visiting monks pass a prison 
house, and see criminals bound with fetters. Approaching the Buddha, they ask him 
whether there are any bonds stronger than the bonds with which the criminals are 
bound. The Buddha assures them that the Bond of Craving is a thousandfold 
stronger, and remarking that wise men of old broke this bond, relates the following 

4 a. Story of the Past: Husband and wife. The Future Buddha was reborn as 
a poor man. Not knowing that his wife was pregnant, he asked her permission to 
retire from the world. His wife asked him not to do so vmtil she should have given 
birth to her child. When the child was bom, she asked him to wait until the child was 
weaned. While he waited, his wife conceived a second child. The Future Buddlia 
thereupon left her, breaking the bond of attachment once and for all. 

5. Beauty is but skin-deep [xxiv. 14 = 347]. Khema, chief consort of Kmg 
Bimbisara, was exceedingly beautiful. She had heard it said that the Buddha found 
fault with beauty of form, and therefore avoided him. One day, after listening to 
songs in praise of Veluvana, she was seized with a desire to go thither. The 
Buddha created the form of a woman of surpassing beauty, and caused her to stand 
beside him with a fan in her hand. Khema stood with her gaze riveted upon 
the woman. The Buddha caused the woman to pass through old age, disease, and 
death. Khema was thus brought to a realization of the transitoriness of outward 
beauty. 

6. The youth who married a female acrobat [xxiv. 15 = 348]. A treasurer's 
son falls in love with a female acrobat, and marries her. He joins a troupe of traveling 
acrobats and becomes an acrobat himself. One day, while he is performing in the 
city of Rajagaha, the Buddha and his monks enter the city. The Buddha preaches 
the Law to the acrobat, and the latter attains Arahatship. The Buddha relates to 
the monks the following 

6 a. Story of the Past: A joke in earnest. A husband and his wife presented 
alms to an Elder, making an Earnest Wish. The Elder, perceiving that their wish 
would be fulfilled, smiled. The wife remarked, " The Elder must be an actor." The 



132 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

husband replied, " He must be indeed." Because of his reply, the husband traveled 
about with acrobats; because he gave alms, he attained Arahatship. 

7. Young Archer the Wise [xxiv. 16-17 = 349-350]. A young woman falls in 
love with a young monk, and is so attentive to him that he becomes discontented. 
The monks report the matter to the Buddha, who reproves the young monk and relates 
the following 

7 a. Story of the Past: Young Archer the Wise. The wisest man in India was 
once slain by a bandit through the treachery of his wife. The bandit took the wife 
of the wise man, but fearing treachery, forsook her. Sakka took the form of a jackal 
and put her to shame. The treacherous wife was the seductive young woman. 

8. Mara seeks in vain to frighten Rahtila [xxiv. 18-19 = 351-352]. Rahula 
lies down to sleep in front of the Perfumed Chamber. Mara takes the form of an ele- 
phant, encircles Rahula's head with his trunk, and trumpets the Heron's Call. 

9. The skeptical ascetic [xxiv. 20 = 353]. The Naked Ascetic Upaka meets 
the Buddha and asks him, " Who is your teacher?" The Buddha replies that he is 
himself the All-knowing One. Upaka neither doubts nor believes. 

10. The Stimmum Bontun [xxiv. 21 = 354]. The deities raise four questions: 
" 'Which is the best of gifts, of flavors, of delights ? Why is the destruction of Craving 
the thing of all other things supreme? " Neither the Four Great Kings nor Sakka 
can answer. The Buddha declares the Law to be the best of gifts, of flavors, of delights, 
and the destruction of Craving to be the thing of all other things supreme because it 
leads to the attainment of Arahatship. 

11. Treasurer Childless [xxiv. 22 = 355]. A certain treasurer dies without 
issue, and the king removes his wealth to the royal precincts. The king tells the 
Buddha that the treasurer took no delight in the good things of life. The Buddha 
relates the following 

11 a. Story of the Past: The niggardly treasurer. In a previous birth this 
treasurer caused ahns to be given to a Private Buddha, but afterwards regretted his 
act. Therefore he was reborn as a treasurer, but took no delight in the good things 
of life. He killed his nephew for his money, and therefore never had any children. 

12. The greater and the lesser gift [xxiv. 23-26 = 356-359]. When the Buddha 
ascends to the World of the Thirty-three and sits upon the Yellowstone Throne of 
Sakka, the deity Indaka sits on his right hand, and the deity Ankura on his left. In- 
daka obtains the greater glory because he once gave the monk Anuruddha a spoonful 
of his own food. Ankura, who once set up a row of braziers twelve leagues long and 
gave abundant ahns, gave alms without discrimination, and therefore receives the 
lesser glory. The Buddha discourses on the importance of the exercise of discrimina- 
tion in the giving of alms. 

Book XXV. The Monk, Bhikkhu Vagga 

1. Guard the doors of the senses [xxv. 1-2 = 360-361]. Five monks, each of 
whom guards one of the five doors of the senses, argue with each other as to which of 
the five doors is the most diflBcult to guard, and ask the Buddha to decide the ail- 
ment. The Buddha admonishes them to guard all the doors of the senses, reminds 
them that because in a previous state of existence they failed to do so, they went to 
perdition, and relates the following 

1 a. Story of the Past: Takkasila Jataka. Ogresses tempt five travelers with 
objects pleasing to the senses of sight and sound and smell and taste and touch. The 
travelers yield to the temptations and are eaten ahve. 

2. The goose-killing monk [xxv. 3 = 362]. The Buddha rebukes a monk for 



Synopses of stories of Books 24--25 133 

not scrupling to kill a goose, reminds him that wise men of old entertained scruples 
about matters of the slightest importance, and relates the following 

2 a. Story of the Past: Kurudhamma Jataka. In times past there was a drought 
in the kingdom of Kalinga, but rain a-plenty in the kingdom of Kuru. The king of 
Kalinga, thinking that if the state elephant of the king of Kuru were brought to his 
kingdom, rain would fall, sent for him. Still no rain fell. The king of Kalinga then 
concluded that if he kept the Kuru precepts rain would fall in his kingdom, and 
requested the king of Kuru and the other members of his household to inscribe these 
precepts on a golden plate. But the king of Kuru and his household hesitated for a 
long time to do this, because of undue scruples as to whether they had themselves kept 
the precepts inviolate. Finally, on receiving the assurance of the Brahmans that 
by nothing which they had done had they violated these precepts, they complied with 
the request of the king of Kalinga. The king of Kalinga took upon himself these 
precepts, and immediately rain fell in his kingdom. 

3. The monk who failed to hold his tongue [xxv. 4 = 363]. The monk Kokalika 
reviles Elders Sariputta and Moggallana, and is reborn in the Lotus hell. The Buddha 
informs the monks that in a previous state of existence also he failed to keep his 
mouth shut, and went to perdition for it. So saying, he relates the following 

3 a. Story of the Past: The talkative tortoise, Bahubhani (Kacchapa) Jataka. 
Two geese carry a tortoise through the air on a stick, the tortoise gripping the middle 
of the stick with his teeth. The tortoise opens his mouth to reply to a taunt, falls to 
the ground, and splits in two. 

4. By righteousness men honor the Buddha [xxv. 5 = 364]. From the day when 
the Teacher announces that in four months he will pass into Nibbana, many thousands 
of monks spend their time in attendance upon him. And gathering in little groups, 
tliey ask each other, " What are we to do? " But a certain monk named Dhammarama 
resolves to strive the more earnestly for the attainment of Arahatship, Accordingly 
Dhammarama goes about by himself, pondering the Law preached by the Teacher. 
The monks, misunderstanding his motive, tell the Teacher that Dhammarama has 
no affection for him. The Teacher admonishes them as follows : " Every other monk 
should show his affection for me just as Dhammarama has done. For they that honor 
me with perfumes and garlands, honor me not; but they that practice the Higher 
and the Lower Law, they alone truly honor me." 

5. The traitor monk [xxv. 6-7 = 365-366]. A certain monk tarries with the 
monks belonging to the faction of Devadatta for several days. The Buddha reproves 
him, and relates the following 

5 a. Story of the Past: Elephant Damsel-face, Mahilamukha Jataka. After 
listening to the conversation of thieves and murderers, a well-behaved elephant becomes 
unruly and kills his keepers. But after listening to the conversation of sages and 
Brahmans, he becomes well-behaved agam. The elephant Damsel-face was the traitor 
monk. 

6. The Brahman who gave the gifts of first-fruits [xxv. 8 = 367]. A Brahman, 
after giving the five gifts of first-fruits, gives the Buddha half of his meal. The Brah- 
man's wife asks the Buddha what it is that makes a monk. 

7. The conversion of a pack of thieves [xxv. 9-17 = 368-376]. The layman 
Sona becomes a monk, and recites the Sixteen Octads in the Perfumed Chamber. 
He is applauded by deities, Nagas, and Supannas. His mother, informed by a deity 
that he has preached the Law before the Buddha, invites him to preach the Law to 
her. She causes a pavilion to be erected, and on the appointed day goes to the pavilion, 
sits down, and listens to her son as he preaches the Law. In her absence a pack of 
thieves enter her house by a tunnel. The leader of the thieves goes to the pavilion 
with orders to stand beside the woman and to kill her in case she sets out for the house. 



134 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

A female slave who has been left in charge of the house, discovers the thieves, and goes 
to her mistress three times in succession and reports that thieves are robbing her house. 
The woman tells her slave that she does not wish to be interrupted, and directs her to 
return to the house and permit the thieves to take all they wish. The leader of the 
thieves is filled with remorse, goes to the house, and orders his companions to restore 
the woman's property. The thieves go to the pavilion, beg the woman's pardon, and 
retire from the world. 

8. The grass withereth, the flower fadeth [xxv. 18 = 377]. Five himdred monks 
attain Arahatship by contemplating fading jasmine flowers. 

9. The monk whose mother was a lioness [xxv. 19 = 378]. A certain monk 
conducted himself with such composure and dignity as to attract universal attention. 
The story went that he was the son of a lioness. Description of the tidy habits of 
lionesses. 

10. The monk and the ragged garment [xxv. 20-21 = 379-380]. A monk who 
had been a plowman overcomes discontent and attains Arahatship by contemplating 
a ragged garment and a plow which he had used as a layman. 

11. •' Whosoever beholds the Law, he beholds me " [xxv. 22 = 381]. A certain 
monk was so fascinated by the Buddha's beauty of person that he spent all his time 
gazing at him. When the Buddha entered upon residence, he directed this monk to 
leave him. The monk was so affected by despondency that he decided to commit 
suicide. As he was about to throw himself from the top of a mountain, the Buddha 
appeared to him in a vision. Then and there the monk attained Arahatship. 

12. The novice and the dragon [xxv. 23 = 382]. 

12 a. Story of the Past: The poor man Annabhara and the rich man Sumana. 
In the dispensation of the Buddha Padumuttara, a youth gives alms, praying that 
some day he may become Foremost of those that possess Supernatural Vision. The 
Buddha predicts that his prayer will be fulfilled in the dispensation of the Buddha 
Gotama, and that his name will be Anuruddha. In the course of time this youth is 
reborn as a jxK)r man Annabhara, servant of a rich man Sumana. Annabhara gives 
alms to a Private Buddha, praying that he may be released from the wretched life 
he leads, and that he may never again hear the word is n't. Sumana offers Annabhara 
a thousand pieces of money if he will make over to him the merit of his gift. Annabhara 
refuses the money, but at the same time makes over to Sumana the merit of his gift. 
Annabhara straightway attains wealth and social position. In the dispensation of 
the Buddha Grotama, he is reborn as Anuruddha the Sakyan, youngest brother of 
Mahanama the Sakyan. 

12 b. Story of the Present: Anuruddha retires from the world. Six Sakyan 
princes, of whom Aniiruddha is one, engage in a game of marbles, wagering a cake on 
the result. Anuruddha loses three times in succession, and sends to his mother for 
cakes. When his mother's store of cake is exhausted, she sends back word, " There 
is n't cake to send." Anuruddha, having never heard the word is n't, orders his man to 
fetch is n't cake. His mother sends him an empty dish, which the deities fill with 
celestial cakes. Anuruddha never learns the meaning of is n't, and so long as he remains 
a layman, lives altogether on celestial cakes. Mahanama informs Anuruddha that as 
yet no member of their family has become a monk, and suggests that one of the two 
become a monk. Anuruddha replies that he has been so delicately nurtured that it is 
out of the question for him to think of enduring the hardships of the monastic life. 
Mahanama then oflFers to become a monk if Anuruddha will take up farming. Anu- 
ruddha asks Mahanama what he means by the word farming. (It would have been 
unreasonable to expect Anuruddha to know the meaning of the -word farming, for he 
did not even know where food comes from. For example, Anuruddha, Bhaddiya, and , 
Kimbila once engaged in a discussion of the question, " Where does food come from? " 



Synopses of stories of Books 25-26 135 

Kimbila thought it came from the granary; Bhaddiya, from the kettle; while Anu- 
ruddha expressed the opinion that it came from the golden bowl.) In reply to Anu- 
niddha's question, Mahanama enumerates the various duties connected with the life 
of a farmer. Anuruddha decides that he would rather become a monk. So Anuruddha, 
together with five other Sakyan princes, becomes a monk. Subsequently he attains 
Supernatural Vision, and perceives that Sumana has been reborn as CuUa Sumana, 
youngest son of the lay disciple Maha Munda. [Excerpt from i. 12 a.] 

12 c. Story of the Present: The novice Sumana and the dragon. Sumana be- 
comes the novice of the Elder Anuruddha. The Elder sends the novice to Lake 
Anotatta for drinking-water. Pannaka, king of the dragons and guardian of the lake, 
refuses to give the novice water, and covers the surface of the lake with his hood. The 
novice resolves to do battle with the dragon, and summons the deities to witness the 
contest. The novice descends from the sky in the form of Brahma, tramples upon 
the hood of the dragon, forces his head down, and squeezes him with all his might. 
Having defeated the dragon, the novice fills a vessel with water and returns to the 
Elder. The dragon swears an oath either to split open the heart of the novice, or to 
pick him up by the heels and fling him over the Ganges. The dragon pursues the 
novice and tells the Elder that the novice has stolen water from him. The Elder, 
knowing this to be a falsehood, orders the dragon to beg the novice's pardon. The 
dragon begs the novice's pardon, and promises to bring him water whenever he needs 
it. Subsequently the novice brings water to the Buddha, and the Buddha praises 
him. 

Book XXVI. The Brahman, Brahmana Vagga 

1. Brahman Great- Joy [xxvi. 1 = 383]. A certain Brahman was so pleased 
by a sermon of the Buddha that he thereafter gave food regularly to sixteen monks. 
He greeted these monks, one and all, with the title " Arahats." The monks were 
offended at this, and went no more to his house. The Brahman went to the Teacher 
with tears in his eyes, and told him that the monks came no more to his house. The 
Buddha inquired into the matter, and told the monks that the Brahman's form of 
address was only a way of expressing his superabundant joy. 

2. What are the " Two States"? [xxvi. 2 = 384]. On the occasion of the visit 
of thirty monks from foreign parts to the Buddha, Elder Sariputta asks the Buddha 
what is meant by the expression " Two States." 

3. What is the "Far Shore"? [xxvi. 3 = 385]. Mara assumes a disguise, and 
asks the Buddha what is meant by the expression " Far Shore." 

4. What is a Brahman? [xxvi. 4 = 386]. A Brahman by birth and lineage, ob- 
serving that the Buddha calls his disciples Brahmans, asks the Buddha why he does 
not apply the same title to him. 

5. The Buddhas shine both day and night [xxvi. 5 = 387]. Elder Ananda gazes 
upon the radiance of the sun as the sun sets, of the moon as the moon rises, of King 
Pasenadi Kosala, of an Elder in trance, and of the Tathagata. The Elder remarks 
to the Teacher that the glory of the Buddha transcends that of all others. The Teacher 
replies that the Buddha shines in splendor all the day and all the night. 

6. What is a monk? [xxvi. 6 = 388]. A Brahman who has retired from the world 
under a teacher other than the Buddha, asks the Buddha why he does not call him a 
monk. 

7. The patient subdues the violent [xxvi. 7-8 = 389-390]. A certain Brahman 
hears some of the disciples say that no matter what the provocation. Elder Sariputta 
never gets angry. So at the first opportunity he steps up behind the Elder and strikes 
him with his fist. The Elder pays no attention to him. The Brahman is so amazed 



136 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

at the Elder's patience that he begs his pardon and invites him to be his guest. The 
indignant disciples lie in wait for the Brahman, but the Elder explains matters to 
them and sends them on their way. The monks report the incident to the Buddha, 
who remarks that no real Brahman ever strikes another Brahman. 

8. Maha PajapatiGotami receives the Precepts [xxvi. 9 = 391]. MahaPajapati 
GotamI received the Eight Cardinal Precepts privately, before their public promulga- 
tion. The Exalted One alone was her teacher. Some of the nuns expressed dissatis- 
faction at this, and the Buddha reproved them. 

9. Reverence to whom reverence is due [xxvi. 10 = 392]. Sariputta first heard 
the Law from the lips of Assaji, and ever afterwards showed his reverence for Assaji 
by extending his hands and turning his head in Assaji's direction. The monks com- 
plained to the Buddha that Sariputta was reverencing the cardinal points, and the 
Buddha corrected them. 

10. What is a Brahman? [xxvi. 11 = 393]. A Brahman by birth and lineage 
remarks that the Buddha calls his disciples Brahmans, and asks him why he does not 
apply the same title to him. 

11. The trickster Brahman [xxvi. 12 = 394]. A certain Brahman would climb 
a tree, grasp a branch with his feet, swing himself head downwards like a bat, and 
demand pennies from passers-by, threatening to let go and kill himself and destroy 
the city if they refused to give. The monks reported his doings to the Buddha, who 
remarked that it was not the first time he had been a trickster and a thief, and related 
the following 

11 a. Story of the Past: The false ascetic and the king of the lizards. A false 
ascetic received a portion of lizard meat, and became fast bound by the bonds of the 
craving of taste. Now the king of the lizards dwelt in an ant-hill near the hermit's 
hut, and was in the habit of calling upon the ascetic from time to time. On that 
particular day the ascetic resolved to kill the lizard, and went and lay down near the 
ant-hill with a stick concealed in his robes, pretending to be asleep. The king of the 
lizards approached the ascetic, but not liking his actions, wriggled off in the opposite 
direction. The ascetic threw his stick at him, but the lizard dodged the stick and 
went into the ant-hill. The king of the lizards then poked his head out of the ant- 
hill and reproached the false ascetic. 

12. Kisa Gotami, Wearer of Refuse-rags [xxvi. 13 = 395]. Kisa Gotami ap- 
proaches the Buddha, but observing Sakka seated near the Buddha, turns back. 
Sakka asks the Buddha who it is, and the Buddha replies that it is Kisa Gotami, fore- 
most of the wearers of refuse-rags. 

13. What is a Brahman? [xxvi. 14 = 396], A Brahman by birth and lineage 
remarks that the Buddha calls his disciples Brahmans, and asks him why he does not 
apply the same title to him. 

14. Uggasena the acrobat [xxvi. 15 = 397]. The monks ask Uggasena, the 
former acrobat, whether he was not afraid when he balanced himself on the top of his 
pole. When Uggasena answers in the negative, the monks doubt his word, but the 
Buddha corrects them. 

15. A tug of war [xxvi. 16 = 398]. Two Brahmans fall to arguing about the 
comparative strength of their oxen. To decide the dispute, they load their cart with 
sand and whip up their oxen. The cart stirs not an inch, but the straps and thongs 
break. The monks relate the occurrence to the Buddha. 

16. The patient subdues the insolent [xxvi. 17 = 399]. The wife of a certain 
Brahman was in the habit of ejaculating the praises of the Buddha whenever she 
stumbled. One day the Brahman became greatly provoked at his wife for so doing, and 
went to the Buddha, intending to argue with him. The Brahman asked the Buddha 
a question, and the Buddha converted him by his answer. Each of the Brahman's 



Synopses of stories of Book 26 137 

three younger brothers abused the Buddha in turn, and the Buddha converted them 
all without so much as saying a word. 

17. Sariputta is reviled by his mother [xxvi. 18 = 400], Sariputta stops at the 
door of his mother's house, and his mother reviles him. Sariputta answers never a 
word. 

18. Are not the Arahats creattires of flesh and blood? [xxvi. 19 = 401]. After 
the rape of the nun Uppalavanna by a former suitor, the monks raise the question 
whether the Arahats are to be blamed for gratifying their passions. The Buddha 
admonishes them that sexual passion no more adheres to the Arahat than a drop of 
water to a lotus-leaf. [Excerpt from v. 10.] 

19. A slave lays down his burden [xxvi. 20 = 402]. The slave of a certain 
Brahman runs away and joins the Order. The Buddha admonishes the Brahman that 
the slave has laid down his burden. 

20. Khema the Wise [xxvi. 21 = 403]. Khema approaches the Buddha, but 
observing Sakka seated near the Buddha, turns back. Sakka asks the Buddha who 
she is. 

21. The monk and the goddess [xxvi. 22 = 404]. A monk takes up his residence 
in a cave tenanted by a goddess. The goddess wishes to dislodge him, but not daring 
to tell him to depart, and fuiding no flaw m him, contrives to cast reproach upon him. 
The goddess takes possession of the body of the child of a female supporter of the 
monk, and refuses to release him untU the monk and the mother have sprinkled 
the child with water in wliich the monk has bathed. The goddess then reproaches the 
monk with having performed the work of a physician. The monk rejoices over the 
inability of the goddess to fuid a flaw in his virtue. 

22. The monk and the woman [xxvi. 23 = 405]. A woman quarrels with her 
husband, decides to retiuTi to her family, and sets out through the forest. Seeing 
a monk on his way through the forest, she follows him. The husband sets out after 
his wife, and seeing the monk, beats him soundly. 

23. The four novices [xxvi. 24 = 406]. The wife of a certain Brahman prepares 
food, and directs her husband to go to the monastery and bring back with him four 
old Brahmans. The husband returns with four seven-year-old novices who have 
attained Arahatship. The Bralmian's wife, much provoked, refuses to give them food, 
and sends her husband back to the monastery for some old Brahmans. The Brahman 
brings back Sariputta, who, upon learning that the novices have received no food, 
refuses to eat, demands his bowl, and returns to the monastery. Moggallana does 
the same. The Brahman then brings Sakka, disguised as an aged Brahman, but his 
wife complains that he is too old. So the Brahman and his wife drag Sakka out of the 
house by mam force. But so soon as they turn to enter the house, there sits Sakka 
as before, waving his hands! Sakka having thus made known his identity, the Brah- 
man's wife gives food to the novices and to Sakka, and then all five depart. The 
novices return to the monastery and relate their experiences. 

24. Did Big Wayman yield to anger? [xxvi. 25 = 407]. The monks raise the 
question whether Big Wayman did not yield to anger in expelling his brother Little 
Wayman from the monastery. The Buddha explains that Big Wayman was actuated 
solely by reverence for the Law. 

25. The force of habit [xxvi. 26 = 408]. A certain monk was in the habit of 
accosting everybody with the epithet commonly applied only to outcasts. The monks 
complained to the Buddha. The Buddha called before his mind the previous abodes 
of the accused monk, and informed his accusers that the monk had been reborn as a 
Brahman in five hundred successive states of existence, and that he used the epithet, 
not out of ill-will, but simply from the force of habit. 

26. The monk who was accused of theft [xxvi. 27 = 409]. A monk finds a cloak 



138 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

lying on the ground, and taking it for a refuse-rag, carries it off. The owner accuses 
him of theft. The monk explains matters, and returning to the monastery, relates 
the incident to his brethren. His brethren make merry at his expense. 

27. Sariputta is misunderstood [xxvi. 28 = 410]. Sariputta orders that belated 
supplies of requisites for the young monks be sent to him. The monks accuse Sariputta 
of craving worldly possessions. The Buddha assures them that Sariputta is actuated 
solely by the desire that nothing be lost. 

28. Moggallana is mistmderstood [xxvi. 29 =411]. [Identical with the pre- 
ceding, save for the stanza.] 

29. Renounce both good and evil [xxvi. 30 = 412]. The monks express their 
admiration for the meritorious works of the novice Sivali. The Buddha admonishes 
them that Sivali has renounced both merit and demerit. [Excerpt from vii. 9.] 

30. Elder Moonlight [xxvi. 31. = 413]. 

30 a. Story of the Past: A 'forester presents a moon-disk. In the dispensation 
of the Buddha Kassapa, a merchant visits a forester and gives him presents, receiving 
a cart-load of sandalwood in return. Later on the forester visits the merchant, brings 
him a supply of sandalwood, and receives in return a large amount of money. The 
merchant honors the relics of the Buddha with sandalwood powder, and the forester 
places a moon-disk of sandalwood (candana) within the shrine. 

30 b. Story of the Present: Brahman Moonlight. In the dispensation of the 
present Buddha, the forester is reborn as a wealthy Brahman. From the circle of his 
navel there proceeds a light like that of the moon's disk, and he is therefore called 
Moonlight (Canddbha). The Brahmans travel about the country with him, pro- 
claiming to the people that whoever shall stroke the body of the Brahman shall receive 
such and such power and glory. Coming to Savatthi, the Brahmans fall to arguing 
with the disciples of the Buddha as to which of their respective masters possesses the 
greater supernatural power. The Brahmans suggest that both parties go to the 
monastery and settle the dispute then and there. When the Brahman Moonlight 
comes into the presence of the Buddha, the radiance from his navel disappears. When 
he retires from the presence of the Buddha, the radiance reappears. The Brahman 
asks the Buddha to teach him the charm he possesses. The Buddha promises to do 
so if the Brahman will enter the Order. The Brahman enters the Order and attains 
Arahatship. 

31. Seven years in the womb [xxvi. 32 = 414]. Suppavasa carries an unborn 
child in her womb for seven years, and for seven days endures the agonies of child- 
birth. She exchanges friendly greetings with the Buddha, and gives birth to a healthy 
son, who is named Sivali. Sivali becomes a monk and attains Arahatship. The monks 
comment on the sufferings which Sivali has endured. 

32. A courtezan tempts the monk Ocean of Beauty [xxvi. 33 = 415]. Ocean of 
Beauty, Sundarasamudda, renounces great wealth and becomes a monk. His mother 
weeps because of his retirement from the world, and a courtezan promises for a sum 
of money to seduce him. She buys a house in the street through which the monk 
makes his round for alms, and takes up her abode therein. She first presents food to 
the monk at the door, then invites him to sit on the veranda, then entices him within 
the house, and finally prevails upon him to climb to the top floor of the house with 
her. Having enticed him to the top floor of the house, she tempts him in the forty 
ways in which a woman tempts a man. At that moment the Buddha, seated within 
the Jetavana, forty-five leagues distant, smiles. Ananda asks him why he smiles. 
The Buddha replies that he is watching a battle between a monk and a courtezan, and 
adds that the monk will win the battle. The Buddha appears to the monk in an 
apparition, and the monk attains Arahatship. The monks discuss the incident, 
and the Buddha informs them that it is not the first time Ocean of Beauty has 



Synopses of stories of Book 26 139 

been bound by the bonds of the craving of taste. So saying, he relates the Vatamiga 
Jataka. 

33. Jotika and Jatila [xxvi. 34 = 416]. 

33 a. Story of the Past; Jotika in his previous existence as Aparajita. The 
younger of two brothers gives sap to a Private Buddha in behalf of himself and his 
older brother. The younger brother prays for three Attainments, the older brother 
for Arahatship. The younger brother is reborn in the dispensation of the Buddha 
VipassI as Aparajita, the older brother as Sena. Sena bestows his wealth on Aparajita, 
retires from the world, and attains Arahatship. At Sena's suggestion Aparajita 
builds a Perfumed Chamber for the Buddha. The wood and bricks of which the 
Chamber is built are studded with the seven jewels, and the seven jewels are heaped 
up knee-deep both within and without the Chamber. Aparajita entertains the Buddha, 
and permits the people to carry away with them as many jewels as they can hold in 
their hands. A Brahman steals a magnificent jewel which has been laid at the feet of 
the Buddha, and Aparajita reports the theft to the Buddha. At the suggestion of the 
Buddha, Aparajita prays that neither kings nor thieves may have the power to deprive 
him of his property. Aparajita gives alms on a magnificent scale. Having performed 
these works of merit, he dies and is reborn at Rajagaha in a treasurer's household. 

33 b. Story of the Present: The treasurer Jotika. On the day of his birth, 
weapons and jewels throughout the city flash fire, and the entire city is one blaze of 
Ught. He is therefore given the name Jotika. When Jotika reaches manhood, Sakka 
creates a magnificent palace for him. It is composed entirely of the seven jewels; at 
the four comers stand four urns of treasure; seven Yakkhas stand guard over the 
seven gates. The deities bring Jotika a wife from Uttarakuru. His wife brings with 
her a pint-pot of rice and three burning-glasses. This pint-pot of rice suffices to 
provide Jotika and his household and guests with food during the remainder of his life. 
The burning-glasses supply the place of fuel. Multitudes visit the palace and carry 
away treasure, but the contents of the urns of treasure suffer no diminution. King 
Bimbisara, accompanied by his son Ajatasattu, visits Jotika. Ajatasattu resolves 
to seize Jotika's palace as soon as he becomes king. The king is amazed at the mag- 
nificence of the palace and at the immensity of Jotika's wealth. 

33 c. Story of the Present: The Elder Jatila. A Vijjadhara flies into the apart- 
ment of a treasurer's daughter and has intercourse with her. The treasurer's daughter 
gives birth to a son, and causes him to be placed in a vessel and set adrift in the Ganges. 
He is rescued by two women bathing in the Ganges and adopted by one of them, who 
is a retainer of the Elder Maha Kaccana. His foster-mother brings him up with the 
intention of having him become a monk under the Elder. When the child was bathed 
on the day of his birth, his hair remained matted, and therefore he is given the name 
Jatila. When Jatila is old enough to walk, his foster-mother commits him to the care 
of the Elder Maha Kaccana. The Elder takes him to Takkasila and commits him to 
the care of a lay supporter of his. Jatila sells in one day the goods which have been 
accumulating in the layman's house for twelve years. The layman is so pleased that 
he gives him his daughter in marriage and has a house built for him. As soon as Jatila 
sets foot on the threshold, there arises in the rear of the house a mountain of gold 
eighty cubits in height. The king, hearing of this, appoints him treasurer. Jatila 
has three sons, and when they reach manhood he conceives a desire to become a monk. 
Reflecting that if a treasurer's family can be found possessed of wealth equal to his 
own, his sons will permit him to retire from the world, Jatila orders his men to search 
throughout India for such a family. Jatila's men visit Treasurer Ram, see his golden 
rams, and report to their master. Jatila sends out his men again, telling them to find 
out whether there is another such family. Jatila's men come to Jotika's palace, carry- 
ing with them a blanket worth a hundred thousand pieces of money. Jotika buys 



140 Synopses of stories of Dhammapada Commentary 

the blanket and presents it to a slave woman for a foot-cloth. Jatila's men return to 
their master and describe Jotika's wealth. Jatila asks permission of the king to retire 
from the world, and the king gives his permission. Jatila summons his three sons 
and orders each of them to remove a nugget of gold from the moimtain of gold. His 
two oldest sons fail, but the youngest succeeds. Jatila then presents all of his wealth 
to his youngest son, retires from the world, and attains Arahatship. 

33 d. Story of the Past: The goldsmith and his three sons. While the shrme of 
the Buddha Kassapa was being erected, an Elder solicited contributions from a gold- 
smith. The goldsmith and his wife were quarreling when the Elder stopped at the 
door, and the goldsmith retorted angrily, "Throw your Teacher into the water." 
Therefore in seven successive states of existence the goldsmith was cast into the water 
on the day of his birth. In the seventh state of existence he was reborn as Jatila. The 
goldsmith made reparation for his insult by offering three vessels filled with golden 
flowers at the shrine of the Buddha. His two oldest sons refused to assist him, but 
the youngest gladly consented. Therefore the mountain of gold came into existence 
solely for Jatila and his youngest son. 

34. Ajatasattu attacks Jotika's palace [xxvi. 34 = 416]. After Ajatasattu has 
killed his father and has become firmly established in his kingdom, he decides that the 
time has come for him to take the palace of the treasurer Jotika. So he arms himself 
for battle and sallies forth with his host. Seeing the reflection of himself and his army 
in the jeweled walls, he concludes that the treasurer has come forth to do battle, and 
therefore flees in terror to the monastery. There he meets the treasurer Jotika, who 
is keeping Fast-day. The treasurer declares to the king that a thousand kings could 
not deprive him of his palace against his will. The treasurer then challenges the king 
to remove the rings from his fingers. The king is unable to do so. The treasurer, 
depressed by the thought that the king would have robbed him of his property, retires 
from the world and attains Arahatship. Thereupon all of his wealth vanishes, and 
the deities conduct his wife back to Uttarakuru. The monks ask Jotika whether he 
has any more longing for his palace or his wife. Jotika replies in the negative. 

35. The monk who was once a mime [xxvi. 35 = 417]. The monks, seeing a 
mime going through his performance, ask a monk who had once been a mime whether 
he has any more longiag for that sort of thing. The monk replies in the negative. 
The monks doubt his word. 

36. The monk who was once a mime [xxvi. 36 = 418]. [Identical with the 
preceding, save for the stanza.] 

37. The skull-tapper [xxvi. 37-38 = 419-420]. A certain Brahman could tell 
by tapping on the skull of a dead man in which of the states of existence the dead 
man had been reborn. The Brahmans clothed him in red robes and traveled about 
the coimtry with him, proclaiming to the people his marvelous powers. Coming to 
Savatthi, the Brahmans fell to arguing with the disciples of the Buddha as to which 
of their respective masters possessed the greater supernatural power. The disciples 
suggested that both parties go to the monastery and settle the dispute then and there. 
The Buddha placed in a row five skulls : one each of men who had been reborn in hell, 
the animal world, the world of men, and heaven, and one skull belonging to a man 
who had attained Arahatship. The Brahman tapped on the first four skulls and 
answered correctly, but was unable to tell in which of the states of existence the fifth 
had been reborn. The Brahman asked the Buddha whether he knew, and the Buddha 
answered in the aflfirmative. The Brahman then asked the Buddha to teach him the 
charm. The Buddha promised to do so if the Brahman would enter the Order. The 
Brahman entered the Order and attained Arahatship. 

38. Husband and wife [xxvi. 39 = 421]. VisS.kha listens to a sermon, retires 
from the world, and attains the Fruit of the Third Path. Dissatisfied with the world. 



Synopses of stories of Book 26 141 

he bestows all of his wealth on his wife Dhammadinna, and becomes a monk. Dham- 
madinna follows his example, becomes a nun, and attains Arahatship. Visakha ques- 
tions her on the Three Paths and the Three Fruits, and then questions her on Arahat- 
ship. Dhammadinna, knowing that Visakha has got beyond his depth, laughs and 
suggests that Visakha consult the Buddha. 

39. Angulimala the fearless [xxvi. 40 = 422]. On the occasion of the bestowal 
of the Gifts beyond Compare, a rogue elephant was placed beside Aflgulimala. ' The 
monks ask Angulimala whether he was afraid. Angulimala answers in the negative. 
The monks doubt his word. [Excerpt from xiii. 10.] 

40. It is the giver that makes the gift [xxvi. 41 = 423]. The Buddha is attacked 
by rheumatism, and sends Elder Upavana to the Brahman Devahita for hot water. 
The Brahman rejoices at the favor the Buddha has bestowed on him, fulfills his 
request, and asks the Buddha under what circumstances almsgiving yields abundant 
fruit. The Buddha replies that the value of a gift depends on the virtue of the giver. 



BUDDHIST LEGENDS 

Translated from the Dhamma-pada Commentary 



TRANSLATION OF THE LEGENDS OF THE 
DHAMMAPADA COMMENTARY 

Prologue ^ 

Praise be unto him that is Highly Exalted, All-Holy, Supremely Enlightened. 

I bow myself before the feet of the Supremely Enhghtened, the 
All-Glorious. I honor his Good Law. I salute his Order. 

Shrouded in darkness of error profound was the world, and he 
dwelt therein and beheld the ends thereof. With wonder-working 
power alight he lighted the lamp of the Good Law. 

Skilled was he to know the true from the false in every matter. He, 
the Teacher, composed the Sentences of the Good Law, and moved 
with compassion, taught the pleasing Sentences of the Law, which 
yield increase of joy and satisfaction to gods and men alike. 

"A subtile Commentary thereon has been handed down from 
generation to generation in the island of Ceylon. But because it is 
composed in the dialect of the island, it is of no profit or advantage to 
foreigners. It might perhaps conduce to the welfare of all mankind." 

This was the wish expressed to me by Elder Kumara Kassapa, self- 
conquered, living in tranquillity, steadfast in resolve. His earnest 
request was made to me because of his desire that the Good Law might 
endure. 

Therefore I shall discard this dialect and its diffuse idiom and 
translate the work into the pleasing language of the Sacred Texts. 
Whatever in the Stanzas has not been made clear in the Stanzas 
themselves, whether in letter or in word, all that will I make clear. 
The rest I will also tell in Pali, in accordance with the spirit of the 
Stanzas. Thus will I bring to the minds of the wise joy and satisfac- 
tion in matters both temporal and spiritual. 

1 See Introduction, § 5. Text: N i. 1-2. 



146 Book 1, Story 1. Dhammapada 1 [N.i.Si- 



BOOK I. PAIRS, YAMAKA VAGGA 
I. 1. "IF THINE EYE OFFEND THEE, PLUCK IT OUT" » 

1. Thought is of all things first, thought is of all things foremost, of thought are 
all things made. 
If with thought corrupt a man speak or act. 
Suffering follows him, even as a wheel follows the hoof of the beast of burden. 

Where was this religious instruction given.? At Savatthi. With 
reference to whom.'* Cakkhupala the Elder. 

At Savatthi, we are told, lived a householder named Great- Wealth, 
Maha-Suvanna. He was rich, possessed of great wealth, possessed of 
ample means of enjoyment, but at the same time he was childless. 
One day, as he was on his way home from bathing at a ghat, he saw 
by the roadside a large forest tree with spreading branches. Thought 
he, "This tree must be tenanted by a powerful tree-spirit." So he 
caused the ground under the tree to be cleared, the tree itself to be 
inclosed with a wall, and sand to be spread within the inclosure. 
And having decked the tree with flags and banners, he made the fol- 
lowing vow: "Should I obtain a son or a daughter, I will pay you 
great honor." Having so done, he went on his way. 

Now in no long time his wife conceived a child in her womb. 
[4] So soon as his wife knew that she was with child, she informed 
her husband, and he performed the Protection of the Embryo for her. 
On the expiration of ten lunar months she gave birth to a son. Since 
the merchant obtained a son by protecting the tree, he named his 
son Protector, Pala. After a time he obtained a second son. The 
younger son he named Protector junior, Culla Pala, calling the older 
Protector senior, Maha Pala. When they reached manhood, their 
parents obtained wives for them. After a time the mother and father 
died, leaving the entire estate to be administered by the two sons. 

At this time the Teacher, having set in motion the glorious Wheel 
of the Law, after journeying from place to place, took up his residence 
at Jetavana, a monastery erected by the wealthy merchant Anatha- 

* Derived from this story are Thera-Gdthd Commentary, xcv, and Rogers, Buddha- 
ghoaha^s Parables, i, pp. 1-11. Text: N i. 3-24. 



-N. 1.523] "// thine eye of end thee, pluck it out^^ 147 

pindika at a cost of fifty-four crores of treasure. While in residence 
at Jetavana, he estabHshed the multitude in the Way to Heaven and 
the Way to Deliverance. (For the Tathagata kept residence during 
but a single rainy season at the monastery erected by twice eighty 
thousand families of kinsmen, eighty on his mother's side, eighty on 
his father's. At Jetavana monastery, erected by Anathapindika, he 
kept residence during nineteen rainy seasons; at Pubbarama, erected 
by Visakha at a cost of twenty-seven crores, he kept residence during 
six rainy seasons. Thus, by reason of the great merit of these two 
families^ he kept residence near Savatthi during twenty-five rainy 
seasons.) 

Anathapindika and Visakha, the eminent female lay disciple, 
went regularly twice every day to wait upon the Tathagata. Knowing 
that the young novices would expect alms from them, they never 
went empty-handed. Before breakfast [5] they took food, both 
hard and soft; after breakfast they took the five medicaments and 
the eight beverages. Moreover, in their residences seats were always 
prepared for two thousand monks. Whoever wished food or drink 
or medicine was immediately provided with just what he wished. 

Not a single day had Anathapindika asked the Teacher a ques- 
tion. Anathapindika, we are told, refrained from asking questions 
by reason of his excessive love for the Teacher. He thought to him- 
self, "The Tathagata is a delicate Buddha, a delicate prince. Were 
the Teacher, because of the thought, 'This householder is my sup- 
porter,' to preach the Law to me, he would grow weary." Therefore 
he asked the Teacher no questions. But so soon as Anathapindika 
took his seat, the Teacher thought to himself, "This merchant pro- 
tects me where I have no need to be protected. For I spent four 
Incalculables and a hundred thousand cycles of time in addition 
fulfilling the Perfections. My own gloriously adorned head have I 
cut off; my eyes have I torn out; my heart's flesh have I uprooted; 
both son and wife, dear to me as life, have I renounced, solely that I 
might preach the Law to others. This man protects me where I have 
no need to be protected." And straightway he preached a sermon on 
the Law. 

At this time seventy million people dwelt in Savatthi. Of these, 
fifty million became Noble Disciples after hearing the discourse of 
the Teacher, but twenty million remained unconverted. The Noble 
Disciples had two duties: before breakfast they gave alms; after 
breakfast, bearing perfumes and garlands in their hands, with ser- 



148 Book 1, Story 1. Dhammapada 1 [N.i.Sas- 

vants bearing garments, medicaments, and beverages, they went to 
hear the Law. 

Now one day Maha Pala saw the Noble Disciples going to the 
monastery with perfumes and garlands in their hands. [6] When 
he saw them, he asked, "Where is this great throng going.''" "To 
hear the Law." "I will go too," said he. So he went, paid obeisance 
to the Teacher, and sat down in the outer circle of the congregation. 

Now when the Buddhas preach the Law, they have regard to the 
predispositions of their hearers for the Refuges, the Moral Precepts, 
and Retirement from the World. Thus they always preach the Law 
with reference to the disposition of mind of each individual. When, 
therefore, the Teacher preached the Law on that day, he had regard to 
Maha Pala's predispositions. And he preached in orderly sequence, 
expounding one subject after another; to wit. Almsgiving, the Moral 
Precepts, Heaven, the evil consequences and folly and defilement 
of Sensual Pleasures, and the blessings of Retirement from the 
World. 

Maha Pala the householder listened Thought he, "When a man 
goes to the next world, neither sons nor daughters nor riches follow 
him; nay, even his own body goes not with him. Of what profit is 
it for me to live the house-life.'^ I will become a monk." So at the 
end of the discourse he approached the Teacher and asked to be re- 
ceived into the Order. The Teacher asked him, "Have you no kins- 
man of whom it is proper that you should ask leave.'*" "Why yes. 
Reverend Sir, I have a younger brother." "Well then, ask him." 
To this Maha Pala agreed, and said, "Very well." So he paid obeisance 
to the Teacher and went home. Summoning his younger brother, he 
said to him, 

"Dear brother, whatever wealth is in this house, whether animate 
or inanimate, all this I give into your hands; take possession thereof." 
"But you, master.'^" "I shall enter the Order under the Teacher." 
"What say you, dear brother.'* When my mother died, I gained in 
you as it were a mother; when my father died, as it were a father. 
Your house contains great wealth. Surely you can do works of merit 
even though you live the house-life. [7] Do not so." " Dear brother, 
after hearing the Teacher preach the Law, I can no longer live the life 
of a householder. For the Teacher preached a Law lovely in its begin- 
ning, its middle, and its end, and established precisely and exactly 
the Three Characteristics of existing things: Impermanence, Suffer- 
ing, and Absence of Individuality. I cannot fulfill the Law amid the 



-N.1.816] "// thine eye offend thee, pluck it out'* 149 

cares of the household life; I must enter the Order, dear brother." 
"Dear brother, now you are young. Wait until you are old, and then 
enter the Order." "Dear brother, in the case of an old man, even 
hands and feet are disobedient and answer not to his will; how much 
more so his kinsmen,'^ No, I will not do as you say; I will fulfill the 
duties of a monk. 

Hands and feet weakened by old age are disobedient; 
How shall he whose strength is impaired fulfill the Law? 

Dear brother, I shall enter the Order despite all considerations to 
the contrary." 

In spite of his brother's lamentations Maha Pala went to the 
Teacher and asked to be admitted to the Order. He was admitted 
and professed and spent five rainy seasons in residence with teachers 
and preceptors. When he had completed his fifth residence and 
celebrated the terminal festival, he approached the Teacher, paid 
obeisance to him, and asked, "Reverend Sir, how many Duties are 
there in this religion.'^" "Two Duties only, monk: the Duty of Study 
and the Duty of Contemplation." "Reverend Sir, what is meant by 
the Duty of Study, and what is meant by the Duty of Contempla- 
tion.?" "The Duty of Study necessitates gaining a knowledge of the 
Word of the Buddha in a manner conformable to one's understanding, 
the mastery of one or two Nikayas, or indeed of the whole Tipitaka, 
bearing it in mind, reciting it, teaching it. [8] On the other hand the 
Duty of Contemplation, which leads to Arahatship, involves frugal 
living, satisfaction with a remote lodging, fixing firmly in one's mind 
the idea of decay and death, and the development of Spiritual Insight 
by persistent effort." "Reverend Sir, since I became a monk in old 
age, I shall not be able to fulfill the Duty of Study. But I can fulfill 
the Duty of Contemplation; teach me a Formula of Meditation." 

So the Teacher taught him a Formula of Meditation leading to 
Arahatship. Then he paid obeisance to the Teacher, sought monks 
to accompany him, and having obtained sixty, departed with them. 
When he had proceeded a distance of twenty leagues, he arrived at 
a larger border-village, and accompanied by his retinue, entered the 
village for alms. The inhabitants, observing that the monks were 
faithful in the performance of their duties, were favorably disposed to 
them, provided them with seats, and served them with savory food. 
Then they inquired, "Reverend Sirs, whither go the noble monks.?" 
"Lay brethren, to a suitable retreat." Then the wise villagers knew 



150 Book 1, Story 1. Dhammapada 1 [N.i.Sie- 

within themselves, "The reverend monks seek lodgings wherein to 
spend the rainy season." 

Said they, "If the noble monks would reside here during these three 
months, we would abide steadfast in the Refuges and receive the 
Moral Precepts." The monks, thinking to themselves, "Through 
these families we shall effect escape from the round of existences," 
gave their consent. The villagers, having obtained the consent of 
the monks, proceeded to erect a monastery, building night-quarters 
and day-quarters, and when it was finished, presented it to the monks. 
The monks resorted regularly to that village only for alms. And 
a certain physician came to them and offered his services, saying, 
"Reverend Sirs, where many reside, disease is inevitable. Should 
sickness arise, pray send me word, and I will prescribe remedies for 

you." 

When the monks entered upon residence on the first day of the 
rainy season, the Elder, addressing them, asked this question, [9] 
"Brethren, in how many Postures will you spend these three months?" 
"In all Four Postures, Reverend Sir." "But, ^brethren, is this proper .^^ 
Assuredly we must be heedful, for it was from the living Buddha that 
we received our Formula of Meditation on coming hither; and the 
favor of the Buddhas may not be won by double-dealing, but only by 
the manifestation of upright intent. Four States of Suffering await 
whoso is heedless, that he may enter therein as into his own habi- 
tation. Therefore, brethren, be heedful." "But you. Reverend 
Sir.'^" "I shall spend the time in the Three Postures; I shall not 
stretch out my back, brethren." "Very well. Reverend Sir. Be 
heedful." 

At the end of the first month the Elder, who allowed himself no 
sleep, began to suffer from an affection of the eyes. Streams of tears 
trickled from his eyes, as streams of water from a broken jar. All 
night long he devoted himself to meditation, and with the coming of 
dawn entered his cell and sat down. When it was time for the monks 
to go the rounds for alms, they came to the Elder and said to him, 
"Reverend Sir, it is time for us to go the rounds for alms." "Very 
well, brethren; take bowl and robe." Having thus directed them to 
take their own bowls and robes,- he himself set out. The monks ob- 
served that his eyes were running and asked him, "What is the 
matter, Reverend Sir? " "The wind cuts my eyes, brethren." "Were 
we not offered the services of a physician, Reverend Sir? We will 
inform him." "Very well, [10] brethren." 



-N.i.iin] "7/ thine eye offend thee, 'pluck it out*' 151 

They informed the physician, who prepared an ointment and sent 
it to the Elder. The Elder applied the ointment to his nose, remaining 
seated as he did so, and then entered the village. The physician, 
seeing him, said to him, "Reverend Sir, I am informed that the wind 
hurts your reverence's eyes." "That is true, lay disciple." "Rev- 
erend Sir, did you apply to your nose an ointment which I prepared 
and sent you.^" "Yes, lay disciple." "How do you feel now?" 
"The pain continues just the same, lay disciple." The physician 
thought to himself, "The ointment which I sent him should have cured 
him with only one application. How is it that he is not cured .f^" 
So he asked the Elder, "Were you seated when you applied the oint- 
ment, or were you lying down. f^" The Elder remained silent. Though 
the physician repeated the question several times, he answered not a 
word. The physician thought to himself, "I will go to the monastery 
and have a look at his cell." So he dismissed the Elder, saying to him, 
"That will do. Reverend Sir." And going to the monastery, he in- 
spected the Elder's cell. Seeing only a place to walk and a place to 
sit down, but no place to lie down, he asked the Elder, "Reverend 
Sir, were you seated when you applied the ointment, or were you 
lying down.f^" The Elder remained silent. "Reverend Sir, do not 
act in this way; the duties of a religious can be performed only so 
long as the body is properly cared for. Were you lying down when 
you applied the ointment.'^" After the physician had repeated the 
question several times, the Elder replied, "Go your way, brother; 
I will take counsel and decide the matter for myself." 

Now the Elder had no kinsmen or blood-relatives there. With 
whom, therefore, was he to take counsel.'^ Therefore he took counsel 
with his own person, saying, [11] "Come now, brother Palita, tell 
me this. Will you regard your eyes or the Religion of the Buddha.'* 
For in the round of existences without conceivable beginning, there is 
no counting the number of times you have been without eyes. But 
while unnumbered hundreds of Buddhas and thousands of Buddhas 
have passed, your experience does not cover the period of even a single 
Buddha. Now in this rainy season you resolved not to lie down for 
three months. Therefore let your eyes perish or decay. Keep only 
the Law of the Buddha, not your eyes." And admonishing his own 
physical body, he uttered the following Stanzas, 

My eyes perish, my ears perish, so also my body. 
All that has to do with my body perishes; 
ViHiy, Palita, continue heedless? 



152 Book ly Story 1. Dhammapada 1 [N.i.iiis- 

My eyes wear out, my ears wear out, so also my body, 
AH that has to do with my body wears out; 
Why, Palita, continue heedless? 

My eyes decay, my ears decay, so also my body. 
All that has to do with my body decays; 
Why, Palita, continue heedless? [12] 

Having thus admonished himself in three Stanzas, he applied the 
ointment to his nose, remaining seated as before, and then entered 
the village for alms. The physician, seeing him, asked him, "Rev- 
erend Sir, have you applied the ointment to your nose?" "Yes, lay 
disciple." "How do you feel.'^" "The pain continues just the same, 
lay disciple." "Reverend Sir, were you seated when you applied the 
ointment, or were you lying down.'*" The Elder remained silent. 
The physician repeated the question several times, but the Elder 
answered never a word. Then the physician said to him, "You are 
not doing as you ought for your own good. Henceforth do not say, 
*So and So prepared ointment for me' and I will not say, *I prepared 
ointment for you.'" 

Given up by the physician, the Elder went to the monastery. Said 
he, "Monk, though you have been given up by the physician, do not 
give up your Posture." 

You are given up as incurable, you are abandoned by your physician. 
Destined to the Bang of Death, why, Palita, are you heedless? 

Having admonished himself in this Stanza, he resumed his medi- 
tations. At the end of the middle watch his eyes and his Deprav- 
ities were blotted out simultaneously, and he became an Arahat 
dwelling in the bliss of Spiritual Insight. He entered his cell and sat 
down. When the time came for the monks to go the rounds for alms, 
they came to the Elder and said to him, "Reverend Sir, it is time for 
us to go the rounds for alms." "Is it time, brethren.''" "Yes, Rev- 
erend Sir." "Well then, go your way." "But you. Reverend Sir.''" 
"The sight of my eyes is gone, brethren." They looked at his eyes, 
and their own eyes filled with tears. "Do not worry, Reverend Sir; 
[13] we will look after you," said they to the Elder, comforting him. 
And having performed the various duties required of them, they en- 
tered the village for alms. 

Not seeing the Elder, people asked the monks, "Brethren, where is 
our noble Elder? " When they learned what had happened, they sent 
rice-porridge to him. Afterwards, taking food, they went in person, 



-N. 1.1418] "// thine eye offend thee, pluck it ouV* 153 

paid obeisance to the Elder, and rolling on the ground before his 
feet, poured out their lamentations. Then they comforted him, say- 
ing, "We will care for you, Reverend Sir; do not worry," and went 
their way. From that time on they sent rice-porridge regularly to the 
monastery. 

The Elder constantly admonished the other sixty monks, and they 
carried out his admonitions so faithfully that at the next Pavarana 
all of them became Arahats possessed of the Supernatural Faculties. 
At the end of the rainy season, desiring to see the Teacher, they said 
to the Elder, "Reverend Sir, we desire to see the Teacher." When 
the Elder heard their request, he thought to himself, "I am weak, 
and on the way is a forest haunted by evil spirits. If I go with them, 
all will become weary and will be unable to obtain alms. I will send 
them on ahead." 

So he said to them, "Brethren, you go on ahead." "But you. 
Reverend Sir.?^" "I am weak, and on the way is a forest haunted by 
evil spirits. If I go with you, you will all become weary; therefore 
you go on ahead." "Do not so. Reverend Sir; we will go only with 
you." "Brethren, please do not do so; if you do so, it will displease 
me. When my younger brother sees you and asks after me, tell him 
that [14] I have lost the sight of my eyes, and he will send someone 
to guide my steps. Greet in my name the Possessor of the Ten Forces 
and the eighty Chief Elders." So saying, he dismissed them. 

They begged the Elder to pardon them for their insistence, and 
entered the village for alms. The villagers provided them with seats, 
presented them with alms, and asked them, "Reverend Sirs, may we 
know why the noble monks are leaving?" "Yes, lay disciples, we de- 
sire to see the Teacher." The villagers repeatedly begged the monks 
to remain, but finding that they were firm in their determination 
to go, accompanied them on their way weeping, and then turned back. 

After joiu'neying from place to place, the monks arrived at Jetavana 
and greeted the Teacher and the eighty Chief Elders in the name of 
the Elder. Having so done, they entered for alms the street where 
lived the Elder's younger brother. The householder recognized them, 
received them cordially, provided them with seats, and asked them, 
"Where is my dear brother the Elder.''" They told him what had 
happened. Flinging himself at their feet, he rolled on the ground and 
wept. 

Then he asked them, "Now, brethren, what is to be done?" "The 
Elder wishes to have someone come from here, that he may return 



154 Book 1, Story 1. Dhammapada 1 [N.i.i4i8- 

with him." "Brethren, here is my sister's son PaHta. Send him.'* 
*'It will never do to send him, for there is danger by the way. We 
might, however, send him, after first receiving him into the Order." 
"Do so and send him, brethren." So they received him into the Order 
and for a fortnight instructed him in such matters as the proper manner 
of putting on the robe. Then, showing him the way, they sent him 
forth. 

After journeying from place to place, he arrived at the village. 
Seeing an old man at the village gate, he asked him, "Is there a forest 
hermitage near this village.''" "There is, Reverend Sir." "Who 
lives there?" "An Elder named Palita, Reverend Sir." "Show me 
the way there." "Who are you. Reverend Sir.'^" "I am the son of 
the Elder's sister." So the old man took him and [15] led him to the 
hermitage. He paid obeisance to the Elder and for a fortnight per- 
formed the major and minor duties for him, ministering to him faith- 
fully. Then he said to him, "Reverend Sir, the householder my 
mother's brother desires to have you come to him. Let us go thither." 
"Very well, take hold of my staff." Taking hold of the staff by the 
tip, he entered the village with the Elder. The villagers provided the 
Elder with a seat and asked him, "Reverend Sir, may we know your 
purpose in going .5^" "Yes, lay disciples, I am going to pay my respects 
to the Teacher." The villagers sought by all means in their power to 
persuade them to remain, but failing in their efforts, escorted them 
part of the way, and then turned back weeping. 

When the novice had gone part of the way with the Elder, holding 
the tip of the Elder's staff, he arrived at a forest village named Kat- 
thanagara, near which the Elder formerly resided. As the novice 
came out of the village, he heard in the forest the voice of a woman 
singing away as she gathered firewood. As he listened to her song, 
he fell in love with her voice. (There is no sound to be compared with 
a woman's voice for power to thrill man's whole frame. Therefore 
said the Exalted One, "Monks, I know of no other single sound which 
so completely takes possession of the heart of a man as this, monks; 
namely, a woman's voice." ^) 

The novice, fascinated by her voice, let go his hold of the Elder's 
staff. Said he, "Wait just a moment, Reverend Sir; I have some 
business." So saying, [16] he went in the direction of the woman. 
When she saw him, she became sUent. The novice violated the law of 

^ Anguttara, i. 1. 



-N. 1.1713] '*// thine eye offend thee, 'pluck it out** 155 

chastity with her. The Elder thought to himself, "Just now I heard 
the sound of someone singing, and it was none other than a woman's 
voice. The novice tarries; he must have violated the law of chastity." 
When the novice had finished his business, he returned to the Elder 
and said, "Come, Reverend Sir, let us be off." But the Elder asked 
him, "Novice, have you committed sin.'^" The novice remained silent, 
and though questioned repeatedly, answered never a word. Then 
said the Elder to him, "A sinner like you can never hold the tip of 
my staff." 

The novice, overwhelmed with remorse, removed his yellow robes, 
clothed himself in the garb of a householder, and said, "Reverend 
Sir, before I was a novice; now I have become a layman again. It 
was not through faith that I became a monk, but because I feared the 
dangers of the journey. Come, let us be off." The Elder replied, 
"An evildoer is an evildoer, be he layman or be he novice. While you 
were a novice, you were unable to keep the law of chastity. Will you 
be a better man for having become a layman .^^ A sinner like you can 
never hold the tip of my staff." "Reverend Sir, the road is infested 
with evil spirits and you are blind. How can you remain here.''" 
The Elder answered, "Brother, don't worry about that. No matter 
whether I lie down right here and die, or wander hither and thither, 
with you I will never go." So saying, he pronounced the following 
Stanzas, 

Alas! I have lost the sight of my eyes; a weary way have I come; 

I will lie down and go no farther; with a simpleton no fellowship may be. [17] 

Alas! I have lost the sight of my eyes; a weary way have I come; 

I shall die; I will go no farther; with a simpleton no fellowship may be. 

When the novice heard this, he was overwhelmed with remorse. 
And he cried out, "A grievous sin indeed have I committed, a deed of 
violence and impropriety!" And wringing his hands and weeping, 
he plunged into the forest and made off. 

By the power of the Elder's virtue the Yellowstone Throne of 
Sakka king of gods, sixty leagues long, fifty leagues wide, fifteen 
leagues thick, of the color of the Jayasumana flower, which has a way 
of lowering itself when Sakka sits down and of rising again when he 
stands up, manifested signs of heat. "Who, pray, can be seeking to 
thrust me from my seat.?^" thought Sakka. Surveying the world with 
Supernatural Vision, he saw the Elder. Therefore said those of old 
time, 



156 Book i. Story 1. Dhammapada 1 [N.i.iTi*- 

The king of gods, possessing a thousand eyes, purified the Divine Eye; 
This sin-abhorring Pala purified his Hfe. 

The king of the gods, possessing a thousand eyes, purified the Divine Eye; 
This Pala, reverer of the Law, sat deHghting in ReUgion. 

Then this thought occurred to him, "Should I fail to go to the as- 
sistance of such a sin-abhorring, Law-revering Elder, my head is likely 
to split into seven pieces. I will go to him." And so 

The king of the gods, possessed of a thousand eyes, bearing majestic sway over the 

gods, 
In a single instant approaching, approached Cakkhupala. [18] 

Accordingly Sakka approached the Elder. When he was quite 
near him, he shuffled his feet. "Who is there.''" asked the Elder. 
"It is I, Reverend Sir, a traveler." "Where are you going, lay dis- 
ciple.f'" "To Savatthi, Reverend Sir." "Continue your journey, 
brother." "But, Reverend Sir, where is your reverence going .'^" 
"I am going there too." "Well then, let us go together. Reverend Sir." 
"I am weak, brother. If you go with me, you will be delayed." "I 
have no urgent business. Besides, if I go with you, I can avail myself 
of one of the ten ways and means of acquiring merit. Let us go 
together. Reverend Sir." 

The Elder thought to himself, "This is without doubt some pious 
man." So he said to him, "Very well, take hold of the tip of my 
staff, lay brother." Sakka did so. And Sakka shortened the distance 
so that they arrived at Jetavana at eventide. The Elder, hearing the 
noise of trumpets, drums, and other instruments of music, asked, 
"Where is that noise.''" "At Savatthi, Reverend Sir." "Lay brother, 
when I came here before, we were a long time in coming." "I know a 
short cut, Reverend Sir." At that moment the Elder perceived within 
himself, "This is no human being; it must be a divinity." 

The king of gods, possessing a thousand eyes, bearing majestic sway over the gods. 
Shortening the distance, came quickly to Savatthi. 

Sakka conducted the Elder to a hut of leaves and grass which his 
younger brother had made for his express use, [19] seated him on a 
couch, and then, disguising himself as a dear friend of the younger 
brother, went to summon him. " Friend Pala ! " he called out. "What 
is it, friend?" "Do you know that the Elder has arrived.'*" "No; 
is it true that the Elder has arrived.'*" "Yes, friend, I have just re- 
turned from the hermitage, and saw the Elder seated in the hut of 
leaves and grass you built for him." So saying, he departed. 



-N. 1.2018] "// thine eye offend thee, pluck it ouV^ 157 

The householder went to the hermitage. When he saw the Elder, 
he flung himself at his feet, rolled on the ground, and wept. Then 
he said, "I knew this would happen, Reverend Sir. It was for this 
reason that I withheld from you my permission to become a monk." 
After talking with him for some time, he freed two slave-boys, had the 
Elder receive them into the Order, and committed him to their care, 
saying, "Bring rice-porridge and other kinds of food from the village 
and minister to the Elder." The novices ministered to the Elder, 
performing the major and minor duties faithfully. 

Now one day a party of monks residing in foreign parts came to 
Jetavana to see the Teacher, After paying their respects to the Teacher 
and seeing the eighty Chief Elders, they made the rounds of the mon- 
astery. Coming to Cakkhupala's retreat, they said to each other, 
"Let us see him too." So when evening came, they set out to visit 
him. Just at that moment a severe storm arose. So they turned back, 
saying, " It is now evening, and a storm has arisen. Therefore we will go 
and see him in the morning." The rain continued during the first 
watch, but ceased in the second. The Elder, a man of great energy, 
accustomed to walking, came down into the cloister in the last watch. 
Now at that time many insects had come out of the newly wet earth, 
[20] and as the Elder walked up and down, they perished in great 
numbers. The resident monks did not sweep betimes where the Elder 
walked. When the visiting monks arrived, saying, "We would see 
the place where the Elder resides," and saw the insects in the cloister, 
they asked, "Who was it that walked in this cloister.'^" "Our master. 
Reverend Sirs." They were offended and said, "See what the monk 
has done. When he had the sight of his eyes, he lay down and slept 
and did no sin. But now that he has lost his eyesight, saying to him- 
self, *I will take a walk,' he has destroyed these insects. 'That which 
is right I will do,' said he; but that which was not right he has done." 
So they went and reported the matter to the Tathagata, saying, 
"Reverend Sir, the Elder Cakkhupala, saying to himself, 'I will take 
a walk,' has destroyed many insects." "But did you see him killing 
them.?" "We did not. Reverend Sir." "Precisely as you did not see 
him, so also did he not see these insects. Monks, they that are freed 
from the Depravities have no thought of killing." "Reverend Sir, 
seeing that he was destined to become an Arahat, how was it that he 
became blind .'^" "Monks, it was by reason of his misdeed in a former 
existence." "Why, Reverend Sir, wliat did he do?" "Well then, 
monks, listen." 



158 Book ly Story 1. Dhammapada 1 [N.1.2019- 

1 a. Story of the Past : The wicked physician and the woman ^ 

In times long past, when the king of Kasi reigned at Benares, 
a certain physician went through towns and villages practicing his 
profession. Seeing a certain woman with weak eyes, he asked her, 
"What is the matter with you?" "My eyesight has failed." "I 
will prescribe for you." "Do so, master." "What will you give me.''" 
"If you succeed in making my eyes well and strong again, I will be- 
come your slave, and my sons and daughters too." "Very well," 
said he. So he prescribed a remedy for her, and with a single applica- 
tion of the remedy her eyes became well and strong again. [21] 

Upon this she thought, "I promised to become his slave, and my 
sons and daughters too. But he will not treat me kindly. Therefore 
I will deceive him." So when the physician came and asked her how 
she was getting on, she answered, "Before, my eyes pained me a little; 
but now they hurt me worse than ever." The physician thought, 
"This woman is deceiving me because she is unwilling to give me any- 
thing. I don't want her fee; now I will make her blind." So he went 
home and told his wife about the matter. His wife said nothing. 
Then he compounded an ointment, went to the woman's house, and 
directed her to rub it into her eyes. She did so, and her eyes went out 
like the flame of a lamp. That physician was Cakkhupala. End of 
Story of the Past. 

"Monks, the evil deed then committed by my son followed him 
ever after; for an evil deed follows the evildoer even as a wheel fol- 
lows the hoof of the ox that bears the yoke." After relating this story, 
the King of Righteousness joined the connection, even as a king seals 
an edict with the royal seal after the clay has been aflixed, and pro- 
nounced the following Stanza, 

1. Thought is of all things first, thought is of all things foremost, of thought are all 
things made. 
If with thought corrupt a man speak or act. 
Suffering follows him, even as a wheel follows the hoof of the beast of burden. 

^ Cf . Story ix. 9 a. Physician, boys, and snake. 



-N. 1.262] "7/ thine eye of end thee, fluck it ouV* 159 

I. 2. WHY CRY FOR THE MOON? » 

The Second Stanza also, beginning with the words, "Thought is 
of all things first," was recited in the same city, Savatthi, with refer- 
ence to Matthakundali. [25] 

At Savatthi, we are told, lived a Brahman named Never-Gave, 
Adinnapubbaka. He never gave anything to anybody, and that is 
why they called him Never-Gave, Adinnapubbaka. He had an only 
son who was his darling and delight. Now he desired to have a set 
of ornaments made for him. But knowing that in case he gave the 
commission to a goldsmith, he should have to pay him a fee, he beat 
out the gold himself, made him a pair of burnished earrings, and 
gave them to him. In this way his son received the name Burnished- 
Earrings, Matthakundali. 

When his son was sixteen years old, he had an attack of jaundice. 
The mother looked at the boy and said, "Brahman, your son is sick; 
have him treated by a physician." "Wife, if I send for a physician, 
I shall have to pay him a fee in rice; you care nothing about the loss 
of my substance." "Well, Brahman, what are you going to do about 
it.''" "I shall manage things in such a way as to lose none of my 
wealth." So he went to various physicians and asked, "What are 
you in the habit of prescribing for such and such an ailment.''" They 
mentioned to him bark of trees and this or that. 

So he procured these and prepared a remedy for his son. But 
in spite of all he did, his son's condition grew worse and worse, until 
finally he was past help. The Brahman, perceiving that his son was 
very weak, sent for a physician. The physician looked at the youth 
and said, "I have important business to attend to; send for some other 
physician and have him treat him." [26] Having thus refused to 
treat the boy, he turned and left the house. The Brahman realized 

* Parallels: Jdtaka 449: iv. 59-62; Jdtaka 454: 85-87; Vimdna-Vatthu Com- 
inentary, vii. 9: 322-330 (cf. Peta-Vattku Commentary, ii. 5: 92); Rogers, Buddha- 
ghosha's Parables, ii, pp. 12-17. The author has evidently worked over Jdtaka 
449, both Introduction and Story of the Past, making one story out of two and ex- 
panding the original considerably. The Buddha's conversion of Matthakundali, a 
prominent feature of the Dhammapada Commentary story, is lacking in the Jdtaka 
version. The Vimdna-Vatthu Commentary version is derived, not from the Jdtaka 
Book, but from the Dhammapada Commentary. It is much briefer at the beginning 
and end; elsewhere more diffuse. Vv. cm., 325^-326^', is word for word the same as 
Dh. cm., i. 29-30. This story is referred to at Milindapanha, 350""^^. Text: N i. 
25-37. 



160 Book 1, Story 2. Dhamma'pada 2 [N. 1.262- 

that his son was at the point of death. Thought he, "All who come 
to see this youth will see the wealth in my house; therefore I will 
place him outside." So he carried his son out of the house and laid 
him down on the terrace. 

On that day, very early in the morning, the Exalted One arose 
from a Trance of Great Compassion. And for the purpose of seeing 
those who had made their Earnest Wish under previous Buddhas, 
those the roots of whose merit were fully developed, brethren capable 
of conversion, he surveyed the universe with the Eye of a Buddha, 
spreading the Net of his Knowledge over the ten Cakkavala Worlds. 
Straightway Matthakundali, lying outside on the terrace, appeared 
within the Net of his Knowledge. As soon as the Teacher saw him, he 
became aware that he had been removed from the house and laid there; 
and considering within himself, "Have I sufficient reason for going to 
him.'^" he saw the following: 

"This youth will repose faith in me, will die, and will be reborn 
as a deity in the Heaven of the Thirty-three, in a golden mansion, with 
a retinue of a thousand celestial nymphs. The Brahman will burn 
his body and will go about the burning-ground weeping. The deity 
will survey his own person, three-quarters of a league in height, adorned 
with sixty cart-loads of ornaments, surrounded by a thousand celestial 
nymphs. And considering within himself, 'Through what merit have 
I attained this attainment of [splendor.'^' he will perceive that he ob- 
tained it by reposing faith in me. Then he will say to himself, 'My 
father, who failed to provide medicine for me for fear of wasting his 
wealth, has now gone to the burning-ground and is weeping. I will 
effect a change in his attitude.' And provoked at his father, he 
will take the form of Matthakundali, will go [27] to a place not far 
from the burning-ground, and will fling himself on the ground and 
weep. 

"The Brahman will ask him, 'Who are you?' He will reply, 
*I am your son Matthakundali.' 'Where were you reborn.'*' 'In 
the World of the Thirty-three.' The Brahman will ask him, 'What 
deed of merit did you perform .f^' and Matthakundali will tell him 
that he was reborn in the World of the Thirty-three by reposing faith 
in me. Then the Brahman will ask me, 'Are there any that have been 
reborn in Heaven by reposing faith in you.'*' and I will reply to him, 
'It is not so many hundreds or thousands or hundreds of thousands 
- — there is no counting the number of them.' I will then recite a Stanza 
in the Dhammapada. At the conclusion of the Stanza eighty-four 



-N. 1.2817] Why cry for the moon? 161 

thousand living beings will obtain Comprehension of the Law, 
Matthakundali will receive the Fruit of Conversion, and so will 
Adinnapubbaka the Brahman. Thus through this noble youth 
many will obtain Comprehension of the Law." 

Of all this the Teacher became aware. Accordingly, on the fol- 
lowing day, having attended to his toilet, he surrounded himself 
with a large company of monks, entered Savatthi for alms, and in 
due course arrived at the house of the Brahman. At that moment 
Matthakundali was lying with face turned towards the house. The 
Teacher, observing that he did not see him, sent forth a ray of light. 
"What is that radiance?" asked the youth, turning over. Seeing 
the Teacher from where he lay, he said, "On account of a foolish 
father, I have been deprived of the privilege of approaching so excel- 
lent a Buddha, nor have I obtained the privilege either of waiting upon 
him or of giving him alms or of hearing the Law. Now I cannot even 
control the movements of my hands; there is nothing else I can do." 
So saying, he reposed faith in the Buddha. The Teacher said, "He 
has done enough," and departed. 

As the Tathagata receded from his range of vision, [28] he died 
with a believing heart, and as if awaking from sleep, was reborn in the 
World of the Gods in a golden mansion thirty leagues in extent. 
The Brahman burned the body of his son, and resorting to the burn- 
ing-ground, abandoned himself entirely to lamentation. Every day 
he would go to the burning-ground and weep and say, "Where are 
you, my only son.'" 

The deity his former son surveyed his own glory and considered 
within himself, "By what deed of merit have I obtained this.'^" Per- 
ceiving that it was by reposing faith in the Teacher, he said to himself, 
"This Brahman failed to provide medicine for me when I was sick, 
but now goes to the burning-ground and weeps ; I must effect a change 
in his attitude." Accordingly he took the form of Matthakundali, 
went to a place not far from the burning-ground, and stood wringing 
his hands and weeping. The Brahman saw him and thought to him- 
self, "As for myself, I am weeping because of sorrow for my son; why 
is yonder youth weeping.' I will ask him." So he asked him in the 
following Stanza, 

Richly adorned, wearing earrings of burnished gold. 
Bearing garlands, with protuberances of yellow sandal. 
You wring your hands and weep. 
Why are you afflicted in the midst of the forest? 



162 Book 1, Story 2. Dhammapada 2 [N.1.2818- 

Said the youth, 

I have obtained a chariot-body. 

Shining, of solid gold, 

But I cannot find a pair of wheels for it; 

Through grief over this I shall lose my life. [29] 

Then said the Brahman to him, 

Name wheels of gold,' of precious stones, 
I Of copper, or of silver. 

Name them to me, good youth, 

And I will procure you a pair of wheels. 

Hearing this, the youth thought to himself, "This Brahman failed 
to provide medicine for his son. But seeing that I look like his son, he 
says, *I will procure wheels for your chariot, either of gold or of pre- 
cious stones or of copper or of silver.' Very well! I will humble him." 
So he said, "How large a pair of wheels will you make for my chariot.'* " 
"As large as you wish." "I want the moon and the sun," said the 
youth. "Give them to me." By way of request 

Said the youth to the Brahman, The moon and the sun are brothers twain. 
My chariot is of solid gold; with such a pair of wheels it would shine. 

The Brahman replied. 

Youth, you are a simpleton to seek for what cannot be obtained. 

I supjK)se you will die, for you will never obtain the moon and the sun. 

But the youth said to him, "But which is the greater simpleton, 
he who weeps for what exists, or he who weeps for what does not 
exist?" [30] 

They are seen that go and come; 

The property of color is seen on both sides of the street; 

But he that is dead and gone cannot be seen; 

Which of us that weep here is the greater simpleton? 

Hearing this, the Brahman came to the conclusion, "What this 
youth says is sensible." And he said to him. 

Youth, what you say is quite true; it is I that am the greater simpleton of the two 

that weep; 
Like a child crying for the moon, I desired a son that is dead and gone. 

Having thus spoken, freed from sorrow by the words of the youth, 
the Brahman pronounced the following Stanzas in praise of the youth. 

When I was all on fire, and the fire was as if fed with ghee. 

You poured water on the fire, as it were, and extinguished all my grief. 



-N. 1.3216] Why cry for the moon? 163 

You drew out the arrow that was in me, the sorrow that was in my heart; 
Although I was dead with sorrow, you removed my sorrow for my son. 

The arrow of my grief has been withdrawn, and I am tranquil and happy; 
Having heard your words, youth, I sorrow no more, nor do I weep. [31] 

Then the Brahman asked him, "Who are you.''" 

Are you a devata or a gandhabba, or are you Sakka Purindada? 
Who are you? whose son are you? how am I to know you? 

The youth replied, 

I am he for whom you lament, he for whom you weep. 
Your son, whom you yourself burned in the buming-groimd. 
By the performance of a work of merit 
I have attained the Society of the Thirty. 

In these words the youth gave him the information he asked for. 
Then said the Brahman, 

I never saw you give alms, either little or much, in your own home. 
Nor did you so much as keep fast-day; by what work of merit did you attain the 
World of the Gods? 

The youth repHed, 

As I lay in my own home, sick, afflicted, oppressed with a grievous ailment, my body 

weakened by disease, 
I beheld the Buddha, free from passion, free from doubt, happy, of lofty wisdom. 

With joyful mind and believing heart I did homage to the Tathagata, with hands 

reverently clasped; 
By the performance of this work of merit I attained the Society of the Thirty. [32] 

As the youth spoke, the whole body of the Brahman was suffused 
with joy. And this joy he made known in the following Stanza, 

Wonderful ! marvelous ! that such as this should be the fruit of a reverent salutation. 
I too with joyful mind and believing heart seek refuge in the Buddha this very day. 

Then said the youth, 

This very day with believing heart seek refuge in the Buddha, the Law, and the 
Order; 

Likewise take upon yourself the Five Precepts, and keep them unbroken and unim- 
paired ; 

Refrain from taking life, from this moment; take not that which is not given to you 
in this world; 

Drink not strong drink; speak not falsely; be content with your own wife. 

"Very well," said the Brahman, agreeing. And he pronounced the 
following Stanzas, 



164 Book 1, Story 2. Dhammapada 2 [N.1.3217- 

You desire my weal, yakkha; you desire my welfare, divinity; 
I will obey your words; you are my teacher. 

I seek refuge in the Buddha, and likewise in his incomparable Law, 
And in the Order of the Prince of Men do I seek refuge. 

From the taking of life do I refrain, from this moment; I abstain from taking that 

which is not given to me in this world; 
I drink not strong drink; I speak not falsely; I am content with my own wife. [33] 

Then said the deity to him, "Brahman, you have much wealth in 
your house. Approach the Teacher, give alms, listen to the Law, 
and ask him questions." So saying, he disappeared. The Brahman 
went home and said to his wife, "Wife, I shall invite the monk Gotama 
to my house and ask him questions; therefore prepare hospitality." 
Then he went to the monastery, and without saluting the Teacher or 
expressing any pleasure at seeing him, stood on one side and said, 
" Sir Gotama, consent for to-day to take a meal in my house with your 
company of monks." The Teacher consented. As soon as the Brah- 
man received his consent, he returned home quickly and caused food, 
both hard and soft, to be prepared in his house. 

The Teacher, accompanied by the Congregation of Monks, went 
to his house and sat down on the seat prepared for him. The Brah- 
man waited upon him respectfully. A multitude of people assembled. 
We are told that when a man who holds false views invites the Tatha- 
gata, two classes of people assemble. Those who hold false views 
assemble with the thought in their minds, "To-day we shall see the 
monk Gotama embarrassed by the questions that are asked him." 
Those who hold orthodox views assemble with the thought, "To-day 
we shall see the power of a Buddha and the grace of a Buddha." 

Now when the Tathagata had finished his meal, the Brahman 
approached him, seated himself on a low seat, and asked him the 
following question, "Sir Gotama, are there any that have been reborn 
in Heaven, without giving alms to you, without rendering honor to 
you, without hearing the Law, without keeping fast-day, solely by 
making an act of faith .^" "Brahman, why do you ask me.'^ Did not 
your own son Matthakundali tell you that he had been reborn in 
Heaven by reposing faith in me?" "When, Sir Gotama.'*" "Did you 
not go to the burning-ground to-day, and while you were weeping, 
see a youth near you wringing his hands and weeping.^ [34] And did 
you not say to him, 'Richly adorned, wearing earrings of burnished 
gold, bearing garlands, with protuberances of yellow sandal.'*'" 



-N. 1.3512] Why cry for the moon? 165 

Continuing, the Teacher related in detail the conversation of the two 
and told the whole story of Matthakundali. 

For this very reason the Teacher pronounced this Word of the 
Buddha, "Brahman, it is not a question of one hundred or two hun- 
dred — there is no counting the number of those who have been re- 
born in Heaven by reposing faith in me." The multitude were not 
free from doubt. The Teacher, perceiving that they were not free 
from doubt, commanded, "Let the deity Matthakundali come hither 
in his mansion." Thereupon Matthakundali drew near, three-quarters 
of a league in height, his person adorned with celestial adornments. 
Descending from his mansion, he paid obeisance to the Teacher 
and stood respectfully on one side. The Teacher asked him, "What 
work of merit did you perform to attain this glory.'*" 

Divinity, you who possess surpassing beauty. 

Illuminating all four quarters like the herb-star, 

I ask you, god of mighty power. 

What meritorious act did you perform in your human estate? 

When the Teacher had completed this Stanza, the deity replied, 
"Reverend Sir, I obtained this glory by reposing faith in you." "You 
obtained it by reposing faith in me.''" "Yes, Reverend Sir." 

The populace surveyed the god and exclaimed, "Marvelous, in- 
deed, are the powers of theBuddhas! the son of the Brahman Adin- 
napubbaka [35] obtained glory such as this simply by reposing faith 
in the Teacher, without doing a single other work of merit!" And 
they were filled with joy. Then the Teacher said to them, "Our 
thoughts are the source of all our actions, both good and bad, and by 
our thoughts are our actions controlled. For, like a shadow, an act 
done with thought of faith never leaves a man who goes to the World 
of the Gods or the world of men. Having related this story, the King 
of Truth joined the connection, and sealing, as it were, with the royal 
seal an edict to which the clay had been attached, pronounced the 
following Stanza, 

2. Thought is of all things first, thought is of all things foremost, of thought are all 
things made. 
If with thought of faith a man speak or act, 
Happiness follows him, even as a shadow never fading. 



166 Book 1, Story 3. Dhammapada 3-4- [N. 1.3712- 



1.3. TISSA THE FAT » 

He abused me. This religious instruction was given by the Teacher 
while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to Elder Tissa. [37] 

It seems that this Venerable Elder was the son of the sister of the 
father of the Exalted One. He was an old man when he retired from 
the world, and very fat. He enjoyed the gain and honor of the 
Buddhas; his clothes were always smooth from constant beating; he 
always sat in the center of the monastery in the Hall of State. 

One day some visiting monks came to see the Tathagata, and sup- 
posing Tissa to be some Great Elder, asked to be allowed the privilege 
of waiting upon him, offering among other things to rub his feet. Tissa 
remained silent. Thereupon a certain young monk asked him, "How 
many seasons have you kept residence .f*" "No seasons at all," re- 
plied Tissa; "I was an old man when I retired from the world." Said 
the young monk, "You wretched old monk, [38] you overestimate your 
own importance. Seeing before you, as you do, all these Great Elders, 
you are not even civil to them. To their offers to perform various 
services for you, you answer by silence. Moreover, you show not the 
slightest regret for your misconduct." So saying, he snapped his 
fingers. Recovering the pride of a member of the Warrior caste, Tissa 
asked them, "Whom did you come to see.'^" "We came to see the 
Teacher." "But with reference to me, you say to yourselves, *Who 
is he?' I will extirpate your whole race." So saying, he went to the 
Teacher, weeping and sad and sorrowful. 

The Teacher asked him, "Tissa, how is it that you come to me sad 
and sorrowful, with tears in your eyes, weeping .'^" The monks said 
to themselves, "If he goes alone, he may cause some trouble." So 
they went right with him, paid obeisance to the Teacher, and sat down 
respectfully on one side. Tissa answered the Teacher's question as 
follows, "Reverend Sir, these monks are abusing me." "But where 
were you sitting.?" "In the center of the monastery in the Hall of 
State, Reverend Sir." "Did you see these monks when they came.?" 
"Yes, Reverend Sir, I saw them." "Did you rise and go to meet 
them?" "No, Reverend Sir, I did not." " Did you offer to take their 
monastic utensils? " "No, Reverend Sir, I did not offer to take them." 

^ Derived from this story are Thera-Gdthd Commentary, xxxix, and Rogers, 
BvMhaghoshd's Parables, iii, pp. 18-24. Cf. Samyutta, xxii. 84: iii. 106-109. Text; 
N i. 37-45. 



-N. 1.406] Tissa the Fat 167 

"Did you offer to wait upon them and to provide them with water to 
drink?" "No, Reverend Sir, I did not offer to do either of these 
things." "Did you bring seats for them and rub their feet.^^" "I 
did not, Reverend Sir," "Tissa, you should have performed all these 
services for the old monks, for he who does not do this has no right to 
sit in the center of the monastery. You alone are to blame; ask pardon 
of these monks." "But they [39] abused me, Reverend Sir; I will 
not ask their pardon." "Tissa, do not act thus. You alone are to 
blame; ask their pardon." " I will not ask their pardon, Reverend Sir." 
The monks said to the Teacher, "He is an obstinate monk. Rev- 
erend Sir." The Teacher replied, "Monks, this is not the first time he 
has proved obstinate; he was obstinate also in a previous state of 
existence." "We know all about his present obstinacy, Reverend Sir; 
but what did he do in a previous state of existence.'*" "Well then, 
monks, listen," said the Teacher. So saying, he told the following 

3 a. Story of the Past : Devala and Narada * 

Once upon a time, when a certain king of Benares reigned at Benares, 
an ascetic named Devala, who had resided for eight months in the 
Himalaya country, desiring to reside near the city during the four 
months of the rains, returned from the Himalaya for salt and vinegar. 
Seeing two boys at the gate of the city, he asked them, "Where do 
monks who come to this city spend the night .f^" "In the potter's 
hall. Reverend Sir." So Devala went to the potter's hall, stopped at 
the door, and said, "If it is agreeable to you, Bhaggava, I should like 
to spend one night in your hall." The potter turned over the hall to 
him, saying, "I have no work going on in the hall at night, and the hall 
is a large one; spend the night here as you please. Reverend Sir," 

No sooner had Devala entered the hall and sat down than another 
ascetic named Narada, returning from the Himalaya, asked the potter 
for a night's lodging. The potter thought to himself, "The ascetic 
who arrived first may or may not be willing to spend the night with 
him; I will therefore relieve myself of responsibility." [40] So he 
said to the ascetic who had just arrived, "Reverend Sir, if the ascetic 
who arrived first approves, spend the night at his pleasure." So Narada 
approached Devala and said, "Teacher, if it is agreeable to you, I 
should like to spend one night here." Devala replied, "The hall is a 
large one; therefore come in and spend the night on one side." So 

^ Cf. the story of Jatimanta and the Future Buddha in Jdtaka 497: iv. 388-389. 



168 Booh 1, Story 3. Dhammapada 3-Jf. [N. 1.406- 

Narada went in and sat down behind the ascetic who had gone in 
before him. Both exchanged friendly greetings. 

When it was bedtime, Narada noted carefully the place where 
Devala lay and the position of the door, and then lay down. But 
when Devala lay down, instead of lying down in his proper place, he 
lay down directly across the doorway. The result was that when 
Narada went out at night, he trod on Devala's matted locks. There- 
upon Devala cried out, "Who is treading on my locks?" Narada 
replied, "Teacher, it is I." "False ascetic," said Devala, "you come 
from the forest and tread on my locks." "Teacher, I did not know 
that you were lying here; pardon me." Narada then went out, leav- 
ing Devala weeping as if his heart would break. 

Devala thought to himself, "I will let him tread on me when he 
comes in also." So he turned around and lay down, placing his head 
where his feet had been before. When Narada came in, he thought to 
himself, "The first time I injured the teacher; this time I will go in 
past his feet." The result was that, when Narada entered, he trod on 
Devala's neck. Thereupon Devala cried out, "Who is that.?*" Narada 
replied, "It is I, teacher." "False ascetic," said Devala, "the first 
time you trod on my locks; this time you tread on my neck. I will 
curse you." "Teacher, I am not to blame. I did not know that you 
were lying in this position. When I came in I thought to myself, 'The 
first time I injured the teacher; this time I will go in past his feet.' 
Pardon me." [41] "False ascetic, I will curse you." "Do not so, 
teacher." But Devala, paying no attention to what Narada said, 
cursed him all the same, saying, 

The sun possesses a thousand rays and a hundred flames, is dispeller of darkness. 
When the sun rises on the morrow, may your head spHt into seven pieces. 

Narada said, "Teacher, I told you it was not my fault. But in 
spite of what I said, you have cursed me. Let the head of the guilty 
man split into seven pieces, not that of the innocent." Thereupon 
Narada pronounced the following curse, 

The sun possesses a thousand rays and a hundred flames, is dispeller of darkness. 
When the sun rises on the morrow, may your head split into seven pieces. 

Now Narada possessed great supernatural power and could call to 
mind eighty cycles of time, forty cycles in the past and forty in the 
future. So considering, "On whom will the curse fall?" and perceiving 
that it would fall on his brother-ascetic, he felt compassion for him, and 



-N. 1.434] Tissa the Fat 169 

therefore put forth the power of his magic and prevented the sun from 
rising. 

When the sun failed to rise, the citizens assembled before the gate 
of the king's palace and wailed, "Your majesty, the sun has not risen, 
and you are king. Make the sun rise for us," The king surveyed his 
own deeds, words, and thoughts, and seeing no impropriety, thought 
to himself, "What can be the cause.''" Suspecting that it might be 
because of a quarrel of the monks, he inquired, "Are there any monks 
in this city.''" "Your majesty, last evening there were some arrivals 
at the potter's hall." [42] The king immediately went there with 
torches carried before him, paid obeisance to Narada, seated himself 
respectfully on one side, and said, 

Narada, the people of the Land of the Rose-Apple are unable to pursue their wonted 

occupations. 
Why is the world overspread with darkness? Tell me in answer to my question. 

Narada told him the whole story. "For this reason," said he, "I 
was cursed by this ascetic. So I cursed him back, saying, ' I am not 
to blame; let the curse fall upon whichever of us is to blame.' But 
when I had cursed him, I considered within myself, 'Upon whom 
will the curse fall.''' and perceived that, as soon as the sun rose, the 
head of my brother-ascetic would split into seven pieces. Therefore, 
out of pity for him, I am not permitting the sun to rise." "But, 
Reverend Sir, how can he escape destruction.''" "He may escape 
destruction by begging my pardon." 

"Well then," said the king to Devala, "beg his pardon." Devala 
replied, "Great king, this fellow trod on my matted locks and on my 
neck; I will not beg pardon of this false ascetic." "Beg his pardon. 
Reverend Sir; do not act thus." "Great king, I will not beg his 
pardon." "Your head will split into seven pieces." "Nevertheless 
I will not beg his pardon." "I am convinced that you will not beg his 
pardon of your own free will," said the king. Thereupon, taking him 
by the hands, feet, belly, and neck, the king compelled him to bow down 
before Narada's feet. Narada said, "Rise, teacher, I pardon you." 
Then said Narada to the king, "Great king, since this ascetic does not 
ask pardon of his own free will, [43] take him to a certain lake not 
far from the city, put a lump of clay on top of his head, and make him 
stand in the water up to his neck." 

The king did so. Then said Narada to Devala, "Teacher, I will 
put forth my magical power and cause the sun to rise. At that moment 



170 Book ly Story 3. Dhammapada 3-4 [N. 1.434- 

duck in the water, rise in a different place, and go your way." As 
soon as the sun's rays touched the lump of clay, it split into seven 
pieces. Thereupon Devala ducked in the water, rose in a different 
place, and ran away. End of Story of the Past. 

When the Teacher had given this religious instruction, he said, 
"Monks, at that time the king was Ananda, Devala was Tissa, and 
Narada was I myself; at that time also he was obstinate." Then he 
addressed the Elder Tissa as follows, "Tissa, if a monk allows himself 
to think, 'So and So abused me. So and So struck me. So and So de- 
feated me. So and So robbed me of my goods,' his hatred never ceases. 
But if he does not cherish such thoughts, his hatred ceases." So say- 
ing, he pronounced the following Stanzas, 

3. "He abused me, he struck me, he defeated me, he robbed me;'* 

If any cherish this thought, their hatred never ceases. 

4. "He abused me, he struck me, he defeated me, he robbed me;" 

If any cherish not this thought, their hatred ceases. 



1.4. "NOT HATRED FOR HATRED" ^ 

For not by hatred. This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to a 
certain barren woman. [45] 

It appears that a certain householder's son, on the death of his 
father, did all the farm and household work by himself alone and took 
care of his mother to boot. Now his mother said to him, "Dear son, 
I will fetch you a young woman to wife." "Dear mother, speak not 
thus; my sole desire is to care for you so long as you shall live." "Dear 
son, you alone are doiijg all the farm and household work, and I am 
not satisfied to have it so; let me fetch you a young woman to wife." 
He protested time and again, and then held his peace. 

The mother left the house, intending to go to a certain family 
and fetch home the daughter of that family. Her son asked her, "To 
what family are you going? " "To such and such a family." He would 
not let her go to the family she had in mind, but told her of a family 
he liked better. So she went to the family he fancied, selected a wife 

* With this story cf. Stories xxi. 2 and x. 8 o and Jaiakas 510 and 513. Text: 
N i. 45-53. 



-N. 1.479] ''Not hatred for hatred'' 171 

for her son, and having set the day, installed her in her son's house. 
The woman turned out to be barren. 

Then said the mother to the son, "Son, you had me fetch you a 
wife you yourself selected. Now she turns out to be barren. With- 
out children a family [46] dies out, and the line is not continued. 
Therefore let me fetch you another young woman to wife." "Enough 
said, dear mother," replied the son; but the mother repeated her 
request time and again. The barren wife heard the talk and thought 
to herself, "It is certain that sons cannot disobey the words of their 
mothers and fathers. Now if she fetches him a wife who is fruitful, 
they will treat me like a slave. Suppose I were to fetch him a young 
woman of my own selection .f*" 

So the barren wife went to a certain family and selected a young 
woman for him. But she immediately encountered the opposition of 
the young woman's parents, who said to her, "Woman, what say you?" 
The barren wife replied, "I am a barren woman, and without children 
a family dies out. If your daughter gives birth to a son, she will be 
mistress of the family and the wealth thereof. Therefore give your 
daughter to me for my husband." She finally prevailed upon them to 
grant her request, and taking the young woman with her, installed 
her in her husband's house. 

Then this thought occurred to her, "If my rival gives birth to a 
son or a daughter, she alone will be mistress of the household. I 
must see to it that she shall not give birth to a child." So the barren 
wife said to her rival, "As soon as you have conceived a child in your 
womb, pray let me know." "Very well," replied her rival. In 
accordance with her promise, as soon as she had conceived, she told her 
fellow-wife. 

Now the barren wife was accustomed to give her rival a meal of 
rice-porridge regularly every day with her own hand. [47] So along 
with the food she gave her a drug to cause abortion. The result was 
that her rival had a miscarriage. Again the second time the fruitful 
wife conceived a child and informed the barren wife. And again her 
fellow-wife did as before and brought about a miscarriage. 

The women who lived in the neighborhood asked the fruitful wife, 
"Is not your rival putting an obstacle in your way.?" When she told 
them the facts, they said to her, "You foolish woman, why did you do 
this. 5^ This woman was afraid you would get the upper hand. So she 
mixed a preparation to bring about a miscarriage and gave it to you. 
Do not tell her again." Accordingly the third time the fruitful wife 



172 Book 1, Story A. Dhammapada 5 [N.i.47»- 

said nothing to her rival. But the barren wife, seeing her belly, said to 
her, "Why did you not tell me that you had conceived a child?" 
Said the fruitful wife, "It was you who brought me here, and twice 
you have caused me to suffer a miscarriage; why should I tell you?'* 

"Now I am lost," thought the barren wife. From that time on she 
watched to catch her rival off her guard. When the babe in the womb 
was fully matured, she took advantage of an opportunity, mixed a 
drug, and gave it to her. But because the babe in her womb was fully 
mature, an abortion was out of the question, and the result was that the 
child lodged across the neck of the womb. Immediately the mother 
suffered acute pains and feared that her hour had come. 

"You have killed me!" she cried. " It was you alone that brought 
me here; it was you alone that killed my three children. Now I also 
am going to die. When I have passed out of this existence, may I be 
reborn as an ogress able to devour your children." And having made 
this Earnest Wish, she died, [48] and was reborn in that very house 
as a cat. The husband seized the barren wife, and saying to her, "It 
was you who destroyed my family," beat her soundly with elbows, 
knees, and otherwise. As the result of the beating she received, she 
sickened and died, and was reborn in that very house as a hen. 

So the fruitful wife was reborn as a cat, and the barren wife was 
reborn as a hen. The hen laid eggs, and the cat came and ate them. 
This happened three times. Said the hen, " Three times have you eaten 
my eggs, and now you are seeking an opportunity to eat me too. 
When I have passed out of this existence, may I be able to eat you and 
your offspring." And having made this Earnest Wish, she passed out 
of that existence, and was reborn as a leopardess. The cat was reborn 
as a doe. 

So the barren wife, at the end of her existence as a hen, was reborn 
as a leopardess; and the fruitful wife, at the end of her existence as a 
cat, was reborn as a doe. Thrice the doe brought forth young, and 
thrice the leopardess went and devoured the doe's offspring. When 
the doe came to die, she said, "Thrice this beast has devoured my off- 
spring, and now she purposes to devour me too. When I have passed 
out of this existence, may I be able to devour her and her offspring.'* 
And having made this Earnest Wish, she was reborn as an ogress. 
When the leopardess passed out of that existence, she was reborn at 
Savatthi as a young woman of station. 

So the fruitful wife, at the end of her existence as a doe, was reborn 
as an ogress; and the barren wife, at the end of her existence as a 



-N.1.503] ''Not hatred for hatred'' 173 

leopardess, was reborn at Savatthi as a young woman of station. When 
the latter grew up, she was married and went to live with her husband's 
family in a little settlement near the gate of the city. After a time she 
gave birth to a son. The ogress disguised herself as a dear friend of the 
young woman and went to see her. "Where is my friend.''" said the 
ogress. "In the inner room; she has just given birth to a child." 
"Did she give birth to a son or a daughter? I should like to see her." 
So saying, the ogress went in. While pretending to be looking at the 
child, she seized him, devoured him, and then went out. Again a second 
time she devoured a child of the young wife in the same way. 

The third time the young wife was great with child she addressed 
her husband, "Husband, in this place an ogress has devoured two sons 
of mine and escaped. [49] This time I intend to go to the house of 
my parents to give birth to my child." 

Now at this time that ogress was away doing her turn at drawing 
water. (For Vessavana's ogresses take their turn at drawing water 
from lake Anotatta, passing it along from the source. At the expira- 
tion of four or five months they are released; the others die of ex- 
haustion.) The moment the ogress was released from her turn at 
drawing water she went quickly to the young wife's house and in- 
quired, "Where is my friend.''" "Where you will not see her. There 
is an ogress that devours every child she bears in this house, and there- 
for, she has gone to the house of her parents." "She may go wherever 
she likes, but she will not escape from me." Spurred on by an impulse 
of hatred, the ogress dashed towards the city. 

On the day appointed for the naming of the child the mother bathed 
him, gave him a name, and then said to her husband, "Husband, now 
we will go back to our own home." Accordingly she took the boy in 
her arms and set out with her husband along the path leading through 
the grounds of the monastery. When they reached the monastery 
pool, the young wife gave the boy to her husband and bathed in the 
pool. When she had finished her bath, her husband bathed in the 
pool. While the husband was bathing, the wife remained near, giving 
suck to her child. 

Just then the ogress drew near. The young wife saw her coming 
and recognized her. Immediately she screamed with a loud voice, 
"Husband! husband! come quickly! come quickly! here is that 
ogress!" Not daring to wait until her husband came, [50] she turned 
and dashed into the monastery. 

Now at this time the Teacher was preaching the Law in the midst 



174 Book 1, Story Jf.. Dhammapada 5 [N.i.sos- 

of the congregation. The young wife laid her boy at the feet of the 
Tathagata and said, "I give you this child; spare the life of my son." 
The deity Sumana, who resided in the embattled chamber over the 
gate, prevented the ogress from entering. The Teacher addressed 
the Elder Ananda, saying, "Go, Ananda, summon that ogress within." 
The Elder summoned her within. The young wife said, "Here she 
comes, Reverend Sir." Said the Teacher, "Let her come; make no 
noise." 

When the ogress came and stood before him, the Teacher said, 
" Why have you so done.'^ Had you not come face to face with a Buddha 
like me, you would have cherished hatred towards each other for an 
aeon, like the Snake and the Mongoos,^ who trembled and quaked with 
enmity, like the Crows and the Owls.^ Why do you return hatred for 
hatred .f* Hatred is quenched by love, not by hatred." And when he 
Jbad thus spoken, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

5. For not by hatred are hatreds ever quenched here in this world. 
By love rather are they quenched. This is an eternal law. [51] 

At the conclusion of the Stanza the ogress was established in the 
Fruit of Conversion. 

The Teacher said to the woman, "Give your child to this ogress." 
"I am afraid to. Reverend Sir." "Fear not. You have no reason to 
be alarmed because of her." The young wife gave her child to the 
ogress. The ogress kissed and caressed him, gave him back again to 
his mother, and began to weep. The Teacher asked her, "Why do you 
weep.'' " "Reverend Sir, in the past I have managed somehow or other 
to get a living, but I have never had enough to eat. Now how am I 
to live?" Then the Teacher comforted her, saying, "Do not worry." 
And turning to the mother, he said, [52] "Take this ogress home with 
you, let her live in your own house, and feed her with the choicest 
rice-porridge." 

So the young wife took the ogress home with her, lodged her on 
the central rafter of the hut, and fed her with the choicest rice-porridge. 
Now when the rice was threshed and the flail was raised, she feared that 
it would strike her head. So she said to her friend, " I shall not be able 
to live here any longer; lodge me elsewhere." She was lodged succes- 
sively in the flail-hut, the water-chatty, the bake-house, the store- 
room for nimbs, the dust-heap, and the village gate. But she refused 

* Panchatantra, Book v, Frame-story, Harvard Oriental Series, xiv., p. 131. 

* Panchatantra, Book iii, Frame-story, ibidem, p. 90. 



-N.1.5314] ''Not hatred for hatred"' 175 

to live in any of these places, saying, "Here the flail rises as if it would 
split my head in two; here boys empty out slops; here dogs lie down; 
here boys attend to nature's needs; here they throw away sweepings; 
here village boys practice fortune-telling." So they lodged her in a 
quiet place by herself outside of the village, and there they brought 
her the choicest rice-porridge. 

The ogress said to her friend, "This year there will be abundance 
of rain; therefore plant your crops in a dry place. This year there will 
be a drought; therefore plant your crops in a moist place." Other 
people's crops were destroyed either by excessive moisture or by 
drought, but the crops of the young wife flourished above measure. 

People asked the young wife, "Woman, your crops are destroyed 
neither by excessive moisture nor by drought. When you plant your 
crops, you seem to know in advance whether the season will be wet or 
dry. How is this.^^" The young wife replied, "I have a friend, an 
ogress, [53] who tells me whether the season will be wet or dry; and 
I plant my crops according to her directions on high or low ground. 
Don't you see.'' Every day the choicest rice-porridge and other kinds 
of food are carried out of our house; to her are they carried. Do you 
also carry the choicest rice-porridge and other kinds of food to her, and 
she will look after your crops also." 

Straightway all the residents of the city rendered honor to her. 
On her part, from that time forth, she looked after the crops of all. 
And she received abundant gifts and a large retinue. Subsequently 
she established the Eight Ticket-foods, which are kept up even to this 
present day. 



I. 5. THE QUARRELSOME MONKS OF KOSAMBI ^ 

But others do not understand. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to 
the monks of Kosambi. 

1 Parallels: Jataka 428: iii. 486-490; Vinaya, Mahd Vagga, x. 1-5: i. 337-357; 
TJddna, iv. 5: 41-42. The story of the quarrel among the monks is almost word for 
word the same as Jataka 428, which in turn is derived from the Vinaya. The story 
of the Buddha's residence in Protected Forest with an elephant for his attendant is 
for the most part an elaboration of Vinaya, i. 350-357. The story of the monkey 
is an original touch of the redactor. The redactor follows the Vinaya account rather 
than that of the Uddna. Text: N i. 53-66. 



176 Book 1, Story 5. Dhammapada 6 [N.i.ssu- 

5 a. Quarrel among the monks 

For at Kosambi, in Ghosita monastery, resided two monks, each 
with a retinue of five hundred monks. Of the two monks, one was a 
student of the Discipline, the other a preacher of the Law, One day 
the preacher of the Law, after easing himself, left in a vessel what 
remained of the water in which he had washed in the bathroom and 
came out. Afterwards the student of the Discipline went [54] in and 
saw the water. When he came out, he asked his companion, "Brother, 
was it you that left the water.'^" "Yes, brother." "But do you not 
know that it is a sin so to do.^^" "Indeed I do not." "But, brother, 
it is a sin." "Well then, I will make satisfaction for it." "Of course, 
brother, if you did it unintentionally, inadvertently, it is no sin." 
Thus the preacher of the Law came to look upon the sin as no sin. 

Notwithstanding, the student of the Discipline said to his own 
pupils, "This preacher of the Law, although he has committed sin, 
does not realize it." They, seeing the pupils of the preacher of the 
Law, said, "Your preceptor, although he has committed sin, does not 
realize it." The preacher's pupils went and informed their own 
preceptor. The preacher of the Law spoke thus, "This student of the 
Discipline said before, 'It's no sin.' Now he says, * It is a sin.' He's 
a liar." The preacher's pupils went and said, "Your teacher is a liar." 
Thus did they foment a quarrel between the two. Then the student 
of the Discipline, seizing the opportunity, pronounced sentence of 
excommunication against the preacher of the Law for failing to recog- 
nize his sin. Thenceforth even the supporters who furnished them the 
Requisites formed two factions. Even the nuns receiving instruction, 
even the protecting deities; their friends and intimates, the deities who 
dwell in the sky; beginning with these and extending to the world of 
Brahma, all beings, even the unconverted, formed two factions. 
The quarrel extended from the Realm of the Four Great Kings to the 
Heaven of the Gods Sublime. 

Now a certain monk drew near the Tathagata and told him that 
those who pronounced the sentence of excommunication held the view 
that the monk had been excommunicated according to law; [55] 
but that the partisans of the excommunicated monk held the view that 
he had been excommunicated contrary to law, and that the latter had 
gathered round in support of him, in spite of the fact that those who 
pronounced the sentence of excommunication forbade them to do so. 
Twice the Exalted One sent word, "Let them be united," and received 



-N.1.5613] The quarrelsome monks of Kosambi 177 

the reply, "Venerable Sir, they refuse to be united." The third time 
he exclaimed, "The congregation of monks is rent asunder! The con- 
gregation of monks is rent asunder!" So saying, he went to them and 
pointed out to those who had pronounced sentence of excommunica- 
tion the wrong involved in their act, and to those who had failed to 
recognize sin the wrong involved in theirs. Again he enjoined upon 
them the holding of fast-day and other ceremonies right there within 
the boundary, and laid down the rule that those who quarreled in re- 
fectories and elsewhere were to occupy separate seats in the refectory. 

Hearing that they were quarreling again, he went to them, and 
beginning his discourse with the words, "Enough, monks! No quar- 
reling!" he continued, "Monks, quarrels, strifes, contentions, dis- 
putes, — all these are unprofitable. For because of a quarrel even a 
tiny quail brought about the destruction of a noble elephant." And 
he told the Birth-Story of the Tiny Quail. ^ Continuing, he said: 
"Monks, be united; engage not in disputes. For because of a dispute 
many thousand quails lost their lives." And he told the Birth-Story 
of the Quails.^ 

But in spite of this they paid no attention to his words, and a cer- 
tain heretical teacher, who wished the Tathagata to be relieved of 
annoyance, said to him, "Reverend Sir, let the Exalted One, the Lord 
of Truth, remain at home. Reverend Sir, let the Exalted One live a 
life of inaction and ease in this present world. [56] We shall make 
ourselves notorious by our quarrels, strifes, contentions, and disputes." 
Thereupon the Tathagata told the following Story of the Past:' 

"Once upon a time, monks, Brahmadatta reigned at Benares as 
king of Kasi. Brahmadatta fought against Dighati Kosala, took away 
his kingdom, and killed him while he was living in disguise. Dighati's 
son. Prince Dighavu, although he knew that Brahmadatta was the 
murderer of his father, spared his life. Thenceforth they were at peace 
with each other. Such, monks, is said to have been the patience and 
gentleness of these kings who took scepter and sword. How much 
more, monks, should you, who have retired from the world under a 
Law and Discipline so well taught, let your light so shine in this world 
as to be known of men as patient and gentle." Thus did the Teacher 
admonish them. 

1 Jdtaka 357: iii. 174-177. 

2 Jdtaka 33: i. 208-210. Cf. Panchatantra, Book ii. Frame-story. 

' For a translation of the complete version of this beautiful story, see Sacred 
Books of the East, xvii (Vinaya Texts), pp. 293-305. 



178 Book ly Story 5. Dhammapada 6 [N.1.5613- 

But in spite of his admonition he was unable to reunite them. 
Thereupon, unhappy because of the crowded conditions under which 
he lived, he reflected, "Under present; conditions I am crowded and 
jostled and live a life of discomfort. Moreover, these monks pay no 
attention to what I say. Suppose I were to retire from the haunts of 
men and live a life of solitude." 

After making his round for alms in Kosambi, without bidding the 
Congregation of Monks farewell, he took his own bowl and robe, and 
went quite alone to the village of Balaka, the salt-maker, where he 
discoursed to the Elder Bhagu on the solitary life; thence he went to 
Eastern Bamboo Deer-park, where he discoursed to the three youths 
of station on the bliss of the sweets of concord; [57] and from there he 
went to Parileyyaka. There, at the foot of a beautiful Sal-tree, in 
Protected Forest, near Parileyyaka, the Exalted One spent the rainy 
season pleasantly, attended by the elephant Parileyyaka. 

When the lay brethren resident at Kosambi went to the monastery 
and failed to see the Teacher, they asked, "Reverend Sirs, where has 
the Teacher gone.'' " "To Parileyyaka Forest." "For what reason.'*" 
"He strove to reunite us, but we would not be reunited." "Do you 
mean. Reverend Sirs, that after receiving admission as monks at the 
hands of the Teacher, you refused to agree when he asked you to do 
so?" "Precisely so, brethren." People said, "These monks, after 
receiving admission at the hands of the Teacher, were unwilling to 
patch up their differences when the Teacher asked them to do so. It*s 
all their fault that we were unable to see the Teacher. To these monks, 
assuredly, we will neither give seats nor offer respectful salutations or 
other civilities." And from that time on they showed them not so 
much as a sign of civility. 

The monks got so little food that they were nearly famished, and 
it required only a few days to bring them to a better state of mind. 
Then they confessed their sins, one to another, asked to be pardoned, 
and said, "Brethren, we are reconciled; be to us as before." "Rev- 
erend Sirs, have you begged the Teacher's pardon .^^ " "No, we have n't, 
brethren." "Well then, beg the Teacher's pardon, and as soon as the 
Teacher has pardoned you, we will be to you as before." But as the 
rainy season was then at its height, they were unable to go to the 
Teacher and spent the rainy season very uncomfortably. The Teacher, 
however, spent the time pleasantly, attended by an elephant. For 
this elephant, of noble breed, left his herd [58] and entered the forest 
ior the sole purpose of having a pleasant time. As it is said, 



-N. 1.5914] The quarrelsome monks of Kosambi 179 

5 b. The Buddha, the elephant, and the monkey 

"Here I live, crowded by elephants, female elephants, elephant 
calves, and young elephants. They have chewed off the tips of the 
grass I eat; they eat branch after branch I break down; they muddy 
the water I have to drink. Whenever I plunge into the water, or come 
up out of the water, the female elephants come and rub against my 
body. Suppose I were to retire from the herd and live all alone." 

So then this noble elephant withdrew from the herd and drew near 
to Parileyyaka, to Protected Forest, to the foot of the beautiful 
Sal-tree; even to where the Exalted One was, thither did he draw near. 
And when he had drawn near and paid obeisance to the Exalted One, 
he looked all about for a broom. And seeing none, he smote with his 
foot the beautiful Sal-tree below and hewed away with his trunk 
at the Sal-tree above. And taking a branch, he then swept the 
ground. 

Then he took a water-pot in his trunk and procured drinking-water. 
And as hot water was required, he prepared hot water. (How was that 
possible .f^) First he produced sparks with a fire-drill which he worked 
with his trunk; then he dropped sticks of wood on the sparks. Thus 
did he kindle a fire. In the fire he heated small stones ; these he rolled 
along with a stick and dropped into a little depression in the rock. 
Then, lowering his trunk and finding the water hot enough, he went 
and made obeisance to the Teacher. The Teacher asked, "Is your 
water hot, Parileyyaka.'*" and went there [59] and bathed. After 
that the elephant brought various kinds of wild fruits and presented 
them to the Teacher. 

Now when the Teacher enters the village for alms, the elephant 
takes his bowl and robe, puts them on top of his head, and accom- 
panies him. When the Teacher reaches the vicinity of the village, he 
bids the elephant bring him his bowl and robe, saying, "Parileyyaka, 
farther than this you are not permitted to go. Fetch me my bowl and 
robe." The Teacher then enters the village, and the elephant stands 
right there until he returns. When the Teacher returns, the elephant 
advances to meet him, takes his bowl and robe just as he did before, 
deposits them in the Teacher's place of abode, pays him the usual 
courtesies, and fans him with the branch of a tree. At night, to ward 
off danger from beasts of prey, he takes a big club in his trunk, says 
to himself, "I'll protect the Teacher," and back and forth in the in- 
terstices of the forest he paces until sunrise. (From that time forth. 



180 Book 1, Story 5. Dhammapada 6 [N.i.59i4- 

we are told, that forest was called "Protected Forest.") When the 
sun rises, the elephant gives the Teacher water wherewith to bathe 
his face, and in the manner before related performs all of the other 
duties. 

Now a monkey saw the elephant up and doing each day, perform- 
ing the lesser duties for the Tathagata, and he said to himself, "I'll 
do something too." One day, as he was running about, he happened 
to see some stick-honey free from flies. He broke the stick off, took 
the honey-comb, stick and all, broke off a plantain-leaf, placed the 
honey on the leaf, [60] and offered it to the Teacher. The Teacher 
took it. The monkey watched to see whether or not he would eat it. 
He observed that the Teacher, after taking the honey, sat down with- 
out eating. "What can be the matter.'*" thought he. He took hold 
of the stick by the tip, turned it over and over, carefully examining it 
as he did so, whereupon he discovered some insect's eggs. Having 
removed these gently, he again gave the honey to the Teacher. The 
Teacher ate it. 

The monkey was so delighted that he leaped from one branch to 
another and danced about in great glee. But the branches he grasped 
and the branches he stepped on broke off. Down he fell on the stump 
of a tree and was impaled. So he died. And solely because of his 
faith in the Teacher he was reborn in the World of the Thirty-three 
in a golden mansion thirty leagues in measure, with a retinue of a 
thousand celestial nymphs. 

It became known over all the Land of the Rose-apple that the 
Teacher was residing in Protected Forest, attended by a noble ele- 
phant.^ From the city of Savatthi, Anathapindika, Visakha, the emi- 
nent female lay disciple, and other such great personages sent the 
following message to the Elder Ananda, 

"Reverend Sir, obtain for us the privilege of seeing the Teacher.'* 
Likewise five hundred monks residing abroad approached the Elder 
Ananda at the close of the rainy season and made the following re- 
quest, "It is a long time, Ananda, since we have heard a discourse on 
the Law from the lips of the Exalted One. We should like, brother 
Ananda, if you please, to have the privilege of hearing a discourse on 
the Law from the lips of the Exalted One." 

So the Elder took those monks with him and went to Protected 
Forest. When he reached the forest, he thought to himself, "The 

> Cf. Story xxiii. 7. 



-N.i.62io] The quarrelsome monks of Kosambi 181 

Tathagata has resided in solitude for a period of three months. It is 
therefore not fitting that I should approach him all at once with so 
many monks as these." [61] Accordingly he left those monks out- 
side and approached the Teacher quite alone. When the elephant 
Parileyyaka saw the Elder, he took his staff and rushed forward. 
The Teacher looked around and said to the elephant, "Come back, 
Parileyyaka; do not drive him away. He is a servitor of the Bud- 
dha." The elephant immediately threw away his staff and requested 
the privilege of taking the Elder's bowl and robe. The Elder refused. 
The elephant thought to himself, "If he is versed in the rules of 
etiquette, he will refrain from placing his monastic requisites on the 
stone slab where the Teacher is accustomed to sit." The Elder placed 
his bowl and robe on the ground. (For those who are versed in the 
rules of etiquette never place their own monastic requisites on the 
seat or bed of their spiritual superiors.) The Elder, after saluting 
the Teacher, seated himself on one side. 

The Teacher asked him, "Did you come alone.^*" The Elder in- 
formed him that he had come with five hundred monks. "But where 
are they.'^" asked the Teacher. "I did not know how you would 
feel about it, and therefore I left them outside and came in alone." 
"Tell them to come in." The Elder did so. The Teacher exchanged 
friendly greetings with the monks. Then the monks said to the 
Teacher, 

"Reverend Sir, the Exalted One is a delicate Buddha, a deli- 
cate prince. You must have endured much hardship, standing 
and sitting here alone as you have during these three months. For 
of course you had no one to perform the major and minor duties for 
you, no one to offer you water for bathing the face or to perform any 
of the other duties for you." The Teacher replied, 

"Monks, the elephant Parileyyaka performed all of these offices 
for me. For one who obtains such a companion as he may well live 
alone; did one fail to find such, [62] even so the life of solitude were 
better for him." So saying, he pronounced these three Stanzas in the 
Naga Vagga, 

328. Should one find a prudent companion to walk with, an upright man and steadfast. 
Let one walk with him, joyful, mindful, overcoming all dangers. 

329. Should one not find a prudent companion to walk with, an upright man and stead- 

fast. 
Then like a king renouncing the kingdom he has conquered, let one walk alone. 
Like an elephant roaming at will in an elephant-forest. 



182 Book 1, Story 5. Dhammapada 6 [N.i.62ii- 

330. The life of solitude is better; one cannot be friends with a simpleton; 
Let a man live in solitude, and do no evil deeds, 
Taking his ease, like an elephant roaming at will in an elephant-forest. 

At the conclusion of the Stanzas the five hundred monks were 
established in Arahatship. 

The Elder Ananda then delivered the message sent by Anatha- 
pindika and the rest, saying, "Reverend Sir, fifty million Noble Dis- 
ciples headed by Anathapindika desire your return." "Very well," 
said the Teacher, "take bowl and robe." Causing them to take bowl 
and robe, he set out. The elephant went and stood crosswise on the 
road. "Reverend Sir, what is the elephant doing .f^" "Monks, he 
desires to give alms to you. For a long time he has served me; it is 
not right to hurt his feelings. Turn back, monks!" The Teacher 
and the monks [63] turned back. The elephant entered the forest, 
gathered bananas and various other fruits, heaped them together, and 
on the following day gave them to the monks. The five hundred monks 
were unable to dispose of them all. When they had finished eating, 
the Teacher took bowl and robe and set out. The elephant, threading 
his way through the monks, went and stood crosswise in front of the 
Teacher. 

"Reverend Sir, what is the elephant doing .f^" "Monks, having 
sped your parting, he desires to make me turn back." Said the Teacher 
to the elephant, "Parileyyaka, I am going now, never to return. You 
cannot hope in this existence to enter into states of trance, or to attain 
Spiritual Insight, or the Paths, or the Fruits. Halt!" When the ele- 
phant heard that, he thrust his trunk into his mouth and retreated 
very slowly, weeping as he went. (Could he have made the Teacher 
turn back, he would have cared for him in the very same way to the 
end of his days.) 

Now when the Teacher reached the vicinity of the village, he said, 
"Parileyyaka, farther than this it is unsafe for you to go. The habi- 
tations of men are fraught with danger to you. Halt ! " The elephant 
halted where he was and wept. As the Teacher slowly passed out of 
sight, he died of a broken heart. Through faith in the Teacher he 
was reborn in the World of the Thirty-three in a golden mansion thirty 
leagues in measure, with a retinue of a thousand celestial nymphs. 
God Parileyyaka was his name. 

The Teacher arrived in due course at Jetavana. The monks of 
Kosambi, [64] hearing of the Teacher's return to Savatthi, went 
thither to beg his pardon. The king of Kosala, hearing that the quar- 



-N.i.66io] The quarrelsome monks of Kosambi 183 

relsome monks of Kosambi had come to Savatthi, approached the 
Teacher and said, "Reverend Sir, I'll not allow those monks to come 
into my country." "Great king, these monks are good men; only 
because of a dispute they had with each other they paid no attention 
to my words. Now they are coming to beg my pardon; let them come, 
great king." Anathapindika also said, "I'll not allow those monks 
to enter the monastery." But the Teacher took issue with him as he 
had with the king, and he was silent. 

Now when those monks reached Savatthi, the Exalted One gave 
orders that separate lodging should be prepared and given to them. 
The other monks neither sit nor stand in their company. One after 
another those who come ask the Teacher, "Where, Reverend Sir, 
are the quarrelsome monks of Kosambi.'^" The Teacher points them 
out, saying, "There they are!" "There they are! There they are!" 
One after another those who come point their fingers at them, until 
for shame they are unable to lift their heads. Then they threw them- 
selves at the feet of the Exalted One and asked him to pardon them. 
Said the Teacher, 

"Monks, grievous was the sin you committed when, after receiving 
admission as monks at the hands of a Buddha like me, in spite of my 
efforts to reconcile you, you refused to obey my words. Even wise 
men of old hearkened to the admonition of their mother and father 
under sentence of death, [65] disobeyed it not, even while their par- 
ents were being deprived of life, and afterwards established their 
sovereignty over two kingdoms." So saying, he related the Kosambika 
Jataka once more, concluding as follows, 

"Thus, monks, Prince Dighavu, even while his mother and father 
were being deprived of life, disobeyed not their admonition and after- 
wards, obtaining Brahmadatta's daughter in marriage, bore sway over 
the two kingdoms of Kasi and Kosala. You, however, disobeyed my 
words, and thereby committed a grievous sin." So saying, he pro- 
nounced the following Stanza, 

6. But others do not understand that we must here control ourselves; 
Yet let them understand this, and straight dissensions cease. [66] 

At the conclusion of the Stanza the assembled monks were estab- 
lished in the Fruit of Conversion. 



184 .Book 1, Story 6. Dhammapada 7-8 [N. 1.6612- 



I. 6. KALA JUNIOR AND KALA SENIOR » 

Whoever lives looking for pleasure. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence near the city Setavya 
with reference to Kala junior and Kala senior, CuUa Kala and Maha 
Kala. 

For Culla Kala, Majjhima Kala, and Maha Kala were three house- 
holders who lived in Setavya, and they were brothers. Culla Kala 
and Maha Kala, the oldest and youngest respectively, used to travel 
abroad with their caravan of five hundred carts and bring home goods 
to sell, and Majjhima Kala sold the goods they brought. Now on a 
certain occasion the two [67] brothers, taking wares of various kinds 
in their five hundred carts, set out for Savatthi, and halting between 
Savatthi and Jetavana, unharnessed their carts. 

At eventide Maha Kala saw Noble Disciples, residents of Savatthi, 
with garlands and perfumes in their hands, going to hear the Law. 
"Where are they going. 5^ " he asked. Receiving the answer that they 
were going to hear the Law, he thought to himself, "I will go too." 
So he addressed his youngest brother, "Dear brother, keep watch 
over the carts; I am going to hear the Law." So saying, he went and 
paid obeisance to the Tathagata and sat down in the outer circle 
of the congregation. 

On that day the Teacher preached the Law in orderly sequence 
with reference to Maha Kala's disposition of mind, and quoting the 
Sutta on the Aggregate of Suffering, and other Suttas, discoursed 
on the sinfulness and folly and contamination of sensual pleasures. 
Maha Kala, after listening to the discourse, thought to himself, " So 
a man must needs leave al things behind him when he goes hence. 
When a man goes to the world beyond, neither wealth nor kinsmen can 
follow him. Why should I continue to live the life of a householder .'^ 
I will become a monk." Accordingly, when the multitude had paid 
obeisance to the Teacher and departed, he requested the Teacher to 
receive him into the Order. 

"Have you no kinsman of whom it is proper that you should ask 
permission?" inquired the Teacher. "I have a younger brother, 
Reverend Sir." "Ask his permission." "Very well. Reverend Sir." 
So Maha Kala went to Culla Kala and said to him, "Dear brother, 

^ Derived from this story are Thera^Gaihd Commentary, exxxvi, and Rogers, 
Btddhaghosha s Parables, iv, pp. 25-31. Text: N i. 66-77. 



-N. 1.699] Kala junior and Kala senior 185 

receive all this wealth." [68] "But you, brother?" "I intend to 
retire from the world under the Teacher." Culla Kala used all manner 
of arguments to dissuade his brother from carrying out his intention, 
but in vain. Finally he said to him, "Very well, master; do as you 
wish." So Maha Kala went and became a monk under the Teacher. 
Culla Kala likewise became a monk. But the thought in Culla 
Kala's mind was, "After a time I will return to the world and take my 
brother with me." 

Somewhat later Maha Kala made his full profession, and ap- 
proaching the Teacher, asked him, "How many duties are there in 
this Religion.'^" The Teacher informed him that there were two. 
Said Maha Kala, "Reverend Sir, since I became a monk in old age, 
I shall not be able to fulfill the Duty of Study, but I can fulfill the 
Duty of Contemplation." So he had the Teacher instruct him in the 
Pure Practice of a Burning-grounder, which leads to Arahatship. At 
the end of the first watch, when everyone else was asleep, he went to 
the burning-ground; and at dawn, before anyone else had risen, he 
returned to the monastery. 

Now the keeper of the burning-ground, a certain woman named 
Kali, whose duty was to burn the bodies of the dead, saw the Elder 
as he stood up and sat down and walked about. And she thought to 
herself, "Who can this be that comes here.f* I will find out about him." 
But she was unable to find out what she wished to find out about him. 
So one night she lighted a lamp in the hut of the burning-ground, and 
taking son and daughter with her, hid herself on one side of the burn- 
ing-ground. When she saw the Elder approach, she approached him, 
paid obeisance to him, and asked him, "Reverend Sir, does our 
noble monk reside in this place.'^" "Yes, lay sister." "Reverend Sir, 
[69] those that reside in a burning-ground have certain rules to ob- 
serve." The Elder did not say, "Do you think I shall observe any 
rules of your telling.'^" Instead he said, "What ought I to do, lay 
sister.'^" 

Said the keeper of the burning-ground, "Reverend Sir, they that 
reside in a burning-ground are bound to declare the fact to the 
keepers of the burning-ground, to the Chief Elder at the monastery, 
and to the village headman." "Why.?^" "Thieves who commit depre- 
dations, when pursued by lawful owners of property, frequently flee 
to a burning-ground and leave their spoils there; then the owners 
come and threaten residents of the burning-ground with harm. But 
if the authorities are duly informed, they can avert trouble by saying. 



186 Book 1, Story 6. Dhammapada 7-8 [N.i.69»- 

* We know for a fact that this reverend monk has resided here for such 
and such a length of time; he is no thief.' For this reason you are 
bound to declare your intention to the authorities I have mentioned." 

Maha Kala then asked, "Is there anything else I ought to do.^^" 
"Reverend Sir, so long as your reverence resides in a burning-ground, 
you must abstain from fish, flesh, sesame, flour, oil, and molasses. 
You must not sleep by day. You must not be slothful. You must 
live with high resolve, exerting all the powers of your will, avoiding 
double-dealing and deceit. At eventide, when all are asleep, you must 
leave the monastery and come here; at dawn, before any have risen, 
you must return to the monastery. 

"In case. Reverend Sir, while you reside in this burning-ground, 
you succeed in reaching the goal of the Religious Life, and they bring 
a dead body here and cast it away, I will place it on the funeral pyre, 
and rendering the usual honors with perfumes and garlands, I will 
perform the funeral rites over the body. If you do not succeed, I will 
light the pyre, drag the body along with a stake, [70] throw it outside, 
chop it to pieces with an axe, throw the pieces into the fire, and bum 
it." The Elder said to her, "Very well, woman. But in case you 
should see a corpse which you think would afford me a suitable Subject 
of Meditation on Material Form, be good enough to tell me." "Very 
well," said she, promising him to do so. 

In accordance with his intention the Elder Maha Kala performed 
his meditations in the burning-ground. The Elder Culla Kala, how- 
ever, busy and active, thinking always of the house-life, remembering 
son and wife, said to himself, "It is an excessively difficult task my 
brother is engaged in." 

Now a certain young woman of station was attacked by a disease, 
and the very moment the disease attacked her, she died, at eventide, 
without a sign of withering or weariness. In the evening her kinsfolk 
and friends brought her body to the burning-ground, with firewood, 
oil, and other requisites, and said to the keeper of the burning-ground, 
"Burn this body." And paying the keeper the usual fee, they turned 
the body over to her and departed. When the keeper of the burning- 
ground removed the woman's dress and beheld her beautiful golden- 
hued body, she straightway thought to herself, "This corpse is a suit- 
able Subject of Meditation to show to his reverence.'* So she went 
to the Elder, paid obeisance to him, and said, "I have a remarkably 
good Subject of Meditation; pray look at it. Reverend Sir." 

"Very well," said the Elder. So he went and caused the dress 



-N. 1.727] Kala junior and Kala senior 187 

which covered the corpse to be removed, and surveyed the body from 
the soles of the feet to the tips of the hair. Then he said, [71] "Throw 
this beautiful golden-hued body into the fire, and so soon as the 
tongues of fire have laid hold of it, please tell me." So saying, he went 
to his own place and sat down. 

The keeper of the burning-ground did as she was told and went 
and informed the Elder. The Elder came and surveyed the body. 
Where the flames had touched the flesh, the color of her body was 
like that of a mottled cow; the feet stuck out and hung down; the 
hands were curled back; the forehead was without skin. The Elder 
thought to himself, "This body, which but now caused those who looked 
thereon to forget the Sacred Word, has but now attained decay, has 
but now attained death." And going to his night-quarters, he sat 
down, discerning clearly Decay and Death. 

Impermanent are all existing things. It is their nature to come into existence and 

to decay. 
They come into existence and perish. It is well when they have ceased to be.^ 

Having recited this Stanza, Maha Kala developed Spiritual In- 
sight and attained Arahatship, together with the Supernatural 
Faculties. 

When Maha Kala attained Arahatship, the Teacher, surrounded 
by the Congregation of Monks, traveling from place to place, arrived 
at Setavya and entered the Simsapa forest. Culla Kala's wives, hear- 
ing that the Teacher had arrived, thought to themselves, "Now we 
shall recover our husband." So they sent and invited the Teacher. 
Now when a visit is expected from the Buddhas, it is customary to 
prepare a seat in a place which is not circumscribed, and in order to 
insure that this shall be done, it is customary for a single monk to go 
in advance and give warning. For the Seat of the Buddhas must be 
set in the midst, [72] on the right of the Buddha must be placed the 
seat of the Elder Sariputta, on his left that of the Elder Maha Moggal- 
lana, and next to these on both sides must be arranged the seats for the 
Congregation of Monks. Therefore the Elder Maha Kala, standing 
in the place where the bowls and robes were kept, sent forth Culla 
Kala, saying, "You go in advance and give warning to arrange the 
seats." 

From the moment the members of the household caught sight of 
Culla Kala, they made a jest of him, putting the low seats at the ends 

^ Dlgha, ii. 157 ^. 



188 Book 1, Story G. Dhammapada 7-8 [N. 1.727- 

where the Elders of the Assembly were to sit, and the high seats where 
the novices were to sit. Culla Kala said to them, "Do not arrange 
the seats thus; do not put the low seats above and the high seats 
below." But the women, pretending not to hear him, said, "What 
are you doing here, walking about .^^ What right have you to give 
orders about the arrangement of the seats.'* By whose leave did you 
become a monk.'* Who made a monk of you.?* What made you come 
here.?" 

And having thus made a mock of him, they tore off his under and 
upper garments, clothed him with white garments instead, placed a 
garland-coil on his head, and packed him off, saying, "Go fetch the 
Teacher; we will arrange the seats." Now those who have been 
monks but a short time, and have returned to the world before keep- 
ing a single residence, are without a sense of shame. Therefore Culla 
Kala, free from any anxiety on the score of his clothing, went to the 
Teacher, paid obeisance to him, and taking with him the Congregation 
of Monks presided over by the Buddha, returned. 

When the Congregation of Monks had finished their meal, Maha 
Kala's wives thought to themselves, "Culla Kala's wives recovered 
their husband; let us also recover ours." [73] Accordingly they in- 
vited the Teacher for the following day. But on this occasion a 
different monk came to arrange the seats, and so Maha Kala's wives 
failed of an opportunity to embarrass him. When they had seated 
the Congregation of Monks presided over by the Buddha, they pre- 
sented them with food. Now Culla Kala had two wives, Majjhima 
Kala had four, and Maha Kala had eight. Those of the monks who 
desired to eat sat down and ate their meal; those who desired to go 
out arose and went out. The Teacher sat down and ate his meal. 
When he had finished his meal, those women said to him, "Reverend 
Sir, Maha Kala will pronounce the formula of thanksgiving and then 
return; you go on ahead." The Teacher said, "Very well," and went 
on ahead. 

When the Teacher reached the village gate, the Congregation of 
Monks were offended and said, "What a thing for the Teacher to do! 
Did he do it wittingly or unwittingly.'* Yesterday Culla Kala came 
in advance, and that was the end of his monastic life. But to-day a 
different monk came in advance, and nothing of the sort happened." 
The Teacher sent Maha Kala back and continued on his way. Said 
the monks, "The monk Maha Kala is virtuous and upright. Will 
they put an end to his monastic life?" 



-N. 1.7721] Kola junior and Kala senior 189 

Hearing their words, the Teacher stopped and asked them, "What 
is it you are saying, monks?" When they told him, he said, "But, 
monks, you do not think that Maha Kala is like Culla Kala?" "Yes, 
Reverend Sir; Culla Kala has two wives, but Maha Kala has eight. 
If his eight wives gather about him and seize him, what can he do. 
Reverend Sir?" Said the Teacher, "Monks, do not speak thus. Culla 
Kala lives a busy and active life and allows his thoughts to dwell on 
many pleasing objects. My son [74] Maha Kala, on the other hand, 
does not live looking for pleasure, but is immovable, like a mountain 
of solid rock." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanzas, 

7. Whoever lives looking for pleasure, exercising no restraint over his senses. 
Immoderate in his enjoyments, indolent, inert. 

Him Mara overpowers, even as the wind overpowers a tree of little strength. 

8. Whoever lives looking not for pleasure, exercising restraint over his senses. 
Moderate in his enjoyments, endowed with faith, exerting the power of his will. 
Him Mara does not overpower, even as the wind does not overpower a mountain 

of rock. [77] 

Maha Kala's former wives surrounded him and said to him, "By 
whose leave did you become a monk? Will you now become a house- 
holder?" Having said this and much more to the same effect, they 
sought to strip him of his yellow robes. But the Elder, divining their 
intention, rose from the seat where he had been sitting and flew 
upwards by his supernatural power, rending the peak of the pagoda 
asunder. And having soared through the air, he descended to the 
ground as the Teacher spoke the concluding words of the Stanzas, 
praising the golden body of the Teacher and paying obeisance at the 
feet of the Tathagata. 

I. 7. DEVADATTA WEARS AN UNBECOMING ROBE » 

Whoever, not free from impurity. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to Devadatta's assumption of the yellow robe at Rajagaha. 

For on a certain occasion the two Chief Disciples, each with a retinue 
of five hundred monks, took leave of the Teacher and went from 
Jetavana to Rajagaha. The residents of Rajagaha united by twos and 
threes and in larger groups and gave alms in accordance with the 
custom of giving alms to visitors. Now one day Venerable Sariputta 

1 Cf. Jdtaka 221: ii. 196-199. Text: N i. 77-83. 



190 Book i, Story 7. Dhammapada 9-10 [N.i.78i- 

said, in making the Address of Thanksgiving, [78] "Lay brethren, 
one man himself gives alms, but does not urge another to give; that 
man receives in succeeding states of existence the blessing of wealth, 
but not the blessing of a retinue. Another man urges his neighbor to 
give, but does not himself give; that man receives in succeeding states 
of existence the blessing of a retinue, but not the blessing of wealth. 
Another man neither himself gives alms nor urges others to give; in 
succeeding states of existence that man receives not so much as a 
bellyful of sour rice-gruel, but is forlorn and destitute. Yet another 
both himself gives alms and urges his neighbor to give; that man in 
succeeding states of existence, in a hundred states of existence, in a 
thousand states of existence, in a hundred thousand states of existence, 
receives both the blessing of wealth and the blessing of a retinue." 
Thus did Venerable Sariputta preach the Law. 

A certain wise man heard him and thought to himself, "Sir, the 
preaching of the Law is indeed a wonderful thing; well has the means 
of happiness been expounded. It behooves me to do works of merit 
productive of these two Attainments." So he invited the Elder to 
take a meal with him, saying, "Reverend Sir, accept my hospitality 
for to-morrow." "How many monks have you need of, lay disciple.f*" 
"But how many monks are there in your retinue. Reverend Sir.''" 
"A thousand, lay disciple." "Bring all your monks with you to- 
morrow and accept my hospitality. Reverend Sir." The Elder accepted 
the invitation. 

The lay disciple went through the street of the city urging others 
to give alms, saying, "Men and women, I have invited a thousand 
monks. How many monks will you be able to provide with food? 
how many will you.''" The people promised to provide food, each 
according to his means, saying, [79] "We will give to ten; we will give 
to twenty; we will give to a hundred." The lay disciple then directed 
them to bring their offerings to one place, saying, "Well then, let us 
assemble in one place and cook the food as one body. All of you bring 
together in one place the sesame, rice, ghee, molasses, and other 
articles of food." 

Now a certain householder presented a perfumed yellow robe worth 
a hundred thousand pieces of money, saying, "If your combined alms 
prove insuflBcient, sell this and devote the proceeds to supplying the 
deficiency; if they are sufl&cient, you may give it to whatever monk you 
please." The combined offerings proved sufficient for the householder's 
purpose; there was nothing lacking. The lay disciple therefore said 



-N.1.8019] Devadatta wears an unbecoming robe 191 

to the men, "Honorable Sirs, this yellow robe, given by a certain 
householder for such and such a purpose, is superfluous. To whom 
shall we give it?" 

Some said, "Let us give it to the Elder Sariputta." Others said, 
"The Elder Sariputta has a way of coming and going when the crops 
are ripe. But Devadatta is our constant companion, both on festival 
days and on ordinary days, and is ever ready like a water-pot. Let us 
give it to him." After a long discussion it was decided by a majority 
of four to give the robe to Devadatta. So they gave the robe to 
Devadatta. Devadatta cut it in two, fashioned it, dyed it, put one 
part on as an undergarment and the other as an upper garment, and 
wore it as he walked about. When they saw him wearing his new 
robe, they said, "This robe does not become Devadatta, but does 
become the Elder Sariputta. Devadatta is going about wearing under 
and upper garments which do not become him." [80] 

Now a certain monk who lived in foreign parts came from Rajagaha 
to Savatthi, and when he had paid obeisance to the Teacher and 
expressed his pleasure at seeing him, the Teacher asked him about the 
well-being of the two Chief Disciples. The monk thereupon told him 
the whole episode of the robe from beginning to end. Said the Teacher, 
"Monks, this is not the first time Devadatta has worn robes unbecom- 
ing to him; in a previous state of existence also he wore robes which 
did not become him." So saying, he related the following 

7 a. Story of the Past : The elephant-hunter and the noble elephant 

Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta ruled at Benares, there 
dwelt at Benares a certain elephant-hunter who made a living by 
killing elephants and marketing their tusks, claws, entrails, and solid 
flesh. Now in a certain forest several thousand elephants found 
pasture. One day, when they went to the forest, they saw some 
Private Buddhas. From that day, both going and coming, they fell 
down on their knees before the Private Buddhas before proceeding 
on their way. 

One day the elephant-hunter saw their actions. Thought he, "It 
is only with great difficulty that I can kill these beasts. But every 
time they come and go they pay obeisance to the Private Buddhas. 
What is it they see that makes them pay obeisance.^" Coming to the 
conclusion that it was the yellow robe, he thought to himself, "I too 
ought to get a yellow robe immediately." So he went to a pool used 



192 Book 1, Story 7. Dhammapada 9-10 [N.i.soio- 

by a certain Private Buddha, and while the latter was bathing and 
his robes lay on the bank, stole his robes. Then he went and sat down 
on the path by which the elephants came and went, with a spear in 
his hand and the robe drawn over his head. The elephants saw him, 
and taking him for a Private Buddha, paid obeisance to him, and then 
went their way. The elephant which came last of all he killed with a 
thrust of his spear. And taking the tusks and other parts which were 
of value and burying the rest of the dead animal in the ground, he 
departed. [81] 

Later on the Future Buddha, who had been reborn as an elephant, 
became the leader of the elephants and the lord of the herd. At that 
time also the elephant-hunter was pursuing the same tactics as before. 
The Great Being observed the diminution of his retinue and asked, 
"Where do these elephants go that this herd has become so small.'*" 
"That we do not know, master." The Great Being thought to himself, 
"Wherever they go, they must not go without my permission." Then 
the suspicion entered his mind, "The fellow who sits in a certain place 
with a yellow robe drawn over his head must be causing the trouble; 
he will bear watching," 

So the leader of the herd sent the other elephants on ahead and 
brought up the rear himself, walking very slowly. When the rest of 
the elephants had paid obeisance and passed on, the elephant-hunter 
saw the Great Being approach, whereupon he gathered his robe together 
and threw his spear. The Great Being fixed his attention as he 
approached, and stepping backwards, avoided the spear. "This is 
the man who killed my elephants," thought the Great Being, and 
forthwith sprang forwards to seize him. But the elephant-hunter 
jumped behind a certain tree and crouched down. Thought the Great 
Being, "I will encircle both the hunter and the tree with my trunk, 
seize the hunter, and dash him to the ground." Just at that moment 
the hunter removed the yellow robe and allowed the elephant to see it. 
When the Great Being saw it, he thought to himself, "If I offend 
against this man, the reverence which thousands of Buddhas, Private 
Buddhas, and Arahats feel towards me will of necessity be lost." There- 
fore he kept his patience. Then he asked the hunter, " Was it you that 
killed all these kinsmen of mine?" "Yes, master," replied the hunter. 
"Why did you do so wicked a deed.'* You have put on robes which 
become those who are free from the passions, but which are unbecoming 
to you. In doing such a deed as this, you have committed a grievous 
sin." So saying, he rebuked him again for the last time, saying, [82] 



-N.1.83U] Devadatta wears an unbecoming robe 193 

Whoever, not free from impurity, lacking self-restraint and truth, 
Puts on the yellow robe, he is not worthy of the yellow robe. 

Whoever is free from impurity, firmly established in the moral precepts. 
Possessed of self-restraint and truth, he is worthy of the yellow robe. 

"Unbecoming is the deed you have done," said he. 

When the Teacher had ended this lesson, he identified the char- 
acters in the Jataka as follows, "At that time the elephant-hunter was 
Devadatta, and the noble elephant who rebuked him was I myself. 
Monks, this is not the first time Devadatta has worn a robe which was 
unbecoming to him; he did the same thing in a previous state of 
existence also." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanzas, 

9. Whoever, not free from impurity, lacking self-restraint and truth, 
Puts on the yellow robe, he is not worthy of the yellow robe. 

10. Whoever is free from impurity, firmly established in the moral precepts, 
Possessed of self-restraint and truth, he is worthy of the yellow robe. 



I. 8. THE CHIEF DISCIPLES ^ 

They who think to find the truth in falsehood. [83] This religious 
instruction was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at 
Veluvana, and it was with reference to the announcement made by 
the Chief Disciples of Sanjaya's refusal to go to the Teacher. From 
first to last the story is as follows : 

8 a. Life of the Buddha 

Four Incalculables and a hundred thousand cycles of time in the 
past our Teacher was born as a Brahman prince in the city of Amara- 
vati, and his name was Sumedha. After acquiring proficiency in all 
the arts, he renounced wealth amounting to countless millions which 
he inherited on the death of his mother and father, retired from the 
world, adopted the life of an anchorite, took up his residence in the 
Himalaya country, and there won for himself by Ecstatic Meditation 
the Supernatural Powers. Now it came to pass on a certain day that 

^ 8 a is a brief outline of Niddnakathd, Jataka, i. 2^^-85^'': translated by Rhys 
Davids, Buddhist Birth Stories, pp. 2-119. 8 b is derived from Vinaya, Mahd Vagga, 
i. 23-24. 4: i. 39^3-43^ Cf. Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, pp. 200-203. With 8f 
{Dh. cm., I. 10017-10421) cf. Khuddaka Pdtha Commentary, 202^206^, and Peta Vatthu 
Commentary, 19^^-231^. Peta Vatthu Commentary is here almost word for word the same 
as Khuddaka Pdtha Commentary. Text: N i. 83-114. 



194 Book 1, Story 8. Dhammapada 11-12 [N.i.ssu- 

Dipankara, Master of the Ten Forces, set out from Sudassana mon- 
astery to go to the city Ramma, and the populace came forth to 
clear the way. As Sumedha came flying through the air on that day, 
he observed that a road was being cleared. Therefore selecting for 
himself a portion of the road which had not yet been cleared, when the 
Teacher approached, he made of himself a bridge for him, spread his 
mantle of antelope skin in the mud, laid himself thereon, and said, 
"Let not the Teacher with his company of disciples tread upon the 
mud. Let him rather tread upon me; so let him proceed upon his 
journey." 

When the Teacher beheld Sumedha, he said, "Yonder prince is a 
nascent Buddha; four Incalculables and a hundred thousand cycles 
of time hence [84] he will become a Buddha named Gotama." Thus 
did the Teacher Dipankara prophesy regarding the Brahman prince 
Sumedha. After Dipankara came the following Buddhas : Kondanna, 
Mangala, Sumana, Revata, Sobhita, Anomadassi, Paduma, Narada, 
Padumuttafa, Sumedha, Sujata, Piyadassi, Atthadassi, Dhammadassi> 
Siddhattha, Tissa, Phussa, Vipassi, Sikhi, Vessabhu, Kakusandha, 
Konagamana, and Kassapa. One after another these twenty-four 
Buddhas arose in the world and enlightened the world, and from each 
of them the Brahman prince Sumedha received the prophecy that he 
should one day become a Buddha, Now after Sumedha had fulfilled 
the Ten Perfections and the Ten Minor Perfections and the Ten Major 
Perfections, making in all Thirty Perfections, he was reborn as Ves- 
santara; and in his existence as Vessantara he bestowed mighty alms 
which caused the earth to quake, and in that existence also he re- 
nounced both son and wife. When the term of life allotted to him was 
come to an end, he was reborn in the Heaven of the Tusita gods; and 
when he had remained in this state of existence during the term of 
life allotted to him, the deities of the Ten Thousand Worlds assembled 
together and thus addressed him. 

The time is come, mighty hero; descend into the womb of your mother; 
Rescue the worlds of men and gods; discover the Region of the Deathless. 

Thereupon he made the Five Great Observations, and passing from 
that state of existence, received a new existence in the royal household 
of the Sakiyas. In this royal household he was brought up amid great 
splendor and in the course of time attained auspicious youth. He 
spent his youth in three mansions appropriate to the three seasons of 
the year, enjoying splendor and majesty of sovereignty comparable 



-N. 1.8524] The Chief Disciples 195 

to the splendor of the World of the Gods. In the course of time it 
came to pass that, as he proceeded on three successive days to the 
garden to amuse himself, he beheld the Three Heavenly Messengers; 
namely, a man worn out by old age, a man afflicted with disease, and 
a dead man. [85] On each of the three days he returned to his palace, 
overcome with emotion. 

On the fourth day he beheld a man who had retired from the world 
and adopted the life of a monk. "It were well for me to retire from 
the world and adopt the life of a monk," said he, conceiving a desire 
for the religious life; and with this thought in mind, he proceeded to 
the garden and spent the entire day sitting on the bank of the royal 
pool. While he sat there, the god Vissakamma approached him, dis- 
guised as a barber, and dressed him in rich apparel and adorned him 
with all manner of adornments. There also he received the message 
that a son had been born to him. Prince Rahula; and realizing the 
strength of affection for a son, he reflected, "I must straightway break 
this bond, lest it become too strong for me." In the evening, as he 
entered the city, Kisa Gotami, daughter of his father's sister, pro- 
nounced the following Stanza, 

Happy indeed is that mother, happy indeed is that father, 
Happy indeed is that wife whose husband is such a one as he. 

When he heard Kisa Gotami pronounce this Stanza, he said, "This 
woman has taught me where true happiness is to be found;" and taking 
off a string of pearls, he sent it to her as a present. Having entered 
his own residence, he lay down on the royal couch, and as he lay there 
beheld the disgusting appearance of the nautch-girls asleep. Heart- 
sick he roused his courtier Channa, caused his steed Kanthaka to be 
brought to him, mounted Kanthaka, and taking Channa with him as 
his companion, and surrounded by the deities of the Ten Thousand 
Worlds, he went forth and made the Great Retirement. Proceeding 
to the bank of the river Anoma, he retired from the world and adopted 
the life of a monk. 

Having adopted the life of a monk, he proceeded to Rajagaha and 
went about the city receiving alms. Then he retired to Pandava 
mountain and seated himself in Pandava mountain cave. While he 
was sitting there, the king of Magadha came to him and offered to 
bestow his kingdom upon him, but this offer of the king he straightway 
refused. He promised the king, however, to visit his kingdom so 
soon as he should attain Omniscience. Then he approached Alara 



196 Book 1, Story 8. Dhammapada 11-12 [N. 1.8524- 

and Uddaka; but after following their system of discipline, failed to 
win the Attainment which distinguishes one who has attained Arahat- 
ship. Thereafter, for a period of six years, he engaged in the Great 
Struggle. 

Early in the morning on the day of full moon of the month Visakha 
[86] he ate rice-porridge presented to him by Sujata, caused his golden 
bowl to float on the river Neraiijara, and spent the day in Mahavana 
Grove in the various degrees of Ecstatic Meditation. In the evening he 
listened to the praise of his noble qualities bestowed upon him by Kala, 
King of the Dragons, ascended the Throne of Wisdom, received the 
bundles of grass presented to him by Sotthiya, scattered the grass 
before him, and formed the following resolution, "I will not abandon 
this posture until I have ceased utterly to care for the things of this 
world and my heart has thus rid itself of the Depravities." 

Thereupon he sat down facing the east, and before the sun had set 
overcame the host of Mara. In the first watch he acquired the knowl- 
edge of previous states of existence; in the second watch he acquired 
the knowledge of the vanishing of creatures from one state of existence 
and of their reappearance in another; at the conclusion of the last 
watch he acquired the knowledge of the Causes of Existence, fathoming 
the depths of Omniscience and acquiring the Ten Forces, the Four 
Subjects of Confidence, and all of the Noble Qualities. For seven 
weeks he remained on the Throne of Wisdom; in the eighth week 
he seated himself under the Goatherd's Banyan-tree and meditated 
upon the depths of the Law, finally arriving at misgivings as to his 
ability to preach the Law to others. 

Straightway Sahampati Brahma, accompanied by the retinue of 
the Ten Thousand Worlds with which Maha Brahma is wont to be 
accompanied, approached him and requested him to preach the Law 
to others. Surveying the world with the eye of a Buddha, he acceded 
to Brahma's request. "To whom, pray, shall I first preach the Law.'*" 
thought he. Surveying the world, he became aware of the death of 
Alara and Uddaka. But remembering the devoted services of the 
Five Monks, he arose from his seat [87] and went to Kasipura, meet- 
ing TJpaka by the way and talking with him. 

On the day of full moon of the month Asalha he arrived at Isipatana 
in the Deerpark, at the place of residence of the Five Monks; and when 
the Five Monks addressed him improperly, he instructed them how 
properly to address him. Then he set in motion the Wheel of the Law, 
giving to drink of the Deathless to a hundred and eighty millions of 



-N. 1.8812] TJie Chief Disciples 197 

angels, but above all to the monk Afifia-Kondanna. Having set in 
motion the glorious Wheel of the Law, on the fifth day of the half- 
month he established all those monks in Arahatship. On the same day 
also he perceived that the noble youth Yasa possessed the dispositions 
requisite for Conversion; and when the noble youth Yasa left his 
house in disgust at what he saw during the night, he saw him and 
summoned him and made a monk of him, saying, "Come, Yasa!" 
In that same night also he caused him to attain the Fruit of Conversion, 
and on the following day caused him to attain Arahatship. After- 
wards he made monks of his fifty-four companions, employing the 
formula, "Come, monks!" And having made monks of them, he 
caused them to attain Arahatship. 

There were thus sixty-one Arahats in the world. Having kept 
residence during the season of the rains, and having celebrated the 
terminal festival, he sent out the sixty monks into all the world, saying, 
"Go forth, monks, preaching and teaching." He himself proceeded 
to Uruvela, on the way thither, in Kappasika grove, instructing the 
Thirty Youths known as the Bhaddavaggiyas. Of these the least 
attained the Fruit of Conversion and the greatest attained the Fruit 
of the Third Path. All these youths he received into the Order with 
the single formula, "Come, monks!" And when he had so done, he 
sent them out into all the world. Arriving at Uruvela, he performed 
three thousand five hundred miracles [88] and converted Uruvela- 
Kassapa, Nadi-Kassapa, and Gaya-Kassapa. These were three 
brothers, ascetics who wore matted hair, with a following of a thousand 
disciples. These ascetics he instructed in the Law. And when he had 
so done, he received them into the Order with the single formula, 
"Come, monks!" Seating them at Gayasisa, he established them in 
Arahatship by preaching the Fire Sermon; then, attended by a 
thousand Arahats, he went to Latthivana Garden near the city of 
Rajagaha, intending to redeem the promise he had given to King 
Bimbisara. 

"The Teacher has arrived," went forth the cry. Hearing the 
report, King Bimbisara approached with twelve nahutas of Brahman 
householders, and to him the Buddha preached the Law in a pleasing 
manner, establishing the king and eleven nahutas of Brahmans in the 
Fruit of Conversion and one nahuta of Brahmans in the Refuges. 
On the following day he listened to the praise of his noble qualities 
by Sakka king of the gods disguised as a Brahman youth, and then 
entered the city of Rajagaha. Having eaten his meal in the royal 



198 Book 1, Story 8. Dhammapada 11-12 [N. 1.8812- 

residence, he accepted the gift of Veluvana monastery and took up 
his residence there. And there it was that Sariputta and Moggallana 
came to him. 



8 b. Life of Upatissa (Sariputta) and Kolita (Moggallana) 

Before the Buddha appeared in the world, there were two Brahman 
villages not far from Rajagaha named Upatissa village and Kolita 
village. One day a Brahman's wife named Rupasarl, who lived in 
Upatissa village, conceived a child in her womb ; and on the same day a 
Brahman's wife named Moggali, who lived in Kolita village, likewise 
conceived a child in her womb. We are told that for seven generations 
these two families had been firmly knit and bound together in the 
bonds of friendship ; they performed the Protection of the Embryo for 
the two expectant mothers on the same day. On the expiration of 
ten lunar months, both women gave birth to sons. 

On the day appointed for the naming of the children, they gave the 
name Upatissa to the son of the Brahman woman whose name was 
Sari, because he was the son of the principal family in Upatissa village; 
[89] to the other boy, because he was the son of the principal family in 
Kolita village, they gave the name Kolita. As they grew up, both 
boys attained the highest proficiency in all the arts and sciences. 
Whenever the youth Upatissa went to the river or the garden to disport 
himself, five hundred golden litters accompanied him; five hundred 
chariots drawn by thoroughbreds accompanied the youth Kolita. 
The two youths had retinues of five hundred boys apiece. 

Now there is a festival celebrated every year in Rajagaha which 
goes by the name of Mountain-top festival. A couch for the two 
youths was set up in one place, and the two youths sat together and 
witnessed the passing show. When there was occasion to laugh, they 
laughed; when there was occasion to weep, they wept; when it was 
time to give alms, they gave alms. In this way they witnessed the 
festivities for several days. But one day, when they had grown wiser, 
there was no laugh when they might have laughed, as on preceding 
days, there were no tears when they might have wept, and when their 
alms were sought they gave no alms. 

The following thought, we are told, occurred to the two youths, 
"Why should we look at this? Before a hundred years have passed, 
all these people will have gone hence and will no more be seen. It 
behooves us rather to seek the Way of Release." And taking this 



-N. 1.916] The Chief Disciples 199 

thought to heart, they sat down. Then Kolita said to Upatissa, "Friend 
Upatissa, you do not appear to be pleased and dehghted as on previous 
days. Nay rather, you are afflicted with melancholy. What is in 
your mind?" "Friend Kolita, I sit thinking, 'There is no lasting 
satisfaction in looking upon these folk; [90] this is all unprofitable; 
it behooves me rather to seek the Way of Release for myself.' 'But 
why are you melancholy.'^" Kolita said the same thing. When 
Upatissa discovered that Kolita's thoughts were one with his own, he 
said, "Both of us have had a happy thought. It behooves us both to 
seek the Way of Release and to retire from the world together. Under 
what teacher shall we retire from the world?" 

Now at this time a wandering ascetic named Sanjaya entered the 
city of Rajagaha, accompanied by a large retinue of wandering ascetics. 
"We will retire from the world and become monks under Sanjaya," 
said Upatissa and Kolita. So they dismissed five hundred retainers, 
saying to them, "Take the litters and the chariots and go," and to- 
gether with the remaining five hundred, retired from the world and 
became monks under Sanjaya. From the day when these two youths 
retired from the world and became monks under Sanjaya, Sanjaya 
reached the pinnacle of gain and renown. In but a few days they had 
passed the bounds of Sanjaya's teaching. Therefore they asked him, 
"Teacher, is this all the religious truth you know, or is there something 
more besides?" "This is all there is; you know all." 

Upatissa and Kolita thought to themselves, "If this is the case, it 
is profitless for us to remain pupils of this teacher any longer. The Way 
of Release we retired from the world to seek for, we certainly cannot 
obtain from this teacher. But the Land of the Rose-apple is an exten- 
sive country. Let us journey through villages, market-towns, and 
royal cities. We shall surely find some teacher who will expound to 
us the Way of Release." From that time forth, wherever they heard 
there was a learned monk or Brahman, they went to him and held 
converse with him. The questions Upatissa and Kolita asked, the 
others [91] were not able to answer; but every question the others 
asked, Upatissa and Kolita answered. In this manner they traveled 
all over the Land of the Rose-apple; then they retraced their steps 
and returned to their own homes again. Before they separated, 
Upatissa said to Kolita, "Friend Kolita, whichever of us first attains 
the Deathless is to inform the other." Having made this agreement, 
they separated. 

While they were living under this agreement, the Teacher, after 



200 Book 1, Story 8. Dhammapada 11-12 [N.i.oie- 

traveling from place to place as has been related above, arrived at 
Rajagaha, accepted the gift of Veluvana monastery, and took up his 
residence at Veluvana. Now after the Teacher had sent forth the 
sixty-one Arahats to proclaim the virtues of the Three Jewels, saying, 
"Go forth, monks, preaching and teaching," oneof the Band of Five, the 
Great Elder Assaji, turned back, came to Rajagaha, and on the follow- 
ing day, early in the morning, taking his bowl and his robe, entered 
Rajagaha for alms. On the same day, early in the morning, the 
wandering ascetic Upatissa ate his breakfast, and proceeding to the 
hermitage of the wandering ascetics, saw the Elder. When he saw 
him, he thought to himself, "Never before have I seen a monk like 
this monk. He must be one of those monks who have attained Arahat- 
ship in this world, or who have entered upon the path leading to 
Arahatship. Suppose I were to approach this monk and ask him, 
*For whose sake, brother, have you retired from the world .'^ And who 
is your teacher .^^ And whose doctrine do you profess.'^' " Then this 
thought occurred to him, "It is not the proper time to ask this monk 
questions, for he is going from house to house for alms. Suppose I 
were to follow close in the footsteps of this monk, as those are wont to 
do who seek some favor.''" 

Therefore, observing that the monk had received a portion of alms 
and was on his way to a certain place, and perceiving that he desired 
to sit down, [92] he placed his own monk's stool on the ground and 
offered it to him; and when the monk had finished his meal, offered 
him water from his own water-pot. Having thus performed the 
duties of a pupil to a teacher, he exchanged pleasant greetings with 
the Elder after the meal was over and said to him, "Calm and 
serene, brother, are your organs of sense; clean and clear is the 
hue of your skin. For whose sake, brother, did you retire from the 
world .f* And who is your teacher.'^ And whose doctrine do you 
profess .f*" 

The Elder thought to Jiimself, "These wandering ascetics are 
hostile to the religion I profess; therefore I will show this monk the 
profundity of our religion." But first he explained that he was himself 
a mere novice, saying, "Brother, I am as yet a mere novice; no long 
time have I been a monk; but recently did I approach this Doctrine 
and Discipline; just now I shall not be able to expound the Law at 
length." Thought the wandering ascetic, "I am Upatissa; say much 
or little according to your ability; I will undertake to fathom the 
meaning in a hundred ways or a thousand ways." Therefore he said. 



-N.1.941] The Chief Disciples 201 

Say little or much; tell me the substance only; 

I have need of the substance only; why utter many words? 

In response the Elder pronounced the first Hne of the Stanza, 
Of all things that proceed from a cause, of these the cause the Tathagata hath told. 

So soon as the wandering ascetic heard the first Hne, he was estab- 
lished in the Fruit of Conversion, perfect in a thousand ways. [93] 
So soon as he was established in the Fruit of Conversion, the Elder 
completed the second line, 

And also how these cease to be, this too the mighty monlc hath told. 

But after he had attained the Fruit of Conversion, the Higher 
Excellence failed to appear. Therefore he considered, "There must 
be a reason for this," and said to the Elder, "Do not carry your teach- 
ing of the Law any further; let this suflice. Where does our Teacher 
reside.'^" "At Veluvana, brother." "Well then, Reverend Sir, you 
go on ahead. I have a friend, and he and I made the following agree- 
ment with each other, 'Whichever of us first attains the Deathless is 
to inform the other.' I wish first to redeem this promise. I will bring 
my friend with me and go to the Teacher, following the same path you 
take." So saying, Upatissa prostrated himself before the feet of the 
Elder with the Five Rests, walked thrice around him sunwise, and 
then took leave of him and went to meet the leader of the wandering 
ascetics. 

The wandering ascetic Kolita saw him approaching from afar and 
said to himself, "To-day my friend's face has a hue not as on other 
days; it must be that he has attained the Deathless." Therefore he 
asked him at once whether he had attained the Deathless. Upatissa 
said in reply, "Yes, brother, I have attained the Deathless." So 
saying, he pronounced the same Stanza Assaji had pronounced. At 
the conclusion of the Stanza Kolita was established in the Fruit of 
Conversion. Thereupon Kolita said, "Friend, where does our 
Teacher reside.'^" "At Veluvana, friend. So I was informed by our 
teacher the Elder Assaji." "Well then, friend, let us go; let us see 
the Teacher." 

Now it was a distinguishing trait of the Elder Sariputta that he 
always held a teacher in profound respect. Therefore said he to his 
friend, "Friend, let us inform our teacher, the wandering ascetic 
Sanjaya, that we have attained the Deathless. [94] Thus will his 
mind be awakened, and he will comprehend. But should he fail to 



202 Book 1, Story 8. Dhammapada 11-12 [N.l.94i- 

comprehend, he will at any rate believe what we say to be true; and 
so soon as he has listened to the preaching of the Buddhas, he will 
attain the Path and the Fruit." Accordingly the two wandering 
ascetics went to Sanjaya. WhenSaiijaya saw them, he asked, " Friends, 
did you succeed in finding anyone able to show you the Way to the 
Deathless?" "Yes, teacher, such a one have we found. The Buddha 
has appeared in the world, the Law has appeared, the Order has 
appeared. You, sir, are walking in vain unreality. Come, sir, let us 
go to the Teacher." "You may go; I cannot go." "For what reason.'^" 
"In the past I have gone about as a teacher of the multitude. For me 
to become a pupil again would be as absurd as for a chatty to go to 
the well. I shall not be able to live the life of a pupil." 

"Do not act thus, teacher." "Never mind, friends, you may go, 
but I cannot go." "Teacher, from the moment of the Buddha's 
appearance in the world the populace will take perfumes, garlands, 
and so forth in their hands and will go and do honor to him alone. 
Let us also go there. What do you intend to do.?" "Friends, which 
are more numerous in this world, the stupid or the wise.?^" "Teacher, 
the stupid are many, the wise are few." "Well then, friends, let the 
wise men go to the wise monk Gotama, and let the stupid come to 
stupid me. [95] You may go, but I shall not go." "You will be- 
come a famous man, teacher!" said his two former pupils, and de- 
parted. As they departed, Sanjaya's congregation broke up; at that 
instant the grove was empty. When Sanjaya saw that the grove was 
empty, he vomited hot blood. Five hundred wandering ascetics ac- 
companied the two on their journey a little way. Of these, two hun- 
dred and fifty remained loyal to Sanjaya and turned back; the other 
two hundred and fifty wandering ascetics the two received as their own 
pupils and took with them to Veluvana. 

As the Teacher sat in the midst of the fourfold congregation preach- 
ing the Law, he saw the two wandering ascetics approaching from afar. 
Straightway he addressed the monks, "Monks, here come two friends, 
Kolita and Upatissa. They will become my pair of disciples, my chief 
and noble pair." The two wandering ascetics paid obeisance to the 
Teacher, sat down respectfully on one side, and spoke thus to the 
Teacher, "Reverend Sir, we should like to receive admission to the 
Order at the hands of the Exalted One; we should like to make our 
full profession." Said the Exalted One, "Come, monks! The Law 
has been well taught. Lead the holy life, to the end that all suffering 
may be utterly done away." Instantly they became possessed of 



-N. 1.9625] The Chief Disciples 203 

bowls and robes created by supernatural power, and became as it 
were Elders of a hundred years' residence. 

By the acts of the company of his disciples the Teacher caused the 
preaching of the Law constantly to increase. With the exception of 
the two Chief Disciples all attained Arahatship. The two Chief 
Disciples, however, did not complete the meditations leading to the 
Three Higher Paths. (What was the reason for this.'^ It was because 
of the magnitude of the Perfection of Knowledge of Chief Disciples.) 

Now Venerable Moggallana the Great, [96] residing near the 
village Kallavala in the kingdom of Magadha, fell into sloth and torpor 
on the seventh day after the day of his reception into the Order. 
But aroused by the Teacher, he shook off sloth and torpor, and apply- 
ing himself to the Formula of Meditation on the Elements given him 
by the Tathagata, completed the meditations leading to the Three 
Higher Paths and attained the goal of the Perfection of Knowledge of 
Chief Disciples. 

As for the Elder Sariputta, he spent the fortnight following his 
reception into the Order with the Teacher, residing at Sukarakhata 
Cave near the same city Rajagaha. Having heard an exposition of the 
Vedanapariggaha Suttanta by his own sister's son, the wandering 
monk Dighanakha, he applied his mind to the Sutta, and like a man 
who eats rice boiled for another man, attained the goal of the Perfection 
of Knowledge of Chief Disciples. 

(Surely the Venerable Sariputta is a man of great intelligence. 
Why, then, does he require a longer time than Moggallana the Great 
to attain the goal of the Perfection of Knowledge of Chief Disciples.'* 
Because the preliminaries are so elaborate. We must understand that 
the case is analogous to that of a king, who, when he wishes to set out 
on a journey, is obliged to make great preparations, such as caparison- 
ing riding-elephants. On the other hand a poor man, no matter where 
he may wish to go, immediately goes there without more ado.) 

On the very day when Sariputta and Moggallana were received 
into the Order, as the shadows of evening lengthened, the Teacher 
gathered his disciples together at Veluvana, assigned the place of Chief 
Disciples to the newcomers, and then recited the Patimokkha. The 
monks were offended and said, "The Teacher shows favoritism in 
bestowing this distinction. In bestowing the place of Chief Disciples, 
he ought to give the preference to those who were the first to retire 
from the world; namely, the Band of Five. If he disregard their 
claims, he ought to give the preference to the Elder Yasa and his Fifty- 



204 Book ly Story 8. Dhammapada 11-12 [N.i.97i- 

four Companions. If he disregard their claims, [97] he ought to give 
the preference to the Thirty Youths. If he disregard their claims, he 
ought to give the preference to the Three Brothers, Uruvela-Kassapa, 
Nadl-Kassapa, and Gaya-Kassapa. In rejecting the prior claims of all 
these monks and giving the place of Chief Disciples to those who retired 
from the world last of all, the Teacher shows favoritism." 

The Teacher asked them, "Monks, what is the subject you are 
discussing.''" When they told him, he said, "Monks, I show no 
favoritism in bestowing this distinction. On the contrary I bestow 
on these monks and on all others that for which each has made his 
Earnest Wish. For Anfia-Kondanna gave the first fruits of a certain 
crop nine times, but in so doing did not make an Earnest Wish for 
the place of Chief Disciple. On the contrary, in bestowing his gift, 
he made the Earnest Wish that he might be the first to win the fore- 
most estate of all; namely, Arahatship." "When was that. Reverend 
Sir.^*" "Listen, monks." "Yes, Reverend Sir." Thereupon the 
Exalted One related the following 

8 c. Story of the Past : Kala junior and Kala senior 

Monks, ninety-one cycles of time in the past the Exalted VipassT 
appeared in the world. At that time two brothers, Maha Kala and 
Cula Kala, both of them householders, caused a great field to be planted 
with rice. One day Cula Kala went to the rice-field, hulled a kernel 
of rice, and ate it, and found it unusually sweet. Shortly afterwards 
he desired to make a gift of unripe rice to the Congregation of .Monks 
presided over by the Buddha. So he went to his older brother and 
said to him, "Brother, let us have unripe rice hulled and cooked in 
a manner suitable for the Buddhas, and let us bestow the same in 
alms." "What say you, brother.'* No one has ever yet had unripe 
rice hulled and given in alms, nor is anyone likely to do such a thing 
in the future; don't spoil the crop." 

The younger brother repeated his suggestion several times. [98] 
Finally the older brother said, "Very well, divide the field into two 
parts. Do not touch my portion, but do whatever you like in your own 
portion of the field." "Very well," said Cula Kala. So he divided 
the field into two parts, hired a large number of men for manual labor, 
caused grains of unripe rice to be hulled, had it cooked in rich milk, 
adding ghee, honey, and sugar, and presented the rice thus prepared 
to the Congregation of Monks presided over by the Buddha, saying 



-N. 1.9916] The Chief Disciples 205 

at the conclusion of the meal, "Reverend Sir, by virtue of this my 
gift of first-fruits may I be the first to win the foremost estate of all; 
namely, Arahatship." "So be it," said the Teacher, returning thanks. 
When he went back to the field and looked at it again, he saw that 
the entire field was filled with heads of growing rice, bound together, 
as it were, in sheaves. At this sight he experienced the five kinds of 
joy. Thought he, "I am indeed fortunate." When the rice was in the 
ear, he gave first-fruits of rice in the ear. In association with the 
residents of the village he bestowed the first-fruits of the crop. When 
the rice was reaped, he gave the first-fruits of the reaping; when it was 
in the sheaf, the first-fruits of the sheaves; when it was in the shock, the 
first-fruits of the shocks; when it was in the rick, the first-fruits of 
the ricks; when it was threshed, the first-fruits of the threshing-floor; 
when it was ground, the first-fruits of the flour; when it was measured, 
the first-fruits of the measuring; when it was put away in the store- 
house, the first-fruits of the store. Thus he bestowed the first-fruits 
of a single crop nine times. Whatever he took away was made up, 
and he had a bumper harvest. Goodness keeps him who keeps it. 
Therefore said the Exalted One, [99] 

Righteousness truly keeps him who keeps righteousness; righteous living brings 

happiness. 
Herein is the advantage of living righteously, that he who walks righteously will never 

go to a state of suffering. 

Thus, in the dispensation of the Supremely Enlightened VipassI, 
did Anna-Kondanna bestow the gift of first fruits nine times, making 
the Earnest Wish to be the first to attain the foremost of all estates. 
Likewise in the dispensation of the Buddha Padumuttara, a hundred 
thousand cycles of time in the past, in the city HamsavatI, he gave 
mighty gifts, and falling at the feet of that Exalted Buddha, made the 
Earnest Wish to be the first to attain the foremost of all estates; 
namely, Arahatship. Thus I bestowed on him only that for which he 
made his Earnest Wish. I show no favoritism in bestowing distinction. 

8 d. Story of the Past : Yasa and fifty-four companions 

Reverend Sir, what work of merit did the fifty-five noble youths 
led by Yasa perform .^^ They too made an Earnest Wish for Arahat- 
ship at the feet of a certain Buddha and did many works of merit. 
Subsequently, but before the present Buddha had appeared in the 
world, they became friends, banded themselves together for the 



206 Book 1, Story 8. Dhammapada 11-12 [N.i.ooie- 

performance of works of merit, and devoted themselves to the care of 
the corpses of paupers. One day, seeing the dead body of a pregnant 
woman, they carried the body to the cemetery for the purpose of burn- 
ing it. To Yasa and four of his companions was assigned the duty of 
burning the corpse; the rest returned and entered the village. 

As the youth Yasa burned the body, piercing it with stakes and 
turning it over and over, he grasped the thought of the Impurity of 
the Body. This thought he communicated to his four companions 
also, saying, "Behold, brethren, this body. Here and there the skin 
has burst open; it resembles nothing so much as the skin of a mottled 
cow. It is impure, stinking, [100] repulsive." Straightway his four 
companions also grasped the thought of the Impurity of the Body. In 
their turn these five companions went to the village and informed the 
rest of their friends. As for Yasa, he went home and informed his 
mother and father and wife, and they all developed the thought of 
Impurity. This is the work of merit these youths performed in a previ- 
ous state of existence. And because of this very work of merit, con- 
sciousness of the Impurity of the Body arose within Yasa's mind 
in the women's apartments. And thus, because they had acquired 
the faculties requisite thereto, all of them developed Specific Attain- 
ment. Therefore these youths also obtained precisely that for which 
they made their Earnest Wish. I show no favoritism in bestowing 
distinction. 

8 e. Story of the Past: Thirty noble youths 

But, Reverend Sir, what work of merit did the thirty noble youths 

perform.'^ They also made an Earnest Wish for Arahatship at the 

feet of previous Buddhas and performed works of merit. Subsequently, 
but before the present Buddha appeared in the world, they were reborn 
as thirty evildoers; but hearing the admonition addressed to Tundila, 
they kept the Five Precepts for sixty thousand years. Thus these men 
also obtained only that for which they made their Earnest Wish. I 
show no favoritism in bestowing distinction. 

8 f. Story of the Past: Three brothers Kassapa 

But, Reverend Sir, what work of merit was performed by the three 
brothers Kassapa: Uruvela-Kassapa, Nadl-Kassapa, and Gaya- 

Kassapa.f* They also performed works of merit, making an Earnest 

Wish to attain Arahatship. Ninety-two cycles of time in the past, two 



-N. 1.10125] The Chief Disciples 207 

Buddhas appeared in the world at the same time, Tissa and Phussa; 
Phussa's father was King Mahinda. When Phussa attained Enhghten- 
ment, the king's youngest son became his Chief Disciple, and the son 
of the house-priest became his Second Disciple. The king went to 
the Teacher and said, "My oldest son is the Buddha, my youngest 
son is Chief Disciple, and the son of my house-priest is Second Dis- 
ciple." And looking upon the three, he said, "My very own is the 
Buddha, my very own is the Law, my very own is the Order." And 
thrice he breathed forth the Solemn Utterance, "Praise be unto Him 
that is Highly Exalted, All-Worthy, Supremely Enlightened." Then 
he prostrated himself before the feet of the Teacher and said, [101] 
*' Reverend Sir, now, at the end of a life lasting ninety thousand years, 
it is time, as it were, for me to sit down and close my eyes in slumber. 
So long as I live, go not to the door of others' houses, but receive the 
Four Requisites from me alone." Having thus obtained the Teacher's 
consent, the king thereafter ministered to him regularly. 

Now the king had three other sons besides, the eldest of whom had 
a retinue of five hundred soldiers, the middlemost three, and the young- 
est two. One day they sought permission of their father to entertain 
their brother, the Buddha Phussa, but failed to obtain it. This hap- 
pened many times. Shortly afterwards an insurrection broke out on 
the frontier, and they weresent to suppress it. Succeeding in restoring 
order on the frontier, they returned to their father. Their father 
embraced them, kissed their heads, and said to them, "Dear sons, I 
grant you whatever you desire." "Very well, your majesty," said 
they, accepting his offer. When, after a few days, their father again 
said, "Dear sons, I grant you whatever you desire," they replied, 
"Your majesty, we desire naught else but only this, that henceforth 
we may entertain our brother; grant us this boon." "I will not grant 
you this boon, dear sons." "If you are unwilling to grant us this 
privilege permanently, then grant it to us for seven years." "That 
will I not, dear sons." "Well then, grant us the privilege for six 
years, or five, or four, or three, or two years, or for one year; or for 
seven months, or six, or five, or four, or three, or two months, or for 
one month." "That will I not, dear sons." "Well then, your majesty, 
make it one month for each of us; grant us this privilege for three 
months in all." "Very well, dear sons; then entertain your brother 
for three months." 

Now all three brothers had a single treasurer and a single steward, 
the latter of whom had a retinue of twelve nahutas of serving-men. 



208 Book 1, Story 8. Dhammapada 11-12 [N.i.i02i- 

The three brothers summoned the treasurer and the steward [102] 
and said to them, "During the coming three months we shall take 
upon ourselves the Ten Precepts, put on yellow robes, and reside with 
the Teacher. In our absence it will be your duty to administer the 
alms; every day you are to provide all the food, both hard and soft, 
for ninety thousand monks and a thousand soldiers. From henceforth 
we shall have nothing at all to say." So the three brothers took their 
retinue of a thousand men,' took upon themselves the Ten Precepts, 
put on yellow robes, and began residence in the monastery. 

The treasurer and the steward joined forces and performed the 
duty of almsgiving by turns, taking provisions from the storehouses 
of the three brothers and bestowing them in alms. But when the 
children of the serving-men cried for rice-porridge and other kinds of 
food, the treasurer and the steward would give them what they cried 
for, even before the Congregation of Monks arrived. The result was 
that the Congregation of Monks received only what was left over at 
the end of a meal, and not a fresh supply of food at all. Finally the 
treasurer and the steward became so greedy that they would take 
food, and pretending that they were going to give it to the children, 
eat it themselves. The mere sight of the pleasing food they were 
unable to resist. They and their associates numbered eighty-four 
thousand men. Because they ate food which it was their duty to give 
to the Congregation of Monks, when they died and their bodies were 
dissolved, they were reborn in the World of Ghosts. 

When the three brothers and their thousand men died, they were 
reborn in the World of the Gods and. spent ninety-two cycles of time 
in passing from one celestial world to another. Thus did those three 
brothers perform works of merit at that time, making the Earnest 
Wish to attain Arahatship. What they received was only that for 
which they made their Earnest Wish. I show no favoritism in giving 
what I give. (Now at that time [103] their steward was Bimbisara, 
their treasurer was the lay disciple Visakha, and the three royal princes 
were the three ascetics of the matted locks.) 

Their serving-men, reborn at that time among the ghosts, after 
passing from one state of existence to another, both good and evil, 
were reborn in this present world-cycle in the World of the Ghosts for 
the space of four Buddha-intervals. In this present world-cycle they 
approached first of all the Exalted Kakusandha, whose term of life 
was forty thousand years, and asked him, "Tell us when we shall 
obtain something to eat." He replied, "You will receive nothing to 



-N. 1.10415] The Chief Disciples 209 

eat in my time; but after me the great earth will be elevated a league, 
and the Buddha Konagamana will appear; you had best ask him." 
They waited all that time, and when the Buddha Konagamana 
appeared, asked him. He replied, "You will receive nothing to eat 
in my time; but after me the great earth will be elevated a league, and 
the Buddha Kassapa will appear; you had best ask him." TheywsCited 
all that time, and when the Buddha Kassapa appeared, asked him. 
He replied, "You will receive nothing to eat in my time; but after me 
the great earth will be elevated a league, and the Buddha Gotama will 
appear. At that time your kinsman Bimbisara will be king; he will 
give alms to the Teacher and will make over to you the merit acquired 
by that act; at that time you will receive something to eat." 

The length of the period intervening between two Buddhas was to 
them as the morrow. When the Tathagata appeared in the world and 
King Bimbisara gave alms on the first day and they failed to receive 
the fruit thereof, they waited until it was night, and then made a 
fearful noise and showed themselves to the king. When the king went 
to Veluvana on the following day, [104] he related the incident to the 
Tathagata. Said the Teacher, "Great king, ninety-two cycles of time 
in the past, in the dispensation of the Buddha Phussa, these ghosts 
were kinsmen of yours. They ate food which it was their duty to give 
to the Congregation of Monks, and because of this were reborn in the 
World of Ghosts. Passing through the round of existences, they 
asked the Buddhas Kakusandha, Konagamana, and Kassapa when 
they should obtain food, and the Buddhas told them this and that. 
All this time they desired greatly to receive your alms; and the reason 
why they acted as they did last night was that, when you gave alms, 
they failed to receive the fruit thereof." "But, Reverend Sir, in case 
I were to give alms now, would they receive the fruit thereof.'^ " "Yes, 
great king." 

On the following day the king invited the Congregation of Monks 
presided over by the Buddha, bestowed abundant offerings, and said, 
"Reverend Sir, henceforth may celestial food and drink be the portion 
of these ghosts." And when he had thus transferred to the ghosts the 
merit of his offering, they received celestial food and drink. On the 
following day the ghosts made their appearance naked. Said the king 
to the Buddha, "To-day, Reverend Sir, these ghosts made their 
appearance naked," and asked him what he should do. Said the 
Teacher, "Great king, you did not give them clothes." So on the 
following day the king presented robes to the Congregation of Monks 



210 Book 1, Story 8. Dhammapada 11-12 [N.i.i04i5- 

presided over by the Buddha, saying, "Henceforth may they possess 
celestial raiment." And when he had thus made over to them the 
merit of his offering, instantly they became possessed of celestial rai- 
ment, whereupon they put off their ghostly forms and took on the 
forms of celestial beings. When the Teacher returned thanks, he 
said, "Without the walls they stand," reciting the extra-mural formula. 
At the conclusion of his words of thanksgiving eighty-four thousand 
living beings obtained Comprehension of the Law. Thus did the 
Teacher expound the Law, relating the story of the three brothers of 
the matted locks. 

8 g. Story of the Past: Sarada and Sirivaddha 

But, Reverend Sir, what work of merit did the Chief Disciples 

perform.'^ They made their Earnest Wish to attain the station of 

Chief Disciples. For an Incalculable of cycles of time and a hundred 
thousand cycles of time additional in the past, Sariputta was reborn 
in the family of a Brahman of great wealth, and his name was Prince 
Sarada. Moggallana [105] was reborn in the family of a householder 
of great wealth, and his name was Householder Sirivaddha. The 
two youths were friends from the time when they played in the dirt 
together. 

Prince Sarada came into a large family-inheritance on the death of 
his father. One day, when he was alone by himself, he thought, "I 
have certain knowledge of the life of this world only; I know nothing 
of the life of the world beyond. All they that are born are certain to 
die. I ought to retire from the world, enter some Order, and seek 
the Way of Release." Therefore he approached his friend and said, 
"Friend Sirivaddha, it is my intention to retire from the world and 
seek the Way of Release. Can you, or can you not, retire from the 
world with me?" "Friend, I cannot retire from the world; you alone 
retire from the world." Prince Sarada thought to himself, "No one 
ever yet went to the world beyond with companions or kinsmen or 
friends. What one does, he must do by himself." 

Accordingly he threw open the doors of his treasure-house and 
bestowed abundant alms on paupers and travelers and beggars. Hav- 
ing so done, he retired to the foot of a certain mountain and adopted 
the life of an anchorite. First one, then two, then three, then many 
others followed his example in adopting the monastic life. Finally 
there were seventy-four thousand ascetics with matted locks. Sarada 



-N.i. 10626] The Chief Disciples 211 

acquired the Five Supernatural Faculties and the Eight Higher Attain- 
ments, and taught those ascetics of the matted locks the processes 
necessary to the practice of Ecstatic Meditation. All of them acquired 
the Five Supernatural Faculties and the Eight Higher Attainments. 

At this time the Buddha Anomadassi appeared in the world. His 
city was Candavatl. His father was Yasavanta, of the Warrior 
caste, and his mother was Lady Yasodhara. His Bo-tree was the 
ajjuna-tree. Nisabha and Anoma were his Chief Disciples, Varuna 
was his supporter, and Sundara and Sumana were his principal female 
lay disciples. His term of life was a hundred thousand years, his 
stature [106] was fifty-eight cubits, and the radiance from his body 
flashed twelve leagues. He had a retinue of a hundred thousand monks. 
One day at dawn, arising from a Trance of Great Compassion, he 
surveyed the world and beheld the ascetic Sarada. Thereupon he 
became aware of the following, "To-day, through my approaching 
the ascetic Sarada, there will be mighty preaching of the Law. Sarada 
will make his Wish for the place of Chief Disciple, and his friend. 
Householder Sirivaddha, will make his Wish for the place of Second 
Disciple. At the conclusion of the discourse the seventy-four thousand 
ascetics with matted locks who compose his retinue will attain Arahat- 
ship. Therefore it behooves me to go there." Accordingly, taking his 
own bowl and robe, saying not a word to anyone else, proceeding in 
solitude like a lion, he commanded, "Let Sarada know that I am the 
Buddha." And while the ascetic Sarada's pupils were absent seeking 
various kinds of fruits, he descended from the sky and alighted on the 
earth before Sarada's very eyes. 

When the ascetic Sarada beheld the supernatural power of the 
Buddha and the perfection of form of the Buddha, he pondered in his 
mind the memorial verses relating to the characteristics of a great man. 
And he said to himself, "One endowed with these marks, if he hves 
the house-life, is a King, a Universal Monarch. Living the life of 
retirement, he is one who has rolled back the veil of passion, an Om- 
niscient Buddha. This man is without doubt a Buddha." Therefore 
he advanced to meet him, paid obeisance to him with the Five Rests, 
prepared a seat and offered it to him. The Exalted One seated 
himself in the seat prepared for him, and the ascetic Sarada, selecting 
a seat appropriate to himself, sat down respectfully on one side. 

At that moment the seventy-four thousand ascetics of the matted 
locks, who had been absent gathering various kinds of sweet and juicy 
fruits, returned to their teacher. Seeing the Buddha seated and their 



212 Book 1, Story 8. Dhammapada 11-12 [N.i.iOTi- 

own teacher seated near him, they said, [107] "Teacher, we used to 
go about this world thinking to ourselves, 'There is no one greater 
than you.' But as for this man, we are certain that he is greater than 
you." "Friends, what say you.'* Do you mean to compare a grain 
of mustard seed to Mount Sineru, sixty-eight thousand leagues high? 
Little sons, do not compare me to an Omniscient Buddha." Then 
those ascetics thought to themselves, "Were this an insignificant man, 
our teacher would not use such a comparison as this. How great indeed 
must this man be!" And forthwith they fell before his feet and 
prostrated themselves before him. 

Then their teacher said to them, "Friends, we have here no offering 
suitable to present to the Buddhas, and the Teacher has come here at 
a time when we usually go the rounds for alms; let us give him gifts 
according to our ability. Fetch hither all manner of fruits that are 
choicest." And having thus caused them to fetch fruits, he washed his 
hands and himself placed the fruits in the bowl of the Tathagata. 
The moment the Teacher touched the fruits which were brought, the 
deities imparted a celestial flavor to them. The ascetic Sarada also 
himself filtered water and presented it to the Teacher. After the meal 
was over, while the Teacher still remained seated, Sarada summoned 
all of his pupils, and sitting down, discoursed pleasantly with the 
Teacher. 

Thought the Teacher to himself, "Let the two Chief Disciples 
approach, together with the Congregation of Monks." Straightway 
those two ascetics with their retinue of a hundred thousand Arahats 
approached, paid obeisance to the Teacher, and sat down respectfully 
on one side. Then the ascetic Sarada [108] addressed his pupils as 
follows, "Friends, the seat wherein sit the Buddhas is low, and there 
is no seat for the hundred thousand monks. To-day you should render 
high honor to the Buddha, Fetch from the foot of the mountain flowers 
possessing bright colors and sweet perfumes." 

There is a saying, "Time occupied in talk is wasted; inconceivable 
is the range of magical power possessed by one endowed with super- 
natural power;" and so it was in this case. In but an instant those 
ascetics brought back flowers possessing bright colors and sweet per- 
fumes and arranged a cushion of flowers a league long for the Buddhas. 
Then they arranged a cushion of flowers three gavutas long for the 
two Chief Disciples. The cushions for the rest of the monks were half 
a league long or less; those for the novices were an usabha long. It 
is not permissible to ask the question, "How could seats of such great 



-N.i. 10919] The Chief Disciples 213 

size be arranged in this hermitage?" This was made possible by the 
power of magic. When the seats had thus been made ready, the 
ascetic Sarada took his stand before the Tathagata,iand raising his 
clasped hands in an attitude of reverent salutation, said, "Reverend 
Sir, ascend this bed of flowers to my everlasting welfare and salvatio,n." 
Therefore it is said. 

He gathered together various flowers and perfumes. 
Prepared a bed of flowers, and spoke these words, 

"Here, mighty hero, have I prepared a seat suitable for you. 
Sit down on this bed of flowers, and render my heart tranquil. 

"For seven nights and days the Buddha sat upon my bed of flowers. 
Rendering my heart tranquil, gladdening the world of men and the Worlds of the 
Gods." 

While the Teacher sat thus, the two Chief Disciples with the rest of 
the monks [109] sat each in the seat which had been prepared for 
him. The ascetic Sarada, taking a great flower-parasol, held it over the 
head of the Tathagata. Said the Teacher, "May this honor rendered 
to me by the ascetics of the matted locks yield rich fruit." And 
straightway he entered into a state of trance, attaining the Attainment 
of Cessation. Observing that the Teacher had attained the Attain- 
ment of Cessation, the two Chief Disciples likewise entered into a state 
of trance and attained the Attainment of Cessation. For seven days 
the Teacher sat there, enjoying the bliss of the Attainment of Cessation. 
When it was time to seek food, Sarada's pupils went into the forest 
and ate wild fruits and other varieties of fruits. The rest of the time 
they stood holding out their hands in an attitude of reverent salutation 
before the Buddhas. The ascetic Sarada, however, went not to seek 
food, but for seven days continuously held the flower-parasol over the 
Buddha, experiencing thereby intense joy and pleasure. 

When the Teacher arose from trance, he said to his Chief Disciple 
the Elder Nisabha, who sat on his right hand, "Nisabha, return thanks 
to the ascetics who have honored us with flowers and seats." There- 
upon the Elder, like a mighty warrior who has just received high 
distinction at the hands of a Universal Monarch, his heart filled with 
joy, manifesting the Perfection of Knowledge capable of attainment 
by a disciple, began the address of thanksgiving for the flowers and 
seats. At the end of the discourse the Buddha addressed the Second 
Disciple as follows, "Do you also preach the Law to the monks." 
Thereupon the Elder Anoma, pondering the Tipitaka, the Word of 



214 Book 1, Story 8. Dhammapada 11-12 [N. 1.10920- 

the Buddhas, preached the Law. But although the two Chief Disciples 
preached the Law, not a single monk present attained Comprehension 
of the Law. Then the Teacher, manifesting the infinite power of a 
Buddha, began to preach the Law, with the result that at the con- 
clusion of his discourse all seventy-four thousand ascetics of the matted 
locks attained Arahatship, with the sole exception of the ascetic Sarada. 
Then the Teacher stretched forth his hand and said to them, " Come, 
monks!" Instantly their hair and beard disappeared, and the Eight 
Requisites were attached to their persons. 

Do you ask, "Why did not the ascetic Sarada attain Arahatship.'^" 
It was because his mind was distracted. We are told that when he 
seated himself in the seat of the Second Disciple of the Buddhas, [110] 
and the Chief Disciple, manifesting the Perfection of Knowledge of a 
disciple, preached the Law, at the very moment when he began to 
listen to the preaching of the Law by the Chief Disciple, the following 
thought arose in his mind, "Oh that at some time in the future, in the 
dispensation of a Buddha who shall arise hereafter, I might receive 
the burden which this disciple has received! Because of this thought, 
we are told, he was unable to attain the Path and the Fruit. 

Sarada, however, paid obeisance to the Tathagata, and standing 
face to face with him, said, "Reverend Sir, what is the title in your 
Religion borne by the monk who sits in the seat next to you?" "He 
it is that follows me in setting in motion the Wheel of the Law which 
I have set in motion; he it is that has reached the pinnacle of the 
Perfection of Knowledge capable of attainment by a disciple; he it 
is that has grasped the Sixteen Forms of Knowledge; he it is that is 
therefore called in my Religion Chief Disciple," "Reverend Sir, here 
for seven days have I stood holding the flower-parasol over you, thereby 
rendering honor to you. As the fruit of this work of merit, I do not 
wish for a second existence as Sakka or Brahma. But at some time in 
the future may I become the Chief Disciple of a certain Buddha, even 
as is this present Elder Nisabha." 

When Sarada had made this Earnest Wish, the Teacher considered 
within himself, " Will the Wish of this man be fulfilled.?" Therefore he 
sent forth his perception into the future, and surveying the ages of the 
future, he passed before his mind a period of incalculable length and 
a hundred thousand cycles of time in addition; whereupon he saw that 
his Wish would be fulfilled. So when the Teacher saw that his Wish 
would be fulfilled, he said to the ascetic Sarada, "This Earnest Wish 
of yours will not be in vain. For at the end of a period of incalculable 



-N. 1.1 124] The Chief Disciples 215 

length and a hundred thousand cycles of time in addition, Gotama 
Buddha will appear in the world. His mother will be Lady Maha 
Maya, his father will be King Suddhodana, his son will be Rahula, 
his servitor will be Ananda, and his Second Disciple will be Moggallana. 
And you will be his Chief Disciple, the Captain of the Faith, and your 
name will be Sariputta." [Ill] 

When the Teacher had thus predicted the future of the ascetic, he 
preached the Law, and then, surrounded by his company of monks, 
flew up into the air and departed. The ascetic Sarada sought out the 
pupils and elders and sent the following message to his friend. House- 
holder Sirivaddha, "Reverend Sirs, say to my friend, 'Your friend the 
ascetic Sarada fell down before the feet of the Buddha AnomadassI 
and made his Earnest Wish for the place of Chief Disciple under the 
dispensation of the Buddha Gotama, who shall hereafter arise in the 
world. Do you make your Earnest Wish for the place of Second 
Disciple.' " And when he had thus spoken, he preceded the Elders 
by a different route and went and stood at the door of Sirivaddha's 
residence. 

When Sirivaddha saw him he said, "At last, after a long absence, 
my noble friend has returned." And straightway he seated his friend 
in a seat, and having seated himself in a lower seat, asked him, "But, 
Reverend Sir, have you no pupils and attendants?" "Yes, my friend, 
the Buddha AnomadassI came to our hermitage, and we did him honor 
to the extent of our power. The Teacher preached the Law to all, 
and at the conclusion of his discourse all the members of our commu- 
nity excepting me attained Arahatship and entered the Order. When 
I saw the Chief Disciple of the Teacher, the Elder Nisabha, I made my 
Earnest Wish for the place of Chief Disciple under the dispensation 
of the Buddha Gotama, who shall hereafter arise in the world. Do 
you also make your Earnest Wish for the place of Second Disciple under 
his dispensation." "But, Reverend Sir, I am not on terms of familiar 
acquaintance with the Buddhas." " I will assume the burden of talking 
with the Buddhas; you prepare a Great Resolve." 

When Sirivaddha heard his words, he adorned a space eight karlsas 
in extent before the door of his residence with the respect due to a 
king, sprinkled sand, [112] scattered flowers of five kinds, including 
laja flowers, caused a pavilion to be erected with a thatch of blue 
lotuses, caused the Seat of the Buddha to be made ready, and seats 
for the monks also to be prepared. And having caused abundant 
offerings and gifts to be prepared, he directed the ascetic Sarada to 



216 Book 1, Story 8. Dhammapada 11-12 [N. 1.1124- 

invite the Buddhas. So the ascetic Sarada took the Congregation of 
Monks presided over by the Buddha and went with them to Sarada's 
residence. Sarada advanced to meet them, took the bowl from the 
hand of the Tathagata, conducted them into the pavilion, seated the 
Congregation of Monks on the seats prepared for them, offered them 
Water of Donation, and provided them with the choicest food. 

At the conclusion of the meal, having clothed the Congregation of 
Monks with robes of great price, he said to the Teacher, "Reverend 
Sir, it was for the purpose of gaining no mean place that this entertain- 
ment was undertaken. Show your gracious compassion by remaining 
here in this manner for a period of seven days." The Teacher con- 
descended to remain. For seven days Sirivaddha bestowed abundant 
offerings in this manner. At the end of his almsgiving he paid obeisance 
to the Teacher, and standing before him with hands clasped in an 
attitude of reverent salutation, said, "Reverend Sir, my friend the 
ascetic Sarada made his Earnest Wish to become Chief Disciple of a 
certain Teacher. May I also become the Second Disciple of that 
same Teacher." 

The Teacher looked into the future, and beholding the fulfillment 
of his Earnest Wish, made the following prophecy, "At the end of a 
period of incalculable length and a hundred thousand cycles of time 
in addition, you will become the Second Disciple of Gotama Buddha." 
Hearing this prophecy of the Buddhas, Sirivaddha was filled with joy 
and satisfaction. The Teacher returned thanks for the offering of 
food, and then, surrounded by the company of monks, returned to the 
monastery. This, monks, was the Earnest Wish made by my sons at 
that time. They have received precisely that for which they made their 
Earnest Wish. When I give, I give without respect of persons. End 
of Stories of the Past. [113] 

When the Teacher had thus spoken, the two Chief Disciples paid 
obeisance to the Exalted One and said, "Reverend Sir, when we were 
yet householders, we went to see the festivities of Mountain-top;" 
and then told the entire story of the events which had recently taken 
place, to their attainment of the Fruit of Conversion at the hands 
of the Elder Assaji. Then they said, "Reverend Sir, we went to our 
teacher, desiring to lead him to your feet, and pointed out to him the 
shallowness of his own views, and dwelt upon the advantages of his 
coming here. But he said to us, 'For me to try to live the life of a 
pupil now would be as absurd as for a chatty to go to the well. 
I shall not be able to live the life of a pupil.' We replied, 'Teacher, 



-N. 1.1155] The Chief Disciples 217 

the populace will now take perfumes, garlands, and so forth in their 
hands, and will go to do honor to the Teacher alone. What do you 
intend to do.''' Said he, 'Which are the more numerou^s in this world, 
the stupid or the wise.''' We replied, 'Teacher, the stupid are many; 
the wise are few.' 'Well then,' said he, 'let the wise men go to the wise 
monk Gotama, and let the stupid come to stupid me. As for you, go 
where you like.' With these words. Reverend Sir, did he refuse to 
come hither." 

When the Teacher heard this, he said, "Monks, by reason of the 
false views which he holds, Sanjaya has mistaken falsehood for truth 
and truth for falsehood. But you, by reason of your own wisdom, 
have rightly discerned that which is true in its truth and that which 
is false in its falsity, and you have done wisely to reject that which is 
false and accept that which is true." So saying, he pronounced the 
following Stanzas, 

11. They who think to find the truth in falsehood, they who discern but falsehood in 

the truth, 
They never attain the goal of truth, but abide in the pasture-ground of error. [1 14] 

12. They who have rightly discerned the true in its truth and the false in its falsity. 
They attain the goal of truth and abide in the pasture-ground of right thinking. 



1.9. NANDA THE ELDERS 

Even as rain breaks through an ill-thatched house. This religious 
instruction was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at 
Jetavana with reference to Venerable Nanda. [115] 

9 a. Nanda becomes a monk in spite of himself 

For after the Teacher had set in motion the glorious Wheel of the 
Law, he retired to Rajagaha and took up his residence at Veluvana. 
Thereupon his father, the great king Suddhodana, sent ten ambassa- 
dors to him, one after the other, each with a retinue of a thousand 
men, saying to them, "Fetch my son hither and show him to me 

^ 9 a follows Niddnakathd, Jdtaka, i. 85^^92^*, frequently word for word. 9 b is 
almost word for word the same as Uddna, iii. 2: 21^*"-24''. Parallel to 9 b is Jdtaka 
182: ii. 92-94. 9 c is entirely different from the Story of the Past in Jdtaka 182. Cf. 
also Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, pp. 203-212; Chavannes, Cinq cents Contes et 
Apologues, 409: iii. 87-94; Thera-Gdthd Commentary, cxxxix; Anguttara Comm£ntary 
on Etadagga Vagga, Story of Nanda; and Wintemitz, History of Buddhist Literature, 
p. 207. 



218 Book 1, Story 9. Dhammapada 13-14- [N.i.iiss- 

before my face." After nine ambassadors had gone thither, attained 
Arahatship, and failed to return. Elder Kala Udayi went thither 
and attained Arahatship. And knowing that it was the proper time 
for the Teacher to go, he described the beauties of the journey and 
conducted the Teacher with his retinue of twenty thousand Arahats 
to Kapilapura. And there, in the company of his kinsfolk, the Teacher, 
taking a shower of rain for his text, related the Vessantara Jataka.^ 
On the following day he entered the city for alms. By the recitation 
of the Stanza, "A man should exert himself and should not live the 
life of Heedlessness,"^ he established his father in the Fruit of Con- 
version; and by the recitation of the Stanza, "A man should live 
righteously,"^ he established Maha Pajapati in the Fruit of Conver- 
sion and his father in the Fruit of the Second Path. And at the end 
of the meal, with reference to the praise bestowed on him by the Mother 
of Rahula, he related the Cauda Kinnara Jataka.^ 

On the following day, while the ceremonies of Prince Nanda's 
sprinkling, house-warming, and marriage were in progress, the Teacher 
entered the house for alms, placed his bowl in Prince Nanda's hands, 
and wished him good luck. Then, rising from his seat, he departed 
without taking his bowl from the hands of the Prince. Out of rever- 
ence for the Tathagata, Prince Nanda did not dare say, "Reverend 
Sir, receive your bowl," but thought within himself, "He will take 
his bowl at the head of the stairs." But even when the Teacher 
reached the head of the stairs, he did not take his bowl. Thought 
Nanda, "He will take his bowl at the foot of the stairs." But the 
Teacher did not take his bowl even there. [116] Thought Nanda, 
"He will take his bowl in the palace court." But the Teacher did not 
take his bowl even there. Prince Nanda desired greatly to return to 
his bride, and followed the Teacher much against his own will. But 
so great was his reverence for the Teacher that he did not dare say, 
"Receive your bowl," but continued to follow the Teacher, thinking 
to himself, "He will take his bowl here! he will take his bowl there! 
he will take his bowl there!" 

At that moment they brought word to his bride Belle-of-the- 
Country, Janapada-Kalyani, "My lady, the Exalted One has taken 
Prince Nanda away with him; it is his purpose to deprive you of him." 
Thereupon Janapada-Kalyani, with tears streaming down her face 
and hair half-combed, ran after Prince Nanda as fast as she could 

^ Jdtaka 547: vi. 479-593. Cf. Story xiii. 2. * Dhammapada, 1G8. 

' Dhammapada, 169. * Jataka 485: iv. 282-288. 



-N. 1.11714] Nanda the Elder 219 

and said to him, "Noble sir, please return immediately." Her words 
caused a quaver in Nanda's heart; but the Teacher, without so much 
as taking his bowl, led him to the monastery and said to him, "Nanda, 
would you like to become a monk?" So great was Prince Nanda's 
reverence for the Buddha that he refrained from saying, "I do not 
wish to become a monk," and said instead, "Yes, I should like to 
become a monk." Said the Teacher, "Well then, make a monk of 
Nanda." Thus it happened that on the third day after the Teacher's 
arrival at Kapilapura he caused Nanda to be made a monk. 

On the seventh day the Mother of Rahula adorned Prince Rahula 
and sent him to the Exalted One, saying, "Dear son, go look upon this 
monk, possessed of a retinue of twenty thousand monks, possessed of 
a body of the hue of gold, possessed of the beauty of form of Maha 
Brahma. This monk is your father. To him once belonged great stores 
of treasure. From the time of his Great Retirement we have not seen 
him. Ask him for this your inheritance, saying, 'Dear father, I am a 
royal prince, and so soon as I shall receive the ceremonial sprinkling, 
I shall become a Universal Monarch. I have need of wealth; bestow 
wealth upon me; for to a son belongs the wealth which formerly 
belonged to his father.' " 

Accordingly Prince Rahula went to the Exalted One. The moment 
he saw him he conceived a warm affection for his father, and his heart 
rejoiced within him. And he said, "Monk, pleasant is your shadow," 
[117] and said much else befitting his own station. When the Exalted 
One had finished his meal, he pronounced the words of thanksgiving, 
arose from his seat, and departed. Prince Rahula followed in the foot- 
steps of the Exalted One, saying, "Monk, give me my inheritance; 
monk, give me my inheritance." The Exalted One did not repel the 
Prince; even the attendants were unable to prevent the Prince from 
accompanying the Exalted One. In this manner the Prince accom- 
panied the Exalted One to the Grove. Then the thought occurred 
to the Exalted One, "The paternal inheritance which this youth seeks 
inevitably brings destruction in its train. Behold, I will bestow upon 
him the Sevenfold Noble Inheritance which I received at the foot of the 
Bo-tree; I will make him master of an inheritance which transcends 
the world." 

Therefore the Exalted One addressed Venerable Sariputta, "Well 
then, Sariputta, make a monk of Prince Rahula." When, however. 
Prince Rahula had been received into the Order, the king his grand- 
father was afflicted with great sorrow. Unable to endure his sorrow. 



220 Book 1, Story 9. Dhammapada IS-IJ/, [N.i.iiTia- 

he made known his sorrow to the Exalted One and made the following 
request of him, "It were well, Reverend Sir, did the noble monks not 
receive into the Order any youth without the permission of his mother 
and father." The Exalted One granted him this request. Again one 
day, as the Exalted One sat in the royal palace after breakfast, the 
king, sitting respectfully at one side, said to the Exalted One, "Rever- 
end Sir, while you were practicing your austerities, a certain deity 
approached me and said to me, 'Your son is dead.' But I refused to 
believe him and replied, ' My son will not die until he attains Enlighten- 
ment.' " Said the Exalted One, "Now will you believe.?^ In a previous 
existence also, when a deity showed you bones and said to you, 'Your 
son is dead,' you refused to believe." And with reference to this 
incident he related the Maha Dhammapala Jataka.^ At the con- 
clusion of the story the kjng was established in the Fruit of the Third 
Path. 

9 b. Nanda and the celestial nymphs 

When the Exalted One had thus established his father in the Three 
Fruits, [118] he returned once more to Rajagaha, accompanied by the 
Congregation of Monks. Now he had promised Anathapindika to 
visit Savatthi, so soon as the great monastery of Jetavana should be 
completed, and receiving word shortly afterwards that the monastery 
had been completed, he went to Jetavana and took up his residence 
there. While the Teacher was thus residing at Jetavana, Venerable 
Nanda, becoming discontented, told his troubles to the monks, saying, 
"Brethren, I am dissatisfied. I am now living the Religious Life, but 
I cannot endure to live the Religious Life any longer. I intend to 
abandon the higher precepts and to return to the lower life, the life of 
a layman." 

The Exalted One, hearing of this incident, sent for Venerable Nanda 
and said this to him, "Nanda, is the report true that you spoke as 
follows to a large company of monks, 'Brethren, I am dissatisfied; I am 
now living the Religious Life, but I cannot endure to live the Religious 
Life any longer; I intend to abandon the higher precepts and to return 
to the lower life, the life of a layman'. f*" "It is quite true. Reverend 
Sir." "But, Nanda, why are you dissatisfied with the Religious Life 
you are now living? Why cannot you endure to live the Religious Life 
any longer? Why do you intend to abandon the higher precepts and 

^ Jdtaka 447: iv. 50-55. 



-N. 1.11920] Nanda the Elder 221 

to return to the lower life, the life of a layman?" "Reverend Sir, 
when I left my house, my noble wife Janapada-Kalyani, with hair 
half -combed, took leave of me, saying, 'Noble sir, please return 
immediately.' Reverend Sir, it is because I keep remembering her 
that I am dissatisfied with the religious life I am now living; that I 
cannot endure to live the religious life any longer; that I intend to 
abandon the higher precepts and to return to the lower life, the life of 
a layman." 

Then the Exalted One took Venerable Nanda by the arm, and by 
the power of his magic conducted him to the World of the Thirty-three. 
On the way the Exalted One pointed out to Venerable Nanda in a 
certain burnt field, seated on a burnt stump, a greedy monkey which 
had lost her ears and nose and tail in a fire. When they reached the 
World of the Thirty-three, he pointed out five hundred pink-footed 
celestial nymphs who came to wait upon Sakka, king of the gods. 
[119] And when the Exalted One had shown Venerable Nanda these 
two sights, he asked him this question, "Nanda, which do you regard 
as being the more beautiful and fair to look upon and handsome, 
your noble wife Janapada-Kalyani or these five hundred pink-footed 
celestial nymphs.'*" 

"Reverend Sir," replied Nanda, "as far inferior as this greedy 
monkey which has lost her ears and nose and tail is to Janapada- 
Kalyani, even so far inferior, Reverend Sir, is my noble wife Janapada- 
Kalyani to these five hundred pink-footed celestial nymphs. In com- 
parison with these nymphs my noble wife does not come into the 
count; she does not come within a fraction of them, she does not come 
within a fraction of a fraction of them; on the contrary, these five 
hundred pink-footed celestial nymphs are infinitely more beautiful and 
fair to look upon and handsome." 

"Cheer up, Nanda!" replied the Exalted One. "I guarantee that 
you will win these five hundred pink-footed celestial nymphs." Said 
Venerable Nanda, "If, Reverend Sir, the Exalted One guarantees that 
I shall win these five hundred pink-footed celestial nymphs, in that 
case. Reverend Sir, I shall take the greatest pleasure in living the 
exalted life of a religious." Then the Exalted One, taking Venerable 
Nanda with him, disappeared from the World of the Thirty-three and 
reappeared at Jetavana. Now it was not long before the monks heard 
the following report, "It appears that it is in the hope of winning 
celestial nymphs that Venerable Nanda, brother of the Exalted One, 
son of his mother's sister, is living the religious life; it appears that 



222 Book 1, Story 9. Dhammapada 13-1 J^, [N. 1.11920- 

the Exalted One has guaranteed that he shall win five hundred pink- 
footed celestial nymphs." 

As a result Venerable Nanda's fellow-monks treated him as a 
hireling and as one bought with a price. And they addressed him 
accordingly, saying, "It appears that Venerable Nanda is a hireling; 
it appears that Venerable Nanda is one bought with a price. It appears 
that it is in the hope of winning celestial nymphs that he is living the 
religious life; it appears that the Exalted One has guaranteed that 
he shall win five hundred pink-footed celestial nymphs." 

Now Venerable Nanda, [120] although his fellow-monks despised 
him, were ashamed of him, and tormented him by calling him "hire- 
ling" and "bought with a price," nevertheless, living in solitude, 
withdrawn from the world, heedful, ardent, resolute, in no long time, 
even in this life, himself abode in the knowledge, realization, and 
attainment of that supreme goal of the religious life for the sake of 
which goodly youths retire once and for all from the house-life to the 
houseless life. This did he know : " Birth is at an end, lived is the holy 
life, duty is done: I am no more for this world." And there was yet 
another Venerable Elder numbered among the Arahats. 

Now a certain deity came by night to the Teacher, illuminating 
the whole Jetavana; and bowing to the Teacher, thus addressed him, 
"Reverend Sir, Venerable Nanda, son of the sister of the mother of 
the Exalted One, by extinction of the Depravities, even in this life, 
himself abides in the knowledge, realization, and attainment of 
freedom from the Depravities, emancipation of the heart, emancipation 
of the intellect. And there arose within the Exalted One also knowl- 
edge of the following, "By extinction of the Depravities, Nanda, even 
in this life, himself abides in the knowledge, realization, and attainment 
of freedom from the Depravities, emancipation of the heart, emancipa- 
tion of the intellect." 

In the course of the same night Venerable Nanda also approached 
the Exalted One, bowed to him, and spoke as follows, "Reverend Sir, 
I release the Exalted One from the promise which he made when he, 
the Exalted One, guaranteed that I should win five hundred pink- 
footed celestial nymphs." The Exalted One repHed, "Nanda, I myself 
grasped your mind with my own mind and saw, * By extinction of the 
Depravities, Nanda, [121] even in this life, himself abides in the 
knowledge, realization, and attainment of freedom from the De- 
pravities, emancipation of the heart, emancipation of the intellect.' 
Likewise a deity informed me of the fact, saying, 'By extinction of 



-N. 1.1232] Nanda the Elder 223 

the Depravities, Nanda, even in this Hfe, himself abides in the knowl- 
edge, realization, and attainment of freedom from the Depravities, 
emancipation of the heart, emancipation of the intellect.' When, 
therefore, Nanda, you ceased to cling to the things of the world, and 
your heart was released from the Depravities, at that moment I was 
released from that, promise." Then the Exalted One, knowing the 
true inwardness of this matter, breathed forth the following Solemn 
Utterance, 

He that has crossed over the mud and crushed the thorn of lust, 
He that has destroyed delusion, such a man is unmoved, whether 
in pleasure or in pain. 

Now one day the monks approached Venerable Nanda and asked 
him, "Brother Nanda, aforetime you said, 'I am dissatisfied.' Do 
you say the same thing now.''" "Brethren, I am in no wise inclined 
to the life of a layman." When the monks heard his answer, they said, 
"Venerable Nanda says that which is not true, utters falsehood. On 
former days he used to say, 'I am dissatisfied,' but now says, 'I am in 
no wise inclined to the life of a layman." And forthwith they went and 
reported the matter to the Exalted One. The Exalted One replied, 
"Monks, in former days Nanda's personality was like an ill-thatched 
house, but now it has come to be like a well-thatched house. From the 
day he saw the celestial nymphs, he has striven to reach the goal of a 
monk's labors, [122] and now he has reached it." So saying, he 
pronounced the following Stanzas, 

13. Even as rain breaks through an ill-thatched house. 
So lust breaks through an ill-trained mind. 

14. Even as rain breaks not through a well-thatched house. 
So lust breaks not through a well-trained mind. 

The monks began to discuss the incident in the Hall of Truth: 
"Brethren, the Buddhas are marvelous! Venerable Nanda became 
dissatisfied with the Religious Life all because of Janapada-Kalyani; 
but the Teacher, employing celestial nymphs as a lure, won him to 
complete obedience." The Teacher came in and asked them, "Monks, 
what is it you are sitting here now talking about.''" When they told 
him, he said, "Monks, [123] this is not the first time Nanda has been 
won to obedience by the lure of the opposite sex; the same thing 
happened in a previous existence also." So saying, he related the 
following 



224 Book 1, Story 9. Dhammapada 13-lJf. {N. 1.1233- 

9 c. Story of the Past : Kappata and the donkey 

Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta reigned in Benares, there 
dwelt at Benares a merchant named Kappata. Now Kappata had 
a donkey which used to carry loads of pottery for him, and every day 
he used to go a journey of seven leagues. On a certain occasion 
Kappata loaded his donkey down with a load of pottery and took him 
to Takkasila. While he was engaged in disposing of his wares, he 
allowed the donkey to run loose. As the donkey wandered along the 
bank of a ditch, he saw a female of his species and straightway went 
up to her. She gave him a friendly greeting and said to him, "Where 
have you come from.''" "From Benares." "On what errand.'^" "On 
business." "How big a load do you carry.''" "A big load of pottery." 
"How many leagues do you travel, carrying a big load like that.^^" 
*' Seven leagues." "In the various places you visit, is there anyone 
to rub your feet and your back.''" "No." "If that's the case, you 
must have a mighty hard time." 

(Of course animals have no one to rub their feet and their back; 
she said this merely to join bonds of love between them.) 

As the result of her talk, the donkey became dissatisfied. After the 
merchant had disposed of his wares, he returned to the donkey and 
said to him, "Come, Jack, let's be off." "Go yourself; I won't go." 
[124] Over and over again the merchant tried with gentle words to 
persuade him to go; and when, in spite of his efforts, the donkey 
remained balky, he vented abuse upon him. Finally he thought to 
himself, "I know a way to make him go," and pronounced the follow- 
ing Stanza, 

I will make a goad for you, with a sixteen-inch thorn; 
I will cut your body to shreds; know this, donkey. 

When the donkey heard that, he said, "In that case I shall know 
just what to do to you." So saying, he pronounced the following 
Stanza, 

You say you will make a goad for me, with a sixteen-inch thorn. Very well ! 
In that case I will plant my fore feet, let fly with my hind feet, 
And knock out your teeth; know that, Kappata. 

When the merchant heard that, he thought to himself, "What can 
be the reason for his talking thus.''" The merchant looked this way 
and that, and finally his eyes fell upon the female. "Ah!" thought the 
merchant to himself, "she must have taught him these tricks. I wiU 



-N. 1.12520] Nanda the Elder 225 

say to the donkey, 'I will bring you home a mate like that.' Thus, 
by employing the lure of the opposite sex, I will make him go." Accord- 
ingly he pronounced the following Stanza, 

A four-footed female, with face like mother-of-pearl, possessed of all the marks of 

beauty, 
Will I bring to you to be your mate; know that, donkey. 

When the donkey heard that, his heart rejoiced, and he replied 
with the following Stanza, 

So "a four-footed female, with face like mother-of-pearl, possessed of all the marks of 

beauty," 
You will bring to me to be my mate; in that case, Kappata, 
Whereas hitherto I have traveled seven leagues a day, hereafter, I will travel fourteen 

leagues. [125] 

"Well then," said Kappata, "come!" And taking the donkey 
with him, he went back to the place where he had left the cart. 

After a few days the donkey said to him, "Did n't you say to me, 
*I will bring you a mate'.'*" The merchant replied, "Yes, I said just 
that, and I will not break my word; I will bring you home a mate. 
But I will provide food only for you. It may or may not be enough 
for both you and your mate, but that is a matter for you alone to 
decide. After you both have lived together, foals will be born to you. 
The food I shall give you may or may not be enough for both you and 
your mate and your foals too, but that is a matter for you alone 
to decide." As the merchant spoke these words, the donkey lost his 
desire. 

When the Teacher had ended his lesson, he concluded the Jataka 
as follows, "At that time, monks, the female donkey was Janapada- 
Kalyani, the male donkey was Nanda, and the merchant was I myself. 
In former times, too, Nanda was won to obedience by the lure of the 
female sex." 



I. 10. CUNDA THE PORK-BUTCHER i 

Here he suffers. This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while he was in residence at Veluvana with reference to Cunda 
the pork-butcher. 

The story goes that for fifty-five years Cunda made his living by 
killing pigs which he then either used for food or marketed. In time 

* Text: N i. 125-129. 



226 Book 1, Story 10. Dhammapada 15 [N. 1.12520- 

of famine he would go to the country with his cart filled with rice, [126] 
and return with it filled with shotes bought in villages for a mere pint- 
pot or two of rice apiece. Back of his house he had a plot of ground 
fenced off as a sort of pigsty, and there he kept his pigs, feeding them 
all kinds of shrubs and excrement. 

Whenever he wanted to kill a pig, he would fasten the pig securely 
to a post and pound him with a square club to make his flesh swell 
plump and tender. Then, forcing open the pig's jaws and inserting 
a little wedge in his mouth, he would pour down his throat boiling 
hot water from a copper boiler. The hot water would penetrate the 
pig's belly, loosening the excrement, and would pass out through the 
anus, carrying boiling hot excrement with it. So long as there was even 
a little excrement left in the pig's belly, the water would come out 
stained and turbid; but as soon as the pig's belly was clean, the water 
would come out pure and clear. 

The rest of the water he would pour over the pig's back, and the 
water would peel off the black skin as it ran off. Then he would singe 
off the bristles with a torch. Finally, he would cut off the pig's head 
with a sharp sword. As the blood gushed forth, he would catch it in 
a dish; then he would roast the pig, basting it with the blood he had 
caught. Then he would sit down with his son and his wife and eat the 
pig. Whatever meat was left over, he would sell. In this way he 
made a living for fifty-five years. Although the Teacher was in resi- 
dence at a neighboring monastery, not on a single day did Cunda do 
him honor by offering him so much as a handful of flowers or a spoonful 
of rice, nor did he do a single work of merit besides. 

One day he was attacked by a malady, [127] and while he yet 
remained alive, the fire of the Great Hell of Avici uprose before him. 
(The fire of Avici is a consuming torment able to destroy the eyes of 
one who stands a hundred leagues away and looks at it. Indeed, it 
has been described^ in this wise, "For ever and ever it shoots forth its 
flames continually a hundred leagues in all directions." Moreover, 
the Elder Nagasena ^ employed the following simile to show how much 
more intense is its heat than that of ordinary fire, "Great king, reflect 
that a rock even as big as a pagoda goes to destruction in the fire of 
Hell in but an instant. However, living beings who are reborn there, 
through the effect of their past deeds, suffer not destruction, but are 
as though they reposed in their mothers' wombs.") 

» Anguttara, iii. 35 : i. 142. « Milindapanha, 67^-*, «*-*». 



-N. 1.12814] Cunda the pork-butcher 227 

When the torment of the Great Hell of Avici uprose before the 
pork-butcher Cunda, his mode of behavior was altered in corre- 
spondence with his past deeds. Even as he remained within his house, 
he began to grunt like a pig and to crawl about on his hands and knees, 
first to the front of the house and then to the rear. The men of his 
household overpowered him and gagged him. But in spite of all they 
did (since it is impossible for anyone to prevent a man's past deeds 
from bearing fruit), he kept crawling back and forth, grunting like a 
pig continually. 

Not a person was able to sleep in the seven houses round about. 
The members of his own household, terrified by the fear of death, 
unable otherwise to prevent him from going out, barricaded the doors 
of the house that he might not be able to go out, but might be confined 
within. Having so done, they surrounded the house and stood on 
guard. Back and forth for seven days crawled Cunda within his 
house, suffering the torment of Hell, grunting and squealing like a pig. 
Having thus crawled about for a period of seven days, he died on 
the seventh day and was reborn in the Great Hell of Avici. (The 
Great Hell of Avici is to be described in the terms of the Devaduta 
Suttanta.^) 

Some monks who passed the door of his house [128] heard the 
noise, and thinking it was merely the noise of the grunting and squeal- 
ing of pigs, went on to the monastery, seated themselves in the presence 
of the Teacher, and said to him, "Reverend Sir, for seven days the 
door of Cunda the pork-butcher's house has been closed, and for seven 
days the killing of pigs has gone on; doubtless he intends to give some 
entertainment. Think, Reverend Sir, how many pigs he has killed! 
Evidently he has not a single thought of loving-kindness and lacks 
utterly the sentiment of compassion. So cruel and savage a being has 
never been known before." 

Said the Teacher, "Monks, he has not been killing pigs these 
seven days. Retribution in harmony with his past deeds has overtaken 
him. Even while he yet remained alive, the torment of the Great 
Hell of Avici uprose before him. By reason of this torment he crawled 
hither and thither in his house for seven days, grunting and squealing 
like a pig. To-day he died, and was reborn in the Avici hell." When 
the Teacher had thus spoken, the monks said, "Reverend Sir, having 
suffered thus here in this world, he went again to a place of suffering 

^ Majjhima, 130: iii. 178-187; cf. AnguUara, i. 138-142 (translated by Warren, 
Buddhism in Translations, pp. 255-259). 



Book ly Story 10. Dhammapada 15 [N.i.128h- 

and was there reborn." "Yes, monks," replied the Teacher. "He 
that is heedless, be he layman or monk, suffers in both places equally." 
So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

15. Here he suffers; after death he suffers: the evildoer suffers in both places. 
He suffers, he is afflicted, seeing the impurity of his own past deeds. 



I. 11. THE RIGHTEOUS LAY BROTHER ^ 

Here he rejoices. This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to a 
righteous lay brother. [129] 

At Savatthi, we are told, lived five hundred righteous lay brethren, 
each with a retinue of five hundred lay brethren. The senior layman 
had seven sons and seven daughters. Each of these sons gave regularly 
ticket-porridge, ticket-food, food of the waning moon, food of the new 
moon, invitation-food, fast-day food, visitors' food, and food of the 
season of the rains. All of them were "later born," so that the layman 
and his wife and fourteen children maintained sixteen forms of alms. 
And the layman, virtuous, upright, together with son and wife, took 
delight in the distribution of alms. 

After a time the layman was attacked by a disease, and his vital 
forces began to decay. [130] Desiring to hear the Law, he sent word 
to the Teacher, "Send me eight or sixteen monks." The Teacher sent 
them, and they straightway went and gathered around his bed and 
sat down on seats prepared for them. "Reverend Sirs," said the lay- 
man, "it will be diflScult for me to see you, for I am weak; rehearse 
me but a single Sutta." "Which Sutta would you like to hear, lay 
brother.''" "The Satipatthana Sutta,^ common to all the Buddhas." 
Accordingly they began to rehearse the Sutta, beginning with the 
words, "There is this one Way, monks, this one Path which leads to 
the Salvation of living beings." 

At that moment, from the Six Worlds of the Gods, approached six 
chariots a hundred and fifty leagues long, drawn by a thousand Sindh 
horses, adorned with all the adornments. In each chariot stood a 
deity, and each deity spoke and said, "Permit us to convey you to our 
celestial world." And they spoke again and said, "Even as one 
shatters a clay vessel and replaces it with a vessel of gold, even so are 

1 Text: N i. 129-132. ^ Digha, 22; Majjhima, 10. 



-N. 1.13122] The righteous lay brother 229 

living beings reborn to take their pleasure in our celestial world." 
The lay disciple, unwilling to be interrupted in listening to the Law, 
said, "Wait! wait!" The monks, thinking that he was speaking to 
them, ceased their recitation of the Law. His sons and daughters 
cried out, "Formerly our father could never hear enough of the Law. 
But now, after summoning the monks and directing them to reheafse 
the Law, he stops them himself. After all, there is no man who does 
not fear death." The monks said to each other, "This is no time for 
us to remain." And forthwith they arose and departed. 

After a time the layman recovered his attention and asked his 
sons, "Why do you weep.''" "Dear father," said they, "you sent for 
the monks, and even as you listened to the Law, you yourself stopped 
them from rehearsing the Law. We weep to think, 'After all, there is 
no man who does not fear death.'" [131] "But where are the noble 
monks.''" "They said to each other, 'This is no time for us to remain.' 
And forthwith they arose from their seats and departed." "Dear 
sons, I was not speaking to the noble monks." " With whom, then, were 
you talking, dear father.''" "From the Six Worlds of the Gods six 
deities approached in six magnificently adorned chariots, and standing 
in their chariots poised in the air, they said to me, 'Take your pleasure 
in our celestial world; take your pleasure in our celestial world.' I 
was talking with them." "Dear father, where are the chariots.'' We 
do not see them." "Have I any wreaths of flowers?" "Yes, dear 
father." "Which celestial world is the most delightful.''" "Dear 
father, the most delightful is the World of the Tusita gods, the abode 
of the mothers and fathers of the Buddhas and of all the Future 
Buddhas." "Well then, throw a wreath of flowers and say, 'Let this 
wreath of flowers cling to the chariot which came from the World of 
the Tusita gods.'" 

Accordingly the children of the layman threw the wreath of flowers, 
and it clung to the pole of the chariot and hung suspended in the air. 
The populace saw the wreath of flowers suspended in the air, but did 
not see the chariot. Said the lay disciple, "Do you see this wreath of 
flowers.''" "Yes, we see it." "This wreath hangs suspended from the 
chariot which came from the World of the Tusita gods. I am going 
to the World of the Tusita gods; be not disturbed. If you desire to 
be reborn with me, do works of merit even as I have done." And 
when he had thus spoken, he died and set foot in the chariot. Imme- 
diately he was reborn as a deity three-quarters of a league in stature, 
adorned with sixty cartloads of ornaments. A retinue of a thousand 



230 Book 1, Story 11. Dhammapada 16 [N.1.13122- 

celestial nymphs attended him, and a golden mansion twenty-five 
leagues in extent became visible. 

When those monks reached the monastery, the Teacher asked 
them, "Monks, did the lay disciple hearken to the recitation of the 
Law?" "Yes, Reverend Sir. But in the midst of the recitation he 
cried out, *Wait! wait!' and stopped us. Then his sons and daughters 
began to weep, [132] whereupon we said to each other, 'This is no 
time for us to remain,' and arose from our seats and departed." 
"Monks, he was not talking to you. From the Six Worlds of the Gods 
six deities approached in six magnificently adorned chariots, and they 
summoned that lay disciple to go with them; but the lay disciple, 
unwilling that the recitation of the Law should be interrupted, spoke 
to them." "Is that true. Reverend Sir.''" "That is true, monks." 
"Reverend Sir, where was he reborn just now.''" "In the World of the 
Tusita gods, monks." 

"Reverend Sir, but recently he lived here among his kinsfolk 
rejoicing, and just now he went again to a place of rejoicing and was 
there reborn." "Yes, monks. They that are heedful, be they laymen 
or monks, rejoice in both places equally." So saying, he pronounced 
the following Stanza, 

16. Here he rejoices; after death he rejoices: he that has done good works rejoices in. 
both places. 
He rejoices, he rejoices exceedingly, seeing the purity of his own past deeds. 



I. 12. DEVADATTA'S CAREER ' 

Here he suffers. [133] This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while in residence at Jetavana with reference to Devadatta. 
The story of Devadatta, from the time he became a monk to the time 
the earth opened and swallowed him up, is related in all the Jatakas.^ 
The following is a synopsis of the story: 

12 a. Retirement from the world of the six princes 

While the Teacher was in residence at Anupiya Mango-grove, 
which lies near Anupiya, a market-town of the Mallas, eighty thousand 

* i. 12 is for the most part derived from Vinaya, Culla Vagga, vii. 1-4. With 
i. 12 a, cf. XXV. 12 b. With i. 12 b, cf. Hardy, Manual of Buddhism, pp. 326-333, 337- 
840. Text: N i. 133-150. 

* See Jatakas 542: vi. 129-131; 533: v. 333-337; 466: iv. 158-159; 404: iii. 355- 
858. 



-N. 1.13421] Devadatta's career 231 

kinsmen one day recognized on him the Characteristics of a Tathagata, 
and eighty thousand youths asserted, "Let him be a king or a Buddha, 
he will spend his days surrounded by a retinue of Warrior-princes." 
After all but six of these youths had retired from the world and become 
monks, the company of princes, observing that the six Sakyan princes. 
King Bhaddiya, Anuruddha, Ananda, Bhagu, Kimbila, and Devadatta, 
had not yet retired from the world, discussed the matter as follows, 
"We admit only our own sons to the Order. But of course these six 
Sakyan princes are not kinsmen of the Buddha. For this reason, 
doubtless, they have not retired from the world and become monks." 
Now one day the Sakyan prince Mahanama approached Anuruddha 
and said, "Friend, there isn't one of our family who has become a 
monk. You become a monk and I will follow your example." 

Now Anuruddha is said to have been brought up in such softness 
and luxury that he had never heard the word isrit before. For example, 
one day these six Sakyan princes engaged in a game of marbles. 
Anuruddha staked cakes on the result, proved a loser, and sent home 
for cakes. His mother prepared cakes and sent them. [134] The 
princes ate the cakes and resumed their play. Anuruddha lost repeat- 
edly. Three times in all his mother sent him cakes. The fourth time 
she sent back word, "There isn't cake to send. Now Anuruddha had 
never before heard the word isrCt. Therefore, supposing that this 
must be a variety of cake, he sent the man back, saying to him, "Fetch 
me some isrit cakes. When his mother received the message, "Then, 
my lady, send me some isn't cakes," she thought to herseK, "My son 
has never heard the word isn't before. By this means, however, I can 
teach him the meaning of it." So she took an empty golden bowl, 
covered it with another golden bowl, and sent it to her son. 

The guardian deities of the city thought, "When Anuruddha the 
Sakyan was Annabhara, he gave food that was his own portion to the 
Private Buddha Uparittha, making the Earnest Wish, 'May I never 
hear the word isnH; may I never know where food comes from.' 
Now if he sees the empty bowl, we shall never be able to enter the 
assembly of the gods; it may even happen that our heads will split 
into seven pieces." So they filled the bowl with celestial cakes. As 
soon as the bowl was set down on the round platter uncovered, the 
fragrance of the cakes permeated the entire city. Moreover, the 
moment a morsel of cake was placed in the mouth, it thrilled the seven 
thousand nerves of taste. Anuruddha thought to himself, " My mother 
does not love me; all this time she has never fried this isnH cake 



232 Booh 1, Story 12. Dhammapada 17 [N.i.i35i- 

for me. [135] From this time forth I shall eat no other kind of cake.'* 
So he went home and asked his mother, "Mother, do you love me 
or do you not?" "My dear son, even as the eye is dear to one who 
possesses but one eye, and even as the heart, so are you exceedingly 
dear to me." "Then, dear mother, why is it that all this time you have 
not fried isn't cake for me.'^" Said the mother to her little page, "Boy, 
is there nothing in the bowl?" "My lady, the plate is filled to over- 
flowing with cakes, and with such cakes as I have never seen before." 
The mother thought to herself, "It must be that my son has ac- 
quired great merit; it must be that he has made an Earnest Wish; 
deities must have filled the plate with cakes and sent them." Said 
the son to the mother, "Dear mother, from this time forth I will eat 
no other kind of cake than this; henceforth, I pray you, fry isn't cake 
alone for me." From that time forth, whenever her son said, "I 
should like some cakes to eat," she would send a bowl absolutely 
empty, covered with another bowl. So long as he continued to live 
at home, during all that time deities sent him celestial cakes. Since 
Anuruddha was so unsophisticated as all this, how could he be ex- 
pected to know the meaning of the expression becoming a monk? 

For this reason, therefore, he asked his brother, "What is this 
becoming a monk?" His brother replied, "The life of a monk involves 
cutting off the hair and beard, sleeping with indifference whether in a 
thorn-brake or in a fine bed, and going the rounds for alms," Anu- 
ruddha replied, "Brother, I am exceedingly delicate; I shall never 
be able [136] to become a monk." "Very well, my dear brother, 
then learn farming and live the life of a householder. But at least 
one of us must become a monk." Then said Anuruddha, "What is 
this farming?" 

How could you expect a youth to know the meaning of the word 
farming who did not know where food comes from? For example, 
on a certain day a discussion arose among the three princes Kimbila, 
Bhaddiya, and Anuruddha as to where food comes from. Kimbila 
said, "It comes from the barn." Bhaddiya said to him, "You do 
not know where food comes from; it comes from the boiler," Anu- 
ruddha said, "Both of you together do not know where food comes 
from. It comes from a golden bowl with jeweled knob." 

We are told that one day Kimbila saw rice being removed from 
a barn, and immediately formed the opinion, "These grains of rice 
were produced in the barn." Likewise one day Bhaddiya saw food 
being taken out of a boiler, and formed the opinion, "It was produced 



-N. 1.13718] Devadatta's career 233 

in, the boiler." Anuruddha, however, had never seen men pounding 
rice or boiling it or taking it out of the boiler, but had seen it only after 
it had been taken out of the boiler and set before him. So Anuruddha 
formed the opinion, "When one desires to eat, food makes its appear- 
ance in a golden bowl." Such was the ignorance of all three princes 
as to where food comes from. 

Now when Anuruddha asked the question, "What is this farming?" 
he received the following answer, "First the field must be plowed, and 
after that such and such other things must be done, and these things 
must be done year after year." Said he to himself, "When will the 
duties connected with farming ever come to an end.^^ When shall we 
ever have time to enjoy our possessions in peace.f*" And because it 
seemed to him that the duties connected with farming would never 
come to an end and never cease, he said to his brother, "Well then, if 
this is the case, you may live the life of a householder. But as for me, 
I have no use for it." Accordingly he approached his mother [137] 
and said to her, "Mother, give me your permission; I wish to become 
a monk." 

Thrice Anuruddha requested his mother to give him permission 
to become a monk, and thrice she refused to do so. Finally she said 
to him, "If your friend King Bhaddiya will become a monk, then you 
may become a monk with him." Accordingly he approached his 
friend Bhaddiya and said to him, "Friend, whether I shall become a 
monk or not is conditional upon your becoming a monk." Anuruddha 
urged his friend Bhaddiya with every argument at his command to 
become a monk, and finally, on the seventh day, obtained Bhaddiya's 
promise to become a monk with him. 

So six princes of the Warrior caste, Bhaddiya, king of the Sakyans, 
Anuruddha, Ananda, Bhagu, Kimbila, and Devadatta, accompanied 
by TJpali the barber as seventh man, for seven days enjoyed celestial 
glory like gods, and then set out with fourfold array, as though on their 
way to a pleasure-garden. When they reached foreign territory, they 
turned back their army by royal command, and then entered foreign 
territory. There each of the six princes removed his own ornaments, 
made a bundle of them, and gave them to TJpali, saying, "Now, Upali, 
turn back. All this wealth will suffice to provide you with means of 
livelihood." Upali flung himself at their feet, rolled over and over on 
the ground, and wept bitterly. But not daring to disobey the order, 
he arose and turned back. When they parted, the forest wept, as it 
were, and the earth quaked, as it were. 



234 Book 1, Story 12. Dhammapada 17 [N.i.iSTis- 

When Upali had gone a little way, he thought to himself, "Harsh 
and cruel are these Sakyans; they may kill me, thinking I have killed 
their brethren. These Sakyan princes have renounced all this splendor, 
have cast away these priceless ornaments like a mass of saliva, and 
intend to become monks; [138] why not I?" So saying, he untied 
the bundle, hung those ornaments on a tree, and said, "Let those who 
want them take them. " Having so done, he went to the Sakyan princes, 
and when they asked him why he had turned back, told them the 
whole story. 

So the six Sakyan princes took Upali the barber with them, went 
to the Teacher, and said to him, "We, Reverend Sir, are proud Sakyans. 
This man has been a servitor of ours for a long time. Admit him to 
the Order first; to him first we will offer respectful salutations; so 
will our pride be humbled." Thus first did they cause Upali the barber 
to be admitted to the Order, and after that entered the Order them- 
selves. 

Of the six Sakyan princes. Venerable Bhaddiya attained Threefold 
Knowledge in that very rainy season. Venerable Anuruddha attained 
Supernatural Vision, and after listening to the Sutta entitled "The 
Reflections of a Great Man," attained Arahatship. Venerable Ananda 
was established in the Fruit of Conversion. Elder Bhagu and Elder 
Kimbila subsequently developed Spiritual Insight and attained 
Arahatship. Devadatta attained the lower grade of Magic Power. 

After a time, while the Teacher was in residence at Kosambi, rich 
gain and honor accrued to the Tathagata and his company of disciples. 
Men entered the monastery bearing in their hands robes, medicines, 
and other offerings and asked, "Where is the Teacher .'* Where is the 
Elder Sariputta? Where is the Elder Moggallana.'^ Where is the 
Elder Kassapa.?* Where is the Elder Bhaddiya .f* Where is the Elder 
Anuruddha? Where is the Elder Ananda .^^ Where is the Elder Bhagu.'* 
Where is the Elder Kimbila.'*" So saying, they went about looking 
at the places where sat the eighty Chief Disciples. 

12 b. Devadatta's wicked deeds 

Since no one asked, "Where does the Elder Devadatta sit and 
stand.'*" Devadatta thought to himself, "I became a monk at the 
same time as these other monks. Even as they are men of the Warrior 
caste who have become monks, so also am I a man of the Warrior 
caste who have become a monk. [139] But whereas men bearing rich 



-N. 1.1406] Devadatta's career 235 

offerings seek out these monks, no one takes my name on his lips. With 
whom now can I make common cause? With whom can I ingratiate 
myself, that I may obtain gain and honor for myself?" 

Then the following thought occurred to him, "This King Bimbisara, 
on the day when he first saw the Buddha, became established in the 
Fruit of Conversion, together with eleven nahutas of men besides; I 
cannot make common cause with him. Neither can I make common 
cause with the king of Kosala. But this king's son Ajatasattu knows 
no one's good qualities or bad qualities; I will make common cause 
with him." Accordingly Devadatta departed from Kosambi to 
Rajagaha, transformed himseK into a youth, put four snakes on his 
hands and feet, put one snake about his neck, coiled one snake 
about his head as a cushion-rest, placed one snake on one shoulder, 
and thus arrayed in a girdle of snakes, he descended from the air and 
seated himself in Ajatasattu's lap. Ajatasattu was frightened and 
said, "Who are you?" "I am Devadatta." In order to dispel 
Ajatasattu's fear, Devadatta changed his form, stood before Ajatasattu 
wearing the robe of a monk and carrying a monk's bowl, ingratiated 
himself with Ajatasattu, and obtained for himself gain and honor. 

Overcome with the gain and honor he received, Devadatta thought 
to himself, "It is I who ought to be at the head of the Congregation of 
Monks." Once having allowed this evil thought to spring up in his 
breast, with the springing up of the evil thought Devadatta lost the 
power to work miracles. Now at this time the Teacher was preaching 
the Law to the Congregation at Veluvana monastery, and the king 
was among the Congregation. While the Exalted One was preaching 
the Law, Devadatta paid obeisance to him, and then rising from his 
seat, extended his hands in an attitude of reverent salutation and said, 
"Reverend Sir, the Exalted One is now worn out, stricken with years, 
and aged; let him live a pleasant life in this world, free from care. I 
will direct the Congregation of Monks; commit the Congregation of 
Monks to my hands." [140] The Teacher, instead of consenting to 
the arrangement suggested by Devadatta, refused his request and 
called him a lick-spittle. Therefore Devadatta was highly indignant, 
and now for the first time conceiving hatred towards the Teacher, 
departed. The Teacher caused public proclamation to be made con- 
cerning Devadatta at Rajagaha. 

Devadatta thought to himself, "Now I have been rejected by the 
monk Gotama; now I will make trouble for him." With this thought 
in mind he approached Ajatasattu and said to him, "Youth, aforetime 



236 Book i, Story 12. Dhammapada 17 [N.1.1407- 

men were long-lived, but now they are short-lived. This makes it 
probable that you, being a prince, will soon die. Well then! You kill 
your father and become king, and I will kill the Exalted One and 
become Buddha." So when Ajatasattu was established in his kingdom, 
Devadatta hired men to kill the Tathagata. But the men he hired 
attained the Fruit of Conversion and turned back. Then Devadatta 
himself climbed Vulture Peak and said to himself, "I alone will deprive 
the monk Gotama of life." So saying, he split off a piece of rock and 
hurled it down. But he succeeded only in drawing the Teacher's blood. 
Failing in this way also to kill him, he next dispatched the elephant 
Nalagiri against the Teacher. When the elephant approached, the 
Elder Ananda offered his own life in behalf of the Teacher and stood 
in the breach. The Teacher subdued the elephant, and then departed 
from the city and went to the monastery. After partaking of the 
offerings of food brought by countless thousands of lay disciples, he 
preached in due course to the residents of Rajagaha, one hundred and 
eighty millions in number, and eighty-four thousand living beings 
obtained Comprehension of the Law. Said the monks, "How noble 
is the Venerable Ananda! When so mighty an elephant approached, 
he offered his own life [141] and stood in front of the Teacher." The 
Teacher, hearing the Elder praised in this wise, said, "Monks, this 
is not the first time he has renounced his life for my sake; he did the 
same thing in a previous state of existence," And in response to a 
request of the monks he related the Culla Harhsa,^ Maha Hamsa,^ 
and Kakkata ^ Jatakas. 

Devadatta's wickedness did not by any means become so notorious 
from his having compassed the king's death nor from his hiring 
murderers to kill the Tathagata nor from his splitting off the piece of 
rock, as it did from his letting loose the elephant Nalagiri. For upon 
that, the people raised a tumult and said, "Devadatta alone had the 
king killed and hired murderers and cast down the rock. But now he has 
turned the elephant Nalagiri loose. Behold what manner of evildoer 
the king has on his hands!" The king then, hearing the words of the 
populace, caused Devadatta's five hundred cooking-vessels to be remov- 
ed and did not thereafter minister to his wants. Likewise the citizens 
did not so much as offer food to him when he came to their houses. 

When he had thus lost gain and honor, he determined to live by 

1 Jaiaka 533: v. 333-354. 

2 Jaiaka 534: v. 354-382. 

3 Jaiaka 267: ii. 341-345. 



-N.i.i43i] Devadatta's career 237 

deceit. Therefore he approached the Teacher and made the Five 
Demands. But the Teacher rejected his demands, saying, "Enough, 
Devadatta! Whoever so desires, let him be a forest hermit." "Breth- 
ren, whose words are the nobler, the words of the Tathagata or the 
words which I myself have uttered.'^ Very well, Reverend Sir, all their 
life long monks should be forest-dwellers, beggars, wearers of rags from 
a dust-heap, living at the foot of a tree, eating neither fish nor flesh. 
Whosoever desires release from suffering, let him come with me." So 
saying, Devadatta departed. [142] 

Some monks who had but recently retired from the world and who 
possessed little intelligence, hearing his words, said, "Devadatta spoke 
fair; let us join him." So they joined him. Thus Devadatta with his 
five hundred monks sought to persuade all manner of people, both 
hardened and believing, to accept the Five Points. And living by 
soliciting food from various families, he strove to create a schism in the 
Order. The Exalted One asked him, "Devadatta, is it true, as men 
say, that you are striving to create schism and heresy in the Order?" 
"It is true," replied Devadatta. Said the Teacher, "Devadatta, it is 
a grievous thing to create a schism in the Order." Continuing, the 
Teacher admonished him at length. But Devadatta paid no attention 
to the Teacher's words. He went forth, and seeing the Venerable 
Elder Ananda going his round for alms in Rajagaha, said to him, 
"Brother Ananda, from this day forth I shall keep Fast and Chapter 
apart from the Exalted One, apart from the Order." The Elder told 
the Exalted One. When the Teacher realized the fact, he was filled 
with righteous indignation and said to himself, "Devadatta is doing 
that which will be of no profit to him in the Worlds of the Gods and 
the world of men; that which will cause him to be tormented in the 
Avici hell." And he reflected. 

Easy to do are deeds that are evil, deeds that bring harm. 

But the deed that brings welfare, the deed that is good, that truly is hard to do. 

Having pronounced this Stanza, he then breathed forth the follow- 
ing Solemn Utterance, 

Easy to do for the good is the good; the good for the evil man is hard. 
Evil for the evil man is easy to do; evil for the noble is hard.' 

On Fast-day, as Devadatta sat on one side with his own retinue,' 
he said, "Let whoever approves of these Five Points take a ticket.'* 

* Uddna, v. 8. 



238 Book i, Story 12. Dhammapada 17 [N.i.i43i- 

[143] Five hundred Licchavi princes, novices having little gratitude, 
took tickets. Devadatta took these monks with him and went to 
Gayasisa. When the Teacher heard that he had gone there, he sent 
forth the two Chief Disciples to bring those monks back. The Chief 
Disciples went there, instructed the monks by performing miracles and 
wonders, caused them to drink the Deathless, and returned through 
the air, bringing them with them. 

Said Kokalika, "Rise, brother Devadatta; Sariputta and Mog- 
gallana have carried off your monks. Do you not remember my saying 
to you, * Brother, trust not Sariputta and Moggallana'.'^" Said Deva- 
datta, "Sariputta and Moggallana cherish evil desires, are under the 
control of evil desires." As he spoke thus, he struck the center of his 
heart with his knee, and straightway hot blood burst forth from his 
mouth. 

When the monks saw Venerable Sariputta, surrounded by his 
retinue of monks, soaring through the air, they said, "Reverend Sir, 
when Venerable Sariputta went hence, he went with but a single 
companion; but now he is returning resplendent with a great retinue." 
Said the Teacher, "Monks, it is not the first time this has happened; 
when my son was reborn in the form of an animal, then also did he 
return to me resplendent." So saying, he recited the Lakkhana 
Jataka: ^ 

All goes well with the virtuous, with those whose disposition is friendly. 
Behold Lakkhana returning at the head of a host of relatives; 
Then look upon yonder Kala without relatives. [144] 

Again said the monks, "Reverend Sir, they say that Devadatta 
seats a Chief Disciple on either side of him and imitates you, saying, 
* I will preach the Law with the grace of a Buddha.' " Said the Teacher, 
** Monks, this is not the first time he has so done; in a previous state 
of existence also he strove to imitate me, but was not able to do so. 

Viraka, have you seen a sweet- voiced bird 

With neck like that of a peacock, my husband Savitthaka? 

Because he tried to imitate a bird that walks both on water and on land, 
Savitthaka became entangled in a sevala-plant and died. 

Supplying the rest of the story, the Teacher related the Viraka 
Jataka.2 On succeeding days, with reference to the same subject, the 
Teacher related the Kandagalaka ^ and Virocana ^ Jatakas : 

1 Jataka 11: i. 142-145. ^ Jataka 204: ii. 148-150. 

3 Jataka 210: iL 162-164. ^ Jataka 143: i. 490-493. 



-N. 1.14617] Devadatta's career 239 

This garuda bird went through the woods pecking at trees whose branches were soft 

and rotten. 
At last he came to an acacia-tree, whose wood is always sound, and broke his 

head. [145] 

Your brains have run out, your head is split open. 

All your ribs are broken; to-day you are a pretty sight! 

Again one day, hearing the remark, "Devadatta was ungrateful," 
the Teacher related the Java Sakuna Jataka:^ 

We did yon what service we could. 
King of beasts, we render homage to you. 
May we obtain some favor from you. 

Seeing that I hold you fast between my jaws, I who feed upon blood, 
I whose nature is to kiU, it is a great deal that you yet live. 

Again with reference to Devadatta's going about for the purpose 
of slaying, he related the Kurunga Jataka : ^ 

It is well known to the antelope, that you let drop the fruit of the sepanni. 
Let us go to another sepanni; your tree likes me not. 

Again when the discussion took this turn, "Devadatta fell away 
both from gain and honor and from the high position of a monk," the 
Teacher said, "Monks, this is not the first time he has so fallen away; 
in a previous state of existence also he fell away." So saying, he related 
the Ubhatobhattha Jataka: ^ [146] 

Your eyes are put out, your garments are lost, in your own house there is strife; 
Your business is ruined in both places, both on water and on land. 

In this wise did the Teacher, while he was in residence at Rajagaha, 
relate many Jatakas about Devadatta. From Rajagaha he went to 
Savatthi, and took up his residence at Jetavana monastery. 

Devadatta's sickness continued for nine months; at the last, 
desiring to see the Teacher, he said to his own disciples, "I desire to 
see the Teacher; make it possible for me to see him." They replied, 
"When you enjoyed good health, you walked at enmity with the 
Teacher; we will not lead you to him." Said Devadatta, "Do not 
destroy me; I have indeed conceived hatred towards the Teacher, 
but the Teacher has not cherished so much as the tip of a hair's hatred 
towards me." And in very truth 

Towards the murderer Devadatta, towards the robber Angulimala, 

Towards Dhanapala and Rahula, to each and all he manifested an even temper. 

1 Jataka 308: iii. 25-27. ^ Jataka 21: i. 173-174. ^ jataka 139: i. 482-484. 



240 Book 1, Story 12. Dhammapada 17 [N.i.i46i8- 

"Let me see the Exalted One," begged Devadatta again and 
again; so finally they laid him on a litter and started out with him. 
When the monks heard that Devadatta was approaching, they in- 
formed the Teacher of the fact, saying, "Reverend Sir, we hear that 
Devadatta is coming to see you." "Monks, he will not succeed in 
seeing me in this present existence." (It is said that from the moment 
monks make the Five Demands, they invariably fail to see the Buddhas 
again.) [147] "Reverend Sir, he has reached such and such a place; 
he has reached such and such a place." "Let him do as he likes; he 
will never succeed in seeing me again." "Reverend Sir, now he is 
only a league distant, now he is only half a league distant, now he is 
only a gavuta distant, now he has reached the lotus-tank." "Even if 
he enters within the Jetavana, he will not succeed in seeing me." 

Those who came with Devadatta set the litter down on the bank 
of the lotus-tank at the Jetavana and descended into the tank to bathe. 
Devadatta arose from his litter and sat down, resting both feet on the 
ground, whereupon his feet sank into the earth. By degrees he 
sank into the earth, first to the ankles, then to the knees, then to the 
hips, then to the breast, then to the neck. Finally, when his jaw-bone 
rested on the ground, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

With these bones, with these vital airs, I seek refuge in the Buddha, 
Preeminent among men, god of gods, charioteer of untamed humanity. 
All-seeing, endowed with the auspicious marks of a hundred virtues. 

There is a tradition that when the Tathagata saw that matters had 
gone thus far, he made a monk of Devadatta. And this he did because 
he became aware of the following, "If he shall remain a layman and not 
be received into the Order as a monk, inasmuch as he has been guilty 
of grievous crimes, it will be impossible for him to look forwards with 
confidence to future existence; but if he shall become a monk, no mat- 
ter how grievous the crimes he has committed, it will be possible for 
him to look forwards with confidence to future existence." [148] 
(At the end of a hundred thousand cycles of time he will become a 
Private Buddha named Atthissara.) 

When Devadatta had sunk into the earth, he was reborn in the 
Avici hell. "Since he sinned against an unchanging Buddha, let him 
endure torture unchanging;" and such was the torture he suffered. 
When he had entered the Avici hell, which is a hundred leagues in 
extent, his body became a hundred leagues in height. His head, as 
far as the outer ear, entered an iron skull; his feet, as far as the ankles. 



-N;i. 14915] Devadatta's career 241 

entered earth of iron. An iron stake as thick as the trunk of a palmyra- 
tree proceeded forth from the west wall of the iron shell, pierced the 
small of his back, came forth from his breast, and penetrated the east 
wall. Another iron stake proceeded forth from the south wall, pierced 
his right side, came forth from his left side, and penetrated the north 
wall. Another iron stake proceeded forth from the top of the iron 
skull, pierced his skull, came forth from his lower parts, and penetrated 
earth of iron. In this position, immovable, he suffers this mode of 
torture. 

The monks began a discussion, saying, "All this distance came 
Devadatta, but failed to see the Teacher, and was swallowed up by 
the earth." Said the Teacher, "Monks, this was not the first time 
Devadatta sinned against me and was swallowed up by the earth; 
in a previous state of existence also he was swallowed up by the earth," 
And by way of illustrating the point, he told the story of an incident 
in his own previous existence as king of the elephants. He directed 
aright, a man who had lost his way, allowed him to mount his own 
back, and carried him to a place of safety, only to have the man return 
to him three successive times and saw off first the tips of his tusks, 
then the middle, and then the roots. As the man passed out of sight 
of the Great Creature, he was swallowed up by the earth. [149] 

The Teacher then completed the Silava Naga Jataka : ^ 

If one should give the whole earth to an ungrateful man, 

A man who is ever looking for an opportunity, it would not satisfy him. 

The discussion reverting to the same subject again and again, in 
order to illustrate the swallowing up of Devadatta by the earth in his 
existence as Kalaburaja for an offense against himself in his existence 
as Khantivadi, he related the Khantivadi Jataka.^ Again, in order 
to illustrate the swallowing up of Devadatta by the earth in his 
existence as Mahapataparaja for an offense against himself in his 
existence as Culla Dhammapala, he related the Culla Dhammapala 
<j a taxa. 

Now when Devadatta was swallowed up by the earth, the populace 
was pleased and delighted, and raising flags and banners and plantain- 
trees and setting up brimming jars, held high festival, saying, "His 
death is indeed our great gain." When the monks reported this 
incident to the Exalted One, the Exalted One said, "Monks, this is 
not the first time the populace has rejoiced at Devadatta's death; 

1 Jataka 72: i. 319-322. ^ Jataka 313: iii. 39-43. ' Jataka 358: iii. 177-182. 



242 Book 1, Story 12. Dhammapada 17 [N.i.i49i5- 

in times past also the populace rejoiced thereat.'* And when he had 
thus spoken, to illustrate the rejoicing of the populace at the death 
of King Pingala of Benares, a man who was hated by all the people 
for his harshness and cruelty, he related the Pingala Jataka:^ 

All the people suffered harm at the hands of Pingala; so soon as he was dead they 

recovered confidence. 
Was he of the yellow eyes dear to you? Why do you weep, porter? [150] 

He of the yellow eyes was not dear to me; I fear to think of his return. 
Now that he has gone hence, he may harm the king of death, and the king of death 
thus harmed may send him back again. 

Finally the monks asked the Teacher, "Now, Reverend Sir, tell us 
where Devadatta was reborn." "Monks, he was reborn in the Avici 
hell.'* "Reverend Sir, during his life here on earth he suffered, and 
when he went hence he was reborn in a place of suffering." "Yes, 
monks, they that abide in Heedlessness, be they monks or laymen, 
suffer in both places." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

17. Here he suffers, after death he suffers; the evildoer suffers in both places. . 

He suffers to think, "I have done evil;" yet more does he suffer, gone to a place of 
suffering. 



I. 13. LADY SUMANA ^ 

Here he rejoices. This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference to Lady 
Sumana. [151] 

For every day two thousand monks take their meal in the house 
of Anathapindika at Savatthi, and a like number in the house of the 
eminent female lay disciple Visakha. Whoever desires to give alms 
at Savatthi, first seeks the good offices of these two lay disciples. Do 
you ask the reason for \h\s,? Suppose you are asked the question, 
"Has Anathapindika or Visakha given alms equal in amount to those 
which you have given.'^" and you answer, "They have not," you may 
dispense a hundred thousand pieces of money in alms, and in spite of 
this the monks will murmur dissatisfaction, saying, "What kind of 
alms are these?" The explanation is that both of these lay disciples 
understand thoroughly the tastes of the Congregation of Monks and 

» Jaiaha 240: ii. 239-242. 

* Cf. the story of Kavi in Manu, ii. 150 (Lanman's Sanskrit Reader, 61''). Text: 
N i. 151-1.'54. 



-N. 1.15220] Lady Sumana 243 

know exactly what is the proper thing to do; therefore all who desire 
to give alms take them with them when they go. And thus it happens 
that they are unable to minister to the monks in person in their own 
houses. 

Under these circumstances Visakha, considering within herself, 
**Who shall stand in my place and minister to the Congregation , of 
Monks.'^" seeing the daughter of her son, appointed her to represent 
her; and thenceforth Visakha's granddaughter ministered to the 
Congregation of Monks in Visakha's residence. Anathapindika 
appointed his oldest daughter Maha Subhadda; the latter showed the 
monks the customary attentions, hearkened to the Law, and as a result 
obtained the Fruit of Conversion; afterwards she married and went 
to live with her husband's family. Then he appointed Culla Subhadda, 
who followed her older sister's example, obtaining the Fruit of Con- 
version, and afterwards marrying and going to live with the family 
of her husband. Finally he appointed his youngest daughter Sumana. 
Sumana obtained the Fruit of the Second Path, but remained un- 
married. [152] Overwhelmed with disappointment at her failure to 
obtain a husband, she refused to eat, and desiring to see her father, 
sent for him. 

Anathapindika was in the refectory when he received his daughter's 
message, but immediately went to her and said, "What is it, dear 
daughter Sumana.'*" Sumana said to him, "What say you, dear 
youngest brother.'^" "You talk incoherently, dear daughter." "I am 
not talking incoherently, youngest brother." "Are you afraid, dear 
daughter?" "I am not afraid, youngest brother." She said no 
more, but died immediately. 

Although the treasurer had obtained the Fruit of Conversion, he 
was unable to bear the grief that arose within him. Accordingly, when 
he had performed the funeral rites over his daughter's body, he went 
weeping to the Teacher. Said the Teacher, "Householder, how is it 
that you come to me sad and sorrowful, with tears in your eyes, 
weeping?" "Reverend Sir, my daughter Sumana is dead." "Well, 
why do you weep? Is not death certain for all?" "I know that. 
Reverend Sir. But my daughter was so modest and so conscientious. 
What grieves me so much is the thought that when she died, she was 
unable to recover her right mind, but died raving incoherently." 

"But what did your youngest daughter say, great treasurer?" 
"Reverend Sir, I addressed her as *dear Sumana,' and she replied, 
*What say you, dear youngest brother?' Then I said to her, 'You talk 



244 Book 1, Story 13. Dhammapada 18 [N. 1.15220- 

incoherently, dear daughter.' ' I am not talking incoherently, youngest 
brother.' 'Are you afraid, dear daughter.^' 'I am not afraid, youngest 
brother.' She said no more, but died immediately." 

Said the Exalted One to Anathapindika, "Great treasurer, your 
daughter did not talk incoherently." "But why did she speak thus.'*" 
"Solely because you were her youngest brother. [153] Householder, 
your daughter was old in the Paths and the Fruits, for while you have 
attained but the Fruit of Conversion, your daughter had attained 
the Fruit of the Second Path. Thus it was, because she was old in the 
Paths and the Fruits, that she spoke thus." "Was that the reason. 
Reverend Sir?" "That was the reason, householder." 

"Where has she now been reborn, Reverend Sir.'*" "In the World 
of the Tusita gods, householder." "Reverend Sir, while my daughter 
remained here among her kinsfolk, she went about rejoicing, and when 
she went hence, she was reborn in the World of Joy." Then the 
Teacher said to him, "It is even so, householder. They that are 
heedful, be they lay folk or religious, rejoice both in this world and in 
the world beyond." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

18. Here he rejoices, after death he rejoices: he that has done good works rejoices in 
both places. 
He rejoices to think, "I have done good works;" yet more does he rejoice, gone 
to a world of bliss. 



I. 14. TWO BRETHREN! 

Though he utter much that is sensible. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to two fellow-monks. [154] 

For at Savatthi lived two young men of station who were insepa- 
rable friends. On a certain occasion they went to the monastery, heard 
the Teacher preach the Law, renounced the pleasures of the world, 
yielded the breast to the Religion of the Buddha, and became monks. 
When they had kept residence for five years with preceptors and 
teachers, they approached the Teacher and asked about the Duties 
in his Religion. After listening to a detailed description of the Duty 
of Meditation and of the Duty of Study, one of them said, "Reverend 
Sir, since I became a monk in old age, I shall not be able to fulfill the 
Duty of Study, but I can fulfill the Duty of Meditation." So he had 

» Text: N i. 154-159. 



-N.i.i56i] The two brethren 245 

the Teacher instruct him in the Duty of Meditation as far as Arahat- 
ship, and after striving and struggling attained Arahatship, together 
with the Supernatural Faculties. But the other said, "I will fulfill the 
Duty of Study," acquired by degrees the Tipitaka, the Word of the 
Buddha, and wherever he went, preached the Law and intoned it. He 
went from place to place reciting the Law to five hundred monks, and 
was preceptor of eighteen large communities of monks. 

Now a company of monks, having obtained a Formula of Medita- 
tion from the Teacher, went to the place of residence of the older 
monk, and by faithful observance of his admonitions attained Arahat- 
ship. Thereupon they paid obeisance to the Elder and said, "We 
desire to see the Teacher." [155] Said the Elder, " Go, brethren, greet 
in my name the Teacher, and likewise greet the eighty Chief Elders, 
and greet my fellow-elder, saying, 'Our Teacher greets you.'" So 
those monks went to the monastery and greeted the Teacher and the 
Elders, saying, "Reverend Sir, our teacher greets you." When they 
greeted their teacher's fellow-elder, he replied, "Who is he?" Said the 
monks, "He is your fellow-monk. Reverend Sir." 

Said the younger monk, "But what have you learned from him.'* 
Of the Digha Nikaya and the other Nikayas, have you learned a single 
Nikaya? Of the Three Pitakas, have you learned a single Pitaka.'*" 
And he thought to himself, "This monk does not know a single Stanza 
containing four verses. As soon as he became a monk, he took rags 
from a dust-heap, entered the forest, and gathered a great many pupils 
about him. When he returns, it behooves me to ask him some ques- 
tions." Now somewhat later the older monk came to see the Teacher, 
and leaving his bowl and robe with his fellow-elder, went and greeted 
the Teacher and the eighty Chief Elders, afterwards returning to the 
place of residence of his fellow-elder. The younger monk showed him 
the customary attentions, provided him with a seat of the same size 
as his own, and then sat down, thinking to himself, "I will ask him a 
question." 

At that moment the Teacher thought to himself, "Should this 
monk annoy this my son, he is likely to be reborn in Hell. " So out of 
compassion for him, pretending to be going the rounds of the monastery, 
he went to the place where the two monks were sitting and sat down 
on the Seat of the Buddha already prepared. (For wherever the 
monks sit down, they first prepare the Seat of the Buddha, and not 
until they have so done do they themselves sit down. [156] Therefore 
the Teacher sat down on a seat already prepared for him.) And when 



246 Book 1, Story IJf.. Dhammapada 19-20 [N.i.i56i- 

he had sat down, he asked the monk who had taken upon himself the 
Duty of Study a question on the First Trance. When the younger 
monk had answered this question correctly, the Teacher, beginning 
with the Second Trance, asked him questions about the Eight Attain- 
ments and about Form and the Formless World, all of which he 
answered correctly. Then the Teacher asked him a question about 
the Path of Conversion, and he was unable to answer it. Thereupon 
the Teacher asked the monk who was an Arahat, and the latter im- 
mediately gave the correct answer. 

"Well done, well done, monk!" said the Teacher, greatly pleased. 
The Teacher then asked questions about the remaining Paths in order. 
The monk who had taken upon himself the Duty of Study was unable 
to answer a single question, while the monk who had attained unto 
Arahatship answered every question he asked. On each of four occa- 
sions the Teacher bestowed applause on him. Hearing this, all the 
deities, from the gods of earth to the gods of the World of Brahma, 
including Nagas and Garudas, shouted their applause. 

Hearing this applause, the pupils and fellow-residents of the 
younger monk were offended at the Teacher and said, "Why did the 
Teacher do this.^* He bestowed applause on each of four occasions on the 
old monk who knows nothing at all. But to our own teacher, who 
knows all the Sacred Word by heart and is at the head of five hundred 
monks, he gave no praise at all." The Teacher asked them, "Monks, 
what is it you are talking about.'*" When they told him, he said, 
"Monks, your own teacher is in my Religion like a man who tends 
cows for hire. But my son is like a master who enjoys the five products 
of the cow at his own good pleasure." So saying, he pronounced the 
following Stanzas, [157] 

19. Though he utter much that is sensible, if the heedless man be not a doer of the word. 
He is like a cowherd counting the cows of others, and has no part in the Religious 

Life. 

20. Though he utter little that is sensible, if a man live according to the Law, 

If he forsake lust and hatred and delusion, if he have right knowledge, if his 

heart is truly free, 
If he cUng to naught in this world or in that which is to come, such a man has a 

share in the Religious Life. 



BOOK II. HEEDFULNESS, APPAMADA VAGGA 

II. 1. STORY-CYCLE OF KING UDENA OR UDAYANA^ 

Heedfulness is the Way to the Deathless. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Ghosita mon- 
astery near Kosambi, and it was with reference to the loss by death of 
the five hundred women led by Samavati and of Magandiya and her 
five hundred kinswomen. From beginning to end the story is as fol- 
lows: [161] 

Part 1. Birth and youthful career of Udena 

Once upon a time King Allakappa ruled over the kingdom of 
Allakappa and King Vethadipaka ruled over the kingdom of Vetha- 
dlpaka. They had been intimate friends since their boyhood-days and 
had received their education in the house of the same teacher. On 
the death of their fathers they raised the royal parasol and became 
rulers of kingdoms, each of which was ten leagues in extent. 

As they met from time to time, and stood and sat and lay down to 
sleep together, and watched the multitudes being born into the world 
and dying again, they came to the conclusion, "When a man goes to 
the world beyond he can take nothing with him: [162] he must leave 
everything behind him when he goes thither; even his own body does 
not follow him; of what use to us is the life of the householder.'^ Let 
us retire from the world." 

Accordingly they resigned their kingdoms to son and wife, retired 
from the world, adopted the life of ascetics, and took up their residence 
in the Himalaya country. And they took counsel together, saying, 
"Although we have renounced our kingdoms and retired from the 
world, we shall encounter no difficulty in gaining a living; but if we 
reside together in the same place, our Hfe will be quite unlike the life 
of ascetics; therefore let us live apart. You live on this mountain; 
I will live on that. Every fortnight, on fast-day, we will meet to- 
gether." Then this thought occurred to them, "Under this arrange- 

^ For a discussion of the parallels to the Story-Cycle of Udena, see Introduction, 
§ 11. See also Rogers, Buddhaghosha's Parables, v, pp. 32-60. Text: N i. 161-231. 



248 Book 2, Story 1. Dhammapada 21-23 IN.i.i62o- 

ment neither of us will be in regular communication with the other; 
but in order that each of us may know whether the other is living or 
not, you light a fire on your mountain, and I will light a fire on mine." 
And this they did. 

After a time the ascetic Vethadipaka died and was reborn as a 
prince of deities of mighty power. A fortnight later Allakappa saw 
no fire on the mountain and knew that his comrade was dead. As 
soon as ever Vethadipaka was reborn, he surveyed his own heavenly 
glory, considered the deeds of his former existence, reviewed the 
austerities he had performed from the day when he retired from the 
world, and said to himself, "I will go see my comrade." Accordingly 
he laid aside his form as a deity, disguised himself as a wayfarer, went 
to Allakappa, paid obeisance to him, and stood respectfully on one 
side. 

Allakappa said to him, "Whence have you come.?" [163] "I am 
a wayfarer. Reverend Sir; I have come a long distance. But, Reverend 
Sir, does your honor reside entirely alone in this place .^^ Is there no 
one else here.'^" "I have a single comrade." "Where is he.?^" "He 
resides on that mountain; but as he failed to light a fire on fast-day, 
I know he must be dead." "Is that so. Reverend Sir.?" "That is so, 
brother." "I am he. Reverend Sir." "Where were you reborn.?" 
"Reverend Sir, I was reborn in the World of the Gods as a prince of 
deities of mighty power. I have returned to see your honor. Does 
your honorable self reside in this place undisturbed, or are you subject 
to some annoyance?" "Yes, brother, I am bothered to death by the 
elephants." " Reverend Sir, what do the elephants do to trouble you.?" 
"They drop dung on the ground I have swept clean, and they stamp 
with their feet and kick up the dust. What with removing the dung 
and smoothing the ground, I am all worn out." "Well, would you 
like to keep them away.?" "Yes, brother." "Well then, I will provide 
you with means whereby you can keep them away." 

Accordingly Vethadipaka gave Allakappa a lute to charm elephants 
with and likewise taught him spells for charming elephants. Now as he 
presented the lute to him, he showed him three strings and taught him 
three spells. "Strike this string," said he, "and utter this spell, and 
the elephants will turn and run away without so much as daring even 
to look at you; strike this string and utter this spell, and they will 
turn and run away, eyeing you at every step; strike this string and 
utter this spell, and the leader of the herd will come up and offer you 
his back. Now do as you like." With these words [164] he departed. 



-N. 1.1658] Story-cycle of King Udena 249 

Thereafter the ascetic lived in peace, driving the elephants away by 
uttering the proper spell and striking the proper string. 

At this time Parantapa was king of Kosambi. One day he was 
sitting out in the open air basking himself in the rays of the newly risen 
sun, and beside him sat his queen, great with child. The queen was 
wearing the king's cloak, a crimson blanket worth a hundred thousand 
pieces of money; and as she sat there conversing with the king she 
removed from the king's finger the royal signet, worth a hundred 
thousand pieces of money, and slipped it on her own. 

Just at that moment a monster bird with a bill as big as an ele- 
phant's trunk came soaring through the air. Seeing the queen and 
mistaking her for a piece of meat, he spread his wings and swooped 
down. When the king heard the bird swoop down, he sprang to his 
feet and entered the royal palace. But the queen, because she was 
great with child and because she was of a timid nature, was unable 
to make haste. The bird pounced upon her, caught her up in the cage 
of his talons, and soared away with her into the air. (These birds are 
said to possess the strength of five elephants; they are therefore able 
to convey their victims through the air, settle wherever they wish, 
and devour their flesh.) 

As the queen was being carried away by the bird, terrified though 
she was with the fear of death, she preserved her presence of mind and 
thought to herself, "Animals stand in great fear of the human voice. 
Therefore if I cry out, this bird will drop me the instant he hears the 
sound of my voice. But in that case I should accomplish only my own 
destruction and that of my unborn child. If, however, I wait until he 
settles somewhere and begins to eat, then I can make a noise and 
frighten him away." Through her own wisdom, therefore, she kept 
patience and endured. 

Now there stood at that time in the Himalaya country a banyan- 
tree which, although of brief growth, had attained great size [165] 
and was like a pavilion in form; and to this tree that bird was accus- 
tomed to convey the carcasses of wild animals and eat them. To this 
very tree, therefore, the bird conveyed the queen, lodged her in a 
fork of the tree, and watched the path leading to the tree. (It is the 
nature of these birds, we are told, to watch the path leading to their 
tree.) At that moment the queen, thinking to herself, "Now is the 
time to frighten him away," raised both her hands, clapped them 
together and shouted, and frightened the bird away. 

At sunset the pains of travail came upon her, and at the same time 



250 Booh 2, Story 1. Dhammapada 21-23 [N.i.iess- 

from all the four quarters of heaven arose a great storm. The delicate 
queen, half dead with suffering, with no one beside her to say to her, 
"Fear not, lady," slept not at all throughout the night. As the night 
grew bright, the clouds scattered, the dawn came, and her child was 
born at one and the same moment. Because the child was born at 
the time (utu) of a storm, at the time when she was upon a mountain, 
and at the time when the sun rose, she named her son Udena. 

Not far from that tree was the place of residence of the ascetic 
Allakappa. Now on rainy days it was the custom of the ascetic not 
to go into the forest for fruits and berries, for fear of the cold. Instead 
he used to go to the foot of the tree and gather up the bones from which 
the birds had picked the flesh; then he would pound the bones, make 
broth of them, and drink the broth. On that very day, therefore, he 
went there to get bones. As he was picking up bones at the foot of 
the tree, [166] he heard the voice of a child in the branches above. 

Looking up, he saw the queen. "Who are you?" said he. "I am 
a woman." "How did you get there.?" "A monster bird brought me 
here." "Come down," said he. "Your honor, I am afraid to come 
down on account of difference of caste." "Of what caste are you.''" 
"Of the Warrior caste." "I am also of the Warrior caste." "Well 
then, give me the password of the Warrior caste." He did so. "Well 
then, climb up and set down my boy." Finding a way to climb the 
tree on one side, he climbed up and took the boy in his arms ; obeying 
the queen's behest not to touch her with his hand, he set the boy down; 
then the queen herself came down. 

The ascetic conducted the queen along the path to his hermitage 
and cared for her tenderly without in any way violating his vow of 
chastity. He brought honey free from flies and gave it to her; he 
brought rice grown in his own field and prepared broth and gave it 
to her. Thus did he minister to her needs. 

After a time she thought to herself, "For my part I know neither 
the way to come nor the way to go, nor can I repose absolute con- 
fidence even in this ascetic. Now if he were to leave us and go else- 
where, we should both perish right here. I must by some means 
seduce him to violate his vow of chastity, so that he will not abandon 
us. Accordingly she displayed herself before him with under and upper 
garments in disarray, and thus seduced him to violate his vow of 
chastity; thenceforth the two lived together. 

One day, as the ascetic was observing a conjunction of a constella- 
tion with one of the lunar mansions, he saw the occultation of Paran- 



-N.1.168U] Story-cycle of King Udena 251 

tapa's star. "My lady," said he, "Parantapa, king of Kosambi, is 
dead." [167] "Noble sir, why do you speak thus. ^ Why do you bear 
ill-will against him.?^" "I bear him no ill-will, my lady. I say this 
because I have just seen the oecultation of his star." She burst into 
tears. "Why do you weep.'*" he asked. Then she told him that 
Parantapa was her own husband. The ascetic replied, "Weep not, 
my lady; whoever is born is certain to die." " I know that, noble sir." 
"Then why do you weep.'*" "I weep, noble sir, because it pains me to 
think, 'To my son belongs the sovereignty by right of succession; had 
he been there, he would have raised the white parasol; now he has 
become one of the common herd.'" "Never mind, my lady; be not 
disturbed. If you desire that he shall receive the sovereignty, I will 
devise some means by which he shall receive it." Accordingly the 
ascetic gave the boy the lute to charm elephants with and likewise 
taught him the spells for charming elephants. 

Now at that time many thousands of elephants came and sat at 
the foot of the banyan-tree. So the ascetic said to the boy, "Climb 
the tree before the elephants come, and when they come, utter this 
spell and strike this string, and they will all turn and run away, with- 
out even so much as daring to look at you ; then descend and come to 
me." The boy did as he was told, and then went and told the ascetic. 
On the second day the ascetic said to him, "To-day utter this spell 
and strike this string, if you please, and they will turn and run away, 
eyeing you at every step." On that day also the boy did as he was 
told, and then went [168] and told the ascetic. 

Then the ascetic addressed the mother, saying, "My lady, give 
your son his message and he will go hence and become king." So she 
addressed her son, saying, "You must say, 'I am the son of King 
Parantapa of Kosambi; a monster bird carried me off.' Then you 
must utter the names of the commander-in-chief and the other generals. 
If they still refuse to believe you, you must show them this blanket 
which was your father's cloak and this signet-ring which he wore on his 
finger." With these words she dismissed him. 

The boy said to the ascetic, "Now what shall I do.^" The ascetic 
replied, "Seat yourself on the lowest branch of the tree, utter this spell 
and strike this string, and the leader of the elephants will approach and 
offer you his back. Seat yourself on his back, go to your kingdom, 
and take the sovereignty." The boy did reverence to his parents, 
and following the instructions of the ascetic, seated himself on the 
back of the elephant and whispered in his ear, "I am the son of King 



252 Book 2, Story 1. Dhamma'pada 21-23 [N.i.iesu- 

Parantapa of Kosambi. Get me and give me the sovereignty which I 
have inherited from my father." When the elephant heard that, he 
trumpeted, "Let many thousands of elephants assemble;" and many 
thousands of elephants assembled. Again a second time he trumpeted, 
"Let the old, weak elephants retire;" and the old, weak elephants 
retired. The third time he trumpeted, " Let those that are very young 
retire;" and they also retired. 

So the boy went forth, surrounded by many thousands of warrior- 
elephants, and reaching a village on the frontier, proclaimed, "I am 
the son of the king; [169] let those who desire worldly prosperity 
come with me." Levying forces as he proceeded, he invested the city 
and sent the following message to the citizens, "Give me battle or the 
kingdom." The citizens answered, "We will give neither. Our queen 
was carried off by a monster bird when she was great with child, and 
we know not whether she is alive or dead. So long as we hear no news 
of her, we will give neither battle nor the kingdom." (At that time, 
we are told, the kingdom was handed down from father to son.) There- 
upon the boy said, "I am her son." So saying, he uttered the names 
of the commander-in-chief and the other generals, and when they still 
refused to believe him, showed the blanket and the ring. They recog- 
nized the blanket and the ring, opened the gates, and sprinkled him 
king. 

Part 2. Birth and youthful career of Ghosaka 
Story of the Past : Kotuhalaka casts away his son 

Once upon a time there was a famine in the kingdom of Ajita, and 
a man named Kotuhalaka, unable to get a living, took his young son 
Kapi and his wife Kali, and thinking, "I will go to Kosambi and get a 
living there," set out with provisions for the journey. (There are 
also those who say that he left his home because the people were dying 
of intestinal disease.) As they proceeded on their journey, their 
provisions gave out, and finally they were so overcome with hunger 
that they were not able to carry the boy. Thereupon the husband 
said to his wife, "Wife, if we live, we shall have another son. Let us 
cast this child away and continue our journey alone." 

There is a proverb, "A mother's heart is tender," and so it was 
with this woman. She replied, "I could never cast away a living 
child." "Well, what shall we do.?" "Carry him by turns." When 
the mother's turn came, she would lift the child like a wreath of flowers. 



-N.i.nii] Story-cycle of King Udena 253 

clasp him to her breast, [170] or carry him on her hip, finally giving 
him back to his father. When the father took the child, no matter 
where he held him he suffered more intense pain than ever from hunger. 
Again and again he said to his wife, "Wife, if we live, we shall have 
another son. Let us cast this child away." But this the mother 
steadfastly refused to do. 

Finally the child became so tired from being passed back and forth 
that he fell asleep in the arms of his father. When the father observed 
that he was asleep, allowing the mother to precede him, he went and 
laid the child on a couch of leaves under a bush, immediately resuming 
his journey. The mother turned, looked back, and not seeing the 
child, asked, "Husband, where is my son.^*" "I laid him down under 
a certain bush." "Husband, do not kill me. Without my son I 
cannot live. Bring my son back to me." And she smote upon her 
breast and wept. So the husband retraced his steps, recovered the 
child, and brought him back to her. (In consequence of having cast 
away his child on this one occasion, Kotuhalaka was himself cast away 
seven times in a later existence. Let no one regard an evil deed lightly, 
saying, "It is only a small matter.") 

Continuing their journey, they came to the house of a certain 
herdsman. On that day, as it happened, one of the herdsman's cows 
had calved, and the herdsman was about to hold the customary 
festival in honor of the event. Now a certain Private Buddha was 
accustomed to take his meals in the house of the hersdman. The 
herdsman, after providing the Private Buddha with food, celebrated 
the cow-festival with an abundant supply of rice-porridge. When the 
herdsman saw the visitors, he asked them, "Whence have you come.'^" 
They told him the whole story, whereupon the tender-hearted youth 
took pity on them and saw to it that they were given rice-porridge 
with a plentiful supply of ghee. The wife said to the husband, "Hus- 
band, if only you can live, I can live. For a long time you have not 
had sufficient food. Now eat to your heart's content." So saying, 
she set the ghee and curds before him, eating only a little of the ghee 
herself. The husband ate heartily; but so intense was the hunger 
from which he had suffered during the preceding seven or eight days 
that he was unable to satisfy it. 

When the herdsman had seen to it that they were provided with 
rice-porridge, [171] he began himself to eat. Now under the herds- 
man's stool lay a bitch he had raised, and as the herdsman sat there 
eating, he fed her with morsels of rice-porridge. Kotuhalaka watched 



254 Book 2, Story 1. Dhamma'pada 21-23 [N.i.i7ii- 

him feed her and thought to himself, "Fortunate indeed is that bitch 
to get such food to eat!" Kotuhalaka was unable to digest the rice- 
porridge he had eaten, died during the night, and received a new 
existence in the womb of that very bitch. 

His wife performed the funeral ceremonies over his body, and 
remaining in that very house, worked for hire. Receiving a pint-pot 
of rice, she cooked it and placed it in the bowl of the Private Buddha, 
saying, "May these grains of rice bring a reward to your servant.'* 
And she thought to herself, "It would be well for me to remain right 
here. The Private Buddha comes here regularly; and whether there 
be alms or not, I shall have the privilege of paying obeisance to him 
each day and of ministering to him. By so doing I shall obtain peace 
of mind and earn much merit." And she remained right there working 
for hire. 

After six or seven months the bitch gave birth to a single pup. 
The herdsman reserved the milk of one cow for the pup, and in no 
long time he grew to be a fine big dog. When the Private Buddha ate 
his meal, he invariably gave him a portion of his rice; and because of 
this the dog became deeply attached to the Private Buddha. 

Now the herdsman was accustomed to go regularly twice each day 
to wait upon the Private Buddha, and the dog always went with him. 
On the way was a lair of wild beasts, and the herdsman used to frighten 
the wild beasts away by striking bushes and ground with a stick and 
calling out three times, "Su! su!" One day he said to the Private 
Buddha, "Reverend Sir, in case at any time I should be unable to 
come, I will send this dog for you. Therefore if I send him, please 
understand that I wish you to come." 

A few days later the herdsman found it inconvenient to go in 
person. He therefore sent the dog in his place, saying, "Boy, go bring 
his reverence back." At the mere word of the herdsman the dog 
started off. Where he had seen his master stop and strike bushes and 
ground, the dog also stopped and barked three times; and when he 
was sure that his barking had frightened away the wild beasts, he 
went on. [172] Early in the morning, having attended to nature's 
needs, he entered the hut of leaves and grass, went to the place where 
the Private Buddha sat, barked three times by way of announcing 
his arrival, and then lay down at one side. By this the Private Buddha 
knew that it was time for him to go, and therefore started out. The 
dog ran before- him, barking constantly. From time to time the 
Private Buddha tested the dog by taking the wrong path; but every 



-N. 1.17320] Story-cycle of King Udena ^55 

time he did so the dog, by standing across the path and barking, 
intimated to him to take the other path. 

One day the Private Buddha took the wrong path, and when the 
dog tried to stop him, without turning back, he pushed away the dog 
with his foot and went on. The dog, perceiving that he did not intend 
to turn back, took the hem of his undergarment in his teeth and 
dragged him along until he brought him to the right path. Such was 
the strength of the affection of the dog for the Private Buddha. 

Later on the Private Buddha's robe wore out. When the herdsman 
provided him with materials for a new set of robes, the Private Buddha 
said to him, "Brother, it is difficult for a person all alone to make a 
robe. I will go to a convenient place and have it made for me." "Make 
it right here. Reverend Sir." "No, brother, I cannot." "Well then. 
Reverend Sir, do not take up your residence far from here." The 
dog stood listening to every word they said. The Private Buddha 
said, "Wait a moment, brother." Thereupon, leaving the herds- 
man behind, he flew up into the air and departed in the direction of 
Gandhamadana. 

When the dog saw him flying through the air, [173] he began to 
bark and howl, and he kept this up until the Private Buddha gradually 
faded from view, whereupon his heart broke. (Animals, they say, are 
straightforward and not given to deceit; men, however, think one 
thing in their heart, but say another with their lips. Therefore said 
the Exalted One to a monk, "The ways of men are past finding out, 
but the ways of the beasts are easy to discover.") So when the dog 
died, he was reborn, because of his straightforwardness and lack of 
deceit, in the World of the Thirty-three with a retinue of a thousand 
celestial nymphs, and there he enjoyed glory and bliss unspeakable. 
When he but whispered, his voice carried a distance of sixteen leagues; 
when he spoke in an ordinary tone, he could be heard all over the city 
of the gods, a city ten thousand leagues in extent. (Do you ask, "Of 
what was this the consequence.^^" It was because he barked and 
howled for love of the Private Buddha.) 

Remaining in the World of the Thirty-three for no long time, he 
passed from that state of existence. (Deities pass from the World of 
the Gods through four causes : exhaustion of life, exhaustion of merit, 
exhaustion of food, and anger. He that has earned much merit is 
reborn in the World of the Gods, remains there during the term 
allotted to him, and is then reborn higher and higher. Thus he passes 
through "exhaustion of life." He that has earned little merit soon 



256 Book 2, Story 1. Dhammapada 21-23 [N.i.i73«o- 

exhausts that merit, just as three or four pint-pots of rice tossed into 
a royal storehouse disappear; and he therefore soon dies. Thus he 
passes through "exhaustion of merit." Still a third, while enjoying 
the pleasures of sense, fails through confusion of memory to partake 
of food, and the strength of his body being thereby impaired, dies. 
Thus he passes through "exhaustion of food." A fourth, jealous of 
the glory of another, [174] becomes angry and dies. Thus he passes 
through "anger.") 

Story of the Present : Ghosaka is cast away seven times 

Ghosaka, while enjoying the pleasures of sense, became forgetful, 
passed, through exhaustion of food, from the World of the Thirty-three, 
and was conceived in the womb of a courtezan of Kosambi. On the 
day when the courtezan gave birth to the child, she asked her slave- 
woman, "What is it.?" "A son, my lady." "Very well, put this boy 
into an old winnowing basket and cast him away on the dust-heap." 
Thus she caused him to be cast away. (Courtezans will bestow care on 
a daughter, but not on a son, for it is through a daughter that their 
line of business is maintained.) Crows and dogs surrounded the child 
and huddled about him; but in consequence of his barking and howling 
for love of the Private Buddha, not one dared to approach him. 

At that moment a man came out and saw the crows and dogs all 
huddled together. "What does this mean.'^" thought he to himself, 
going nearer. When he saw the boy, he immediately took a fancy to 
him, and saying to himself, "I have gained a son," he picked the boy 
up and took him home with him. 

Now the treasurer of Kosambi happened at that time to go to the 
royal palace. Seeing the house-priest returning from the royal resi- 
dence, he asked him, "Teacher, have you observed a conjunction of a 
constellation with one of the lunar mansions to-day .f*" "Yes, great 
treasurer. What else have we to doT^ "What will happen to the 
country.'^" "Only this : a boy has been born in this city to-day who will 
one day become the principal treasurer." As the treasurer's wife was 
at that time great with child, he immediately sent a messenger to his 
house, saying, "Go find out whether or not she has given birth to a 
child." 

He received the answer that she had not yet given birth to a child. 
Therefore, as soon as he had seen the king, he went home quickly, 
summoned a slave-woman named Kali, gave her a thousand pieces of 



-N. 1.1766] Story-cycle of King TJdena 257 

money, [175] and said, "Go scour this city, find the boy that was 
born to-day, and bring him hither to me." While she was scouring 
the city, she came to the house where the child was and asked the 
mistress of the house, "When was this boy born.'^" "To-day." "Give 
him to me," said she, first offering a penny and gradually increasing 
the amount until finally, by offering a thousand pieces of money, she 
obtained him. Then she took him with her and presented him to the 
treasurer. 

The treasurer gave him a home in his house, thinking to himself, 
"If a daughter is born to me, I will marry her to this boy and make him 
treasurer; but if a son is born to me, I will kill him." After a few 
days his wife gave birth to a son. Thereupon the treasurer thought 
to himself, "If only this foundling did not exist, my own son would 
obtain the post of treasurer. I had best kill him immediately." So 
he said to Kali, "Carry this child to the cattle-pen, and when it is 
time for the cattle to come out, lay him across the doorway, and the 
cattle will trample him to death. Observe whether or not they trample 
him to death, and then come back and tell me." 

She carried the child to the cattle-pen, and as soon as the door 
was opened, laid him across the doorway. Now at other times the 
leader of the herd, the bull, came out last of all; but on this particular 
day he came out first, inclosed the boy with his four feet, and stood 
stock still. Several hundred cows came out on either side of the bull, 
rubbing against his flanks as they passed. The herdsman thought to 
himself, "Hitherto this bull has always gone out last of all, but to-day 
he went out first and stood stock still in the doorway of the pen. What 
can this mean.'*" Going near, he saw the boy lying under the bull. 
Immediately taking a fancy to him, he said to himself, "I have gained 
a son," and picking him up, he carried him home. 

Kali went back to the treasurer and in answer to his question told 
him what had happened. Said the treasurer, "Go to the herdsman, 
give him these thousand pieces of money, and bring the child back to 
me again." So she brought the child back again and gave him to the 
treasurer. [176] Then he said to her, "Good Kali, five hundred carts 
start from this city at dawn on a trading expedition. Take this child 
and lay him in the track of the wheels. Either the oxen will trample 
him under their feet or the wheels will crush him to death. Observe 
what happens to him, and then return to me." 

She took the child and laid him down in the track of the wheels. 
The leader of the caravan came first; but when his oxen reached the 



258 Book 2, Story 1. Dhamma'pada 21-23 [N.i.1766- 

place where the child lay, they threw off the yoke. Again and again 
the leader replaced the yoke and tried to drive the oxen forwards; 
but as often as he did so, they threw off the yoke and refused to move. 
He was still struggling with them when the sun rose. *'Why have the 
oxen acted thus.f^" thought he. He looked at the road and saw the 
boy. "Oh, what a grievous wrong I have done!" thought he. His 
heart was filled with joy at the thought, "I have gained a son," and 
picking up the boy, he carried him off. 

Kali went back to the treasurer and in answer to his question told 
him what had happened. Said the treasurer, "Go to the caravan- 
leader, give him a thousand pieces of money, and bring the child back 
to me again." When she had so done, he said to her, "Now carry him 
to the burning-ground and lay him in the bushes. There he will 
either be eaten by dogs or attacked by demons, and he will die. As 
soon as you know whether or not he is dead, return to me." 

She took the child, laid him in the bushes, and stood at one side. 
But neither dog nor crow nor demon dared to approach him. (Pray, 
if he had neither mother nor father nor brother nor other kinsman to 
protect him, what was it that did protect him? All that protected him 
was his howling for love of the Private Buddha in his former existence 
as a dog.) 

Just then a goatherd passed on one side of the burning-ground, 
leading several thousand goats to pasture. A certain she-goat made 
her way into the bushes eating leaves and grass, and seeing the boy, 
knelt down and gave him suck. The goatherd called, "He! he!" but 
she did not come out. Thereupon he said to himself, "I will beat her 
with my stick and bring her out." So saying, he made his way into the 
bushes. [177] And there he saw the she-goat on her knees, giving suck 
to the boy. He immediately took a fancy to the boy, and saying to 
himself, "I have gained a son," picked him up and carried him off. ,ji, 

Kali went back to the treasurer and in answer to his question told 
him what had happened. Said the treasurer, "Go to the goatherd, 
give him a thousand pieces of money, and bring the child back to 
me again." When she had so done, he said to her, "Good Kali, take 
this child with you, climb the mountain that is known as Robbers' 
Cliff, and throw him down the precipice. He will strike against the 
sides of the ravine and be dashed to pieces when he reaches the bottom. 
As soon as you know whether or not he is dead, return to me." 

She carried the child to Robbers' Cliff, and standing at the top of 
the mountain, threw him down. Now there grew along the mountain 



-N. 1.17819] Story-cycle of King Udena 259 

near that abyss a dense bamboo thicket, and the top of the mountain 
was covered with a thick growth of gunja shrub. As the boy fell, he 
dropped into this bamboo thicket as into a coverlet of goat's hair. 
Now that very day the leader of the reed-makers had received a gift 
of bamboo and accompanied by his son, he had gone to chop that 
thicket down. As he began his work, the bamboo shook and the 
boy cried out. "That sounds like the voice of a boy," thought he. 
Climbing up on one side, he saw the boy. His heart was filled with 
joy at the thought, "I have gained a son," and picking up the boy, he 
carried him off. 

Kali went back to the treasurer and in answer to his question told 
him what had happened. Said the treasurer, "Go to the reed-maker, 
give him a thousand pieces of money, and bring the child back to me 
again." She did so. But in spite of the treasurer's attempts on his 
life, the child lived and thrived and grew to manhood. Ghosaka was 
his name. He was like a thorn in the eye of the treasurer, who could 
not look him straight in the face. 

Thinking of a way to kill him, the treasurer went to a friend of his 
who was a potter and asked him, "When are you going to fire your 
bake-house.'*" "To-morrow." [178] " Well then, take these thousand 
pieces of money and do a job for me." "What is it, master.'*" "I 
have a single base-born son. I will send him to you. Take him into 
an inner room, chop him to pieces with a sharp axe, throw him into 
a chatty, and bake him in the bake-house. Here are a thousand pieces 
of money, to seal the bargain, as it were. But in addition I will reward 
you suitably later." "Very well," said the potter, consenting to the 
bargain. 

On the following day the treasurer summoned Ghosaka and sent 
him to the potter, saying, "Yesterday I left an order with the potter 
to do a certain piece of work for me. Go say to him, 'Finish the job 
my father gave you yesterday.'" "Very well," said Ghosaka, and 
set out. 

As Ghosaka was on his way to the potter's, the treasurer's other 
son, who was playing marbles with some boys, saw him. And calling 
to him, he asked, "Where are you going.?" "I am carrying a message 
to the potter for father." "Let me go there. These boys have won a 
big stake from me. You win it back and give it to me." "I am afraid 
of father." "Do not fear, brother; I will carry that message. I have 
lost a big stake. You play until I return again, and win the stake 
back for me." 



260 Book 2, Story 1. Dhammapada 21-23 [N.i.i78i9- 

(We are told that Ghosaka was skillful at shooting marbles, and 
that for this reason his foster-brother was so insistent.) 

So Ghosaka consented to let his foster-brother go in his place, 
saying, "Well then, go to the potter and say to him, 'Finish the job 
my father gave you yesterday.' " Thus it happened that the treasurer's 
own son carried the message to the potter. The potter killed him 
according to the letter of the directions he had received from the 
treasurer and threw his body into the bake-house. Ghosaka played 
marbles all day and went home in the evening. [179] "You have 
returned home, son.?*" queried the treasurer. Ghosaka then told him 
the reason why he had himself returned home and let his younger 
brother go to the potter. 

"Woe is me!" cried the treasurer with a loud voice. He looked as 
though the blood had been drawn from his veins. He rushed to the 
potter, wringing his hands and wailing, "Oh, potter, do not kill me! 
do not kill me!" The potter saw him approaching in this wise and 
said to him, "Master, make no noise; the job is done." Thus was 
the treasurer overwhelmed with sorrow as with a mountain. Thus did 
he suffer great grief, even as do all who offend against those that are 
without offense. Therefore said the Exalted One, 

137. Whosoever visits punishment on those that deserve not punishment. 
Whosoever offends against those that are without offense. 

Such an one will right quickly come to one of ten states : 

138. He will incur cruel suffering, or infirmity, or injury of the body. 
Or severe sickness, or loss of mind, 

139. Or misfortune proceeding from the king, or a heavy accusation. 
Or death of relatives, or loss of treasures, 

140. Or else the fire of lightning will consume his houses; 

Upon dissolution of the body such a fool will go to Hell. [180] 

Now under these circumstances the treasurer was unable to look 
Ghosaka straight in the face. "How can I manage to kill him.?" 
thought he. Finally he thought of a way. "I will send him to the 
superintendent of my hundred villages and order him to kill him," 
said he to himself. Accordingly he wrote the following letter to the 
superintendent, "This is my base-born son. Kill him and throw him 
into the cesspool. Let this be done, and I shall know how to reward 
my uncle properly." Then he said to his foster-son, "Dear Ghosaka, 
there is a superintendent over our hundred villages. Take this letter 
and give it to him." So saying, he fastened the letter to the hem of 



-N. 1.1 81 16] Story -cycle of King Udena 261 

his garment. (Now Ghosaka did not know how to read and write, for 
ever since he was a boy the treasurer had striven, although without 
success, to kill him. Why, therefore, should he have taught him to 
read and write.'') As Ghosaka set out with his own death-warrant 
fastened to the hem of his garment, he said to his father, "Father, 
I have no provisions for the journey." "You have no need of pro- 
visions for the journey. On the way, in such and such a village, lives 
a friend of mine who is a treasurer. Obtain your breakfast at his 
house, and then continue your journey." "Very well," said Ghosaka, 
and bowing to his father, set out on his journey. 

When he arrived at the village, he inquired where the treasurer's 
house was, went there, and saw the treasurer's wife. "Whence have 
you come?" she inquired. "From the city," he replied. "Whose son 
are you.'*" "I am the son of your friend the treasurer, my lady." 
"Then you are Ghosaka." "Yes, my lady." She fell in love with him 
at first sight. Now the treasurer had a daughter about fifteen or 
sixteen years of age, and she was exceedingly beautiful and fair to 
look upon. In order to keep her safe and sound, her parents lodged her 
on the topmost floor of a seven-storied palace in an apartment of royal 
splendor, giving her a single slave-girl to run errands. [181] At that 
moment the treasurer's daughter sent this slave-girl to a shop. The 
treasurer's wife, seeing her, asked, "Where are you going .5^" "On an 
errand for your daughter, my lady." "Just come here a moment. 
Never mind the errand. Spread a seat for my son, bathe his feet, anoint 
them with oil, and then spread a couch for him. After you have done 
this, you may do your errand." The slave-girl did as she was told. 

When she returned, the treasurer's daughter scolded her for her 
long absence. The slave-girl replied, "Be not angry with me. The 
treasurer's son Ghosaka has arrived, and I had to do this and that 
for him, besides going on an errand for you, before I returned." When 
the treasurer's daughter heard the name "treasurer's son Ghosaka," 
love suffused her body, cleaving her skin and penetrating the marrow 
of her bones. 

(For she had been his wife in his former existence as Kotuhalaka 
and had given a pint-pot of rice to the Private Buddha. And through 
his supernatural power she had been reborn in the household of the 
treasurer. No wonder her old passion for him returned and over- 
whelmed her! Therefore said the Exalted One, 

Through previous association or present advantage, 
That love springs up like a lily in the water.) 



262 Book 2, Story 1. Dhammapada 21-33 [N.i.isin- 

The treasurer's daughter said to the slave-girl, "Girl, where is he?'* 
"He is lying asleep on the couch." "Has he anything in his hand?'* 
"There is a letter fastened to his garment." "What can be in this 
letter?" she thought. So while Ghosaka was asleep, and her mother 
and father were otherwise engaged, she came down without attracting 
their attention, detached the letter from his garment, took it with her, 
went into her room, closed the door, opened the window, and through 
her knowledge of writing read the letter. "Oh!" she exclaimed, "the 
simpleton is going about with his own death-warrant fastened to 
his garment. [182] Had I not seen it, he would surely have been 
killed." 

So she tore up this letter and wrote another in the name of the 
treasurer as follows, "This is my son Ghosaka. Procure presents for 
him from my hundred villages. Prepare a festival in honor of his 
marriage with the daughter of this district-treasurer. Build him a 
two-storied house in the center of the village wherein he resides. 
Surround his house with a wall and with a guard of men, and so provide 
him with ample protection. Then send me a message, saying, 'I have 
done thus and so,' and I shall know how to reward my uncle properly." 
Having written the letter, she folded it up and fastened it to the hem 
of his garment. 

After sleeping all day, Ghosaka arose, ate his meal, and went on 
his way. Early on the morning of the following day he arrived at 
that village and saw the superintendent performing his village duties. 
When the superintendent saw him, he asked him, "What is it, dear 
Ghosaka?" "My father has sent you a letter." "What is it about, 
dear Ghosaka? Bring it to me." He took the letter and read it, 
and then said with an exclamation of delight, "See, men, how my 
master loves me. He has sent me a message, saying, 'Prepare a festival 
in honor of my oldest son.' Bring wood and other building materials 
immediately." Having thus given orders to the householders, he 
caused a house of the kind described in the letter to be erected in the 
center of the village, had presents brought from the hundred villages, 
conducted the daughter of the district-treasurer thither, celebrated 
the marriage festival, and then sent word to the treasurer, saying, "I 
have done thus and so." 

When the treasurer received the message, he said, "What I would 
do, that I do not; what I would not do, that I do." Disappointment 
over the failure of his latest plan, together with sorrow over the death 
of his own son, set him on fire within and produced diarrhea. 



-N. 1.1848] Story-cycle of King Udena 263 

The treasurer's daughter gave orders, saying, "Should anyone 
come here from the treasurer, tell me before you tell the treasurer's 
son." [183] The treasurer said to himself, "At any rate I will not 
make this rascally son of mine heir to my property." With this thought 
in mind he said to a certain official, "Uncle, I wish to see my son. Send 
a servant and summon my son." "Very well," replied the official, 
and giving a certain man the letter, sent him away. 

When the treasurer's daughter heard that the servant had arrived 
and was standing at the door, she sent for him and asked him, "What 
is it, my man.^^" "The treasurer is sick and wishes to see his son, and 
has therefore sent for him, my lady." "My man, is he strong or 
weak?" "He is still strong, my lady, and able to take nourishment." 
Without letting the treasurer's son know, she ordered that the man 
should be given lodging and expenses and said to him, "You may go 
when I send you. Remain here for the present." 

Again the treasurer addressed the official, "Uncle, did you not send 
a messenger to my son.?^" "I did, master, but the man who went has 
not yet returned." "Well then, try again and send another." So 
the official sent another man, and the treasurer's daughter treated 
him just as she had the first. The treasurer's condition grew worse; 
one chamber-pot went in and another came out. Again the treasurer 
asked the official, "Uncle, did you not send a messenger to my son.^^" 
"I did, master, but the man who went has not yet returned." "Well 
then, try again and send another." So the official sent another man. 
When the third messenger arrived, the treasurer's daughter asked 
him the news. "The treasurer is a very sick man, my lady. He refuses 
to eat and is confined to his bed. One chamber-pot comes out and 
another goes in." 

"Now it is time to go," thought the treasurer's daughter. So she 
said to the treasurer's son, "I learn that your father is sick." "Wife, 
what say you?" "It may be only a slight ailment, husband." "What 
is to be done now?" [184] "Let us take presents from his hundred 
villages and go see him." "Very well," said he. Having caused 
presents to be brought, he started out, conveying the presents in a 
cart. Then she said to him, "Your father is very weak. If we take 
all these presents, we shall be delayed on the way; send them back." 
Having sent all the presents back to their own house, she said to the 
treasurer's son, "Husband, please stand at your father's feet; I will 
stand beside his pillow." And as they entered the house, she gave 
orders to her own men, "Stand on guard both in the front of the house 



264 Book 2, Story 1. Dhavimapada 21-28 [N. 1.1848- 

and in the rear." And when they had entered, the treasurer's son 
took his stand at his father's feet and his wife beside his pillow. 

At that moment the treasurer was lying on his back and the oflBcial 
was rubbing his feet. The latter said to him, "Master, your son has 
arrived." "Where is he.''" "Here he is, standing at your feet." 
When the treasurer saw his son, he sent for the receiver of his revenues 
and asked him, "How much wealth is there in my house.''" "Master, 
of money alone there are four hundred millions; as for objects for 
employment and enjoyment, such as villages and fields and men and 
animals and wagons and carriages, such and such is the total." It 
was the treasurer's intention to say, "All of this wealth I do not give 
to my son Ghosaka." But instead of this he said, "I do give." 

When the treasurer's daughter heard this, she thought to herself, 
"However, if this man should speak again, he might say something 
very different." Accordingly, pretending to be overcome with grief, 
she disheveled her hair, burst into tears, and said, "Dear father, do 
you really mean this.'' In spite of these words of yours, which we hear, 
we are indeed unfortunate." So saying, she fell on him, struck the 
middle of his breast with the crown of her head, and in order that he 
might not be able to speak again, rubbed the middle of his breast with 
the crown of her head, displaying at the same time signs of profound 
grief. At that very moment the treasurer died. [185] 

They went and informed King Udena of his death. The king 
had the funeral ceremonies performed over his body and asked, 
"Has he any son or daughter.^" "Your majesty, he has a son named 
Ghosaka; and, your majesty, he bestowed all his property on him be- 
fore he died." Some time afterwards, the king sent for the treasurer's 
son. Now that day it rained, and there were pools of water here and 
there in the palace court. The treasurer's son set out to see the king. 
The king opened his window and watched him as he approached, 
noticing that as he crossed the palace court he leaped over the pools 
of water that stood in the court. When he reached the palace and 
paid obeisance to the king and stood before him, the king asked him, 
"Your name is Ghosaka?" "Yes, your majesty." The king com- 
forted him, saying, "Do not grieve at the thought that your father 
is dead. I will give you alone your father's post as treasurer." Then 
he dismissed him, saying, "Now, dear Ghosaka, you may go," and 
stood and watched him as he left the palace. 

Now whereas Ghosaka leaped over the water in approaching the 
palace, he walked through it on his return. The king sent orders for 



-N. 1.18623] Story-cycle of King Udena # 265 

him to return from where he was and asked him, "Dear Ghosaka, 
is it a fact that whereas, in coming to me, you leaped over the water, 
on your return you walk through it?" "It is even so, your majesty. 
Then I was a boy and was fond of play, but now I have been promised 
a post of honor by your majesty. Therefore I must now lay aside my 
former ways and deport myself with modesty and dignity." On hear- 
ing this, the king thought to himself, "There is a wise man. I will give 
him the post immediately." Accordingly he gave him the wealth 
formerly possessed by his father and the post of treasurer, together 
with all the hundred villages. Then Ghosaka mounted his chariot and 
drove sunwise round the city. Every place he looked at quaked and 
trembled. 

The treasurer's daughter sat talking with the slave-woman Kali. 
[186] "Mother Kali," said she, "it was through me that your son 
obtained all this worldly glory." "How is that, my lady.^*" "Why, 
this youth came to our house with his own death-warrant fastened to 
the hem of his garment. I tore up that letter and wrote another, 
ordering the celebration of a festival in honor of my marriage to him. 
In this way did I protect him all that time." "My lady, this is all 
you know about it. But as a matter of fact, from the time your 
husband was a little boy, the treasurer constantly sought to kill him, 
and though his attempts were unsuccessful, a large sum of money was 
spent solely for the purpose of accomplishing his death." "Kali, the 
treasurer was indeed guilty of abominable crimes!" 

Having performed his ceremonial circuit of the city, Ghosaka 
entered his house. Now when his wife saw him, she thought to herself, 
"It was through me that he obtained all this worldly glory," and 
laughed. The treasurer's son asked her, "Why do you laugh.?^" "For 
a certain reason." "Tell me the reason." She refused to do so. He 
drew his sword and said, "If you do not tell me, I will cut you in twain." 
Then she said, "I laughed to think that it was through me that you 
obtained all this worldly glory." "If what I possess was handed over 
to me by my father, where do you come in.f^" (We are told that during 
all that time Ghosaka knew nothing about the designs against his life, 
and that that was why he refused to believe what she said.) So she 
told him the whole story, saying, "When your father sent you forth 
bearing your own death-warrant, I did this and that and protected 
you." 

"What you say is not true," replied Ghosaka, refusing to believe 
her. "I will ask Mother Kali." So he asked the slave-woman, "Kali, 



266 Booh 2y Story 1. Dhammapada 21-23 [N.1.I8624- 

is what she says true?" "Yes, my lord. From the time you were a 
little boy your father sought constantly to kill you, and though his 
attempts were unsuccessful, a large sum of money was spent for the 
purpose of accomplishing your death. On seven occasions you had a 
narrow escape from death. Now, coming from the village of which 
he was headman, [187] you have obtained the post of treasurer, 
together with all the hundred villages." 

When Ghosaka heard this, he thought to himself, "How great was 
my presumption ! But since I have escaped from so terrible a death, I 
must no longer live the life of Heedlessness. Henceforth, therefore, I 
will live the life of Heedfulness." Accordingly he established alms for 
the blind and the poor, and employing his friend the householder as 
steward of his alms, he dispensed a thousand pieces of money daily. 

Part 3. Birth and youthful career of Samavati 

Now at this time there lived in the city of Bhaddavati a treasurer 
named Bhaddavatiya, and he was a friend of the treasurer Ghosaka, 
although Ghosaka had never seen him. For the treasurer Ghosaka 
heard, from traders who came from the city of Bhaddavati, of the 
wealth and age of the treasurer Bhaddavatiya, and desiring to be 
friends with him, sent him a present. Likewise the treasurer Bhad- 
davatiya heard, from traders who came from the city of Kosambi, of 
the wealth and age of the treasurer Ghosaka, and desiring to be friends 
with him, sent him a present. Thus, although neither had seen the 
other, they dwelt as friends. 

After a time intestinal disease broke out in the house of the treasurer 
Bhaddavatiya. When this disease breaks out, the first to die are 
flies; afterwards, in regular order, insects, mice, domestic fowls, swine, 
cattle, slaves both female and male, and last of all the members of the 
household. Only those that break down the wall and flee, save their 
lives. Now at that time the treasurer Bhaddavatiya and his wife 
and daughter fled in this manner, and intending to seek the treasurer 
Ghosaka, [188] set out on the road to Kosambi. While they were 
still on their way, their provisions for the journey gave out, and their 
bodies became exhausted from exposure to wind and sun, and from 
hunger and thirst. Reaching Kosambi with difficulty, they bathed in 
a pool of water in a pleasant place and then entered a certain rest- 
house at the gate of the city. 

Then the treasurer said to his wife, "Wife, those who travel in 



-N. 1.18915] Story-cycle of King Udena 267 

this way are not courteous even to a mother who has borne a child. 
Now I have a friend who, they say, dispenses a thousand pieces of 
money daily in alms to the blind, the poor, and other unfortunate 
persons. We will send our daughter there, have her bring us food, 
remain right here for a day or two and refresh our bodies, and then we 
will go and see my friend." "Very well, husband," she replied, arid 
they took up their residence right there in the rest-house. 

On the following day, when meal-time was announced and the 
blind, the poor, and other unfortunate persons went to obtain food, 
the mother and father sent forth their daughter, saying, "Daughter, 
go bring us food." So the daughter of a wealthy house, pride overcome 
with misfortune, hid her shame, took a bowl, and went with poor folk 
to procure food. "How many portions will you have.^^" she was asked. 
"Three," she replied. So they gave her three portions. She carried the 
food back to her parents, and the three sat down to eat together. The 
mother and daughter said to the treasurer, "Master, misfortune comes 
even to prominent families. Eat without regarding us and do not 
worry." After a good deal of urging, they prevailed upon him to eat. 
But after he had eaten, he was unable to digest his food, and when the 
sun rose, he died. The mother and daughter wept and wailed and 
lamented. 

On the following day the young girl went the second time to procure 
food. "How many portions will you have?" [189] "Two." She 
carried the food back to her mother, and after a good deal of urging, 
prevailed upon her to eat. The mother yielded to her pleading and 
consented to eat, but died on that very day. The young girl, left alone 
to herself, wept and wailed and lamented over the misfortune that had 
come upon her. On the following day, suffering the pangs of hunger 
keenly, she went weeping in the company of beggars to procure food. 
"How many portions will you have, daughter.?" " One," was her reply. 

A householder named Mitta, remembering that she had received 
food for three days, said to her, "Perish, vile woman. To-day, at 
last, you have come to know the capacity of your belly." This 
daughter of a respectable family, modest and timid, felt as though she 
had received a sword-thrust in her bosom, or as though salt water had 
been sprinkled on a sore. She immediately replied, "What do you 
mean, sir.^^" "Day before yesterday you took three portions, yesterday 
two, to-day you take but one. To-day, then, you know the capacity 
of your belly." "Sir, do not think that I took these for myself." 
^*Why then did you take them?" "Sir, day before yesterday we were 



268 Book 2, Story 1. Dhammapada 21-23 [N.i.isois- 

three, yesterday we were two, to-day I am left alone." "How is that?" 
he inquired. 

She then told him the whole story from the beginning. As he 
listened to her story, he was unable to control his tears, but was over- 
come by the power of the grief that arose within him. Finally he said 
to her, "My dear girl, if this is the case, do not worry. Hitherto you 
have been the daughter of the treasurer Bhaddavatiya, but from this 
day forth you shall be my very own daughter." And he kissed her on 
the head, conducted her to his own house, and adopted her as his own 
oldest daughter. 

One day she heard loud and piercing screams in the refectory, 
whereupon she said to her foster-father, "Father, why do you not 
keep these people quiet when you dispense alms.'^" "It is impossible to 
do it, dear daughter." "Father, it is quite possible." "How would 
you do it, dear daughter .'^" "Father, [190] put a fence around the 
refectory and hang two gates through which the people may pass in and 
out, allowing only sufficient space for one person to pass through at a 
time. Then direct the people to pass in through one gate and out 
through the other. If you do this, they will receive their alms peace- 
ably and quietly." When the householder had heard her plan he 
remarked, "A happy device, dear daughter," and did as she suggested. 
Now up to that time her name had been Sama, but through her con- 
struction of a fence {vati) she received the name Samavati. From that 
time on there was no more tumult in the refectory. 

Now the treasurer Ghosaka had long been accustomed to hear this 
noise in the refectory and rather liked to hear it; for it always made him 
think, "That is the noise in my refectory." But after hearing no noise 
at all for two or three days, he asked the householder Mitta, who came 
one day to wait upon him, "Are alms being give to the blind, the poor, 
and other unfortunate persons?'* "Yes, sir." "How then does it 
happen that for two or three days past I have not heard a sound?" 
"I have arranged matters so that the people now receive alms without 
making any noise." "Why didn't you do so before?" "I didn't 
know how, sir." "How did you happen to find a way just now?" 
*'My daughter told me how to do it, sir." "Have you a daughter 
whom I have never seen?" Then the householder told him the whole 
story of the treasurer Bhaddavatiya, beginning with the outbreak of 
the plague and ending with his adoption of the young girl as his own 
oldest daughter. 

Then said the treasurer to him, "If this is the case, why did you 



-N. 1.19123] Story-cycle of King Udena 269 

not tell me? My friend's daughter is my own daughter." So he sent 
for her and asked her, "Dear girl, are you the daughter of the treas- 
urer.'^" "Yes, sir, I am." "Well then, do not worry; you are my own 
daughter." Then he kissed her on the head, gave her five hundred 
women for her retinue, and adopted her as his own oldest daughter. 

One day a festival was proclaimed in this city. Now at this festival 
daughters of respectable families, who do not ordinarily go out, go on 
foot with their own retinue [191] and bathe in the river. Accordingly 
on that day Samavati also, accompanied by her five hundred women, 
went right through the palace court to bathe in the river. King Udena 
stood at his window and saw her. "Whose are those nautch-girls.''" 
he inquired. "Nobody's nautch-girls, your majesty." "Then whose 
daughters are they.f^" "Your majesty, that is the daughter of the 
treasurer Bhaddavatiya, and her name is Samavati." Now the king 
fell in love with the girl the moment he saw her, and immediately sent 
word to the treasurer Ghosaka, "Send me the maiden they say is your 
daughter." "I will not send her, your majesty." "Do not act thus. 
Do as I ask and send her." "Your majesty, we householders do not 
give young girls, for fear people will say they are abused and mal- 
treated." Angered by the treasurer's reply, the king caused the 
treasurer's house to be sealed and the treasurer and his wife to be 
seized and turned out of doors. 

When Samavati returned after her bath and found no way of 
entering the house, she asked, "What does this mean, dear father.^" 
"Dear daughter, the king sent for you; and when we refused to give 
you to him, he caused the house to be sealed and caused us to be turned 
out of doors." "Dear father, you made a great mistake. When one 
who is a king commands, you should not say, 'We do not give.' You 
should rather say, *If you will take our daughter with her retinue, we 
will give her to you.'" "Very well, dear daughter. If that is your 
desire, I will do as you say." Accordingly Ghosaka sent a message to 
that effect to the king, and the king accepted his offer, saying, "Very 
well." Then the king conducted Samavati with her retinue to the 
royal palace, conferred the ceremonial sprinkling on her, and elevated 
her to the dignity of chief consort. The other women became her 
ladies-in-waiting. 



270 Book 2y Story 1. Dhammapada 21-23 [N.i.i9i84- 

Part 4. Winning of Vasuladatta by Udena 

Yet another of Udena's queen-consorts was Vasuladatta, [192] 
daughter of Canda Pajjota, king of Ujjeni. One day, as Canda 
Pajjota was returning from his pleasure-garden, he surveyed his own 
splendor and asked, "Is there any other soever possessed of splendor 
like mine?" "Splendor such as it is, King Udena of Kosambi possesses 
exceeding great splendor." "Very well, let us take him captive." 
"It is impossible to captm-e him." "By employing some means or 
other, let us capture him all the same." "It is impossible, your 
majesty." "Why.?" " He understands the art of charming elephants. 
By reciting spells and playing his elephant-charming lute, he either 
drives elephants away or captures them at his pleasure. No one 
possesses so many riding-elephants as he." "I suppose it is impossible 
for me to capture him." "If you are bent on doing it, have a wooden 
elephant made and turned loose near him. Let him hear of a good 
mount, be it elephant or horse, and he will go a long way for it. When 
he is close by, you can capture him." "A stratagem indeed!" ex- 
claimed the king. 

So the king had a mechanical elephant made of wood, wrapped 
about with strips of cloth and deftly painted, and turned it loose on 
the bank of a certain lake near the country of his enemy. Within the 
belly of the elephant sixty men walked back and forth ; every now and 
then they loaded their shovels with elephant dung and dumped it out. 
A certain woodman saw the elephant, and thinking to himself, "Just 
the thing for our king!" went and told the king, "Your majesty, I saw 
a noble elephant, pure white even as the peak of Kelasa, just the sort 
of elephant your majesty would like." 

Udena mounted his elephant and set out, taking the woodman along 
as a guide and accompanied by his retinue. His approach was [193] 
observed by spies, who went and informed Canda Pajjota. The latter 
straightway dispatched armies on both flanks of his enemy, allowing 
the space between them to remain open. Udena, unaware of his 
enemy's approach, continued to pursue the elephant. He recited his 
spell and played his lute, but all to no purpose. The wooden elephant, 
driven with great speed by the men concealed within its belly, made 
as if it failed to hear the charm and continued its flight. The king, 
unable to overtake the elephant, mounted his horse. On and on sped 
the horse, galloping so rapidly that by degrees the army of the king 
was left far behind and the king was quite alone. Then Canda Paj jota's 



-N. 1.19420] Story-cycle of King Udena 271 

men, who were posted on both flanks, captured Udena and turned him 
over to their king. Udena's army, perceiving that their leader had 
fallen into the hands of the enemy, built a stockade just outside of 
TJjjeni and remained there. 

Canda Pajjota, having thus captured Udena alive, clapped him 
into prison behind closed doors and kept wassail for three days. On 
the third day Udena asked his keepers, "Friends, where's your king.'*" 
"Carousing, for, says he, 'I've landed my enemy.' " "What does your 
king mean by acting like a woman .f* He has captured a royal adversary 
and surely ought either to release him or to kill him. He has brought 
humiliation upon us and is 'carousing' — indeed!" The keepers went 
and reported the incident to the king. The king came and asked, 
"Is it true that you said thus and thus.^*" "Yes, your majesty." 
"Very well, I will release you. They say you have such and such a 
charm; will you give it to me?" " Certainly I will give it to you ; but 
when you receive it, will you pay me homage.''" "I pay you homage .^^ 
I'll not pay you homage." "Then I'll not give it to you." [194] "In 
that case I will have you executed." "Do so; you are lord of my 
body, not of my mind." 

When the king heard Udena's defiant answer, he thought to him- 
self, "How in the world can I get the charm.'' I have it. I'll have my 
daughter learn it from him, and then I'll learn it from her. It would 
never do to let anyone else learn a charm like this." So he said to 
Udena, "Will you divulge the charm to another, if the other will pay 
you homage.^*" "Yes, your majesty." "Well then, we have in our 
house a hunchbacked woman. She will sit behind a curtain; you 
remain outside and have her repeat the charm." "Be she hunchback 
or cripple, I will teach her the charm, provided she will pay me 
homage." 

Then the king went to his daughter Vasuladatta and said, "Dear 
daughter, there is a certain leper who knows a priceless charm. You 
sit behind a curtain, and he will remain outside and repeat it to you. 
You get it from him, for it would never do to let anyone else learn it, 
and then I will get it from you." After this sort, for fear of their 
making love, did Canda Pajjota feign that his daughter was a hunch- 
back and Udena a leper. So Vasuladatta seated herself behind a cur- 
tain, and Udena remained outside and caused her to repeat the charm. 

One day Udena repeated the words of the charm over and over again 
to Vasuladatta, but the latter was unable to reproduce it correctly. 
Thereupon Udena cried out, "Dunce of a hunchback, your lips are too 



272 Book 2, Story 1. Dhammapada 21-28 [N. 1.19420- 

thick and your cheeks too pudgy! I've a mind to beat your face in! 
Say it this way!" Vasuladatta rephed in anger, "Villain of a leper, 
[195] what do you mean by those words? Do you call such as I 
* hunchback'?" Udena lifted the fringe of the curtain and asked, 
*'Who are you?" Said the maiden, "I am Vasuladatta, daughter of 
the king." "When your father spoke to me, he described you as a 
hunchback." "When he spoke to me, he made you out a leper." 
Both said, "He must have said it for fear of our making love." Then 
and there within the curtain they made love, and from that time on 
there was no learning charms or getting lessons. The king regularly 
asked his daughter, "Daughter, are you learning your lessons?" "Yes, 
father." 

Now one day Udena said to Vasuladatta, "My dear, a husband 
can do that which neither father nor mother nor brothers nor sisters 
can do. If you will save my life, I will give you a retinue of five 
hundred women and make you my chief consort." "If you will carry 
out your promise without fail, I will save your life." "My dear, I 
will do so without fail." "Very well, husband." So she went to her 
father, saluted him, and stood respectfully on one side. Her father 
asked her, "Daughter, is your task completed?" "Not quite com- 
pleted, father." "What do you require, daughter?" "We must have 
at our disposal a door and a mount, father." "Why this request?" 
"Father, this is what my teacher says: 'In order to work the charm, 
a certain medicinal herb is necessary, and this must be obtained at 
night at a time indicated by the stars.' [196] Therefore whenever 
we are obliged to go out, whether it be early or late, we must have a 
door and a mount at our disposal." "Very well," said the king, giving 
his consent. They secured permission to use a certain door at any 
time they pleased. 

Now the king was possessed of the five conveyances : a female ele- 
phant named Bhaddavati, which could travel fifty leagues a day; a 
slave named Kaka, who could travel sixty leagues a day; two mares, 
Celakanthi and Munjakesi, which could travel a hundred leagues a 
day; and an elephant named Nalagiri, which could travel a hundred 
and twenty leagues a day. 

Story of the Past : Canda Paj jota wins the five conveyances 

It seems that before the appearance in the world of the present 
Buddha, the king had been the servitor of a certain ruler. Now one 



-N. 1.1 9723] Story -cycle of King Udena 273 

day as this ruler was returning from his bath outside of the city, a 
certain Private Buddha who had entered the city to receive alms came 
out with his bowl clean as it had been washed, having received not a 
single morsel of food by reason of the evil influence of Mara over all 
the residents of the city. Indeed when the Private Buddha reached 
the gate of the city, Mara approached him in disguise and asked hitn, 
"Reverend Sir, did you receive anything.?" "But have you made it 
possible for me to receive anything.''" "Well then, turn back and go 
in again. Now I will make it possible for you to receive alms." "I 
will not go back again." Had the Private Buddha returned, Mara 
would once more have taken possession of the bodies of all the residents 
of the city and would have subjected him to the embarrassment of 
hand-clapping and rude laughter. 

Now when this ruler [197] saw the Private Buddha returning with 
his bowl clean as it had been washed, he asked him, "Reverend Sir, 
did you receive anything?" "I have gone my round and am coming 
out, brother." The ruler thought to himself, "His reverence does 
not answer the question I asked him, but tells me something I did not 
ask about. It must be that he failed to receive anything." The ruler 
looked at his bowl and saw that it was empty. Not knowing whether 
the food in his house was ready or not, and therefore, brave though he 
was, not daring to take his bowl, he said, "Wait a moment. Reverend 
Sir." So saying, he went home quickly and asked, " Is our food ready .f^" 
Receiving the answer that it was ready, he said to his servitor, "Friend, 
there is no one possessed of greater speed than you. Make the greatest 
possible speed, and when you reach his reverence, say to him, 'Rev- 
erend Sir, give me your bowl,' and then take his bowl and return 
to me." 

At the mere word of his master the servitor set out, obtained the 
bowl, and brought it back. The ruler filled the bowl with his own food 
and said, "Convey this to his reverence with all speed. I make over 
to you the merit of this action." The servitor went quickly, gave the 
bowl to the Private Buddha, saluted him with the Five Rests, and 
said to him, "Reverend Sir, the time is short. I went and returned 
with the greatest possible speed. As the fruit of this speed, may I 
obtain the five conveyances able to travel fifty, sixty, a hundred, and 
a hundred and twenty leagues a day respectively. As I returned and 
went, my body was heated by the rays of the sun. As the fruit of 
this, in the various places where I shall be reborn, may I possess 
authority equal to the power of the rays of the sun. My master has 



274 Book 2, Story 1. Dhamma'pada 21-23 [N.i.i98i- 

made over to me the merit of this alms. In consequence of this [198] 
may I be a partaker of the Truth you have seen." The Private Buddha 
said, "So be it," and returned thanks in the following Stanzas, 

May all you've wished and prayed for come out well; 

May all your aspirations be fulfilled, even as the moon at the full. 

May all you've wished and prayed for come out well; 

May all your aspirations be fulfilled, as by the jewel Dew of Light. 

This was the king's deed in a previous state of existence. He was 
now Canda Pajjota, and in consequence of this deed he came to 
possess these five conveyances. End of Story oflthe Past. 

Now one day the king went out to amuse himself in the garden. 
"Now's the time to flee," thought Udena. So he filled several big 
leather sacks with gold and silver coins, placed the sacks on the back of 
the female elephant, assisted Vasuladatta to mount, and away they 
went. The harem guards saw what was happening and went and told 
the king. The king sent out a force in pursuit. "Go quickly," said 
he. When Udena perceived that a force had set out in pursuit, he' 
opened a sack of gold and scattered the coins -along the way. His 
pursuers stopped to pick up the coins and then hurried along. Then 
he opened a sack of silver and scattered the coins along the way. While 
his pursuers delayed because of their greed for silver, [199] Udena 
reached his own stockade built without the city. When his men saw 
him coming, they surrounded him, and escorted him back to Kosambi. 
When he arrived there, he sprinkled Vasuladatta and raised her to the 
rank of chief consort. 

Part 5. Rejection of Magandiya by the Buddha 

Still another maiden who gained the dignity of chief consort of 
the king was Magandiya. She, we are told, was the daughter of the 
Brahman Magandiya, who lived in the Kuru country, her mother also 
bore the name Magandiya, and her father's younger brother likewise 
bore the name Magandiya. She was as beautiful as a celestial nymph. 
Now her father was unable to find a husband who was worthy of her; 
and although scions of all the great families in the country asked for her 
hand, her father sent them all away, reviling them and saying, "You 
are not worthy of my daughter." 

Now one day, as the Teacher surveyed the world at early dawn, 
he perceived that the Brahman Magandiya and his wife possessed the 
dispositions requisite for the attainment of the Fruit of the Third 



-N.1.2014] Story-cycle of King Udena 275 

Path. Therefore, taking his own bowl and robe, he went to a place 
just outside of a certain market-town, where the Brahman was tending 
the sacred fire. The Brahman surveyed the person of the Tathagata, 
beholding in him the perfection of physical beauty, and thought to 
himself, "There is no other man in the whole world comparable to 
this man. I will give my daughter to this man to cherish and support.'* 
Accordingly he said to the Teacher, "Monk, I have a single daughter, 
and all this time I have not seen a man worthy of her. But you are 
suitable for her, and she is suitable for you. For you [200] ought to 
have a wife, and she ought to have a husband. I will give her to you. 
Wait right here until I come back." The Teacher said not a word, but 
remained silent. 

The Brahman went home quickly and said to his wife, "Wife! wife! 
I saw a man who is worthy of our daughter. Hurry! hurry! Dress 
her in her beautiful garments." So the Brahman had his daughter 
dressed in her beautiful garments, and taking daughter and wife with 
him, went to the Teacher. The whole city was agitated. "All this 
time," said the people, "this man has said of every suitor, *He is not 
suitable for my daughter,' and has refused to give her to anyone. But 
it is reported that he has said, 'To-day I saw a man who is suitable for 
my daughter.' What manner of man can he be.'' Let us go see him." 
So a great throng of people went out of the city with him. 

Now when the Brahman set out with his daughter, the Teacher, 
instead of remaining in the place mentioned by the Brahman, moved 
away from that place and took his stand in another place, leaving a 
footprint. (When the Buddhas establish a footprint, it appears only 
in a trodden place and not elsewhere, and only those for whom it is 
established can see it. Let elephants or other wild animals tread upon 
a footprint of the Buddhas to render it invisible, or let a violent storm 
pour forth rain upon it, or let the roaring winds beat upon it, yet not 
one of them can obliterate it.) 

Now the Brahman's wife said to the Brahman, "Where is this 
man.'^" The Brahman replied, "I said to him, 'Remain in this place.' 
Where can he possibly have gone?" He looked all about, and seeing 
his footprint, said, "Here is his [201] footprint." Now the Brahman's 
. wife was famihar with the three Vedas, including the verses relating 
to signs. So she repeated the verses relating to signs, considering 
carefully the signs borne by the footprint before her. Finally she said, 
"Brahman, this is no footprint of one who follows the Five Lusts." 
So saying, she pronounced the following Stanza, 



276 Book 2, St(yry 1. Dhammapada 21-28 [N.1.2016- 

The footprint of a lustful man will be squatty; 

That of a wicked man, violently pressed down; 

Of one infatuate, the footprint will be shuflBing; 

This is the sort of footprint made by one who has rolled back the Veil of Passion. 

Then said the Brahman to her, "Wife, you are always seeing 
crocodiles in the water-vessel and thieves hiding in the house. Be 
still." "Brahman, you may say what you like, but this is no foot- 
print of one who follows the Five Lusts." 

Just then the Brahman looked around and saw the Teacher. 
"There is the man!" said he. Thereupon the Brahman went to him 
and said, "Monk, I give you my daughter to cherish and support." 
The Teacher, instead of saying, "I have need of your daughter," or 
"I have no need of your daughter," said to him, "Brahman, I have 
something to say to you." "Say it, monk," replied the Brahman. 
Thereupon the Teacher told him how Mara had pursued him from the 
time of the Great Retirement to the time of the Session under the 
Goatherd's Banyan-tree, and how, when Mara seated himself under 
the Goatherd's Banyan-tree, overcome with sorrow at the thought, 
"Now this man has escaped from my power," Mara's daughters came 
to assuage their father's sorrow and endeavored to seduce him by 
appearing before him in the forms of women both young and old. 
[202] "At that time," said the Teacher, 

Having seen Craving, Pining, and Lust, 

I had no desire for the pleasures of love. 

What is this body, filled with urine and dung? ' 

I should not be willing to touch it, even with my foot. 

At the conclusion of the Stanza the Brahman and his wife were 
established in the Fruit of the Third Path. 

As for Magandiya, she said to herseK, "If this man has no need of 
me, it is perfectly proper for him to say so, but he declares me to be 
full of urine and dung. Very well ! By virtue of the fact that I possess 
birth, lineage, social position, wealth, and the charm of youth, I shall 
obtain a husband who is my equal, and then I shall know what ought 
to be done to the monk Gotama." And then and there she conceived 
hatred towards the Teacher. 

(Did the Teacher know, or did he not know, that she had conceived 
hatred towards him.? He knew. If he knew, why did he pronounce 
the Stanza? For the sake of the other two. For the Buddhas take no 
account of hatred directed against them, but preach the Law solely for 
the sake of those who are worthy to attain the Paths and the Fruits.) 



-N. 1.2044] Story -cycle of King Udena 277 

Her mother and father took her and committed her to the charge 
of her uncle Culla Magandiya, and then retired from the world and 
attained Arahatship. Culla Magandiya thought to himself, [203] 
"My daughter is not suited to be the wife of a low person, but is 
suited to be the consort of a king." Accordingly he adorned her with 
all the adornments, took her with him to Kosambi, and presented her 
to King Udena, saying, "This jewel of a woman is worthy to become 
a consort of your majesty." When the king saw her, he fell deeply in 
love with her, conferred the ceremonial sprinkling upon her, provided 
her with a retinue of five hundred ladies-in-waiting, and raised her 
to the dignity of chief consort. 

Thus the king had three chief consorts with a retinue of fifteen 
hundred nautch-girls. 

Part 6. Death of Samavali and of Magandiya, and the 
explanation thereof 

Treasurers, monks, and tree-spirit 

Now at this time there were living in Kosambi three treasurers, 
Ghosaka, Kukkuta, and Pavariya. As the beginning of the rainy 
season drew near, these men saw five hundred ascetics who had 
returned from the Himalaya country going the round of the city for 
alms. With joyful hearts they provided them with seats, offered them 
food, and obtaining from them a promise to reside with them, they 
provided them with lodging in their own homes during the four months 
of the rains. Then, having obtained from them a promise to return 
and spend the following rainy season with them, they let them go. 
From that time forth, after the ascetics had resided for eight months 
in the Himalaya country, they kept residence during the four months 
of the rains with the three treasurers. 

On a later occasion, as the ascetics were on their way back from the 
Himalaya country, they saw a certain great banyan-tree in a forest 
retreat and went and sat down at the foot of it. The oldest ascetic 
thought to himself, "The deity who resides in this tree cannot be 
mundane. There must be a deva-king of great power here. [204] 
How good it would be if he would give this band of ascetics water to 
drink!" Immediately the tree-spirit gave them water to drink. 
Then the ascetic thought of water to bathe in, and the spirit gave that 
also. Then he thought of food, and the spirit gave that also. 

Then this thought occurred to the ascetic, "This deva-king gives 



278 Book 2, Story 1. Dhammapada 21-23 [N. 1.2045- 

us every single thing we think of. I wish we might see him." Immedi- 
ately the spirit burst the trunk of the tree and showed himself. There- 
upon they asked him, "Deva-king, you possess great power. What did 
you do to get it.^^" "Do not ask me, Reverend Sirs." "Deva-king, 
please tell us." But the spirit was exceedingly modest, for the reason 
that the work of merit he had performed was a very small one, and 
therefore he did not wish to tell. However, after a good deal of urging, 
he said, "Well then, listen," and told the following 

Story of the Past: Tree-spirit*s former deed 

The tree-spirit, it appears, was once a poor man who sought and 
obtained work for hire from Anathapindika and through him made a 
living. Now one fast-day Anathapindika asked on his return from the 
monastery, "Has anyone told this laborer that to-day is fast-day?" 
"He has not been told, master." "Well then, cook him his supper." 
So they cooked him a measure of rice. Now the laborer had worked all 
day in the forest, and when he returned in the evening, he said, "I am 
hungry." But when the rice had been prepared and given to him, all of 
a sudden he refused to eat. "On other days," he thought to himself, 
"there is a great uproar in this house, 'Give me rice, give me sauce, 
give me curry;' but to-day all have lain down without making a sound, 
and they have prepared food for me alone. What can this mean.''" 

So he asked them, "Have the rest eaten.?" "They have not eaten." 
"Why.f^" "In this house people eat no supper on fast-days; [205] all 
keep the fast. The great treasurer requires all to fast, even infants at 
the breast, first causing them to rinse their mouths and to eat the four 
sweet foods. A lamp of scented oil is lighted, and all, both young and 
old, retire to recite the Thirty-two Constituents of the Body. But 
we did not think it worth while to tell you it was fast-day, and therefore 
rice was cooked for you alone. Eat it." "If it is proper for me to 
begin the fast now, I should like to do so." "This is a matter for the 
treasurer to decide." "Well then, ask him." They went and asked 
the treasurer, and he replied as follows, "If he begins the fast now and 
rinses his mouth and takes upon himself the fast-day precepts, he will 
earn half the merit of keeping fast-day." When the laborer heard 
the answer, he began the fast. 

Now the laborer had worked all day long and was hungry, and the 
result was that the humors of his body became disordered. He bound 
a girth about his body, and holding the end of the girth in his hand. 



-N. 1.2074] Story-cycle of King Udena 279 

he rolled over and over. When the treasurer learned of this, he took 
the four sweet foods and with torches borne before him went to the 
laborer and asked, "Friend, what is the matter?" "Master, the 
humors of my body are out of order." "Well then, get up and eat 
this medicinal food." "You eat it, master." "I am not sick. You 
eat it." "Master, as for keeping the fast, [206] I was not able to keep 
it all, but let me not be deprived of half." With these words the laborer 
refused to eat. "Do not act thus, friend," said the treasurer. But the 
laborer steadfastly refused to eat, and when the sun rose, he died even 
as a garland of flowers withers, and was reborn in that banyan-tree. 

Treasurers, monks, and tree-spirit, concluded 

Therefore the tree-spirit explained the matter as follows, "The 
treasurer was devDted to the Buddha, devoted to the Law, devoted to 
the Order; and it was through him, and in consequence of the merit 
I earned by keeping half of fast-day, that I obtained this power." 
When the five hundred ascetics heard the name "Buddha," they 
arose and stretched out their hands in an attitude of reverent supplica- 
tion to the spirit and said, "Say 'Buddha.'" Three times they 
caused the spirit to confess his faith by repeating the formula, "I say 
'Buddha.'" Then they breathed forth the solemn utterance, "This 
is an utterance difficult to obtain in this world," and said in conclusion, 
"Spirit, you have permitted us to hear a sound we have not heard for 
many hundred thousand cycles of time." 

Then the pupils addressed their teacher as follows, "Well then, 
let us go to the Teacher." "Friends, we have three treasurers who 
are generous benefactors of ours. To-morrow we will receive food in 
their residence, tell them also what we have heard, and go. Give 
your consent, friends." Thereupon they gave their consent. On the 
following day the treasurers caused rice-porridge to be prepared and 
seats to be provided. And knowing that the ascetics would arrive on 
that day, they went forth and met them, escorted them to their 
residence, provided them with seats, and gave them food. When the 
ascetics had finished their meal, they said, "Great treasurers, we are 
going away." "Reverend Sirs, [207] did we not obtain from you a 
promise to reside with us during the four months of the rains .f^ Where 
are you going now.^" 

"The Buddha has appeared in the world, the Law has appeared, 
the Order has appeared. We are therefore going to see the Teacher." 



280 Book 2, Story 1. Dhamma'pada 21-23 [N.i.2074- 

**But is it proper for you only to go to the Teacher?" "It is not for- 
bidden to others also, friends." "Well then. Reverend Sirs, you wait, 
and we also will go as soon as we have made preparations." "If you 
wait to make preparations, we shall be delayed. Therefore we will go 
on ahead, and you may follow after." So they went on ahead, and 
seeing the Supremely Enlightened One, praised him, paid obeisance 
to him, and sat down respectfully on one side. Then the Teacher 
preached the Law to them in orderly sequence, and at the conclusion 
of his discom-se all of them attained Arahatship, together with the 
Supernatural Faculties. Thereupon they asked to be received into 
the Order. "Come, monks!" said the Teacher. As soon as he spoke 
the word, they became full-jBedged monks, possessed of bowls and robes 
created by magic. 

Those three treasurers procured the requisites for alms, consisting 
of garments, coverlets, ghee, honey, molasses, and so forth, and con- 
veying five hundred cartloads apiece, proceeded to Savatthi. On 
reaching Savatthi, they paid obeisance to the Teacher, listened to a 
discourse on the Law, and at the conclusion of the discourse were 
established in the Fruit of Conversion. For a fortnight they resided 
with the Teacher, bestowing alms, and then invited the Teacher to 
come to Kosambi. As the Teacher gave his promise, [208] he said, 
"The Tathagatas delight in solitude." Said the treasurers, "Reverend 
Sir, as soon as we notify you by sending you a message, it will be 
proper for you to come." With these words they returned to Kosambi. 
The treasurer Ghosaka erected Ghosita monastery, the treasurer 
Kukkuta erected Kukkuta monastery, and the treasiu-er Pavariya 
erected Pavariya monastery. 

When the treasurers had erected these three monasteries, they 
sent word to the Teacher to come and visit them. The Teacher, 
receiving their message, went there; whereupon they came forth to 
meet him, escorted him to the monasteries, and waited upon him by 
turns. The Teacher resided one day in each monastery and always 
went to receive alms at the door of the house of the particular treasurer 
in whose monastery he resided. Now these three treasurers had a 
servitor named Sumana, and he was a gardener. He said to the 
treasurers, " I have been a servitor of yours for a long time, and I should 
like to entertain the Teacher. Let me have the Teacher all to myself 
for just one day." " Well then," said they, " entertain him to-morrow." 
"Very well, masters," he replied, invited the Teacher, and made 
ready the usual honors. 



-N.i.2i0i] Story-cycle of King Udena 281 

Conversion of Samavati by Khujjuttara 

Now at that time King Udena was in the habit of giving Queen 
Samavati eight pieces of money every day to buy flowers with. A 
female slave of the queen named Khujjuttara went regularly every 
day to the gardener Sumana and procured the flowers. When she 
came on that particular day, the gardener said to her, "I have invited 
the Teacher to be my guest and shall use my flowers to-day to honor 
the Teacher. You just wait, join with me in attendance on the Buddha, 
and listen to the Law. Then you may take with you the flowers that 
remain." [209] "Very well," said she, consenting to remain. Sumana 
waited upon the Congregation of Monks presided over by the Buddha 
and took his bowl that he might pronounce the words of thanksgiving. 
The Teacher began to pronounce the words of thanksgiving. Khuj- 
juttara listened to the discourse on the Law and became established 
in the Fruit of Conversion. 

On previous days she had been in the habit of appropriating to 
her own use four pieces of money and of buying flowers with the other 
four; but on that day, spending all eight to buy flowers with, she 
returned with them. Samavati said to her, "My good woman, did 
the king give us twice as much money to-day to buy flowers with.''" 
"No, my lady." "Then why so many flowers?" "On previous days 
I kept four pieces of money for myself and brought you only so many 
flowers as I could buy for four pieces of money." "Why didn't you 
take the money to-day.''" "Because I heard the Supremely En- 
lightened discourse on the Law and acquired understanding of the 
Law." 

The queen did not revile her and say, "You wretched slave, give 
me back the pieces of money you have stolen during all this time." 
Instead she said to her, "My good woman, you have drunk the Death- 
less. Give me thereof to drink also." "Well then," replied Khuj- 
juttara, "order that a bath be prepared for me." So the queen had 
her bathed with sixteen bowls of scented water and presented her with 
garments of fine cloth. One of these garments she caused her to put 
on as an imdergarment, the other she caused to be thrown over her 
shoulder; then she had a seat prepared for her. Khujjuttara there- 
upon sat down, took in her hand a painted fan, and addressing the 
five hundred women, preached the Law to them just as the Teacher 
had preached it. Then all of them paid obeisance to Khujjuttara 
[210] and said, "Friend, from this day forth do no sinful deed, but 



282 Book 2, Story 1. Dhammapada 21-S3 [N.1.2101- 

be to us as a mother and a teacher. Go to the Teacher and listen to 
every discourse he preaches, and then come back and repeat it to us." 
And this she did so faithfully that later on she came to know the 
Tipitaka by heart. Indeed the Teacher assigned her preeminence, 
saying, "Preeminent among my female lay disciples who are learned in 
the Scriptures and able to expound the Law is Khujjuttara." 

Now those five hundred women said to her, "Woman, we should 
like to see the Teacher. Show him to us, that we may honor him with 
perfumes, garlands, and so forth." "My lady, it is a serious matter 
to live i^ a king's house. You have obtained access to it, but it is 
impossible for you to leave it." "Woman, do not destroy us. Let us 
see the Teacher." "Well then, make holes in the walls of your rooms 
large enough to look through. Then bring perfumes and garlands, 
and when the Teacher goes to the door of the house of the three 
treasurers, stand in your several places and look out and stretch forth 
your hands and pay obeisance to him and honor him." They followed 
her directions, and when the Teacher went and returned, they looked 
out and paid obeisance to him and honored him. 

Magandiya's plot against Samavati and the Buddha 

Now one day Magandiya came forth from her own mansion and 
walked along until she came to the place where those women lived. 
Seeing a hole in a room, she asked, "What is this?" The women, 
not knowing of the hatred she had conceived towards the Teacher, 
said, [211] "The Teacher has come to this city, and we stand here 
and look at the Teacher and honor him." "So the hermit Gotama 
has come to this city!" thought Magandiya. "Now I shall know 
what ought to be done to him. These women also are his supporters. 
I shall know what ought to be done to them also." So she said to 
the king, "Great king, Samavati and her followers are disloyal to you 
and in but a few days will take your life." The king replied, "They 
will do nothing of the sort," and refused to believe the charge. Even 
when the charge was repeated, he still refused to believe. When she 
made the charge the third time and he still refused to believe, she said 
to him, "If you do not believe me, great king, go to the place where 
they reside and judge for yourself." The king went there, and seeing 
the holes in the walls of the rooms, asked, "What does this mean?" 
When the matter was explained to him, he did not get angry, said not 
a word, but had the holes filled up and windows made with openings 



-N. 1.2137] Story-cycle of King Udena 283 

above in all the rooms. (Windows with openings above came in at 
this time, we are told.) 

Unable to injure the women, Magandiya thought to herself, "At 
any rate I will do to the monk Gotama what ought to be done." So 
she bribed the citizens and said to them, "When the monk Gotama 
comes into the city and walks about, instigate slaves to revile him and 
abuse him and drive him out of the city." So heretics who did not 
believe in the Three Jewels followed the Teacher about when he 
entered the city and shouted at him, "You are a thief, [212] a simple- 
ton, a fool, a camel, an ox, an ass, a denizen of hell, a beast, you have 
no hope of salvation, a state of punishment is all that you can look 
forward to." Thus they reviled and abused him with the Ten Terms 
of Abuse. 

Venerable Ananda heard this and said to the Teacher, "Reverend 
Sir, these citizens are reviling and abusing us. Let us go elsewhere." 
"Where shall we go, Ananda?" "To some other city. Reverend Sir." 
"If men revile us there, where shall we go then, Ananda.?" "To yet 
another city. Reverend Sir." "If men revile us there, where shall we 
go then.f^" "To still another city, Reverend Sir." "Ananda, one 
should not speak thus. Where a diflficulty arises, right there should 
it be settled. Only under those circumstances is it permissible to go 
elsewhere. But who are reviling you, Ananda.'^" "Reverend Sir, 
everyone is reviling us, slaves and all." "Ananda, I am like an 
elephant that has entered the fray. Even as it is the duty of an ele- 
phant that has entered the fray to withstand the arrows which come 
from the four quarters, precisely so it is my duty to endure with 
patience the words spoken by many wicked men." So saying, he 
preached the Law with reference to himself by pronouncing the follow- 
ing three Stanzas in the Naga Vagga, 

320. Even as an elephant engaged in the fray withstands arrows shot from the bow. 
So also must I bear abuse, for the multitude is wicked. [213] 

321 . It is a tamed elephant they lead to battle; it is a tamed elephant the king mounts; 
It is the tamed that is best among men, he that endures abuse patiently. 

322. Of surpassing excellence are mules which are tamed, and well-bred Sindh horses. 
And great elephants of the jungle; but better yet is the man who has tamed 

himself. 

This discourse benefited the assembled multitude. When the 
Teacher had thus preached the Law, he said, "Ananda, be not dis- 
turbed. These men will revile you for only seven days, and on the 



Book S, Story 1. Dhamma'pada 21-23 [N. 1.2137- 

eighth day they will become silent. A diflBculty encountered by the 
Buddhas lasts no longer than seven days." 

When Magandiya had failed in her attempt to drive the Teacher 
out of the city by abusing him, she thought to herself, "Pray what can 
I do now.'^" Then the thought occurred to her, "These women are 
his supporters. I will destroy them." Accordingly one day, while King 
Udena was drinking strong drink and she was waiting upon him, she 
sent the following message to her uncle, "Let my uncle come with 
eight dead cocks and eight live cocks. Having arrived, let him stand 
at the top of the stairs and announce his arrival. When he hears the 
word 'Enter,' let him not enter, but send in first the eight live cocks 
and afterwards the others." And she gave a bribe to the page, saying, 
"Be sure to carry out my orders." 

Magandiya came and announced himself to the king. When, 
however, he heard the word "Enter," he said, "I will not enter the 
king's drinking-place." [214] Magandiya then sent her page, saying, 
"Boy, go to my uncle." He went, took the eight live cocks which 
Magandiya gave him, carried them to the king, and said, "Your 
majesty, the house-priest has sent you a present." "A most excel- 
lent and dainty morsel!" said the king. "Now who will cook them .5^" 
Magandiya said, "Great king, the five hundred women led by Samavati 
have nothing to do. Send the cocks to them. Let them cook them 
and carry them to you." Accordingly the king sent them, saying to the 
page, "Go give these cocks to these women. Tell them not to intrust 
them to the hands of anyone else, but to kill them and cook them 
themselves." "Very well, your majesty," replied the page, and went 
and delivered the message. But the women refused to do the king's 
bidding, saying, "We do not take the life of any living creature.'* 
The page returned and so informed the king. 

Magandiya said, "You see, great king.^* Now you shall find out 
whether or not they really take the life of living creatures. Your 
majesty, send word to them, ' Cook them and send them to the monk 
Gotama.'" So the king sent this message to them. But the page, 
while pretending to carry the live cocks to the women, in reality went 
and gave those cocks to the house-priest and carried the eight dead 
cocks to the women, saying, "Cook these cocks and send them to 
the Teacher." "This, to be sure, is our duty," said the women in 
reply, and going to meet him, they received the cocks. When the 
page returned to the king and the latter asked him, "What was the 
result, boy?" he gave the king the following report, "The moment I 



-N. 1.2166] Story-cycle of King Udena 285 

said to them, * Cook these cocks and send them to the hermit Gotama,' 
they came to meet me and accepted them." "See, great king," said 
Magandiya, "they will not do it for the like of you. But you would 
not believe me when I said to you, 'Their inclination is towards 
another.'" But even when the king heard this, [215] he tolerated 
their conduct and remained silent. Magandiya thought to herself, 
"What shall I do now.?" 

Now at this time the king was accustomed to divide his time equally 
among his three consorts, SamavatI, Vasuladatta, and Magandiya, 
spending seven days by turns in the apartment of each. Magandiya, 
knowing that he would go on the morrow or on the day after to the 
apartment of SamavatI, sent word to her uncle, "Send me a snake, 
first washing its fangs with a poisonous drug." He did as she told him 
to and sent her a snake. Now wherever the king went, he was accus- 
tomed to take with him his lute for charming elephants, and in the 
shell of this lute was a hole. Magandiya inserted the snake in the 
hole and stopped the hole with a bunch of flowers; for two or three 
days the snake remained within the lute. 

On the day when the king was to go to Samavati's apartment, 
Magandiya asked him, "To whose apartment will you go to-day, your 
majesty.'*" "To Samavati's apartment." Said Magandiya, "Your 
majesty, to-day I had a bad dream; you must not go there." "I am 
going all the same." Three times she tried to dissuade him from going 
and failed. Finally she said, "In that case I will go too." In spite of 
the king's protests she went with him, saying, "Your majesty, I do 
not know what will happen to you." 

The king, wearing garments, flowers, perfumes, and ornaments 
given him by Samavati and her followers, ate heartily, and then 
placed his lute by his pillow and lay down on the bed. Magandiya, 
pretending to be merely walking back and forth, removed the bunch 
of flowers from the opening in the lute; whereupon the snake, which 
had been without food for two or three days, glided from the opening, 
hissed, raised his hood, and coiled himself up on the top of the bed. 
[216] When Magandiya saw the snake, she screamed with a loud voice, 
"Oh, your majesty, there is a snake!" And she straightway abused 
the king, saying, "This stupid, unlucky king will not listen to anything 
I say to him. As for these shameless scoundrels, what do they not 
receive from the king.^* You will live happily just as soon as the king 
is dead, but so long as he lives, you will have a hard time. Your 
majesty, when I cried out to you, * To-day I had a bad dream; you 



286 Book 3, Story 1. Dhammayada 21-23 [N.1.2166- 

must not go to Samavati's apartment/ you would not listen to what I 
said." 

When the king saw the snake, he was terrified with the fear of 
death, the fire of anger was kindled within him, and he said, "So this 
is the sort of thing they are capable of doing! What criminals they 
are! Yet I would not believe Magandiya when she told me of their 
evil nature. First they made holes in the walls of their own rooms and 
sat there; again, when I sent the cocks to them, they sent them back; 
to-day they have let a snake loose in my bed." 

Samavati delivered the following admonition to her five hundred 
women, "Friends, we have no other refuge. Cherish precisely the 
same feelings towards the king and the queen as you do towards your- 
selves. Be not angry with anyone." The king took his horn-bow, 
which required a thousand men to string, twanged the bowstring, 
fitted a poisoned arrow to the string, and placing Samavati in front 
[217] and all the other women in single file behind her, shot an arrow 
at Samavati's breast. But through the supernatural power of her 
love the arrow turned back, and returning by the same path it had 
come, penetrated, as it were, the king's heart. 

The king thought to himself, "The arrow I shot is capable of 
piercing even a rock, and there was nothing in the air to make it turn 
back. But it turned and came back by the same path it went. Indeed 
this senseless, lifeless arrow knows her goodness, but I, who am a human 
being, know it not." And throwing the bow away and stretching forth 
his hands in an attitude of reverent supplication, he knelt before 
Samavati's feet and pronounced the following Stanza, 

I am utterly confused and bewildered; all four quarters are confused in my mind. 
Protect me, Samavati, and be a refuge to me. 

Samavati, hearing his words, instead of saying, "Very well, your 
majesty, seek refuge in me," said, " Great king, in whom I have sought 
refuge, in him do you also seek refuge." 

Having thus spoken, Samavati, disciple of the Supremely En- 
lightened, said. 

Do not seek refuge in me! He in whom I have sought refuge, — 
He is the Buddha, great king, he is the Buddha Incomparable! 

Seek refuge in that Buddha, and do you be a refuge to me. [218] 

The king said, "Now I am the more afraid," and pronounced the 
following Stanza, 



-N. 1.21917] Story-cycle of King Udena 287 

Now I am the more confused; all four quarters are confused in my mind. 
Protect me, Samavati, and be a refuge to me. 

But she refused him precisely as before. Finally he said, "Well 
then, I seek refuge in you and in the Teacher, and I grant you a boon." 
*'I accept the boon, great king," she replied. 

The king approached the Teacher, sought refuge in him, invited 
him to accept his hospitality, and for seven days gave generous alms. 
Then, addressing Samavati, he said, "Rise and take your choice." 
Samavati replied, "Great king, I have no need of gold and silver, but 
grant me this boon. Arrange matters so that the Teacher may come 
here regularly with his five hundred monks, so that I may hear the 
Law." So the king paid obeisance to the Teacher and said, "Reverend 
Sir, come here regularly with your five hundred monks. Samavati and 
her attendants say they wish to hear the Law." The Teacher replied, 
"Great king, the Buddhas may not always go to one place; many 
desire their presence." "Well then, direct one monk to come." The 
Teacher directed Ananda to go. So Ananda went every day to the 
royal palace with five hundred monks, and those women every day 
provided the Elder with food and listened to the Law. 

One day, after they had listened to the Elder's discourse on the 
Law, their hearts were filled with joy, and they rendered honor to the 
Elder by presenting him with five hundred yellow robes such as are 
worn over the shoulders, [219] each worth five hundred pieces of 
money. When the king saw that they had not a single garment left, 
he asked them, "Where are your yellow robes.'^" "We gave them to 
the Reverend Elder." "Did he take them all.?" "Yes, he took them 
all." The king approached the Elder, paid obeisance to him, ques- 
tioned him about the gift of the robes by the women, and learning that 
the women had given the robes and that the Elder had received them, 
asked, "Reverend Sir, there were a great many robes, were there not.^^ 
What will you do with so many?" "I shall keep as many as we require 
for ourselves and send the rest to those whose robes are worn out, great 
king." "What will they do with their own worn-out robes.''" "They 
will give them to those whose robes are in a still worse state of repair." 
" What will they do with their own worn-out robes.?" "They will make 
bedspreads of them." "What will they do with the old bedspreads.?" 
"They will make carpets of them." "What will they do with the 
old carpets.?" "They will make foot-towels of them." "What will 
they do with the old foot-towels.?" "They will cut them into small 
pieces, mix them with mortar, and use them to plaster walls with." 



288 Book 2, Story 1. Dhammapada 21-23 [N.1.21917- 

" Reverend Sir, although all these are given to your reverences, 
nothing is lost." "Quite so, great king." The king was so pleased 
that he caused five hundred more robes to be brought and placed 
at the Elder's feet. 

(We are told that robes worth five hundred pieces of money [220] 
were presented to the Elder and laid at his feet in lots of a thousand, 
and that he received this number a hundred thousand times; that 
robes worth a thousand pieces of money were presented to the Elder 
and laid at his feet in lots of a thousand, and that he received this 
number a thousand times; that robes worth a hundred thousand pieces 
of money were presented to the Elder and laid at his feet in lots of a 
thousand, and that he received this number a hundred times. It is 
impossible to enumerate the number of robes he received by ones and 
twos and threes and fours and fives and tens. We are told that, upon 
the death of the Teacher, the Elder traveled all over the Land of the 
Rose-apple, presenting to the monks in all of the monasteries bowls 
and robes of his own.) 

Burning of Samavali and punishment of Magandiya 

Magandiya thought to herself, "Whatever I do turns out otherwise 
than I expect. What shall I do now?" Finally she decided on a plan. 
On her way to the garden to amuse herself, she sent the following 
message to her uncle, "Go to Samavati's palace, open the linen- 
closets and the oil-closets, soak pieces of cloth in the jars of oil, and 
wrap these cloths about the pillars. Then assemble all the women 
within the house, close the door, bar it from without, set fire to the 
house with torches, and then descend and go your way." 

Magandiya went up into the palace, [221] opened the closets, 
soaked garments in the oil-jars, and was just beginning to wrap them 
about the pillars when the women led by SamavatI came up to him 
and said, "Why are you doing this, uncle.?" "My ladies, the king 
desires these pillars to be strengthened, and has therefore given orders 
that they be wrapped in cloths soaked in oil. It is hard to understand 
why certain things should be done in a king's house and certain other 
things should not be done. I beg of you, my ladies, not to remain 
here with me." As soon as they had departed and entered their rooms 
at his suggestion, he closed the doors, barred them from without, set 
fire to first one cloth and then another, and descended. 

Samavati delivered the following admonition to her followers, "It 



-N. 1.22219] Story-cycle of King Udena 289 

would not be an easy matter, even with the knowledge of a Buddha, 
to determine exactly the number of times our bodies have thus been 
burned with fire as we have passed from birth to rebirth in the round 
of existences which has no conceivable beginning. Therefore be 
heedful." As the fire consumed the house, the women applied them- 
selves to meditation on the element of pain, with the result that some 
of them attained the Fruit of the Second Path, while others attained 
the Fruit of the Third Path. Therefore it is said [Udana, vii. 10], 

Now a large number of monks, returning from their alms-pilgrimage 
after breakfast, drew near to where the Exalted One was, and having 
drawn near, paid obeisance to the Exalted One and sat down reverently 
on one side. And as they sat there on one side, those monks said this 
to the Exalted One, "Here, Reverend Sir, while King Udena was in 
his pleasure-garden, the quarters of his women were consumed with 
fire, and five hundred women led by Samavati lost their lives. Rever- 
end Sir, what will be the end, what will be the future state of these 
female lay disciples.'^" 

"Monks, some of these female lay disciples [222] obtained the 
Fruit of Conversion, others obtained the Fruit of the Second Path, 
others obtained the Fruit of the Third Path. Monks, none of those 
female lay disciples failed to receive the fruit of their past deeds.'* 
And the Exalted One, clearly understanding the matter, breathed 
forth at that time the following Solemn Utterance, 

Bound with the bond of delusion, the world appears to be good. 

The simpleton, fettered by the conditions of being, enshrouded by darkness. 

Thinks it eternal. But to him who really sees, there is naught. 

So saying, he preached the Law, saying, "Monks, as living beings 
pass through the round of existences, they are not always heedful, and 
sometimes they commit sin. Therefore as they pass through the 
round of existences, they experience both pleasure and pain." 

When the king heard the cry, "Samavatl's house is on fire!" he 
went there quickly, but the house was burned before he could reach 
it. "Having extinguished the flames, he sat down surrounded by his 
retinue of courtiers, overwhelmed with profound grief, and recalled 
to his mind the virtues of Samavati. "Who could have done this 
deed?" thought he. Coming to the conclusion that Magandiya was 
the author of the crime, he thought to himself, "If I frighten her by 
my questions, she will not tell me. Therefore I will employ craft and 
question her gently." [223] 



290 Book 2, Story 1. Dhammapada 21-23 [N.i.223i- 

Accordingly he said to his ministers, "Well, until this moment, no 
matter what I was engaged in or occupied with, I was apprehensive and 
suspicious; Samavati was ever seeking occasion to slay me. But now 
my mind will rest in peace, and I shall be able to lie down to sleep in 
security." " Who was it that did this deed, your majesty.'^" " Someone 
who really loved me must have done it." Now Magandiya happened 
to be standing near, and when she heard the king say this, she said, 
"None other than I could have done this. I alone did it. I sent word 
to my uncle and ordered him to do it." "Except you, there is not a 
living being who really loves me. I am delighted. I grant you a 
boon. Send for all of your relatives." 

So Magandiya sent the following message to her relatives, "The 
king is pleased with me and has granted me a boon. Come immedi- 
ately." The king rendered high honor to all those who came, insomuch 
that even persons who were in no way related to Magandiya, hearing 
about it, gave bribes and came and said, "We are relatives of Magan- 
diya." When the king had them all in his hands, he caused pits to be 
dug waist-deep in the palace-court, set them therein, filled up the pits 
with earth, spread straw on top, and set the straw on fire. When the 
skin had been burned to a crisp, he caused the bodies to be plowed with 
an iron plow [224] and to be broken up into pieces and fragments. As 
for Magandiya, he had pieces of solid flesh ripped from various parts 
of her body with a sharp knife, and setting a vessel of oil on the 
brazier, he had them fried like cakes and made her eat them. 

In the Hall of Truth the monks began to discuss matters, saying, 
"It is not right that a female lay disciple endowed with such faith 
should suffer such a death." The Teacher came in and asked them, 
"Monks, what is it you are sitting here now talking about.'^" When 
they told him, he said, "Monks, if you regard this existence alone, it 
is indeed highly improper and unjust that the five hundred women 
led by Samavati should suffer such a death. What they received, 
however, was in every way proper, considering the sin they committed 
in a previous existence." "Reverend Sir, what was the sin they com- 
mitted in a previous existence.'* Pray tell us." Responding to their 
request, the Teacher related the following 

Story of the Past : Samavati*s attempt to bum a Private Buddha 

Once upon a time, when Brahmadatta reigned in Benares, there 
were eight Private Buddhas who regularly took their meals in the 



-N.i.226i] Story -cycle of King Udena 291 

royal palace, and there were five hundred women who waited upon 
them. Seven of these Private Buddhas retired to the Himalaya, and 
the Private Buddha who remained sat down on the bank of the river 
where there was a tangle of grass, and entered into mystic meditation. 

Now one day, after the Private Buddhas had departed, the king 
took those women [225] and went to sport in the water. When those 
women, who had sported there in the water all day, came out, they 
were stung with cold. Desiring to warm themselves, they said to each 
other, "Seek out some place where we can build a fire." As they 
walked back and forth, they saw the tangle of grass, and thinking 
it was no more than a heap of grass, they gathered round it and set 
it on fire. When the grass burned down and they saw the Private 
Buddha, they cried out, "We are lost! we are lost! The king's Private 
Buddha is burning up. If the king finds it out, he will kill everyone of 
us. Let us burn him well while we are about it." So all those women 
brought firewood from all directions and piled it on the Private Buddha 
until they had erected a great pyre. Then they poured oil on it, and 
saying to themselves, "Now he will burn," they departed. 

Now in the beginning their act was a thoughtless one, and they were 
not bound thereby. But afterwards they committed a deliberate sin 
and were bound to suffer the consequences thereof. While the Private 
Buddha was absorbed in mystic meditation, they might have brought 
a hundred thousand cartloads of firewood and poured oil thereon, and 
they could not even have caus]pd him to feel the heat. So on the 
seventh day the Private Buddha arose and went where he pleased. 
Because they committed this sin, those women were boiled for many 
hundreds of thousands of years in Hell, and because the fruit of that 
same evil deed was not yet exhausted, their houses were burned, and 
they were burned in their houses in a hundred successive states of 
existence in this very manner. This is the sin they committed in a 
previous state of existence. 

When the Teacher had related this story, the monks asked him, 
*'But, Reverend Sir, how did Khujjuttara come to be a hunchback.^ 
How did she become so wise.^^ How did she obtain the Fruit of Con- 
version? How [226] did she become an errand-girl?" 



292 Book 2, Story 1. Dhammapada 21-23 [N. 1.2261- 

Story of the Past : Khujjuttara's former deeds 

Monks, while that same king was ruHng in Benares, there was a 
Private Buddha who was sHghtly hunchbacked. Now a certain 
serving-woman, throwing a blanket over her shoulder and taking a 
golden vessel in her hand, bent over so that she looked like a hunch- 
back, and saying, "This is the way our Private Buddha walks," 
imitated his manner of walking. It was in consequence of this that 
she came to be a hunchback. 

But on the first day she provided those Private Buddhas with 
seats in the royal palace, took their bowls, filled them with rice-porridge, 
and presented them to them. The Private Buddhas took the bowls 
of porridge, but they were so hot that they were obliged to shift them 
from one hand to the other. That woman, seeing what they were 
doing, presented to them eight ivory bracelets of her own, saying, 
"Use these bracelets as stands for your bowls." When they had so 
done, they looked at her, whereupon she said, "Reverend Sirs, we have 
no use for these bracelets. Accept them as a present from us before you 
go." The Private Buddhas took them with them to Nandamula moun- 
tain-cave, and those bracelets are preserved there unimpaired to this 
day. As the result of this act of hers, she now knows the Tipitaka by 
heart and possesses profound wisdom. Likewise it was through waiting 
upon the Private Buddhas that she obtained the Fruit of Conversion. 
These were her deeds in the interval between two Buddhas. 

In the dispensation of Kassapa, the Supremely Enlightened, a 
certain treasurer's daughter of Benares took her mirror one day, as 
the shades of evening drew on, and sat down to adorn herself. Now 
a certain intimate friend of hers, [227] a nun freed from the Depravi- 
ties, came to see her. For nuns freed from the Depravities like to visit 
the households of their supporters at eventide. But at that moment 
the treasurer's daughter happened to have no errand-girl with her. 
So she said to the nun, "I greet you, Reverend Lady. Just take that 
basket of ornaments and give it to me." The nun thought to herself, 
"If I do not take this basket and give it to her, she will take a dislike 
to me and will be reborn in Hell; but if I do give it to her, she will be 
reborn as the errand-girl of another. However, it is better to be the 
errand-girl of another than to suffer torment in Hell." So out of pity 
for her she took the basket and gave it to her. In consequence of this 
act she became the errand-girl of another. Stories of the Past 
concluded. 



-N. 1.23119] Story-cycle of King Udena 293 

Again one day in the Hall of Truth the monks started a discussion. 
"Samavatl and her five hundred women were burned with fire in their 
house; as for Magandiya and her kinswomen, a fire of straw was 
built over their bodies, and their bodies were torn asunder with iron 
plows, and Magandiya was boiled in boiling oil. Which of these are 
alive and which are dead.^^" The Teacher came in and asked, "Monks, 
what are you sitting here now talking about.^" When they told him, 
he said to them, "Monks, they that are heedless, though they live a 
hundred years, yet are they dead. They that are heedful, be they dead 
or alive, yet are they alive. Magandiya, while she yet lived, was dead 
already. Samavati and her followers, though they be dead, yet are 
they alive. For, monks, the heedful never die." So saying, he pro- 
nounced the following Stanzas, [228] 

21. Heedfulness is the Way to the Deathless; heedlessness is the way to death. 
The heedful never die, but they that are heedless are, as it were, dead already. 

22. Knowing this clearly, they that are advanced in heedfulness 
Delight in heedfulness, and rejoice in the state of the Elect. 

23. They that devote themselves to meditation, they that are persevering, they that 

put forth resolute effort. 
They, the wise, attain Nibbana, the highest bliss. 



II. 2. THE VOICE OF A RICH MAN ' 

If a man exert himself. This religious instruction was given by the 
Teacher while he was in residence at Veluvana with reference to 
Kumbhaghosaka. [231] 

For once upon a time the plague broke out at Rajagaha in the 
house of the principal treasurer of Rajagaha. When the plague breaks 
out, animals, from flies to cattle, are the first to die; after them, slaves; 
after them, the master and mistress of a household. So this disease 
attacked last of all the treasurer and his wife. As soon as they felt 
the first touch of the disease, they looked at their son, who stood near, 
and with eyes filled with tears said to him, "Dear son, as we know, 
when this disease breaks out, only those who break down the wall 
and flee succeed in saving their lives. Therefore have no consideration 
for us, but make your escape. Having thus saved your life, come 
back again, and in such and such a place you will find buried in the 

» Text: N i. 231-239. 



294 Book 2, Story 2. Dhamma'pada 2Jf [N.1.23119- 

earth forty crores of treasure. Dig up the treasure and live on the 
money." [232] When the son heard his parents speak thus, he wept 
aloud, bade farewell to his mother and father, and terrified with the 
fear of death, broke down the wall and fled. Seeking refuge in a 
certain mountain jungle, he dwelt there for twelve years, and then 
returned. 

Now since he was a mere boy when he went away, and when he 
returned his hair and beard had grown long, no one recognized him. 
A sign which his mother and father had given him enabled him to find 
the place where the treasure had been buried, and going there he 
discovered that the treasure had not been disturbed. But he thought 
to himself, "No one knows me here, and if I dig up this treasure and 
begin to spend it, they will say, 'A treasure has been dug up by 
a certain poor man,' and will seize me and subject me to annoyance. 
Suppose I were to work for hire and thus gain a living." So he dressed 
himself in rags and went through the servants' quarters, inquiring, 
"Is there anyone who has need of a servant. f'" 

When the servants saw him, they said, "If you will do a certain 
piece of work for us, we will pay you for it in rice." "What kind of 
work is it, friends .f'" "To order and direct our work. You will be 
obliged to get up early in the morning and go the rounds of the workers 
and give orders to them, saying, 'Men, get up and bring out the 
carts and yoke the oxen; it is time for the elephants and horses to go 
to pasture. Women, you also get up and cook broth and rice.' " "Very 
well," said the rich man, accepting the task. So they gave him a house 
to live in, and he did his work faithfully every day. 

Now one day King Bimbisara, who could recognize anyone by the 
sound of his voice, heard his voice and straightway said, "That is 
the voice of some rich man." A certain female servant who stood 
near [233] thought to herself, "No matter what the king says, this 
is something I ought to investigate." Therefore she sent out a man, 
saying to him, "Just go and find out who this is." The messenger 
straightway went and looked at the man, and on his return made the 
following report, "That is a poor man who is a servant of servants." 
When the king heard his report, he said nothing; but on the second 
day and on the third day, hearing his voice, said precisely the same 
thing. 

Every time the king made this remark the same thought occurred 
to that female servant, and again and again she sent a man to investi- 
gate. Every time she heard the report, "That is a poor man," she 



-N. 1.23412] The voice of a rich man 295 

thought to herself, "Every time the king hears the report, *That is a 
poor man,' he refuses to beHeve it, and keeps repeating, 'That is the 
voice of some rich man.' There must be a reason for this, and it is 
my duty to find out the real facts." Accordingly she said to the king, 
"Your majesty, give me a thousand pieces of money, and I will take 
my daughter and go to this man and bring this treasure to the royal 
palace." 

The king caused a thousand pieces of money to be given to her. 
She took the money, caused her daughter to put on a soiled dress, 
and departed with her from the royal palace. Pretending that she 
was making a journey, she went to the servants' quarters, and entering 
a certain house, said to the mistress, "Woman, we are making a journey 
and should like to rest here for a day or two before we go on." "Woman, 
there are many persons living in this house, and it is out of the question 
for you to remain here. But Kumbhaghosaka's house is empty; go 
there." So she went there and said to Kumbhaghosaka, "Master, we 
are making a journey and should like to remain here a day or two." 
He refused her request, although she repeated it again and again. 
Finally she said, "Master, we will remain here to-day, just for one 
day, and early in the morning will continue our journey." So saying, 
she refused to depart. 

So she took up her residence there. On the following day, when it 
was time for Kumbhaghosaka to go to the forest, she said to him, 
"Master, give me an allowance for food [234] before you go, and I 
will cook food for you." "Never mind about that," replied Kumbha- 
ghosaka; "I will cook food all by myself and eat it." After she had 
urged him repeatedly, he gave her the allowance. As soon as she re- 
ceived it, she procured from a shop cooking-vessels and the purest of 
rice. Preparing the finest of boiled rice in the manner of cooking 
practiced in the king's household, and cooking with the greatest care 
three portions of sauce and curry, she presented the food to Kumbha- 
ghosaka on his return from the forest. 

When he had eaten his meal and his senses were dull, she said to 
him, "Master, we are tired and will remain here for a day or two." 
"Very well," said he, consenting to the arrangement. Likewise in 
the evening and on the following day she cooked savory food for him 
and gave it to him. When she perceived that his senses had become 
dull, she said to him, "Master, we will remain right here for a few days." 

Thus she contrived to establish a residence in his house. One day 
she took a sharp knife and cut the cords of his mattress underneath at 



296 Book 2, Story 2. Dhammapada 2^ [N. 1.23412- 

the bed-frame in several places. The result was that, when he returned 
and lay down on his bed, the mattress sank down. Said he, "How did 
this bed come to be cut in this fashion .f*" "Master, I cannot prevent 
the boys from coming here and jumping on it." " Woman, it is because 
of you that I have been subjected to this annoyance. Before you 
came, whenever I wished to go anywhere, I closed the door and went." 
"My friend, what shall I do.^* I cannot stop them." On three 
successive days she cut the mattress of his bed in this way, and when 
he became irritated and angry and rebuked her, she made the same 
answer. 

Finally she cut all of the cords except one or two. [235] On that 
day, as soon as he lay down on the bed, the entire mattress fell to the 
ground, and he was doubled up with his head between his knees. 
Rising to his feet, he said, "What shall I do.^ Where shall I go now? 
I have no longer a bed on which I can lie." "Dear friend, what can I 
do.'* I cannot prevent the boys of the neighborhood from entering. 
Well, do not worry. Let me think where you might go at this time." 
And addressing her daughter, she said to her, "My dear daughter, 
make room for your brother to lie down." So her daughter lay down 
on one side of her bed and said to Kumbhaghosaka, "Master, come lie 
here." The mother also said to him, "Dear friend, go lie with your 
sister." Accordingly Kumbhaghosaka lay down on the same bed with 
the girl and that very night did the deed of kind with her. The young 
girl burst into tears. Her mother asked her, "Dear daughter, why 
are you weeping?" "Mother, such and such happened." "Well, 
what's to be done about it? You ought to have a husband, and he 
ought to have a wife." So she made Kumbhaghosaka her son-in-law, 
and thereafter Kumbhaghosaka and her daughter lived together. 

After a few days she sent a message to the king, saying, "Cause 
the following proclamation to be made, 'Let those who dwell in the 
servants' quarters make holiday. Whoever does not make holiday 
in his house shall be visited with such and such punishment.'" The 
king did so. Kumbhaghosaka's mother-in-law said to Kumbha- 
ghosaka, "Dear son the king commands those who dwell in the 
servants' quarters to make holiday. What shall we do?" "Mother, 
I can barely get along on the wages I earn. What shall I do?" "Dear 
son, those who live in a house of their own can borrow money. [236] 
The king's command must not be disobeyed, but a debt can be paid 
off in some way or other. Go somewhere and get one or two pieces of 
money." 



-N. 1.2376] The voice of a rich man 297 

Kumbhaghosaka, much provoked, went to the spot where his 
forty crores of treasure were buried, removed but a single piece of 
money, and returned with it. His mother-in-law sent this piece of 
money to the king and paid the expenses of the holiday with a piece 
of money of her own. Again after a few days she sent the same message 
to the king. Again the king gave orders, "Let them make holiday. 
Those who do not shall be visited with such and such punishment." 
And again Kumbhaghosaka, under compulsion of his mother-in-law, 
who repeated the same suggestion she had previously made, went to 
his hidden store, removed three pieces of money, and brought and gave 
them to her. She sent these three pieces also to the king. After a few 
days more had passed, she sent yet another message to the king, saying, 
"Now let the king send some of his men and summon this man into 
his presence." 

The king's men came and began a search for their man, inquiring, 
"Which man is Kumbhaghosaka.'^" When they saw Kumbhaghosaka, 
they said to him, "Come, sir, the king summons you." Kumbhagho- 
saka was frightened and was unwilling to go, saying, "The king does 
not know me," and much else. But the king's men overpowered 
him, and seizing him by the hands and feet, dragged him off. When 
his mother-in-law saw what they were doing, she reviled them, saying, 
"Rascally villains, you are not fit to lay hands on my son-in-law." 
Turning to Kumbhaghosaka, she said, "Go, my dear son; be not 
afraid. When I see the king, I will have him cut off the hands of those 
who seized you by the hands and feet." So saying, she took her 
daughter, and preceding the king's men, went to the royal palace. 
When she arrived at the palace, she changed her garments, adorned 
herself with all her adornments, and thus arrayed took her stand on one 
side. 

The king's men came, pulling and dragging Kumbhaghosaka with 
them. Kumbhaghosaka paid obeisance to the king and took his stand 
before him. The king said to him, "You are Kumbhaghosaka.'^" 
"Yes, your majesty." "Why do you practice deceit in spending your 
great wealth.'*" [237] "Where is my great wealth, your majesty? 
I make a living by working for hire." "Do not act thus. Why do you 
deceive us.'*" "I am not deceiving you, your majesty. I have no 
wealth." Then the king showed him those pieces of money and asked 
him, " Whose are these pieces of money.'*" Kumbhaghosaka recognized 
the coins. Thought he, "Alas, I am lost! How did these pieces of 
money get into the hands of the king.'*" Looking about him, he saw 



298 Book 2, Story 2. Dhammapada 2If^ [N. 1.2376- 

those two women, adorned and bejeweled, standing at the door of the 
room. Thought he, "This is a deep-laid plot. These women must 
have been suborned by the king." 

Then said the king to him, "Speak, sir. Why do you act thus.^*" 
"I have no protector, your majesty." "There does not exist a pro- 
tector who is my equal." "Your majesty, it would be most agreeable 
to me if your majesty were my protector." "That am I, sir. How 
great is your wealth.''" "Forty crores, your majesty." "What shall 
I send to convey your wealth hither.''" "Carts, your majesty." So 
the king had several hundred carts yoked, and sent and had Kumbha- 
ghosaka's wealth brought and heaped up in the palace court. Then 
he assembled the residents of Rajagaha and asked, "Is there anyone 
at all in this city that possesses so much wealth as this.''" "There is 
not, your majesty." " What should be bestowed upon him.''" "Honor, 
your majesty." So the king bestowed high honor upon him, appointed 
him to the post of treasurer, and gave him his daughter in marriage. 

The king then took Kumbhaghosaka to the Teacher, paid obeisance 
to the Teacher, and said to him, "Reverend Sir, behold this man. For 
wisdom the like of- him does not exist. Though he possesses forty 
crores of treasure, he gives no sign of being unduly elated, nor is he 
puffed up in his own conceit. As though he were a poor man, [238] 
he dressed himself in rags and worked for his living in the servants' 
quarter. In this way I came to know of him. And coming to know of 
him, I sent for him, made him admit his wealth, caused his wealth to 
be carried to the palace, appointed him to the post of treasurer, and 
gave him my daughter in marriage. So wise a man I never saw before." 

Hearing this, the Teacher said, "If a man lives thus, great king, 
his life is a righteous life. But the deeds of thieves and other wicked 
men oppress them even in this world and afford them no happiness in 
the next. For if a man, when his wealth is exhausted, works for hire, 
his life is a righteous life. For such a man, exerting the power of 
his manhood, always mindful, pure in deeds and words and thoughts, 
circumspect of conduct through wisdom, exercising self-restraint in 
deeds and words and thoughts, leading a righteous life, never relaxing 
mindfulness, such a man goes from strength to strength." So saying, 
he pronounced the following Stanza, 

24. If a man exert himself, if he be ever mindful, if his deeds be pure, if he be circum- 
spect of conduct, 
If he control himself, if he live in accordance with the Law, if he be heedful, his 
glory ever increases. 



-N. 1.24015] The voice of a rich man 299 



n. 3. LITTLE WAYMAN^ 

By rousing himself, by heedfulness. This religious instruction was 
given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Veluvana with 
reference to Little Wayman the Elder. [239] 

3 a. Birth of Little Wa3rman 

We are told that the daughter of a rich merchant of Rajagaha, 
upon reaching the age of maturity, was provided by her mother and 
father with quarters on the topmost floor of a seven-storied palace 
and guarded with excessive care.^ But in spite of this, maddened with 
the madness of youth and lusting for a man, [240] she did the deed of 
kind with her own slave. Frightened to think that others also might 
find out about her misconduct, she said to him, "It is out of the 
question for us to live here any longer. If my mother and father dis- 
cover my misconduct, they will tear me limb from limb. Let us go 
live elsewhere." 

So taking a few necessary things they could carry in the hand, they 
left the house by the principal door. "It matters little," said they, 
" where we go, so long as we go and live where others will know nothing 
about us." So saying, the two set out together. They took up their 
residence in a certain place and lived together, with the result that the 
young wife conceived a child in her womb. When her unborn child 
reached maturity, she took counsel with her husband, saying, "If I 
give birth to my child in a place far removed from kith and kin, it 
will bring suffering to both of us. There is but one place for us 
to go, and that is hom€ to my parents." But her husband, fearing 
that, if he himself went there, he would be killed, kept postponing 
the day of their departure, saying, "We will go to-day; we will go 
to-morrow." 

The young wife thought to herself, "This simpleton realizes the 

* Parallels: Jdtaka 4: i. 114-120; Divydvaddna, xxxv: 483-515; Rogers, Buddha- 
ghosha's Parables, vi, pp. 61-71; AnguUara Commentary on Etadagga Vagga, Stories 
oj Mahd Panthaka and Culla Panthaka. 3 a and 3 b are almost word for word the 
same as the Introduction to Jdtaka 4. 3 c is entirely different from the Story of the 
Past in the Jdtaka. On Divydvaddna, xxxv, see Introduction, § 12, paragraph 1. See 
also Thera-Gdthd Commentary, ccxxxi and ccxxxvi, and W. A. Clouston, Popular Tales 
and Fictions, ii, 317-321, together with the note on pp. 491^93. Text: N i. 239-255. 

2 Cf. the beginning of Stories viii. 3, viii. 12, and ix. 8. 



0> 



300 Book 2, Story 3. Dhammapada 25 [N.1.24016- 

enonnity of his offense, and therefore dares not go. After all, a mother 
and a father are one's best friends. Let this fellow go or not; at any 
rate I intend to go." So while her husband was out of the house, she 
put the household utensils away, and informing her next-door neighbors 
that she was going home to her parents, she started out on the road. 
When her husband returned to the house and failed to see her, he 
inquired of the neighbors where she had gone. Hearing that she had 
gone home to her parents, he set out after her as fast as he could and 
overtook her on the road. And right there she gave birth to her child. 
"What is it, wife?" asked the husband. [241] "Husband, it is a son." 
"What shall we do now.^^" "That for which we intended to go home to 
my parents has happened by the way. Why, therefore, should we go 
there.'' Let us return to our own home." 

Agreeing that this was the best plan, husband and wife returned to 
their own home. Since their son had been born by the way, they gave 
him the name Wayman. In no long time the young wife conceived a 
second child in her womb. (All is to be related in detail precisely as 
before.) Since this child also was born by the way, they gave him the 
name Little Wayman, calling the older son Big Wayman. Taking their 
two sons, they returned to their own place of residence. 

While they were living there. Big Wayman heard other boys speak 
of their uncles and grandparents. So one day he asked his mother, 
"Mother, other boys speak of their grandfather and grandmother. 
Haven't we any relatives?" "Yes, my son. You have no relatives 
living here, but you have a grandfather, a rich merchant, living in 
Rajagaha, and we have many other relatives living there too." "Why 
don't we go there, mother?" The mother evaded telling her son why 
she did not go there. But the children repeated the question time and 
again. Finally she said to her husband, [242] "These children weary 
me excessively. Will my mother and father eat us alive when they see 
us? Come, why not let the children see the family of their grand- 
parents?" "I should not dare meet them face to face, but I will escort 
you there." "Very well; some means must be found by which the 
children can see the family of their grandparents." 

So mother and father took the children, and arriving at Rajagaha 
in due course, took up their residence in the hall of a certain woman 
near the gate of the city. Then the mother of the children sent word 
to her mother and father that she and her children had arrived. When 
her parents received this message, they said to each other, "As we 
have passed through the round of existences, we have not previously 



-N. 1.24316] Little Wayman 301 

had a son or a daughter. But these two have grievously offended 
against us, and it is out of the question for them to stand in our sight. 
Let these two take as much money as they need and go and Hve in 
some pleasant place. However, let them send the children here." So 
the two took the money which was sent to them, and giving their 
children into the hands of the messengers who came, sent them to their 
grandparents. Thus it happened that the children were brought up 
in the home of their grandparents. 

Of the two children, Little Wayman was still very young. Big 
Wayman, however, used to accompany his grandfather to hear the 
Possessor of the Ten Forces preach the Law. And as the result of his 
frequent visits to the Teacher, his heart inclined to retirement from 
the world. Accordingly he said to his grandfather, "If you would give 
me your permission, I should like to retire from the world." [243] 
"What say you, dear grandson .^^ There is no one in the whole world 
whose retirement from the world would give me so much pleasure 
as your own. If you are able to do so, by all means retire from the 
world." 

3 b. Little Wayman as a monk 

Accordingly the grandfather took Big Wayman to the Teacher, 
who said, "Householder, you have won a boy.'^" "Yes, Reverend Sir, 
this is a grandson of mine who desires to become a monk under you." 
The Teacher bade a certain monk on his round for alms to receive 
the boy into the Order. The Elder assigned to him as a Subject of 
Meditation the first five of the Constituent Parts of the Body, and 
then received him into the Order. The youth learned by heart a 
considerable portion of the Word of the Buddha, kept residence during 
the season of the rains, made his full profession, and by diligently 
applying himself to meditation attained Arahatship. 

As Big Wayman passed his time in the enjoyment of the bliss of 
Mystic Meditation, in the enjoyment of the bliss of the Fruit of the 
Path, he thought to himself, "Assuredly it is in the power of Little 
Wayman to experience this same bliss." Therefore he went to the 
treasurer his grandfather and said to him, "Great treasurer, if you 
will give your kind permission, I should like to receive Little Wayman 
into the Order." "By all means receive him into the Order, Reverend 
Sir." We are told that the treasurer was profoundly attached to the 
Religion of the Buddha, and that when asked, "Of which daughter of 
yours are these two children the sons.?^" he felt ashamed to say, "Of 



302 Book 2, Story 3. Dhammapada 25 [N. 1.24317- 

my daughter who ran away," and that for these two reasons he was 
only too glad to give them permission to retire from the world. 

So the Elder Big Wayman received his brother Little Wayman into 
the Order [244] and established him in the Moral Precepts. But Little 
Wayman, once received into the Order, proved a dullard. Indeed in 
four months he was unable to learn by heart this single Stanza, 

Even as the lotus, the red lotus, of fragrant perfume, appears at early mom full-blown, 

with fragrance unimpaired. 
Behold the Buddha, resplendent as the blazing sun in the sky. 

It seems that, in the dispensation of the Supremely Enlightened 
Kassapa, he possessed great wisdom, but that, after entering the 
religious life, he ridiculed and made fun of a certain monk who was a 
dullard, while the latter was trying to learn the Sacred Word; and 
that this monk, embarrassed by the ridicule to which he was subjected, 
was unable either to learn the passage by heart or even to repeat it. 
As the result of that act. Little Wayman was reborn as a dullard, and 
every sentence he learned put the preceding sentence out of his mind; 
indeed four months passed while he was striving to learn this one 
Stanza. 

Thereupon Big Wayman said to his brother, "Little Wayman, it 
is not in your power to master this religion. In four months you have 
not been able to learn a single Stanza. How can you ever hope to reach 
the goal of the Religious Life? Leave the monastery at once." So 
saying, he expelled his brother from the Order. But Little Wayman 
was sincerely attached to the Religion of the Buddha, and the last 
thing in the world he wished to do was to leave the Order and return 
to the life of a householder. 

Now at that time Jivaka Komarabhacca, taking an abundant 
supply of garlands and of various kinds of perfumes, went to his own 
mango-grove, rendered honor to the Teacher, listened to the Law, and 
then rising from his seat and paying obeisance to the Teacher, ap- 
proached Big Wayman, who was steward of the Order, [245] and 
asked him, "Reverend Sir, how many monks are living with the 
Teacher?" "Five hundred." "To-morrow, Reverend Sir, bring the 
five hundred monks presided over by the Buddha and take a meal in 
our house." "The lay disciple Little Wayman is a dullard and has 
made no progress in the Law. I accept the invitation for all except 
him." 

When Little Wayman heard that, he thought to himself, "The 



-N.1.246H] Little Wayman 303 

Elder accepts an invitation for all these monks, but in accepting it, 
deliberately leaves me out. Beyond a doubt my brother's affection 
for me is gone. Of what profit to me any longer is this religion.'* I 
will return to the life of a householder and spend my days giving alms 
and doing other works of merit." So on the following day, very early 
in the morning, he set out with the intention of returning to the life 
of a householder. Very early in the morning also the Teacher sur- 
veyed the world, and seeing this incident, preceded Little Wayman 
to the gate and walked back and forth on the same road Little Wayman 
had taken. 

As Little Wayman came along, he saw the Teacher, and approach- 
ing him, paid obeisance to him. Said the Teacher, "But, Little Way- 
man, where are you going at this hour of the day?" "Reverend Sir, 
my brother has expelled me from the Order, and therefore I intend 
to return to the world." "Little Wayman, it was at my hands that 
you received admission to the Order. Therefore when your brother 
expelled you, why did you not come to me? Come now, what have 
you to do with the life of a householder.'^ You shall remain with me." 
So saying, the Teacher stroked him on the head with his hand, the 
palm of which was marked with the Wheel, and taking him with him, 
went and seated him over against the Perfumed Chamber. And 
creating by magic a perfectly clean cloth, he gave it to him, saying, 
"Little Wayman, remain right here, face towards the East, rub this ' 
cloth, and say as you do so, 'Removal of Impurity! Removal of 
Lnpurity!'" [246] Just then meal-time was announced, whereupon 
the Teacher, accompanied by the Congregation of Monks, went to the 
house of Jivaka and sat down on the seat prepared for him. 

Little Wayman sat down, facing the sun, and rubbed the cloth, 
saying as he did so, "Removal of Impurity! Removal of Impurity!" 
As he rubbed the piece of cloth, it became soiled. Thereupon he 
thought, "This piece of cloth was perfectly clean before. But through 
this body of mine it has lost its original character and has become 
soiled. 'Impermanent, indeed, are all existing things!'" And grasp- 
ing the thought of decay and death, he developed Insight. The 
Teacher, knowing that Little Wayman 's mind had attained Insight, 
said, "Little Wayman, think not that only a piece of cloth has become 
soiled and dyed with impurity. Indeed within you are lust, impurity, 
and other defilements; remove them." And sending forth a luminous 
image of himself, the Teacher, sitting before him, present in bodily 
form, as it were, pronounced the following Stanzas, 



304 Book S, Story 3. Dhammapada 25 [N.i.246i6- 

Lust, not dirt, is properly called impurity; to lust is correctly applied the term "im- 
purity." 

Monks should rid themselves of this form of impurity and live faithful to the religion 
of him who is devoid of impurity. 

Hatred, not dirt, is properly called impurity; to hatred is correctly applied the term 

"impurity." 
Monks should rid themselves of this form of impurity and live faithful to the religion 

of him who is devoid of hatred. 

Delusion, not dirt, is properly called impurity; to delusion is correctly applied the term 

" impurity." 
Monks should rid themselves of this form of impurity and live faithful to the religion 
of him who is devoid of delusion. [247] 

At the conclusion of the Stanzas Little Wayman attained Arahat- 
ship, together with the Supernatural Faculties, and with the Super- 
natural Faculties also a knowledge of the Three Pitakas. 

It appears that in a previous state of existence he was a king. Once, 
while making a ceremonial circuit of the city, with sweat pouring down 
his forehead, he wiped his forehead with a clean cloth, whereupon the 
cloth became soiled. Thought he, "By reason of this body of mine a 
cloth so clean as this has lost its former character and become soiled. 
'Impermanent, indeed, are all existing things!'" Thus did he acquire 
the concept of Impermanence. In consequence of this, in a later 
existence, Removal of Impurity became his salvation. 

Jivaka Komarabhacca offered Water of Donation to the Possessor 
of the Ten Forces. Said the Teacher, covering the bowl with his hand, 
"Jivaka, are there no monks in the monastery.'*" Big Wayman 
replied, "No, Reverend Sir, there are no monks in the monastery." 
Said the Teacher, "But Jivaka, there are!" "Very well," said Jivaka, 
and sent a man to find out. Said he, "Go to the monastery and find 
out whether or not there are any monks there." At that moment 
Little Wayman said to himself, "My brother says, 'There are no 
monks in the monastery.' I will show him that there are monks in 
the monastery." And forthwith he filled the whole mango-grove with 
monks. Some of them were making robes, others were dyeing robes, 
others were repeating the Sacred Texts. Thus did Little Wayman 
create by supernatural power a thousand monks, each different from 
every other. So when Jivaka's messenger saw the numerous monks, 
he returned and told Jivaka, "Noble sir, the entire mango-grove is 
full of monks." And right there Elder [248] 

Wayman, multiplying himself a thousand-fold. 

Sat in the charming mango-grove until he was sent for. 



-N. 1.24914] Little Wayman 305 

Said the Teacher to the man, "Go to the monastery and say, 'The 
Teacher summons Little Wayman.' " The man went and said what he 
was told to say. Thereupon the cry went up from a thousand throats, 
"I am Little Wayman! I am Little Wayman!" The man returned 
and said, "Reverend Sir, they all say they are Little Wayman." Said 
the Teacher, "Well then, go and take by the hand the first man that 
says, 'I am Little Wayman,' and the rest will disappear." The man 
did so. Immediately the thousand monks disappeared. The Elder 
Little Wayman returned with the man who came for him. 

At the end of the meal the Teacher addressed Jivaka, "Jivaka, 
take Little Wayman's bowl, and he will pronounce the words of 
thanksgiving for you." Jivaka took his bowl. The Elder Little Way- 
man, like a young lion roaring a lion's roar, pronounced the words of 
thanksgiving, ranging through the whole of the Three Pitakas. The 
Teacher arose from his seat, and surrounded by the Congregation of 
Monks, went to the monastery. After the monks had shown the 
Teacher the customary attentions, the Teacher, facing the Perfumed 
Chamber, admonished the Congregation of Monks with the Admoni- 
tion of the Happy One, assigned a Subject of Meditation, dismissed 
the Congregation of Monks, and then, having entered the Perfumed 
Chamber, the fragrant, perfumed residence in which he resided, lay 
down lion-like on his right side. 

Now at eventide the monks assembled from all quarters, and 
drawing as it were curtains of crimson blankets, [249] sat down and 
began to praise the virtues of the Teacher. "Brethren, Big Wayman, 
not understanding the disposition of Little Wayman, thinking merely, 
* In four months this dullard has not been able to learn a single Stanza, ' 
expelled h.im from the monastery. But the Supremely Enlightened, 
because he is King of Ultimate Truth, within the space of a single 
meal bestowed Arahatship upon him, and together with Arahatship 
the Supernatural Faculties, and with the Supernatural Faculties 
mastery of the Three Pitakas. Oh, great is the power of the Buddhas !" 

Now the Exalted One, knowing that they were discussing this 
matter in the Hall of Truth, thought to himself, "It is my duty to go 
to them this very moment." Accordingly he arose from the Seat of 
the Buddha, put on his gloriously dyed under and upper garments, 
girded himself as with lightning, and over his shoulders, like a crimson 
blanket, threw the great robe of the Happy One. And coming forth 
from his richly fragrant Perfumed Chamber, and walking with the 
stride of a noble elephant in rut, with the incomparable grace of a 



306 Book ^, Story 3. Dhammapada 25 [N.i.249i4- 

Buddha, he proceeded to the Hall of Truth. And mounting the 
gloriously arrayed sublime Seat of the Buddha, and diffusing from his 
body the six-colored rays of a Buddha, even as the sun, newly risen 
on the top of Mount Yugandhara, agitates the inmost depths of the 
sea, he sat down in the center of the seat. 

Now the moment the Supremely Enlightened One arrived, the 
Congregation of Monks ceased their talk, became silent. The Teacher 
surveyed the assemblage with soft, kind heart [250] and said, "This 
assemblage delights my heart beyond measure. Not a single hand is 
out of place, not a single foot is out of place; not a cough is to be heard, 
not a sneeze is to be heard; all these monks, reverent with reverence 
for the Buddha, subdued by the majesty of the Buddha, though I were 
to sit here for an aeon and not speak, would refrain from speaking first, 
would not so much as open their lips. I alone have the right to decide 
when it is proper to begin to speak. Therefore will I speak first." 

Accordingly with sweet voice, a voice like that of Great Brahma, 
he addressed the monks, "Monks, what is the subject of your con- 
versation now, as you sit here all gathered together.'* What was the 
subject of the discussion which you so suddenly broke off .?*" When they 
told him, he said, "Monks, this is not the first time Little Wayman 
has proved a dullard. In a previous state of existence also he was a 
dullard. This is not the first time I have been his refuge. In a previous 
state of existence also I was his refuge. But in a previous state of 
existence I made him master of the wealth of this world. Just now I 
made him master of wealth that transcends this world." The monks 
desired to hear all about it. Responding to their requests, he related 
the following 

3 c. Story of the Past: The world-renowned teacher, the young 
man, and the king of Benares 

Once upon a time a certain young man who lived in the city of 
Benares went to Takkasila for the purpose of acquiring the arts and 
became the pupil of a world-renowned teacher. He was by all odds 
the most helpful to the teacher of all the five hundred young men who 
were his pupils. All of his duties, such as bathing and perfuming the 
feet, he performed most faithfully. But he was such a dullard that 
he was not able to learn a single thing. The teacher thought, "This 
young man is most helpful to me; I will instruct him in the arts." 
But in spite of his best efforts he was unable to teach him a single 



-N. 1.2527] Little Wayman 307 

thing. [251] When, after a long residence, the young man was unable 
to learn a single Stanza, he became discouraged, and resolving to 
return home, asked leave of the teacher. 

The teacher thought to himself, "This young man is a devoted 
servitor of mine. I should like to make a learned man of him, but this 
I cannot do. However, I ought certainly to make him some return 
for the assistance he has rendered me. I will compose a certain charm 
for him and give it to him." So he took him to the forest and composed 
for him the charm, "You're rubbing! you're rubbing! Why are you 
rubbing.'* I know too!" And this charm he taught him, causing him 
to repeat it many hundred times. "Do you know it now?" asked 
the teacher. "Yes," replied the young man; "I know it now.'* 
Thought the teacher, "If a dullard by dint of hard labor once learns 
by heart a form of words, it will never leave him." And giving him 
money to defray the expenses of his journey, he dismissed him, saying, 
"Now go make your living by this charm. But in order that you may 
not forget it, keep repeating it over and over." When he arrived at 
Benares, his mother said to herself, "My son has returned after 
acquiring the arts," and held high festival in his honor. 

It happened just at this time that the king of Benares made a 
careful examination of his thoughts, words, and deeds for the purpose 
of discovering whether he had been guilty of any fault. So far as 
he could see, he had been guilty of no impropriety. But he reflected, 
"A person never sees his own faults; it takes other persons to see 
them. I will make a tour of the city and listen to what others say 
about me. When people have eaten supper and have sat down, they 
gossip and talk about all sorts of things. If I am ruling unjustly, they 
will say, 'We are utterly ruined by the punishments, taxes, and other 
oppressions of our wicked king.' If, on the other hand, I am ruling 
justly, [252] they will comment on my good qualities, paying me many 
compliments and .saying, 'Long life to our king!'" So at nightfall 
he put on a disguise and went about the city, walking close to the 
walls of their houses. 

At that moment some tunnel-thieves began to dig a tunnel between 
two houses in order to enter two houses by the same tunnel. The king 
saw them and took his stand in the shadow of the house. Now in this 
house lived the young man who had just returned from Takkasila 
with the charm. When the thieves had dug the tunnel, they entered 
the house and began to look over the goods in the house. Just then 
the young man woke up and began to repeat his charm, "You're rub- 



308 Book 2, Story 3. Dhammapada 25 [N. 1.2527- 

bing! you're rubbing! Why are you rubbing? I know too!" When 
the thieves heard this, they exclaimed, "This man knows what we are 
up to. Now he will kill us." And forthwith, dropping even the 
clothes they had on, they fled in terror in the first direction that was 
handy. The king, seeing them fleeing and hearing the words of the 
young man as he repeated his charm, continued his tour of the city 
and then entered the royal residence. 

When the night grew bright and the dawn came, the king sum- 
moned a certain man and said to him, "My man, go into such and 
such a street, and in a certain house, where a tunnel has been dug, you 
will find a young man who has just returned from Takkasila after 
learning the various arts. Bring him to me." The man went and said 
to the young man, "The king summons you," and conducted him to 
the king. The king said to him, "Friend, are you the young man that 
has just returned from Takkasila after learning the various arts?" 
"Yes, your majesty." "Give us this charm also." "Very well, your 
majesty. Sit down on the same seat with me and learn it." The king 
sat down on the same seat with him, learned the charm, [253] and 
then said to him, "Here is your fee as teacher," and gave him a thou- 
sand pieces of money. 

Just at this time the commander-in-chief of the army said to the 
king's barber, "When do you expect to shave the king's beard?" 
"To-morrow or the day after." The commander-in-chief of the army 
gave the king's barber a thousand pieces of money and said to him, 
"I have something for you to do." "What is it, master?" "Go 
through the form of shaving the king's beard, but grind your razor very 
sharp and cut his windpipe. Then you shall be commander-in-chief 
of the army and I shall be king." "Very well," said the barber, 
agreeing to the bargain. 

When the day came for the barber to shave the king's beard, he 
moistened the king's beard with scented water, sharpened his razor, 
and applied it to the king's cheek. Discovering that the razor was 
slightly dull, and realizing that he must cut the king's windpipe with 
a single stroke, he stepped aside and began to sharpen his razor again. 
At that moment the king remembered his charm and began to repeat 
it, saying, "You're rubbing! you're rubbing! Why are you rubbing? 
I know too! I know!" Beads of sweat stood out on the forehead of 
the barber. "The king knows all about this business," thought he. 
He flung his razor to the ground in terror and prostrated himself on 
his breast before the feet of the king. 



-N. 1.25423] Little Wayman 309 

Now kings know a thing or two; and the king of Benares immedi- 
ately said to the barber, "Scoundrel of a barber, you thought to your- 
self, 'The king doesn't know about this.'" "Spare my life, your 
majesty." "Very well; fear not. Tell me about it." "Your majesty, 
the commander-in-chief of the army gave me a thousand pieces of 
money, saying to me, 'Go through the form of shaving the king's 
beard, but cut his windpipe. Then I shall be king and you shall be 
commander-in-chief of the army.'" 

The king thought to himself, "It is due to my teacher that my 
life was spared." [254] He sent for the commander-in-chief of the 
army and said to him, "Well, commander-in-chief, what is there that 
you have not received from me.'* Henceforth I can endure to look 
upon you no longer. Depart from my kingdom." With these words 
he banished him from the kingdom. Then he sent for the young man 
who had been his teacher and said to him, "Teacher, it is due to you 
that my life was spared." And when he had so said, he bestowed high 
honor upon him and made him commander-in-chief of his army. End 
of Story of the Past. 

"At that time," said the Teacher, "the young man was Little 
.Wayman, and the world-renowned teacher was the Teacher himself." 
Therefore when the Teacher had finished this Story of the Past, he 
said, "Monks, thus in a previous state of existence also Little Wayman 
was a dullard, and at that time also I became his refuge and estab- 
lished him in the possession of the wealth of this world." Again one 
day the monks began a discussion, "The Teacher indeed became a 
refuge to Little Wayman." Thereupon the Teacher related the Story 
of the Past found in the Culla-Setthi Jataka. 

A man who is wise and intelligent can elevate himself to high position in the world 

with but little wealth, 
Even as by blowing a tiny flame one can start a great fire. 

Having pronounced this Stanza, the Teacher said, "Monks, this 
is not the first time I have been a refuge to Little Wayman; in a 
previous state of existence also I was a refuge to him. But in 
a previous state of existence I made him master of the wealth of this 
world; just now I made him master of wealth that transcends the 
world. At that time the young pupil was Little Wayman and the 
young merchant was 1 myself." Thus did he identify the characters 
in the Jataka. 

Again one day in the Hall of Truth the monks began a discussion: 



310 Book ^y Story 3. Dhammaycda 25 [N. 1.25423- 

" Brethren, in four months Little Wayman was unable to learn by 
heart a Stanza of four verses ; but because he never relaxed the powers 
of his will, [255] he became established in Arahatship and has just 
now become master of wealth that transcends this world." The 
Teacher came in and asked, "Monks, what is it that you are sitting 
here now talking about?" When they told him, he said, "Monks, a 
monk who exerts all the powers of his will in following the Precepts 
cannot fail to make himself master of wealth that transcends this 
world." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanza, 

25. By rousing himself, by heedfulness, by controlling himself, by restraining himself, 
A wise man may make for himself an island which the flood can never overwhelm. 



II. 4. SIMPLETONS' HOLIDAY * 

Simpletons are given to heedlessness. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to Simpletons' Holiday, Balanakkhatta. [256] 

For on a certain date there was a festival celebrated in Savatthi 
called Simpletons' Holiday, and on the occasion of this festival foolish, 
unintelligent folk used to smear their bodies with ashes and cow-dung 
and for a period of seven days go about uttering all manner of coarse 
talk. At this time people showed no respect for kinsfolk or friends 
or monks when they met them, but stood in the doorways and insulted 
them with coarse talk. Those who could not endure the coarse talk 
would pay the holiday-makers a half or a quarter or a penny, according 
to their means, and the holiday-makers would take the money and 
depart from their houses. 

Now at this time there were in Savatthi five crores of Noble Dis- 
ciples, and they sent word to the Teacher, "Reverend Sir, let the 
Exalted One refrain for a period of seven days from entering the city 
with the Congregation of Monks; let him instead remain at the mon- 
astery." And for a period of seven days the Noble Disciples caused 
food to be prepared for the Congregation of Monks at the monastery 
and sent it to them, but did not themselves leave their houses. On the 
eighth day, however, when the festival was at an end, they invited 
the Congregation of Monks to be their guests, escorted them into the 
city, and gave abundant offerings. And having seated themselves 

» Text: N i. 256-258. 



-N. 1.259?] Simpletons* holiday 311 

respectfully on one side, they said to the Teacher, "Reverend Sir, we 
have spent the past seven days most unpleasantly. Our ears had 
like to burst from hearing the coarse talk of foolish folk. [257] No 
one showed any respect for anybody else, and for this reason we did 
not permit you to enter the city. We ourselves did not go out of the 
house." The Teacher listened to what they said, and then replied, 
"After this manner do foolish, unintelligent men conduct themselves. 
But they that are intelligent preserve heedfulness as their greatest 
treasure, and by so doing at last attain the attainment of the Death- 
less, Great Nibbana." So saying, he pronounced the following Stanzas, 

26. Simpletons, folk of little intelligence, are given to heedlessness; 

But the intelligent man preserves heedfulness as his greatest treasure. 

27. Give not yourselves up to heedlessness; indulge not in lust and sensual pleasure; 
For he that is heedful and practices meditation attains profound happiness. 



II. 5. KASSAPA THE GREAT i 

When the wise man banishes heedlessness by heedfulness. This 
religious instruction was given by the Teacher while he was in residence 
at Jetavana with reference to the Elder Maha Kassapa. [258] 

For on a certain day, while the Elder was in residence at Pipphali 
Cave, he made his round of Rajagaha for alms, and after he had 
returned from his round for alms and had eaten his breakfast, he sat 
down and developed Insight, surveying with Supernatural Vision 
all living beings, both heedless and heedful, in the water, on the earth, 
on the mountains, and elsewhere, both coming into existence and 
passing out of existence. 

The Teacher, seated at Jetavana, [259] exercised Supernatural 
Vision and pondered within himself, "With what is my son Kassapa 
occupied to-day?" Straightway he became aware of the following, 
"He is contemplating the rising and falling of living beings." And 
he said, "Knowledge of the rising and falling of living beings may not 
be compassed even with the Knowledge of a Buddha. Living beings 
pass from one existence to another and obtain a new conception in a 
mother's womb without the knowledge of mother or father, and 
knowledge thereof may not be compassed. To know them is beyond 
your range, Kassapa, for your range is very slight. It comes within 

1 Text: Ni. 258-260., 



312 Book 2, Story 5. Dhammapada 28 [N. 1.2597- 

range of the Buddhas alone to know and to see in their totality the 
rising and falling of living beings." So saying, he sent forth a radiant 
image of himself, and as it were sitting down face to face with Kas- 
sapa, pronounced the following Stanza, 

28. When the wise man banishes heedlessness by heedfubiess, 

He climbs the terrace of wisdom, and free from sorrow, looks upon the sorrowing 

folk of the world. 
Steadfast, as though standing on a mountain-top, he gazes upon the simpletons 

standing on the ground below. 



II. 6. TWO BRETHREN » 

Heedful among the heedless. This religious instruction was given 
by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with reference 
to two brethren. [260] 

It appears that these two monks obtained a Subject of Meditation 
from the Teacher and retired to a forest hermitage. Early in the 
morning one of them brought firewood, prepared the charcoal-dish, 
and during the first watch sat and chatted with the probationers and 
novices. The other, a heedful monk, engaged in meditation, thus 
admonished his friend, "Brother, do not act thus. For a monk that 
is heedless stand ready four states of suffering, as if they were his own 
house. The favor of the Buddhas may not be w'on by double-dealing." 
When the lazy monk paid no attention to his admonition, the zealous 
monk said, "This monk cannot endure to be spoken to." Having 
failed to spur his comrade to greater effort, the zealous monk, abiding 
in heedfulness, resumed his meditations. [261] 

The slothful Elder, having warmed himself during the first watch, 
entered the monastery just as his friend, having finished his walk, 
entered his cell. Said the slothful monk to the zealous monk, "Slothful 
one, you entered the forest for the purpose of lying down and sleeping. 
Seeing that you obtained a Subject of Meditation from the Buddhas, 
ought you not rather to rise and devote yourself to the practice of 
meditation.''" So saying, he entered his own place of residence, lay 
down, and went to sleep. But his friend, after walking up and down 
during the first watch and resting during the second watch, rose in the 
last watch and devoted himself to the practice of meditation. Living 
thus the life of heedfulness, in no long time he attained Arahatship, 

» Text: N i. 260-263. 



-N. 1.26314] Two Brethren 313 

together with the Supernatural Faculties. The other monk, however, 
spent his time in utter heedlessness. 

When the two monks had completed residence, they went to the 
Teacher, paid obeisance to him, and sat down respectfully on one side. 
The Teacher exchanged friendly greetings with them and queried, 
"I trust that you have lived the life of heedfulness and that you have 
devoted yourselves earnestly to the practice of meditation. I trust 
that you have reached the goal of the Religious Life." The heedless 
monk replied, "Reverend Sir, how can this monk be said to be heedful.'' 
From the time he left you he has done nothing but lie and sleep." 
"But yoUy monk.''" "I, Reverend Sir, betimes in the morning 
brought firewood and prepared the charcoal-dish, and during the first 
watch I sat and warmed myself, but I did not spend my time sleeping." 
Then said the Teacher to the slothful monk, "You who have spent your 
time in heedlessness say, *I am heedful.' You mistake heedlessness 
for heedfulness. [262] Compared with my son, you are like a decrepit 
hack; but he, compared with you, is like a racer." So saying, he 
pronounced the following Stanza, 

29. Heedful among the heedless, watchful among the sleeping. 
Even as a racer outstrips a hack, even so goes a wise man. 



II. 7. HOW MAGHA BECAME SAKKA i 

By heedfulness Maghavd attained leadership of the gods. This 
religious instruction was given by the Teacher while in residence at a 
summer-house near Vesali with reference to Sakka king of gods. [263] 

7 a. Story of the Present: Mahali's question 

For a Licchavi prince named Mahali, who lived at Vesali, hearing 
the Teacher recite the Suttanta entitled Sakka's Question, thought 
to himself, "The Supremely Enlightened has described the great 
glory of Sakka. Has the Teacher seen Sakka.'' or has he not seen 
Sakka.'' Is the Teacher acquainted with Sakka.'' or is he not ac- 
quainted with Sakka.'' I will ask him." So the Licchavi prince 
Mahali drew near to where the Exalted One was, and having drawn 
near, saluted the Exalted One and sat down on one side. And having 

' 7 a is almost word for word the same as Samyutta, xi. 2. 3: i. 230-231. 7 b is a 
free version of Jdtaica 31: i. 198-206. Text: N i. 263-281. 



314 Book S, Story 7. Dhammapada 30 [N.i.aesu- 

sat down on one side, the Licchavi prince Mahali spoke thus to the 
Exalted One, "Reverend Sir, has the Exalted One seen Sakka king of 
gods?" [264] "Yes, Mahali, I have indeed seen Sakka king of gods/* 
"Reverend Sir, it must certainly have been a counterfeit of Sakka; 
for. Reverend Sir, it is a diflficult matter to see Sakka king of gods." 
"Nevertheless, Mahali, I know Sakka; I know what qualities made 
him Sakka; I know by the cultivation of what qualities Sakka at- 
tained Sakkaship. 

"Mahali, in a previous state of existence Sakka king of gods was 
a human being, a prince named Magha; therefore is he called Maghava. 
Mahali, in a previous state of existence Sakka king of gods was a 
human being who in a previous state of existence gave gifts (pure 
ddnam addsi) ; therefore is he called Purindada. Mahali, in a previous 
state of existence Sakka king of gods was a human being, who gave 
alms assiduously (sakkaccaTfi) ; therefore is he called Sakka. Mahali, 
in a previous state of existence Sakka king of gods was a human being 
who gave a dwelling-place (avasatham) ; therefore is he called Vasava. 
Mahali in a previous state of existence Sakka king of gods was a human 
being who could think of as many as a thousand things (sahassam 
attham) in an instant; therefore is he called Sahassakkha. Mahali, 
Sakka king of gods has an Asura maiden named Sujata to wife; there- 
fore is he called Sujampati. Mahali, Sakka king of gods bears sway as 
lord and master over the Gods of the Thirty-three; therefore is he 
called King of Gods. Mahali, Sakka king of gods in a previous state 
of existence as a human being took upon himself and fulfilled seven 
vows. Because he took upon himself and fulfilled these seven vows, 
Sakka [265] attained Sakkaship. 

"Now what were the seven.? *So long as I live, may I be the sup- 
port of my mother and father. So long as I live, may I honor my 
elders. So long as I live, may I speak gentle words. So long as I live, 
may I never give way to backbiting. So long as I live, may I live the 
life of a householder with heart free from taint of avarice, generous in 
renunciation of what is mine, with open hand, delighting in liberality, 
attentive to petitions, delighting in the distribution of alms. So 
long as I live, may I speak the truth. So long as I live, may 
I be free from anger. Should anger spring up within me, may I 
quickly suppress it.* Mahali, Sakka king of gods in a previous state 
of existence took upon himself and fulfilled seven vows. Because he 
took upon himself and fulfilled these seven vows, Sakka attained 
Sakkaship." 



-N.1.2673] How Magha became Sakka 315 

If a man support his mother and father, if he honor his elders in the household. 
If he be gentle and friendly in conversation, if he avoid backbiting, 
If he steadfastly put away avarice, if he be truthful, if he suppress anger. 
Such a man the Gods of the Thirty-three call a good man. 

When the Teacher said, "This, MahaH, was what Sakka did in 
his previous existence as Prince Magha," MahaH, desiring to hear the" 
whole story of his conduct, asked the Teacher, "Reverend Sir, how 
did Prince Magha conduct himself?" "Well then," said the Teacher, 
"listen." So saying, he related the following 

7 b. Story of the Past: How Magha became Sakka 

In times long past a prince named Magha lived in the village of 
Macala in the kingdom of Magadha. [266] One day he went to the 
place where the business of the village was carried on, removed with 
his foot the dust from the place where he stood, and having made a 
comfortable place for himself, stood there. Thereupon another struck 
him with his arm, pushed him aside, and took his place. But instead 
of becoming angry at the man, he made another comfortable place for 
himself and stood there. Thereupon another struck him with his arm, 
pushed him away, and took his place. But neither did he allow him- 
self to become angry at this man; he merely made another comfortable 
place for himself and stood there. In like manner one man after 
another came out of his house, struck him with his arm, and pushed him 
away from the place which he had cleared for himself. 

The prince thought to himself, "All these men appear to be pleased. 
Since this work of mine conduces to the happiness of men, it must be a 
meritorious work." So on the following day he took a spade and cleared 
a space as big as a threshing-floor, whereupon all the men came and 
stood there. In cold weather he built a fire to warm them, so that 
the place became a favorite resort for all. Then he thought to himself, 
"It behooves me to take upon myself the task of making the road 
smooth and even." So early in the morning he started out to make 
the road smooth and even, cutting down and removing all the branches 
of trees that needed to be removed. Thus did he spend his time. 

Another man saw him and said to him, "Master, what are you 
doing .f^" He replied, "Master, I am treading the Path that leads to 
Heaven." "I also am your companion." "Be my companion, master; 
heaven is a pleasant place for many." [267] Seeing these two, a third 
man asked the same question, received the same answer, and joined 
them; then a fourth, then a fifth, until finally there were thirty-three. 



316 Book 2 y Story 7. Dhammapada 30 [N. 1.2673- 

All these men worked together with spades and axes and made the 
road smooth and even for a distance of one or two leagues. The 
village headman saw them and thought to himself, "These men are 
all following the wrong occupation. If they would only fetch fish and 
flesh from the forest, or indulge in strong drink, or do something else 
of the sort, I should make something by it." So he sent for them and 
asked them, "What is it you are doing.?" "Treading the Path to 
Heaven, master." "That is no proper occupation for men living the 
lives of laymen. What you should do is to bring fish and flesh from the 
forest, indulge in strong drink, and have a general good time." But 
they refused to follow his suggestion, and the more he urged them, the 
more firmly they refused to do as he suggested. 

Finally the village headman became angry. "I will destroy them," 
said he. So he went to the king and said to him, "Your majesty, I see 
a band of thieves going about committing depredations." The king 
replied, "Go catch them and bring them before me." So the village 
headman arrested the thirty-three youths and haled them before the 
king. Without instituting an inquiry into their conduct, the king 
gave the following order, "Cause them to be trampled to death by an 
elephant." Thereupon Magha admonished his companions as follows, 
"Friends, we have no refuge but love. Therefore let your hearts be 
tranquil. Cherish anger towards no one. Let your hearts be full of 
love for the king and the village headman and the elephant that 
tramples you under his feet." The thirty-three youths followed the 
admonition of their leader. Such was the power of their love that the 
elephant dared not approach them. 

When the king heard of this, he said, [268] "If the elephant sees 
so many men, he will not venture to trample them under his feet. 
Have the men covered with heavy matting, and then order the elephant 
to trample them." So the village headman had the men covered with 
heavy matting and drove the elephant forwards to trample them. 
But when the elephant was yet a long way off, he turned round and 
went back. When the king heard what had happened, he thought to 
himself, "There must be some reason for this." So he caused the 
thirty-three youths to be brought before him and asked them, "Friends, 
is there anything which you have failed to receive at my hands .'^" 
"Your majesty, what do you mean.?" "I am informed that you are a 
band of thieves and that you rove about the forest committing depre- 
dations." "Your majesty, who said that?" "Friends, the village 
headman so informed me." 



-N. 1.2702] How Magha became Sakka 317 

"Your majesty, it is not true that we are thieves. The fact is, we 
are clearing a Path to Heaven for ourselves, and we do this and that. 
The village headman tried to persuade us to adopt an evil mode of 
life, and when we refused to follow his suggestions, he became angry 
at us and determined to destroy us. That is why he said this about 
us." "Friends, this animal knows your good qualities; but I, who am 
a man, was unable to discern them. Pardon me." So saying, the king 
made the village headman their slave, together with his children and 
wife, gave them a riding-elephant, and presented that village to them 
to do with as they saw fit. Thought the thirty-three youths, "Even 
in this life the advantage to be derived from the performance of works 
of merit is clearly to be seen." And mounting the elephant by turns, 
they rode about the village. 

As they went about the village, they took counsel together, [269] 
saying, "It is our duty to perform yet more abundant works of merit. 
What shall we do.?^" Thereupon the following thought occurred to 
them, "Let us build at the crossing of the four highways a rest-house 
for*the multitude, making it secure and strong." So they summoned 
a builder and ordered him to build a hall for them. And because 
desire for women had departed from them, they resolved to give women 
no share in the building of the hall. 

Now there were four women living in Magha's house, Joy, Thought- 
ful, Goodness, and Wellborn. Goodness went secretly to the builder, 
gave him a bribe, and said to him, "Brother, give me the principal 
share in the building of this hall." "Very well," replied the builder, 
agreeing to her proposal. Accordingly he first marked a tree out of 
which to make a pinnacle, felled it, and laid it aside to season. Then 
he hewed it and planed it and bored it, and having fashioned it in 
the form of a pinnacle, carved the following inscription on it, "This is 
the Hall of Goodness." Having so done, he wrapped it in a cloth and 
laid it aside. 

Now when he had completed the hall and the day came to erect 
the pinnacle, he said to the thirty-three youths, "Noble sirs, there is 
something we have forgotten." "What is it, sir.?" "A pinnacle." 
"Let us procure one." "It is impossible to make one out of a freshly 
hewn tree. We should procure for a pinnacle a tree felled long ago 
and laid away to season." "What had we best do under the circum- 
stances.''" "If in anybody's house there is a completed pinnacle which 
has been laid away to season and which is for sale, [270] that is the 
thing for you to search for." So they searched everywhere, and finding 



318 Book 2, Story 7. Dhammapada 30 [N.1.2702- 

what they wanted in the house of Goodness, offered her a thousand 
pieces of money for it. But they were unable to secure it for the price 
they offered. Said Goodness, "If you will give me a share in the 
building of the hall, I will give you the pinnacle." But they replied, 
*'We have resolved to give women no share in the building of this 
hall." Thereupon the builder said to them, "Noble sirs, what are 
you doing .f* With the exception of the World of Brahma, there is no 
place from which women are excluded. Take the pinnacle, for if you 
do, our work will speedily be finished." "Very well," said they. So 
they took the pinnacle and completed the hall. And they divided 
the hall into three parts, reserving one chamber for kings, another for 
the poor, and another for the sick. 

Then the thirty-three youths built thirty-three seats, and having 
so done, gave the following orders to the elephant, "If a visitor comes 
and sits down in a seat, take him and lodge him in the house of whoever 
built and owns that seat. It then becomes the duty of the owner of 
that seat to see that his guest's feet and back are rubbed, to provide 
him with food both hard and soft, and with lodging; to perform for 
him, in fact, all the duties of hospitality." Accordingly, whenever a 
visitor came, the elephant would take him and conduct him to the 
house of the owner of the seat in which he had sat, and the owner of 
the seat would on that day perform for him all the duties of hospitality. 

Magha planted an ebony-tree near the hall and built a stone seat 
at the foot of the ebony-tree. All those who entered the hall looked 
at the pinnacle, read the inscription, and said, "This is the Hall of 
Goodness." The names of the thirty-three youths did not appear. 

Joy thought to herself, "The youths who built this hall resolved to 
deprive us of a share in the building thereof. [271] But Goodness by 
her own cleverness obtained a share. I also ought to do something. 
What can I do?" Thereupon the following thought occurred to her, 
"Those who come to the hall should be provided with water for drink- 
ing and water for bathing. I will have a place dug for a pool." Accord- 
ingly Joy caused a bathing-pool to be built. 

Thoughtful thought to herself, "Goodness has given a pinnacle, and 
Joy has caused a swimming-pool to be built. What can I do?" There- 
upon the following thought occurred to her, "After those who come to 
the hall have drunk water and bathed, they should be decked with 
garlands when they are ready to depart. I will cause a flower garden to 
be laid out." So Thoughtful caused a beautiful flower garden to be 
laid out. So many and so various were the flowers that grew therein 



-N. 1.2733] How Magha became Sakka 319 

that it was impossible for anyone to say, "Such and such a flower- 
bearing or fruit-bearing tree does not grow in this garden." 

Now Wellborn thought to herself, "I am the daughter of the 
brother of the mother of Magha and likewise the wife of Magha. The 
merit of the work he has wrought accrues to me only, and the merit 
of the work I have wrought accrues to him only." Accordingly she did 
nothing but spend her time adorning herself. 

Thus did Magha minister to his mother and father, honor his elders 
in the household, speak the truth, avoid harsh words, avoid back- 
biting, put away avarice, suppress anger. Even thus did he fulfill the 
Seven Precepts, as it is said : [272] 

If a man support his mother and father, if he honor his elders in the household. 
If he be gentle and friendly in conversation, if he avoid backbiting, 
If he steadfastly put away avarice, if he be truthful, if he suppress anger. 
Such a man the Gods of the Thirty-three call a good man. 

Having attained so praiseworthy a state, Magha, upon reaching 
the end of the term of life allotted to him, was reborn in the World of 
the Thirty-three as Sakka king of gods. His companions were likewise 
reborn there. The builder was reborn god Vissakamma. 

Now at that time there were Asuras dwelling in the World of the 
Thirty-three, and when they learned that new gods had been reborn 
there, they prepared celestial drink for them. But Sakka gave orders 
to his retinue that no one should drink thereof. The Asuras, however, 
drank freely and became intoxicated. Thereupon Sakka thought to 
himself, "Why should I share my kingdom with these deities.'*" Forth- 
with, giving a sign to his retinue, he caused them to pick up the Asuras 
by the heels and fling them into the Great Ocean. So the Asuras fell 
headlong into the Ocean. By the power of their merit there sprang 
up at the foot of Mount Sineru the Palace of the Asuras and the Tree 
that is called Pied Trumpet-flower. 

When the conflict between the gods and the Asuras was over and 
the Asuras had been defeated, there came into existence the City of the 
Thirty-three. The distance from the eastern gate to the western gate 
was ten thousand leagues, and the distance from the southern gate to 
the northern gate was the same. Now this city was provided with a 
thousand gates and was adorned with gardens and pools, and in the 
midst thereof, [273] as the fruit of the building of the hall, there arose 
a palace called the Palace of Victory. Its height was seven hundred 
leagues, and it was decked with banners three hundred leagues long. 
On staffs of gold were banners of jewels, and on staffs of jewels were 



320 Book 2, Story 7. Dhammapada 30 [N. 1.2734- 

banners of gold; on staffs of coral were banners of pearls, and on staffs 
of pearls were banners of coral; on staffs of the seven precious stones 
were banners of the seven precious stones. Such was the palace that 
arose as the fruit of the building of the hall; a thousand leagues was 
its height, and it was composed of the seven precious stones. 

As the result of the planting of the ebony-tree, there arose the Coral- 
tree, a hundred leagues in circumference. As the result of the building 
of the stone seat, there came into existence at the foot of the Coral- 
tree the Yellowstone throne, of a reddish yellow color like that of the 
jasmine flower, sixty leagues in length, fifty leagues in breadth, and 
fifteen leagues thick. When Sakka sits down on this throne, half its 
mass sinks into the ground; when he rises, it is all above ground. 
The elephant was reborn as god Eravana. There are no animals in 
the World of the Gods; so when he went into the garden to play, he 
would quit his form as a god and become the elephant Eravana, a hun- 
dred and fifty leagues in size. For the thirty-three youths, Eravana 
created thirty-three water-pots, each two or three quarters of a league 
around. 

In the center of all, Eravana created for Sakka a water-pot called 
Beautiful. It was thirty leagues in circumference, and above it was 
a canopy, twelve leagues in size, made entirely of precious stones. 
[274] At regular intervals about the canopy there arose banners a 
league in length, made entirely of the seven precious stones. And 
from the lower edge of each banner depended a row of tinkling bells, 
which, when they were shaken by the gentle wind, gave forth sweet 
music like the mingled strains of the music of the five kinds of instru- 
ments or the singing of the celestial choir. In the center of the pavilion 
was prepared for Sakka a jeweled couch a league in length. There 
Sakka reclined in state. Eravana created thirty-three water-pots for 
the thirty-three gods. Each vessel bore seven tusks, each fifty leagues 
long; each tusk bore seven lotus-tanks; each lotus-tank bore seven 
lotus-plants; each lotus-plant bore seven flowers; each flower, seven 
leaves; and on each leaf danced seven celestial nymphs. Thus on all 
sides round about for a space of fifty leagues there were dancing- 
assemblies poised on elephants' tusks. Such was the glory in the 
enjoyment of which lived Sakka king of gods. 

When Goodness died, she was also reborn there. And at the same 
time there came into existence Goodness, Moot-hall of the gods, nine 
hundred leagues in extent, than which exists no other place more 
charming. [275] Here, on the eighth day of the month, is preached 



-N.i.276io] How Magha became Sakka 321 

the Law. Unto this day, when men behold a charming place, they say, 
"It is like Goodness, Moot-hall of the gods." When Joy died, she also 
was reborn there. And at the same time there came into existence a 
lotus-tank called Joy, five hundred leagues in extent. When Thought- 
ful died, she also was reborn there. And at the same time there came 
into existence Thoughtful's Creeper-grove, five hundred leagues in 
extent. Thither they conduct the gods whose prognostics have 
appeared, and walk rejoicing. But when Wellborn died, she was 
reborn as a crane in a certain mountain-cave. 

Sakka surveyed his wives and considered within himself, "Good- 
ness has been reborn here and likewise Joy and Thoughtful. Now 
where has Wellborn been reborn.^" Perceiving that she had been 
reborn as a crane in a mountain-cave, he thought to himself, "Because 
she wrought no work of merit, the foolish girl has been reborn as an 
animal. It is my duty to have her perform some work of merit and 
bring her here." So saying, he laid aside his proper form, and assuming 
a disguise, he went to her and asked, "What are you doing here.'^" 
"But, master, who are you.''" "I am your husband, Magha." "Where 
were you reborn, husband.'^" "I was reborn in the Heaven of the 
Thirty-three. Do you know where your companions were reborn.'^" 
"No, husband, I do not." "They also were reborn in the Heaven of 
the Thirty-three as my wives. Should you like to see your com- 
panions.''" "How can I get there?" Said Sakka, "I will carry you 
thither." 

Placing her in the palm of his hand, he carried her to the World of 
the Gods and set her free on the bank of the lotus-tank named Joy. 
Then he said to the other three, "Should you like to see your com- 
panion Wellborn.?" "Sire, where is she.?" [276] " On the bank of the 
lotus-tank named Joy." So the three went and looked at her. " Alas !" 
they cried out, "see what has been the result of the noble woman's 
spending her life in the adornment of self! Look now at her beak! 
Look at her feet ! Look at her legs ! She presents a beautiful appearance 
indeed!" Thus did they ridicule her. Having so done, they departed. 

Sakka went once more to her and said, "Did you see your com- 
panions.?" "Yes," replied Wellborn, "I saw them. They ridiculed 
me and then went their way. Take me back again." So Sakka took 
her back again, set her free in the water, and then asked her, "Did 
you see their celestial glory.?" "Yes, Sire, I did." "You also should 
employ such means as will enable you to obtain rebirth there." "Sire, 
what shall I do.?" "If I admonish you, will you keep my admonition.?" 



322 Book 2, Story 7. Dhammapada 30 [N. 1.27610- 

"Yes, Sire, I will keep your admonition." So Sakka taught her the 
Five Precepts. Having so done, he said to her, "Be zealous in keeping 
the Precepts," and departed. 

Thenceforth she sought after and ate only such fish as had died 
a natural death. After a few days had passed, Sakka determined to 
test her. So he went, and taking the form of a fish, lay down on the 
surface of the sand, pretending to be dead. When she saw the fish, 
thinking that it was dead, she took it in her beak. Just as she was 
about to swallow the fish, it wriggled its tail. The instant she dis- 
covered the fish was alive she released it in the water. Sakka waited 
a little while, and then lay down before her on his back once more. 
Again thinking it was a dead fish, she took it in her beak. But just 
as she was about to swallow the fish, it moved the tip of its tail. The 
instant she saw the fish move its tail she knew it was alive, and there- 
fore let it go. When Sakka had thus tested her three times and had 
satisfied himself that she was keeping the Precepts faithfully, he 
revealed his identity to her and said, "I came here for the purpose 
of testing you. You are keeping the Precepts faithfully. If you con- 
tinue thus faithfully to keep them, [277] you will before long be 
reborn as one of my wives. Be heedful." So saying these words, he 
departed. 

Thenceforth she used for food either fish that had died a natural 
death or none at all. After only a few days had passed, she shriveled 
up and died, and solely as the fruit of her virtuous conduct was reborn 
at Benares as the daughter of a potter. When she was about fifteen 
or sixteen years old, Sakka considered within himself, "Where has she 
been reborn.'^" Perceiving that she had been reborn at Benares as the 
daughter of a potter, he said to himself, "I ought now to go to her." 

So filling a cart with the seven kinds of precious stones disguised 
as cucumbers, he drove into the city of Benares. "Come, get cucum- 
bers!" he cried, as he entered the street. But when people came to 
him with coins in their hands, he said, "I do not part with my cu- 
cumbers for a price." "On what terms do you part with them, then?" 
the people asked him. "I give them to the woman that keeps the 
Precepts," he replied. "Master, what do you mean by 'precepts'? 
Are they black or brown or of some other color .f*" "You don*t even 
know what Precepts are; much less will you keep them. I will give 
my cucumbers to the woman who keeps the Precepts." 

"Master, there is a potter's daughter who is always going about 
saying, 'I keep the Precepts.' Give them to her." The potter's. 



-N. 1.2797 J How Magha became Sakka 323 

daughter said to him, "Very well, master, give them to me." "Who 
are you?" " I am a maiden that has never failed to keep the Precepts." 
[278] "For you alone have I brought these," said Sakka. And driving 
his cart to her house, he presented to her, in the guise of cucumbers, 
celestial treasure which cannot be taken away by others. And mak- 
ing his identity known to her, he said, "Here is wealth suflBcient for 
you to live on. Keep the Five Precepts unbroken." So saying, he 
departed. 

At the end of her existence as a potter's daughter she was reborn 
in the World of the Asuras as the daughter of Vepacitti, king of Asuras, 
a bitter enemy of Sakka. Since she had kept the Precepts in two 
successive existences, she was fair of form, her skin was of a golden 
hue, and she was endowed with beauty and comeliness the like of 
which had never been seen. Vepacitti, king of Asuras, said to all the 
Asura princes who sought her in marriage, "You are not fit to marry 
my daughter." Having thus refused to give her in marriage to any of 
tha Asura princes, he said, "My daughter shall choose for herself 
such a husband as she sees fit." So saying, he assembled the host of 
Asuras, and placing a garland of flowers in the hand of his daughter, 
said to her, "Choose for yourself a husband who suits you." 

At that moment Sakka looked to see where she had been reborn. 
Perceiving what was taking place, he assumed the form of an aged 
Asura and went and stood in the outer circle of the assembled company. 
The daughter of Vepacitti looked this way and that. Suddenly, 
because in a previous state of existence she had lived with Sakka, she 
was overwhelmed as by a mighty torrent by the power of the love for 
him which sprang up within her. And crying out, " He is my husband !" 
she threw the garland of flowers over his head. Said the Asuras, "For 
a long time our king has been unable to find a husband suitable for 
his daughter. Now, however, he has found one. This fellow is old 
enough to be his daughter's grandfather." [279] And they departed, 
hanging their heads with shame. 

Sakka took her by the hand, cried out, "I am Sakka," and flew 
up into the air. The Asuras exclaimed, "We have been fooled by 
Old Sakka," and started up in pursuit. Matali the charioteer brought 
up the chariot called Chariot of Victory and stopped by the way. 
Thereupon Sakka assisted his bride to mount and set out for the City 
of the Gods. Now when they reached the Forest of the Silk-cotton 
Trees, the Garuda fledglings, hearing the sound of the chariot and 
fearing they would be crushed to death, cried out. 



324 Book 2, Story 7. Dhammapada 30 [N. 1.2797- 

When Sakka heard their cries, he asked Matali, "What are they 
that are crying?" "Garuda birds, Sire," "Why are they crying?" 
"They hear the sound of the chariot and fear they will be crushed to 
death." "Let not so numerous a host perish, crushed by the impact 
of the chariot, because of me alone. Cause the chariot to turn back." 
Thereupon Matali gave the sign with the lash to the thousand Sindh 
horses and caused the chariot to turn back. 

When the Asuras saw that the chariot had turned back, they said, 
"Old Sakka started out in flight from the city of the Asuras, but has 
just caused his chariot to turn back. Doubtless he has received 
reenforcements." And turning back, the Asuras entered the city of 
the Asuras by the same road by which they had come out and never- 
more lifted up their heads. Sakka bore the Asura maiden Wellborn 
to the City of the Gods and installed her as the chief of twenty-five 
million celestial nymphs. 

One day Wellborn asked Sakka for a boon, saying, "Great king, 
in this World of the Gods I have neither mother nor father nor brother 
nor sister; therefore pray take me with you wherever you go." [280] 
"Very well," replied Sakka, promising to do for her as she had asked. 
Thenceforth, when the tree that is called Pied Trumpet-flower blooms, 
the Asuras cry out, "Now is the time when our heavenly Coral-tree 
blooms," and straightway they sally forth to attack Sakka. Therefore 
Sakka posts a guard to defend the Nagas in the sea below, and likewise 
affords protection to the Supannas and the Kumbhandas and the 
Yakkhas, and likewise to the Four Great Kings. And over all, for 
the purpose of averting disaster, he places before the gates of the City 
of the Gods images of Indra bearing the thunderbolt in his hands. 
When the Asuras, after defeating the Nagas and the other super- 
natural beings approach the City of the Gods and see the images of 
Indra, they cry out, "Sakka has made a sally," and flee away. 
End of Story of the Past. 

"Thus, Mahali, Prince Magha adopted the way of Heedfulness. 
Because he was so heedful, he obtained such sovereignty so exalted and 
came to rule over the two Worlds of the Gods. Heedfulness is praised 
by the Buddhas and by others likewise. For it is through Heedfulness 
that all attain the Higher Attainments, both those that are of this 
world and those that transcend this world." So saying, he pronounced 
the following Stanza, 

30. By heedfulness Magha va attained leadership of the gods; 
All men praise heedfulness; heedlessness is ever reprobated. 



-N. 1.2838] How Magha became Sakka 325 



II. 8. A MONK ATTAINS ARAHATSHIP ^ 

A monk who delights in heedfulness. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to a certain monk. [281] 

The story goes that this monk obtained from the Teacher a Subject 
of Meditation leading to Arahatship and retired to the forest. Al- 
though he strove and struggled with might and main, he was unable 
to attain Arahatship. Thereupon he said to himself, "I will ask the 
Teacher to give me a Subject of Meditation better suited to my needs." 
So he departed from his place of residence and set out to return to the 
Teacher. On the way he saw a great forest fire raging. Accordingly 
he climbed up to the top of a bald mountain and sat down. As he 
watched the fire consume the forest, [282] he concentrated his mind 
on the following thought, "Even as this fire advances, consuming all 
obstacles both great and small, so also ought t to advance, consuming 
all obstacles both great and small by the Fire of Knowledge of the 
Noble Path." 

The Teacher, even as he sat in his Perfumed Chamber, became 
aware of the course of his thoughts and spoke as follows, "Monk, this 
is precisely true. Even as fire consumes all obstacles both great and 
small, so also is it necessary with the Fire of Knowledge to consume 
and' utterly destroy all Attachments both small and great which arise 
within these living beings." And sending forth a luminous image of 
himself, present, as it were, sitting face to face with that monk, he 
pronounced the following Apparition-Stanza, 

31. A monk who delights in heedfuhiess and views heedlessness with fear 
Advances like a fire, consuming Attachments both small and great. [283] 

At the conclusion of the Stanza that monk, even as he sat there, 
consumed all the Attachments and attained Arahatship, together with 
the Supernatural Faculties. And straightway, soaring through the 
air, he approached the Teacher, praising and glorifying the golden body 
of the Tathagata. And when he had done him homage, he departed. 

» Text: N i. 281-283. 



326 Book 2, Story 9, Dhammapada 32 [N.i.283i(y- 



II. 9. TISSA OF THE MARKET-TOWN » 

A monk who delights in heedfulness. This religious instruction 
was given by the Teacher while he was in residence at Jetavana with 
reference to Elder Tissa of the Market-town, NigamavasI Tissa. [283] 

For a youth of station, born and reared in a certain market-town 
not far from Savatthi, retired from the world and became a monk in 
the Religion of the Teacher. On making his full profession, he became 
known as Tissa of the Market-town, or Nigama Tissa. He acquired 
the reputation of being frugal, contented, pure, resolute. He always 
made his rounds for alms in the village where his relatives resided. 
Although, in the neighboring city of Savatthi, Anathapindika and 
other disciples were bestowing abundant offerings and Pasenadi Kosala 
was bestowing gifts beyond compare, he never went to Savatthi. 

One day the monks began to talk about him and said to the Teacher, 
"This monk Nigama Tissa, busy and active, lives in intimate associa- 
tion with his kinsfolk. Although Anathapindika and other disciples 
are bestowing abundant offerings and Pasenadi Kosala is bestowing 
Gifts beyond Compare, he never comes to Savatthi." [284] The 
Teacher had Nigama Tissa summoned and asked him, "Monk, is the 
report true that you are doing thus and so.?" "Reverend Sir," replied 
Tissa, "it is not true that I live in intimate association with my rela- 
tives. I receive from these folk only so much food as I can eat. But 
after receiving so much food, whether coarse or fine, as is necessary 
to support me, I do not return to the monastery, thinking, 'Why seek 
food.**' I do not live in intimate association with my relatives. 
Reverend Sir." The Teacher, knowing the disposition of the monk, 
applauded him, saying, "Well done, well done, monk!" and then 
addressed him as follows, "It is not at all strange, monk, that after 
obtaining such a Teacher as I, you should be frugal. For frugality is 
my disposition and my habit." And in response to a request of the 
monks he related the following 

* The Story of the Past presents an interesting problem. Dk. cm., i. 284^^285*, 
is almost word for word the same as Jdtaka 429: iii. 491*'^''. Dh. cm. then makes 
Sakka utter, not the first stanza of Jdtaka 429, but the first stanza of Jdtaka 430, and 
refers the reader to the tenth Nipdta for the rest of the story. In FausboU's edition the 
story occurs in the ninth Nipdta. But it has ten stanzas and doubtless stood in the 
tenth Nipdta of the recension of the Jdtaka Book, to which the compiler of the Dhamma- 
pada Commentary had access. Text: N i. 283-286. 



-N. 1.28519] Tissa of the market-town 327 

9 a. Story of the Past: Sakka and the parrot 

Once upon a time several thousand parrots lived in a certain grove 
of fig-trees in the Himalaya country on the bank of the Ganges. One 
of them, the king-parrot, when the fruits of the tree in which he lived 
had withered away, ate whatever he found remaining, whether shoot 
or leaf or bark, drank water from the Ganges, and being very happy 
and contented, remained where he was. In fact he was so very happy 
and contented that the Abode of Sakka began to quake. Sakka con- 
sidered the cause, and seeing the parrot, determined to put him to the 
test. Accordingly he employed his supernatural power and withered 
up the tree. Straightway the tree became a mere stump, full of holes 
and cracks. When the wind beat upon it, there came forth from the 
tree a hollow sound, and out of the holes and cracks came forth dust. 
[285] The parrot ate the dust, drank water from the Ganges, and 
going nowhere else, remained perched on the top of the fig-tree, recking 
naught of wind and sun. 

When Sakka observed how very happy and contented the parrot 
was, he said to himself, " I will go to him, let him talk of the virtue of 
friendship, grant him his heart's desire, and cause the fig-tree to bear 
ambrosial fruit." Accordingly Sakka assumed the form of a royal 
goose, and preceded by Wellborn in the form of an Asura nymph, went 
to the grove of fig-trees, alighted on the branch of a certain tree not 
far off, and entered into conversation with the parrot by pronouncing 
the following Stanza, 

There are trees with green leaves, trees aplenty with abundant fruit. 
Why does the parrot's heart deUght in a tree that is withered and hollow? 

(The entire Jataka is here to be related in detail, just as it occurs 
in the tenth Nipata. The occasion there is different from what it is 
here, but everything else is the same.) ^ When the Teacher had given 
this religious instruction, he said, "At that time Sakka was Ananda, 
and the parrot-king was I myself. Thus, monks, contentment is my 
disposition and my habit. It is, therefore, not at all strange that my 
son Nigamavasi Tissa, because he was so happy and contented, ob- 
tained me for his teacher. Such a monk, because he has attained the 

^ The Jataka goes on to say that the parrot replied, "This tree has been good to 
me in the past. Why should I forsake it now?" Thereupon Sakka caused the tree to 
bloom anew and to bear abundant fruit. 



328 Book 2, Story 9. Dhammapada 32 [N.i.285i9 

Paths and the Fruits, is not liable to fall away; nay rather he is 
nigh even unto Nibbana." So saying, he pronounced the following 
Stanza, 

32. A monk who delights in heedfubiess and views heedlessness with fear, 
Is not liable to fall away, but is nigh even unto Nibbana. 



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