Skip to main content
MICF ID BY
UNIVERSI' O TORONTO
LL ;- RY
MASTER NEGATIVE NO.:
A MANUAL FOR
ARCHITECTS, BUILDERS AND HOUSE
CLARENCE H. BLACKALL
TICKNOR AND COMPANY
211 Cremnnt Street
COPYRIGHT, 1888, and 1889, by
TICKNOR AND COMPANY.
/i// rights reserved.
S. J. PARKHILL & Co., PRINTERS, BOSTON.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . vii-x
METALS AND VARIETIES OF FINISH . . . . . . 1-11
NAILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-20
SCREWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-29
BOLTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-46
HINGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47-76
DOOR-SPRINGS, CHECKS AND HANGERS . . . . 77-107
PULLEYS . . . . .... . . . . . . 108-121
SASH-FASTENINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . 122-146
SHUTTER-FIXTURES .. .. .. .. ..147-160
TRANSOM AND SKYLIGHT FITTINGS 161-167
LOCKS . . 168-236
MISCELLANEOUS HARDWARE 263-277
ARTISTIC HARDWARE 278-90
HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS 291-296
INDEX . .. 297-322
THE subject of Builders' Hardware is one which has a direct
bearing upon the work of the architect, and is, at the same
time, of vital interest to the builder. This book is, how-
ever, written primarily for the architect. Most builders, we
fancy, are already pretty well posted on the subject of the hard-
ware which they are called upon to use in the construction and
finish of a house ; but our experience has led us to believe that
architects, as a rule, seldom go any deeper into the subject
than is necessary to decide whether knobs shall be of one
material or another, or whether some particular pattern of sash-
fast will be satisfactory to the owner. It is needless to say
that a more extended acquaintance with the subject would do
no one any harm, and might even be conducive to much good,
if only in the way of providing more fittingly for the needs of
the client. This work is not intended, however, to be over-
critical in its nature, nor necessarily so exhaustive as to em-
brace all the inventions and arrangements comprised in the
general term of builders' hardware, though an attempt has been
made to discriminate between what is merely novel and what
is really suitable, and so far as possible the best of everything
is noticed under the various heads, and an effort made to rep-
resent as nearly as possible the conditions and limitations of
the builders' hardware market, as well as to show what is
valuable for the uses of the architect.
It must be reme mbered that the statements are made from
an architect's standpoint rather than from that of the builder
viii BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
or the manufacturer. The object in view is to show what can
be obtained for special cases, and how it is necessary to be
specified in order that there shall be no doubt in the minds of
both builder and client as to what is called for. It is not in-
tended to present abstracts of trade-catalogues, and if the book
fails to represent all the wares in their proper light, or at times
seems to ignore some valuable inventions or place undue stress
upon articles that do not receive the heartiest commendation
from those who use them, we can only plead in extenuation the
difficulty of finding out everything that is in the market. Many
of our best appliances have only a local and limited fame;
and as they are advertised sparingly, it is often quite difficult
to say exactly that such and such an appliance is absolutely the
For example, some Boston dealers consider that the best
locks in the country are the hand-made goods turned out by
such firms as Enoch Robinson's Sons. Without discussing the
peculiar merits of the Robinson locks at this point, the asser-
tion may safely be ventured that any one studying the subject
in San Francisco would have as much difficulty in an investiga-
tion of Boston hand-made goods as we have had in our en-
deavors to deal with hundreds of valuable inventions which are
hardly known at all in this part of the country. The hope is,.
therefore, expressed that this publication may call out facts
concerning many articles of builders' hardware which at present
are unknown to the ordinary trade.
-It may also be hoped that the volume will suggest to archi-
tects the possibility of more definite specification, and of some
better way of selecting and defining the necessary hardware
than to merely insert a clause in the specification to the effect
that a certain sum per door and a certain price per dozen is to>
be allowed in the contract for fixtures. This we know is a
very common method of disposing of the question, and is, no
doubt, the easiest way out of the difficulty, relieving the archi-
tect entirely from any necessity for exhaustive explanations in
regard to subjects upon which he generally is not over-well
INTR OD UCTION. 1 *
posted. With an honest builder, or with one who has the fear
of the inspector before his eyes and knows that all will be
scrutinized, this may be a method sufficiently exact to suit most
cases ; but where the market is so full and there are so many
really excellent appliances to choose from, it would seem
certainly as if more exact specifications ought to be prepared.
How many architects, for instance, ever insist upon a particular
style of lock ; and how many architects, even after many years
experience with the best work, are able to tell a client what is
the best sash-lock or what is the best style of hinge, without
referring to a trade-catalogue ? We cannot hope to meet all
emergencies, but it is believed that, at least, a desire foi
a, better selection of hardware than is generally possible can
As to the limitations of the work, the term " builders' hard-
ware " is assumed to include, generally speaking, metal-work
of every description entering into the construction and finish of
a modern building from the nails and bolts used in the rough
work, to the door furniture and brass lock and plate work of
The illustrations, which include nearly every article referred
to, have been prepared as simply as possible. A great deal
of care has also been taken in collecting the prices. The
ordinary trade-catalogues are very unsatisfactory in this latter
respect : many of them give no prices at all, and when the
cost is stated it is always subject to discounts so uncertain and
varying as to give absolutely no real information of value to
the architect or the purchaser. The prices hereafter given
will represent the retail cost of the articles in the Boston
market, as nearly as we are able to ascertain it. These prices
are, of course, somewhat fluctuating in their nature, but will,
at least, serve as a means of comparison, even if not exact for
all localities and seasons. Most of the prices were collected
during the summer of 1888.
In the preparation of the subject matter which is to fol-
low, the writer has had the heartiest cooperation from the
D UIL DERS' HA RD WA RE.
leading dealers and manufacturers, and desires to especially
acknowledge the courtesies of Messrs. Burditt & Williams, and
Nichols & Bellamy, of Boston, the Hopkins & Dickinson
Manufacturing Co., and the Yale & Towne Manufacturing
Co. ; without whose technical assistance any such work would
lack the value which it is hoped this will possess.
METALS AND VARIETIES OF FINISH.
BEFORE beginning a study of any portion of the subject, an
attempt will be made to consider the metals used for build-
ers' hardware and the various styles of finish possible in con-
nection with them.
Iron is naturally the first material thought of. In its purest Wrought-iron.
form it is known as wrought-iron, a term which is derived from
the fact that in the earliest processes the iron was beaten while
hot and the impurities forced out by the blows. Also the name
indicates, to an extent, the nature of the material, which is
yielding and pliable rather than brittle or hard. Wrought-iron
is the most available material for constructive metal-work.
Nails, bolts, ties, anchors, etc.,, are more naturally made of
wrought-iron than of any other material. Nearly all strap-hinges
and the best makes of common butts are made of it ; also, for
some forms of common bolts and any article of hardware which
permits the metal being punched or pressed into shape, wrought-
iron is more suitable than cast, and is much used on account of
its superior strength. For finished work, such as knobs, plates,
etc., there is very little wrought-iron hardware in the market.
A good deal of it is made to order in the shape of ornamental
hinges, straps and braces, but the amount of work involved in
B UILDERS' HA RD WARE.
producing any given pattern is so largely in excess of what
the same amount of work would produce in other metals -that
wrought-iron will always be a material for the artist or the am-
ateur. Quite recently, however, there has been made an import-
ant discovery which bids fair to bring about a change in the use
of this metal. Wrought-iron melts at a very high temperature
and it has, therefore, long been practically impossible to cast
in the fine moulds ; but by the addition of a small percentage of
aluminium to wrought-iron when in a highly-heated condition
an alloy is formed which melts at a greatly reduced tempera-
ture and gives the metal the degree of fluidity necessary to
successful casting. It is claimed that the wrought-iron cast-
ings obtained in this way have all the sharpness and clearness
of cast brass and at the same time retain the structural quali-
ties of wrought-iron. So far as we can ascertain, cast wrought-
iron is not in the market.
When wrought-iron has mixed with it a proportion of carbon
exceeding 0.5% but not greater than 2% the structural nature
of the metal is entirely changed and it becomes known as steel.
So far as relates to finished hardware, steel is used only for
springs and portions of detail, as the metal does not cast
readily, and the surface will not keep bright. In fact, there
are the same objections to it that there are to wrought-iron,
and almost the only use to which it is now put in hardware is
in the manufacture of nails and screws and some brands of
butts, which will be described later on.
When iron contains in its composition over 2% of carbon it
becomes known as cast-iron, a metal which melts at a compara-
tively low temperature and is capable of being cast with very
sharp lines. It is used a great deal for finishing work, though
from its brittle nature and lack of tensile strength it is not
utilized to any great extent for constructive purpose.
Iron hardware is finished in a variety of ways. If left in its
natural condition as it comes from the file or hammer, it will
rust very speedily, and to prevent this, the most common
method is to heat the iron and paint it while hot with linseed
METALS AND VARIETIES OF FINISH.
oil, colored with lamp-black and mixed with a quantity of dryer
or turpentine. When this coating is dry, the iron is sometimes
roasted in a kiln fired, as it is termed. In this manner the
paint seems to be dried into the pores of the metal, and it is
left with a smooth, lustreless black surface, capable of resist-
ing the action of the weather for quite a while, though by no
If, instead of the foregoing, a bath is used composed of lin-
seed oil, and gum-anime or copal, the iron, on being finally fired
and polished, presents the appearance of bronze. The tones
can be varied to a considerable extent by the addition of color
in the shape of powdered alloys of copper and bronze, which
are mixed with the oil. The "Tucker bronze," the "Berlin
bronze," and the so-called " Boston finish " are all substan-
tially of this nature. Only rarely is a thin film of bronze or
composition spread on the iron by the aid of electrolysis. All
of the bronze-faced iron hardware is treated with the hot-oil
finish just described. The cheapest forms of iron hardware
are japanned or even merely coated with ordinary black var-
nish, the quality of the japanning or varnish depending upon
the grade of goods. Japanning is practically indestructible
where the iron is not exposed to scratches or rubbing. Hinges
and butts are finished in this way more than any other one
form of iron hardware, though of late years the best machine
lock makers have taken a great deal of care in japanning the
outer casings 01 locks. Fine grades of pulleys are also some-
times sold with japanned frames.
Iron is galvanized by simply immersing in a bath of a
melted amalgam of zinc and mercury, containing a little sodium.
The iron is first cleaned with sulphuric acid, and before im-
mersion in the bath, it is usually ducted with sal-ammoniac pow-
der. TLere is not a particle of real galvanic action about the
process. It is sometimes thought that the zinc and mercury
form a species of alloy with the iron which prevents it from
rusting. Galvanizing is, indeed, the best preservative of iron
applied in the form of a wash, but the color is not sufficiently
pleasing to permit of its being used for nice work.
None of the foregoing processes are especially suitable for
iron, as they all effectually disguise the nature of the material.
There has recently been invented a process for protecting iron
from rust, which is in some respects the best thus far devised.
It is known as the Bower-Barff process, a term used to indicate
two processes by which the surface of the metal is converted
into magnetic oxide of iron, in which condition it is absolutely
rustless. In the Barff process the metal is simply subjected to
the action of superheated steam. This process is peculiarly
suitable to wrought-iron and highly finished work. In the
Bower process the iron is successively subjected to the action
of highly heated air and carbonic-oxide gas. The heat converts
the surface of the metal first into red oxide of iron, which is
finally reduced to the magnetic oxide by the action of the gas.
Owing to the simplicity of the process, it is claimed that its
cost is less than that of galvanizing. It may be applied to any
kind or style of wrought or cast iron or steel. The surfaces so
treated have a perfectly uniform blue-black color. The sharp-
ness of the lines is not affected in the least, and when the
work is polished the final color is a lustrous ebony black, such
as can be obtained in no other way. This coating of magnetic
oxide is so hard that it is removed with difficulty by an emery-
wheel. A few of the leading dealers are beginning to keep in
stock some fine grades of door hardware finished by the Bower-
Barff process, but the only parties making use of the patents
in the production of builder's hardware are the Yale & Towne
Manufacturing Co. This concern is beginning to put in the
market quite an extended line of Bower-Barff iron goods.
Iron hardware is also found in the market finished with cop-
per-plating, the raised surface of the pattern being buffed to
show the natural copper color, while the background is left
black or strongly oxydized. There is quite a variety of goods
in this line. Similarly ironwork is nickel-plated, being left
with either plain polished surfaces or with polished raised pat-
terns on a black ground. Both nickel and copper plating, are
laid on with the aid of a dynamo.
METALS AND VARIETIES OF FINISH.
Brass and bronze are terms which are often confounded when chapter I.
speaking of hardware, though the materials are quite different
in composition and are usually dissimilar in appearance. Brass Brass,
is an alloy of copper and zinc in varying proportions, the ratio
for ordinary purposes being seven of brass to three of zinc.
Brass has a light yellowish appearance, is susceptible of a high
polish, and can be rendered more ductile by the admixture of
a small quantity of lead, which at the same time will diminish
the hardness of the alloy. Brass tarnishes very easily if
handled or exposed to the weather, and is consequently gener-
ally protected by a coating of shellac, which, however, will not
entirely prevent it from changing in tone. The color of the
brass may be altered slightly by changing the proportions of
the metals entering into the alloy, also by treating the finished
castings with acids or hot chemicals in the same manner as will
be described later for bronze.
Bronze is commonly an alloy of copper and tin in proper- Bronze,
tions varying from twelve parts copper to one part tin for
metals to be used in the fabrication of mathematical instruments,
to two parts copper and one part tin, for telescope or speculum
metal. Bronze is sometimes more complex in its nature, lead
being added in very slight quantity, and aluminium some-
times replacing the tin. It is less malleable but harder and
more fusible than brass, and can be cast with greater ease and
perfection. It is oxidized more easily than brass, and because
of this it is possible to obtain a greater variety of colors for
Both brass and bronze can be cast with great ease, as com--
pared with iron. The sharpness and delicacy of the casting
depends, of course, entirely upon the care bestowed in preparing
the pattern and the mould. Therfe is a great difference in the
quality of the work turned out by the various manufacturers.
In the best of work the mould is formed with very fine sand and
is double-faced, that is to say, after the pattern has been imprint-
ed in the sand it is withdrawn, the matrix sprinkled with a still
finer sand, and the mould repacked. After that, the moulds
Q BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter i. are suspended in the fumes of burning rosin, by which means
they are coated with a fine layer of impalpable soot. When
the molten metal is poured into the mould, the soot is pressed
evenly into all the minute pores or interstices of the sand, and
the resulting casting is so smooth and sharp as often to require
but very little hand-chasing.
Brass goods are usually finished in the natural color of the
metal with a thin coat of shellac. The same proportions of
tin and copper are usually used for all the bronze work of a
single firm, though the different manufacturers do not always
adopt the same alloy. Bronze is, however, finished in a great
variety of styles and colors, all produced essentially as follows :
Surface-anish. The bronze on leaving the casting-room, is trimmed or chased
as may be necessary, and is then immersed for a few moments
in a strong acid bath which takes an almost infinitessimal film
from the metal, leaving the surfaces entirely free from any oxida-
tions or impurities. The piece of metal is then washed in
weak alkali and clear water, to make it perfectly clean. Then
the bronze is suspended in a bath of hot acids specially pre-
pared with various chemicals to produce certain changes in the
color of the metal. This operation is a very delicate one, re-
quiring the care of trained workmen and a nice appreciation of
the proper time to stop the action of the acids, as the appear-
ance of the metal changes very rapidly, turning first from a
bright copper red, to a pale gray and then into beautiful shades
of browns and rich purples with ultimate dark tones depend-
ing upon the composition of the mixture or pickle. When the
desired shade is reached the bronze is removed, dried in saw-
dust, and rubbed down to an even tone on a buffing-wheel. In
some designs the raised portions are buffed down until the
natural color of the metal appears, the pattern showing on a
ground of the darker oxidized tone. Almost any color or
shade can be had with bronze by a proper treatment. The
Hopkins & Dickinson Manufacturing Co. has even produced a
bronze as dark as iron, and in fact quite similar in appearance.
Of course ordinary hardware is simply left the natural color of
METALS AND VARIETIES OF FINISH.
the metal, when made in plain bronze. It may be said here
that plain bronze is as a rule more expensive than figured work.
The plain surfaces require a very even grade of metal and
smoothness of casting, whereas any imperfections are hidden
by patterns, and a cheaper quality of workmanship does not
expose itself. In the East there seems to be a decided prefer-
ence for the plain goods, while in the West the figured styles
are more commonly used. When exposed to rough usage a
patterned piece of hardware will in general show wear less than
a plain surface.
It must be remembered that the surface finishes produced in
the manner just described are not to be considered as permanent.
The color is in reality laid on, and is superior to paint or varnish
only in that by the means of the hot pickle the color penetrates
somewhat deeper than if put on with a brush. Bronze hard-
ware is sure to change in time, no matter how it may be finished,
and generally the stronger tones are the least satisfactory in
the end, fading out to unpleasant musty hues. Shellac will
hold the color, but as soon as it wears off, which it is sure to
do on such pieces as knobs and door-handles, the exposed sur-
faces will turn while the shellacked spots do not. When time
can be spared to keep the work polished brightly, a better plan
seems to us to be to avoid everything but the natural bronze or
brass color, omit the shellac, and polish by hand constantly.
This, however, is seldom desirable. We have not yet reached
the point where housekeepers will take as much care of the
hardware as of the silver.
The treatment of silver-plated bronze is of a similar nature.
The knob or plate is immersed in a silver-plating bath attached
to an electric dynamo. A very few moments suffice for the
deposition of the silver. The article is then taken from the
bath and treated with hot acids and solutions until any desired
degree of oxidation is obtained, when it is dried in saw-dust
and the raised patterns slightly brightened on a buffing-wheel.
There is at present a great deal of oxidized silver hardware in
the market. Most of it is oxidized but slightly, leaving the
Chapter I. raised figures a clear frosty white, but it can be had quite black
if desired. The Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co., has an
oxidized silver iinish which is as black as old oxidized gun-
Copper-bronze. Several very pleasing styles of finish are obtained by electro-
plating the bronze with copper and then treating with acids.
An old-copper color thus obtained is one of the most durable
finishes in the market.
Gold-plate. When the cost is not a consideration it is sometimes desirable
to have gold-plated bronze hardware, especially for such things
as knobs, which are exposed to constant handling. Gold-plate
is no handsomer than some shades of natural bronze, but the
gold will not tarnish or be influenced by the weather. Gold-
plating increases the cost of bronze hardware nearly twenty
fold, and being so expensive is executed only for special orders.
Nickel-plate. Nickel-plating is applied more commonly to iron or steel than
to bronze. This finish is but little used for nice work as the
nickel will tarnish by exposure to the atmosphere, after which
no amount of rubbing will restore its first appearance. Nickel-
plating is best adapted for keys, springs, etc.
The following list will give an idea of the great variety of
possible treatments of bronze hardware.
FINISHES FOR BRONZE HARDWARE.
I. The Hopkins $ Dickinson Manufacturing Co. , finish :
A. Statuary. Dark background, light surface.
B. Statuary. Medium dark background and surface.
E. Ebony. Suitable only for Plain or Lined Design.
F. Statuary. Matted with Green.
G. Gilt or Gold-washed.
I. Gold-plated. Matted with Enamel, in all colors.
K. Gold-plated. Matted with Silver.
Matted with Gold.
Matted with Enamel.
Matted with Gold.
Matted with Copper.
Silver, suitable only for perfectly plain patterns.
METALS AND VARIETIES OF FINISH.
II. P. fr F. Corbin, finish: Clxapterl.
No. 1. Natural Color, Light Bronze.
No. 2. Chemical Dark Brown or Statuary Bronze.
No. 3. Natural Color on Surface and Black Background.
No. 3}. Same as No. 3 Finish, with different arrangement of
No. 4. Natural Color on Surface and Dark Brown Background.
No. 5. Nickel-plated.
No. 7. Nickel-plated Surface with Gold-plated Background.
No. 8. Gold-plated.
No. 10. High Polish, Natural Color.
No. 15. Sage Green Background and Natural Color on Surface.
No. 16. Terra-cotta Background and Natural Color on Surface.
No. 17. Steel Gray Background and Natural Color on Surface.
No. 18. Japanese Finish.
No. 19. Oxidized-silver Finish.
No. 20. Old Brass Finish.
No. 21. Oxidized-Iron Finish.
No. 22. Antique-Copper Finish.
III. The Ireland Manufacturing Co. , finish :
No. 1. Light Bronze.
No. 2. Light Brown.
No. 3. Black Background, Polished Surface.
No. 4. Brown Background, Polished Surface.
No. 5. Nickel-plated Surface and Background.
No. 15. Sage Green Background, Polished Surface.
No. 16. Terra-cotta Background, Polished Surface.
No. 17. Steel Gray Background, Polished Surface.
No. 19. Oxidized-silver.
No. 21. Iron Finish all over.
IV. Nimiclc Sf Brittan, finish :
No. 1. Bright Surface, Natural Color.
No. 2. Dark Brown Surface and Background.
No. 3. Bright Surface and Black Background.
No. 4. Bright Surface and Brown Background.
No. 5. Bright Surface and Terra-Cotta Background.
No. 6. Bright Surface and Green Background.
No. 7. Nickel-plated Surface and Background.
No. 8. Nickel-plated Surface and Black Background-
No. 12. Gold-plated.
No. 13. Steel Gray Bronze.
No. 14. Old Gold Bronze
No. 15. Oxidized-silver Surface and Background.
V. Nashua Lock Co. , finish :
No. 1. Natural Color, Light Bronze, Polished Surface.
No. 2. Dark Bronze.
No. 3. Light Bronze, Polished Surface, with Black Background.
No. 4. Light Bronze, Polished Surface, with Brown Background.
No. 5. Nickel-plated, Plain Surface.
No. 6. Nickel-plated Surface, with Black Background.
No. 15. Hand Finish.
Besides the finished work, both brass and bronze are used
for screws, springs, lock-fittings, etc. A few locks are made
with cases of cast-brass and some manufacturers are preparing
to use copper-plated iron for the same purpose.
Brass and bronze together are used more than any other one
metal for builders' hardware, and are the basis of nearly all door
and window fittings.
An important addition to the list of metals available for
hardware purposes has recently been made in the shape of a
composition designated as Phosphor-Bronze, an alloy of which
the constituent parts are not as yet made public, but which the
patentees describe as being a phosphorized alloy of copper
and tin. The chemical action of phosphorous on the metals
composing the alloys is claimed to be two-fold ; on the one hand
it reduced any oxides dissolved therein, and on the other it
forms with the purified metals a most homogenous and regular
combination, the hardness, strength, and toughness of which
are completely under control. No other metal combines, in so
high a degree as phosphor-bronze, the conditions of toughness,
rigidity, hardness and great elastic resistance. Thus far phos-
phor-bronze has been used in the hardware trade only for
screws and for lock-springs. In cities wherein soft coal is used,
it has been found that brass springs soon lose their elasticity,
owing to the action of free sulphuric acid in the air. Careful
tests have shown that phosphor-bronze offers twice as much re-
sistance to corrosion by acid as copper. Further experiments
have been made, extending over a period of ten months, to
determine its durability, when exposed to the weather, as com-
pared with the best brass wire. After lying on the damp
METALS AND VARIETIES OF FINISH.
ground for that length of time the brass was found to be quite Chapter I.
brittle and worthless, while the phosphor-bronze, under exactly
similar conditions was practically unchanged. It will be
readily seen then how valuable a metal this is. Unfortunately
its degree of elasticity is less than that of brass, and the springs
required for a lock when of phosphor-bronze are sometimes so
large as to be impracticable. It is, however, by all odds the
best material for springs and is used by the Hopkins & Dickin-
son Manufacturing Co. in their best grades of locks.
Aluminium has recently appeared as a possible substitute for Aluminium.
bronze. It is a metal not unlike lead or platinum in appear-
ance, but is very light, having a specific gravity of 2.56, equal
to about one-third that of steel and one-fourth that of silver.
It is very strong, will not tarnish, and is almost indestructi-
ble. It melts at a comparatively low temperature and can be
cast with sharp lines. Copper, brass, and bronze are improved
in strength, color, and durability by the addition of ten per
cent of aluminium. It is, however, a metal of the future and is
not yet in the hardware market.
Fig. I. Common Nails
Plate-nails. "? ^ nails commonly used in connection
A with building operations are too well-
known to require any description. They
are specifically designated as plate-nails.
Up to within a comparatively short time,
nails were made by hand almost entire-
ly by women and children, and it is one
of the best arguments in favor of the in-
troduction of machinery that the process
by which nail-making has been perfected
has released a vast multitude from the labo-
rious and wearing occupation, besides giv-
ing a great deal better results. The application of machinery
to the manufacture of nails is purely an American idea and so-
recent have been the innovations in connection with this indus-
try that we imagine many people would be surprised to know
the changes which have been made both in the form and in
the character of the ordinary nails, during the past generation.
It is only about fifteen years since iron nails were annealed, or
capable of clinching without rupture.
In the manufacture of nails the iron is first rolled into plates-
having a thickness equal to the desired thickness of the nail
and a width a little greater than the length of a finished nail.
The plates are cut so that the length is at right angles to the
grain, the idea being that when the nails are cut out the fibre-
will run lengthwise the nail and thus make up much stronger.
Special machinery cuts the nails out in alternate wedge-shaped
slices so that the metal is used without any loss. The wedges
are picked up, held in a vise, the heads stamped on them, and
the finished nails finally dropped out into the casks. The
machinery is too complicated to allow of any description here,
but the process is very simple and easily understood. Nearly
all the common nails are made from plates. Hand nails are
still made for special uses such as for horse-shoeing, but
the cost is too great and hand-made nails are really no better
than those which are made by machinery.
Nails are designated according to their length by pennies.
The origin of the designation is generally assumed to be in the
old system of weights, the nails being made with as many
pennyweights of metal as the number indicates. This desig-
nation, of course, no longer holds good, as nails have changed
materially both in size and weight, but it is still retained for
common convenience and we believe the gradation is uniform
with the various manufacturers. The weights run from two to
seventy penny and the nails vary in length from one inch to
six inches. Six-inch nails and larger are more properly desig-
nated as spikes, though the trade recognizes a special form of
nail of somewhat stouter proportions, made in several of the
larger lengths and technically sold under the name of spikes.
Trautwine's " Pocket-Book" page 425, give's the sizes, etc.,
of nails as follows.
No. to pound.
B UILDER& HARD WARE.
Common nails are now very largely made of a low grade of
steel, the cost being not over ten cents per hundred pounds
more than in wrought-iron.
In regard to the strength of nails, Trautwine also states that
boards of oak or pine nailed together by four to sixteen ten-
penny common cut-nails and then pulled apart in a direction
lengthwise of the boards and across the nails, tending to break
the latter in two by a shearing action, averaged from three hun-
dred to four hundred pounds per nail to separate them as the
result of many trials. " Johnson's Encyclopedia " states that the
rough surface of a cut-nail adds about twenty per cent to its
holding power. The absolute resistance nails will offer to with-
drawal varies so widely with circumstances, that no satisfactory
results are available.
The sizes of nails used for specific purposes is largely a
matter of judgment on the part of the builder, but the common
custom is to use four-penny nails for shingling and slating, six-
penny for clapboarding, sixes and eights for finish, eights and
nines for flooring, nines and tens for boarding and forty-penny
and upwards for framing. Architects sometimes consider it
well to specify the sizes of nails to be used for bridging the
floor-beams, and for slating, but on general principles we would
suppose that a builder who would need any such restrictions
would not be a man to employ under any circumstances.
Nails are commonly sold by the cask of one hundred pounds.
Common nails can be had galvanized in all the ordinary
sizes. Galvanized nails cost 2 cents per pound extra.
Canada wrought nails are sold for $16.00 per cask. Clinch
nails (annealed) cost from $3.10 per cask for ten-penny, to
$4.50 for two-penny. Swedes-iron nails are made from an
extra quality of wrought-iron, and are especially used for slat-
ing, as they are supposed to stand the weather better than
ordinary plate-nails. When made from genuine Swedish iron,
four-penny nails are sold at $5.50 per cask. American-iron
Swedes are $3.85 per cask. Architects usually find it advis-
able to specify tinned Swedes-iron nails for roofing-work.
Tinning adds from twenty to fifty per cent to the cost, depend- Chapter n.
ing on the number of nails to the pound.
The following are the net prices in the Boston Market.
PRICES FOR CUT-STEEL NAILS, JUNE 20, 1888.
COMMON, FENCE AND SHEATHING.
50d 60d 70<i $2 50
12d and larger
.. $2 75
12d 20d 30d 40d
8d and Q<1
8d and 9d
12d and larger
. . . 3 15
. . $3 15
6d and 7d
4d and 5d
.. 3 25
4d It. And 3d
.. 3 55
12d and larger
.. 4 20
6d and 7d
6d and 7d
... 3 10
SPIKES of all sizes
. $2 50
Finishing-nails are lighter and thinner than common plate-
nails, and besides being made quite smooth, they have very
slight heads, to permit of being easily countersunk in the
wooden finish. They are made in a number of sizes, from to
2^- inches in length. Next to finishing-nails are the common
brads, made with a head in the form of a shank on one side.
The sizes are from J inch to 2 inches in length. Brads are used
for small finish, tacking on panel mouldings, etc., the metal being
quite thin and the brad driven edgewise of the grain so as not
to split the wood. Swedes-iron patent brads are manufactured
by the Stanley Works, and sold at from 18 cents to $1.25 per
pound, with a discount. Common brads are listed at the same
prices. Clout nails are made with broad, flat heads, and are
sold in sizes varying from f inch to 2-J inches in length and
16 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter n. costing from 48 to 13 cents per pound, with a discount. They
are used about a building chiefly for tacking gutters, etc.
Hungarian nails are a species of large, rounded-headed tacks.
They are made from f inch to 1 inch long, and average 60
cents per pound, with a discount. Figure 1 illustrates the various
special forms of common nails.
Wire Nails. All of the foregoing may be classed as common or plate
nails. Nails of a very different kind, manufactured from steel
wire, have been in use for a number of years in America and
for a longer period in Europe, and in both places they have
been very favorably received and are fast superseding the
common cut-nails for many purposes. The advantages of these
over the common nails are many. For the same amount
of metal they are much stronger ; they can be driven into very
thin boards without splitting them, and can be removed without
leaving so unsightly a hole as is usually made by the common
nails. Besides this, on account of their superior stiffness they
can be driven into very hard wood, where much caution is
necessary if common nails are to be used. They are also
more easily produced and are handled with less labor. They
are manufactured by a simple machine which is automatic in its
action, a coil of the wire adjusted to it being cut off in even
lengths, headed, pointed and, if necessary, ribbed according to
the kind of nail which is desired. The same sizes prevail for
these as for the ordinary plate-nails. The following table gives
the lengths and number to the pound as listed by the Salem
Nail Company, also the net retail prices per hundred pounds
in the Boston market.
Other manufacturers occasionally classify the nails in a more
natural way by lengths and numbers. The American Screw
Company of Providence, R. I., manufactures a very extended
line of these nails and sells them in lengths varying from three-
sixteenths inch to twelve inches in length, with a thickness of
wire varying from No. 22 to No. wire-guage. The prices are
by the pound. Everything above two inches, No. 9 wire, is sold
at five cents per pound. For smaller sizes the prices increase up
to fifty cents per pound for 3-16 of an inch, No. 22. For
nails with special heads or special points add one cent per
pound. For nails combining all these specialties add one cent
per pound for each specialty. For tinning add fifty per cent.
TABLE OF BEST QUALITY OF STANDARD STEEL-WIRE NAILS.
Number of Nails to
Price per Keg.
Besides the common wire nails the Salem Company makes a
variety of patterns such as fence, clinch, smooth, box, cas-
ing, finishing, common brads, flooring, slating, shingle, fine
nails, and wire spikes. The wire spikes are made in sizes from
three to nine inches long averaging from fifty to four and a half
nails per pound. Figure 2 shows the shapes of the different nails.
Besides these there are several other special makes not relat-
ing to builders' hardware. The variety of nails manufactured
from wire is very extensive, and the nails are deservedly popu-
lar. They do not hold quite as strongly against pulling out as
the common cut-nails but in every other respect they are, on
the whole, rather superior.
There are several kinds of ornamental nails manufactured for
special purposes. Figure 3 shows the common porcelain-headed
B UILDERS' HA RD WARE.
picture-nail. P. &. F. Corbin manufacture nails of this de-
scription from two and one-half to four inches in length at
prices from $3.88 to $6.50 per gross. Brass-headed nails, Figure
Fig. 2. Wire Nails. (Half Size.) Salem Nail Co.
4, are manufactured by the same firm in nine sizes, from one
inch to four inches in length and from $1.05 to $4.00 per gross.
These prices are with a discount.
Fig. 5. Brass Door-Nails. (Half Size.)
J. B. Shannon & Sons.
Fig. 6. Clinch Staples.
There are also a few styles of ornamental door nails manu-
factured. J. B. Shannon & Sons show three varieties in
their catalogue, Figure 5. These are made in iron and bronze, at
50 to 72 cents per dozen, or in brass at 90 cents to $1.25 per
dozen, list price.
In connection with nails may be mentioned the common
staples such as are used for blind slats, etc. These are sold in
various sizes, from three-eighths of an inch to one and one-fourth
inch in length, costing from forty-four to twenty-eight cents per
pound. The Florence Tack Company, as well as several other
manufacturers, carries a line of steel and iron clinch staples
such as are shown by Figure 6. These are made in a number of
sizes from five-eighths of an inch up, and cost from thirty cents
a hundred and down.
Tacks are of comparatively little value to the builder, being
used more especially for carpets, furniture, saddlery and the
like. The various lengths of common tacks are designated by
ounces, the size of the tack indicating the number of ounces
put in a 'paper when packed full weight. 1 The lengths are
always essentially the same with the different manufacturers,
for the same weights. Tacks are cut by much the same kind
of machinery as is used in the manufacture of plate nails.
Steel, American-iron, Swedes-iron and copper are used for
tacks. Iron is sometimes galvanized and occasionally nickel-
plated or tinned. Figure 7 illustrates the relative sizes of tacks
manufactured by the Stanley Works, and the following table
gives the list prices of the same company.
Tinned tacks can be had in iron or copper, in all the above
sizes, at an advance of from twenty to thirty per cent.
Double-pointed tacks have, within a few years been made
from flat steel wire. Five sizes are made by the Florence Tack
inches long, vary-
ing from $1.20
to $1.80 per
They can be had
plated, tinned or in copper. The advantage of these tacks is
that they hold more tightly in the wood and at the same time
are more easily removed without breaking off in the hole.
1 This statement is made in the catalogue of the Florence Tack Company.
7. American-Iron Cut Tacks, (Half Size.)
TABLE OF TACKS (STANLEY WORKS).
Price per doz
Price per doz
Price per doz
screws for nails in
building operations is
one of the most marked
features of modern work,
and is, in a way, indica-
tive of the changes that
Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. II. Fig.12. have CQme about since
Mediaeval times. In those days men built for eternity ; now,
the object is to build so that it is possible to take the work
apart; and nothing shows more clearly the extent to which
this idea is carried than the variety of uses to which screws
are put. There is, however, another way of looking at the
the change, and a more practical one, too, for screws cer-
tainly have a great many advantages which nails never could
possess. They are much more secure when in place ; they are
neater in appearance ; they require but little more labor in
driving than nails, and can, at any time, be removed without
injuring the material into which, they are screwed. Some who
have had trouble in removing old screws which had rusted into
hard-wood work may object to the last statement. An old car-
penter however, once told us of a very simple way to remove
even the most obdurate screw : if a red-hot poker is held against
the head of the screw for a few moments, the heat will expand
the metal, loosening it from its hold on the wood, after which
it can be readily unscrewed.
^The improvements in the processes of manufacture of screws
have been even more marked than those which have been
noted in regard to nails. The blanks for screws were form-
erly cut out by hand. The first improvement was to cut
them from rolled round iron, the heads being formed by press-
ing the blanks into a die while hot, and the threads cut with
a file, a very laborious operation which resulted in a very poor
quality of screw. The screw-working machinery, as at pres-
ent in use, has very largely been designed by Americans. The
blanks are cut and headed from coils of wire on one machine ;
another machine takes the pieces, gives the proper shape to the
head and neck, turns the shank, and finishes the screw. It has
been claimed that the entire operation necessary to turning out
a perfected screw is so economical in its action, that the fluctu-
ations in the first cost of the crude wire will often equal the
total cost of manufacture.
The most important improvement which has been made in
their manufacture is the" application of the gimlet point, by
means of which a screw can be turned into the wood without
the aid of a gimlet or auger. It seems so natural now to us
that it is difficult to understand why the world was so long con-
tented with the poor productions of half a century ago.
The form and style of the ordinary screw, as at present in
use, seem so perfect in every respect that it would be difficult
to suggest any improvements. There are, however, a few
forms of patent screws in the market which may be of inter-
est in this connection. Figure 8 illustrates a screw, patented
in 1873, fitted with a drill point instead of the ordinary gimlet
point. Figure 9 is a screw with a thread somewhat like that
of a bit, the thread, however, diminishing in pitch from the bot-
tom to the top. Figure 10 is a form of coach-screw, having
threads of a curved cross-section and provided with a wedge-
shaped point, which allows the screw to be partly driven into
place with a hammer. Figure 1 1 is essentially the same as the
ordinary screw, except that the point is flattened, and it has a
circular cutting edge. Figure 12 is a wood-screw provided
with a cutter and point in such a manner as to cut its way into
the wood instead of pressing it to one side as is the case in
the ordinary screw. None of these varieties, however, have any
very extended sale, and we are unable to say by whom they
are manufactured or controlled. Figure 13 illustrates about
the best of the patent forms. It is a diamond-pointed steel
screw, manufactured by Russell & Erwin. Screws of this form
can be driven with a hammer their entire length into any hard
wood, and then held by one or two turns as securely as the
ordinary screw. The head, is made convex to strengthen it
and prevent its splitting when struck with a hammer. The
thread is of the ratchet form, which permits its penetration
without tearing the wood fibres.
Ordinary gimlet-pointed screws are made in four styles, de-
pending upon the use for which they are intended. The shank
and point are always practically the same. The head is either
flat, Figure 14; oval, Figure 15; round, Figure 16; or of the
form shown by Figure 17, which Russell & Erwin designate as
having a " piano " head.
TABLE OF SCREWS.
Abridged from Catalogue of the American Screw Co. Price per gross.
The upper figures give the price of iron screws : the lower that of brass screws.
Discount : 60 to 75% on iron screws, 55 to 70% on brass screws.
The kinds of screws which are manufactured for various pur-
poses are almost infinite in variety, but so far as relates to
builders' hardware in general, it will be sufficient to consider
only the wood-screws, that is to say, the screws made for
working with wood. The materials of which screws are made
for this purpose are iron, steel, brass, copper, bronze and phos-
phor-bronze. The screws commonly in use are of iron. Steel
screws are comparatively little used on account of the cost.
Brass, copper, arid bronze screws are used in connection with
finishing hardware. Phosphor-bronze screws are used only in
Iron wood-screws are made in twenty different lengths, vary-
ing from one-quarter inch to six inches. Brass and nickel-
plated screws are made only as high as three inches in length.
Each length of screws has from six to eighteen varieties in
thickness, there being in all thirty-one different gauges ; so
that altogether there are about 250 different sizes of ordinary
No. Diam. SCREW GAUGE. 1 WIRE GAUGE. 2
Fig. I 8. Diameters of Wire.
1 American Screw Gauge.
From American Screw Co.'s Catalogue.
2 Old Standard Birmingham Gauge.
BUILDERS 1 HARDWARE.
wood-screws in the market. Figure 18 gives the different
gauges in use from zero to thirty. Iron screws are finished
with either a bronze, japanned, lacquered on tinned surface.
P. & F. Corbin also manufacture copper, bronzed, and silver-
Fig. 18. Continued
plated screws. These and a few special varieties are kept in
stock by most dealers. The preceding tables give the sizes,
prices, etc., of iron, brass and nickel-plated screws, compiled
from the catalogues of the American Screw Company, and
P. & F. Corbin.
Nickel-plating increases the foregoing prices as follows :
Intermediate sizes approximately at the same ratio. Discount : 75 and 66 %.
Besides the ordinary wood-screws, the only other kinds used
constructively to any extent by builders are lag-screws, and
hand-rail screws. The former are more commonly known
;as coach-screws, and are manufactured in 128 different sizes
TABLE OF GIMLET-POINT COACH-SCREWS.
Price per hundred. Discount : 66 %.
Length under the Head.
I 5 e
varying from J" x 1-J-" to V x 12". In appearance the shank and
the gimlet-point are the same as ordinary wood-screws, but the
head is square, like a nut, and without any cross-cut, so that
the screw can be turned up with a wrench. The preceding
table gives the prices of a few of the sizes, as per the lists of
the American Screw Co.
Hand-rail screws or joint-bolts are usually made in two ways,
either with one end
cut with a wood-screw
thread, and the other
provided with a ma-
chine - screw thread
and loose nut, or with
a machine- screw
thread and nut on
each end. One nut
is generally cogged
so it can be turned
\j W up easily by a pock-
Fig. 19; joint-bolts. e t wrench. Joint-
bolts are of two diameters, either ^ or -inch, and the stand-
ard lengths are from four to six inches, though some manu-
facturers produce joint-bolts as long as fifteen inches. Joint-
bolts with two nuts are sometimes made with -^-inch diameter
with a swelled centre. Figure 19 shows the various forms
of joint-bolts, and the following table gives the prices per gross.
TABLE OF JOINT-BOLTS.
Discount : 75%.
Ij Length, 4 inches.
Length, 4* inches.
Length, 5 inches.
Length, 5 inches.
Length, 6 inches.
Screw-eyes are too well-known to require illustration. They
are made of steel, iron or brass wire, with a gimlet-pointed
thread cut on the shank. Iron screw-eyes are made plain,
bright, bronzed or nickel-plated. The diameters of wire used
vary from wire guage 0, to 14, the lengths of the eyes being
from ! to 2 inches. The list price in iron of the largest
sizes is $9.00 per gross. The smallest size cost 95 cents per
gross. Brass screw-eyes cost about twice as much as iron.
These prices are with a heavy discount.
Figure 20 shows the common forms of screw-hooks. The list
prices for these are $6.00 per gross for No. 4 iron, and $22.00
per gross for No. 4 brass. About the same variety of sizes
are listed for screw-hooks as for screw-eyes. The smaller sizes
of hooks can be had in brass with washers or roses at a slight
advance in price. The hooks are made as large as 4f-inch, No.
Picture-knobs or hangers are intended to screw into the wall,
through the plastering. They are made with a long screw
Fig. 20. Screw-hooks.
Fig. 21. Picture-hangers. (Half-size.)
shank provided with a knob of porcelain or metal, and are
listed in four lengths, -inch, f-inch, 1-inch and 1^-inch ; being
sold at from $4.75 to $6.20 per gross, with a discount. Figure
21 illustrates one variety.
Picture-rod hooks are intended to support a rod on the wall,
answering as a picture moulding. The list price (P. & F. Cor-
bin) is from $2.00 to $4.50 per dozen, according to length and
SIDE from the coach or lag screws,
and the stair-rail bolts already
described, the only constructive bolts
used by the builder are such as are nec-
essary in joining header and trimmer
beams. These are similar to the stair-
rail bolts, but heavier and less finished..
They are often made to order, but a few
sizes are kept in stock by some dealers.
Ordinarily -J- to 1 inch bolts are used, 8 to 24 inches long, with
a square head on one end and a thread and square nut at the
other. In any other cases requiring the use of constructive bolts,
lag-screws are generally found to answer every purpose, though
stove-bolts, Figure 23, are sometimes useful. These are made
with flat or round heads. They are manufactured in six diam-
eters. from 3\ to f inch, and thirty-two lengths, from f-inch to
7 inches. The manufacturers' list-prices are from $0.85 to $4.20
per hundred. Sink-bolts are similar to the stove-bolts except
that the shank is threaded the whole length, and provided with
two nuts. Tire-bolts are like flat-headed stove-bolts, but are
without the cross-cut in the head. Many other forms of bolts
are in the market, but even the foregoing are rarely used by
Figure 24 shows the most common form of wrought-iron
door-bolt, designated specifically as a "barrel-bolt." This is
Fig. 24. Common Staple.
made to screw onto the face of the door. The jamb-staple may
be plain, as in Figure 24 ; bent, Figure 25 ; or necked, Figure
26. The latter is for
a door swinging out,
which is to be bolted
on the inside. All
of these forms are
likewise made in cast
brass. The iron bolts
may be japanned,
tinned or bronzed,
and the knobs are
ed, tinned, or made of
brass or porcelain.
Neck - bolts, Figure
27, are used when
the bolt-plate or sta-
ple cannot be put di-
rectly on the line of
the face of the door.
The style shown
by the illustration is that
manufactured by the
Stanley Works, and is
made additionally strong
Fig. 26. Necked Bolt.
Fig. 27. Round Neck-bolts. Stanley Works.
by a central rod running
into the bolt and riveted
to the edge of the bolt-
plate as shown by the fig-
ure. A similar style of
bolt with a flat bar
a raised end instead
knob, Figure 28, has a
flat spring between the Fi *' 28 ' Square Neck - Bolt> Stanley Works '
bolt and the plate, serving to keep the former in position.
32 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter iv. Figure 29 shows a form which is designated as a mosquito-
bar bolt, and is used for a number of light purposes. It is
made without any jamb-staple.
Excepting Figure 28, the foregoing bolts are made without any
springs. Much the same patterns are found in the market under
Spring-boite. the designation of spring-bolts, the bolt being held either open
Fig. 30. Square Bolt, with Spring.
Fig. 32. Straight Cupboard-Bolt.
Fig. 33. Flat Cupboard-Bolt.
Fig. 3 I . Square Bolt,
or shut by means of a spring inserted under the bolt against
the bolt-plate. These are in a number of varieties,
including neck-bolts, straight-bolts, square or round bolts, with
porcelain knobs, brass knobs, etc. Figure 30 shows a form of
square spring-bolt manufactured by the Stanley Works. There
is also another form, Figure 31, in which the spring is on one
side of the bolt, the notch m the shank holding the bolt either
open or shut.
Straight cupboard-bolts, Figure 32, and flat cupboard-bolts,
Figure 33, are manufactured in a variety of forms of which
those shown are types. They
are finished in the usual variety
of styles. Figure 34 shows
what is designated as a ship-bolt.
Figure 35 is a variety of side
flush-bolt adapted for chests,
desk-tops, etc. Figure 36 and
Figure 37 are two forms of
the top, while a flat plate is attached to the edge of the
swinging-door. On closing the latter, the brass plate strikes
on the knob of the bolt and throws the bolt up into the door-
Fig. 34. Ship-Bolt.
bookcase-bolts. The former
screwed flush on the edge of the standing-door at
Fig. 35. Side Flush-Bolt.
Fig. 36. Bookcase-
Bolt. P. & F. Cor-
Fig, 37. Bookcase-Catch.
P. & F. Corbin.
soffit, the knob shank following the oblique cut in the plate ; a
spring throws the bolt down when the door is opened. The
34 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter iv. actioii of Figure 37 is somewhat different. The bolt is mor-
tised into the soffit or the bottom of the door-frame, and the
two plates are screwed to the tops of the doors. For a bolt as
shown by the figure, the right-hand door is closed first, when
the other door is closed it strikes the bevelled connection of the
bolt, forcing it up and consequently forcing the other arm of
the bolt down into the plate on top of the right-hand door. The
doors can then be locked together with a key or catch, though
the friction on the striker will keep them closed. A spring
forces the bolt up when the left door is opened. This form of
bolt can be used for cupboards, wardrobes, etc., but we do not
know of its having ever been applied successfully to large
The following table gives the average retail prices of the
bolts enumerated. Only the principal sizes are listed, but
these will be sufficient to give an idea of the cost.
TABLE OF PLAIN BOLTS.
Prices per dozen.
Length in inches.
Wrought - i ron round ,
Wrought - iron square,
Brass mosquito -bar
Wrought-iron side spring
Brass straight cupboard-
Brass flat cupboard-
Brass ship flush-bolts
Brass bookcase - bolts,
Brass bookcase catch,
bolts with lock
Flat-tail-bolts, Figure 38, are intended for high doors requir-
ing to be bolted at the top, and are made in a number of different
36 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter rv. lengths, from one to seven feet. When the bolt is shot it
is kept from slipping down by a rebate in the shank which
catches on the lowest staple, as seen by the figure. Figure 39
is a form of bolt used for shutters having a wide bearing on
each side. It is provided with a locking lever at the upper
Fig. 42. Wrought-lron Flush Bolt.
Fig. 43. Mortise Flush Bolt.
J. B. Shannon & Co.
side, catching in a notch on the bolt. The same form is made
without the locking-lever. Canada-bolts, Figure 40, consist of a
long, square shank or bolt, with mineral or porcelain knob.
The bolt is kept from slipping by a short, flat spring under-
neath. These are sold with several varieties of staples.
Fig. 44. Flush Bolt, with Patent Stop.
P. & F. Corbin.
Fig. 45. Flush Bolt, with Patent Stop.
Ireland Manufacturing Co.
For front and vestibule doors in two folds as well as for
other double doors some form of mortise -bolt is required.
These may be mortised into the edge or sunk flush with the
face of the standing door. Figure 41 shows the ordinary sunk
flush-bolt. This pattern is made with plates three-fourths inch
wide and bolts from six to twenty-four inches long. The retail
prices average from $5.60 to $9.52 per dozen in bronzed
wrought-iron. Bolts of similar description but with a square
rod, Figure 42, are made with plates one and one-fourth inches
wide and fifteen to sixty inches long, costing $9.80 to $23.-
60 per dozen in bronzed iron, with bronze knob. The same
styles of bolts are also made in cast brass ; a few dealers keep
them in stock nickel-plated. The pattern represented by Fig-
ure 42, is, of course, used only on the face of a door.
A mortise flush-bolt is one which is mortised into the thick-
ness of the door and is operated by a knob or handle working
in a face-plate. Figure 43 illustrates one variety. The bolts
are made from nine to forty-eight inches long, and the retail
prices are from $1.50 to $1.80 each, in bronze.
Figure 44, illustrates a form of self-locking flush-bolt. A
lever on the bottom of the bolt catches over a shoulder on the
face-plate when the bolt is shot. To release the lever it is
simply pushed inward, a coiled spring at the top otherwise holding
it in position. Figure 45 shows another device in which the
bolt is thrown by turning the knob. A peg at the back of the
knob works in a horizontal slot in a tail-piece attached to the
bolt. Raising the bolt brings the peg in the line of the centre
of rotation of the knob and so locks it.
There are several varieties of latch spring flush-bolts, in
which the knob remains thrown out but can be drawn down by
a pull within convenient reach of the hand. Figure 46 illus-
trates one such arrangement. P. & F. Corbin also manufacture
a latch-spring bolt which is mortised into the edge of the door,
and in which the latch bolt is released by pressing on the face-
For store doors it is customary to use bolts applied to the
face of the door instead of being mortised-in flush. In this
case the upper bolt is attached to a chain which hangs about
six feet from the floor. The lower bolt is held up by a spring, chapter iv.
but can be pressed down into place with the foot, a spring catch
on the face holding the bolt when down.
Figures 44 to 46 inclusive,
are types of a great variety
of styles manufactured in several
different metals with all kinds
of finish and design. It is,
therefore, impracticable to give
for these any average prices which
could serve as fair criterions.
Fig. 46. Extension Latch-Spring Flush-
Bolt. P. & F. Corbin.
Fig. 47. Dutch-Door Bolt. Hopkins
& Dickinson Manufg. Co.
The Hopkins & Dickinson Manufacturing Co., has recently
40 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter iv. put on the market a form of flush-bolt intended specially for
Dutch doors, that is to say, doors in two folds, horizontally.
Figure 47 illustrates this. The bolt-plate is about seven inches
long, and is rebated to match the rebates of the doors. The
retail price of a single bronze bolt is $2.50. Figure 48 illus-
trates a chain and a foot-bolt.
Engine-house bolts are made in a variety of forms generally
so as to permit of being opened easily, by a large catch or
latch which throws the bolts up and down from bottom and top.
These cost from $6 to $9 each, though it is impossible to give
any fair general price as the bolts are made only to order.
French window-bolts are usually mortised into the centre
style of one of the sashes and are so arranged that a crank
or handle on the face of the sash will throw a bolt in each
direction, so as to lock the window at the top and the
bottom. Figure 49 is a form operated by a knob and spindle.
In setting it, the gearing-box or mechanism of the bolts can
be let into the door in the same manner as an ordinary mor-
tise-lock, and the two rods dropped in through a hole bored the
length of the sash, the rods screwing into the hubs on the gear-
ing-box. The retail price of this appliance is $4.00 in bronze,
including a bronze handle. Figure 50 is another form, similar
in its action as regards the bolts, but intended to plant on the
face of the sash. The crank handle drops into a catch on the
opposite sash, and can be locked by turning the bar on top of Chapter iv
the catch. The retail price in bronze is $4.00.
Espagnolette - bolts are arranged, like the foregoing, to Espagnol Boit s
Fig. 49. Mortise French Window-
bolt. J. B. Shannon & Sons.
Fig. 50. French Window-bolt.
Hopkins & Dickinson Manufacturing Co.
shoot up and down, but in addition the bolts are made to turn
so as to hook onto a post or peg at the top and bottom. They
are much used in France for double windows, and have several
advantages, as they not only lock the sashes, but also draw them
up firmly against the window-frame, thus making them more
secure against the weather. Figure 51
illustrates one form of espagnolette-
There are many other devices adopted
for securing French windows. In the
cheapest class of work an ordinary cup-
board-catch is used; and in the best
work they are sometimes secured with a
regular key lock.
CHAIN AND CHECK BOLTS.
At one time it was considered quite
essential that a front door should be
provided with a chain door-fastener,
which would permit the door to be
opened a few inches to inspect any
doubtful character on the outside, while
it could be opened no farther. Figure
52 illustrates a typical form of chain
door-fastener, consisting of a slotted
plate to go on the face of the door, and
a chain secured to the door jamb, with
a dog on the end of the chain which will
slide freely in the slot of the plate. A
holder is provided to which the chain
can be attached when not in use. There
Fig. 51. Espagnoiette-boit. are man y varieties of chain fasteners.
Hopkins & Dickinson Mfg. Co. They would ave rage about $1.00 per
set in cast brass, and $2.50 silver plated. P. & F. Corbin man-
ufacture a rim door-bolt which has a chain attachment, the dog
of the chain working in a slot cut in the barrel or plate enclos-
ing the bolt.
Instead of a chain, some form of hinged bar is often
employed, the fixture then being designated las a check-bolt or
door-fast. Figure 53 illustrates one form of door-fast (Nichols,
Fig. 52. Chain Door-fastener. P. & F. Corbin.
Bellamy & Co., agents). The staple-shaped bar or rod works
in a standard which
is screwed to the
door-jamb, and fits
over a knob secured
to the door. The
door, on being
opened forces the
knob along between
the prongs of the
bar until it can go
no farther, permit-
ting the door to open only about four inches. When it is not
desired to secure the door, the bar is turned back against the
wall. When the bar is turned at right angles to the wall, or
midway between these positions, the shoulders are brought di-
rectly over the knob on the door catch, and the door is secured
-so that it cannot be opened at all. This fixture retails at
$2.50, in bronze.
Figure 54 is another form of door-fast consisting of a
Fig. 53. French Door-fast. Nichols, Bellamy & Co.
44 BUILDERS* HARDWARE.
Chapter IV. straight bolt working through a hinged socket attached to the
door. The bolt has shoulders at the end which fit into the
Fig. 54. Door-fast. Sargent & Co.
catch on the door-jamb in such a manner that when the door
is opened and the bolt tilted the shoulders are held by the
jamb-catch, the bolt slipping through the socket on the door.
>.. . >_ Iffr ~~ i The reta il price of this fix-
I ( ture, in bronze, is $2.00.
Figure 55 illustrates a form;
of door-check which combines
some of the features of both
I of the foregoing fixtures,
though taking up more space
when applied. It retails at
$1.00 in either nickle-plate or
In addition to the ordinary
lock on a door, it is sometimes
found desirable to attach a
plain bolt of some form, as an
extra security. The form-
Fig. 55. Perkins's Door-check. Ports _ most commonly used is known
mouth Wrench Co. as a m ortise door-bolt, consist-
ing simply of a barrel-bolt in a cylindrical case, which is-
mortised directly into the door-style and is operated by a Chapter iv.
spindle with turn-button or knob on the inner face of the
door. In external appearance the various makes of mor-
tised door-bolts are very much alike, though some are finished
so as to require no other mortising than can be done with an
auger, while others require more hand-work in the application.
Figure 56 illustrates a complete bolt, and also shows one Ireland Bolt,
form of internal arrangement. When the bolt is thrown, the
shoulder on the follow, B, is turned so as to bring it very
nearly on a line with the centre of rotation of the spindle, thus
locking the bolt. The spring, (7, tends to keep the shoulder
The simplest and most ingenious mortise door-bolt which
has come to our attention is the one manufactured by Sargent
& Greenleaf, designated
as the " Gem mortise-
bolt," Figure 57. It con-
sists simply of a solid
bolt completely filling
the diameter of the bolt-
case. The cogged
spindle works over the
teeth cut across the bolt.
The last tooth towards
the back of the bolt is
smaller and projects less
than the others, and the
last cut is wider than the
intermediate ones; so
that when the bolt is
thrown the cogged spin-
dle wedges into the wide
cut and locks the bolt,
making it practically im-
Cylindrical Door-bolt. Ireland Mfg. Co,
56a. Ives Mortise Door-bolt.
H. B. Ives & Co.
possible to throw it back by external pressure. The beauty
of this bolt is, there is nothing about it that can possibly get
46 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter iv. out of order, and the only effect of wear would be to make it
work more efficiently, if possible.
I Figure 56a shows the in-
ternal construction of the
Ives mortise door-bolt.
The spindle, A, operates
the circular follow or disc,
B, to which is pivoted a
heavy brass wire, (7, which
is fastened to the bolt.
When the follow is rotated the wire forces out the bolt until
the attachment of the wire is brought on a line with the centre
of the bolt, when the latter is locked, and cannot be forced
back by external pressure.
P. & F. Corbin, Russell & Erwin, the Stoddard Lock Manu-
facturing Co., and the Reading Hardware Co., manufacture
door-bolts similar in the main to Figures 56 and 56a. The fol-
lowing table gives the average retail prices :
TABLE OF MORTISE DOOR-BOLTS.
Retail prices per dozen.
Fig. 57. Gem Mortise Door-bolt. Sargent
& Green leaf.
Ireland Manufacturing Company . .
U. 15. Ives & Company
Sargent & Greenleaf
P & F Corbin
Russell & Erwin . .
Stoddard Lock and Manufacturing Company
Beading Hardware Company
Fig. 59. Hasp and Staples,
hasps and staples
are not properly to be
classed with hinges,
but it seems convenient
to introduce them at this
point. Ordinary wrought-
iron staples are made in thirteen sizes, from one inch to six
inches long. They are made both in plain and galvanized iron
and are used in building operations chiefly in connection with
wrought-iron hasps. Figure 59 shows the commonest form, a
plain hasp with
two staples. Hasps
are made in even
inches from five to
twelve inches in
length. A "varia-
tion from the com-
mon hasp has a
latch on the hasp
which catches into
one of the staples
in place of a pad-
Fig. 60. Hasp and Staple with Double Hook.
Fig. 61. Hasp and Staple on plates.
lock, as shown by Figure 60. A natural simplification of this
devise is to do away with the hasp, connecting the staples by
a wrought-iron hook, the staples being either driven independ-
ently, as in the previous examples, or riveted to plates, as
shown by Figure 61. There is also a form of hasp and staple
intended to be secured with a padlock, the locking-staple being
swivelled on a back-plate which is screwed to the jamb.
In place of the ordinary wrought-iron hasp and staple, Figure
59, hasps are made bent at right angles at the middle so as to lap
around the edge of a box or a door, if necessary. Bent hasps
Fig. 62. Hinged Hasp.
can be had in the market from five to ten inches in length.
Besides this, there are numerous special forms which are made
by a few manufacturers, and as hasps are always of wrought
iron or steel, they can be bent to any desired shape.
The connection between hasps and hinges can be readily
illustrated by Figure 62, representing a hinged hasp. This is a
natural outcome from the common hasp and staple, the hasp
being hinged in the middle, one end screwed onto the door or
box-top, while the other end has a slot through which is passed
a staple for securing the padlock. The figure shows one of
these, with an ordinary staple attached to a wall-plate. They
are also manufactured with swivelled staples. These hinged
hasps are made three, four and one-half, six, eight, ten and
Fig. 63. Solid Link Hinged Hasp. Stanley Works.
twelve inches long. The price is the same for either the plain
or the swivelled staples. Some manufacturers have in the
market varieties of hinged hasps made in brass or bronze for
fancy work. These are, however, not used very extensively,
and the form is more strictly for rough work.
A form of hinge-hasp shown by Figure 63 is sometimes used
for extra-heavy work, and for trap-doors. In this, the hasp
works upon a solid link of wrought-iron, and considerable gain
of strength is so acquired.
Hinges, proper, may be divided into two general classes :
First, those which are placed on the face of a door or shutter,
and are known as strap-hinges ; and second, those which are
mortised into the butt edge of the door and against the frame,
and are, consequently, designated as butts. Figure 64 shows
the commonest form of a strap-hinge, such as is seen on barn-
doors, etc. These hinges are made in even sizes from three to
sixteen inches long, measured when opened flat. They are
Fig. 64. Strap-Hinge.
made in various ways and widths to suit special necessities. A
variety of strap-hinge is made by the Stanley Works, with the
Fig. 65. T-Hinge.
same sort of solid link that has been described for Figure 63.
This form of hinge can be used only where there is plenty of
room both on the door and on the jamb for attaching the leaves
50 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter v. of the hinges. When the width on the jamb is restricted, as
is often the case, a T-hinge, Figure 65, is used. In some cases
it is necessary to have the fixed plate bent, a form known as
the chest-hinge being then used, Figure 66. The latter costs
considerably more than the common form. The T-hinges are
Fig. 66. Chest-Hinge.
about the same price as the ordinary strap-hinge. The Stanley
Works manufactures a T-hinge with a braced leaf, which is
very useful in some cases. This is shown by Figure 67.
Fig. 67. T-Hinge with braced Leaf.
There are several special makes of strap and T hinges,
which are reinforced so as to afford
greater strength. One of these is the
Wells patent hinge, Figure 68, in
which the metal of each leaf of the
hinge is carried completely around
the bend and back onto itself, so-
tnafc ^ would be almost impossible to
tear j fc away The Harfc patent
ng. 68. Weils Patent Hinge.
is reinforced by a double thickness of metal about the pin, and
the Record hinge is strengthened by two flange-plates, which
are bolted to each leaf and attached to the pin, as shown by
Figure 69. The prices of these reinforced hinges are the same
for the different kinds.
Figure 70 shows a hinge which is used when it is desired
that the pin should be well out from the door or shutter, so as
to throw it open away from the jamb. This hinge is made in
sizes from six to eighteen inches long.
The following table gives the average retail prices of the
foregoing hinges, in a few of the leading sizes.
TABLE OF WKOUGHT-STEEL STRAP-HINGES.
Prices per dozen pairs.
Hasp and staple
Hasp and staple with, double hook
Hook and staples on plate 1
Solid-link hinged hasp
T-hinge with braced leaf
Wells patent hinge
Hart's patent hinge
1 These are made as small as J inch.
2 Prices given are for light strap-hinges,
pound at 12 to 14 cents.
Heavy strap-hinges are sold by the
Figure 71 shows a special form of hinge manufactured for
trap-doors,. permitting the door to be hung from the under side,
Fig. 69. Record's Patent Hinge. Stanley Works.
leaving the upper side free from obstruction, and flush with the
52 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter v. floor, while at the same time the use of the full size of the trap
can be had when the door is up ; the hinges will hold the
door in position. The
working of this hinge
will be seen by the
figure. The retail
price is $1 per pair.
It is listed in the
catalogues of several
of the hardware
Fig. 70. Raised Strap-Hinge.
Figure 72 illustrates a species of rude hinge used quite
Fig. 71. Trap-door Hinge.
frequently for barn and warehouse doors, consisting of a hook
to be driven into the
door-post and a bar
with an eye at the end
to be bolted through
Fig. 72. Barn Door Hook and Eye Hinge.
made of iron -J, f , , -J and one inch thick, and are sold by the
pound, and at 25 cents for -J- and inch, and 20 cents for the
A variety of hinge which may not be called a strap-hinge,
but which, nevertheless, partakes of its nature, is manufactured
in a great many forms for outside blinds. The practice of
hanging blinds differ in different parts of the country. In the
vicinity of Boston the blinds are generally hung on the outside
of the casing, and the hinges consist of a simple half hinge on
the blind and a hook driven into the face of the casing. In
New York the blinds are, almost invariably, set flush with the
outside casing, requiring a different style of hinge. Through-
out the West a number of forms of cast-iron hinges are used,
which, in a measure, lock the blind when open or shut, as will
be hereafter noticed. For blinds hung in the Boston fashion,
Fig. 73. Blind-Hinges, New York Style.
the commonest way is simply to attach a half hinge to the
blind, as previously stated. These half hinges are made in
two sizes, two and two-and-one-half inch, costing $5 to $7 per
hundred sets. They are mortised into the edge of the blind.
If additional strength is required, a longer strap-hinge is used,
which is screwed onto the face of the blind. There are
various forms of these sk-ap-hinges used for this purpose, all of
54 BUILDERS' HARDWARE
Chapter V. which are too commonly known to require description. Another
variety of the same kind of hinge is made so as to throw the
blind well out from the casing and away from the moulding.
These are made with a two-inch throw, and others with a four-
inch throw are also in the market for use in connection with
For the blinds attached in the New York manner, some of
the foregoing forms can be used, if the butts are set out suffi-
ciently to clear the face mouldings of the frame, but generally
speaking strap-hinges are used, ki most cases, of the form shown
by Figure 73, the strap, which is bent so as to strengthen the
frame of the blind as well as support it, being secured both to
the rail and the style. In-
stead of the hook shown by
the figure, some form of drive
hook is often used, and the
Fig. 74. Malleable iron Biind-Hinge. hinge, instead of being bent,
sometimes consists of a straight face-plate or strap. Figure 74
is a form of malleable-iron hinge used for blinds hung in the
New York style.
The hooks which are used for blinds are mostly made of
malleable-iron. There are
several varieties. A plain
hook to drive into the wood,
Fig. 75. Plain Drive Blind-Hook. Fig. 76. Drive Brace Bund-Hook.
shown by Figure 75, is made three and a half inches long with
a shorter length of the same style for light blinds hung flush
with the casing. Figure 76 shows what is designated as a
drive brace. Figure 77 is a form sometimes used, an iron
screw-hook ; and Figure 78 is the most common form of screw
The advantages of the styles of hinges previously described
are that they are mostly made of wrought-iron and are not apt
to break, while there is absolutely nothing to get out of order
about them. The disadvantages are that they contain in them-
selves no principle which will hold the blind open or shut,
and when it is secured in the ordinary way it takes considerable
bending and twisting to close the blind
after it is opened. To overcome
these difficulties a number of forms
have been devised, most of which are
used more freely in the West than in
the East. All of them are arranged
to keep the blind from closing itself. Fig. 77. Screw Blind-Hook.
They are generally made of malleable-iron, a feature which
would be an objection in the eyes of Eastern builders.
One of the simplest forms is the Seymour hinge, manufact-
ured by P. & F. Corbin, Figure 79. The essential princi-
ple in this hinge includes a raised cone on the house-hinge
working into a socket on the blind-hinge. The hinge is shown
partially raised and in the position it takes when the blind is
Fig. 78. Screw Brace Blind-Hook.
Fig. 79. Seymour's Blind-Hinge.
P. & F. Corbin.
closed. When the blind is thrown back a lip on the upper
hinge catches on a projection on the lower hinge and holds
the blind firmly in place, so that it can be released only by rais-
ing the blind bodily.
The Shepard Hardware Co., of Buffalo, manufactures a num-
ber of varieties of window-blind hinges which are used quite
extensively. All of them are double locking and arranged so
that the blind can be lifted off the hinge only in one position,
thus obviating any upsetting of the blind when trying to close
it. Most of the Shepard hinges close by gravity when once
Fig. 80. Shepard's Noiseless Blind-
Hinge. Shepard Hardware Co.
Fig. 81. Shepard's Standard Blind-Hinge.
Shepard Hardware Co.
raised; that is to say, the surfaces of the upper and lower
hinge are bevelled so that the blind will slide down of its own
weight and so close. Figure 80 shows one of the best of these
hinge's and illustrates also
the manner in which it
closes by gravity. This
hinge and nearly all of
the Shepard make are
planted on the face of the
blind rather than mortised
into the edges. A very
simple form, and one
quite good in its way is
shown by Figure 81. The
two parts of the hinges
are shown separately so
a to represent it more clearly. The fold on the right is
attached to the blind and the hook rests in the socket of the
other fold of this hinge. The bottom of the socket is con-
tracted to an ellipse and by reason of the lug on the blind hook,
Fig. 82. Shepard's Gravity Blind-Hinge.
Shepard Hardware Co.
the blind can be lifted off the hinges only when standing at
right angles to the house. When the blind is open the lug A
catches into B and holds the blind securely. In order to close
the blind it is lifted bodily until the lug clears the catch. Fig-
ure 82 is another variety of the Shepard hinge which can be
used in case the blind is set on the face of the casing, the two
arms of the hinge being unequal in length. All of the Shepard
goods are very nicely finished and seem like very durable and
serviceable articles. There are many varieties but the fore-
going will answer for the purposes of general illustration.
They retail at ten cents per set, or fifteen cents with screws.
As previously stated, a butt is properly a hinge which is
screwed onto the butt
edge of a door. The
arrangement of the parts
of a butt is governed
somewhat by the direction
in which the door is to
swing, and in order to prop-
erly distinguish the doors,
and consequently the cor-
responding butts, they are
designated as being right or
left hand. This distinction
is not always clear even to
those who are somewhat
familiar with the subject of
builders' hardware ; but a
very simple way to remember which is right and which left,
is to bear in mind that when a door, in opening, turns on its
hinges in the same direction as is followed by the hands of a
clock, it is a right-hand door, and contrarywise a left-hand
door. In other words, the distinction is the same as is made in
physics between positive or right-hand, and negative or left-
Fig. 85. Loose-pin Butt.
Bight and Left
All of the commonest forms of butts are so made that the
two leaves cannot be separated, the pin being riveted in place.
This constitutes a fast-pin butt. Nearly all of the strap-hinges
previously described are fast-pin. Such a form is not available
for nice work, as it does not permit the door to be removed
without unscrewing the hinge. The better class of butts are,
accordingly, made with a loose pin, Figure 85, which can be
readily withdrawn if the door is to be unhinged. A fast-pin
butt would have exactly the same appearance as this when put
together. Figure 86 is a third variety, known as a loose-joint
butt. In this the pin is cast or attached solidly to the lower
hub, working in the hollow hub of the other leaf, as shown by
the dotted lines of the figure. This form permits the door
to be removed with the greatest ease, it being simply swung
clear of the casing and lifted bodily off of the hinge-pin. This
Fig. 86. Loose-joint Bi
Fig. 87. Improved Loose-joint Butt,
Yale & Towne Manufg. Co.
style of butt is usually preferred in New England, though else-
where the loose-pin butt is more generally employed.
The obvious advantage of the loose-pin butt is, that the amount
of bearing-surface is increased to a maximum, and as the pin is
distinct from the leaves of the hinge, it can be made of a metal
which will stand more wear than the ordinary bronze or iron
of the butts. The loose-pin butt illustrated has eight bearing-
surfaces. There are never less than four, but, even then the
butt has a considerable advantage over the form shown by
Figure 86. On the other hand, the loose-joint butt is more
readily attached to the door and unhinged, and it costs less,
though the difference in the latter respect is but slight. The
difference in the amount of bearing is, in a measure, lessened
in the best makes of loose-joint butts by accurately adjusting
the length of the pin so that it will bear at its upper end
against the top of the socket, which is usually closed by the
false tip. Figure 87 shows an improved form of loose-pin butt
made by the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company, in which
the pin and all the bearing-surfaces are of steel.
It will be readily understood that, even with the most mul-
tiple form of loose-pin butt, the bearing-surfaces would soon
give out if not reinforced with some more durable material than
bronze. Accordingly, in all but the cheapest kinds of goods,
the bearing-surfaces are fitted with some form of steel washer.
In loose-joint butts the washers are exposed, as shown by the
figures, and, besides taking up the wear, are useful in adjusting
the butts to the doors, as two or three washers may be used on a
ljutt if necessary, though, of course, a first rate mechanic would
fit the butts properly without any washers. Loose-pin butts
may have washers in the same manner, but the more general
custom is for the joints to be bushed, or provided with washers
which are countersunk in the hubs of the butt, so as not to appear
externally. The Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company has
a device by which the bushings are imbedded in plumbago,
enabling the joints to lubricate themselves by their own motion.
A pair of hinges so prepared has been attached to a motor, and
turned back and forth a number of times equivalent to the use
of over thirty years, without showing any signs of wear.
Butts are made of a variety of metals, the commonest grades
being of malleable-iron. The next grade is of wrought-iron or
wrought-steel. Iron and steel butts are left either with a plain
60 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter v. bright finish, japanned, bronze-faced, Bower-Barffed, or nickel-
plated. For nicer work butts are made of brass, bronze, or
silver. All of these styles of finish are in the market, and the
different manufacturers so closely agree in their goods that it
would be impossible to make any comparison. There are
great varieties in finish and design of the portions of the butts
which show, and of the tips of the pins. Some of these will
be considered in a subsequent chapter.
steel Butts. The best butts for common or cheap work are made of
wrought-steel. The following table is compiled from the
catalogue of the Stanley Works, which is about the largest
manufactory of goods of this description. The figures given
are the average retail prices in Boston.
TABLE OF WROUGHT-STEEL LOOSE-JOINT BUTTS.
Price per doz. pairs.
No washers, 1
Price per doz. pairs.
1 For washers add from 35 to 50 cents per dozen pairs of butts.
The finer grades of butts include such as are used for nice
interior work. The pin is sometimes made of the same metal
as the butt, but is better made of steel, rigidly inserted in the
lower hub. Butts were formerly finished by hand almost en-
tirely, but some most interesting machinery has been devised
for centring, drilling, turning and finishing the work with
almost mathematical precision.
The following table gives the average retail prices of the butts
manufactured by some of the principal firms in the country.
The goods referred to are perfectly plain, with simple ball-tips.
Figured patterns are apt to be somewhat cheaper, though the
designs vary too greatly to admit of any fair comparison. The
prices are for two butts with the necessary screws. All of
Robinson's goods are hand-made. The others are machine-
made. All of the butts are supposed to be steel-bushed or
have steel washers.
TABLE OF LOOSE-JOINT, BALL-TIP BUTTS.
S w 'a
Ql x QL
O-2 A OJ
4^ x4 i
2.00 4.00 3.50
2.42 I 2.50 "
Butts are also made in irregular sizes, that is to say, of such
dimensions that when opened out flat they will not be exactly
chapter V. square. The forms more commonly employed, however, are
the square sizes, as given above. Larger sizes than 6x6 are
seldom used, as it is found better to increase the number of
butts, rather than the size. The Robinson butts listed are so
made that the ball-tip can be unscrewed, to permit of greater
ease in oiling the bearings, and the pin is made to bear on its
point against the head of the socket.
The Yale & Towne butts here listed are of the ordinary
loose-joint pattern. The special makes are sold as follows, the
prices referring to a plain, ball-tip butt, in either bronze or
Bower-Barffed iron :
TABLE OF YALE & TOWNE BUTTS SPECIAL PATTERNS. PRICED
Loose-joint, steel bearings, as per
Loose-pin, extra heavy, five steel
bearings, self-lubricating Avash-
Too much care cannot be given to the selection of the butts
or hinges which are to be used in the interior of a dwelling-
house, for there is hardly any hardware about a building which
is subjected to such constant and extreme wear as the door-
hinge. Nor is there any department of house-trimmings in
which so many poor grades of goods have been introduced,
always excepting locks, however. Even the best manufac-
turers have been forced to meet the competition in cheap goods,
and often two butts will be sold by the same house, of which
one will be poor and the other first-class, though, to a super-
ficial inspection, they present exactly the same appearance.
The whole secret, aside from mere questions of design and ex-
ternal finish, lies in the nicety of adjustment of the bearing-
joints ; and as the only sure test is that of actual wear, a poor
butt looking as well when new as a good one, the wisest plan
for the architect is to select his butts entirely from samples.
A reference to a catalogue is not sufficient to ensure the proper
quality of goods, unless one possesses an acquaintance with the
hieroglyphics of the trade which few architects ever acquire.
To be sure, many clients want cheap goods, and some would
prefer periodical visits with an oil-can to all the squeaky hinges
in a house, rather than to pay the extra price for such articles
as the Yale & Towne self-lubricating butts. Still, the obliga-
tion is no less on the architect to acquaint himself with the
best of everything, as well as to know how to get it.
Parliament butts are
shaped like Figure 88.
They are intended to be
used on very thin doors
or shutters where consid-
erable space is needed for
the screws. They are
made in several varieties
of design and finish.
Figure 89 is a hinge used
almost exclusively for
wash-trays. Figure 90 is a form of chest-hinge somewhat sim-
ilar to that shown by Figure 67. There are also several
forms manufactured for hanging inside-blinds. Figure 91
is the common form .
for ordinary blinds in f
two folds. The same \
is made with either fast /
or loose pin, and there )
Fig. 88. Parliament Butt.
Fig. 89. Wash-Tray Hinge.
are several varieties /
with ornamented sur- V__
faces. They are more
as " shutter flaps.'' Figure 92 is a form of shutter-hinge used for
shutters which fold back over each other, as shown by the cut.
Figure 93 is a hinge which is very convenient to use for water-
closet seats, double-hinged lids, etc., the central flap being
w. c. Hinges
screwed to the seat, while one of the outer flaps serves for the
seat cover and the other is attached to the frame at the back.
Fig. 90. Chest-Hinge. Fig, 9 I . Inside Blind-Hinge.
Figure 94 is a pivot or centre hinge to go underneath and
above a door. Figure 95 is used for much the same purposes.
Figure 96 is a form of wardrobe hinge. Besides these there
are many special forms of hinges used in connection with fur-
niture and a few for more strictly building purposes, none of
Fig. 92. Three-fold Shutter Flap.
which, however, are of any special value or interest, except the
hinges used for double-acting screen-doors, that is to say, doors
which swing both ways. Most of these are fitted with springs
and will be considered later on, but the form represented by
Fig. 93. Water-closet Seat Hinge. Fig. 94. Pin or Centre Hinge.
Figure 97 is peculiar to itself. It is rather hard to appreciate it
clearly from the drawing, but the sectional plan will make the
arrangement more easily understood. The figure shows the Chapter v.
hinge as it would appear when opened out. It really consists
of three separate double-acting hinges, each as shown by the
Fig. 95. Quadrant Hinge.
Plan of A (O
Plan of B
Fig. 96. Wardrobe Hinge. Fig. 97. Screen-Butt. A.G.Newman.
plan. A similar hinge is made with two sections instead of
Figure 98 is even more puz-
zling, at least, no drawing can
Fig. 98. Screen-Butt.
Illustrate it clearly, though the thing itself is easily understood,
Its action is on exactly the same principle as Figure 97. The
curved connecting pieces are between the two main hinge
plates when the door is shut. For clearness the hinge is shown
both in sections and put together. If the plate C be fastened
to the door frame, when the door is opened towards the left the
plates D and B will revolve together about the axis 1,1, tak-
ing the position shown by the figure. If, however, the door is
opened in the contrary direction, the revolution is about the
axis 2, 2, the plates D and A turning together.
One of the simplest forms of spring-hinge is that shown by
Figure 99, consisting of a single spiral coil spring about a hinge
pin, so arranged than when the
door is opened the spring is
twisted more tightly, and by its
resistance tends to close the
door. The lower flange is se-
cured to the door frame, and in
setting the hinge the spring is
brought to a proper tension by
turning up the hinge pin, holes
being pierced in the bottom of
Fig. 99. Garden Fig. 100.
City Spring-Butt. Garden City Spring
Chicago Spring- Butt. Chicago
Butt Co. Spring-Butt Co.
Fig. I I. Keene's Double-ac-
ting Saloon-Door Hinge.
Chicago Spring-Butt Co.
the pin, as shown, to facilitate the use of a lever, while a,
shoulder, dropped into one of the holes, bears against the fixed
flange and prevents the spring from uncoiling. Figure 100 is
a spring hinge to be planted on the face of the door and the
door frame, the spring being turned up by using a bar in the
hole through the bottom of the pin, and kept from uncoiling
by the ratchets shown in the lower portion. Both of these
hinges are for single swinging doors.
Figure 101 is a light form of double-acting spring hinge
Pig. ! 04. Star Spring-
Hinge. Van Wagoner
& Williams Co.
Fi. 1 02. Garden
Fig. 103. Empire Spring-
Hinge. Van Wagoner &
suitable for fly doors which are set up from the floor, and do
not extend to the top of the door frame. Its action will be
readily understood by reference to the figure.
Figure 102 represents a double-acting spring butt of the
same general form as the single-acting butt, Figure 99. The
springs are turned up and secured in essentially the same man-
Chapter v. ner and the appearance is the same. This form really em-
bodies the principles of nearly all the varieties of spring-hinges,
the differences being in appearance and in compactness of con-
struction rather than in the workings. Two styles, the " Em-
pire " spring hinge, Figure 103, and the "Star" spring-hinge,
Figure 104, will fully serve as types of a great variety of double-
acting spring-hinges listed in the catalogues of the various man-
empire Hinge. ufacturers. In the "Empire" spring-hinge the coiled springs
are exposed to view, and are tightened by inserting a lever in
the cogs at the bottom of the hinge and drawing it around until
the catch A on the top of the hinge pin is held by a little pro-
star Hinge, jection on the hinge plate. In the " Star " hinge the springs
are encased, though
they are set up in
essentially the same
manner. Both these
hinges are excel-
lent of their kind
and are about as
good as anything in
Figure 105 shows
the " Crown "
hinge, a form which
permits of a little
than the others in
that the ratchets
about the spiral
spring are quite
close together and
Van Wagone.- the tension can be
increased to any de-
sired strength. This is a strong and durable hinge, although
none of the foregoing hinges should be used for outside work,
as they are liable to rust and clog.
Fig. 105. Crown Spring-Hinge.
& Williams Co.
All of the preceding double-acting hinges necessitate two
coil springs. Figure 106 shows a form of double-acting spring
butt in which the force Is derived entirely from a single strong
coil, which is concealed when the door is closed, working in
the thickness of the door. This hinge has generally proved
very satisfactory in use and is much called for, being very neat
and tidy in appearance, and it is especially adapted for light
interior doors, where it is desirable that the hinges shall be
as inconspicuous as possible.
The simplest double-acting hinge, however, is the " Champi-
on " spring-hinge, shown
by Figure 107. This is
about as convenient and
satisfactory a door-spring
as is in the market, con-
sisting of a single spring
operating for either swing
Fig. 106. Chicago Spring-Butt,
Fig. 107. Champion Spring-
Spring- Butt Co. Hinge. Chicago Hardware
of the door. A catch on the hub of the lower jamb plate resists
the door in one direction, while a corresponding catch on the
upper plate resists the tension in the opposite direction. These
Chapter v. hinges look neat in place and are very easily applied, and, hav-
ing no complicated machinery about them, are not likely to get
out of order.
Jewett Hinge. A hinge which has the appearance of considerable complica-
tion is the Jewett spring-butt, shown by Figure 108. This
butt, however, has many excellent qualities. It consists of four
separate springs, two on each side. It will be seen by the
plan that when the door is opened the tension is brought on the
springs by aid of the push-bar or pin, A, which fits on the
shoulder between the two springs and on a ratchet attached to
the central hinge-plate.
The springs can easily
be released from their
tension without taking
off the door, by simply
removing the push-bar,
and, owing to the man-
ner in which the springs
are attached, they ex-
ert their greatest pow-
er when the door is
closed, the force grad-
ually decreasing as the
door is opened. An-
other good quality is
that, as there are four
springs, if their com-
bined power is too
great for the door, any
one of them can be re-
leased singly, without
affecting the action of
the others, and the
any point. It is also
taking the butt off the
with very few other
Fig. 1086. Jewett Spring-Butt.
Smith & Egge Mfg. Co.
tension of the spring brought to
possible to replace a spring without
door, something which can be done
makes. The only objection to the hinge in our mind is that it cnapter v.
Fig. 109. Union Spring-Hinge.
M. W. Robinson.
Fig. llOa. Double-acting Torsion Spring-Butt. Fig. I I 06. Single-acting
is complicated in its appearance and also that the springs are
held in place by a moveable push-bar, which, under some cir-
cumstances might be knocked out of position and lost, in which
case the hinge would be practically useless. On the whole,
however, it is a most excellent hinge.
The u Union " spring-hinge, Figure 109, is a form in which
the resistance is derived from flat band springs. The peg shown
above the spring is moveable, and by turning up the hinge-pin
the peg can be set in any of the holes in the pin, as may be
necessary to retain the desired resistance. One end of the
band spring is fastened to the hinge-pin and the other hooks
into a slot on the adjoining hinge-plate. The hinge illustrated
is intended for light doors. For heavier work a hinge is made
with four such springs, two on each hinge-pin.
Figure 110 shows a form of spring-butt which depends for
its action upon the torsion or twisting strain in a steel rod,
Fig. I I I. Hero Spring-Hinge.
Van Wagoner & Williams Co.
Fig. I I 2. Nickel Spring-Hinge.
Coleman Hardware Co.
which is carried from the bottom to the top of the door.
The disadvantages of nearly all of the forms of spring-
hinges previously considered is that they are apt to cause the
door to slam, and the door cannot be kept open except by
placing something against it. Spring-hinges which will keep
the door open or cause it to close are peculiarly an American
invention and one of the most ingenious of its kind.
There are four leading styles of hinges which have a hold-
back feature. They are the Hero, Figure 111 ; the Nickel,
Figure 112; the Devore, Figure 113, and the Wiles, Figure
114. All of these hinges are necessarily single action. They
are alike in that they are planted on the face of the door and
door frame, and are delivered ready to be set, with the tension
fully applied. The principle on which they work is simply
this : The spring is coiled about a shank entirely disconnected
from the pin of the butt and either united to the butt plates by
top and bottom pieces which hook on the opposite sides of the
Fig I I 3. Devore Spring-Hinge.
Fig. I I 4. Wiles Spring-Hinge.
g I I 3. Uevore bpring-Hinge
Freeport Hardware Mfg. Co. Freeport Hardware Mfg. Co.
hinge, as in the Nickel and the Wiles hinges, or with the
springs themselves directly hooked onto the hinge-plates. In
the Devore hinge two springs are used, the ends caught at the
centre on one leaf A, while the outer ends catch on hooks at
_Z?, B. In this way, it will readily be seen that as the hinges
open, the hooks to which the spring is attached are separated
from each other, and consequently the spring is drawn tighter.
But as soon as the hinges have passed through about three-
quarters of the distance they are to swing, the horizontal dis-
tance between the points of attachment, at top and bottom of
the spring becomes less, and the tendency is to draw the door
open and hold it so. It is very difficult to show this action bv
a diagram, but Figure 115 may help to make it understood.
Let A represent the jamb and B the door ; C, a double turn
of spring wire hooking on to the
two arms, D, D, fastened respec-
tively to the jamb and the door.
When the door is opened, the ends
of the spring are forced apart, but at
the same time the spring forces itself
out of centre, turning on the hooks
of .D, Z>, until, when the door has
moved through 180 degrees, it is
evident that the spring has both
moved and turned so that the ends
tend to draw the arms D, D togeth-
er, rather than to push them apart.
\ jg In order that the springs should
< be free to move, as just explained,
the hinge-pins cannot extend through
the butt, and the strength depends en-
tirely on the flanges of the plates to which the pins are
attached. As these cannot be made very large without render-
ing the hinge clumsy in appearance, it follows that the hinges
can be used only for comparatively light doors. The " Hero "
hinge is rather neater and apparently simpler in construction,
and also has the advantage of having the hinge cased, though
all the hinges are on essentially the same principle.
The metal used for the springs in connection with double-
Fig. I I 5.
acting butts, is usually steel, in which case it is advisable that
the spring should be nickel-plated, to guard against rust.
Phospor-bronze is the best and most durable material to use,
all things considered, though we are unable to state any
particular hinge in which it is employed. Some compositions
of brass, bronze, etc., are used with varying success. The
different hinges are generally made with but one kind of spring
throughout, so that a choice in the metals is implied in a choice
of a hinge. The metal is, however, nearly always steel, as just
TABLE OF SPRING-HINGES. RETAIL PRICE PER PAIR.
Garden City single-acting spring-butt
Garden City single-acting spring-butt ....
Keene's saloon-door hinge
Garden City double-acting spring-butt. . .
Chicago double-acting spring-butt
Union spring-hinge . .
Nickel spring-hinge 1 .
Devore spring-hinge 1
1 Wo are unable to state any prices for these hinges, as they are not found in
the Boston market. They would probably sell at the same prices as the Garden
City Butts, Figure 100.
76 BUILDERS' HARDWARE,
Chapter v. The foregoing table gives the retail prices of the spring butts
and hinges previously described. For purposes of comparison,
the figures represent the prices in each case of the size of hinge
necessary for an ordinary door, from J to 1-J inches thick ; ex-
cepting, however, that the price for Figure 101 is for a light
screen-door hinge. The hinges are in general made in a
number of sizes from those for the lightest kind of screen-doors,
to those required to move doors weighing several hundred
DOOR SPRINGS, CHECKS AND HANGERS.
TITHE simplest form of door-spring is a straight i>oor-SpringP
A spiral coil of wire attached to the door and to
the jamb, and drawing the door shut by a direct
Such springs, of course, are used only on com-
mon work, though occasionally a spiral spring is
used for gates in store-counters and railings, the
spring being quite fine and long, and attached to
the outside of the gate so that when the gate
is closed the spring lies flat against it and does
not show. The plain spiral spring is also a fea-
ture of many of the so-called door-checks ; but
in the line of springs which simply draw the
door to there are several forms which are more
convenient to use. Figure 116 illustrates the
" Star " spring, manufactured by the Van Wago- star s P rin s-
ner & Williams Company. In application one
end is screwed onto the door near the jamb, and
Fig 1 1 e. the other onto the jamb itself, the spring being
Star Door-spring. at an an orle rather than strictly vertical, and in-
Van Wagoner & *
Williams Co. c li ne d towards the latch of the door so that when
the door opens the spring acts both by resistance to compres-
sion lengthwise and by the uncoiling effect of the wire. The
spring can be tightened in the same manner as the spring butts
previously described, by turning the upper spindle to which
the spring is attached, the pin A holding the spindle in posi-
tion. Figure 117 illustrates another form of door-spring not
unlike the foregoing in principle, though in this the spring acts
entirely by its resistance to a twisting strain. In the cut,
the lower screw-plate and hubs are shown drawn slightly away
from the spring spindle, so as to expose the ratchets which
hold the spring at any desired tension.
Figure 118 is a very strong form of direct-acting spring, in-
tended to be used on fire-engine-house doors. As shown by
Fig. I I 7. Reliance Door-
spring. Chicago Spring-
Fig. I I 8. Engine-house Spring.
J. B. Shannon & Sons.
the cut, the spring would force the door open, which, of
course, is the intention in an engine-house ; but the same prin-
ciple could be applied to springs which are to close a door.
DOOR SPRINGS, CHECKS, AND HANGERS.
The spring is tightened at the bottom, and the upper lever-arm
works through a staple and pulley-wheel on the door.
For light screen-doors a spring is sometimes used which acts
by the twisting strain or torsion of a single steel rod, Figure
119. The two side pieces, A A, are screwed to the jamb.
The upper flange is fastened to the door and has a catch fitting
into the ratchets of a drum attached to the rod. As usually
applied, the rod is not strictly vertical, but is at an angle with
the door jamb, so that when the door is opened the rod is sub-
jected to both a torsion and a bending strain. If the rod is
well tempered, the bending strain, of course, gives it an added
efficiency. Figure 120 is a form of torsion door-spring which
is attached to the door, and is operated by means of a bent,
hinged-lever fastened to the door-head. It is asserted that this
spring has its greatest power just as the door is opened, and
that the strain in the rod diminishes as the door is swung
The following table gives the average prices of the door-
springs described :
TABLE OF DOOR-SPRINGS. PRICES FOR A SINGLE SPRING.
Engine-house door-spring, 24, 30
Torry door-spring .
Devore door-spring 1
Warner door-spring 1
1 Not found in Boston market.
The principle involved in a reverse-acting spring butt, which
80 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter vi. has been explained in a previous chapter, can be applied to
Fig. 119. Torry Door-spring.
Van Wagoner & Williams Co.
Fig. I 20. Peabody Door-spriru
A. W. Paine.
Fig. I 2 I. Devore Door-spring. Freeport Hardware Manufg. Co.
simple door-springs. Figure 121 shows a form which is made
by the Freeport Hardware Manufacturing Company. This
DO OR SPRINGS, CHECKS, AND HANGERS.
spring has a uniform tension, holds the door firmly when
closed, and when the door is open about 120 degrees, the
force of the spring is reversed and
will hold the door open. Another
advantage of this form is that the
spring is easily unhooked and re-
hooked from the door, and also from
the jamb without removing the screws.
The action of the spring will be under- Fig |22 Warner Door . springi
stood from the illustration. Figure Warner Ma f'g- Co.
122 shows a different form of spring; though on the same prin-
ciple as the Devore. It has all the advantages of the one
described and acts in precisely the same manner, though it is
slightly larger. Both of these forms are exceedingly ingen-
ious and efficient, and are sold a great deal in some parts of
A door-check is understood to be anything which will hold
the door either open or shut, or which will keep the door from
slamming when closed. All the door-checks in the market are
combined, directly or indirectly, with some form of door-spring.
In some cases the spring is a part of
the check, but more often the spring
is a separate fixture, and is used as an
auxiliary to the action of the check.
One of the simplest forms of door-
check is that shown by Figure 123.
This consists of a strong band or
spring of flexible steel which is at-
tached by a proper holder to the
head of the door-frame, so as to project about half an inch
below the soffit. The door, in closing, catches on the
shoulder at the end of the spring, forcing it up against the
soffit of the door-frame, while the pressure of the spring on the
head of the door keeps it from slamming, and in a measure also
Fig. 123. Barlow Door-check.
W. S. Barlow.
82 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter vi. from opening too easily. The holder for the spring has slots
instead of screw-holes, so that the spring can be moved up
or down to any desired tension; while the upper slot .ff" per-
mits a further adjustment by moving the spring in or out.
The retail price of this check is twenty-five cents each, japanned,
or fifty cents, nickel-plated. For all ordinary practical pur-
poses this door-check is as good a device as can be found, and
is used a great deal on railroad cars, where there is constant
liability to violent slamming. It will be noticed that the spring
has a double power ; first, by the friction of the door as it
closes, and secondly, by the door coming in contact with the
shoulder at the end of the spring. There is a special form of
spring used to close this door consisting of a straight coil, with
a hook on the jamb and a shoulder 011 the door.
There are a few variations of the " Barlow " door-checks, but
they all act on essentially the same principle, and this one will
be sufficient for illustration. A very different kind of check
is that which acts on the principle of a piston-pump, of
which, perhaps, the best known is the " Norton " door-check.
This article has been on the market a long time, and is used
very extensively in some parts of the country. Figure 124
will give an idea
of how it appears
when set. The
simply of a
plunger or piston
working in a cyl-
the piston and the
cylinder head is
coiled a strong
spiral spring, and
the piston, as
Fig. I 24. Norton Door-check. A. J. Wilkinson & Co.
well as the cyl-
inder, is pierced with a small hole to permit the air to escape.
DOOR SPRINGS, CHECKS, AND HANGERS. 83
The cylinder is attached to the head of the door-frame, and is Chapter vi.
hinged at A. The piston-rod is connected by a hinged-joint
with a lever hinged to the frame, and a lever G attached to
the door. When the door is opened, the piston is drawn
out, the internal spring compressed, and the air enters through
the holes in the piston and the cylinder head, filling the
space beyond the piston. When the door is released, the
spring tends to close it, but the air behind the piston acting as
a cushion, prevents the door from closing too quickly or from
slamming. The orifice in the cylinder can be made larger or
smaller, thus regulating the speed at which the door shall close.
The spring is made sufficiently strong to both close and latch
the door after the air has escaped from the cylinder.
It will be seen that this door-check permits the door to be
opened only about 120 degrees. This is usually more than
enough for any doors requiring the use of a check, but a stop
is always needed, otherwise the arm G may be broken.
A form of " Norton " door-check is also made to close the
door from the outside. The action is exactly the same, except
that the arm G is bent up and attached to the soffit, while the
cylinder is attached to the door.
The " Norton " door-check is usually sold nickel-plated.
The prices are as follows :
For screen-doors and doors not exceeding 2 feet 8 inches by 1 J inches f 4.00
Doors not exceeding 2 feet 8 inches by 2 inches 5.00
Doors not exceeding 3 feet by 2 inches 6.00
Doors not exceeding 4 feet by 3 inches 8.00
A rather more cumbersome form of door spring and check
has recently been put on the market by the Russell & Erwin
Manufacturing Company. The check acts in practically the
same manner as the Norton Door-check, but the spring is ex-
posed and distinct from the cylinder, being acted upon by a
bent lever. This door-check has hardly been before the public
long enough to judge fairly of it.
A form of door-check, which has met with a great deal of
approval, is the " Eclipse," manufactured by Sargent & Com-
84 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter vi. pany. Figure 1 25 shows this check in position. It consists of
piston secured to the head of the door-frame and working in a
cylinder attached to the top of the door. The piston-rod is
kept from lateral motion by a set-screw at one side of the foot,
and a spring on the other, as shown by the figure, so that it
can be accurately adjusted to meet the cylinder. When the
door is opened, the cylinder is drawn entirely away from the
Fig. 125. Eclipse Door Check and Spring. Sargent & Co.
piston, while the compression of the air in the cylinder when
the door closes, prevents any slamming. The air escapes
through openings in the end of the cylinder, so arranged as to
be easily regulated. The piston in both the " Norton " and
the " Eclipse " door-check has leather washers.
The " P^clipse " door-check can be used with any suitable
form of spring butt, though the door-spring, shown by Figure
125, is especially made for this purpose by Sargent & Com-
pany. It consists of a strong spiral spring, cased in a cylinder
and connected with the door-frame by a hinged bent lever.
The "Eclipse" checks and springs are finished either Tus-
can bronzed, bronze-plated or nickel-plated. The prices are as
DOOR SPRINGS, CHECKS, AND HANGERS.
Heavy. Very heavy.
The " Eclipse " check is applied to the outside of a door, if
desired, a different form of holder securing the cylinder to the
soffit of the door-open-
ing, while the piston is
fastened to the door.
It has been claimed
that after being used for
a certain time, the bear-
ings in both the "Nor-
ton " and the " Sargent "
door - check will wear
loose, so that the air
will escape too freely
from the cylinders to
form a "reliable cushion;
and several attempts
have accordingly been
made to produce a door-
check in which the action should be regulated by the flow of some
liquid, which would permit of metal instead of leather washers.
Figure 126 illustrates one device on this principle. It consists
of a piston and cylinder attached to the door. The cylinder is
pivoted so as to admit of a slight rocking motion, and the
piston is hinged to a bent-arm, also pivoted just above (7, and
provided with a spring which serves to keep the piston drawn
out. The cylinder is filled with oil, which flows back and
forth through a small tube at the back, the rate of flow being
regulated by a screw at C. When the door closes, the shoulder
A on the door-head strikes against the bent arm and forces the
House's Liquid Door-check. Nimick
piston down, the oil preventing any sudden slamming, while
the rate of the flow through the tube below G determines the
rate at which the door will close. This fixture retails at about
$1 per set.
Such a form of check necessitates a spring-hinge, in order
that the door shall be self-closing. Figure 127 illustrates a
form of door-check manufactured by the same parties, which
has a coiled spring inside the cylinder acting by means of the
Fig. I 27. House's Automatic Door-
check. Nimick & Brittan.
Fig. I 28. Bardsley's Checking Spring-
hinge. J. Bardsley.
hinged bent lever on the door-head. The interior of the
cylinder is filled with oil, which checks the action of the door
by flowing from one compartment to the other of the cylinder.
The retail price is from $3.30 to $4.50 each, according to the
Figure 128 is another form of combined door check and
spring, which is intended especially for double-acting doors,
though it can be used for any door. No regular hinges are re-
quired with this fixture. The top of the door is held by a
species of pivot, fitting into a socket mortised into the top of
the door, while the door-check answers for the lower hinge.
The lever A is mortised into the bottom of the door, acting as
a crank to turn the post B. The checking apparatus is en-
cased in a box (7, which is sunk into the door-sill and covered
with a brass plate. Figure 129 shows a section of the box, which
will illustrate more clearly its arrangement. The post -Z?, when
DOOR SPRINGS, CHECKS, AND HANGERS. 87
turned either way, moves a piston which travels in a cylinder Chapter vi.
completely filled with oil, in which is also a very heavy coiled
spring whose action tends to close the door, while the oil pre-
of- Sprind sfal-icnarv
Fig. 129. Bardsley's Checking Spring-hinge. J. Bardsley.
vents any sudden movement. The oil flows back and forth
through a narrow aperture, the size of which can be regulated
by a screw extending up through the covering of the box.
Chapter vi. This check is listed at $17 per door complete for a door of
Door-Catches. Besides the door-checks which are automatic in their action,
there are a number of devices for holding the door open or in
J. B. Shannon &
31. Fig. 132.
Door-holder. A, G. Newman.
any one position. Some of them are self-locking, but are
arranged so that the door can b6 easily drawn to by slight pres-
sure. Figures 130
and 131 are two va-
rieties of this style
of door-check. An-
other kind is made
Fig. 133. Top Door-catch. P. & F. Corbin. tO absolutely ^old
the door fast when
it is opened, so that in order to close the door the check
must be released by hand: Figure 132 shows one of the
many varieties of this form. It is varied by having a lever
attached to the catch by which it can be more easily raised,
DOOR SPRINGS, CHECKS, AND HANGERS.
and also by the catch being placed so as to act sidewise instead
of vertically. Figure 133 is a form of catch which is intended
to be attached to the jamb and to work over the- top of the
door, nearly all the other forms being attached to the door and
working on a striker which is screwed to the floor. Figure
Fig. 134. D'op Door-check.
A. G. Newman.
Fig. 135. Fray's Door-catch.
J. B. Shannon & Sons.
Pig. 136. Ross Inside Catch.
Stoddard Lock & Manufg. Co.
134 is a self-locking form of door-check which is screwed to the
door, catching onto a hook projecting from the wall. Figure
135 is a form of door-catch which is used for show-cases and
closets, acting by means of a spring coiled inside the cylinder.
Figure 136 is a spring-cateh used only for light work or for
Some form of stop is always desirable in order to keep the
door from striking the finish when swung open, or breaking the
plastering. The commonest form consists of
a wooden knob screwed straight into the base
and tipped with rubber. The variation from
this is a wooden-knob, which is screwed into
the floor and has the rubber-tip on the side, to
be used when the door does not swing against
the wall, but has to be stopped at some point.
These stops are made in birch, maple, ash,
oak, chestnut, cherry, walnut and mahogany
and are listed at $5.00 per gross for birch to
$6.50 for mahogany. They are made in two
sizes, 2^ and 3 inches long ; the wood is turned
Fig, 137. Door- an( j a mmlet-pointed screw is firmly attached
bumper. J. B. Shan- J
non & Sons. to the stop, so that it can readily be put in
place by hand. The prices are the same whether the rubber
tip is on the side or the end. They are also made with a rub-
ber ring entirely encircling the knob, the list price being $12.00
The Meriden Malleable 'Iron Company manufactures elastic-
headed screws which are used more for furniture than for doors,
but which might be desirable in some cases. They consist
simply of a half-round head which is covered in upholstery of
some kind and fitted with a gimlet-pointed screw. These cost
from $11.00 to $17.00 per gross, list price, depending upon the
material with which they are covered. J. B. Shannon & Sons,
manufacture a door-bumper shown by Figure 137, which is in-
tended to prevent jar and noise in shutting the door : it con-
sists of a cup with a brace attached to be screwed to the face
of the door ; a rubber ball is pressed into the cup so that it will
not fall out. A piece of rubber made fast to the jamb casing
over the door, for the ball to strike against, completes the con-
trivance. The rubber over the door may be increased or
lessened in thickness so that when the rubber ball comes in
contact with it the compression will allow the door to latch.
This device effectually prevents any slamming of the door.
The list price is $1.00 each. The only possible objection to
DOOR SPRINGS, CHECKS, AND HANGERS.
its use would be that the head might prevent the door from be- Chapter vi.
ing latched properly.
DOOR HANGERS AND ROLLERS.
The commonest form of door-rollers are those used for barn-
doors. Usually a barn-door slides on rollers or sheaves which
are applied to the inner face of the
door and run over a metal track
secured to the floor. There are many
kinds of large sheaves and rollers
manufactured for barn-doors, which
are too simple to require any illustra-
tion. The commoner kind consists of
a large wheel with a steel or metal
axle. The better kind of barn-door
rollers are provided with anti-friction
axle bearings ; that is to say, the axle
of the wheel revolves in a cycle of
small pins or rollers by which the fric-
tion is considerably reduced, and the
wear on the bearings very materially
diminished. Figure 138 is an ingen-
ious device for a barn-door roller, the
working of which will be readily ap-
parent from the drawing. The inner
plate, A, is screwed directly to the door, through the openings in
the wheel, B, which revolves on the anti-frictional bearings.
Figure 139 shows
a form of barn-door
rail, intended to be
used with a wheel
which shall rest on
the flanges and not
bear at all on the
Fig. 139. Nickel Barn-door Rail. Coleman Hardware Co. Upright portion. Ill
Fig. 138. Acme Barn-door
Roller. Moore Mfg. Co.
Fig. 140. Victor Stay-roller.
Victor Mfg. Co.
Chapter vj, this way the wheel will clear away any collection of snow or
ice by its own action and enable the door to roll easily.
The standing objection to barn-door rollers which are applied
to the bottom of the door, is that they are too easily thrown off
the track by obstructions and also
that the track itself is apt to get
in the way and be a bother in
driving over it. The greatest
amount of ingenuity has been
expended upon door -hangers in
which the door is suspended from
a track at the top. The only
objection which is to be urged
against this manner of arrang-
ing a sliding-door, is that in case
of a violent wind the door would be forced inward. This diffi-
culty can be in a measure obviated by the use of some form
of stay-roller, such
as Figure 140,
which can be at-
tached so as to
prevent any lat-
eral motion of the
door. This form
of stay -roller is
also used for doors
which slide on
sheaves at the bot-
tom, taking the
place of an over-
There are real-
ly but two dis-
tinct varieties of
barn-door hangers ;
Fig. 141. Climax Barn-door Hanger. Moore Mfg. Co.
the first is represented by Figure 141, and
consists of a single wheel running on an overhead-track and
DO OR SPRINGS, CHECKS, AND HANGERS.
attached to a hanger which is screwed on to the inner face of
the door. The same form of hanger is made to be used with
an iron rail. This form is rather old but is very good and we
should imagine would give little trouble. It is made with anti-
friction bearings. The second variety of hanger is one in which
the axle is not fixed but travels along a single bearing beam,
as in the "Moody Hanger," Figure 142, which is one of the
Fig. 142. Moody Barn-door Hanger. Victor Mfg. Co.
simplest of this kind. In this the axle bears on two bars, and
the uprights to which the bearing bars are secured, are placed
sufficiently far apart to admit of the axle having enough play
for the opening of a single door. The rail and brackets are
made of steel and the wheel has a steel axle.
The "Victor Hanger," Figure 143, is a slight improvement
over the " Moody " in that the bearing is on a single bar instead
of on two ; and that the wheels work on each side of a high,
ridged track which prevents them from slipping off or becoming
The "Lane Hanger," Figure 144, is very similar to the
94 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter vi. " Moody " though the arrangements of the supports is somewhat
All of the foregoing hangers are made of wrought-iron or
steel, with steel or chilled-iron bearings. Several kinds of
hangers are made with mal-
leable iron, such as the " Nick,
el," Figure 145, which follows
the pattern of the "Moody
Hanger." The " Nickel
Hanger" is also made in steel,
with a slightly different shape.
The "Hatfield Hanger," Fig-
ure 146, also in malleable iron,
is a form after the pattern of
the "Lane," on which the
patent seems to have run out ;
Fig. I 43.
Victor Barn-door Hanger.
Victor Mfg. Co.
at any rate, a similar form is
made by several of the manu-
facturers, and the principle embodied in the "Hatfield" and
the " Moody Hangers " is the one which is usually consid-
Fig. 144. Lane Barn-door Hanger. Lane Bros
ered to be the most satisfactory ; that is to say, one in which
the axle bears on two parallel plates and works in slots ; indeed,
DOOR SPRINGS, CHECKS, AND HANGERS.
this principle is applied to nearly all the most successful hang-
ers, both for barn-doors and parlor-doors.
For parlor doors many builders and architects still prefer
sheaves mortised into the bottom of the door. The rail, which
is a necessary part of this arrangement, is admitted to be a
trouble, but the rollers are so easily taken out that the rail is
retained. There seems to be an idea with many people that
the overhead hanger
more easily gets out
of order, and that it
is more complicated.
This is a mistake, for
there is hardly a
hanger in the market
that will not give sat-
isfaction if properly
applied, while any
one who has had ex-
perience with sheaves
and rail at the bottom
can testify to the
trouble which will
sometimes occur, with
the settlement of the
woodwork throwing Fig. 145.
the door out of plumb
or obstructions getting on the track and throwing the wheels
off. Some of the overhead hangers require more care in set-
ting, and others have some special adjustment which must
be understood; but the principle on which they all work is
so simple that, to the uninitiated, there seems to be but little
choice between the various kinds.
The ordinary mortised sheave, of which Figure 147 is a
type, runs on a brass rail, which is generally made with a
raised section, though a form is sometimes used which is chan-
nelled instead of being raised. The former will be something
Nickel Barn-door Hanger.
to stub the foot against ; the latter will collect dust. The only
form of rail in the market, which presents neither of these
difficulties, is the " Climax," Figure 148. This consists of a
double brass track with a central strip, which is held flush with
the two sides by springs inserted at intervals in the track. A
special form of wheel is manufactured to go with this rail.
The wheel, in passing along over the rail, presses down the
central strip, forming a groove for the wheel to run in. When
the door is opened, the springs force the flexible central strip
up again, so that when the doorway is entirely clear the
_. appearance is of a single
brass plate perfectly flush
with the floor. The list
price of this rail is sixty
cents per foot in brass.
Besides the common
pattern of mortised
sheaves, shown by Figure
147, there is another form
which works more easily,
made on the same princi-
ple as the "Hatfield"
barn-door hanger. This
is shown by Figure 149.
146. Hatfield Barn-door Hanger. rni i j
Ihis sheave is made in
five sizes, from two-and-one-half inches to six inches in diam-
eter of wheel and costs from $1.50 to $4 per set of four
Parlor-door hangers are usually arranged to run on a
wooden or metal track which is bolted
to the side-studding. There are one
or two points which should be consid-
ered in judging of any door-hanger as
ordinarily applied. In most houses
the studs which form one side of the
,. , , Fig. 147. Sliding-door
sliding -door pocket are made to rest Sneave. Russell & Erwin.
DOOR SPRINGS, CHECKS, AND HANGERS.
on something pretty solid, a foundation wall, or, at least, a
heavy timber, while on the other side of the pocket the studs
are supported on the floor-joist, and are left to settle with the
shrinkage of the timbers, thus bringing about a difference in
Fig. 148. Climax Rail. Climax Rail Co.
level of the two sides of the pocket. It may, then, be stated
as a general rule that the best form of hanger would be that
which is supported on one side only, since if any inequality
of settlement takes place, it does not affect the hanger. An-
Fig. 149. Hatfield Anti-friction Sheave.
other consideration is, that it would be well to have the door-
hangers so arranged that in case the door should not hang per-
fectly plumb, there would be no inequality of bearing on the
axles of the wheels. It will be seen that this is perfectly
B UILDERS' HARD WARE .
Chapter vi. possible, and that it has been considered in some of the forms
One of the earlier patents is the "Moore" parlor-door
hanger, Figure 150. This is a very good form in the main,
being hung by a single rod which is mortised into the top of
the door. The adjustment may be obtained by turning up the
nut at the bottom of the rod, through a hole cut in the edge of
the door in the same manner as a stair-rail bolt is turned up.
The difficulty is, that the hanger cannot readily be readjusted
when once set. Another of the early
forms which has since been but little
improved upon, is the " Warner "
hanger, Figure 151. This consists of
two sets of double wheels connected
by a rod, and working directly on
the double track secured to each side
of the door-pocket. The manner of
supporting the door is much the same
as with the "Moore" hanger, except
that in the "Warner" the support-
ing rods can be got at after the
door is finished by means of a face-
plate on the edge of the door. The
wheels are made perfectly flat, and
it is claimed that under no combina-
tion of circumstances can they run
off the track. The axles of the wheels
are attached to the connecting rod by
means of a universal bearing, thus
enabling the weight of the doors to
bear equally upon both tracks, no
r Hanger, s. H. & ma tter how much out of plumb or level
c. Y. Moore.
they may be. A somewhat similar
door-hanger is that shown by Figure 152, manufactured by
the Reading Hardware Company. In this variety, however,
the adjustment is entirely from the top of the door, and no
I 50. Moore's Anti-friction
DOOR-SPRINGS, CHECKS, AND HANGERS.
mortise is required. The axles are not attached to any part
of the hanger, but work in the slot somewhat on the prin-
ciple of a "Victor "
Figure 153 shows
a door-hanger which
is very popular, and
which for simplicity
and perfection of
construction is one
of the best yet pro-
duced. The wheels
run on two flat
wooden tracks, one
secured to each
side of the stud-
ding. The axles Fig
bear on the short
connecting rod which is made sufficiently long to allow for the
run of an eight-foot door. The rod being round there will
Warner Parlor-door Hanger.
E. C. Stearns &
Fig. I 52. Novelty Parlor-door Hanger. Reading Hardware Co.
never be an uneven bearing. The hangers are adjusted by
means of a sliding screw-joint which is operated from the edge
100 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter vi. of the door, and which, by forcing the hanger away or drawing
it towards the edge of the door, raises or lowers the bearing
Fig. 153. Prindle Parlor-door Hanger. Prindle Mfg. Co.
A very simple application of the same principle is embodied
in the " Nickel " parlor-door hanger, Figure 154. This con-
Fig. I 54. Nickel Parlor-door Hanger. Coleman Hardware Co.
sists of a double set of flanged wheels, which run on a double
track suspended by iron hanger-rods attached at intervals to a
DOOR SPRINGS, CHECKS, AND HANGERS.
cross-piece at the top of the door-pocket. The axles of the
wheels bear against a half-round bar, which is secured by
Fig. I 55. Richards Parlor-door Hanger. Wilcox Mfg. Co.
upright bars to the top of the door. The hangers are adjusted
by turning up the hanger-rods in the top of the pocket, thus
Fig. I 56. Paragon Parlor-door Hanger. Dunham Mfg. Co.
lifting the track bodily. One objection to this form is that it
requires considerable width of pocket four-and-one-half inches.
102 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter vi. Figure loo illustrates the "Richards" hanger, which, with
the " Prindle," rather leads the market just at present. The
principle is almost exactly the same with both forms, except
that in the " Richards " the axle has a flat instead of a round
bearing, and the wheels are grooved. The " Prindle " manu-
facturers claim that the flat wheel is preferable ; the " Rich-
ards," on the other hand, maintain that the flanged wheel is
more desirable. There is really very little to choose between
the two kinds.
The American Manufacturing Company has a parlor-
door hanger on the market which is essentially the same as the
" Richards " hanger. The " Paragon " door-hanger, Figure
156, is on the principle of the " Moody" barn-door hanger pre-
viously described. It consists of a single grooved wheel
running on a rail secured to one side of the pocket, the axles
bearing against two flat surfaces. It would seem as though
this fulfilled the conditions of a perfect door-hanger more fully
than anything else in the market. It can be adjusted with
Fig. 157. Emerson Parlor-door Hanger. B. D. Washburn, Agent.
very little trouble ; and as the centre of support is directly over
the centre of the door, there is no tendency to bind ; while as
the track is secured to only one side of the door-pocket, the
possible effects of shrinkages and settlements are reduced to
A form of door-hanger which is essentially the same as this,
but in which the axle of the wheels work in a slot on the prin-
ciple of the " Hatfield " sheave, has been manufactured by
DOOR SPRINGS, CHECKS, AND HANGERS.
Burditt & Williams, for one of the Boston builders, but has re-
ceived no patent, and is not really in the market.
The " Emerson " door-hanger, Figure 157, is yet another
variety, and represents in some respects a different principle
from any of the former, in that the rollers are entirely separate
and distinct from each other, being connected merely by a thin
strip of wood notched over the axles. The rollers bear on the
wooden rail C. The hangers D, to which the door is directly
attached, are fastened to a rider bar JE, which bears directly on
Fig. I 58. Endless Anti-friction Parlor-door Hanger. Reading Hardware Co.
the rollers. This form of hanger is very effective, does not
get out of order, and works very smoothly. Adjustment is
obtained by a small set-screw in the attachment of the hanger.
The track is fastened to one partition only.
Figure 158 is a very ingenious combination of the principles
of the " Warner " and the " Prindle " hangers. It consists of
a set of double, flanged wheels A, bearing on two tracks, which
are bolted to eaph side of the pocket. The axle of the double
wheel supports a ring B, which in turn supports a plain,
grooved, pulley-wheel. The axle of the pulley-wheel turns in
iron flange-plates which are fastened to the top of the door.
In this way the friction is greatly reduced ; and the principle
of the continuous run of the axle, which is embodied in the
" Warner " hanger, is here provided for by means of the ring
Chapter vi. connected with the flanged wheels, and with the lower pulley.
The hanger is adjusted by a turn-screw near the edge of the
door. The point of support of the hangers is always in the
same relative position to the door, thus overcoming one of
the weak points of the horizontal, anti-friction hangers in
which the wheels travel back and forth from one end to the
other, continually changing the strain on the screws.
The following table gives the relative prices of the various
door-hangers that have been described :
TABLE OF DOOR-HANGERS.
Per set of four.
Acme barn-door roller, 8 inch wheel $3.00
Climax barn-door hanger 3.00
Moody barn-door hanger 3.20
Victor barn-door hanger 4.40
Lane barn-door hanger 2.30
Nickel barn-door hanger 3.50
Hatfield barn-door hanger 4.50
Parlor-door sheave, anti-friction 2.00
Hatfield parlor-door sheave 2.50
Moore parlor-door hanger 4.25
Warner parlor-door hanger 5.50
Novelty parlor-door hanger 3.50
Prindle parlor-door hanger 5.00
Nickel parlor-door hanger, (approximately) 3.50
Richards parlor-door hanger 5.00
Paragon parlor-door hanger 4.50
Emerson parlor-door hanger 5.00
Endless parlor-door hanger 3.75
There is still another distinct type of door-hanger, one which
is unique of its kind, and for certain purposes is decidedly
better than anything else in the market, though not always
DOOR SPRINGS, CHECKS, AND HANGERS.
n II II II
applicable or always desirable : this is the " Prescott " hanger.
It is difficult to illustrate this hanger properly ; it should be
seen in order to appreciate fully
its workings. Figure 159 is the
common form of hanger, consist-
ing essentially of two flat bars
joined, scissors fashion, in the
centre. The lower end of one
bar is fastened to a pin on the
jamb of the pocket. The lower
end of the other bar is fastened
to a pin on the back of the
door. The upper end of the
bar which is fastened to the
jamb, works with a roller in
a slot on the back of the upper
part of the door, while the up-
per end of the other bar works
in a small slot let into the upper
part of the jamb -pocket. A
little reasoning will show one that the door in this manner is
held absolutely free from either the top or the bottom of the
door-opening, and can be easily moved forward or backward.
It cannot settle without the scissors part spreading out, and as
the movable roller ends are on opposite sides, that is, one on
the joint and one on the door; any tendency to spreading
out of the rollers is counteracted by the opposite ends of the
bars, which are always on the same level. In practice, the
hanger, when properly set, works to perfection. The door
never can bind, but can be operated by the slightest pressure
in one direction or the other. Figure 160 shows a compound
hanger on the same principle for use in very wide doors. The
difference is simply that there are two hangers joined by bolts
instead of one. Figure 161 shows a trussed hanger, which is
used for doors that are wider than they are high. It may be
said, incidentally, that these door-hangers can be exactly re-
106 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter vi. versed ; that is to say, the fixed ends may be at the top instead
of the bottom.
hanger is used to great
advantage for elevator
doors, as it permits of
an opening the entire
width of the car, if de-
sired, while the ordi-
nary width would be
half that size. In such
a case, a door across
half of the opening is
hung with ordinary
butts, and the rest of
the space is closed with
a door hung by " Pres-
cott" hangers to the
first. The whole, or a part of the opening, can then be left un-
obstructed for the removal of boxes or trunks. Hangers for
this purpose can be
made of bronze, so as
to present a neat ap-
pearance. These hang-
ers are also used to
advantage for barn-
doors, car-doors, etc.,
and for any places
where the hangers are
exposed. The only
objection to their use
for parlor -doors, is
that they have to be
pretty carefully set by
a mechanic who thor-
oughly understands the Fig. 161. Prescott Hanger. Prescott Mfg. Co.
Fig. 160. Prescott Hanger. Prescott Mfg. Co.
DO OR SPRINGS, CHECKS, AND HANGERS. 107
workings, otherwise they are apt to rattle. It is not easy to Chapter vi.
adjust the hanger in case of settlements. They also take up
considerable width in thickness of the pocket ; still, they work
so beautifully that they deserve all the popularity that they
The prices of the ordinary form of Prescott hangers for
inside doors, are as follows :
SIZE OF DOOR. PRICE.
2J x 8 x 1| inches $3.25
3x9 xljinches 4.25
3 x 9 x li inches 5.25
4x9 x If inches 6.25
4 xlO xl^inches 6.75
4^x10 xlfinches 7.50
5 xlO xl| inches 8.50
5xl2 x2 inches 9.50
6 x 12 x2jinches 10.50
TTLMOST the only forms of pulley
f~L used by builders are those which
are employed for double-hanging
windows. These are made with cast-
iron frames for the cheaper styles of
work, or frames of malleable iron for
a better class of goods ; while some
manufacturers use wrought-iron en-
tirely. The wheels are usually made
of cast-iron, with a groove shaped to
receive the sash-cord or chain. The
pulley is fitted in a mortise cut into
the face of the hanging-style of the
window-frame, and the part visible, or
the face, is made of almost any ma-
terial, but most often of bronzed,
nickel-plated, painted or japanned iron. The commonest form
is bronzed iron. The axles of the wheels are of steel or
gun-metal, and the wheels themselves, in the better class
of goods, are turned to accurate dimensions, though some
cheaper grades are simply cast and polished. Some manufac-
turers finish pulleys with plain or ornamented bronze faces,
in which case the face is made of a separate piece of metal,
riveted to the iron frame of the pulley. There are also-
Fig. 162. Ordinary
in the market, a few fiae grades of pulleys made with brass
wheels and cast-brass frames. This is, however, a needless ex-
pense, and such pulleys are used more in connection with
furniture than with building.
The essential qualities of a good pulley-wheel, are simply
that it shall run lightly, smoothly and easily. There should be
a broad hub on the axle in order to prevent the flanges from
jarring or rattling against the pulley frame, and the wheels
selected should be of such a size that when the face-plate is
mortised-in flush with the face of the hanging-style, the inner
edge of the wheel will be over the centre of the box, so that
sash-weights will not strike against the frame when raised or
Sash-pulleys are usually made in five sizes: If inch, 2, 2,
2^ and 3 inches, the size referring to the diameter of the
wheel. The two-inch wheel is sufficiently
large for most cases, but for heavy, plate-
glass windows larger sizes are used, though
the chief advantage of a large pulley is
not so much that it will wear better, but
that it will throw the sash-cord farther
away from the hanging-style, and so per-
mit of larger sash- weights. When the
expense is not an item to be considered in
the selection, it is well to employ some
form of anti-friction, ball or pin bearing
pulley for all sash weighing over fifty
pounds. A poor pulley will soon wear
loose so as to rattle on the axle. If anti-
friction wheels are not advisable, the next
best form is one with a large gun-metal
axle. Some compositions of phosphor- Fig' |63 Anti-friction
Sash-pulley. Moore Mfg.
bronze would seem to be peculiarly well Co.
suited for pulley axles, though iu>t at present in the market to
a ly extent.
There are a great many varieties of sash-pulleys, though the
Chapter VI 1.
110 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
chapter vii. differences are so slight that a few examples will serve to
illustrate the whole. Figure 1G2 is a fair type of the ordinary
axle-pulley, and Figure 163 is a type of the best form of anti-
friction sash-pulley. All of the most commonly used forms
of sash-pulleys are on essentially one or the other of these lines.
The only important deviations from the common types of sash-
pulleys have been made with a view to reducing the amount of
labor required to properly set the fixtures in the window frames.
It should be said that none of the patent forms have thus far
met with either very wide sales or general approval, which
would seem to indicate that the common form answers pretty
fully all the requirements of the case. There are, however, a
few styles which have met with considerable favor in the
market, and which will serve to give an idea of the lines the
attempted improvements have followed.
Figure 1G4 illustrates a form known as the " Empire " sash-
pulley, in which the case is corrugated horizontally so that it
will exactly fit into a series of holes bored into the frame with
an auger or bit of standard size, a great reduction in the labor
of mortising thus being effected. The advantages claimed for
it are that it cuts away less of the frame than any other pulley,
is held more securely, does not require any
screws, and can be inserted much more readily
and quickly than any other kind. It is claimed
that these pulleys can be fitted to the window
frames at the rate of sixty per hour.
A pulley requiring even less work in setting,
though somewhat more complicated in construc-
tion, is shown by Figure 165. This consists of
F slsh-p *iey. Em Em- two sma ll wheels set in a cylindrical case, and
Company ab ' e Forge requiring no more labor to fit in place than is
involved in the boring of a single hole. Shoul-
ders or flanges at top and bottom of the case serve to plumb
the pulley properly, and kept it from twisting. It is claimed
that this pulley will hold its position quite as well as any other
form, though it would seem more apt to work loose by reason
of the leverage of the weight over the inner wheel, than the
Another style of pulley which does
not avoid cutting the mortise on the
frame, but saves somewhat in the screws,
and has a finer appearance than either
the "Empire" or the "Corey," is shown
by Figure 166. In this pulley the
Fig 165. Corey's Two-wheel f ace _ p l ate an( J f rame are cast together,
and the frame is made with a wide
shoulder or flange at the bottom, which
is cast on a bevel, so that when placed
in position in the rebate, the pulley
cannot slip down or out, by reason of
the bevel wedging into the mortise.
A single screw at the top of the pul-
ley holds it securely in place ; but
it will be seen that it does not depend
Fig. I 66. Norris Pulley.
C. Sidney Norris & Co.
Pig. 167. Single Sash-chain,
Smith & Egge Mfg. Co.
upon the screw for its stability. With an ordinary pulley, the
heavier the sash the greater is the possibility of the wheel
being forced out from its mortise, whereas, with the " Norris "
pulley, the greater the load, the more securely is it wedged in
Chapter vii. place. Another obvious advantage is that it requires just half
the quantity of screws and amount of labor to set this pulley as
it does the ordinary pulley ; and it is said that the carpenters
who have used this, have liked it very much. The labor of
mortising is slightly more than for the ordinary form, but the
company controlling the patent also manufactures a mortising-
machine specially adapted to this kind of work, by which the
labor is greatly reduced. Aside from the labor of mortising,
the only possible objection to this sash-pulley seems to be that
it would require a pretty heavy hanging-style to the window
frame, and would cut away the wood a good deal, the bevelled
flange being three-quarters of an inch through for an ordinary
sized pulley. This patent is manufactured in the same sizes
and styles as the ordinary pulleys, including those with flat-
grooved wheels for sash-chains.
The following table gives the average retail prices of the
principal marketable varieties of ordinary sash-pulley wheels.
TABLE OF SASH-PULLEYS. PRICES PER DOZEN.
Painted iron cast wheel
Bronzed iron steel axle cast wheel
Bronzed iron, steel axle turned wheel
Bronzed iron, anti-friction steel axle, turned
Polished brass face, anti-friction steel axle,
Brass or bronze face, steel axle, polished iron
Corey's fine bronzed iron, steel axle, turned
Empire fine bronzed iron, polished face and
Norris's fine bronzed iron, polished face and
Smith & Egge, polished iron, flat grooved,
Smith & Egge polished iron, 3-inch double
Smith & Egge, polished iron, 4-inch double
grooved wheel 13 50
SASH-CHAINS AND WEIGHTS.
In the better-class of buildings it is usual to hang all sashes
weighing over forty pounds with some form of sash-chain ;
indeed, except for the expense, it would often be well to use
nothing but chains, especially in buildings of a public character
where the windows are apt to be moved with little care. The
ordinary cords used for windows are liable to wear out and
break, and experience has often
shown that a good sash-chain
will outwear enough of the ordi-
nary sash-cord to make it more
than worth while to use the
Fig. I 68. Double Sash-chain,
bmith & Egge Mfg. Co.
Fig. I 69. Grooved Sash-chain Pulley.
Smith & Egge Mfg. Co.
The sash-chain which appears to meet with the greatest
favor in the Eastern market, is that which is made by the
Smith & Egge Manufacturing Company. The form of this
chain is illustrated by Figure 167. It is a species of flat-link
B UILDERS' II A RD WARE.
Smith & Egge
chain, the form being the same as the well-known plumbers*
safety-link, which has been in use for various purposes for a
great many years. Smith & Egge adopted this form as best
adapted for window-chains, and they have perfected special
machinery which does away almost entirely with handwork,
and enables them to produce the chain at marketable prices and
of a superior quality. The chain is made with a great deal
of care, each link being automatically tested as it leaves the
machine. The metal preferably employed for this purpose is
a bronze composition specially prepared by the manufacturers,
designated as "giant metal," which is, in appearance, very much,
like pure copper, but is tougher and harder. A cheaper com-
position is also used, which is known as "red metal," and steel
chains are manufactured to a certain extent, though the giant-
metal chains are the best in every respect. The best giant-
metal chains will sustain loads as high as 700 pounds. The
red-metal chains are manufactured to sustain from 380 to 500
pounds. Steel chains are made in three grades : one capable
of sustaining from 125 to 175 pounds; another from 400 to
450 ; and the strongest from 600 to 700 pounds.
Instead of one chain, it is often more desirable to use a
double chain for very heavy windows, as shown by Figure 168.
This figure, and Figure 1 67, also show the manner in which the
chain is attached to the sash and to the weights.
Pulleys intended for use with sash-chains, require a different
groove from that usual where rope is employed. The Smith
& Egge Manufacturing Company has a special form of pulley
intended to go with their goods. Figure 169. For convenience
this pulley has been listed with the others in the preceding
table of prices, together with one or two different makes of flat
grooved-pulleys which would answer for the purpose equally
What has been said of the Smith & Egge chains applies
equally well to the " Champion " sash-chains, manufactured by
Thomas Morton, which have the same shape of link, though
the sash and weight fastenings are slightly different. The
" champion " metal is a bronze composition probably not differ-
ing essentially from the giant or the red metal. Thomas Morton,
however, manufactures another
form of sash-chain with quite a
different link, which is shown
by Figure 170. This is known
as the cable-chain, and is a very
strong, durable form, never
twisting or kinking. The sash
attachment used with this chain
is very simple and efficient, con-
sisting of a short half cylinder
Fig. 170. Cable Sash-chain.
171. Solid-link Sash-chain.
Solid-link Sash-chain Co.
with a slot cut down from the top, wide enough at the bottom
to admit a link of the chain, but narrowing at the top so as to
prevent the swelling at the link-joint from passing through.
The same sort of slot is cut in the weight-hook to hold the
other end of the chain.
The cable-chains are usually made with alternately two and
three pieces to each link, joined by a pin passing through the
D UILDERS HA RD WA RE.
five thicknesses. For the lightest work the pieces are arranged
two and two. The cables are made of either copper or
steel, and vary in strength from a size
for a thirty-pound sash to one capable
of sustaining a door weighing 1,500
There seems to be but one other form
of sash-chain at present in the market.
It is known as the "Solid Link" chain.
It consists of a compound link on much
the same principle as the Smith & Egge
chain, but made double and with rather
finer brass or bronze wire, so that the
sash-chain is nearly as flexible as ordi-
nary sash-cord, and can be bent or
twisted in all directions without knotting
or kinking, a quality which the Smith &
Egge chain does not possess. The " Sol-
id Link " chain can even be tied into a
knot without kinking. Figure 171 will
give an idea of the construction of the link. This form of
sash-chain requires no special pulley, but will run over an
An entirely different kind of sash-cord is shown by Figure
172. This consists of a steel wire spring so closely and
strongly coiled as to have the resistance necessary to sustain
any sash weighing sixty pounds or less. It has a stretching-
capacity of only about five per cent. It enables the sash to
rest easily and lightly on the pulleys, and enables it to be
raised or lowered with half the effort required with rope
sash-cord. It is fastened at one end to the sash by an
eye or ring, and to the weight in the manner shown by the
The following table gives the average, comparative, retail
prices per foot of the various makes and sizes of sash-chains :
72. Acme Sash-cord.
Coiied-wire Belting Co.
TABLE OF SASH-CHAIXS. PRICES IN CENTS. Chapter VII.
For sashes or doors weighing
Description of chain.
Smith & Egge's plumbers'
Smith & Egge's plumbers'
Smith & Egge's plumbers'
Smith & Egge's plumbers'
link, steel, black enam-
Morton's plumbers' link,
Morton's plumbers' link,
Morton's cable-chain, cop
Morton's c a b 1 e-chain,
Solid-link chain', brass....
Solid -link chain', silver-
The inconveniences attending the use of weights and pulleys
for raising sashes, while in most cases due to bad workman-
ship in setting the pulleys and imperfect arrangement of the
boxes rather than to any intrinsic deficiencies in the sys-
tem, have given rise to several so-called sash-balances, which
are intended to permit of weights, boxes and ropes being entirely
dispensed with. Indeed, the natural outgrowth from the idea
involved in the " Acme " sash-cord would be that a plain
spring could be made to answer the purpose of both weight and
1 There are but two sizes of solid-link chain. They are tested by the makers at
200 tbs. and 300 Has. before leaving the factory.
118 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter vii. cord. This has been done with the " Anderson " sash-balance.
Figure 173, which consists simply of a steel, spiral spring for
each sash, from inch to ^ inch in diameter. The springs are
fastened to the hanging-style of the window-frame and to the
sashes, and are made of just sufficient strength to sustain
the sash in any position, so that a very slight exertion is sufficient
to move it either up or down. The springs are made the same
Fig. I 73. Anderson Sash-
balance. Wm. G. Anderson.
Fig. I 74. Ormsby Sash-balance.
Ormsby Sash-holder 'Co.
length as the sash ; and, being secured near the bottom of the
sash, are drawn out to twice their length when the sash is
down. When a sash is hung with this kind of balance, it has
to be fitted with some form of self-catching sash-fast, as other-
wise the window might fly open as soon as the hand was with-
drawn. Anderson uses the " Attwell " sash-fast for this pur-
pose, which will be described in a subsequent chapter, though
any other self-locking form would answer equally well. The
retail price for the four springs necessary for two sashes weigh-
ing fifteen pounds each, is Si. 35. For forty-pound sashes the
price is $2.50, and other sizes in proportion. When the sashes
weigh over fifty pounds, the size of the spring required
becomes so large as to render it rather too conspicuous for
The " Ormsby " sash-balance, Figure 174, is on exactly the
same principle as the ordinary shade-roller, consisting of two
strong spring-rollers which are concealed in a pocket over the
window-head, the sashes being suspended
therefrom by thin brass bands which coil A A
around the roller. The price of this
sash-balance varies from 75 cents for a
window with fifteen-pound sashes, to $1.75
for fifty-five pound sashes.
A third type of sash-balance is illus-
trated by Figure 175. This has the gen-
eral appearance of an ordinary sash-pul-
ley, being mortised into the hanging-style
in the same manner. Inside of the pulley,
however, is coiled a strong band-spring of
steel, attached to the axle, which is fixed,
and to the outer edge of the wheel, in the Fig. 175. shumard Sash-
i i balance. Coleman Hard-
groove or which is wound a narrow brass ware Co
ribbon serving instead of a sash-cord, so
that when the sash is drawn down, the ribbon is uncoiled and
the spring acted upon. The spring can be set to any desired
tension, and its action can further be regulated by a brake on
top of the wheel, which is tightened or loosened by turning a
screw in the face-plate. The " Shumard " sash-balance is made
for runs of from thirty-two to forty-six inches, and for sashes
of from eight to forty pounds' weight. The price per pair, for
a sixteen-pound sash, is $1.40; for a forty-pound sash, $3.25
per pair, and other weights in proportion.
One advantage which all of these spring-balances possess is,
that they act most strongly when the sash is down, enabling
one to move a binding window more readily than if it were
hung with ordinary weights and cords, while, when the sash is
up, the springs barely suffice to hold it in position and do not
offer resistance to drawing down, as is the case with weights.
The objection, of course, is, that the springs are in constant ten-
sion, and will, in time, loose their elasticity. They can be re-
placed quite as easily as worn-out ropes ; still, most people
seem to prefer the old-fashioned weights and pulleys.
SASH-CORD ATTACHMENTS AND WEIGHTS.
There are several devices for attaching the cords to the
sashes. The commonest method is to cut a groove on the side
of the sash with an enlargement towards the bottom, and then
simply knot the end of the cord, the knot holding in position.
Fig. 176. Sash-cord Iron.
Fig. 177. Double Sash-cord Iron.
It is better to use some form of sash-cord iron. Figure 176 is
one of the simplest forms. It is mortised into the side of the
sash and held in position
by a screw, the sash-cord
being knotted under the
hook. This form retails
at 35 cts. per gross. Fig-
ure 177 illustrates an iron
used when the sash is
hung with two cords on
each side. This retails
at 52 cents per gross.
Fig. 178. Jackson s Sash-cord Iron. Ireland
Mf g- Co - Figure 178 is a form quite
similar to Figure 176, though requiring a deeper mortise and Chapter vn.
being driven in on a slant, so that it cannot work loose. It
retails at $1 per gross. Figure 179
is different from either of the preced-
ing forms, consisting of a cartridge-
shaped cylinder, closed at both ends,
but with an opening at the top and
the bottom, through which the cord
is passed and wedged by the eccen-
tric cam shown by the figure. The
cord is released by inserting a wire,
as shown. This fixture retails at
$1.60 per gross.
Sash-weights are usually made of ^j^^'TTF 171 ^^^^^^ Sash-weights,
cast-iron, to order. They are cast
in plain round-bars with an eye at
the top, substantially as has been
shown in Figure 170. When they
are very heavy, or . the space for
Fig. 179. Rodgers Sash-cord or
Chain-fastener. Nimick & Brittan.
the sash-boxes is restricted, lead weights are
used, as they occupy less space than iron.
They are usually made to order, and can be
had in any desired shape, but are manufac-
tured in regular weights by a few of the lead-
works. Figure 180 is the form adopted by
the Raymond Lead Company. Each section
is cast on an iron rod extending through
the weight, with a hook at one end and an
eye at the other, so that as many sections
may be hung to each other as may be neces-
Raymond's sary. Iron sash-weights cost 1^- cents, and
!d h co. Ray lead-weights from 6 to 7 cents per pound.
Chapter vm. O ASH-LOCKS may generally be said to be devised for the
k3 moral encouragement of the faint-hearted, who cherish a
fond belief that when the lock is turned no intruder can possi-
bly enter through the window. Most of the forms in the mar-
ket are sufficient protection against a sneak-thief, but while
nearly every sash-lock in existence is claimed to be strictly bur-
glar-proof, and advertised as such, the burglar must be a novice,
indeed, who would let even the best of them keep him out of a
house. When the window is secured with a fast which cannot
be opened by slipping a knife-blade between the meeting-rails
and pushing back the bolt, an enterprising burglar would
simply break out a pane of glass, which can be accomplished
with less noise than is made in picking a lock ; so that, after
all, the protection afforded by a sash-lock is more in sentiment
than in fact. Still, that the timid be cheered and the stray
tramp kept out of the silver closet, some form of sash-lock is
always considered a necessity for all windows.
The requirements of a perfect sash-fast or lock, are that it
shall fulfil the following conditions :
First, it must be so constructed that it cannot be opened from
without by a knife, or by jarring the window. Second, it
should, in closing, draw the two sashes tightly together, and, at
the same time, should not be affected by any small inequalities
of adjustment. Third, it should always remain either open
or shut, with some sort of spring-contrivance to hold the lever
in position, so that it will not be possible to leave the lock
SASH-FASTENINGS. 1 "23
partially turned, thereby running the risk of breaking the Chapter viu.
muntins when the window is raised. Fourth, it should have no
projections which could possibly tear the sash ; and fifth, and
perhaps most important of all, it should be simple in construc-
tion and in its operation.
It is not essential, though it is generally very well that the
fast should be self-locking. It is not well to trust to anything
which acts by gravity, or which depends on any perfectly fitted
sash, as such appliances are apt to get out of order. It also is
well that the lock should be as inconspicuous as possible,
though neither is this essential. Some sash-fasts are provided
with rebated appliances which fit down between the two
sashes ; this is not necessary, though it is perhaps a greater
security, as in this way the fast can be more securely screwed
onto the sash. In selecting any form of rebated sash-fast,
however, it must be borne in mind, that sashes are made
differently in the East and in the West. In the vicinity of
Boston, it is customary to rebate the meeting-rails where they
come together, but elsewhere, we believe the meeting-rails are
usually simply bevelled.
Much ingenuity is to be observed in the line of patents for
sash fasts and locks. This might be interpreted as an indica-
tion that either the sash-fastenings at present in the market are
quite insufficient for their purpose, or that there is an ex-
traordinary necessity for the species of protection which such
contrivances can afford. This chapter, however, will but
faintly indicate the variety of devices having in view the
securing of sashes. One must wade through the list of Patent
Office reports in order to fairly appreciate what has been done
in this direction. A great many of these inventions never get
beyond the Patent Office. Still, there are all sorts and kinds
of sash locks and fasts in the market. Each one appears to be
covered by a patent, yet somehow or other, the best locks and
fasts are to be found in the catalogues of nearly all the manu-
facturers, so slightly disguised it is easy to see that such ideas
are in a measure common property.
Chapter vin. The terms sash-lock and sash-fast have been used synony-
mously, though a distinction should be observed between them.
A sash-lock is understood to be some contrivance which actually
locks a sash by means of some form of key. All of the other
numerous devices which, by means of levers, catches or springs
hold the sash either open or shut, are technically termed sash-
fasts. The distinction, however, cannot be rigidly adhered to.
Nearly all of the self-locking fasts might be classed with sash-
fasts, while, with equal propriety, the sash-locks can be said to
possess the essential qualities of sash-fasts ; though, with very
few exceptions, all are designated by the hardware dealers, as
Figure 181 illustrates a form of sash-lock which is secured
to the face of the sash, the bolt working into staples at in-
tervals in the window-frame or stop-bead. The bolt works
with a spring, so as to be self-acting, and by means of the key
it can be locked, thus permitting the sash to be left partly open
and secured against intrusion. This lock is light and strong, and
well adapted to be used on screens as well as sashes.
Figure 182 is a type of several varieties of sash-locks which
mortise into the sash and throw out
a bolt in the same manner as an or-
dinary door-lock. In this example
the bolt works with a spring, which
Fig. 181. Sash-lock. Yale & Towne
Fig. 182. King Sash-lock. Burditt &
makes the lock self-acting after the bolt has been thrown;
that is to say, if the bolt were pushed back it would not remain
Sash-fast. P. & F. Corbin.
closed until the knob or handle were turned. This lock may
be operated with either a movable key or a flat knob or button.
Of course, any mortise drawer-lock can be applied to a sash,
if desired, or any other lock sufficiently narrow to lit the thick-
ness of the sash, though the two forms just described are about
the only ones especially made for windows, which can properly
be termed sash-locks.
There are so many varieties of sash-fasts to be consid-
ered, that, in order to make
the descriptions less confusing,
it will be well to classify the
sash-fasts according to their
most prominent characteristics.
I. Old Style of plain lever-
fast. This consists of a plain, R |g3
pivoted bar, attached to the
upper sash, with a hook on the end, which works over a catch
or raised plate on the lower' sash. A knob, often of porcelain,
is fastened to the end of the bar. Figure 183 illustrates this
type. In the oldest makes of this kind, the lever was simply
pivoted on the upper sash, and a knife-blade, slipped between
the meeting-rails, could push the lever to one side and unlock the
window without the slightest
difficulty. In the sash-fast
shown by the figure, the lever
is made with a broad, flat
end, which presses against a
strong spring, A, at the back.
The spring serves to stiffen
the action of the lever, which
is further protected against
intrusion, in some cases, by
dovetailing the bottom plates, Fig ' l84 ' Sash ' fast ' Russe " & Erwiru
so that the lever cannot be got at through the joint between
the meeting-rails. Varieties of this same form are made with
12G BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter viii. the lever swinging only half around in one direction, the gain
thereby being that the back spring can be made longer and
stiffer, without increasing the size of the sash-fast.
Figure 184 represents a variety of sash-fast, in which the
lever is on the lower sash and hooks over an inverted peg on
the upper sash. The "Judd" sash-fast, Figure 185, has a
Fig. I 85. Judd Sash-fast.
shoulder on the side of the lever so arranged that a knife-blade
would catch on it and be broken before the lever could be
moved sufficiently to open the window. Figure 186 shows a
Fig. 186. Sash-fast. Norwich Lock Fig. 187. Sash-fast. P. & F. Cor-
Mfg. Co. bin.
strong form of sash-fast with no spring of any sort, but with a
protection for the lever by dovetailing the plates together, as
described in the previous paragraph ; while the sash-fast in-
dicated by Figure 187 works in exactly the same manner, but
the plates are rebated together. Figure 188 is yet another
variety, the plates here being not only dovetailed together, but
SA SH-FA STENINGS.
also lipped down into the joint between the meeting-rails. The
lever works in the same manner as the first sash-fast noticed.
II. Spring lever sash-fasts. While some of the forms just
described might be classed under this category, none of them
actually have spring levers, as the springs are not so arranged
as to force the lever open or shut from any position. Figure
189 shows what is known as the ordinary "Boston" sash-fast,
which is used a great deal in
Boston, and is much liked for
its simplicity and sureness of
action. This form is, appar-
ently, made by almost every
manufacturer of builders' hard-
ware in the country. There is
a coil spring around the h.ub
of the lever tending to throw
it back, and a simpler spring
which bears against the ratchet
connection, so as to lock the
lever When it is Closed. Hop- Fig . |88 . Metropolitan Sash-fast. A.
kins & Dickinson manufacture
a variety of this form, in which the spring-catch, has several
cuts or ratchets on its edge, and the catch on the lever is
bevelled, so that it will be held by any one of the ratchets.
The advantage claimed for this is, that if the lever is drawn
around hastily, it will be more likely to catch on the ratchets
and be locked, than the ordinary pattern, which has but a
single ratchet. This is known as the " Ladd " sash-fast.
The " Boston " sash-fast has to be set pretty carefully in
order to be effective, and in the case of very excessive shrink-
age, the space between the plates might be so reduced that the
ratchet would not hold the lever. Such difficulties would, of
course, arise only in a third-rate building. The form is be-
lieved by many of the dealers to be the best in the market, and
it surely answers very fully the requirements of a perfect sash-
Chapter vui. j^ scarcely less admirable sash-fast is shown by Figure 190.
The lever is on the lower sash, hooking under a tooth on the
upper sash, which is bevelled so as to draw the sashes 'more
closely together. A strong spring about the axle of the lever
tends to throw it open, while a small
bolt, inside the lever, locks into a con-
cealed catch on the post or axle of the
lever. The bolt ends in a knob, A, and
Fig. 189. Boston Pattern Sash-fast. Fig. 190.
Sash-fast. Hopkins & Dickin-
son Mfg. Co.
is fitted with a spring which keeps it pressed tightly towards
the centre, so that the lever is caught and held when it is
turned clear around through 90 degrees. On pulling the knob,
A, the catch is released and the lever flies open.
Figure 191 illustrates a sash-fast which works in very nearly
the same manner as the preceding, except that in order to re-
lease the lever the knob is pushed in. The Hopkins &
Fig. 191. Sash-fast. Stoddard Lock
Fig. I 92. Favorite Sash-fast. Reading
Dickinson Manufacturing Company also has a sash-fast which
hooks around a pin, like Figure 191, but is otherwise the same
as Figure 190. P. & F. Corbin manufacture two forms of
sash-fasts which are essentially the same as Figure 190.
III. Lever sash-fasts with locking lever. This includes
lever sash-fasts with locking lever, those in which the lever
works without a spring, but is held either closed or open
by means of an auxiliary lever. Figure 1. 9 2 gives one variety
of this kind, the lever being pulled down in order to permit the
bolt to turn. The locking lever here is held in place by a
Fig. 193. Sash-fast. Yale & Towne
Fig. I 94.
Morris Sash-fast. Ireland
spring, and catches into a slot in the bed-plate, preventing the
lever from being turned. Figure 193 has a lever which works
in the same manner as that of Figure 191, except that it has
no spring. It is locked in place when turned, by a catch
which is released by pressing the knob on top of the hub.
Figure 194 represents a form of sash-fast which has met
with considerable favor, as being one of the first which had any
right to the qualification of being burglar-proof. The action
Fig. 195. Triumph Sash-fast. Ireland Fig. I 96. Sash-fast. P. & F. Corbin.
is perfectly simple. The lever is on the lower sash, and is
held either open or shut by a smaller hinged lever which drops
Chapter VII I.
fasts with lock-
B UILDERS' HARD WARE.
by gravity into the rebates of the bed-plate. Figure 195
shows a fast which operates in exactly the same manner, the
smaller, gravity lever being raised to release the main lever ;
and Figure 196 is a type of a number of similar forms manu-
factured by P. & F. Corbin. The lever in this example is re-
leased by raising the secondary lever at the rear.
IV. Locking lever sash-fasts. This class includes those
sash-fasts in which the lever locks itself when turned. Figure
197 is a form which has been on the market for some time, and
Fig. 198. Payson's Sash-
fast. J. B. Johnston.
Fig. 197. Mathes' Sash-fast. Nimick & Brittan.
is now comparatively little used, though the chief objection to
it is only, in reference to its size. It is as near to being
absolutely burglar-proof as any form of sash-fast which has
been devised. Half the axis, about which the lever is rotated,
forms a part of the upper and of the lower sash portion of the
fast. The figure shows the position when the sashes are
locked, the lever hooking down under both half-axles, and not
only drawing the two sashes together, but binding and holding
them so they cannot be moved. To unlock the sash, the lever
is thrown up to a vertical position.
SA SH-FA STENINGS.
"Payson" sash-fast, Figure 198, is very simple and
effective, ranking as one of the best in the market. The lever
is on the top sash, and locks itself over the opposite post with
the help of a small spring-bolt, the knob of which shows at the
end of the lever. The attachment of the lever is such as to
permit it to fold back on the upper sash. This sash-fast is not
liable to get out of order, it draws the sashes together, and is
as burglar-proof as would ordinarily be desirable. The only
objection to it is that the
connection between the lever
and the locking-post does not
allow for much shrinkage in
V. "Cam" sash-fasts.
The sash-fasts of which Fig-
ure 199 is a type, are quite
difficult to represent by a
drawing. The action of the Flg " '"' lves Sash - fast " H ' B ' lves & Co '
fast is as follows : The levers are fastened to the lower sash.
When the upper lever is turned, the lower, or locking lever,
is first thrown out until re-
leased from the hook on the
upper sash, and then drawn
around and in toward the
hub, until both levers are on
a line with the edge of the
sash, the upper lever moving
through 180 degrees, while
the lower lever is moved only
90 degrees. Though the ac-
tion sounds complicated, the
sash-fast is perfectly simple
in its construction, and there
is nothing about it that can
Fig. 200. Plan of inside of Figure 1 99. ,. ,
get out 01 order, or even
wear loose, except by such excessive use as would practi-
B UILDERS' HARD WARE.
cally never be given it in a house. There are no springs
about it, consequently it has no automatic action, and in un-
locking, care must be taken that the locking lever is turned
clear around, as otherwise it will project beyond the meeting-
rail and catch on the sash-muntins. This is really the only
objection to it. Figure 200 illustrates the internal construc-
tion of this sash-fast.
Figure 201 is a very similar sash-fast manufactured by P. &
F. Corbin. It differs only in the internal, eccentric arrange-
ment. The Reading Hardware Company also manufactures a
sash-fast very much like the " Ives."
VI. Self-locking sash-fasts. The "Boston" sash-fast flies
open of itself, unless properly locked. Many people believe
that a sash-fast should lock itself
the moment the sash is drawn
down, so as to leave no chances
of the windows being unlocked,
and, accordingly, there are in
the market several varieties of
self-closing sash-fasts. For gen-
Fig. 201. Sash-fast.
P. & F. Corbin.
Fig. 202. Ticket-office Sash-lock.
eral house use, it is believed that such fasts would prove a
great nuisance, as the window would, of course, have to be
unlocked every time it was to be opened ; besides, nearly all of
these self-locking appliances are much more liable to get out
of order, either through rust or neglect, than the ordinary
SA SH-FA S TENIN G S.
sash-fasts ; still, in some cases, there seems to be a necessity
Perhaps the simplest form of self-acting sash-fast is that illus-
trated by Figure 202. This consists of a spring bolt, acting not
unlike the latch-bolt of an ordinary lock, which flies out when-
ever the sash is closed. It is mortised into one of the styles of
the upper sash, or into the hanging-style, and the bolt bears
on a plate on top of the meet-
ing-rail of the lower sash. The
figure shows one of the case-
Fig. 203. Sash-fast. E. Robinson.
Fig. 204. Sash-lock. Enoch Robinson.
plates removed, to illustrate the construction. A very similar
fast is shown by Figure 203. This, however, is not self-lock-
ing, as the top of the lever must be pressed in to force out the
lower portion. Both of these appliances might almost be
classed as sash-locks, instead of sash-fasts.
Figure 204 shows a variation of the last form of sash-fast,
working without springs of any sort. This is a neater looking
form than Figure 203, and perhaps a trifle stronger in princi-
pie. Variations of these forms are manufactured under several
A self-locking fast of the description of Figure 202 has the
disadvantage that the bolt must be held back when the window
is to be raised, and, if the sash should bind, it is rather awk-
ward to attempt to hold back the bolt with one hand and
move the sash with the other. There is a device, the Security
Self -locking Sash-fast, Figure 205, which obviates this diffi-
culty. This consists of a bolt similar to that of Figure 202,
but with a locking-lever which falls out when the bolt is pushed
back. The locking-lever holds the bolt flush with the sash and
allows the sashes to be raised or lowered, but when the meet-
ing-rails pass each other, the locking-lever is raised, releasing
the bolt, which flies out as soon as the window is closed, thus
locking the sashes.
Figure 206 is a self-locking sash-fast on a different principle.
The cut shows the lower sash partly raised, the locking por-
tion being attached to the upper sash.
When the window is closed the hook.
D, strikes against the catch, C, forc-
ing it away from B, until, when the
meeting-rails are on a level, Z>, is
hooked in between C and B. A
spring at A keeps the two parts
pressed against each other.
A very ingenious sash-fast, which
works almost entirely by gravity, is
shown by Figure 207. The cut shows
it in the position it takes when the
window is locked. The mechanism
is attached to the upper sash. A is
hung on each side to B. which hooks
Fig. 205. Security Sash-fast.
over the post on the lower sash. To
open the window, the thumb is placed under B and the forefin-
ger on top of A. Both pieces are lifted together until B as-
sumes a vertical position, and A catches over the hook <7. The
sash can then be opened freely. On closing the window, how-
ever, the lower rail strikes against a hidden lever or cam at
the back of -4, lifting it from its
hold on C, so the piece B can
descend to hook in the posi-
Fig. 206. Shaw's Sash-fast. Nichols & Fig. 207. Davis Sash-fast. Sise, Gibson
Bellamy. Agents. & Co.
tion shown by the figure. The only spring used is one which
pushes out B when A is released. This sash-fast is very
Fig. 208. Byam's Sash-fast. Byam, Stewart & Baker.
nicely made, and is about as good a self-locking form as
is in the market. It has an added advantage in that it locks
which lock in
itself before the sash is entirely closed, the post, (7, being
double notched on the face so that A will slip down and
wedge the hook B when the window is within about a quarter
of an inch of being closed. It will be observed that the lock-
ing is effected entirely by the piece A. B is brought over the
hook on the lower sash merely in order to draw the meeting-
rails more closely together.
The " Byam " sash-fast, Figure 208, is a very simple device
acting entirely by gravity, the central bent lever being so
counterbalanced that the lower arm will always project over
the lower sash. The section will show how this lever is
VII. Sash-fasts which lock in different positions. The
difficulty with all sash-fasts of this description is that, of neces-
sity, they operate on one side of
the window, instead of in the cen-
tre of the meeting-rail, and that,
consequently, every attempt
to open the window when it is
locked, wrenches the sash so as
to, in time, make it loose in the
joints. Also, with nearly all
the forms, the mechanism is
concealed, so that the sashes are
liable to many unnecessary
wrenches. The advantages are
that the window can be left
partly open and still be secured
from intrusion, and that, in most
cases, either sash can be locked
independently of the other.
Figure 209 illustrates a very
primitive appliance, consisting
simply of a ratchet rail, with a spring-catch on the bottom
sash. Figure 210 shows a more complete form, which is mor-
tised into the face of the hanging-style, the levers working into
Fig. 209. Sash-fastening.
Shannon & Sons.
holes in each sash. The sashes are fitted with other holes on
the edges, at intervals, so that they can be locked at various
heights. In the cut the section shows more clearly the work"
ing. A single spring, coiled about each lever, serves to throw
them both out. Pushing up the knob on the inside bead draws
back the upper lever, releasing the upper sash. Pushing the
knob down releases in the same manner the lower sash.
Fig. 210. Timby Sash-fast. Jenkins & Timby.
Figure 211 represents the Attwell sash-fast, which differs
from the foregoing chiefly in that the levers are worked by a
single spindle, coming through the window-frame onto the face
of the finish, and so arranged that when the spindle crank is
turned up, the upper lever is drawn back without moving the
lower, and vice versa.
There are a few forms of sash-fasts which will hold the win-
dow in any position. Figure 212 is a very common form, con-
sisting of an excentric cam which screws to the face of the sash
and wedges against the stop-bead, holding the sash by friction.
Figure 213 and Figure 214 are used chiefly for car work, the
former acting in the same manner as Figure 212, while the
latter works into slots in the jamb.
The sash-fasts thus far considered include all the principal
B UILDERS' HARD WA RE.
Chapter viii. forms commonly known to the hardware trade, as well as types
of many styles which have only limited sales. It would be
Fig. 211. Atwell Sash-fast.
impracticable to attempt an enumeration of all the sash-fasts
which have been put on the market throughout the country,
nor would any such list be of great
value. The forms discussed and
illustrated, will, it is believed, serve
Fig. 212. Brown's Window-lock.
S. A. Brown.
Fig. 213. Eccentric
Fig. 214. Sash-lock.
every purpose of comparison, and will enable the retail buyer
to select to advantage, and to know the worth of what he is
SASH-HOLDERS AND SPRINGS.
The sash-fasts which have been described up to this point,
are those intended to be used in connection with double-
hung windows ; and, while any of them would
answer for a window having double sashes
which are simply set in the frame, without
weights or balances of any description, there \^
are a few appliances especially intended for
windows without weights, which can best be
considered in this connection. " Hammond's "
window-springs are used so extensively for this spring.'
purpose that they are almost standard. The
springs are simply flat bands secured to the hanging-style and
catching in ratchet cuts on the edge of the sash, each spring
having a bent handle or thumb-
piece coming out in front of
the sash. One spring is used
for each sash. A different
form of spring is shown by
Figure 215. This is mortised
into the hanging - style and
catches into square cuts on the
Fig. 216. Sweet's Window-
spring. Stanley Works.
Fig. 217. Northrup's Window-spring.
edge of the sash, the thumb-piece showing in front. Figures
216 and 217 show two forms of window-springs on an entirely
Fig. 219. Ayer**
:-- = -- 75-'.
Ayer s Sash-holder
P. & F. Corbm.
different principle. The portion containing the spring is mor-
tised into the sash, the lever showing in front of the glass. In
the first instance the spring is exposed, and catches on posts
set in mortised plates at intervals
on the hanging-style. In latter
example, the spring is concealed,
the end of the lever hooking into
plates of the shape shown by
the figure, which are mortised
into the hanging -style. These
springs also serve as holders,
the ends of the levers pressing
strongly against the hanging-style and holding
the sash from slipping.
A sash-holder is something intended to keep
unweighted sashes in any given position by friction on the jambs
of the frame. Besides the two previous forms, there is a very
simple device consisting of a wooden or vul-
canized-rubber roller, Figure 218, mortised
into the sash and bearing against the window-
frame. There is also the
Aver " sash-holder, Fig;-
ure 219. better adapted to
its purpose than any wheel
could be, consisting of a
round peg mortised into the
sash and pressed constantly
against the hanging-style
by means of a strong spiral
spring. Still another form
is shown by Figure 220. Fig. 22 1 . Sash-fstner.
This is mortised into the Co.
hanging-style, and consists
of a small wooden cylinder, or roll, laid loosely in a slot and
against a heavily milled surface which prevents it from rolling
down. The milled plate is backed by a heavy steel spring*
Fig. 220. Syawi's Sash-
balance. Byam Stew-
: i. MfaZ
SA SH-FA STENINGS.
When the sash is lifted, the roll turns easily in the slot ; but,
when the sash is being lowered, the wooden roll wedges be-
tween the milled-plate and the
edge of the sash, offering a
resistance in proportion to the
stiffness of the spring.
Fig. 222. Clauson's Anti-rattling
Wedges. Sise, Gibson & Co.
Fig. 223. Ideal Anti-rattler. American
Figure 221 illustrates an appliance which can be used as a
sash-fastener, but which is intended more especially to bind
the sash so it will not rattle. It
consists of a plain bolt sliding in
a case attached to the window, with
a lever working in an oblique slot,
so that when it is drawn down, the
bolt is pressed out with consider-
able force, and holds by friction
against the jamb. Figure 222 shows
another anti-rattling device, a metal
surface on the sash which wedges
against an inclined plate on the jamb ;
and Figure 223 is the simplest of all,
a metal wedge, suspended by a small
chain attached to the sash, which can
be inserted in the joint between the
sash and the stop-bead.
Fig. 224. Storm Sash-holder.
Chapter vin. The following table gives the average retail prices per
dozen of the sash-fasts, etc., referred to in this chapter. The
prices are for plain goods, when such are manufactured.
TABLE OF SASH-FASTS, ETC.
181 Yale & Towne sash-lock
182 King sash-lock $2.50
183 Sash-fast, P. & F. Corbin 1.00
184 Sash-fast, Kussell & Erwin 1.35
185 Judd sash-fast 1.38
186 Sash-fast, Norwich Co 1.15
187 Sash-fast, P. & F. Corbin
188 Metropolitan sash-fast 3.00
189 Boston pattern sash-fast 1 .50
Ladd sash-fast 2.30
190 Sash-fast, Hopkins & Dickinson i .GO
191 Sash-fast, Stoddard 1.00
192 Favorite sash-fast 1.00
193 Sash-fast, Yale & Towne
194 Morris sash-fast 1.68
195 Triumph sash-fast 1.68
196 Sash-fast, P. & F. Corbin .88
197 Mathes'a sash- fast 1.50
198 Payson's sash-fast 1.00
199 I ves' sash-fast 1.00
201 Sash-fast, P. & F. Corbin .60
202 Ticket-office sash-fast
203 Sash-fast, E. Robinson
205 Security sash-fast
206 Shaw's sash-fast
207 Davis sash-fast 3.60
208 Byam's sash-fast l.OO 5
210 Timby sash-fast
211 Atwell sash-fast 3.00
212 Brown's window-lock .60
213 Eccentric sash-fast .12
214 Sash-lock .33
Hammond's sash-springs .70*
215 Window-spring, P. & F. Corbin
216 Sweet's window-spring 1.25 s
217 Northrup's window-spring 1.25 3
220 Byam's sash-balance 7.20 s
222 Clausen's anti-rattler, per set
223 Ideal anti-rattler...-.
Figure 224 shows a rude but effective storm sash-holder,
often useful in holding in position the outside sashes of a
window, which are intended to be removed in the summer
time. The lever is screwed to the window-casing, and catches
1 Price in Bower-Barffed iron, Yale & Towne Mfg. Co., same as in bronze.
2 Nickel plated. 3 Plain iron only. * Japanned iron with silver-plated knobs.
c Japanned iron. Face-plate only of bronze.
in the metal slot which is mortised into the edge of the sash.
The upper edge of the lever is bevelled, so that when it is
turned into the slot the sash is wedged tightly against the win-
There is also a very satisfactory and simple device consist-
ing of a plain, hard-rubber button with a milled edge, which is
screwed on to the bead and against the sash, so as to turn
when the window is opened. This is known as " Patten's "
window -tightener. It is manufactured by the Portsmouth
Wrench Company, and retails at 4 and 5 cents per hundred.
The same, or a much similar form, is manufactured by the
Ayer's Patent Sash-Holder Company.
" Nelson's Perfect Fastener," is a name applied to a device
for screwing the stop-bead to the window-frame ; it consists of
Fig. 225. Ordinary
Fig. 226. Byam's Sash- Fig. 227. Sweet's Reversible
lifter. Byam, Stewart Sash-lift. Stanley Works.
metal eyelets which are sunk into the bead, with an elliptical
instead of round hole to receive the screw. As the longest
dimension of the screw hole is in a horizontal direction, the
bead can be set so as to permit of a play of quite a quarter of
an inch. Such a contrivance must prove a boon to those who
are suffering with windows which bind in summer and rattle in
winter. The fasteners cost from $2 to $3.25 per gross, in-
cluding either round or flat headed screws.
Sash Lifts and
Sash-lifts are often omitted from architects' specifications,
though they are usually very desirable,
and when properly applied, will save a
great deal of wear on the sash. The
common form of lift is shown by Fig-
ure 225. A form which is not quite
as convenient to use, though sometimes
preferred, is the flush lift, the type of
which is similar in the main to Figure
229. Both of these are intended to
be attached to the bottom-rail of the
lower sash. Figure 226 is a species
of sash-lift which is applied over the
mouldings of the sash-styles, in the
shape of a concave strip of metal, with
shoulders at intervals. Figure 227 is
IT" in the form of an angle-iron, likewise
Fig. 228. wigger's Sash-nfters. secured to the sash mouldings, and
Brainerd & Co.
ligure 228 shows a form which can
be applied either over the mouldings or on the face of the sash.
Figures 229, 230, 231 and 232 show four styles of combined
Fig. 229. Flush Sash Lift and Lock.
Ireland Mfg. Co.
Fig. 230. Sash Lift and Lock.
Ireland Mfg. Co.
sash lift and lock. No. 231 works by gravity. The others are
each fitted with a spring which forces out the catch so that it
will hold on the sill-plate or catch. Figure 233 shows a very
practical form of sash-lift so arranged
that by pressing down the lever han-
dle a great lifting power can be ap-
Fig. 231. Sash Lift and Lock.
Russell & Erwin.
Fig. 232. Sash Lift and Lock.
P. & F. Corbin.
Fig. 233. Anderson Sash-starter.
piled, sufficient to start and lift a heavy sash, or to start a
sash that has become wedged or frozen in. After the sash is
Fig. 234. Sash-openers.
started, the lift is in the right position to raise it with ease, and
when the window is closed the lift can serve as a lock, by
B UILDERS' HA RD WA RE.
Chapter viii. turning a button which will prevent the lever handle from
Figure 234 shows two of the common forms of casement or
hinged sash-openers. These are best made to order, but can
be had in stock, 12, 15 and 18 inches long, and cost from 50
cents to $1 each, depending on the metal and the finish.
TABLE OF SASH-LIFTS. AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES PER DOZEN.
Sash lift and lock, Ireland Mfg. Co
Sash lift and lock, Ireland Mfg. Co
Sash lift and lock Russell & Erwin . .
Sash lift and lock P. & F. Corbin
SHUTTER FASTS AND LOCKS.
THE appliances for se-
curing outside blinds,
though in some cases com-
bined directly or indi-
rectly with the blind
hinges, are more often
distinct fixtures, acting in-
dependently of the blind
attachments. The usage
in regard to shutter fasts
and locks varies in dif-
ferent portions of the country. In the West there seems to
be a willingness to accept considerable complication in the
devices, whereas the standard Eastern goods are mostly
very simple ; though, of course, this distinction is not a rigid
one, by any means. The West, however, is rapidly developing
new ideas and fresh combinations, in hardware no less than in
nearly every other department of mechanical industry, and
special patent forms seem to be more naturally expected there
than elsewhere. This does not imply that the Eastern cities
are united in the usage of particular forms, for places as near
to each other as New York, Providence and Boston employ
different forms, as will be seen later on.
Fig. 235. Spring Wire Blind-fast.
B UIL DERS* II A RD WA RE.
Figure 235 will serve to illustrate one of the most common
forms of shutter or blind fast, consisting of a tempered steel
rod, or wire, one end of which is cut with a thread arid screws
into the under side of the blind, while the other end is held by
a staple. The rod is bent so that the loop is kept away from
the blind, and the elasticity of the metal enables it to spring
Fig. 236. Folsom's Blind-fast. J. H. Miller,
into the malleable-iron catch on the sill, or on the outside of
the wall. The well-known " Shedd " blind fastener is prac-
tically the same as this, except that the rod is bent in a com-
plete twist to gain the elasticity, and a common screw takes
the place of the threaded end. The same form is made, with
slight variations, by several of the leading manufacturers.
Figure 236 shows the only form of wire blind-fast which
allows one to close the blind without leaning out of the window,
or in any way lifting the shutter to release it from the back
catch. It consists of a steel wire, bent as shown by the figure,
but carried as far back towards the hinge as the hanging-style
of the blind will permit. To release the blind, the fastener is
simply pulled inward. Any form of back catch may be used.
For the sill-catch a wide staple is used, which is set on an
angle to the blind, so as to force the spring back and permit
it to catch behind the staple. This fastener has but very re-
cently been put on the market.
The blind-fast shown by Figure 237 works entirely by gravity.
It consists of a bent lever, working in a mortise cut through
Lugs on the end of
the bottom rail of the blind, pivoted so that one arm protrudes
above the top of the rail, while the other catches over an ordi-
nary hook on the sill or against the wall,
the horizontal lever
arm catch on a thin
plate screwed to the
under side cf the rail
and prevent the fast
from dropping too low
or being lifted too
high. This fast is
made of coppered mal-
leable-iron, and seems
like a very satisfactory
Figure 238 is an
older style of blind-
fast, on essentially the
same principle as Fig-
ure 235 ; using, however, a flat bar instead of the spring wire.
This form requires a little more work in adjustment. It is
designated peculiarly as the "Boston" pattern blind-fast. The
so called " New York "
pattern is illustrated by
Figure 239. The ac-
tion of this fast will be
better appreciated when
it is remembered that in
New York, the blinds
are usually hung flush
with the outer casing,
and the sill is rebated
so that the bottom of the blind strikes against the upper
rebate. The latch is hinged on the inner plate, the weight
of the long arm keeping the inner hook thrown up. The sill-
staple is driven perpendicularly, while the back catch is screwed
Fig. 238. Boston Pattern Blind-fast. Stanley Works.
B UILDERS' HA RD WA RE.
Chapter ix. horizontally into the wall. The Stanley Works also has what
is designated as the " Providence " style of blind-fast. This is
exactly the same as the " New York " pattern, except that the
Fig. 240. Standard Screw
Fig. 239. New York Pattern Blind-fast. Stanley Works.
inner hook catches over instead of under the sill-staple, and is
shaped like the back catch of Figure 235, inverted.
Screw Fasts. Figure 240 shows a form of blind-fast which is screwed
bodily through the blind, catching on sill and wall staples in
the same manner as the preceding styles. A flat spring
inside of the case keeps the inner hook constantly pressed up
and against the sill-
staple. A variation
of this same pattern
is made which acts
by gravity, the catch
working in an oblique
slot in such a manner
that the weight of
the outer catch forces
Fig. 241. Security Blind-fast. Stanley Works.
the inner catch always against the sill-staple.
242 illustrate two forms of fasts which are screwed to the
Figures 241 and
under side of the blind. The former acts entirely by grav-
ity. The lobes, A A, are connected through the case, and
are counterbalanced so as to always drop to the position shown.
When the blind is closed, the lobe strikes against the sill-pin
Fig. 243. Turn-buckle
A. G. Newman.
Fig. 242. Lock Blind-fast. Stanley Works.
and is forced up as shown by the dotted lines, dropping so
as to catch inside of the pin. Figure 242 has a concealed
spring, to force the action of the lever.
The foregoing styles ef blind-fasts are intended to be used
on wooden buildings, but with some modifications in the sizes
might also serve for brick buildings. In New York, it is
Fig. 244. Drop-and-Pin-fast. Stanley Works.
customary to use some form of turn-buckle, Figure 243, which Turn-buckles.
is driven into the joints of the brickwork, the cross-piece being
Chapter ix. free to turn, but hanging naturally in a vertical position by
reason of the greater weight of the longer arm. Turn-buckles
of a slightly different shape are sometimes used, also, for
All of the foregoing are, in a certain sense, automatic ; that
is to say, the blind, if flung open or shut will stay in posi-
tion, requiring no special
adjustment. Figure 244
is a form of drop-and-
Fig. 245. Seymour's Blind-catch. Fig. 246. Blind-catch. Fig. 247. Seymour's
P. & F. Corbin. Shepard Hardware Blind catch and lock.
Co. P. & F. Corbin.
pin fast, much used in some cases, consisting simply of a
plate secured to the blind by a screw-eye, perforated with a
hole to fit over the pin driven into the sill. For holding the
blind open, a back catch is made as shown by the figure, which
locks with a plain, flat spring, screwed to the under side of the
blind. The figure also shows the form of back catch used for
Figures 245 and 246 show two very simple forms of blind
catch serving only to keep the blind closed, and generally used
with some form of turn-buckle to hold the blind open. Figure
245 works with the aid of a small spring, as shown ; Figure
246 works entirely by gravity. There are several varieties of
each of these forms in the market. The catch shown by Fig-
ure 247 acts in the same manner as Figure 245, but has, in
addition, a locking-lever, operated by a key, which secures the
catch so that the blind cannot be opened.
There are a number of forms of blind-hinges, which have
been previously described in the chapter on hinges, that in a
measure serve as blind-fasteners, keeping
the blind either open or shut. They are
all perfectly simple in their operations,
and it is difficult to discriminate between
them. The common fault with them
all is in the difficulty of opening and
closing the blind. With most of the
forms of patent self-locking blind-hinge,
the blind must be raised from its seat in
order to be swung around. With the
blind-fasts previously described in this
chapter, it is necessary to lean far out
of the window to release the catch from
underneath. Figure 248 shows a device
intended to overcome the difficulties of
both styles. It consists simply of a lever attached to the blind,
and hooking into a plate screwed onto the jamb of the window.
Fig. 248. Rochester Blind-
hinge. Byam, Stewart &
OUTSIDE OF RAIL
FINGER. LEVE-R HOLE
Fig. 249. Tenon Blind-fastener. Tenon Fastener Co.
It is only necessary to lift the end of the lever in order to swing
the blind shut. The advantages are that in closing, no lifting of
chapter ix. the blind is necessary ; there is no danger of throwing it off the
hinges, and no chance of pinching the fingers or bumping the
There are several other devices intended to hold the blind,
either shut or
Fig. 250. Excelsior Blind-adjuster. Russell &
illustrates the " Tenon "
blind-fastener, which con-
sists of a bent, flat bar,
attached to the outside
of the blind and catching
in slots cut in a plate
which is secured to the
sill, so that the blind can
be held either open or
shut, or in either of two
The bar is lifted by
means of a lever on the
inside of the blind. This fixture does away with the ordinary
bottom hinge, substituting therefor a pivot working in the lock-
ing sill-plate. A blind-fastener of this description is especially
suitable for bay-windows, or any place where the blinds cannot
open clear back. Being placed on the outside of the blind ex-
poses it to the weather to an undesirable degree, though it is
made of Bower-Barffed iron to prevent it from rusting.
Fig. 251. Washburn's Blind-adjuster. B. D. Washburn.
Figure 250 is a very simple form of bar blind-adjuster, the
bar being attached to the blind, and held in position by the
action of the thumb-screw on the jamb; Figure 251 shows
a variation of the same principle, consisting of a bar which
'fits into the sockets at several points on the sill, enabling the
blind to be held in several different positions. The action of
the adjuster will readily be understood by the figure. Zimmer-
man's Blind-fast is on practically the same principle as this.
The difficulty with the two foregoing patterns is, that they
do not hold the blind perfectly rigid, and the rods are likely to
get in the way, specially as the rods and sockets take up consid-
erable space on the sill. There is but little practical advantage
in having a fixture which permits of the blind being open at
various degrees, for, as a rule, most people prefer to have their
blinds either entirely open or entirely shut.
The desire to open and operate blinds without opening the
window has led to the invention
of several devices which are
worked by rods passing entirely
through the frame of the house
and attached to the blind. It
not altogether easy to imder-
Fig. 252. Mallory's Shutter-worker.
Frank B. Mallory.
Fig. 253. Brown's Shutter-worker. Ireland
stand why such devices are used so little, but it must be
Chapter ix. admitted, that all of those now in the market are more or less
clumsy. Still, the idea is an excellent one, and if there were
greater demand for such appliances, undoubtedly better ones
would be put before the public. The shutter-worker of this
description that is the most natural in its adjustment is illus-
trated by Figure 252. This consists simply of a rod, at the
Fig. 254. Automatic Shutter-worker. Dudley Shutter- Worker Co.
end of which is a thread working against a cog-wheel forming
a part of the bottom hinge of the blind. On account of the
slowness of pitch of the thread,
it is very difficult to move the
blind from the outside, but the lev-
erage is sufficiently strong to
enable one to easily open the
blind from within by turning
A very similar appliance to
this is the Brown shutter-worker,
Figure 253, in which the thread
on the spindle works into teeth on
the bottom of a plate forming a part of the lower shutter-hinge.
Tyler Mfg. Co.
The Automatic Shutter-worker, Figure 254, combines the
good points of several other devices, and is somewhat more
complicated than either of the preceding. Two cog-wheels
gear into each other. The shaft of one wheel is carried
through the wall and can be operated by a crank or handle in-
side the house. The shaft of the other wheel turns a crank,
or bent lever, the end of which works in a slide attached to the
face of the blind. The cog-wheels are encased in an iron box,
which is shown partly removed in the figure, in order to illus-
trate the workings. Aside from the number of parts, which is
no very great objection, this shutter-worker has a great deal to
recommend it. It is strong and compact, and can act on the
shutter with such force that, it is asserted, a child can work
the blind with it in a high wind. It has the advantage of per-
mitting the blind to be removed without disturbing the fixtures.
One of the simplest acting shutter-workers, is illustrated by
Figure 255. This is very ingenious in its idea, consisting of a
straight rod set on an angle, with a bent lever on the end
Fig. 256. Tucker Awning Blind-hinge. Hamblin & Russell Mfg. Co.
working in a curved slot or catch secured to the outer face of
the blind. This shutter-worker will lock the blind as securely
as any door can be locked, the handle of the rod being dropped
down onto the pin as shown by the lock.
The company which manufactures the Brockton shutter-
worker has bought up the patents of the Prescott shut-
ter-worker, which was somewhat on the same principle.
B UILDERS' HA RD WARE.
Chapter ix. There are some other shapes in the market ; but practically
very few which embody ideas essentially different from those
Awning-hinges. Awning-hinges might more properly be considered with
common blind-hinges, but they are included in this connec-
tion, as they are in a measure blind-adjusters, permitting the
blind to be opened part way. The writer has been able to
find only two forms in the market. The simplest is shown
Fig. 258. Byam's Blind-sla
'am's Blind-slat Adjuster. Byam,
Stewart & Baker.
Fig. 257. Automatic Blind-awning
Fixtures. F. O. North & Co.
Fig. 259. Shutter-bar.
by Figure 256. This consists of a double-acting hinge for
the upper portion of the blind, a lower hinge being screwed to
the jamb and fastened to the blind only by a turn-button.
The other form of awning-fixture is more commonly used
The upper hinge is so made as to-
about Boston, Figure 257.
work in either direction, while the lower hinge consists of a
cup fitting over a pin screwed to the jamb. A small catch
Fig. 260. Shutter-bar.
Fig. 261. Morris' Self-locking Shutter-bar. Ire-
land Mfg. Co.
keeps the blind from pushing out when the hinges are
to be used in the ordinary manner, but is readily lifted
when the blinds are to be pushed out from the bottom.
The fixtures are sold with side-bars to hold the bottom of
the blind away from the building,
and with a centre cross-bar which
permits the blinds to be opened
part way in the ordinary manner,
and secured. The description and the
figure might seem to imply a some-
what complicated arrangement ; but
the fixtures work very simply, and
seldom fail to give satisfaction.
Figure 258 shows a form of slat-
adjuster intended to be operated by
a key from the inside of the house without opening the window.
The slats are connected with an eccentric which is turned by*
the key, so that the slats can be either raised or lowered as
HARDWARE FOR INSIDE SHUTTERS.
There is little to be said as regards fasts or locks for inside
shutters. The shutters themselves are usually provided with
knobs of some description, with porcelain or metal heads
secured in position by a screw. The shutters are also pro-
Fig. 262. Sliding Shutter-hook.
P. & F. Corbin.
Chaoterix vided with some form of latch or bar, of which Figure 259 is a
very simple type. Figure 260 shows a more elaborate form,
for inside work. There are, of course, many variations of
these forms. A few of the hardware manufacturers have been
making self-locking shutter-bars, in which the cross-bar is
secured by some form of auxilliary lever or cam. Figure 261
illustrates one variety. There is, however, but little demand
for such appliances.
j For sliding shutters a bar like that shown by Figure 260
may be employed, but there are also several varieties of mortise
hooks, Figure 262, which work with a spring, and are rather
preferable for most cases.
The retail prices of the foregoing blind and shutter fixtures
are as follows :
TABLE OF SHUTTER-FIXTURES. PRICES PER WINDOW, WITH
TWO SINGLE-FOLD BLINDS.
Stanley's wire blind-fast
Boston pattern blind-fast
New York pattern blind-fast
Standard screw blind-fast
( Turn-buckles or drop-buttons for brick
\ Turn-buckles or drop-buttons for wood
Seymour's blind catch and lock
Excelsior blind-adjuster, galvanized
Washburn's blind-adjuster, 1 galvanized, 10-inch bar
Mallory's shutter-worker, with hinges and handle
Brown's shutter-worker, japanned
Automatic shutter-worker, with hinges and handle
Brockton shutter- worker
Tucker awning blind hinges 1 *.
Automatic blind awning fixtures'
Byam's blind slat-adjuster
Shutter-bars bronzed-iron, 2-inch, per dozen
Shutter-bars, bronze, 2-inch, per dozen
( Morris' self-locking shutter-bar, bronzed-iron, 2-inch, per doz. ,
| Morris' self-locking shutter-bar, bronze, 2-inch, per dozen
Sliding shutter-hook, bronze, each
1 For wooden house.
TRANSOM AND SKYLIGHT FITTINGS.
TT7RANSOMS are hung by
JL common butts at the top
or bottom, or are pivoted in the
centre horizontally. The ordi-
nary hinges used for transoms
are such as might be used for
any purpose. These have been
previously discussed. Sash cen-
tres or pivots are commonly
mortised into the frame and into
the sash. Figure 263 is the or-
dinary form. Figure 264 is another variety in which both
pivots are exactly alike. This is secured in place by first fasten-
Fig. 263. Sash-centres or Transom-
Fig. 265. Surface Sash-
centre. P. & F. Corbm.
Fig. 264. Sash-pivot. A. G. Newman.
ing the round part of the pivot at entire end of the sash, and
securing one socket-piece to the sash-frame. The other socket
162 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter x. is then fitted to the opposite pivot, and the sash placed in
position and turned at right angles, thus uncovering the second
Fig. 266. Surface Sash-centre. J. F. Fig. 267. Transom-pivot. Hopkins &
Wollensak. Dickinson Mfg. Co.
socket, so that it can be screwed to the jamb. This form is
claimed to be tighter and consequently more secure against
draughts than the ordinary style.
Instead of either of the foregoing, it is sometimes desirable
Fig. 269. Cupboard and Transom Catch. Ire-
land Mfg. Co.
Fig. 268. Transom-catch. A. G. Fig. 270. Transom-catch. J. B. Shannon &
to use pivots which do not turn on the line of the centre of the
sash. Figure 265 illustrates a form which can be used in such
TRANSOM AND SKYLIGHT FITTINGS.
a case, both pivot and socket being planted on the faces of the
sash and the frame. Figure 266 and Figure 267 are other
varieties sometimes met with. The different uses for which
these various forms are applicable will readily be appreciated ;
the first being for a case in which the jambs and the sash are
flush ; the second, one in which the transom sets out from the
Fig. 271. Transom-lift.
272. American Transom-lift.
American Mfg. Co.
jamb ; and the third, one in which the jamb is too deep, or the
transom set too far in to permit of the hinges being applied to
the face of the jamb.
Transoms are usually provided with some form of spring
catch to hold them closed. Figure 268 is a direct catch, the
latch being secured to the transom. This is for use when the
jamb and the sash are flush. Figure 269 is a transom-catch
B UILDERS' HARD WARE.
Chapter x. worked on a little different principle from the foregoing. The
same form is also used for cupboards. This, as well as the
first, is fastened onto the face of the transom. Figure 270 shows a
transom-catch intended to be mortised into the edge of the tran-
som, either at the top or the bottom.
Transom-lifts. In the best work it is customary to provide some appliance
for lifting the transom and holding it in position. With the
ordinary catches previously described, a
chain is attached at one side of the tran-
som, permitting it to be opened down from
Fig. 273. StellerTran- Fig. 274. Overall's Transom- Fig. 275. Excelsior Tran-
som-lifter. Russell 8i lifter. P. & F. Corbm. som-lifter. Russell &
the top a certain distance only ; but it is much more convenient
to have some appliance that will permit the transom to be
opened in either direction, and will hold it securely. The
TRANSOM AND SKYLIGHT FITTINGS.
most popular, and one of the best known is the Wollensak
transom-lifter, Figure 271. This consists of a straight rod with
a hinged arm attached to it, the arm being secured to the edge
of the transom, while the rod works up and down in a series of
rings, being held at any given height by turning a button at
the bottom binding on the rod. These are made for transoms
either pivoted at the centre and swinging down, or pivoted and
swinging up, or hinged at either top or bottom. Figure 272
shows another form, made by the American Manufacturing
Company. The rod in this case
is replaced by a flat bar, the
attachment otherwise being es-
sentially the same as in the
previous example. The bar is
notched at the bottom on the
inner edge, and a catch on the
lower guide-ring locks the bar
Fig. 276. Skylight Lift and Lock.
J. F. Wollensak.
Fig. 277. Skylight-lift. S. L. Hill.
at any height. Figure 273 is another form manufactured by
Russell & Erwiii. In this case the bar is held in position by
turning the button at the bottom. This transom is provided
with a supplementary set of guides at the top, so that in
shoving up the bar there will be no opportunity for the weight
of the transom to deflect it sidewise. Figure 274 shows a
form of transom-lifter manufactured by P. & F. Corbin, con-
sisting of a straight rod, with a long, flexible steel attachment
at the top. The rod is secured at any height by a turn-button
in the same manner as in the first example, while the flexibil-
ity of the upper portion of the rod permits the transom to turn
at any angle. There is yet another form, Figure 275. This
consists of a single rod attached directly to the transom, and
secured on the jamb only by a single turn-button, near the bot-
tom. This turn-button is placed at an angle in such a manner
as to allow considerable side-play on the rod, and so permit
of the deflection necessary for opening the transom.
Closely allied to the transom-lifters are those which are used
for skylights. Figure 276 shows a form manufactured by
Wollerisak. This consists of a double bar attached to a socket
working on a slotted bar. The socket has attached to it a
spring-catch which slips into the slots on the bar. The rope
passes through the socket up over a pulley, and down through
an eye in the end of the spring-catch. By pulling the bar out
away from the socket, the spring-catch is released and the
socket, and with it the skylight may be lifted or lowered, the
spring-catch shutting back when the horizontal strain on the
rope is relaxed. This is made in two sizes, with a length of
eighteen inches each. Figure 277 shows another form of sky-
light-lifter in which a ratchet on the side of the upper frame-
work fits into slots on the edge of the lifting-rod, the ratchet
being worked by a separate cord. The ratchet is fitted with a
spring to keep it in position.
The following table gives the retail prices of the goods de-
scribed in this chapter.
TRANSOM AND SKYLIGHT FITTINGS. 167
TABLE OF TRANSOM-FITTINGS. Chapter X.
Sash-centres japanned per dozen pairs
Sash-pivots bronzed-iron per set ... . .
Surface sash-centres P. & F. Corhin brass per set ....
Surface sash-centres Wollensak bronze No 4 per set
Surface sash -centres Wollensak, bronzed-iron per set
Surface sash-centres, Hopkins & Dickinson, bronze, per set
Transom-catch, per dozen
Transom-catch bronze per dozen
Wollensak's transom-lifter bronzed
Wollensak's transom-lifter nickel-plated .
American transom-lifter coppered
American transom-lifter nickel-plated
Overell's transom-lifter bronzed
Excelsior transom-lifter bronzed
Wollensak's skylight-lifter No 12 each
Hill's skylight-lifter each
Prices for transom-lifters are for a medium 4-foot rod and for a single fixture.
Chapter xi. t TTNY one who should
/ X visit the mediaeval
museums of Europe,
and should chance to
see among the curi-
osities of iron - work
some of the elaborately
wrought and apparent-
ly intricate locks of
the fourteenth, fifteenth
and sixteenth centuries,
would hardly think of comparing those unwieldly and cumber-
some devices with the locks that are turned out in such
quantities by our best modern manufactories. And yet, if the
older contrivances are examined attentively it will be seen that
the difference between the old and the new is one of finish
and delicacy, rather than of idea or mechanism ; and that, with
the exception of a few noteworthy inventions for obtaining a
greater security against picking by an ordinary thief, the locks
of to-day are exactly the same, in principle and arrangement,
as those which were made centuries ago. Indeed, it is rather
strange that with all the inventions which have been made
during the nineteenth century and especially within the present
generation, and notwithstanding the inventive genius which
Fig. Ilia. Egyptian Wooden Lock.
American industry has brought to bear upon the subject, the Chapter xi.
Yale system should be, after all, very nearly the only invention
of practical utility which is a direct departure from the older
methods of lock making. Probably a large proportion of the
readers of this paper can distinctly remember the time when
pin locks were almost unheard of. It might be said in expla-
nation of the seeming fruitlessness of mechanical research upon
this subject, that there was really very little that could be dis-
covered or improved upon, as the real principle of a lock is too
simple and too definite in its nature, not to have been thorough-
ly appreciated and exhausted long ago ; but the same could
have been said before Linus Yale set his Yankee wits to work
upon the subject, and it would be impossible at present to
foretell what discoveries may be made or what radical changes
brought about in the appliances for locking our doors. Possibly
our descendants may some day wonder at the locks of the nine-
teenth century, even as we wonder at the cumbersome pieces
of mechanism and the ponderous keys of our great grandfathers.
At any rate, it will not do to claim that our locks are perfect,
or that the record of progress is entirely closed. A very few
years ago the Yale lock was pronounced to be complete ; but
some very radical improvements have been made in it since
then, and the opponents of the system claim it has yet many
defects both in construction and idea. So it would not be
strange if our best locks should one day become obsolete.
But if the progress which has been made in the essential, Finish and cost,
mechanical principles of lock manufacture is small, the im-
provements in finish and the reduction in the cost of the locks
have been marvelous. Less than a century ago, locks were
made entirely by hand, and . very crude affairs they were, too,
costing a great many times the price of a better article
of to-day. At present, good, well-made, well-planned locks
can be had at prices varying from twenty-five cents to five dol-
lars, suited to all needs and all conditions ; while the amount
of real security afforded is of a much more tangible nature.
And with the improvements in niceness and delicacy of arrange-
Chapter xi. ment, it nas been possible to affect a change in the style and
weight of the keys which the present generation can only
faintly appreciate. The old-fashioned keys were heavy, cum-
bersome, and so large that no one ever thought of carrying
them about the person. Now they are made so small that the
keys for an entire house can be carried in one's vest pocket.
Formerly the strength of a lock was judged by its weight, and
it was considered essential to have heavy bolts or levers, and
strong springs, requiring considerable force to operate ; while
now, all the parts are so well adjusted and so light, that a
touch is sufficient to put the mechanism in operation.
Principles. The fundamental principles forming the basis of all locking
constructions, include a bolt which is moved by the direct
action of the key, while secondary bolts or levers drop into
such positions that the lock bolt cannot be forced back except
by breaking some portion of the mechanism. The secondary
bolt is usually termed a lever, and either acts by gravity or by
the aid of a spring usually by both. The key is so made
as to first raise the levers, and then to shoot the bolt by a
single turn of the hand. These principles have governed the
manufacture of locks since the days of Adam, and apply
equally to the ponderous locks of the Middle Ages and to the
corrugated-key locks of the Yale & Towne Manufacturing
Company. Complications have been added to the construction
of locks in the shape of multiple levers, requiring nicely fitted
keys, or fancy wards which would allow none but the right key
to enter ; and there have been special forms devised for bank
uses, working by combinations of letters, by dials, or by clock-
work ; but in the locks used about an ordinary house, the prin-
ciple is always the same that of a key simultaneously lifting
one or more levers and moving a bolt.
Egyptian Lock. In order to clearly illustrate the antiquity of the principles
upon which modern locks are constructed, it may be of interest
in this connection to refer to a few of the older forms. A rude
style of lock which has been used in Eastern countries for
no one can say how long, but certainly for over two
thousand years, is approximately shown by Figure 277er. All
the parts are of wood, including the key. The bolt is chan-
nelled on the inner edge, and slides through heavy wooden
staples in which are arranged a number of pegs, of varying
lengths, fitting into corresponding holes bored through the top
of the bolt. The key consists of a flat piece of wood somewhat
smaller than the channel which is cut in the bolt, and in use,
is inserted lengthwise of the bolt. On the end of the key are
pins spaced to correspond with the pegs in the staple. It is
evident that while the pegs are caught in the bolt itself and in
the staple, the bolt cannot be moved ; but when the key is in-
serted, the pins will be directly beneath the holes in the upper
part of the bolt, and by raising the key, the pins will lift the
pegs just enough to clear the joint between the bolt and
the staple, and the bolt can then be moved at will. In this
lock, the action of the key is almost exactly the same as in the
Yale lock ; namely, to lift a series of pins of unequal lengths
so as to bring the bottom of each on the same line, though the
Yale key has other functions, as will be noted later.
Figure 278 shows a key which was dug up in Pompeii. It
was evidently intended to operate a warded lock, a
style which was in almost universal use up to thirty
years ago. Figure 279 illustrates a fine old Eliza-
bethan leek. This could be described as a fully-
developed lever-lock, the springs on the levers be-
ing arranged in exactly the same manner as the Fig. 278. Key
locks which are sold over the counter to-day. Strip-
ped of all the fancy cutting and misleading wards which have
nothing to do with the efficiency of the lock, it will be seen
that this is really a very simple contrivance, though quite
complicated in appearance.
The number of antiquated examples might be multiplied in-
definitely, but the foregoing will suffice for the purpose, as
they may be taken as types of the three most markedly
different arrangements for adding to the security of a lock ;
namely, with wards, with pins or with spring-levers.
The various parts of a lock will need some definition and
explanation, in order to prevent any ambiguity in the terms.
Parts of a key.
Fig. 279. Elizabethan Lock.
Figure 280 shows the general shape of the ordinary key, in
which A is called the bow ; j5, the shank, and
0, the bit. The difference between the keys
of to-day and those of two or three generations
ago has been already alluded to. Many of the
hand-made locks are still provided with the
old-fashioned, heavy brass keys, but the " Yale "
locks have prejudiced people against anything
but a flat key, and nearly all manufacturers
use them in one form or another. A few lock-
makers have keys which are arranged to fold
up like a knife, to be used in connection with rim-
locks, or with locks requiring a very long key, but
generally the key is of steel, nickel-plated, with a
flat shank and a thin bit. When the cuts on the bit
are on the side or edge, as shown by the cut, they indicate
a tumbler or lever-lock, while cuts on the top or bottom show Chapter xr.
that the lock is fitted with wards. Many of the old keys pre-
served in museums are made with very elaborate bits, cut in
curious and intricate patterns. In some instances the cuts cor-
respond to equally intricate wardings in the lock, but generally
they are purely fanciful. When the shank of the key is tubu-
lar, it indicates a lock which can be operated from one side only,
such as those used for drawers, etc. All keys for door-locks
now have solid shanks.
The bolt which secures the lock, is generally made quite
heavy where it projects beyond the face-plate, but is thinned
down inside the lock so as to be as light as possible, and to
give space for the levers.
The talon, A, Figure
281, is the notch in the
under side of the bolt
in which the key works.
The post, B, is the part
which catches in the lev-
ers, preventing the bolt
from being forced. Guide-posts on the case of the lock fit in
the slots, (7, one of the same posts often serving as a pivot for
The most primitive form of lock would be one consisting Levers.
simply of a bolt, which is shot
back and forth by the key.
But as any other key or even
a wire would answer equally
well, some obstacle must be
interposed to prevent picking.
This is done by combining
with the bolt a series of le-
vers or tumblers which per-
mit only the proper key to be
used. The two terms are used at present synonymously.
Figure 282 illustrates a typical lever. There are from one
Fig. 281. Bolt.
Chapter xi. to five levers in an ordinary lock, and they are usually placed
one over the other, pivoted over the guiding-post, and the
bolt-post is so arranged as to fit through one of t-he cuts, A y
when the bolt is thrown back, and through B when thrown
out. The connecting gatings, C, are cut at different heights,
so that the levers must be lifted unequally in order to per-
mit the bolt to move. When the key is turned in the
lock, the bits, which are cut to match the levers, bear
against the bellies, D, lifting the levers simultaneously until
the gatings are exactly on a line with each other. The key
then catches in the talon of the bolt, the bolt-post passes
through the gatings, and the levers drop as the key turns,,
catching behind the bolt-post and effectually preventing the
bolt from being forced back. This is, generally speaking, the
function of all lock-levers, though there are many variations,
from the form illustrated.
The levers, of course, slide one over the other, and in
common locks they are laid closely together. In the best of
hand-made work, however, and in a few of the machine-made
locks, the levers are separated, either by side-wards cast onto
the thickness of the lever, or by intermediate strips of brass
which bear on each other and on the levers only at certain
points, thus reducing greatly the friction between the parts.
Tumblers. A somewhat different form has been much used in English
locks, which is shown by Figure 283. In this case the levers
are beneath the bolt. On each is a post which works in slots
and through gatings cut through the bolt. Price, in his
" Treatise on Locks," 1 which is a very valuable and interesting
work on the subject, as it was understood up to 18 GO, makes
the distinction between levers and tumblers, applying the
latter term to the device shown by Figure 283, and the former
to that illustrated by Figure 282. His distinction seems to be
a fair one, though seldom made in this country, where what he
calls tumblers are little used.
1 This work is entirely out of print, but can be found in most of the large
public libraries. It is complete and thoroughly illustrated.
A little reflection will cause one to comprehend the number Chapter XL
of changes possible in a lever lock. The levers may be
transposed, and within certain limits the heights of the gatings Changes.
Fig. 283. English Tumbler.
may be varied, so that with six levers there can be as many as
7,776,000 changes, no two of which can be operated by the
same key. Simple transposition, without any variation in the
heights of the gatings, will give 720 changes.
A device has been used in some makes of locks, intended
not only to increase the difficulty of picking but also to show if
the lock has been tampered with. It consists of a spring so
arranged that when one of the levers is lifted too high, as
would naturally be done by any one attempting to pick the
lock, it is caught and held in such a position that the bolt-post
cannot possibly pass through the gatings. The spring is
released by using the right key and turning the bolt out more,
but no key can unlock the mechanism until the detector spring
is released. This is a very ingenious arrangement, and at one
time was considered absolutely burglar-proof, though it is now
very seldom met with in the market. 1
The wards of a lock are fixed obstructions which are
attached to the inside of the lock-case, so arranged that none
but the proper key can pass and reach the levers. Formerly
the confidence in warded locks was so great that levers and
tumblers was used very little, but that feeling has entirely
passed away. Modern locksmiths use wards very sparingly,
and limit themselves to small shoulders or ridges, cast on the
1 The detector-spring was an important feature of the celebrated " Chubbs "
176 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter xi. inside of the upper and lower case-plates, which require
corresponding cuts on the upper and lower edge of the key-
bit. They do not add in the least to the burglar-proof quali-
ties of a lock. At one time, however, locks were constructed
with very elaborate wardings. Figure 284 illustrates the
wards of a French lock about one hundred and fifty years old.
The wards consist of two thin
plates, one each side of the key-
hole, with a series of ridges
forming a semicircle on each,
the ridges being star-shaped in
Fi . 284. Wards of an'old French Lock, section. The key-bit is CUt
out with a star pattern which
has to exactly fit the wardings. This is one of the simpler
forms which the ingenuity of French locksmiths at one time
delighted in, and though seemingly proof against intrusion,
can be opened with very little trouble, by a judicious use of a
few stout wires.
Springs. There is a great difference in the quality and arrangement
of springs used in connection with a lock. In regard to
material, the best is, undoubtedly, phosphor-bronze ; but
springs of this material require to be so large in order to have
the desired stiffness, that their use is not always practicable,
especially as they can be used to advantage only in the shape
of flat-bands. The springs which hold the levers in place
against the bolt-post are usually made of round steel or brass
wire, and are attached directly to the heel of the lever, as
shown by Figure 282. A separate spring is necessary for each
lever. It is sometimes desirable to attach the spring to a
secondary lever acting directly on the top of the main lever,
Figure 285, as in a case where the levers move up and down in
the lock instead of being pivoted together. With such an
arrangement the edge of the secondary lever should be grooved
so as to fit over the top of the primary lever, thus obviating
any difficulty of the levers slipping by each other, or of the
wrong springs acting on the levers.
The latch is a feature of the modern lock which our
ancestors did not enjoy. Except in the case of store-doors, all
door-locks are now made with some form of spring-latch.
There are three distinct kinds of latches commonly used, the
simple spring-latch, anti-fric-
tion latch and front-door latch.
The cheapest form of ordi-
nary spring-latch consists of a
bevelled head, projecting from
the face-plate of the lock, with
Fig. 285. Compound Lever.
Fig. 286. Anti-friction Strike.
a shank inside the lock, about which is coiled a strong spiral
spring, keeping the latch pressed out. The inner end of the
latch-shank is forked and hooks under each side of what is
termed the follow, through which passes the spindle of the
door-knob. Turning the knob either way draws back the latch.
The objection to this arrangement is that while only a very
slight spring is really necessary to keep the latch .in position,
a pretty strong spring is required so that the knob shall
B UILDERS' HARD WARE.
not turn too easily; otherwise, every time the door-knob
is touched the latch will be opened. Consequently in the
better class of work a door-latch is usually fitted with two
springs, one of which is operated when the latch is pushed
back by the door being closed, while both springs are acted
upon when the knob is turned. In this way the requisite
resistance can be obtained for the knob, and, at the same
time, the latch will close easily. A latch so arranged is
termed an easy spring-latch. There are several methods of
attaching the two springs. Ordinarily, spiral brass springs are
employed. Hopkins & Dickinson and, we believe, a few others,
are able to introduce into their locks springs made of phosphor-
bronze, which, it is claimed, will keep its elasticity much longer
than steel or brass. The different methods by which the springs
are attached and the knob operated will be made clear when
the various makes of locks are described, later on.
The ordinary form of latch is made with a V-shaped bevel,
the long side of the bevel striking against the jam-plate.
Enoch Robinson, of Boston, was, it is believed, the first to
patent an anti-friction strike, as it is called. Figure 286 illus-
trates the construction of his device, which is incorporated
into all of the locks which he makes.
It is simply an application of the
principle of the old bell-lever crank.
The action of the anti-friction strike is
to raise the latch-bolt from the bed of the
lock and carry it back without friction
on the sides. Actual tests have been
made proving that it requires less force,
acting directly on the side of the anti-
friction strike, to force the lever back,
Fig. 287. Anti-fri
than is required to push back the latch by straight pressure
against the apex of the bevel.
Figure 287 shows a form of anti-friction strike used by sev-
eral other manufacturers. There is no difference in principle
between this and the " Robinson " make, though the appear-
ance is a little different, the " Robinson " strike being in the
centre of the bolt, while the others are on one side, also in
" Robinson's " strike the pin is on the latch and the slot in the
Fig. 288. Anti-friction Rocker Strike.
strike, while in the other anti-friction strike they are exactly
the reverse. Figure 288 shows a form which is made by a
few manufacturers, being listed in the catalogue of both J. B.
Johnston and the Nashua Lock Company. It consists simply
of a steel rocker attached by swivel pins to the bolt, the lower
pin passing underneath the shank of the bolt. When the door
is closed the latch, instead of moving straight back, swings
on the lower edge of the rocker, being lifted from the lock-
frame, and thus reducing the friction. The gain by this
device is, of course, less than
by the others previously de-
scribed. Yet another form of
so-called anti-friction strike is
made. Figure 289 shows the
pattern adopted by Hall, of
Boston, for his spring-latches.
It consists, essentially, of an
adaptation of the well-known
car-door latch, the latch-strike
being hinged at the base and
attached by a loose-pin to the
latch-shank at the top, while
the face of the latch-strike is
Slightly Curved. This device Fig. 289. Anti-friction Strike. Hall.
makes really a very efficient
anti-friction strike. The only objection to it is that the wide
Right and Left
B UILDERS' HA RD WA RE.
plate necessitated by it cuts the door a great deal, and many
persons do not like it on that account.
The custom in regard to latches varies in New York and
Boston. In New York the outside knob is generally fixed
firmly so as not to move at all, while in Boston the knobs
are arranged with a swivel spindle permitting either to be
turned without acting upon the other, and the mechanism in-
side of the lock is so devised that by pushing a button or a
slide the outer knob can be held fast. In cheaper forms of
front-door locks, the knob-spindle is made without a swivel,
and security is obtained by a bolt on the inside.
Locks are designated as being either right or left hand,
though the distinction is one which is confined entirely to the
latch. A left-hand lock belongs to a door fitted with left-
hand hinges, as has been previously explained, the term right
or left being decided by whether the door turns on the hinges
Fig. 290. Right and Left Hand Locks.
when opening either in the direction of the hands of a clock or
the reverse. Locks are also designated as being either left
or right hand reverse bevel, the reverse bevel applying to a
door which swings out instead of swinging in. That is to say,
in the case of a front door, for instance, if it swings out the
night-latch would be on the outside, but the latch-bolt would
be just the reverse in arrangement from what it would be,
relatively, on an ordinary front door swinging in.
Figure 290, will fix this distinction clearly in mind. The
figure is taken from the catalogue of the Yale & Towne Manu-
facturing Company. It is believed that the distinction between
right arid left, and reverse bevels is seldom appreciated by
It is very often desirable to have a latch which can be re-
versed so that if any mistake is made in ordering, the lock will
not be useless. Reversible latches are made in several ways,
the latch-shank being generally of such shape as to permit
its being turned over and worked in the opposite direction,
without interfering with the action of the lock.
Locks wear out not so much by actual failure or breaking
of the parts, but by the lever and key wards being
worn so that the key will not lift the levers and permit the
bolt to pass. Key-wards are the slight projections which are
cast on the inner face of the lock-plates to form an additional
obstruction to the passage of strange keys. Of themselves
they affect the value of a lock but little, as the key will operate
as well without as with them, so that the only vital parts
which wear out are the edges of the levers against which the
key acts. The constant striking and turning, when a lock is
used continually, will in time wear off the surface of the lever
so that it will not rise quite sufficiently to allow the bolt-post
to pass. The springs, also, sometimes become brittle, and the
follows operating the latch will wear so as to work loose and
rattle, but a little tinkering can remedy any of these difficulties.
It costs but a trifle to have a new key made which will fit a
partiallv worn-out set of levers. New springs are inserted at a
trifling cost, and if the latch-spring is strengthened a trifle the
rattling of the follows can be obviated ; so there is, really, no
reason why a fairly good lock should not last indefinitely. It
is, also, a very simple thing to make a new combination of the
levers when they cease to work smoothly, and renewed life
can thus be imparted to an apparently worn-out set of works.
Wear on Locks.
B UILDERS' HARD WA RE.
In judging of the intrinsic worth of a lock, therefore, the
following conditions should be carefully observed.
First : Good material for the use to which it is put.
Second : Careful adjustment, so that the parts will work
easily and will stand any possible strain in use.
Third : The whole secret of the value of a lock is in the
levers, which should be so made as to ensure a minimum of
friction, of material not easily corroded nor easily worn away ;
and they should be adjusted to secure the greatest amount of
security against picking, with springs not too easy, nor so hard
as to bring undue wear on the levers.
A very good test of the workmanship of a lock can easily be
made by shooting out the bolt, removing the cap to the lock
case, and then pressing in strongly on the bolt, at the same
time lifting the levers, one by one. If the gatings are ac-
curately fitted they should all bear equally against the bolt-
post, so that the gating of no one lever would catch on the post
as it is lifted by. Few of the ordinary locks will stand this
Intricate combinations, made ostensibly to prevent the lock
from being picked, add very little to its value for ordinary
house work. It may be safely stated that any lock can be
picked which is operated by a key, so that a good three-lever
lock affords all the intricacy and gives one all the protection
that could be desired. A lock has a personality of its own,
and so much of its value depends on the maker that it is wise
in purchasing to always get the best ; keeping in view sim-
plicity, and the points previously noted. A cheap, but well-
made lock is better than an expensive one which is put together
in a careless and indifferent manner.
It has not been the intention to consider in detail any ar-
ticles of hardware which are not in actual daily use at the
present time ; but there are a few styles of locks which are
entirely obsolete so far as the American trade is concerned,
but which should be included in any study of the subject,
if one wishes to thoroughly understand the principles of mod-
ern lock-making, and the processes of elimination and survival
of the fittest which have brought the manufacture to its present
state in this country.
Figures 291 and 292 illustrate the old English "Bramah"
lock. This consists of a
revolving cylinder in
which is disposed radi-
ally a series of flat sliders
working up and down
through slots in a fixed
horizontal plate. The
sliders have notches on
the outer edges, cut at
different heights, so that
the cylinder can revolve
only when the notches
on the sliders are on a
line and level with the
plate. The sliders are
forced upward by a sin-
gle central coiled spring.
The key consists of a
tube, on the sides of which
are straight grooves cor-
responding to the de-
sired depression of the
slides, with a shoulder to
turn the cylinder. The
locking-bolt is moved by an eccentric attached to the cylin
der. The notches on the sliders are disposed as irregularly
as possible, and false notches are added, with corresponding
false widenings of slots in the plate. All of the sliders can be
pushed in farther than is needed to bring the notches on a line
with the plate, so that the lock is picked with great difficulty.
" Cotterill's " lock, Figures 293, 294 and 295, is another
example of English ingenuity. The portion which is acted
291. The Bramah Lock.
BUILDERS 9 HARDWARE.
Chapter xi. upon by the key consists of a rotating flat disk or cylinder con-
taining ten or more slides moving in radial grooves and pressed
Fig. 292. The Locking-plate of th<
Fig. 293. Plan of Cotterill's Lock
towards the centre by springs. A fixed ring or plate is fitted
to a circular groove on the face of the disk, and has slots cor-
responding in position to the radial slides. There are also
slots cut on the edges of the slides, so that when the key is
in place the slots on the slides coincide with the circular
Fig. 294. Section of Cotterill's Lock.
Fig. 295. Locking-plate
groove on the disk, permitting the whole to be revolved.
When the key is withdrawn the slides are forced in different
degrees towards the centre, so that the solid portions intercept
the groove in the disk, in which position it is held fast by the
fixed ring. It is believed that this lock never has been picked.
A lock which in its time was a strong competitor with the
" Bramah " and " Cotterill's " locks, and was equally im-
pregnable, is " Day & Newell's " Perautopic bank-lock, an
American invention which was in great demand at one time,
but has long since ceased to be manufactured. It has the
curious property that the key, which is made with movable bits,
can be changed at will, so that the lock can be opened only by
the key which was last used to shoot the bolt. The lock has
never been picked. Figure 296, which is taken from Price,
is too complicated to fully illustrate the workings. Figure
29 6&, while not exactly like the lock, embodies the same
Fig. 296. Perautopic Lock, open.-
arrangement and will serve to make the construction under-
stood. The letters refer to both figures. There are three dis-
tinct sets of levers, A, B and (7, each admitting of a sliding or
lifting motion up and down, the levers A having springs which
keep them pressed down, D, and the levers being constantly
forced up by a spring of lesser strength E, so that the levers G
will always move up and down exactly as A are raised or
lowered, the tops of C bearing against the bottom of exten-
sions to A. The levers B have no springs, and slide up and
down between studs attached to a wing of the bolt-tail, so that
Day & Newell's
Chapter XL when the bolt is shot, the levers B move with it. F is a dog
or lever, which is hinged to a stud on the bolt at the top, ai.d
hinged with a bent elbow attached to the lock-case at the
bottom. On this dog, F, is a tooth, and on the edge of each
of the tumblers B are notches corresponding in mutual dis-
tance with the difference in lengths of the movable bits of the
key. Furthermore, the levers A are each made with an arm
Fig. 2966. Perautopic Lock, shut.
G which fits into a corresponding notch in the levers B, and
the levers .Shave each an arm H which exactly fits between
two arms on each of the levers (7. Figure 296 shows the lock
with the bolt thrown, and Figure 2966, shows it drawn back.
When the key is turned in the lock, the bits, no matter in what
order they may be arranged, lift the levers A. These, by
means of the arms G and H, lift the other sets of levers in
exactly the same proportion. The key then forces out the
bolt, and the levers B are withdrawn from the arms G and ff,
but before the arms Hare entirely free from the arms on the
levers (7, the notches on B are caught on the tooth of the dog
F, the le\ ers B being then held at exactly the relative heights
to which they were raised by the action of the key on levers A.
The key, continuing to turn, then allows levers A and C to
drop to their- original position, and the bolt is then locked. It
is evident that only the proper key will answer to unlock the
combination, as unless the levers A and C are raised in
exactly the proportion they were when the bolt was shot, the
arms H cannot enter between the arms on levers (7, and the
bolt cannot be moved. There are several other features of
the lock, such as detector plates, wards, etc., which need not
be noticed here. A circular curtain protects the keyhole, and
a solid partition entirely prevents access to the levers, while if
any attempt is made to discover the combination by applying
pressure to the bolt and tentatively rising the' levers A, the
arms on the levers B and G which have notches on the ends
will catch on each other and be immovable as long as the
pressure remains on the bolt. With an eight-lever lock and
eight-bitted key, over 5,000 different combinations can be made.
A very ingenious idea which seems not to have survived the
the test of years was embodied in another English device
" ParnelPs " Defiance lock. The peculiarity here is in the key,
which is made with expanding bits. When out of the lock it
has the appearance of a key-blank. Eccentrics in the lock
force out the proper bits to act on the levers, and the keyhole
is guarded in such a manner that a key which could enter and
was without expanding bits, would simply turn without affect-
ing the lock ; whereas a key with fixed bits which would be
right to move the levers could not enter the keyhole.
As previously stated, none of the foregoing are now used in
this country, but from them several of our best locks have been
derived. Prior to 1851 all of the best locks used here were
of English make, but American locks came to the front about
that time, and to-day an English lock would be looked upon
as a curiosity in our hardware trade.
Turning then to our own current manufactures, there are
several varieties of locks which are commonly found in the
market. The "dead-lock" consists simply of a bolt thrown by
the action of the key on the levers, but does not include any
knob or latch. A "mortise lock" is one which is mortised into
the frame of the door, and always includes, as commonly
B VI L DERS' HA RD WA RE.
Chapter xi. understood, both bolt and latch. A mortise lock is generally
operated from either side. A u rim-lock" is one that is planted
Rim-locks. on the face of the door. It is generally made with a nicer-
looking case than the mortise locks, and requires longer keys
and a little different adjustment of the knob-spindles. A dead-
bolt may be either mortise or rim, but, generally speaking, rim-
locks are understood to have both latch and bolt. A " rebated
lock" is one which is mortised into the door-frame like an
ordinary mortise lock, but the face-plate is rebated so as to fit
the rebates of the door to which it is attached. This form of
lock is used only for front double-doors. In the East it is
customary not to rebate the front doors, but, we believe,
generally speaking, in the West such locks are necessary.
Special locks are usually made for front and vestibule doors.
The lock for the front door includes a dead-bolt and a latch
operated by a knob from within, and worked by a key from
without. The vestibule lock consists simply of a latch worked
by a knob from the inside and a key outside, the same night-
key answering for the latches of both front and vestibule
doors. Hotel locks are understood to be those which are so
arranged that they can be opened from either the inside or the
outside, but when locked from the inside cannot be unlocked
from the outside. There are many varieties of hotel locks.
Generally they are made in sets of fifty, one hundred, two
hundred, or more, as desired, and are master-keyed, that is to
say, the tumblers are so arranged that one key will unlock the
whole series, though the individual keys of the different locks
will not unlock each other. Again, they are sometimes made
so that the lock can be locked from the inside with one kev,
and an exactly similar one can unlock it from the outside, but
the master-key cannot unlock it after the bolt has been thrown
from the inside, and after the bolt has been thrown twice from
the inside nothing can open it from the outside. Such locks
are intended to be used where two persons room together, but
do not come in at the same hour, each wishing to be secure
against intrusion, and yet leave the lock so it can be opened
by his comrade.
Locks are made both by hand and by machinery. Boston,
at present, seems to lead the country in lines of hand-made
locks. Indeed, it is doubtful if in any other city such an in-
dustry could so long survive the extended application of
machinery to labor which has so strongly marked this century.
But in Boston the old ideas are slow to go, and the people are
loath to give up a thing once tried and proved, merely because
there is something else in the market, even though the some-
thing else may be cheaper. There is no question but that a
hand-made lock, if the manufacturer is thoroughly conscientious,
is better than one made by machinery, especially as the hand-
made lock manufacturers, thus far, never have catered to a
cheap trade, and have always kept their goods up to the very
highest mark. In the hand-made locks the levers are care-
fully adjusted, nearly all the interior fittings are made of brass,
and, while in some respects hand goods may be inferior in fine-
ness of polish and smoothness of exterior appearance, no one
ever denies their excellence. But, on the other hand, the cost
of hand-made goods is so much higher than of those made by
machinery that the former are gradually being driven out of
the market, especially since some of the best of the machine-
lock manufacturers have succeeded in turning out such admir-
able goods. To the uninitiated the best of the machine-made
locks are quite as good as any that are turned out by hand,
while the progress of machinery has been so great that it is
possible to obtain almost any desired accuracy of adjustment.
Of course, the best of locks, even those which are nominally
machine-made are fitted by hand. Only in the cheapest forms
are locks left as they come from the machine.
In regard to price, machine-made locks may be divided
generally into six classes. This division, of course, is not
absolute. Locks are made in all grades, and are of all prices.
Some very good locks are made in cheap form, and some very
poorly designed locks are listed at a high price ; but for general
comparison this division will be satisfactory :
First, the cheapest form of lock made, with iron face and
Hand and ma-
190 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter XL bolts, steel spring, and a single lever ; P. & F. Corbin have a
lock of this description which sells in the market for a $1.50
Second, a lock with brass face and bolts, all the rest of the
construction iron, one lever ; average price $4.00 to $4.50 a
Third, brass face and bolts, all the rest iron, with two
levers ; $7.00, or with three levers $8.00 per dozen.
Fourth, anti-friction latch, brass face and bolts, three levers,
$17.00 per dozen.
Fifth, front-door lock and latch, $1.50 to $4.50 each.
Sixth, hotel locks, $2.50 to $5.00 each.
Hand-made locks may be divided according to cost into five
First, single lever with brass face and bolts, $1.50 each.
Second, three levers, brass face and bolts, $2.50 each.
Third, anti-friction strike, three levers, brass face and bolts,
Fourth, anti-friction strike, all brass-work, $5.00 each.
Fifth, front-door locks from $8.00 up.
The foregoing classification of machine and hand made locks
according to price does not imply two classes in regard to
either efficiency in working or nicety of plan. The machine
and hand made locks are designed on exactly the same princi-
ples, and the differences are but slight. Still the hand-made
locks are, throughout, better than a relatively corresponding
grade of machine-made locks.
ORDINARY MODERN DOOR-LOCKS.
In considering the locks at present in the market, it is man-
ifestly impossible to even mention all of the styles and vari-
eties, nor has it been found practicable to gather reliable data
concerning all of the different makes. It is believed, however,
that those illustrated will serve as fair criterions of what the
market is producing. The descriptions will be limited chiefly
to such as are used about an ordinary building. Time-locks r
L>E AD- LOCKS.
Fig. 297. Mortise Dead-lock.
Russell & Erw.n.
bank-locks, safe-locks, prison-locks, etc., are too complicated to Chapter xi.
come within the scope of this treatise, and are, besides, quite
outside the line of what
could fairly be termed
An analysis of the va-
rious styles of locks can
be best followed by tak-
ing the different exam-
ples according to the use
to which each is put.
They may, then, be
classed as :
Second, ordinary lock and latch combined.
Third, front-door locks.
Any of these, except the first, may have anti-friction strikes,
and may be mortise, rim, or rebate, and all can be master-
keyed. Consequently in these five categories can be included
all ordinary house-locks.
Figure 297 is a type of the most simple form of dead-lock, ^ad-locks.
manufactured by Russell & Erwin, having five plain, pivoted
levers, permitting of 120 changes in the lock by transposition
of the levers. The same style of lock is made with as few as
one lever. A. G. Newman manufactures a very good store-
door lock, Figure 298, in which the levers slide up and down
but are not pivoted together. Figure 299 illustrates the
" Standard " store-door lock, manufactured by the Yale & Towne
Mfg. Co., a very strong, well-made, and almost unpickable
lock. The bolt-tail is the full thickness of the bolt but is
made with a shell so that the tumblers work within the bolt, as
it were, and the key, instead of acting against the under side
of the four levers, works through the centres ; and, instead of
acting directly upon the bolt, simply rotates an irregularly-
shaped cam. The side figure showing the bolt and the cam
alone, will illustrate how this lock works. The levers in this
example are of steel, as in all the " Standard " locks.
Fig. 298. Mortise Dead-lock.
A. G. Newman.
Fig. 299. Standard Store-door Lock.
Yale & Towne Mfg. Co.
Neither of the foregoing offers any special protection against
picking, except such as results from careful fitting, or, in the
Standard lock, from the difficulty of reaching the levers through
a small key-hole. Figure 300 shows a " Robinson " store-lock,
in which the inside of the bolt-post is cut with a squase notch.
If an attempt is made to pick the lock by exerting a pressure
on the bolt while the levers are raised tentatively in succession,
the notch in the post will catch in corresponding notches on
the edges of the lever gatings, holding the levers so they can-
not be moved in either direction. Two of the levers only are
so notched, the uppermost lever having plain gatings to pre-
vent the posts from catching when the proper key is used.
This is a hand-made lock, with all the works made of brass
except the bolt-post.
Figure 301 shows another "Robinson" lock in which the Chapter XL
post and gatings are notched in the same manner as the pre-
ceding example, but in which additional security is obtained
Store Locks. E. Robinson.
by attaching the post to a thin plate, sliding up and down in
the bolt-tail, but held down by a spring lever such as those
which work against the main levers. The post and the
gatings are so arranged that if the levers could be so lifted as
to bring the gatings exactly in a line, the bolt could not be
moved, as the post would be too low down to pass. The post,
as well as the levers, has to be raised, and on account of the
notches, which prevent any tentative picking, this can be done
only by the proper key. The works of this lock are all of brass,
except the sliding parts of the bolt and the bolt-post which are
of steel. The key is tubular, and the lock can be opened from
one side only. It is an old style, and is little used at present.
A lock which is asserted to be absolutely proof against pick-
ing, is the " Dietz " lock, Figure 302. In this the locking-levers
are not touched at all by the key, being separated from the
key-hole by a curtain or partition on the bolt-tail, so that no
wire or picking instrument can reach the levers through the
Chapter xi. key-hole. There are two sets of levers, exactly corresponding
in thickness and bearing against each other only at the shoul-
ders, as shown by the figure. The key-bits first lift the pri-
mary-levers, which are fitted with
the stronger springs. The springs
of the secondary or locking-levers
then force the latter down in propor-
tion as the primary-levers are raised.
The secondarv-levers are so arranged
that the gatings are above the line of
the lock-post, rather than below it as
in ordinary locks, and it is evident that
by raising the primary -levers to the
proper heights the gatings of the sec-
Oondary-levers can be brought exactly
in line to permit the bolt-post to pass.
But to prevent picking by the ten-
store Lock. A. E. Dietz. tative process, one of the secondary-
levers is made with plain gatings but
the others are finely notched to correspond with notches on the
post, so that if any attempt is made to force the bolt, the levers
become fixed. The bolt is moved by a key-cam similar to that
shown by Figure 299. The small slide at the bottom of the
lock is simply to prevent the cam from turning too far. The
" Dietz " lock is machine-made, but is first class in every respect,
with all-brass inside works. The agents maintain that this
lock never has been picked. The description may seem com-
plicated, but the lock is very simple in action, and it is one of
the most satisfactory of its kind in the market.
ORDINARY LOCK AND LATCH.
One of the cheapest locks in the market, and one which,
considering the price, is a very fair article, is manufactured by
P. & F. Corbin. P. & F. Corbin, Figure 303. Everything about this lock is of
cast-iron except the springs. The single lever, under the bolt-
tail, shown by Figure 304, has a small shoulder instead of
ORDINARY LOCK AND LATCH.
of gatings, and the latch has only one steel spring. It is a
lock that offers no real security, but it is worth all it costs,
SI. 50 per dozen. It works easily, and is so simple in construc-
tion that it seems capable of with-
standing considerable wear, perhaps
more than a better article. Figure
^*-< v\r w>f ^^ ^ s a more expensive, one-lever
j i ^^^"^j^j) lock by the same manufacturers,
having double springs for the latch.
The form of follow, A, and the ar-
rangement of springs in this ex-
P. & F. Corbin
Fig. 304. Lever
Fig. 305. Lock. P. & F. Corbi
ample is that which has been found to give the best results,
generally speaking, and which has been adapted to a great many
varieties of locks. When the latch is forced back, upon clos-
ing the door, the lower spring alone is compressed, reacting
against the plate and posts at B, but when the door-knob is
turned in either direction the follow forces back one of the arms
of (7, compressing the upper spring, while a shoulder on the
lower part of C catches on D, which is attached to the latch-
bolt, thus bringing both springs into play. This would be
termed an easy spring latch, in that the knob can be turned
with equal ease in either direction.
Figure 30(3 illustrates a lock manufactured by Nimick &
Brittan, in which the lever and bolt are essentially the same
as in the preceding ex-
ample, but which has a
follow arranged upon a
different principle, lugs
being cast on the top
and bottom so as to
bear against the irreg-
ular spring-lever A, and
the latch-bolt being
pinned to an extension
of the lever. The fol-
low and lever shown in
Figure 307, a lock by
J. B. Shannon & Sons,
is of much the same de-
scription. In both of
these, the knob can be
turned more easily to
the left than tO the Fig. 306. Reversible Mortise Lock. Nimick &
Brittan Mfg. Co.
right by reason ot
the unequal leverage against the piece A, though the difference
in resistance is partially compensated for by making the shoul-
ders on the follow of unequal lengths. The lock shown by the
last figure has three levers, and is catalogued as being hand-
made. In Figure 306 the latch is reversible so that the lock
can answer for either a right or a left hand door.
The u Niles " locks, of which Figure 308 is a type, are all
made to be operated by knobs having a follow cast solid onto
ORDINARY LOCK AND LATCH.
the spindle. The action of the knob will be referred to later
on. The figure shows only the follow, which is inserted from
the back. The
" Niles " locks
have the name
of wearing very
well. The levers
are of steel and
are pretty well
fitted for a ma-
and the springs
are also of steel,
the bolt being the
only portion of
for which brass
is employed. As
in some of the
I previous exam-
ples, the knob
turns more easily
towards the left
than the right.
If instead of the
lever, B, a form were adopted similar to that shown in Figure
305, the u Niles" locks 'would leave little to be desired, and
would compare favorably with anything else in the market.
An examination of the figures will show that, except in the
very cheapest example, the face-plate of the lock is screwed to
the lock-case in such a manner that it can be moved slightly
and set at whatever bevel may be desired in order to fit the
door. Figure 309 shows a lock of the Ireland Manufacturing
Company in which all the parts can be reversed. The latch is
simply dr-awn out and turned over. The bolt-tail is in twp
Fig. 307. Mortise Knob-Lock. J. B. Shannon & Sons.
198 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter xi. sections and the outer part can be unscrewed and reversed to
Fig. 308. Niles Lock. Chicago
Fig. 309. Reversible Lock. Ireland
match the change in bevel. Otherwise this lock is of the
Fig. 3 I 0. Reversible Lock. Ireland Fig. 3 I I . Three- Lever Lock. Hopkins
Mfg. Co. & Dickinson Mfg. Co.
ordinary type. Figure 310 shows another lock manufactured
ORDINARY LOCK AND LATCH. 199
by the same company, in which the hand can be changed by Chapter XL
Fig. 312. Reversible Lock. Hop-
kins & Dickinson Mfg. Co.
Fig. 313 Gilbert Lock. Gilbert Lock
Fig. 314. Standard Lock. Yale & Towne Fig. 3 I 5 Lock. Enoch Robinson.
turning the latch over.
Figure 311 illustrates a very satisfactory three-lever lock
Yale & ToAvne
made by the Hopkins & Dickinson Manufacturing Company.
The key-hole in this example is protected by a small rotating
curtain similar to those described in connection with the store-
door locks, intended to aid in securing the levers from being
tampered with. Figure 312 is another lock by the same com-
pany, in which the latch-springs are of phosphor-bronze, and
quite ingeniously, though very simply arranged so as to give
an easy spring-latch. The latch is reversible. The lock is
shown with a single-lever, but is also made with three, if
desired. Both of these locks are ex-
Figure 313 shows a lock in which
the latch is operated by a peculiar
form of knob having no spindle or
follow, but working against the latch
mechanism with a lever at A. It has
the same disadvantage as the " Niles "
locks, that the ordinary form of knob
and spindle cannot be used with it.
Aside from the latch, this lock pre-
sents nothing out of the usual line.
Figure 314 is a type of a make of
locks which for simplicity of design,
carefulness of execution and for good
lasting qualities is hardly excelled by Fig. 31 6.
anything in the market, except the
best hand-made work. The Yale "Standard" locks, as
they are termed, to distinguish them from the ordinary Yale
pin locks, are made with steel levers, and brass springs,
bolts and follows. They are so perfectly simple as to require
no description. The best forms of springs, levers, and follows
are used in these locks, so that they seldom fail to give satis-
Excepting Figure 307, all of the foregoing locks are
machine-made, the levers being hand-fitted only in the best
grades. Figure 315 shows one of " Robinson's " cheapest hand-
ORDINARY LOCK AND LATCH.
made locks costing $1.25 each, fitted with a single iron lever,
bronze or brass being used only for the follow and the bolts.
Figure 316 is a better example of Robinson's work, costing
$3.50 per lock. In this the levers, as well as the bolts and
the follow are of bronze,
and the latch is fitted
with an anti-friction
strike. The interior of
a machine-made lock
usually is finer looking
than that of one made
by hand, as in the latter
all the care is concen-
trated on the adjustment
of the mechanism.
There is no denying the
excellence of the " Rob-
inson" locks, at least it
would be difficult to per-
suade many Boston
builders that they are
not the best to be had,
and although the locks
are much more expen-
sive than the best of the
Yale "Standards" or
Fig. 3 I 7. Front-Door Lock. P. & F.Corbin.
the Hopkins & Dickinson locks, they are used a great deal
on all kinds of work. It is a satisfaction to know that there
is one corner of this country where careful, conscientious work
can command its own price, in the face of the competition
which exists in the hardware trade.
The greatest amount of care and ingenuity has been ex-
pended upon the locks which are used for the front-doors of
dwelling-houses, and the largest degree of complication is
202 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter xi. usually found in these goods. They afford, generally speaking,
a greater security against picking than do the locks which are
employed for inside-doors. The conditions of an outside-door
lock are that it shall have two sets of mechanisms operated by
keys, to move either bolt or latch at will, and shall have the
Fig. 3 I 8. Mortise Knob-Lock. P. & F. Corbin.
knob-spindle so arranged that the latch can be moved by turn-
ing either knob, and that the outside knob can be made im-
movable, while the inner one is free to move. Front-doors are
usually two inches or more thick, and the lock can consequently
IDG made quite thick, so as to permit of multiplication of the Chapter xi.
levers, and a stronger mechanism than for inside-doors. A
front-door lock should always have an anti-friction strike.
Figure 317 shows a form
o front-door lock manu-
factured by P. & F. Cor-
bin. This is fitted with
an anti-friction strike,
has four levers for
both the lock and the
night-latch. The follow
is in two pieces. When
the small catch on the
face-plate over the latch
is pressed to one side,
the lever, A, is moved
so as to fit in a slot on
the side of the outside
follow, as shown by the
figure, thus holding
the follow, and with it the
outside-knob and spindle,
so they cannot be moved.
The night-key operates
by first lifting the levers Flg ' 3 ' 9> Front Door Lock - Russe " & Erwin '
B, and by moving the lever, (7, which carries back with it the
latch-bolt. Figure 318 is a form of rebated-door lock by
the same manufacturers. It is inserted here merely to show the
manner in which mortise-locks are fitted to a rebated-door.
Figure 319 illustrates a front-door lock manufactured by
Russell & Erwin. The levers on the locking-bolt, A, are
attached to the bolt, and move with it, not being particularly
proof against picking, however. In operating the night-latch,
the levers B are pushed to one side until the gatings are on a
line to permit the post to pass, the post forming part of a
bent lever, the end of which shows at D, which portion acts
P. & F. Corb'n.
directly against E, and so
draws back the latch. In
order to secure the outside
knob, the catch on the
face-plate is pushed up,
throwing the slots on the
lever F, Trover a shoulder
on the outside-follow. Fig-
ure 320 is another front-
door lock by the same
Figure 321 is a very
excellent lock manufac-
Fig. 321. Front-Door Lock.
B. Shannon & Sons
J. B. Shannon
ell & Erwin,
tured by J. B. Shannon
& Sons, so arranged
that the knob comes be-
tween the night-latch and
the lock-bolt. It will be
noticed that the levers
and the posts are notched
in the same manner as
was* explained for some
of the dead-locks. The
latch is moved by means
of a lever, A, under-
neath the upper set of
levers, A being attached
to the latch-bolt. This is.
a very secure lock.
Figure 322 shows a variety of the " Niles " front-door Chapter xi.
lock, which is quite simple in its arrangement. The latch is
worked by the lever A.
A very simple but efficient lock is shown by Figure 323.
The latch-key works through a curtain. A, raising the levers A G N
until the post, /?, and with it the plate and the latch can be
Fig. 322. Niles's Front-Door Lock.
Chicago Hardware Co.
Fig. 323. Front-Door Lock.
A G. Newman.
drawn back. This lock is made in the " New York " style,
with a single follow, intended to receive the spindle of the
Figures 324 and 325 illustrate two styles of front-door locks
by the Hopkins & Dickinson Manufacturing Company. The
B UILDERS' II A RD \ VA RE.
former is rather a light lock, the latter especially strong and
heavy, and fitted with five levers to both latch and lock.
Figure 326 shows one of the best of the front-door locks,
the " Standard," by the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Com-
pany. There are three steel levers for both the latch and the
lock. The night-key pushes the levers B to one side and
Fig. 324. Front-Door Lock. Hopkins
& Dickinson Mfg. Co.
Fig. 325. Front- Door Lock. Hopkins
& Dickinson Mfg. Co.
moves the bent piece A, which forces back the latch-bolt. The
tongue, (7, which locks the outside-knob, is pushed in or out by
the buttons on the face-plate. It is not intended to use this
lock with a swivel-spindle, but when the knob is locked by the
tongue (7, a spindle and cam at D serve to throw back the
latch from the inside of the door. The arrangement of the
levers B is defective in this lock, in that they will not work
FR ONT-D OR L CKS.
should the springs give out. Levers which act by gravity, as
well as with springs, would seem to be more suitable.
The lock represented by Figure 327, is one of " Robinson's"
best make, being sold, with the corresponding vestibule lock,
at $14 per set. It is a
hand-made lock, all the
mechanism being of brass.
In the examples previ-
ously considered, there
have been two sets of lev-
ers to each lock. In this
case, however, there is
Fig. 326. Yale Standard Front-
Door Lock. Yale & Towne Mfg. Co.
Fig. 327. Front Door-Lock.
but one, the holes for the night-latch and the dead-lock key
being side by side. The shape of the levers will explain the
arrangements, two sets of gatings and rackings being cut
B UILDERS' HARD WA RE.
on each. The dead-lock key acts against the edges at A.
B is the post on the bolt-tail, which passes through the gat-
ings in the ordinary manner. The night-key acts against
the edges 01 The post D is attached to a sliding-plate, work-
ing between the levers and the dead-bolt tail. The lever E
is pivoted to this plate and also to the lock-case. When the
levers are raised so as to allow the post D to enter the ratch-
ings, the plate and the lever E are drawn back together at the
same time as the latch. The follow is made double, to permit
of swivel-spindles, and the outside is locked by the arm F.
The latch has a very easy spring, the follows being stiffened
by a spring.
Hall manufactures a front-door lock almost exactly like
Figure 327, but with his peculiar anti-friction strike.
These are always sold in
sets, with a front-door lock,
and the levers are so ar-
ranged that the same latch-key
will open both, the vestibule-
lock having no dead-bolt. But,
more generally speaking, a ves-
tibule-latch may be considered
as any spring-lock having no
dead-bolt. When used for a
vestibule-door the latch should
have swivel-spindles and levers
to lock the outside-knob.
Figure 328 is a pattern which
P. & F. Corbin list as a front-
door lock, but which seems to
Fig. 328. Front-Door be more properly a vestibule-
Lock. P & F. Corbin.
latch. The key lifts the levers
and moves a plate on which
are two posts A and B, one of which must pass the gatings
before the other can reach the shoulder on the latch-bolt (7,
and force it back.
Figure 329 is the vestibule-latch sold with the front-door lock
represented by Figure 327.
Figure 330 is a Standard knob-latch manufactured by the
Yale & Towne Company, which is not, properly speaking,
a vestibule-latch, but which is
worthy of consideration in this
connection. It is provided with
triple-springs, thus permitting
a very easy action on the part
Fig. 330, Standard Knob-Latch.
& Towne Mfg. Co.
of the striker while giving all necessary strength to resist the
turn of the knob. This can be adjusted to either right or left
hand doors. \
Hotel-locks are usually made to order, and master-keyed in
sets. In a large hotel all the locks on a floor can be opened
with one key. In smaller buildings all the room-locks are
master-keyed in a single series. The protection afforded by
locks which are master-keyed is, of course, less than it would
otherwise be, as a master-keyed lock can very easily be picked
if the principle of master-keying is understood, and in most
Yale & Towne
P. & F. Corbin.
cases master-keying benefits no one but the hotel-keeper.
Except with the " Yale " and the " Hopkins & Dickinson "
cylinder-locks, there has not yet been devised a really satis-
factory system of master-keying. The two exceptions will
be described in a subsequent chapter.
The simplest and also the cheapest method of master-keying
is illustrated by one of "Corbin's" locks, Figure 331. The
Fig. 33 I .
332. Master-keyed Lock,
kins & Dickinson Mfg Co.
gating on the one lever is made so wide as to admit of fifty
different positions, in any one of which the bolt-post could pass.
The room-key raises the lever so as just to clear the top of the
gating, and the master-key allows the post to clear the bottom
of the gatings. A bent wire would serve quite as well for
opening the lock as either of the keys. Fortunately for
occupants where such locks are used, it is customary to fit
hotel-locks with a small bolt, worked from within. Figure 332
is much better. The levers are exactly like those of any
ordinary lock, except that there is a shoulder A at the back of
each. Beneath the bolt-tail is a fourth lever, with an arm on
it, rising so as to catch under the shoulders A. This lever is
protected by a ward about the key-hole. The room-key lifts
the levers and shoots the bolt without disturbing the fourth
lever. The master-key lifts the fourth lever without touching
Fig. 333. Master-keyed Lock. Hopkins &
Dickinson Mfg. Co.
Fig. 334 Hotel-Lock Hopkins &
Dickinson Mfg. Co.
the others, the shoulders being so sized that the master-key
lever will bring the gatings on the locking-levers into line.
Figure 333 shows another form of master-keyed lock by Hop-
kins & Dickinson. In this instance the regular key and the
master-key work from either side of the lock in the same key-
hole on the same tumblers and bolts. Still, each has a different
set of tumbler-rackings and a different post in the bolt. When
the master-key is used the bolt-post for the regular key is
thrown down by a patent device, and another post brought
up in the second rackings of the tumblers. When the master-
key is removed the lock is set in use for the regular key. It is
B UILDERS' HARD WA RE.
Tale & Towne
claimed that 1,200 of these locks can be made, all different,
each lock with a key of it own which will fit no other, and with
master-key to pass all. This is a rather expensive lock, how-
ever, and on that account is not used a great deal. The idea
is an exceedingly ingenious one.
Figure 334 shows a Hopkins & Dickinson lock, or rather
bolt, used for hotel and oilice doors between connecting rooms.
This is intended to be used when
it is desired to have the door defi-
nitely locked from either side, so
that it cannot be unlocked from
the other side, and, accordingly,
the handles which operate the
bolts are placed orr opposite sides
of the doors. The same com-
pany also manufactures a hotel-
lock which is so arranged that
the locking bolt can be operated
from the inside by a turn-button,
instead of a key. When the door
is locked from the outside it can
at any time be opened from
within by turning the button, so
that it is impossible for an occu-
pant to be locked in the room.
Figure 335 shows the construc-
tion of a Yale " Standard "
hotel-lock. In this case the master-keying is provided for by a
second set of rackmgs cut in the levers, so that almost any
number of variations can be had in a given series of locks, the
variation being entirely in the lower set of rackings. The room-
key lifts the levers exactly the same distance as the master-
key, but as the proportion between the lengths of the bits,
and the height of the lever bellies above the lower key-hole
is different in each lock, it is easily understood why no two
locks can be opened by the same room-key.
335 Standard Hotel-Lock.
Yale & Towne Mfg. Co.
The broad and general principle which distinguishes the or-
dinary lever-lock from the style of lock manufactured under
the Yale patents, is that in the latter the mechanism upon
which the key directly operates is entirely distinct from the
lock itself, being enclosed in a cylinder or escutcheon. The
function of the key consists simply in so arranging certain
movable pins, slides or other obstructions, that the mechanism
is free to rotate, and by its movement, to operate on the locking-
bolt. This variety of lock is by no means without a prototype,
as we have already seen in the case of the "Egyptian," the
" Bramah" and the "Cotterill" locks; but in its application it
has been simplified and reduced to a marketable form chiefly
in this country, and can be fairly claimed as a product of
Linus Yale invented the lock which bears his name, about
thirty years ago. His original patents covered substantially
only the use of a flat key to operate a locking mechanism, a
series of vertical pins of unequal lengths being lifted by means
of certain nicks or irregularities on the upper edge of the key,
so that the ends of the pins were brought on a line. Within
recent years an important change has been made in the con-
struction of the Yale escutcheon. The slot through which the
key reaches the pins is now cut in sharp corrugations, the key
being corrugated longitudinally so as to exactly fit the slot.
By this simple device, the " Yale " locks have been rendered
practically proof against any but the most expert lock-pickers.
The external appearance of the " Yale " lock is presumably
familiar to every one, but the internal construction will require
Figure 336 shows a cross and a longitudinal section through
a typical Yale escutcheon, together with the exposed face of
the same. It will readily be seen that the action of the
mechanism is very simple. There are two barrels or cylinders,
one rotating within the other, but eccentric with it. When
214 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter xi. the key is withdrawn the lower cylinder is held from rotating
by means of five sets of round pins which are fitted in vertical
grooves extended partially through the two cylinders, and
pressed constantly downward by five spiral springs. In each
groove are two pins of unequal lengths, one over the other.
When the proper key is inserted all the pins are raised simul-
taneously, but to varying heights, so that the joints between the
Fig. 336. Mechanism of the Yale Lock. Yale & Towne Mfg. Co.
upper and the lower pins are brought exactly on a line with
each other. It is evident that as the inner cylinder, categor-
ically designated as the plug, is exactly fitted to the bore in the
shell, an almost imperceptible variation in the height to which
any one of the pins is raised, will prevent the plug from turn-
ing ; whence it follows that an immense number of locks can
be made with such mechanism without duplication. From this
results the unrivalled capacity of the " Yale " lock for permuta-
tions, with its proportionate safety against any accidental
interchange of keys.
It will be seen that in this lock the key acts only as an
adjuster of the pins. Motion is communicated to the locking-
bolt of the lock simply by means of a hub on the back of the
rotating plug, or, in the case of a rim-lock, by a flat key
extending from the plug through the door. Some of the
opponents of this system consider that in it, too much is de-
manded of the key, but when the locks are otherwise as nicely
arranged and evenly balanced as the " Yale & Towne "
goods are usually found to be, the amount of twisting strain re-
quired to move the bolt is really not a great deal. In no
well-made lock should there be any great strain on the key,
much less in such a device as this, wherein there are no strong
lever-springs to work against.
It will easily be appreciated that this device has almost
revolutionized the lock-trade in this country. Not only has it
opened the way for many valuable inventions of a similar
nature, but it has stimulated the perfecting of the ordinary
lever- locks, and was instrumental in the abandoning of the old
style of heavy door-keys, so that one's pockets are no longer
burdened with such keys as were thought indispensable forty
The advantages claimed for the Yale lock are as follows :
First, a key of the smallest size and most convenient form.
Second, immense capacity for changes or permutations, so
that more thousands of changes are possible than an equal
number of dozens with the old systems. 2
Third, great safety against picking.
Fourth, uniformity of size of the key for locks of all kinds
and for all purposes.
Fifth, protection against accidental interchange of keys by
reason of the great capacity of the lock for permutations.
In regard to the third point claimed, it must be remembered,
however, that with all its security the Yale lock does not
offer an exception to the general rule that any lock can be
picked which is operated by a key. Still, very few persons
have the nicety of touch necessary to raise the pins by means
of fine instruments inserted through the key-hole, and bring
them exactly to the position necessary for moving the plug.
There are experts who claim to be able to open any " Yale "
lock which has been made, but for all practical purposes a lock
of this sort affords absolute security, as the time required to
pick it renders it very unlikely that any thief would be so indis-
creet as even to make the attempt.
It will be understood that the zig-zag corrugations extend
2 Assuming that a variation of one-fiftieth of an inch in the length of a pin is
sufficient to lock the plug, 267,331,200 locks can be made on this system, no two
of which can be operated by the same key.
Chapter XI. entirely through the length of the plug. In a measure, this
feature prevents any duplicate key from being manufactured
by persons not authorized to do so, as it requires very heavy
and specially made machinery to produce one of these keys,
and unless the corrugations exactly correspond with the lock,
the key cannot enter. The plugs are cut by a peculiar form
of band-saw specially designed by the manufacturers ; and
altogether it seems as if every precaution had been thought of
which could render the lock more inviolable.
Like a great
many other success-
ful inventions, the
Yale locks are re-
markable for^ their
simplicity. T h e
whole of the me-
chanism being prac-
tically combined in
there is no necessity
for any complicated
system of levers or
springs in the lock
proper, and there
remains very little
to get out of order.
The older plugs,
made with a
straight slot, would
allow a certain
amount of vertical
play to the key,
so that it would
rock in the cut and would not always exactly lift the pins ;
besides which the slot permitted the lock to be picked with
comparative ease. This is entirely obviated by the corrugated
Yale Front-Door Lock. Yale & Tov
C YLINDER L CKS.
slot, as already explained. It will be noticed also that the lock
is not in any way dependent upon the springs, as the pins would
act by gravity, even should the springs give out entirely.
It would seem almost an impossibility to master-key a series
of Yale locks, and yet it is accomplished in two different
ways. The first is to fit each lock with a separate master-
escutcheon, practically making a double lock, though both sets
of escutcheons act on the same locking-bolt. By this method a
million locks could be master-keyed in a single series, if
desired. The second way is to use three pins in each slot
instead of two, the lengths of the pins being so adjusted that,
throughout the series, the upper joints can be brought on a line
by the master-key, while the lower jointings are all different,
and fitted to the individual room-keys. This method necessi-
tates a larger and more cumbersome plug arid cylinder, and is
Yale locks are manufactured in all styles and for all pur-
poses, but the escutcheon is always arranged in exactly the
same manner, whether intended to operate a night-latch or a
desk-lock. The variations consist mainly of differences in the
form of the latch or of the lock. A single example will be
sufficient to illustrate the whole. Figure 337 represents one of
the most perfected forms of Yale front-door lock. G and B
are the two escutcheons, each with a cam, 7?, attached to the
back of the plug. M and j^are two levers hinged to the bolt-
tail. Z, J^is a bent lever, hinged to a flange of the bolt-tail, and
catching under a hub on the bolt of the latch. The dead-bolt
can be operated from either side, the cams first depressing the
levers so as to pass the post, S, and then shooting out the bolt
in the same manner as with an ordinary key. When the dead-
bolt is unlocked the end of the lever F takes the position
shown by the figure. If the cam R is then turned to the left,
it so acts on the lever as to cause it to draw back the latch, G.
Consequently a single key serves both to unlock the dead-bolt
and to draw back the latch.
The " Yale " lock has, of course, won for itself a host of
218 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter xi. imitators in the hardware trade. The closest approach to the
" Yale " system is embodied in an escutcheon lock manufac-
tured by P. & F. Corbin.
Figure 338 illustrates this.
The internal arrangement is
exactly the same as in the
" Yale " lock, so far as re-
lates to the pins, etc., but the
plugs are cut with square-
edged, instead of zig-zag slots.
These slots, also, are not car-
ried entirely through the
plug, but extend only through
a thin face-plate, behind
which is a wide slot exactly
like that of the original
" Yale " locks. This seems
The Harvard Lock.
P. & F.
like an imitation of, but in
nowise an improvement on the original, and is considered by
Fig. 339. Th Foster Lock.
A. G. Newman.
the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company as an infringement
on their patents.
Figure 339 illustrates the " Foster " lock, manufactured by
A. G. Newman, a very ingeniously devised lock, which is
harder to pick than the " Yale," and* as put on the market,
shows the greatest of care in workmanship and finish. The
cross-section of the escutcheon shows the internal construction.
The outer shell, A, is fixed to the lock-case. The plug, B, is
hollow, and fitted with ten slides (7, which work through cuts
in the side of the plug and catch in slots, E, K, cut in the
shell, so that the plug cannot rotate until the slides are with-
drawn. Half of the slides protrude from the plug towards the
right and half towards the left ; each slide being fitted with a
small brass spring, D. The key is cut with an irregular cleft,
and the slides are cut out, with a cross-piece near the centre.
The cross-pieces, and the sinuosities of the cleft in the key are
so mutally spaced that when the key is inserted all of the slides
are drawn in and the ends no longer protrude but are flush
with the surface of the plug, which is then free to rotate. It
is believed that this lock is unique of its kind, and, though in
outward appearance much like a
Yale lock, it is decidedly original in
every other respect.
A form of cylinder-lock has re-
cently been put on the market by
the Hopkins & Dickinson Manu-
facturing Company, which partakes
somewhat of the nature of the old
u Bramah " lock, previously de-
scribed. Figure MO illustrates the
external appearance as well as the
internal construction of the escut-
cheon or cylinder, whose functions
are the same as in the Yale lock.
The shell, A, is secured to the lock-
Fig 340. Cylinder Lock.
case so as to be immovable. The Hopkins & Dickinson Mfg. Co.
plug B, rotates inside of this, being held in place by screws, (7,
turned through the outer shell. Inside of the plug are five
220 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter xi. slides, D, working in a closely fitted groove, with a separate
spring to each slide. The springs are on opposite sides, in
separate slots, so that there is no chance for the slides to rock.
The key is flat, with five notches on the end corresponding
to the five slides. It is inserted through a straight slot in a
capping-piece, E, and bears against the bottom of slots in
the centre of the slides. At the back of the plug is a flat
piece of metal, known as a fence, F, working up and down
CK055 SFCTlOfl '
REAR. VERTICAL SECTION
Fig. 340. Cylinder Lock. Hopkins & Dickinson Mfg. Co.
in grooves, with a hole through the centre sufficiently large to
allow the ends of the slides to protrude by it. The top of each
slide has one notch in it the same width as the thickness of the
fence, at varying distances from the key-hole, besides one or
more false notches of lesser depth. The plug is extended with
an arm, G, by which the lock-bolt is operated.
The mechanism operates as follows : The fence is in the
plane of an eccentric groove or ward cut on the back of the
shell, as shown by the
fio-ure. This eccentric
groove is so located with
reference to the centre of
rotation of the cylinder
that when the plug is
turned, the longer arm
of the fence is forced to
one side, the amount of
eccentricity being suffi-
cient to firmly wedge and
hold the plug, in case the
fence should not be free
to move laterally. When
the key is inserted, a
shoulder on it first presses
back a pin, H, which
works in a slot so as to
hold the plug and the
shell together and pre-
vent accidental rotation.
The cuts on the end of
the key then force back
the slides in such ratio
that all the deep notches
are brought exactly on
a line with the plane
of the fence. The key is then turned, rotating the plug, bring-
ing the fence to bear against the walls of the eccentric groove,
and forcing it down into the notches of the slides, these notches
being of sufficient depth to allow the fence to entirely follow in
the eccentric groove. The arm, G, can thus operate on the
Cylinder front-Door Lock. Hopkins
& Dickinson Mfg. Co,
BUILDERS' HARDWARE. '
Chapter xi. The shallow notches on the slides are intended as a safe-
guard against picking. By turning the plug with a knife blade,
the fence can be brought to bear against the slides. Slight in-
equalities in the width of the slides cannot be avoided, and the
widest slide will bind most firmly against the fence, so that by
depressing the slides successively with a fine pick one might in
time be able to catch all the notches over the fence, and so
undo the lock, were it not for the false notches which are
so confusing that it is extremely difficult, and for most persons,
impossible to pick the lock.
Figure 341 illustrates an adaptation of this escutcheon to a
front-door lock. The works are ingeniously arranged so that
the key will operate both the dead-bolt and the latch, while
at the same time the dead-bolt can be shot back by a turn-button
and spindle from the inside of the door. The illustration is too
clear to require any detailed description. This kind of escut-
cheon or cylinder can, of course, be applied to any form of
lock, though thus far it has been used by the manufacturers
only in connection with front-door and office-door locks.
Many improvements have been made in the mechanism of
this lock during the past six months, and the most thorough
study and care have been given to perfect it in every way.
The first samples put on the market were deficient in many
respects, but the lock as now offered to the trade is about as.
perfect in every way as anything of the kind which has thus
far come before the public. It has excelled everything except
the Yale locks, arid indeed there is little that can be said of
the "Yale" which does not apply with equal force to the Hop-
kins & Dickinson cylinder-lock. It is well made, compact, not
liable to get out of order, easily repaired and practically bur-
The patents to a very interesting cylinder-lock are controlled
by the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company. The
Winn Lock. " Winn " lock, Figure 342, is so peculiar in its workings that
even after taking it apart it is hard to follow the movements it
makes in unlocking. The outer cylinder is secured to the lack-
case and to the door, so as to be immovable. Inside of it
rotates the plug, a section of which is cut away to allow for a
slide-holder, A, which is free to move in and out. Inserted in
the face of the holder is a pin, B, projecting sufficiently to
catch in a groove which is cut out from the inner surface of the
outer cylinder-barrel, the groove following a waved line, so
that when the plug is rotated, the slide-holder is first drawn
CCVK3E- OP- PEG O/1 SLIDE-S
Fig 342. The Wmn Cylinder Lock. Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. .
away from the key-hole, then back, then away again. The
slides are flat pieces of steel, one-twelfth inch wide at the ends
nearest the key-hole and one-sixth inch at the other, and are
each notched on one edge, at varying distances from the end.
There is also a sliding-post which passes through the plug be-
hind the slides, which is a little longer than the diameter of the
plug, so that one end of the post must project through a short
slot in the outer cylinder-barrel. The key, when inserted in
the plug, sets the slides by means of the nicks on the end,
bringing the slots exactly on a line. The plug being then
rotated, the peg, C, carries the slides and the slide-holder away
224 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter xi. from contact with the key, the notches remaining set on a line.
After performing a quarter revolution with the plug, the proj-
ecting end of the sliding-post encounters an obstacle tending to
force it out on the opposite side of the plug, and the notches on
the slides being on a line, a fence on the sliding-post slips into
the notches, and the plug can continue to rotate. Before a
complete revolution is effected, the slides encounter a fixed
obstacle which forces them back to their original position, the
alignment of the notches being destroyed. The connection be-
tween the plug and the bolt of the lock is the same as in all the
A little reflection will convince one how futile would be any
attempts at picking this lock. The key simply sets the slides
and acts as a lever to rotate the plug. The slides are all
pointed on the ends towards the key, and a very slight ex-
perience is sufficient to show that the lock cannot be picked at
all. Indeed, this is the worst thing about it from a commercial
point of view, as few people care to have a door-lock so im-
pregnable that the door has to be broken in every time the key
There are several other styles of cylinder-locks, in which the
key operates on levers instead of pins ; also several varieties
which have much the same appearance as the Yale locks.
None of these, however, present any striking peculiarities, and
being used more for cabinet work than for doors, they hardly
came within the scope of this discussion.
Dial-locks are used almost exclusively for safe and vault
work, and so cannot be included under the general topic of
Builders' Hardware. But, representing, as they do, the highest
degree of perfection m the line of locks, a brief statement of
the principles upon which they are constructed and worked,
may not be out of place.
The external appearance of a dial-lock is familiar to every
one, consisting of a rotating disk, graduated around the circum-
ference either with letters or with numbers. To operate the
lock, the knob attached to the dial-disk is turned a certain
number of times to one side, then to the other, etc., stopping
each time on a certain number or letter, until the combination
is set, when a single turn of the knob draws back the bolt.
consists of a
series of flat,
freely on the
spindle of the
the edge of
each tumbler is
a notch, and
tumbler is made with a dog which catches the tooth of a
lever attached to the bolt. This inner tumbler is made fast to
the spindle. On each face of each of the tumblers is a small
peg, all the pegs being placed at the same distance from the
centre of rotation ; so that when the spindle is turned, the peg
on the first tumbler strikes against the peg on the second
tumbler, causing the latter to rotate, and in turn to start the
third, and so on, so that with a four-tumbler lock, turning the
spindle four times to the left moves the fourth tumbler to any
desired number ; turning next three times to the right adjusts
the third tumbler, but does not disturb the adjustment of the
fourth ; then turning twice to the right adjusts the second, but
does not disturb the other tumblers. When the slots in all the
tumblers are brought to a line, a bar drops into them, per-
mitting the bolt-lever to catch in the teeth of the first or lock-
ing-tumbler, when a single revolution will draw back the bolt.
Fig. 343. Dial- Lock. Damon Safe and Lock Works.
A single lock will illustrate the subject sufficiently for our
purpose. Figure 343 shows the works of one form of safe-
lock, used by the Damon Safe and Lock Works ; and though
this is a cheap lock, it embodies all the essential principles of
every combination lock. This lock is susceptible of 755,000
different combinations, but some bank-locks afford as many as
There is absolutely no way to pick such a lock as this,
except by "ringing the changes," that is to say, by making
successively all the possible combinations, until the right one is
Combination locks cost from five dollars for the cheapest
kind, to several hundred dollars for the most perfect styles of
In addition to the regular lines of lever and cylinder locks,
there are several
forms which may be
considered in this
Some cheap styles
of lock are manu-
factured of such
form that all the
Fig. 344. Tubular Lock. Hollenbeck. mortising Can be
done with an augur, being essentially the same in principle as
the mortise door-bolts described in a previous chapter and
illustrated by Figure 56. Figure 344 shows the construction
of the "Hollenbeck Tubular lock." It is too simple and
cheap to afford any very great degree of security as compared
with an ordinary three-lever lock, but for some cases it would
answer very well, as it saves seventy-five per cent of the labor
ordinarily necessary to fit a common lock to a door. It is
held firmly in place by the lugs at top and bottom, so,
it cannot work loose. Hollenbeck also manufactures a tubular
latch on essentially the same principle. Several other firms
have tubular locks listed in their catalogues, but they are too
much alike and too simple to
require further illustration.
Electric Locks. It is often
desirable to have a lock which
can be operated by any one
at a distance from the door.
In apartment-houses, clubs,
etc., it is well to fit the front-
door with a lock so connected
with an electric battery that
when a knob is pressed in an
upper story a catch in the',
lock is drawn by the action of
an electro-magnet, permitting
the lock or latch to be moved.
Any form of lever-lock might
be adapted to this purpose,
but there are a few forms of
specially designed electric
locks which are more commonly
used. Properly speaking these are all electric-latches, as none
of them have a locking bolt. Figure 345 illustrates " Thax-
ter's " electric lock. The pressure of a button closes the
circuit through the electro-magnets, A. These act on the
bent lever so as to release the arm, B, from its catch on F.
The spring at C draws back F and D from the follow, E. The
outside knob can then be turned arid the door opened. When
the latch is drawn back by closing the door, it carries with it the
arm F, which resets itself so that the bolt D catches in the fol-
low and locks the door. The latch is also fitted with a set of
levers, so it can be operated by a key, independently of the
" Fuller's " electric lock, Figure 346, is a trifle simpler. The
Fig. 345. Electric Lock. Thaxter.
B UILDERS' HA RD WA RE.
magnets draw the armature A away from the cam, B, permit-
ting the knob to be turned. When the door is closed the latch
lifts the bent arm, C.
and forces back the ar-
mature under B.
The "Thaxter" and
the " Fuller " locks are
the ones most com-
monly employed in and
around Boston, though
there are several other
makes in the market,
most of which are,
however, asserted to be
infringements of the
Figures 347 and 348
illustrate two types of
sliding-door latch and
lock. The locking
mechanism used for
this purpose is usually
quite cheap in its con-
struction, as a finely
fitted lock is seldom
required for sliding-
doors. Indeed in many
cases no lock at all is
necessary. The bolt is
curved and hooks
Fig 346 Electric Lock. Fuller & Holzer
down into the face-plate on the opposite door or on the jamb.
The door-pull is either in the form of a hinged-lever, as in
Figure 347, or a straight pull reinforced by a concealed spring,
as in Figure 348. Both pulls can be pushed in flush with the
face-plate. In some localities it is thought desirable to use
knobs on the sliding-doors, one set of knobs working the hook-
latch, while the other knobs are simply dummies. In this case
the key is used to lock the latch-bolt.
Drawer and Wardrobe Locks. These are more properly
associated with cabinet-work than with builders' hardware, and
will not be considered at any length. Drawer-locks are made
Fig. 347. Shdmg-door Locks. J. B. Shannon & Sons. Fig. 348.
in a great variety of sizes, from one to three and a half inches
deep, and in all grades, from a simple bolt worked by the key,
without levers of any sort, affording no real protection against
intrusion, to the locks which are operated by Yale cylinders,
having all the latest improvements of the Yale system, and
being practically unpickable. Figures 349 and 350 illustrate
two good types from the great variety of locks used for ward-
robes and small closet doors. The first shoots a bolt up and
B UILDERS' HA RD IV A RE.
Chapter xi. down and is a fair two-lever lock.
The second shoots a double
Both are gained
into the inner face
of the door.
The Corbin Cabi-
net Lock Company
has recently put on
the market a very
lock, intended spe-
cially for post-office
boxes. It is some-
what upon the prin-
ciple of the Day &
Newell " Perau-
topic " lock previ-
Figure 35 1 shows
the lock with the face-plate removed.
P^ach lock can be locked by any one of a
series of keys which can be extended in
number almost indelinitely, all the keys
being different in the arrangement and
spacings of the notchings. But the bolt
can be unlocked only by the key which
was last used in locking it, so that the
Fig. 350. Wardrobe Lock.
J. B. Shannon & Sons.
Fig. 349. Wardrobe Lock.
Fig. 351. Post-office Lock. Corbin
Cabinet Lock Co.
key can be changed as often as desired. In case the key is
lost, an arrangement at the back of the lock permits the post-
master to open the box and throw back the bolt, when a new
key can be used, without in any way changing the lock, and
the key which was lost would not then work the lock at all.
Furthermore, the bolt is so arranged that it will turn back
only sufficiently to permit the box to be opened, but not enough
to allow the key to be withdrawn, unless the bolt is forced
back by external pressure. The working is as follows : The
upper levers are pivoted so as to permit of a rotary as well as
a longitudinal motion. The second set of levers moves only
Fig. 352. Padlock. A. E. Dietz.
Fig. 353, Scandinavian Padlock.
Russell & Erwin.
laterally. The opposite edges of both sets of levers are
notched, the width of the notches corresponding to the differ-
ence between the notches on the keys. Suppose the bolt to be
unlocked : when the key is turned, the lower levers are first
pushed to one side varying distances, corresponding to the
notches of the key, and the upper levers are then drawn down
and away from the post.
As the key continues to revolve the levers interlock and the
lower ones are forced sidewise by the springs, carrying with
them the pivoted upper levers, which rotate so that the slot in
r. 354. Giant Padlock.
>mith & Egge Mfg. Co.
each lever no longer comes opposite the post. At the same
time, the bolt is shot out. It is evident that the action would
be the same, no
matter what key
were used, only the
sets of levers
would not interlock
in exactly the same
relation. It is also
evident that the
only key which
will rotate the
upper levers so as
to bring each slot
Fig. 355. Hasp Padlock. Opposite the post
stoddard Lock & Mfg. Co. an( j perm it the key,
in turning, to draw back the bolt, is the key which last made
the combination between the two sets of levers.
This lock hardly comes within the scope of builders' hard-
ware, but it is too ingenious to pass unnoticed. The Corbin
Cabinet Lock Company also makes a change lock for drawers,
operating on much the same principle.
Padlocks. The subject of padlocks is one which might be
illustrated indefinitely, as there are quite as many different
varieties as have been noted in regard to lever-locks, though
with a few exceptions all padlocks are on essentially the same
principle, consisting simply of spring-levers and a shooting-
bolt, operated by a key in the same manner as an ordinary
door-lock. Padlocks are now used but little about a house, as
mortise or rim locks are usually more convenient, and at the
same cost, are more secure. Only a few of the market forms
will therefore be considered.
Figure 352 illustrates the internal arrangement of a very
secure padlock manufactured by A. E. Dietz, the key, notched
levers, etc., being somewhat similar to those in the Dietz
store-lock previously illustrated. Figure 353 is a form made
by nearly all the leading lock-manufacturers. The key is
inserted at the bottom of the padlock and rotates a set of levers
which catch in the slots on both of the arms of the hasp. One
arm is swivelled into the padlock case. Figures 354 and 355
are two other well-known padlocks, the former being used a
great deal for government work and the latter having the hasp,
staple and lock in one piece. The more common makes of
padlocks are too well-known to require illustration.
The ordinary door-latches have already been described in
connection with the locks, but there remains quite a variety of
latches which are made without any
locking appliances, being intended sim-
ply to hold the door in position. Fig-
ure 356 shows the commonest form of
latch used for elevator-doors, consist-
ing simply of a bent lever, the lower
arm of which is counterbalanced so
that the lock will drop by gravity and
Fig. 3 56. Elevator-door Latch.
J. B. Johnston.
Rim Slidmg-door Latch. J. B.
Shannon & Sons.
remain closed until drawn back by pressure on the upper arm.
Figure 357 is a very simple rim sliding-door latch ; arid Figure
358 is a very good rim door-catch which is self-acting, the hook
being released by raising the lever A, either directly or by aid
of the spindle, B* from the outside of the door ; while it is
locked from within or without, the slide C being moved so that
A cannot be raised. Figure 359 represents one of a great
variety of styles of thumb-latch, a very simple, old-fashioned
form which is very suitable for some cases. Figures 360 and
B UILDERS' HARD WARE.
301 are cheaper forms of thumb-latches, intended to be used
only on screen-doors. Each of these styles has a lever of some
sort, A, which serves to lock the latch. All of these patterns
act by gravity. Figure 302 shows a spring-catch which is re-
leased by lifting or pulling out the handle on one side or by
Fig. 359. Brass Thumb
Latch. J. B. Shannon
Fig. 358. Mack & Redway's Barn-door Lock. Nimick &
depressing the thumb-latch on the other, the latch being locked
by the swing-lever A.
For French windows and cupboard-doors or for light screen-
doors, one of the styles represented by Figures 303, 304 and
305 are employed. Figure 304 can be locked, and it
and Figure 305 work with a spring.
PRICES OF LOCKS.
It has not been deemed advisable to publish in this connec-
tion any summary of the market prices of the locks which have
been illustrated and described, as, without such an acquain,-
tance with the subject as can come only by examination and
comparison of the actual samples, any prices which might be
given would be misleading, and would often be unfair criteria
of comparison. The real value of a lock depends so largely
upon the care with which the levers are fitted, and the care
taken with such details differs so much with the various manu- Chapter xi.
facturers that the price ought to be the last thing to be con-
sidered in selecting the locks for a house. A good lock by a
Fig. '361. Crown Screen-door Latch. Van
Wagoner & Williams Co.
Fig. 360 Roggin's Latch. P. &
Fig. 363. Co*tage Latch. P.
& F. Corbin.
Fig. 362. Screen-door Catch. P. & F. Corbin.
thoroughly reliable firm can always be matched by a lock sold
for considerably less money, which has the outward appearance
of being exactly as reliable, and yet which is totally inferior.
Surely the difference between good and bad workmanship
B UILDERS' HARD WARE.
could not be fairly illustrated by even the best of drawings,
and it would never be wise to select merely from a trade cata-
logue. The only approximation which can be presented
here is that previously given in the classification of locks by
prices. It is of course very general, and consequently some-
what vague, and liable to exceptions ; but it was prepared in
conjunction with one of the largest hardware dealers in the
Fig. 364. Screen-door Catch. Read-
ing Hardware Co.
Fig. 365. French Window Catch.
Reading Hardware Co.
country, and is sufficiently exact to serve as a guide to
the general prices which should be paid, bearing always in
mind that the wisest plan is to select only from the work of
the best manufacturers and then only by samples.
The seventy-five or more locks which have been illustrated
and described must be considered as types rather than as an
exhaustive selection. A simple, three-lever lock is common
property and several manufacturers whose names have not been
mentioned in this connection turn out locks which are quite as
good or better than those which have been selected for illustra-
tion. The difference would be entirely in the fitting or the
finish, neither of which can be shown by the illustrations. All
that can be hoped for is that this chapter may serve as a sum-
mary to guide in the general selection of the goods.
Fig. 366. Knob with Spindle-screw partly covered.
operating a door-
latch consists of
a knob on each
side of the door,
made of porce-
lain, wood, com-
position, or metal in various forms, but generally in the
shape of a flattened sphere. The knobs are attached to
metal shanks serving to hold them away from the door,
and to prevent their pushing in, and the two knobs are
connected through the lock by a square spindle. The spindle
is firmly attached to the shank of one knob, and on the other
side of the door it fits loosely in the shank, considerable length
being allowed for the adjustment to various thicknesses of
doors, the inner knob being finally secured in place by a screw
on one side of the shank which passes entirely through the
spindle, and sometimes is also made of sufficient length to
Chapter xii. turn into the opposite side of the shank. The hole in the door
through which the spindle passes is covered by a metal disk
Roses. technically designated as a rose. The rose is secured to the
door by screws, and as the shank of the knobs is made to fit
closely against the rose, if well put on there will be no strain
on the lock when the knob is pulled from the opposite side, all
strain being gathered on the rose itself. Knobs are usually
Washers. provided with a number of small washers, so that the adjust-
ment between the bearing-surfaces of the roses and the ends of
the shanks can be made exact, and thus any rattling be
obviated. In many instances the shanks are secured to the
spindle with screws on each side of the door, so that the knob
can be taken off from either side of the door. For front- door
and vestibule work the outer knob should always be securely
attached to the spindle, so that no screw is necessary, as other-
wise, if the shank is held by a screw it can be removed from
the outside of the door, the spindle pushed in and the inner
latch follow turned back. For interior work, however, it
makes little difference whether screws are used on one or both
sides, though many consider the use of screws as altogether
objectionable, owing to their liability to work loose ; and, aside
from any questions of design, the ingenuity of hardware manu-
facturers has been chiefly expended upon securing a better con-
nection between the knob and the spindle. Still, few of the
patented forms of attachment have been very generally
received, and the old style of screw attachment seems to meet
with the most favor, if we may judge by usage. It is not the
question of cost alone which has decided this in the minds of
many builders and architects, but rather a belief that a tangible
fastening like a screw, which is easily placed and easily re-
moved, is, after all, more satisfactory than any concealed
The objections to the old style of fastening are, however,
easily appreciated. One trouble is that the spindle will work
and wear away so as to be loose in the follow, and rattle every
time the knob is touched. This is particularly noticeable in
very old work, in which the parts are sometimes so worn as to
admit of as much as half an inch play at the end of the knob.
In new work, the spindle, the follow and the roses can be fitted
so that any rattling is impossible, though with the old styles of
fastenings this is accomplished only by the best manufacturers.
With the old style, the screws are apt to work loose, as
applied by ordinary mechanics. In cheap work they nearly
always do so ; still, if proper care is taken and the screws
turned up with a drop of thick shellac in the threads there will
be little trouble, and none that cannot easily be remedied with
There are other objections of less moment, such as the fact
that considerable time is occupied in fitting the washers neces-
sary to a proper adjustment of the spindle and shank ; and the
proper attachment of the screws takes time also. It is further
found that when the spindle and shank wear away there is apt
to be a strain brought upon the lock-plate through the door,
thereby endangering the proper action of the levers. We have
said, however, that these objections are by no means vital, and
are such as might be due to careless or indifferent workman-
ship. One of the best evidences that the old style is the most
satisfactory, is that every manufacturer has it on his catalogue-
list. Anything else is really an exception, and we know of
only one instance in which a manufacturer has undertaken to
push exclusively a single form of knob attachment differing
from the common style. It must not be thought, however, that
no clever or good devices have been thought out. It is hard to
simplify simplicity, and the screw connection, all things con-
sidered, gives eminent satisfaction.
The first variation from the old style has been to enlarge the
rose, extending it out over the shank so as to partially or com
pletely cover the screw-hole, a slot being left at each side
through which the screw can be applied, the rose subsequently
being turned and secured against the door so as to completely
cover the screw. Figure 366 shows such a form. This de-
vice renders it absolutely impossible for the screw to become
Knob and Spin-
Russell & Er-
win Mfg. Co.
Knob with Spindle-screws covered.
Erwin Mfg. Co.
Chapter xii. detached, though it does not prevent it from being a little
loose, and so per-
mitting the knob
to rattle; and as the
difficulties of get-
ting at the screw
are increased by
this method, the
that most people
would let the knob
rattle instead of taking the trouble to tighten the screw. Still,
this is an improvement, and when well applied is very satisfac-
tory. The next step has been to cover the screw entirely. Fig-
ure 367 shows one mode in which this has been accomplished.
The rose is made in two portions, one consisting of a flat piece
the door, and
serving as a
the shank, while
the other por-
tion of the rose
show in the fin-
ished work consists of a thin shell curved out so as to entirely
cover the screw. The screws which hold the rose to the door
pass through both the outer shell and the inner plate.
Figure 3QS shows another form in which one screw is done
away with. The spindle is cut with screw-threads. The rose
is made in two portions, one being screwed to the door, and
the other acting as a binding-screw or washer, screwing onto
the threads of the spindle at the same time that the shank of
the knob screws behind it, the two locking, and preventing the
knob from being unturned except by forcible means. As the
spindle is held in the latch, the knob can, of course, be turned
Fig. 368. Knob with threaded Spindle.
Fig. 369. Sere
P. & F. Corbin.
but half way in either direction. Another form of knob
substitutes a continuous
ratchet on one face of
the spindle for the screw-
holes of the common
form. These knobs are
made by the Boston
Knob Company, and
outwardly appear like
an ordinary knob. The
advantage is that the
knob can be adjusted
at any point without the
aid of washers, the screw
catching onto the ratch-
ss Door-knob and Escutcheon
et in any position of the
Figure 369 shows a
form which does away
with the screws entirely.
The key escutcheon and
the rose are combined in
a single plate on each
side of the door. Inside
of the rose is a hub
which is cut with a
screw-thread. The spin-
dle passes through this
and into the shank of the
knob, which is cut with
a thread corresponding
with the thread on the
hub. In applying this
fixture the knobs are simply screwed on until they bear
slightly on the edges of the rose. The escutcheon-plates
are then screwed together through the door as shown on
Fig. 370. Screwless Door-knob and Escutcheon
combined. Russell & Erwin.
Russell & Er-
Chapter xii. the drawing. As the spindle passes through the latch it will
readily be seen that the knob cannot be unscrewed except by
removing the escutcheon-plates, and as these plates bear on
each side of the door above and below the lock, it is almost
impossible to bring any strain on the lock-plate itself.
Figure 370 is a somewhat similar form as regards the
escutcheon-plates. The knob, however, is attached by means of
Fig. 371. Mathes's Adjustable Screwless Door-knob. Nimick & Brittan.
lugs on the shank, which in one position of the knob will slip
into the hole in the rose ; but when half turned will catch on
the inner side of the plate, thus rendering it impossible for
the knob to be removed except by unscrewing the face-plates
Yale & Towne
Fig. 372. Morris Patent Door-knob. Ireland Mfg. Co.
from the door. Figure 371 is a device practically the same as
that shown by Figure 368. Figure 372 is still another variety
of the same general style of attachment, using a steel binding-
screw to hold the knob-shank in position.
The Yale & Towne Manufacturing Companv has recently
put on the market a form of screwless knob-shank shown by
Figure 373. In this case the spindle is turned round at each
end and threaded. The knob is provided with a swivel-nut,
Z>, which fits the thread of
the spindle. In applying, the
nut is turned up until it bears
slightly against the face of
the rose, and is then left in
that position, a washer being
interposed between the rose
and the nut. The nut takes
the place of the ordinary
Shank, and as this portion Of F'g- 373. Screwless Knob-shank.
& Towne Mfg. Co.
the knob is seldom touched,
there is little liability of the nut working loose, especially as
it can be turned up pretty tight, and is made so as not to work
A very simple and effective form of screwless knob-fasten-
ing has been recently brought out by the Hopkins & Dickinson
Manufacturing Company. In this device, the spindle, which is
cut with a screw-thread, is rigidly attached to the shank and the
knob on one side. The opposite shank has a swivel connection
with the knob, and is threaded inside to screw over the spindle.
In application, the loose shank is screwed onto the spindle until
two dogs or teeth on the inner end of the shank are engaged in
slots in the rose. The rose, which projects somewhat from the
face of the door and has a milled-edge, then serves as a set-
screw, drawing the two shanks together and binding against
a washer on the door, so that while the knobs can be rotated
freely, the rose washer and consequently the shanks, will not
Figure 374 represents still another variety of screwless knob-
fastening. The nut, (7, forces the washer, B, against a shoulder
inside of the shank, A, binding the latter firmly to the
rose and to the door. The knob is then slipped over the spin-
dle, and the shank, A, screwed over the shank, D, until the
knob is drawn up tightly. The only chance of the fastening
B VILDERS' HARD WA RE.
Fig. 374. Screwless Fastening Knob. J. Bardsley.
working loose is by accidental turning of the shank, A, which
is not likely to occur.
The Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company has a device
Fig. 375 which
is on a very dif-
ple from any of
as it does not
screws of any
kind. In this case the knob-shank is cut out with an eccen-
tric socket or bore. The ends of the spindle are turned
down to exactly the same contour as the bore of the shank;
so that while the knobs on either side of the door can easily be
slipped over the ends of the spindle, they can be fastened by
simply rotating them in opposite directions, when the fine
pitch of grade of the eccentrics causes a great pressure to be
exerted, which results in binding the knobs rigidly to the
spindle. This is the simplest form, of knob attachment in the
market, arid if properly applied, will always remain in order,
though great care
must be taken that
the knobs are turned
For front-door locks
and latches it is neces-
sary to have some
F,g.376. Swivel Spindle. f()rm Q spindle j n
which the two extremities may be worked independently, so
that the outer knob may be locked while the inner one is free
to rotate. The commonest form is to connect the two halves
of the spindle by a swivel joint, Figure 376. Corbin has in
the market a spindle in which the two halves screw together,
thus permitting of very careful adjustment to the thickness of
Screwless Spindle and Socket. Yale &
Towne Mfg. Co.
the door. The pitch of the screw-threads is so slight that the
quarter turn necessary to open the latch does not throw out the
knob from the door.
There are various methods of attaching the head of the knob
itself to the shank. When porcelain or mineral composition is
used, the shank is leaded into the knob. Hemacite, zylonite,
etc., are cemented or screwed to the shank, as are the cheaper
forms of wooden knobs. Metal knobs are blind riveted, cast
solid to the shank, or shrunk on. Glass knobs are commonly
leaded, but in some cheaper forms are cemented or even puttied.
There are, however, some devices which are intended to
attach the knob more firmly to the shank. Figure 377 is one
which is used in connection with wooden knobs. The shank is
cut with a screw-thread which turns into a corresponding
Fig. 377. Knob Fastener.
Phipps's Patent Door-knob. Milford
Before the shank is screwed in, a
h the shank is placed in the slot,
thread cut into the knob,
metal key extending throu
and after the knob is
firmly screwed on the
key is forced into the
wood ^by means of a
punch placed in the
opening of the shank,
the key thus effectu-
ally locking the shank
into the knob.
Figure 378 shows a form of attachment for either wood or
metal. In this case the knob is held by a screw passing from
the knob through the upper portion of the shank and into the
Fig. 379. Wooden Door-knob Attachment.
head of the spindle. The spindle can be adjusted for any
thickness of door by means of a small wedge which can be
driven in before the knob is attached, in such a manner as to
hold the shank at any given position. Figure 379 is a form of
attachment designed for wooden knobs. The shank is split
lengthwise and the ends of the two pieces cut away from each
Fig. 380. Hollenbeck's Expanding Spindle Door-knob.
other on a bevel, with wedges or lugs on the outside, the bevels
being so cut that when the surfaces are brought together the lugs
can enter a hole in the wooden knob the same diameter as the
main portion of shank. By then bringing the opposite ends of
the shank together the lugs are forced sidewise into the wood
so strongly that they cannot be drawn out
except by breaking the parts. A light
thimble fits over the shank and into the
rose, securing the whole.
Figure 380 is a form of knob secured
by a screw entering the head of the spin-
dle, at the same time wedging it to any
adjustment by reason of the screw being
slightly larger than the hole in the spindle.
All the foregoing knobs are constructed
with spindle extended through the door and
continuous from knob to knob Some locks
Fig 38i. Niles Patent are so devised that the spindle is done away
Knob. Chicago Hard- -, , ,
ware Co. with, each knob acting independently of the
other by means of shoulders or extensions on the shank. Fig-
ure 381 illustrates the form of knob which is used with all
of the "Niles" locks. The end of each shank is provided with
a shoulder of about the same shape as the ordinary lock follow,
acting directly against the latch-lever. The shanks rotate freely
in the escutcheons. To apply the knob, the shank is passed
through the escutcheon plate and the shoulder or follow inserted
in the lock, the latch-lever being pressed back with a flat blade or
a screw-driver until the follow can be snapped into position,
which is easily accomplished by inserting the shank at an
angle. The knob is then brought around square with the face
of the door and the escutcheon plate screwed in position, hold-
ing the knob so it can be removed only by moving the plate.
The chief advantage of this arrangement is that there can be
no rattling in the lock. The latch operates the moment the
knob is turned, be it ever so little ; nor are there any screws
to work loose.
The Gilbert Lock Company manufactures a knob espe-
cially designed for their locks, 1 the construction of which is
illustrated by Figure 382. In this,
as in the preceding example, there is
no spindle. The knob-shank is secured
to the escutcheon, which is boxed out
sufficiently to allow play for a lugged
plate, turning with the shank and
acting against a lever. The latter is
hinged at the top and fitted with an
arm at the bottom which works in a
slot through the lock, drawing back
the latch by a direct, lateral action.
The escutcheon is secured by long
screws above and below the lock.
There are some excellent points about
this device. There is no spindle to
work loose and rattle, no screws in the
shank to drop out, and no adjustment
of washers or screws, as the knob has
, ,. Al . , Fig. 382. Gilbert's Lock and
a periect adjustment to any thickness Escutcheon. Gilbert LockCo.
*See Figure 313 for an illustration of the " Gilbert " locks.
of door without binding. An improvement might be made by
so extending the lugs on the spindle plate that when the latch is
out both lugs will bear against the operating lever, in order that
the latch may move at once, no matter in which direction the
knob be turned. This form can, of course, be used only with
" Gilbert " locks.
In regard to appearance, and the materials used, knobs of
the following materials are found in the market. In wood,
they are made of mahogany, cherry, oak, ash, apple, maple and
ebony. Glass knobs are cut, pressed, silvered or of black
Fig. 383. Forms of Glass Knobs.
glass. What are known as mineral knobs are made of earthen-
ware, porcelain or lava, and can be had either black, white,
or grey in color. The metals used for knobs are brass, bronze,
silver, nickel and iron. Compositions of celluloid, hemacite,
etc., are also used. The shanks in all cases are made of either
bronze or iron, the latter only in the cheapest work.
Wooden knobs are generally finished in natural colors, and
can be obtained with wooden roses to match. They are very
good, strong, and serviceable, and are excellent for interior use.
Glass knobs are somewhat out of style just at present, but
are still made in a great variety of forms, both cut and pressed,
and are really very handsome in appearance. The silvered-
glass knobs are rather cheap looking, though the cost is some-
what higher. Figure 383 shows a few of the great variety
of knobs made in glass.
Black glass, and what is known as mineral, and white porce-
lain are all used a great deal for common purposes. They are
cheap, clean, and as generally constructed are quite strong.
Lava knobs are used but little.
The greatest variety of designs is found in metal knobs.
These are made in all shapes and in all colors. Some of the
special shapes will be considered subsequently under the head
of Artistic Hardware. Some of the styles of iron knobs recently
put on the market by the Yale & ,Towne Mfg. Co., and
finished by the Bower-Barff process, are very serviceable and
pleasing. Hopkins & Dickinson have a very dark, rich bronze
almost as black as gun-metal which they use for some of their
hardware. Of late years oxidized silver has come in as a great
favorite for knobs and knob-plates, and is now worked up in a
great variety of designs and in several different colors. The
Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. has a grade of oxidized silver which
almost matches the dark bronze of Hopkins & Dickinson.
Metal knobs are made either oval, spherical or in a flattened
sphere, egg-shaped, and indeed in an almost infinite variety of
shapes and designs. In the nicest grades of work the knobs
are always made to order. In some of the very choicest work
knobs are gold plated. This increases the cost a great deal,
to an extent, indeed, which renders it beyond the reach of the
ordinary buyer ; the advantage, however, is not alone in
the looks, for a gold-plate has nearly the same color as some
shades of bronze ; but gold-plate is absolutely untarnishable,
and will not change its color, whereas all the finishes of bronze,
B UILDERS' HA RD WA RE.
Chapter xii silver, brass or nickel, are more or less liable to change. The
various finishes for metal knobs have been previously con-
sidered in the introduction.
The knobs of the Boston Knob Co. are made of composition,
presumably celluloid, or at least of that nature. Celluloid
JelJuioid. plates are bent over a strong metal frame, and held in position
by a brass rim which is shrunk on to cover the joints between
the two plates. They form a very neat pretty knob, Figure
384. The celluloid is made in a variety of colors, including
several shades of blue, garnet, black, malachite, green, drab,
slate, yellow, brown and
white. In many cases the
varied colors will be an at-
Fig. 384. Celluloid Door-knob.
Fig. 385. Henoacite Knob.
traction. One would imagine this form of knob made in white
with a simple band of brass around the edge might be used
very nicely in connection with rooms that are furnished in the
prevailing Old Colonial white-and-gold style.
Hemacite is a composition which as nearly as can be dis-
covered, consists of blood, glue and sawdust. This is pressed
in moulds and finished in several different shades, either jet
black or a deep rich brown. Figure 385 shows the common-
est form adopted for hemacite knobs. They are usually made
with face-plates of brass or bronze inserted in the front of the
knob, and the edges of the knob are milled. This composition
is most excellent for interior use. It will wear indefinitely and
is exceedingly strong and tough ; but is not altogether suitable
for exterior use as it is said to be affected by the weather.
Besides the ordinary double knobs it is often desirable to
have a lever on one side of the door and a knob on the other.
Figure 386 shows a typical knob and T-handle. There is, of
course, an infinite variety of styles of this sort, some of which
will be considered later on.
Figure 387 illustrates a so-
called ship-handle, consisting
of a plain knob at one end of
the spindle and a ring-handle
at the other. The form shown
'Fig, 386. Knob and T-Handle. Ireland
Fig. 387, Ship Handle. J. B. Shan-
non & Sons.
by Figure 388 is termed a crank-handle, being intended for
French windows and narrow style doors. The inner knob is
Fig 388. Crank Handle. Nimick & Brittan.
kept away from the jamb so that in opening the door the hand
wili not be caught. The common forms of pulls or handles
employed for sliding-doors have been previously discussed.
BUILDERS 1 HARDWARE.
Fig. 389. Common Bell-pull.
Bell-pulls are usually similar in appearance to door-knobs r
and in order-work
are made exactly
the same, and to
match. The in-
tion of the spin-
dle however is a
Figure 389 shows the commonest form, the rose being provided
with a long hub fitting over the spindle, and screwing into the
frame of the door. Figure 390 is a
form of lever bell-pull suitable for out-
door work. The same form is some-
times used for bells in the interior of
the house, although Figure 391 is a
better and more
Fig. 390. Lever Bell-
pull. Russell & Erwin
Fig. 391. Parlor Bell-lever.
Fig. 392. Old-fashioned
Door-knockers are made in a great variety of shapes. A
few of these will be considered later on in connection with the
designs. A single example, Figure 392, will be sufficient to
illustrate a typical door-knocker in this connection.
The following table gives the average retail prices of the Chapter xii.
principal styles of door-knobs. The prices are for a dozen
pairs of medium-sized (2J inch) knobs, complete, with roses Prices,
and screws to match.
TABLE OF DOOR-KNOBS.
Knob with concealed
Hemacite. . .
Cut Glass. .
Russell & Erwin.
P. & F. Corbin.
Ireland Mfg. Co.
Yale & Towne Mfg. Co.
Milf ord Door-Knob Co.
J. B. Johnston.
Chicago Hardware Co.
Gilbert Lock Co.
Boston Knob Co.
Dibble Mfg. Co.
Ireland Mfg. Co.
J. B. Shannon & Sons.
Russell & Erwin.
Screwless Knob and
Morris Patent Door-
Phipps Patent Door-
Gilbert Door-k nob
Boston Door-knob. . .
Knob and T-handle..
Parlor Bell-levers. . .
Common style Door-
There remains but a single door-knob to be considered. Burglar-alarm
who imagined that everybody else was, devised a burglar door-
knob. This consists simply of a knob on the inside of the
door, which at the same time is a bell, the mechanism of which
years of use will not disarrange. It costs but little more than
a common knob and can be applied by any person, the least
turn of the outside knob causing the alarm to be rung on the
B UILDERS' HA RD WA RE.
Chapter xii. inside so that immediate warning is given of even an attempt
to enter. The knob is so constructed that upon being turned
from the inside it gives no alarm. It is known as the Burglar
Door-knob and Window-alarm, and is manufactured by Win. C.
C. Matthews & Co.
The term escutcheon is used to designate the peculiar lock-
ing mechanism of a cylinder-lock, as has been explained in the
previous chapter. It is also applied to the finish, of metal or
other material, about the key-hole of a lock. Escutcheons are
made both with and without drops or covering pieces. For in-
side work the drop had better be omitted, though for front
doors both the latch and the lock key-hole should be protected.
The common forms of escutcheons are too well-known to
require any illustration.
Prices. The following table gives the average retail prices.
TABLE OF KEY-HOLE ESCUTCHEONS.
Price per dozen pairs
with drop and screws.
Price per dozen pairs
without drop, with screws.
Bronze plain ...
of the appliances included under the title of Closet-
Fittings appertain perhaps more truly to furniture than to
Builders' hardware, though they are sometimes used in
connection with the finished carpenter work. The designation
of closet-fittings is a somewhat arbitrary one, and while not
strictly applying to everything considered under this classifica-
tion, might include many of the articles described in previous
Fig. 393. Fig. 394.
chapters. The limitations will, however, be sufficiently exact
for the present purpose.
The simplest appliance for securing the door of a cupboard
is what is known as a turn-button. Figure 393 illustrates the
cheapest form, consisting of a metal-bar or button which is se-
cured in place by a screw through the centre, the screw being
turned in so as to allow the button to rotate freely. An im-
provement is to have the button pivoted on a plate which is
B UILDERS' HA RD WARE.
screwed independently to the door-frame, Figure 394, while a
plate is secured to the door for the button to turn upon, or vice
A turn-button acts as a bolt, but it is often preferable to
use some other form. Any of the flush, sunk, raised, mortise
or neck bolts described in a previous chapter will answer for
a cupboard, though there are a
few styles which are especially
designated as cupboard-bolts. Fig-
ure 395 is an example. Again, it
is often desirable to have a spring-
catch on a cupboard, such as that
shown by Figure 396, which may
be considered as a type of many different styles. Figure 397
shows a lever-cupboard catch, which works by gravity, without
springs, the catch being released by raising the handle. Each
of these varieties can be used for double
or single doors, though with double-doors
some form of bolt is necessary in addi-
tion. The book-case bolts and catches
Fig. 396. Cupboard-catch.
Fig. 397. Cupboard-catch. Fig. 398. Chest-handle.
described in the chapter on bolts might properly be included,
also, in the present category.
Drawer-pulls are made in a great variety of styles, only a
few of which need be considered here. Figure 398 is a cheap
and very common form of wrought-iron chest or drawer handle,
suitable only for rough work. Figure 399 is a very serviceable
drawer-pull, and in plainer form, with sides as well as front Chapter xiu.
rounded in, is what is commonly employed for china-closets,
wardrobes, etc. Figures 400 and 401 are drop-handles for
Fig. 400. Drawer-pulls.
nice work on the same principle as the first pull illustrated.
The latter is a very old pattern, such as is found on most of the
antique colonial wardrobes and dressing-cases, and is just now
Fig. 403. Ring-pull.
Fig. 404. Druggists' Drawer-pull.
quite in fashion. Figure 402 is a straight bar-pull and Figure
403 is a serviceable and easily attached ring drawer-pull
occasionally employed for wardrobes. Figure 404 is a type of
what is particularly designated as a druggists' drawer-pull, being
on the principle of Figure 399 but with frame and slot on the
face to receive a card or label.
Drawer-knobs are mostly too simple to require any illustration.
They are made with heads of wood, porcelain, mineral, com-
position or metal, and are usually so shaped as to dispense with
a separate shank or spindle, the knob sometimes having a slight
metal rose or collar. In the cheaper grades the knob has
^^ leaded into it a gim-
let - pointed screw-
threaded spindle which
can be turned directly
into the drawer-front ; but a more satisfactory
form has a spindle extending entirely through the
drawer, and secured by a nut and washer on the in-
side. With a wooden knob the attachment is some-
times made by means of a screw passing through the
drawer-front and turning into the knob from behind.
Wood or porcelain knobs are most suitable for kitchen
and china closet work, though no knob is ever as per-
manent or satisfactory as a drawer-pull.
Figure 405 illustrates the ordinary shelf-brackets.
They are cast in malleable-iron in sixteen or more sizes
varying from 3x4 inches to 16x20 inches. The form
is a very strong one, and a great deal of stiffness is ob-
tained with a minumum of metal. They usually fail,
when overloaded, by the upper arm or flange breaking
near the inner screw-holes, but it requires a greater
load than one would suppose to break such a bracket. There
are many so-called " fancy " forms of shelf-brackets in the
market few of which are in the slightest degree artistic,
though most of them are stronger than the simple form shown
by the figure, on account of having more metal-work between
the flanges. Brass brackets are seldom required for ordinary
house work and can usually be had only on a special order.
CL OSE T-FITTINGS.
It is often desirable, in fitting up book-cases or china-closets,
to have movable shelves. Shelf-pins of some sort are then
used, holes being bored at regular intervals in the sides of the
Fig. 406. Book-c
case into which the pins will fit. Ordinary screw-eyes answer
very well for most purposes, but are rather conspicuous when
proportioned for heavy loads, and are not very easily moved.
Figure 406 illustrates three patterns of specially devised shelf-
pins. The ones with square and round heads are taken from
the catalogue of A. G. Newman. The rebated pattern is manu-
Fig. 408. Coat-hook.
factured by Russell & Irwin, and holds the shelf so that the
greater portion of the pin is hidden.
Closet-hooks are made in so many different styles, and,
withal, are so well-known that only a few forms need be con-
sidered, which will serve as types for the hundred or more
260 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter xiii. varieties to be found in the hardware market. The hooks are
invariably secured to wooden cleats which are nailed to the
wall over the plaster. Figure 407 is a hat-pin with hook be-
neath, which can be turned directly into the wood by means of
the screw-thread on the extension of the shank. Figure 408
is held by a nut turned up from behind, and can, of course, be
Fig. 409. Coat-hook. Fig. 41 I. Wardrobe-hook.
used only on some form of hat-rack. This and the preceding
are properly furniture-trimmings. Figure 409 is a familiar,
old-fashioned coat-and-hat hook with porcelain knobs, a very
serviceable article even though it is not quite in style. Figure
410 is a form of wardrobe hook usually made in brass or bronze,
and Figure 411 J s a wardrobe hook intended for dresses which
are to hang from the ceiling. A similar hook, Figure 412, is
fitted with a gimlet-pointed screw-shank, to screw directly into
the wood. A very good wooden hook, Figure 413, is made on
the same principle as a harness hook, the hardwood pin be-
ing inserted from the rear of the iron-base and bevelled, so it
cannot work loose or pull out. Figures 414 and 415 are types
Fig. 415. Fie. 416.
of the common hat and coat hook, the latter being specially
designated as for school use. Several styles of hooks are also
Chapter xin. made of bent steel wire. Figure 416, and are very strong, light
All of the foregoing closet-fixtures can be had in various
sizes and in different materials. The following table gives
some average retail prices which will serve as guides in select-
ing goods. The prices are for a dozen medium-sized fixtures,
complete, with screws.
TABLE OF CLOSET-FIXTURES.
Turn-buttons without plate If in
" " with plate 1| in
Lifting-handles 3 in single swing
Bar-pulls, 4 in
Drawer-knobs screw end
Shelf-brackets, 8 x 10 per doz. pairs
Ordinary coat and hat hooks
Wooden " " " "
Wire " " " "
Fig. 417. Screw-hooks.
BESIDES the hooks de-
scribed in the last
chapter, there are
other forms which cannot
be classed as closet hard-
ware. Figure 417 illus-
trates several varieties of
brass screw-hooks. A is
made in nine sizes, from ^
inch to 2 inches in length.
The same form is made
with a sharp-pointed shank
Fig. 4i 8. Bird-cage Hook. instead of a screw, intended
to be driven into the wood. .Z?is known as a cup-hook, intended
to go on strips to receive cups, which are hung by the handle
ovor the hook. This form is made in five sizes, from 1^ to 2f
inches long. C is termed a looking-glass hook. D is an
acorn-hook, made in six sizes, from 2 to 4j- inches long. E
and F are both picture-hooks. The former is made in six
sizes, from f- inch to If inches. Figure 418 represents a hook
similar to the preceding, but with a longer shank, being made
in seven lengths, from four to ten inches : it is designated as
a bird-cage hook.
Picture-moulding hooks are made in quite a variety of
shapes, a few of which are shown by Figure 419. The most
common form is the second one on the upper row, it being
made to match the common stock picture-moulding. A very
Fig. 419. Picture-moulding Hooks. Fig. 420. Chandelier-
hook. J. B. Johnston.
serviceable hook, not illustrated here, is made with flat brass,
with the ordinary contour, quite broad at the top where it fits
over the mould-
ing, but narrowing
at the bottom to
receive the cord
or wire. Mould-
ing-hooks are usu-
ally made in three
sizes, and are
Fig. 422. Hammock-hook.
Fig. 421. Chandelier-
hook with Catch. J.
B.Johnston. Fig. 423. Clothes-line Hook. Fig. 424. Awning-hook.
always of brass or bronze. Chandelier hooks, Figure 420, are
MIS CELLANEOUS HARD WARE.
intended to screw through the lath and plaster into the ceiling
beams or the furring, the screw part being 2-j-, 4, 6 or 8 inches
long. Figure 421 shows a chandelier-hook provided with a
catch, so that nothing can slip out when once hooked.
Hammock-hooks, Figure 422, are made of f inch galvanized
or tinned wrought-iron. Clothes-line hooks, Figure 423, are
also sometimes used for hammocks, though less suitable on
account of the friction of the rope in the hook. A lighter form
of clothes-line hook is made to be attached by two screws.
These hooks are made in three sizes.
Awning-hooks, Figure 424, are made to drive into the wood,
and be caught in eyelets in the awning. They are manufac-
tured in sizes from 1^- to 6 inches.
Shelf-brackets have been previously discussed. Some form
of inclined bracket is often desirable to support the side-rail of
a flight of stairs. One of the simplest consists of a bent plate,
Figure 425, screwed to the wall on an angle, so as to bear
against the under side of the rail. A better form is screwed to
Fig. 425. Stair-rail Bracket.
Reading Hardware Co.
Fig. 426 Stair-rail Bracket.
Reading Hardware Co.
Fig. 427. Stair-rail
the wall in a vertical position, and has a swiveled bar or plate
which adjusts itself to any angle of the stair-rail. Figures 426
and 427 illustrate two styles. Similar brackets are made with
fixed rail-plates, and there are a number of varieties in the
market differing from those described chiefly in regard to finish.
Bar-rail brackets, Figure 428, are intended to support a
round rail such as is usually carried across the front of a bar-room
counter. The first form shown is sometimes used to support a
Fig. 428. Bar-rail Bracket. J. B. Shannon & Sons.
round stair-rail, and when made of plain bronze, presents a very
good appearance. A bracket like the second form is sometimes
used to support an iron foot-rail at the base of a bar or counter.
All these brackets can be had in either bronze or bronzed iron.
LETTERS AND PLATES.
Very few styles of letters and numbers are kept in stock by
hardware dealers. Plain, Roman characters, Figure 429, are
usually the only ones on hand. They
are in seven sizes, from \ inch to 3
inches high, and are secured to the
door or the woodwork by blind
tacks, soldered to the back of the
Fig - 429 ' pieces. They can be had in either
bronze, brass or nickel-plate. Letter-plates are often used to
cover the letter-
slot through office-
doors. Figure 430
shows one style,
with a recessed
slot protected by a
hinged flap. This
is essentially What Fi *' 430 ' Letter-Plate. Hopkins & Dickinson Mfg. Co.
is commonly employed. On fly-doors some form of plate
is desirable on each face of the door to prevent the paint
LETTERS AND PLATES.
from being soiled, and such plates are often marked " push "
or "pull." They may be of porcelain, iron, bronze, brass or
nickel-plate, the first material being the cleanest and most
easily cared for. They are made in all varieties of design, but
. . are in principle
too simple to re-
quire any illustra-
made to order in
porcelain quite ex-
tensively for drug-
There are also
tured to go on
labels, the upper
part of the plate
being thinner than
the rest, so that
the card can be
slipped in from
above. Figure 431
will illustrate the
general form of a label-plate. The neatest style has a plain,
rectangular outline in bronze. Label-plates are made in several
sizes from about 1x2^- inches to 2 x 4 inches.
Figure 432 shows a plate a little foreign to the present
topic, it being used to stiffen the joints of light screen-doors.
It is provided with tongues which enter firmly into the wood in
each direction, and prevent any sagging or settling. The
plates are sold in sets, each set including six corner irons and a
knob or handle, with the necessary screws. The list-price is
$5 per dozen sets, in bronzed iron.
"Fig. 432. Screen-door Corner-iron. E. C. Stearns & Co.
Foot-scrapers are used much less than formerly. A simple
form, consisting of a thin-plate supported by one or two plain
drive-shanks is always advisable, however, for the piazza of a
country house. Figure 433 shows a more elaborate scraper,
intended to be screwed to the floor or step. A form often seen
Fig. 433. Foot Scraper. J. B.
Fig. 434. Foot Scraper. J. B. Johnston.
in some parts of the country, Figure 434, is set in a pan or
dish, intended to collect the scrapings. The other varieties
found in the market differ only in design or finish, but not in
principle. Foot-scrapers are usually of Japanned cast-iron.
The subject of bell-fittings is too extensive to be considered
very fully in detail, especially as bell-hanging is a trade by
itself, and the house-carpenter has usually very little to do-
beyond hanging the simplest kind of kitchen-bell or fitting a
gong to the back-door. The front-door is fitted with a bell-
pull, as explained in the chapter on knobs. This is connected
with wires which usually are carried down to the cellar-ceiling,,
and across and up to the kitchen. The corners are turned by
the aid of bell-cranks. Figure 435 shows the form of crank
generally fitted just inside of the bell-pull, and Figure 436
shows a complete set of bell-hanging fixtures, including the
bell, which is secured to the wall by a spike driven through
the centre of the spiral coil. The elasticity of the coil and the
connected spring is so great, that when the fixtures are pro-
perly set, the least pull at the front-door will cause the bell to Chapter xiv.
ring. Figure 437 illustrates a different form of bell-carriage,
Fig. 435. Bell-crank. Rus- Fig. 436. Bell-hangings. Fig. 437. Bell-carriage,
sell & Erwin Mfg. Co. Russell & Erwin Mfg.
Fig. 438. Double-stroke Pull Gong-beK. Russel' & Erwin Mfg. Co.
made by the Russell & Erwin Manufacturing Company.
For the back-door it is customary to use some form of gong
Chapter xiv. which can be screwed to the inner face of the door. In the
cheapest makes the bell-strike is operated by a handle on the
outside, which on being drawn down, releases a spring-hammer.
Some gongs are made so as to give a double-stroke. Figure
438 illustrates a double-stroke bell which works with a pull
instead of a lever. There is, also, in the market a bell pro-
vided with a spring escapement which is set by pulling the
handle, and gives a continuous ring like that of an electric-bell,
lasting about five seconds. This is known as " Bushby's
Gate-hinges. Ordinary strap-hinges are sometimes used for gates, and
there are a few forms of heavy wrought-iron butts which also
Fig. 439. Self-closing Gate-hinge,
St. Louis Pattern. Shepard Hard-
Fig. 440. Seymour's Gate-hinge. P. & F.
answer for the purpose ; but there is in the hardware market
quite a variety of fixtures especially devised for gates, and the
special forms are usually preferred. Gate-hinges are always
arranged to be self-closing, generally acting by gravity.
Shepard's St. Louis pattern, Figure 439, has the bearing-
surfaces of the lower
hinge made on a sharp
incline, so that when
the gate is opened, it
is lifted bodily, and
descends in closing.
This principle is em
bodied in several differ-
ent patterns. It, of
course, permits the
Fig. 441. Gate-hinge. Shep-
ard Hardware Co,
gate to open only in
one direction. With
" Seymour's " hinge,
Figure 440, the gate
is practically suspended
from the upper pivot,
and bears laterally
against two pivots at
the bottom, so spaced,
that when the orate is
thrown out more than
the top, and its own
weight is sufficient to
close it. Figures 441
Fig. 442. Gate-hinge. Shepard Hardware Co.
and 442 are variations of the same principle, a simpler applica-
tion of the idea being shown by Figure 443. All of these will
open both ways.
A very common form of gate-latch is shown by Fio-ure 444.
It consists of a bent lever which is mortised through the gate-
frame, the bolt catching in a strike on the post. A spring
keeps the bolt thrown out, and the beveled strike permits the
latch to be self-closing. With a strike which is beveled each
Fig. 444. Mortise Gate-latch
Ireland Mfg. Co.
Fig. 443. Gate-hinge No. 20. Shepard Hardware
Fig. 445. Broads's Patent Gate-
latcn. Ireland Mfg. Co.
way, this latch can be used for a double-swing gate. Figure
445 shows a latch which is very commonly used with gates
swinging only one way. The catch acts by gravity alone.
Figure 446 represents a gravity, mortise catch. The latch
shown by Figure 447 is planted on the face of the gate-frame,
and works with a spring, while in Figure 448 it is planted
on the edge of the gate-frame, which has to be kept cor-
respondingly away from the post. The Yale & Towne Manu-
facturing Company has a somewhat similar gate-latch, Figure Chapter xiv.
449. Each is opened by pressing down one of the arms.
"Seymour's" cylindrical gate-latch, Figure 450, is mortised
Fig. 446. Gate-latch No. 2. Fig. 447. Seymour's Gate-latch. P. & F. Corbin.
Shepard Hardware Co.
Fig. 448. Gate-Latch, No. 20. Shepard
Fig. 449. Leeds's Gate-Latch.
Yale & Towne Mfg. Co.
Fig. 450. Seymour's Cylindrical Gate-Latch. P. & F. Corbin.
through the gate-frame, and opens when the handle is de-
There are many other styles of gate-hinges, few which
differ materially from those we have considered.
Where are three
styles of dumb -wait-
ers in common use.
For the cheapest
sort of work, a rope
is attached to the top
of the car, carried up
over a wheel, down
one side to the bot-
tom of the well,
under a second wheel
and up to the bottom
of the car, to which
the end of the rope is
attached. A counter-
balance weight is con-
Fig. 451. The Cannon Dumb-waiter. HCCted With the top of
the car by a rope passing over a third wheel. Another style
Fig. 452. New York Safety Dumb-waiter.
C Duiub-waiter. is shown by Figure 451. A rope is fastened to the top
of the car and passes
about the four small
wheels to the coun-
on one side. One of
these wheels is on the
si i aft of a large wheel
over which a thick
rope is carried and
continued around a
similar wheel at the
bottom of the shaft.
This holds on the
large wheel simply by
friction, and in mov-
ing, winds up or
lowers the hanging-
The third style is
illustrated by Figure
454, with a plan of
the upper gearing,
Figure 452, and a
diagonal view of the
upper works, Figure
453. A rope is at-
tached to the bottom
of the shelf on which
the upper wheels rest,
starting at 1, Figure
452. Thence it is
carried down to and
under the wheels E E
on the top of the car,
up through 2, over
wheel A, and down
through 3 to the
wheels at the bottom
of the shaft. Then it
is brought up through
New York Safety Dumb-waiter.
Storm Spring Go.
276 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter xiv. 4, over wheels B and (7, and there connected with the coun-
terbalance by a pulley, the end of the rope being fastened to the
under-side of the top shelf, close by where it started. A safety-
rope is attached to the top of the car, carried up through 5,
over pulley J), and connected with the counterbalance. A cam-
brake, Figure 455, on the shelf beside 4 prevents the car from
descending when heavily loaded. It will be seen that all the
working connections are made with a single rope, so arranged
that no matter how much it may stretch, it will always be taut,
the slack being taken up by the counterbalance, so that the
slightest motion of the rope will start the car. This style is
very generally used in good work.
The doors at the openings into the dumb-waiter shaft are
usually hung in the same manner as an ordinary window, and
are provided with some form of spring-catch like Figure 456,.
Fig. 455. Brake.
Fig. 456. Dumb-waiter Catch.
which will hold the door either up or down, the catch being
released by depressing the arm at the side.
The following table gives the average retail prices of the
miscellaneous articles described in this chapter.
TABLE OF MISCELLANEOUS HARDWARE.
417 Brass Screw-hooks per doz. 15 to 25 cents.
419 Picture-hooks per doz. 35 to 42 cents.
420 Chandelier-hooks, 6-inch screw each 58 cents.
422 Hammock-hooks per doz. $ 1.12
423 Clothes-line hooks, 4 screws per doz. .42
Stair-rail brackets per set .in
429 Letters and numbers, 2-inch each .35
430 Letter-box plate, plain each .75
436 Bell-fixtures, complete without wire.. per set 1.00
Bell-gong, bronze handle each .75
Gate-fixtures, hinges or latches per set 25 to 50 cents.
452 N. Y. Safety Dumb-waiter fittings per set 15.00
TITHE manufacture of fine hardware for house-trimmings has
A by no means kept pace with the artistic development which
this country has witnessed during the past fifteen years
in nearly every other branch of the art industries ; so that
while the mechanical details of the wares have been brought
to the highest degree of excellence, the manufacture seldom
rises to the dignity of an art, and seems to be considered in
general as requiring no further direction than can be given by
the most skilful mechanics. A trained designer, who would treat
hardware as a part of a house rather than as an opportunity for
mechanical elaboration, who would appreciate the relation it
necessarily bears to the architecture, who would consider the
fitness of the material for certain forms and the adaptability of
certain styles for certain uses, without attempting to combine
an Albert Durer cartouche with an Italian Renaissance scroll,
crown the product with a Greek honeysuckle and apply the
whole to a design for a door-plate, would have chance for
employment with but few of the large firms which supply the
market with builders' hardware. Consequently we find that
while there is a considerable quantity of perfectly plain, un-
adorned hardware which is good because of its simplicity,
the elaborate hardware is nearly alwavs bad, and unfortunately
most hardware is elaborate. These conditions are by no
means wholly due to the indifference or artistic incapacity of
the manufacturers. It is found that cheap patterns sell the Chapter XV.
best ; a fussy, meretricious design is the most profitable to put
on the market, and the producers are obliged to cater to the
cheap trade. There are a few exceptions to this rule, some
manufacturers whose average artistic productions are unim-
peachable, but when such have made money it is due more to
good business management and mechanical perfection than to
artistic capacity. The public buys hardware because it is well-
made and reliable, rather than because it is good-looking. At
the same time, even the best is disappointing, because being so
good, it ought to be a great deal better. With so much to
draw from the wealth of ideas in the European museums,
suggestions in silver and gold smith's work, the old Pompeian
bronzes, the delicate, antique Etruscan jewelry, besides the
quantities of architectural ideas which might be adapted ; and
having in addition the best of mechanical workmanship,
together with the element of color, which the work of former
times seldom possessed, the hardware designer ought never to
be at a loss what to do. No one of the art industries is cap-
able of so wide an aesthetic expansion or presents so varied a
field for the play of individual fancy, and few have been so
persistently misapplied and misunderstood. It is not fair to
say there is no good hardware to be had unless it be specially
designed, but the general average of the goods which are kept
in stock by the leading manufacturers, is, to say the least, com-
monplace; and this, too, notwithstanding some very notable
At one time, iron was almost the only material employed for Materials used,
artistic effects in hardware. This was before the day of
patterns, when the individual fancy was applied directly to the
metal. But now, when the artist has ceased to be the work-
man and an article is salable only when it can be readily repro-
duced, cast brass and bronze are almost the only metals used.
Quite recently cast-iron has been employed to a considerable
extent, and when finished with the Bower-Barif process, sells
at about the same prices as bronze. A defect in nearly all cast-
work, however well-designed, is that the patterns, instead of
being modelled by hand, so as to show every touch of the artist
and permit of an exact reproduction of the feeling which a de-
sign should have when worked out in a metal like bronze or
iron, is first carved in wood. One who does not appreciate the
difference between a carving and a casting, has only to compare
a Greek stele with some of the exquisite bronzes which are
taken out of Pompeii ; and no workman, however skilful, can
give a wood-carving the easy flow and metal-like appearance of
a bronze casting. Again, our castings are, in one sense, too
nice. That is to say, after they are taken from the mould they
are pickled in acids and then hand-chased, a process that could
spoil even the best of modelling. It is to be hoped that some
day fine hardware will be cast only by the cire perdu or some
similar process, which reproduces every touch of the artist and
leaves the casting perfect as it comes from the mould.
Glass is used more now than it was a few years ago, and for
knobs is peculiarly suitable. It is not usually exhibited by the
manufacturers as artistic hardware, though surely when such
ugly faceted abominations are tolerated in cut-glass tableware,
a cut-glass knob ought to please every one.
A rather interesting change has taken place in the forms in
which artistic designs in hardware are expressed. During the
Middle Ages, the greatest amount of work was expended upon
the hinges and their accessories, an example of which is
afforded by the hinges of the western doors of the Cathedral of
Paris. Knobs and latches were quite subordinate ; indeed,
knobs, as we apply them now, were unknown at that time.
During the Renaissance period the ingenuity of the artisans
was devoted to locks and keys, some of which are most surpris-
ing examples of hardware. At present neither hinges nor
locks nor keys are elaborated to any extent, the greatest
amount of thought being given to the door-knobs and the plates
by which they are secured to the woodwork. In collecting the
samples which are illustrated in this chapter, the various manu-
facturers were requested to indicate which of their goods they
considered as most typical of their artistic possibilities ; and
out of some fifty pieces so designated, all but three were door-
knobs. This might be considered as indicative of a belief that
knobs alone are susceptible of artistic treatment, though, in
reality, there are plenty of well-designed pulls, butts, etc. ; but
it shows that the popular taste, when craving for art, looks at
present no farther than the door-knob. And yet the first impulse
of nine out of ten designers would be towards ornamental
hinges rather than elaborate knobs, though with our present
forms of butt-hinges there is little opportunity, and no real
necessity for the long-strap hinges which form such a delightful
feature of the old-fashioned doors and casement-windows.
Butts are cheaper, more easily applied, and for some styles of
work are more suitable, still one rather regrets the opportuni-
ties which the old style of hinges afforded.
Artistic hardware usually implies an unnecessary expense
to the minds of most buyers, and unfortunately the implication
is a correct one, even with very simple designs. The perfectly
plain bronze, which is so much in favor in some parts of the
country, is more expensive than any of the mean, contemptible
figured-bronze goods which form the stock of nearly every hard-
ware store. Plain bronze must be perfect, as every imperfec-
tion will show, whereas a criss-cross pattern will hide a multi-
tude of sand-holes and imperfect casting. Until the general
average of figured-bronze goods is higher, the architect will,
therefore, have considerable difficulty in persuading his client that
artistic hardware is worth all it costs. Still there is plenty of
good, plain hardware which is within the means of most clients,
and the aggregate cost above what the common figured work
would be, is quite inconsiderable for an ordinary house. A
difference of two dollars per pair on knobs would not amount
to more than fifty dollars on an entire house, and the enjoy-
ment of seeing well-chosen hardware about one's home is surely
worth more than the interest on fifty dollars, or twice that sum.
We, as a nation, are fast appreciating the fact that beauty is
worth more than mere utility ; and when the public taste
B L'lLDERS' HARD WARE.
Chapter xv. demands a better average quality of house-hardware, there will
be no lack of proper artists to furnish the right kind of supply.
Comparisons are always dan-
gerous, and are apt to be in-
vidious. There are upwards of
a hundred firms in this country
who make a business of supply-
ing hardware in one form and
another. It would be impracti-
cable, were it desirable, to fairly
represent the work of any con-
siderable portion of this number,
nor is it necessary in order to
show the state of the market.
Accordingly, a limited selection
has been made from the goods
of a few of the manufacturers
whose reputation for fine work
is not questioned, and the
pieces illustrated can, at least
generally, indicate what are the
market possibilities. It was
intended that the selection
should be left to the manufac-
turers, so that the samples
would in a measure indicate
their own views as to what con-
stitutes good hardware, but this
idea was only partly carried
out, it being necessary to make
some personal selection so that
the illustrations should not be
confined entirely to knobs.
1. The Yale & ToWlie Man- Fig.461. Coor-knob. Yale & Towne
ufacturing Company. Figures
457, 458, 459 and 460 [See Illustrations] are all executed in
Bower-Barffed iron. The first design, while not particularly Chapter xv.
handsome, is thoroughly appropriate to the material and would
be suitable for the inside door of a public building, though rather
heavy for a dwelling and not heavy enough for an outside door.
The knob is perhaps a little too suggestive of wrought-iron.
The next example is in a style
which might be used to advantage
for hardware, much more than
it is, though the fish scales in
the ground about the key-hole
are not altogether appropriate
to hardware. The next design is
intended for a front door. The
foliated pattern, Figure 460, is
one of the best which has been
made in this material. The
design is well arranged and
worked out, and excepting
the smoothness of the surface,
which is too suggestive of the
carved pattern, it is very satis-
factory. Bower - Barifed iron
hardware makes a very effective
finish for either oak, or white '
paint, and has the advantage of
not changing its tone with age.
It is unfortunate that the illus-
trations cannot give an idea of the color of these samples,
as with some it counts for nearly as much as the form.
Figure 461 is a very daintily designed knob and escutcheon,
finished with gold-plate, the plain surfaces being slightly
dulled, and the raised portions polished so as to give brighter
reflections. Another knob is finished in one of the most durable
colors that is given to bronze hardware, known as old brass,
having the soft yellow of an old binnacle which has been
scoured and rubbed down year after year to a smooth dull but
Fig. 465. French Window-knob.
Yale & Towne Mfg. Co.
not polished surface, and has big nail-heads studded very effect-
ively over the escutcheon. Figure 461 would be suitable
only for the most elaborate room, preferably one finished in
ivory-white and gold, while the old-brass design would answer
for much humbler apartments, looking best against dark oak,
mahogany or white.
Figures 463 to 467 inclusive, are all in bronze. Figure 465
is a French window-knob finished in deep copper color which is
Fig. 472. Oxidized-silver Hardware. Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. Fig. 473.
especially well designed both for looks and for wear, the numer-
ous rows of beads hiding any inequalities of tone and giving a
ARTISTIC HARDWARE. 285
rich effect at slight cost. Figure 467 is for inside work. The Chapter xv.
three others are for front doors.
Figure 468 is an elaborate drawer-pull in silver-plate,
slightly oxidized. Figure 469 is in bronze, copper-plated and
oxidized, the high lights being buffed down to show the copper.
The design is made to match the iron escutcheon Figure
460. The shutter-knob, Figure 470, is a very neat design in a
semi-Greek style which we ought to see used more frequently.
The sample is gold-plated. The shutter-bar, Figure 471, the
lock and key, Figure 472, and the hinge, 473, are all carried
out in the same semi-Byzantine style, in oxidized-silver. The
key is unique, and the only one of its kind found in modern
work. Few persons would care to go to the expense implied
by such keys and lock-plates, but where the money is not an
important consideration, it would surely add to the finished
effect of a room to have such keys as this in the lock instead
of the flat utilitarian structure one is usually content with.
Figure 474 is a number-plate in oxidized-copper, the leaf
work showing in dull copper tones against a very dark old-
bronze ground. The number is gold-plated.
The Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company has made its
name chiefly on its locks, but of late years it has included the
manufacture of fine hardware. The work done by it is excel-
lent in finish and mechanical details and the foregoing samples
fairly illustrate the character of the designs.
2. A. G. Newman. Figure 475 is a fine example of a
door-handle, having every appearance of being made from
a pattern which was modelled instead of being chiselled or
carved in wood. The leaf at top and bottom of the plate
grows naturally from the single roll at the sides, and the handle
is made to look just what it is a door-pull without being
tortured into any unique or startling form. It is a thoroughly
well-designed piece of hardware and as artistic as anything that
is found in the market. Figure 476 is less pleasing in the result,
though the motive is a good one. The top of the escutcheon is
borrowed from an architectural form which needs relief and some
286 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter xv. fine mouldings, both of which could be added to advantage in
this design. It is executed in silver plate, slightly oxidized and
buffed to a clear surface on the high lights. Figure 477 illus-
trates a knob which serves admirably for a parlor or a music-
room carried out with colonial fittings, a Chippendale knob
in fact, if the expression may be allowed, and very handsome
by reason of the irregular reflections and high lights on the
curved flutings. Figure 478 is a quieter design, but very satis-
factory except for a little heaviness in the flutings. Figure
479 is a very careful and judicious design, the knob being one
of the very few in which a broad, milled-edge forms a marked
feature. It is a natural device and is worked in very prettily,
the dainty ornament at the top of the knob being equally ap-
propriate for its place. Figures 480 and 481 are other forms,
both finished in dark antique bronze. Figure 482 is an escut-
cheon-plate for a sliding-door, and matches the plate of Figure
476. Figure 483 is a simple but very effective door-pull, in
Newman has the reputation of doing a great deal of fine
order work for the New York architects from special designs,
Some of his best work cannot be reproduced here as the
designs are not public. It should be remembered in consider-
ing all of this hardware that when a successful design is put on
the market it is apt to be copied indiscriminately by rival man-
ufacturers, which is naturally discouraging to those who are
conscientiously seeking to do the best work. The rule, almost,
is, that the better manufacturers make their designs, and the
cheap men steal them.
3. Enoch Robinson. Figure 484 is a cut-glass knob set in a
fluted, cup-shaped shank, with a simple Queen Anne escutch-
eon-plate. Knobs of this material are more commonly attached
so as to show glass on all sides. Figures 485 and 486 show
two varieties of plain, rectangular escutcheon-plates which
are used a great deal by some architects and are always satis-
factory. The knob of Figure 486 is well designed, in that the
shape is suited to the purpose, the few mouldings simply used
ARTISTIC HARD WA RE.
to give lines rather than detail, and the rows of beads are just
sufficient to add a sparkle to the whole. Generally, the hard-
ware manufacturer will put too much work on a knob, rather
than too little. It is so easy to add leaf work or convolutions
or tortured detail which passes for richness that simplicity
seldom finds expression in that which dealers are most apt to
put forward as artistic hardware.
The knobs shown by Figures 487 and 488 are great favor-
ites about Boston, especially the former, which in various slight
modifications is assumed to be peculiarly adapted to white
paint and colonial finish. These are
often used to advantage with perfectly
plain rectangular escutcheons. The
plates shown here are a trifle heavy
for domestic work, especially Figure
488, which is more suited to a public
Figures 489 and 489 A illustrate two
elaborate designs which were made on a
special order, goods of this description
being seldom kept in stock. The work
is excellent in detail, though there is
less purity of style than one would ex-
pect in so ambitious an attempt. Fig-
ure 489 is arranged very daintily, but
with a little flatter treatment, less relief
to the foliage, perhaps, and a mask
which would be less literal in its mod-
elling, this design could be rendered
Fig> 489 ' much more charming. Figure 491 is for
a front-door, and naturally calls for a bolder treatment than Fig-
Figure 490 is a variation on the twisted-knob pattern, with
an oval form and bevelled cuts instead of flutings, giving a
prismatic effect to the surface.
Figures 491 to 493, inclusive, illustrate some pieces of hard-
288 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter XV. ware which can hardly be classed with house-fittings. Every
one is familiar with the delightful old mahogany furniture of
the early part of this century, ornamented with brass rosettes
and wreaths, contrasted with plain surfaces and large, swelling
mouldings. This style of the First Empire is beginning to be
appreciated again, and the pieces shown by the figures are in-
tended to be used in connection with such work. The patterns
are all copied directly from old French furniture, and for the
purpose are artistic and very effective. Only rarely can the
architect use such pieces as these, but it is easy to imagine a
room carried out in the Empire style, with ornaments of this
sort used not only on the furniture, but also on the doors and
along the architraves, and with charming effect.
Robinson carries a comparatively small stock, his business
being very largely on orders, with a great deal of fine hand-work.
His goods are thought very highly of by the Boston architects.
4. The Hopkins & Dickinson Manufacturing Company
manufactures an escutcheon-plate on a little different scheme
from any which have been previously considered, the design
being simply a flat piece of metal cut or stamped in an open
pattern, the only ornamentation aside from the form, being in
the shape of large nail-heads, which are studded about the
plate. This sort of design can be made very effective in a
great variety of forms. Figure 494 is an example of a good
effect obtained by the judicious use of a minimum amount of
ornamentation : the convoluted pattern on the knob is enough to
add life and interest without marring the simple shape, and just
a few touches of the same pattern at the corners of the plate
and single dots on the key-hole cover are enough to consist-
ently carry out the design and intensify the simplicity. Who-
ever designed this pattern knew just where to stop, a rare
qualification nowadays. This piece is executed in bronze of
a clear, old brass color.
Figure 495 is a design in oxidized-silver, with some excel-
lent detail, notably the mask or grotesque at the top and the
arabesque on the face of the knob. The shape of the knob
might be better if it were more spherical. So flat a form
looks well in elevation, but does not appear to advantage
in perspective. Even the other ex-
treme of an elongated sphere, Fig-
ure 496, is preferable in some re-
spects, though this form seems to
call for a rectangular escutcheon,
rather than the cut plate which is
shown with it.
Figure 497 is a variation of a
familiar design which has already
been illustrated in other makes, and
is always pleasing. Figure 498 is a
neat arrangement in which rope
moulding is used with good effect ; and
another sample shows a very pleas-
ing knob, not unlike that of Figure
494, set on a plain bronze plate,
relieved only by slight, open cuttings
at top and bottom.
Figures 499 to 503, inclusive, il-
lustrate a few miscellaneous forms
which speak for themselves. The
hinge and the escutcheon are in
oxidized-silver, the others in bronze.
The Hopkins & Dickinson Man-
ufacturing Company bears an excel-
lent reputation in the hardware trade,
turning out a very satisfactory class
of goods with clean, sharp castings and effective chased work,
special care also being given to the colors of the metal, and
with exceptional results.
The four manufacturers whose hardware has been illustrated
are considered among the best in the country, and, given the
same design, one would do quite as good work as the other.
Mechanical excellence has been carried to a pitch where there
Fig. 49 I a.
290 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter xv. is no difficulty in having the work done well. The great lack
always is in ideas, and these are supplied only by careful, in-
telligent study on the part of the designers, and an appreciation
of artistic work on the part of those who purchase and use the
hardware ; and it is quite possible that any deficiency in the
aesthetic quality of our modern hardware may be due as much
to lack of appreciation as to any lack of proper artists. But it
must not be supposed that these are the only manufacturers
who are capable of turning out good hardware. The illustra-
tions may be considered as general rather than special, and as
showing the possibilities of not only the four firms named, but
of the majority of the hardware manufacturers.
THERE are three methods of specifying the hardware to be
used about a building. The first, followed very generally
in Boston, is by allowances, the general specification containing
clauses to the effect that the contractor is to allow so much per
door and so much per window for hardware. It is well, in
order to prevent mistakes or disputes, to add that the allow-
ances are to cover the net cost to the builder, and that all the
hardware is to be set by the contractor in addition to the prices
named. This method conveniently disposes of the subject of
hardware at the time of writing the specification, the whole
matter being relegated to the time when the hardware is actu-
ally needed, the architect then making such selection as he sees
fit, within the allowances.
The amounts of the allowances depend, of course, entirely
upon circumstances. Very fair hardware for inside-doors can
be had as low as $1.75 per door. This allows for bronzed
iron butts, 60 cents ; wooden knobs, escutcheons and roses, 65
cents, and a one-lever lock, 50 cents. This means, however, a
cheaper grade of goods than would often be advisable. An
allowance of $5 per door will permit of solid bronze hardware
throughout, including bronze butts, $2.50 ; a good, three-lever,
machine-made lock at $1 ; bronze knobs, $1, and bronze
escutcheon and rose, 50 cents. For office-work an allowance of
$6 per door will provide a "Yale" lock with corrugated key, a
Prices for al-
B UILDERS' HARD WA RE.
spring latch, and bronze butts and knobs. For front-doors the
allowances must be considerably increased. The lock ought to
be of a grade costing not less than $4 ; the bolts, $2.25; the
knobs, $2, and the butts, $6, or a total allowance of $14.25.
For closet-doors, bronze butts and knobs and a small lock
would average $3.50 per door, only one knob being necessary.
$4 each is sufficient for sliding-door hardware, exclusive of the
hangers, with latch only, or $5 with latch and lock. For fly-
doors add $9 per door to the hardware allowance if the butts
are of bronze, or $4.50 if of bronzed-iron. This is for house'
work. For office fly-doors $12 should be added for bronze
butts, and if push-and-pull plates are required an additional
sum of $2 will be required.
For French windows $4 will buy two pair of bronze butts,
and $2.25 answers for the bolts and the lock, making the total
allowance $6.25 per pair. Door-transoms should have an
allowance of $4 each, for nice work, which would purchase
pivots or 3^ inch butts, $1.75 ; chains and catch, 75 cents, and
lift, $1.50. Transoms are often hung with painted butts, which
are less conspicuous than bronze, and the total allowance can
be scaled down as low as $1 for very simple work.
Sashes are trimmed for 50 to 75 cents each, though the
allowance price is usually per dozen fixtures, say $4.50 for
fasts and $2.50 for pulls.
A specification which would, therefore, provide for bronze
hardware throughout an ordinary dwelling, of a good, average
quality, might read somewhat as follows.
HARDWARE. Allow in the contract the following sums to be ex-
pended as the architect directs upon hardware :
$15.00 each pair.
5.00 each leaf.
5.00 each leaf.
4.00 each leaf.
4.50 per dozen.
2.50 per dozen.
HARD WARE SPECIFIC A TIONS
These prices are the net cost to the builder, and the owner is to have
the benefit of any reduction therefrom. Beyond these allowances list
and set all the hardware in proper manner ; also provide and set such
other hardware (in pantries, closets, etc.) as are called for or implied
by the plans or specifications.
Sliding-doors to be hung by (Richards, Prindle, etc.) hangers
running on (wooden, iron) tracks, properly adjusted, with proper
The hardware for blinds, cellar bulk-heads, etc., is best
specified in connection with the individual items, and should be
described exactly, as the prices of the different makes vary
The allowance method is a very simple one for the architect,
and when carried out according to the true intent and meaning
of the specification, answers very well for ordinary house-
work, especially as each contractor usually purchases his hard-
ware of one firm, and the architect can then simply select
from a single assortment of goods. The difficulty of such a
svstem, however, is that the goods seldom cost as much as the
allowances, and the difference goes to the contractor instead of
to the owner, where it belongs. No architect has yet fully
mastered all the intricacies of a hardware manufacturer's price-
list, and as the price of each article is based upon so flexible
a sliding-scale that even the builders are sometimes charged
unevenly, there might be a dozen grades of knobs or locks, all
at the same nominal price, though varying greatly in quality
and in the real amount for which the dealer sells them.
Also, the system of allowances as ordinally followed gives
too much liberty to the contractor, who usually submits to the
architect one or two styles of knobs and locks which he will
furnish for the allowances, so that the hardware often ex-
presses the builder's rather than the architect's ideas of door-
trimmings. There may be a hundred things in the market far
better and at less cost than those offered, and while such a
specification as the one quoted gives the architect the right to
choose his hardware anywhere, in practice he is generally quite
willing to shove an irksome job onto the shoulders of the
294 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chapter xvi. contractor. In fact, the system of allowances is good only
at its .best.
In New York it is customary to be much more exact in the
New York , , />. TVT ^
method, hardware specifications. No prices are given, the various
articles being designated by sizes and by reference to some
particular class of goods which is to serve as a standard.
Thus : -
For inside-doors provide and set solid bronze 4^ inch loose-pin butts,
two to each fold. Outside-doors to have three G inch loose -pin bronze
Likewise for locks :
Closet-doors to have 3)^ inch locks ; main inside-doors, 4 inch
upstairs, 4^ inch downstairs ; front-doors, 5 inch. Closet-door locks
to have one lever, other doors all three levers ; front-door in addition a
night-latch and anti-friction strike. The works of all locks to be of
(brass, steel), with steel keys and (brass, phosphor-bronze) springs.
Door-knobs in service portions to be plain, white porcelain, with black
enamelled-iron roses and escutcheons ; elsewhere to be plain, solid (or
spun) bronze, with bronze roses and escutcheons, etc.
It is usual to describe knobs and miscellaneous fittings by
referring to a catalogue or to samples in the architect's office,
adding " or of a similar quality satisfactory to the architect."
It will easily be understood that in order to write a proper
specification for hardware on such a basis as this, the architect
must not only know and keep in mind all the numerous fittings
necessary for a house, but must also be thoroughly posted on
the possibilities of the market. As a matter-of-fact it is gen-
erally easier to call in a hardware man and ask him to write
the specification, and the way in which such a method of
specifying will fail will be in not being sufficiently general to
cover everything, so that the contractor will have an excellent
opportunity to bring in a big bill of extras at his own prices.
Besides, a specification by sizes referred to a catalogue, "or
something equally good," is by no means absolute. The differ-
ence between really good and absolutely bad hardware is often
so effectually concealed by a superficial finish that, although
the architect may refer to the best in the market and mean to
liave it, an unscrupulous contractor might run in inferior goods
which only the closest, technical inspection would detect, though
the difference would be speedily manifested in the wear of a
few months. Even restricting the choice to the goods of a
single firm is not always sufficient to prevent imposition, as
there are, unfortunately, some manufacturers who make goods
to suit the consciences of all sorts of customers, and have no
fixed standards of either quality or price. In time the archi-
tect will discover these points by sad experience, and will grow
very cautious; but the younger men, the householder and
those who are either too indolent or too busy to properly
attend to such details, will be more imposed upon by the New
York than by the Boston method of specifying the hardware.
The third method is the only one which is really absolute,
or by which the architect is sure of what he obtains. It has
been adopted very largely by the Government in obtaining
bids for public work, and, though quite clumsy at first, is the
surest and easiest way in the end, relieving the architect from
a great deal of bother and entirely obviating any discussion as
to either prices or qualities. There is no reason why the
same system should not be followed in connection with every
building of sufficient size to warrant it. The specification calls
for locks, butts, etc., of certain sizes, descriptions and weights,
and requires that a full line of samples shall be submitted, with
prices of each. These samples are then examined carefully, a
selection made therefrom or others substituted if none are
exactly suitable, and the contract is based directly upon the
samples. It remains, then, only for the superintendent to
insist upon having the identical fixtures referred to, allowing
no leeway for anything " equally good," or " of similar quality."
For small dwellings the method of allowances is very con-
venient, giving the -architect full liberty to change his ideas to
suit the work or to introduce any article which seems advisable,
without being obliged to determine every detail in advance.
But for all heavy buildings the Government method is better
and fairer for both architect and contractor. The former can
B UILDERS' HARD WA RE.
Chapter xvi. decide just as well first as last what he wants, and the hard-
ware being all selected several months in advance, the con-
tractor has ample time in which to make the best terms for
the wares, and any delay in purchasing is then due solely to
himself, while the question of price is definitely settled before
any contract is signed. It is then the contractor's business
alone how much he pays or how much discount he obtains, or
what commission he receives for placing his order with the re-
tailer, and so long as he matches the samples agreed upon, no
one has any just cause for complaint.
Conclusion. In concluding this series of papers upon the subject of
Builders' Hardware, the writer desires to acknowledge many
sins of omission and commission which have been almost un-
avoidable, considering the complexity of the subject, the
difficulty of ascertaining the condition and scope of the market,
and the uncertainty of definite deductions. It has been written
with special regard to the possibilities of the Boston market,
but, at the same time, the goods of nearly all the manufac-
turers in the country have been studied and compared, so that
it is believed the series will have more than a local significance.
The most the writer can hope is that he may help to relieve a
little of the drudgery inseparable from the architect's profes-
sion, and that the book may have a reference value to both
architect, builder and house-furnisher.
Acme Barn-door Roller . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Acme Sash-cord .. .. .. .. .. .. ..116
Aluminium. Composition and Uses . . . . . . . . 1 1
Anderson Sash-balance .. .. .. .. .. ..118
Anderson Sash-starter . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Anti-friction Strikes .. .. .. .. .. ..178
Anti-friction Sash-pulley .. .. .. .. .. ..110
Anti-friction Sheave. Hatfield 96
Anti-rattler. Ideal . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Anti-rattling Wedges. Clanson's . . . . . . 141
Artistic Hardware . . . . . . . . . . 278
Awning-hinges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Awning-hook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Axle-pulleys .. .. .. .. ..110
Balances. Sash . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Bank-lock. Perautopic . . . . . . . . . . 185
Bar-pull . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . 257
Bar-rail Brackets . . . . 266
Bardsley's Checking Spring-hinge . . 86
Bardsley's Knob-fastener . . . . . . . . . . 245
Bardsley's Screwless-knob . . . . . . . . . . 243
Barlow Door-check . . . . . . 81
Barn-door Hangers. (See Door-hangers) . . 91
Barn-door Hook-and-eye-hinge . . . . 52
Barn-door Lock. Mack and Redway's . . . . 232
Barn-door Rail. Nickel . . . . . . . . 91
Barn-door Roller. Acme . . . . . . 01
Barrel Bolts .... 30
Bell. Bushby's Escapement . . . . . . . . 270
Bell Carriage . . 269
Crank .... ..268
Double-stroke Pull-gong . . . . 270
Fixtures .. 268
298 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Bell Hangings 268
Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Pull. Common . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Pull. Lever . . 252
Bent Staples . . 31
Bird-cage Hook ". . 263
Blind Adjuster. Excelsior . . . . . . . . . . 154
Adjuster. Washhurn's . . . . . . . . . . 154
Awning Fixtures. Automatic . . . . . . 158
Catch. Seymour's 152
Fast. Boston Pattern . . . . 149
Folsom's . . . . 148
New York Pattern 149
Outside . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Providence Pattern . . . . . . . . . . 150
Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Shedd .. .. .. H| 148
Spring Wire 148
Standard Screw . . . . . . . . . . 150
Zimmerman's . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Hinges. Inside . . . . . . . . . . 53, 63
New York Style 53
Rochester . . . . . . . . . . 153
Seymour's . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Hook. Drive-brace . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Iron Screw . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Screw-brace . . . . 54
Slat Adjuster. Byam's 159
Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Barrel . . . . . . 30
Bookcase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Chain and Check . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
^Cupboard 33, 256
Cylindrical Door . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Door . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Bolts. Dutch Door . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Chain and Foot . . . . . . 40
Engine-house . . . . . . . . . . 40
Espagnolette . . . . . . . . . . 41
Extension Latch-spring .... 39
Flat Tail .... 38
Flush with Patent Stop 38
French Window . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Gem Mortise . . . . . . . . 45
Joint .... . . 28
Latch-spring . . 38
For Locks . . ..173
Mortise-flush . .
Mortise-door ...... . . 44
Mortise-door. Table of Prices . . 46
Neck .... ..31
Parts of ..173
Prices of Plain
Ship .... 33
Sink .. -. 30
Stove .... 30
Tire . .
Boston Blind-fast . . 149
Shelf .. ..
300 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Israels . . . . . . . . . . .."".... . . 15
Bramali Lock -..; ..183
Brass. Composition ... . . . . . . . . . . 5
Broad's Patent Gate-latch 272
Brockton Shutter-worker .. .. .. .. .. ..157
Bronze. Chains .. .. .. .. .. .. ..115
Composition of . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Hardware-finishes . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Phosphor Springs . . . . . . . . . . 176
Surface-finish . , . . . . . . . . . . 6
Bronzed Iron, Composition . . . . . . . . . . 3
Brown's Window-lock .. .. .. .. .. ..137
Shutter-worker . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Chicago Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Fast-pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Fine .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ]*. . 61
Garden City Spring .. .. .. .. .. |&| 67
Jewett Spring . . . . . . . . 70
Loose-joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Loose-joint Ball-tip . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Material for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Parliament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Screen . . . . . . \ . . . . . . . 64
Table of Wrought-steel Loose-joint . . . . . . 60
Torsion Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Burglar Door-knob and Window-alarm , . . . . . . 254
Buttons. Turn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Byam's Blind-slat Adjuster 159
Brain's Sash-balance .. .. .. .. .. .. 140
Byam's Sash-fast .. .. .. .. .. .. ..136
Byam's Sash-lifter 144
Cable Sash-chain. Morton's .. .. .. .. ..115
Cam Sash-fasts .. .. .. .. .. .. ..131
Canada Bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Cannon Dumb-waiter . . . . . . . . . . 274
Cast-work in Artistic Hardware . . . . . . . . 280
Cast Wroii'jht-iron . . 2
Catch. Bookcase . . . . . . . . 33
Cupboard . . . . . . . . . . 2 56
Door . . . . 88
Dumb-waiter . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 76
Fray's Door . . . . . . . . gg
French Window . . . . . . 934
Ross Inside ........ 89
Screen-door . . . . . . . . 2:54
Top-door . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Transom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 04
Celluloid Knobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -^Q
Centres. Sash .. .... 161, 1(52, 1G3
Transom . . . . . . . . 161
Centre or Pin Hinge . . . . . . . . C4
Chain. Morton Cable Sash .. .. .. .. ..115
Champion Sash . . . . . . . . . . 1 13, 114
Fastener. Rogers's . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Smith and Egge . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Solid-link .. .. .. .. .. .. ..116
Table of Sash .. .. .. .. .. ..117
and Check-bolts . . ... . . . . . . . . 42
and Foot-bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
and Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . ..113
Champion Sash-chains .. .. .. .. 1', 3. 114
Spring-hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Chandelier-hook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Check. Barlow Door . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Door . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 81
House's Automatic Door . . . . . . . . . . 86
House's Liquid Door . . . . . . . . . . 85
Norton Door 83
Spring Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Bolts . . . . 43
Bolts and Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
and Spring. Eclipse . . 83
Checking Spring-hinge. Bardsley's . . 86
Chest-handle . . . . 256
Hinge ..... 63
Chicago Spring-butt . . . . 69
302 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Chilled Iron Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Chubbs's Locks .. .. .. .. .. .. ..175
Clanson's Anti-rattling Wedges . . . . . . . . . . 141
Climax Barn-door Hanger . . . . . . .... 92
Rail . . 96
Closet-fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Fixtures. Table of 262
Clothes-line Hook . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Clout Nails 15
Coach Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Coach Screws. Table . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Coat-hooks . . . . . . . . . . 259, 260, 261
Combination Dial-locks . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Corey's Two- wheel Sash-pulley . . . . . . . . 110
Cottage Latch . . . , . . . , . . . . . . 234
Cotterill's Lock ' 183
Crank-handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Crown Screen-door Latch . . . . . . . . . . 234
Crown Spring-hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Cupboard-bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 255, 256
and Transom Catch .. .. .. .. '. ]~ ~ .. 163
Cut Steel Nails. Prices of 15
Tacks. American Iron . . . . . . . . . . 19
Cylindrical Door-bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Gate-latch. Seymour's . . . . . . . . 273
Cylinder Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Cylinder Locks. Winn . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Damon's Dial Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Davis Sash-fast 134
Day and Newell's Perautopic Bank Lock . . . . . . 185
Dead Lock ..187
Defiance Lock. Parnell's 187
Detector Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Devore Door-spring . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Dial Locks 226
Diamond-pointed Screw . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Dietz Store-lock . . 193
Dietz Padlock 232
Door-bumper . . . . . . . . . . 90
Bolts . . 30
Cylindrical . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Mortise. Table of Prices 46
Catches . . 88
Fray's . . 89
for Screens 235, 236
Top . . 89
Checks . . 81
Barlow . . 81
House's Automatic 86
House's Liquid . . . . 85
Norton . . 82, 83
Fasts . . 43
Barn .... 91
Climax . .
Endless Anti-friction . . 103
Moody . .
Moore's Anti-friction .. ..100
Nickel .. 94 > 100
Novelty . .
Table of Prices . .
304 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Door-holder. Fray's . . . . . . . . . , . 88
Knobs . . 237
Hollenbeck's Expanding Spindle . . . . . . 246
Mathes's Adjustable Screwless . . . . . . 242
Morris Patent . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Phipps's Patent . . . . . . . . . . 245
Table of .253
and Escutcheon Combined . . . . . . . . 241
and Window Alarm . . . . . . . . . . 254
Kocker. Old-fashioned 252
Latch. Crown Screen . . . . . . . . . . 234
Latch. Elevator . . 233
Rim-sliding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Mack & Redway's Barn . . 233
Nails. Ornamental . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Rail. Nickel 91
Roller. Acme 91
Sheave. Sliding . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Devore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Peabody . . . . 79
Reliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Table of Prices 79
Torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Drawer-knobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Pulls 256, 257
Pull. Druggists' 258
Drive-brace Blind-hook . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Drop Door-check 89
and Pin-fast 152
Druggist's Drawer-pull . . 258
Dudley Shutter-worker .. ..157
Dumb-waiter. Cannon 274
Dumb-waiter. Catch g 7 g
Fittings . . . . . . 274
New York Safety .. .. .. .. ^75
Dutch-door Bolt . . . . . . . . . . 39
Easy Spring-latch . . . . ! 73
Eclipse Door-check and Spring . . 83
Egyptian Lock j 70
Elastic-headed Screws . . . . <JQ
Electric Lock .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 2:>7
Elevator Door-latch . . . . . . . . . . 2;; 3
Elizabethan Lock . . . . . . . . . . \-\
Emerson Parlor-door Hanger .. ..103
Empire Sash-pulley 110
Endless Anti-friction Parlor-door Hanger . . . . . . 103
Engine-house Bolts . . . . . . 40
Spring . . 78
Escapement Bell. Bushby's 270
Escutcheons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Table of 254
Espagnolette Bolts 41
Excelsior Blind-adjuster 154
Excelsior Transom-lifter Ififi
Excentric Cam-fast 137
Expanding Spindle Door-knob. Hollenbeck's . . . . 246
Fast-pin Butt 58
Fasts. Sash 125
Fastener. Nelson's Perfect 143
Favorite Sash-fast 129
Finish and Cost of Locks 169
for Bronze Hardware. List . . . . . . . . 8
Varieties of, in Metals . . . . . . . . . . 1
Finishing Nails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Fittings. Closet 255
Florence Tack Co. Staples 19
Flush-bolt. Extension Latch-spring . . . . . . 39
Flush-Bolt. Mortise 38
306 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Flush-Bolt with Patent Stop . . 38
Bolt. Sunk 38
Flush Sash Lift and Lock . . . . . . 144
Folsom's Blind-fast . . . . . . . . 148
Foot-scrapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Foster Lock 219
Fray's Door-catch . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Door-holder . . . . 88
French Lock. Wards of . . . . . . . . ..176
Window-catch . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Front-door Locks 188, 201
Galvanized-iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Garden City Spring-hinges . . . . . . . . . . 66
Gate Fixtures 270
Hinges 270, 271, 272
Hinge. Seymour's . . . . . . . . . . 271
Latches . . . . 272
Latch. Broad's Patent _..." ..272
Gate-latch. Leed's 273
Seymour's . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Gem Mortise-bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Giant Padlock 233
Gilbert Lock 200,247
Gimlet-pointed Coach-screws . . . . . . . . . . 27
Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 23^
Gravity Blind-fast .. ..148
Sash-fasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Grooved Sash-chain Pulley .. .. .. .. ..114
Hall Front-door Lock 208
Hammond Window-springs . . . . 139
Hand-made Locks . . . . 189
Rail-screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Hangers. Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Picture . . . . 29
and Rollers .. .. .. .... .. .. 91
Hangings. Bell 268-
Hardware. Artistic . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
for Inside Shutters . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Table of Miscellaneous .. .. .. .. ..277
Hart Patent Hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Harvard Lock .. .. .. .. .. .. ..218
Hasp Padlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
and Staples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
and Staple with Double Hook . . . . . . . . 47
and Staple on Plates . . . . . . . . . . 47
Hatfield Anti-friction Sheave . . . . .... . . 96
Barn Door-hanger . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Hemacite Knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Hero Spring-hinge . . . . 73, 74
Hill's Skylight-lift 166
Hinges . . . . . . . . . . 47
Awning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Barn-door Hook-and-eye . . . . . . . . . . 52
Blind . . 53
Blind. Inside . . . . . . 63
Blind. Malleable Iron . . . . . . . . . . 54
Blind. New York Style . . . 53
Blind. Rochester ..153
Blind. Seymour's . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Gate . . 271
Gate. Seymour's . . . . . . . . ..... 271
Hasp ....... 48
Keene's Double-acting Saloon-door . . . . . . 67
Phosphor-bronze . . 75
Pin or Centre . . 64
Quadrant .... 64
Record's Patent .... 51
Special .... 63
Spring .... 66
Spring. Bardsley's Checking - . 86
Spring. Champion . . 69
Spring. Crown . . 68
Spring. Devcre 73
Spring. Empire . . . . . . 68
Spring. Garden City . . . . 66-
308 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
H Ingres. Spring. Hero . . . . . . . . 73, 74
Spring. Hold-back . . . . . . . . . . 73
Spring. Star . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Spring. Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Spring. Union . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Spring. Wiles . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Strap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Strap. Raised . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Strap. Wrought-steel Table 51
Transom .. .. .. .. .. .. 49,161
Trap-door . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Water-closet Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Wells's Patent 50
with Braced Leaf . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Hold-back Spring-hinges . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Hollenback Expanding Spindle Door-knob .. .. ... 246
Tubular-lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Hook. Bird-cage . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Blind .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 54
Coat GO, 61
Chandelier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Clothes-line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Hammock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Picture-moulding . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Picture-rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Screw 29, 263
Sliding-shutter .. .. .. .. . . ..160
and Eye Hinge. Barn-door . . . . . . . . 52
Hotel Locks 188,209
House's Automatic Door-check . . . . . . . . . . 86
Liquid Door-check . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Hungarian Nails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Ideal Anti-rattler . . . . . . , . 141
Inside Blind-hinge .... .. .. 63
Catch . . 89
Inside Shutters. Hardware f or . . . . 159
Iron. Bower-Barffed . . . . , . . . . . 154
Bronzed Composition . . . , , . . . . . 3
Cast . . . . . . 2
Cast. Wrought . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Coppered Malleable .... . . 149
Copper-plated . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Cut Tacks .. ..19
Galvanized . . . . . . . . . . 3
Malleable . . . . . . . . . . 94
Method for Preventing Rust . . . . . . 2
Nickel-plated .... . . 4
Sash-cord . . . . . . . . . . 120
and Steel Clinch Staples . . . . . . 19
Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Wrought . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Ives Mortise Door-bolt . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Sash-fast . . .... . . 131
Jackson's Sash-cord Iron . . . . . . . . 120
Jamb Staples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Japanning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Jewett Spring-butt . . . . . . 70
Joint-bolts . . . . ...... 28
Judd Sash-fast 126
Keene's Double-acting Saloon-door Hinge . . 67
Key. Parts of ..172
Pompeian . . . . . . 171
Key-hole Escutcheons. Table of 254
King Sash-lock 124
Knobs . . 237
Bardsley's Screwless .... . . 244
Boston ' .... . . . . 180
Hemacite .... ..250
Hollenbeck's Expanding Spindle . . . . 246
Lava .- ..249
310 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Iron. Mathes's Adjustable Screwless . . . . . . 242
Morris Patent ,242
Niles Patent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Pkipps's Patent . . . . . . . . 245
Porcelain . . . . . . 249
Table of . . . . . . . . .V 258
Wood . . . . 249
Knob-fastener. Bardsley . . . . . . . . . . 245
Fastening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Shank. Screwless . . . . . . . . . . 242
Knocker. Old-fashioned . . . . . . . . 252
Ladd Sash-fast 127
Lag-screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Latches . . . . 233
Latch. Brass Thumb . . . . 233
Elevator-door . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Gate . . . . . . 273
Gate. Leeds's . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Gate. Mortise . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Gate. Seymour's .. .. .. .. .. ..272
Rim Sliding-door 233
Roggin's . - . . 233
Screen-door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Lava Knobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Lead Weights 121
Leeds's Gate-latch . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Left Hand Locks. Right and . . 180
Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Lever Bell-pull . . . . . . . . . . 252
Lock. Changes in . . . . . . . . ..175
Parlor-bell . , . . . . . . 252
Parts of . . 1 73
Lifts. Sash 144
Sash. Sweet's Reversible 144
Lifts. Sash. Table of P *f;
O 1 -ITT. ' ' 14O
1 ransom. American . . . . . 16 -
' ' lob
Transom. Overell's ........ 166
Transom. Wollensak's .......... 165
Liquid Door-check. House's .... 5
L cks ' " '.'. 168
Advantages of Yale ............ 215
Barn-door. Mack & Red way's . . 233
. 1 oo
Chubbs's .. . . ' ...... 175
Combination Dial . . . . . . . . 2 <>4
Conditions from which to Judge of . . 182
Cotterill's . . . . , . , jg^
Cylinder . . . . . . . . _ 213
Dead .......... . ..187
Dial . . . . . . . . . . 294
Egyptian Wooden ..... . ...... 1 70
Electric . . . . . . . . 227
Elizabethan .. .. .. .. 171
Finish and Cost . . . . . . 169
Follow of a . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Foster . . . . . . . . 219
Front-door ............ 188,201
Gilbert .............. 200
Hand and Machine made . . . . . . . . . . 189
Harvard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Hotel . . . . . . ...... . . 188, 209
Lever. Changes in a . . . . ...... 175
Master-keyed . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Niles . . . . . . . . . . ...... i<j6
Parnell's Defiance .. .. .. .. .. .. 187
Pompeian .. .. .. .. .. .. ..171
Post-office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Prices for . . . . . . ...... 189, 234
Principles of . . . . . . . . . . . . ..170
312 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Locks. Right and Left Hand .... ..181
Rim ..- . . 188
Sash .... ..124
Sash. Ticket-office . . . . 132
Sash. Yale & Towne . . 124
Skylight-lift and .... ..166
Sliding-door .. .. .. .. ..228
Springs for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Spring. Detector .. ..175
Spring. Standard . . 200
Store . . . . .... . . . . . . 193
Tests ....'.. .. ..182
Treatise on. Price . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 74
Tubular . . . . 226
Wards of a . . ..175
Wards of an old French .. 176
Wardrobe . . .... . . . . 230
Wear on .. .. ..181
Winn Cylinder .. .. 222
Loose-joint Butt .. .. . .- - -^ . . 58
Butt. Ball-tip Table . . 61
Butt. Wrought-steel Table .. 60
Pin ... 59-
Machine-made Locks .. .. .. .. .. .. 189-
Mack & Redway's Barn-door Lock . . 232
Malleable Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Mallory's Shutter-worker . . . . . . . . 156
Manufacture of Nails . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Screws . . . . . . . . .... . . . . 22
Master-keyed Locks . . . . 210, 211
Materials for Artistic Hardware .. .. 279
Butts . . 59
Hinges. Spring . . 75
Screws . . .... 25
Mathes's Sash-fast . . . . . . 130
Metal Knobs . . . . 249
Metals and Varieties of Finish ... . . .-.- . . . . 1
Metropolitan Sash-fast 12ft
Miscellaneous Hardware. Table of 277
Locks . . . . . . 226
Moody Barn-door Hanger . . . . . . . . . . 93
Moore's Anti-friction Parlor-door Hanger 98
Morris's Patent Door-knob . . ' 242
Sash-fast . . . . . : ' . . 129
Self-locking Shutter-bar . .' ' . . . . . . . . 160
Mortise Door-bolts . . . : . . . . . . . . 44
Gem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Table of . . 46
Mortise Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Morton Chains . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Mosquito-bar Bolt . . . . . . . . 32
Moulding Hooks. Picture . . . . 264
Nails . . 12
Brass Door . . . . . . 18
Brass-head Picture . . . . . . . . 18
Clout .... . . 15
Cost of .. .. 14,15,16,17
Finishing . . . . . . 15
Hungarian . . . . . . 16
Mode of Manufacture . . . . 12, 13
Pennies as Applied to . . . . 13
Plate .... 12
Porcelain-headed Picture . . ..17
Prices for Cut- steel . . . . 15
Sizes ...... 13
Steel .. ..14
Strength of .... . . 14
Uses of 14
Wire .... ..17
Neck-bolts .. ..31
Nelson's Perfect Fastener
New York Blind-fast 149
Style Blind-hinge . . 54
Safety Dumb-waiter . .
Nickel Barn-door Hanger
Barn-door Rail 91
314 B UILDERS' HARD WA RE.
Nickel Parlor-door Hanger . . . . . . . . . . 100
Plated Screws. Table of 27
Spring-hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Niles Patent Knob 246
Northrup s Window-spring . . . . . . . . 139
Norton's Door-check. Prices . . . . . . . . . . 82
Novelty Parlor-door Hanger . . . . . . . . . . 98
Ormsby Sash-balance .. .. .. .. .. ..119
Outside Blind-fasts 147
Overell's Transom-lifter . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Padlocks . . . . 232
Scandinavian . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Paragon Parlor-door Hanger .. .. .. .. ..102
Parliament Butts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Parlor-bell Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. '. , 252
Rail. Climax . . . . . . . . . . ... 96
Parnell's Defiance Lock . , t . ,' 187
Parts of Bolt . . 1 73
a Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 72
a Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . ..173
Patten's Window-tightener . . . . . . . . . . 143
Payson's Sash-fast 131
Peabody Door-spring . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Pegs. Book-case Shelf . . 259
Pennies as Applied to Nails . . . . . . . . . . 13
Perautopic Bank-lock 185, 186
Perkins's Door-check . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Phipps's Patent Door-knob ' . . 245
Phosphor-Bronze . . . . . . . . 10
Hinges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Pulley Axles . . .... 109
Springs.. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..178
Piano Head-screw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Picture Hanger . . 29
Hooks . 263
Picture Moulding Hooks 2G4
Rod Hooks . . . . . . 29
Nail. Brass-head . . . . . . . . jg
Nail. Porcelain-head ' . . . . . . 17
Pin or Centre Hinge . . . . . . . . G4
Plate. Letter . . . . . . . . . . 2G6
Nails . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Pompeian Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Porcelain Knobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Post-office Lock . . . . . . . . 230
Prescott Door-hanger . . . . . . . . . . 105
Door-hanger Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Shutter- worker .. .. .. .. .. ..157
Principles of Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 70
Pr indie Parlor-door Hanger . . . . . . . . . . 99
Providence Blind-fast . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Pulls. Drawer . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Druggists' Drawer . . . . . . 258
Axle. Ordinary . . . . . . . . . . ..110
Norris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..Ill
Anti-friction . . . . . . . . . . ..109
Chains. Grooved . . . . . . . . ..114
Corey's Two-wheel 110
Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HO
Table of 112
Rail. Climax 96
Nickel Barn door . . . . . . . . . . 91
Raised Strap-hinge . . . . . . . . 51
Rattling Wedges. Clanson's Anti- . . 141
Raymond Sash- weights . . . . . . ..121
Rebated Locks 188
Record's Patent Hinge . . . . . . . 51
Reliance Door-spring .... 78
Reverse Action Spring-butt . . . . 79
316 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Reversible Latches . . . . 181
Richards's Parlor-door Hanger . . . . . . . . 102
Right and Left Hand Butts ..' .. 57
Rim Locks 188
Sliding Door-latch . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Rochester Blind-hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Rodger's Sash-cord. . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Roggin's Latch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
ttoses . . . . . . 238
Saloon-door Hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Sash-balances .. .. .. .. .. .. ..117
Balances. Anderson.. .. . .- .. .. .. 118
Balances. Byam's . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Balances. Ormsby .. .. .. .. .. .. 119
Balances. Shumard . . .. .. .. .. ..119
Centres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Centre. Surface . . . . . . - . . . . . . 162
Chain. Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . e ., . 115
Chain. Champion . . . . . . . . . . 114
Chain. Double .- .. .." -.. 114
Chain. Single . . . . . . 113
Chain. Solid-link 116
Chain. Table of 117
Chain and Weights .. .. .. .. .. .. 113
Cord. Acme .. .. .. .. .. .. ..116
Cord. Iron 120
Cord Iron. Double ..120
Cord Iron. Jackson's .. .. .. .. ..120
Cord Iron. Spring .. .. .. .. .. ..116
Sash-fasts : . . . . ..125
Attwell .. ,. .'> 118
Boston .,..'.. . 127
Byam's . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Cam .: 131
Excentric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Favorite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Gravity . . 134
Sash-fasts. Judd P "^
Lad <l ' 127
Lever-locking . . . . . . _ < } 30
Lever Plain . . ,
. J. /O
Lever Spring .. .. .. . . > 127
Locking in Different Positions . . . . . . 135
Mathes' -, o n
Metropolitan . . . . . . . . . , jog
Morris . . . . . . . . . . jog
Payson's . . . . . . . . . . 13^
Self-locking . . . . . . . . . . 132
Shaw's . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Table of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Timby .. 136
Sash-fastenings . . . . . . . . . . 122
Holder. Ayer's . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Holder. Storm . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Lifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Lifts. Byam's . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Lifts. Sweet's Reversible . . . . . . . . . . 144
Lifts. Table of 146
Lifts. Wigger's . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Sash Lift and Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Locks. King . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Openers . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Pulleys . . . . 1 09
Pulleys. Anti-friction . . . . . . . . . . HO
Pulleys. Corey's Two Wheel 110
Pulleys. Empire . . . . . . . . . . ..110
Pulleys. Sash-chain .. .. .. .. .. .. !14
Pulleys. Table of .. .... .. ..112
Starter. Anderson's.. .. .. .. .. ..145
Weights. Raymond's .. .. .. .. ..121
Scandinavian Padlock . . . . . . . . 232
Scrapers. Foot .. .. .. ..--.. ... ..268
318 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Screen-butt . . < . . . . . . . 65
Butt. Newman's . . . . . . 64
Door-catch . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Door Corner-iron .. .. .. .. .... 267
Door-latch. Crown . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Door-spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Screw-eyes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Eye Fasts 150
Screw-hooks . . . . . . . . . . . . 29, 263
Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Diamond-pointed .. .. .. .. .. .. 23
Coach . . 22
Drill-pointed . . . . . . .... . . . . 22
Elastic-headed . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Gimlet-pointed . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Hand-rail .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 28
Lag .. .... ..27
Manufacture of . . . . . . . . . . . , 22
Materials for .. .. .. .. .. -. . * ., . . 25
Piano-head . . . . . . . . .-, " . . 23
Prices of Nickel-plated . . . . . . ; . . . 27
Table of .... 24
Table of Gimlet-pointed Coach . . 27
Wood - . . . . . . 25
Screwless Door-knob . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Security Blind-fast .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 150
Sash-fast .. .. .. .. -.-. .. .. 134
Seymour's Blind Catch .. .. .. .. -.-. .. 152
Blind Catch and Lo< k .. -.-. .. .. .. 512
Blind-hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Gate-latch .. ..272
Gate-latch. Cylindrical , ..273
Gate Hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Shaw's Sash-fast .-. .-. .. ., .. 134
Shedd Blind-fastener .. .... ..148
Shelf-bracket . . . . 258
Pegs. Bookcase 259
Ship-bolt .. 33
Handle . . 251
Shutter-bars. . . . . . . . . . . . j^g
Bars. Morris' Self-locking .. .. . . . .. . . IQQ
Fixtures .. .. .. .. . . m t 147
Fixtures. Table of .. .. .. .. .. . . IQQ
Flap . . 63
Hardware for Inside . . . . 159
Hook. Sliding- . . . . . . 160
Workers 1 55
Workers. Brockton .. .. .. .. .. ..157
Shutter-worker. Brown's. . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Worker. Dudley . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Worker. Mallory . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Worker. Prescott . . > ' . . . . . . . . . . 157
Shumard Sash-balance . . . . . . . . ... . . 119
Side-flush Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Sink-bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Sizes of Nails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Slat Adjuster. Byam's Blind- . . . . . . . . 159
Sliding-door Latch. Rim . . . . . . , . . . . . 233
Door Locks . . . . . . 228
Door Sheave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Sliding Shutter-hook , . . 160
Smith & Egge Chains . . . . . . . . . . 114
Specification for Hardware . . . . . . . . 291
Door-knob. Hollenbeck's expanding . . . . . . 246
Knob with Threaded 240
Screw partly Covered. Knob with . . . . . . 239
Swivel . . . . 244
Butt. Chicago ..69
Butt. Garden City Double-acting . . 67
Butt. Jewett . . 70
Butt. Torsion . . . . 72
Spring for doors, see Door-springs
Spring. Engine-house . . . . 78
Spring Hinges . . . . .... . . 66
Bardsley's Checking .... . . 86
Champion . . .... . . 69-
320 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Spring Hinges. Crown . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Devore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Garden City 66
Hero .. 73
Hold-back .. 73
Materials for . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Nickel . . 73
Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Spring for Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Reverse-action . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Sash-cord. Coiled .. 116
Window . . . . 139
Square Neck-bolts 31
Stair-rail Brackets T - . . 265
Staple. Bent . . . . 31
Staple. Clinch *.:"^.. 19
Staple. Jamb . .: . . 31
Star Door-spring .. .. .. .. .. . . .. 77
Star Spring-hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Stay-roller. Victor 92
Steel. Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Butts. Wrought, Loose-joint. Table of 60
Hinges. Wrought, Strap. Table of .. .. .. 51
Nails .- ,. ... . . 14
Nails. Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Nails. Wire, Table of ... .. ... .. .. 17
Staples . . . . 19
Tacks .. .. 19
Stop-bead Fastener . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Stops. Door . 89
Store Locks 192
Storm Sash-holder . . 142
Strap-hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Strap-hinge. Prices of Wrought Steel 51
Strength of Nails 14
Strike. Anti-friction ............ 1 7
Strike. Anti-friction, Hall .......... 17$
Sweet's Reversible Sash-lift ...... . . . . 144
Sweet's Window-spring . . . . . . . . 139.
Swivel-spindle . . . . ......... 244
Tacks ........ 19
Tail-bolts ............ 35
Tenon Blind-fastener . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Tests for Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
T-handle and Knob . . . . . . . . . . 251
Thaxter's Electric Lock . . . . . . . . . . 227
T-hinge . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
T-hinge with Braced Leaf .. .. .. .. .. .. 50
Thumb Latch. Brass ........ . . 233
Ticket-office Sash-lock ............ 133
Tightener. Window ........ . . 143
Timby Sash-fast .......... . . 136
Tire-blots ................. 30
Top Door-catch ............. ,.\ 89
Torry Door-spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Torsion Door-spring . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Torsion Spring-butt . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Transom-catch . . . . . . . . . . J . 163
Centres ............ 'A. ..161
Fittings. Table of ........ *V. . . 167
Hinges ............. "?. . . 161
Lift. American . . . . . . . . . / . . 165
Lift. Excelsior . . . . ........ 166
Lift. Overell's ........ . . 166
Lift. Steller .. 165
Lift. Wollensak . . . . 165
and Skylight Fittings ............ 161
Trap-door Hinge . . . . 51
Triumph Sash-fast . . - . 130'
Tubular Lock . . 226
Turn-buttons . . 255
322 BUILDERS' HARDWARE.
Vestibule Latches 208
Victor Barn-door Hanger . . . . . . . , . . . . 93
Victor Stay-roller ' ,'C" .. ... 92
Wards for Lock . . . . . . . . . . 1 75
Wards of an Old French Lock . . ..176
Wardrobe Hinge . . . . . . . . . . 64
Wardrobe Hooks . . . '. '. 260
Wardrobe Locks . . . . 229
Warner Door-spring . . . . 81
Parlor-door Hanger . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Washers 59, 238
Wash-tray Hinge 63
Water-closet Seat Hinge . . . . .' . . . . . . . 63
Wear on Locks 181
Wedges. Clanson's Anti-rattling . . . . . . 141
Weights, Raymond's Sash .. 121
Sash chains and .. .. .. .'. .. ..113
Wells's Patent Hinge . . 50
'Wigger's Sash-lifters ... .. 144
Wiles's Spring-hinge . . . . . . : . . . . . 73
Window-spring. Hammond's .. .. .. . . ', . 139
Spring. Sweet's 139
Spring. Northrup's . . .". . . . . . . . . 139
Tightener. Ayer's . . . . . . 143
, Tightener. Patten's 142
Wire Blind-fast . . . . . . : . . . . . 148
Nails } . . 16
Wood Knobs . . 249
Screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Wooden Lock. Egyptian . . . . . . . . 170
Yale Lock. Advantages of ..215
Lock. Mechanism . . . . .... . . . . 213
Zimmerman's Blind-fast 155
flia^ara pire Ipsurapee
Reserve for all Liabilities,
.Assets, . I jii mar. v 1,
Losses Paid Since Organization in 1850, over 13 Million Dollars.
PETER NOTMAN, President.
THOMAS F. GOODRICH, Vice-Pres. WEST POLLOCK, Secretary.
GEORGE C. HOWE, Assistant Secretary.
FIFTEEN YEARS AGO
THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT
MADE its appearance as the first successful architectural journal this country has
ever produced. To-day although it shares its field with perhaps thirty contempo-
raries of less age than itself it easily maintains its superiority over all.
In character, in bulk, in readableness, in the quantity and variety of its illustrations,
it is facile princeps; and, as is usually the case, it is found to be, when compared with its
fellows by a common standard, the cheapest.
All the illustrations (of which there are 600 to 1,000 every year) and the major part
of the text are found of interest to the layman no less than to the practising architect.
The serial articles, all illustrated, on French Sculptors, on Old Colonial Work in Virginia,
historically treated, on Italian Towers, on Equestrian Monuments, etc., are calculated to
please the cultivated reader of every class.
Subscribers to this Journal for the year 1890 will receive a [real] photogravure of
AXEL H. HAIG'S famous etching
" THE FOUNTAIN OF ST. GEORGE, LUBECK,"
of which the original now sells in the open market for #125.00.
Send for Specimen Copy and Prospectus to
TICKNOR <5* COMPANY, PUBLISHERS,
21 1 Tremont Street, Boston.
T. ASPINWALL & SON,
IMPORTERS AND MANUFACTURERS.
TILES OF EVERY KIND.
SOLE AGENTS FOR MINTON'S AND FOR THE CAMPBELL TILE CO.
MOSAICS in any style or design made in our own Shops by Skilled Workmen.
Open Fireplaces, Grates, Brass and Iron Work, Fenders,
DESIGNS AND ESTIMATES FOR WORK IN ANY PART OF THE COUNTRY
303 FIFTH AVE., N, E. Cor. 31st ST., NEW YORK.
W. T. MERSEREAU & CO., 321 Broadway, New York.
Brass Hand Rails, Office Rails, Grille Work for Office Desks, Doors, and Window Guards.
We furnish this work in Polished or Antique Brass, Bronze, Oxidized Silver, or Iron finish.
Estimates furnished on application ; also manufacturers of Brass Bedsteads, Easels, Fenders,
Fire Sets, Andirons, and Fireplace Frames.
J. & R. LAMB,
59 CARMINE ST., NEW YORK.
STAINED : GLASS
Color v Decoration.
WORK RECENTLY FINISHED FOR TWO IMPORTANT CHURCHES :
The Bethlehem Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia,
T. P. CHANDLER, Jr., Architect.
The entire Stained Glass (excepting one Window), including four large
Fisrure Memorials, and a Heroic Mural Painting by F. S. Lamb, subject of
the GOOD SHEPHERD. *
St. Pauts Cathedral, Buffalo, N. Y.
R. W. GIBSON, A rchitect of the Restoration.
The entire Stained Glass, rich Geometric Work (excepting two Single
ncets and Transept Window), the large East Window from cartoons of
Henry Holliday and the Eagle Lectern, heroic size of antique brass.
SPECIAL DESIGNS SUBMITTED UPON REQUEST. CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED.
STEWART CERAMIC COMPANY,
312 PEARL, ST., Cor. Peck Slip, NEW YORK.
rers under Mora-
ban's Patents of
The only Perfect
SHOWING TimnE Tuns' SET TP. Will not absorb, leak, or decay.
No seams to open. Absolute cleanliness secured for all time. "WELL GLAZED.
The only Solid Wh'te Crockery Wash-tub ever made in the world. Do not buy imitations until
you see the genuine " Morahan's Patent," stamped on the front of every tub. Wash-board and
Soap-cup moulded in every set. Will outlast any house.
Solid White Crockery Sinks, Comprising Butler's Pantry, Kitchen, Slop, etc.
LIBERAL TERMS TO THE TR1DE. SEND FOR PRICE-LIST AND CATALOGUE.
Bardsley's Patent Wood Door Knobs
The most desirable
medium price knobs
in the market. Hand-
some and durable.
Every knob war-
ranted. Beware of
worthless imitations ;
none are genuine un-
less the word
is stamped on the
shank. See page 245
in this work (referring
to Fig. 377).
BARDSLEY'S PATENT CHECKING SPRING HINGES,
For Double Acting Doors. New and Improved Type.
the best Spring
Hinge ever in-
close the door
or violence and
stop it at once
in its proper po-
ing parts are
o i 1. Springs |
do not break
or rust. Door
cannot sag. A
are in use in public buildings and on butler's pantry doors. See page 86 in this work..
JDescriptive r*rice List on. Application.
J. BARDSLEY, 59 Elm Street, - NEW YORK.
TICKNOR & COMPANY, BOSTON.
Complete Catalogue of Illustrated and Fine- Art Books-
Art and Architectural Works sent free to any address on
application. Send for it.
By Louis DE COPPET BERG. Vol. I. Square 8vo. Illustrated. $5.00.
"The author proposes to furnish to any earnest student the opportunity to
acquire, so far as books will teach, the knowledge necessary to erect safely any
building. First comes an introductory chapter on the Strength of Materials. This
chapter gives the value of, and explains briefly, the different terms used, such as
stress, strain, factor of safety, centre of gravity, neutral axis, moment of inertia,
etc. There follow a series of chapters, each dealing with some part of a building,
giving practical advice and numerous calculations of strength; for instance, chap-
ters on foundations, walls and piers, columns, beams, roof and other trusses, spires,
masonry, girders, inverted and floor-arches, sidewalks, stairs, chimneys, etc."
These papers are the work of a practising architect, and not of a mere book-
maker or theorist. Mr. Berg, aiming to make his work of the greatest value to the
largest number, has confined himself in his mathematical demonstrations to the use
of arithmetic, algebra, and plane geometry. In short these papers are in the
highest sense practical and valuable.
ANCIENT AND MODERN LIGHT-HOUSES.
By MAJOR D. P. HEAP, i vol. Square 8vo. Fully illustrated. $5.00.
An interesting scientific and historical treatise, exclusively considering this im-
Ancient Light-Houses Eddy stone Bell Rock Skerryvore
Other Lighthouses with Submarine Foundations Minofs Ledge
Spectacle Reef Tillamook Rock Northwest Seal Rock Light-
houses of the Atlantic Coast of the United States Rothersand Light
Tower Fourteen-Foot Bank Light-House, Delaware Bay Skeleton
Iron Light-Houses Characteristics of Light-Houses Isle of May
Light-House Miscellaneous Lights Light-House Administration.
TICKNOR & CO.'S ATtCHITECTTTJlATj HOOKS.
MOffOGKAPES OP AMEEICAff AKOHITEOTUEE,
This series was designed with a view to illustrating the most notable, imposing,
and interesting of our American public and semi-public buildings, with adequate
groups of large and attractive pictures, carefully printed on plate paper, and with
their absolute accuracy ensured by the use of the photographic process. The
edifices thus illustrated are among the most conspicuous on the continent, by
reason of their great size, or architectural value ; and a careful study of their pro-
portions will be of interest to all architects and students of the fine arts. The
copious array 01 details given adds to the practical working and studying availa-
bility of the Monographs ; while the beauty of the pictures as works of art should
ensure them a place in all libraries where art works are sought and cherished.
NO. I. HARVARD LAW SCHOOL.
H. H. RICHARDSON, Architect. 18 plates, 13 x 16 (Gelatine, from na-
ture). In portfolio. $5.00.
List of Plates.
Austin Hall, Harvard Law School. General View General View
of Porch Capital and Architect's Monogram Three plates of Cap-
itals Entrance Doorway Porch, looking toward Memorial Hall
Section of Principal Facade West End View from Northwest
East End Staircase Tourelle Tourelle and Entrance Alain
Staircase Reading- Room Fire- Place in Reading- Room Plans.
NO. II. THE STATE CAPITOL, HARTFORD.
RICHARD M. UPJOHN, Architect. 22 plates, 13 x 16 (Gelatine, from
nature). In portfolio. $6.00.
List of Illustrations.
North Front from the Terrace North Porch Detail of North
Porch View from North Porch, showing Soldiers' Monument and
Park East Front Details of East Porch, with Bas-relief of the
Charter Oak View from Southeast Carriage Porch Detail of Car-
riage Porch South or Carriage Porch General View from the
Southeast West Front Sou.h Main Corridor, showing Dome Piers
find East Stairway Dome Interior of Dome, at Gallery Level
A 7 orth Main Cor ridor, showing Model of " The Genius of Connecticut"
Ihe terminal figure on the Dome Southwest Gable and Dormers
Hall of Representatives East or Senate Stairway Senate Cham-
bers Detail of Southwest Pavilion West Main Corridor, Bronze
Statue of Gov. Buckingham and the State Battle-Flags Plans.
TJCKNOH, & CO.'S AMCHITECTITItAT; BOOKS.
NO. III. AMES MEMORIAL BUILDINGS
AT NORTH EASTON, MASS. H. H. RICHARDSON, Architect.
22 plates, 13 x 1 6, also two lithographs. In portfolio. $6.00.
General View of the Town Hall and Memorial Library, from the
Southwest General View, from the Northeast Front View of Town
flail Arcade of Town Hall Detail of Arcade Interior of Loggia
West End of Town Hall View from Sotitheast East End
Detail of East End of Town Hall Getter al View of Library
Entrance Archway Details of Library Front ( Two Plates) East
End Chimney-piece in Heading-Room Interior of Book-Room
The Gate-Lodge, from the Grounds of F. L. Ames, Esq. The Gate-
Lodge, from the Southwest The Gate-Lodge, from the Street The
Railroad Station from the Track Plans of Town Hall and Memorial
Library Plans of Gate Lodge and Railroad Station.
NO. IV. THE MEMORIAL HALL
AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY. WARE AND VAN BRUNT, Archi-
tects. 13 plates, 13 x 16, and one Photo-Lithograph. In portfolio.
General View of Cambridge, from the West Harvard Memorial
Hall, from the Southeast The Main Entrance The Memorial Ves-
.tibule Entrance of Dining Hall Southxvest Porch Cloister and
Memorial Tablet Views of Memorial Hall, from the West, with
Statue of John Harvard Dining Hall, looking West Dining Hall,
.looking East East End Sanders' Theatre Plan.
NO.V. TRINITY CHURCH, BOSTON, MASS.
22 Gelatine Views and I Heliochrome, 13 x 16. $10.00.
Portrait of H. H. Richardson West Front of Trinity General
View, from Southeast Apse and Tower, from Southeast General
View, from Northwest Main Entrance Detail of West Front
Tower from South Details of Tower Cloister and Chapet Cloister
and Tracery Window Cloister Garth Chapel Stairway En-
trance to North Transept Chancel North Side of Nave Font
Bust of Dean Stanley Nave, from Gallery Interior of Tower
Cartoon for Window Plan of the Church.
TICKNOIt & CO.'S ARCHITECTURAL BOOKS.
Indispensable to Architects :
A Treatise upon the Principles and Practice of Plane and Cylindrical
Perspective, by WILLIAM R. WARE, Professor of Architecture in
the School of Mines, Columbia College. I vol. I2mo. 321 pages,
with 27 plates in a portfolio. $5.00.
This is by far the most exhaustive of modern works on the subjects relating to
perspective, plane and panoramic, and will be of great value to all architects and
artists, and others interested in the problems of art. The scientific and pictorial
aspects of these investigations are carefully and thoroughly considered, both inde-
pendently and in their connection with drawing ; and the propositions of the
author are illustrated by plates of architectural objects and perspective plans. An.
invaluable book for artists, architects, draughtsmen, and civil engineers.
" The book is written in clear English, free from unnecessary technicalities, and
in a much more felicitous style than such text-books usually are. The plates
required a prodigious quantity of careful work and are correspondingly valuable."'
New- York World.
ILLUSTRATIONS OF SPIRES AND
Of the Mediaeval Churches of England. Preceded by some
observations on the Architecture of the Middle Ages and its
Spire-Growth. By CHARLES WICKES. One vol. Folio. Nearly
one hundred plates, with text, $15.00.
Years ago, when Mr. Charles Wickes was engaged in the preparation of his famous
work on " Spires and Towers " he had the good sense to print before the completion
and issue of the more elaborate colored drawings, an uncolored edition of his work
for the special use of architects. Thanks to this action, he placed before the pro-
fession one of the most useful and beautiful works which have found a place in archi-
This work Ticknor & Co. have reprinted. Owing to the great skill and care exer-
cised by the Heliotype Printing Company, these prints have lost nothing of their
original force and delicacy in reproduction, and the reprint is quite as valuable and
useful as the original. The present edition contains, also, in full, the notes and criti-
cisms of the original, making forty pages of text and notes, not less valuable than the
TICKNOR & CO.'S ARCHITECTURAL JiOOKS.
A Valuable Text-book:
A' MANUAL: For young Architects, Students, and others interested
in Building Operations as carried on at the present time. By
T. M. CLARK, Fellow of the American Institute of Architects.
I vol. 8vo. 336 pages. Illustrated with 194 Plans, Diagrams,
etc. Price, $3.00.
Introduction. The Construction of a Stone Church Wooden
Dwelling-Houses A Model Specification Contracts The Construc-
tion of a Town Hall Index,
" This is not a treatise on the architectural art, or the science of construction,
but a simple exposition of the ordinary practice of building in this country, with
suggestions for supervising such work efficiently. Architects of experience prob-
ably know already nearly everything that the book contains, but their younger
brethren as well as those persons not of the profession who are occasionally called
upon to direct building operations, will perhaps be glad of its help."
There is hardly any practical problem in construction, from the building of a
stone town-hall or church to that of a wooden cottage, that is not carefully consid-
ered and discussed here ; and a very full index helps to make this treasury of facts
accessible. Every person interested in building should possess this work, which
is approved as authoritative by the best American architects.
This volume has been used for years as a text-book in the chief
Architectural Schools of the United States.
AMERICAN MANSIONS AND COTTAGES.
By CARL PFEIFFER, F. A. I. A. 100 folio plates. In handsome port-
During his last years the late Carl Pfeiffer, F. A. I. A., of New York, prepared
for publication a work on American Domestic Architecture.
The drawings represent designs for dwelling-houses of various classes, with all their
details carefully worked out, and perspective views of each house from several points.
One hundred of these drawings carefully selected as the best, have been chosen for
publication, forming the most unique and useful work ever issued upon the subject for
either the profession or the public.
TICKNOR & CO.'S ARCHITECTURAL ROOKS.
ARTISTIC HOMES :
IN CITY AND COUNTRY. By A. W. FULLER, Architect. Ob-
long folio. Fourth Edition, enlarged and improved. 76 full-page
illustrations of rural and urban homes, many of which are from
gelatine. Also one colored plate. $4.50.
"It has in many cases proved a very valuable assistant, a faithful friend and
reliable adviser, to persons of refined taste and artful feeling who contemplated
building a home. . . . We heartily commend it to all who intend building a home.
To the architectural student and draughtsman the book should prove a valuable aid
in teaching him how to effectively draw perspectives or interior views." Building.
DECENNIAL INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS
IN THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND BUILDING
NEWS, 1876-85. 8vo. Price, $2.00.
A carefully-made topical index to the thousands of illustrations printed
in " The American Architects " for the past ten years, with the architects
and costs of the buildings illustrated. These include
Sketches Etchings General Views Towers and Spires Mon-
uments Statues and Tombs Interiors and Furniture Entrances
and Gateways Educational, Mercantile, and Public Buildings
Churches and Parish Buildings Dwellings Club-Houses Thea-
tres Stables and Farm Buildings Hotels Museums Libraries
and Town Halls.
DISCOURSES ON ARCHITECTURE. By E. E. VIOLLET-LE-
Duc. With many Steel Plates and Chromos, and hundreds of
Wood-cuts. 2 vols. 8vo. $15.00.
ART FOLIAGE. By J. K. COLLING. Entirely new plates from the
latest enlarged London edition. Folio. $10.00.
MURAL PAINTING. By FREDERIC CROWNINGSHIELD. i vol.
Square 8vo. With numerous full-page illustrations. $3.00.
HOME SANITATION. A Manual for Housekeepers. i vol.
i6mo. 50 cents.
HOUSEHOLD SANITATION. By WILLIAM E. HOYT. i6mo.
30 cents. Paper covers, 15 cents.
LECTURES ON THE PRINCIPLES OF HOUSE-DRAIN-
AGE. By J. PICKERING PUTNAM. With Plates and Diagrams.
l6mo. 75 cents.
TICKNOR & CO.'S ARCHITECTURAL BOOKS.
By J. A. SCHWEINFURTH, Architect. This contains 30 plates, repro-
duced in fac simile from the author's sketches in pen, pencil, and
water colors, by the most approved processes, and printed on 1 5 x 20
heavy plate paper, in specially designed portfolio. The edition is
limited to 250 copies for sale, each of which is numbered. Price,
$15.00 per set.
The author has found, away from beaten paths, interesting examples of the old
memoirs, or French manor houses, and chateau.*. Among the plates are presented
several of these manoirs half-timbered houses, with details, from Normandy and
Brittanny ; work of the period of Francis I. ; towers, chateaux details from the
Italian and French Rennaissance ; Romanesque and Byzantine work of Venice and
Ravenna, and the Romanesque of the Auvergnes ; wrought iron from Venice and
from Spain, and from the South Kensington Museum.
THE OPEN FIRE-PLACE IN ALL AGES.
By J. PICKERING PUTNAM, Architect. It has been carefully revised and
greatly enlarged, with handsome and large type, pages and binding,
fine and heavy paper, and with over three hundred illustrations,
including numerous chefs */' auvres of designs of Fire-Places and
interior decoration, contributed for this edition by the ablest Archi-
tects of the country, i vol. 8vo. $4.00.
The First Section treats of the Fire-Place as it now is, explaining how incorrectly
it is constructed, and gives many startling facts, based on careful experiment, to
show how great a loss of heat (from 80 to 90 per cent. ) it occasions.
The Second Section reviews in an attractive manner, the historical development
of the subject from its remotest origin in the dim ages of the past to the present
day. This chapter contains over 179 charming illustrations.
The Third and last chapter treats of the improvement of the Open Fire-Place,
and teaches us how it is possible to combine, in one construction, the healthfulness,
beauty, and charm of the Open Fire-Place, with the efficiency and economy of the
closed stove or hot-air furnace.
The designs, even of the most unimportant accessories, are made with the same
careful study and refined taste as of the more important features.
HOMES AND ALL ABOUT THEM.
By E. C. GARDNER. 716 pages. Illustrated. $2.50.
Invaluable instructions and suggestions as to interior decoration, exterior finish,,
and varied forms of architecture.
The American Architect
AND BUILDING NEWS,
An Illustrated Weekly Journal of Architecture and the
Building Arts. With six or more fine full-page illustra-
tions and many smaller ones in each number. It is now
entering on its fifteenth year of successful publication, and
will hereafter be- published in three editions the Regular,
the Imperial, and the International.
In all the essentials it will be hereafter similar to
what it has been during 1889.
The series of papers on "Architectural Shades and
Shadows" "Old Colonial Work in Virginia and Mary-
land" "Equestrian Monuments" and ^Safe Building"
are continued. Many new features are added.
Mr. T. H. Bartletfs valuable life of Fremiet, the cele-
brated French sculptor, is in course of preparation.
Other papers are in preparation on Italian Towers,
Applied Architectural Calculations, Visits to Spanish Cities,
Travels in Mexico, etc.
Among the Illustrations will be additional Series of Rotch
Scholarship Drawings, Scotch Baronial Halls ,etc.
Careful investigation has proved that it costs the subscri-
ber less per page than any American Journal of its* class,
while it contains vastly more illustrations.
Send to TICK NOR & COMPANY for specimen copy.
International edition, per year in advance . . . . $25.00
Imperial edition, . . . . 10.00
Regular edition, " " ..... 6.00
University of Toronto
Acme Library Card Pocket
Under Pat. "Ref. Index File"
Made by LIBRARY BUREAU