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LL ;- RY 









211 Cremnnt Street 



COPYRIGHT, 1888, and 1889, by 

/i// rights reserved. 




INTRODUCTION . . . . . . vii-x 



NAILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-20 

SCREWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-29 

BOLTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-46 

HINGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47-76 



PULLEYS . . . . .... . . . . . . 108-121 

SASH-FASTENINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . 122-146 

SHUTTER-FIXTURES .. .. .. .. ..147-160 




LOCKS . . 168-236 

DOOR-KNOBS 237-254 





INDEX . .. 297-322 


THE subject of Builders' Hardware is one which has a direct 
bearing upon the work of the architect, and is, at the same 
time, of vital interest to the builder. This book is, how- 
ever, written primarily for the architect. Most builders, we 
fancy, are already pretty well posted on the subject of the hard- 
ware which they are called upon to use in the construction and 
finish of a house ; but our experience has led us to believe that 
architects, as a rule, seldom go any deeper into the subject 
than is necessary to decide whether knobs shall be of one 
material or another, or whether some particular pattern of sash- 
fast will be satisfactory to the owner. It is needless to say 
that a more extended acquaintance with the subject would do 
no one any harm, and might even be conducive to much good, 
if only in the way of providing more fittingly for the needs of 
the client. This work is not intended, however, to be over- 
critical in its nature, nor necessarily so exhaustive as to em- 
brace all the inventions and arrangements comprised in the 
general term of builders' hardware, though an attempt has been 
made to discriminate between what is merely novel and what 
is really suitable, and so far as possible the best of everything 
is noticed under the various heads, and an effort made to rep- 
resent as nearly as possible the conditions and limitations of 
the builders' hardware market, as well as to show what is 
valuable for the uses of the architect. 

It must be reme mbered that the statements are made from 
an architect's standpoint rather than from that of the builder 


or the manufacturer. The object in view is to show what can 
be obtained for special cases, and how it is necessary to be 
specified in order that there shall be no doubt in the minds of 
both builder and client as to what is called for. It is not in- 
tended to present abstracts of trade-catalogues, and if the book 
fails to represent all the wares in their proper light, or at times 
seems to ignore some valuable inventions or place undue stress 
upon articles that do not receive the heartiest commendation 
from those who use them, we can only plead in extenuation the 
difficulty of finding out everything that is in the market. Many 
of our best appliances have only a local and limited fame; 
and as they are advertised sparingly, it is often quite difficult 
to say exactly that such and such an appliance is absolutely the 

For example, some Boston dealers consider that the best 
locks in the country are the hand-made goods turned out by 
such firms as Enoch Robinson's Sons. Without discussing the 
peculiar merits of the Robinson locks at this point, the asser- 
tion may safely be ventured that any one studying the subject 
in San Francisco would have as much difficulty in an investiga- 
tion of Boston hand-made goods as we have had in our en- 
deavors to deal with hundreds of valuable inventions which are 
hardly known at all in this part of the country. The hope is,. 
therefore, expressed that this publication may call out facts 
concerning many articles of builders' hardware which at present 
are unknown to the ordinary trade. 

-It may also be hoped that the volume will suggest to archi- 
tects the possibility of more definite specification, and of some 
better way of selecting and defining the necessary hardware 
than to merely insert a clause in the specification to the effect 
that a certain sum per door and a certain price per dozen is to> 
be allowed in the contract for fixtures. This we know is a 
very common method of disposing of the question, and is, no 
doubt, the easiest way out of the difficulty, relieving the archi- 
tect entirely from any necessity for exhaustive explanations in 
regard to subjects upon which he generally is not over-well 


posted. With an honest builder, or with one who has the fear 
of the inspector before his eyes and knows that all will be 
scrutinized, this may be a method sufficiently exact to suit most 
cases ; but where the market is so full and there are so many 
really excellent appliances to choose from, it would seem 
certainly as if more exact specifications ought to be prepared. 
How many architects, for instance, ever insist upon a particular 
style of lock ; and how many architects, even after many years 
experience with the best work, are able to tell a client what is 
the best sash-lock or what is the best style of hinge, without 
referring to a trade-catalogue ? We cannot hope to meet all 
emergencies, but it is believed that, at least, a desire foi 
a, better selection of hardware than is generally possible can 
be stimulated. 

As to the limitations of the work, the term " builders' hard- 
ware " is assumed to include, generally speaking, metal-work 
of every description entering into the construction and finish of 
a modern building from the nails and bolts used in the rough 
work, to the door furniture and brass lock and plate work of 
the finish. 

The illustrations, which include nearly every article referred 
to, have been prepared as simply as possible. A great deal 
of care has also been taken in collecting the prices. The 
ordinary trade-catalogues are very unsatisfactory in this latter 
respect : many of them give no prices at all, and when the 
cost is stated it is always subject to discounts so uncertain and 
varying as to give absolutely no real information of value to 
the architect or the purchaser. The prices hereafter given 
will represent the retail cost of the articles in the Boston 
market, as nearly as we are able to ascertain it. These prices 
are, of course, somewhat fluctuating in their nature, but will, 
at least, serve as a means of comparison, even if not exact for 
all localities and seasons. Most of the prices were collected 
during the summer of 1888. 

In the preparation of the subject matter which is to fol- 
low, the writer has had the heartiest cooperation from the 


leading dealers and manufacturers, and desires to especially 
acknowledge the courtesies of Messrs. Burditt & Williams, and 
Nichols & Bellamy, of Boston, the Hopkins & Dickinson 
Manufacturing Co., and the Yale & Towne Manufacturing 
Co. ; without whose technical assistance any such work would 
lack the value which it is hoped this will possess. 




BEFORE beginning a study of any portion of the subject, an 
attempt will be made to consider the metals used for build- 
ers' hardware and the various styles of finish possible in con- 
nection with them. 

Iron is naturally the first material thought of. In its purest Wrought-iron. 
form it is known as wrought-iron, a term which is derived from 
the fact that in the earliest processes the iron was beaten while 
hot and the impurities forced out by the blows. Also the name 
indicates, to an extent, the nature of the material, which is 
yielding and pliable rather than brittle or hard. Wrought-iron 
is the most available material for constructive metal-work. 
Nails, bolts, ties, anchors, etc.,, are more naturally made of 
wrought-iron than of any other material. Nearly all strap-hinges 
and the best makes of common butts are made of it ; also, for 
some forms of common bolts and any article of hardware which 
permits the metal being punched or pressed into shape, wrought- 
iron is more suitable than cast, and is much used on account of 
its superior strength. For finished work, such as knobs, plates, 
etc., there is very little wrought-iron hardware in the market. 
A good deal of it is made to order in the shape of ornamental 
hinges, straps and braces, but the amount of work involved in 


Chapter 1. 


Cast Iron. 


producing any given pattern is so largely in excess of what 
the same amount of work would produce in other metals -that 
wrought-iron will always be a material for the artist or the am- 
ateur. Quite recently, however, there has been made an import- 
ant discovery which bids fair to bring about a change in the use 
of this metal. Wrought-iron melts at a very high temperature 
and it has, therefore, long been practically impossible to cast 
in the fine moulds ; but by the addition of a small percentage of 
aluminium to wrought-iron when in a highly-heated condition 
an alloy is formed which melts at a greatly reduced tempera- 
ture and gives the metal the degree of fluidity necessary to 
successful casting. It is claimed that the wrought-iron cast- 
ings obtained in this way have all the sharpness and clearness 
of cast brass and at the same time retain the structural quali- 
ties of wrought-iron. So far as we can ascertain, cast wrought- 
iron is not in the market. 

When wrought-iron has mixed with it a proportion of carbon 
exceeding 0.5% but not greater than 2% the structural nature 
of the metal is entirely changed and it becomes known as steel. 
So far as relates to finished hardware, steel is used only for 
springs and portions of detail, as the metal does not cast 
readily, and the surface will not keep bright. In fact, there 
are the same objections to it that there are to wrought-iron, 
and almost the only use to which it is now put in hardware is 
in the manufacture of nails and screws and some brands of 
butts, which will be described later on. 

When iron contains in its composition over 2% of carbon it 
becomes known as cast-iron, a metal which melts at a compara- 
tively low temperature and is capable of being cast with very 
sharp lines. It is used a great deal for finishing work, though 
from its brittle nature and lack of tensile strength it is not 
utilized to any great extent for constructive purpose. 

Iron hardware is finished in a variety of ways. If left in its 
natural condition as it comes from the file or hammer, it will 
rust very speedily, and to prevent this, the most common 
method is to heat the iron and paint it while hot with linseed 


oil, colored with lamp-black and mixed with a quantity of dryer 
or turpentine. When this coating is dry, the iron is sometimes 
roasted in a kiln fired, as it is termed. In this manner the 
paint seems to be dried into the pores of the metal, and it is 
left with a smooth, lustreless black surface, capable of resist- 
ing the action of the weather for quite a while, though by no 
means rust-proof. 

If, instead of the foregoing, a bath is used composed of lin- 
seed oil, and gum-anime or copal, the iron, on being finally fired 
and polished, presents the appearance of bronze. The tones 
can be varied to a considerable extent by the addition of color 
in the shape of powdered alloys of copper and bronze, which 
are mixed with the oil. The "Tucker bronze," the "Berlin 
bronze," and the so-called " Boston finish " are all substan- 
tially of this nature. Only rarely is a thin film of bronze or 
composition spread on the iron by the aid of electrolysis. All 
of the bronze-faced iron hardware is treated with the hot-oil 
finish just described. The cheapest forms of iron hardware 
are japanned or even merely coated with ordinary black var- 
nish, the quality of the japanning or varnish depending upon 
the grade of goods. Japanning is practically indestructible 
where the iron is not exposed to scratches or rubbing. Hinges 
and butts are finished in this way more than any other one 
form of iron hardware, though of late years the best machine 
lock makers have taken a great deal of care in japanning the 
outer casings 01 locks. Fine grades of pulleys are also some- 
times sold with japanned frames. 

Iron is galvanized by simply immersing in a bath of a 
melted amalgam of zinc and mercury, containing a little sodium. 
The iron is first cleaned with sulphuric acid, and before im- 
mersion in the bath, it is usually ducted with sal-ammoniac pow- 
der. TLere is not a particle of real galvanic action about the 
process. It is sometimes thought that the zinc and mercury 
form a species of alloy with the iron which prevents it from 
rusting. Galvanizing is, indeed, the best preservative of iron 
applied in the form of a wash, but the color is not sufficiently 
pleasing to permit of its being used for nice work. 

Chapter I. 

Bronzed Iron. 










.[>)"T Mil.] 



None of the foregoing processes are especially suitable for 
iron, as they all effectually disguise the nature of the material. 
There has recently been invented a process for protecting iron 
from rust, which is in some respects the best thus far devised. 
It is known as the Bower-Barff process, a term used to indicate 
two processes by which the surface of the metal is converted 
into magnetic oxide of iron, in which condition it is absolutely 
rustless. In the Barff process the metal is simply subjected to 
the action of superheated steam. This process is peculiarly 
suitable to wrought-iron and highly finished work. In the 
Bower process the iron is successively subjected to the action 
of highly heated air and carbonic-oxide gas. The heat converts 
the surface of the metal first into red oxide of iron, which is 
finally reduced to the magnetic oxide by the action of the gas. 
Owing to the simplicity of the process, it is claimed that its 
cost is less than that of galvanizing. It may be applied to any 
kind or style of wrought or cast iron or steel. The surfaces so 
treated have a perfectly uniform blue-black color. The sharp- 
ness of the lines is not affected in the least, and when the 
work is polished the final color is a lustrous ebony black, such 
as can be obtained in no other way. This coating of magnetic 
oxide is so hard that it is removed with difficulty by an emery- 
wheel. A few of the leading dealers are beginning to keep in 
stock some fine grades of door hardware finished by the Bower- 
Barff process, but the only parties making use of the patents 
in the production of builder's hardware are the Yale & Towne 
Manufacturing Co. This concern is beginning to put in the 
market quite an extended line of Bower-Barff iron goods. 

Iron hardware is also found in the market finished with cop- 
per-plating, the raised surface of the pattern being buffed to 
show the natural copper color, while the background is left 
black or strongly oxydized. There is quite a variety of goods 
in this line. Similarly ironwork is nickel-plated, being left 
with either plain polished surfaces or with polished raised pat- 
terns on a black ground. Both nickel and copper plating, are 
laid on with the aid of a dynamo. 


Brass and bronze are terms which are often confounded when chapter I. 
speaking of hardware, though the materials are quite different 
in composition and are usually dissimilar in appearance. Brass Brass, 
is an alloy of copper and zinc in varying proportions, the ratio 
for ordinary purposes being seven of brass to three of zinc. 
Brass has a light yellowish appearance, is susceptible of a high 
polish, and can be rendered more ductile by the admixture of 
a small quantity of lead, which at the same time will diminish 
the hardness of the alloy. Brass tarnishes very easily if 
handled or exposed to the weather, and is consequently gener- 
ally protected by a coating of shellac, which, however, will not 
entirely prevent it from changing in tone. The color of the 
brass may be altered slightly by changing the proportions of 
the metals entering into the alloy, also by treating the finished 
castings with acids or hot chemicals in the same manner as will 
be described later for bronze. 

Bronze is commonly an alloy of copper and tin in proper- Bronze, 
tions varying from twelve parts copper to one part tin for 
metals to be used in the fabrication of mathematical instruments, 
to two parts copper and one part tin, for telescope or speculum 
metal. Bronze is sometimes more complex in its nature, lead 
being added in very slight quantity, and aluminium some- 
times replacing the tin. It is less malleable but harder and 
more fusible than brass, and can be cast with greater ease and 
perfection. It is oxidized more easily than brass, and because 
of this it is possible to obtain a greater variety of colors for 
hardware goods. 

Both brass and bronze can be cast with great ease, as com-- 
pared with iron. The sharpness and delicacy of the casting 
depends, of course, entirely upon the care bestowed in preparing 
the pattern and the mould. Therfe is a great difference in the 
quality of the work turned out by the various manufacturers. 
In the best of work the mould is formed with very fine sand and 
is double-faced, that is to say, after the pattern has been imprint- 
ed in the sand it is withdrawn, the matrix sprinkled with a still 
finer sand, and the mould repacked. After that, the moulds 


Chapter i. are suspended in the fumes of burning rosin, by which means 

they are coated with a fine layer of impalpable soot. When 
the molten metal is poured into the mould, the soot is pressed 
evenly into all the minute pores or interstices of the sand, and 
the resulting casting is so smooth and sharp as often to require 
but very little hand-chasing. 

Brass goods are usually finished in the natural color of the 
metal with a thin coat of shellac. The same proportions of 
tin and copper are usually used for all the bronze work of a 
single firm, though the different manufacturers do not always 
adopt the same alloy. Bronze is, however, finished in a great 
variety of styles and colors, all produced essentially as follows : 

Surface-anish. The bronze on leaving the casting-room, is trimmed or chased 

as may be necessary, and is then immersed for a few moments 
in a strong acid bath which takes an almost infinitessimal film 
from the metal, leaving the surfaces entirely free from any oxida- 
tions or impurities. The piece of metal is then washed in 
weak alkali and clear water, to make it perfectly clean. Then 
the bronze is suspended in a bath of hot acids specially pre- 
pared with various chemicals to produce certain changes in the 
color of the metal. This operation is a very delicate one, re- 
quiring the care of trained workmen and a nice appreciation of 
the proper time to stop the action of the acids, as the appear- 
ance of the metal changes very rapidly, turning first from a 
bright copper red, to a pale gray and then into beautiful shades 
of browns and rich purples with ultimate dark tones depend- 
ing upon the composition of the mixture or pickle. When the 
desired shade is reached the bronze is removed, dried in saw- 
dust, and rubbed down to an even tone on a buffing-wheel. In 
some designs the raised portions are buffed down until the 
natural color of the metal appears, the pattern showing on a 
ground of the darker oxidized tone. Almost any color or 
shade can be had with bronze by a proper treatment. The 
Hopkins & Dickinson Manufacturing Co. has even produced a 
bronze as dark as iron, and in fact quite similar in appearance. 
Of course ordinary hardware is simply left the natural color of 


the metal, when made in plain bronze. It may be said here 
that plain bronze is as a rule more expensive than figured work. 
The plain surfaces require a very even grade of metal and 
smoothness of casting, whereas any imperfections are hidden 
by patterns, and a cheaper quality of workmanship does not 
expose itself. In the East there seems to be a decided prefer- 
ence for the plain goods, while in the West the figured styles 
are more commonly used. When exposed to rough usage a 
patterned piece of hardware will in general show wear less than 
a plain surface. 

It must be remembered that the surface finishes produced in 
the manner just described are not to be considered as permanent. 
The color is in reality laid on, and is superior to paint or varnish 
only in that by the means of the hot pickle the color penetrates 
somewhat deeper than if put on with a brush. Bronze hard- 
ware is sure to change in time, no matter how it may be finished, 
and generally the stronger tones are the least satisfactory in 
the end, fading out to unpleasant musty hues. Shellac will 
hold the color, but as soon as it wears off, which it is sure to 
do on such pieces as knobs and door-handles, the exposed sur- 
faces will turn while the shellacked spots do not. When time 
can be spared to keep the work polished brightly, a better plan 
seems to us to be to avoid everything but the natural bronze or 
brass color, omit the shellac, and polish by hand constantly. 
This, however, is seldom desirable. We have not yet reached 
the point where housekeepers will take as much care of the 
hardware as of the silver. 

The treatment of silver-plated bronze is of a similar nature. 
The knob or plate is immersed in a silver-plating bath attached 
to an electric dynamo. A very few moments suffice for the 
deposition of the silver. The article is then taken from the 
bath and treated with hot acids and solutions until any desired 
degree of oxidation is obtained, when it is dried in saw-dust 
and the raised patterns slightly brightened on a buffing-wheel. 
There is at present a great deal of oxidized silver hardware in 
the market. Most of it is oxidized but slightly, leaving the 

Chapter I. 

Oxydized Silver 


Chapter I. raised figures a clear frosty white, but it can be had quite black 

if desired. The Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co., has an 
oxidized silver iinish which is as black as old oxidized gun- 

Copper-bronze. Several very pleasing styles of finish are obtained by electro- 
plating the bronze with copper and then treating with acids. 
An old-copper color thus obtained is one of the most durable 
finishes in the market. 

Gold-plate. When the cost is not a consideration it is sometimes desirable 

to have gold-plated bronze hardware, especially for such things 
as knobs, which are exposed to constant handling. Gold-plate 
is no handsomer than some shades of natural bronze, but the 
gold will not tarnish or be influenced by the weather. Gold- 
plating increases the cost of bronze hardware nearly twenty 
fold, and being so expensive is executed only for special orders. 

Nickel-plate. Nickel-plating is applied more commonly to iron or steel than 

to bronze. This finish is but little used for nice work as the 
nickel will tarnish by exposure to the atmosphere, after which 
no amount of rubbing will restore its first appearance. Nickel- 
plating is best adapted for keys, springs, etc. 

The following list will give an idea of the great variety of 
possible treatments of bronze hardware. 


I. The Hopkins $ Dickinson Manufacturing Co. , finish : 

A. Statuary. Dark background, light surface. 

B. Statuary. Medium dark background and surface. 

E. Ebony. Suitable only for Plain or Lined Design. 

F. Statuary. Matted with Green. 

G. Gilt or Gold-washed. 
H. Gold-plated. 

I. Gold-plated. Matted with Enamel, in all colors. 
K. Gold-plated. Matted with Silver. 
L. Silver-plated. 

Matted with Gold. 

M. Silver-plated. 
N. Nickel-plated. 
0. Nickel-plated. 
P. Nickel-plated. 
R. Nickel-plated. 
S. Hand-plated. 

Matted with Enamel. 
Matted with Gold. 
Matted with Copper. 
Silver, suitable only for perfectly plain patterns. 


II. P. fr F. Corbin, finish: Clxapterl. 
No. 1. Natural Color, Light Bronze. 

No. 2. Chemical Dark Brown or Statuary Bronze. 

No. 3. Natural Color on Surface and Black Background. 

No. 3}. Same as No. 3 Finish, with different arrangement of 


No. 4. Natural Color on Surface and Dark Brown Background. 
No. 5. Nickel-plated. 

No. 7. Nickel-plated Surface with Gold-plated Background. 
No. 8. Gold-plated. 
No. 10. High Polish, Natural Color. 

No. 15. Sage Green Background and Natural Color on Surface. 
No. 16. Terra-cotta Background and Natural Color on Surface. 
No. 17. Steel Gray Background and Natural Color on Surface. 
No. 18. Japanese Finish. 
No. 19. Oxidized-silver Finish. 
No. 20. Old Brass Finish. 
No. 21. Oxidized-Iron Finish. 
No. 22. Antique-Copper Finish. 

III. The Ireland Manufacturing Co. , finish : 
No. 1. Light Bronze. 

No. 2. Light Brown. 

No. 3. Black Background, Polished Surface. 
No. 4. Brown Background, Polished Surface. 
No. 5. Nickel-plated Surface and Background. 
No. 15. Sage Green Background, Polished Surface. 
No. 16. Terra-cotta Background, Polished Surface. 
No. 17. Steel Gray Background, Polished Surface. 
No. 19. Oxidized-silver. 
No. 21. Iron Finish all over. 

IV. Nimiclc Sf Brittan, finish : 

No. 1. Bright Surface, Natural Color. 

No. 2. Dark Brown Surface and Background. 

No. 3. Bright Surface and Black Background. 

No. 4. Bright Surface and Brown Background. 

No. 5. Bright Surface and Terra-Cotta Background. 

No. 6. Bright Surface and Green Background. 

No. 7. Nickel-plated Surface and Background. 

No. 8. Nickel-plated Surface and Black Background- 

No. 12. Gold-plated. 

No. 13. Steel Gray Bronze. 

No. 14. Old Gold Bronze 

No. 15. Oxidized-silver Surface and Background. 



Chapter I. 


V. Nashua Lock Co. , finish : 

No. 1. Natural Color, Light Bronze, Polished Surface. 

No. 2. Dark Bronze. 

No. 3. Light Bronze, Polished Surface, with Black Background. 

No. 4. Light Bronze, Polished Surface, with Brown Background. 

No. 5. Nickel-plated, Plain Surface. 

No. 6. Nickel-plated Surface, with Black Background. 

No. 15. Hand Finish. 

Besides the finished work, both brass and bronze are used 
for screws, springs, lock-fittings, etc. A few locks are made 
with cases of cast-brass and some manufacturers are preparing 
to use copper-plated iron for the same purpose. 

Brass and bronze together are used more than any other one 
metal for builders' hardware, and are the basis of nearly all door 
and window fittings. 

An important addition to the list of metals available for 
hardware purposes has recently been made in the shape of a 
composition designated as Phosphor-Bronze, an alloy of which 
the constituent parts are not as yet made public, but which the 
patentees describe as being a phosphorized alloy of copper 
and tin. The chemical action of phosphorous on the metals 
composing the alloys is claimed to be two-fold ; on the one hand 
it reduced any oxides dissolved therein, and on the other it 
forms with the purified metals a most homogenous and regular 
combination, the hardness, strength, and toughness of which 
are completely under control. No other metal combines, in so 
high a degree as phosphor-bronze, the conditions of toughness, 
rigidity, hardness and great elastic resistance. Thus far phos- 
phor-bronze has been used in the hardware trade only for 
screws and for lock-springs. In cities wherein soft coal is used, 
it has been found that brass springs soon lose their elasticity, 
owing to the action of free sulphuric acid in the air. Careful 
tests have shown that phosphor-bronze offers twice as much re- 
sistance to corrosion by acid as copper. Further experiments 
have been made, extending over a period of ten months, to 
determine its durability, when exposed to the weather, as com- 
pared with the best brass wire. After lying on the damp 



ground for that length of time the brass was found to be quite Chapter I. 
brittle and worthless, while the phosphor-bronze, under exactly 
similar conditions was practically unchanged. It will be 
readily seen then how valuable a metal this is. Unfortunately 
its degree of elasticity is less than that of brass, and the springs 
required for a lock when of phosphor-bronze are sometimes so 
large as to be impracticable. It is, however, by all odds the 
best material for springs and is used by the Hopkins & Dickin- 
son Manufacturing Co. in their best grades of locks. 

Aluminium has recently appeared as a possible substitute for Aluminium. 
bronze. It is a metal not unlike lead or platinum in appear- 
ance, but is very light, having a specific gravity of 2.56, equal 
to about one-third that of steel and one-fourth that of silver. 

It is very strong, will not tarnish, and is almost indestructi- 
ble. It melts at a comparatively low temperature and can be 
cast with sharp lines. Copper, brass, and bronze are improved 
in strength, color, and durability by the addition of ten per 
cent of aluminium. It is, however, a metal of the future and is 
not yet in the hardware market. 



Fig. I. Common Nails 
(Half Size.) 

Plate-nails. "? ^ nails commonly used in connection 

A with building operations are too well- 
known to require any description. They 
are specifically designated as plate-nails. 
Up to within a comparatively short time, 
nails were made by hand almost entire- 
ly by women and children, and it is one 
of the best arguments in favor of the in- 
troduction of machinery that the process 
by which nail-making has been perfected 
has released a vast multitude from the labo- 
rious and wearing occupation, besides giv- 
ing a great deal better results. The application of machinery 
to the manufacture of nails is purely an American idea and so- 
recent have been the innovations in connection with this indus- 
try that we imagine many people would be surprised to know 
the changes which have been made both in the form and in 
the character of the ordinary nails, during the past generation. 
It is only about fifteen years since iron nails were annealed, or 
capable of clinching without rupture. 

In the manufacture of nails the iron is first rolled into plates- 
having a thickness equal to the desired thickness of the nail 
and a width a little greater than the length of a finished nail. 
The plates are cut so that the length is at right angles to the 
grain, the idea being that when the nails are cut out the fibre- 


will run lengthwise the nail and thus make up much stronger. 
Special machinery cuts the nails out in alternate wedge-shaped 
slices so that the metal is used without any loss. The wedges 
are picked up, held in a vise, the heads stamped on them, and 
the finished nails finally dropped out into the casks. The 
machinery is too complicated to allow of any description here, 
but the process is very simple and easily understood. Nearly 
all the common nails are made from plates. Hand nails are 
still made for special uses such as for horse-shoeing, but 
the cost is too great and hand-made nails are really no better 
than those which are made by machinery. 

Nails are designated according to their length by pennies. 
The origin of the designation is generally assumed to be in the 
old system of weights, the nails being made with as many 
pennyweights of metal as the number indicates. This desig- 
nation, of course, no longer holds good, as nails have changed 
materially both in size and weight, but it is still retained for 
common convenience and we believe the gradation is uniform 
with the various manufacturers. The weights run from two to 
seventy penny and the nails vary in length from one inch to 
six inches. Six-inch nails and larger are more properly desig- 
nated as spikes, though the trade recognizes a special form of 
nail of somewhat stouter proportions, made in several of the 
larger lengths and technically sold under the name of spikes. 

Trautwine's " Pocket-Book" page 425, give's the sizes, etc., 
of nails as follows. 



Length, inches. 

No. to pound. 


































Chapter II. 




Chapter II. 

Strength of 

n ails. 

Common nails are now very largely made of a low grade of 
steel, the cost being not over ten cents per hundred pounds 
more than in wrought-iron. 

In regard to the strength of nails, Trautwine also states that 
boards of oak or pine nailed together by four to sixteen ten- 
penny common cut-nails and then pulled apart in a direction 
lengthwise of the boards and across the nails, tending to break 
the latter in two by a shearing action, averaged from three hun- 
dred to four hundred pounds per nail to separate them as the 
result of many trials. " Johnson's Encyclopedia " states that the 
rough surface of a cut-nail adds about twenty per cent to its 
holding power. The absolute resistance nails will offer to with- 
drawal varies so widely with circumstances, that no satisfactory 
results are available. 

The sizes of nails used for specific purposes is largely a 
matter of judgment on the part of the builder, but the common 
custom is to use four-penny nails for shingling and slating, six- 
penny for clapboarding, sixes and eights for finish, eights and 
nines for flooring, nines and tens for boarding and forty-penny 
and upwards for framing. Architects sometimes consider it 
well to specify the sizes of nails to be used for bridging the 
floor-beams, and for slating, but on general principles we would 
suppose that a builder who would need any such restrictions 
would not be a man to employ under any circumstances. 

Nails are commonly sold by the cask of one hundred pounds. 

Common nails can be had galvanized in all the ordinary 
sizes. Galvanized nails cost 2 cents per pound extra. 

Canada wrought nails are sold for $16.00 per cask. Clinch 
nails (annealed) cost from $3.10 per cask for ten-penny, to 
$4.50 for two-penny. Swedes-iron nails are made from an 
extra quality of wrought-iron, and are especially used for slat- 
ing, as they are supposed to stand the weather better than 
ordinary plate-nails. When made from genuine Swedish iron, 
four-penny nails are sold at $5.50 per cask. American-iron 
Swedes are $3.85 per cask. Architects usually find it advis- 
able to specify tinned Swedes-iron nails for roofing-work. 


Tinning adds from twenty to fifty per cent to the cost, depend- Chapter n. 
ing on the number of nails to the pound. 

The following are the net prices in the Boston Market. 



per keg. 
50d 60d 70<i $2 50 


12d and larger 

per keg. 

.. $2 75 


9 OK 

12d 20d 30d 40d 

2 25 

8d and Q<1 


2 35 

8d and 9d 

2 50 


12d and larger 

. . . 3 15 

per keg. 
. . $3 15 

6d and 7d 

2 65 

4d and 5d 

2 85 


.. 3 25 

4d It. And 3d 

3 25 

3<j fine 

3 75 


.. 3 55 


12d and larger 

per keg. 
$2 75 


3 75 


3 75 

10d . 

2 85 


3 75 

8d and9d 

3 00 


.. 4 20 

6d and 7d 

3 15 


6d and 7d 

per keg. 

$2 90 


3 35 


3 35 


... 3 10 


3 75 


3 50 

SPIKES of all sizes 

. $2 50 

Finishing-nails are lighter and thinner than common plate- 
nails, and besides being made quite smooth, they have very 
slight heads, to permit of being easily countersunk in the 
wooden finish. They are made in a number of sizes, from to 
2^- inches in length. Next to finishing-nails are the common 
brads, made with a head in the form of a shank on one side. 
The sizes are from J inch to 2 inches in length. Brads are used 
for small finish, tacking on panel mouldings, etc., the metal being 
quite thin and the brad driven edgewise of the grain so as not 
to split the wood. Swedes-iron patent brads are manufactured 
by the Stanley Works, and sold at from 18 cents to $1.25 per 
pound, with a discount. Common brads are listed at the same 
prices. Clout nails are made with broad, flat heads, and are 
sold in sizes varying from f inch to 2-J inches in length and 



Chapter n. costing from 48 to 13 cents per pound, with a discount. They 

are used about a building chiefly for tacking gutters, etc. 
Hungarian nails are a species of large, rounded-headed tacks. 
They are made from f inch to 1 inch long, and average 60 
cents per pound, with a discount. Figure 1 illustrates the various 
special forms of common nails. 

Wire Nails. All of the foregoing may be classed as common or plate 

nails. Nails of a very different kind, manufactured from steel 
wire, have been in use for a number of years in America and 
for a longer period in Europe, and in both places they have 
been very favorably received and are fast superseding the 
common cut-nails for many purposes. The advantages of these 
over the common nails are many. For the same amount 
of metal they are much stronger ; they can be driven into very 
thin boards without splitting them, and can be removed without 
leaving so unsightly a hole as is usually made by the common 
nails. Besides this, on account of their superior stiffness they 
can be driven into very hard wood, where much caution is 
necessary if common nails are to be used. They are also 
more easily produced and are handled with less labor. They 
are manufactured by a simple machine which is automatic in its 
action, a coil of the wire adjusted to it being cut off in even 
lengths, headed, pointed and, if necessary, ribbed according to 
the kind of nail which is desired. The same sizes prevail for 
these as for the ordinary plate-nails. The following table gives 
the lengths and number to the pound as listed by the Salem 
Nail Company, also the net retail prices per hundred pounds 
in the Boston market. 

Other manufacturers occasionally classify the nails in a more 
natural way by lengths and numbers. The American Screw 
Company of Providence, R. I., manufactures a very extended 
line of these nails and sells them in lengths varying from three- 
sixteenths inch to twelve inches in length, with a thickness of 
wire varying from No. 22 to No. wire-guage. The prices are 
by the pound. Everything above two inches, No. 9 wire, is sold 
at five cents per pound. For smaller sizes the prices increase up 


to fifty cents per pound for 3-16 of an inch, No. 22. For 
nails with special heads or special points add one cent per 
pound. For nails combining all these specialties add one cent 
per pound for each specialty. For tinning add fifty per cent. 




Number of Nails to 
One Pound. 

Price per Keg. 

2d Common. 

1 in. 







4d " 

U " 



5d " 
6d " 
7d " 

2 " 





8d " 

2J " 



9d " 

2| " 



lOd " 

3 " 



12d " 




16d " 

3i " 



20d " 

4 " 



30d " 

4^ " 



40d " 

5 " 



50d " 

5^ " 



60d " 

6 " 



Besides the common wire nails the Salem Company makes a 
variety of patterns such as fence, clinch, smooth, box, cas- 
ing, finishing, common brads, flooring, slating, shingle, fine 
nails, and wire spikes. The wire spikes are made in sizes from 
three to nine inches long averaging from fifty to four and a half 
nails per pound. Figure 2 shows the shapes of the different nails. 
Besides these there are several other special makes not relat- 
ing to builders' hardware. The variety of nails manufactured 
from wire is very extensive, and the nails are deservedly popu- 
lar. They do not hold quite as strongly against pulling out as 
the common cut-nails but in every other respect they are, on 
the whole, rather superior. 

There are several kinds of ornamental nails manufactured for 
special purposes. Figure 3 shows the common porcelain-headed 

Chapter II. 



Chapter II. 



picture-nail. P. &. F. Corbin manufacture nails of this de- 
scription from two and one-half to four inches in length at 
prices from $3.88 to $6.50 per gross. Brass-headed nails, Figure 


Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

Fig. 2. Wire Nails. (Half Size.) Salem Nail Co. 

4, are manufactured by the same firm in nine sizes, from one 
inch to four inches in length and from $1.05 to $4.00 per gross. 
These prices are with a discount. 

Fig. 5. Brass Door-Nails. (Half Size.) 
J. B. Shannon & Sons. 

Fig. 6. Clinch Staples. 

There are also a few styles of ornamental door nails manu- 
factured. J. B. Shannon & Sons show three varieties in 
their catalogue, Figure 5. These are made in iron and bronze, at 
50 to 72 cents per dozen, or in brass at 90 cents to $1.25 per 
dozen, list price. 

In connection with nails may be mentioned the common 
staples such as are used for blind slats, etc. These are sold in 



various sizes, from three-eighths of an inch to one and one-fourth 
inch in length, costing from forty-four to twenty-eight cents per 
pound. The Florence Tack Company, as well as several other 
manufacturers, carries a line of steel and iron clinch staples 
such as are shown by Figure 6. These are made in a number of 
sizes from five-eighths of an inch up, and cost from thirty cents 
a hundred and down. 


Tacks are of comparatively little value to the builder, being 
used more especially for carpets, furniture, saddlery and the 
like. The various lengths of common tacks are designated by 
ounces, the size of the tack indicating the number of ounces 
put in a 'paper when packed full weight. 1 The lengths are 
always essentially the same with the different manufacturers, 
for the same weights. Tacks are cut by much the same kind 
of machinery as is used in the manufacture of plate nails. 
Steel, American-iron, Swedes-iron and copper are used for 
tacks. Iron is sometimes galvanized and occasionally nickel- 
plated or tinned. Figure 7 illustrates the relative sizes of tacks 
manufactured by the Stanley Works, and the following table 
gives the list prices of the same company. 

Tinned tacks can be had in iron or copper, in all the above 
sizes, at an advance of from twenty to thirty per cent. 

Double-pointed tacks have, within a few years been made 
from flat steel wire. Five sizes are made by the Florence Tack 

Company, from 
seven -sixteenths 
to three-fourths 
inches long, vary- 
ing from $1.20 
to $1.80 per 
dozen boxes. 
They can be had 
plated, tinned or in copper. The advantage of these tacks is 
that they hold more tightly in the wood and at the same time 
are more easily removed without breaking off in the hole. 
1 This statement is made in the catalogue of the Florence Tack Company. 

Chapter II. 


7. American-Iron Cut Tacks, (Half Size.) 




Chapter LL 







Price per doz 

per Ib. 

Price per doz 

per Ib. 

Price per doz 

per Ib. 



i X 












a* . 




















$0 60 

$0 30 


$1 12 

$0 56 

$3 00 


SO 80 

$0 40 




1 25 

1 12 

1 12 


2 00 
1 50 









1 30 


1 15 



1 00 



1 00 
1 10 




1 40 
1 60 






1 10 



1 20 



1 80 





1 20 



1 40 



2 00 

1 00 



1 30 



1 60 



2 52 

1 26 




1 50 



1 90 



3 36 

1 68 




1 60 



2 20 

1 10 


4 20 

2 10 




1 80 



2 50 

1 25 


5 04 

2 52 





1 00 


2 80 

1 40 


5 88 

2 94 



2 20 

1 10 


3 00 

1 50 


6 72 

3 36 




2 40 

1 20 


3 30 

1 65 


7 56 

3 78 




2 60 

1 30 


3 60 

1 80 


8 40 

4 20 




2 80 

1 40 


3 80 

1 90 


9 24 

4 62 





1 50 


4 00 

2 00 



5 04 




substitution of 
screws for nails in 
building operations is 
one of the most marked 
features of modern work, 
and is, in a way, indica- 
tive of the changes that 

Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. II. Fig.12. have CQme about since 

Mediaeval times. In those days men built for eternity ; now, 
the object is to build so that it is possible to take the work 
apart; and nothing shows more clearly the extent to which 
this idea is carried than the variety of uses to which screws 
are put. There is, however, another way of looking at the 
the change, and a more practical one, too, for screws cer- 
tainly have a great many advantages which nails never could 
possess. They are much more secure when in place ; they are 
neater in appearance ; they require but little more labor in 
driving than nails, and can, at any time, be removed without 
injuring the material into which, they are screwed. Some who 
have had trouble in removing old screws which had rusted into 
hard-wood work may object to the last statement. An old car- 
penter however, once told us of a very simple way to remove 
even the most obdurate screw : if a red-hot poker is held against 
the head of the screw for a few moments, the heat will expand 
the metal, loosening it from its hold on the wood, after which 
it can be readily unscrewed. 




Chapter III. 

of Screws. 

Patent Screws. 

^The improvements in the processes of manufacture of screws 
have been even more marked than those which have been 
noted in regard to nails. The blanks for screws were form- 
erly cut out by hand. The first improvement was to cut 
them from rolled round iron, the heads being formed by press- 
ing the blanks into a die while hot, and the threads cut with 
a file, a very laborious operation which resulted in a very poor 
quality of screw. The screw-working machinery, as at pres- 
ent in use, has very largely been designed by Americans. The 
blanks are cut and headed from coils of wire on one machine ; 
another machine takes the pieces, gives the proper shape to the 
head and neck, turns the shank, and finishes the screw. It has 
been claimed that the entire operation necessary to turning out 
a perfected screw is so economical in its action, that the fluctu- 
ations in the first cost of the crude wire will often equal the 
total cost of manufacture. 

The most important improvement which has been made in 
their manufacture is the" application of the gimlet point, by 
means of which a screw can be turned into the wood without 
the aid of a gimlet or auger. It seems so natural now to us 
that it is difficult to understand why the world was so long con- 
tented with the poor productions of half a century ago. 

The form and style of the ordinary screw, as at present in 
use, seem so perfect in every respect that it would be difficult 
to suggest any improvements. There are, however, a few 
forms of patent screws in the market which may be of inter- 
est in this connection. Figure 8 illustrates a screw, patented 
in 1873, fitted with a drill point instead of the ordinary gimlet 
point. Figure 9 is a screw with a thread somewhat like that 
of a bit, the thread, however, diminishing in pitch from the bot- 
tom to the top. Figure 10 is a form of coach-screw, having 
threads of a curved cross-section and provided with a wedge- 
shaped point, which allows the screw to be partly driven into 
place with a hammer. Figure 1 1 is essentially the same as the 
ordinary screw, except that the point is flattened, and it has a 
circular cutting edge. Figure 12 is a wood-screw provided 



with a cutter and point in such a manner as to cut its way into 
the wood instead of pressing it to one side as is the case in 
the ordinary screw. None of these varieties, however, have any 
very extended sale, and we are unable to say by whom they 
are manufactured or controlled. Figure 13 illustrates about 
the best of the patent forms. It is a diamond-pointed steel 
screw, manufactured by Russell & Erwin. Screws of this form 
can be driven with a hammer their entire length into any hard 
wood, and then held by one or two turns as securely as the 
ordinary screw. The head, is made convex to strengthen it 
and prevent its splitting when struck with a hammer. The 
thread is of the ratchet form, which permits its penetration 
without tearing the wood fibres. 

Ordinary gimlet-pointed screws are made in four styles, de- 
pending upon the use for which they are intended. The shank 
and point are always practically the same. The head is either 

Chapter til. 

Fig. 13. 

Fig. 14. 

Fig. 15. 



Fig. 17. 



flat, Figure 14; oval, Figure 15; round, Figure 16; or of the 
form shown by Figure 17, which Russell & Erwin designate as 
having a " piano " head. 

Chapter III. 


Abridged from Catalogue of the American Screw Co. Price per gross. 



















































































t - 












































4 57 











































































The upper figures give the price of iron screws : the lower that of brass screws. 
Discount : 60 to 75% on iron screws, 55 to 70% on brass screws. 



The kinds of screws which are manufactured for various pur- 
poses are almost infinite in variety, but so far as relates to 
builders' hardware in general, it will be sufficient to consider 
only the wood-screws, that is to say, the screws made for 
working with wood. The materials of which screws are made 
for this purpose are iron, steel, brass, copper, bronze and phos- 
phor-bronze. The screws commonly in use are of iron. Steel 
screws are comparatively little used on account of the cost. 
Brass, copper, arid bronze screws are used in connection with 
finishing hardware. Phosphor-bronze screws are used only in 
special cases. 

Iron wood-screws are made in twenty different lengths, vary- 
ing from one-quarter inch to six inches. Brass and nickel- 
plated screws are made only as high as three inches in length. 
Each length of screws has from six to eighteen varieties in 
thickness, there being in all thirty-one different gauges ; so 
that altogether there are about 250 different sizes of ordinary 

0. .0578 





Chapter III. 


Screw Sizes. 

12. .2158 

Fig. I 8. Diameters of Wire. 
1 American Screw Gauge. 

No. Diam. 

17. .058 

16. .065 

15. .072 

14. .083 

13. .095 

12. .109 

11. .120 

10. .134 

9. .148 

8. .165 

From American Screw Co.'s Catalogue. 

2 Old Standard Birmingham Gauge. 


wood-screws in the market. Figure 18 gives the different 
gauges in use from zero to thirty. Iron screws are finished 
with either a bronze, japanned, lacquered on tinned surface. 
P. & F. Corbin also manufacture copper, bronzed, and silver- 



0000. .454 

Fig. 18. Continued 



plated screws. These and a few special varieties are kept in 
stock by most dealers. The preceding tables give the sizes, 
prices, etc., of iron, brass and nickel-plated screws, compiled 
from the catalogues of the American Screw Company, and 
P. & F. Corbin. 

Nickel-plating increases the foregoing prices as follows : 

Chapter III. 



On Iron. 

On Brass. 


No. 4 




" 6 



... 2 

" 9 




" 14 



Intermediate sizes approximately at the same ratio. Discount : 75 and 66 %. 

Besides the ordinary wood-screws, the only other kinds used 
constructively to any extent by builders are lag-screws, and 
hand-rail screws. The former are more commonly known 
;as coach-screws, and are manufactured in 128 different sizes 

Price per hundred. Discount : 66 %. 

in inches. 

Length under the Head. 














I 5 e 



















































Chapter IU. 



varying from J" x 1-J-" to V x 12". In appearance the shank and 
the gimlet-point are the same as ordinary wood-screws, but the 
head is square, like a nut, and without any cross-cut, so that 
the screw can be turned up with a wrench. The preceding 
table gives the prices of a few of the sizes, as per the lists of 
the American Screw Co. 

Hand-rail screws or joint-bolts are usually made in two ways, 

either with one end 
cut with a wood-screw 
thread, and the other 
provided with a ma- 
chine - screw thread 
and loose nut, or with 
a machine- screw 
thread and nut on 
each end. One nut 
is generally cogged 
so it can be turned 
\j W up easily by a pock- 

Fig. 19; joint-bolts. e t wrench. Joint- 

bolts are of two diameters, either ^ or -inch, and the stand- 
ard lengths are from four to six inches, though some manu- 
facturers produce joint-bolts as long as fifteen inches. Joint- 
bolts with two nuts are sometimes made with -^-inch diameter 
with a swelled centre. Figure 19 shows the various forms 
of joint-bolts, and the following table gives the prices per gross. 


Discount : 75%. 

Ij Length, 4 inches. 

Length, 4* inches. 

Length, 5 inches. 

Length, 5 inches. 

Length, 6 inches. 



Two Swcli'd 



































































Screw-eyes are too well-known to require illustration. They 
are made of steel, iron or brass wire, with a gimlet-pointed 
thread cut on the shank. Iron screw-eyes are made plain, 
bright, bronzed or nickel-plated. The diameters of wire used 
vary from wire guage 0, to 14, the lengths of the eyes being 
from ! to 2 inches. The list price in iron of the largest 
sizes is $9.00 per gross. The smallest size cost 95 cents per 
gross. Brass screw-eyes cost about twice as much as iron. 
These prices are with a heavy discount. 

Figure 20 shows the common forms of screw-hooks. The list 
prices for these are $6.00 per gross for No. 4 iron, and $22.00 
per gross for No. 4 brass. About the same variety of sizes 
are listed for screw-hooks as for screw-eyes. The smaller sizes 
of hooks can be had in brass with washers or roses at a slight 
advance in price. The hooks are made as large as 4f-inch, No. 

Picture-knobs or hangers are intended to screw into the wall, 
through the plastering. They are made with a long screw 

Fig. 20. Screw-hooks. 

Fig. 21. Picture-hangers. (Half-size.) 

shank provided with a knob of porcelain or metal, and are 
listed in four lengths, -inch, f-inch, 1-inch and 1^-inch ; being 
sold at from $4.75 to $6.20 per gross, with a discount. Figure 
21 illustrates one variety. 

Picture-rod hooks are intended to support a rod on the wall, 
answering as a picture moulding. The list price (P. & F. Cor- 
bin) is from $2.00 to $4.50 per dozen, according to length and 

Chapter III. 








SIDE from the coach or lag screws, 
and the stair-rail bolts already 
described, the only constructive bolts 
used by the builder are such as are nec- 
essary in joining header and trimmer 
beams. These are similar to the stair- 
rail bolts, but heavier and less finished.. 
They are often made to order, but a few 
sizes are kept in stock by some dealers. 
Ordinarily -J- to 1 inch bolts are used, 8 to 24 inches long, with 
a square head on one end and a thread and square nut at the 
other. In any other cases requiring the use of constructive bolts, 
lag-screws are generally found to answer every purpose, though 
stove-bolts, Figure 23, are sometimes useful. These are made 
with flat or round heads. They are manufactured in six diam- 
eters. from 3\ to f inch, and thirty-two lengths, from f-inch to 
7 inches. The manufacturers' list-prices are from $0.85 to $4.20 
per hundred. Sink-bolts are similar to the stove-bolts except 
that the shank is threaded the whole length, and provided with 
two nuts. Tire-bolts are like flat-headed stove-bolts, but are 
without the cross-cut in the head. Many other forms of bolts 
are in the market, but even the foregoing are rarely used by 


Figure 24 shows the most common form of wrought-iron 
door-bolt, designated specifically as a "barrel-bolt." This is 


Fig. 24. Common Staple. 

made to screw onto the face of the door. The jamb-staple may 
be plain, as in Figure 24 ; bent, Figure 25 ; or necked, Figure 

26. The latter is for 
a door swinging out, 
which is to be bolted 
on the inside. All 
of these forms are 
likewise made in cast 
brass. The iron bolts 
may be japanned, 
tinned or bronzed, 
and the knobs are 
sometimes nickel-plat- 
ed, tinned, or made of 
brass or porcelain. 
Neck - bolts, Figure 

27, are used when 
the bolt-plate or sta- 
ple cannot be put di- 
rectly on the line of 
the face of the door. 
The style shown 

by the illustration is that 
manufactured by the 
Stanley Works, and is 
made additionally strong 

Chapter IV. 

Fig. 26. Necked Bolt. 

Fig. 27. Round Neck-bolts. Stanley Works. 

by a central rod running 
into the bolt and riveted 
to the edge of the bolt- 
plate as shown by the fig- 
ure. A similar style of 
bolt with a flat bar 
a raised end instead 
knob, Figure 28, has a 
flat spring between the Fi *' 28 ' Square Neck - Bolt> Stanley Works ' 
bolt and the plate, serving to keep the former in position. 


Chapter iv. Figure 29 shows a form which is designated as a mosquito- 

bar bolt, and is used for a number of light purposes. It is 
made without any jamb-staple. 

Excepting Figure 28, the foregoing bolts are made without any 
springs. Much the same patterns are found in the market under 

Spring-boite. the designation of spring-bolts, the bolt being held either open 

Fig. 30. Square Bolt, with Spring. 

Fig. 32. Straight Cupboard-Bolt. 

Fig. 33. Flat Cupboard-Bolt. 

Fig. 3 I . Square Bolt, 
with Spring. 

or shut by means of a spring inserted under the bolt against 
the bolt-plate. These are in a number of varieties, 



including neck-bolts, straight-bolts, square or round bolts, with 
porcelain knobs, brass knobs, etc. Figure 30 shows a form of 
square spring-bolt manufactured by the Stanley Works. There 
is also another form, Figure 31, in which the spring is on one 
side of the bolt, the notch m the shank holding the bolt either 
open or shut. 

Straight cupboard-bolts, Figure 32, and flat cupboard-bolts, 
Figure 33, are manufactured in a variety of forms of which 
those shown are types. They 
are finished in the usual variety 
of styles. Figure 34 shows 
what is designated as a ship-bolt. 
Figure 35 is a variety of side 
flush-bolt adapted for chests, 
desk-tops, etc. Figure 36 and 
Figure 37 are two forms of 

the top, while a flat plate is attached to the edge of the 
swinging-door. On closing the latter, the brass plate strikes 
on the knob of the bolt and throws the bolt up into the door- 

Chapter IV. 

Fig. 34. Ship-Bolt. 

bookcase-bolts. The former 
screwed flush on the edge of the standing-door at 





Fig. 35. Side Flush-Bolt. 

Fig. 36. Bookcase- 
Bolt. P. & F. Cor- 

Fig, 37. Bookcase-Catch. 
P. & F. Corbin. 

soffit, the knob shank following the oblique cut in the plate ; a 
spring throws the bolt down when the door is opened. The 


Chapter iv. actioii of Figure 37 is somewhat different. The bolt is mor- 
tised into the soffit or the bottom of the door-frame, and the 
two plates are screwed to the tops of the doors. For a bolt as 

Fig. 39, 

Lock Shutter-Bolt. 
Stanley Works. 

Fig. 40. 
Canada Bolt. 
Stanley Works. 

Fig. 41. 
Sunk Flush-Bolt. 

shown by the figure, the right-hand door is closed first, when 
the other door is closed it strikes the bevelled connection of the 



bolt, forcing it up and consequently forcing the other arm of 
the bolt down into the plate on top of the right-hand door. The 
doors can then be locked together with a key or catch, though 
the friction on the striker will keep them closed. A spring 
forces the bolt up when the left door is opened. This form of 
bolt can be used for cupboards, wardrobes, etc., but we do not 
know of its having ever been applied successfully to large 

The following table gives the average retail prices of the 
bolts enumerated. Only the principal sizes are listed, but 
these will be sufficient to give an idea of the cost. 


Prices per dozen. 

Chapter IV. 


Length in inches. 












"Wrought-iron barrel-bolt 
common staples 
Wrought-iron barrel-bolt 
bent staples 
Wrought-iron barrel-bolt 



1 15 









Wrought - i ron round , 





Wrought - iron square, 



4 70 


Brass mosquito -bar 



Wrought-iron, square, 







Wrought-iron side spring 



Brass straight cupboard- 

1 50 

2 15 


Brass flat cupboard- 



Brass ship flush-bolts 





Brass bookcase - bolts, 



Brass bookcase catch, 



Wrought-iron flat-tail 



Wrought-iron shutter- 
bolts plain 

1 40 

1 83 

2 68 


Wrought-iron shutter- 
bolts with lock 

1 49 

1 92 

2 77 


Wrought-iron Canada 



Flat-tail-bolts, Figure 38, are intended for high doors requir- 
ing to be bolted at the top, and are made in a number of different 



Chapter rv. lengths, from one to seven feet. When the bolt is shot it 
is kept from slipping down by a rebate in the shank which 
catches on the lowest staple, as seen by the figure. Figure 39 
is a form of bolt used for shutters having a wide bearing on 
each side. It is provided with a locking lever at the upper 





o o 

Fig. 42. Wrought-lron Flush Bolt. 

Fig. 43. Mortise Flush Bolt. 
J. B. Shannon & Co. 

side, catching in a notch on the bolt. The same form is made 
without the locking-lever. Canada-bolts, Figure 40, consist of a 



long, square shank or bolt, with mineral or porcelain knob. 
The bolt is kept from slipping by a short, flat spring under- 
neath. These are sold with several varieties of staples. 

Chapter IV. 

Fig. 44. Flush Bolt, with Patent Stop. 
P. & F. Corbin. 

Fig. 45. Flush Bolt, with Patent Stop. 
Ireland Manufacturing Co. 

For front and vestibule doors in two folds as well as for 
other double doors some form of mortise -bolt is required. 



Chapter IV. 

Sunk Flush- 

Mortise Flush- 

Latch Spring- 

These may be mortised into the edge or sunk flush with the 
face of the standing door. Figure 41 shows the ordinary sunk 
flush-bolt. This pattern is made with plates three-fourths inch 
wide and bolts from six to twenty-four inches long. The retail 
prices average from $5.60 to $9.52 per dozen in bronzed 
wrought-iron. Bolts of similar description but with a square 
rod, Figure 42, are made with plates one and one-fourth inches 
wide and fifteen to sixty inches long, costing $9.80 to $23.- 
60 per dozen in bronzed iron, with bronze knob. The same 
styles of bolts are also made in cast brass ; a few dealers keep 
them in stock nickel-plated. The pattern represented by Fig- 
ure 42, is, of course, used only on the face of a door. 

A mortise flush-bolt is one which is mortised into the thick- 
ness of the door and is operated by a knob or handle working 
in a face-plate. Figure 43 illustrates one variety. The bolts 
are made from nine to forty-eight inches long, and the retail 
prices are from $1.50 to $1.80 each, in bronze. 

Figure 44, illustrates a form of self-locking flush-bolt. A 
lever on the bottom of the bolt catches over a shoulder on the 
face-plate when the bolt is shot. To release the lever it is 
simply pushed inward, a coiled spring at the top otherwise holding 
it in position. Figure 45 shows another device in which the 
bolt is thrown by turning the knob. A peg at the back of the 
knob works in a horizontal slot in a tail-piece attached to the 
bolt. Raising the bolt brings the peg in the line of the centre 
of rotation of the knob and so locks it. 

There are several varieties of latch spring flush-bolts, in 
which the knob remains thrown out but can be drawn down by 
a pull within convenient reach of the hand. Figure 46 illus- 
trates one such arrangement. P. & F. Corbin also manufacture 
a latch-spring bolt which is mortised into the edge of the door, 
and in which the latch bolt is released by pressing on the face- 

For store doors it is customary to use bolts applied to the 
face of the door instead of being mortised-in flush. In this 
case the upper bolt is attached to a chain which hangs about 



six feet from the floor. The lower bolt is held up by a spring, chapter iv. 
but can be pressed down into place with the foot, a spring catch 
on the face holding the bolt when down. 

Figures 44 to 46 inclusive, 
are types of a great variety 
of styles manufactured in several 
different metals with all kinds 
of finish and design. It is, 
therefore, impracticable to give 
for these any average prices which 
could serve as fair criterions. 

e e 


Fig. 46. Extension Latch-Spring Flush- 
Bolt. P. & F. Corbin. 

Fig. 47. Dutch-Door Bolt. Hopkins 
& Dickinson Manufg. Co. 

The Hopkins & Dickinson Manufacturing Co., has recently 


Chapter iv. put on the market a form of flush-bolt intended specially for 
Dutch doors, that is to say, doors in two folds, horizontally. 
Figure 47 illustrates this. The bolt-plate is about seven inches 
long, and is rebated to match the rebates of the doors. The 
retail price of a single bronze bolt is $2.50. Figure 48 illus- 
trates a chain and a foot-bolt. 

Engine-house bolts are made in a variety of forms generally 
so as to permit of being opened easily, by a large catch or 

F.g. 48. 

latch which throws the bolts up and down from bottom and top. 
These cost from $6 to $9 each, though it is impossible to give 
any fair general price as the bolts are made only to order. 


French window-bolts are usually mortised into the centre 
style of one of the sashes and are so arranged that a crank 
or handle on the face of the sash will throw a bolt in each 
direction, so as to lock the window at the top and the 
bottom. Figure 49 is a form operated by a knob and spindle. 
In setting it, the gearing-box or mechanism of the bolts can 
be let into the door in the same manner as an ordinary mor- 
tise-lock, and the two rods dropped in through a hole bored the 
length of the sash, the rods screwing into the hubs on the gear- 
ing-box. The retail price of this appliance is $4.00 in bronze, 
including a bronze handle. Figure 50 is another form, similar 
in its action as regards the bolts, but intended to plant on the 
face of the sash. The crank handle drops into a catch on the 


opposite sash, and can be locked by turning the bar on top of Chapter iv 
the catch. The retail price in bronze is $4.00. 

Espagnolette - bolts are arranged, like the foregoing, to Espagnol Boit s 

Fig. 49. Mortise French Window- 
bolt. J. B. Shannon & Sons. 

Fig. 50. French Window-bolt. 
Hopkins & Dickinson Manufacturing Co. 

shoot up and down, but in addition the bolts are made to turn 
so as to hook onto a post or peg at the top and bottom. They 


Chapter IV. 



are much used in France for double windows, and have several 
advantages, as they not only lock the sashes, but also draw them 
up firmly against the window-frame, thus making them more 
secure against the weather. Figure 51 
illustrates one form of espagnolette- 

There are many other devices adopted 
for securing French windows. In the 
cheapest class of work an ordinary cup- 
board-catch is used; and in the best 
work they are sometimes secured with a 
regular key lock. 


At one time it was considered quite 
essential that a front door should be 
provided with a chain door-fastener, 
which would permit the door to be 
opened a few inches to inspect any 
doubtful character on the outside, while 
it could be opened no farther. Figure 
52 illustrates a typical form of chain 
door-fastener, consisting of a slotted 
plate to go on the face of the door, and 
a chain secured to the door jamb, with 
a dog on the end of the chain which will 
slide freely in the slot of the plate. A 
holder is provided to which the chain 
can be attached when not in use. There 

Fig. 51. Espagnoiette-boit. are man y varieties of chain fasteners. 
Hopkins & Dickinson Mfg. Co. They would ave rage about $1.00 per 

set in cast brass, and $2.50 silver plated. P. & F. Corbin man- 
ufacture a rim door-bolt which has a chain attachment, the dog 
of the chain working in a slot cut in the barrel or plate enclos- 
ing the bolt. 

Instead of a chain, some form of hinged bar is often 



employed, the fixture then being designated las a check-bolt or 
door-fast. Figure 53 illustrates one form of door-fast (Nichols, 

Fig. 52. Chain Door-fastener. P. & F. Corbin. 

Bellamy & Co., agents). The staple-shaped bar or rod works 

in a standard which 
is screwed to the 
door-jamb, and fits 
over a knob secured 
to the door. The 
door, on being 
opened forces the 
knob along between 
the prongs of the 
bar until it can go 
no farther, permit- 
ting the door to open only about four inches. When it is not 
desired to secure the door, the bar is turned back against the 
wall. When the bar is turned at right angles to the wall, or 
midway between these positions, the shoulders are brought di- 
rectly over the knob on the door catch, and the door is secured 
-so that it cannot be opened at all. This fixture retails at 
$2.50, in bronze. 

Figure 54 is another form of door-fast consisting of a 

Fig. 53. French Door-fast. Nichols, Bellamy & Co. 

Chapter iv. 



Chapter IV. straight bolt working through a hinged socket attached to the 
door. The bolt has shoulders at the end which fit into the 

Fig. 54. Door-fast. Sargent & Co. 

catch on the door-jamb in such a manner that when the door 
is opened and the bolt tilted the shoulders are held by the 
jamb-catch, the bolt slipping through the socket on the door. 

>.. . >_ Iffr ~~ i The reta il price of this fix- 

I ( ture, in bronze, is $2.00. 

Figure 55 illustrates a form; 
of door-check which combines 
some of the features of both 
I of the foregoing fixtures, 
though taking up more space 
when applied. It retails at 
$1.00 in either nickle-plate or 


In addition to the ordinary 
lock on a door, it is sometimes 
found desirable to attach a 
plain bolt of some form, as an 
extra security. The form- 
Fig. 55. Perkins's Door-check. Ports _ most commonly used is known 
mouth Wrench Co. as a m ortise door-bolt, consist- 

ing simply of a barrel-bolt in a cylindrical case, which is- 



Gem Bolt. 

mortised directly into the door-style and is operated by a Chapter iv. 
spindle with turn-button or knob on the inner face of the 
door. In external appearance the various makes of mor- 
tised door-bolts are very much alike, though some are finished 
so as to require no other mortising than can be done with an 
auger, while others require more hand-work in the application. 

Figure 56 illustrates a complete bolt, and also shows one Ireland Bolt, 
form of internal arrangement. When the bolt is thrown, the 
shoulder on the follow, B, is turned so as to bring it very 
nearly on a line with the centre of rotation of the spindle, thus 
locking the bolt. The spring, (7, tends to keep the shoulder 
from rising. 

The simplest and most ingenious mortise door-bolt which 
has come to our attention is the one manufactured by Sargent 
& Greenleaf, designated 
as the " Gem mortise- 
bolt," Figure 57. It con- 
sists simply of a solid 
bolt completely filling 
the diameter of the bolt- 
case. The cogged 
spindle works over the 
teeth cut across the bolt. 
The last tooth towards 
the back of the bolt is 
smaller and projects less 
than the others, and the 
last cut is wider than the 
intermediate ones; so 
that when the bolt is 
thrown the cogged spin- 
dle wedges into the wide 
cut and locks the bolt, 
making it practically im- 

Cylindrical Door-bolt. Ireland Mfg. Co, 


56a. Ives Mortise Door-bolt. 
H. B. Ives & Co. 

possible to throw it back by external pressure. The beauty 
of this bolt is, there is nothing about it that can possibly get 

Ives Bolts. 


Chapter iv. out of order, and the only effect of wear would be to make it 
work more efficiently, if possible. 

I Figure 56a shows the in- 

ternal construction of the 
Ives mortise door-bolt. 
The spindle, A, operates 
the circular follow or disc, 
B, to which is pivoted a 
heavy brass wire, (7, which 
is fastened to the bolt. 

When the follow is rotated the wire forces out the bolt until 
the attachment of the wire is brought on a line with the centre 
of the bolt, when the latter is locked, and cannot be forced 
back by external pressure. 

P. & F. Corbin, Russell & Erwin, the Stoddard Lock Manu- 
facturing Co., and the Reading Hardware Co., manufacture 
door-bolts similar in the main to Figures 56 and 56a. The fol- 
lowing table gives the average retail prices : 

Retail prices per dozen. 

Fig. 57. Gem Mortise Door-bolt. Sargent 
& Green leaf. 


Plain Bronze. 


Ireland Manufacturing Company . . 



U. 15. Ives & Company 


3 50 

Sargent & Greenleaf 

5 50 

3 50 

P & F Corbin 

2 70 

3 00 

Russell & Erwin . . 

2 55 

2 55 

Stoddard Lock and Manufacturing Company 
Beading Hardware Company 


2 00 

List Prices. 



Fig. 59. Hasp and Staples, 


hasps and staples 
are not properly to be 
classed with hinges, 
but it seems convenient 
to introduce them at this 
point. Ordinary wrought- 
iron staples are made in thirteen sizes, from one inch to six 
inches long. They are made both in plain and galvanized iron 
and are used in building operations chiefly in connection with 
wrought-iron hasps. Figure 59 shows the commonest form, a 
plain hasp with 
two staples. Hasps 
are made in even 
inches from five to 
twelve inches in 
length. A "varia- 
tion from the com- 
mon hasp has a 
latch on the hasp 
which catches into 
one of the staples 
in place of a pad- 

Hasps and 


Fig. 60. Hasp and Staple with Double Hook. 

Fig. 61. Hasp and Staple on plates. 

lock, as shown by Figure 60. A natural simplification of this 
devise is to do away with the hasp, connecting the staples by 
a wrought-iron hook, the staples being either driven independ- 




Chapter V. 

Bent Hasps. 

Hinged Hasp. 


ently, as in the previous examples, or riveted to plates, as 
shown by Figure 61. There is also a form of hasp and staple 
intended to be secured with a padlock, the locking-staple being 
swivelled on a back-plate which is screwed to the jamb. 

In place of the ordinary wrought-iron hasp and staple, Figure 
59, hasps are made bent at right angles at the middle so as to lap 
around the edge of a box or a door, if necessary. Bent hasps 

Fig. 62. Hinged Hasp. 

can be had in the market from five to ten inches in length. 
Besides this, there are numerous special forms which are made 
by a few manufacturers, and as hasps are always of wrought 
iron or steel, they can be bent to any desired shape. 

The connection between hasps and hinges can be readily 
illustrated by Figure 62, representing a hinged hasp. This is a 
natural outcome from the common hasp and staple, the hasp 
being hinged in the middle, one end screwed onto the door or 
box-top, while the other end has a slot through which is passed 
a staple for securing the padlock. The figure shows one of 
these, with an ordinary staple attached to a wall-plate. They 
are also manufactured with swivelled staples. These hinged 
hasps are made three, four and one-half, six, eight, ten and 

Fig. 63. Solid Link Hinged Hasp. Stanley Works. 

twelve inches long. The price is the same for either the plain 
or the swivelled staples. Some manufacturers have in the 
market varieties of hinged hasps made in brass or bronze for 
fancy work. These are, however, not used very extensively, 
and the form is more strictly for rough work. 


A form of hinge-hasp shown by Figure 63 is sometimes used 
for extra-heavy work, and for trap-doors. In this, the hasp 
works upon a solid link of wrought-iron, and considerable gain 
of strength is so acquired. 


Hinges, proper, may be divided into two general classes : 
First, those which are placed on the face of a door or shutter, 
and are known as strap-hinges ; and second, those which are 
mortised into the butt edge of the door and against the frame, 
and are, consequently, designated as butts. Figure 64 shows 
the commonest form of a strap-hinge, such as is seen on barn- 
doors, etc. These hinges are made in even sizes from three to 
sixteen inches long, measured when opened flat. They are 


Fig. 64. Strap-Hinge. 

made in various ways and widths to suit special necessities. A 
variety of strap-hinge is made by the Stanley Works, with the 

Fig. 65. T-Hinge. 

same sort of solid link that has been described for Figure 63. 
This form of hinge can be used only where there is plenty of 
room both on the door and on the jamb for attaching the leaves 

Chapter V. 



Chapter v. of the hinges. When the width on the jamb is restricted, as 

is often the case, a T-hinge, Figure 65, is used. In some cases 
it is necessary to have the fixed plate bent, a form known as 
the chest-hinge being then used, Figure 66. The latter costs 
considerably more than the common form. The T-hinges are 

Fig. 66. Chest-Hinge. 

about the same price as the ordinary strap-hinge. The Stanley 
Works manufactures a T-hinge with a braced leaf, which is 
very useful in some cases. This is shown by Figure 67. 


Fig. 67. T-Hinge with braced Leaf. 

There are several special makes of strap and T hinges, 
which are reinforced so as to afford 
greater strength. One of these is the 
Wells patent hinge, Figure 68, in 
which the metal of each leaf of the 
hinge is carried completely around 
the bend and back onto itself, so- 
tnafc ^ would be almost impossible to 

tear j fc away The Harfc patent 

ng. 68. Weils Patent Hinge. 

Stanley Works. 

is reinforced by a double thickness of metal about the pin, and 



the Record hinge is strengthened by two flange-plates, which 
are bolted to each leaf and attached to the pin, as shown by 
Figure 69. The prices of these reinforced hinges are the same 
for the different kinds. 

Figure 70 shows a hinge which is used when it is desired 
that the pin should be well out from the door or shutter, so as 
to throw it open away from the jamb. This hinge is made in 
sizes from six to eighteen inches long. 

The following table gives the average retail prices of the 
foregoing hinges, in a few of the leading sizes. 

Prices per dozen pairs. 

Chapter V. 



3 inch. 

6 inch. 

10 inch. 

12 inch. 

16 inch. 


Hasp and staple 



$ in 




Hasp and staple with, double hook 





Hook and staples on plate 1 



1 54 







Solid-link hinged hasp 










1 20 

1 88 







T-hinge with braced leaf 




Wells patent hinge 




Hart's patent hinge 

2 10 









Raised strap-hinge 




1 These are made as small as J inch. 

2 Prices given are for light strap-hinges, 
pound at 12 to 14 cents. 

3 $6.60. 

Heavy strap-hinges are sold by the 

Figure 71 shows a special form of hinge manufactured for 
trap-doors,. permitting the door to be hung from the under side, 

Fig. 69. Record's Patent Hinge. Stanley Works. 

leaving the upper side free from obstruction, and flush with the 




Chapter v. floor, while at the same time the use of the full size of the trap 

can be had when the door is up ; the hinges will hold the 

door in position. The 
working of this hinge 
will be seen by the 
figure. The retail 
price is $1 per pair. 
It is listed in the 
catalogues of several 
of the hardware 

Fig. 70. Raised Strap-Hinge. 

Figure 72 illustrates a species of rude hinge used quite 

Fig. 71. Trap-door Hinge. 

frequently for barn and warehouse doors, consisting of a hook 

to be driven into the 
door-post and a bar 
with an eye at the end 
to be bolted through 

Thege are 

Fig. 72. Barn Door Hook and Eye Hinge. 

made of iron -J, f , , -J and one inch thick, and are sold by the 
pound, and at 25 cents for -J- and inch, and 20 cents for the 
other sizes. 




A variety of hinge which may not be called a strap-hinge, 
but which, nevertheless, partakes of its nature, is manufactured 
in a great many forms for outside blinds. The practice of 
hanging blinds differ in different parts of the country. In the 
vicinity of Boston the blinds are generally hung on the outside 
of the casing, and the hinges consist of a simple half hinge on 
the blind and a hook driven into the face of the casing. In 
New York the blinds are, almost invariably, set flush with the 
outside casing, requiring a different style of hinge. Through- 
out the West a number of forms of cast-iron hinges are used, 
which, in a measure, lock the blind when open or shut, as will 
be hereafter noticed. For blinds hung in the Boston fashion, 

Chapter V. 

Fig. 73. Blind-Hinges, New York Style. 

the commonest way is simply to attach a half hinge to the 
blind, as previously stated. These half hinges are made in 
two sizes, two and two-and-one-half inch, costing $5 to $7 per 
hundred sets. They are mortised into the edge of the blind. 
If additional strength is required, a longer strap-hinge is used, 
which is screwed onto the face of the blind. There are 
various forms of these sk-ap-hinges used for this purpose, all of 



Chapter V. which are too commonly known to require description. Another 

variety of the same kind of hinge is made so as to throw the 
blind well out from the casing and away from the moulding. 
These are made with a two-inch throw, and others with a four- 
inch throw are also in the market for use in connection with 
brick buildings. 

For the blinds attached in the New York manner, some of 
the foregoing forms can be used, if the butts are set out suffi- 
ciently to clear the face mouldings of the frame, but generally 
speaking strap-hinges are used, ki most cases, of the form shown 
by Figure 73, the strap, which is bent so as to strengthen the 
frame of the blind as well as support it, being secured both to 

the rail and the style. In- 
stead of the hook shown by 
the figure, some form of drive 
hook is often used, and the 

Fig. 74. Malleable iron Biind-Hinge. hinge, instead of being bent, 
sometimes consists of a straight face-plate or strap. Figure 74 
is a form of malleable-iron hinge used for blinds hung in the 
New York style. 

The hooks which are used for blinds are mostly made of 
malleable-iron. There are 
several varieties. A plain 
hook to drive into the wood, 

Fig. 75. Plain Drive Blind-Hook. Fig. 76. Drive Brace Bund-Hook. 

shown by Figure 75, is made three and a half inches long with 
a shorter length of the same style for light blinds hung flush 
with the casing. Figure 76 shows what is designated as a 
drive brace. Figure 77 is a form sometimes used, an iron 
screw-hook ; and Figure 78 is the most common form of screw 



The advantages of the styles of hinges previously described 
are that they are mostly made of wrought-iron and are not apt 
to break, while there is absolutely nothing to get out of order 
about them. The disadvantages are that they contain in them- 
selves no principle which will hold the blind open or shut, 
and when it is secured in the ordinary way it takes considerable 
bending and twisting to close the blind 
after it is opened. To overcome 
these difficulties a number of forms 
have been devised, most of which are 
used more freely in the West than in 
the East. All of them are arranged 
to keep the blind from closing itself. Fig. 77. Screw Blind-Hook. 
They are generally made of malleable-iron, a feature which 
would be an objection in the eyes of Eastern builders. 
One of the simplest forms is the Seymour hinge, manufact- 
ured by P. & F. Corbin, Figure 79. The essential princi- 
ple in this hinge includes a raised cone on the house-hinge 
working into a socket on the blind-hinge. The hinge is shown 
partially raised and in the position it takes when the blind is 

Chapter V. 

Fig. 78. Screw Brace Blind-Hook. 

Fig. 79. Seymour's Blind-Hinge. 
P. & F. Corbin. 

closed. When the blind is thrown back a lip on the upper 
hinge catches on a projection on the lower hinge and holds 
the blind firmly in place, so that it can be released only by rais- 
ing the blind bodily. 

The Shepard Hardware Co., of Buffalo, manufactures a num- 




Chapter V. 



ber of varieties of window-blind hinges which are used quite 
extensively. All of them are double locking and arranged so 
that the blind can be lifted off the hinge only in one position, 
thus obviating any upsetting of the blind when trying to close 
it. Most of the Shepard hinges close by gravity when once 

Fig. 80. Shepard's Noiseless Blind- 
Hinge. Shepard Hardware Co. 

Fig. 81. Shepard's Standard Blind-Hinge. 
Shepard Hardware Co. 

raised; that is to say, the surfaces of the upper and lower 
hinge are bevelled so that the blind will slide down of its own 
weight and so close. Figure 80 shows one of the best of these 

hinge's and illustrates also 
the manner in which it 
closes by gravity. This 
hinge and nearly all of 
the Shepard make are 
planted on the face of the 
blind rather than mortised 
into the edges. A very 
simple form, and one 
quite good in its way is 
shown by Figure 81. The 
two parts of the hinges 
are shown separately so 

a to represent it more clearly. The fold on the right is 
attached to the blind and the hook rests in the socket of the 
other fold of this hinge. The bottom of the socket is con- 
tracted to an ellipse and by reason of the lug on the blind hook, 

Fig. 82. Shepard's Gravity Blind-Hinge. 
Shepard Hardware Co. 



the blind can be lifted off the hinges only when standing at 
right angles to the house. When the blind is open the lug A 
catches into B and holds the blind securely. In order to close 
the blind it is lifted bodily until the lug clears the catch. Fig- 
ure 82 is another variety of the Shepard hinge which can be 
used in case the blind is set on the face of the casing, the two 
arms of the hinge being unequal in length. All of the Shepard 
goods are very nicely finished and seem like very durable and 
serviceable articles. There are many varieties but the fore- 
going will answer for the purposes of general illustration. 
They retail at ten cents per set, or fifteen cents with screws. 


As previously stated, a butt is properly a hinge which is 
screwed onto the butt 
edge of a door. The 
arrangement of the parts 
of a butt is governed 
somewhat by the direction 
in which the door is to 
swing, and in order to prop- 
erly distinguish the doors, 
and consequently the cor- 
responding butts, they are 
designated as being right or 
left hand. This distinction 
is not always clear even to 
those who are somewhat 
familiar with the subject of 
builders' hardware ; but a 

very simple way to remember which is right and which left, 
is to bear in mind that when a door, in opening, turns on its 
hinges in the same direction as is followed by the hands of a 
clock, it is a right-hand door, and contrarywise a left-hand 
door. In other words, the distinction is the same as is made in 
physics between positive or right-hand, and negative or left- 
hand deflections. 

Chapter V. 

Fig. 85. Loose-pin Butt. 

Bight and Left 
hand Butts. 



Chapter V. 

Fast-pin Butt. 





All of the commonest forms of butts are so made that the 
two leaves cannot be separated, the pin being riveted in place. 
This constitutes a fast-pin butt. Nearly all of the strap-hinges 
previously described are fast-pin. Such a form is not available 
for nice work, as it does not permit the door to be removed 
without unscrewing the hinge. The better class of butts are, 
accordingly, made with a loose pin, Figure 85, which can be 
readily withdrawn if the door is to be unhinged. A fast-pin 
butt would have exactly the same appearance as this when put 
together. Figure 86 is a third variety, known as a loose-joint 
butt. In this the pin is cast or attached solidly to the lower 
hub, working in the hollow hub of the other leaf, as shown by 
the dotted lines of the figure. This form permits the door 
to be removed with the greatest ease, it being simply swung 
clear of the casing and lifted bodily off of the hinge-pin. This 


Fig. 86. Loose-joint Bi 

Fig. 87. Improved Loose-joint Butt, 
Yale & Towne Manufg. Co. 

style of butt is usually preferred in New England, though else- 
where the loose-pin butt is more generally employed. 

The obvious advantage of the loose-pin butt is, that the amount 
of bearing-surface is increased to a maximum, and as the pin is 
distinct from the leaves of the hinge, it can be made of a metal 



which will stand more wear than the ordinary bronze or iron 
of the butts. The loose-pin butt illustrated has eight bearing- 
surfaces. There are never less than four, but, even then the 
butt has a considerable advantage over the form shown by 
Figure 86. On the other hand, the loose-joint butt is more 
readily attached to the door and unhinged, and it costs less, 
though the difference in the latter respect is but slight. The 
difference in the amount of bearing is, in a measure, lessened 
in the best makes of loose-joint butts by accurately adjusting 
the length of the pin so that it will bear at its upper end 
against the top of the socket, which is usually closed by the 
false tip. Figure 87 shows an improved form of loose-pin butt 
made by the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company, in which 
the pin and all the bearing-surfaces are of steel. 

It will be readily understood that, even with the most mul- 
tiple form of loose-pin butt, the bearing-surfaces would soon 
give out if not reinforced with some more durable material than 
bronze. Accordingly, in all but the cheapest kinds of goods, 
the bearing-surfaces are fitted with some form of steel washer. 
In loose-joint butts the washers are exposed, as shown by the 
figures, and, besides taking up the wear, are useful in adjusting 
the butts to the doors, as two or three washers may be used on a 
ljutt if necessary, though, of course, a first rate mechanic would 
fit the butts properly without any washers. Loose-pin butts 
may have washers in the same manner, but the more general 
custom is for the joints to be bushed, or provided with washers 
which are countersunk in the hubs of the butt, so as not to appear 
externally. The Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company has 
a device by which the bushings are imbedded in plumbago, 
enabling the joints to lubricate themselves by their own motion. 
A pair of hinges so prepared has been attached to a motor, and 
turned back and forth a number of times equivalent to the use 
of over thirty years, without showing any signs of wear. 

Butts are made of a variety of metals, the commonest grades 
being of malleable-iron. The next grade is of wrought-iron or 
wrought-steel. Iron and steel butts are left either with a plain 

Chapter V. 



Chapter v. bright finish, japanned, bronze-faced, Bower-Barffed, or nickel- 

plated. For nicer work butts are made of brass, bronze, or 
silver. All of these styles of finish are in the market, and the 
different manufacturers so closely agree in their goods that it 
would be impossible to make any comparison. There are 
great varieties in finish and design of the portions of the butts 
which show, and of the tips of the pins. Some of these will 
be considered in a subsequent chapter. 

steel Butts. The best butts for common or cheap work are made of 

wrought-steel. The following table is compiled from the 
catalogue of the Stanley Works, which is about the largest 
manufactory of goods of this description. The figures given 
are the average retail prices in Boston. 


holes in 
each Butt. 

Size of 

Size open. 

Bronzed polished. 
Price per doz. pairs. 

No tips, 
No washers, 1 
Common finish. 
Price per doz. pairs. 


No. 8 

2 x2 




















3 x2J 





3 x3 





3 x3J 



















4 x4 





4 x4 















5 x5 





5 xG 









6 x6 



1 For washers add from 35 to 50 cents per dozen pairs of butts. 


The finer grades of butts include such as are used for nice 
interior work. The pin is sometimes made of the same metal 
as the butt, but is better made of steel, rigidly inserted in the 
lower hub. Butts were formerly finished by hand almost en- 
tirely, but some most interesting machinery has been devised 
for centring, drilling, turning and finishing the work with 
almost mathematical precision. 

The following table gives the average retail prices of the butts 
manufactured by some of the principal firms in the country. 
The goods referred to are perfectly plain, with simple ball-tips. 
Figured patterns are apt to be somewhat cheaper, though the 
designs vary too greatly to admit of any fair comparison. The 
prices are for two butts with the necessary screws. All of 
Robinson's goods are hand-made. The others are machine- 
made. All of the butts are supposed to be steel-bushed or 
have steel washers. 


Chapter Y. 







g a" 

^ tub 










Sizes open. 

Q) Q> 






W 43 

S w 'a 












3 x3 

Ql x QL 

$ .70 

$ .95 



O-2 A OJ 

4 x4 







4^ x4 i 


1.70 1.75 


2.25 3.00 

5 x5 




2.00 4.00 3.50 



2.42 I 2.50 " 




6 x6 







Fine Butts. 

Butts are also made in irregular sizes, that is to say, of such 
dimensions that when opened out flat they will not be exactly 


chapter V. square. The forms more commonly employed, however, are 

the square sizes, as given above. Larger sizes than 6x6 are 
seldom used, as it is found better to increase the number of 
butts, rather than the size. The Robinson butts listed are so 
made that the ball-tip can be unscrewed, to permit of greater 
ease in oiling the bearings, and the pin is made to bear on its 
point against the head of the socket. 

The Yale & Towne butts here listed are of the ordinary 
loose-joint pattern. The special makes are sold as follows, the 
prices referring to a plain, ball-tip butt, in either bronze or 
Bower-Barffed iron : 












Loose-joint, steel bearings, as per 
Figures? 7. 















Loose-pin, extra heavy, five steel 
bearings, self-lubricating Avash- 

Too much care cannot be given to the selection of the butts 
or hinges which are to be used in the interior of a dwelling- 
house, for there is hardly any hardware about a building which 
is subjected to such constant and extreme wear as the door- 
hinge. Nor is there any department of house-trimmings in 
which so many poor grades of goods have been introduced, 
always excepting locks, however. Even the best manufac- 
turers have been forced to meet the competition in cheap goods, 
and often two butts will be sold by the same house, of which 
one will be poor and the other first-class, though, to a super- 
ficial inspection, they present exactly the same appearance. 
The whole secret, aside from mere questions of design and ex- 
ternal finish, lies in the nicety of adjustment of the bearing- 
joints ; and as the only sure test is that of actual wear, a poor 
butt looking as well when new as a good one, the wisest plan 
for the architect is to select his butts entirely from samples. 
A reference to a catalogue is not sufficient to ensure the proper 



quality of goods, unless one possesses an acquaintance with the 
hieroglyphics of the trade which few architects ever acquire. 
To be sure, many clients want cheap goods, and some would 
prefer periodical visits with an oil-can to all the squeaky hinges 
in a house, rather than to pay the extra price for such articles 
as the Yale & Towne self-lubricating butts. Still, the obliga- 
tion is no less on the architect to acquaint himself with the 
best of everything, as well as to know how to get it. 


Parliament butts are 
shaped like Figure 88. 
They are intended to be 
used on very thin doors 
or shutters where consid- 
erable space is needed for 
the screws. They are 
made in several varieties 
of design and finish. 
Figure 89 is a hinge used 
almost exclusively for 
wash-trays. Figure 90 is a form of chest-hinge somewhat sim- 
ilar to that shown by Figure 67. There are also several 
forms manufactured for hanging inside-blinds. Figure 91 
is the common form . 
for ordinary blinds in f 
two folds. The same \ 
is made with either fast / 
or loose pin, and there ) 

chapter v. 

Fig. 88. Parliament Butt. 

Fig. 89. Wash-Tray Hinge. 

are several varieties / 
with ornamented sur- V__ 
faces. They are more 
specifically designated 
as " shutter flaps.'' Figure 92 is a form of shutter-hinge used for 
shutters which fold back over each other, as shown by the cut. 
Figure 93 is a hinge which is very convenient to use for water- 
closet seats, double-hinged lids, etc., the central flap being 



Shutter Flaps. 

w. c. Hinges 

Chapter V. 

Special forms. 



screwed to the seat, while one of the outer flaps serves for the 
seat cover and the other is attached to the frame at the back. 

Fig. 90. Chest-Hinge. Fig, 9 I . Inside Blind-Hinge. 

Figure 94 is a pivot or centre hinge to go underneath and 
above a door. Figure 95 is used for much the same purposes. 
Figure 96 is a form of wardrobe hinge. Besides these there 
are many special forms of hinges used in connection with fur- 
niture and a few for more strictly building purposes, none of 

Fig. 92. Three-fold Shutter Flap. 

which, however, are of any special value or interest, except the 
hinges used for double-acting screen-doors, that is to say, doors 
which swing both ways. Most of these are fitted with springs 
and will be considered later on, but the form represented by 

Fig. 93. Water-closet Seat Hinge. Fig. 94. Pin or Centre Hinge. 

Figure 97 is peculiar to itself. It is rather hard to appreciate it 
clearly from the drawing, but the sectional plan will make the 


arrangement more easily understood. The figure shows the Chapter v. 
hinge as it would appear when opened out. It really consists 
of three separate double-acting hinges, each as shown by the 

Fig. 95. Quadrant Hinge. 

Plan of A (O 

Plan of B 
Fig. 96. Wardrobe Hinge. Fig. 97. Screen-Butt. A.G.Newman. 

plan. A similar hinge is made with two sections instead of 

Figure 98 is even more puz- 
zling, at least, no drawing can 

Fig. 98. Screen-Butt. 

Illustrate it clearly, though the thing itself is easily understood, 



Chapter V. 

Garden City 

Its action is on exactly the same principle as Figure 97. The 
curved connecting pieces are between the two main hinge 
plates when the door is shut. For clearness the hinge is shown 
both in sections and put together. If the plate C be fastened 
to the door frame, when the door is opened towards the left the 
plates D and B will revolve together about the axis 1,1, tak- 
ing the position shown by the figure. If, however, the door is 
opened in the contrary direction, the revolution is about the 
axis 2, 2, the plates D and A turning together. 


One of the simplest forms of spring-hinge is that shown by 
Figure 99, consisting of a single spiral coil spring about a hinge 

pin, so arranged than when the 
door is opened the spring is 
twisted more tightly, and by its 
resistance tends to close the 
door. The lower flange is se- 
cured to the door frame, and in 
setting the hinge the spring is 
brought to a proper tension by 
turning up the hinge pin, holes 
being pierced in the bottom of 

Fig. 99. Garden Fig. 100. 

City Spring-Butt. Garden City Spring 

Chicago Spring- Butt. Chicago 

Butt Co. Spring-Butt Co. 

Fig. I I. Keene's Double-ac- 
ting Saloon-Door Hinge. 
Chicago Spring-Butt Co. 

the pin, as shown, to facilitate the use of a lever, while a, 
shoulder, dropped into one of the holes, bears against the fixed 



flange and prevents the spring from uncoiling. Figure 100 is 
a spring hinge to be planted on the face of the door and the 
door frame, the spring being turned up by using a bar in the 
hole through the bottom of the pin, and kept from uncoiling 
by the ratchets shown in the lower portion. Both of these 
hinges are for single swinging doors. 

Figure 101 is a light form of double-acting spring hinge 

Chapter V. 

Pig. ! 04. Star Spring- 
Hinge. Van Wagoner 
& Williams Co. 

Fi. 1 02. Garden 

ity Double-Act- 
ing Spring-Butt. 
Chicago Spring 
Butt Co. 

Fig. 103. Empire Spring- 
Hinge. Van Wagoner & 
Williams Co. 

suitable for fly doors which are set up from the floor, and do 
not extend to the top of the door frame. Its action will be 
readily understood by reference to the figure. 

Figure 102 represents a double-acting spring butt of the 
same general form as the single-acting butt, Figure 99. The 
springs are turned up and secured in essentially the same man- 

Keene's Hinge. 



Chapter v. ner and the appearance is the same. This form really em- 

bodies the principles of nearly all the varieties of spring-hinges, 
the differences being in appearance and in compactness of con- 
struction rather than in the workings. Two styles, the " Em- 
pire " spring hinge, Figure 103, and the "Star" spring-hinge, 
Figure 104, will fully serve as types of a great variety of double- 
acting spring-hinges listed in the catalogues of the various man- 
empire Hinge. ufacturers. In the "Empire" spring-hinge the coiled springs 
are exposed to view, and are tightened by inserting a lever in 
the cogs at the bottom of the hinge and drawing it around until 
the catch A on the top of the hinge pin is held by a little pro- 
star Hinge, jection on the hinge plate. In the " Star " hinge the springs 

are encased, though 
they are set up in 
essentially the same 
manner. Both these 
hinges are excel- 
lent of their kind 
and are about as 
good as anything in 
the market. 

Figure 105 shows 
the " Crown " 
hinge, a form which 
permits of a little 
nicer adjustment 
than the others in 
that the ratchets 
about the spiral 
spring are quite 
close together and 
Van Wagone.- the tension can be 
increased to any de- 
sired strength. This is a strong and durable hinge, although 
none of the foregoing hinges should be used for outside work, 
as they are liable to rust and clog. 

Crown Hiuge. 

Fig. 105. Crown Spring-Hinge. 
& Williams Co. 



All of the preceding double-acting hinges necessitate two 
coil springs. Figure 106 shows a form of double-acting spring 
butt in which the force Is derived entirely from a single strong 
coil, which is concealed when the door is closed, working in 
the thickness of the door. This hinge has generally proved 
very satisfactory in use and is much called for, being very neat 
and tidy in appearance, and it is especially adapted for light 
interior doors, where it is desirable that the hinges shall be 
as inconspicuous as possible. 

The simplest double-acting hinge, however, is the " Champi- 
on " spring-hinge, shown 
by Figure 107. This is 
about as convenient and 
satisfactory a door-spring 
as is in the market, con- 
sisting of a single spring 
operating for either swing 

Fig. 106. Chicago Spring-Butt, 
utt Co. 


Fig. 107. Champion Spring- 

Spring- Butt Co. Hinge. Chicago Hardware 

of the door. A catch on the hub of the lower jamb plate resists 
the door in one direction, while a corresponding catch on the 
upper plate resists the tension in the opposite direction. These 

Chapter V. 







Chapter v. hinges look neat in place and are very easily applied, and, hav- 

ing no complicated machinery about them, are not likely to get 
out of order. 

Jewett Hinge. A hinge which has the appearance of considerable complica- 

tion is the Jewett spring-butt, shown by Figure 108. This 
butt, however, has many excellent qualities. It consists of four 
separate springs, two on each side. It will be seen by the 
plan that when the door is opened the tension is brought on the 
springs by aid of the push-bar or pin, A, which fits on the 
shoulder between the two springs and on a ratchet attached to 

the central hinge-plate. 
The springs can easily 
be released from their 
tension without taking 
off the door, by simply 
removing the push-bar, 
and, owing to the man- 
ner in which the springs 
are attached, they ex- 
ert their greatest pow- 
er when the door is 
closed, the force grad- 
ually decreasing as the 
door is opened. An- 
other good quality is 
that, as there are four 
springs, if their com- 
bined power is too 
great for the door, any 
one of them can be re- 
leased singly, without 
affecting the action of 
the others, and the 
any point. It is also 
taking the butt off the 
with very few other 

Fig. 1086. Jewett Spring-Butt. 
Smith & Egge Mfg. Co. 

tension of the spring brought to 
possible to replace a spring without 
door, something which can be done 


makes. The only objection to the hinge in our mind is that it cnapter v. 

Fig. 109. Union Spring-Hinge. 
M. W. Robinson. 


Fig. llOa. Double-acting Torsion Spring-Butt. Fig. I I 06. Single-acting 

Torsion Spring-Butt. 

is complicated in its appearance and also that the springs are 



Chapter V. 

Union Hinge. 



held in place by a moveable push-bar, which, under some cir- 
cumstances might be knocked out of position and lost, in which 
case the hinge would be practically useless. On the whole, 
however, it is a most excellent hinge. 

The u Union " spring-hinge, Figure 109, is a form in which 
the resistance is derived from flat band springs. The peg shown 
above the spring is moveable, and by turning up the hinge-pin 
the peg can be set in any of the holes in the pin, as may be 
necessary to retain the desired resistance. One end of the 
band spring is fastened to the hinge-pin and the other hooks 
into a slot on the adjoining hinge-plate. The hinge illustrated 
is intended for light doors. For heavier work a hinge is made 
with four such springs, two on each hinge-pin. 

Figure 110 shows a form of spring-butt which depends for 
its action upon the torsion or twisting strain in a steel rod, 

Fig. I I I. Hero Spring-Hinge. 
Van Wagoner & Williams Co. 

Fig. I I 2. Nickel Spring-Hinge. 
Coleman Hardware Co. 

which is carried from the bottom to the top of the door. 

The disadvantages of nearly all of the forms of spring- 



hinges previously considered is that they are apt to cause the 
door to slam, and the door cannot be kept open except by 
placing something against it. Spring-hinges which will keep 
the door open or cause it to close are peculiarly an American 
invention and one of the most ingenious of its kind. 

There are four leading styles of hinges which have a hold- 
back feature. They are the Hero, Figure 111 ; the Nickel, 
Figure 112; the Devore, Figure 113, and the Wiles, Figure 
114. All of these hinges are necessarily single action. They 
are alike in that they are planted on the face of the door and 
door frame, and are delivered ready to be set, with the tension 
fully applied. The principle on which they work is simply 
this : The spring is coiled about a shank entirely disconnected 
from the pin of the butt and either united to the butt plates by 
top and bottom pieces which hook on the opposite sides of the 

Chapter V. 

Fig I I 3. Devore Spring-Hinge. 

Fig. I I 4. Wiles Spring-Hinge. 

g I I 3. Uevore bpring-Hinge 
Freeport Hardware Mfg. Co. Freeport Hardware Mfg. Co. 

hinge, as in the Nickel and the Wiles hinges, or with the 
springs themselves directly hooked onto the hinge-plates. In 
the Devore hinge two springs are used, the ends caught at the 

Spri ng-hiriges 



centre on one leaf A, while the outer ends catch on hooks at 
_Z?, B. In this way, it will readily be seen that as the hinges 
open, the hooks to which the spring is attached are separated 
from each other, and consequently the spring is drawn tighter. 
But as soon as the hinges have passed through about three- 
quarters of the distance they are to swing, the horizontal dis- 
tance between the points of attachment, at top and bottom of 
the spring becomes less, and the tendency is to draw the door 
open and hold it so. It is very difficult to show this action bv 
a diagram, but Figure 115 may help to make it understood. 
Let A represent the jamb and B the door ; C, a double turn 
of spring wire hooking on to the 
two arms, D, D, fastened respec- 
tively to the jamb and the door. 
When the door is opened, the ends 
of the spring are forced apart, but at 
the same time the spring forces itself 
out of centre, turning on the hooks 
of .D, Z>, until, when the door has 
moved through 180 degrees, it is 
evident that the spring has both 
moved and turned so that the ends 
tend to draw the arms D, D togeth- 
er, rather than to push them apart. 
\ jg In order that the springs should 

< be free to move, as just explained, 

the hinge-pins cannot extend through 
the butt, and the strength depends en- 
tirely on the flanges of the plates to which the pins are 
attached. As these cannot be made very large without render- 
ing the hinge clumsy in appearance, it follows that the hinges 
can be used only for comparatively light doors. The " Hero " 
hinge is rather neater and apparently simpler in construction, 
and also has the advantage of having the hinge cased, though 
all the hinges are on essentially the same principle. 

The metal used for the springs in connection with double- 


Fig. I I 5. 


acting butts, is usually steel, in which case it is advisable that 
the spring should be nickel-plated, to guard against rust. 
Phospor-bronze is the best and most durable material to use, 
all things considered, though we are unable to state any 
particular hinge in which it is employed. Some compositions 
of brass, bronze, etc., are used with varying success. The 
different hinges are generally made with but one kind of spring 
throughout, so that a choice in the metals is implied in a choice 
of a hinge. The metal is, however, nearly always steel, as just 





Bronzed or 
Japanned Iron. 

Nickel Plated. 

Brass or 


Garden City single-acting spring-butt 
Garden City single-acting spring-butt .... 
Keene's saloon-door hinge 

$ .60 


$ 4.80 


Garden City double-acting spring-butt. . . 





Star spring-hinge 





1 20 


Chicago double-acting spring-butt 





Champion spring-hinge 

1 40 

3 50 

4 25 


Jewett spring-butt 

3 50 

12 00 


Union spring-hinge . . 

2 50 



Torsion spring-butt 

4 50 

( about 


Hero spring-hinge. 



1 12.00 


Nickel spring-hinge 1 . 


Devore spring-hinge 1 


Chapter V. 

1 Wo are unable to state any prices for these hinges, as they are not found in 
the Boston market. They would probably sell at the same prices as the Garden 
City Butts, Figure 100. 


Chapter v. The foregoing table gives the retail prices of the spring butts 

and hinges previously described. For purposes of comparison, 
the figures represent the prices in each case of the size of hinge 
necessary for an ordinary door, from J to 1-J inches thick ; ex- 
cepting, however, that the price for Figure 101 is for a light 
screen-door hinge. The hinges are in general made in a 
number of sizes from those for the lightest kind of screen-doors, 
to those required to move doors weighing several hundred 



TITHE simplest form of door-spring is a straight i>oor-SpringP 
A spiral coil of wire attached to the door and to 
the jamb, and drawing the door shut by a direct 

Such springs, of course, are used only on com- 
mon work, though occasionally a spiral spring is 
used for gates in store-counters and railings, the 
spring being quite fine and long, and attached to 
the outside of the gate so that when the gate 
is closed the spring lies flat against it and does 
not show. The plain spiral spring is also a fea- 
ture of many of the so-called door-checks ; but 
in the line of springs which simply draw the 
door to there are several forms which are more 
convenient to use. Figure 116 illustrates the 
" Star " spring, manufactured by the Van Wago- star s P rin s- 
ner & Williams Company. In application one 
end is screwed onto the door near the jamb, and 
Fig 1 1 e. the other onto the jamb itself, the spring being 
Star Door-spring. at an an orle rather than strictly vertical, and in- 

Van Wagoner & * 

Williams Co. c li ne d towards the latch of the door so that when 
the door opens the spring acts both by resistance to compres- 
sion lengthwise and by the uncoiling effect of the wire. The 


Chapter VI. 


spring can be tightened in the same manner as the spring butts 
previously described, by turning the upper spindle to which 
the spring is attached, the pin A holding the spindle in posi- 
tion. Figure 117 illustrates another form of door-spring not 
unlike the foregoing in principle, though in this the spring acts 
entirely by its resistance to a twisting strain. In the cut, 
the lower screw-plate and hubs are shown drawn slightly away 
from the spring spindle, so as to expose the ratchets which 
hold the spring at any desired tension. 

Figure 118 is a very strong form of direct-acting spring, in- 
tended to be used on fire-engine-house doors. As shown by 

Fig. I I 7. Reliance Door- 
spring. Chicago Spring- 
Butt Co. 

Fig. I I 8. Engine-house Spring. 
J. B. Shannon & Sons. 

the cut, the spring would force the door open, which, of 
course, is the intention in an engine-house ; but the same prin- 
ciple could be applied to springs which are to close a door. 



The spring is tightened at the bottom, and the upper lever-arm 
works through a staple and pulley-wheel on the door. 

For light screen-doors a spring is sometimes used which acts 
by the twisting strain or torsion of a single steel rod, Figure 
119. The two side pieces, A A, are screwed to the jamb. 
The upper flange is fastened to the door and has a catch fitting 
into the ratchets of a drum attached to the rod. As usually 
applied, the rod is not strictly vertical, but is at an angle with 
the door jamb, so that when the door is opened the rod is sub- 
jected to both a torsion and a bending strain. If the rod is 
well tempered, the bending strain, of course, gives it an added 
efficiency. Figure 120 is a form of torsion door-spring which 
is attached to the door, and is operated by means of a bent, 
hinged-lever fastened to the door-head. It is asserted that this 
spring has its greatest power just as the door is opened, and 
that the strain in the rod diminishes as the door is swung 

The following table gives the average prices of the door- 
springs described : 




Laminated Spring. 

Nickeled Spring. 














Star door-spring- 

,., 5 













Reliance door-spring 

Engine-house door-spring, 24, 30 

Torry door-spring . 

Peabody door-spring 

Devore door-spring 1 

Warner door-spring 1 

Chapter VI. 

Screen Door- 

Torsion Door- 

1 Not found in Boston market. 

The principle involved in a reverse-acting spring butt, which 



Chapter vi. has been explained in a previous chapter, can be applied to 

Fig. 119. Torry Door-spring. 
Van Wagoner & Williams Co. 

Fig. I 20. Peabody Door-spriru 
A. W. Paine. 

Fig. I 2 I. Devore Door-spring. Freeport Hardware Manufg. Co. 

simple door-springs. Figure 121 shows a form which is made 
by the Freeport Hardware Manufacturing Company. This 



spring has a uniform tension, holds the door firmly when 
closed, and when the door is open about 120 degrees, the 
force of the spring is reversed and 
will hold the door open. Another 
advantage of this form is that the 
spring is easily unhooked and re- 
hooked from the door, and also from 
the jamb without removing the screws. 

The action of the spring will be under- Fig |22 Warner Door . springi 
stood from the illustration. Figure Warner Ma f'g- Co. 
122 shows a different form of spring; though on the same prin- 
ciple as the Devore. It has all the advantages of the one 
described and acts in precisely the same manner, though it is 
slightly larger. Both of these forms are exceedingly ingen- 
ious and efficient, and are sold a great deal in some parts of 
the country. 

Chapter VI. 


A door-check is understood to be anything which will hold 
the door either open or shut, or which will keep the door from 
slamming when closed. All the door-checks in the market are 
combined, directly or indirectly, with some form of door-spring. 
In some cases the spring is a part of 
the check, but more often the spring 
is a separate fixture, and is used as an 
auxiliary to the action of the check. 
One of the simplest forms of door- 
check is that shown by Figure 123. 
This consists of a strong band or 
spring of flexible steel which is at- 
tached by a proper holder to the 
head of the door-frame, so as to project about half an inch 
below the soffit. The door, in closing, catches on the 
shoulder at the end of the spring, forcing it up against the 
soffit of the door-frame, while the pressure of the spring on the 
head of the door keeps it from slamming, and in a measure also 

Fig. 123. Barlow Door-check. 
W. S. Barlow. 

Spring Door- 


Chapter vi. from opening too easily. The holder for the spring has slots 

instead of screw-holes, so that the spring can be moved up 
or down to any desired tension; while the upper slot .ff" per- 
mits a further adjustment by moving the spring in or out. 
The retail price of this check is twenty-five cents each, japanned, 
or fifty cents, nickel-plated. For all ordinary practical pur- 
poses this door-check is as good a device as can be found, and 
is used a great deal on railroad cars, where there is constant 
liability to violent slamming. It will be noticed that the spring 
has a double power ; first, by the friction of the door as it 
closes, and secondly, by the door coming in contact with the 
shoulder at the end of the spring. There is a special form of 
spring used to close this door consisting of a straight coil, with 
a hook on the jamb and a shoulder 011 the door. 

There are a few variations of the " Barlow " door-checks, but 
they all act on essentially the same principle, and this one will 
be sufficient for illustration. A very different kind of check 
is that which acts on the principle of a piston-pump, of 
which, perhaps, the best known is the " Norton " door-check. 
This article has been on the market a long time, and is used 
very extensively in some parts of the country. Figure 124 

will give an idea 
of how it appears 
when set. The 
check consists 
simply of a 
plunger or piston 
working in a cyl- 
inder. Between 
the piston and the 
cylinder head is 
coiled a strong 
spiral spring, and 
the piston, as 

Fig. I 24. Norton Door-check. A. J. Wilkinson & Co. 

well as the cyl- 
inder, is pierced with a small hole to permit the air to escape. 


The cylinder is attached to the head of the door-frame, and is Chapter vi. 

hinged at A. The piston-rod is connected by a hinged-joint 

with a lever hinged to the frame, and a lever G attached to 

the door. When the door is opened, the piston is drawn 

out, the internal spring compressed, and the air enters through 

the holes in the piston and the cylinder head, filling the 

space beyond the piston. When the door is released, the 

spring tends to close it, but the air behind the piston acting as 

a cushion, prevents the door from closing too quickly or from 

slamming. The orifice in the cylinder can be made larger or 

smaller, thus regulating the speed at which the door shall close. 

The spring is made sufficiently strong to both close and latch 

the door after the air has escaped from the cylinder. 

It will be seen that this door-check permits the door to be 
opened only about 120 degrees. This is usually more than 
enough for any doors requiring the use of a check, but a stop 
is always needed, otherwise the arm G may be broken. 

A form of " Norton " door-check is also made to close the 
door from the outside. The action is exactly the same, except 
that the arm G is bent up and attached to the soffit, while the 
cylinder is attached to the door. 

The " Norton " door-check is usually sold nickel-plated. 
The prices are as follows : 

For screen-doors and doors not exceeding 2 feet 8 inches by 1 J inches f 4.00 

Doors not exceeding 2 feet 8 inches by 2 inches 5.00 

Doors not exceeding 3 feet by 2 inches 6.00 

Doors not exceeding 4 feet by 3 inches 8.00 

A rather more cumbersome form of door spring and check 
has recently been put on the market by the Russell & Erwin 
Manufacturing Company. The check acts in practically the 
same manner as the Norton Door-check, but the spring is ex- 
posed and distinct from the cylinder, being acted upon by a 
bent lever. This door-check has hardly been before the public 
long enough to judge fairly of it. 

A form of door-check, which has met with a great deal of 
approval, is the " Eclipse," manufactured by Sargent & Com- 


Chapter vi. pany. Figure 1 25 shows this check in position. It consists of 
piston secured to the head of the door-frame and working in a 
cylinder attached to the top of the door. The piston-rod is 
kept from lateral motion by a set-screw at one side of the foot, 
and a spring on the other, as shown by the figure, so that it 
can be accurately adjusted to meet the cylinder. When the 
door is opened, the cylinder is drawn entirely away from the 


Fig. 125. Eclipse Door Check and Spring. Sargent & Co. 

piston, while the compression of the air in the cylinder when 
the door closes, prevents any slamming. The air escapes 
through openings in the end of the cylinder, so arranged as to 
be easily regulated. The piston in both the " Norton " and 
the " Eclipse " door-check has leather washers. 

The " P^clipse " door-check can be used with any suitable 
form of spring butt, though the door-spring, shown by Figure 
125, is especially made for this purpose by Sargent & Com- 
pany. It consists of a strong spiral spring, cased in a cylinder 
and connected with the door-frame by a hinged bent lever. 

The "Eclipse" checks and springs are finished either Tus- 
can bronzed, bronze-plated or nickel-plated. The prices are as 
follows : 





Heavy. Very heavy. 















Heavy inside. 

Heavy outside. 

Very heavy. 


$ .90 














Chapter VI. 

The " Eclipse " check is applied to the outside of a door, if 
desired, a different form of holder securing the cylinder to the 
soffit of the door-open- 
ing, while the piston is 
fastened to the door. 

It has been claimed 
that after being used for 
a certain time, the bear- 
ings in both the "Nor- 
ton " and the " Sargent " 
door - check will wear 
loose, so that the air 
will escape too freely 
from the cylinders to 
form a "reliable cushion; 
and several attempts 
have accordingly been 
made to produce a door- 
check in which the action should be regulated by the flow of some 
liquid, which would permit of metal instead of leather washers. 
Figure 126 illustrates one device on this principle. It consists 
of a piston and cylinder attached to the door. The cylinder is 
pivoted so as to admit of a slight rocking motion, and the 
piston is hinged to a bent-arm, also pivoted just above (7, and 
provided with a spring which serves to keep the piston drawn 
out. The cylinder is filled with oil, which flows back and 
forth through a small tube at the back, the rate of flow being 
regulated by a screw at C. When the door closes, the shoulder 
A on the door-head strikes against the bent arm and forces the 

Fig. 126 
& Brittan. 

House's Liquid Door-check. Nimick 

Liquid Door- 


piston down, the oil preventing any sudden slamming, while 
the rate of the flow through the tube below G determines the 
rate at which the door will close. This fixture retails at about 
$1 per set. 

Such a form of check necessitates a spring-hinge, in order 
that the door shall be self-closing. Figure 127 illustrates a 
form of door-check manufactured by the same parties, which 
has a coiled spring inside the cylinder acting by means of the 



Fig. I 27. House's Automatic Door- 
check. Nimick & Brittan. 


Fig. I 28. Bardsley's Checking Spring- 
hinge. J. Bardsley. 

hinged bent lever on the door-head. The interior of the 
cylinder is filled with oil, which checks the action of the door 
by flowing from one compartment to the other of the cylinder. 
The retail price is from $3.30 to $4.50 each, according to the 

Figure 128 is another form of combined door check and 
spring, which is intended especially for double-acting doors, 
though it can be used for any door. No regular hinges are re- 
quired with this fixture. The top of the door is held by a 
species of pivot, fitting into a socket mortised into the top of 
the door, while the door-check answers for the lower hinge. 
The lever A is mortised into the bottom of the door, acting as 
a crank to turn the post B. The checking apparatus is en- 
cased in a box (7, which is sunk into the door-sill and covered 
with a brass plate. Figure 129 shows a section of the box, which 
will illustrate more clearly its arrangement. The post -Z?, when 


turned either way, moves a piston which travels in a cylinder Chapter vi. 
completely filled with oil, in which is also a very heavy coiled 
spring whose action tends to close the door, while the oil pre- 

of- Sprind sfal-icnarv 

Fig. 129. Bardsley's Checking Spring-hinge. J. Bardsley. 

vents any sudden movement. The oil flows back and forth 
through a narrow aperture, the size of which can be regulated 
by a screw extending up through the covering of the box. 


Chapter vi. This check is listed at $17 per door complete for a door of 

ordinary size. 
Door-Catches. Besides the door-checks which are automatic in their action, 

there are a number of devices for holding the door open or in 

Fig. 130. 
Fray's Door-holder. 
J. B. Shannon & 

31. Fig. 132. 

Door-holder. A, G. Newman. 

any one position. Some of them are self-locking, but are 
arranged so that the door can b6 easily drawn to by slight pres- 
sure. Figures 130 
and 131 are two va- 
rieties of this style 
of door-check. An- 
other kind is made 

Fig. 133. Top Door-catch. P. & F. Corbin. tO absolutely ^old 

the door fast when 

it is opened, so that in order to close the door the check 
must be released by hand: Figure 132 shows one of the 
many varieties of this form. It is varied by having a lever 
attached to the catch by which it can be more easily raised, 


and also by the catch being placed so as to act sidewise instead 
of vertically. Figure 133 is a form of catch which is intended 
to be attached to the jamb and to work over the- top of the 
door, nearly all the other forms being attached to the door and 
working on a striker which is screwed to the floor. Figure 

Chapter VI. 

Fig. 134. D'op Door-check. 
A. G. Newman. 

Fig. 135. Fray's Door-catch. 
J. B. Shannon & Sons. 

Pig. 136. Ross Inside Catch. 
Stoddard Lock & Manufg. Co. 

134 is a self-locking form of door-check which is screwed to the 
door, catching onto a hook projecting from the wall. Figure 

135 is a form of door-catch which is used for show-cases and 
closets, acting by means of a spring coiled inside the cylinder. 
Figure 136 is a spring-cateh used only for light work or for 


Some form of stop is always desirable in order to keep the 
door from striking the finish when swung open, or breaking the 


Chapter VI. 


plastering. The commonest form consists of 
a wooden knob screwed straight into the base 
and tipped with rubber. The variation from 
this is a wooden-knob, which is screwed into 
the floor and has the rubber-tip on the side, to 
be used when the door does not swing against 
the wall, but has to be stopped at some point. 
These stops are made in birch, maple, ash, 
oak, chestnut, cherry, walnut and mahogany 
and are listed at $5.00 per gross for birch to 
$6.50 for mahogany. They are made in two 
sizes, 2^ and 3 inches long ; the wood is turned 
Fig, 137. Door- an( j a mmlet-pointed screw is firmly attached 

bumper. J. B. Shan- J 

non & Sons. to the stop, so that it can readily be put in 

place by hand. The prices are the same whether the rubber 
tip is on the side or the end. They are also made with a rub- 
ber ring entirely encircling the knob, the list price being $12.00 
per gross. 

The Meriden Malleable 'Iron Company manufactures elastic- 
headed screws which are used more for furniture than for doors, 
but which might be desirable in some cases. They consist 
simply of a half-round head which is covered in upholstery of 
some kind and fitted with a gimlet-pointed screw. These cost 
from $11.00 to $17.00 per gross, list price, depending upon the 
material with which they are covered. J. B. Shannon & Sons, 
manufacture a door-bumper shown by Figure 137, which is in- 
tended to prevent jar and noise in shutting the door : it con- 
sists of a cup with a brace attached to be screwed to the face 
of the door ; a rubber ball is pressed into the cup so that it will 
not fall out. A piece of rubber made fast to the jamb casing 
over the door, for the ball to strike against, completes the con- 
trivance. The rubber over the door may be increased or 
lessened in thickness so that when the rubber ball comes in 
contact with it the compression will allow the door to latch. 
This device effectually prevents any slamming of the door. 
The list price is $1.00 each. The only possible objection to 



its use would be that the head might prevent the door from be- Chapter vi. 
ing latched properly. 


The commonest form of door-rollers are those used for barn- 
doors. Usually a barn-door slides on rollers or sheaves which 
are applied to the inner face of the 
door and run over a metal track 
secured to the floor. There are many 
kinds of large sheaves and rollers 
manufactured for barn-doors, which 
are too simple to require any illustra- 
tion. The commoner kind consists of 
a large wheel with a steel or metal 
axle. The better kind of barn-door 
rollers are provided with anti-friction 
axle bearings ; that is to say, the axle 
of the wheel revolves in a cycle of 
small pins or rollers by which the fric- 
tion is considerably reduced, and the 
wear on the bearings very materially 
diminished. Figure 138 is an ingen- 
ious device for a barn-door roller, the 
working of which will be readily ap- 
parent from the drawing. The inner 
plate, A, is screwed directly to the door, through the openings in 
the wheel, B, which revolves on the anti-frictional bearings. 

Figure 139 shows 
a form of barn-door 
rail, intended to be 
used with a wheel 
which shall rest on 
the flanges and not 
bear at all on the 

Fig. 139. Nickel Barn-door Rail. Coleman Hardware Co. Upright portion. Ill 

Fig. 138. Acme Barn-door 
Roller. Moore Mfg. Co. 






Fig. 140. Victor Stay-roller. 
Victor Mfg. Co. 

Chapter vj, this way the wheel will clear away any collection of snow or 
ice by its own action and enable the door to roll easily. 

The standing objection to barn-door rollers which are applied 
to the bottom of the door, is that they are too easily thrown off 

the track by obstructions and also 
that the track itself is apt to get 
in the way and be a bother in 
driving over it. The greatest 
amount of ingenuity has been 
expended upon door -hangers in 
which the door is suspended from 
a track at the top. The only 
objection which is to be urged 
against this manner of arrang- 
ing a sliding-door, is that in case 

of a violent wind the door would be forced inward. This diffi- 
culty can be in a measure obviated by the use of some form 
of stay-roller, such 
as Figure 140, 
which can be at- 
tached so as to 
prevent any lat- 
eral motion of the 
door. This form 
of stay -roller is 
also used for doors 
which slide on 
sheaves at the bot- 
tom, taking the 
place of an over- 
head groove. 

There are real- 
ly but two dis- 
tinct varieties of 
barn-door hangers ; 

Fig. 141. Climax Barn-door Hanger. Moore Mfg. Co. 

the first is represented by Figure 141, and 

consists of a single wheel running on an overhead-track and 


attached to a hanger which is screwed on to the inner face of 
the door. The same form of hanger is made to be used with 
an iron rail. This form is rather old but is very good and we 
should imagine would give little trouble. It is made with anti- 
friction bearings. The second variety of hanger is one in which 
the axle is not fixed but travels along a single bearing beam, 
as in the "Moody Hanger," Figure 142, which is one of the 


Fig. 142. Moody Barn-door Hanger. Victor Mfg. Co. 

simplest of this kind. In this the axle bears on two bars, and 
the uprights to which the bearing bars are secured, are placed 
sufficiently far apart to admit of the axle having enough play 
for the opening of a single door. The rail and brackets are 
made of steel and the wheel has a steel axle. 

The "Victor Hanger," Figure 143, is a slight improvement 
over the " Moody " in that the bearing is on a single bar instead 
of on two ; and that the wheels work on each side of a high, 
ridged track which prevents them from slipping off or becoming 
interfered with. 

The "Lane Hanger," Figure 144, is very similar to the 

Chapter VI. 


Chapter vi. " Moody " though the arrangements of the supports is somewhat 


All of the foregoing hangers are made of wrought-iron or 

steel, with steel or chilled-iron bearings. Several kinds of 

hangers are made with mal- 
leable iron, such as the " Nick, 
el," Figure 145, which follows 
the pattern of the "Moody 
Hanger." The " Nickel 
Hanger" is also made in steel, 
with a slightly different shape. 
The "Hatfield Hanger," Fig- 
ure 146, also in malleable iron, 
is a form after the pattern of 
the "Lane," on which the 
patent seems to have run out ; 

Fig. I 43. 

Victor Barn-door Hanger. 
Victor Mfg. Co. 

at any rate, a similar form is 
made by several of the manu- 
facturers, and the principle embodied in the "Hatfield" and 
the " Moody Hangers " is the one which is usually consid- 

Fig. 144. Lane Barn-door Hanger. Lane Bros 

ered to be the most satisfactory ; that is to say, one in which 
the axle bears on two parallel plates and works in slots ; indeed, 



this principle is applied to nearly all the most successful hang- 
ers, both for barn-doors and parlor-doors. 

For parlor doors many builders and architects still prefer 
sheaves mortised into the bottom of the door. The rail, which 
is a necessary part of this arrangement, is admitted to be a 
trouble, but the rollers are so easily taken out that the rail is 
retained. There seems to be an idea with many people that 
the overhead hanger 
more easily gets out 
of order, and that it 
is more complicated. 
This is a mistake, for 
there is hardly a 
hanger in the market 
that will not give sat- 
isfaction if properly 
applied, while any 
one who has had ex- 
perience with sheaves 
and rail at the bottom 
can testify to the 
trouble which will 
sometimes occur, with 
the settlement of the 
woodwork throwing Fig. 145. 
the door out of plumb 
or obstructions getting on the track and throwing the wheels 
off. Some of the overhead hangers require more care in set- 
ting, and others have some special adjustment which must 
be understood; but the principle on which they all work is 
so simple that, to the uninitiated, there seems to be but little 
choice between the various kinds. 

The ordinary mortised sheave, of which Figure 147 is a 
type, runs on a brass rail, which is generally made with a 
raised section, though a form is sometimes used which is chan- 
nelled instead of being raised. The former will be something 

Chapter VI. 

Nickel Barn-door Hanger. 
Hardware Co. 





Chapter VI. 





to stub the foot against ; the latter will collect dust. The only 
form of rail in the market, which presents neither of these 
difficulties, is the " Climax," Figure 148. This consists of a 
double brass track with a central strip, which is held flush with 
the two sides by springs inserted at intervals in the track. A 
special form of wheel is manufactured to go with this rail. 
The wheel, in passing along over the rail, presses down the 
central strip, forming a groove for the wheel to run in. When 
the door is opened, the springs force the flexible central strip 
up again, so that when the doorway is entirely clear the 
_. appearance is of a single 

brass plate perfectly flush 
with the floor. The list 
price of this rail is sixty 
cents per foot in brass. 

Besides the common 
pattern of mortised 
sheaves, shown by Figure 
147, there is another form 
which works more easily, 
made on the same princi- 
ple as the "Hatfield" 
barn-door hanger. This 
is shown by Figure 149. 

146. Hatfield Barn-door Hanger. rni i j 

Ihis sheave is made in 
five sizes, from two-and-one-half inches to six inches in diam- 
eter of wheel and costs from $1.50 to $4 per set of four 

Parlor-door hangers are usually arranged to run on a 
wooden or metal track which is bolted 
to the side-studding. There are one 
or two points which should be consid- 
ered in judging of any door-hanger as 
ordinarily applied. In most houses 
the studs which form one side of the 

,. , , Fig. 147. Sliding-door 

sliding -door pocket are made to rest Sneave. Russell & Erwin. 


on something pretty solid, a foundation wall, or, at least, a 
heavy timber, while on the other side of the pocket the studs 
are supported on the floor-joist, and are left to settle with the 
shrinkage of the timbers, thus bringing about a difference in 

Chapter VI. 

Fig. 148. Climax Rail. Climax Rail Co. 

level of the two sides of the pocket. It may, then, be stated 
as a general rule that the best form of hanger would be that 
which is supported on one side only, since if any inequality 
of settlement takes place, it does not affect the hanger. An- 

Fig. 149. Hatfield Anti-friction Sheave. 

other consideration is, that it would be well to have the door- 
hangers so arranged that in case the door should not hang per- 
fectly plumb, there would be no inequality of bearing on the 
axles of the wheels. It will be seen that this is perfectly 



Chapter vi. possible, and that it has been considered in some of the forms 
of door-hangers. 

One of the earlier patents is the "Moore" parlor-door 
hanger, Figure 150. This is a very good form in the main, 
being hung by a single rod which is mortised into the top of 
the door. The adjustment may be obtained by turning up the 
nut at the bottom of the rod, through a hole cut in the edge of 
the door in the same manner as a stair-rail bolt is turned up. 
The difficulty is, that the hanger cannot readily be readjusted 
when once set. Another of the early 
forms which has since been but little 
improved upon, is the " Warner " 
hanger, Figure 151. This consists of 
two sets of double wheels connected 
by a rod, and working directly on 
the double track secured to each side 
of the door-pocket. The manner of 
supporting the door is much the same 
as with the "Moore" hanger, except 
that in the "Warner" the support- 
ing rods can be got at after the 
door is finished by means of a face- 
plate on the edge of the door. The 
wheels are made perfectly flat, and 
it is claimed that under no combina- 
tion of circumstances can they run 
off the track. The axles of the wheels 
are attached to the connecting rod by 
means of a universal bearing, thus 
enabling the weight of the doors to 
bear equally upon both tracks, no 
r Hanger, s. H. & ma tter how much out of plumb or level 

c. Y. Moore. 

they may be. A somewhat similar 

door-hanger is that shown by Figure 152, manufactured by 
the Reading Hardware Company. In this variety, however, 
the adjustment is entirely from the top of the door, and no 

I 50. Moore's Anti-friction 



mortise is required. The axles are not attached to any part 
of the hanger, but work in the slot somewhat on the prin- 
ciple of a "Victor " 
hanger. T 

Figure 153 shows 
a door-hanger which 
is very popular, and 
which for simplicity 
and perfection of 
construction is one 
of the best yet pro- 
duced. The wheels 
run on two flat 
wooden tracks, one 
secured to each 
side of the stud- 
ding. The axles Fig 
bear on the short 
connecting rod which is made sufficiently long to allow for the 
run of an eight-foot door. The rod being round there will 

Chapter VI. 

Warner Parlor-door Hanger. 

E. C. Stearns & 

Fig. I 52. Novelty Parlor-door Hanger. Reading Hardware Co. 

never be an uneven bearing. The hangers are adjusted by 
means of a sliding screw-joint which is operated from the edge 


Chapter vi. of the door, and which, by forcing the hanger away or drawing 
it towards the edge of the door, raises or lowers the bearing 

Fig. 153. Prindle Parlor-door Hanger. Prindle Mfg. Co. 

A very simple application of the same principle is embodied 
in the " Nickel " parlor-door hanger, Figure 154. This con- 

nil In 

Fig. I 54. Nickel Parlor-door Hanger. Coleman Hardware Co. 

sists of a double set of flanged wheels, which run on a double 
track suspended by iron hanger-rods attached at intervals to a 


cross-piece at the top of the door-pocket. The axles of the 
wheels bear against a half-round bar, which is secured by 


Chapter VI. 

Fig. I 55. Richards Parlor-door Hanger. Wilcox Mfg. Co. 

upright bars to the top of the door. The hangers are adjusted 
by turning up the hanger-rods in the top of the pocket, thus 

Fig. I 56. Paragon Parlor-door Hanger. Dunham Mfg. Co. 

lifting the track bodily. One objection to this form is that it 
requires considerable width of pocket four-and-one-half inches. 


Chapter vi. Figure loo illustrates the "Richards" hanger, which, with 

the " Prindle," rather leads the market just at present. The 
principle is almost exactly the same with both forms, except 
that in the " Richards " the axle has a flat instead of a round 
bearing, and the wheels are grooved. The " Prindle " manu- 
facturers claim that the flat wheel is preferable ; the " Rich- 
ards," on the other hand, maintain that the flanged wheel is 
more desirable. There is really very little to choose between 
the two kinds. 

The American Manufacturing Company has a parlor- 
door hanger on the market which is essentially the same as the 
" Richards " hanger. The " Paragon " door-hanger, Figure 
156, is on the principle of the " Moody" barn-door hanger pre- 
viously described. It consists of a single grooved wheel 
running on a rail secured to one side of the pocket, the axles 
bearing against two flat surfaces. It would seem as though 
this fulfilled the conditions of a perfect door-hanger more fully 
than anything else in the market. It can be adjusted with 

Fig. 157. Emerson Parlor-door Hanger. B. D. Washburn, Agent. 

very little trouble ; and as the centre of support is directly over 
the centre of the door, there is no tendency to bind ; while as 
the track is secured to only one side of the door-pocket, the 
possible effects of shrinkages and settlements are reduced to 
a minimum. 

A form of door-hanger which is essentially the same as this, 
but in which the axle of the wheels work in a slot on the prin- 
ciple of the " Hatfield " sheave, has been manufactured by 


Burditt & Williams, for one of the Boston builders, but has re- 
ceived no patent, and is not really in the market. 

The " Emerson " door-hanger, Figure 157, is yet another 
variety, and represents in some respects a different principle 
from any of the former, in that the rollers are entirely separate 
and distinct from each other, being connected merely by a thin 
strip of wood notched over the axles. The rollers bear on the 
wooden rail C. The hangers D, to which the door is directly 
attached, are fastened to a rider bar JE, which bears directly on 

Fig. I 58. Endless Anti-friction Parlor-door Hanger. Reading Hardware Co. 

the rollers. This form of hanger is very effective, does not 
get out of order, and works very smoothly. Adjustment is 
obtained by a small set-screw in the attachment of the hanger. 
The track is fastened to one partition only. 

Figure 158 is a very ingenious combination of the principles 
of the " Warner " and the " Prindle " hangers. It consists of 
a set of double, flanged wheels A, bearing on two tracks, which 
are bolted to eaph side of the pocket. The axle of the double 
wheel supports a ring B, which in turn supports a plain, 
grooved, pulley-wheel. The axle of the pulley-wheel turns in 
iron flange-plates which are fastened to the top of the door. 
In this way the friction is greatly reduced ; and the principle 
of the continuous run of the axle, which is embodied in the 
" Warner " hanger, is here provided for by means of the ring 


Chapter VI. 



Chapter vi. connected with the flanged wheels, and with the lower pulley. 
The hanger is adjusted by a turn-screw near the edge of the 
door. The point of support of the hangers is always in the 
same relative position to the door, thus overcoming one of 
the weak points of the horizontal, anti-friction hangers in 
which the wheels travel back and forth from one end to the 
other, continually changing the strain on the screws. 

The following table gives the relative prices of the various 
door-hangers that have been described : 




Per set of four. 

Acme barn-door roller, 8 inch wheel $3.00 

Climax barn-door hanger 3.00 

Moody barn-door hanger 3.20 

Victor barn-door hanger 4.40 

Lane barn-door hanger 2.30 

Nickel barn-door hanger 3.50 

Hatfield barn-door hanger 4.50 

Parlor-door sheave, anti-friction 2.00 

Hatfield parlor-door sheave 2.50 

Moore parlor-door hanger 4.25 

Warner parlor-door hanger 5.50 

Novelty parlor-door hanger 3.50 

Prindle parlor-door hanger 5.00 

Nickel parlor-door hanger, (approximately) 3.50 

Richards parlor-door hanger 5.00 

Paragon parlor-door hanger 4.50 

Emerson parlor-door hanger 5.00 

Endless parlor-door hanger 3.75 

There is still another distinct type of door-hanger, one which 
is unique of its kind, and for certain purposes is decidedly 
better than anything else in the market, though not always 




applicable or always desirable : this is the " Prescott " hanger. 
It is difficult to illustrate this hanger properly ; it should be 
seen in order to appreciate fully 
its workings. Figure 159 is the 
common form of hanger, consist- 
ing essentially of two flat bars 
joined, scissors fashion, in the 
centre. The lower end of one 
bar is fastened to a pin on the 
jamb of the pocket. The lower 
end of the other bar is fastened 
to a pin on the back of the 
door. The upper end of the 
bar which is fastened to the 
jamb, works with a roller in 
a slot on the back of the upper 
part of the door, while the up- 
per end of the other bar works 
in a small slot let into the upper 
part of the jamb -pocket. A 
little reasoning will show one that the door in this manner is 
held absolutely free from either the top or the bottom of the 
door-opening, and can be easily moved forward or backward. 
It cannot settle without the scissors part spreading out, and as 
the movable roller ends are on opposite sides, that is, one on 
the joint and one on the door; any tendency to spreading 
out of the rollers is counteracted by the opposite ends of the 
bars, which are always on the same level. In practice, the 
hanger, when properly set, works to perfection. The door 
never can bind, but can be operated by the slightest pressure 
in one direction or the other. Figure 160 shows a compound 
hanger on the same principle for use in very wide doors. The 
difference is simply that there are two hangers joined by bolts 
instead of one. Figure 161 shows a trussed hanger, which is 
used for doors that are wider than they are high. It may be 
said, incidentally, that these door-hangers can be exactly re- 

Chapter VI. 

Fig. 159. 

Prescott Hanger. 
Mfg. Co. 



Chapter vi. versed ; that is to say, the fixed ends may be at the top instead 
of the bottom. 

The "Prescott" 
hanger is used to great 
advantage for elevator 
doors, as it permits of 
an opening the entire 
width of the car, if de- 
sired, while the ordi- 
nary width would be 
half that size. In such 
a case, a door across 
half of the opening is 
hung with ordinary 
butts, and the rest of 
the space is closed with 
a door hung by " Pres- 
cott" hangers to the 

first. The whole, or a part of the opening, can then be left un- 
obstructed for the removal of boxes or trunks. Hangers for 
this purpose can be 
made of bronze, so as 
to present a neat ap- 
pearance. These hang- 
ers are also used to 
advantage for barn- 
doors, car-doors, etc., 
and for any places 
where the hangers are 
exposed. The only 
objection to their use 
for parlor -doors, is 
that they have to be 
pretty carefully set by 
a mechanic who thor- 
oughly understands the Fig. 161. Prescott Hanger. Prescott Mfg. Co. 

Fig. 160. Prescott Hanger. Prescott Mfg. Co. 


workings, otherwise they are apt to rattle. It is not easy to Chapter vi. 
adjust the hanger in case of settlements. They also take up 
considerable width in thickness of the pocket ; still, they work 
so beautifully that they deserve all the popularity that they 
have enjoyed. 

The prices of the ordinary form of Prescott hangers for 
inside doors, are as follows : 


2J x 8 x 1| inches $3.25 

3x9 xljinches 4.25 

3 x 9 x li inches 5.25 

4x9 x If inches 6.25 

4 xlO xl^inches 6.75 

4^x10 xlfinches 7.50 

5 xlO xl| inches 8.50 

5xl2 x2 inches 9.50 

6 x 12 x2jinches 10.50 



Chapter VII. 

TTLMOST the only forms of pulley 
f~L used by builders are those which 
are employed for double-hanging 
windows. These are made with cast- 
iron frames for the cheaper styles of 
work, or frames of malleable iron for 
a better class of goods ; while some 
manufacturers use wrought-iron en- 
tirely. The wheels are usually made 
of cast-iron, with a groove shaped to 
receive the sash-cord or chain. The 
pulley is fitted in a mortise cut into 
the face of the hanging-style of the 
window-frame, and the part visible, or 
the face, is made of almost any ma- 
terial, but most often of bronzed, 
nickel-plated, painted or japanned iron. The commonest form 
is bronzed iron. The axles of the wheels are of steel or 
gun-metal, and the wheels themselves, in the better class 
of goods, are turned to accurate dimensions, though some 
cheaper grades are simply cast and polished. Some manufac- 
turers finish pulleys with plain or ornamented bronze faces, 
in which case the face is made of a separate piece of metal, 
riveted to the iron frame of the pulley. There are also- 

Fig. 162. Ordinary 



in the market, a few fiae grades of pulleys made with brass 
wheels and cast-brass frames. This is, however, a needless ex- 
pense, and such pulleys are used more in connection with 
furniture than with building. 

The essential qualities of a good pulley-wheel, are simply 
that it shall run lightly, smoothly and easily. There should be 
a broad hub on the axle in order to prevent the flanges from 
jarring or rattling against the pulley frame, and the wheels 
selected should be of such a size that when the face-plate is 
mortised-in flush with the face of the hanging-style, the inner 
edge of the wheel will be over the centre of the box, so that 
sash-weights will not strike against the frame when raised or 

Sash-pulleys are usually made in five sizes: If inch, 2, 2, 
2^ and 3 inches, the size referring to the diameter of the 
wheel. The two-inch wheel is sufficiently 
large for most cases, but for heavy, plate- 
glass windows larger sizes are used, though 
the chief advantage of a large pulley is 
not so much that it will wear better, but 
that it will throw the sash-cord farther 
away from the hanging-style, and so per- 
mit of larger sash- weights. When the 
expense is not an item to be considered in 
the selection, it is well to employ some 
form of anti-friction, ball or pin bearing 
pulley for all sash weighing over fifty 
pounds. A poor pulley will soon wear 
loose so as to rattle on the axle. If anti- 
friction wheels are not advisable, the next 
best form is one with a large gun-metal 
axle. Some compositions of phosphor- Fig' |63 Anti-friction 

Sash-pulley. Moore Mfg. 

bronze would seem to be peculiarly well Co. 

suited for pulley axles, though iu>t at present in the market to 

a ly extent. 

There are a great many varieties of sash-pulleys, though the 

Chapter VI 1. 

Sash Pulleys. 


chapter vii. differences are so slight that a few examples will serve to 
illustrate the whole. Figure 1G2 is a fair type of the ordinary 
axle-pulley, and Figure 163 is a type of the best form of anti- 
friction sash-pulley. All of the most commonly used forms 
of sash-pulleys are on essentially one or the other of these lines. 
The only important deviations from the common types of sash- 
pulleys have been made with a view to reducing the amount of 
labor required to properly set the fixtures in the window frames. 
It should be said that none of the patent forms have thus far 
met with either very wide sales or general approval, which 
would seem to indicate that the common form answers pretty 
fully all the requirements of the case. There are, however, a 
few styles which have met with considerable favor in the 
market, and which will serve to give an idea of the lines the 
attempted improvements have followed. 

Figure 1G4 illustrates a form known as the " Empire " sash- 
pulley, in which the case is corrugated horizontally so that it 
will exactly fit into a series of holes bored into the frame with 
an auger or bit of standard size, a great reduction in the labor 
of mortising thus being effected. The advantages claimed for 
it are that it cuts away less of the frame than any other pulley, 
is held more securely, does not require any 
screws, and can be inserted much more readily 
and quickly than any other kind. It is claimed 
that these pulleys can be fitted to the window 
frames at the rate of sixty per hour. 

A pulley requiring even less work in setting, 
though somewhat more complicated in construc- 
tion, is shown by Figure 165. This consists of 
F slsh-p *iey. Em Em- two sma ll wheels set in a cylindrical case, and 
Company ab ' e Forge requiring no more labor to fit in place than is 
involved in the boring of a single hole. Shoul- 
ders or flanges at top and bottom of the case serve to plumb 
the pulley properly, and kept it from twisting. It is claimed 
that this pulley will hold its position quite as well as any other 
form, though it would seem more apt to work loose by reason 



of the leverage of the weight over the inner wheel, than the 

ordinary form. 

Another style of pulley which does 
not avoid cutting the mortise on the 
frame, but saves somewhat in the screws, 
and has a finer appearance than either 
the "Empire" or the "Corey," is shown 
by Figure 166. In this pulley the 

Chapter VII. 

Fig 165. Corey's Two-wheel f ace _ p l ate an( J f rame are cast together, 

Sash-pulley. J.B.Johnston. 

and the frame is made with a wide 
shoulder or flange at the bottom, which 
is cast on a bevel, so that when placed 
in position in the rebate, the pulley 
cannot slip down or out, by reason of 
the bevel wedging into the mortise. 
A single screw at the top of the pul- 
ley holds it securely in place ; but 
it will be seen that it does not depend 

Fig. I 66. Norris Pulley. 
C. Sidney Norris & Co. 

Pig. 167. Single Sash-chain, 
Smith & Egge Mfg. Co. 

upon the screw for its stability. With an ordinary pulley, the 
heavier the sash the greater is the possibility of the wheel 
being forced out from its mortise, whereas, with the " Norris " 
pulley, the greater the load, the more securely is it wedged in 



Chapter vii. place. Another obvious advantage is that it requires just half 
the quantity of screws and amount of labor to set this pulley as 
it does the ordinary pulley ; and it is said that the carpenters 
who have used this, have liked it very much. The labor of 
mortising is slightly more than for the ordinary form, but the 
company controlling the patent also manufactures a mortising- 
machine specially adapted to this kind of work, by which the 
labor is greatly reduced. Aside from the labor of mortising, 
the only possible objection to this sash-pulley seems to be that 
it would require a pretty heavy hanging-style to the window 
frame, and would cut away the wood a good deal, the bevelled 
flange being three-quarters of an inch through for an ordinary 
sized pulley. This patent is manufactured in the same sizes 
and styles as the ordinary pulleys, including those with flat- 
grooved wheels for sash-chains. 

The following table gives the average retail prices of the 
principal marketable varieties of ordinary sash-pulley wheels. 



If in. 

2 in. 

2J in. 

2 in. 

Painted iron cast wheel 

$ 25 

$ 30 

Bronzed iron steel axle cast wheel 



$ 70 

Bronzed iron, steel axle turned wheel 



$1 35 

Bronzed iron, anti-friction steel axle, turned 

1 75 

2 00 

Polished brass face, anti-friction steel axle, 

5 50 

6 25 

Brass or bronze face, steel axle, polished iron 


1 75 

Corey's fine bronzed iron, steel axle, turned 



Empire fine bronzed iron, polished face and 


Norris's fine bronzed iron, polished face and 



1 10 

Smith & Egge, polished iron, flat grooved, 
turned wheel 

2 25 

2 65 

Smith & Egge polished iron, 3-inch double 

Smith & Egge, polished iron, 4-inch double 
grooved wheel 13 50 




In the better-class of buildings it is usual to hang all sashes 
weighing over forty pounds with some form of sash-chain ; 
indeed, except for the expense, it would often be well to use 
nothing but chains, especially in buildings of a public character 
where the windows are apt to be moved with little care. The 
ordinary cords used for windows are liable to wear out and 

break, and experience has often 
shown that a good sash-chain 
will outwear enough of the ordi- 
nary sash-cord to make it more 
than worth while to use the 
stronger material. 

Fig. I 68. Double Sash-chain, 
bmith & Egge Mfg. Co. 

Fig. I 69. Grooved Sash-chain Pulley. 
Smith & Egge Mfg. Co. 

The sash-chain which appears to meet with the greatest 
favor in the Eastern market, is that which is made by the 
Smith & Egge Manufacturing Company. The form of this 
chain is illustrated by Figure 167. It is a species of flat-link 

Chapter VII. 




Chapter VII. 

Smith & Egge 

Double Chains. 

Chain Pulleys. 

Morton Chains. 

chain, the form being the same as the well-known plumbers* 
safety-link, which has been in use for various purposes for a 
great many years. Smith & Egge adopted this form as best 
adapted for window-chains, and they have perfected special 
machinery which does away almost entirely with handwork, 
and enables them to produce the chain at marketable prices and 
of a superior quality. The chain is made with a great deal 
of care, each link being automatically tested as it leaves the 
machine. The metal preferably employed for this purpose is 
a bronze composition specially prepared by the manufacturers, 
designated as "giant metal," which is, in appearance, very much, 
like pure copper, but is tougher and harder. A cheaper com- 
position is also used, which is known as "red metal," and steel 
chains are manufactured to a certain extent, though the giant- 
metal chains are the best in every respect. The best giant- 
metal chains will sustain loads as high as 700 pounds. The 
red-metal chains are manufactured to sustain from 380 to 500 
pounds. Steel chains are made in three grades : one capable 
of sustaining from 125 to 175 pounds; another from 400 to 
450 ; and the strongest from 600 to 700 pounds. 

Instead of one chain, it is often more desirable to use a 
double chain for very heavy windows, as shown by Figure 168. 
This figure, and Figure 1 67, also show the manner in which the 
chain is attached to the sash and to the weights. 

Pulleys intended for use with sash-chains, require a different 
groove from that usual where rope is employed. The Smith 
& Egge Manufacturing Company has a special form of pulley 
intended to go with their goods. Figure 169. For convenience 
this pulley has been listed with the others in the preceding 
table of prices, together with one or two different makes of flat 
grooved-pulleys which would answer for the purpose equally 

What has been said of the Smith & Egge chains applies 
equally well to the " Champion " sash-chains, manufactured by 
Thomas Morton, which have the same shape of link, though 
the sash and weight fastenings are slightly different. The 



" champion " metal is a bronze composition probably not differ- 
ing essentially from the giant or the red metal. Thomas Morton, 

however, manufactures another 
form of sash-chain with quite a 
different link, which is shown 
by Figure 170. This is known 
as the cable-chain, and is a very 
strong, durable form, never 
twisting or kinking. The sash 
attachment used with this chain 
is very simple and efficient, con- 
sisting of a short half cylinder 

Chapter VII. 


Fig. 170. Cable Sash-chain. 
Thomas Morton. 


171. Solid-link Sash-chain. 
Solid-link Sash-chain Co. 

with a slot cut down from the top, wide enough at the bottom 
to admit a link of the chain, but narrowing at the top so as to 
prevent the swelling at the link-joint from passing through. 
The same sort of slot is cut in the weight-hook to hold the 
other end of the chain. 

The cable-chains are usually made with alternately two and 
three pieces to each link, joined by a pin passing through the 



Chapter VII. 



Spring Sash- 

five thicknesses. For the lightest work the pieces are arranged 
two and two. The cables are made of either copper or 
steel, and vary in strength from a size 
for a thirty-pound sash to one capable 
of sustaining a door weighing 1,500 

There seems to be but one other form 
of sash-chain at present in the market. 
It is known as the "Solid Link" chain. 
It consists of a compound link on much 
the same principle as the Smith & Egge 
chain, but made double and with rather 
finer brass or bronze wire, so that the 
sash-chain is nearly as flexible as ordi- 
nary sash-cord, and can be bent or 
twisted in all directions without knotting 
or kinking, a quality which the Smith & 
Egge chain does not possess. The " Sol- 
id Link " chain can even be tied into a 
knot without kinking. Figure 171 will 
give an idea of the construction of the link. This form of 
sash-chain requires no special pulley, but will run over an 
ordinary grooved-wheel. 

An entirely different kind of sash-cord is shown by Figure 
172. This consists of a steel wire spring so closely and 
strongly coiled as to have the resistance necessary to sustain 
any sash weighing sixty pounds or less. It has a stretching- 
capacity of only about five per cent. It enables the sash to 
rest easily and lightly on the pulleys, and enables it to be 
raised or lowered with half the effort required with rope 
sash-cord. It is fastened at one end to the sash by an 
eye or ring, and to the weight in the manner shown by the 

The following table gives the average, comparative, retail 
prices per foot of the various makes and sizes of sash-chains : 

72. Acme Sash-cord. 
Coiied-wire Belting Co. 



For sashes or doors weighing 

Description of chain. 












125 fts. 

150 fts. 






Smith & Egge's plumbers' 
link Giant-metal 






















Smith & Egge's plumbers' 
link Red-metal 

Smith & Egge's plumbers' 

Smith & Egge's plumbers' 
link, steel, black enam- 

Morton's plumbers' link, 

Morton's plumbers' link, 

Morton's cable-chain, cop 

Morton's c a b 1 e-chain, 

Solid-link chain', brass.... 

Solid -link chain', silver- 


The inconveniences attending the use of weights and pulleys 
for raising sashes, while in most cases due to bad workman- 
ship in setting the pulleys and imperfect arrangement of the 
boxes rather than to any intrinsic deficiencies in the sys- 
tem, have given rise to several so-called sash-balances, which 
are intended to permit of weights, boxes and ropes being entirely 
dispensed with. Indeed, the natural outgrowth from the idea 
involved in the " Acme " sash-cord would be that a plain 
spring could be made to answer the purpose of both weight and 

1 There are but two sizes of solid-link chain. They are tested by the makers at 
200 tbs. and 300 Has. before leaving the factory. 


Chapter vii. cord. This has been done with the " Anderson " sash-balance. 
Figure 173, which consists simply of a steel, spiral spring for 
each sash, from inch to ^ inch in diameter. The springs are 
fastened to the hanging-style of the window-frame and to the 
sashes, and are made of just sufficient strength to sustain 
the sash in any position, so that a very slight exertion is sufficient 
to move it either up or down. The springs are made the same 

Fig. I 73. Anderson Sash- 
balance. Wm. G. Anderson. 

Fig. I 74. Ormsby Sash-balance. 
Ormsby Sash-holder 'Co. 

length as the sash ; and, being secured near the bottom of the 
sash, are drawn out to twice their length when the sash is 
down. When a sash is hung with this kind of balance, it has 
to be fitted with some form of self-catching sash-fast, as other- 
wise the window might fly open as soon as the hand was with- 
drawn. Anderson uses the " Attwell " sash-fast for this pur- 



pose, which will be described in a subsequent chapter, though 
any other self-locking form would answer equally well. The 
retail price for the four springs necessary for two sashes weigh- 
ing fifteen pounds each, is Si. 35. For forty-pound sashes the 
price is $2.50, and other sizes in proportion. When the sashes 
weigh over fifty pounds, the size of the spring required 
becomes so large as to render it rather too conspicuous for 
ordinary use. 

The " Ormsby " sash-balance, Figure 174, is on exactly the 
same principle as the ordinary shade-roller, consisting of two 
strong spring-rollers which are concealed in a pocket over the 
window-head, the sashes being suspended 
therefrom by thin brass bands which coil A A 

around the roller. The price of this 
sash-balance varies from 75 cents for a 
window with fifteen-pound sashes, to $1.75 
for fifty-five pound sashes. 

A third type of sash-balance is illus- 
trated by Figure 175. This has the gen- 
eral appearance of an ordinary sash-pul- 
ley, being mortised into the hanging-style 
in the same manner. Inside of the pulley, 
however, is coiled a strong band-spring of 
steel, attached to the axle, which is fixed, 
and to the outer edge of the wheel, in the Fig. 175. shumard Sash- 

i i balance. Coleman Hard- 

groove or which is wound a narrow brass ware Co 
ribbon serving instead of a sash-cord, so 
that when the sash is drawn down, the ribbon is uncoiled and 
the spring acted upon. The spring can be set to any desired 
tension, and its action can further be regulated by a brake on 
top of the wheel, which is tightened or loosened by turning a 
screw in the face-plate. The " Shumard " sash-balance is made 
for runs of from thirty-two to forty-six inches, and for sashes 
of from eight to forty pounds' weight. The price per pair, for 
a sixteen-pound sash, is $1.40; for a forty-pound sash, $3.25 
per pair, and other weights in proportion. 

Chapter VII. 



Chapter VII. 



One advantage which all of these spring-balances possess is, 
that they act most strongly when the sash is down, enabling 
one to move a binding window more readily than if it were 
hung with ordinary weights and cords, while, when the sash is 
up, the springs barely suffice to hold it in position and do not 
offer resistance to drawing down, as is the case with weights. 
The objection, of course, is, that the springs are in constant ten- 
sion, and will, in time, loose their elasticity. They can be re- 
placed quite as easily as worn-out ropes ; still, most people 
seem to prefer the old-fashioned weights and pulleys. 


There are several devices for attaching the cords to the 
sashes. The commonest method is to cut a groove on the side 
of the sash with an enlargement towards the bottom, and then 
simply knot the end of the cord, the knot holding in position. 

Fig. 176. Sash-cord Iron. 

Fig. 177. Double Sash-cord Iron. 

It is better to use some form of sash-cord iron. Figure 176 is 
one of the simplest forms. It is mortised into the side of the 

sash and held in position 
by a screw, the sash-cord 
being knotted under the 
hook. This form retails 
at 35 cts. per gross. Fig- 
ure 177 illustrates an iron 
used when the sash is 
hung with two cords on 
each side. This retails 
at 52 cents per gross. 

Fig. 178. Jackson s Sash-cord Iron. Ireland 

Mf g- Co - Figure 178 is a form quite 


similar to Figure 176, though requiring a deeper mortise and Chapter vn. 
being driven in on a slant, so that it cannot work loose. It 
retails at $1 per gross. Figure 179 
is different from either of the preced- 
ing forms, consisting of a cartridge- 
shaped cylinder, closed at both ends, 
but with an opening at the top and 
the bottom, through which the cord 
is passed and wedged by the eccen- 
tric cam shown by the figure. The 
cord is released by inserting a wire, 
as shown. This fixture retails at 
$1.60 per gross. 

Sash-weights are usually made of ^j^^'TTF 171 ^^^^^^ Sash-weights, 

cast-iron, to order. They are cast 
in plain round-bars with an eye at 
the top, substantially as has been 
shown in Figure 170. When they 
are very heavy, or . the space for 

Fig. 179. Rodgers Sash-cord or 
Chain-fastener. Nimick & Brittan. 

Fig. 180. 

the sash-boxes is restricted, lead weights are 
used, as they occupy less space than iron. 
They are usually made to order, and can be 
had in any desired shape, but are manufac- 
tured in regular weights by a few of the lead- 
works. Figure 180 is the form adopted by 
the Raymond Lead Company. Each section 
is cast on an iron rod extending through 
the weight, with a hook at one end and an 
eye at the other, so that as many sections 
may be hung to each other as may be neces- 
Raymond's sary. Iron sash-weights cost 1^- cents, and 
!d h co. Ray lead-weights from 6 to 7 cents per pound. 


Chapter vm. O ASH-LOCKS may generally be said to be devised for the 
k3 moral encouragement of the faint-hearted, who cherish a 
fond belief that when the lock is turned no intruder can possi- 
bly enter through the window. Most of the forms in the mar- 
ket are sufficient protection against a sneak-thief, but while 
nearly every sash-lock in existence is claimed to be strictly bur- 
glar-proof, and advertised as such, the burglar must be a novice, 
indeed, who would let even the best of them keep him out of a 
house. When the window is secured with a fast which cannot 
be opened by slipping a knife-blade between the meeting-rails 
and pushing back the bolt, an enterprising burglar would 
simply break out a pane of glass, which can be accomplished 
with less noise than is made in picking a lock ; so that, after 
all, the protection afforded by a sash-lock is more in sentiment 
than in fact. Still, that the timid be cheered and the stray 
tramp kept out of the silver closet, some form of sash-lock is 
always considered a necessity for all windows. 

The requirements of a perfect sash-fast or lock, are that it 
shall fulfil the following conditions : 

First, it must be so constructed that it cannot be opened from 
without by a knife, or by jarring the window. Second, it 
should, in closing, draw the two sashes tightly together, and, at 
the same time, should not be affected by any small inequalities 
of adjustment. Third, it should always remain either open 
or shut, with some sort of spring-contrivance to hold the lever 
in position, so that it will not be possible to leave the lock 


partially turned, thereby running the risk of breaking the Chapter viu. 
muntins when the window is raised. Fourth, it should have no 
projections which could possibly tear the sash ; and fifth, and 
perhaps most important of all, it should be simple in construc- 
tion and in its operation. 

It is not essential, though it is generally very well that the 
fast should be self-locking. It is not well to trust to anything 
which acts by gravity, or which depends on any perfectly fitted 
sash, as such appliances are apt to get out of order. It also is 
well that the lock should be as inconspicuous as possible, 
though neither is this essential. Some sash-fasts are provided 
with rebated appliances which fit down between the two 
sashes ; this is not necessary, though it is perhaps a greater 
security, as in this way the fast can be more securely screwed 
onto the sash. In selecting any form of rebated sash-fast, 
however, it must be borne in mind, that sashes are made 
differently in the East and in the West. In the vicinity of 
Boston, it is customary to rebate the meeting-rails where they 
come together, but elsewhere, we believe the meeting-rails are 
usually simply bevelled. 

Much ingenuity is to be observed in the line of patents for 
sash fasts and locks. This might be interpreted as an indica- 
tion that either the sash-fastenings at present in the market are 
quite insufficient for their purpose, or that there is an ex- 
traordinary necessity for the species of protection which such 
contrivances can afford. This chapter, however, will but 
faintly indicate the variety of devices having in view the 
securing of sashes. One must wade through the list of Patent 
Office reports in order to fairly appreciate what has been done 
in this direction. A great many of these inventions never get 
beyond the Patent Office. Still, there are all sorts and kinds 
of sash locks and fasts in the market. Each one appears to be 
covered by a patent, yet somehow or other, the best locks and 
fasts are to be found in the catalogues of nearly all the manu- 
facturers, so slightly disguised it is easy to see that such ideas 
are in a measure common property. 



Chapter vin. The terms sash-lock and sash-fast have been used synony- 
mously, though a distinction should be observed between them. 
A sash-lock is understood to be some contrivance which actually 
locks a sash by means of some form of key. All of the other 
numerous devices which, by means of levers, catches or springs 
hold the sash either open or shut, are technically termed sash- 
fasts. The distinction, however, cannot be rigidly adhered to. 
Nearly all of the self-locking fasts might be classed with sash- 
fasts, while, with equal propriety, the sash-locks can be said to 
possess the essential qualities of sash-fasts ; though, with very 
few exceptions, all are designated by the hardware dealers, as 


Figure 181 illustrates a form of sash-lock which is secured 
to the face of the sash, the bolt working into staples at in- 
tervals in the window-frame or stop-bead. The bolt works 
with a spring, so as to be self-acting, and by means of the key 
it can be locked, thus permitting the sash to be left partly open 
and secured against intrusion. This lock is light and strong, and 
well adapted to be used on screens as well as sashes. 

Figure 182 is a type of several varieties of sash-locks which 
mortise into the sash and throw out 
a bolt in the same manner as an or- 
dinary door-lock. In this example 
the bolt works with a spring, which 

Fig. 181. Sash-lock. Yale & Towne 
Mfg. Co. 

Fig. 182. King Sash-lock. Burditt & 

makes the lock self-acting after the bolt has been thrown; 
that is to say, if the bolt were pushed back it would not remain 



Sash-fast. P. & F. Corbin. 

closed until the knob or handle were turned. This lock may 
be operated with either a movable key or a flat knob or button. 
Of course, any mortise drawer-lock can be applied to a sash, 
if desired, or any other lock sufficiently narrow to lit the thick- 
ness of the sash, though the two forms just described are about 
the only ones especially made for windows, which can properly 
be termed sash-locks. 


There are so many varieties of sash-fasts to be consid- 
ered, that, in order to make 
the descriptions less confusing, 
it will be well to classify the 
sash-fasts according to their 
most prominent characteristics. 

I. Old Style of plain lever- 
fast. This consists of a plain, R |g3 
pivoted bar, attached to the 
upper sash, with a hook on the end, which works over a catch 
or raised plate on the lower' sash. A knob, often of porcelain, 
is fastened to the end of the bar. Figure 183 illustrates this 
type. In the oldest makes of this kind, the lever was simply 
pivoted on the upper sash, and a knife-blade, slipped between 
the meeting-rails, could push the lever to one side and unlock the 
window without the slightest 
difficulty. In the sash-fast 
shown by the figure, the lever 
is made with a broad, flat 
end, which presses against a 
strong spring, A, at the back. 
The spring serves to stiffen 
the action of the lever, which 
is further protected against 
intrusion, in some cases, by 

dovetailing the bottom plates, Fig ' l84 ' Sash ' fast ' Russe " & Erwiru 
so that the lever cannot be got at through the joint between 
the meeting-rails. Varieties of this same form are made with 

Chapter VIII. 

Plain Lever 


Chapter viii. the lever swinging only half around in one direction, the gain 
thereby being that the back spring can be made longer and 
stiffer, without increasing the size of the sash-fast. 

Figure 184 represents a variety of sash-fast, in which the 
lever is on the lower sash and hooks over an inverted peg on 
the upper sash. The "Judd" sash-fast, Figure 185, has a 

Fig. I 85. Judd Sash-fast. 

shoulder on the side of the lever so arranged that a knife-blade 
would catch on it and be broken before the lever could be 
moved sufficiently to open the window. Figure 186 shows a 

Fig. 186. Sash-fast. Norwich Lock Fig. 187. Sash-fast. P. & F. Cor- 

Mfg. Co. bin. 

strong form of sash-fast with no spring of any sort, but with a 
protection for the lever by dovetailing the plates together, as 
described in the previous paragraph ; while the sash-fast in- 
dicated by Figure 187 works in exactly the same manner, but 
the plates are rebated together. Figure 188 is yet another 
variety, the plates here being not only dovetailed together, but 



also lipped down into the joint between the meeting-rails. The 
lever works in the same manner as the first sash-fast noticed. 

II. Spring lever sash-fasts. While some of the forms just 
described might be classed under this category, none of them 
actually have spring levers, as the springs are not so arranged 
as to force the lever open or shut from any position. Figure 
189 shows what is known as the ordinary "Boston" sash-fast, 
which is used a great deal in 
Boston, and is much liked for 
its simplicity and sureness of 
action. This form is, appar- 
ently, made by almost every 
manufacturer of builders' hard- 
ware in the country. There is 
a coil spring around the h.ub 
of the lever tending to throw 
it back, and a simpler spring 
which bears against the ratchet 
connection, so as to lock the 

lever When it is Closed. Hop- Fig . |88 . Metropolitan Sash-fast. A. 

kins & Dickinson manufacture 

a variety of this form, in which the spring-catch, has several 
cuts or ratchets on its edge, and the catch on the lever is 
bevelled, so that it will be held by any one of the ratchets. 
The advantage claimed for this is, that if the lever is drawn 
around hastily, it will be more likely to catch on the ratchets 
and be locked, than the ordinary pattern, which has but a 
single ratchet. This is known as the " Ladd " sash-fast. 

The " Boston " sash-fast has to be set pretty carefully in 
order to be effective, and in the case of very excessive shrink- 
age, the space between the plates might be so reduced that the 
ratchet would not hold the lever. Such difficulties would, of 
course, arise only in a third-rate building. The form is be- 
lieved by many of the dealers to be the best in the market, and 
it surely answers very fully the requirements of a perfect sash- 

Chapter VIII. 

Spring Lever 

Boston " 




Chapter vui. j^ scarcely less admirable sash-fast is shown by Figure 190. 
The lever is on the lower sash, hooking under a tooth on the 
upper sash, which is bevelled so as to draw the sashes 'more 
closely together. A strong spring about the axle of the lever 
tends to throw it open, while a small 
bolt, inside the lever, locks into a con- 
cealed catch on the post or axle of the 
lever. The bolt ends in a knob, A, and 

Fig. 189. Boston Pattern Sash-fast. Fig. 190. 

Sash-fast. Hopkins & Dickin- 
son Mfg. Co. 

is fitted with a spring which keeps it pressed tightly towards 
the centre, so that the lever is caught and held when it is 
turned clear around through 90 degrees. On pulling the knob, 
A, the catch is released and the lever flies open. 

Figure 191 illustrates a sash-fast which works in very nearly 
the same manner as the preceding, except that in order to re- 
lease the lever the knob is pushed in. The Hopkins & 

Fig. 191. Sash-fast. Stoddard Lock 

Fig. I 92. Favorite Sash-fast. Reading 
Hardware Co. 

Dickinson Manufacturing Company also has a sash-fast which 
hooks around a pin, like Figure 191, but is otherwise the same 



as Figure 190. P. & F. Corbin manufacture two forms of 
sash-fasts which are essentially the same as Figure 190. 

III. Lever sash-fasts with locking lever. This includes 
lever sash-fasts with locking lever, those in which the lever 
works without a spring, but is held either closed or open 
by means of an auxiliary lever. Figure 1. 9 2 gives one variety 
of this kind, the lever being pulled down in order to permit the 
bolt to turn. The locking lever here is held in place by a 

Fig. 193. Sash-fast. Yale & Towne 
Mfg. Co. 

Fig. I 94. 

Morris Sash-fast. Ireland 
Mfg. Co. 

spring, and catches into a slot in the bed-plate, preventing the 
lever from being turned. Figure 193 has a lever which works 
in the same manner as that of Figure 191, except that it has 
no spring. It is locked in place when turned, by a catch 
which is released by pressing the knob on top of the hub. 

Figure 194 represents a form of sash-fast which has met 
with considerable favor, as being one of the first which had any 
right to the qualification of being burglar-proof. The action 

Fig. 195. Triumph Sash-fast. Ireland Fig. I 96. Sash-fast. P. & F. Corbin. 

Mfg. Co. 

is perfectly simple. The lever is on the lower sash, and is 
held either open or shut by a smaller hinged lever which drops 

Chapter VII I. 

Lever Sasli- 
fasts with lock- 
ing lever. 



Chapter VIII. 

Locking Lever 

by gravity into the rebates of the bed-plate. Figure 195 
shows a fast which operates in exactly the same manner, the 
smaller, gravity lever being raised to release the main lever ; 
and Figure 196 is a type of a number of similar forms manu- 
factured by P. & F. Corbin. The lever in this example is re- 
leased by raising the secondary lever at the rear. 

IV. Locking lever sash-fasts. This class includes those 
sash-fasts in which the lever locks itself when turned. Figure 
197 is a form which has been on the market for some time, and 

Fig. 198. Payson's Sash- 
fast. J. B. Johnston. 

Fig. 197. Mathes' Sash-fast. Nimick & Brittan. 

is now comparatively little used, though the chief objection to 
it is only, in reference to its size. It is as near to being 
absolutely burglar-proof as any form of sash-fast which has 
been devised. Half the axis, about which the lever is rotated, 
forms a part of the upper and of the lower sash portion of the 
fast. The figure shows the position when the sashes are 
locked, the lever hooking down under both half-axles, and not 
only drawing the two sashes together, but binding and holding 
them so they cannot be moved. To unlock the sash, the lever 
is thrown up to a vertical position. 



"Payson" sash-fast, Figure 198, is very simple and 
effective, ranking as one of the best in the market. The lever 
is on the top sash, and locks itself over the opposite post with 
the help of a small spring-bolt, the knob of which shows at the 
end of the lever. The attachment of the lever is such as to 
permit it to fold back on the upper sash. This sash-fast is not 
liable to get out of order, it draws the sashes together, and is 
as burglar-proof as would ordinarily be desirable. The only 
objection to it is that the 
connection between the lever 
and the locking-post does not 
allow for much shrinkage in 
the sash. 

V. "Cam" sash-fasts. 
The sash-fasts of which Fig- 
ure 199 is a type, are quite 
difficult to represent by a 
drawing. The action of the Flg " '"' lves Sash - fast " H ' B ' lves & Co ' 
fast is as follows : The levers are fastened to the lower sash. 
When the upper lever is turned, the lower, or locking lever, 

is first thrown out until re- 
leased from the hook on the 
upper sash, and then drawn 
around and in toward the 
hub, until both levers are on 
a line with the edge of the 
sash, the upper lever moving 
through 180 degrees, while 
the lower lever is moved only 
90 degrees. Though the ac- 
tion sounds complicated, the 
sash-fast is perfectly simple 
in its construction, and there 
is nothing about it that can 

Fig. 200. Plan of inside of Figure 1 99. ,. , 

get out 01 order, or even 
wear loose, except by such excessive use as would practi- 

Chapter VIII. 

Cam Sash-fasts. 



Chapter VIII. 



cally never be given it in a house. There are no springs 
about it, consequently it has no automatic action, and in un- 
locking, care must be taken that the locking lever is turned 
clear around, as otherwise it will project beyond the meeting- 
rail and catch on the sash-muntins. This is really the only 
objection to it. Figure 200 illustrates the internal construc- 
tion of this sash-fast. 

Figure 201 is a very similar sash-fast manufactured by P. & 
F. Corbin. It differs only in the internal, eccentric arrange- 
ment. The Reading Hardware Company also manufactures a 
sash-fast very much like the " Ives." 

VI. Self-locking sash-fasts. The "Boston" sash-fast flies 
open of itself, unless properly locked. Many people believe 
that a sash-fast should lock itself 
the moment the sash is drawn 
down, so as to leave no chances 
of the windows being unlocked, 
and, accordingly, there are in 
the market several varieties of 
self-closing sash-fasts. For gen- 

Fig. 201. Sash-fast. 
P. & F. Corbin. 

Fig. 202. Ticket-office Sash-lock. 
Enoch Robinson. 

eral house use, it is believed that such fasts would prove a 
great nuisance, as the window would, of course, have to be 
unlocked every time it was to be opened ; besides, nearly all of 
these self-locking appliances are much more liable to get out 
of order, either through rust or neglect, than the ordinary 



sash-fasts ; still, in some cases, there seems to be a necessity 
for them. 

Perhaps the simplest form of self-acting sash-fast is that illus- 
trated by Figure 202. This consists of a spring bolt, acting not 
unlike the latch-bolt of an ordinary lock, which flies out when- 
ever the sash is closed. It is mortised into one of the styles of 
the upper sash, or into the hanging-style, and the bolt bears 

on a plate on top of the meet- 
ing-rail of the lower sash. The 
figure shows one of the case- 

Fig. 203. Sash-fast. E. Robinson. 

Fig. 204. Sash-lock. Enoch Robinson. 

plates removed, to illustrate the construction. A very similar 
fast is shown by Figure 203. This, however, is not self-lock- 
ing, as the top of the lever must be pressed in to force out the 
lower portion. Both of these appliances might almost be 
classed as sash-locks, instead of sash-fasts. 

Figure 204 shows a variation of the last form of sash-fast, 
working without springs of any sort. This is a neater looking 
form than Figure 203, and perhaps a trifle stronger in princi- 

Chapter VIII. 




Chapter VIII. 

Gravity Sash 


pie. Variations of these forms are manufactured under several 
different patents. 

A self-locking fast of the description of Figure 202 has the 
disadvantage that the bolt must be held back when the window 
is to be raised, and, if the sash should bind, it is rather awk- 
ward to attempt to hold back the bolt with one hand and 
move the sash with the other. There is a device, the Security 
Self -locking Sash-fast, Figure 205, which obviates this diffi- 
culty. This consists of a bolt similar to that of Figure 202, 
but with a locking-lever which falls out when the bolt is pushed 
back. The locking-lever holds the bolt flush with the sash and 
allows the sashes to be raised or lowered, but when the meet- 
ing-rails pass each other, the locking-lever is raised, releasing 
the bolt, which flies out as soon as the window is closed, thus 
locking the sashes. 

Figure 206 is a self-locking sash-fast on a different principle. 
The cut shows the lower sash partly raised, the locking por- 
tion being attached to the upper sash. 
When the window is closed the hook. 
D, strikes against the catch, C, forc- 
ing it away from B, until, when the 
meeting-rails are on a level, Z>, is 
hooked in between C and B. A 
spring at A keeps the two parts 
pressed against each other. 

A very ingenious sash-fast, which 
works almost entirely by gravity, is 
shown by Figure 207. The cut shows 
it in the position it takes when the 
window is locked. The mechanism 
is attached to the upper sash. A is 
hung on each side to B. which hooks 

Fig. 205. Security Sash-fast. 

over the post on the lower sash. To 

open the window, the thumb is placed under B and the forefin- 
ger on top of A. Both pieces are lifted together until B as- 
sumes a vertical position, and A catches over the hook <7. The 



sash can then be opened freely. On closing the window, how- 
ever, the lower rail strikes against a hidden lever or cam at 

the back of -4, lifting it from its 
hold on C, so the piece B can 
descend to hook in the posi- 

Chapter VIII. 

Fig. 206. Shaw's Sash-fast. Nichols & Fig. 207. Davis Sash-fast. Sise, Gibson 
Bellamy. Agents. & Co. 

tion shown by the figure. The only spring used is one which 
pushes out B when A is released. This sash-fast is very 

Fig. 208. Byam's Sash-fast. Byam, Stewart & Baker. 

nicely made, and is about as good a self-locking form as 
is in the market. It has an added advantage in that it locks 



Chapter VIII. 

which lock in 
different posi- 

itself before the sash is entirely closed, the post, (7, being 
double notched on the face so that A will slip down and 
wedge the hook B when the window is within about a quarter 
of an inch of being closed. It will be observed that the lock- 
ing is effected entirely by the piece A. B is brought over the 
hook on the lower sash merely in order to draw the meeting- 
rails more closely together. 

The " Byam " sash-fast, Figure 208, is a very simple device 
acting entirely by gravity, the central bent lever being so 
counterbalanced that the lower arm will always project over 
the lower sash. The section will show how this lever is 

VII. Sash-fasts which lock in different positions. The 
difficulty with all sash-fasts of this description is that, of neces- 
sity, they operate on one side of 
the window, instead of in the cen- 
tre of the meeting-rail, and that, 
consequently, every attempt 
to open the window when it is 
locked, wrenches the sash so as 
to, in time, make it loose in the 
joints. Also, with nearly all 
the forms, the mechanism is 
concealed, so that the sashes are 
liable to many unnecessary 
wrenches. The advantages are 
that the window can be left 
partly open and still be secured 
from intrusion, and that, in most 
cases, either sash can be locked 
independently of the other. 

Figure 209 illustrates a very 
primitive appliance, consisting 
simply of a ratchet rail, with a spring-catch on the bottom 
sash. Figure 210 shows a more complete form, which is mor- 
tised into the face of the hanging-style, the levers working into 

Fig. 209. Sash-fastening. 
Shannon & Sons. 

J. B. 



holes in each sash. The sashes are fitted with other holes on 
the edges, at intervals, so that they can be locked at various 
heights. In the cut the section shows more clearly the work" 
ing. A single spring, coiled about each lever, serves to throw 
them both out. Pushing up the knob on the inside bead draws 
back the upper lever, releasing the upper sash. Pushing the 
knob down releases in the same manner the lower sash. 

Chapter VIII. 


s<c>e ft 

Fig. 210. Timby Sash-fast. Jenkins & Timby. 

Figure 211 represents the Attwell sash-fast, which differs 
from the foregoing chiefly in that the levers are worked by a 
single spindle, coming through the window-frame onto the face 
of the finish, and so arranged that when the spindle crank is 
turned up, the upper lever is drawn back without moving the 
lower, and vice versa. 

There are a few forms of sash-fasts which will hold the win- 
dow in any position. Figure 212 is a very common form, con- 
sisting of an excentric cam which screws to the face of the sash 
and wedges against the stop-bead, holding the sash by friction. 
Figure 213 and Figure 214 are used chiefly for car work, the 
former acting in the same manner as Figure 212, while the 
latter works into slots in the jamb. 

The sash-fasts thus far considered include all the principal 





Chapter viii. forms commonly known to the hardware trade, as well as types 
of many styles which have only limited sales. It would be 

Fig. 211. Atwell Sash-fast. 

impracticable to attempt an enumeration of all the sash-fasts 
which have been put on the market throughout the country, 

nor would any such list be of great 
value. The forms discussed and 
illustrated, will, it is believed, serve 

Fig. 212. Brown's Window-lock. 
S. A. Brown. 

Fig. 213. Eccentric 

Fig. 214. Sash-lock. 

every purpose of comparison, and will enable the retail buyer 
to select to advantage, and to know the worth of what he is 
choosing from. 




The sash-fasts which have been described up to this point, 
are those intended to be used in connection with double- 
hung windows ; and, while any of them would 
answer for a window having double sashes 
which are simply set in the frame, without 
weights or balances of any description, there \^ 
are a few appliances especially intended for 
windows without weights, which can best be 
considered in this connection. " Hammond's " 
window-springs are used so extensively for this spring.' 
purpose that they are almost standard. The 
springs are simply flat bands secured to the hanging-style and 
catching in ratchet cuts on the edge of the sash, each spring 

having a bent handle or thumb- 
piece coming out in front of 
the sash. One spring is used 
for each sash. A different 
form of spring is shown by 
Figure 215. This is mortised 
into the hanging - style and 
catches into square cuts on the 

Chapter VIII. 

Fig. 216. Sweet's Window- 
spring. Stanley Works. 

Fig. 217. Northrup's Window-spring. 
Stanley Works. 

edge of the sash, the thumb-piece showing in front. Figures 
216 and 217 show two forms of window-springs on an entirely 




Chapter YIII. 


Fig. 219. Ayer** 

:-- = -- 75-'. 

Ayer s Sash-holder 


P. & F. Corbm. 

different principle. The portion containing the spring is mor- 
tised into the sash, the lever showing in front of the glass. In 
the first instance the spring is exposed, and catches on posts 
set in mortised plates at intervals 
on the hanging-style. In latter 
example, the spring is concealed, 
the end of the lever hooking into 
plates of the shape shown by 
the figure, which are mortised 
into the hanging -style. These 
springs also serve as holders, 
the ends of the levers pressing 
strongly against the hanging-style and holding 
the sash from slipping. 

A sash-holder is something intended to keep 
unweighted sashes in any given position by friction on the jambs 
of the frame. Besides the two previous forms, there is a very 
simple device consisting of a wooden or vul- 
canized-rubber roller, Figure 218, mortised 
into the sash and bearing against the window- 
frame. There is also the 
Aver " sash-holder, Fig;- 
ure 219. better adapted to 
its purpose than any wheel 
could be, consisting of a 
round peg mortised into the 
sash and pressed constantly 
against the hanging-style 
by means of a strong spiral 
spring. Still another form 
is shown by Figure 220. Fig. 22 1 . Sash-fstner. 
This is mortised into the Co. 
hanging-style, and consists 

of a small wooden cylinder, or roll, laid loosely in a slot and 
against a heavily milled surface which prevents it from rolling 
down. The milled plate is backed by a heavy steel spring* 

Fig. 220. Syawi's Sash- 
balance. Byam Stew- 
: i. MfaZ 



When the sash is lifted, the roll turns easily in the slot ; but, 
when the sash is being lowered, the wooden roll wedges be- 
tween the milled-plate and the 
edge of the sash, offering a 
resistance in proportion to the 
stiffness of the spring. 

Chapter VIII. 

Fig. 222. Clauson's Anti-rattling 
Wedges. Sise, Gibson & Co. 

Fig. 223. Ideal Anti-rattler. American 
Mfg. Co. 

Figure 221 illustrates an appliance which can be used as a 
sash-fastener, but which is intended more especially to bind 
the sash so it will not rattle. It 
consists of a plain bolt sliding in 
a case attached to the window, with 
a lever working in an oblique slot, 
so that when it is drawn down, the 
bolt is pressed out with consider- 
able force, and holds by friction 
against the jamb. Figure 222 shows 
another anti-rattling device, a metal 
surface on the sash which wedges 
against an inclined plate on the jamb ; 
and Figure 223 is the simplest of all, 
a metal wedge, suspended by a small 
chain attached to the sash, which can 
be inserted in the joint between the 
sash and the stop-bead. 

Fig. 224. Storm Sash-holder. 



Chapter vin. The following table gives the average retail prices per 

dozen of the sash-fasts, etc., referred to in this chapter. The 
prices are for plain goods, when such are manufactured. 




181 Yale & Towne sash-lock 

182 King sash-lock $2.50 

183 Sash-fast, P. & F. Corbin 1.00 

184 Sash-fast, Kussell & Erwin 1.35 

185 Judd sash-fast 1.38 

186 Sash-fast, Norwich Co 1.15 

187 Sash-fast, P. & F. Corbin 

188 Metropolitan sash-fast 3.00 

189 Boston pattern sash-fast 1 .50 

Ladd sash-fast 2.30 

190 Sash-fast, Hopkins & Dickinson i .GO 

191 Sash-fast, Stoddard 1.00 

192 Favorite sash-fast 1.00 

193 Sash-fast, Yale & Towne 

194 Morris sash-fast 1.68 

195 Triumph sash-fast 1.68 

196 Sash-fast, P. & F. Corbin .88 

197 Mathes'a sash- fast 1.50 

198 Payson's sash-fast 1.00 

199 I ves' sash-fast 1.00 

201 Sash-fast, P. & F. Corbin .60 

202 Ticket-office sash-fast 

203 Sash-fast, E. Robinson 

205 Security sash-fast 

206 Shaw's sash-fast 

207 Davis sash-fast 3.60 

208 Byam's sash-fast l.OO 5 

210 Timby sash-fast 

211 Atwell sash-fast 3.00 

212 Brown's window-lock .60 

213 Eccentric sash-fast .12 

214 Sash-lock .33 

Hammond's sash-springs .70* 

215 Window-spring, P. & F. Corbin 

216 Sweet's window-spring 1.25 s 

217 Northrup's window-spring 1.25 3 

220 Byam's sash-balance 7.20 s 

222 Clausen's anti-rattler, per set 

223 Ideal anti-rattler...-. 






5.00 2 



Figure 224 shows a rude but effective storm sash-holder, 
often useful in holding in position the outside sashes of a 
window, which are intended to be removed in the summer 
time. The lever is screwed to the window-casing, and catches 

1 Price in Bower-Barffed iron, Yale & Towne Mfg. Co., same as in bronze. 

2 Nickel plated. 3 Plain iron only. * Japanned iron with silver-plated knobs. 
c Japanned iron. Face-plate only of bronze. 



in the metal slot which is mortised into the edge of the sash. 
The upper edge of the lever is bevelled, so that when it is 
turned into the slot the sash is wedged tightly against the win- 

There is also a very satisfactory and simple device consist- 
ing of a plain, hard-rubber button with a milled edge, which is 
screwed on to the bead and against the sash, so as to turn 
when the window is opened. This is known as " Patten's " 
window -tightener. It is manufactured by the Portsmouth 
Wrench Company, and retails at 4 and 5 cents per hundred. 
The same, or a much similar form, is manufactured by the 
Ayer's Patent Sash-Holder Company. 

" Nelson's Perfect Fastener," is a name applied to a device 
for screwing the stop-bead to the window-frame ; it consists of 

Chapter VIII. 




Fig. 225. Ordinary 

Fig. 226. Byam's Sash- Fig. 227. Sweet's Reversible 
lifter. Byam, Stewart Sash-lift. Stanley Works. 

& Baker. 

metal eyelets which are sunk into the bead, with an elliptical 
instead of round hole to receive the screw. As the longest 
dimension of the screw hole is in a horizontal direction, the 
bead can be set so as to permit of a play of quite a quarter of 
an inch. Such a contrivance must prove a boon to those who 
are suffering with windows which bind in summer and rattle in 
winter. The fasteners cost from $2 to $3.25 per gross, in- 
cluding either round or flat headed screws. 



Chapter VIII. 

Sash Lifts and 


Sash-lifts are often omitted from architects' specifications, 
though they are usually very desirable, 
and when properly applied, will save a 
great deal of wear on the sash. The 
common form of lift is shown by Fig- 
ure 225. A form which is not quite 
as convenient to use, though sometimes 
preferred, is the flush lift, the type of 
which is similar in the main to Figure 
229. Both of these are intended to 
be attached to the bottom-rail of the 
lower sash. Figure 226 is a species 
of sash-lift which is applied over the 
mouldings of the sash-styles, in the 
shape of a concave strip of metal, with 
shoulders at intervals. Figure 227 is 
IT" in the form of an angle-iron, likewise 
Fig. 228. wigger's Sash-nfters. secured to the sash mouldings, and 

Brainerd & Co. 

ligure 228 shows a form which can 

be applied either over the mouldings or on the face of the sash. 
Figures 229, 230, 231 and 232 show four styles of combined 

Fig. 229. Flush Sash Lift and Lock. 
Ireland Mfg. Co. 

Fig. 230. Sash Lift and Lock. 
Ireland Mfg. Co. 

sash lift and lock. No. 231 works by gravity. The others are 
each fitted with a spring which forces out the catch so that it 



will hold on the sill-plate or catch. Figure 233 shows a very 
practical form of sash-lift so arranged 
that by pressing down the lever han- 
dle a great lifting power can be ap- 

Ckapter VIII. 

Fig. 231. Sash Lift and Lock. 
Russell & Erwin. 

Fig. 232. Sash Lift and Lock. 
P. & F. Corbin. 

Fig. 233. Anderson Sash-starter. 

piled, sufficient to start and lift a heavy sash, or to start a 
sash that has become wedged or frozen in. After the sash is 

Fig. 234. Sash-openers. 

started, the lift is in the right position to raise it with ease, and 
when the window is closed the lift can serve as a lock, by 



Chapter viii. turning a button which will prevent the lever handle from 

Figure 234 shows two of the common forms of casement or 
hinged sash-openers. These are best made to order, but can 
be had in stock, 12, 15 and 18 inches long, and cost from 50 
cents to $1 each, depending on the metal and the finish. 




Bronzed or 

Brass or 


Common sash-lift 

$ 30 

1 35 

Flush sash-lift 

o 00 


Byam's sash-lift 




Sweet's sash-lift 



Wiggers's sash-lifts 

1 50 

> 25 


Sash lift and lock, Ireland Mfg. Co 


4 80 


Sash lift and lock, Ireland Mfg. Co 


4 20 


Sash lift and lock Russell & Erwin . . 

1 00 

4 00 


Sash lift and lock P. & F. Corbin 


3 20 


Anderson's sash-starter 

6 00 

9 00 




THE appliances for se- 
curing outside blinds, 
though in some cases com- 
bined directly or indi- 
rectly with the blind 
hinges, are more often 
distinct fixtures, acting in- 
dependently of the blind 
attachments. The usage 
in regard to shutter fasts 
and locks varies in dif- 
ferent portions of the country. In the West there seems to 
be a willingness to accept considerable complication in the 
devices, whereas the standard Eastern goods are mostly 
very simple ; though, of course, this distinction is not a rigid 
one, by any means. The West, however, is rapidly developing 
new ideas and fresh combinations, in hardware no less than in 
nearly every other department of mechanical industry, and 
special patent forms seem to be more naturally expected there 
than elsewhere. This does not imply that the Eastern cities 
are united in the usage of particular forms, for places as near 
to each other as New York, Providence and Boston employ 
different forms, as will be seen later on. 

Fig. 235. Spring Wire Blind-fast. 

Chapter IX. 

Outside Blind- 


Chapter IX. 

Wire Fasts. 

Figure 235 will serve to illustrate one of the most common 


forms of shutter or blind fast, consisting of a tempered steel 
rod, or wire, one end of which is cut with a thread arid screws 
into the under side of the blind, while the other end is held by 
a staple. The rod is bent so that the loop is kept away from 
the blind, and the elasticity of the metal enables it to spring 

Gravity Fast. 

Fig. 236. Folsom's Blind-fast. J. H. Miller, 

into the malleable-iron catch on the sill, or on the outside of 
the wall. The well-known " Shedd " blind fastener is prac- 
tically the same as this, except that the rod is bent in a com- 
plete twist to gain the elasticity, and a common screw takes 
the place of the threaded end. The same form is made, with 
slight variations, by several of the leading manufacturers. 

Figure 236 shows the only form of wire blind-fast which 
allows one to close the blind without leaning out of the window, 
or in any way lifting the shutter to release it from the back 
catch. It consists of a steel wire, bent as shown by the figure, 
but carried as far back towards the hinge as the hanging-style 
of the blind will permit. To release the blind, the fastener is 
simply pulled inward. Any form of back catch may be used. 
For the sill-catch a wide staple is used, which is set on an 
angle to the blind, so as to force the spring back and permit 
it to catch behind the staple. This fastener has but very re- 
cently been put on the market. 

The blind-fast shown by Figure 237 works entirely by gravity. 
It consists of a bent lever, working in a mortise cut through 



Lugs on the end of 


the bottom rail of the blind, pivoted so that one arm protrudes 
above the top of the rail, while the other catches over an ordi- 
nary hook on the sill or against the wall, 
the horizontal lever 
arm catch on a thin 
plate screwed to the 
under side cf the rail 
and prevent the fast 
from dropping too low 
or being lifted too 
high. This fast is 
made of coppered mal- 
leable-iron, and seems 
like a very satisfactory 

Figure 238 is an 
older style of blind- 
fast, on essentially the 
same principle as Fig- 
ure 235 ; using, however, a flat bar instead of the spring wire. 
This form requires a little more work in adjustment. It is 
designated peculiarly as the "Boston" pattern blind-fast. The 

so called " New York " 
pattern is illustrated by 
Figure 239. The ac- 
tion of this fast will be 
better appreciated when 
it is remembered that in 
New York, the blinds 
are usually hung flush 
with the outer casing, 
and the sill is rebated 
so that the bottom of the blind strikes against the upper 
rebate. The latch is hinged on the inner plate, the weight 
of the long arm keeping the inner hook thrown up. The sill- 
staple is driven perpendicularly, while the back catch is screwed 

Chapter IX. 

Fig. 238. Boston Pattern Blind-fast. Stanley Works. 

Boston pattern. 

New York 




Chapter ix. horizontally into the wall. The Stanley Works also has what 
is designated as the " Providence " style of blind-fast. This is 
exactly the same as the " New York " pattern, except that the 

Fig. 240. Standard Screw 
Blind-fast. Stanley 

Fig. 239. New York Pattern Blind-fast. Stanley Works. 

inner hook catches over instead of under the sill-staple, and is 
shaped like the back catch of Figure 235, inverted. 
Screw Fasts. Figure 240 shows a form of blind-fast which is screwed 


bodily through the blind, catching on sill and wall staples in 
the same manner as the preceding styles. A flat spring 
inside of the case keeps the inner hook constantly pressed up 
and against the sill- 
staple. A variation 
of this same pattern 
is made which acts 
by gravity, the catch 
working in an oblique 
slot in such a manner 
that the weight of 
the outer catch forces 

Fig. 241. Security Blind-fast. Stanley Works. 

the inner catch always against the sill-staple. 

242 illustrate two forms of fasts which are screwed to the 

Figures 241 and 



under side of the blind. The former acts entirely by grav- 
ity. The lobes, A A, are connected through the case, and 
are counterbalanced so as to always drop to the position shown. 
When the blind is closed, the lobe strikes against the sill-pin 

Chapter IX. 

Fig. 243. Turn-buckle 
A. G. Newman. 

Fig. 242. Lock Blind-fast. Stanley Works. 

and is forced up as shown by the dotted lines, dropping so 
as to catch inside of the pin. Figure 242 has a concealed 
spring, to force the action of the lever. 

The foregoing styles ef blind-fasts are intended to be used 
on wooden buildings, but with some modifications in the sizes 
might also serve for brick buildings. In New York, it is 

Fig. 244. Drop-and-Pin-fast. Stanley Works. 

customary to use some form of turn-buckle, Figure 243, which Turn-buckles. 
is driven into the joints of the brickwork, the cross-piece being 



Chapter ix. free to turn, but hanging naturally in a vertical position by 
reason of the greater weight of the longer arm. Turn-buckles 
of a slightly different shape are sometimes used, also, for 
wooden buildings. 

All of the foregoing are, in a certain sense, automatic ; that 
is to say, the blind, if flung open or shut will stay in posi- 
tion, requiring no special 
adjustment. Figure 244 
is a form of drop-and- 

Fig. 245. Seymour's Blind-catch. Fig. 246. Blind-catch. Fig. 247. Seymour's 
P. & F. Corbin. Shepard Hardware Blind catch and lock. 

Co. P. & F. Corbin. 

pin fast, much used in some cases, consisting simply of a 
plate secured to the blind by a screw-eye, perforated with a 
hole to fit over the pin driven into the sill. For holding the 
blind open, a back catch is made as shown by the figure, which 
locks with a plain, flat spring, screwed to the under side of the 
blind. The figure also shows the form of back catch used for 
brick buildings. 

Figures 245 and 246 show two very simple forms of blind 
catch serving only to keep the blind closed, and generally used 
with some form of turn-buckle to hold the blind open. Figure 

245 works with the aid of a small spring, as shown ; Figure 

246 works entirely by gravity. There are several varieties of 
each of these forms in the market. The catch shown by Fig- 
ure 247 acts in the same manner as Figure 245, but has, in 
addition, a locking-lever, operated by a key, which secures the 
catch so that the blind cannot be opened. 



There are a number of forms of blind-hinges, which have 
been previously described in the chapter on hinges, that in a 
measure serve as blind-fasteners, keeping 
the blind either open or shut. They are 
all perfectly simple in their operations, 
and it is difficult to discriminate between 
them. The common fault with them 
all is in the difficulty of opening and 
closing the blind. With most of the 
forms of patent self-locking blind-hinge, 
the blind must be raised from its seat in 
order to be swung around. With the 
blind-fasts previously described in this 
chapter, it is necessary to lean far out 
of the window to release the catch from 
underneath. Figure 248 shows a device 
intended to overcome the difficulties of 
both styles. It consists simply of a lever attached to the blind, 
and hooking into a plate screwed onto the jamb of the window. 


Chapter IX. 

Fig. 248. Rochester Blind- 
hinge. Byam, Stewart & 




Fig. 249. Tenon Blind-fastener. Tenon Fastener Co. 

It is only necessary to lift the end of the lever in order to swing 
the blind shut. The advantages are that in closing, no lifting of 



chapter ix. the blind is necessary ; there is no danger of throwing it off the 
hinges, and no chance of pinching the fingers or bumping the 
Blind-adjuster. head. 

There are several other devices intended to hold the blind, 

either shut or 



Fig. 250. Excelsior Blind-adjuster. Russell & 

illustrates the " Tenon " 
blind-fastener, which con- 
sists of a bent, flat bar, 
attached to the outside 
of the blind and catching 
in slots cut in a plate 
which is secured to the 
sill, so that the blind can 
be held either open or 
shut, or in either of two 
intermediate positions. 
The bar is lifted by 
means of a lever on the 

inside of the blind. This fixture does away with the ordinary 
bottom hinge, substituting therefor a pivot working in the lock- 
ing sill-plate. A blind-fastener of this description is especially 
suitable for bay-windows, or any place where the blinds cannot 
open clear back. Being placed on the outside of the blind ex- 
poses it to the weather to an undesirable degree, though it is 
made of Bower-Barffed iron to prevent it from rusting. 

Fig. 251. Washburn's Blind-adjuster. B. D. Washburn. 

Figure 250 is a very simple form of bar blind-adjuster, the 
bar being attached to the blind, and held in position by the 
action of the thumb-screw on the jamb; Figure 251 shows 
a variation of the same principle, consisting of a bar which 


'fits into the sockets at several points on the sill, enabling the 
blind to be held in several different positions. The action of 
the adjuster will readily be understood by the figure. Zimmer- 
man's Blind-fast is on practically the same principle as this. 

The difficulty with the two foregoing patterns is, that they 
do not hold the blind perfectly rigid, and the rods are likely to 
get in the way, specially as the rods and sockets take up consid- 
erable space on the sill. There is but little practical advantage 
in having a fixture which permits of the blind being open at 
various degrees, for, as a rule, most people prefer to have their 
blinds either entirely open or entirely shut. 


The desire to open and operate blinds without opening the 

window has led to the invention 
of several devices which are 
worked by rods passing entirely 
through the frame of the house 
and attached to the blind. It 
not altogether easy to imder- 


Chapter IX. 

Fig. 252. Mallory's Shutter-worker. 
Frank B. Mallory. 

Fig. 253. Brown's Shutter-worker. Ireland 
Mfg. Co. 

stand why such devices are used so little, but it must be 



Chapter ix. admitted, that all of those now in the market are more or less 
clumsy. Still, the idea is an excellent one, and if there were 
greater demand for such appliances, undoubtedly better ones 
would be put before the public. The shutter-worker of this 
description that is the most natural in its adjustment is illus- 
trated by Figure 252. This consists simply of a rod, at the 

Fig. 254. Automatic Shutter-worker. Dudley Shutter- Worker Co. 

end of which is a thread working against a cog-wheel forming 
a part of the bottom hinge of the blind. On account of the 

slowness of pitch of the thread, 
it is very difficult to move the 
blind from the outside, but the lev- 
erage is sufficiently strong to 
enable one to easily open the 
blind from within by turning 
the crank. 

A very similar appliance to 
this is the Brown shutter-worker, 
Figure 253, in which the thread 
on the spindle works into teeth on 
the bottom of a plate forming a part of the lower shutter-hinge. 

Fig. 255. 

Brockton Shutter-worker. 
Tyler Mfg. Co. 


The Automatic Shutter-worker, Figure 254, combines the 
good points of several other devices, and is somewhat more 
complicated than either of the preceding. Two cog-wheels 
gear into each other. The shaft of one wheel is carried 
through the wall and can be operated by a crank or handle in- 
side the house. The shaft of the other wheel turns a crank, 
or bent lever, the end of which works in a slide attached to the 
face of the blind. The cog-wheels are encased in an iron box, 
which is shown partly removed in the figure, in order to illus- 
trate the workings. Aside from the number of parts, which is 
no very great objection, this shutter-worker has a great deal to 
recommend it. It is strong and compact, and can act on the 
shutter with such force that, it is asserted, a child can work 
the blind with it in a high wind. It has the advantage of per- 
mitting the blind to be removed without disturbing the fixtures. 

One of the simplest acting shutter-workers, is illustrated by 
Figure 255. This is very ingenious in its idea, consisting of a 
straight rod set on an angle, with a bent lever on the end 

Fig. 256. Tucker Awning Blind-hinge. Hamblin & Russell Mfg. Co. 

working in a curved slot or catch secured to the outer face of 
the blind. This shutter-worker will lock the blind as securely 
as any door can be locked, the handle of the rod being dropped 
down onto the pin as shown by the lock. 

The company which manufactures the Brockton shutter- 
worker has bought up the patents of the Prescott shut- 
ter-worker, which was somewhat on the same principle. 


Chapter IX. 



Chapter ix. There are some other shapes in the market ; but practically 
very few which embody ideas essentially different from those 


Awning-hinges. Awning-hinges might more properly be considered with 
common blind-hinges, but they are included in this connec- 
tion, as they are in a measure blind-adjusters, permitting the 
blind to be opened part way. The writer has been able to 
find only two forms in the market. The simplest is shown 

Fig. 258. Byam's Blind-sla 

'am's Blind-slat Adjuster. Byam, 
Stewart & Baker. 

Fig. 257. Automatic Blind-awning 
Fixtures. F. O. North & Co. 

Fig. 259. Shutter-bar. 

by Figure 256. This consists of a double-acting hinge for 
the upper portion of the blind, a lower hinge being screwed to 
the jamb and fastened to the blind only by a turn-button. 
The other form of awning-fixture is more commonly used 
The upper hinge is so made as to- 

about Boston, Figure 257. 


work in either direction, while the lower hinge consists of a 
cup fitting over a pin screwed to the jamb. A small catch 

Chapter IX. 

Fig. 260. Shutter-bar. 

Fig. 261. Morris' Self-locking Shutter-bar. Ire- 
land Mfg. Co. 

keeps the blind from pushing out when the hinges are 
to be used in the ordinary manner, but is readily lifted 
when the blinds are to be pushed out from the bottom. 
The fixtures are sold with side-bars to hold the bottom of 
the blind away from the building, 
and with a centre cross-bar which 
permits the blinds to be opened 
part way in the ordinary manner, 
and secured. The description and the 
figure might seem to imply a some- 
what complicated arrangement ; but 
the fixtures work very simply, and 
seldom fail to give satisfaction. 

Figure 258 shows a form of slat- 
adjuster intended to be operated by 
a key from the inside of the house without opening the window. 
The slats are connected with an eccentric which is turned by* 
the key, so that the slats can be either raised or lowered as 


There is little to be said as regards fasts or locks for inside 
shutters. The shutters themselves are usually provided with 
knobs of some description, with porcelain or metal heads 
secured in position by a screw. The shutters are also pro- 

Fig. 262. Sliding Shutter-hook. 
P. & F. Corbin. 





Chaoterix vided with some form of latch or bar, of which Figure 259 is a 
very simple type. Figure 260 shows a more elaborate form, 
for inside work. There are, of course, many variations of 
these forms. A few of the hardware manufacturers have been 
making self-locking shutter-bars, in which the cross-bar is 
secured by some form of auxilliary lever or cam. Figure 261 
illustrates one variety. There is, however, but little demand 
for such appliances. 

j For sliding shutters a bar like that shown by Figure 260 
may be employed, but there are also several varieties of mortise 
hooks, Figure 262, which work with a spring, and are rather 
preferable for most cases. 

The retail prices of the foregoing blind and shutter fixtures 
are as follows : 










Stanley's wire blind-fast 

Folsom's shutter-fastener 

Boston pattern blind-fast 

Gravity blind-fast 

New York pattern blind-fast 

Standard screw blind-fast 

Security blind-fast 

Lock blind-fast 

( Turn-buckles or drop-buttons for brick 

\ Turn-buckles or drop-buttons for wood 

Drop-and-pin fast 

Seymour's blind-catch 

Shepard blind-fast 

Seymour's blind catch and lock 

Rochester blind-hinge 

Tenon blind-fastener 

Excelsior blind-adjuster, galvanized 

Washburn's blind-adjuster, 1 galvanized, 10-inch bar 

Mallory's shutter-worker, with hinges and handle 

Brown's shutter-worker, japanned 

Automatic shutter-worker, with hinges and handle 

Brockton shutter- worker 

Tucker awning blind hinges 1 *. 

Automatic blind awning fixtures' 

Byam's blind slat-adjuster 

Shutter-bars bronzed-iron, 2-inch, per dozen 

Shutter-bars, bronze, 2-inch, per dozen 

( Morris' self-locking shutter-bar, bronzed-iron, 2-inch, per doz. , 

| Morris' self-locking shutter-bar, bronze, 2-inch, per dozen 

Sliding shutter-hook, bronze, each 


$ .07 





1 For wooden house. 



TT7RANSOMS are hung by 
JL common butts at the top 
or bottom, or are pivoted in the 
centre horizontally. The ordi- 
nary hinges used for transoms 
are such as might be used for 
any purpose. These have been 
previously discussed. Sash cen- 
tres or pivots are commonly 
mortised into the frame and into 
the sash. Figure 263 is the or- 
dinary form. Figure 264 is another variety in which both 
pivots are exactly alike. This is secured in place by first fasten- 

Fig. 263. Sash-centres or Transom- 

Fig. 265. Surface Sash- 
centre. P. & F. Corbm. 

Fig. 264. Sash-pivot. A. G. Newman. 

ing the round part of the pivot at entire end of the sash, and 
securing one socket-piece to the sash-frame. The other socket 

Chapter X. 



Chapter x. is then fitted to the opposite pivot, and the sash placed in 
position and turned at right angles, thus uncovering the second 

Fig. 266. Surface Sash-centre. J. F. Fig. 267. Transom-pivot. Hopkins & 
Wollensak. Dickinson Mfg. Co. 

socket, so that it can be screwed to the jamb. This form is 
claimed to be tighter and consequently more secure against 
draughts than the ordinary style. 

Instead of either of the foregoing, it is sometimes desirable 

Fig. 269. Cupboard and Transom Catch. Ire- 
land Mfg. Co. 

Fig. 268. Transom-catch. A. G. Fig. 270. Transom-catch. J. B. Shannon & 
Newman. Sons. 

to use pivots which do not turn on the line of the centre of the 
sash. Figure 265 illustrates a form which can be used in such 


a case, both pivot and socket being planted on the faces of the 
sash and the frame. Figure 266 and Figure 267 are other 
varieties sometimes met with. The different uses for which 
these various forms are applicable will readily be appreciated ; 
the first being for a case in which the jambs and the sash are 
flush ; the second, one in which the transom sets out from the 

Fig. 271. Transom-lift. 

J. F. 

272. American Transom-lift. 
American Mfg. Co. 

jamb ; and the third, one in which the jamb is too deep, or the 
transom set too far in to permit of the hinges being applied to 
the face of the jamb. 

Transoms are usually provided with some form of spring 
catch to hold them closed. Figure 268 is a direct catch, the 
latch being secured to the transom. This is for use when the 
jamb and the sash are flush. Figure 269 is a transom-catch 


Chapter X. 




Chapter x. worked on a little different principle from the foregoing. The 
same form is also used for cupboards. This, as well as the 
first, is fastened onto the face of the transom. Figure 270 shows a 
transom-catch intended to be mortised into the edge of the tran- 
som, either at the top or the bottom. 

Transom-lifts. In the best work it is customary to provide some appliance 

for lifting the transom and holding it in position. With the 
ordinary catches previously described, a 
chain is attached at one side of the tran- 
som, permitting it to be opened down from 


Fig. 273. StellerTran- Fig. 274. Overall's Transom- Fig. 275. Excelsior Tran- 
som-lifter. Russell 8i lifter. P. & F. Corbm. som-lifter. Russell & 
Erwin. Erwin. 

the top a certain distance only ; but it is much more convenient 
to have some appliance that will permit the transom to be 
opened in either direction, and will hold it securely. The 


most popular, and one of the best known is the Wollensak 
transom-lifter, Figure 271. This consists of a straight rod with 
a hinged arm attached to it, the arm being secured to the edge 
of the transom, while the rod works up and down in a series of 
rings, being held at any given height by turning a button at 
the bottom binding on the rod. These are made for transoms 
either pivoted at the centre and swinging down, or pivoted and 
swinging up, or hinged at either top or bottom. Figure 272 
shows another form, made by the American Manufacturing 
Company. The rod in this case 
is replaced by a flat bar, the 
attachment otherwise being es- 
sentially the same as in the 
previous example. The bar is 
notched at the bottom on the 
inner edge, and a catch on the 
lower guide-ring locks the bar 

Fig. 276. Skylight Lift and Lock. 
J. F. Wollensak. 

Fig. 277. Skylight-lift. S. L. Hill. 

at any height. Figure 273 is another form manufactured by 
Russell & Erwiii. In this case the bar is held in position by 


Chapter X. 



Chapter X. 



turning the button at the bottom. This transom is provided 
with a supplementary set of guides at the top, so that in 
shoving up the bar there will be no opportunity for the weight 
of the transom to deflect it sidewise. Figure 274 shows a 
form of transom-lifter manufactured by P. & F. Corbin, con- 
sisting of a straight rod, with a long, flexible steel attachment 
at the top. The rod is secured at any height by a turn-button 
in the same manner as in the first example, while the flexibil- 
ity of the upper portion of the rod permits the transom to turn 
at any angle. There is yet another form, Figure 275. This 
consists of a single rod attached directly to the transom, and 
secured on the jamb only by a single turn-button, near the bot- 
tom. This turn-button is placed at an angle in such a manner 
as to allow considerable side-play on the rod, and so permit 
of the deflection necessary for opening the transom. 

Closely allied to the transom-lifters are those which are used 
for skylights. Figure 276 shows a form manufactured by 
Wollerisak. This consists of a double bar attached to a socket 
working on a slotted bar. The socket has attached to it a 
spring-catch which slips into the slots on the bar. The rope 
passes through the socket up over a pulley, and down through 
an eye in the end of the spring-catch. By pulling the bar out 
away from the socket, the spring-catch is released and the 
socket, and with it the skylight may be lifted or lowered, the 
spring-catch shutting back when the horizontal strain on the 
rope is relaxed. This is made in two sizes, with a length of 
eighteen inches each. Figure 277 shows another form of sky- 
light-lifter in which a ratchet on the side of the upper frame- 
work fits into slots on the edge of the lifting-rod, the ratchet 
being worked by a separate cord. The ratchet is fitted with a 
spring to keep it in position. 

The following table gives the retail prices of the goods de- 
scribed in this chapter. 













Sash-centres japanned per dozen pairs 

$ .62 

Sash-pivots bronzed-iron per set ... . . 

Surface sash-centres P. & F. Corhin brass per set .... 

Surface sash-centres Wollensak bronze No 4 per set 

Surface sash -centres Wollensak, bronzed-iron per set 

Surface sash-centres, Hopkins & Dickinson, bronze, per set 
Transom-catch, per dozen 

Transom-catch bronze per dozen 

Wollensak's transom-lifter bronzed 

Wollensak's transom-lifter nickel-plated . 

American transom-lifter coppered 

American transom-lifter nickel-plated 

Overell's transom-lifter bronzed 

Excelsior transom-lifter bronzed 

Wollensak's skylight-lifter No 12 each 

Hill's skylight-lifter each 

Prices for transom-lifters are for a medium 4-foot rod and for a single fixture. 


Chapter xi. t TTNY one who should 

/ X visit the mediaeval 
museums of Europe, 
and should chance to 
see among the curi- 
osities of iron - work 
some of the elaborately 
wrought and apparent- 
ly intricate locks of 
the fourteenth, fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries, 

would hardly think of comparing those unwieldly and cumber- 
some devices with the locks that are turned out in such 
quantities by our best modern manufactories. And yet, if the 
older contrivances are examined attentively it will be seen that 
the difference between the old and the new is one of finish 
and delicacy, rather than of idea or mechanism ; and that, with 
the exception of a few noteworthy inventions for obtaining a 
greater security against picking by an ordinary thief, the locks 
of to-day are exactly the same, in principle and arrangement, 
as those which were made centuries ago. Indeed, it is rather 
strange that with all the inventions which have been made 
during the nineteenth century and especially within the present 
generation, and notwithstanding the inventive genius which 

Fig. Ilia. Egyptian Wooden Lock. 



American industry has brought to bear upon the subject, the Chapter xi. 
Yale system should be, after all, very nearly the only invention 
of practical utility which is a direct departure from the older 
methods of lock making. Probably a large proportion of the 
readers of this paper can distinctly remember the time when 
pin locks were almost unheard of. It might be said in expla- 
nation of the seeming fruitlessness of mechanical research upon 
this subject, that there was really very little that could be dis- 
covered or improved upon, as the real principle of a lock is too 
simple and too definite in its nature, not to have been thorough- 
ly appreciated and exhausted long ago ; but the same could 
have been said before Linus Yale set his Yankee wits to work 
upon the subject, and it would be impossible at present to 
foretell what discoveries may be made or what radical changes 
brought about in the appliances for locking our doors. Possibly 
our descendants may some day wonder at the locks of the nine- 
teenth century, even as we wonder at the cumbersome pieces 
of mechanism and the ponderous keys of our great grandfathers. 
At any rate, it will not do to claim that our locks are perfect, 
or that the record of progress is entirely closed. A very few 
years ago the Yale lock was pronounced to be complete ; but 
some very radical improvements have been made in it since 
then, and the opponents of the system claim it has yet many 
defects both in construction and idea. So it would not be 
strange if our best locks should one day become obsolete. 

But if the progress which has been made in the essential, Finish and cost, 
mechanical principles of lock manufacture is small, the im- 
provements in finish and the reduction in the cost of the locks 
have been marvelous. Less than a century ago, locks were 
made entirely by hand, and . very crude affairs they were, too, 
costing a great many times the price of a better article 
of to-day. At present, good, well-made, well-planned locks 
can be had at prices varying from twenty-five cents to five dol- 
lars, suited to all needs and all conditions ; while the amount 
of real security afforded is of a much more tangible nature. 
And with the improvements in niceness and delicacy of arrange- 



Chapter xi. ment, it nas been possible to affect a change in the style and 
weight of the keys which the present generation can only 
faintly appreciate. The old-fashioned keys were heavy, cum- 
bersome, and so large that no one ever thought of carrying 
them about the person. Now they are made so small that the 
keys for an entire house can be carried in one's vest pocket. 
Formerly the strength of a lock was judged by its weight, and 
it was considered essential to have heavy bolts or levers, and 
strong springs, requiring considerable force to operate ; while 
now, all the parts are so well adjusted and so light, that a 
touch is sufficient to put the mechanism in operation. 

Principles. The fundamental principles forming the basis of all locking 

constructions, include a bolt which is moved by the direct 
action of the key, while secondary bolts or levers drop into 
such positions that the lock bolt cannot be forced back except 
by breaking some portion of the mechanism. The secondary 
bolt is usually termed a lever, and either acts by gravity or by 
the aid of a spring usually by both. The key is so made 
as to first raise the levers, and then to shoot the bolt by a 
single turn of the hand. These principles have governed the 
manufacture of locks since the days of Adam, and apply 
equally to the ponderous locks of the Middle Ages and to the 
corrugated-key locks of the Yale & Towne Manufacturing 
Company. Complications have been added to the construction 
of locks in the shape of multiple levers, requiring nicely fitted 
keys, or fancy wards which would allow none but the right key 
to enter ; and there have been special forms devised for bank 
uses, working by combinations of letters, by dials, or by clock- 
work ; but in the locks used about an ordinary house, the prin- 
ciple is always the same that of a key simultaneously lifting 
one or more levers and moving a bolt. 

Egyptian Lock. In order to clearly illustrate the antiquity of the principles 
upon which modern locks are constructed, it may be of interest 
in this connection to refer to a few of the older forms. A rude 
style of lock which has been used in Eastern countries for 
no one can say how long, but certainly for over two 



thousand years, is approximately shown by Figure 277er. All 
the parts are of wood, including the key. The bolt is chan- 
nelled on the inner edge, and slides through heavy wooden 
staples in which are arranged a number of pegs, of varying 
lengths, fitting into corresponding holes bored through the top 
of the bolt. The key consists of a flat piece of wood somewhat 
smaller than the channel which is cut in the bolt, and in use, 
is inserted lengthwise of the bolt. On the end of the key are 
pins spaced to correspond with the pegs in the staple. It is 
evident that while the pegs are caught in the bolt itself and in 
the staple, the bolt cannot be moved ; but when the key is in- 
serted, the pins will be directly beneath the holes in the upper 
part of the bolt, and by raising the key, the pins will lift the 
pegs just enough to clear the joint between the bolt and 
the staple, and the bolt can then be moved at will. In this 
lock, the action of the key is almost exactly the same as in the 
Yale lock ; namely, to lift a series of pins of unequal lengths 
so as to bring the bottom of each on the same line, though the 
Yale key has other functions, as will be noted later. 

Figure 278 shows a key which was dug up in Pompeii. It 
was evidently intended to operate a warded lock, a 
style which was in almost universal use up to thirty 
years ago. Figure 279 illustrates a fine old Eliza- 
bethan leek. This could be described as a fully- 
developed lever-lock, the springs on the levers be- 
ing arranged in exactly the same manner as the Fig. 278. Key 
locks which are sold over the counter to-day. Strip- 
ped of all the fancy cutting and misleading wards which have 
nothing to do with the efficiency of the lock, it will be seen 
that this is really a very simple contrivance, though quite 
complicated in appearance. 

The number of antiquated examples might be multiplied in- 
definitely, but the foregoing will suffice for the purpose, as 
they may be taken as types of the three most markedly 
different arrangements for adding to the security of a lock ; 
namely, with wards, with pins or with spring-levers. 

Chapter XI. 






Chapter XI. 


The various parts of a lock will need some definition and 
explanation, in order to prevent any ambiguity in the terms. 

Parts of a key. 

Fig. 279. Elizabethan Lock. 

Figure 280 shows the general shape of the ordinary key, in 
which A is called the bow ; j5, the shank, and 
0, the bit. The difference between the keys 
of to-day and those of two or three generations 
ago has been already alluded to. Many of the 
hand-made locks are still provided with the 
old-fashioned, heavy brass keys, but the " Yale " 
locks have prejudiced people against anything 
but a flat key, and nearly all manufacturers 
use them in one form or another. A few lock- 
makers have keys which are arranged to fold 
up like a knife, to be used in connection with rim- 
locks, or with locks requiring a very long key, but 
generally the key is of steel, nickel-plated, with a 
flat shank and a thin bit. When the cuts on the bit 

are on the side or edge, as shown by the cut, they indicate 

Fi so 



a tumbler or lever-lock, while cuts on the top or bottom show Chapter xr. 
that the lock is fitted with wards. Many of the old keys pre- 
served in museums are made with very elaborate bits, cut in 
curious and intricate patterns. In some instances the cuts cor- 
respond to equally intricate wardings in the lock, but generally 
they are purely fanciful. When the shank of the key is tubu- 
lar, it indicates a lock which can be operated from one side only, 
such as those used for drawers, etc. All keys for door-locks 
now have solid shanks. 

The bolt which secures the lock, is generally made quite 
heavy where it projects beyond the face-plate, but is thinned 
down inside the lock so as to be as light as possible, and to 
give space for the levers. 
The talon, A, Figure 
281, is the notch in the 
under side of the bolt 
in which the key works. 
The post, B, is the part 
which catches in the lev- 
ers, preventing the bolt 

from being forced. Guide-posts on the case of the lock fit in 
the slots, (7, one of the same posts often serving as a pivot for 
the levers. 

The most primitive form of lock would be one consisting Levers. 

simply of a bolt, which is shot 
back and forth by the key. 
But as any other key or even 
a wire would answer equally 
well, some obstacle must be 
interposed to prevent picking. 
This is done by combining 
with the bolt a series of le- 
vers or tumblers which per- 
mit only the proper key to be 

used. The two terms are used at present synonymously. 
Figure 282 illustrates a typical lever. There are from one 

Fig. 281. Bolt. 

282. Lever. 



Chapter xi. to five levers in an ordinary lock, and they are usually placed 
one over the other, pivoted over the guiding-post, and the 
bolt-post is so arranged as to fit through one of t-he cuts, A y 
when the bolt is thrown back, and through B when thrown 
out. The connecting gatings, C, are cut at different heights, 
so that the levers must be lifted unequally in order to per- 
mit the bolt to move. When the key is turned in the 
lock, the bits, which are cut to match the levers, bear 
against the bellies, D, lifting the levers simultaneously until 
the gatings are exactly on a line with each other. The key 
then catches in the talon of the bolt, the bolt-post passes 
through the gatings, and the levers drop as the key turns,, 
catching behind the bolt-post and effectually preventing the 
bolt from being forced back. This is, generally speaking, the 
function of all lock-levers, though there are many variations, 
from the form illustrated. 

The levers, of course, slide one over the other, and in 
common locks they are laid closely together. In the best of 
hand-made work, however, and in a few of the machine-made 
locks, the levers are separated, either by side-wards cast onto 
the thickness of the lever, or by intermediate strips of brass 
which bear on each other and on the levers only at certain 
points, thus reducing greatly the friction between the parts. 
Tumblers. A somewhat different form has been much used in English 

locks, which is shown by Figure 283. In this case the levers 
are beneath the bolt. On each is a post which works in slots 
and through gatings cut through the bolt. Price, in his 
" Treatise on Locks," 1 which is a very valuable and interesting 
work on the subject, as it was understood up to 18 GO, makes 
the distinction between levers and tumblers, applying the 
latter term to the device shown by Figure 283, and the former 
to that illustrated by Figure 282. His distinction seems to be 
a fair one, though seldom made in this country, where what he 
calls tumblers are little used. 

1 This work is entirely out of print, but can be found in most of the large 
public libraries. It is complete and thoroughly illustrated. 



A little reflection will cause one to comprehend the number Chapter XL 
of changes possible in a lever lock. The levers may be 
transposed, and within certain limits the heights of the gatings Changes. 

Fig. 283. English Tumbler. 

may be varied, so that with six levers there can be as many as 
7,776,000 changes, no two of which can be operated by the 
same key. Simple transposition, without any variation in the 
heights of the gatings, will give 720 changes. 

A device has been used in some makes of locks, intended 
not only to increase the difficulty of picking but also to show if 
the lock has been tampered with. It consists of a spring so 
arranged that when one of the levers is lifted too high, as 
would naturally be done by any one attempting to pick the 
lock, it is caught and held in such a position that the bolt-post 
cannot possibly pass through the gatings. The spring is 
released by using the right key and turning the bolt out more, 
but no key can unlock the mechanism until the detector spring 
is released. This is a very ingenious arrangement, and at one 
time was considered absolutely burglar-proof, though it is now 
very seldom met with in the market. 1 

The wards of a lock are fixed obstructions which are 
attached to the inside of the lock-case, so arranged that none 
but the proper key can pass and reach the levers. Formerly 
the confidence in warded locks was so great that levers and 
tumblers was used very little, but that feeling has entirely 
passed away. Modern locksmiths use wards very sparingly, 
and limit themselves to small shoulders or ridges, cast on the 



1 The detector-spring was an important feature of the celebrated " Chubbs " 
(English) locks. 


Chapter xi. inside of the upper and lower case-plates, which require 
corresponding cuts on the upper and lower edge of the key- 
bit. They do not add in the least to the burglar-proof quali- 
ties of a lock. At one time, however, locks were constructed 
with very elaborate wardings. Figure 284 illustrates the 
wards of a French lock about one hundred and fifty years old. 

The wards consist of two thin 
plates, one each side of the key- 
hole, with a series of ridges 
forming a semicircle on each, 
the ridges being star-shaped in 

Fi . 284. Wards of an'old French Lock, section. The key-bit is CUt 

out with a star pattern which 

has to exactly fit the wardings. This is one of the simpler 
forms which the ingenuity of French locksmiths at one time 
delighted in, and though seemingly proof against intrusion, 
can be opened with very little trouble, by a judicious use of a 
few stout wires. 

Springs. There is a great difference in the quality and arrangement 

of springs used in connection with a lock. In regard to 
material, the best is, undoubtedly, phosphor-bronze ; but 
springs of this material require to be so large in order to have 
the desired stiffness, that their use is not always practicable, 
especially as they can be used to advantage only in the shape 
of flat-bands. The springs which hold the levers in place 
against the bolt-post are usually made of round steel or brass 
wire, and are attached directly to the heel of the lever, as 
shown by Figure 282. A separate spring is necessary for each 
lever. It is sometimes desirable to attach the spring to a 
secondary lever acting directly on the top of the main lever, 
Figure 285, as in a case where the levers move up and down in 
the lock instead of being pivoted together. With such an 
arrangement the edge of the secondary lever should be grooved 
so as to fit over the top of the primary lever, thus obviating 
any difficulty of the levers slipping by each other, or of the 
wrong springs acting on the levers. 



The latch is a feature of the modern lock which our 
ancestors did not enjoy. Except in the case of store-doors, all 
door-locks are now made with some form of spring-latch. 
There are three distinct kinds of latches commonly used, the 
simple spring-latch, anti-fric- 
tion latch and front-door latch. 
The cheapest form of ordi- 
nary spring-latch consists of a 
bevelled head, projecting from 
the face-plate of the lock, with 

Fig. 285. Compound Lever. 

Fig. 286. Anti-friction Strike. 
E. Robinson. 

a shank inside the lock, about which is coiled a strong spiral 
spring, keeping the latch pressed out. The inner end of the 
latch-shank is forked and hooks under each side of what is 
termed the follow, through which passes the spindle of the 
door-knob. Turning the knob either way draws back the latch. 
The objection to this arrangement is that while only a very 
slight spring is really necessary to keep the latch .in position, 
a pretty strong spring is required so that the knob shall 

Chapter XI. 




Chapter XI. 

Easy Spring- 



not turn too easily; otherwise, every time the door-knob 
is touched the latch will be opened. Consequently in the 
better class of work a door-latch is usually fitted with two 
springs, one of which is operated when the latch is pushed 
back by the door being closed, while both springs are acted 
upon when the knob is turned. In this way the requisite 
resistance can be obtained for the knob, and, at the same 
time, the latch will close easily. A latch so arranged is 
termed an easy spring-latch. There are several methods of 
attaching the two springs. Ordinarily, spiral brass springs are 
employed. Hopkins & Dickinson and, we believe, a few others, 
are able to introduce into their locks springs made of phosphor- 
bronze, which, it is claimed, will keep its elasticity much longer 
than steel or brass. The different methods by which the springs 
are attached and the knob operated will be made clear when 
the various makes of locks are described, later on. 

The ordinary form of latch is made with a V-shaped bevel, 
the long side of the bevel striking against the jam-plate. 
Enoch Robinson, of Boston, was, it is believed, the first to 
patent an anti-friction strike, as it is called. Figure 286 illus- 
trates the construction of his device, which is incorporated 
into all of the locks which he makes. 
It is simply an application of the 
principle of the old bell-lever crank. 
The action of the anti-friction strike is 
to raise the latch-bolt from the bed of the 
lock and carry it back without friction 
on the sides. Actual tests have been 
made proving that it requires less force, 
acting directly on the side of the anti- 
friction strike, to force the lever back, 

Fig. 287. Anti-fri 

than is required to push back the latch by straight pressure 
against the apex of the bevel. 

Figure 287 shows a form of anti-friction strike used by sev- 
eral other manufacturers. There is no difference in principle 
between this and the " Robinson " make, though the appear- 



ance is a little different, the " Robinson " strike being in the 
centre of the bolt, while the others are on one side, also in 
" Robinson's " strike the pin is on the latch and the slot in the 

Chapter XI. 

Fig. 288. Anti-friction Rocker Strike. 

strike, while in the other anti-friction strike they are exactly 
the reverse. Figure 288 shows a form which is made by a 
few manufacturers, being listed in the catalogue of both J. B. 
Johnston and the Nashua Lock Company. It consists simply 
of a steel rocker attached by swivel pins to the bolt, the lower 
pin passing underneath the shank of the bolt. When the door 
is closed the latch, instead of moving straight back, swings 
on the lower edge of the rocker, being lifted from the lock- 
frame, and thus reducing the friction. The gain by this 
device is, of course, less than 
by the others previously de- 
scribed. Yet another form of 
so-called anti-friction strike is 
made. Figure 289 shows the 
pattern adopted by Hall, of 
Boston, for his spring-latches. 
It consists, essentially, of an 
adaptation of the well-known 
car-door latch, the latch-strike 
being hinged at the base and 
attached by a loose-pin to the 
latch-shank at the top, while 
the face of the latch-strike is 

Slightly Curved. This device Fig. 289. Anti-friction Strike. Hall. 

makes really a very efficient 

anti-friction strike. The only objection to it is that the wide 


Chapter XI. 

Right and Left 
Hand Locks. 


plate necessitated by it cuts the door a great deal, and many 
persons do not like it on that account. 

The custom in regard to latches varies in New York and 
Boston. In New York the outside knob is generally fixed 
firmly so as not to move at all, while in Boston the knobs 
are arranged with a swivel spindle permitting either to be 
turned without acting upon the other, and the mechanism in- 
side of the lock is so devised that by pushing a button or a 
slide the outer knob can be held fast. In cheaper forms of 
front-door locks, the knob-spindle is made without a swivel, 
and security is obtained by a bolt on the inside. 

Locks are designated as being either right or left hand, 
though the distinction is one which is confined entirely to the 
latch. A left-hand lock belongs to a door fitted with left- 
hand hinges, as has been previously explained, the term right 
or left being decided by whether the door turns on the hinges 

Fig. 290. Right and Left Hand Locks. 

when opening either in the direction of the hands of a clock or 
the reverse. Locks are also designated as being either left 
or right hand reverse bevel, the reverse bevel applying to a 
door which swings out instead of swinging in. That is to say, 
in the case of a front door, for instance, if it swings out the 
night-latch would be on the outside, but the latch-bolt would 



be just the reverse in arrangement from what it would be, 
relatively, on an ordinary front door swinging in. 

Figure 290, will fix this distinction clearly in mind. The 
figure is taken from the catalogue of the Yale & Towne Manu- 
facturing Company. It is believed that the distinction between 
right arid left, and reverse bevels is seldom appreciated by 

It is very often desirable to have a latch which can be re- 
versed so that if any mistake is made in ordering, the lock will 
not be useless. Reversible latches are made in several ways, 
the latch-shank being generally of such shape as to permit 
its being turned over and worked in the opposite direction, 
without interfering with the action of the lock. 

Locks wear out not so much by actual failure or breaking 
of the parts, but by the lever and key wards being 
worn so that the key will not lift the levers and permit the 
bolt to pass. Key-wards are the slight projections which are 
cast on the inner face of the lock-plates to form an additional 
obstruction to the passage of strange keys. Of themselves 
they affect the value of a lock but little, as the key will operate 
as well without as with them, so that the only vital parts 
which wear out are the edges of the levers against which the 
key acts. The constant striking and turning, when a lock is 
used continually, will in time wear off the surface of the lever 
so that it will not rise quite sufficiently to allow the bolt-post 
to pass. The springs, also, sometimes become brittle, and the 
follows operating the latch will wear so as to work loose and 
rattle, but a little tinkering can remedy any of these difficulties. 
It costs but a trifle to have a new key made which will fit a 
partiallv worn-out set of levers. New springs are inserted at a 
trifling cost, and if the latch-spring is strengthened a trifle the 
rattling of the follows can be obviated ; so there is, really, no 
reason why a fairly good lock should not last indefinitely. It 
is, also, a very simple thing to make a new combination of the 
levers when they cease to work smoothly, and renewed life 
can thus be imparted to an apparently worn-out set of works. 

Chapter XI. 



Wear on Locks. 



Chapter XL 




In judging of the intrinsic worth of a lock, therefore, the 
following conditions should be carefully observed. 

First : Good material for the use to which it is put. 

Second : Careful adjustment, so that the parts will work 
easily and will stand any possible strain in use. 

Third : The whole secret of the value of a lock is in the 
levers, which should be so made as to ensure a minimum of 
friction, of material not easily corroded nor easily worn away ; 
and they should be adjusted to secure the greatest amount of 
security against picking, with springs not too easy, nor so hard 
as to bring undue wear on the levers. 

A very good test of the workmanship of a lock can easily be 
made by shooting out the bolt, removing the cap to the lock 
case, and then pressing in strongly on the bolt, at the same 
time lifting the levers, one by one. If the gatings are ac- 
curately fitted they should all bear equally against the bolt- 
post, so that the gating of no one lever would catch on the post 
as it is lifted by. Few of the ordinary locks will stand this 
test successfully. 

Intricate combinations, made ostensibly to prevent the lock 
from being picked, add very little to its value for ordinary 
house work. It may be safely stated that any lock can be 
picked which is operated by a key, so that a good three-lever 
lock affords all the intricacy and gives one all the protection 
that could be desired. A lock has a personality of its own, 
and so much of its value depends on the maker that it is wise 
in purchasing to always get the best ; keeping in view sim- 
plicity, and the points previously noted. A cheap, but well- 
made lock is better than an expensive one which is put together 
in a careless and indifferent manner. 

It has not been the intention to consider in detail any ar- 
ticles of hardware which are not in actual daily use at the 
present time ; but there are a few styles of locks which are 
entirely obsolete so far as the American trade is concerned, 
but which should be included in any study of the subject, 
if one wishes to thoroughly understand the principles of mod- 



ern lock-making, and the processes of elimination and survival 
of the fittest which have brought the manufacture to its present 
state in this country. 

Figures 291 and 292 illustrate the old English "Bramah" 
lock. This consists of a 
revolving cylinder in 
which is disposed radi- 
ally a series of flat sliders 
working up and down 
through slots in a fixed 
horizontal plate. The 
sliders have notches on 
the outer edges, cut at 
different heights, so that 
the cylinder can revolve 
only when the notches 
on the sliders are on a 
line and level with the 
plate. The sliders are 
forced upward by a sin- 
gle central coiled spring. 
The key consists of a 
tube, on the sides of which 
are straight grooves cor- 
responding to the de- 
sired depression of the 
slides, with a shoulder to 
turn the cylinder. The 
locking-bolt is moved by an eccentric attached to the cylin 
der. The notches on the sliders are disposed as irregularly 
as possible, and false notches are added, with corresponding 
false widenings of slots in the plate. All of the sliders can be 
pushed in farther than is needed to bring the notches on a line 
with the plate, so that the lock is picked with great difficulty. 

" Cotterill's " lock, Figures 293, 294 and 295, is another 
example of English ingenuity. The portion which is acted 

291. The Bramah Lock. 

Chapter XI. 

Bramah Lock. 





Chapter xi. upon by the key consists of a rotating flat disk or cylinder con- 
taining ten or more slides moving in radial grooves and pressed 

Fig. 292. The Locking-plate of th< 
Bramah Lock. 

Fig. 293. Plan of Cotterill's Lock 

towards the centre by springs. A fixed ring or plate is fitted 
to a circular groove on the face of the disk, and has slots cor- 
responding in position to the radial slides. There are also 
slots cut on the edges of the slides, so that when the key is 
in place the slots on the slides coincide with the circular 

Fig. 294. Section of Cotterill's Lock. 

Fig. 295. Locking-plate 
Cotterill's Lock. 

groove on the disk, permitting the whole to be revolved. 
When the key is withdrawn the slides are forced in different 
degrees towards the centre, so that the solid portions intercept 
the groove in the disk, in which position it is held fast by the 


fixed ring. It is believed that this lock never has been picked. 
A lock which in its time was a strong competitor with the 
" Bramah " and " Cotterill's " locks, and was equally im- 
pregnable, is " Day & Newell's " Perautopic bank-lock, an 
American invention which was in great demand at one time, 
but has long since ceased to be manufactured. It has the 
curious property that the key, which is made with movable bits, 
can be changed at will, so that the lock can be opened only by 
the key which was last used to shoot the bolt. The lock has 
never been picked. Figure 296, which is taken from Price, 
is too complicated to fully illustrate the workings. Figure 
29 6&, while not exactly like the lock, embodies the same 

Fig. 296. Perautopic Lock, open.- 

arrangement and will serve to make the construction under- 
stood. The letters refer to both figures. There are three dis- 
tinct sets of levers, A, B and (7, each admitting of a sliding or 
lifting motion up and down, the levers A having springs which 
keep them pressed down, D, and the levers being constantly 
forced up by a spring of lesser strength E, so that the levers G 
will always move up and down exactly as A are raised or 
lowered, the tops of C bearing against the bottom of exten- 
sions to A. The levers B have no springs, and slide up and 
down between studs attached to a wing of the bolt-tail, so that 


Chapter XI. 

Day & Newell's 



Chapter XL when the bolt is shot, the levers B move with it. F is a dog 
or lever, which is hinged to a stud on the bolt at the top, ai.d 
hinged with a bent elbow attached to the lock-case at the 
bottom. On this dog, F, is a tooth, and on the edge of each 
of the tumblers B are notches corresponding in mutual dis- 
tance with the difference in lengths of the movable bits of the 
key. Furthermore, the levers A are each made with an arm 

Fig. 2966. Perautopic Lock, shut. 

G which fits into a corresponding notch in the levers B, and 
the levers .Shave each an arm H which exactly fits between 
two arms on each of the levers (7. Figure 296 shows the lock 
with the bolt thrown, and Figure 2966, shows it drawn back. 
When the key is turned in the lock, the bits, no matter in what 
order they may be arranged, lift the levers A. These, by 
means of the arms G and H, lift the other sets of levers in 
exactly the same proportion. The key then forces out the 
bolt, and the levers B are withdrawn from the arms G and ff, 
but before the arms Hare entirely free from the arms on the 
levers (7, the notches on B are caught on the tooth of the dog 
F, the le\ ers B being then held at exactly the relative heights 
to which they were raised by the action of the key on levers A. 
The key, continuing to turn, then allows levers A and C to 
drop to their- original position, and the bolt is then locked. It 



is evident that only the proper key will answer to unlock the 
combination, as unless the levers A and C are raised in 
exactly the proportion they were when the bolt was shot, the 
arms H cannot enter between the arms on levers (7, and the 
bolt cannot be moved. There are several other features of 
the lock, such as detector plates, wards, etc., which need not 
be noticed here. A circular curtain protects the keyhole, and 
a solid partition entirely prevents access to the levers, while if 
any attempt is made to discover the combination by applying 
pressure to the bolt and tentatively rising the' levers A, the 
arms on the levers B and G which have notches on the ends 
will catch on each other and be immovable as long as the 
pressure remains on the bolt. With an eight-lever lock and 
eight-bitted key, over 5,000 different combinations can be made. 

A very ingenious idea which seems not to have survived the 
the test of years was embodied in another English device 
" ParnelPs " Defiance lock. The peculiarity here is in the key, 
which is made with expanding bits. When out of the lock it 
has the appearance of a key-blank. Eccentrics in the lock 
force out the proper bits to act on the levers, and the keyhole 
is guarded in such a manner that a key which could enter and 
was without expanding bits, would simply turn without affect- 
ing the lock ; whereas a key with fixed bits which would be 
right to move the levers could not enter the keyhole. 

As previously stated, none of the foregoing are now used in 
this country, but from them several of our best locks have been 
derived. Prior to 1851 all of the best locks used here were 
of English make, but American locks came to the front about 
that time, and to-day an English lock would be looked upon 
as a curiosity in our hardware trade. 

Turning then to our own current manufactures, there are 
several varieties of locks which are commonly found in the 
market. The "dead-lock" consists simply of a bolt thrown by 
the action of the key on the levers, but does not include any 
knob or latch. A "mortise lock" is one which is mortised into 
the frame of the door, and always includes, as commonly 

Chapter XI. 

ParnelFs Defi- 
ance Lock. 



Mortise Locks. 



Rebated Locks. 

Chapter xi. understood, both bolt and latch. A mortise lock is generally 
operated from either side. A u rim-lock" is one that is planted 
Rim-locks. on the face of the door. It is generally made with a nicer- 

looking case than the mortise locks, and requires longer keys 
and a little different adjustment of the knob-spindles. A dead- 
bolt may be either mortise or rim, but, generally speaking, rim- 
locks are understood to have both latch and bolt. A " rebated 
lock" is one which is mortised into the door-frame like an 
ordinary mortise lock, but the face-plate is rebated so as to fit 
the rebates of the door to which it is attached. This form of 
lock is used only for front double-doors. In the East it is 
customary not to rebate the front doors, but, we believe, 
generally speaking, in the West such locks are necessary. 
Special locks are usually made for front and vestibule doors. 
The lock for the front door includes a dead-bolt and a latch 
operated by a knob from within, and worked by a key from 
without. The vestibule lock consists simply of a latch worked 
by a knob from the inside and a key outside, the same night- 
key answering for the latches of both front and vestibule 
doors. Hotel locks are understood to be those which are so 
arranged that they can be opened from either the inside or the 
outside, but when locked from the inside cannot be unlocked 
from the outside. There are many varieties of hotel locks. 
Generally they are made in sets of fifty, one hundred, two 
hundred, or more, as desired, and are master-keyed, that is to 
say, the tumblers are so arranged that one key will unlock the 
whole series, though the individual keys of the different locks 
will not unlock each other. Again, they are sometimes made 
so that the lock can be locked from the inside with one kev, 
and an exactly similar one can unlock it from the outside, but 
the master-key cannot unlock it after the bolt has been thrown 
from the inside, and after the bolt has been thrown twice from 
the inside nothing can open it from the outside. Such locks 
are intended to be used where two persons room together, but 
do not come in at the same hour, each wishing to be secure 
against intrusion, and yet leave the lock so it can be opened 
by his comrade. 



Hotel Lock. 



Locks are made both by hand and by machinery. Boston, 
at present, seems to lead the country in lines of hand-made 
locks. Indeed, it is doubtful if in any other city such an in- 
dustry could so long survive the extended application of 
machinery to labor which has so strongly marked this century. 
But in Boston the old ideas are slow to go, and the people are 
loath to give up a thing once tried and proved, merely because 
there is something else in the market, even though the some- 
thing else may be cheaper. There is no question but that a 
hand-made lock, if the manufacturer is thoroughly conscientious, 
is better than one made by machinery, especially as the hand- 
made lock manufacturers, thus far, never have catered to a 
cheap trade, and have always kept their goods up to the very 
highest mark. In the hand-made locks the levers are care- 
fully adjusted, nearly all the interior fittings are made of brass, 
and, while in some respects hand goods may be inferior in fine- 
ness of polish and smoothness of exterior appearance, no one 
ever denies their excellence. But, on the other hand, the cost 
of hand-made goods is so much higher than of those made by 
machinery that the former are gradually being driven out of 
the market, especially since some of the best of the machine- 
lock manufacturers have succeeded in turning out such admir- 
able goods. To the uninitiated the best of the machine-made 
locks are quite as good as any that are turned out by hand, 
while the progress of machinery has been so great that it is 
possible to obtain almost any desired accuracy of adjustment. 
Of course, the best of locks, even those which are nominally 
machine-made are fitted by hand. Only in the cheapest forms 
are locks left as they come from the machine. 

In regard to price, machine-made locks may be divided 
generally into six classes. This division, of course, is not 
absolute. Locks are made in all grades, and are of all prices. 
Some very good locks are made in cheap form, and some very 
poorly designed locks are listed at a high price ; but for general 
comparison this division will be satisfactory : 

First, the cheapest form of lock made, with iron face and 

Chapter XI. 

Hand and ma- 
chine made 



Chapter XL bolts, steel spring, and a single lever ; P. & F. Corbin have a 
lock of this description which sells in the market for a $1.50 
a dozen. 

Second, a lock with brass face and bolts, all the rest of the 
construction iron, one lever ; average price $4.00 to $4.50 a 

Third, brass face and bolts, all the rest iron, with two 
levers ; $7.00, or with three levers $8.00 per dozen. 

Fourth, anti-friction latch, brass face and bolts, three levers, 
$17.00 per dozen. 

Fifth, front-door lock and latch, $1.50 to $4.50 each. 

Sixth, hotel locks, $2.50 to $5.00 each. 

Hand-made locks may be divided according to cost into five 
classes : 

First, single lever with brass face and bolts, $1.50 each. 

Second, three levers, brass face and bolts, $2.50 each. 

Third, anti-friction strike, three levers, brass face and bolts, 
$3.00 each. 

Fourth, anti-friction strike, all brass-work, $5.00 each. 

Fifth, front-door locks from $8.00 up. 

The foregoing classification of machine and hand made locks 
according to price does not imply two classes in regard to 
either efficiency in working or nicety of plan. The machine 
and hand made locks are designed on exactly the same princi- 
ples, and the differences are but slight. Still the hand-made 
locks are, throughout, better than a relatively corresponding 
grade of machine-made locks. 


In considering the locks at present in the market, it is man- 
ifestly impossible to even mention all of the styles and vari- 
eties, nor has it been found practicable to gather reliable data 
concerning all of the different makes. It is believed, however, 
that those illustrated will serve as fair criterions of what the 
market is producing. The descriptions will be limited chiefly 
to such as are used about an ordinary building. Time-locks r 



Fig. 297. Mortise Dead-lock. 
Russell & Erw.n. 

bank-locks, safe-locks, prison-locks, etc., are too complicated to Chapter xi. 
come within the scope of this treatise, and are, besides, quite 
outside the line of what 
could fairly be termed 
builders' hardware. 

An analysis of the va- 
rious styles of locks can 
be best followed by tak- 
ing the different exam- 
ples according to the use 
to which each is put. 
They may, then, be 
classed as : 

First, dead-locks. 

Second, ordinary lock and latch combined. 

Third, front-door locks. 

Fourth, vestibule-locks. 

Fifth, hotel-locks. 

Any of these, except the first, may have anti-friction strikes, 
and may be mortise, rim, or rebate, and all can be master- 
keyed. Consequently in these five categories can be included 
all ordinary house-locks. 


Figure 297 is a type of the most simple form of dead-lock, ^ad-locks. 
manufactured by Russell & Erwin, having five plain, pivoted 
levers, permitting of 120 changes in the lock by transposition 
of the levers. The same style of lock is made with as few as 
one lever. A. G. Newman manufactures a very good store- 
door lock, Figure 298, in which the levers slide up and down 
but are not pivoted together. Figure 299 illustrates the 
" Standard " store-door lock, manufactured by the Yale & Towne 
Mfg. Co., a very strong, well-made, and almost unpickable 
lock. The bolt-tail is the full thickness of the bolt but is 
made with a shell so that the tumblers work within the bolt, as 
it were, and the key, instead of acting against the under side 


Chapter XI. 

Store-lock with 
notched gat- 


of the four levers, works through the centres ; and, instead of 
acting directly upon the bolt, simply rotates an irregularly- 
shaped cam. The side figure showing the bolt and the cam 
alone, will illustrate how this lock works. The levers in this 
example are of steel, as in all the " Standard " locks. 

Fig. 298. Mortise Dead-lock. 
A. G. Newman. 

Fig. 299. Standard Store-door Lock. 
Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. 

Neither of the foregoing offers any special protection against 
picking, except such as results from careful fitting, or, in the 
Standard lock, from the difficulty of reaching the levers through 
a small key-hole. Figure 300 shows a " Robinson " store-lock, 
in which the inside of the bolt-post is cut with a squase notch. 
If an attempt is made to pick the lock by exerting a pressure 
on the bolt while the levers are raised tentatively in succession, 
the notch in the post will catch in corresponding notches on 
the edges of the lever gatings, holding the levers so they can- 
not be moved in either direction. Two of the levers only are 
so notched, the uppermost lever having plain gatings to pre- 
vent the posts from catching when the proper key is used. 
This is a hand-made lock, with all the works made of brass 
except the bolt-post. 



Figure 301 shows another "Robinson" lock in which the Chapter XL 
post and gatings are notched in the same manner as the pre- 
ceding example, but in which additional security is obtained 

Store-lock with 
Sliding post. 

Fig. 300. 

Fig. 301 

Store Locks. E. Robinson. 

by attaching the post to a thin plate, sliding up and down in 
the bolt-tail, but held down by a spring lever such as those 
which work against the main levers. The post and the 
gatings are so arranged that if the levers could be so lifted as 
to bring the gatings exactly in a line, the bolt could not be 
moved, as the post would be too low down to pass. The post, 
as well as the levers, has to be raised, and on account of the 
notches, which prevent any tentative picking, this can be done 
only by the proper key. The works of this lock are all of brass, 
except the sliding parts of the bolt and the bolt-post which are 
of steel. The key is tubular, and the lock can be opened from 
one side only. It is an old style, and is little used at present. 

A lock which is asserted to be absolutely proof against pick- 
ing, is the " Dietz " lock, Figure 302. In this the locking-levers 
are not touched at all by the key, being separated from the 
key-hole by a curtain or partition on the bolt-tail, so that no 
wire or picking instrument can reach the levers through the 

Dietz Lock. 



Chapter xi. key-hole. There are two sets of levers, exactly corresponding 
in thickness and bearing against each other only at the shoul- 
ders, as shown by the figure. The key-bits first lift the pri- 
mary-levers, which are fitted with 
the stronger springs. The springs 
of the secondary or locking-levers 
then force the latter down in propor- 
tion as the primary-levers are raised. 
The secondarv-levers are so arranged 

* O 

that the gatings are above the line of 
the lock-post, rather than below it as 
in ordinary locks, and it is evident that 
by raising the primary -levers to the 
proper heights the gatings of the sec- 

Oondary-levers can be brought exactly 
in line to permit the bolt-post to pass. 
But to prevent picking by the ten- 
store Lock. A. E. Dietz. tative process, one of the secondary- 
levers is made with plain gatings but 

the others are finely notched to correspond with notches on the 
post, so that if any attempt is made to force the bolt, the levers 
become fixed. The bolt is moved by a key-cam similar to that 
shown by Figure 299. The small slide at the bottom of the 
lock is simply to prevent the cam from turning too far. The 
" Dietz " lock is machine-made, but is first class in every respect, 
with all-brass inside works. The agents maintain that this 
lock never has been picked. The description may seem com- 
plicated, but the lock is very simple in action, and it is one of 
the most satisfactory of its kind in the market. 


One of the cheapest locks in the market, and one which, 
considering the price, is a very fair article, is manufactured by 
P. & F. Corbin. P. & F. Corbin, Figure 303. Everything about this lock is of 
cast-iron except the springs. The single lever, under the bolt- 
tail, shown by Figure 304, has a small shoulder instead of 


of gatings, and the latch has only one steel spring. It is a 
lock that offers no real security, but it is worth all it costs, 
SI. 50 per dozen. It works easily, and is so simple in construc- 
tion that it seems capable of with- 
standing considerable wear, perhaps 
more than a better article. Figure 
^*-< v\r w>f ^^ ^ s a more expensive, one-lever 

j i ^^^"^j^j) lock by the same manufacturers, 

having double springs for the latch. 
The form of follow, A, and the ar- 
rangement of springs in this ex- 

Chapter XI. 

P. & F. Corbin 

Fig. 304. Lever 

Fig. 305. Lock. P. & F. Corbi 

ample is that which has been found to give the best results, 
generally speaking, and which has been adapted to a great many 
varieties of locks. When the latch is forced back, upon clos- 
ing the door, the lower spring alone is compressed, reacting 
against the plate and posts at B, but when the door-knob is 



Chapter XI. 

Nimick & 


B. Shannon 

& Sons. 

turned in either direction the follow forces back one of the arms 
of (7, compressing the upper spring, while a shoulder on the 
lower part of C catches on D, which is attached to the latch- 
bolt, thus bringing both springs into play. This would be 
termed an easy spring latch, in that the knob can be turned 
with equal ease in either direction. 

Figure 30(3 illustrates a lock manufactured by Nimick & 
Brittan, in which the lever and bolt are essentially the same 
as in the preceding ex- 
ample, but which has a 
follow arranged upon a 
different principle, lugs 
being cast on the top 
and bottom so as to 
bear against the irreg- 
ular spring-lever A, and 
the latch-bolt being 
pinned to an extension 
of the lever. The fol- 
low and lever shown in 
Figure 307, a lock by 
J. B. Shannon & Sons, 
is of much the same de- 
scription. In both of 
these, the knob can be 
turned more easily to 

the left than tO the Fig. 306. Reversible Mortise Lock. Nimick & 

Brittan Mfg. Co. 

right by reason ot 

the unequal leverage against the piece A, though the difference 
in resistance is partially compensated for by making the shoul- 
ders on the follow of unequal lengths. The lock shown by the 
last figure has three levers, and is catalogued as being hand- 
made. In Figure 306 the latch is reversible so that the lock 
can answer for either a right or a left hand door. 

The u Niles " locks, of which Figure 308 is a type, are all 
made to be operated by knobs having a follow cast solid onto 



the spindle. The action of the knob will be referred to later 
on. The figure shows only the follow, which is inserted from 

the back. The 
" Niles " locks 
have the name 
of wearing very 
well. The levers 
are of steel and 
are pretty well 
fitted for a ma- 
chine-made lock, 
and the springs 
are also of steel, 
the bolt being the 
only portion of 
the mechanism 
for which brass 
is employed. As 
in some of the 
I previous exam- 
ples, the knob 
turns more easily 
towards the left 
than the right. 
If instead of the 
irregular, hinged 
lever, B, a form were adopted similar to that shown in Figure 
305, the u Niles" locks 'would leave little to be desired, and 
would compare favorably with anything else in the market. 

An examination of the figures will show that, except in the 
very cheapest example, the face-plate of the lock is screwed to 
the lock-case in such a manner that it can be moved slightly 
and set at whatever bevel may be desired in order to fit the 
door. Figure 309 shows a lock of the Ireland Manufacturing 
Company in which all the parts can be reversed. The latch is 
simply dr-awn out and turned over. The bolt-tail is in twp 

Fig. 307. Mortise Knob-Lock. J. B. Shannon & Sons. 

Chapter XI. 

Chicago Hard- 
ware Co. 


Mfg. Co. 


Chapter xi. sections and the outer part can be unscrewed and reversed to 

Fig. 308. Niles Lock. Chicago 
Hardware Co. 

Fig. 309. Reversible Lock. Ireland 
Mfg. Co. 

match the change in bevel. Otherwise this lock is of the 

Fig. 3 I 0. Reversible Lock. Ireland Fig. 3 I I . Three- Lever Lock. Hopkins 

Mfg. Co. & Dickinson Mfg. Co. 

ordinary type. Figure 310 shows another lock manufactured 


by the same company, in which the hand can be changed by Chapter XL 


Fig. 312. Reversible Lock. Hop- 
kins & Dickinson Mfg. Co. 

Fig. 313 Gilbert Lock. Gilbert Lock 

Fig. 314. Standard Lock. Yale & Towne Fig. 3 I 5 Lock. Enoch Robinson. 

Mfg. Co. 

turning the latch over. 

Figure 311 illustrates a very satisfactory three-lever lock 



Chapter XI. 

Hopkins & 

Mfg. Co. 


Lock Co. 

Yale & ToAvne 
Mfg. Co. 

E. Robinson. 

made by the Hopkins & Dickinson Manufacturing Company. 
The key-hole in this example is protected by a small rotating 
curtain similar to those described in connection with the store- 
door locks, intended to aid in securing the levers from being 
tampered with. Figure 312 is another lock by the same com- 
pany, in which the latch-springs are of phosphor-bronze, and 
quite ingeniously, though very simply arranged so as to give 
an easy spring-latch. The latch is reversible. The lock is 
shown with a single-lever, but is also made with three, if 
desired. Both of these locks are ex- 
cellently finished. 

Figure 313 shows a lock in which 
the latch is operated by a peculiar 
form of knob having no spindle or 
follow, but working against the latch 
mechanism with a lever at A. It has 
the same disadvantage as the " Niles " 
locks, that the ordinary form of knob 
and spindle cannot be used with it. 
Aside from the latch, this lock pre- 
sents nothing out of the usual line. 

Figure 314 is a type of a make of 
locks which for simplicity of design, 
carefulness of execution and for good 
lasting qualities is hardly excelled by Fig. 31 6. 
anything in the market, except the 
best hand-made work. The Yale "Standard" locks, as 
they are termed, to distinguish them from the ordinary Yale 
pin locks, are made with steel levers, and brass springs, 
bolts and follows. They are so perfectly simple as to require 
no description. The best forms of springs, levers, and follows 
are used in these locks, so that they seldom fail to give satis- 

Excepting Figure 307, all of the foregoing locks are 
machine-made, the levers being hand-fitted only in the best 
grades. Figure 315 shows one of " Robinson's " cheapest hand- 



Enoch Robin- 


made locks costing $1.25 each, fitted with a single iron lever, 
bronze or brass being used only for the follow and the bolts. 
Figure 316 is a better example of Robinson's work, costing 
$3.50 per lock. In this the levers, as well as the bolts and 

the follow are of bronze, 
and the latch is fitted 
with an anti-friction 
strike. The interior of 
a machine-made lock 
usually is finer looking 
than that of one made 
by hand, as in the latter 
all the care is concen- 
trated on the adjustment 
of the mechanism. 
There is no denying the 
excellence of the " Rob- 
inson" locks, at least it 
would be difficult to per- 
suade many Boston 
builders that they are 
not the best to be had, 
and although the locks 
are much more expen- 
sive than the best of the 
Yale "Standards" or 


Chapter XI. 

Fig. 3 I 7. Front-Door Lock. P. & F.Corbin. 

the Hopkins & Dickinson locks, they are used a great deal 
on all kinds of work. It is a satisfaction to know that there 
is one corner of this country where careful, conscientious work 
can command its own price, in the face of the competition 
which exists in the hardware trade. 


The greatest amount of care and ingenuity has been ex- 
pended upon the locks which are used for the front-doors of 
dwelling-houses, and the largest degree of complication is 


Chapter xi. usually found in these goods. They afford, generally speaking, 
a greater security against picking than do the locks which are 
employed for inside-doors. The conditions of an outside-door 
lock are that it shall have two sets of mechanisms operated by 
keys, to move either bolt or latch at will, and shall have the 

Fig. 3 I 8. Mortise Knob-Lock. P. & F. Corbin. 

knob-spindle so arranged that the latch can be moved by turn- 
ing either knob, and that the outside knob can be made im- 
movable, while the inner one is free to move. Front-doors are 
usually two inches or more thick, and the lock can consequently 



IDG made quite thick, so as to permit of multiplication of the Chapter xi. 
levers, and a stronger mechanism than for inside-doors. A 
front-door lock should always have an anti-friction strike. 

Figure 317 shows a form 

o front-door lock manu- 

factured by P. & F. Cor- 

bin. This is fitted with 

an anti-friction strike, 

has four levers for 

both the lock and the 

night-latch. The follow 

is in two pieces. When 

the small catch on the 

face-plate over the latch 

is pressed to one side, 

the lever, A, is moved 

so as to fit in a slot on 

the side of the outside 

follow, as shown by the 

figure, thus holding 

the follow, and with it the 

outside-knob and spindle, 

so they cannot be moved. 

The night-key operates 

by first lifting the levers Flg ' 3 ' 9> Front Door Lock - Russe " & Erwin ' 

B, and by moving the lever, (7, which carries back with it the 

latch-bolt. Figure 318 is a form of rebated-door lock by 

the same manufacturers. It is inserted here merely to show the 

manner in which mortise-locks are fitted to a rebated-door. 

Figure 319 illustrates a front-door lock manufactured by 
Russell & Erwin. The levers on the locking-bolt, A, are 
attached to the bolt, and move with it, not being particularly 
proof against picking, however. In operating the night-latch, 
the levers B are pushed to one side until the gatings are on a 
line to permit the post to pass, the post forming part of a 
bent lever, the end of which shows at D, which portion acts 

P. & F. Corb'n. 

Russell & 



Chapter XI. 


directly against E, and so 
draws back the latch. In 
order to secure the outside 
knob, the catch on the 
face-plate is pushed up, 
throwing the slots on the 
lever F, Trover a shoulder 
on the outside-follow. Fig- 
ure 320 is another front- 
door lock by the same 

Figure 321 is a very 
excellent lock manufac- 

Fig. 321. Front-Door Lock. 
B. Shannon & Sons 

J. B. Shannon 
& Sons. 




Front-Door Lock. 
ell & Erwin, 

tured by J. B. Shannon 
& Sons, so arranged 
that the knob comes be- 
tween the night-latch and 
the lock-bolt. It will be 
noticed that the levers 
and the posts are notched 
in the same manner as 
was* explained for some 
of the dead-locks. The 
latch is moved by means 
of a lever, A, under- 
neath the upper set of 
levers, A being attached 
to the latch-bolt. This is. 
a very secure lock. 



Figure 322 shows a variety of the " Niles " front-door Chapter xi. 
lock, which is quite simple in its arrangement. The latch is 
worked by the lever A. 

A very simple but efficient lock is shown by Figure 323. 
The latch-key works through a curtain. A, raising the levers A G N 
until the post, /?, and with it the plate and the latch can be 

Fig. 322. Niles's Front-Door Lock. 
Chicago Hardware Co. 

Fig. 323. Front-Door Lock. 
A G. Newman. 

drawn back. This lock is made in the " New York " style, 
with a single follow, intended to receive the spindle of the 

Figures 324 and 325 illustrate two styles of front-door locks 
by the Hopkins & Dickinson Manufacturing Company. The 

Hopkins & 

Mfg. Co. 



Chapter XL 

Yale Standard. 

former is rather a light lock, the latter especially strong and 
heavy, and fitted with five levers to both latch and lock. 

Figure 326 shows one of the best of the front-door locks, 
the " Standard," by the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Com- 
pany. There are three steel levers for both the latch and the 
lock. The night-key pushes the levers B to one side and 

Fig. 324. Front-Door Lock. Hopkins 
& Dickinson Mfg. Co. 

Fig. 325. Front- Door Lock. Hopkins 
& Dickinson Mfg. Co. 

moves the bent piece A, which forces back the latch-bolt. The 
tongue, (7, which locks the outside-knob, is pushed in or out by 
the buttons on the face-plate. It is not intended to use this 
lock with a swivel-spindle, but when the knob is locked by the 
tongue (7, a spindle and cam at D serve to throw back the 
latch from the inside of the door. The arrangement of the 
levers B is defective in this lock, in that they will not work 



should the springs give out. Levers which act by gravity, as 
well as with springs, would seem to be more suitable. 

The lock represented by Figure 327, is one of " Robinson's" 
best make, being sold, with the corresponding vestibule lock, 
at $14 per set. It is a 
hand-made lock, all the 
mechanism being of brass. 
In the examples previ- 
ously considered, there 
have been two sets of lev- 
ers to each lock. In this 
case, however, there is 

Chapter XI. 


Fig. 326. Yale Standard Front- 
Door Lock. Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. 

Fig. 327. Front Door-Lock. 
E. Robinson. 

but one, the holes for the night-latch and the dead-lock key 
being side by side. The shape of the levers will explain the 
arrangements, two sets of gatings and rackings being cut 



Chapter XI. 




on each. The dead-lock key acts against the edges at A. 
B is the post on the bolt-tail, which passes through the gat- 
ings in the ordinary manner. The night-key acts against 
the edges 01 The post D is attached to a sliding-plate, work- 
ing between the levers and the dead-bolt tail. The lever E 
is pivoted to this plate and also to the lock-case. When the 
levers are raised so as to allow the post D to enter the ratch- 
ings, the plate and the lever E are drawn back together at the 
same time as the latch. The follow is made double, to permit 
of swivel-spindles, and the outside is locked by the arm F. 
The latch has a very easy spring, the follows being stiffened 
by a spring. 

Hall manufactures a front-door lock almost exactly like 
Figure 327, but with his peculiar anti-friction strike. 


These are always sold in 
sets, with a front-door lock, 
and the levers are so ar- 
ranged that the same latch-key 
will open both, the vestibule- 
lock having no dead-bolt. But, 
more generally speaking, a ves- 
tibule-latch may be considered 
as any spring-lock having no 
dead-bolt. When used for a 
vestibule-door the latch should 
have swivel-spindles and levers 
to lock the outside-knob. 

Figure 328 is a pattern which 
P. & F. Corbin list as a front- 
door lock, but which seems to 

Fig. 328. Front-Door be more properly a vestibule- 
Lock. P & F. Corbin. 

latch. The key lifts the levers 
and moves a plate on which 
are two posts A and B, one of which must pass the gatings 



before the other can reach the shoulder on the latch-bolt (7, 
and force it back. 

Figure 329 is the vestibule-latch sold with the front-door lock 


represented by Figure 327. 

Figure 330 is a Standard knob-latch manufactured by the 

Yale & Towne Company, which is not, properly speaking, 

a vestibule-latch, but which is 
worthy of consideration in this 
connection. It is provided with 
triple-springs, thus permitting 
a very easy action on the part 

Fig. 329. 

Vestibule- Latch. 


Fig. 330, Standard Knob-Latch. 
& Towne Mfg. Co. 


of the striker while giving all necessary strength to resist the 
turn of the knob. This can be adjusted to either right or left 
hand doors. \ 


Hotel-locks are usually made to order, and master-keyed in 
sets. In a large hotel all the locks on a floor can be opened 
with one key. In smaller buildings all the room-locks are 
master-keyed in a single series. The protection afforded by 
locks which are master-keyed is, of course, less than it would 
otherwise be, as a master-keyed lock can very easily be picked 
if the principle of master-keying is understood, and in most 

Chapter XI. 

Yale & Towne 
Mfg. Co. 




Chapter XI. 

P. & F. Corbin. 

Hopkins & 
Mfg. Co. 

cases master-keying benefits no one but the hotel-keeper. 
Except with the " Yale " and the " Hopkins & Dickinson " 
cylinder-locks, there has not yet been devised a really satis- 
factory system of master-keying. The two exceptions will 
be described in a subsequent chapter. 

The simplest and also the cheapest method of master-keying 
is illustrated by one of "Corbin's" locks, Figure 331. The 

Fig. 33 I . 

ister-keyed Lock. 

332. Master-keyed Lock, 
kins & Dickinson Mfg Co. 


gating on the one lever is made so wide as to admit of fifty 
different positions, in any one of which the bolt-post could pass. 
The room-key raises the lever so as just to clear the top of the 
gating, and the master-key allows the post to clear the bottom 
of the gatings. A bent wire would serve quite as well for 
opening the lock as either of the keys. Fortunately for 
occupants where such locks are used, it is customary to fit 
hotel-locks with a small bolt, worked from within. Figure 332 
is much better. The levers are exactly like those of any 
ordinary lock, except that there is a shoulder A at the back of 


each. Beneath the bolt-tail is a fourth lever, with an arm on 
it, rising so as to catch under the shoulders A. This lever is 
protected by a ward about the key-hole. The room-key lifts 
the levers and shoots the bolt without disturbing the fourth 


lever. The master-key lifts the fourth lever without touching 

Fig. 333. Master-keyed Lock. Hopkins & 
Dickinson Mfg. Co. 

Fig. 334 Hotel-Lock Hopkins & 
Dickinson Mfg. Co. 

the others, the shoulders being so sized that the master-key 
lever will bring the gatings on the locking-levers into line. 

Figure 333 shows another form of master-keyed lock by Hop- 
kins & Dickinson. In this instance the regular key and the 
master-key work from either side of the lock in the same key- 
hole on the same tumblers and bolts. Still, each has a different 
set of tumbler-rackings and a different post in the bolt. When 
the master-key is used the bolt-post for the regular key is 
thrown down by a patent device, and another post brought 
up in the second rackings of the tumblers. When the master- 
key is removed the lock is set in use for the regular key. It is 


Chapter XL 



Chapter XI. 

Tale & Towne 
Mfg. Co. 

claimed that 1,200 of these locks can be made, all different, 
each lock with a key of it own which will fit no other, and with 
master-key to pass all. This is a rather expensive lock, how- 
ever, and on that account is not used a great deal. The idea 
is an exceedingly ingenious one. 

Figure 334 shows a Hopkins & Dickinson lock, or rather 
bolt, used for hotel and oilice doors between connecting rooms. 

This is intended to be used when 
it is desired to have the door defi- 
nitely locked from either side, so 
that it cannot be unlocked from 
the other side, and, accordingly, 
the handles which operate the 
bolts are placed orr opposite sides 
of the doors. The same com- 
pany also manufactures a hotel- 
lock which is so arranged that 
the locking bolt can be operated 
from the inside by a turn-button, 
instead of a key. When the door 
is locked from the outside it can 
at any time be opened from 
within by turning the button, so 
that it is impossible for an occu- 
pant to be locked in the room. 

Figure 335 shows the construc- 
tion of a Yale " Standard " 
hotel-lock. In this case the master-keying is provided for by a 
second set of rackmgs cut in the levers, so that almost any 
number of variations can be had in a given series of locks, the 
variation being entirely in the lower set of rackings. The room- 
key lifts the levers exactly the same distance as the master- 
key, but as the proportion between the lengths of the bits, 
and the height of the lever bellies above the lower key-hole 
is different in each lock, it is easily understood why no two 
locks can be opened by the same room-key. 


335 Standard Hotel-Lock. 
Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. 




The broad and general principle which distinguishes the or- 
dinary lever-lock from the style of lock manufactured under 
the Yale patents, is that in the latter the mechanism upon 
which the key directly operates is entirely distinct from the 
lock itself, being enclosed in a cylinder or escutcheon. The 
function of the key consists simply in so arranging certain 
movable pins, slides or other obstructions, that the mechanism 
is free to rotate, and by its movement, to operate on the locking- 
bolt. This variety of lock is by no means without a prototype, 
as we have already seen in the case of the "Egyptian," the 
" Bramah" and the "Cotterill" locks; but in its application it 
has been simplified and reduced to a marketable form chiefly 
in this country, and can be fairly claimed as a product of 
American ingenuity. 

Linus Yale invented the lock which bears his name, about 
thirty years ago. His original patents covered substantially 
only the use of a flat key to operate a locking mechanism, a 
series of vertical pins of unequal lengths being lifted by means 
of certain nicks or irregularities on the upper edge of the key, 
so that the ends of the pins were brought on a line. Within 
recent years an important change has been made in the con- 
struction of the Yale escutcheon. The slot through which the 
key reaches the pins is now cut in sharp corrugations, the key 
being corrugated longitudinally so as to exactly fit the slot. 
By this simple device, the " Yale " locks have been rendered 
practically proof against any but the most expert lock-pickers. 
The external appearance of the " Yale " lock is presumably 
familiar to every one, but the internal construction will require 
some explanation. 

Figure 336 shows a cross and a longitudinal section through 
a typical Yale escutcheon, together with the exposed face of 
the same. It will readily be seen that the action of the 
mechanism is very simple. There are two barrels or cylinders, 
one rotating within the other, but eccentric with it. When 

Chapter XI. 

Yale Patent. 

Yale Median- 


Chapter xi. the key is withdrawn the lower cylinder is held from rotating 
by means of five sets of round pins which are fitted in vertical 
grooves extended partially through the two cylinders, and 
pressed constantly downward by five spiral springs. In each 
groove are two pins of unequal lengths, one over the other. 
When the proper key is inserted all the pins are raised simul- 
taneously, but to varying heights, so that the joints between the 

Fig. 336. Mechanism of the Yale Lock. Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. 

upper and the lower pins are brought exactly on a line with 
each other. It is evident that as the inner cylinder, categor- 
ically designated as the plug, is exactly fitted to the bore in the 
shell, an almost imperceptible variation in the height to which 
any one of the pins is raised, will prevent the plug from turn- 
ing ; whence it follows that an immense number of locks can 
be made with such mechanism without duplication. From this 
results the unrivalled capacity of the " Yale " lock for permuta- 
tions, with its proportionate safety against any accidental 
interchange of keys. 

It will be seen that in this lock the key acts only as an 
adjuster of the pins. Motion is communicated to the locking- 
bolt of the lock simply by means of a hub on the back of the 
rotating plug, or, in the case of a rim-lock, by a flat key 
extending from the plug through the door. Some of the 
opponents of this system consider that in it, too much is de- 
manded of the key, but when the locks are otherwise as nicely 
arranged and evenly balanced as the " Yale & Towne " 
goods are usually found to be, the amount of twisting strain re- 
quired to move the bolt is really not a great deal. In no 
well-made lock should there be any great strain on the key, 



much less in such a device as this, wherein there are no strong 
lever-springs to work against. 

It will easily be appreciated that this device has almost 
revolutionized the lock-trade in this country. Not only has it 
opened the way for many valuable inventions of a similar 
nature, but it has stimulated the perfecting of the ordinary 
lever- locks, and was instrumental in the abandoning of the old 
style of heavy door-keys, so that one's pockets are no longer 
burdened with such keys as were thought indispensable forty 
years ago. 

The advantages claimed for the Yale lock are as follows : 

First, a key of the smallest size and most convenient form. 

Second, immense capacity for changes or permutations, so 
that more thousands of changes are possible than an equal 
number of dozens with the old systems. 2 

Third, great safety against picking. 

Fourth, uniformity of size of the key for locks of all kinds 
and for all purposes. 

Fifth, protection against accidental interchange of keys by 
reason of the great capacity of the lock for permutations. 

In regard to the third point claimed, it must be remembered, 
however, that with all its security the Yale lock does not 
offer an exception to the general rule that any lock can be 
picked which is operated by a key. Still, very few persons 
have the nicety of touch necessary to raise the pins by means 
of fine instruments inserted through the key-hole, and bring 
them exactly to the position necessary for moving the plug. 
There are experts who claim to be able to open any " Yale " 
lock which has been made, but for all practical purposes a lock 
of this sort affords absolute security, as the time required to 
pick it renders it very unlikely that any thief would be so indis- 
creet as even to make the attempt. 

It will be understood that the zig-zag corrugations extend 

2 Assuming that a variation of one-fiftieth of an inch in the length of a pin is 
sufficient to lock the plug, 267,331,200 locks can be made on this system, no two 
of which can be operated by the same key. 

Chapter XI. 

Advantages of 
Yale Locks. 



Chapter XI. entirely through the length of the plug. In a measure, this 
feature prevents any duplicate key from being manufactured 
by persons not authorized to do so, as it requires very heavy 
and specially made machinery to produce one of these keys, 
and unless the corrugations exactly correspond with the lock, 
the key cannot enter. The plugs are cut by a peculiar form 
of band-saw specially designed by the manufacturers ; and 
altogether it seems as if every precaution had been thought of 
which could render the lock more inviolable. 

Like a great 
many other success- 
ful inventions, the 
Yale locks are re- 
markable for^ their 
simplicity. T h e 
whole of the me- 
chanism being prac- 
tically combined in 
the escutcheon, 
there is no necessity 
for any complicated 
system of levers or 
springs in the lock 
proper, and there 
remains very little 
to get out of order. 
The older plugs, 
made with a 
straight slot, would 
allow a certain 
amount of vertical 
play to the key, 
so that it would 

rock in the cut and would not always exactly lift the pins ; 
besides which the slot permitted the lock to be picked with 
comparative ease. This is entirely obviated by the corrugated 

Fig. 337. 

Yale Front-Door Lock. Yale & Tov 



slot, as already explained. It will be noticed also that the lock 
is not in any way dependent upon the springs, as the pins would 
act by gravity, even should the springs give out entirely. 

It would seem almost an impossibility to master-key a series 
of Yale locks, and yet it is accomplished in two different 
ways. The first is to fit each lock with a separate master- 
escutcheon, practically making a double lock, though both sets 
of escutcheons act on the same locking-bolt. By this method a 
million locks could be master-keyed in a single series, if 
desired. The second way is to use three pins in each slot 
instead of two, the lengths of the pins being so adjusted that, 
throughout the series, the upper joints can be brought on a line 
by the master-key, while the lower jointings are all different, 
and fitted to the individual room-keys. This method necessi- 
tates a larger and more cumbersome plug arid cylinder, and is 
seldom used. 

Yale locks are manufactured in all styles and for all pur- 
poses, but the escutcheon is always arranged in exactly the 
same manner, whether intended to operate a night-latch or a 
desk-lock. The variations consist mainly of differences in the 
form of the latch or of the lock. A single example will be 
sufficient to illustrate the whole. Figure 337 represents one of 
the most perfected forms of Yale front-door lock. G and B 
are the two escutcheons, each with a cam, 7?, attached to the 
back of the plug. M and j^are two levers hinged to the bolt- 
tail. Z, J^is a bent lever, hinged to a flange of the bolt-tail, and 
catching under a hub on the bolt of the latch. The dead-bolt 
can be operated from either side, the cams first depressing the 
levers so as to pass the post, S, and then shooting out the bolt 
in the same manner as with an ordinary key. When the dead- 
bolt is unlocked the end of the lever F takes the position 
shown by the figure. If the cam R is then turned to the left, 
it so acts on the lever as to cause it to draw back the latch, G. 
Consequently a single key serves both to unlock the dead-bolt 
and to draw back the latch. 

The " Yale " lock has, of course, won for itself a host of 

Chapter XT. 

Yale Master- 
Keyed Lock. 

Yale Front- 
Door Lock. 


Chapter xi. imitators in the hardware trade. The closest approach to the 
" Yale " system is embodied in an escutcheon lock manufac- 
tured by P. & F. Corbin. 
Figure 338 illustrates this. 


The internal arrangement is 
exactly the same as in the 
" Yale " lock, so far as re- 
lates to the pins, etc., but the 
plugs are cut with square- 
edged, instead of zig-zag slots. 
These slots, also, are not car- 
ried entirely through the 
plug, but extend only through 
a thin face-plate, behind 
which is a wide slot exactly 
like that of the original 
" Yale " locks. This seems 

Fig. 338. 

The Harvard Lock. 

P. & F. 

like an imitation of, but in 
nowise an improvement on the original, and is considered by 

Fig. 339. Th Foster Lock. 
A. G. Newman. 

the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company as an infringement 
on their patents. 



Figure 339 illustrates the " Foster " lock, manufactured by 
A. G. Newman, a very ingeniously devised lock, which is 
harder to pick than the " Yale," and* as put on the market, 
shows the greatest of care in workmanship and finish. The 
cross-section of the escutcheon shows the internal construction. 
The outer shell, A, is fixed to the lock-case. The plug, B, is 
hollow, and fitted with ten slides (7, which work through cuts 
in the side of the plug and catch in slots, E, K, cut in the 
shell, so that the plug cannot rotate until the slides are with- 
drawn. Half of the slides protrude from the plug towards the 
right and half towards the left ; each slide being fitted with a 
small brass spring, D. The key is cut with an irregular cleft, 
and the slides are cut out, with a cross-piece near the centre. 
The cross-pieces, and the sinuosities of the cleft in the key are 
so mutally spaced that when the key is inserted all of the slides 
are drawn in and the ends no longer protrude but are flush 
with the surface of the plug, which is then free to rotate. It 
is believed that this lock is unique of its kind, and, though in 
outward appearance much like a 
Yale lock, it is decidedly original in 
every other respect. 

A form of cylinder-lock has re- 
cently been put on the market by 
the Hopkins & Dickinson Manu- 
facturing Company, which partakes 
somewhat of the nature of the old 
u Bramah " lock, previously de- 
scribed. Figure MO illustrates the 
external appearance as well as the 
internal construction of the escut- 
cheon or cylinder, whose functions 
are the same as in the Yale lock. 

The shell, A, is secured to the lock- 
Fig 340. Cylinder Lock. 

case so as to be immovable. The Hopkins & Dickinson Mfg. Co. 
plug B, rotates inside of this, being held in place by screws, (7, 
turned through the outer shell. Inside of the plug are five 

Chapter XT. 
Foster Lock. 

Hopkins & 

Cylinder Lock. 


Chapter xi. slides, D, working in a closely fitted groove, with a separate 
spring to each slide. The springs are on opposite sides, in 
separate slots, so that there is no chance for the slides to rock. 
The key is flat, with five notches on the end corresponding 
to the five slides. It is inserted through a straight slot in a 
capping-piece, E, and bears against the bottom of slots in 
the centre of the slides. At the back of the plug is a flat 
piece of metal, known as a fence, F, working up and down 

CK055 SFCTlOfl ' 

HOWZO/ITAL 5ccno/i 


Fig. 340. Cylinder Lock. Hopkins & Dickinson Mfg. Co. 

in grooves, with a hole through the centre sufficiently large to 
allow the ends of the slides to protrude by it. The top of each 
slide has one notch in it the same width as the thickness of the 
fence, at varying distances from the key-hole, besides one or 


more false notches of lesser depth. The plug is extended with 
an arm, G, by which the lock-bolt is operated. 

The mechanism operates as follows : The fence is in the 
plane of an eccentric groove or ward cut on the back of the 
shell, as shown by the 
fio-ure. This eccentric 


groove is so located with 
reference to the centre of 
rotation of the cylinder 
that when the plug is 
turned, the longer arm 
of the fence is forced to 
one side, the amount of 
eccentricity being suffi- 
cient to firmly wedge and 
hold the plug, in case the 
fence should not be free 
to move laterally. When 
the key is inserted, a 
shoulder on it first presses 
back a pin, H, which 
works in a slot so as to 
hold the plug and the 
shell together and pre- 
vent accidental rotation. 
The cuts on the end of 
the key then force back 
the slides in such ratio 
that all the deep notches 
are brought exactly on 
a line with the plane 
of the fence. The key is then turned, rotating the plug, bring- 
ing the fence to bear against the walls of the eccentric groove, 
and forcing it down into the notches of the slides, these notches 
being of sufficient depth to allow the fence to entirely follow in 
the eccentric groove. The arm, G, can thus operate on the 


Chapter XI. 

Fig. 341 

Cylinder front-Door Lock. Hopkins 
& Dickinson Mfg. Co, 



Hopkins & 

Cylinder Lock. 

Chapter xi. The shallow notches on the slides are intended as a safe- 

guard against picking. By turning the plug with a knife blade, 
the fence can be brought to bear against the slides. Slight in- 
equalities in the width of the slides cannot be avoided, and the 
widest slide will bind most firmly against the fence, so that by 
depressing the slides successively with a fine pick one might in 
time be able to catch all the notches over the fence, and so 
undo the lock, were it not for the false notches which are 
so confusing that it is extremely difficult, and for most persons, 
impossible to pick the lock. 

Figure 341 illustrates an adaptation of this escutcheon to a 
front-door lock. The works are ingeniously arranged so that 
the key will operate both the dead-bolt and the latch, while 
at the same time the dead-bolt can be shot back by a turn-button 
and spindle from the inside of the door. The illustration is too 
clear to require any detailed description. This kind of escut- 
cheon or cylinder can, of course, be applied to any form of 
lock, though thus far it has been used by the manufacturers 
only in connection with front-door and office-door locks. 

Many improvements have been made in the mechanism of 
this lock during the past six months, and the most thorough 
study and care have been given to perfect it in every way. 
The first samples put on the market were deficient in many 
respects, but the lock as now offered to the trade is about as. 
perfect in every way as anything of the kind which has thus 
far come before the public. It has excelled everything except 
the Yale locks, arid indeed there is little that can be said of 
the "Yale" which does not apply with equal force to the Hop- 
kins & Dickinson cylinder-lock. It is well made, compact, not 
liable to get out of order, easily repaired and practically bur- 

The patents to a very interesting cylinder-lock are controlled 

by the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company. The 

Winn Lock. " Winn " lock, Figure 342, is so peculiar in its workings that 

even after taking it apart it is hard to follow the movements it 

makes in unlocking. The outer cylinder is secured to the lack- 


case and to the door, so as to be immovable. Inside of it 
rotates the plug, a section of which is cut away to allow for a 
slide-holder, A, which is free to move in and out. Inserted in 
the face of the holder is a pin, B, projecting sufficiently to 
catch in a groove which is cut out from the inner surface of the 
outer cylinder-barrel, the groove following a waved line, so 
that when the plug is rotated, the slide-holder is first drawn 

Chapter XI. 


Fig 342. The Wmn Cylinder Lock. Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. . 

away from the key-hole, then back, then away again. The 
slides are flat pieces of steel, one-twelfth inch wide at the ends 
nearest the key-hole and one-sixth inch at the other, and are 
each notched on one edge, at varying distances from the end. 
There is also a sliding-post which passes through the plug be- 
hind the slides, which is a little longer than the diameter of the 
plug, so that one end of the post must project through a short 
slot in the outer cylinder-barrel. The key, when inserted in 
the plug, sets the slides by means of the nicks on the end, 
bringing the slots exactly on a line. The plug being then 
rotated, the peg, C, carries the slides and the slide-holder away 

Whin Lock, 


Chapter xi. from contact with the key, the notches remaining set on a line. 
After performing a quarter revolution with the plug, the proj- 
ecting end of the sliding-post encounters an obstacle tending to 
force it out on the opposite side of the plug, and the notches on 
the slides being on a line, a fence on the sliding-post slips into 
the notches, and the plug can continue to rotate. Before a 
complete revolution is effected, the slides encounter a fixed 
obstacle which forces them back to their original position, the 
alignment of the notches being destroyed. The connection be- 
tween the plug and the bolt of the lock is the same as in all the 

A little reflection will convince one how futile would be any 
attempts at picking this lock. The key simply sets the slides 
and acts as a lever to rotate the plug. The slides are all 
pointed on the ends towards the key, and a very slight ex- 
perience is sufficient to show that the lock cannot be picked at 
all. Indeed, this is the worst thing about it from a commercial 
point of view, as few people care to have a door-lock so im- 
pregnable that the door has to be broken in every time the key 
is lost. 

There are several other styles of cylinder-locks, in which the 
key operates on levers instead of pins ; also several varieties 
which have much the same appearance as the Yale locks. 
None of these, however, present any striking peculiarities, and 
being used more for cabinet work than for doors, they hardly 
came within the scope of this discussion. 


Dial-locks are used almost exclusively for safe and vault 
work, and so cannot be included under the general topic of 
Builders' Hardware. But, representing, as they do, the highest 
degree of perfection m the line of locks, a brief statement of 
the principles upon which they are constructed and worked, 
may not be out of place. 

The external appearance of a dial-lock is familiar to every 


one, consisting of a rotating disk, graduated around the circum- 
ference either with letters or with numbers. To operate the 
lock, the knob attached to the dial-disk is turned a certain 
number of times to one side, then to the other, etc., stopping 
each time on a certain number or letter, until the combination 
is set, when a single turn of the knob draws back the bolt. 
The internal 
arrange ment 
consists of a 
series of flat, 
circular disks 
or tumblers, 
which rotate 
freely on the 
spindle of the 
dial-knob. In 
the edge of 
each tumbler is 
a notch, and 
the inner-most 

tumbler is made with a dog which catches the tooth of a 
lever attached to the bolt. This inner tumbler is made fast to 
the spindle. On each face of each of the tumblers is a small 
peg, all the pegs being placed at the same distance from the 
centre of rotation ; so that when the spindle is turned, the peg 
on the first tumbler strikes against the peg on the second 
tumbler, causing the latter to rotate, and in turn to start the 
third, and so on, so that with a four-tumbler lock, turning the 
spindle four times to the left moves the fourth tumbler to any 
desired number ; turning next three times to the right adjusts 
the third tumbler, but does not disturb the adjustment of the 
fourth ; then turning twice to the right adjusts the second, but 
does not disturb the other tumblers. When the slots in all the 
tumblers are brought to a line, a bar drops into them, per- 
mitting the bolt-lever to catch in the teeth of the first or lock- 
ing-tumbler, when a single revolution will draw back the bolt. 


Chapter XI. 

Fig. 343. Dial- Lock. Damon Safe and Lock Works. 



Chapter XI. 

Damon Dial- 

A single lock will illustrate the subject sufficiently for our 
purpose. Figure 343 shows the works of one form of safe- 
lock, used by the Damon Safe and Lock Works ; and though 
this is a cheap lock, it embodies all the essential principles of 
every combination lock. This lock is susceptible of 755,000 
different combinations, but some bank-locks afford as many as 
134,000,000 changes. 

There is absolutely no way to pick such a lock as this, 
except by "ringing the changes," that is to say, by making 
successively all the possible combinations, until the right one is 

Combination locks cost from five dollars for the cheapest 
kind, to several hundred dollars for the most perfect styles of 
time locks. 


In addition to the regular lines of lever and cylinder locks, 

there are several 
forms which may be 
considered in this 

Tubular Locks. 
Some cheap styles 
of lock are manu- 
factured of such 
form that all the 

Fig. 344. Tubular Lock. Hollenbeck. mortising Can be 

done with an augur, being essentially the same in principle as 
the mortise door-bolts described in a previous chapter and 
illustrated by Figure 56. Figure 344 shows the construction 
of the "Hollenbeck Tubular lock." It is too simple and 
cheap to afford any very great degree of security as compared 
with an ordinary three-lever lock, but for some cases it would 
answer very well, as it saves seventy-five per cent of the labor 
ordinarily necessary to fit a common lock to a door. It is 
held firmly in place by the lugs at top and bottom, so, 



it cannot work loose. Hollenbeck also manufactures a tubular 
latch on essentially the same principle. Several other firms 
have tubular locks listed in their catalogues, but they are too 
much alike and too simple to 
require further illustration. 

Electric Locks. It is often 
desirable to have a lock which 
can be operated by any one 
at a distance from the door. 
In apartment-houses, clubs, 
etc., it is well to fit the front- 
door with a lock so connected 
with an electric battery that 
when a knob is pressed in an 
upper story a catch in the', 
lock is drawn by the action of 
an electro-magnet, permitting 
the lock or latch to be moved. 
Any form of lever-lock might 
be adapted to this purpose, 
but there are a few forms of 
specially designed electric 
locks which are more commonly 
used. Properly speaking these are all electric-latches, as none 
of them have a locking bolt. Figure 345 illustrates " Thax- 
ter's " electric lock. The pressure of a button closes the 
circuit through the electro-magnets, A. These act on the 
bent lever so as to release the arm, B, from its catch on F. 
The spring at C draws back F and D from the follow, E. The 
outside knob can then be turned arid the door opened. When 
the latch is drawn back by closing the door, it carries with it the 
arm F, which resets itself so that the bolt D catches in the fol- 
low and locks the door. The latch is also fitted with a set of 
levers, so it can be operated by a key, independently of the 

" Fuller's " electric lock, Figure 346, is a trifle simpler. The 

Chapter XI. 

Fig. 345. Electric Lock. Thaxter. 

Electric Locks. 



Chapter XI. 



magnets draw the armature A away from the cam, B, permit- 
ting the knob to be turned. When the door is closed the latch 

lifts the bent arm, C. 
and forces back the ar- 
mature under B. 

The "Thaxter" and 
the " Fuller " locks are 
the ones most com- 
monly employed in and 
around Boston, though 
there are several other 
makes in the market, 
most of which are, 
however, asserted to be 
infringements of the 

Sliding-door Locks. 
Figures 347 and 348 
illustrate two types of 
sliding-door latch and 
lock. The locking 


mechanism used for 
this purpose is usually 
quite cheap in its con- 
struction, as a finely 
fitted lock is seldom 
required for sliding- 
doors. Indeed in many 
cases no lock at all is 
necessary. The bolt is 
curved and hooks 

Fig 346 Electric Lock. Fuller & Holzer 

down into the face-plate on the opposite door or on the jamb. 
The door-pull is either in the form of a hinged-lever, as in 
Figure 347, or a straight pull reinforced by a concealed spring, 
as in Figure 348. Both pulls can be pushed in flush with the 
face-plate. In some localities it is thought desirable to use 



knobs on the sliding-doors, one set of knobs working the hook- 
latch, while the other knobs are simply dummies. In this case 
the key is used to lock the latch-bolt. 

Drawer and Wardrobe Locks. These are more properly 
associated with cabinet-work than with builders' hardware, and 
will not be considered at any length. Drawer-locks are made 


Fig. 347. Shdmg-door Locks. J. B. Shannon & Sons. Fig. 348. 

in a great variety of sizes, from one to three and a half inches 
deep, and in all grades, from a simple bolt worked by the key, 
without levers of any sort, affording no real protection against 
intrusion, to the locks which are operated by Yale cylinders, 
having all the latest improvements of the Yale system, and 
being practically unpickable. Figures 349 and 350 illustrate 
two good types from the great variety of locks used for ward- 
robes and small closet doors. The first shoots a bolt up and 

Chapter XI. 

Drawer and 



Chapter xi. down and is a fair two-lever lock. 

Corbin Post- 
Uffice Lock. 

The second shoots a double 
bolt horizontally. 
Both are gained 
into the inner face 
of the door. 

The Corbin Cabi- 
net Lock Company 
has recently put on 
the market a very 
ingenious change 
lock, intended spe- 
cially for post-office 
boxes. It is some- 
what upon the prin- 
ciple of the Day & 
Newell " Perau- 
topic " lock previ- 
ously described. 
Figure 35 1 shows 

the lock with the face-plate removed. 
P^ach lock can be locked by any one of a 
series of keys which can be extended in 
number almost indelinitely, all the keys 
being different in the arrangement and 
spacings of the notchings. But the bolt 
can be unlocked only by the key which 
was last used in locking it, so that the 

Fig. 350. Wardrobe Lock. 
J. B. Shannon & Sons. 

Fig. 349. Wardrobe Lock. 
G. Newman. 

Fig. 351. Post-office Lock. Corbin 
Cabinet Lock Co. 


key can be changed as often as desired. In case the key is 
lost, an arrangement at the back of the lock permits the post- 
master to open the box and throw back the bolt, when a new 
key can be used, without in any way changing the lock, and 
the key which was lost would not then work the lock at all. 
Furthermore, the bolt is so arranged that it will turn back 
only sufficiently to permit the box to be opened, but not enough 
to allow the key to be withdrawn, unless the bolt is forced 
back by external pressure. The working is as follows : The 
upper levers are pivoted so as to permit of a rotary as well as 
a longitudinal motion. The second set of levers moves only 

Fig. 352. Padlock. A. E. Dietz. 

Fig. 353, Scandinavian Padlock. 
Russell & Erwin. 

laterally. The opposite edges of both sets of levers are 
notched, the width of the notches corresponding to the differ- 
ence between the notches on the keys. Suppose the bolt to be 
unlocked : when the key is turned, the lower levers are first 
pushed to one side varying distances, corresponding to the 
notches of the key, and the upper levers are then drawn down 
and away from the post. 

As the key continues to revolve the levers interlock and the 
lower ones are forced sidewise by the springs, carrying with 
them the pivoted upper levers, which rotate so that the slot in 


r. 354. Giant Padlock. 
>mith & Egge Mfg. Co. 

each lever no longer comes opposite the post. At the same 
time, the bolt is shot out. It is evident that the action would 

be the same, no 
matter what key 
were used, only the 
sets of levers 
would not interlock 
in exactly the same 
relation. It is also 
evident that the 
only key which 
will rotate the 
upper levers so as 
to bring each slot 

Fig. 355. Hasp Padlock. Opposite the post 

stoddard Lock & Mfg. Co. an( j perm it the key, 
in turning, to draw back the bolt, is the key which last made 
the combination between the two sets of levers. 

This lock hardly comes within the scope of builders' hard- 
ware, but it is too ingenious to pass unnoticed. The Corbin 
Cabinet Lock Company also makes a change lock for drawers, 
operating on much the same principle. 

Padlocks. The subject of padlocks is one which might be 
illustrated indefinitely, as there are quite as many different 
varieties as have been noted in regard to lever-locks, though 
with a few exceptions all padlocks are on essentially the same 
principle, consisting simply of spring-levers and a shooting- 
bolt, operated by a key in the same manner as an ordinary 
door-lock. Padlocks are now used but little about a house, as 
mortise or rim locks are usually more convenient, and at the 
same cost, are more secure. Only a few of the market forms 
will therefore be considered. 

Figure 352 illustrates the internal arrangement of a very 
secure padlock manufactured by A. E. Dietz, the key, notched 
levers, etc., being somewhat similar to those in the Dietz 
store-lock previously illustrated. Figure 353 is a form made 



by nearly all the leading lock-manufacturers. The key is 
inserted at the bottom of the padlock and rotates a set of levers 
which catch in the slots on both of the arms of the hasp. One 
arm is swivelled into the padlock case. Figures 354 and 355 
are two other well-known padlocks, the former being used a 
great deal for government work and the latter having the hasp, 
staple and lock in one piece. The more common makes of 
padlocks are too well-known to require illustration. 


The ordinary door-latches have already been described in 
connection with the locks, but there remains quite a variety of 
latches which are made without any 
locking appliances, being intended sim- 
ply to hold the door in position. Fig- 
ure 356 shows the commonest form of 
latch used for elevator-doors, consist- 
ing simply of a bent lever, the lower 
arm of which is counterbalanced so 
that the lock will drop by gravity and 

Chapter XI. 

Fig. 3 56. Elevator-door Latch. 
J. B. Johnston. 

Rim Slidmg-door Latch. J. B. 
Shannon & Sons. 

remain closed until drawn back by pressure on the upper arm. 
Figure 357 is a very simple rim sliding-door latch ; arid Figure 
358 is a very good rim door-catch which is self-acting, the hook 
being released by raising the lever A, either directly or by aid 
of the spindle, B* from the outside of the door ; while it is 
locked from within or without, the slide C being moved so that 
A cannot be raised. Figure 359 represents one of a great 
variety of styles of thumb-latch, a very simple, old-fashioned 
form which is very suitable for some cases. Figures 360 and 







Chapter XL 



301 are cheaper forms of thumb-latches, intended to be used 
only on screen-doors. Each of these styles has a lever of some 
sort, A, which serves to lock the latch. All of these patterns 
act by gravity. Figure 302 shows a spring-catch which is re- 
leased by lifting or pulling out the handle on one side or by 

Fig. 359. Brass Thumb 
Latch. J. B. Shannon 
& Sons. 

Fig. 358. Mack & Redway's Barn-door Lock. Nimick & 

depressing the thumb-latch on the other, the latch being locked 
by the swing-lever A. 

For French windows and cupboard-doors or for light screen- 
doors, one of the styles represented by Figures 303, 304 and 
305 are employed. Figure 304 can be locked, and it 
and Figure 305 work with a spring. 


It has not been deemed advisable to publish in this connec- 
tion any summary of the market prices of the locks which have 
been illustrated and described, as, without such an acquain,- 
tance with the subject as can come only by examination and 
comparison of the actual samples, any prices which might be 
given would be misleading, and would often be unfair criteria 
of comparison. The real value of a lock depends so largely 
upon the care with which the levers are fitted, and the care 


taken with such details differs so much with the various manu- Chapter xi. 
facturers that the price ought to be the last thing to be con- 
sidered in selecting the locks for a house. A good lock by a 

Fig. '361. Crown Screen-door Latch. Van 
Wagoner & Williams Co. 

Fig. 360 Roggin's Latch. P. & 
F. Corbin. 

Fig. 363. Co*tage Latch. P. 
& F. Corbin. 

Fig. 362. Screen-door Catch. P. & F. Corbin. 

thoroughly reliable firm can always be matched by a lock sold 
for considerably less money, which has the outward appearance 
of being exactly as reliable, and yet which is totally inferior. 
Surely the difference between good and bad workmanship 


could not be fairly illustrated by even the best of drawings, 
and it would never be wise to select merely from a trade cata- 
logue. The only approximation which can be presented 
here is that previously given in the classification of locks by 
prices. It is of course very general, and consequently some- 
what vague, and liable to exceptions ; but it was prepared in 
conjunction with one of the largest hardware dealers in the 

Fig. 364. Screen-door Catch. Read- 
ing Hardware Co. 

Fig. 365. French Window Catch. 
Reading Hardware Co. 

country, and is sufficiently exact to serve as a guide to 
the general prices which should be paid, bearing always in 
mind that the wisest plan is to select only from the work of 
the best manufacturers and then only by samples. 

The seventy-five or more locks which have been illustrated 
and described must be considered as types rather than as an 
exhaustive selection. A simple, three-lever lock is common 
property and several manufacturers whose names have not been 
mentioned in this connection turn out locks which are quite as 
good or better than those which have been selected for illustra- 
tion. The difference would be entirely in the fitting or the 
finish, neither of which can be shown by the illustrations. All 
that can be hoped for is that this chapter may serve as a sum- 
mary to guide in the general selection of the goods. 



Fig. 366. Knob with Spindle-screw partly covered. 

THE ordinary 
appliance for 
operating a door- 
latch consists of 
a knob on each 
side of the door, 
made of porce- 
lain, wood, com- 
position, or metal in various forms, but generally in the 
shape of a flattened sphere. The knobs are attached to 
metal shanks serving to hold them away from the door, 
and to prevent their pushing in, and the two knobs are 
connected through the lock by a square spindle. The spindle 
is firmly attached to the shank of one knob, and on the other 
side of the door it fits loosely in the shank, considerable length 
being allowed for the adjustment to various thicknesses of 
doors, the inner knob being finally secured in place by a screw 
on one side of the shank which passes entirely through the 
spindle, and sometimes is also made of sufficient length to 

Ordinary Spin- 
dle Attach- 



Chapter xii. turn into the opposite side of the shank. The hole in the door 
through which the spindle passes is covered by a metal disk 

Roses. technically designated as a rose. The rose is secured to the 

door by screws, and as the shank of the knobs is made to fit 
closely against the rose, if well put on there will be no strain 
on the lock when the knob is pulled from the opposite side, all 
strain being gathered on the rose itself. Knobs are usually 

Washers. provided with a number of small washers, so that the adjust- 

ment between the bearing-surfaces of the roses and the ends of 
the shanks can be made exact, and thus any rattling be 
obviated. In many instances the shanks are secured to the 
spindle with screws on each side of the door, so that the knob 
can be taken off from either side of the door. For front- door 
and vestibule work the outer knob should always be securely 
attached to the spindle, so that no screw is necessary, as other- 
wise, if the shank is held by a screw it can be removed from 
the outside of the door, the spindle pushed in and the inner 
latch follow turned back. For interior work, however, it 
makes little difference whether screws are used on one or both 
sides, though many consider the use of screws as altogether 
objectionable, owing to their liability to work loose ; and, aside 
from any questions of design, the ingenuity of hardware manu- 
facturers has been chiefly expended upon securing a better con- 
nection between the knob and the spindle. Still, few of the 
patented forms of attachment have been very generally 
received, and the old style of screw attachment seems to meet 
with the most favor, if we may judge by usage. It is not the 
question of cost alone which has decided this in the minds of 
many builders and architects, but rather a belief that a tangible 
fastening like a screw, which is easily placed and easily re- 
moved, is, after all, more satisfactory than any concealed 

The objections to the old style of fastening are, however, 
easily appreciated. One trouble is that the spindle will work 
and wear away so as to be loose in the follow, and rattle every 
time the knob is touched. This is particularly noticeable in 


very old work, in which the parts are sometimes so worn as to 
admit of as much as half an inch play at the end of the knob. 
In new work, the spindle, the follow and the roses can be fitted 
so that any rattling is impossible, though with the old styles of 
fastenings this is accomplished only by the best manufacturers. 

With the old style, the screws are apt to work loose, as 
applied by ordinary mechanics. In cheap work they nearly 
always do so ; still, if proper care is taken and the screws 
turned up with a drop of thick shellac in the threads there will 
be little trouble, and none that cannot easily be remedied with 
a screwdriver. 

There are other objections of less moment, such as the fact 
that considerable time is occupied in fitting the washers neces- 
sary to a proper adjustment of the spindle and shank ; and the 
proper attachment of the screws takes time also. It is further 
found that when the spindle and shank wear away there is apt 
to be a strain brought upon the lock-plate through the door, 
thereby endangering the proper action of the levers. We have 
said, however, that these objections are by no means vital, and 
are such as might be due to careless or indifferent workman- 
ship. One of the best evidences that the old style is the most 
satisfactory, is that every manufacturer has it on his catalogue- 
list. Anything else is really an exception, and we know of 
only one instance in which a manufacturer has undertaken to 
push exclusively a single form of knob attachment differing 
from the common style. It must not be thought, however, that 
no clever or good devices have been thought out. It is hard to 
simplify simplicity, and the screw connection, all things con- 
sidered, gives eminent satisfaction. 

The first variation from the old style has been to enlarge the 
rose, extending it out over the shank so as to partially or com 
pletely cover the screw-hole, a slot being left at each side 
through which the screw can be applied, the rose subsequently 
being turned and secured against the door so as to completely 
cover the screw. Figure 366 shows such a form. This de- 
vice renders it absolutely impossible for the screw to become 

Chapter XII. 

Knob and Spin- 
dle, Screws 
partly covered.. 




Russell & Er- 
win Mfg. Co. 

Knob with Spindle-screws covered. 
Erwin Mfg. Co. 

Russell & 

Chapter xii. detached, though it does not prevent it from being a little 

loose, and so per- 
mitting the knob 
to rattle; and as the 
difficulties of get- 
ting at the screw 
are increased by 
this method, the 
probabilities are 
that most people 
would let the knob 

rattle instead of taking the trouble to tighten the screw. Still, 
this is an improvement, and when well applied is very satisfac- 
tory. The next step has been to cover the screw entirely. Fig- 
ure 367 shows one mode in which this has been accomplished. 
The rose is made in two portions, one consisting of a flat piece 
resting against 
the door, and 
serving as a 
bearing-plate for 
the shank, while 
the other por- 
tion of the rose 
which would 
show in the fin- 
ished work consists of a thin shell curved out so as to entirely 
cover the screw. The screws which hold the rose to the door 
pass through both the outer shell and the inner plate. 

Figure 3QS shows another form in which one screw is done 
away with. The spindle is cut with screw-threads. The rose 
is made in two portions, one being screwed to the door, and 
the other acting as a binding-screw or washer, screwing onto 
the threads of the spindle at the same time that the shank of 
the knob screws behind it, the two locking, and preventing the 
knob from being unturned except by forcible means. As the 
spindle is held in the latch, the knob can, of course, be turned 

Fig. 368. Knob with threaded Spindle. 
Mfg. Co. 

Stoddard Lock 

Threaded Spin- 

Sto.idard Lock 
Mfg. Co. 



Fig. 369. Sere 


P. & F. Corbin. 

but half way in either direction. Another form of knob 

substitutes a continuous 
ratchet on one face of 
the spindle for the screw- 
holes of the common 
form. These knobs are 
made by the Boston 
Knob Company, and 
outwardly appear like 
an ordinary knob. The 
advantage is that the 
knob can be adjusted 
at any point without the 
aid of washers, the screw 
catching onto the ratch- 

ss Door-knob and Escutcheon 

et in any position of the 

Figure 369 shows a 
form which does away 
with the screws entirely. 
The key escutcheon and 
the rose are combined in 
a single plate on each 
side of the door. Inside 
of the rose is a hub 
which is cut with a 
screw-thread. The spin- 
dle passes through this 
and into the shank of the 
knob, which is cut with 
a thread corresponding 
with the thread on the 
hub. In applying this 
fixture the knobs are simply screwed on until they bear 
slightly on the edges of the rose. The escutcheon-plates 
are then screwed together through the door as shown on 

Chapter XII. 

Fig. 370. Screwless Door-knob and Escutcheon 
combined. Russell & Erwin. 



Russell & Er- 



Chapter xii. the drawing. As the spindle passes through the latch it will 
readily be seen that the knob cannot be unscrewed except by 
removing the escutcheon-plates, and as these plates bear on 
each side of the door above and below the lock, it is almost 
impossible to bring any strain on the lock-plate itself. 

Figure 370 is a somewhat similar form as regards the 
escutcheon-plates. The knob, however, is attached by means of 

Fig. 371. Mathes's Adjustable Screwless Door-knob. Nimick & Brittan. 

lugs on the shank, which in one position of the knob will slip 
into the hole in the rose ; but when half turned will catch on 
the inner side of the plate, thus rendering it impossible for 
the knob to be removed except by unscrewing the face-plates 



Yale & Towne 
Mfg. Co. 

Fig. 372. Morris Patent Door-knob. Ireland Mfg. Co. 

from the door. Figure 371 is a device practically the same as 
that shown by Figure 368. Figure 372 is still another variety 
of the same general style of attachment, using a steel binding- 
screw to hold the knob-shank in position. 

The Yale & Towne Manufacturing Companv has recently 
put on the market a form of screwless knob-shank shown by 


Figure 373. In this case the spindle is turned round at each 

end and threaded. The knob is provided with a swivel-nut, 

Z>, which fits the thread of 

the spindle. In applying, the 

nut is turned up until it bears 

slightly against the face of 

the rose, and is then left in 

that position, a washer being 

interposed between the rose 

and the nut. The nut takes 

the place of the ordinary 

Shank, and as this portion Of F'g- 373. Screwless Knob-shank. 

& Towne Mfg. Co. 

the knob is seldom touched, 

there is little liability of the nut working loose, especially as 
it can be turned up pretty tight, and is made so as not to work 
too easily. 

A very simple and effective form of screwless knob-fasten- 
ing has been recently brought out by the Hopkins & Dickinson 
Manufacturing Company. In this device, the spindle, which is 
cut with a screw-thread, is rigidly attached to the shank and the 
knob on one side. The opposite shank has a swivel connection 
with the knob, and is threaded inside to screw over the spindle. 
In application, the loose shank is screwed onto the spindle until 
two dogs or teeth on the inner end of the shank are engaged in 
slots in the rose. The rose, which projects somewhat from the 
face of the door and has a milled-edge, then serves as a set- 
screw, drawing the two shanks together and binding against 
a washer on the door, so that while the knobs can be rotated 
freely, the rose washer and consequently the shanks, will not 
work loose. 

Figure 374 represents still another variety of screwless knob- 
fastening. The nut, (7, forces the washer, B, against a shoulder 
inside of the shank, A, binding the latter firmly to the 
rose and to the door. The knob is then slipped over the spin- 
dle, and the shank, A, screwed over the shank, D, until the 
knob is drawn up tightly. The only chance of the fastening 

Chapter XII. 

Hopkins & 






Chapter XII. 



Swivel Spindle. 

Fig. 374. Screwless Fastening Knob. J. Bardsley. 

working loose is by accidental turning of the shank, A, which 
is not likely to occur. 

The Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company has a device 
illustrated by 
Fig. 375 which 
is on a very dif- 
ferent princi- 
ple from any of 
the foregoing, 
as it does not 
depend upon 
screws of any 

kind. In this case the knob-shank is cut out with an eccen- 
tric socket or bore. The ends of the spindle are turned 
down to exactly the same contour as the bore of the shank; 
so that while the knobs on either side of the door can easily be 
slipped over the ends of the spindle, they can be fastened by 
simply rotating them in opposite directions, when the fine 
pitch of grade of the eccentrics causes a great pressure to be 
exerted, which results in binding the knobs rigidly to the 
spindle. This is the simplest form, of knob attachment in the 
market, arid if properly applied, will always remain in order, 

though great care 
must be taken that 
the knobs are turned 
up firmly. 

For front-door locks 
and latches it is neces- 
sary to have some 

F,g.376. Swivel Spindle. f()rm Q spindle j n 

which the two extremities may be worked independently, so 
that the outer knob may be locked while the inner one is free 
to rotate. The commonest form is to connect the two halves 
of the spindle by a swivel joint, Figure 376. Corbin has in 
the market a spindle in which the two halves screw together, 
thus permitting of very careful adjustment to the thickness of 

Fig. 375. 

Screwless Spindle and Socket. Yale & 
Towne Mfg. Co. 



the door. The pitch of the screw-threads is so slight that the 
quarter turn necessary to open the latch does not throw out the 
knob from the door. 

There are various methods of attaching the head of the knob 
itself to the shank. When porcelain or mineral composition is 
used, the shank is leaded into the knob. Hemacite, zylonite, 
etc., are cemented or screwed to the shank, as are the cheaper 
forms of wooden knobs. Metal knobs are blind riveted, cast 
solid to the shank, or shrunk on. Glass knobs are commonly 
leaded, but in some cheaper forms are cemented or even puttied. 

There are, however, some devices which are intended to 
attach the knob more firmly to the shank. Figure 377 is one 
which is used in connection with wooden knobs. The shank is 
cut with a screw-thread which turns into a corresponding 

Fig. 377. Knob Fastener. 
J. Bardsley. 


Phipps's Patent Door-knob. Milford 
Door-knob Co. 

Before the shank is screwed in, a 
h the shank is placed in the slot, 

thread cut into the knob, 
metal key extending throu 
and after the knob is 
firmly screwed on the 
key is forced into the 
wood ^by means of a 
punch placed in the 
opening of the shank, 
the key thus effectu- 
ally locking the shank 
into the knob. 

Figure 378 shows a form of attachment for either wood or 
metal. In this case the knob is held by a screw passing from 
the knob through the upper portion of the shank and into the 

Fig. 379. Wooden Door-knob Attachment. 

J. B. 

Chapter XII. 





Chapter XII. 



Niles Knobs. 

head of the spindle. The spindle can be adjusted for any 
thickness of door by means of a small wedge which can be 
driven in before the knob is attached, in such a manner as to 
hold the shank at any given position. Figure 379 is a form of 
attachment designed for wooden knobs. The shank is split 
lengthwise and the ends of the two pieces cut away from each 

Fig. 380. Hollenbeck's Expanding Spindle Door-knob. 

other on a bevel, with wedges or lugs on the outside, the bevels 
being so cut that when the surfaces are brought together the lugs 
can enter a hole in the wooden knob the same diameter as the 
main portion of shank. By then bringing the opposite ends of 
the shank together the lugs are forced sidewise into the wood 
so strongly that they cannot be drawn out 
except by breaking the parts. A light 
thimble fits over the shank and into the 
rose, securing the whole. 

Figure 380 is a form of knob secured 
by a screw entering the head of the spin- 
dle, at the same time wedging it to any 
adjustment by reason of the screw being 
slightly larger than the hole in the spindle. 
All the foregoing knobs are constructed 
with spindle extended through the door and 
continuous from knob to knob Some locks 
Fig 38i. Niles Patent are so devised that the spindle is done away 

Knob. Chicago Hard- -, , , 

ware Co. with, each knob acting independently of the 

other by means of shoulders or extensions on the shank. Fig- 
ure 381 illustrates the form of knob which is used with all 
of the "Niles" locks. The end of each shank is provided with 



a shoulder of about the same shape as the ordinary lock follow, 
acting directly against the latch-lever. The shanks rotate freely 
in the escutcheons. To apply the knob, the shank is passed 
through the escutcheon plate and the shoulder or follow inserted 
in the lock, the latch-lever being pressed back with a flat blade or 
a screw-driver until the follow can be snapped into position, 
which is easily accomplished by inserting the shank at an 
angle. The knob is then brought around square with the face 
of the door and the escutcheon plate screwed in position, hold- 
ing the knob so it can be removed only by moving the plate. 
The chief advantage of this arrangement is that there can be 
no rattling in the lock. The latch operates the moment the 
knob is turned, be it ever so little ; nor are there any screws 
to work loose. 

The Gilbert Lock Company manufactures a knob espe- 
cially designed for their locks, 1 the construction of which is 
illustrated by Figure 382. In this, 
as in the preceding example, there is 
no spindle. The knob-shank is secured 
to the escutcheon, which is boxed out 
sufficiently to allow play for a lugged 
plate, turning with the shank and 
acting against a lever. The latter is 
hinged at the top and fitted with an 
arm at the bottom which works in a 
slot through the lock, drawing back 
the latch by a direct, lateral action. 
The escutcheon is secured by long 
screws above and below the lock. 
There are some excellent points about 
this device. There is no spindle to 
work loose and rattle, no screws in the 
shank to drop out, and no adjustment 
of washers or screws, as the knob has 

, ,. Al . , Fig. 382. Gilbert's Lock and 

a periect adjustment to any thickness Escutcheon. Gilbert LockCo. 

*See Figure 313 for an illustration of the " Gilbert " locks. 

Chapter XII. 

Gilbert Knobs. 



Chapter XII. 

Materials used 
for knobs. 

of door without binding. An improvement might be made by 
so extending the lugs on the spindle plate that when the latch is 
out both lugs will bear against the operating lever, in order that 
the latch may move at once, no matter in which direction the 
knob be turned. This form can, of course, be used only with 
" Gilbert " locks. 

In regard to appearance, and the materials used, knobs of 
the following materials are found in the market. In wood, 
they are made of mahogany, cherry, oak, ash, apple, maple and 
ebony. Glass knobs are cut, pressed, silvered or of black 

Fig. 383. Forms of Glass Knobs. 

glass. What are known as mineral knobs are made of earthen- 
ware, porcelain or lava, and can be had either black, white, 
or grey in color. The metals used for knobs are brass, bronze, 
silver, nickel and iron. Compositions of celluloid, hemacite, 
etc., are also used. The shanks in all cases are made of either 
bronze or iron, the latter only in the cheapest work. 


Wooden knobs are generally finished in natural colors, and 
can be obtained with wooden roses to match. They are very 
good, strong, and serviceable, and are excellent for interior use. 

Glass knobs are somewhat out of style just at present, but 
are still made in a great variety of forms, both cut and pressed, 
and are really very handsome in appearance. The silvered- 
glass knobs are rather cheap looking, though the cost is some- 
what higher. Figure 383 shows a few of the great variety 
of knobs made in glass. 

Black glass, and what is known as mineral, and white porce- 
lain are all used a great deal for common purposes. They are 
cheap, clean, and as generally constructed are quite strong. 
Lava knobs are used but little. 

The greatest variety of designs is found in metal knobs. 
These are made in all shapes and in all colors. Some of the 
special shapes will be considered subsequently under the head 
of Artistic Hardware. Some of the styles of iron knobs recently 
put on the market by the Yale & ,Towne Mfg. Co., and 
finished by the Bower-Barff process, are very serviceable and 
pleasing. Hopkins & Dickinson have a very dark, rich bronze 
almost as black as gun-metal which they use for some of their 
hardware. Of late years oxidized silver has come in as a great 
favorite for knobs and knob-plates, and is now worked up in a 
great variety of designs and in several different colors. The 
Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. has a grade of oxidized silver which 
almost matches the dark bronze of Hopkins & Dickinson. 
Metal knobs are made either oval, spherical or in a flattened 
sphere, egg-shaped, and indeed in an almost infinite variety of 
shapes and designs. In the nicest grades of work the knobs 
are always made to order. In some of the very choicest work 
knobs are gold plated. This increases the cost a great deal, 
to an extent, indeed, which renders it beyond the reach of the 
ordinary buyer ; the advantage, however, is not alone in 
the looks, for a gold-plate has nearly the same color as some 
shades of bronze ; but gold-plate is absolutely untarnishable, 
and will not change its color, whereas all the finishes of bronze, 

Chapter XII. 








Chapter xii silver, brass or nickel, are more or less liable to change. The 
various finishes for metal knobs have been previously con- 
sidered in the introduction. 

The knobs of the Boston Knob Co. are made of composition, 
presumably celluloid, or at least of that nature. Celluloid 
JelJuioid. plates are bent over a strong metal frame, and held in position 

by a brass rim which is shrunk on to cover the joints between 
the two plates. They form a very neat pretty knob, Figure 
384. The celluloid is made in a variety of colors, including 
several shades of blue, garnet, black, malachite, green, drab, 

slate, yellow, brown and 
white. In many cases the 
varied colors will be an at- 


Fig. 384. Celluloid Door-knob. 
Knob Co. 


Fig. 385. Henoacite Knob. 

traction. One would imagine this form of knob made in white 
with a simple band of brass around the edge might be used 
very nicely in connection with rooms that are furnished in the 
prevailing Old Colonial white-and-gold style. 

Hemacite is a composition which as nearly as can be dis- 
covered, consists of blood, glue and sawdust. This is pressed 
in moulds and finished in several different shades, either jet 
black or a deep rich brown. Figure 385 shows the common- 
est form adopted for hemacite knobs. They are usually made 
with face-plates of brass or bronze inserted in the front of the 
knob, and the edges of the knob are milled. This composition 
is most excellent for interior use. It will wear indefinitely and 
is exceedingly strong and tough ; but is not altogether suitable 
for exterior use as it is said to be affected by the weather. 



Besides the ordinary double knobs it is often desirable to 
have a lever on one side of the door and a knob on the other. 
Figure 386 shows a typical knob and T-handle. There is, of 
course, an infinite variety of styles of this sort, some of which 

will be considered later on. 
Figure 387 illustrates a so- 
called ship-handle, consisting 
of a plain knob at one end of 
the spindle and a ring-handle 
at the other. The form shown 

'Fig, 386. Knob and T-Handle. Ireland 
Mfg. Co. 

Fig. 387, Ship Handle. J. B. Shan- 
non & Sons. 

by Figure 388 is termed a crank-handle, being intended for 
French windows and narrow style doors. The inner knob is 

Fig 388. Crank Handle. Nimick & Brittan. 

kept away from the jamb so that in opening the door the hand 
wili not be caught. The common forms of pulls or handles 
employed for sliding-doors have been previously discussed. 

Chapter XII. 

Knob and 




Chapter XII. 

Fig. 389. Common Bell-pull. 

Bell-pulls are usually similar in appearance to door-knobs r 

and in order-work 
are made exactly 
the same, and to 
match. The in- 
ternal construc- 
tion of the spin- 
dle however is a 
little different. 
Figure 389 shows the commonest form, the rose being provided 
with a long hub fitting over the spindle, and screwing into the 
frame of the door. Figure 390 is a 
form of lever bell-pull suitable for out- 
door work. The same form is some- 
times used for bells in the interior of 
the house, although Figure 391 is a 
better and more 
common form. 

Fig. 390. Lever Bell- 
pull. Russell & Erwin 

Fig. 391. Parlor Bell-lever. 

Fig. 392. Old-fashioned 


Door-knockers are made in a great variety of shapes. A 
few of these will be considered later on in connection with the 
designs. A single example, Figure 392, will be sufficient to 
illustrate a typical door-knocker in this connection. 



The following table gives the average retail prices of the Chapter xii. 
principal styles of door-knobs. The prices are for a dozen 
pairs of medium-sized (2J inch) knobs, complete, with roses Prices, 
and screws to match. 





and Rose. 
















Knob with concealed 




Hemacite. . . 



Cut Glass. . 
Iron Bower 
Bronze ... 


Bronze. .. 


Brass and 
Bronze. .. 
Bronze .. 


Bronze. .. 



Russell & Erwin. 
P. & F. Corbin. 
Ireland Mfg. Co. 
Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. 
Milf ord Door-Knob Co. 

J. B. Johnston. 
Chicago Hardware Co. 

Gilbert Lock Co. 
Boston Knob Co. 

Dibble Mfg. Co. 

Ireland Mfg. Co. 
J. B. Shannon & Sons. 
Russell & Erwin. 

Screwless Knob and 
Escutcheon combined 
Morris Patent Door- 
Screwless Knob- 
Phipps Patent Door- 

Door-knob, expand- 

Niles Door-knob 
Gilbert Door-k nob 
and Escutcheon 
Boston Door-knob. . . 

Hemacite Door-knob 

Knob and T-handle.. 
Ship Handles 
Lever Bell-pulls 
Parlor Bell-levers. . . 
Antique Knocker 
each . 

Common style Door- 



There remains but a single door-knob to be considered. Burglar-alarm 

who imagined that everybody else was, devised a burglar door- 
knob. This consists simply of a knob on the inside of the 
door, which at the same time is a bell, the mechanism of which 
years of use will not disarrange. It costs but little more than 
a common knob and can be applied by any person, the least 
turn of the outside knob causing the alarm to be rung on the 



Chapter xii. inside so that immediate warning is given of even an attempt 
to enter. The knob is so constructed that upon being turned 
from the inside it gives no alarm. It is known as the Burglar 
Door-knob and Window-alarm, and is manufactured by Win. C. 
C. Matthews & Co. 


The term escutcheon is used to designate the peculiar lock- 
ing mechanism of a cylinder-lock, as has been explained in the 
previous chapter. It is also applied to the finish, of metal or 
other material, about the key-hole of a lock. Escutcheons are 
made both with and without drops or covering pieces. For in- 
side work the drop had better be omitted, though for front 
doors both the latch and the lock key-hole should be protected. 
The common forms of escutcheons are too well-known to 
require any illustration. 
Prices. The following table gives the average retail prices. 



Price per dozen pairs 
with drop and screws. 

Price per dozen pairs 
without drop, with screws. 

Iron bronzed 

$ .50 








1 50 


Bronze plain ... 

1 50 







of the appliances included under the title of Closet- 
Fittings appertain perhaps more truly to furniture than to 
Builders' hardware, though they are sometimes used in 
connection with the finished carpenter work. The designation 
of closet-fittings is a somewhat arbitrary one, and while not 
strictly applying to everything considered under this classifica- 
tion, might include many of the articles described in previous 


Fig. 393. Fig. 394. 


Fig. 395. 

chapters. The limitations will, however, be sufficiently exact 
for the present purpose. 

The simplest appliance for securing the door of a cupboard 
is what is known as a turn-button. Figure 393 illustrates the 
cheapest form, consisting of a metal-bar or button which is se- 
cured in place by a screw through the centre, the screw being 
turned in so as to allow the button to rotate freely. An im- 
provement is to have the button pivoted on a plate which is 




Chapter XIII. 




screwed independently to the door-frame, Figure 394, while a 
plate is secured to the door for the button to turn upon, or vice 

A turn-button acts as a bolt, but it is often preferable to 
use some other form. Any of the flush, sunk, raised, mortise 
or neck bolts described in a previous chapter will answer for 

a cupboard, though there are a 
few styles which are especially 
designated as cupboard-bolts. Fig- 
ure 395 is an example. Again, it 
is often desirable to have a spring- 
catch on a cupboard, such as that 
shown by Figure 396, which may 
be considered as a type of many different styles. Figure 397 
shows a lever-cupboard catch, which works by gravity, without 
springs, the catch being released by raising the handle. Each 
of these varieties can be used for double 
or single doors, though with double-doors 
some form of bolt is necessary in addi- 
tion. The book-case bolts and catches 

Fig. 396. Cupboard-catch. 

Fig. 397. Cupboard-catch. Fig. 398. Chest-handle. 

described in the chapter on bolts might properly be included, 
also, in the present category. 

Drawer-pulls are made in a great variety of styles, only a 
few of which need be considered here. Figure 398 is a cheap 
and very common form of wrought-iron chest or drawer handle, 
suitable only for rough work. Figure 399 is a very serviceable 









drawer-pull, and in plainer form, with sides as well as front Chapter xiu. 
rounded in, is what is commonly employed for china-closets, 
wardrobes, etc. Figures 400 and 401 are drop-handles for 

Fig. 401 

Fig. 400. Drawer-pulls. 

nice work on the same principle as the first pull illustrated. 
The latter is a very old pattern, such as is found on most of the 
antique colonial wardrobes and dressing-cases, and is just now 

Fig. 403. Ring-pull. 

Fig. 404. Druggists' Drawer-pull. 

quite in fashion. Figure 402 is a straight bar-pull and Figure 
403 is a serviceable and easily attached ring drawer-pull 



Chapter XIII. 



Fig. 405. 

occasionally employed for wardrobes. Figure 404 is a type of 
what is particularly designated as a druggists' drawer-pull, being 
on the principle of Figure 399 but with frame and slot on the 
face to receive a card or label. 

Drawer-knobs are mostly too simple to require any illustration. 
They are made with heads of wood, porcelain, mineral, com- 
position or metal, and are usually so shaped as to dispense with 
a separate shank or spindle, the knob sometimes having a slight 
metal rose or collar. In the cheaper grades the knob has 

^^ leaded into it a gim- 
let - pointed screw- 
threaded spindle which 
can be turned directly 

into the drawer-front ; but a more satisfactory 
form has a spindle extending entirely through the 
drawer, and secured by a nut and washer on the in- 
side. With a wooden knob the attachment is some- 
times made by means of a screw passing through the 
drawer-front and turning into the knob from behind. 
Wood or porcelain knobs are most suitable for kitchen 
and china closet work, though no knob is ever as per- 
manent or satisfactory as a drawer-pull. 

Figure 405 illustrates the ordinary shelf-brackets. 
They are cast in malleable-iron in sixteen or more sizes 
varying from 3x4 inches to 16x20 inches. The form 
is a very strong one, and a great deal of stiffness is ob- 
tained with a minumum of metal. They usually fail, 
when overloaded, by the upper arm or flange breaking 
near the inner screw-holes, but it requires a greater 
load than one would suppose to break such a bracket. There 
are many so-called " fancy " forms of shelf-brackets in the 
market few of which are in the slightest degree artistic, 
though most of them are stronger than the simple form shown 
by the figure, on account of having more metal-work between 
the flanges. Brass brackets are seldom required for ordinary 
house work and can usually be had only on a special order. 



It is often desirable, in fitting up book-cases or china-closets, 
to have movable shelves. Shelf-pins of some sort are then 
used, holes being bored at regular intervals in the sides of the 

Fig. 406. Book-c 

407. Coat-hook. 

case into which the pins will fit. Ordinary screw-eyes answer 
very well for most purposes, but are rather conspicuous when 
proportioned for heavy loads, and are not very easily moved. 
Figure 406 illustrates three patterns of specially devised shelf- 
pins. The ones with square and round heads are taken from 
the catalogue of A. G. Newman. The rebated pattern is manu- 

Fig. 408. Coat-hook. 

factured by Russell & Irwin, and holds the shelf so that the 
greater portion of the pin is hidden. 

Closet-hooks are made in so many different styles, and, 
withal, are so well-known that only a few forms need be con- 
sidered, which will serve as types for the hundred or more 

Chapter XIII. 




Chapter xiii. varieties to be found in the hardware market. The hooks are 
invariably secured to wooden cleats which are nailed to the 
wall over the plaster. Figure 407 is a hat-pin with hook be- 
neath, which can be turned directly into the wood by means of 
the screw-thread on the extension of the shank. Figure 408 
is held by a nut turned up from behind, and can, of course, be 

Fig. 409. Coat-hook. Fig. 41 I. Wardrobe-hook. 

used only on some form of hat-rack. This and the preceding 
are properly furniture-trimmings. Figure 409 is a familiar, 
old-fashioned coat-and-hat hook with porcelain knobs, a very 
serviceable article even though it is not quite in style. Figure 
410 is a form of wardrobe hook usually made in brass or bronze, 
and Figure 411 J s a wardrobe hook intended for dresses which 



are to hang from the ceiling. A similar hook, Figure 412, is 
fitted with a gimlet-pointed screw-shank, to screw directly into 
the wood. A very good wooden hook, Figure 413, is made on 
the same principle as a harness hook, the hardwood pin be- 
ing inserted from the rear of the iron-base and bevelled, so it 
cannot work loose or pull out. Figures 414 and 415 are types 

Fig. 413. 

Chapter XIII. 

Fig. 415. Fie. 416. 

of the common hat and coat hook, the latter being specially 
designated as for school use. Several styles of hooks are also 



Chapter xin. made of bent steel wire. Figure 416, and are very strong, light 
and serviceable. 

All of the foregoing closet-fixtures can be had in various 
sizes and in different materials. The following table gives 
some average retail prices which will serve as guides in select- 
ing goods. The prices are for a dozen medium-sized fixtures, 
complete, with screws. 





Japanned Iron. 

Bronzed Iron. 



Turn-buttons without plate If in 

$ .33 

$ .10 

$ .20 




" " with plate 1| in 





2 25 



" catches 

3 00 



Lever cupboard-catches 

3 25 



1 35 


2 00 




Lifting-handles 3 in single swing 

2 25 


1 25 



4 00 


Bar-pulls, 4 in 

2 00 



1 50 

Druggist-pulls plain 

4 50 

1 50 

Drawer-knobs screw end 

2 50 



2 65 




Shelf-brackets, 8 x 10 per doz. pairs 

3 00 

4 00 



1 5 



Ordinary coat and hat hooks 





Wooden " " " " 



Wire " " " " 





Fig. 417. Screw-hooks. 


BESIDES the hooks de- 
scribed in the last 
chapter, there are 
other forms which cannot 
be classed as closet hard- 
ware. Figure 417 illus- 
trates several varieties of 
brass screw-hooks. A is 
made in nine sizes, from ^ 
inch to 2 inches in length. 
The same form is made 
with a sharp-pointed shank 
Fig. 4i 8. Bird-cage Hook. instead of a screw, intended 

to be driven into the wood. .Z?is known as a cup-hook, intended 
to go on strips to receive cups, which are hung by the handle 
ovor the hook. This form is made in five sizes, from 1^ to 2f 
inches long. C is termed a looking-glass hook. D is an 
acorn-hook, made in six sizes, from 2 to 4j- inches long. E 
and F are both picture-hooks. The former is made in six 
sizes, from f- inch to If inches. Figure 418 represents a hook 
similar to the preceding, but with a longer shank, being made 
in seven lengths, from four to ten inches : it is designated as 
a bird-cage hook. 

Picture-moulding hooks are made in quite a variety of 


ing Hooks. 



Chapter XIV, 

shapes, a few of which are shown by Figure 419. The most 
common form is the second one on the upper row, it being 
made to match the common stock picture-moulding. A very 

Fig. 419. Picture-moulding Hooks. Fig. 420. Chandelier- 

hook. J. B. Johnston. 

serviceable hook, not illustrated here, is made with flat brass, 
with the ordinary contour, quite broad at the top where it fits 

over the mould- 
ing, but narrowing 
at the bottom to 
receive the cord 
or wire. Mould- 
ing-hooks are usu- 
ally made in three 
sizes, and are 

Fig. 422. Hammock-hook. 



Fig. 421. Chandelier- 
hook with Catch. J. 
B.Johnston. Fig. 423. Clothes-line Hook. Fig. 424. Awning-hook. 

always of brass or bronze. Chandelier hooks, Figure 420, are 



intended to screw through the lath and plaster into the ceiling 
beams or the furring, the screw part being 2-j-, 4, 6 or 8 inches 
long. Figure 421 shows a chandelier-hook provided with a 
catch, so that nothing can slip out when once hooked. 

Hammock-hooks, Figure 422, are made of f inch galvanized 
or tinned wrought-iron. Clothes-line hooks, Figure 423, are 
also sometimes used for hammocks, though less suitable on 
account of the friction of the rope in the hook. A lighter form 
of clothes-line hook is made to be attached by two screws. 
These hooks are made in three sizes. 

Awning-hooks, Figure 424, are made to drive into the wood, 
and be caught in eyelets in the awning. They are manufac- 
tured in sizes from 1^- to 6 inches. 


Shelf-brackets have been previously discussed. Some form 
of inclined bracket is often desirable to support the side-rail of 
a flight of stairs. One of the simplest consists of a bent plate, 
Figure 425, screwed to the wall on an angle, so as to bear 
against the under side of the rail. A better form is screwed to 

Fig. 425. Stair-rail Bracket. 
Reading Hardware Co. 

Fig. 426 Stair-rail Bracket. 
Reading Hardware Co. 

Fig. 427. Stair-rail 
Bracket. Shepard 
Hardware Co. 

the wall in a vertical position, and has a swiveled bar or plate 
which adjusts itself to any angle of the stair-rail. Figures 426 
and 427 illustrate two styles. Similar brackets are made with 
fixed rail-plates, and there are a number of varieties in the 
market differing from those described chiefly in regard to finish. 

Chapter XIV. 

Hammock and 

Awning Hooks. 





Chapter xiv 



Bar-rail brackets, Figure 428, are intended to support a 
round rail such as is usually carried across the front of a bar-room 
counter. The first form shown is sometimes used to support a 

Fig. 428. Bar-rail Bracket. J. B. Shannon & Sons. 

round stair-rail, and when made of plain bronze, presents a very 

good appearance. A bracket like the second form is sometimes 

used to support an iron foot-rail at the base of a bar or counter. 

All these brackets can be had in either bronze or bronzed iron. 


Very few styles of letters and numbers are kept in stock by 
hardware dealers. Plain, Roman characters, Figure 429, are 
usually the only ones on hand. They 
are in seven sizes, from \ inch to 3 
inches high, and are secured to the 
door or the woodwork by blind 
tacks, soldered to the back of the 
Fig - 429 ' pieces. They can be had in either 

bronze, brass or nickel-plate. Letter-plates are often used to 
cover the letter- 
slot through office- 
doors. Figure 430 
shows one style, 
with a recessed 
slot protected by a 
hinged flap. This 

is essentially What Fi *' 430 ' Letter-Plate. Hopkins & Dickinson Mfg. Co. 

is commonly employed. On fly-doors some form of plate 
is desirable on each face of the door to prevent the paint 




from being soiled, and such plates are often marked " push " 
or "pull." They may be of porcelain, iron, bronze, brass or 
nickel-plate, the first material being the cleanest and most 
easily cared for. They are made in all varieties of design, but 

. . are in principle 

too simple to re- 
quire any illustra- 

Label-plates are 
made to order in 
porcelain quite ex- 
tensively for drug- 
gists' drawers. 
There are also 
plates manufac- 
tured to go on 
drawer-fronts arid 
receive card- 
labels, the upper 
part of the plate 
being thinner than 
the rest, so that 
the card can be 
slipped in from 
above. Figure 431 
will illustrate the 
general form of a label-plate. The neatest style has a plain, 
rectangular outline in bronze. Label-plates are made in several 
sizes from about 1x2^- inches to 2 x 4 inches. 

Figure 432 shows a plate a little foreign to the present 
topic, it being used to stiffen the joints of light screen-doors. 
It is provided with tongues which enter firmly into the wood in 
each direction, and prevent any sagging or settling. The 
plates are sold in sets, each set including six corner irons and a 
knob or handle, with the necessary screws. The list-price is 
$5 per dozen sets, in bronzed iron. 

"Fig. 432. Screen-door Corner-iron. E. C. Stearns & Co. 

Chapter XIV. 







Chapter XIV. 




Foot-scrapers are used much less than formerly. A simple 
form, consisting of a thin-plate supported by one or two plain 
drive-shanks is always advisable, however, for the piazza of a 
country house. Figure 433 shows a more elaborate scraper, 
intended to be screwed to the floor or step. A form often seen 

Fig. 433. Foot Scraper. J. B. 

Fig. 434. Foot Scraper. J. B. Johnston. 

in some parts of the country, Figure 434, is set in a pan or 
dish, intended to collect the scrapings. The other varieties 
found in the market differ only in design or finish, but not in 
principle. Foot-scrapers are usually of Japanned cast-iron. 


The subject of bell-fittings is too extensive to be considered 
very fully in detail, especially as bell-hanging is a trade by 
itself, and the house-carpenter has usually very little to do- 
beyond hanging the simplest kind of kitchen-bell or fitting a 
gong to the back-door. The front-door is fitted with a bell- 
pull, as explained in the chapter on knobs. This is connected 
with wires which usually are carried down to the cellar-ceiling,, 
and across and up to the kitchen. The corners are turned by 
the aid of bell-cranks. Figure 435 shows the form of crank 
generally fitted just inside of the bell-pull, and Figure 436 
shows a complete set of bell-hanging fixtures, including the 
bell, which is secured to the wall by a spike driven through 
the centre of the spiral coil. The elasticity of the coil and the 
connected spring is so great, that when the fixtures are pro- 



perly set, the least pull at the front-door will cause the bell to Chapter xiv. 
ring. Figure 437 illustrates a different form of bell-carriage, 

Fig. 435. Bell-crank. Rus- Fig. 436. Bell-hangings. Fig. 437. Bell-carriage, 
sell & Erwin Mfg. Co. Russell & Erwin Mfg. 


Fig. 438. Double-stroke Pull Gong-beK. Russel' & Erwin Mfg. Co. 

made by the Russell & Erwin Manufacturing Company. 

For the back-door it is customary to use some form of gong 


Chapter xiv. which can be screwed to the inner face of the door. In the 
cheapest makes the bell-strike is operated by a handle on the 
outside, which on being drawn down, releases a spring-hammer. 
Some gongs are made so as to give a double-stroke. Figure 
438 illustrates a double-stroke bell which works with a pull 
instead of a lever. There is, also, in the market a bell pro- 
vided with a spring escapement which is set by pulling the 
handle, and gives a continuous ring like that of an electric-bell, 
lasting about five seconds. This is known as " Bushby's 
Escapement Bell." 


Gate-hinges. Ordinary strap-hinges are sometimes used for gates, and 

there are a few forms of heavy wrought-iron butts which also 

Fig. 439. Self-closing Gate-hinge, 
St. Louis Pattern. Shepard Hard- 
ware Co. 

Fig. 440. Seymour's Gate-hinge. P. & F. 

answer for the purpose ; but there is in the hardware market 
quite a variety of fixtures especially devised for gates, and the 



special forms are usually preferred. Gate-hinges are always 
arranged to be self-closing, generally acting by gravity. 
Shepard's St. Louis pattern, Figure 439, has the bearing- 
surfaces of the lower 
hinge made on a sharp 
incline, so that when 
the gate is opened, it 
is lifted bodily, and 
descends in closing. 
This principle is em 
bodied in several differ- 
ent patterns. It, of 
course, permits the 

Chapter XIV. 

Fig. 441. Gate-hinge. Shep- 
ard Hardware Co, 

gate to open only in 
one direction. With 
" Seymour's " hinge, 
Figure 440, the gate 
is practically suspended 
from the upper pivot, 
and bears laterally 
against two pivots at 
the bottom, so spaced, 
that when the orate is 


the bottom 

thrown out more than 
the top, and its own 
weight is sufficient to 
close it. Figures 441 

Fig. 442. Gate-hinge. Shepard Hardware Co. 

and 442 are variations of the same principle, a simpler applica- 



Chapter XIV. 


tion of the idea being shown by Figure 443. All of these will 
open both ways. 


A very common form of gate-latch is shown by Fio-ure 444. 
It consists of a bent lever which is mortised through the gate- 
frame, the bolt catching in a strike on the post. A spring 
keeps the bolt thrown out, and the beveled strike permits the 
latch to be self-closing. With a strike which is beveled each 

Fig. 444. Mortise Gate-latch 
Ireland Mfg. Co. 

Fig. 443. Gate-hinge No. 20. Shepard Hardware 

Fig. 445. Broads's Patent Gate- 
latcn. Ireland Mfg. Co. 

way, this latch can be used for a double-swing gate. Figure 
445 shows a latch which is very commonly used with gates 
swinging only one way. The catch acts by gravity alone. 
Figure 446 represents a gravity, mortise catch. The latch 
shown by Figure 447 is planted on the face of the gate-frame, 
and works with a spring, while in Figure 448 it is planted 
on the edge of the gate-frame, which has to be kept cor- 
respondingly away from the post. The Yale & Towne Manu- 





facturing Company has a somewhat similar gate-latch, Figure Chapter xiv. 
449. Each is opened by pressing down one of the arms. 
"Seymour's" cylindrical gate-latch, Figure 450, is mortised 

Fig. 446. Gate-latch No. 2. Fig. 447. Seymour's Gate-latch. P. & F. Corbin. 

Shepard Hardware Co. 

Fig. 448. Gate-Latch, No. 20. Shepard 
Hardware Co. 

Fig. 449. Leeds's Gate-Latch. 
Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. 

Fig. 450. Seymour's Cylindrical Gate-Latch. P. & F. Corbin. 

through the gate-frame, and opens when the handle is de- 

There are many other styles of gate-hinges, few which 
differ materially from those we have considered. 



Chapter XIV. 



Where are three 
styles of dumb -wait- 
ers in common use. 
For the cheapest 
sort of work, a rope 
is attached to the top 
of the car, carried up 
over a wheel, down 
one side to the bot- 
tom of the well, 
under a second wheel 
and up to the bottom 
of the car, to which 
the end of the rope is 
attached. A counter- 
balance weight is con- 
Fig. 451. The Cannon Dumb-waiter. HCCted With the top of 

the car by a rope passing over a third wheel. Another style 


Fig. 452. New York Safety Dumb-waiter. 

Fig. 453. 

C Duiub-waiter. is shown by Figure 451. A rope is fastened to the top 


of the car and passes 
about the four small 
wheels to the coun- 
terbalance weight 
on one side. One of 
these wheels is on the 
si i aft of a large wheel 
over which a thick 
rope is carried and 
continued around a 
similar wheel at the 
bottom of the shaft. 
This holds on the 
large wheel simply by 
friction, and in mov- 
ing, winds up or 
lowers the hanging- 

The third style is 
illustrated by Figure 
454, with a plan of 
the upper gearing, 
Figure 452, and a 
diagonal view of the 
upper works, Figure 
453. A rope is at- 
tached to the bottom 
of the shelf on which 
the upper wheels rest, 
starting at 1, Figure 
452. Thence it is 
carried down to and 
under the wheels E E 
on the top of the car, 
up through 2, over 
wheel A, and down 
through 3 to the 
wheels at the bottom 
of the shaft. Then it 
is brought up through 



Chapter XIV. 

New York 
Safety Dumb- 

Fig. 454. 

New York Safety Dumb-waiter. 
Storm Spring Go. 



Chapter xiv. 4, over wheels B and (7, and there connected with the coun- 
terbalance by a pulley, the end of the rope being fastened to the 
under-side of the top shelf, close by where it started. A safety- 
rope is attached to the top of the car, carried up through 5, 
over pulley J), and connected with the counterbalance. A cam- 
brake, Figure 455, on the shelf beside 4 prevents the car from 
descending when heavily loaded. It will be seen that all the 
working connections are made with a single rope, so arranged 
that no matter how much it may stretch, it will always be taut, 
the slack being taken up by the counterbalance, so that the 
slightest motion of the rope will start the car. This style is 
very generally used in good work. 

The doors at the openings into the dumb-waiter shaft are 
usually hung in the same manner as an ordinary window, and 
are provided with some form of spring-catch like Figure 456,. 


Fig. 455. Brake. 

Fig. 456. Dumb-waiter Catch. 

which will hold the door either up or down, the catch being 
released by depressing the arm at the side. 

The following table gives the average retail prices of the 
miscellaneous articles described in this chapter. 




Chapter XIV. 


417 Brass Screw-hooks per doz. 15 to 25 cents. 

419 Picture-hooks per doz. 35 to 42 cents. 

420 Chandelier-hooks, 6-inch screw each 58 cents. 

422 Hammock-hooks per doz. $ 1.12 

423 Clothes-line hooks, 4 screws per doz. .42 

Stair-rail brackets per set .in 

429 Letters and numbers, 2-inch each .35 

430 Letter-box plate, plain each .75 

436 Bell-fixtures, complete without wire.. per set 1.00 

Bell-gong, bronze handle each .75 

Gate-fixtures, hinges or latches per set 25 to 50 cents. 

452 N. Y. Safety Dumb-waiter fittings per set 15.00 


TITHE manufacture of fine hardware for house-trimmings has 
A by no means kept pace with the artistic development which 
this country has witnessed during the past fifteen years 
in nearly every other branch of the art industries ; so that 
while the mechanical details of the wares have been brought 
to the highest degree of excellence, the manufacture seldom 
rises to the dignity of an art, and seems to be considered in 
general as requiring no further direction than can be given by 
the most skilful mechanics. A trained designer, who would treat 
hardware as a part of a house rather than as an opportunity for 
mechanical elaboration, who would appreciate the relation it 
necessarily bears to the architecture, who would consider the 
fitness of the material for certain forms and the adaptability of 
certain styles for certain uses, without attempting to combine 
an Albert Durer cartouche with an Italian Renaissance scroll, 
crown the product with a Greek honeysuckle and apply the 
whole to a design for a door-plate, would have chance for 
employment with but few of the large firms which supply the 
market with builders' hardware. Consequently we find that 
while there is a considerable quantity of perfectly plain, un- 
adorned hardware which is good because of its simplicity, 
the elaborate hardware is nearly alwavs bad, and unfortunately 
most hardware is elaborate. These conditions are by no 
means wholly due to the indifference or artistic incapacity of 



the manufacturers. It is found that cheap patterns sell the Chapter XV. 
best ; a fussy, meretricious design is the most profitable to put 
on the market, and the producers are obliged to cater to the 
cheap trade. There are a few exceptions to this rule, some 
manufacturers whose average artistic productions are unim- 
peachable, but when such have made money it is due more to 
good business management and mechanical perfection than to 
artistic capacity. The public buys hardware because it is well- 
made and reliable, rather than because it is good-looking. At 
the same time, even the best is disappointing, because being so 
good, it ought to be a great deal better. With so much to 
draw from the wealth of ideas in the European museums, 
suggestions in silver and gold smith's work, the old Pompeian 
bronzes, the delicate, antique Etruscan jewelry, besides the 
quantities of architectural ideas which might be adapted ; and 
having in addition the best of mechanical workmanship, 
together with the element of color, which the work of former 
times seldom possessed, the hardware designer ought never to 
be at a loss what to do. No one of the art industries is cap- 
able of so wide an aesthetic expansion or presents so varied a 
field for the play of individual fancy, and few have been so 
persistently misapplied and misunderstood. It is not fair to 
say there is no good hardware to be had unless it be specially 
designed, but the general average of the goods which are kept 
in stock by the leading manufacturers, is, to say the least, com- 
monplace; and this, too, notwithstanding some very notable 

At one time, iron was almost the only material employed for Materials used, 
artistic effects in hardware. This was before the day of 
patterns, when the individual fancy was applied directly to the 
metal. But now, when the artist has ceased to be the work- 
man and an article is salable only when it can be readily repro- 
duced, cast brass and bronze are almost the only metals used. 
Quite recently cast-iron has been employed to a considerable 
extent, and when finished with the Bower-Barif process, sells 
at about the same prices as bronze. A defect in nearly all cast- 



Chapter XV. 

Cast- work. 


Change in 


work, however well-designed, is that the patterns, instead of 
being modelled by hand, so as to show every touch of the artist 
and permit of an exact reproduction of the feeling which a de- 
sign should have when worked out in a metal like bronze or 
iron, is first carved in wood. One who does not appreciate the 
difference between a carving and a casting, has only to compare 
a Greek stele with some of the exquisite bronzes which are 
taken out of Pompeii ; and no workman, however skilful, can 
give a wood-carving the easy flow and metal-like appearance of 
a bronze casting. Again, our castings are, in one sense, too 
nice. That is to say, after they are taken from the mould they 
are pickled in acids and then hand-chased, a process that could 
spoil even the best of modelling. It is to be hoped that some 
day fine hardware will be cast only by the cire perdu or some 
similar process, which reproduces every touch of the artist and 
leaves the casting perfect as it comes from the mould. 

Glass is used more now than it was a few years ago, and for 
knobs is peculiarly suitable. It is not usually exhibited by the 
manufacturers as artistic hardware, though surely when such 
ugly faceted abominations are tolerated in cut-glass tableware, 
a cut-glass knob ought to please every one. 

A rather interesting change has taken place in the forms in 
which artistic designs in hardware are expressed. During the 
Middle Ages, the greatest amount of work was expended upon 
the hinges and their accessories, an example of which is 
afforded by the hinges of the western doors of the Cathedral of 
Paris. Knobs and latches were quite subordinate ; indeed, 
knobs, as we apply them now, were unknown at that time. 
During the Renaissance period the ingenuity of the artisans 
was devoted to locks and keys, some of which are most surpris- 
ing examples of hardware. At present neither hinges nor 
locks nor keys are elaborated to any extent, the greatest 
amount of thought being given to the door-knobs and the plates 
by which they are secured to the woodwork. In collecting the 
samples which are illustrated in this chapter, the various manu- 
facturers were requested to indicate which of their goods they 



considered as most typical of their artistic possibilities ; and 
out of some fifty pieces so designated, all but three were door- 
knobs. This might be considered as indicative of a belief that 
knobs alone are susceptible of artistic treatment, though, in 
reality, there are plenty of well-designed pulls, butts, etc. ; but 
it shows that the popular taste, when craving for art, looks at 
present no farther than the door-knob. And yet the first impulse 
of nine out of ten designers would be towards ornamental 
hinges rather than elaborate knobs, though with our present 
forms of butt-hinges there is little opportunity, and no real 
necessity for the long-strap hinges which form such a delightful 
feature of the old-fashioned doors and casement-windows. 
Butts are cheaper, more easily applied, and for some styles of 
work are more suitable, still one rather regrets the opportuni- 
ties which the old style of hinges afforded. 

Artistic hardware usually implies an unnecessary expense 
to the minds of most buyers, and unfortunately the implication 
is a correct one, even with very simple designs. The perfectly 
plain bronze, which is so much in favor in some parts of the 
country, is more expensive than any of the mean, contemptible 
figured-bronze goods which form the stock of nearly every hard- 
ware store. Plain bronze must be perfect, as every imperfec- 
tion will show, whereas a criss-cross pattern will hide a multi- 
tude of sand-holes and imperfect casting. Until the general 
average of figured-bronze goods is higher, the architect will, 
therefore, have considerable difficulty in persuading his client that 
artistic hardware is worth all it costs. Still there is plenty of 
good, plain hardware which is within the means of most clients, 
and the aggregate cost above what the common figured work 
would be, is quite inconsiderable for an ordinary house. A 
difference of two dollars per pair on knobs would not amount 
to more than fifty dollars on an entire house, and the enjoy- 
ment of seeing well-chosen hardware about one's home is surely 
worth more than the interest on fifty dollars, or twice that sum. 
We, as a nation, are fast appreciating the fact that beauty is 
worth more than mere utility ; and when the public taste 

Chapter XV. 




Chapter xv. demands a better average quality of house-hardware, there will 
be no lack of proper artists to furnish the right kind of supply. 

Comparisons are always dan- 
gerous, and are apt to be in- 
vidious. There are upwards of 
a hundred firms in this country 
who make a business of supply- 
ing hardware in one form and 
another. It would be impracti- 
cable, were it desirable, to fairly 
represent the work of any con- 
siderable portion of this number, 
nor is it necessary in order to 
show the state of the market. 
Accordingly, a limited selection 
has been made from the goods 
of a few of the manufacturers 
whose reputation for fine work 
is not questioned, and the 
pieces illustrated can, at least 
generally, indicate what are the 
market possibilities. It was 
intended that the selection 
should be left to the manufac- 
turers, so that the samples 
would in a measure indicate 
their own views as to what con- 
stitutes good hardware, but this 
idea was only partly carried 
out, it being necessary to make 
some personal selection so that 
the illustrations should not be 
confined entirely to knobs. 

1. The Yale & ToWlie Man- Fig.461. Coor-knob. Yale & Towne 

ufacturing Company. Figures 

457, 458, 459 and 460 [See Illustrations] are all executed in 



Bower-Barffed iron. The first design, while not particularly Chapter xv. 
handsome, is thoroughly appropriate to the material and would 
be suitable for the inside door of a public building, though rather 
heavy for a dwelling and not heavy enough for an outside door. 
The knob is perhaps a little too suggestive of wrought-iron. 

The next example is in a style 
which might be used to advantage 
for hardware, much more than 
it is, though the fish scales in 
the ground about the key-hole 
are not altogether appropriate 
to hardware. The next design is 
intended for a front door. The 
foliated pattern, Figure 460, is 
one of the best which has been 
made in this material. The 
design is well arranged and 
worked out, and excepting 
the smoothness of the surface, 
which is too suggestive of the 
carved pattern, it is very satis- 
factory. Bower - Barifed iron 
hardware makes a very effective 
finish for either oak, or white ' 
paint, and has the advantage of 
not changing its tone with age. 
It is unfortunate that the illus- 
trations cannot give an idea of the color of these samples, 
as with some it counts for nearly as much as the form. 

Figure 461 is a very daintily designed knob and escutcheon, 
finished with gold-plate, the plain surfaces being slightly 
dulled, and the raised portions polished so as to give brighter 
reflections. Another knob is finished in one of the most durable 
colors that is given to bronze hardware, known as old brass, 
having the soft yellow of an old binnacle which has been 
scoured and rubbed down year after year to a smooth dull but 

Fig. 465. French Window-knob. 
Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. 


Chapter XV 


not polished surface, and has big nail-heads studded very effect- 
ively over the escutcheon. Figure 461 would be suitable 
only for the most elaborate room, preferably one finished in 
ivory-white and gold, while the old-brass design would answer 
for much humbler apartments, looking best against dark oak, 
mahogany or white. 

Figures 463 to 467 inclusive, are all in bronze. Figure 465 
is a French window-knob finished in deep copper color which is 

Fig. 472. Oxidized-silver Hardware. Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. Fig. 473. 

especially well designed both for looks and for wear, the numer- 
ous rows of beads hiding any inequalities of tone and giving a 


rich effect at slight cost. Figure 467 is for inside work. The Chapter xv. 
three others are for front doors. 

Figure 468 is an elaborate drawer-pull in silver-plate, 
slightly oxidized. Figure 469 is in bronze, copper-plated and 
oxidized, the high lights being buffed down to show the copper. 
The design is made to match the iron escutcheon Figure 
460. The shutter-knob, Figure 470, is a very neat design in a 
semi-Greek style which we ought to see used more frequently. 
The sample is gold-plated. The shutter-bar, Figure 471, the 
lock and key, Figure 472, and the hinge, 473, are all carried 
out in the same semi-Byzantine style, in oxidized-silver. The 
key is unique, and the only one of its kind found in modern 
work. Few persons would care to go to the expense implied 
by such keys and lock-plates, but where the money is not an 
important consideration, it would surely add to the finished 
effect of a room to have such keys as this in the lock instead 
of the flat utilitarian structure one is usually content with. 
Figure 474 is a number-plate in oxidized-copper, the leaf 
work showing in dull copper tones against a very dark old- 
bronze ground. The number is gold-plated. 

The Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company has made its 
name chiefly on its locks, but of late years it has included the 
manufacture of fine hardware. The work done by it is excel- 
lent in finish and mechanical details and the foregoing samples 
fairly illustrate the character of the designs. 

2. A. G. Newman. Figure 475 is a fine example of a 
door-handle, having every appearance of being made from 
a pattern which was modelled instead of being chiselled or 
carved in wood. The leaf at top and bottom of the plate 
grows naturally from the single roll at the sides, and the handle 
is made to look just what it is a door-pull without being 
tortured into any unique or startling form. It is a thoroughly 
well-designed piece of hardware and as artistic as anything that 
is found in the market. Figure 476 is less pleasing in the result, 
though the motive is a good one. The top of the escutcheon is 
borrowed from an architectural form which needs relief and some 


Chapter xv. fine mouldings, both of which could be added to advantage in 
this design. It is executed in silver plate, slightly oxidized and 
buffed to a clear surface on the high lights. Figure 477 illus- 
trates a knob which serves admirably for a parlor or a music- 
room carried out with colonial fittings, a Chippendale knob 
in fact, if the expression may be allowed, and very handsome 
by reason of the irregular reflections and high lights on the 
curved flutings. Figure 478 is a quieter design, but very satis- 
factory except for a little heaviness in the flutings. Figure 
479 is a very careful and judicious design, the knob being one 
of the very few in which a broad, milled-edge forms a marked 
feature. It is a natural device and is worked in very prettily, 
the dainty ornament at the top of the knob being equally ap- 
propriate for its place. Figures 480 and 481 are other forms, 
both finished in dark antique bronze. Figure 482 is an escut- 
cheon-plate for a sliding-door, and matches the plate of Figure 
476. Figure 483 is a simple but very effective door-pull, in 
light bronze. 

Newman has the reputation of doing a great deal of fine 
order work for the New York architects from special designs, 
Some of his best work cannot be reproduced here as the 
designs are not public. It should be remembered in consider- 
ing all of this hardware that when a successful design is put on 
the market it is apt to be copied indiscriminately by rival man- 
ufacturers, which is naturally discouraging to those who are 
conscientiously seeking to do the best work. The rule, almost, 
is, that the better manufacturers make their designs, and the 
cheap men steal them. 

3. Enoch Robinson. Figure 484 is a cut-glass knob set in a 
fluted, cup-shaped shank, with a simple Queen Anne escutch- 
eon-plate. Knobs of this material are more commonly attached 
so as to show glass on all sides. Figures 485 and 486 show 
two varieties of plain, rectangular escutcheon-plates which 
are used a great deal by some architects and are always satis- 
factory. The knob of Figure 486 is well designed, in that the 
shape is suited to the purpose, the few mouldings simply used 



to give lines rather than detail, and the rows of beads are just 
sufficient to add a sparkle to the whole. Generally, the hard- 
ware manufacturer will put too much work on a knob, rather 
than too little. It is so easy to add leaf work or convolutions 
or tortured detail which passes for richness that simplicity 
seldom finds expression in that which dealers are most apt to 
put forward as artistic hardware. 

The knobs shown by Figures 487 and 488 are great favor- 
ites about Boston, especially the former, which in various slight 
modifications is assumed to be peculiarly adapted to white 
paint and colonial finish. These are 
often used to advantage with perfectly 
plain rectangular escutcheons. The 
plates shown here are a trifle heavy 
for domestic work, especially Figure 
488, which is more suited to a public 

Figures 489 and 489 A illustrate two 


elaborate designs which were made on a 
special order, goods of this description 
being seldom kept in stock. The work 
is excellent in detail, though there is 
less purity of style than one would ex- 
pect in so ambitious an attempt. Fig- 
ure 489 is arranged very daintily, but 
with a little flatter treatment, less relief 
to the foliage, perhaps, and a mask 
which would be less literal in its mod- 
elling, this design could be rendered 
Fig> 489 ' much more charming. Figure 491 is for 

a front-door, and naturally calls for a bolder treatment than Fig- 
ure 489. 

Figure 490 is a variation on the twisted-knob pattern, with 
an oval form and bevelled cuts instead of flutings, giving a 
prismatic effect to the surface. 

Figures 491 to 493, inclusive, illustrate some pieces of hard- 

Chapter XV. 


Chapter XV. ware which can hardly be classed with house-fittings. Every 
one is familiar with the delightful old mahogany furniture of 
the early part of this century, ornamented with brass rosettes 
and wreaths, contrasted with plain surfaces and large, swelling 
mouldings. This style of the First Empire is beginning to be 
appreciated again, and the pieces shown by the figures are in- 
tended to be used in connection with such work. The patterns 
are all copied directly from old French furniture, and for the 
purpose are artistic and very effective. Only rarely can the 
architect use such pieces as these, but it is easy to imagine a 
room carried out in the Empire style, with ornaments of this 
sort used not only on the furniture, but also on the doors and 
along the architraves, and with charming effect. 

Robinson carries a comparatively small stock, his business 
being very largely on orders, with a great deal of fine hand-work. 
His goods are thought very highly of by the Boston architects. 

4. The Hopkins & Dickinson Manufacturing Company 
manufactures an escutcheon-plate on a little different scheme 
from any which have been previously considered, the design 
being simply a flat piece of metal cut or stamped in an open 
pattern, the only ornamentation aside from the form, being in 
the shape of large nail-heads, which are studded about the 
plate. This sort of design can be made very effective in a 
great variety of forms. Figure 494 is an example of a good 
effect obtained by the judicious use of a minimum amount of 
ornamentation : the convoluted pattern on the knob is enough to 
add life and interest without marring the simple shape, and just 
a few touches of the same pattern at the corners of the plate 
and single dots on the key-hole cover are enough to consist- 
ently carry out the design and intensify the simplicity. Who- 
ever designed this pattern knew just where to stop, a rare 
qualification nowadays. This piece is executed in bronze of 
a clear, old brass color. 

Figure 495 is a design in oxidized-silver, with some excel- 
lent detail, notably the mask or grotesque at the top and the 
arabesque on the face of the knob. The shape of the knob 


V r 




might be better if it were more spherical. So flat a form 
looks well in elevation, but does not appear to advantage 
in perspective. Even the other ex- 
treme of an elongated sphere, Fig- 
ure 496, is preferable in some re- 
spects, though this form seems to 
call for a rectangular escutcheon, 
rather than the cut plate which is 
shown with it. 

Figure 497 is a variation of a 
familiar design which has already 
been illustrated in other makes, and 
is always pleasing. Figure 498 is a 
neat arrangement in which rope 
moulding is used with good effect ; and 
another sample shows a very pleas- 
ing knob, not unlike that of Figure 
494, set on a plain bronze plate, 
relieved only by slight, open cuttings 
at top and bottom. 

Figures 499 to 503, inclusive, il- 
lustrate a few miscellaneous forms 
which speak for themselves. The 
hinge and the escutcheon are in 
oxidized-silver, the others in bronze. 

The Hopkins & Dickinson Man- 
ufacturing Company bears an excel- 
lent reputation in the hardware trade, 
turning out a very satisfactory class 

of goods with clean, sharp castings and effective chased work, 
special care also being given to the colors of the metal, and 
with exceptional results. 

The four manufacturers whose hardware has been illustrated 
are considered among the best in the country, and, given the 
same design, one would do quite as good work as the other. 
Mechanical excellence has been carried to a pitch where there 

Chapter XV. 

Fig. 49 I a. 


Chapter xv. is no difficulty in having the work done well. The great lack 
always is in ideas, and these are supplied only by careful, in- 
telligent study on the part of the designers, and an appreciation 
of artistic work on the part of those who purchase and use the 
hardware ; and it is quite possible that any deficiency in the 
aesthetic quality of our modern hardware may be due as much 
to lack of appreciation as to any lack of proper artists. But it 
must not be supposed that these are the only manufacturers 
who are capable of turning out good hardware. The illustra- 
tions may be considered as general rather than special, and as 
showing the possibilities of not only the four firms named, but 
of the majority of the hardware manufacturers. 



THERE are three methods of specifying the hardware to be 
used about a building. The first, followed very generally 
in Boston, is by allowances, the general specification containing 
clauses to the effect that the contractor is to allow so much per 
door and so much per window for hardware. It is well, in 
order to prevent mistakes or disputes, to add that the allow- 
ances are to cover the net cost to the builder, and that all the 
hardware is to be set by the contractor in addition to the prices 
named. This method conveniently disposes of the subject of 
hardware at the time of writing the specification, the whole 
matter being relegated to the time when the hardware is actu- 
ally needed, the architect then making such selection as he sees 
fit, within the allowances. 

The amounts of the allowances depend, of course, entirely 
upon circumstances. Very fair hardware for inside-doors can 
be had as low as $1.75 per door. This allows for bronzed 
iron butts, 60 cents ; wooden knobs, escutcheons and roses, 65 
cents, and a one-lever lock, 50 cents. This means, however, a 
cheaper grade of goods than would often be advisable. An 
allowance of $5 per door will permit of solid bronze hardware 
throughout, including bronze butts, $2.50 ; a good, three-lever, 
machine-made lock at $1 ; bronze knobs, $1, and bronze 
escutcheon and rose, 50 cents. For office-work an allowance of 
$6 per door will provide a "Yale" lock with corrugated key, a 

Boston method. 

Prices for al- 



Chapter XVI. 

Typical Specifi- 

spring latch, and bronze butts and knobs. For front-doors the 
allowances must be considerably increased. The lock ought to 
be of a grade costing not less than $4 ; the bolts, $2.25; the 
knobs, $2, and the butts, $6, or a total allowance of $14.25. 
For closet-doors, bronze butts and knobs and a small lock 
would average $3.50 per door, only one knob being necessary. 
$4 each is sufficient for sliding-door hardware, exclusive of the 
hangers, with latch only, or $5 with latch and lock. For fly- 
doors add $9 per door to the hardware allowance if the butts 
are of bronze, or $4.50 if of bronzed-iron. This is for house' 
work. For office fly-doors $12 should be added for bronze 
butts, and if push-and-pull plates are required an additional 
sum of $2 will be required. 

For French windows $4 will buy two pair of bronze butts, 
and $2.25 answers for the bolts and the lock, making the total 
allowance $6.25 per pair. Door-transoms should have an 
allowance of $4 each, for nice work, which would purchase 
pivots or 3^ inch butts, $1.75 ; chains and catch, 75 cents, and 
lift, $1.50. Transoms are often hung with painted butts, which 
are less conspicuous than bronze, and the total allowance can 
be scaled down as low as $1 for very simple work. 

Sashes are trimmed for 50 to 75 cents each, though the 
allowance price is usually per dozen fixtures, say $4.50 for 
fasts and $2.50 for pulls. 

A specification which would, therefore, provide for bronze 
hardware throughout an ordinary dwelling, of a good, average 
quality, might read somewhat as follows. 

HARDWARE. Allow in the contract the following sums to be ex- 
pended as the architect directs upon hardware : 










$15.00 each pair. 
6.00 each. 
5.00 each leaf. 
5.00 each leaf. 
4.00 each leaf. 
3.50 each. 
2.50 each. 
4.50 per dozen. 
2.50 per dozen. 



These prices are the net cost to the builder, and the owner is to have 
the benefit of any reduction therefrom. Beyond these allowances list 
and set all the hardware in proper manner ; also provide and set such 
other hardware (in pantries, closets, etc.) as are called for or implied 
by the plans or specifications. 

Sliding-doors to be hung by (Richards, Prindle, etc.) hangers 
running on (wooden, iron) tracks, properly adjusted, with proper 
centre stop. 

The hardware for blinds, cellar bulk-heads, etc., is best 
specified in connection with the individual items, and should be 
described exactly, as the prices of the different makes vary 

The allowance method is a very simple one for the architect, 
and when carried out according to the true intent and meaning 
of the specification, answers very well for ordinary house- 
work, especially as each contractor usually purchases his hard- 
ware of one firm, and the architect can then simply select 
from a single assortment of goods. The difficulty of such a 
svstem, however, is that the goods seldom cost as much as the 
allowances, and the difference goes to the contractor instead of 
to the owner, where it belongs. No architect has yet fully 
mastered all the intricacies of a hardware manufacturer's price- 
list, and as the price of each article is based upon so flexible 
a sliding-scale that even the builders are sometimes charged 
unevenly, there might be a dozen grades of knobs or locks, all 
at the same nominal price, though varying greatly in quality 
and in the real amount for which the dealer sells them. 

Also, the system of allowances as ordinally followed gives 
too much liberty to the contractor, who usually submits to the 
architect one or two styles of knobs and locks which he will 
furnish for the allowances, so that the hardware often ex- 
presses the builder's rather than the architect's ideas of door- 
trimmings. There may be a hundred things in the market far 
better and at less cost than those offered, and while such a 
specification as the one quoted gives the architect the right to 
choose his hardware anywhere, in practice he is generally quite 
willing to shove an irksome job onto the shoulders of the 

Chapter XVI. 

Objection to 
Boston meth- 


Chapter xvi. contractor. In fact, the system of allowances is good only 
at its .best. 

In New York it is customary to be much more exact in the 

New York , , />. TVT ^ 

method, hardware specifications. No prices are given, the various 
articles being designated by sizes and by reference to some 
particular class of goods which is to serve as a standard. 
Thus : - 

For inside-doors provide and set solid bronze 4^ inch loose-pin butts, 
two to each fold. Outside-doors to have three G inch loose -pin bronze 

Likewise for locks : 

Closet-doors to have 3)^ inch locks ; main inside-doors, 4 inch 
upstairs, 4^ inch downstairs ; front-doors, 5 inch. Closet-door locks 
to have one lever, other doors all three levers ; front-door in addition a 
night-latch and anti-friction strike. The works of all locks to be of 
(brass, steel), with steel keys and (brass, phosphor-bronze) springs. 
Door-knobs in service portions to be plain, white porcelain, with black 
enamelled-iron roses and escutcheons ; elsewhere to be plain, solid (or 
spun) bronze, with bronze roses and escutcheons, etc. 

It is usual to describe knobs and miscellaneous fittings by 
referring to a catalogue or to samples in the architect's office, 
adding " or of a similar quality satisfactory to the architect." 

It will easily be understood that in order to write a proper 
specification for hardware on such a basis as this, the architect 
must not only know and keep in mind all the numerous fittings 
necessary for a house, but must also be thoroughly posted on 
the possibilities of the market. As a matter-of-fact it is gen- 
erally easier to call in a hardware man and ask him to write 
the specification, and the way in which such a method of 
specifying will fail will be in not being sufficiently general to 
cover everything, so that the contractor will have an excellent 
opportunity to bring in a big bill of extras at his own prices. 
Besides, a specification by sizes referred to a catalogue, "or 
something equally good," is by no means absolute. The differ- 
ence between really good and absolutely bad hardware is often 
so effectually concealed by a superficial finish that, although 
the architect may refer to the best in the market and mean to 



liave it, an unscrupulous contractor might run in inferior goods 
which only the closest, technical inspection would detect, though 
the difference would be speedily manifested in the wear of a 
few months. Even restricting the choice to the goods of a 
single firm is not always sufficient to prevent imposition, as 
there are, unfortunately, some manufacturers who make goods 
to suit the consciences of all sorts of customers, and have no 
fixed standards of either quality or price. In time the archi- 
tect will discover these points by sad experience, and will grow 
very cautious; but the younger men, the householder and 
those who are either too indolent or too busy to properly 
attend to such details, will be more imposed upon by the New 
York than by the Boston method of specifying the hardware. 

The third method is the only one which is really absolute, 
or by which the architect is sure of what he obtains. It has 
been adopted very largely by the Government in obtaining 
bids for public work, and, though quite clumsy at first, is the 
surest and easiest way in the end, relieving the architect from 
a great deal of bother and entirely obviating any discussion as 
to either prices or qualities. There is no reason why the 
same system should not be followed in connection with every 
building of sufficient size to warrant it. The specification calls 
for locks, butts, etc., of certain sizes, descriptions and weights, 
and requires that a full line of samples shall be submitted, with 
prices of each. These samples are then examined carefully, a 
selection made therefrom or others substituted if none are 
exactly suitable, and the contract is based directly upon the 
samples. It remains, then, only for the superintendent to 
insist upon having the identical fixtures referred to, allowing 
no leeway for anything " equally good," or " of similar quality." 

For small dwellings the method of allowances is very con- 
venient, giving the -architect full liberty to change his ideas to 
suit the work or to introduce any article which seems advisable, 
without being obliged to determine every detail in advance. 
But for all heavy buildings the Government method is better 
and fairer for both architect and contractor. The former can 

Chapter XVI. 





Chapter xvi. decide just as well first as last what he wants, and the hard- 
ware being all selected several months in advance, the con- 
tractor has ample time in which to make the best terms for 
the wares, and any delay in purchasing is then due solely to 
himself, while the question of price is definitely settled before 
any contract is signed. It is then the contractor's business 
alone how much he pays or how much discount he obtains, or 
what commission he receives for placing his order with the re- 
tailer, and so long as he matches the samples agreed upon, no 
one has any just cause for complaint. 

Conclusion. In concluding this series of papers upon the subject of 

Builders' Hardware, the writer desires to acknowledge many 
sins of omission and commission which have been almost un- 
avoidable, considering the complexity of the subject, the 
difficulty of ascertaining the condition and scope of the market, 
and the uncertainty of definite deductions. It has been written 
with special regard to the possibilities of the Boston market, 
but, at the same time, the goods of nearly all the manufac- 
turers in the country have been studied and compared, so that 
it is believed the series will have more than a local significance. 
The most the writer can hope is that he may help to relieve a 
little of the drudgery inseparable from the architect's profes- 
sion, and that the book may have a reference value to both 
architect, builder and house-furnisher. 



Acme Barn-door Roller . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 

Acme Sash-cord .. .. .. .. .. .. ..116 

Aluminium. Composition and Uses . . . . . . . . 1 1 

Anderson Sash-balance .. .. .. .. .. ..118 

Anderson Sash-starter . . . . . . . . . . . 145 

Anti-friction Strikes .. .. .. .. .. ..178 

Anti-friction Sash-pulley .. .. .. .. .. ..110 

Anti-friction Sheave. Hatfield 96 

Anti-rattler. Ideal . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 

Anti-rattling Wedges. Clanson's . . . . . . 141 

Artistic Hardware . . . . . . . . . . 278 

Awning-hinges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 

Awning-hook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 

Axle-pulleys .. .. .. .. ..110 

Balances. Sash . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 

Bank-lock. Perautopic . . . . . . . . . . 185 

Bar-pull . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . 257 

Bar-rail Brackets . . . . 266 

Bardsley's Checking Spring-hinge . . 86 

Bardsley's Knob-fastener . . . . . . . . . . 245 

Bardsley's Screwless-knob . . . . . . . . . . 243 

Barlow Door-check . . . . . . 81 

Barn-door Hangers. (See Door-hangers) . . 91 

Barn-door Hook-and-eye-hinge . . . . 52 

Barn-door Lock. Mack and Redway's . . . . 232 

Barn-door Rail. Nickel . . . . . . . . 91 

Barn-door Roller. Acme . . . . . . 01 

Barrel Bolts .... 30 

Bell. Bushby's Escapement . . . . . . . . 270 

Bell Carriage . . 269 

Crank .... ..268 

Double-stroke Pull-gong . . . . 270 

Fixtures .. 268 



Bell Hangings 268 

Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 

Pull. Common . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 

Pull. Lever . . 252 

Bent Staples . . 31 

Bird-cage Hook ". . 263 

Blind Adjuster. Excelsior . . . . . . . . . . 154 

Adjuster. Washhurn's . . . . . . . . . . 154 

Awning Fixtures. Automatic . . . . . . 158 

Catch. Seymour's 152 

Fast. Boston Pattern . . . . 149 

Folsom's . . . . 148 

Gravity 148 

Lock 150 

New York Pattern 149 

Outside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 

Providence Pattern . . . . . . . . . . 150 

Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 

Shedd .. .. .. H| 148 

Spring Wire 148 

Standard Screw . . . . . . . . . . 150 

Tenon 154 

Zimmerman's . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 

Hinges. Inside . . . . . . . . . . 53, 63 

New York Style 53 

Rochester . . . . . . . . . . 153 

Seymour's . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 

Hook. Drive-brace . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 

Iron Screw . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 

Screw-brace . . . . 54 

Slat Adjuster. Byam's 159 

Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 

Barrel . . . . . . 30 

Bookcase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 

Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 

Chain and Check . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 

Check 43 

^Cupboard 33, 256 

Cylindrical Door . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 

Door . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 

INDEX 299 

Bolts. Dutch Door . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 

Chain and Foot . . . . . . 40 

Engine-house . . . . . . . . . . 40 

Espagnolette . . . . . . . . . . 41 

Extension Latch-spring .... 39 

Flat Tail .... 38 

Flush with Patent Stop 38 

French Window . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 

Gem Mortise . . . . . . . . 45 

Joint .... . . 28 

Latch-spring . . 38 

For Locks . . ..173 

Locking-shutter 36 

Mortise-flush . . 

Mortise-door ...... . . 44 

Mortise-door. Table of Prices . . 46 

Mosquito Bar 

Neck .... ..31 

Parts of ..173 

Prices of Plain 

Ship .... 33 

Side-flush 33 

Sink .. -. 30 


Stove .... 30 


Tire . . 
Bookcase Bolts 

Catch .. 

Boston Blind-fast . . 149 

Knobs 18 

Bower-Barffed Iron 

Knobs .. 



Shelf .. .. 

Stair-rail ., 


Israels . . . . . . . . . . .."".... . . 15 

Bramali Lock -..; ..183 

Brass. Composition ... . . . . . . . . . . 5 

Broad's Patent Gate-latch 272 

Brockton Shutter-worker .. .. .. .. .. ..157 

Bronze. Chains .. .. .. .. .. .. ..115 

Composition of . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 

Hardware-finishes . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 

Phosphor 10,109,178 

Phosphor Springs . . . . . . . . . . 176 

Surface-finish . , . . . . . . . . . . 6 

Bronzed Iron, Composition . . . . . . . . . . 3 

Brown's Window-lock .. .. .. .. .. ..137 

Shutter-worker . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 

Butts 57 

Chicago Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 

Fast-pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 

Fine .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ]*. . 61 

Garden City Spring .. .. .. .. .. |&| 67 

Jewett Spring . . . . . . . . 70 

Loose-joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 

Loose-joint Ball-tip . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 

Material for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 

Parliament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 

Screen . . . . . . \ . . . . . . . 64 

Table of Wrought-steel Loose-joint . . . . . . 60 

Torsion Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 

Burglar Door-knob and Window-alarm , . . . . . . 254 

Buttons. Turn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 

Byam's Blind-slat Adjuster 159 

Brain's Sash-balance .. .. .. .. .. .. 140 

Byam's Sash-fast .. .. .. .. .. .. ..136 

Byam's Sash-lifter 144 

Cable Sash-chain. Morton's .. .. .. .. ..115 

Cam Sash-fasts .. .. .. .. .. .. ..131 

Canada Bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 

Cannon Dumb-waiter . . . . . . . . . . 274 

Cast-work in Artistic Hardware . . . . . . . . 280 

Cast Wroii'jht-iron . . 2 

INDEX. 301 


Catch. Bookcase . . . . . . . . 33 

Cupboard . . . . . . . . . . 2 56 

Door . . . . 88 

Dumb-waiter . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 76 

Fray's Door . . . . . . . . gg 

French Window . . . . . . 934 

Ross Inside ........ 89 

Screen-door . . . . . . . . 2:54 

Top-door . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 

Transom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 04 

Celluloid Knobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -^Q 

Centres. Sash .. .... 161, 1(52, 1G3 

Transom . . . . . . . . 161 

Centre or Pin Hinge . . . . . . . . C4 

Chain. Morton Cable Sash .. .. .. .. ..115 

Champion Sash . . . . . . . . . . 1 13, 114 

Fastener. Rogers's . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 

Smith and Egge . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 

Solid-link .. .. .. .. .. .. ..116 

Table of Sash .. .. .. .. .. ..117 

and Check-bolts . . ... . . . . . . . . 42 

and Foot-bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 

and Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . ..113 

Champion Sash-chains .. .. .. .. 1', 3. 114 

Spring-hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 

Chandelier-hook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 

Check. Barlow Door . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 

Door . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 81 

Drop-door 89 

House's Automatic Door . . . . . . . . . . 86 

House's Liquid Door . . . . . . . . . . 85 

Norton Door 83 

Spring Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 

Bolts . . . . 43 

Bolts and Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 

and Spring. Eclipse . . 83 

Checking Spring-hinge. Bardsley's . . 86 

Chest-handle . . . . 256 

Hinge ..... 63 

Chicago Spring-butt . . . . 69 



Chilled Iron Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 

Chubbs's Locks .. .. .. .. .. .. ..175 

Clanson's Anti-rattling Wedges . . . . . . . . . . 141 

Climax Barn-door Hanger . . . . . . .... 92 

Rail . . 96 

Closet-fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 

Fixtures. Table of 262 

Clothes-line Hook . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 

Clout Nails 15 

Coach Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 

Coach Screws. Table . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 

Coat-hooks . . . . . . . . . . 259, 260, 261 

Combination Dial-locks . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 

Corey's Two- wheel Sash-pulley . . . . . . . . 110 

Cottage Latch . . . , . . . , . . . . . . 234 

Cotterill's Lock ' 183 

Crank-handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 

Crown Screen-door Latch . . . . . . . . . . 234 

Crown Spring-hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 

Cupboard-bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 255, 256 

Catches 256 

and Transom Catch .. .. .. .. '. ]~ ~ .. 163 

Cut Steel Nails. Prices of 15 

Tacks. American Iron . . . . . . . . . . 19 

Cylindrical Door-bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 

Gate-latch. Seymour's . . . . . . . . 273 

Cylinder Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 

Cylinder Locks. Winn . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 

Damon's Dial Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 

Davis Sash-fast 134 

Day and Newell's Perautopic Bank Lock . . . . . . 185 

Dead Lock ..187 

Defiance Lock. Parnell's 187 

Detector Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 

Devore Door-spring . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 

Dial Locks 226 

Diamond-pointed Screw . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 

Dietz Store-lock . . 193 

Dietz Padlock 232 

INDEX. 30a 

Door-bumper . . . . . . . . . . 90 

Bolts . . 30 

Cylindrical . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 

Dutch 39 

Mortise. Table of Prices 46 

Catches . . 88 

Fray's . . 89 

for Screens 235, 236 

Top . . 89 

Checks . . 81 

Barlow . . 81 

Drop 89 


House's Automatic 86 

House's Liquid . . . . 85 

Norton . . 82, 83 


Fasts . . 43 

French 43 

Hangers 77 

Barn .... 91 

Climax . . 


Endless Anti-friction . . 103 

Hatfield ..94 


Moody . . 

Moore's Anti-friction .. ..100 

Nickel .. 94 > 100 

Novelty . . 

Paragon .. 

Prescott ..105 

Prindle .. 


Table of Prices . . 

Victor .... 


and Rollers 



Door-holder. Fray's . . . . . . . . . , . 88 

Knobs . . 237 

Hollenbeck's Expanding Spindle . . . . . . 246 

Mathes's Adjustable Screwless . . . . . . 242 

Morris Patent . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 

Phipps's Patent . . . . . . . . . . 245 

Table of .253 

and Escutcheon Combined . . . . . . . . 241 

and Window Alarm . . . . . . . . . . 254 

Kocker. Old-fashioned 252 

Latch. Crown Screen . . . . . . . . . . 234 

Latch. Elevator . . 233 

Rim-sliding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 

Locks 167 

Mack & Redway's Barn . . 233 

Sliding 228 

Nails. Ornamental . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 

Rail. Nickel 91 

Roller. Acme 91 

Sheave. Sliding . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 

Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 

Devore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 

Peabody . . . . 79 

Reliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 

Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 

Star 77 

Table of Prices 79 

Torry 79 

Torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 

Warner 81 

Stops 89 

Drawer-knobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 

Pulls 256, 257 

Pull. Druggists' 258 

Drive-brace Blind-hook . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 

Drop Door-check 89 

and Pin-fast 152 

Druggist's Drawer-pull . . 258 

Dudley Shutter-worker .. ..157 

Dumb-waiter. Cannon 274 

INDEX. 305 

Dumb-waiter. Catch g 7 g 

Fittings . . . . . . 274 

New York Safety .. .. .. .. ^75 

Dutch-door Bolt . . . . . . . . . . 39 

Easy Spring-latch . . . . ! 73 

Eclipse Door-check and Spring . . 83 

Egyptian Lock j 70 

Elastic-headed Screws . . . . <JQ 

Electric Lock .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 2:>7 

Elevator Door-latch . . . . . . . . . . 2;; 3 

Elizabethan Lock . . . . . . . . . . \-\ 

Emerson Parlor-door Hanger .. ..103 

Empire Sash-pulley 110 

Spring-hinge G8 

Endless Anti-friction Parlor-door Hanger . . . . . . 103 

Engine-house Bolts . . . . . . 40 

Spring . . 78 

Escapement Bell. Bushby's 270 

Escutcheons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 

Table of 254 

Espagnolette Bolts 41 

Excelsior Blind-adjuster 154 

Excelsior Transom-lifter Ififi 

Excentric Cam-fast 137 

Expanding Spindle Door-knob. Hollenbeck's . . . . 246 

Fast-pin Butt 58 

Fasts. Sash 125 

Fastener. Nelson's Perfect 143 

Stop-bead 143 

Favorite Sash-fast 129 

Finish and Cost of Locks 169 

for Bronze Hardware. List . . . . . . . . 8 

Varieties of, in Metals . . . . . . . . . . 1 

Finishing Nails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 

Fittings. Closet 255 

Florence Tack Co. Staples 19 

Flush-bolt. Extension Latch-spring . . . . . . 39 

Flush-Bolt. Mortise 38 


Flush-Bolt with Patent Stop . . 38 

Bolt. Sunk 38 

Flush Sash Lift and Lock . . . . . . 144 

Folsom's Blind-fast . . . . . . . . 148 

Foot-scrapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 

Foster Lock 219 

Fray's Door-catch . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 

Door-holder . . . . 88 

French Lock. Wards of . . . . . . . . ..176 

Window-bolts 40 

Window-catch . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 

Front-door Locks 188, 201 

Galvanized-iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 

Garden City Spring-hinges . . . . . . . . . . 66 

Gate Fixtures 270 

Hinges 270, 271, 272 

Hinge. Seymour's . . . . . . . . . . 271 

Latches . . . . 272 

Latch. Broad's Patent _..." ..272 

Gate-latch. Leed's 273 

Seymour's . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 

Gem Mortise-bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 

Giant Padlock 233 

Gilbert Lock 200,247 

Gimlet-pointed Coach-screws . . . . . . . . . . 27 

Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 23^ 

Gravity Blind-fast .. ..148 

Sash-fasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 

Grooved Sash-chain Pulley .. .. .. .. ..114 

Hall Front-door Lock 208 

Hammock-hook 265 

Hammond Window-springs . . . . 139 

Hand-made Locks . . . . 189 

Rail-screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 

Hangers. Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 

Picture . . . . 29 

and Rollers .. .. .. .... .. .. 91 

Hangings. Bell 268- 

INDEX. 307 


Hardware. Artistic . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 

for Inside Shutters . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 

Table of Miscellaneous .. .. .. .. ..277 

Hart Patent Hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 

Harvard Lock .. .. .. .. .. .. ..218 

Hasp Padlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 

and Staples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 

and Staple with Double Hook . . . . . . . . 47 

and Staple on Plates . . . . . . . . . . 47 

Hatfield Anti-friction Sheave . . . . .... . . 96 

Barn Door-hanger . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 

Hemacite Knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 

Hero Spring-hinge . . . . 73, 74 

Hill's Skylight-lift 166 

Hinges . . . . . . . . . . 47 

Awning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 

Barn-door Hook-and-eye . . . . . . . . . . 52 

Blind . . 53 

Blind. Inside . . . . . . 63 

Blind. Malleable Iron . . . . . . . . . . 54 

Blind. New York Style . . . 53 

Blind. Rochester ..153 

Blind. Seymour's . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 

Chest 63 

Gate . . 271 

Gate. Seymour's . . . . . . . . ..... 271 

Hasp ....... 48 

Keene's Double-acting Saloon-door . . . . . . 67 

Phosphor-bronze . . 75 

Pin or Centre . . 64 

Quadrant .... 64 

Record's Patent .... 51 

Special .... 63 

Spring .... 66 

Spring. Bardsley's Checking - . 86 

Spring. Champion . . 69 

Spring. Crown . . 68 

Spring. Devcre 73 

Spring. Empire . . . . . . 68 

Spring. Garden City . . . . 66- 



H Ingres. Spring. Hero . . . . . . . . 73, 74 

Spring. Hold-back . . . . . . . . . . 73 

Spring. Star . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 

Spring. Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 

Spring. Union . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 

Spring. Wiles . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 

Strap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 

Strap. Raised . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 

Strap. Wrought-steel Table 51 

T 50 

Transom .. .. .. .. .. .. 49,161 

Trap-door . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 

Wash-tray 63 

Water-closet Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 

Wells's Patent 50 

with Braced Leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 

Hold-back Spring-hinges . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 

Hollenback Expanding Spindle Door-knob .. .. ... 246 

Tubular-lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 

Hook. Bird-cage . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 

Blind .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 54 

Coat GO, 61 

Chandelier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 

Clothes-line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 

Hammock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 

Picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 

Picture-moulding . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 

Picture-rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 

Screw 29, 263 

Sliding-shutter .. .. .. .. . . ..160 

Wardrobe 260,261 

and Eye Hinge. Barn-door . . . . . . . . 52 

Hotel Locks 188,209 

House's Automatic Door-check . . . . . . . . . . 86 

Liquid Door-check . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 

Hungarian Nails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 

Ideal Anti-rattler . . . . . . , . 141 

Inside Blind-hinge .... .. .. 63 

Catch . . 89 

INDEX. 309 


Inside Shutters. Hardware f or . . . . 159 

Iron. Bower-Barffed . . . . , . . . . . 154 

Bronzed Composition . . . , , . . . . . 3 

Cast . . . . . . 2 

Cast. Wrought . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 

Chilled ..94 

Coppered Malleable .... . . 149 

Copper-plated . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 

Cut Tacks .. ..19 

Galvanized . . . . . . . . . . 3 

Malleable . . . . . . . . . . 94 

Method for Preventing Rust . . . . . . 2 

Nickel-plated .... . . 4 

Sash-cord . . . . . . . . . . 120 

and Steel Clinch Staples . . . . . . 19 

Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 

Wrought . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 

Ives Mortise Door-bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 

Sash-fast . . .... . . 131 

Jackson's Sash-cord Iron . . . . . . . . 120 

Jamb Staples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 

Japanning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 

Jewett Spring-butt . . . . . . 70 

Joint-bolts . . . . ...... 28 

Judd Sash-fast 126 

Keene's Double-acting Saloon-door Hinge . . 67 

Key. Parts of ..172 

Pompeian . . . . . . 171 

Key-hole Escutcheons. Table of 254 

King Sash-lock 124 

Knobs . . 237 

Bardsley's Screwless .... . . 244 

Boston ' .... . . . . 180 

Celluloid ..250 

Glass 249 

Hemacite .... ..250 

Hollenbeck's Expanding Spindle . . . . 246 

Lava .- ..249 



Iron. Mathes's Adjustable Screwless . . . . . . 242 

Morris Patent ,242 

Niles Patent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 

Pkipps's Patent . . . . . . . . 245 

Porcelain . . . . . . 249 

Table of . . . . . . . . .V 258 

Wood . . . . 249 

Knob-fastener. Bardsley . . . . . . . . . . 245 

Fastening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 

Shank. Screwless . . . . . . . . . . 242 

Knocker. Old-fashioned . . . . . . . . 252 

Label-plate .267 

Ladd Sash-fast 127 

Lag-screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 

Latches . . . . 233 

Latch. Brass Thumb . . . . 233 

Cottage 234 

Elevator-door . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 

Gate . . . . . . 273 

Gate. Leeds's . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 

Gate. Mortise . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 

Gate. Seymour's .. .. .. .. .. ..272 

Reversible 181 

Rim Sliding-door 233 

Roggin's . - . . 233 

Screen-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 

Vestibule 208 

Lava Knobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 

Lead Weights 121 

Leeds's Gate-latch . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 

Left Hand Locks. Right and . . 180 

Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 

Letter-plate 266 

Lever Bell-pull . . . . . . . . . . 252 

Lock. Changes in . . . . . . . . ..175 

Parlor-bell . , . . . . . . 252 

Parts of . . 1 73 

Lifts. Sash 144 

Sash. Sweet's Reversible 144 

INDEX. 311 

Lifts. Sash. Table of P *f; 

O 1 -ITT. ' ' 14O 

Sash. Wigger's 

1 ransom. American . . . . . 16 - 

Transom. Excelsior 

' ' lob 

Transom. Overell's ........ 166 

Transom. Steller 


Transom. Wollensak's .......... 165 

Liquid Door-check. House's .... 5 

L cks ' " '.'. 168 

Advantages of Yale ............ 215 

Barn-door. Mack & Red way's . . 233 

. 1 oo 

Chubbs's .. . . ' ...... 175 

Combination Dial . . . . . . . . 2 <>4 

Conditions from which to Judge of . . 182 

Cotterill's . . . . , . , jg^ 

Cylinder . . . . . . . . _ 213 

Dead .......... . ..187 

Dial . . . . . . . . . . 294 

Egyptian Wooden ..... . ...... 1 70 

Electric . . . . . . . . 227 

Elizabethan .. .. .. .. 171 

Finish and Cost . . . . . . 169 

Follow of a . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 

Foster . . . . . . . . 219 

Front-door ............ 188,201 

Gilbert .............. 200 

Hand and Machine made . . . . . . . . . . 189 

Harvard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 

Hotel . . . . . . ...... . . 188, 209 

Lever. Changes in a . . . . ...... 175 

Master-keyed . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 

Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 

Niles . . . . . . . . . . ...... i<j6 

Parnell's Defiance .. .. .. .. .. .. 187 

Pompeian .. .. .. .. .. .. ..171 

Post-office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 

Prices for . . . . . . ...... 189, 234 

Principles of . . . . . . . . . . . . ..170 



Locks. Right and Left Hand .... ..181 

Rim ..- . . 188 

Sash .... ..124 

Sash. Ticket-office . . . . 132 

Sash. Yale & Towne . . 124 

Skylight-lift and .... ..166 

Sliding-door .. .. .. .. ..228 

Springs for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 

Spring. Detector .. ..175 

Spring. Standard . . 200 

Store . . . . .... . . . . . . 193 

Tests ....'.. .. ..182 

Treatise on. Price . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 74 

Tubular . . . . 226 

Wards of a . . ..175 

Wards of an old French .. 176 

Wardrobe . . .... . . . . 230 

Wear on .. .. ..181 

Winn Cylinder .. .. 222 

Loose-joint Butt .. .. . .- - -^ . . 58 

Butt. Ball-tip Table . . 61 

Butt. Wrought-steel Table .. 60 

Pin ... 59- 

Machine-made Locks .. .. .. .. .. .. 189- 

Mack & Redway's Barn-door Lock . . 232 

Malleable Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 

Mallory's Shutter-worker . . . . . . . . 156 

Manufacture of Nails . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 

Screws . . . . . . . . .... . . . . 22 

Master-keyed Locks . . . . 210, 211 

Materials for Artistic Hardware .. .. 279 

Butts . . 59 

Hinges. Spring . . 75 

Knobs 248 

Screws . . .... 25 

Mathes's Sash-fast . . . . . . 130 

Metal Knobs . . . . 249 

Metals and Varieties of Finish ... . . .-.- . . . . 1 

Metropolitan Sash-fast 12ft 

INDEX. 313 


Miscellaneous Hardware. Table of 277 

Locks . . . . . . 226 

Moody Barn-door Hanger . . . . . . . . . . 93 

Moore's Anti-friction Parlor-door Hanger 98 

Morris's Patent Door-knob . . ' 242 

Sash-fast . . . . . : ' . . 129 

Self-locking Shutter-bar . .' ' . . . . . . . . 160 

Mortise Door-bolts . . . : . . . . . . . . 44 

Gem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 

Table of . . 46 

Mortise Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 

Morton Chains . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 

Mosquito-bar Bolt . . . . . . . . 32 

Moulding Hooks. Picture . . . . 264 

Nails . . 12 

Brass Door . . . . . . 18 

Brass-head Picture . . . . . . . . 18 

Clout .... . . 15 

Cost of .. .. 14,15,16,17 

Finishing . . . . . . 15 

Hungarian . . . . . . 16 

Mode of Manufacture . . . . 12, 13 

Pennies as Applied to . . . . 13 

Plate .... 12 

Porcelain-headed Picture . . ..17 

Prices for Cut- steel . . . . 15 

Sizes ...... 13 

Steel .. ..14 

Strength of .... . . 14 

Uses of 14 

Wire .... ..17 

Neck-bolts .. ..31 

Nelson's Perfect Fastener 

New York Blind-fast 149 

Style Blind-hinge . . 54 

Knobs .. 

Safety Dumb-waiter . . 

Nickel Barn-door Hanger 

Barn-door Rail 91 



Nickel Parlor-door Hanger . . . . . . . . . . 100 

Plated Screws. Table of 27 

Spring-hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 

Niles Patent Knob 246 

Lock 196 

Northrup s Window-spring . . . . . . . . 139 

Norton's Door-check. Prices . . . . . . . . . . 82 

Novelty Parlor-door Hanger . . . . . . . . . . 98 

Ormsby Sash-balance .. .. .. .. .. ..119 

Outside Blind-fasts 147 

Overell's Transom-lifter . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 

Padlocks . . . . 232 

Giant 233 

Hasp 233 

Scandinavian . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 

Paragon Parlor-door Hanger .. .. .. .. ..102 

Parliament Butts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 

Parlor-bell Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. '. , 252 

Rail. Climax . . . . . . . . . . ... 96 

Parnell's Defiance Lock . , t . ,' 187 

Parts of Bolt . . 1 73 

a Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 72 

a Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . ..173 

Patten's Window-tightener . . . . . . . . . . 143 

Payson's Sash-fast 131 

Peabody Door-spring . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 

Pegs. Book-case Shelf . . 259 

Pennies as Applied to Nails . . . . . . . . . . 13 

Perautopic Bank-lock 185, 186 

Perkins's Door-check . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 

Phipps's Patent Door-knob ' . . 245 

Phosphor-Bronze . . . . . . . . 10 

Hinges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 

Pulley Axles . . .... 109 

Springs.. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..178 

Piano Head-screw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 

Picture Hanger . . 29 

Hooks . 263 

INDEX. 315 


Picture Moulding Hooks 2G4 

Rod Hooks . . . . . . 29 

Nail. Brass-head . . . . . . . . jg 

Nail. Porcelain-head ' . . . . . . 17 

Pin or Centre Hinge . . . . . . . . G4 

Plate. Letter . . . . . . . . . . 2G6 

Nails . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 

Push 2G7 

Pompeian Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 

Porcelain Knobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 

Post-office Lock . . . . . . . . 230 

Prescott Door-hanger . . . . . . . . . . 105 

Door-hanger Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 

Shutter- worker .. .. .. .. .. ..157 

Principles of Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 70 

Pr indie Parlor-door Hanger . . . . . . . . . . 99 

Providence Blind-fast . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 

Pulls. Drawer . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 

Druggists' Drawer . . . . . . 258 

Ring 257 

Pulleys 108 

Axle. Ordinary . . . . . . . . . . ..110 

Norris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..Ill 

Sash 109 

Anti-friction . . . . . . . . . . ..109 

Chains. Grooved . . . . . . . . ..114 

Corey's Two-wheel 110 

Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HO 

Table of 112 

Push-plates 267 

Rail. Climax 96 

Nickel Barn door . . . . . . . . . . 91 

Raised Strap-hinge . . . . . . . . 51 

Rattling Wedges. Clanson's Anti- . . 141 

Raymond Sash- weights . . . . . . ..121 

Rebated Locks 188 

Record's Patent Hinge . . . . . . . 51 

Reliance Door-spring .... 78 

Reverse Action Spring-butt . . . . 79 



Reversible Latches . . . . 181 

Richards's Parlor-door Hanger . . . . . . . . 102 

Right and Left Hand Butts ..' .. 57 

Rim Locks 188 

Sliding Door-latch . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 

Ring-pull 257 

Rochester Blind-hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 

Rodger's Sash-cord. . . . . . . . . . . . 121 

Roggin's Latch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 

ttoses . . . . . . 238 

Saloon-door Hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 

Sash-balances .. .. .. .. .. .. ..117 

Balances. Anderson.. .. . .- .. .. .. 118 

Balances. Byam's . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 

Balances. Ormsby .. .. .. .. .. .. 119 

Balances. Shumard . . .. .. .. .. ..119 

Centres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 

Centre. Surface . . . . . . - . . . . . . 162 

Chain. Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . e ., . 115 

Chain. Champion . . . . . . . . . . 114 

Chain. Double .- .. .." -.. 114 

Chain. Single . . . . . . 113 

Chain. Solid-link 116 

Chain. Table of 117 

Chain and Weights .. .. .. .. .. .. 113 

Cord. Acme .. .. .. .. .. .. ..116 

Cord. Iron 120 

Cord Iron. Double ..120 

Cord Iron. Jackson's .. .. .. .. ..120 

Cord Iron. Spring .. .. .. .. .. ..116 

Sash-fasts : . . . . ..125 

Attwell .. ,. .'> 118 

Boston .,..'.. . 127 

Byam's . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 

Cam .: 131 

Excentric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 

Favorite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 

Gravity . . 134 

Ives 131 

INDEX. 317 

Sash-fasts. Judd P "^ 

Lad <l ' 127 

Lever-locking . . . . . . _ < } 30 

Lever Plain . . , 

. J. /O 

Lever Spring .. .. .. . . > 127 

Locking in Different Positions . . . . . . 135 

Mathes' -, o n 


Metropolitan . . . . . . . . . , jog 

Morris . . . . . . . . . . jog 

Payson's . . . . . . . . . . 13^ 

Security 134 

Self-locking . . . . . . . . . . 132 

Shaw's . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 

Table of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 

Timby .. 136 

Triumph 130 

Sash-fastenings . . . . . . . . . . 122 

Holder. Ayer's . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 

Holder. Storm . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 

Lifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 

Lifts. Byam's . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 

Lifts. Sweet's Reversible . . . . . . . . . . 144 

Lifts. Table of 146 

Lifts. Wigger's . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 

Sash Lift and Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 

Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 

Locks. King . . . . . . . . . . . 124 

Openers . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 146 

Pivot 161 

Pulleys . . . . 1 09 

Pulleys. Anti-friction . . . . . . . . . . HO 

Pulleys. Corey's Two Wheel 110 

Pulleys. Empire . . . . . . . . . . ..110 

Pulleys. Sash-chain .. .. .. .. .. .. !14 

Pulleys. Table of .. .... .. ..112 

Roller 140 

Starter. Anderson's.. .. .. .. .. ..145 

Weights. Raymond's .. .. .. .. ..121 

Scandinavian Padlock . . . . . . . . 232 

Scrapers. Foot .. .. .. ..--.. ... ..268 



Screen-butt . . < . . . . . . . 65 

Butt. Newman's . . . . . . 64 

Door-catch . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 

Door Corner-iron .. .. .. .. .... 267 

Door-latch. Crown . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 

Door-spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 

Screw-eyes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 

Eye Fasts 150 

Screw-hooks . . . . . . . . . . . . 29, 263 

Sizes 25 

Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 

Diamond-pointed .. .. .. .. .. .. 23 

Coach . . 22 

Drill-pointed . . . . . . .... . . . . 22 

Elastic-headed . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 

Gimlet-pointed . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 

Hand-rail .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 28 

Lag .. .... ..27 

Manufacture of . . . . . . . . . . . , 22 

Materials for .. .. .. .. .. -. . * ., . . 25 

Piano-head . . . . . . . . .-, " . . 23 

Prices of Nickel-plated . . . . . . ; . . . 27 

Table of .... 24 

Table of Gimlet-pointed Coach . . 27 

Wood - . . . . . . 25 

Screwless Door-knob . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 

Security Blind-fast .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 150 

Sash-fast .. .. .. .. -.-. .. .. 134 

Seymour's Blind Catch .. .. .. .. -.-. .. 152 

Blind Catch and Lo< k .. -.-. .. .. .. 512 

Blind-hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 

Gate-latch .. ..272 

Gate-latch. Cylindrical , ..273 

Gate Hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 

Shaw's Sash-fast .-. .-. .. ., .. 134 

Shedd Blind-fastener .. .... ..148 

Shelf-bracket . . . . 258 

Pegs. Bookcase 259 

Ship-bolt .. 33 

Handle . . 251 

INDEX. 319 


Shutter-bars. . . . . . . . . . . . j^g 

Bars. Morris' Self-locking .. .. . . . .. . . IQQ 

Fixtures .. .. .. .. . . m t 147 

Fixtures. Table of .. .. .. .. .. . . IQQ 

Flap . . 63 

Hardware for Inside . . . . 159 

Hook. Sliding- . . . . . . 160 

Workers 1 55 

Workers. Brockton .. .. .. .. .. ..157 

Shutter-worker. Brown's. . . . . . . . . . . . 155 

Worker. Dudley . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 

Worker. Mallory . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 

Worker. Prescott . . > ' . . . . . . . . . . 157 

Shumard Sash-balance . . . . . . . . ... . . 119 

Side-flush Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 

Sink-bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 

Sizes of Nails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 

Skylight-lift 166 

Slat Adjuster. Byam's Blind- . . . . . . . . 159 

Sliding-door Latch. Rim . . . . . . , . . . . . 233 

Door Locks . . . . . . 228 

Door Sheave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 

Sliding Shutter-hook , . . 160 

Smith & Egge Chains . . . . . . . . . . 114 

Specification for Hardware . . . . . . . . 291 

Spindle 244 

Door-knob. Hollenbeck's expanding . . . . . . 246 

Knob with Threaded 240 

Screw partly Covered. Knob with . . . . . . 239 

Swivel . . . . 244 

Spring-bolts ..32 

Butt. Chicago ..69 

Butt. Garden City Double-acting . . 67 

Butt. Jewett . . 70 

Butt. Torsion . . . . 72 

Spring for doors, see Door-springs 

Spring. Engine-house . . . . 78 

Spring Hinges . . . . .... . . 66 

Bardsley's Checking .... . . 86 

Champion . . .... . . 69- 



Spring Hinges. Crown . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 

Devore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 

Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 

Garden City 66 

Hero .. 73 

Hold-back .. 73 

Materials for . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 

Nickel . . 73 

Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 

Star 68 

Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 

Wiles 74 

Spring for Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 

Reverse-action . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 

Sash-cord. Coiled .. 116 

Window . . . . 139 

Square Neck-bolts 31 

Stair-rail Brackets T - . . 265 

Staple. Bent . . . . 31 

Staple. Clinch *.:"^.. 19 

Staple. Jamb . .: . . 31 

Star Door-spring .. .. .. .. .. . . .. 77 

Star Spring-hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 

Stay-roller. Victor 92 

Steel. Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 

Butts. Wrought, Loose-joint. Table of 60 

Hinges. Wrought, Strap. Table of .. .. .. 51 

Nails .- ,. ... . . 14 

Nails. Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 

Nails. Wire, Table of ... .. ... .. .. 17 

Staples . . . . 19 

Tacks .. .. 19 

Stop-bead Fastener . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 

Stops. Door . 89 

Store Locks 192 

Storm Sash-holder . . 142 

Stove-bolts 30 

Strap-hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 

Strap-hinge. Prices of Wrought Steel 51 

Strength of Nails 14 

INDEX. 321 


Strike. Anti-friction ............ 1 7 

Strike. Anti-friction, Hall .......... 17$ 

Sweet's Reversible Sash-lift ...... . . . . 144 

Sweet's Window-spring . . . . . . . . 139. 

Swivel-spindle . . . . ......... 244 

Tacks ........ 19 

Tail-bolts ............ 35 

Tenon Blind-fastener . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 

Tests for Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 

T-handle and Knob . . . . . . . . . . 251 

Thaxter's Electric Lock . . . . . . . . . . 227 

T-hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 

T-hinge with Braced Leaf .. .. .. .. .. .. 50 

Thumb Latch. Brass ........ . . 233 

Ticket-office Sash-lock ............ 133 

Tightener. Window ........ . . 143 

Timby Sash-fast .......... . . 136 

Tire-blots ................. 30 

Top Door-catch ............. ,.\ 89 

Torry Door-spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 

Torsion Door-spring . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 

Torsion Spring-butt . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 

Transom-catch . . . . . . . . . . J . 163 

Centres ............ 'A. ..161 

Fittings. Table of ........ *V. . . 167 

Hinges ............. "?. . . 161 

Lift. American . . . . . . . . . / . . 165 

Lift. Excelsior . . . . ........ 166 

Lift. Overell's ........ . . 166 

Lift. Steller .. 165 

Lift. Wollensak . . . . 165 

and Skylight Fittings ............ 161 

Trap-door Hinge . . . . 51 

Triumph Sash-fast . . - . 130' 

Tubular Lock . . 226 

Turn-buckle 151 

Turn-buttons . . 255 

Union Spring-hinge 



Vestibule Latches 208 

Victor Barn-door Hanger . . . . . . . , . . . . 93 

Victor Stay-roller ' ,'C" .. ... 92 

Wards for Lock . . . . . . . . . . 1 75 

Wards of an Old French Lock . . ..176 

Wardrobe Hinge . . . . . . . . . . 64 

Wardrobe Hooks . . . '. '. 260 

Wardrobe Locks . . . . 229 

Warner Door-spring . . . . 81 

Parlor-door Hanger . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 

Washers 59, 238 

Wash-tray Hinge 63 

Water-closet Seat Hinge . . . . .' . . . . . . . 63 

Wear on Locks 181 

Wedges. Clanson's Anti-rattling . . . . . . 141 

Weights, Raymond's Sash .. 121 

Sash chains and .. .. .. .'. .. ..113 

Wells's Patent Hinge . . 50 

'Wigger's Sash-lifters ... .. 144 

Wiles's Spring-hinge . . . . . . : . . . . . 73 

Window-spring. Hammond's .. .. .. . . ', . 139 

Spring. Sweet's 139 

Spring. Northrup's . . .". . . . . . . . . 139 

Tightener. Ayer's . . . . . . 143 

, Tightener. Patten's 142 

Wire Blind-fast . . . . . . : . . . . . 148 

Nails } . . 16 

Wood Knobs . . 249 

Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 

Wooden Lock. Egyptian . . . . . . . . 170 

Yale Lock. Advantages of ..215 

Lock. Mechanism . . . . .... . . . . 213 

Zimmerman's Blind-fast 155 

flia^ara pire Ipsurapee 

New York 


Reserve for all Liabilities, 
Net Surplus, 

.Assets, . I jii mar. v 1, 




- $3,360,135.37 

Losses Paid Since Organization in 1850, over 13 Million Dollars. 

PETER NOTMAN, President. 


GEORGE C. HOWE, Assistant Secretary. 



MADE its appearance as the first successful architectural journal this country has 
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Tower from South Details of Tower Cloister and Chapet Cloister 
and Tracery Window Cloister Garth Chapel Stairway En- 
trance to North Transept Chancel North Side of Nave Font 
Bust of Dean Stanley Nave, from Gallery Interior of Tower 
Cartoon for Window Plan of the Church. 


Indispensable to Architects : 


A Treatise upon the Principles and Practice of Plane and Cylindrical 
Perspective, by WILLIAM R. WARE, Professor of Architecture in 
the School of Mines, Columbia College. I vol. I2mo. 321 pages, 
with 27 plates in a portfolio. $5.00. 

This is by far the most exhaustive of modern works on the subjects relating to 
perspective, plane and panoramic, and will be of great value to all architects and 
artists, and others interested in the problems of art. The scientific and pictorial 
aspects of these investigations are carefully and thoroughly considered, both inde- 
pendently and in their connection with drawing ; and the propositions of the 
author are illustrated by plates of architectural objects and perspective plans. An. 
invaluable book for artists, architects, draughtsmen, and civil engineers. 

" The book is written in clear English, free from unnecessary technicalities, and 
in a much more felicitous style than such text-books usually are. The plates 
required a prodigious quantity of careful work and are correspondingly valuable."' 
New- York World. 


Of the Mediaeval Churches of England. Preceded by some 
observations on the Architecture of the Middle Ages and its 
Spire-Growth. By CHARLES WICKES. One vol. Folio. Nearly 
one hundred plates, with text, $15.00. 

Years ago, when Mr. Charles Wickes was engaged in the preparation of his famous 
work on " Spires and Towers " he had the good sense to print before the completion 
and issue of the more elaborate colored drawings, an uncolored edition of his work 
for the special use of architects. Thanks to this action, he placed before the pro- 
fession one of the most useful and beautiful works which have found a place in archi- 
tectural libraries. 

This work Ticknor & Co. have reprinted. Owing to the great skill and care exer- 
cised by the Heliotype Printing Company, these prints have lost nothing of their 
original force and delicacy in reproduction, and the reprint is quite as valuable and 
useful as the original. The present edition contains, also, in full, the notes and criti- 
cisms of the original, making forty pages of text and notes, not less valuable than the 


A Valuable Text-book: 


A' MANUAL: For young Architects, Students, and others interested 
in Building Operations as carried on at the present time. By 
T. M. CLARK, Fellow of the American Institute of Architects. 
I vol. 8vo. 336 pages. Illustrated with 194 Plans, Diagrams, 
etc. Price, $3.00. 

Introduction. The Construction of a Stone Church Wooden 
Dwelling-Houses A Model Specification Contracts The Construc- 
tion of a Town Hall Index, 

" This is not a treatise on the architectural art, or the science of construction, 
but a simple exposition of the ordinary practice of building in this country, with 
suggestions for supervising such work efficiently. Architects of experience prob- 
ably know already nearly everything that the book contains, but their younger 
brethren as well as those persons not of the profession who are occasionally called 
upon to direct building operations, will perhaps be glad of its help." 

There is hardly any practical problem in construction, from the building of a 
stone town-hall or church to that of a wooden cottage, that is not carefully consid- 
ered and discussed here ; and a very full index helps to make this treasury of facts 
accessible. Every person interested in building should possess this work, which 
is approved as authoritative by the best American architects. 

This volume has been used for years as a text-book in the chief 
Architectural Schools of the United States. 


By CARL PFEIFFER, F. A. I. A. 100 folio plates. In handsome port- 
folio. $10.00. 

During his last years the late Carl Pfeiffer, F. A. I. A., of New York, prepared 
for publication a work on American Domestic Architecture. 

The drawings represent designs for dwelling-houses of various classes, with all their 
details carefully worked out, and perspective views of each house from several points. 

One hundred of these drawings carefully selected as the best, have been chosen for 
publication, forming the most unique and useful work ever issued upon the subject for 
either the profession or the public. 



long folio. Fourth Edition, enlarged and improved. 76 full-page 
illustrations of rural and urban homes, many of which are from 
gelatine. Also one colored plate. $4.50. 

"It has in many cases proved a very valuable assistant, a faithful friend and 
reliable adviser, to persons of refined taste and artful feeling who contemplated 
building a home. . . . We heartily commend it to all who intend building a home. 
To the architectural student and draughtsman the book should prove a valuable aid 
in teaching him how to effectively draw perspectives or interior views." Building. 


NEWS, 1876-85. 8vo. Price, $2.00. 

A carefully-made topical index to the thousands of illustrations printed 
in " The American Architects " for the past ten years, with the architects 
and costs of the buildings illustrated. These include 

Sketches Etchings General Views Towers and Spires Mon- 
uments Statues and Tombs Interiors and Furniture Entrances 
and Gateways Educational, Mercantile, and Public Buildings 
Churches and Parish Buildings Dwellings Club-Houses Thea- 
tres Stables and Farm Buildings Hotels Museums Libraries 
and Town Halls. 


Duc. With many Steel Plates and Chromos, and hundreds of 

Wood-cuts. 2 vols. 8vo. $15.00. 
ART FOLIAGE. By J. K. COLLING. Entirely new plates from the 

latest enlarged London edition. Folio. $10.00. 

Square 8vo. With numerous full-page illustrations. $3.00. 
HOME SANITATION. A Manual for Housekeepers. i vol. 

i6mo. 50 cents. 

30 cents. Paper covers, 15 cents. 

AGE. By J. PICKERING PUTNAM. With Plates and Diagrams. 
l6mo. 75 cents. 



By J. A. SCHWEINFURTH, Architect. This contains 30 plates, repro- 
duced in fac simile from the author's sketches in pen, pencil, and 
water colors, by the most approved processes, and printed on 1 5 x 20 
heavy plate paper, in specially designed portfolio. The edition is 
limited to 250 copies for sale, each of which is numbered. Price, 
$15.00 per set. 

The author has found, away from beaten paths, interesting examples of the old 
memoirs, or French manor houses, and chateau.*. Among the plates are presented 
several of these manoirs half-timbered houses, with details, from Normandy and 
Brittanny ; work of the period of Francis I. ; towers, chateaux details from the 
Italian and French Rennaissance ; Romanesque and Byzantine work of Venice and 
Ravenna, and the Romanesque of the Auvergnes ; wrought iron from Venice and 
from Spain, and from the South Kensington Museum. 


By J. PICKERING PUTNAM, Architect. It has been carefully revised and 
greatly enlarged, with handsome and large type, pages and binding, 
fine and heavy paper, and with over three hundred illustrations, 
including numerous chefs */' auvres of designs of Fire-Places and 
interior decoration, contributed for this edition by the ablest Archi- 
tects of the country, i vol. 8vo. $4.00. 

The First Section treats of the Fire-Place as it now is, explaining how incorrectly 
it is constructed, and gives many startling facts, based on careful experiment, to 
show how great a loss of heat (from 80 to 90 per cent. ) it occasions. 

The Second Section reviews in an attractive manner, the historical development 
of the subject from its remotest origin in the dim ages of the past to the present 
day. This chapter contains over 179 charming illustrations. 

The Third and last chapter treats of the improvement of the Open Fire-Place, 
and teaches us how it is possible to combine, in one construction, the healthfulness, 
beauty, and charm of the Open Fire-Place, with the efficiency and economy of the 
closed stove or hot-air furnace. 

The designs, even of the most unimportant accessories, are made with the same 
careful study and refined taste as of the more important features. 


By E. C. GARDNER. 716 pages. Illustrated. $2.50. 

Invaluable instructions and suggestions as to interior decoration, exterior finish,, 
and varied forms of architecture. 

The American Architect 


An Illustrated Weekly Journal of Architecture and the 
Building Arts. With six or more fine full-page illustra- 
tions and many smaller ones in each number. It is now 
entering on its fifteenth year of successful publication, and 
will hereafter be- published in three editions the Regular, 
the Imperial, and the International. 

In all the essentials it will be hereafter similar to 
what it has been during 1889. 

The series of papers on "Architectural Shades and 
Shadows" "Old Colonial Work in Virginia and Mary- 
land" "Equestrian Monuments" and ^Safe Building" 
are continued. Many new features are added. 

Mr. T. H. Bartletfs valuable life of Fremiet, the cele- 
brated French sculptor, is in course of preparation. 

Other papers are in preparation on Italian Towers, 
Applied Architectural Calculations, Visits to Spanish Cities, 
Travels in Mexico, etc. 

Among the Illustrations will be additional Series of Rotch 
Scholarship Drawings, Scotch Baronial Halls ,etc. 

Careful investigation has proved that it costs the subscri- 
ber less per page than any American Journal of its* class, 
while it contains vastly more illustrations. 

Send to TICK NOR & COMPANY for specimen copy. 


International edition, per year in advance . . . . $25.00 

Imperial edition, . . . . 10.00 

Regular edition, " " ..... 6.00 

University of Toronto 








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