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Full text of "Building code, city of Boston"

BOSTON 
PUBLIC 
LIBRARY 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 






http://www.archive.org/details/buildingcodecity1970bost 



BUILDING CODE 
CITY OF BOSTON 

i 

2 'I C 






. 






July 1, 1970 



KEVIN H. WHITE 

Mayor 

RICHARD R. THUMA, JR. 

Building Commissioner 




Building Department City Hall Boston, Massachusetts 02201 



6^ j)d> c 

Gov Va6$ 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



CONTENTS 



PART I 

PART II 
Article 



Administration 



1 General Provisions 

2 Definitions and Classifications 

3 General Building Limitations 

4 Special Use and Occupancy Requirements 

5 Light, Heat, Ventilation and Noise Control 

6 Means of Egress 

7 Structural and Foundation Loads and Stresses 
8A Materials and Tests 
8B Steel, Masonry, Concrete, Gypsum and Lumber 

Construction 

8C Building Enclosures, Walls and Wall Thickness 
9 Fireresistive Construction Requirements 

10 Chimneys, Flues and Vent Pipes 

11 Heating Equipment and Appliances Mounting, 
Clearances and Connections 

12 Fire Protection and Fire-Extinguishing Equipment 

13 Precautions During Building Operations 

14 Signs and Outdoor Display Structures 

15 Electrical Wiring and Equipment 

16 Elevator, Dumbwaiter and Conveyor Equipment 
Installation and Maintenance 

17 Plumbing, Drainage and Gas Piping 

18 Air Conditioning, Refrigeration and Mechanical 
Ventilation 

19 Prefabricated Construction 

20 Light Transmitting Plastic Materials 

[APPENDIX A Accredited Authoritative Agencies Listed 

in Reference Standards 
\PPENDIX B Code Revision Proposal Form 

\PPENDIX C Permit Application Procedure and List of Application 
Forms 
Alphabetical 
Principal Regulations by Occupancy Group 



NDEX A 
NDEX B 



THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 
ACTS OF 1938, CHAPTER 479 

AN ACT FOR CODIFICATION, REVISION AND 
AMENDMENT OF THE LAWS RELATIVE TO THE 
CONSTRUCTION, ALTERATION AND MAINTENANCE 
OF BUILDINGS AND OTHER STRUCTURES IN THE 
CITY OF BOSTON. 

PART I. 
ADMINISTRATION 

101-Title. 
102-Repeals. 
103-Pending Actions. 
104-Other Statutes. 
105 -Effective Date. 
[105A-Amendment by Ordinance.] 
106-Meaning of Certain Words. 
107-Scope. 
108-Maintenance. 
109-Organization. 
110-Application for Permit. 
Ill-Permits. 
112-Fees. 
113-Inspection. 
114-Posting Floor Loads. 
115-Annual Report. 

116-Powers and Duties of Building Commissioner. 
117-Board of Appeal. 
11 8- Appeals. 

119-Decisions of the Board of Appeal. 
120-Board of Examiners. 
121 -Omitted. 
122-Penalties. 

123-Enforcement Jurisdiction. 
124-132-Omitted. 
133-Change of Occupancy. 



Sect. 101. Title. — This act shall be known and may be 
cited as the Boston Building Code and is hereinafter referred to 
as this code. 

Sect. 102. Repeals. — Except as provided in section one 
hundred and three, the following acts and parts of acts, as 
severally amended, are hereby repealed; — chapter two hundred 
and sixty-five of the acts of eighteen hundred and ninety-seven; 
the two paragraphs added to section four of chapter three hun- 
dred and eighty-three of the acts of nineteen hundred and five 
by section one of chapter one hundred and fifty-six of the 
Special Acts of nineteen hundred and nineteen; chapter five 
hundred and fifty of the acts of nineteen hundred and seven, 
except section one hundred and twenty-eight thereof; chapter 
three hundred and forty-two of the acts of nineteen hundred 
and eleven; chapter seven hundred and twenty-nine of the acts 
of nineteen hundred and thirteen; chapter seven hundred and 
eighty-two of the acts of nineteen hundred and fourteen; sec- 
tions one to five, inclusive of chapter one hundred and sixty- 
three of the Special Acts of nineteen hundred and nineteen; 
chapter two hundred and seventy-eight of the acts of nineteen 
hundred and twenty-three; chapter one hundred and eighty-two 
of the acts of nineteen hundred and twenty-six; and chapter 
forty-two of the acts of nineteen hundred and twenty-seven. 

Sect. 103. Pending Actions. — All actions and proceedings, 
at law or in equity, and all prosecutions, pending on the effec- 
tive date of this code, whether commenced for the purpose of 
enforcing any of the provisions of the acts, or parts, thereof, 
repealed by the preceding section or brought upon any com- 
plaint or indictment for the violation of any of such provisions, 
or for the violation of any ordinance, rule or regulation estab- 
lished thereunder for the violation of which a penalty of a fine 
or imprisonment, or otherwise, is provided therein, may be 
prosecuted and enforced to the same extent as if said acts, or 
parts thereof, were still in force and effect. 

Sect. 104. Other Statutes. —All statutes applicable generally 
to departments of the city of Boston, including the provisions 
of section five of chapter four hundred and eighty-six of the 
acts of nineteen hundred and nine, as most recently amended by 
chapter two hundred and twenty-seven of the acts of nineteen 
hundred and thirty-four, and any pertinent action taken there- 
under whether before or after the effective date of this code, 



101-107 

shall apply to the building department and to the boards estab- 
lished under sections one hundred and nine, one hundred and 
seventeen, one hundred and twenty and one hundred and twenty- 
one hereof. 

*Sect. 105. Effective Date. — This code shall take full effect 
upon its acceptance by vote of the city council of the city of 
Boston, subject to the provisions of its charter. If an applica- 
tion for a permit is filed before said effective date, and a per- 
mit is issued thereon and the work is actually commenced within 
ninety days after the issuance of the permit, the applicant not- 
withstanding any provision to the contrary in section one hun- 
dred and seven, may elect to be governed in the entire operation 
covered by the permit either by the building laws as they existed 
when the application was filed or by this code. 

\*As amended by Ord. 1943, ch. 2] 

t Sect. 105A. [Amendment by Ordinance.] — The city of 
Boston, for the purposes of the prevention of fire and preserva- 
tion of life, health and morals, or for any of such purposes, 
may from time to time, by ordinance and upon the written 
recommendation of the building commissioner or the board of 

I L appeal, regulate the inspection, materials, construction, altera- 
tion, repair, height, area, location and use of buildings and 
I other structures in said city, except such buildings or structures 
j as are excluded from the operation of this code by sub-section 
(a) of section one hundred and seven, and for any or all of 
j said purposes may from time to time, by ordinance upon like 
written recommendation, alter, amend, extend or render ineffec- 
! tive any provision or provisions of this code regulating building 
and other structures as aforesaid. 

| t As inserted by Stat. 1939, ch. 217] 

Sect. 106. Meaning of Certain Words. — 

"Approved", approved by the building commissioner of the 

city of Boston. 

"Commissioner", the building commissioner of the city of 

Boston. 

"Department", the building department of the city of Boston. 

*Sect. 107. Scope. — (a) The provisions of this code shall 
apply to every building or structure hereafter erected in the city 
of Boston, except public highway, railroad or railway bridges 



or trestles, quays or wharves, buildings owned and occupied by 
the United States or the commonwealth, railroad structures and 
stations used primarily for railroad purposes, subway and ele- 
vated railway structures and stations used primarily for railway 
purposes, voting booths erected and maintained by the board of 
election commissioners, prefabricated metal tanks of less than 
five thousand gallons capacity and tanks exceeding ten thousand 
gallons capacity for liquids other than water, tunnels constructed 
and maintained by a public authority, tents covering an area 
less than one hundred square feet, fences less than six feet high, 
signs or billboards upon the ground and signs less than one 
square foot in area, upon or attached to the outside of a 
structure and flagpoles less than twenty feet in length. 

(b) The provisions of sections one hundred and eight, one 
hundred and fourteen, one hundred and sixteen, one hundred 
and eighteen, one hundred and nineteen, one hundred and 
twenty-two, and one hundred and twenty-three shall apply to 
pre-code buildings. 

(c) A pre-code building may be altered, repaired, enlarged, 
moved, or converted to other uses, only in conformity with the 
following provisions of this section and subject to permit as 
hereinafter provided. 

(d) A pre-code building which is altered or repaired within 
any period of twelve months, said alterations or repairs costing 
in excess of fifty per cent of its physical value, shall be made 
to conform to the requirements of this code for post-code build- 
ings. A pre-code building damaged by fire or otherwise in excess 
of fifty per cent of its physical value before such damage shall 
be made to conform to such requirements, if repaired. If the 
cost of such alterations or repairs or the amount of such damage 
is more than twenty-five but not more than fifty per cent of 
the physical value of the building it shall be made to conform 
to such requirements in the portions so altered or repaired to 
such extent as the commissioner may determine. For the pur- 
poses of this paragraph physical value shall mean the repro- 
duction cost of the building less physical deterioration as deter- 
mined by the building commissioner. 

(e) When occupancy of a pre-code building, or portions 
thereof separated from the remainder as required in part II, 
is so changed that the hazard is increased, the commissioner 



107 

may require that said pre-code building or said portions thereof 
be made to conform with the provisions of this code, which 
will specifically eliminate said increased hazard. 

1. All buildings altered or repaired shall, in the opinion of 
the building commissioner, provide structural safety, adequate 
resistance to the spread of fire, and safe egress in the event of 
fire to the occupants. 

2. Structural safety shall be construed to mean that a build- 
ing or parts thereof shall sustain twice the loads and stresses 
subjected therein or thereupon by actual normal use. Owners, 
if directed to do so by the building commissioner, shall demon- 
strate such structural safety by actual load tests made as directed 
by him. 

3. Adequate resistance to the spread of fire shall be con- 
strued to mean protection to adjacent properties and protection 
to egress enclosures keeping them free from fire long enough 
to permit the occupants to evacuate the building. The resistance 
of various materials and constructions to fire shall be assumed 
to be as stated in this code or as otherwise satisfactorily demon- 
strated to the commissioner. 

4. Safe egresses not less than two in number shall be con- 
strued to mean egress facilities sufficient to evacuate the build- 
ing in three minutes. Owners of buildings shall, if directed by 
the building commissioner, demonstrate the time required to 
evacuate the occupants by actual test conducted under the 
direction of the commissioner. 

5. An electrical fire alarm system shall be installed, if it is 
necessary in the opinion of the commissioner to meet the above 
egress requirements. 

(f) A pre-code building which is enlarged in floor area or 
in number of stories shall be made to conform throughout the 
entire building to the requirements of this code in respect to 
egress and fire protection. 

(g) A pre-code building to which repairs and alterations are 
made which are not covered by the preceding paragraphs of this 
section, may be repaired or altered with the same kind of ma- 
terials as those of which the building is constructed, providing 
such alterations or repairs will not increase an existing non- 



conformity or hazard; but not more than twenty-five per cent 
of the roof covering of a building shall be replaced in any 
period of twelve months unless the entire roof covering is made 
to conform with the requirements of this code for post-code 
buildings. New roofing meeting the requirements of this code 
may be placed over existing roofing providing that it be properly 
supported and securely fastened. 

(h) A pre-code building when moved to another location 
shall conform to the requirements of this code relative to the 
fire limits, to location on the lot and to exterior walls. 

(i) Except as otherwise provided in this section, no provision 
of this code shall be held to deprive the health department, the 
police commissioner, the board of street commissioners, the 
licensing board, the fire commissioner or the park department of 
the city of Boston either of any power or authority which it, 
he or they had on the effective date of this act or of any 
remedy then existing for the enforcement of its, his or their 
orders. 

(j) Provisions of this code relating to buildings shall also 
apply to structures other than buildings to such extent as they 
are pertinent. 

[*As amended by Ord. 1943, ch. 2] 

tSect. 108. Maintenance. — All buildings or structures, and all 
parts thereof, shall be maintained in a safe condition. All de- 
vices or safeguards which are required by this code in a building 
when erected, altered or repaired, shall be maintained in good 
working order, except as otherwise provided in section twenty- 
seven A of chapter one hundred and forty-eight of the General 
Laws. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of section 
one hundred and six, the owner shall be responsible for the 
maintenance of all buildings and structures. This section shall 
apply to pre-code as well as to post-code buildings. 
[ f As amended by Ord. 1943, ch. 2} 

Sect. 109. Organization. — (a) There is hereby established in 
the city of Boston a department to be called the building de- 
partment, which shall be in charge of the building commissioner. 

(b) The commissioner shall have had at least ten years' 
experience as an architect, builder or civil engineer, and shall 



107-109 

be appointed by the mayor for a term of five years. He shall 
receive such salary as shall be fixed by the city council, with 
the approval of the mayor. 

(c) Upon the effective date of this code the building com- 
missioner of the building department, as constituted immediately 
prior thereto, shall become the building commissioner of the 
building department established by paragraph (a) of this section, 
the members of the board of appeal, as constituted immediately 
prior thereto, shall become the members of the board of appeal 
established by paragraph (a) of section one hundred and seven- 
teen, the members of the board of examiners, as constituted 
immediately prior thereto, shall become the members of the 
board of examiners established by paragraph (a) of section one 
hundred and twenty, and the licensed master gasfitter member 
of the board of examiners of gasfitters, as constituted imme- 
diately prior thereto, shall become the licensed master gasfitter 
member of the board of examiners of gasfitters extablished by 
paragraph (a) of section one hundred and twenty-one, and each 
of said persons shall thereafter hold his respective position until 
the expiration of such period of time as shall be equal to the 
remainder of the term for which he was appointed, unless 
sooner removed or discharged according to law; and all of the 
employees of the building department, as constituted immediately 
prior thereto, who are subject to the civil service laws shall be 
reappointed to similar positions in the building department or 
the several boards established by this code with the same status 
and compensation held and received by them, respectively, im- 
mediately prior thereto in the building department and the 
several boards established by this code, without civil service 
examination or registration; and the said building commissioner, 
and all such employees upon such reappointment, shall retain 
or would thereafter accrue to them, and their services shall be 
deemed to have been -rontinuous to the same extent as if this 
code had not been passed. 

(d) The commissioner, with the approval of the mayor, 
may appoint such number of officers, inspectors, assistants and 
other employees as the city council shall from time to time 
determine. No person shall be appointed as inspector of con- 
struction who has not had at least five years' experience as a 
builder, civil engineer or architect, or as a superintendent, fore- 
man or competent mechanic in charge of construction. 



(e) The commissioner may appoint as his deputy an officer 
or other employee in the department who shall, during the ab- 
sence or disability of the commissioner, exercise all the powers 
of the commissioner. 

(f) No officer or employee connected with the department, 
except one whose only connection is as a member of a board, 
shall be financially interested in furnishing of labor, material or 
appliances for the construction, alteration or maintenance of a 
building, or in the making of plans or of specifications therefor, 
unless he is the owner of such building. No such officer or em- 
ployee shall engage in any work which is inconsistent with the 
duties or with the interests of the department. The provisions of 
this paragraph shall not apply to the members of boards estab- 
lished by this code. 

(g) The commissioner shall keep a record of the business of 
the department. The records of the department shall be open to 
public inspection. The commissioner shall not, however, be re- 
quired to allow inspection of the plans of buildings except upon 
request of the owner. If such request is made more than two 
months after completion of the work described in the plans, the 
commissioner shall allow such inspection only upon payment of 
such fees as the commissioner, with the approval of the major, 
may establish. 

*Sect. 110. Application for Permit. — (a) Whoever desires in 
the city of Boston to erect, enlarge , alter, substantially repair, 
move, demolish or change the occupancy of a building or 
structure, or to install, alter or substantially repair plumbing, 
gasfitting, fire extinguishing apparatus or elevators, or to install 
a steam boiler, furnace, heater, or other heat producing appar- 
atus the installation of which is regulated by this code, or to 
install an engine or dynamo, or to cause any such work to be 
done, shall first make application to the building commissioner 
and obtain a permit therefor. 

(b) Each application for a permit with the required fee shall 
be filed with the commissioner on a form furnished by him and 
shall contain a general description of the proposed work and its 
location. It shall be signed by the owner or his authorized 
agent, and before a permit is issued such application shall also 
be signed by the person who is to perform or take charge of 
the work covered by such permit. 



109-110 

(c) Each application hereunder shall indicate the proposed 
occupancy of all parts of the building and of that portion of 
the lot, if any, not covered by the building, and shall contain 
such other information as may be required by the commissioner. 

(d) The commissioner may require the material facts con- 
tained in each such application to be certified by the applicant 
under oath. 

(e) When required by the commissioner, copies of plans 
drawn with sufficient clarity and detail to indicate the nature 
and character of the work shall accompany every such applica- 
tion, and shall be filed in duplicate with the commissioner. Such 
plans shall contain information, in the form of notes or other- 
wise, as to the quality of materials where quality is essential to 
conformity with this code. Such information shall be specific, 
and this code shall not be cited as a whole or in part, nor 
shall the term "legal" or its equivalent be used, as a substitute 
for specific information. 

(f) The commissioner may require details, computations, 
stress diagrams and other data necessary to describe the con- 
struction and basis of calculations. He may also require plans 
showing the location of the proposed building and of every 
existing building on the lot. He may require structural plans 
and computations to bear the signature of the architect or 
engineer in charge of the structural design, and plot plans to 
bear the signature of an approved surveyor. 

(g) An application for a permit for any proposed work shall 
be deemed to have been abandoned six months after the date 
of filing, unless within such time a permit shall have been is- 
sued; provided, that for cause one or more extensions of time 
for periods of not exceeding ninety days each may be allowed 
in writing by the commissioner. 

(h) The commissioner shall examine each application for 
permit and the plans and computations filed therewith and 
shall ascertain by examination whether the construction indi- 
cated and described is in accordance with the requirements of 
this code and of all other pertinent laws or ordinances. 

(i) The commissioner may accept an application for a permit 
accompanied by plans and computations and an affidavit filed 
therewith by a competent architect or engineer to the effect that 



said plans and computations are in accordance with the require- 
ments of this code and of all other pertinent laws- or ordinances. 
[*As amended by Ord. 1943, ch. 2] 

t Sect. 111. Permits. — (a) If the commissioner is satisfied 
that the work described in an application for permit conforms 
to the requirements of this code and other pertinent laws and 
ordinances, and if the person designated by signature on the 
application as the person who will perform or take charge of 
the work is duly licensed, the commissioner shall issue a permit 
therefor to the applicant; provided, that if the work to be done, 
in the opinion of the commissioner, is of minor importance, and 
of such simple character that its execution by an unlicensed 
person will not endanger the public or any workman engaged 
thereon, the commissioner need not require the signature to be 
that of a licensed person but may issue the permit applied for 
after entering upon the application his reason for waiving such 
requirement. 

(b) If the application for a permit and the plans filed there- 
with describe work which does not conform to the requirements 
of this code or other pertinent laws or ordinances, the com- 
missioner shall not issue a permit, but shall return the plans to 
the applicant with his refusal to issue such permit. Such refusal 
when requested shall be in writing and shall contain the reasons 
therefor. 

(c) Permits for ordinary repairs, for minor alterations not 
involving vital structural changes, may be issued upon presenta- 
tion of an application on a special form, to be furnished by the 
commissioner, and payment of the required fee. 

(d) When application for permit to erect or enlarge a build- 
ing has been filed, and pending issuance of such permit, the 
commissioner may, in his discretion, upon payment of the re- 
quired fee, issue a special permit for the foundations of such 
building. The holder of such a special permit shall proceed only 
at his own risk and without assurance that a permit for the 
superstructure will be granted. 

(e) The commissioner shall act upon an application for a 
permit with plans as filed, or as amended, without unreasonable 
or unnecessary delay. A permit issued shall be construed to be 
a license to proceed with the work and shall not be construed 
as authority to violate, cancel, alter or set aside any of the pro- 



110-111 

visions of this code, nor shall such issuance of a permit prevent 

the commissioner from thereafter requiring correction of errors 
in plans or in construction or of violations of this code. Any 
permit issued shall become invalid unless the work authorized 
by it shall have been commenced within six months after its 
issuance; provided, that for cause one or more extensions of 
time, for periods not exceeding three months each, may be 
allowed in writing by the commissioner, except that in no event 
shall the time for commencing the work be extended beyond 
eighteen months after the issuance of the permit. Any permit 
issued may be revoked by the commissioner at any time after 
notice and hearing if there is a false statement or misrepresenta- 
tion of a material fact in the application for the permit or in 
the plans or computations filed therewith, or if the work author- 
ized by the permit violates any provision of this code or other 
provision of law or the permit is otherwise issued in error, or 
if in the course of the work there is any violation of any pro- 
vision of this code or other provision of law, or if after com- 
mencement of the work there is unreasonable delay in completing 
the work, or if there is other good cause for revocation of the 
permit. 

(f) When the commissioner issues a permit he shall endorse 
in writing, or stamp, duplicate sets of plans "Approved". One 
set of plans so approved shall be retained by the commissioner 
and the other set shall be returned to the applicant, shall be 
kept at the site of work and shall be open to inspection at all 
reasonable times by the commissioner or his authorized repre- 
sentative. 

(g) An architect, engineer or builder who is preparing plans 
for a building or structure in the city of Boston may make 
written request of the commissioner for an interpretation of this 
code as specifically applicable to such building or structure. The 
request shall be made on a form furnished by the commissioner, 
shall indicate the specific provision of this code as to which 
interpretation is so desired, shall be accompanied by the re- 
quired fee, and shall contain or be accompanied by a descrip- 
tion of the proposed work with plans sufficient to enable the 
commissioner to form an opinion. The commissioner shall make 
reply in writing within thirty days after receipt of the request 
either than the description of the proposed work is inadequate 
to form the basis of an opinion, or that he discerns no reason 



under the indicated provision of this code for disallowing the 
proposed construction, or that his interpretation of such pro- 
vision will not allow the proposed construction for reasons which 
he shall state. If the commissioner shall interpret such provision 
as not allowing the proposed construction, such interpretation 
shall be deemed a disallowance thereof and any person deeming 
himself aggrieved thereby may appeal from such disallowance 
as provided in section one hundred and eighteen. 

(h) Whenever a permit is to be issued in reliance upon an 
affidavit as provided in paragraph (i) of section one hundred 
and ten or whenever the work to be covered by a permit in- 
volves construction under conditions which, in the opinion of 
the commissioner, are hazardous or complex, the commissioner 
shall require that the architect or engineer who signed the affi- 
davit or made the plans or computations shall supervise such 
work, be responsible for its conformity with the approved plans, 
and forthwith upon its completion make and file with the com- 
missioner written affidavit that the work has been done in 
conformity with the approved plans and with the structural 
provisions of this code. In the event that such architect or en- 
gineer is not available a competent person whose qualifications 
are approved by the commissioner shall be employed by the 
owner in his stead. 

[ t As amended by Ord. 1943, ch. 2 and Ord. 1953, ch. 7] 

* Sect. 112. Fees. — (a) Whoever applies for a permit shall 
pay, at the time of filing his application, the fee established 
under authority of chapter two hundred and ninety-seven of the 
acts of nineteen hundred and thirty-one as amended by Chapter 
173 of the acts of nineteen hundred and thirty-nine. 

(b) The commissioner, with the approval of the mayor, may 
establish and from time to time alter or amend fees — 

(1) For producing for inspection the plans of buildings, as 
provided in section one hundred and nine. 

(2) For issuance of a special foundation permit, as provided 
in paragraph (d) of section one hundred and eleven. 

(3) For written interpretation of his code given for the pur- 
pose of an appeal from a disallowance as provided in paragraph 
(g) of said section one hundred and eleven. 



111-114 

(c) No fee paid in connection with an application for a 
permit shall be returned, whether or not the permit is granted. 
[ $As amended by Ord. 1943, ch. 2] 

Note — Chapter 297 of the Acts of 1931 was affected by Stat. 
1949, ch. 222, which gave to the City of Boston authority to 
fix certain fees and charges. 

Sect. 113. Inspection. — (a) The commissioner shall examine 
each site, application for permit to erect or enlarge a building 
or structure upon which has been received, and shall examine 
all buildings, applications for permit to enlarge, alter, repair, 
move, demolish or change the occupancy of which has been 
received. He shall inspect all such buildings and structures from 
time to time during and finally upon the completion of their 
erection, enlargement, alteration, repair, moving or demolition. 
He shall make a record of every such examination and inspec- 
tion and of all violations of this code. The publication of such 
records shall be privileged. 

(b) No building operation requiring a permit shall be com- 
menced until the permit holder or his authorized agent shall 
have posted a building permit card in a conspicuous place 
protected from the weather on the front of the premises and 
in such a position as to permit the commissioner to make the 
required entries thereon respecting inspection of the work. Such 
card shall be preserved and shall remain posted until the com- 
pletion of the work. 

*Sect. 114. Posting Floor Loads. — No pre-code or post-code 
building shall be occupied for any purpose which will cause the 
floors thereof to be loaded beyond their safe capacity as speci- 
fied in this code; provided, that the commissioner may permit 
occupancy of a building for mercantile, commercial or industrial 
purposes, by a specific business, when he is satisfied that such 
safe capacity will not thereby be exceeded, even though the 
class of occupancy of such business, under this code, requires a 
greater load capacity. In every such case the safe floor loads, 
as determined by the commissioner, shall be marked on metal 
plates of approved design which shall be supplied and securely 
affixed by the owner of the building in a conspicuous place in 
each story to which they relate. Such plates shall not be re- 
moved or defaced, and if lost, removed or defaced shall be 
replaced by such owner. No such owner shall place or permit 



to be placed, or to remain on any floor of a building a greater 
load than the safe load so determined and posted. 
\*As amended by Ord. 1943, ch. 2] 

t Sect. 115. Annual Report. — The commissioner shall an- 
nually, not later than May first, submit a report to the mayor, 
covering the work of the department during the preceding cal- 
endar year, and shall incorporate in said report a summary of 
the decisions of the board of appeal, a summary of the pro- 
ceedings of the board of examiners and of the board of ex- 
aminers of gas fitters, during said year, and his recommendations 
as to desirable amendments of this code. 

[ t As amended by Ord. 1943, ch. 2] 

$ Sect. 116. Powers and Duties of Building Commissioner.— 

(a) The commissioner and the health commissioner shall sever- 
ally enforce the provisions of this code relative to his powers 
and duties and they may, themselves or by their respective duly 
authorized representatives, enter any building or premises in 
said city to perform any duty imposed upon them, respectively, 
by this code. 

(b) Upon notice from the commissioner that work on any 
building or structure is being done contrary to the provisions of 
this code or in a dangerous or unsafe manner, such work shall 
be immediately stopped. Such notice shall be in writing and 
given to the owner of the property, or his agent, or the licensed 
builder or mechanic doing the work, and shall state the condi- 
tions under which work may be resumed. 

(c) Whoever hinders or prevents, or attempts to hinder or 
prevent, the commissioner or his authorized representative from 
entering a building, structure or enclosure, or part thereof, in 
the performance of his duty in the enforcement of any provi- 
sion of this code shall be punished by a fine of not less than 
fifty nor more than one hundred dollars. Each day during any 
portion of which such hindering continues shall be considered a 
separate offense. 

(d) Every building of which the exits are insufficient shall be 
provided with exits satisfactory to the commissioner; and every 
building which is dangerous or unsafe shall be made safe or 
removed; or every such building shall be vacated forthwith on 
order of the commissioner, with the approval of the mayor. Such 



114-116 

order shall be in writing and shall be addressed and delivered, 
or mailed, postage prepaid, to the owner or tenant, if he is 
known and can be found, or otherwise by posting an attested 
copy of the order in a conspicuous place upon an external wall 
of the building, and shall state the conditions under which the 
building may again be used or occupied. An attested copy so 
posted shall not be defaced or removed without the approval 
of the commissioner. If in the opinion of the commissioner the 
public safety so requires the commissioner, with the approval of 
the mayor, may at once enter the building or other structure 
which he finds unsafe or dangerous, or land on which it stands, 
or the abutting land or buildings, with such assistance as he 
may require, and make safe or remove said unsafe or dangerous 
building or other structure and may protect the public by a 
proper fence or otherwise as may be necessary, and for this 
purpose may close a public or private way. 

*(e) A claim for the expense incurred by the commissioner 
under paragraph (d) shall constitute a debt due the city upon 
completion of the work and rendering to the owner of an ac- 
count therefor and recoverable from the owner in an action of 
contract. Said debt, together with interest thereon at the rate of 
six per cent per annum from the date upon which said debt 
became due, shall constitute a lien upon the real estate on which 
the expense was incurred in the manner hereafter provided. Such 
lien shall take effect upon the filing, within ninety days after 
the debt became due, for record in the registry of deeds for 
Suffolk county, or in the case of registered land with the assis- 
tant recorder for the Suffolk district, of a statement of the 
claim, signed by the commissioner, setting forth the amount 
claimed without interest. Such lien shall continue for two years 
from the first day of October next following the date of filing 
said statement. Such lien may be dissolved by filing for record 
in such registry of deeds or with said assistant recorder as the 
case may be, a certificate from the collector-treasurer that the 
debt for which such lien attached, together with interest and 
costs thereon, has been paid or legally abated. The collector- 
treasurer shall have the same powers and be subject to the same 
duties with respect to such claim as in the case of the annual 
taxes upon real estate; and the provisions of law relative to the 
collection of such annual taxes, the sale or taking of land for 
the non-payment thereof, and the redemption of land so sold or 
taken shall apply. 



(f) The owner of the real estate to which a lien has attached, 
as provided in paragraph (e) within ninety days after the state- 
ment of said lien was filed in the registry of deeds or with said 
assistant recorder, as the case may be, may appeal to the muni- 
cipal court of the city of Boston, which shall hear and deter- 
mine after a hearing whether the amount of the claim is more 
than the amount actually expended to make safe or remove the 
building or structure, if amount is more, said court may reduce 
the amount of the claim to the amount so actually expended. 

(g) Any requirement necessary for the strength or stability 
of a pre-code or proposed structure or for the safety of the 
occupants thereof, not specifically covered by this code, shall 
be determined by the commissioner subject to appeal to the 
board of appeal. 

(h) The commissioner shall examine every building reported 
as dangerous or damaged, and shall make a written record of 
such examination, stating the nature and estimated amount of 
the damage, and the purpose for which the building was used, 
and in case of fire the probable origin thereof. 

(i) The owners of buildings in Boston shall comply with, 
and all materials used and work performed in gas fitting in 
Boston shall be in accordance with, the rules and regulations 
from time to time in effect under the provisions of section 
twelve H of chapter twenty-five of the General Laws, except as 
such rules and regulations may be varied under the provisions 
of sections one hundred and seventeen, one hundred and eighteen 
and one hundred and nineteen of this code. The commissioner 
and the health commissioner of the city of Boston shall severally 
have power to inspect from time to time gas fixtures and appli- 
ances in any and all buildings in Boston and to compel com- 
pliance in Boston with the rules and regulations aforesaid. 

(j) The commissioner shall make and issue rules and regula- 
tions governing the tearing down of buildings. 

(k) The provisions of this section shall apply to pre-code as 
well as post-code buildings. 

**(1) Whoever desires to substitute for the materials or 
methods covered by this code, materials or methods of construc- 
tion or maintenance not covered thereby, shall present to the 
commissioner plans, methods of analysis, and tests or other 
information substantiating the analysis of the system or qualities 
of the material and shall make such additional tests or present 



116-117 

satisfactory evidence of such tests as the commissioner may 
require. The costs of any tests required to determine acceptability 
of substitute materials or methods shall be paid by the applicant. 
When the strength of any construction cannot be satisfactorily 
determined by the application of accepted engineering principles, 
its safe strength shall be determined as one sixth of the ultimate 
strength evidenced by test of full size units or assemblies thereof 
of such construction so loaded as to produce critical stresses. 
Such materials or methods of construction shall not be used 
until after the commissioner has issued regulations fixing the 
practices to be followed, but no such regulation shall have the 
effect of altering the working stresses for any material herein 
mentioned or of reducing the fire-resistive and fire-protective 
requirements of this code; provided, that any such regulation 
fixing the practices to be followed in the use of any such material 
may reduce the fire-resistive or fire-protective requirements of 
this code if in promulgating such regulation the commissioner 
certifies, on the basis of reports on file in his office as to tests 
of such material made in accordance with standard specifications 
of the American Society for Testing Materials, that in his opinion 
such material used in accordance with such regulation will pro- 
vide substantially as much safety from fire as material meeting 
such fire-resistive and fire-protective requirements. 

(t As amended by Ord. 1943, ch. 2 and ch. 737 of 1960] 

[*As amended by ch. 234, Acts 1958] 

[**As amended Ord. 1957, ch. 11] 

*Sect. 117. Board of Appeal. — (a) There is hereby established 
in the city of Boston a board, to be called the board of appeal, 
and to consist of five members appointed by the mayor in the 
following manner: — One member from two candidates, one to 
be nominated by the Boston Real Estate Exchange and one by 
the Massachusetts Real Estate Exchange; one member from two 
candidates, one to be nominated by the Boston Society of 
Architects and one by the Boston Society of Civil Engineers; 
one member from three candidates, one to be nominated by the 
Master Builders Association, one by the Building Trades Em- 
ployers' Association and one by the Building Contractors 
Association of Massachusetts, Inc.; one member from two 
candidates to be nominated by the Building Trades Council of 
Boston and Vicinity; and one member selected by the mayor. 

(b) Upon the expiration of the term of office of a member 
of said board in office on the effective date of this code his 



successor shall be appointed for the term of five years; and 
subsequent appointments to said board shall be for terms of 
five years each. Vacancies shall be filled for an unexpired term 
in the manner in which original appointments are required to be 
made. Each member of the board of appeal shall receive for 
every day or part thereof of actual service twenty dollars or 
such other sum as may from time to time be fixed by the city 
council with the approval of the mayor; but no member shall 
so receive in any one year more than fifteen hundred dollars 
or such other sum as may from time to time be fixed by the 
city council with the approval of the mayor. No member shall 
act in a case in which he has a personal interest, and when a 
member is so disqualified, or absent, the remaining members 
shall designate a substitute. 

Note — Chapter 3 of the Ordinances of 1961 provides: "Each 
member of the board of appeal shall receive for every day or 
part thereof of actual service thirty-five dollars, but in no event 
shall any member of said board receive in any one year more 
than forty-two hundred dollars in the aggregate for services 
rendered by him under the building code and the zoning law. ." 
Effective January 1, 1953. 

(c) Members of said board shall be residents of or engaged 
in business in the city of Boston. 

(d) Said board shall cause to be made a detailed record of 
all its proceedings, which shall set forth the reasons for its de- 
cisions, the vote of each member participating therein, the ab- 
sence of a member, the name of his substitute and any failure 
of a member to vote. 

(e) The board shall establish rules and regulations for its 
own procedure not inconsistent with this code. 

\*As amended by Stat. 1949, ch. 201, and Stat. 1952, ch. 212] 

Sect. 118. Appeals. — (a) A person whose application for a 
permit has been refused by the commissioner may appeal to 
said board of appeal within ninety days thereafter. A person 
who has been ordered by the commissioner to incur expense may 
so appeal therefrom within thirty days of the date of such order, 
except that, in case of a building or structure, which, in the 



117-119 

opinion of the commissioner, is unsafe or dangerous, the com- 
missioner may in his order limit the time for such appeal to 
a shorter period. A person aggrieved by an adverse interpreta- 
tion of this code and a disallowance by the commissioner of 
proposed construction thereunder, as provided in section one 
hundred and eleven, may so appeal from such disallowance with- 
in thirty days after the date thereof. Appeals hereunder shall 
be on forms provided by the commissioner and shall be ac- 
companied by such fee as may be established by the commis- 
sioner, with the approval of the mayor. 

(b) The commissioner may refer without fee to the board of 
appeal for its decision such cases as, in his opinion, justice 
requires. 

t Sect. 119, Decisions of the Board of Appeal. — (a) The 

board of appeal, when so appealed to and after a hearing, may 
vary the application of any provision of this code to any parti- 
cular case when in its opinion the enforcement thereof would do 
manifest injustice, provided that the decision of the board shall 
not conflict with the spirit of any provision of this code. 

(b) Every decision of said board shall be in writing, shall 
indicate the vote of each member upon the decision, and if it is 
to vary the application of any provision of this code or modify 
an order of the commissioner, shall require the assent of at 
least four members. Every decision shall promptly be filed in 
the office of the commissioner, and shall be open to public 
inspection; a certified copy shall be sent by mail or otherwise 
to the appellant and a copy shall be kept publicly posted in 
the office of the commissioner for two weeks after filing. 

(c) A decision of said board to vary the application of any 
provision of this code or modify an order of the commissioner 
shall specify in what manner such variation or modification, 
respectively, is made, the conditions upon which it is made 
and the reasons therefor. 

(d) Said board shall in every case reach a decision without 
unreasonable or unnecessary delay. 

(e) If the refusal, order or disallowance of the commissioner 
is reversed or modified, or the application of any provision of 



this code is varied by a decision of said board, the commissioner 
shall immediately take action in accordance with such decision; 
but no decision of said board shall be regarded as establishing 
a precedent or be held to amend this code or the commissioner's 
interpretation thereof. 

(f) A person aggrieved by a decision of said board, whether 
previously a party to the proceeding or not, or a municipal of- 
ficer or board, may, within fifteen days after the filing of such 
decision in the office of the commissioner, bring a petition in 
the supreme judicial court for the couty of Suffolk for a writ 
of certiorari to correct errors of law in such decision, and the 
provisions of section four of chapter two hundred and forty- 
nine of the General Laws shall, except as hereinbefore provided, 
apply to such petition. 

The person filing the petition shall file a bond with sufficient 
surety, to be approved by the court, for such sum as shall be 
fixed by the court, to indemnify and save harmless the person 
or persons in whose favor the decision was rendered from all 
damages and costs which they may sustain in case the decision 
of said board is affirmed. In case the decision of the board is 
affirmed the court, on motion, shall assess damages, and execu- 
tion shall issue therefor. 

| \As amended by Ord. 1943, ch. 2] 

JSect. 120. Board of Examiners. — (a) There is herebv 
established in the City of Boston a Board of Examiners to con- 
sist of three members appointed by the Mayor. The Board shall 
consist of an engineer or architect with at least five years' ex- 
perience in the City of Boston, a contractor or person well 
qualified in the supervision of construction work with at least 
five years' experience in the City of Boston, and a lawyer or 
other person with proper legal qualifications. Said Board shall 
exercise the powers and perform the duty herein provided. Upon 
the expiration of the term of office of a member of said Board 
in office on the effective date of this code, his successor shall 
be appointed for the term of three years; and subsequent ap- 
pointments to said Board shall be for terms of three years each. 
Vacancies shall be filled by appointments by the Mayor for the 
remainder of the unexpired term. Each member of the board 
of examiners shall receive for every day or part thereof of actual 
service ten dollars or such other sum as may from time to time 



1 



119-120 

be fixed by the city council with the approval of the mayor; but 
no member shall so receive in any one year more than one 
thousand dollars or such other sum as may from time to time 
be fixed by the city council with the approval of the mayor. 

Note — Section 3 of the Ordinances of 1961 provides: "Each 
member of the board of examiners, and the appointive member 
Of the board of examiners of gasfitters, shall receive for every 
day or part thereof of actual service twenty-five dollars, but in 
no event more than two thousand dollars in any one year." 

(b) *The board of examiners shall hold examinations, under 
rules and regulations adopted by it, of persons desiring to be 
registered as qualified to have charge or control of the con- 
struction, alteration, removal or tearing down of buildings or 
structures. Due notice of the time and place for such examina- 
tions shall be posted in the office of the building department 
and published in the City Record. 

Note — Stat. 1945, Chap. 626, provides that the licensing of 
elevator and escalator mechanics shall be under the jurisdiction 
of the State Department of Public Safety. 

(c) Said board shall establish various classes of persons to 
be registered, shall determine the qualifications required for 
each class, and after examination shall register in each class 
the persons found to possess the requisite qualifications therefor. 
The name and address of each person so found to be qualified, 
with the designation of the class in which he is registered, shall 
thereupon be certified by said board to the commissioner, who 
shall make a record thereof, which shall be open to public 
inspection. 

(d) Except as otherwise provided in section one hundred and 
eleven, all work of erecting, enlarging, altering, repairing, mo\ing 
and demolishing of buildings or structures and installing and 
repairing of elevators and escalators in the city of Boston shall 
be under the charge, control and personal supervision of a 
licensed builder or mechanic, qualified by education, training 
and experience for the performance of that duty in a manner 
which shall preserve the public safety and conform to this code 
and all other pertinent laws and ordinances. 

(e) Any person who shall by affidavit, together with such 
other evidence as may be required by said board, show to it 



that he has had charge or control of such work in the class in 
which he applies to be registered, and shall satisfy the board 
that he is qualified by education, training and experience to 
have charge or control of such work, may, without other ex- 
amination, be registered in such class and be certified to the 
commissioner as a person qualified within such class. 

(f) Said board, upon payment of the required fee, shall issue 
a license to each person so certified by it to the commissioner. 
Each license shall expire one year from the date of its issuance. 
Said board shall renew a license, upon the expiration thereof 
and upon payment of the required fee therefor, for the further 
period of one year from the date of renewal. The fees to be 
paid to said board for such licenses and renewals shall be as 
provided in chapter two hundred and ninety-seven of the acts 
of nineteen hundred and thirty-one, as amended by Chapter 173 
of the acts of nineteen hundred and thirty-nine. 

(g) Any person who is duly licensed as aforesaid shall be 
entitled to have charge or control of any work described in this 
section, in the class in which he is registered, until his license 
is revoked or suspended by the commissioner, upon the order 
of said board. No such license shall be revoked or suspended 
except upon proof, satisfactory to said board, or specific charges, 
filed with said board by the commissioner or other person, that 
the licensee has been careless or negligent in the performance of 
his duty in connection with work under his charge or control, or 
has caused or permitted a violation of this code in connection 
therewith, or that this code has been violated in connection with 
such work and that the licensee, being in charge of such work, 
knew, or, in the exercise of due diligence, should have known, 
of such violation. Upon learning of such carelessness, neglect 
of duty or violation of this code, the commissioner shall file 
charges with said board and prosecute them. Upon the filing 
thereof by the commissioner or other person, said board shall 
give to the licensee notice of a hearing thereon, which hearing 
shall be held by said board not less than seven days after date 
of said notice. Such notice shall be served upon the licensee 
either by service in hand or by registered mail, shall state the 
time and place of the hearing and shall contain a copy of the 
charges. At such hearing the licensee may be represented by 
counsel, and the commissioner may be assisted by a representa- 
tive of the law department of the city. 



120-123 

(h) If, for any cause, a person licensed as herein provided 
shall cease to have charge or control of work described in this 
section before such work is finished, the work shall stop until 
another person duly licensed for the doing of such work has 
been placed in charge thereof. 

(i) Whoever violates any provision of this section shall be 
punished by a fine of not more than fifty dollars. 
[ * As amended by Stat. 1952, ch. 212 and Ord. 1943, ch. 2] 
\*As amended by ch. 227 , Acts of 1959] 

Sect. 121. Omitted 

Sect. 122. Penalties. — (a) A building or structure which is 
erected or maintained in violation of any provision of this code 
shall be deemed a common nuisance without other proof thereof 
than proof of the unlawful construction or maintenance, and the 
commissioner may abate and remove it in the same manner in 
which boards of health may remove nuisances under sections 
one hundred and twenty-three to one hundred and twenty-five, 
inclusive, of chapter one hundred and eleven of the General 
Laws. 

(b) Except as otherwise provided in this code, whoever vio- 
lates any provision thereof, or whoever builds, alters, or main- 
tains a structure or a part thereof in violation of any provision 
thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not exceeding five hun- 
dred dollars. Each day during any portion of which such viola- 
tion is allowed to continue, or is permitted by the owner, shall 
be considered a separate offense. 

Sect. 123. Enforcement Jurisdiction. — (a) Any court having 
jurisdiction in equity, or any justice thereof, may, upon the 
application of the city by its attorney — 

(1) Restrain the construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, 
use or occupation of any building or structure constructed, 
maintained, used or occupied in violation of any provision of 
this code, and order its removal or abatement as a nuisance; 

(2) Restrain the further construction, alteration, repair, 
maintenance, use or occupation of any building or structure 
which is unsafe or dangerous; 

(3) Restrain the unlawful construction, alteration, repair, 
maintenance, use or occupation of any building or structure; 



(4) Compel compliance with the provisions of this code; 

(5) Order the removal by the owner of a building or structure 
unlawfully existing and authorize the commissioner, with the! 
written approval of the mayor, in default of such removal by 
the owner, to remove it at the owner's expense. 

(b) The municipal court of the city of Boston, concurrently 
with the superior court, shall have jurisdiction throughout the 
city of prosecutions and proceedings at law under the provisions 
of this code, and all other pertinent laws and ordinances. 

(c) Upon the entry of any case brought under any provision 
of this code the court shall, at the request of either party, ad- 
vance the case, so that it may be heard and determined with as 
little delay as possible. 

Sees. 124 to 132 inclusive — Omitted 

tSect. 133. Change of Occupancy. — The occupancy of a 
building shall not be changed unless such building conforms or 
is made to conform with the requirements of this code for the 
group in which it is to be classified, except that the occupancy 
of a pre-code building may be changed as provided in section 
one hundred and seven. 

1 1 As amended by Ord. 1943, ch. 2] 



ARTICLE 
PART II 

GENERAL PROVISIONS 



1 



100.0 


Scope 


103.0 


Demolition of Buildings 


101.0 


Minor Alterations— Ordinary 


104.0 


Fee Computation 




Repairs 


105.0 


Certificate of Use and Occu- 


102.0 


Installation of Service Equip- 
ment 




pancy 



SECTION 100.0. SCOPE 

100.1. Continuity. — The provisions of Part II, Article 1, are 
supplementary to the provisions contained in Part I, Adminis- 
tration, and both shall apply to the construction, alteration, 
repair, demolition, removal, maintenance, occupancy and use 
of new and existing buildings in the City of Boston. 

100.2. Building Official. — Wherever used in this Code, the term 
"building official" shall mean the building commissioner of the 
City of Boston, or his authorized representative. 

100.3. Matters Not Provided For. — Any requirement essential 
for structural, fire or sanitary safety of an existing or proposed 
building or structure or essential for the safety of the occupants 
thereof and which is not specifically covered by this Code, shall 
be determined by the building official. 

100.4. Continuation of Unlawful Use. — The continuation of 
occupancy or use of a building or structure, or of a part there- 
of, contrary to the provisions of this Code, shall be deemed a 
violation and subject to the penalties prescribed in Part I, Sec- 
tion 122. 

100.5. Zoning Restrictions. — When the provisions herein speci- 
fied for structural, fire and sanitary safety are more restrictive 
than the zoning law, this Code shall control the erection or 
alteration of buildings in respect to location, use, permissible 
area and height; but in any case the most rigid requirements 
of either the building code or the zoning law shall apply when- 
ever they may be in conflict. 



SECTION 101.0. MINOR ALTERATIONS- ORDINARY 
REPAIRS 

Minor alterations or ordinary repairs to buildings may be made 
without application or notice to the building official as follows: 

101.1. Minor Alterations. — For the purposes of this code, thee 
term "minor alterations" shall mean minor changes or modi- 
fications in a building or any part thereof, excluding additions 
thereto, that do not in any way affect the fire or structural 
safety of the building. Minor alterations shall not include any 
of the work described or referred to in section 101.3, or any 
other work for which a permit is required under Part I, Sec- 
tion 110. 

101.2. Ordinary Repairs. — For the purposes of this code, the 
term "ordinary repairs" shall mean replacements or renewal of 
existing work in a building, or of parts of the service equip- 
ment therein, with the same or equivalent materials or equip- 
ment parts, that are made in the ordinary course of maintenance 
and that do not in any way affect the fire or structural safety 
of the building or the safe use and operation of the service 
equipment therein. Ordinary repairs shall not include any of the 
work described or referred to in section 101.3, or any other 
work for which a permit is required under the provisions of 
Part I, Section 110. 



101.3. Work not Minor Alterations or Ordinary Repairs. — For 

the purposes of this code, minor alterations or ordinary repairs 
shall not include the cutting away of any wall, floor, or roof 
construction, or any portion thereof; or the removal, cutting, or 
modification of any beams or structural supports; or the re- 
moval, change, or closing ot any required means ot egress; or 
the rearrangement or relocation of any parts of the building 
affecting loading or exit requirements, or light, heat, ventilation, 
or elevator requirements; nor shall minor alterations or ordinary 
repairs, include additions to, alterations of, or rearrangement, 
relocation, or removal of any standpipe or sprinkler piping, 
water distribution piping, house sewer, private sewer or drainage 
system, including leaders, or any soil, waste, or vent pipe, or 
any gas distribution system, or any other work affecting the 
fire or structural safety of the building. 



101-103 
SECTION 102.0. INSTALLATION OF SERVICE 
EQUIPMENT 

When the installation, extension, alteration or repair of an ele- 
vator, moving stairway, mechanical equipment, refrigerating, 
air conditioning or ventilating apparatus, plumbing, gas piping, 
electric wiring, heating system or any other equipment is speci- 
fically controlled by the provisions of this Code or the approved 
rules, it shall be unlawful to use such equipment until a certifi- 
cate of approval has been issued therefor by the building official. 

SECTION 103.0. DEMOLITION OF BUILDINGS 

103.1. Service Connections. — Before a building can be demolished 
or removed, the owner or agent shall notify all utilities having 
service connections within the building such as water, electric, 
gas, sewer and other connections. A permit to demolish or re- 
move a building shall not be issued until a release is obtained 
from the utilities, stating that their respective service connections 
and appurtenant equipment, such as meters and regulators, have 
been removed or sealed and plugged in a safe manner. 

103.2. State Laws and Bonds. — Before the issue of any permit 
for the demolition or removal of a building or structure situated 
at a site for which no building permit for re-use of the land has 
been issued, the applicant therefore shall file a bond running 
to the City, and with sureties satisfactory to the building official 
issuing such permit, in such penal sum as he shall determine 
to be twice the cost of leveling the lot, all as provided for by 
Chapter 143, Section 3, of the General Laws of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts. 

103.3. Lot Regulation. — Whenever a building is demolished or 
removed, the premises shall be maintained free from all unsafe 
or hazardous conditions by the proper regulation of the lot, 
restoration of established grades and the erection of the neces- 
sary retaining walls and fences in accordance with the provisions 
of Article 13. 

103.4. Pest Control. — Before a building can be demolished or 
removed, the owner or agent shall carry out effective measures 
for rodent extermination over the entire premises. The method 
of extermination employed shall be one in successful use locally 
and shall meet with the approval of the building official. 



SECTION 104.0. FEE COMPUTATION 

For the determination of permit fees as required under Part I] 
Section 1 12, the square footage of the building or structure 
shall be computed as follows: 

104.1. Architectural Area of Buildings. — The architectural area 
of a building is the sum of the areas of the several floors of 
the building, including basements, mezzanine and intermediate 
floored tiers and penthouses of headroom height, measured from 
the exterior faces of exterior walls or from the center line of 
walls separating buildings. 

104.1.1. Other Areas. — Covered walkways, open roofed-over 
areas that are paved, porches and similar spaces shall have 
the architectural area multiplied by an area factor of 0.50. 

104.1.2. Not Included. — The architectural area does not include 
such features as pipe trenches, exterior terraces or steps, chim- 
neys, roof overhangs, etc. 

104.2. Cost Computation. — When required, the current edition 
of Building Construction Cost Data published by Robert Snow 
Means Company, Inc. may be used as a guide in establishing 
the cost of a building or structure. 

104.2.1. Costs Excluded. — Exclude all architectural and engi- 
neering fees, cost of land, paving, walks, landscaping, movable 
furnishings and equipment. 

SECTION 105.0. CERTIFICATE OF USE AND OCCUPANCY 

105.1. New Buildings. — No building hereafter erected shall be 
used or occupied in whole or in part until the certificate of use 
and occupancy shall have been issued by the building official. 

105.2. Buildings Hereafter Altered. — No building hereafter en- 
larged, extended or altered to change from one use group to 
another, in whole or in part, and no building hereafter altered 
for which a certificate of use and occupancy has not been here- 
tofore issued, shall be occupied or used until the certificate shall 
have been issued by the building official, certifying that the 
work has been completed in accordance with the provisions of 
the approved permit; except that any use or occupancy, which 
was not discontinued during the work of alteration, shall be 
discontinued within thirty (30) days after the completion of the 
alteration unless the required certificate is secured from the 
building official. 



104-105 

105.3. Existing Buildings. — Upon written request from the owner 
}f an existing building, the building official shall issue a certifi- 
cate of use and occupancy, provided there are no violations of 
aw or orders of the building official pending, and it is estab- 
ished after inspection and investigation that the alleged use of 

(:he building has heretofore existed. Nothing in this Code shall 
■equire the removal, alteration or abandonment of, or prevent 
he continuance of the use and occupancy of a lawfully existing 
ouilding, unless such use is deemed to endanger public safety 
and welfare. 

105.4. Changes in Use and Occupancy. — After a change of use 
las been made in a building, the reestablishment of a prior use 
:hat would not have been legal in a new building of the same 
type of construction is prohibited unless all the applicable provi- 
sions of this Code are complied with. A change from one pro- 
hibited use, for which a permit has been granted, to another 
prohibited use shall be deemed a violation of this Code. 

105.5. Temporary Occupancy. — Upon the request of a holder of 
k permit, the building official may issue a temporary certificate 
{of occupancy for a building or structure, or part thereof, before 
the entire work covered by the permit shall have been completed, 
(provided such portion or portions may be occupied safely prior 
to full completion of the building without endangering life or 
public welfare. 

105.6. Contents of Certificate. — When a building or structure 
is entitled thereto, the building official shall issue a certificate of 
use and occupancy within ten (10) days after written application. 
The certificate shall certify compliance with the provisions of this 
Code and the purpose for which the building or structure may 
be used in its several parts. The certificate of use and occupancy 
shall specify: the use group, in accordance with the provision of 
article 2, the fire grading as defined in article 2 and table 9-4, 

{the maximum live load on all floors as prescribed in article 7, 
the occupancy load in the building and all parts thereof as 
defined in article 2 and article 6, and any special stipulations 
and conditions of the building permit. 



ARTICLE 



2 



DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS 



200.0 
201.0 
202.0 

:203.0 

1204.0 

i 205.0 

206.0 

207.0 

208.0 

209.0 
210.0 



TABLES 



Scope 

Definitions 

Occupancy Group Classifica- 
tion 

Occupancy Group A — High 
Hazard Building 

Occupancy Group B — Stor- 
age Buildings 

Occupancy Group C — Mer- 
cantile Buildings 

Occupancy Group D — In- 
dustrial Buildings 

Occupancy Group E — Busi- 
ness Buildings 

Occupancy Groups F and G 
— Assembly and School 
Buildings 

Occupancy Group H — Insti- 
tutional Buildings 

Occupancy Group L — Resi- 
dential Buildings 



211.0 

212.0 
213.0 

214.0 
215.0 

216.0 

217.0 

218.0 
219.0 
220.0 
221.0 

RS-2 



Occupancy Group M — Mis- 
cellaneous 
Doubtful Occupancies 

Mixed and /or Multiple Oc- 
cupancy 

Construction Classification 

Type 1 — Fireproof Construc- 
tion 

Type 2 — Noncombustible 
Construction 

Type 3 — Exterior Masonry 

Wall Construction 
Type 4 — Frame Construction 
Subdivision of Attic Spaces 
Temporary Structures 
Fire Resistance Rating and 

General Height and Area 

Limitations 
Reference Standards 




2-1 

2-2 



221.1. 
221.2. 



Fire Resistance Rating of Structural Elements in Hours 
General Height and Area Limitations of One Story Buildings 
Facing on One Street or Public Space Not Less than 30 Feet 
Wide 



SECTION 200.0. SCOPE 

The provisions of this article shall control the classification of 
all buildings as to occupancy group and type of construction; 
and the definition of all terms relating thereto in the City of 
Boston, Massachusetts. 

200.1. Application of Terms. — The terms herein defined shall be 
used to interpret all the applicable provisions of this code. 

200.2. Application of Other Laws. — Nothing herein contained 
shall be deemed to nullify any provisions of the zoning law or 
any other statute of the City of Boston, Massachusetts pertaining 
to the location, occupancy or type of construction of buildings, 
except as may be specifically required by the provisions of this 
code. 



SECTION 201.0. DEFINITIONS 

Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following terms shall, for 
the purpose of this code, have the meaning indicated in this 1 
section. 

201.1. Tense, Gender and Number. — Words used in the present 
tense include the future; words used in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural the singular. 



. 



201.2. Terms Not Defined. — Where terms are not defined, they 
shall have their ordinarily accepted meanings or such as the 
context may imply. 

abut. Touch, be continguous. A building abuts upon a stree 
when some part of the building touches or extends to the 
street line. A building shall be construed to abut upon a 
street if it is nearer at any point than ten (10) feet from the 
street line or when the space between the building and the 
street line is used wholly or chiefly for the purposes of a 
street or sidewalk. 

accepted engineering practice. That which conforms to accepted 
principles, tests or standards as specifically cited in the refer- 
ence standards of this code. 

accessory building. A structure devoted exclusively to an occu- 
pancy accessory to a main occupancy of the lot. 

accessory occupancy, (accessory use). An occupancy custom- 
arily incident to, and on the same lot as, a main occupancy. 

access stair. A stair between two (2) floors, which does not 
serve as a required means of egress. 

addition. An alteration which is an extension or increase in' 
floor area or height of a building that increases its exterior 
dimensions. 

air conditioning. The process by which the temperature, humi- 
dity, movement, cleanliness, and odor of air circulated 
through a space is controlled. 

air duct. A tube or conduit, or an enclosed space or corridor 
within a wall or structure used for conveying air. 






201 
airplane hangar, private. A hangar for the storage of four (4) 
or less single engine planes and in which no volatile or 
flammable oil is handled, stored or kept other than that con- 
tained in the fuel storage tank of the plane. 

— public. A building for the storage, care or repair of private or 
commercial airplanes not included in the term private airplane 
hangar. 

aisle. A clear and unobstructed passageway through a room. 

alley. A secondary thoroughfare less than thirty (30) feet in 
width dedicated or deeded for the public use of vehicles 
and/or pedestrians affording access to abutting property. 

alteration. As applied to a building or structure or service 
equipment thereof means a change or rearrangement in the 
structural parts or in the exitway facilities; or an addition, 
whether by extending on a side or increasing in height; or 
the moving from one (1) location or position to another; or 
any change or modification in construction or occupancy. 

apartment. A room or suite of rooms occupied by one (1) 
person or one (1) family for living and sleeping purposes. 

apartment hotel. A building primarily for persons who have 
their residence therein, containing four (4) or more apartments 
which do not have kitchens. 

apartment house. Any building, or portion thereof, which is 
designed, built, rented, leased, let or hired out to be occupied, 
or which is occupied as the home or residence of more than 
two (2) families living independently of each other and doing 
their own cooking in the said building, and shall include 
flats and apartments. 

approved. Approved by the Building Official. 

approved (rules). The legally adopted rule of the Building 
Official (or of a cited reference standard). 

appurtenant structure. A device or structure attached to the 
exterior or erected on the roof of a building designed to 
support service equipment or used in connection therewith, 
or for advertising or display purposes, or other similar uses. 

architect. A person registered by the Commonwealth of Mas- 
sachusetts to practice the profession of architecture. 



architectural terra cotta. Plain or ornamental hard-burned \ 
plastic clay units normally larger in size than brick, with, 
glazed or unglazed ceramic finish. 

area (building). The maximum horizontal projected area of the 
building at or above grade, including all extensions. 

area of refuge. A floor area to which egress is made through 
an exitway. 

area (surface measurement). See "Floor Area (Gross)". 

areaway. A space below grade, adjacent to a building, open to 
the outer air and enclosed by walls. 

ashlar facing. Facing of solid rectangular units larger in size 
than brick, burned clay or shale natural or cast stone, with 
sawed, dressed and squared beds and mortar joints. 

ashlar masonry. Masonry composed of bonded, rectangular 
units, larger in size than brick, with sawed, dressed or 
squared beds and mortar joints. 

assembly (assembly space). Any part of a place of assembly, 
exclusive of a stage, that is occupied by numbers of persons 
during the major period of occupancy. Every balcony tier of 
seating shall be considered a separate assembly space. 

assembly hall. A hall or room, including the balconies thereof, 
if any, in which persons may assemble in a manner as per- 
mitted in occupancy group F. 

attic. Finished or unfinished story situated within a sloping 
roof, the area of which at a height of four (4) feet above 
the level of its finished floor does not exceed two-thirds 
(2/3) of the area of the story immediately below it. There 
shall be only one (1) attic in any building, and it shall be 
considered as a half story. 

— habitable attic. A habitable attic is an attic which has a 
stairway as a means of access and egress and in which the 
ceiling area at a height of seven and one-third (7-1/3) feet 
above the attic floor is not more than one-third (1/3) the 
area of the floor next below. 

automatic. As applied to an opening protective, shall mean a 
door, window, damper, or other device, and its assembly, 
which is normally open and is designed to close automatically 



201 

when subjected to a predetermined temperature, rate of tem- 
perature rise, or abnormal smoke condition. 

automatic collapsible revolving door. A door which is designed, 
supported and constructed so that the wings will release and 
fold back in the direction of egress under pressure exerted by 
persons under panic conditions, providing a legal passageway 
on both sides of the door pivot. 

automatic dry pipe sprinkler system. A sprinkler system in 
which the piping up to the sprinkler heads is filled with 
compressed air, with the water supply controlled by a dry 
pipe valve. 

automatic dry standpipe system. A standpipe system in which 
all piping is filled with compressed air. Water enters the sys- 
tem through a control valve actuated either automatically by 
the reduction of air pressure within the system or by the 
manual activation of a remote control located at each hose 
station. 

automatic fire alarm system. A system which automatically 
detects a fire condition and actuates a fire alarm signal de- 
vice audible to the public into a central signal system service 
center. 

automatic fire door. A fire door equipped with a heat actuated 
closing device which will operate at a predetermined tempera- 
ture of not more than one hundred and sixty-five (165) 
degrees F. or equipped with a rate of rise of temperature 
operating device. 

automatic fire pump. A pump that maintains a required water 
pressure in a fire extinguishing system and which is actuated 
by a starting device adjusted to cause the pump to operate 
when the pressure in the system drops below a predetermined 
pressure, and to stop the pump when the pressure is restored. 

automatic sprinkler head. A device connected to a water supply 
system that opens automatically at a predetermined fixed 
temperature and disperses a stream or spray of water. 

automatic sprinkler system. A system of piping supplied with 
water under pressure with devices for releasing under the 
influence of heat and spraying the water on ceilings, walls 
and floors. 



automatic water supply source. Water supplied through a. 
gravity or pressure tank, or automatically operated fire 
pumps, or from a direct connection to an approved city 
water main. 

automatic wet pipe sprinkler system. A sprinkler system in 
which all piping and sprinkler heads are at all times filled 
with water under pressure, which is immediately discharged 
when a sprinkler head operates, with the water continuing 
to flow until the system is shut off. 

automotive lift. See "Special Hoisting and Conveying Equip- 
ment." 

backup. That part of a masonry wall behind the facing. 

balcony. Within an auditorium, is a floor, inclined, stepped, 
or level, above the main floor, the open side or sides of 
which shall be protected by a rail or railings. Where a bal- 
cony of an auditorium has means of egress at two (2) or 
more levels opening into separate foyers, one above another, 
each portion thereof served by such a foyer shall be con- 
sidered a separate balcony for the purpose of this code. 

balloon frame. Light timber construction in which the exterior 
walls consist of studs that are either continuous through 
floors or interrupted only by thickness of plates. 

basement. A portion of a building below the first story. 

bay. (Part of a structure). The space between two (2) adjacent 
piers or mullions or between two (2) adjacent lines of 
columns. 

bay window. A window projecting beyond the wall line of the 
building and extending down to the foundations. 

bearing. (See Bearing Wall.) 

block. The lot or lots fronting on the same side of the street 
between two (2) streets intersecting such street on such side 
with no other such intersecting street intervening. 

board of appeal. The board of appeal in the building depart- 
ment of the City of Boston. 

boarder, (roomer, lodger). An individual not within the second 
degree of kindred to the person conducting the boarding 



201 

house living within a household who pays a consideration for 
such residence and does not occupy such space as an incident 
of employment therein. 

boarding house. Any dwelling (other than a hotel, motel, 
apartment hotel, dormitory, fraternity or sorority house) in 
which board is provided to five (5) or more persons who are 
not within the second degree of kinship. 

breezeway. A structure open to the outdoors consisting of a 
roof, roof supports, and floor, connecting a garage or other 
accessory building with a dwelling. 

brick. A masonry unit, not less than seventy-five (75) per cent 
solid, having a shape approximating a rectangular prism, 
made from burned clay or shale, or mixture thereof. Brick 
may be composed of other materials when so designated, as 
for example, "concrete brick" and "sand-lime brick." 

building. A structure forming a shelter for persons, animals or 
property and having a roof, exclusive, however, of such 
frameworks and tents as are customarily used exclusively for 
outdoor carnivals, lawn parties, or like activities. Where the 
context allows, the word "building" shall be construed as 
though followed by the words "or part thereof." 

building commissioner. The building commissioner of the City 
of Boston. 

building line. The line established by law, beyond which a 
building shall not extend, except as specifically provided 
by law. 

building official. The building commissioner in the department 
of building inspection of the City of Boston, or his duly 
authorized representative. 

building, post-code. A building erected after the effective date 
of this code and subject to the provisions thereof. 

building, pre-code. A building already erected on the effective 
date of this code, or thereafter erected, under permit for its 
construction subject to the provisions of law in effect prior 
to such effective date. 

building section. A room, floor, group of floors, wing, or 
any other portion of a building contained within type A 
fire divisions. 



building service equipment. The mechanical, electrical, and 
elevator equipment, including piping, wiring, fixtures and 
other accessories, which provide sanitation, lighting, heating, 
ventilation, fire-fighting and transportation facilities essential 
for the habitable occupancy of the building or structure for 
its designated use and occupancy. 

building site. The area occupied by a building or structure, 
including the yards and courts required for light and ven- 
tilation, and such areas that are prescribed for access to the 
street. 

bulkhead. The raised portion of a floor or roof, raised for 
the passage of persons, materials, light or air, through 
the side of such raised portion, or for other purposes. 

buttress. A projecting part of a wall integrated therewith to 
furnish lateral stability. 

casing-off. The elimination of the frictional forces between a] 
portion of a pile and the surrounding soil by use of a sleeve 
between the pile and the soil. 

cellar. See Basement. 

central station system. An automatic sprinkler or fire alarm 
system in which all equipment is supervised by a central or 
proprietary station to which all alarm signals are transmitted 
and relayed to the fire department. 

certificate of use and occupancy. The certificate issued by the 
building official which permits the use of a building in ac- 
cordance with the approved plans and specifications and 
which certifies compliance with the provisions of law for the 
use and occupancy of the building in its several parts together 
with any special stipulations or conditions of the building 
permit. 

change of occupancy. A change in the occupancy group of a 
building heretofore existing to a new occupancy group which 
imposes other special provisions of law governing building 
construction, equipment, exitways or zoning. 

charging chute (incinerator). An enclosed vertical passage 
through which refuse is fed to an incinerator. 



201 

charging gate (incinerator). A gate in an incinerator used to 
control the flow of combustion gases into the charging chute 
and the entry of refuse into the combustion chamber. 

chimney. A vertical shaft of masonry, reinforced concrete, or 
other approved noncombustible, heat resisting material en- 
closing one (1) or more flues, for the purpose of removing 
products of combustion from solid, liquid, or gas fuel. 

chimney connector. A pipe or metal breeching that connects 
combustion equipment to a chimney. 

city. The City of Boston, Massachusetts. 

clay masonry unit. A building unit composed of burned clay, 
shale, fireclay or mixtures thereof. 

clinic. A place for the medical or similar examination and 
treatment of persons as out patients. 

coatings, fire-retardant. A material applied to the surface of 
a building material to reduce its flame spread. 

code. This code, the Boston Building Code, consisting of this 
act and the regulations established thereunder. 

collecting safe area. A safe area that receives occupants from 
the assembly space it serves, as well as from other safe areas. 

combustible material. A material which cannot be classified as 
noncombustible in accordance with that definition. 

concentrated load. A conventional representation of an element 
of dead or live load whereby the entire load is assumed to 
act at a point. 

concrete. A mixture of cement, aggregates and water, of such 
proportions and manipulation as to meet specific requirements. 

concrete masonry unit. A building unit or block made of ce- 
ment and suitable aggregates. 

concurrent loads. Two (2) or more elements of dead or live 
load that, for purposes of design, are considered to act simul- 
taneously. 

conflagration hazard. The fire risk involved in the spread of 
fire by exterior exposure to and from adjoining buildings and 
structures. 



construction. Any or all work or operations necessary or inci- 
dental to the erection, demolition, assembling, installing, or 
equipping of buildings, or any alterations and operations 
incidental thereto. The term "construction" shall include land 
clearing, grading, excavating, and filling. It shall also mean 
the finished product of any such work or operations. 






construction classification (type). The category in which a 
building or space is classified by the provisions of Article 2 
based on the fireresistance ratings of its construction elements. 

construction equipment. The construction machinery, tools, 
derricks, hoists, scaffolds, platforms, runways, ladders and 
all material handling equipment safeguards and protective 
devices used in construction operations. 

contractor. A person undertaking construction. 

controlled construction. The construction of a building or struc- 
ture or a specific part therof which has been designed and 
erected under the supervision of a registered engineer or 
architect using controlled materials as herein defined in com- 
pliance with the provisions of the code. 

controlled materials. Materials which are certified by an ap- 
proved authoritative agency as meeting standards for quality 
and as provided in sections 722 and 800 and the reference 
standards. 

conveyors. See Special Hoisting and Conveying Equipment. 

corridor. An enclosed passage or passageway contributing to 
the means of egress from rooms or spaces. 

court. An open, uncovered unoccupied space partially or 
wholly surrounded by the walls of a structure. 

_ enclosed or inner. A court surrounded on all sides by the 
exterior walls of a structure or by such walls and an interior 
lot line. 

— outer court. A court having at least one (1) side thereof 
opening on to a street, alley, or yard or other permanent 
open space. 

cross over aisle. An aisle in a place of assembly usually parallel 
to rows of seats, connecting other aisles or an aisle and an 
exitway. 



201 
curb level. The elevation of the street curb as established in 
accordance with law. 

dead end egress. A portion of a corridor in which the means 
of egress is in one (1) direction only. 

dead load. See Loads. 

deluge sprinkler system. An open head sprinkler system without 
water in the system piping, with the water supply controlled 
by an automatic valve operated by smoke or heat-responsive 
devices installed throughout the sprinklered area, and in- 
dependent of the sprinkler heads. 

demolition. The dismantling or razing of all or part of a 
building, including all operations incidental thereto. 

department. The department of building inspection of the City 
of Boston. 

door, wood, solid core bonded. Shall be a door conforming 
to Architectural Woodwork Institute, 1966 edition, 2nd re- 
vision, designation "A" with surface treatment complying 
with the applicable requirements of section 922. An approved 
marking and/or certification meeting the approval of the 
building official shall be affixed thereon. 

dormitory. Any dwelling (other than a fraternity or sorority 
house) occupied primarily as a place of temporary abode by 
persons attending educational institutions. 

draft hood. A device placed in and made part of a chimney, 
vent connector, or combustion equipment, to (1) insure the 
ready escape of the products of combustion in the event of 
no draft, back-draft, or stoppage beyond the draft hood, 
(2) prevent a back-draft from entering the equipment, or (3) 
neutralize the effect of excessive stack action of the chimney 
flue upon the operation of the equipment. 

draft regulator. A device which functions to maintain a desired 
draft in the appliance by automatically reducing the draft to 
the desired value. 

dry pipe system. A system employing automatic sprinklers at- 
tached to a piping system containing air under pressure, the 
release of which as from the opening of sprinklers permits 
the water pressure to open a valve known as a "dry-pipe 



valve." The water then flows into the piping system and outo 
the opened sprinklers. 

duct. A tube, pipe, conduit, shaft or continuous enclosed 
passageway used for the conveying of air, gases or vapors. 

dumbwaiter. See section 1601. 

dwelling. A building or structure used in whole or in part for 
human habitation. 

— dwelling, detached. A dwelling which is designed to be and 

is substantially separate from any other structure or structures 
except accessory buildings. 

— dwelling, multi-family. A building containing three (3) or 

more dwelling units, but not including a motel. 

— dwelling, semi-detached. A dwelling having a party wall in 

common with another dwelling but which otherwise is de- 
signed to be and is substantially separate from any other 
structure or structures except accessory buildings. 

— dwelling unit. A room or group of rooms forming a habitable 

unit for one (1) family with facilities used or intended to be 
used for living, sleeping, cooking and eating. 

egress. See "Means of Egress." 

electrical. See Form FPR 1 1 Massachusetts Electrical Code for 
all definitions of electrical equipment. 

elevator. See section 1601. 

— freight elevator. See section 1601. 

— hand elevator. See section 1601. 

— hydraulic elevator. See section 1601. 

— passenger elevator. See section 1601. 

— power elevator. See section 1601. 
-sidewalk elevator. See section 1601. 

elevator repairs. All work necessary to maintain present elevator 
equipment in a safe and serviceable condition and to adjust 
or replace defective, broken or worn parts, with parts made 
of equivalent material, strength and design, and only where 
the replacing part performs the same function as the replaced 
part. 



201 
engineer. A person registered by the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts to practice the profession of engineering. 

equivalent uniform load. A conventional representation of an 
element of dead or live load, used for the purposes of design 
in lieu of the actual dead or live load. 

erect. To construct or reconstruct or excavate, fill, drain, or 
conduct physical operations of any kind in preparation for or 
in pursuance of construction or reconstruction, or to move 
a building or structure. 

escalator. A power driven, inclined, continuous stairway used 
for raising or lowering passengers. (See section 1601.) 

existing building. A building erected prior to the adoption of 
this code, or one for which a legal building permit has 
been issued. 

existing equipment. Any equipment covered by this article 
which was installed prior to the effective date of this code 
or for which an application for permit to install was filed 
with the building official prior thereto. 

exit. See "Exitway." 

exitway. That portion of a means of egress which is separated 
from the area of the building from which escape is to be 
made by walls, floors, doors, or other means which provide 
the protected path necessary for the occupants to proceed 
with reasonable safety to the exterior of the building. 

exitway access. That portion of a means of egress which leads 
to an entrance to an exitway. 

exitway discharge. That portion of a means of egress between 
the termination of the exitway at the exterior of the building 
and ground level. 

exitway discharge court. An exterior unoccupied space which 
is open to the sky for its entire area, located on the same 
lot with a theatre or other assembly building which it serves 
exclusively as an unobstructed path to the street or other 
public space from an exitway discharge. 

extend. To increase in area or volume. 

exterior separation. The shortest distance across an unobstructed 
outdoor space measured from the furthest projection of the 



exterior wall of a building to an interior lot line or to a line 
halfway between the wall and that of any other building on 
the same lot, or to the centerline of an adjacent street or 
other public space. 

family. One (1) or more persons occupying a dwelling unit 
and living as a single, non-profit housekeeping unit; provided 
that a group of five (5) or more persons who are not within 
the second degree of kinship shall not be deemed to consti- 
tute a family. 

fire area. A floor area enclosed by Type A fire division and/or 
exterior walls. 

fire canopy. A solid horizontal projection, extending beyond 
the exterior face of a building wall, located over a wall 
opening so as to retard the spread of fire through openings 
from one story to another. 

fire damper. An approved automatic or self-closing noncombus- 
tible barrier designed to prevent the passage of air, gases, 
smoke or fire through an opening, a duct or plenum chamber. 

fire districts. The territories defined and limited by the pro- 
visions of this code for the restriction of types of construction. 

fire division. A vertical, horizontal or other construction that 
segregates a building or buildings into completely separate 
areas, spaces, parts or sections. 

— Type A, fire division. One having a fireresistance rating and 

structural stability under fire conditions to provide a fire 
barrier between adjoining buildings or between adjoining or 
superimposed fire areas or building sections within the same 
building. 

— Type B, fire division. (Fire separation). One having a fire- 

resistance rating to provide a fire barrier between adjoining 
rooms or spaces within a building, building section or fire 
area. 

fire door. A self-closing door and its assembly, including 
frame, trim, hardware, so constructed and assembled in place 
as to retard the passage of fire. 

fire extinguisher. A portable device the contents of which are 
used for extinguishing a fire. 



201 

fire grading. The posted fire hazard classification of a building 

or structure in hours or fractions of an hour as established 

for its occupancy group in section 902.4, tables 9-1 and 9-2. 

fire hazard. The potential degree of fire severity existing in the 
use and occupancy of a building and classified as high, 
moderate, or low. 

— high. All occupancies which involve the storage, sale, manu- 

facture or processing of highly combustible, volatile flam- 
mable or explosive products which are likely to burn with 
extreme rapidity or produce large volumes of smoke, poison- 
ous fumes, gases or explosions in the event of fire. 

— moderate. All occupancies which involve the storage, sale, 

manufacture or processing of materials which are likely to 
burn with moderate rapidity and a considerable volume of 
smoke, but which do not produce either poisonous fumes or 
explosions in the event of fire. 

— low. All occupancies which involve the storage, sale or manu- 

facture of materials that do not ordinarily burn rapidly, nor 
produce excessive smoke, poisonous fumes, or explosions in 
the event of fire. 

fire prevention. The preventive measures which provide for the 
safe conduct and operation of hazardous processes, storage 
of highly combustible and flammable materials, conduct of 
fire drills, and the maintenance of fire detecting and fire- 
extinguishing service equipment and good housekeeping con- 
ditions. 

fire protection. The provisions of safeguards in construction 
and of egress facilities; and the installation of fire alarm, 
fire-detecting and fire-extinguishing service equipment to re- 
duce the fire risk and the conflagration hazard. 

fire protection rating. The time in hours or fractions thereof 
that an opening protective and its assembly will withstand fire 
exposure as determined by a fire test conducted in compliance 
with reference standards or as determined by approved exten- 
sion or approved interpretation of information derived there- 
from. 

fireresistance. That property of materials or their assemblies 
which prevents or retards the passage of excessive heat, hot 
gases or flames under conditions of use. 



fireresistance rating. The time in hours or fractions thereof 
that materials or their assemblies will withstand fire exposure 
as determined by a fire test conducted in compliance with 
reference standards or as determined by approved extension or 
approved interpretation of information derived therefrom. 

fireresistive partition. A partition other than a fire partition 
which is required to subdivide the floor area of a fireresistive 
building for the purpose of restricting the spread of fire. 

fireretardant lumber. Wood so treated by a recognized im- 
pregnation process as to reduce its combustibility to limits 
set by reference standards noted in this code. 

fire safety. The measure of protection of a building or struc- 
ture against interior and exposure fire hazards through fire- 
resistive construction and the provision of safe exitways and 
fire-detecting and extinguishing equipment. 

fire separation (material). See Fire Division. 

fire wall. A vertical Type A Fire Division in the form of a 
wall. 

fire window. An opening protective in the form of a window 
and its assembly. 

flammable. Capable of being easily ignited when exposed to 
flame, and which burns intensely, or has a rapid rate of 
flamespread. 

flame resistance. The property of materials or combinations 
of component materials which restricts the spread of flame as 
determined by the flame resistance tests specified in this code. 

flame spread. The propagation of flame over a surface. 

flame spread rating. The measurement of flame spread on the 
surface of materials or their assemblies as determined by tests 
conducted in compliance with approved reference standards 
noted in this code. 

floor area (gross). For zoning purposes the sum of the areas 
of the several floors of the structure as measured by the ex- 
terior faces of the walls, including fully enclosed porches and 
the like as measured by the exterior limits thereof, but ex- 
cluding (a) areas used for accessory garage purposes, (b) 



201 

basement and cellar areas devoted to uses accessory to the 
operation of the structure, and (c) areas elsewhere in the 
structure devoted to housing mechanical equipment custom- 
arily located in the basement or cellar such as heating and 
air conditioning equipment, plumbing, electrical equipment, 
laundry facilities, and storage facilities. 

floor area (gross). For the purposes of classification of oc- 
cupancy, gross floor area shall be the projected horizontal 
area enclosed inside of walls, partitions or other enclosing 
construction of the building or part thereof under considera- 
tion with no deductions for hallways, stairs, closets, thickness 
of walls, columns or other features. When the term area is 
used elsewhere in this code, it shall be understood to be gross 
area unless otherwise specified. 

floor area (net). The horizontal occupiable area within the 
space, excluding the thickness of walls, and partitions, col- 
umns, furred-in spaces, equipment, and accessory spaces such 
as closets, machine and equipment rooms, toilets, stairs, halls, 
corridors, elevators and similar unoccupied spaces. 

floor area ratio. The ratio of gross floor area, as defined for 
zoning purposes, of a structure to the total area of the lot. 

floor fill. The fill between the structural floor arch or slab and 
the finished flooring. 

floor finish. The finish placed on top of the floor arch, slab or 
other structural floor element. 

flue. An enclosed passageway in a chimney to carry products 
of combustion to the outer air. 

formed steel construction. That type of construction used in 
floor and roof systems consisting of integrated units of sheet 
or strip steel plates which are shaped into parallel steel ribs 
or beams with a continuous connecting flange deck; generally 
attached to and supported on the primary or secondary 
members of a structural steel or reinforced concrete frame. 

foundation (building). A construction that transfers building 
loads to the supporting soil. 

foundation pier. A foundation element consisting of a column 
embedded into the soil below the lowest floor to the top of 
a footing or pile cap. Where a pier bears directly on the 



soil without intermediate footings or pile caps, the entire 
length of the column below the lowest floor level shall be 
considered as a foundation pier. Foundation piers shall be 
limited to piers so constructed that the entire surface of the 
sides of the pier and the bearing material under the lower 
end of the pier can be visually inspected prior to or during 
construction, but which will be concealed in the final work. 
Piers below the lowest floor or basement level that will be 
exposed and open to inspection in the final work shall be 
considered as columns. Types of construction wherein the 
sides cannot be visually inspected shall be considered as piling 
or caissons. 

foundation wall. A wall entending below grade. 

foyer. A foyer, lobby, corridor or passageway, one (1) or more 
in combination, adjacent to the auditorium of a theatre or 
assembly hall at the level of the main floor or a balcony 
thereof and into which one (1) or more exitways therefrom 
open, in the path of normal egress from the building. 

frame construction. See section 218,0. 

front. A building or wall fronts upon a street when a wall of 
the building or the wall faces the street and is parallel there- 
to or makes an angle of less than forty-five (45) degrees 
therewith. 

frontage. As applied to building location on a lot, shall mean 
the distance between lines drawn through the most remote 
points of the building perimeter, projected at right angles to 
a street; or an open space outside of a building, not less than 
thirty (30) feet in any dimension, that is accessible from a 
street by a driveway, lane, or alley at least twenty (20) feet 
in width, and that is permanently maintained free of all ob- 
structions that might interfere with its use by the fire depart- 
ment. 

fuel oil. A liquid mixture or compound derived from petroleum 
which does not emit flammable vapor below a temperature 
of one hundred and twenty-five (125) degrees F. in a Tag 
closed-cup tester. 

garage, private. A building or enclosed space used for the 
parking or storage of not more than four (4) motor vehicles 
having fuel storage tanks of twenty (20) gallon capacity or 



201 

less and in which no repair, body work, or painting of vehi- 
cles is conducted, and in which no gasoline, oil, or similar 
products are dispensed. 

garage, public. A building or structure for the storage, parking, 
care or repair of five (5) or more motor vehicles not included 
in the term garage private. Public garages shall be classified 
according to their specific use in one of the following groups: 

— group 1. Buildings or spaces used for the parking of vehicles 

having fuel storage tanks in excess of twenty (20) gallon 
capacity; or used for the parking of vehicles of any size, and 
in which mechanical repair, body work, or painting of 
vehicles is conducted, or in which gasoline, oil, or similar 
products are dispensed. Group 1 public garages shall be 
classified in storage occupancy group B-l. 

— group 2. Buildings or spaces used exclusively for the parking 

of vehicles having fuel storage tanks of twenty (20) gallon 
capacity or less, and in which no repair, body work or 
painting of vehicles is conducted, and in which no gasoline, 
oil, or similar products are dispensed. Group 2 public garages 
shall be classified in storage occupancy group B-2. 

grade. An elevation with reference to Boston city base, namely, 
a horizontal plane of reference established and used by the 
City of Boston. The reference is the Mean Low Water at the 
U.S. Navy Yard in Charlestown, Boston, Massachusetts. 

grade (building height). In cases where all walls of the principal 
building are more than five (5) feet from the nearest street 
line, the mean elevation of the ground adjoining the building 
on all sides; and in all other cases, the mean elevation of the 
nearest sidewalk. 

habitable room. A room or enclosed floor space arranged for 
living, eating, or sleeping purposes (not including bathrooms, 
water closet compartments, laundries, pantries, foyers, hall- 
ways and other accessory floor spaces) which has a clear 
height from finished floor to finished ceiling of not less than 
seven and one-half (7-1/2) feet, except that in attics and top 
half-stories the height shall be not less than one-third (1/3) 
the area of the floor when used for sleeping, study or similar 
activity; and has a minimum dimension of seven (7) feet and 
a minimum area of seventy (70) square feet, between enclosing 
walls or partitions, exclusive of closet and storage spaces. 



height, building. The vertical distance of the highest point of 
the roof, excluding penthouses and roof structures, above the 
mean grade of the sidewalk at the line of the street or streets 
on which the building abuts, or, in the case of a building not 
abutting on a street, above the mean grade of the ground be- 
tween the building and whichever of the following is nearer, 
namely, a line twenty (20) feet from the building or the lot 
line; but in no event shall the mean grade of such ground be 
taken to be more than five (5) feet above or below the mean 
grade of the ground immediately contiguous to the building. 

— story. The vertical distance from top to top of two (2) 

successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces; and, for 
the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the 
top of the ceiling joists, or, where there is no ceiling, to 
the top of the roof rafters. 

— story, first. The lowest story of which sixty-five (65) per 

cent or more of the height is above the mean grade from 
which the height of the building is measured. 

— wall. The vertical distance from the mean elevation of the 

ground adjoining the wall on all sides. 

hereafter. After the time that this code becomes effective. 

heretofore. Before the time that this code became effective. 

high pressure boiler. A closed vessel in which steam or other 
vapor to be used externally to itself, is generated at a 
pressure of more than fifteen (15) pounds per square inch 
gage by the direct application of heat. 

hollow masonry unit. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional 
area in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is less than 
seventy-five (75) per cent of its gross cross-sectional area 
measured in the same plane. 

hood. A canopy or similar device connected to a duct for the 
removal of heat, fumes or gases. 

hotel. A building (other than a dormitory) containing four (4) 
or more apartments without kitchens, or containing sleeping 
accommodations for ten (10) or more persons, primarily the 
temporary abode of persons who have their residences 
elsewhere. 



201 
impact load. See "Loads" 

incombustible materials. Synonymous with "Noncombustible 
Material." 

independent. In reference to two (2) or more exitways, removed 
or distant from one another in such manner that a person in 
any place served by such exitways may choose either of two 
(2) directions in a path toward an exitway and in such manner 
that a single fire could not, in its early stages, block both 
paths toward an exitway. 

industrial lift. See "Special Hoisting and Conveying Equip- 
ment". 

inflammable. Synonymous with flammable. 

inner court. See "Court." 

interior lot line. Any lot line other than one adjoining a 
street or public space. 

kitchen. A room used or adapted for cooking and containing 
a stove, range, hot-plate or other cooking apparatus, which 
burns coal, oil, gas or other fuel or is heated by electricity, 
except electric appliances consuming less than eighteen 
hundred (1800) watts. 

lagging (pile). Pieces of timber or other material attached to 
the sides of piles to increase resistance to penetration through 
soil. 

light gage steel construction. That type of construction in 
which the structural frame consists of studs, floor joists, 
arch ribs, rafters, steel decks and other structural elements 
which are composed and fabricated of cold-formed sheets. 

live load. See "Loads". 

load. 

— dead load. The weight of all permanent construction including 

walls, floors, roofs, partitions, stairways and of fixed service 
equipment. 

— impact load. The load resulting from moving machinery, 

elevators, craneways, vehicles, and other similar forces and 
kinetic loads. 



— lateral soil load. The lateral pressure in pounds per square 

foot due to the weight of the adjacent soil, including due 
allowance for hydrostatic pressure. 

— live load. The weight superimposed by the use and occupancy 

of the building, including snow load, not including the wind 
load, or dead load. 

— wind load. The lateral pressure on the building or structure 

in pounds per square foot due to wind blowing in any 
direction. 

load-bearing. See "Bearing". 

loading ramp. A hinged, non-portable device, either mechanical 
or hydraulic, hand or power operated, used for spanning 
gaps or adjusting heights between loading surface and carrier 
or between loading surface and loading surface. 

lobby. The enclosed vestibule between the principal entrance 
to the building and the doors to the main floor of the 
auditorium or assembly room of a theatre or place of 
assembly or to the main floor corridor of a business building. 

lodging house. Any dwelling (other than a boarding house, 
dormitory, fraternity, sorority house, hotel, motel or apart- 
ment hotel) in which living space, without kitchen facilities, 
is let to five (5) or more persons who are not within the 
second degree of kinship. 

lot. A parcel of land including land under water, whether or 
not platted, in single ownership, and not divided by a street. 

— area. The horizontal area of the lot exclusive (a) of any area 

in a street or private way open to public use, and (b) of any 
fresh-water area more than ten (10) feet from the shoreline, 
and (c) of any salt-water area below the mean high tide line. 

— corner. A lot with boundaries abutting on, and meeting at 

the intersection of, two (2) streets when the lines of such 
boundaries form within such lot at such intersection an 
angle of not more than one hundred thirty-five (135) degrees. 
In the case of a curved boundary, the tangent to such curved 
boundary at its point of intersection with another boundary 
of the lot shall be deemed to be the line of such boundary 
for the purposes of this definition. 



201 

— depth. The horizontal distance between the front and rear 

lot lines measured by the length, within the lot, of a straight 
line connecting the midpoint of a straight line between the 
foremost points of the side lot lines with the midpoint of a 
straight line between the rearmost points of the side lot lines. 

— line, front. The line separating the lot from the street. The 

owner of a lot abutting on two (2) or more streets may 
designate as the front lot line whichever of the two (2) 
widest streets he chooses. 

— line, rear. The line which most nearly qualifies as the line 

most distant and opposite from the front lot line; where the 
lot is irregularly shaped, a line perpendicular to the mean 
direction of the side lot lines, and at least ten (10) feet in 
length within the lot. 

— width. The shortest horizontal distance between the side lot 

lines measured perpendicular to the mean direction of two (2) 
straight lines, one (1) between the foremost and rearmost 
points of one (1) side lot line, and the other between the 
foremost and rearmost points of the other side lot line. 

low pressure boiler. A steel or cast iron heating boiler in 
which the maximum allowable gage working pressure is 
limited to fifteen (15) pounds per square inch. 

manlifts. See "Special Hoisting and Conveying Equipment. " 

manual fire alarm system. An interior alarm system composed 
of sending stations and signaling devices in a building, 
operated on an electric circuit, so arranged that the opera- 
tion of any one (1) station will ring all signals throughout 
the building or at one (1) or more approved locations. 
Signals may be either non-coded or coded to indicate the 
floor area in which the signal originated and may be trans- 
mitted to an outside central station. 

marquee sign. A display sign attached to or hung from a 
marquee canopy or other covered structure projecting from 
and supported by the building and extending beyond the 
building wall, building line or street lot line. 

masonry. A built-up construction or combination of building 
units or materials of clay, shale, concrete, glass, gypsum, 



stone or other approved units; or monolithic concrete. Re- 
inforced concrete is not classed as masonry. 

masonry solid. Masonry consisting of solid masonry units laid 
contiguously with the joints between the units filled with 
mortar, or consisting of plain concrete. 

masonry unit solid. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional 
area in every plane parallel to the bearing surface is seventy- 
five (75) per cent or more of its gross cross-sectional area 
measured in the same plane. 

material lift. See "Special Hoisting and Conveying Equipment." 

material platform hoist. A power or manually operated sus- 
pended platform conveyance operating in guide rails for 
the exclusive raising or lowering of materials, which is 
operated and controlled from a point outside the conveyance. 

may. A term giving permission but not, except in the nega- 
tive, making a requirement. "May" is used in this code to 
emphasize that specified construction is not prohibited by 
the code when such prohibition might otherwise be implied 
or construed; or to limit the scope of a prohibition by 
excepting specified construction from its effect. A permission 
so expressed in this code in specific terms shall not be 
construed as a prohibition of other construction. "May 
not" is prohibitive. 

means of egress. A means of egress is a continuous path of 
travel from any point in a building or structure to the 
open air outside at ground level and consists of three (3) 
separate and distinct parts: (a) the exitway access, (b) the 
exitway and (c) the exitway discharge. A means of egress 
comprises the vertical and horizontal means of travel and 
may include the room space, doorway, corridor, hallway, 
passageway, stairs, ramp, lobby and other paths of travel. 

mechanical ventilation. The process of introducing outdoor 
air into, or removing vitiated air from a building by mechan- 
ical means. A mechanical ventilating system may include air 
heating, air cooling, or air conditioning components. 

mezzanine floor. A floor within a story between the floor and 
ceiling thereof, having an area not over thirty-three and 
one-third (33 x h ) per cent of the area of the building at 



201 

the level at which the mezzanine floor occurs. A floor of 
larger area separates two (2) stories. 

mortar. A plastic mixture of approved cementitious materials, 
fine aggregates and water used to bond masonry or other 
structural units. 

motel. A hotel primarily for transients traveling by automo- 
bile, with a parking space on the lot for each lodging unit, 
and with access to each such unit directly from the outside. 

motor fuel service station. A structure, building or premise 
or any portion thereof where a flammable fluid is stored, 
housed or sold for supply to motor vehicles. 

motor vehicle. A conveyance propelled by an internal com- 
bustion engine and having a fuel storage tank capacity of 
more than two (2) gallons. 

motor vehicle repair shop. A building, structure or enclo- 
sure in which the general business of repairing motor ve- 
hicles is conducted including a public garage. 

moving stairway. See Escalator. 

moving walk. A type of passenger-carrying device on which 
passengers stand or walk, and in which the passenger- 
carrying surface remains parallel to its direction of motion 
and is uninterrupted. 

nominal dimension. 

_ lumber. A dimension that may vary from actual dimensions 
as provided in this code including the reference standards. 

_ masonry. A dimension that may vary from actual masonry 
dimensions by the thickness of a mortar joint but not to 
exceed one-half (':) inch. 

nonautomatie sprinkler system. A sprinkler system in which 
all pipes and sprinkler heads are maintained dry and which 
is supplied with water through a fire department Siamese 
connection. 

nonautomatie standpipe system. A standpipe system in which 
all piping is maintained dry, and which is supplied with 
water through a fire department Siamese connection. 



nonbearing. As applied to a wall or partition, shall mean 
one that supports no vertical load other than its own weight. 

noncombustible (material). This is a general, relative term. 
Its precise meaning is defined in this code in article 903.7.1. 

non-corrodible metal. A metal which, under the conditions of 
its use, may reasonably be expected, without unusual or 
excessive maintenance, to serve its purpose throughout the 
probable life of the structure in which it is used as deter- 
mined by the building official. 

nonconcurrent loads. Two (2) or more elements of dead or 
live load which, for purposes of design, are considered not 
to act simultaneously. 

nonloadbearing. See nonbearing. 

occupancy. The purpose or activity for which a building or 
space is used or is designed or intended to be used. 

occupancy group. The category in which a building or space 
is classified by the provisions of article 2, based on its 
occupancy or use. 

occupancy load. The number of individuals normally occu- 
pying the building or part thereof, or for which the egress 
facilities have been designed. 

occupancy, unit of. That portion of one (1) building within 
separations within which the occupancy, whether of one (1) 
or more tenants, falls in a single group as classified in 
article 2. 

occupied. As applied to a building, shall be construed as 
though followed by the words "or intended, arranged or 
designed to be occupied." 

one-source sprinkler system. An automatic sprinkler system 
which is supplied from one (1) of the approved automatic 
sources of water supply. 

open exterior space. A street or other public space; or a 
yard, court, or plaza open on one (1) or more sides and 
unroofed or open on all sides, which provides egress to 
a street or public space. 

opening protective. An assembly of materials and accessories, 
including frames and hardware installed in an opening in a 



201 
wall, partition, floor, ceiling or roof to prevent, resist, or 
retard the passage of flame, smoke or hot gases. 

or. Providing an alternative at the option, unless the con- 
trary is clearly indicated, of the applicant for a permit. 

ordinary materials. Materials which do not conform to the 
requirements of this code for controlled materials. 

ordinary repairs. See section 102.2. 

. oriel window. A window projected beyond and suspended 
from the wall of the building or cantilevered therefrom. 

! outer court. See "Court." 

owner. The owner of the land as recorded in the registry of 
deeds for Suffolk county, or as registered in the land court, 
except that nothing in this code shall be held to prevent the 
owner of land from transferring to another his rights and 
responsibilities under this code by means of a lease or other 
suitable agreement. The building official may recognize the 
person to whom such a transfer by operation of law or 
otherwise has been made as the possessor of such rights and 
responsibilities and to such extent as the owner in receiving 
applications, issuing permits and otherwise in enforcing this 
code. 

panel. (Part of a structure.) The section of a floor or wall 
comprised between the supporting frame of two (2) adjacent 
rows of columns and girders or column bands of floor 
construction. 

panel wall. See Wall-skeleton or Panel. 

parapet. See Wall-parapet. 

parking lot, open. A lot, or portion thereof, used for the 
storage or sale of more than four (4) motor vehicles, but 
not used for the repair or servicing of such vehicles. 

partial sprinkler system. An automatic sprinkler system con- 
sisting of a limited number of automatic sprinkler heads 
serviced from the building water supplies with one (1) or 
more fire department Siamese connections as required, for 
use in egress facilities and isolated hazardous locations when 
approved by the building official. 



partition. An interior vertical unit or assembly of materials 
that separates one space from another within any story of 
a building. 

party wall. See Wall-party. 

penthouse. An enclosed occupiable structure above the roof 
of a building, other than a roof structure, extending not 
more than twelve (12) feet above the roof, and occupying 
not more than thirty-three and one-third (33 l A ) per cent 
of the roof area. 

person. An individual, partnership, corporation, or other legal 
entity. 

pier. A vertical body of masonry used as a column, the 
portion of a masonry wall between thinner portions or be- 
tween openings when the horizontal dimensions parallel to 
the wall does not exceed four (4) times the thickness. 

place of assembly. An enclosed room or space in which 
seventy-five (75) or more persons gather for any of the 
following purposes: religious, recreational, educational, po- 
litical, social, consumption of food and drink or for similar 
group activities. 

plan or plans. The word plan or plans shall be construed to 
mean drawing or drawings illustrating the work involved. 

plastic. A material that contains as an essential ingredient an 
organic substance of large molecular weight, is solid in its 
finished state and, at some stage in its manufacture or its 
processing into finished articles, can be shaped by flow. 

_ approved combustible. A plastic which meets the require- 
ments of section 1409.5.2. 

_ approved light transmitting. A plastic which meets the re- 
quirements of section 2000.1. 

platform frame. Light timber construction in which the ex- 
terior walls and bearing walls consist of studs which are 
interrupted at floors by the entire thickness of the floor 
construction. 

plenum chamber. A compartment or chamber to which one (1) 
or more ducts are connected and which form a part of 
either the supply or return air system. 



201 

pole footing. A type of construction in which a pole em- 
bedded in the ground and extending upward to form a 
column is used for both column and footing. 

ponding. The retention of rainwater on roofs. 

posted occupancy. The posted classification of a building in 
respect to use, fire grading, floor load and occupancy load. 

posted sign. The tablet, card, or plate which defines the use, 
occupancy, fire grading and floor loads of each story, floor 
or parts thereof for which the building or part thereof has 
been approved. 

prefabricated. Construction materials or assembled units fabri- 
cated prior to erection or installation in a building or struc- 
ture. 

prefabricated building. The completely assembled and erected 
building or structure, including the service equipment, of 
which the structural parts consist of prefabricated individual 
units or subassemblies using ordinary or controlled materials; 
and in which the service equipment may be either prefab- 
ricated or at-site construction. 

prefabricated subassembly. A built-up combination of several 
structural elements designed and fabricated as an assembled 
section of wall, ceiling, floor or roof to be incorporated into 
the structure by field erection of two (2) or more such 
subassemblies. 

prefabricated unit. A built-up section forming an individual 
structural element of the building, such as a beam, girder, 
plank, strut, column or truss, the integrated parts of which 
are prefabricated prior to incorporation into the structure, 
including the necessary means for erection and connection 
at the site to complete the structural frame. 

prefabricated unit service equipment. A prefabricated assembly 
of mechanical units, fixtures and accessories comprising a 
complete service unit of mechanical equipment, including 
bathroom and kitchen plumbing assemblies, unit heating and 
air-conditioning systems and loop-wiring assemblies of electric 
circuits. 

private garages. (See garages) 



professional engineer or architect. (See architect or engineer.) 

projection room. A room in a theatre or assembly hall con- 
taining a projector of moving pictures. 

protected construction. That in which all structural members 
are constructed, chemically treated, covered or protected so 
that the individual unit or the combined assemblage of all 
such units has the required fireresistance rating specified for 
its particular use or application in section 221.1 table 2-1, 
and includes protected-frame, protected-ordinary and pro- 
tected-noncombustible construction. 

public garage. See Garage, public. 

public open space. An open space in public ownership de- 
voted or to be devoted to a public use with only minor 
accessory buildings, if any. No structure that exceeds 
twenty (20) feet in height or two thousand (2000) square 
feet in gro'ss floor area shall be considered to be a part 
of such public open space. "Public open space" shall be 
construed to include a street. 

pyroxylin plastic. Any nitro-cellulose product or compound 
soluble in a volatile, flammable liquid, including such sub- 
stances as celluloid, pyroxylin, fiberloid and other cellulose 
nitrates (other than nitro-cellulose film) which are susceptible 
to explosion from rapid ignition of the gases emitted there- 
from. 

ramp. See Runway. 

reference standard. An approved recognized authoritative source 
reference for specific use within this code and limited to 
that use. 

refrigerant. The medium used to produce cooling or refrigera- 
tion by the process of expansion or vaporization. 

refrigeration. The mechanical process of removing heat from 
the air in an enclosed space of a building or structure. 

reinforced concrete. Concrete in which reinforcement other 
than that provided for shrinkage or temperature changes 
is combined in such manner that the two (2) materials may 
act together in resisting forces. 



201 
emote. See Independent. 

equired. Shall be construed to be mandatory by provisions 
of this code. 

etaining wall. See Wall. 

oof. The topmost slab or deck of a building, either flat or 
sloping, with its supporting members not including vertical 
supports. 

■oof covering. The covering applied to the exterior surface of 
a roof for weather resistance, fireresistance, wear, and/or 
appearance, but not including insulation. 

oof structure. A structure above the roof of any part of a 
building constructed for use with a stairway, tank, elevator 
machinery or ventilating apparatus, or such part of a shaft 
as extends above the roof. 

ubble. 

- coursed rubble. Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones 

fitting approximately on level beds and well bonded. 

random rubble. Masonry composed of roughly-shaped stones 
laid without regularity of coursing but well bonded and 
fitted together to form well defined joints. 

rough or ordinary rubble. Masonry composed of unsquared 
field stones laid without regularity of coursing but well 
bonded. 

- rubble masonry. Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones. 

runway. Any aisle or walkway constructed or maintained as 
a passageway for pedestrians or vehicles. 

rupture member. A mechanical device that will rupture at a 
predetermined pressure to control automatically the com- 
pressor or maximum pressure of operation of the refrigerant. 

safe area. An interior or exterior space that serves as a part 
of a means of egress by providing a transitional area from, 
and that also serves as a normal means of entry to, an 
assembly space. 

scenery and scenic elements. Any or all of those devices 
ordinarily used on a stage in the presentation of a theatrical 



performance, such as back drops, side tabs, teasers, border 
or scrim, rigid flats, set pieces, and all properties, but no 
including costumes. 

school. Any building or premises in which a regular course ' 
of public or private instruction is afforded to not less than 
ten (10) pupils at one time, exclusive of rooms in buildings 
separate from or attached to churches used for the primary 
purpose of religious instruction. 

seating section. An area of seating bounded on all sides by . 
aisles, cross over aisles, walls or partitions. 

self-closing. As applied to an opening protective shall mean 
a door, window, damper, or other device, and its assembly 
that is normally kept in a closed position and that is 
equipped with an approved device to insure immediate closing 
after having been opened for use. 

service equipment. See building service equipment. 

shaft. An enclosure of a vertical opening in two (2) or more 
stories. 

— covered. A shaft enclosed at the top. 

— open. A shaft open to the outdoor air at the top. 

shall. As used in this code is always to be construed as man- 
datory. 

Siamese connection. A fitting connected to a fire extinguishing 
system and installed on the outside of a building, with two 
(2) hose inlets for use of the fire department, to furnish or 
supplement the water supply to the system. 

sidewalk shed. A construction over a public sidewalk, used to 
protect pedestrians from falling objects. 

sign. An outdoor structure, banner or other device, designed 
or used as an advertisement or announcement for the infor- 
mation or attraction of the public; consisting of the frame- 
work and all letters, words, numerals, illustrations, illumina- 
tion, decorations, trade marks, emblems, symbols or other 
figures or characters. 

— billboard, (poster panel). A board, panel or tablet used for 
the display of printed or painted advertising matter. 



201 

— closed sign. A display sign in which the entire area is solid 

or tightly enclosed or covered. 

— display sign. A structure that is arranged, intended, designed 

or used as an advertisement, announcement or direction; and 
includes a sign, sign screen, billboard, poster panel and ad- 
vertising devices of every kind. 

— ground sign. A display sign supported by uprights or braces 

in or upon the ground surface. 

— open sign. A display sign in which at least fifty (50) per 

cent of the enclosed area is uncovered, or open to the trans- 
mission of wind. 

— poster panel. See Billboard. 

— projecting sign. A display sign which is attached directly to 

the building wall and which extends more than fifteen (15) 
inches from the faces of the wall. 

— roof sign. A display sign which is erected, constructed and 

maintained above the roof of the building. 

— temporary sign. A display sign, banner or other advertising 

device constructed of cloth, canvas, fabric or other light tem- 
porary material, with or without a structural frame, intended 
for a limited period of display; including decorative displays 
for holidays or public demonstrations. 

— wall sign. A display sign which is painted on or attached 

directly to the building wall and which extends not more than 
fifteen (15) inches from the face of the wall. 

slow-burning plastic. See plastic, approved. 

smoke damper. A damper arranged to seal off air flow auto- 
matically through a part of an air duct system, so as to 
restrict passage of smoke. A smoke damper may be a stan- 
dard louvered damper serving other control functions if its 
location lends itself to the dual purpose. A smoke damper 
does not need to meet all the requirements of a fire damper. 

smokepipe. See chimney connector. 

smokestack. See chimney. 

smoke screen. A door or set of doors and assembly placed in 
a corridor to restrict the spread of smoke and to retard the 
spread of fire by reducing draft. 



soil. The softer matter mostly inorganic composing part of the 
surface of the earth in distinction from firm rock; including 
gravel, clay, loam and the like and filling materials of similar 
nature. 

space heater. (Room heater). An above-the-floor device for 
direct heating of the space in and adjacent to that in which j 
the device is located without external heating pipes or ducts. 

special hoisting and conveying equipment. Manually or power- 
operated hoisting, lowering or conveying mechanisms, other 
than elevators, moving stairways or dumbwaiters for the 
transport of persons or freight in a vertical, inclined or hori- 
zontal direction on one floor or in successive floors. 

— automotive lift. A fixed mechanical device for raising an 

entire motor vehicle above the floor level but not through 
successive floors of the building or structure. 

— conveyors. A system of machinery and manual or mechanized 

devices other than elevator and dumbwaiter equipment con- 
sisting of belts, chains, rollers, buckets, aprons, slides and 
chutes and other miscellaneous equipment for hoisting, low- 
ering and transporting materials and merchandise in packages 
or in bulk in any direction in a building or structure. 

— manlifts. A power-operated belt device with steps and hand- 

holds for transporting persons in a vertical position through 
successive floors or levels of the building or structure. 

— material lift. A power-operated rising or lowering device for 

transporting freight vertically, operating entirely within one 
(1) story of the building or structure. 

sprinkler alarm — (water gong). An apparatus constructed and 
installed so that a flow of water through the sprinkler sys- 
tem equal to, or greater than, that required for a single 
automatic sprinkler head will cause an alarm to be given. 

sprinklers. See Automatic sprinklers. 

sprinkler system. A system of piping and sprinkler heads con- 
nected to one (1) or more sources of water supply. 

sprinkler system, chemical. A system of automatic sprinklers 
controlled by thermostatic operating devices for the diffusion 
of approved fire-extinguishing chemicals or gases. 



201 
prinkler system, dry pipe. A system in which all pipes and 
sprinkler heads are filled with air under pressure and the 
water supply is controlled by an approved automatic dry- 
pipe valve in the event of fire, actuated either by the release 
of air or by thermostatic electric control. 

prinkler system, supervised. A system in which all water sup- 
ply, valves and accessory equipment is provided with electrical 
contact devices to transmit signals to an outside central 
supervisory station. 

sprinkler system, thermostatic. An open or closed head sprinkler 
system operated through an auxiliary thermostatic device 
which functions at a predetermined rate of temperature rise. 

•prinkler system, wet pipe. A system of automatic sprinklers 
in which all pipes are filled with water at all times. 

iprinklered. Equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler 
system properly maintained. 

itage. A raised portion of floor for staging purposes exceeding 
eighteen (18) feet or more in depth behind the curtain line. 

itair, rise of. The vertical distance between successive treads or 
steps measured always from the same relative position thereon. 

itair, tread of. The horizontal distance from one riser to the 
next or from one nosing to the next. 

itairway. One or more flights of stairs and the necessary 
landings and platforms connecting them to form a continuous 
and uninterupted passage from one floor to another. 

standard fire test. The standard controlled furnace test for- 
mulated under the procedure outlined in reference standard 
RS9-2. 

standpipe, dry. A standpipe fire line without permanent or 
automatic water supply equipped with a Siamese connection 
for use of the fire department. 

standpipe system. A system of piping, for fire-fighting purposes, 
consisting of connections to one (1) or more sources of water 
supply, and serving one (1) or more hose outlets. 

standpipe, wet. A standpipe fire line having a primary water 
supply constantly available at every hose outlet, or made 



available by opening the hose outlet or by automatic func- 
tioning of a control station. 

steel joist. Any secondary steel member of a building or struc- 
ture made of hot or cold-formed solid or open-web sections, 
or riveted or welded bar, strip or sheet-steel members or 
slotted and expanded or otherwise deformed rolled sections. 

story. That portion of a building included between the top 
surface of a floor and the top surface of the next floor or 
roof above. 

street. A public way, alley, lane, court, sidewalk and such 
parts of public squares and public places as form travelled 
parts of highways. 

street line. The line separating a street from a lot. 

structural steel member. Any member of a building or structure 
consisting of rolled steel structural shapes other than formed 
steel, light gage steel or steel joist members. 

structure. A combination of materials assembled at a fixed 
location to give support or shelter, such as a building, bridge, 
trestle, tower, framework, retaining wall, tank, tunnel, tent, 
stadium, reviewing stand, platform, bin, fence, sign, flagpole, 
or the like. The word "structure" shall be construed, where 
the context allows, as though followed by the words "or 
part thereof." 

thermoplastic material. A solid plastic material which is cap- 
able of being repeatedly softened by increase of temperature 
and hardened by decrease of temperature. 

thermosetting material. A solid plastic material which is cap- 
able of being changed into a substantially infusible and insol- 
uble product when cured under the application of heat or by 
mechanical means. 

ton of refrigeration. The unit of capacity of refrigeration 
equivalent to the removal of heat at the rate of twelve 
thousand (12,000) B.T.U. per hour. 

two-source system. An automatic sprinkler system which is 
supplied from a combination of any two (2) of the approved 
automatic sources of water supply, or from two (2) pressure 
tanks, or by direct connections to the municipal water supply 



201 

on two (2) streets in which the water mains are separately 
controlled. 

Linfired pressure vessel. A closed metal vessel which contains 
air, steam, gas or liquid pressure in excess of fifty (50) 
pounds per square inch gage which is supplied from an 
external source. 

uniformly distributed load. A conventional representation of 
an element of dead or live load as a load of uniform inten- 
sity, distributed over an area. 

unit heater. An appliance which consists of an integral com- 
bination of heating element and fan within a common en- 
closure and which is located within or adjacent to the space 
to be heated. 

use. (used). As a verb, shall be construed as if followed by 
the words "or is intended, arranged, designed, built, altered, 
converted, rented or leased to be used." 

use group. See occupancy group. 

ventilation. The process of supplying or removing air by natural 
or mechanical means to or from any space. Such air may or 
may not have been conditioned. 

vestibule. An enclosed space, with doors or opening protectives, 
to provide protected passage between the exterior and interior 
of a building, or between spaces within a building. 

wall. 

— r.pron wall. That portion of a skeleton wall below the sill 

of a window. 

— bearing wall. A wall which supports any vertical load in 

addition to its own weight. 

— cavity wall. A wall built of masonry units or of plain con- 

crete, or a combination of these materials, arranged to pro- 
vide an air space within the wall, and in which the inner 
and outer parts of the wall are tied together with metal ties. 

— composite wall. A wall built of a combination of two (2) or 

more masonry units of different materials bonded together, 
one (1) forming the back-up and the other the facing elements. 



— curtain wall. A nonbearing enclosure wall not necessarily 

supported at each story. 

— enclosure wall. A wall, bearing or nonbearing, which en- 

closes a stairway, elevator shaft or other vertical opening. ! 

— faced wall. A wall in which the masonry facing and backing 

are so bonded as to exert common action under load. 

— fire wall. A vertical type A fire division in the form of a 

wall. 

— hollow wall. A wall built of units so arranged as to provide 

an air space within the wall, and in which the facing and 
backing of the wall are bonded together. 

— nonbearing wall. A wall which supports no vertical load 

other than its own weight. 

— panel wall. See skeleton. 

— parapet wall. That part of any wall entirely above the roof 

line. 

— party wall. A wall on an interior lot line used or adapted 

for joint service between two (2) buildings. 

— retaining wall. A wall designed to resist lateral pressure. 

— skeleton or panel wall. A nonbearing wall supported at each 

story on a skeleton frame. 

— spandrel wall. That portion of a skeleton wall above the 

head of a window or door. 

— veneered wall. A wall having a facing of masonry or other 

weather-resisting noncombustible materials securely attached 
to the backing, but not so bonded as to exert common ac- 
tion under load. 

wall heater. A unit heater which is supported from or recessed 
in the wall of the room or space to be heated. 

warm air furnace. A solid, liquid, gas-fired, or electric ap- 
pliance for heating air to be distributed with or without 
duct systems to the space to be heated. 



201 

■varm air furnace, mechanical. A warm air furnace equipped 
with a fan to circulate the air. 

■vater curtain. A system of approved open or closed sprinkler 
heads or perforated pipes installed on the exterior of a build- 
ing at eaves, cornices, window openings, and on mansard or 
peak roofs with water supply under manual control; or in- 
stalled around openings in floors or walls of a building with 
water supply under thermostatic control. 

width. 

— inner court. As applied to an inner court, means its least 

horizontal dimension. 

— outer court. As applied to an outer court, means the shortest 

horizontal dimension measured in a direction substantially 
parallel with the principal open end of such court. 

workmen's hoist. A hoisting and lowering mechanism equipped 
with a car that moves in guides in a substantially vertical 
direction and that is used primarily for raising and lowering 
workmen to the working levels. 

writing. The term shall be construed to include handwriting, 
typewriting, printing, photo-offset or any other form of re- 
production in legible symbols or characters. 

written notice. A notification in writing delivered in person 
to the individual or to the parties intended or delivered at 
or sent by certified or registered mail to the last business 
address known to the party giving the notice. 

yard, front. An open space extending across the full width of 
the lot and lying between the front lot line and the nearest 
building. 

yard, rear. An open space immediately behind the rearmost 
main building on the lot and extending across the full width 
of the lot. 

yard, side. An open space along the side line of a lot, extend- 
ing from the front yard line to the rear yard line; in the 
case of a side yard abutting on a street, extending to the rear 
lot line. 



zoning. The reservation of certain specified areas within the 
City of Boston for building and structures, or use of land,' 
for certain purposes with other limitations such as height, 
lot coverage and other stipulated requirements. 

SECTION 202.0. OCCUPANCY GROUP CLASSIFICATION^ 

Every building, structure and all spaces therein shall be classi- 
fied with respect to use or occupancy in accordance with the 
provisions of section 203 through 213 according to the occupancy 
or use of the building and spaces therein. The list of repres- 
sentative occupancies in reference standard RS2-1 shall be used 
for this purpose. 

202.1. Fire Grading of Buildings. — All buildings and structures 
shall be graded in accordance with the degree of fire hazard of 
their occupancy in terms of hours and fractions of an hour 
and as regulated in section 902. 

202.2. New Occupancies. — The building official shall establish 
by approved rules the degree of hazard involved and the fire! 
grading of any occupancy not specifically provided for in this; 
code. 

SECTION 203.0. OCCUPANCY GROUP A — HIGH 
HAZARD BUILDING 

Buildings and spaces shall be classified in the high hazard 
occupancy group when they are used for storing, manufacturing, 
or processing potentially explosive products or materials, or 
highly-combustible or high-flammable products or materials that 
are likely to burn with extreme rapidity. The high hazard group 
shall also include: occupancies that involve storing, processing, 
or handling any materials that produce explosive dust, or that 
result in the division of matter into fine particles subject to 
spontaneous ignition; occupancies that employ solids or sub- 
stances that ignite or produce flammable gases on contact with 
water; and any other occupancies that constitute a high fire 
hazard because of the form, character, or volume of the mater- 
ials involved. The storage and use of flammables are subject 
to rules and regulations of the City of Boston Licensing Board. 
203.1. Typical Material Contents. — Acetylene gas and gases 
under pressure of fifteen (15) psi or more and in quantities 
greater than twenty-five hundred (2,500) cubic feet, including 
hydrogen, illuminating gas, natural gas, and all other gases 



201-204 

ubject to explosion; celluloid and celluloid products; cotton 
>atting; kerosene, fuel, or other oils having a flash point under 
wo hundred (200) degrees F. (Tag. closed cup) except five 
lundred and fifty (550) gallons or less in one and two-family 
Iwellings; refrigerating systems using high hazard refrigerants 
is defined in article 18. 

103.2. Typical Occupant Activities. — Artificial flower and syn- 
hetic leather manufacture; ammunition, and explosives manu- 
acture, sales or storage; dry cleaning or dyeing using or storing 
gasoline or other combustible solvents as outlined in section 
U3.0; feather renovating; fruit ripening processes; hydrogenation 
jrocesses; match manufacture or storage; metal enamelling or 
apanning; paint and varnish manufacture; paint spraying or 
lipping, as specified in section 412.0 derivation of petroleum 
products by application of heat, processing of paper or card- 
board in loose form; pyroxylin products manufacture and stor- 
ige; rag sorting and storage; shoe polish manufacture; straw 
*oods manufacture or broom corn storage; tar, pitch, or resin 
Drocessing; waste paper sorting, shredding, storage, or baling; 
;otton waste processes. 

103.3. Representative Occupancies. — PaintShop and storerooms; 
■ndustrial smoke houses; grain elevators; tanneries with enamel- 
ing or japanning; distilleries; sugar, starch, cereal, feed, flour, 
and grist mills. 

SECTION 204.0. OCCUPANCY GROUP B — STORAGE 
BUILDINGS 

Buildings and spaces shall be classified in the storage occu- 
pancy group when they are used primarily for storing goods. 
However, limited storage incidental to the display, sale, or 
manufacture of such goods is excepted. When the goods stored 
are highly combustible, flammable, or potentially explosive, the 
building or space sha!' meet the requirements for high hazard 
occupancies when the latter are more restrictive than the corres- 
ponding requirements for the storage classification. The storage 
occupancy group consists of sub-groups B-l and B-2. 
204.1. Occupancy Group B-l. — Shall include buildings and 
spaces used for storing any flammable or combustible materials 
that are likely to permit the development and propogation of 
fire with moderate hazard but which do not produce either 
poisonous gases, fumes or explosives. 



204.1.1. Typical Material Contents. — Bags (cloth, burlap, anc I 
paper); bamboo and rattan; baskets; belting (canvas and leather) | 
books and paper in rolls or packs; buttons, including cloth j 
covered, pearl, or bone; boots and shoes; cardboard and card- I 
board boxes; wearing apparel; cordage; furniture; furs; glue I 
mucilage, paste, and size; horn and combs other than celluloid 
linoleum; livestock; lumber; photo-engraving supplies; silk, soap; 
sugar; tobacco; cigars, cigarettes, and snuff; upholstery and ( 
mattresses; wax candles. 

204.1.2. Typical Occupant Activities. — Photo engraving; leather 
enamelling or japanning. 

204.1.3. Representative Occupancies. — Warehouses, storeroom, 
freight depots, stables, coal pockets, lumber yards, group 1 — 
public garages; petroleum warehouses for storage of lubricating 
oils with a flash point of three hundred (300) degrees F or 
higher (see section 905.3). 

204.2. Occupancy Group B-2. — Shall include buildings and 
spaces used for storing non-combustible materials and materials 
that do not ordinarily burn rapidly. 

204.2.1. Typical Material Contents. — Asbestos, chalk and cra- 
yons, food products, glass, ivory, metals, porcelain and pottery, 
talc and soapstones. 

204.2.2. Typical Occupant Activities. — Wholesaling. 

204.2.3. Representative Occupancies. — Warehouses; storerooms; 
private garages; greenhouses; group 2 — public garages. 



SECTION 205.0. OCCUPANCY GROUP C — MERCANTILE 
BUILDINGS 

Buildings and spaces shall be classified in the mercantile oc- 
cupancy group when they are used for display and sales of goods 
accessible to public inspection. Highly combustible or flammable 
goods, such as those made of pyroxylin products shall be limited 
to small quantities that do not constitute a high hazard; if not 
so limited, the occupancy shall meet the requirements for high 
hazard occupancies when the latter are more restrictive than 
the corresponding requirements for the mercantile classification. 
205.1. Representative Occupancies. — Retail stores; shops; sales- 
rooms; markets; public auction rooms. 



204-206 
SECTION 206.0. OCCUPANCY GROUP D — 
INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 

Buildings and spaces shall be classified in the industrial oc- 
cupancy group when they are used for fabricating, assembling, 
manufacturing, or processing products, materials, or energy, ex- 
cept that when any products or materials, or other products or 
materials used in their manufacture are highly combustible, 
flammable, or explosive, the occupancy shall meet the require- 
ments for high hazard occupancies when the latter are more 
restrictive than the corresponding requirements for the industrial 
classification. The industrial occupancy group consists of sub- 
groups D-l and D-2. 

206.1. Occupancy Group D-l. — Shall include buildings and spaces 
in which the fabrication, assembly, manufacturing, or processing 
represents a moderate fire hazard due to the extent and nature 
of such operations, or to the materials involved. 

206.1.1. Typical Occupant Activities. — Canning, including food 
products and condensed and powdered milk manufacturer; dry 
cleaning or dyeing using or storing solvents having a flash point 
between one hundred (100) degrees F and one hundred thirty- 
eight and two-tenths (138.2) degrees F (Tag. closed-cup); elec- 
trolytic processes; glass manufacture, leather tanning and treat- 
ing, excluding enamelling or japanning; sugar refining; textile 
milling, including canvas, cotton, cloth, bagging, burlap, carpets, 

>'and rugs; upholstering; woodworking; cotton dressmaking; and 
manufacturing or processing materials such as those outlined in 
section 204.1.1. 

206.1.2. Representative Occupancies. — Baking plants, breweries; 
motor vehicle repair shops; foundries; heliports; scenery shops. 

1 206.2. Occupancy Group D-2. — This group shall include build- 
ings and spaces in which the fabrication, assembly, manufac- 
turing, or processing represents a low fire hazard. 
206.2.1. Representative Occupancies. — Mechanical and electrical 
equipment rooms; commercial laundries; vocational training 
shops; laboratories; boiler and furnace rooms; nonresidential 

; kitchens; power plants. 

1206.3. Special Industrial Uses. — All buildings and structures 

: designed to house low hazard industrial processes, including 

; among others the production and distribution of electric, gas 
or steam power and rolling mills and foundries, requiring large 
areas and unusual heights to accommodate craneways or special 

I machinery and equipment shall be exempt from the height and 

iarea limitations of section 221.2 table 2-2. 



206.3.1. Construction. — Buildings and structures for such special 
industrial uses shall comply with the requirements of section 
309.0 except as to height and when constructed of non-combus- 
tible (type 2-C) construction may have balconies and mezzanine 
floors which do not exceed two-thirds (2/3) the area of the main 
floor in any one tier. 

206.3.2. Enclosure Walls. — The enclosure walls of buildings of 
such low hazard industrial uses shall be constructed of approved 
non-combustible and weather resisting materials and when located 
with a fire separation of less than thirty (30) feet from interior 
lot lines of any other building shall be protected or constructed 
to provide a fire resistance rating of not less than two (2) hours. 

206.3.3. Firefighting and Extinguishing Equipment. — Special use 
industrial buildings as herein defined shall comply with the re- 
quirements of article 12 for auxiliary fire extinguishing equip- 
ment; except that the provisions of section 309.0 for automatic 
sprinkler equipment in unlimited area buildings may be waived 
by the building official when such installations would be detri- 
mental or dangerous to the specific use and occupancy. 

SECTION 207.0. OCCUPANCY GROUP E — BUSINESS 
BUILDINGS 

Buildings and spaces shall be classified in the business occupancy 
group when they are occupied for transacting business; for ren- 
dering professional services, or for performing other commercial 
services that may incidentally involve the storage of limited 
quantities of stocks of goods for office use or purposes. Build- 
ing and spaces used for prosecuting public or civic services shall 
also be classified in this group. 

207.1. Representative Occupancies. — Office buildings; banks; 
civic administration buildings; radio and television stations; 
telephone exchanges; barber and beauty shops; automotive 
service stations. 

SECTION 208.0. OCCUPANCY GROUPS F AND G 
ASSEMBLY AND SCHOOL BUILDINGS 

Buildings and spaces shall be classified in the assembly oc- 
cupancy group when they are used or designed as places of 
assembly as defined in article 2. The assembly occupancy group 
consists of sub-groups F-l through F-5. 



206-208 

208.1. Occupancy Group F-l. — Shall include those indoor 
places of assembly in which, during the major period of occu- 
pancy, the persons assembled comprise a seated or otherwise 
passive audience to a performance or presentation, and have 
their attention focused in a common direction or at a common 
subject. Occupancy group F-l consists of two (2) subdivisions 
F-la and F-lb. 

208.1.1. Occupancy Group F-la. — Includes all F-l places of 
assembly using scenery and scenic elements including such repre- 
sentative occupancies as theaters, playhouses, opera houses. 

208.1.2. Occupancy Group F-lb. — Includes all F-l places of 
assembly not using scenery and scenic elements including such 
representative occupancies as motion picture theatres, convention 
halls, concert halls, sports arenas, planetariums. 

208.2. Occupancy Group F-2. — Shall include those indoor places 
of assembly in which, during the major period of occupancy, 
the persons assembled are physically active and do not have a 
common center of attention; entertainment or for similar pur- 
poses including all rooms, lobbies and other spaces connected 
thereto with a common means of egress. 

208.2.1. Representative Occupancies. — Restaurants; night clubs; 
cabarets; dance halls; ballrooms; banquet rooms; cafeterias; 
snack bars; taverns; coffee houses. 

208.3. Occupancy Group F-3. — Shall include those indoor 
places of assembly in which, during the major period of occu- 
pancy, the persons assemble for amusement, entertainment or 
recreation, incidental motion picture, dramatic, theatrical or ed- 
ucational presentations, lectures or other similar purposes not 
provided for in groups F-l and F-2 and principally used with- 
out permanent seating facilities. 

208.3.1. Representative Occupancies —Exhibition halls, art gal- 
leries, museums, gymnasiums, lecture halls, passenger terminals, 
bowling alleys, billiard parlors, skating rinks; recreation centers, 
funeral establishments. 

208.4. Occupancy Group F-4. — Shall include those buildings and 
spaces used as churches or for similar religious purposes. 

208.4.1. Representative Occupancies. — Libraries, churches. 

208.5. Occupancy Group F-5. — Shall include all outdoor places 
of assembly. 

208.5.1. Representative Occupancies. — Grandstands, bleachers, 
coliseums, stadiums, drive-in theatres, tents and similar structures. 






208.5.2. The buildings and structures in this group shall com- 
ply with the provisions of this code for special uses and occu- 
pancies — see article 4. 

208.6. Occupancy Group G. — Shall include those buildings and 
spaces or premises in which a regular course of public or private 
instruction is afforded to not less than ten (10) pupils at one 
time. Rooms in buildings separate from or attached to churches 
used for the primary purpose of religious instruction are regu 
lated under occupancy group F4. 

208.6.1. Representative Occupancies. — Schools; academies; uni 
versities; colleges. 

SECTION 209.0. OCCUPANCY GROUP H — 
INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS 

Buildings and spaces shall be classified in the institutional occu- 
pancy group when persons suffering from physical limitations 
because of health or age are harbored therein for care or treat- 
ment; when persons are detained therein for penal or correctional 
purposes; or when the liberty of the inmates is restricted. The 
institutional occupancy group consists of sub-groups H-l and 
H-2. 

209.1. Occupancy Group H-l. — Shall include buildings and 
spaces used for the detention of persons under restraint. 
209.1.1. Representative Occupancies. — Jails, prisons, reforma- 
tories, mental institutions, cell areas of police stations. 

209.2. Occupancy Group H-2. — Shall include buildings and 
spaces used for the care or treatment of persons with physical 
limitations because of health or age. 

209.2.1. Representative Occupancies. — Hospitals; sanitariums; 
clinics; nursing homes; orphanages; homes for the aged; day 
nurseries. 

SECTION 210.0. OCCUPANCY GROUP L — 
RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 

Buildings and spaces shall be classified in the residential occu- 
pancy group when families or households dwell therein, or 
when sleeping accommodations, with or without dining facilities, 
are provided therein for individuals. Excluded from this group 
are those buildings and spaces classified under the institutional 
occupancy group. The residential occupancy consists of sub- 
groups L-l, L-2 and L-3. 



208-212 

210.1. Occupancy Group L-l. — Shall include buildings and 
spaces that are primarily occupied for the shelter and sleeping 
accommodation of individuals on a day-to-day or week-to-week 
basis. 

210.1.1. Representative Occupancies. — Hotels; motels; lodging 
houses, rooming houses. 

210.2. Occupancy Group L-2. — Shall include buildings with 
three or more dwelling units that are primarily occupied for 
the shelter and sleeping accommodation of individuals on a 
month-to-month or longer-term basis. 

210.2.1. Representative Occupancies. — Apartment houses; school 
dormitory buildings; college fraternity and sorority houses. 

210.3. Occupancy Group L-3. — Shall include buildings occupied 
as one-family or two-family dwellings, or as convents or rec- 
tories. 

210.3.1 . Representative Occupancies. — One-family and two-family 
dwellings; rectories; convents. 



SECTION 211.0. OCCUPANCY GROUP M — 
MISCELLANEOUS 

Structures of a temporary character, and minor occupancies 
not classified in any other specific occupancy group, shall be 
classified in the miscellaneous occupancy group. Such structures 
and occupancies shall be constructed, equipped, and maintained 
to meet the requirements of this code commensurate with the 
fire and life hazard incidental to their use. The miscellaneous 
occupancy group includes all accessory structures such as sheds, 
fences, and similar constructions. 
211.1. Representative Structures. — Sheds, fences, signs. 



SECTION 212.0. DOUBTFUL OCCUPANCIES 

When a building or space is used for an occupancy not speci- 
fically provided for in this code, or when its classification is 
otherwise uncertain, such building or space shall be included in 
the occupancy group that it most nearly resembles with respect 
to the existing or proposed life and fire hazard, and it shall 
be so classified by the architect or engineer subject to the ap- 
proval of the building official. 



208.5.2. The buildings and structures in this group shall com- 
ply with the provisions of this code for special uses and occu- 
pancies — see article 4. 

208.6. Occupancy Group G. — Shall include those buildings and 
spaces or premises in which a regular course of public or private 
instruction is afforded to not less than ten (10) pupils at one i 
time. Rooms in buildings separate from or attached to churches 
used for the primary purpose of religious instruction are regu- 
lated under occupancy group F4. 

208.6.1. Representative Occupancies. — Schools; academies; uni- I 
versities; colleges. 

SECTION 209.0. OCCUPANCY GROUP H — 
INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS 

Buildings and spaces shall be classified in the institutional occu- 
pancy group when persons suffering from physical limitations 
because of health or age are harbored therein for care or treat- 
ment; when persons are detained therein for penal or correctional 
purposes; or when the liberty of the inmates is restricted. The 
institutional occupancy group consists of sub-groups H-l and 
H-2. 

209.1. Occupancy Group H-l. — Shall include buildings and 
spaces used for the detention of persons under restraint. 
209.1.1. Representative Occupancies. — Jails, prisons, reforma- 
tories, mental institutions, cell areas of police stations. 

209.2. Occupancy Group H-2. — Shall include buildings and 
spaces used for the care or treatment of persons with physical 
limitations because of health or age. 

209.2.1. Representative Occupancies. — Hospitals; sanitariums; 
clinics; nursing homes; orphanages; homes for the aged; day 
nurseries. 

SECTION 210.0. OCCUPANCY GROUP L — 
RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 

Buildings and spaces shall be classified in the residential occu- 
pancy group when families or households dwell therein, or 
when sleeping accommodations, with or without dining facilities, 
are provided therein for individuals. Excluded from this group 
are those buildings and spaces classified under the institutional 
occupancy group. The residential occupancy consists of sub- 
groups L-l, L-2 and L-3. 



208-212 

210.1. Occupancy Group L-l. — Shall include buildings and 
spaces that are primarily occupied for the shelter and sleeping 
accommodation of individuals on a day-to-day or week-to-week 
basis. 

210.1.1. Representative Occupancies. — Hotels; motels; lodging 
houses, rooming houses. 

210.2. Occupancy Group L-2. — Shall include buildings with 
three or more dwelling units that are primarily occupied for 
the shelter and sleeping accommodation of individuals on a 
month-to-month or longer-term basis. 

210.2.1. Representative Occupancies. — Apartment houses; school 
dormitory buildings; college fraternity and sorority houses. 

210.3. Occupancy Group L-3. — Shall include buildings occupied 
as one-family or two-family dwellings, or as convents or rec- 
tories. 

210.3.1. Representative Occupancies. — One-family and two-family 
dwellings; rectories; convents. 



SECTION 211.0. OCCUPANCY GROUP M — 
MISCELLANEOUS 

Structures of a temporary character, and minor occupancies 
not classified in any other specific occupancy group, shall be 
classified in the miscellaneous occupancy group. Such structures 
and occupancies shall be constructed, equipped, and maintained 
to meet the requirements of this code commensurate with the 
fire and life hazard incidental to their use. The miscellaneous 
occupancy group includes all accessory structures such as sheds, 
fences, and similar constructions. 
211.1. Representative Structures. — Sheds, fences, signs. 



SECTION 212.0. DOUBTFUL OCCUPANCIES 

When a building or space is used for an occupancy not speci- 
fically provided for in this code, or when its classification is 
otherwise uncertain, such building or space shall be included in 
the occupancy group that it most nearly resembles with respect 
to the existing or proposed life and fire hazard, and it shall 
be so classified by the architect or engineer subject to the ap- 
proval of the building official. 



SECTION 213.0. MIXED AND/OR MULTIPLE 
OCCUPANCY 

213.1. Two or More Occupancies. — In case a building is oc- 
cupied for two (2) or more uses not included in the same 
occupancy group, the provisions of this code applying to each 
occupancy shall be applied as follows: 

213.1.1. Multiple Occupancy. — When the building or space is 
used for multiple purposes, involving different activities at dif- 
ferent times, the building or space shall be given a separate 
occupancy group classification for each of the activities involved. 
The design and construction of the building or space shall be 
in accordance with the most restrictive provisions of this code 
that apply to any of the occupancy group classifications utilized. 

213.1.2. Mixed Occupancy. — When any space within a building 
has an occupancy group classification other than that for which 
the building is classified and occupies ten (10) percent or more of 
the total net floor area of the building, that space shall be sep- 
arated horizontally and vertically from all adjoining occupancies 
by construction meeting the fire resistance rating requirements 
for Type A-Fire Divisions as provided for in article 9 and 
such occupancies shall for the purpose of this code be classified 
and treated as separate buildings and referred to as a building 
section. When the space in question occupies less than ten (10) 
percent of the total net floor area, it shall be separated hori- 
zontally and vertically from all adjoining occupancies by con- 
struction meeting the fireresistance rating requirements for Type 
B-Fire Division as provided for in article 9. 



SECTION 214.0. CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION 

Every structure, building, room, or space hereafter altered or 
erected shall for the purposes of this code be classified in one (1) 
or in a combination of the four (4) construction types herein 
defined: Type 1, Fireproof Construction; Type 2, Noncombustible 
Construction; Type 3, Exterior Masonry Wall Construction; and 
Type 4, Frame Construction. 

214.1. False Designation. — No building or space shall be desig- 
nated a given construction type unless it conforms to the 
minimum requirements for that type; and no building or space 
shall be posted, used, designated, or advertised as of a given 



213-215 

construction type unless it complies with the minimum require- 
ments of this code for that type. 

214.2. Minimum Requirements. — When a superior type of con- 
struction is used than the minimum herein required for any 
specified use, height and area of the building, nothing in this 
code shall be construed to require full compliance with the 
specifications for the higher type; but the designated construction 
classification of the building shall be that of the lesser require- 
ment, unless all the requirements for the higher type are fulfilled. 

214.3. Mixed Construction. — When two (2) or more types of 
construction occur within the same building, the entire building 
shall be subject to the most restrictive occupancy and size limita- 
tions for the type of construction involved. However, if the oc- 
cupancy within the different classes of construction are completely 
separated by construction that meets the fireresistance rating 
requirements for Type A fire divisions listed in section 221.1 
table 2-1 then each occupancy so separated may, for the pur- 
poses of this code, be considered as a separate building ("build- 
ing section"). 

214.3.1. Restrictions. — In buildings of mixed construction, no 
structural element shall be supported by construction having a 
lower fireresistance rating than that required for the element 
being supported. 

214.4. Hazardous Occupancies. — For hazardous occupancies 
involving an exceptionally high degree of fire risk or an ex- 
ceptionally high concentration of combustible or flammable 
contents, the building official may increase the requirements 
of section 221.1 table 2-1. 

SECTION 215.0. TYPE 1 — FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION 

Buildings and structures of fireproof construction are those in 
which the walls, partitions, structural elements, floors, ceilings, 
and roofs, and the means of egress parts are constructed and 
protected with noncombustible materials to afford the fire- 
resistance specified in section 221.1 table 2-1, except as otherwise 
specifically regulated by the provisions of article 9. Fireproof 
buildings shall be further classified as types 1A and IB in which 
their bearing walls and other major structural elements are 
generally of four (4) hour and three (3) hour fireresistance ratings 
respectively. Fire-retardant treated wood may be used as specified 
in section 221.1 table 2-1 and section 903.8. 



SECTION 216.0. TYPE 2 — NONCOMBUSTIBLE 
CONSTRUCTION 

Buildings and structures of noncombustible construction are 
those in which the walls, partitions, structural elements, floors, 
ceilings and roofs, and the means of egress parts are constructed 
of approved noncombustible materials meeting the fireresistive 
requirements specified in section 221.1 table 2-1, except as modi- 
fied by the fire district limitations of article 3, and as further 
regulated in article 9. Noncombustible buildings shall be further 
classified as types 2A, 2B and 2C in which their bearing walls 
and other major structural elements are generally of two (2) 
hour fireresistance rating, three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresistance 
rating or of no fireresistance rating respectively. Fire-retardant 
treated wood may be as specified in section 221.1 table 2-1 
and section 903.8. 

SECTION 217.0. TYPE 3 — EXTERIOR MASONRY 
WALL CONSTRUCTION 

Buildings and structures of exterior masonry wall construction 
are those in which the exterior, fire and party walls are con- 
structed of masonry or other approved noncombustible ma- 
terials, of the required fireresistance and structural properties; 
and the floors, roofs and interior framing are wholly or partly 
of wood or of metal or other approved construction; the fire 
and party walls are ground supported; except that girders and 
their supports carrying walls of masonry shall be protected to 
afford the same degree of fireresistance as the walls supported 
thereon; and all structural elements have the required firere- 
sistance rating specified in section 221.1 table 2-1. Type 3 build- 
ings shall be further classified as types 3A, 3B and 3C to re- 
flect the fire resistive properties of their framing components. 
217.1. Type 3A. — Buildings and structures of heavy timber 
construction are those in which fireresistance is attained by 
placing limitations on the minimum sizes of wood structural 
members and on minimum thickness and composition of wood 
floors and roofs; by the avoidance, or by the proper protection 
by firestopping or other acceptable means, of concealed spaces 
under floors and roofs; by the use of approved fastenings, 
construction details, and adhesives for structural members; and 
by providing the required degree of fire resistance in exterior 
and interior walls. (See section 854.0 for construction details.) 



216-217 

217.1.1. Columns. — Wood columns may be sawn or glued lam- 
inated and shall be not less than eight (8) inches, nominal, in 
any dimension when supporting floor loads and not less than 
six (6) inches, nominal, in width and not less than eight (8) 
inches, nominal, in depth when supporting roof and ceiling 
loads only. 

217.1.2. Floor Framing. — Beams and girders of wood may be 
sawn or glued laminated and shall be not less than six (6) 
inches, nominal, in width and not less then ten (10) inches, 
nominal, in depth. Framed or glued laminated arches which 
spring from the floor line and support floor loads shall be not 
less than eight (8) inches, nominal, in any dimension. Framed 
timber trusses supporting floor loads shall have members of not 
less than eight (8) inches, nominal, in any dimension. 

217.1.3. Roof Framing. — Framed or glued laminated arches for 
roof construction which spring from the floor line or from grade 
and do not support floor loads shall have members not less than 
six (6) inches, nominal, in width and not less than eight (8) 
inches, nominal, in depth for the lower half of the height and 
not less than six (6) inches, nominal, in depth for the upper 
half. Framed or glued laminated arches for roof construction 
which spring from the top of walls or wall abutments, framed 
timber trusses, and other roof framing which do not support 
floor loads, shall have members not less than four (4) inches 
nominal, in width and not less than six (6) inches, nominal, 
in depth. Spaced members may be composed of two (2) or 
more pieces not less than three (3) inches, nominal, in thickness 
when blocked solidly throughout their intervening spaces or 
when such spaces are tightly closed by a continuous wood 
cover plate of not less than two (2) inches, nominal, in thick- 
ness, secured to the underside of the members. Splice plates 
shall be no less than three (3) inches, nominal, in thickness. 
When protected by approved automatic sprinklers under the 
roof deck, framing members shall be not less than three (3) 
inches, nominal, in width. 

217.1.4. Flooring. — Floors shall be without concealed spaces 
and shall be of sawn or glued laminated plank, splined, or 
tongue-and-groove, of not less than three (3) inches, nominal, 
in thickness covered with one (1) inch, nominal, dimension 
tongue-and-groove flooring, laid crosswise or diagonally, or of 



planks not less than four (4) inches, nominal, in width set on 
edge close together and well spiked, and covered with one (1) 
inch, nominal, dimension flooring. 

217.1.5. Roof Decking. — Roofs shall be without concealed 
spaces and roof decks shall be sawn or glued laminated, splined 
or tongue-and-groove plank, not less than two (2) inches, 
nominal, in thickness, and one and one-eighth (1-1/8) inches 
thick interior plywood (exterior glue), or of planks not less 
than three (3) inches, nominal, in width, set on edge close to- 
gether and laid as required for floors. Other types of decking 
may be used if providing equivalent fireresistance and structural 
properties. 

217.1.6. Bearing Walls. — Bearing portions of exterior and in- 
terior walls shall be of approved noncombustible material and 
shall have a fireresistance rating of not less than two (2) hours. 

217.1.7. Nonbearing Walls. — Nonbearing portions of exterior 
walls shall be of approved noncombustible materials except as 
otherwise- noted and; where horizontal separation of less than 
twenty (20) feet is provided, nonbearing exterior walls shall 
have a fire resistance rating of not less than two (2) hours. 
Where a horizontal separation of twenty (20) feet to thirty (30) 
feet is provided, nonbearing exterior walls shall have a fire re- 
sistance rating of not less than one (1) hour. Where a horizontal 
separation of thirty (30) feet or more is provided, no fire re- 
sistance rating is required. Where a horizontal separation of 
twenty (20) feet or more is provided wood columns and arches 
conforming to heavy timber sizes may be used externally. 

217.2. Type 3-B. — Structures of type 3-B (ordinary protected) 
shall include all exterior masonry wall buildings in which the 
interior structural elements are wholly or partly of fire-protected 
wood of not less than two (2) inch nominal thickness, or of 
other approved protected combustible materials, or of metal 
protected and insulated to afford three-quarter (3/4) hour fire- 
resistance where specified in section 221.1 table 2-1. 

217.3. Type 3-C. — Structures of type 3-C (ordinary unprotected) 
construction shall include all exterior masonry wall buildings in 
which the interior structural members are of wood of not less 
than two (2) inch nominal thickness or consist of other com- 
bustible or noncombustible materials with protection of less 
than three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresistance rating. 



217-220 
SECTION 218.0. TYPE 4 — FRAME CONSTRUCTION 

Buildings and structures of frame construction are those in which 
the exterior walls, bearing walls, partitions, floor and roof 
construction are constructed wholly or partly of wood stud 
and joist assemblies with a minimum nominal dimension of 
two (2) inches, or of other approved combustible materials; 
with firestopping at all vertical and horizontal draft openings 
as regulated in section 877, and in which the structural elements 
have the required fireresistance ratings specified in section 221.1 
table 2-1. Frame buildings shall be further classified as types 
4-A and 4-B in which the exterior walls, bearing walls, floors, 
roofs, and interior framing are generally of wood or other 
combustible materials having the required fireresistance ratings 
or having no fireresistance ratings respectively. 

SECTION 219.0. SUBDIVISION OF ATTIC SPACES 

The attic spaces of all buildings, except where the roof and 
attic are of noncombustible or fireproof construction, shall be 
subdivided in accordance with the applicable requirements of 
section 921.0 by means of approved fire stops. When doors or 
other openings are provided in such subdividing partitions, they 
shall be of noncombustible or similarly protected materials and 
the construction shall be tightly fitted around all ducts or other 
assemblies piercing such partitions. 

SECTION 220.0. TEMPORARY STRUCTURES 

Pursuant to a variance granted by the board of appeals under 
the provisions of Part I section 117, the building official may 
issue a permit for temporary construction as approved by the 
board of appeals. Such permits shall be limited as to time of 
service, but in no case shall such temporary construction be 
permitted for more than one (1) year. 

220.1. Special Approval. — All temporary construction shall con- 
form to structural strength, fire safety, means of egress facilities, 
light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of this code necessary 
to insure the public health, safety and general welfare. 

220.2. Termination of Approval. — The building official is here- 
by authorized to terminate such special approval and to order 
the demolition of any such construction at his discretion, or 
as directed by the decision of the board of appeals. 



SECTION 221.0. FIRE RESISTANCE RATING AND 
GENERAL HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS 









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221 

Notes on Table 2-1 

1. The fire separation or fire exposure in feet as herein limited applies to the 
distance from other buildings on the site, or from an interior lot line or 
from the opposite side of a street or other public space not less than thirty 
(30) feet wide to the building wall. (See Definitions, section 201.0.) 

2. Protected exteriors shall be required within the fire limits in type 2 con- 
struction as follows: high hazard occupancies, two (2) hour fire resistance 
with fire separation up to eleven (11) feet. 

3. Party walls in type 4 buildings shall be as follows: one- and two-family 
dwellings, three-quarter (3 4) hour fireresistance. (See section 907.3) Other 
occupancies two (2) hours, but not less than the fire grading of the occu- 
pancy group. (See section 902.4 table 9-2.) 

4. In all buildings in which the roof framing may be unprotected, roof slabs 
and decking may be noncombustible without fireresistance rating except 
that in buildings not more than five (5) stories in height, roof decking may 
be of mill type construction or of any other materials providing equivalent 
fireresistant and structural properties. (See sections 217 and 915.) 

5. In Type 3A construction members which are of material other than heavy 
timber shall have a fireresistance rating of not less than three-quarter (3/4) 
hours. 

6. Fire retardant treated wood, complying with section 903.7.2 may be used 
as provided in section 903.8. 



221 

Notes on Table 2-2 

1. Church auditoriums of type 3-A construction may be erected to sixty-five 
(65) feet in height and of type 4 construction to forty-five (45) feet in height. 

2. For exceptions to height and area limitations of high hazard use buildings, 
see article 4 governing the specific use. For other special fireresistive re- 
quirements governing specific uses, see section 905. 

3. In multi-story buildings, the limiting areas specified in section 221.2 table 
2-2 shall be reduced as regulated by section 307.2. 

4. For exception to area limitations for one-story school buildings of type 2, 
3A and 3B construction, see section 309.1.1. 

5. For accessory high hazard spaces within these occupancies refer to section 
403.3 for sprinkler requirements. 

6. Refer to section 415.6 for public garage sprinkler requirements. 

7. Refer to sections 308 and 310 for sprinkler requirements. 



RS2 



67 


not applicable 


38 


F-3 


52 


F-5 





B-2 


49 


E 



RS 2-1 Occupancy Classifications for Building and Zoning 
Codes 

Zoning Code Building Code 

Use Item Occupancy Group 

Advertising displavs manufacture 

including billboards 68 D-2 

Airport or other aircraft landing or 

service facility (See also: Helicopter 

rooftop landing facility) 
Amusement park, indoor 

Outdoor 

Animal 

Crematorium 

Hospital, kennel, pound 

Accessory enclosure for horses, 

cows, or similar animals other 

than pigs 75 B-l 

Accessory enclosure for poultry, 

pigeons, rabbits or bees 76 — 

Accessory enclosure for animals 

incidental to laboratory use 77 — 

Apartments (see Residences) 

Appliances 
Manufacture 
Sales 

Arenas 

Asphalt 

Processing and products manufacture 70 A 

Athletic equipment 

Manufacture 68 D-l 

Sales 34 C 

Auditoriums See Section 418.0 

Commercial 38 F-la with scenery, F-lb no scenery 

Community centers 29 F-la or F-lb 

(see also Colleges &. universities; 
Schools) 
Automobiles & other motor vehicles 

Gasoline Service Station 

Rental agency outdoors 

Rental agency within a building 

Repair 

Repair incidental to auto sales 
with limitations 

Sales, outdoor 

Sales within a building 

Wrecking 

(see also Parking garages; Parking 
lots) 

Washing 60 



68 


D-l 


34 or 35 


C 


54 


F-lb indoor 




F-5 outdoor 



60 


E, 


Section 416.0 


51 




— 


61 




E 


60 


D- 


1, Section 417.0 


82 




D-l 


51 




— 


36 




C 


57 




D-2 



Awnings manufacture 

Baked goods shop 

Bakeries 

Banks 

Banquet halls 

Barber shops 

in hotels, etc. 
Beauty shops 
Beverages 

bottling 

manufacture 
alcoholic 
less than 0.5% alcohol @ 60° 

Bicycle 

manufacture 

rental or repair conducted 
within a building 
outdoors 
sales 
Billiard parlor 
Blacksmith shops 
Blueprinting, etc., establishments 

Boarding house 
Boats or ships 
building or repair of boats less 
than one hundred feet long 
building or repair or boats more 
than one hundred feet long 
Bone distillation 
Bowling alleys 

Broom or brush manufacture 

Building materials 

outdoor storage of new materials 
outdoor storage of used materials 
wholesale business in roofed 
structures 

Bus terminals or stations 

yard for storing buses 
Business schools or colleges 
Camera & other photo equipment 

manufacture except film 

sales 

Canvas or canvas products 

manufacture or repair 
Carpet & rug 

cleaning establishments 

manufacture or repair 
Catering for outside consumption 



Zoning Code 
Use Item 


Building Code 
Occupancy Group 


68 


D-l 


34 
68 
41 

38 


C 

D-l 

E 

F-2, Section 419 


43 
78 
43 


E 

L-2 

E 



69 

70 
38 



55 

57 

54 
62 

64 
18 



34 or 35 



45 



D-2 



70 


D-l 


68 


D-2 


68 


D-2 


61 


E 


51 


— 


34 


C 


38 


F-3, Section 419 


70 


D-l 


46 


D-2 


10 


L-l 



46 



D-l 

D-l 
D-l 
F-3, Section 419.0 
D-l 

B-l or B-2 no sales, C sales 
B-l or B-2 no sales, C sales 

C, B-l or B-2 storage 

D-l (bus area) 

F-3 (passenger area), 



D-2 
C 

D-l 

A or D-l depending on nature 
of materials involved 
D-l 

D-2 



RS2-1 



Cemeteries 

crematory in cemetery 
extension of existing cemetery 
mausoleum, crypt, columbarium 
mortuary chapel in cemetery 

Ceramic products manufacture 
including pottery, small glazed 
tile, & similar items 

Charcoal, fuel, briquettes, or 
lampblack manufacture 

Chemicals 
packaging 

manufacture 

Churches or other places of worship 
Circuses, temporary 
Cleaning (see Drycleaning & Dyeing; 
Laundries; Automobiles — washing) 
Clothing 



Zoning Code 


Building Code 


Use Item 


Occupancy Group 


26c 


B-2 


26a 


— 


26d 


B-2 


26b 


F-4, Section 419.0 


68 


D-2 


70 


D-l 



70 



21 



A, D-l, or D-2 depending on natu 

of materials involved 
A, D-l, or D-2 depending on natu 

of materials involved 
F-4, Section 419 
F-la, Section 418 



manufacturing 




68 


A or 


D-l depending on nature 








of materials involved 


rental establishment 




— 


E 




retail sales 


34 


or 35 


C 




tailoring, custom manufacture or 










repair 




44 


C 




(see also Feathers; Felt; Fur; 










Leather) 










Clubs 










private 




30 


E w 


thout residence 


nightclubs (see eating & drinking 










establishments) 










Coal, coke or tar products. 










manufacture 




70 




A 


Colleges & universities 










classroom buildings 




16 




G 


dormitories 


11 


,12,13 


L-2 depending on lot 


fraternities or sororities 




14 




L-2 


accessory use with limitations 




79 




— 


Community centers 




29 


F-3, 


see Section 419 


Convalescent homes (see nursing homes) 








Convents 




21 




L-3 


Cosmetics or toiletries manufacture 




68 




D-l 


Cotton ginning 




68 




A 


Cotton wadding or linters manufacture 




68 




A 


Courthouses 




41 




E 


Crematoriums 










animal 




— 




B-l 


human 




26c 




B-l 


Dance halls 




38 


F-2, 


Section 419 



Zoning Code 


Bui 


Iding 


Use Item 


Occupancj 


) 

35 




C 


11,12,13 




L-: 


44 




D-l 


50 




D-2 


52 




F-5 


34 




C 



Dental offices (see Medical &. dental) 

Department stores 

Dormitories 

Dressmaking shops, custom 

Drinking places (see eating & 

drinking establishments) 
Drive-in restaurants 

Drive-in theaters 

Drug stores 

Dry cleaning & dyeing 

establishment 45 A. D-l or D-2 depending on soil 

used, see Section 413 

pick up & delivery station 43 C 

shop 44 C sales. A, D-l, or D-2 work an 

Dwellings (see residences) 

Eating or drinking places 

lunchrooms, restaurants, cafeterias, 

etc. primarily enclosed 

drive-in 

with entertainment or dancing 

accessory to hotel, etc. primarily 

for occupants 78 F-2. Section 419 

Electric 

power or steam generating plants 

substation 
Electrical appliances, bulbs, wiring 
supplies, etc. 

manufacture 

sales 

Electronic components &. supplies 

manufacture or repair 68 D-2 

Feathers 

curing, dyeing, washing or bulk 



37 


F-2, Section 419 


50 


D-2 


38 


F-2, Section 419 



69 


D-l 


31 


D-2 


68 


D-2 


34 or 35 


C 



processing 


70 


A 


manufacturing exclusive of above 


68 


A 


Felt 

curing, dyeing, washing or bulk 






processing 


70 


D-l 


products manufacture, exclusive 






of above 


68 


D-l 


Fertilizers, manufacture 


70 


D-l 


Film, photographic manufacture 


69 


D-l 


Storage and Studios 


— 


A. Section 409 


Fire station 






garage 


33 




dormitory 






Fish processing 


69 


D-l 


Florist shops 


34.35 or 51 


C 



RS 2-1 

Zoning Code Building Code 

Use Item Occupane> Group 



hood 

product processing except meat 

& fish 68 D- 

retail sales 34 or 35 C 

Fraternities or sororities 
(see Colleges & universities) 

Funeral establishments 

Fur 

curing, dyeing, finishing, tanning 

products manufacture exclusi\e of 
above 
Garage (see parking Garage) 
Garbage incineration or reduction 
Garden supplies, produce or flowers 

Outdoor sales 

Gas 

Manufacture 

Two thousand cu. ft. a day or less 

More than two thousand cu. ft. a 
day 

Public utility stations for 
metering or regulating 
Storage 

Ten thousand cu. ft. or less 

More than ten thousand cu. ft. 

Incidental to a lawful use 

Gasoline sen ice stations 
(see Automobiles) 

Gelatin manufacture 

Generating plants, electric or steam 

Gift shops 

Glass products from previously 

manufactured 
Glue manufacture 
Golf 

Indoor courses or dri%ing ranges 

Outdoor courses or dri\ing ranges 
Gvmnasiums 
Gypsum manufacture 
Grain storage 

Hair 

Curing, dyeing, washing, bulk 

processing 
Product manufacture exclusive of 
above 
Hardware 
Manufacture 
Retail sales 

Hat bodies manufacture 



47 








F-3 


70 








A 


68 








D-2 


70 








D-l 


50 








C 


68 








D-l 


70 






A 


or D-l 


31 








D-l 


56 or 


58 


A 


more the 


5" or 


70 






A 


- 








— 



70 




D-l 


69 




D-l 


or 35 




C 


- 




D-: 


70 




D-l 


38 


F-3. 


Section 419 


52 






— 


F-3 


Section 419 


70 




D-2 


54 


A S 


action 41 1 



7 


D-: 


68 


D-: 


69 
34 or 35 


D-: 
c 


68 


D-l 



Helicopter landing facility, rooftop 



Zoning Code 
Use Item 

66 



Home occupations 
Homes for the aged 
Hosiery manufacture 
Hospitals 

Including convalescent, nursing or 
rest homes, and sanitoriums 
provided custodial care is not 
provided for drug addicts, 
alcoholics, or mentally ill or 
mentally deficient 
For care of drug addicts, mentally 

ill or mentally deficient 
Research or teaching laboratories 
Limited accessory uses 
(see also Animals — Hospitals) 
Hotels 

Apartment 
Transient 

Ice manufacture (dry or natural) 
Ice skating rinks 

Incineration or reduction of garbage, 
offal, or dead animals 

Industrial uses (see specific items) 
Without resulting noise, vibration, 

special danger, hazard, dust, 

smoke, fumes etc. 
Other than above 

Ink or inked ribbon manufacture 
Kennels (see Animals) 
Jewelry 

Costume, manufacture by metal 
stamping or extrusion 

Junk, outdoor storage 

Laboratories 

Research laboratory not accessory 

to school or hospital 
Scientific research or teaching 

laboratory, non-profit, accessory 

to school or hospital subject 

to limitations 
Animal quarters incidental to 

educational or institutional use 

Laundries 
Hand laundry 

Self service; Pick up & delivery 
station of laundry or dry cleaner 



74 



or 69 

70 



58 
48 

24 

77 

44 
43 



Building Code 
Occupancy Group 

D-l, structural, egress, & 
fire protection provisions 
rel. to building roofs 
(Section 415.1.4) 

E 

L-2 

D-l 



H-2 



23 


H-l 


24 


D-2 


79 


— 


15 


L-2 


15 


L-l 


68 


D-2 


38 


F-3, Section 419 


70 


D-l 



D-2 

A or D-l depending on natun 
of materials involved 
D-l 



D-2 

not applicable 

D-2 
D-2 

E 

E 



70 




A or D-l 


68 




D-l 


20 




F-4 see Section 419 


70 




A 


34 or 


35 


C 


68 




D-l 



RS2-1 

Zoning Code Building Code 

Use Item Occupancy Group 

Steam laundry, laundries without 

limitations 45 D-2 

Leather 
Curing, dyeing, finishing or 

tanning 
Product manufacture exclusive of 
above 
Libraries, non profit 
Linoleum or oilcloth manufacture 
Liquor sales, package 
Luggage manufacture 

Lumber (see Wood) 
Manufacturing 

Depending upon product, processes, 

and resulting effects 68,69 or 70 A, D-l or D-2 

Manufacturing, assembly or 
packaging of products sold on 

the lot 81 — 

Matches manufacture 70 A 

Mattresses manufacture and 

renovation 68 A 

Meat 

Markets 34 or 35 C 

Poultry or rabbit slaughtering 

or packaging 68 D-l 

Slaughtering or packaging 70 D-l 

Medical & dental 

Offices not accessory to main 

use 
(see also Laboratories; Orthopedic 
and medical appliances; Hospitals) 
Meeting halls F-lb, see Section 418 

Metals manufacture 

Furniture, cabinets, doors, 
fencing and like 

Products made by stamping or 
extrusion 

Reduction, refining or smelting 
Mobile homes 
Monasteries 
Motels 
Motor freight stations 

(see trucking terminals) 

Museums 

Nonprofit 20 F-3, Section 419 

Musical instruments manufacture 

Excluding pianos & organs 68 D-2 

Including pianos & organs 68 D-l 

Newspaper publishing 68 D-l 

News stands 34 C 

Novelty products manufacture 68 D-l 



39 



68 


D-l 


or D-2 


68 




D-2 


70 




D-2 


— 


L-3. 


, see Section 425 


21 




L-3 


15 


L-l. 


, see Section 426 



Zoning Code 


Use Item 


Nursing homes 


22 


Offices 




Building 


41 


Agency, real estate, insurance, etc. 


40 


Professional (accountant, architect, 




attorney, dentist, physician, etc.) 




or clinic not accessory to a main 




use 


39 


Wholesale office, display or sales 




space 


42 


Oilcloth manufacture 


70 


Optical equipment or similar 




precision instruments manufacture 


68 


Orphanages 


22 


Orthopedic or medical appliances 




manufacture 


68 


Paint, turpentine or varnish 




Manufacture 


70 


Spraying booths 




Paper products manufacture 


68 


Parish houses 


29 


Park, public 


27 


Parking garages 




Group 1 (for buses, trucks etc.) 


59 


Group 2 (cars) 


59 


Private 


72 


Accessory for use of occupants. 




employees, customers, students, 




or visitors 


72 


Parking lots 


58 


Petroleum or petroleum products 




Refining 


70 


Storage 




Fifteen thousand gallons or less 


56 


More than fifteen thousand gallons 


57 


Pharmaceutical products manufacture 


68 


Photographers studio 


46 


Plastics 




Products manufacture 


68 


Raw, manufacture 


70 


Playgrounds 


27 


Police Stations 




Cells 


3.3 


Offices 


33 


Pool rooms 


38 


Post offices 


41 


Poultry or rabbit slaughtering 


68 



Building Code 
Occupancy Group 

H-2 

E 
E 



E if storage restricted to samp 
A 

D-2 
L-2 

D-1 



see Section 412 

D-1 
F-3, Section 419 
not applicable 

B-l, Section 415 

B-2, Section 415, open Sectiorj 

B-2, Section 414 



see Section 424 



A or B-l 
A 

A or D-1 depending on nature 
of materials involved 



A, 


see Section 408 


A, 


see Section 408 




F-5 






H-l 






E 




F-3 


, Section 
E 
D-1 


419 



RS 2-1 

Zoning Code Building Code 

Use Item Occupancy Group 

Printing 

Plant 46 D-l 

Printing or newspaper publishing 68 D-l 

Prisons & other correctional or 

detention institutions 25 H-l 

Pumping station or substation, 

water or sewage 3 1 D-2 

Radio 

Sales 34 or 35 C 

Studios with audience 48 F-la (scenery) F-lb (no scenery) 

Studios without audience 48 E 

Railroad 

Freight terminal 64 B-l 

Passenger station 63 F-3 

Recreation 

Center, indoor, public 27 F-3 Section 418 

Center 1 , outdoor, public 27 F-5 

Center for profit (e.g. skating 
rink, bowling alley, billiard 

parlor) 38 F-3 Section 418 

Community center building 29 F-3 Section 418 

Private grounds, non profit 28 — 

Rectories 21 L-3 

Residences 

One-family detached 1 L-3 

One-family each side of party wall 

semi-detached 2 L-3 

Attached row house, one family 

between party walls 3 L-3 

Two-family detached 4 L-3 

Semi-detached, not more than two 

families each side of party wall 5 L-3 

Attached row house, not more than 

two families each side of partv 

wall 6 L-3 

Apartment, apartment hotel (without 

accessory uses) 
Temporary dwelling structure 
Dwelling converted for more 

families 
Boarding or lodging house 
Dormitory accessory to school or 

university depending upon lot 
Fraternity or sorority 
Hotel, motel, apartment hotel with 

accessory services 15 L-2 

Accessory use in buildings with more 

than fifty dwelling units or hotels 

with more than fifty sleeping rooms 

(e.g. newsstand, barbershop, 

dining room, etc. with limitations) 78 L-2 

Convents, monasteries, rectories 21 L-3 



7 




L-2 


9 




L-3 


8 




L-2 or L-3 


10 




L-l 


11,12, 


13 


L-2 


14 




L-2 



Zoning Code Building Code 

Use Item Occupancy Group 



Accessory dwelling for personnel 
required to reside on lot for 
proper operation of main use 83 

Mobile homes — 

Research laboratories (see Laboratories) 
Restaurant, lunch room, cafeteria or 
other establishment primarily 
for eating 37 

Retail business 

Department store, furniture store, 

general merchandise mart or other 

store serving needs of major 

portion of city, with limited 

combustible or flammable goods 35 

Shop or store primarily serving 

local neighborhood, with limited 

combustible or flammable goods 34 

Stores with combustible or flammable 

goods constituting a high hazard 34 or 35 

Rubber 

Manufacture (natural or synthetic), 
including tires, tubes or 
similar products 70 

Products (exclusive of processing) 
including washers, gloves, 
footwear, bathing caps and like 68 

Salvage storage, outdoor 57 

Sanatoriums 

Not providing custodial care for 
drug addicts, alcoholics or 
mentally ill or mentally 
deficient 
Providing care for above 

Scenery construction 
Schools 

Adult education center 
Elementary or secondary 
Day nursery, nursery school, 

kindergarten 
Machine shop or other noisy 

activity accessory to school, 

college, etc. 
Trade or professional 
Accessory uses subject to 

limitations 
(see also Colleges & universities) 

Seminaries 16. 

Settlement houses 

Sewage 

Disposal plant 

Pumping station 



17 



19 

18 

79 

11-13 
29 

70 
31 



L-3 
L-3, Section 425 



F-2, Section 419 



C 

C and A 

D-l 

D-l 
not applicable 



22 


H-2 


23 


H-l 


68 


D-l 


29 


G 


16 


G 



D-2 and G 
G 



G, L-2 



L-2 

D-l 
D-2 



RS 2-1 



Ship or boat building or repair 
Boats under one hundred feet long 
Boats over one hundred feet long 

Shoddy manufacture 

Shoes 

Manufacture 
Repair shop 

Silverware, manufacture, plate or 
sterling 

Size manufacture 

Skating rinks 

Soaps & detergents 

Manufacturing, including fat 

rendering 
Packaging 

Solvent extracting 
Sporting or athletic goods 

Manufacture 

Stores, depending on area served 

Stables, accessory use subject to 

limitations 

(see also: Animals) 
Stadiums 
Statuary, mannequins, figurines or 

religious or church art goods, 

exclusive of foundry operations 

Storage 

Outdoors, new building materials, 

equipment, etc. 
Outdoors, second-hand building 

materials, junk, salvage items 
Outdoors or in silos or hoppers of 

coal, coke or other solid fuel, 

or crushed stone, sand, etc. 
Warehouses 

Wholesale business including 
accessory storage other than 
flammable liquids, gases and 
explosives, in roofed structures 
(see also: Wholesale) 

Gases, fifteen thousand gallons or 
less of flammable liquids or 
ten thousand cu. ft. or less of 
gases. 

Gases, more than fifteen thousand 
gallons of flammable liquids, or 
more than ten thousand cu. ft. of 
gases. 

Stores (see: Retail stores; or 
specific items) 



Zoning Code 
Use Item 


Building Code 
Occupancy Group 


; 68 
69 
68 




D-l 
D-l 
A 


68 
43 




D-l 
D-l 


68 
68 




D-2 
D-l 


38 


F-3, 


Section 419 


70 
68 




A 
D-l 


70 




A 


68 
34 or 35 




D-l 
C 


75 




B-l 


52 


F-5, 


Section 421 



68 

55 

57 



56 
56 



54 



56 or 



57 or 70 



D-2 



B-l or B-2 

A, B-l or B-2 depending on nature 
of materials involved 



B-l or B-2 depending on nature 
of materials involved 



A, Section 407 



A, Section 407 



Zoning Code 
Use Item 

44 



46 

31 

32 



Tailor shops, custom 
Tanning (see Leather; Fur) 

Taxidermist shops 

Telephone exchanges 

automatic 

Non automatic 
Television 

Sales 34 or 35 

Studios 48 



Textiles 

Manufacture, including knit goods, 
yard goods, thread or cordage; 
spinning, weaving, dyeing and 
printing 
Shoddy, manufacture 
Theaters 



Tires, manufacture 

Tobacco products manufacture 

including curing 68 

Tools and hardware 

Manufacture 68 

Sales 34 or 35 

Toys 

Manufacture 68 

Trailer park 54 

(see also Mobile homes) 

Truck 

Repairs 60 

Sales, outdoor 51 

Sales, indoor 36 

Trucking terminals & yards or motor 

freight yards 64 

Turpentine manufacture 70 

Warehouses 56 

Waterfreight facilities, including 

docks, piers, accessories 65 

Water pumping stations 31 

Wax products manufacture 68 

Wholesale 

Office, display or sales space 42 

Storage, other than flammable 
liquids or gases and explosives, 
in roofed structures 54 

Storage of coal, coke or other 
solid fuel, crushed stone, sand 



Building Code 
Occupancy Group 

E 



F-la with scenery, Section 41i 
F-lb no scenery. Section 418 
E no audience 



68 


D-l 


68 


A 


38 


F-la with scenery, Section 418 




F-lb no scenery 




motion picture, see Section 405 


70 


D-l 



D-l 

D-2 
C 

D-l 



D-2 

C 

C 

B-l 

A 



A, B-l or B-2 depending on m 
of materials involved 



D-2 

A 

E storage restricted to samples 



B-l or B-2 depending on natur 
of materials involved 



or similar materials, gases, 
flammable liquids 



Zoning Code 
Use Item 

56 or 57 



Building Code 
Occupancy Group 



RS2-1 



Storage outdoors of new building 

materials, metals or like 
Window shades manufacture 

Wood 

Distillation 
Products manufacture, including 
furniture, boxes, crates, 
barrels, baskets, pencils and 
the like 
Pulp or fiber reduction or 

processing, including paper mill 

operation 
Sales, retail 
Sawmills 
Storage outdoors of new building 

materials 
Storage outdoors of second hand 

building materials 
Wool scouring or pulling 

Umbrellas, manufacture 
Upholstering 

Vehicles 

Manufacture, children's 

including baby carriages, scooters, 
wagons, bicycles and like 
(see also Automobiles; Parking; Trucks) 
Venetian blinds, window shades & 
awnings, manufacture 68 



55 



70 



68 



OS 



A, B-l or B-2 depending on nature 
of materials involved 



D-l 



D-l 



D-l 



D-l 

C 

D-l 



D-l 
D-l 
D-l 



D-l 



A or D-l depending on nature 
of materials involved 



ARTICLE 



3 



GENERAL BUILDING LIMITATIONS 



300.0 


Scope 


309.0 


301.0 


Fire District Subdivisions 


310.0 


302.0 


General Fire Zone Provisions 


311.0 


303.0 


Restrictions of First Fire 
Zone 


312.0 


304.0 


Restrictions of Second Fire 
Zone 


313.0 


305.0 


Restrictions Outside Fire 
Zones 


314.0 


306.0 


Existing Buildings 


315.0 


307.0 


General Area and Height 
Limitations 


316.0 


308.0 


Area Exceptions 


RS 3 



Unlimited Areas 

Height Exceptions 

Street Encroachments 

Permissible Projections Be- 
yond Street lines 

Permissible Yard and Court 
Encroachments 

Special and Temporary Pro- 
jections 

Awnings and Canopies 

Accessibility to Fire Fighting 

Reference Standards 



SECTION 300.0. SCOPE 

The provisions of this article shall control the division of the 
City of Boston into fire districts and the general limitations of 
height and area of all buildings hereafter erected, and extensions 
to existing buildings hereafter altered or enlarged as affected by 
the fire and life hazard incident to type of construction, occu- 
pancy group, density of development, exterior exposure and 
accessibility of buildings and structures to firefighting facilities 
and equipment. 

300.1. Standards. — The provision of reference standard RS 3 
shall be part of this article. 

300.2. Definitions. — For definitions to be used in the interpreta- 
tion of this article, see section 201. 

SECTION 301.0. FIRE DISTRICT SUBDIVISIONS 



For the purpose of control of occupancy and construction of 
building and structures, there shall be established in the City of 
Boston limiting districts designated the first fire zone, the second 
fire zone and outside the fire zones. 

301.1. First Fire Zone. — The boundaries of the first fire zone 
shall be those described in reference standard RS 3-1. 

301.2. Second Fire Zone. — The boundaries of the second fire 
zone shall be those described in reference standard RS 3-2. 



301.3. Outside Fire Zones. — All other areas not included in 
First and Second Fire Zones. 

SECTION 302.0. GENERAL FIRE ZONE PROVISIONS 

302.1. Changes in Zones. — The city council of the City of Boston 
may by ordinance from time to time extend either fire zone and 
re-establish its boundaries. 

302.2. Overlapping Zones. — A building or structure located in 
more than one (1) fire zone shall be deemed to be in that one 
of the zones which contain the major part of the building area; 
and in the event of equal distribution in two (2) or more zones, 
the limitations of the most restricted zone shall apply. 

302.3. Limitations. 

302.3.1. No buildings in those combinations of construction 
classes and occupancy groups prohibited by section 221.2 table 
2-2, shall neither be erected inside the first and second fire zones 
nor shall be moved from outside to inside the fire zones nor 
from one lot to another inside the fire zones. 

302.3.2. High Hazard Occupancies. — Except as specifically ap- 
proved by the building official, all buildings of high hazard use 
(occupancy group A) shall be prohibited from location in the 
first fire zone. Paint spray, drying rooms and rooms for similar 
incidental uses not exceeding one thousand (1000) square feet in 
area in industrial buildings shall be permitted when enclosed in 
fireresistive construction as specified in article 4 for special uses 
and occupancies and when separated by fire divisions of the 
required fireresistance specified in this code. 

302.3.3. Protected Exteriors. — Within the fire zones, all buildings 
of type 2 construction shall have those exterior walls, which are 
located within eleven (11) feet of interior lot lines or other 
buildings on the same lot constructed of not less than two (2) 
hour fireresistance for occupancy group A nor less than three- 
quarter (3/4) hour fireresistance for all other occupancies. 

302.3.4. No building inside the fire zones may be increased in 
area or height to exceed the limitations of section 221.2, table 
2-2. 

302.4. Deleted. 

302.5. Frame Construction. — No building of frame construction 
(type 4) shall be erected within the fire districts nor shall such 
building or structure be moved from without to within, or from 
one (1) lot to another within the fire districts, except as provided 



301-303 

in sections 303 and 304; and no building of otherwise lawful 
construction shall be extended in height or area within the fire 
districts by frame construction; except that one- and two-family 
frame dwellings may be extended in area by not more than three 
hundred (300) square feet and to a height of not more than two 
and one-half (2-1/2) stories nor more than thirty-five (35) feet 
when permitted by the building official. 

302.6. Roof Coverings. — All roof coverings shall be constructed 
of Class A, Class B or Class C roofings, complying with the 
provisions of article 9. 

SECTION 303.0. RESTRICTIONS OF FIRST FIRE ZONE 

303.1. General. — All buildings and structures, and all additions 
to existing buildings and structures, hereafter erected within the 
boundaries of First Fire Zone shall be of fireproof (type 1), 
protected noncombustible (type 2-A and 2-B), heavy timber 
(type 3-A), or ordinary protected (type 3-B) construction as 
defined in article 2 and regulated in section 221.1, table 2-1; 
and shall be constructed within the height and area limitations 

-of section 221.2, table 2-2; except as herein provided. 
Open parking structures may be constructed as permitted under 
section 905.2. 

303.2. Exemptions. 

303.2.1. Fences. — Fences not over six (6) feet high may be 
erected of wood or other combustible material. 

303.2.2. Storm Enclosures, Bay Windows, Etc. — Storm en- 
closures may be erected of frame construction not more than 
ten (10) feet in height and not more than three (3) feet wider 
than the entrance doors which they serve; provided they do not 
project more than six (6) feet beyond the building line. 

Bay windows and similar appendages may be constructed of 
combustible materials in accordance with the provisions of 
section 926.3.2. 

303.2.3. Accessory Buildings. 

a. Outbuildings and Parking Lot Offices. — Outbuildings and 
parking lot offices not more than ten (10) feet in height 
and one hundred (100) square feet in area may be erected 
of frame (type 4) construction when accessory to one- 
or two-family dwellings on the same lot or accessory to 
a lot approved for motor vehicle parking, when located 
not less than six (6) feet from the lot line or any building. 



b. Greenhouses. — Greenhouses may be constructed of com- 
bustible materials when accessory to a one- or two-family, 
dwelling on the same lot and when located at least 6 ft. 
from any lot line or building. 

c. Private Garages. — Private garages not more than one 
(1) story nor more than fifteen (15) feet in height when 
accessory to a one- or two-family dwelling may be 
erected of protected frame (type 4- A) construction not 
more than seven hundred and fifty (750) square feet in 
area, or of frame (type 4-B) construction not more than 
five hundred (500) square feet in area, when located not 
less than six (6) feet from interior lot lines or any 
building. 

303.2.4. Temporary Structures. — Temporary structures to be 
used in connection with construction work and temporary 
reviewing stands, frame-works and tents, as are customarily 
used exclusively for outdoor carnivals, lawn parties or like 
activities, may be erected in either fire zone and of any type of 
construction, subject to the approval of the building official, 
and to such conditions and for such time as he may in each 
case specify. 

303.2.5. Bins, Tanks and Towers. — Coal and material bins, 
water towers, tank structures, and trestles may be constructed of 
wood planking and timbers of dimensions not less than as 
required for type 3A construction when not over thirty-five (35) 
feet high and having an exterior separation of at least thirty 
(30) feet. 

303.2.6. Bulk Storage Buildings and Buildings on Wharves. — 
Buildings not over twenty-seven (27) feet high on wharves and 
buildings for the storage and handling of coal or grain in bulk 
of type 2C, 4A or 4B construction if the exterior thereof is 
covered with slate, tin, sheet metal or other equally fireresistive 
construction, erected with the approval of the building official 
and subject to such conditions as he may in each case specify. 

303.2.7. Motor Fuel Service Stations. — Gasoline service stations, 
and structures of similar business uses, not including high hazard 
uses, may be erected of unprotected noncombustible (type 2-C) 
construction within the height and area limits of occupancy group 
E of section 221.2, table 2-2 provided they are located not less 
than eleven (11) feet from the lot line or any building. 

303.2.8. Bus and Passenger Terminals. — Roofs over parking lots, 
bus and passenger terminals may be erected one (1) story and 



303-304 

not over twenty (20) feet in height and not more than eleven 
thousand (11,000) square feet in area of noncombustible (type 
2-C) construction or of heavy timber mill (type 3-A) construction. 

303.2.9. Signs. — Ground signs, wall signs, roof signs, and 
temporary signs may be constructed of combustible materials 
within the limitations established in article 14. 

303.2.10. Store Fronts. — Wood veneers of one (1) inch nominal 
thickness or exterior grade plywood not less than three-eighths 
(3/8) inch thick or exterior grade particle board not less than 
three-eighths (3/8) inch thick may be used on store fronts when 
facing public streets; provided the veneer does not exceed one 
(1) story in height and is applied to noncombustible backing or 
is furred not to exceed one and five eighths (1-5/8) inches and 
is firestopped in accordance with sections 877 and 921.2. 

SECTION 304.0. RESTRICTIONS OF SECOND FIRE ZONE 

304.1. General. — All buildings and structures hereafter erected 
within the boundaries of Second Fire Zone shall be fireproof 
(type 1), noncombustible (type 2), heavy timber (type 3-A) or 
ordinary protected (type 3-B) construction as defined in article 2 
and regulated by section 221.1 table 2-1, and shall be constructed 
within the height and area limitations of section 221.2 table 2-2; 
except that all the variations permitted in the First Fire Zone 
shall apply to permissible construction in the Second Fire Zone 
with the following additional exceptions: 

304.2. Exceptions. 

304.2.1. Dwellings. — One- and two-family dwellings (occupancy 
group L-3) may be erected or enlarged of protected frame 
(type 4- A) construction when not less than three (3) feet from 
interior lot lines and of unprotected frame (type 4B) construction 
when not less than six (6) feet from interior lot lines within the 
height and area limitations of section 221.2 table 2-2 and where 
the area of each does not exceed sixty (60) per cent of the area 
of the lot on which it is located. The roof of said buildings 
shall have roof covering of class a, b or c roofings complying 
with the provisions of article 9. 

304.2.2. Garages. — Buildings of type 2-C construction may 
be erected or enlarged for use as garages in the second fire 
zone providing they are equipped with fire windows and are 
not within two (2) feet of a lot line or within five (5) feet of a 
building of type 4-B construction and the height does not exceed 



one (1) story and the area six hundred (600) square feet and 
the capacity two (2) cars. 

304.2.3. Type 2-C Construction. — Buildings of Type 2-C con-' 
struction for other occupancies may be erected providing the 
location and the occupancy are approved by the building official. 

304.2.4. Boat Houses. — Boat houses not more than two (2) 
stories nor more than thirty (30) feet in height nor more than 
four thousand (4000) square feet in area may be erected of 
frame (type 4-B) construction subject to the approval of the 
building official. 

304.2.5. Verandas. — Verandas, balconies, entrance porticoes and 
similar appurtenant structures on dwellings, not exceeding ten 
(10) feet in depth nor projecting more than two (2) feet above 
the second story floor beams may be erected of frame (type 4-B) 
construction provided they do not extend nearer than five (5) 
feet to the lot line. When connected to a similar structure of an 
adjoining building, they shall be separated therefrom by walls 
of two (2) hour fireresistance. 

304.2.6. Exterior Trim. — Wood cornices and half timbering 
may be erected on residence (occupancy group L) and business 
(occupancy group C, D, and E) buildings. 

SECTION 305.0. RESTRICTIONS OUTSIDE FIRE ZONES 

Outside the fire zones, all types of construction except as herein 
specifically prohibited, or for which special approval is required 
in connection with high hazard uses and occupancies in article 
4, shall be permitted within the height and area limitations of 
section 221.2, table 2-2. 

305.1. Lot Line Separation. — In frame construction an exterior 
wall erected less than six (6) feet from its adjacent lot line shall 
be of three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresistive construction, in- 
cluding opening protectives except store fronts; and window and 
door openings in one (1) and two (2) family dwellings, but in 
no case shall such wall be located less than three (3) feet from 
interior lot lines. 

SECTION 306.0. EXISTING BUILDINGS 

306.1. Alterations. 

306.1.1. Limitations. — Nothing in these provisions shall be 

deemed to prohibit alterations within the limitations of article 



304-307 

1 Part II provided no unlawful change of occupancy is involved. 

306.1.2. Minor Changes. — Changes, alterations or repairs to the 
interior of a building and to the front facing a street or other 
public space may be permitted provided such changes in the 
opinion of the building official do not increase the size, or the 
fire hazard of the building, or endanger the public safety and 
are not specifically prohibited by this code. 

306.1.3. Existing Projections. — No change or enlargement shall 
be made to an existing part of a building now projecting 
beyond the street lot line or building line where such is estab- 
lished by law, except in conformity to the provisions of section 
312 governing new construction. 

306.2. Increase in Height and Area. — It shall be unlawful to 
increase the height or area of an existing building or structure 
unless it is of a type of construction permitted for new buildings 
of the increased height and area and occupancy group within 
the fire district in which it is located and as regulated by section 

221.2, table 2-2. 

306.3. Existing Excessive Area. — Any building heretofore law- 
fully approved which exceeds the maximum allowable area 
specified in section 221.2 table 2-2 may be extended if the 
addition is separated from the existing building by a type A 
fire division meeting the requirements of article 9 and section 

221.1 table 2-1 and the additional area does not exceed the 
limits of section 221.2 table 2-2 for the specific occupancy group 
and type of construction. 

SECTION 307.0. GENERAL AREA AND HEIGHT LIMITA- 
TIONS 

No building or building section shall be constructed or altered 
so as to exceed the area limits and the height limits established 
by section 221.2 table 2-2 based on the occupancy group classi- 
fication of the building or building section, except as these may 
be specifically modified by other provisions of this code, or as 
further restricted by the City of Boston Zoning Code. 

307.1. Area Limit. — The area limitations specified in section 

221.2 table 2-2 shall apply to all buildings fronting on a street 
or public space not less than thirty (30) feet in width accessible 
to a public street. 

307.2. Height Limit. — The height of all buildings and structures 
shall be controlled as follows: 



307.2.1. The height in feet and number of stories specified in 
section 221.2 table 2-2 shall apply to all buildings and to all 
separate parts of a building enclosed within lawful fire walls 
complying with the provisions of article 9. 

307.2.2. Buildings two (2) stories in height when permitted by 
section 221.2 table 2-2 may be built to the same area limits 
provided in section 221.2 table 2-2 for one (1) story buildings. 
In buildings over two (2) stories in height when permitted by 
section 221.2 table 2-2, the area limits of section 221.2 table 2-2 
for one (1) story buildings shall be reduced for each story of 
height over two (2) stories in all occupancy groups as herein 
specified: 

1-1/2 hour protected noncombustible construction 

(Type 2-A) 1/20 

All other types of- construction 

(Types 2-B, 2-C, 3-A, 3-B, 3-C and 4-A) 

3 Story 1/5 

Over 3 Story 1/10 

307.3. Measurement of Height. — In determining the height of 
any part of a building for the purposes of this section, the grade 
of the ground from which the height of the building is measured 
is defined in section 201. 

SECTION 308.0. AREA EXCEPTIONS 

The provisions of this section shall modify the area of limits of 
section 221.2 table 2-2 as herein specified. 

308.1. Street Frontage Increase. — When a building or structure 
has more than twenty-five (25) per cent of the building peri- 
meter fronting on a street or other accessible unoccupied space 
not less than thirty (30) feet in width leading to a street, the 
tabular areas may be increased two (2) per cent for each one 
(1) per cent of such excess frontage. 

308.2. Sprinkler Increase. — When a building of low hazard or 
moderate hazard storage, or mercantile, industrial, business, 
school or assembly (occupancy group F-4) occupancy group is 
equipped with an approved one-source automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem, unless such sprinkler system is required by the provisions 
herein or of article 4 or article 12 for structures of special use 
and occupancy, the tabular areas may be increased by two 
hundred (200) per cent for one (1) story buildings and one 
hundred (100) per cent for buildings more than one (1) story 
in height. 



307-309 
308.2.1. Area Sprinkler Requirements. 

a. A one-source sprinkler system shall be provided on all 
floors of mercantile and industrial buildings (occupancy 
group C and D) which are more than twenty thousand 
(20,000) square feet in area on any floor above or below 
the grade floor when of types 1A, IB or 2A construction 
or more than ten thousand (10,000) square feet when of 
types 2B or 3A construction, or more than seven thou- 
sand five hundred (7,500) square feet when of types 2C, 
3B and 3C construction and more than six thousand 
(6,000) square feet when of type 4A construction. This 
provision shall not apply to buildings of one (1) story 
without basement. 

b. All buildings and structures used for the manufacture, 
sale or storage of combustible materials and products 
(occupancy groups A and Bl) shall be equipped with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system when in excess of 
the heights and areas for each construction type as 
specified in section 310.2.1. 

308.3. Maximum Total Area. — The maximum total area under 
the combined provisions of section 308.1 and 308.2 shall not 
exceed three and one-half (3-1/2) times the tabular area in 
section 221.2 table 2-2. 

SECTION 309.0. UNLIMITED AREAS 

309.1. One-Story Buildings. — In other than frame construction, 
the area of all buildings of assembly (occupancy group F-3), 
business, industrial, mercantile and storage occupancy groups not 
including high hazard uses, which do not exceed one (1) story 
or eighty-five (85) feet in height shall not be limited outside 
the fire limits; provided the exitway facilities comply with 
the provisions of section 604, an automatic sprinkler system is 
provided complying with the provisions of section 1213.1 and 
the building is isolated as specified in section 309.2, except that 
a sprinkler system shall not be required for buildings of type 2 
or type 3A construction used exclusively for storage of non- 
combustible materials not packed or crated in combustible 
materials or as exempt by section 206.3 for special industrial 
uses. 

309.1.1. School Buildings. — Outside the fire zones one-story 
school buildings of type 2, 3A and 3B construction may be 



unlimited in area when a direct exitway to the outside of the 
building is provided from each classroom and the building is 
equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system through- 
out. A fire separation shall be provided on all sides of such 
buildings as specified in section 309.2. 

309.2. Fire Separation Distance. — The minimum fire separation 
distance on all sides of one-story buildings of unlimited area 
shall be determined by the type of construction as herein 
specified: 

Fireproof construction (types 1A and IB) 30 feet 

Noncombustible, 1-1/2 hour protected (type 2A) . . .30 feet 

Noncombustible, 3/4 hour protected (type 2B) 40 feet 

Noncombustible, unprotected (type 2C) 50 feet 

Exterior masonry, heavy timber (type 3A) 40 feet 

Exterior masonry, protected ordinary (type 3B) ... .40 feet 
Exterior masonry, unprotected ordinary (type 3C). . .50 feet 

SECTION 310.0. HEIGHT EXCEPTIONS 

310.1. Roof Structures. — In applying the provision of this code 
governing height limits, the following appurtenant structures 
shall not be included in the height of the building unless the 
aggregate area of such structures including penthouses exceeds 
thirty-three and one-third (33-1/3) per cent of the area of the 
roof of the building upon which they are erected. 

a. Roof tanks and their supports. 

b. Ventilating, air conditioning, and similar building service 
equipment. 

c. Roof structures, bulkheads, and penthouses. 

d. Chimneys. 

e. Parapet walls four (4) feet or less in height. 

f. Flag poles and weather vanes. 

310.2. Automatic Sprinklers. — Except in buildings where auto- 
matic sprinkler equipment is a requirement herein or of article 
4 or article 12 for special uses or occupancies, all structures of 
fireproof (type 1), noncombustible (type 2), and exterior masonry 
wall (type 3) construction designed for business, industrial, 
mercantile, low or moderate hazard storage uses may be erected 
one (1) story or twenty (20) feet higher than specified in section 
221.2 table 2-2 when equipped with an approved one-source 
automatic sprinkler system. 

310.2.1. Sprinkler Height and Area Requirements. — All buildings 



309-311 

and structures used for the manufacture, sale or storage of com- 
bustible materials and products (occupancy groups A and B-l) 
shall be equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system 
when more than three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in height and 
more than ten thousand (10,000) square feet in area of fireproof 
(type 1A or 1-B) construction; when more than three (3) stories 
or forty (40) feet in height and seven thousand five hundred 
(7,500) square feet in area of non-combustible (type 2-A) con- 
struction; when more than two (2) stories or thirty (30) feet 
in height and six thousand (6,000) square feet in area of pro- 
tected noncombustible (type 2-B) or heavy mill (type 3-A) 
construction; when more than one (1) story in height and three 
thousand (3,000) square feet in area of ordinary (type 3-C) or 
protected frame (type 4-A) construction; and in every usable or 
occupiable cellar or story with ceiling located less than six (6) 
feet above grade and more than three thousand (3000) square 
feet in area. 



SECTION 311.0. STREET ENCROACHMENTS 

Except as herein provided, and subject to approval of the 
Public Improvements Commission and Public Works Department 
as required, no part of any building hereafter erected and no 
additions to an existing building heretofore erected shall project 
beyond the street lines or beyond the building line when such 
line is established by the zoning law or any other statute con- 
trolling building construction. 

311.1. Projections Below Grade. — Subject to the provisions of 
this section the following projections may be constructed below 
grade to project beyond the street line: 

311.1.1. Footings. — Exterior wall and column footings maybe 
constructed to go beyond the street line not more than twelve 
(12) inches provided that the top of the footing is not less than 
eight (8) feet below the ground or sidewalk level. 

311.1.2. Foundation Walls. — Foundation walls required to sup- 
port permitted projections may be constructed to project not 
more than the permitted projection beyond the street line. 

311.1.3. Vaults. — Where permitted approved vaults may be 
constructed to project beyond the street line but not beyond the 
curb line. Vault covers shall be set flush with the sidewalk 
and surfaced with non-skid material. 



311.1.4. Tunnels Between Buildings. — Tunnels connecting build- 
ings, and projecting beyond street lines, may be constructed 
subject to the approval of the building official. Such tunnels shall | 
comply with the provisions of this code and other applicable 
laws and regulations. 

311.1.5. Areaways. — Areaways shall not project beyond the I 
street lot line more than four (4) feet; provided that every such . 
areaway shall be covered over at the street grade by an ap- I 
proved grating of metal or other noncombustible material. 

311.2. Projections Above Grade. — All projections hereafter 
permitted beyond the street lot line or the building line above 
grade shall be so constructed as to conform to the provisions 

of sections 311.4 and 312. 

j 

311.3. Projections Necessary for Safety. — In any specific ap- 
plication, the building official may designate by approved rules 
such architectural features and accessories which are deemed 
desirable or necessary for the safety of the public and the 
extent to which they may project beyond the street lot line or 
the building line where such is established by statute, subject 
to all provisions and restrictions that may be otherwise pre- 
scribed by law, ordinance or rule of the authorities having 
jurisdiction over streets or public spaces. 

311.4. Permission Revocable. — Any permission, expressed or 
implied, permitting the construction of projections within the 
area of the street under the provisions of this article shall be 
revocable by the City of Boston Council, except footings as 
permitted under section 311.1.1. 

311.4.1. All projections permitted beyond the street line by the 
provisions of this article shall be constructed so that they may 
be removed at any time without endangering the structural safety 
or fire safety of the building except that footings as permitted 
under section 311.1.1 need not be removable. 

311.5. Existing Projections. — Any part of a building that pro- 
jects beyond a street line on the date of the adoption of this 
code may be maintained as constructed until its removal is 
directed by the mayor and city council. 

311.5.1. Alterations. — Approved alterations to existing projec- 
tions beyond the street line may be permitted in whole or in 
part, provided that such alterations conform with the require- 
ments of this section. 



311-312 

SECTION 312.0. PERMISSIBLE PROJECTIONS BEYOND 
STREET LINES 

Subject to such provisions as may be otherwise prescribed by 
law or ordinance, or by rule or regulation of a City of Boston 
authority having jurisdiction over streets, highways, and pub- 
lic spaces, and subject to approval of the Public Improvements 
Commission and Public Works Department as required, the 
following projections shall be permitted beyond the street lot line 
;or the building line, as the case may be. 

312.1. Fixed Projections. — Fixed projections are those elements 
listed below, generally of an architectural character, that form 
an integral part of the building facade. The aggregate area of 
all fixed projections constructed to extend beyond the street line 
shall not exceed ten (10) square feet within any one hundred 
(100) square feet of wall area, except that a veneer may be ap- 
plied to the entire facade of a building erected before the 
effective date of this code, if such veneer does not project more 
than four (4) inches beyond the street line. The area of any 
fixed projection shall be measured at that vertical plane, para- 
llel to the wall, in which the area of the projection is greatest. 
This plane of measurement may be at the street line, the line of 
maximum projection, or any point in between. 

312.1.1. Entrance Details. — Entrance details, including steps, 
and doors when fully open, may be constructed to project be- 
yond the street line not more than twelve (12) inches. Entrance 
steps that project beyond the street line shall be guarded at each 
end by railings or cheek pieces at least three (3) ft. high or by 
other members of the entrance detail providing equivalent pro- 
tection. 

312.1.2. Architectural Details. — Details such as cornices, eaves, 
bases, sills, headers, belt course, opening frames, sun control 
devices, rustications, applied ornament or sculpture, grilles, 
windows when full open, air conditioning units, and other 
similar elements may be constructed to project not more than 
four (4) in. beyond the street line when less than ten (10) ft. 
above the ground or sidewalk level, and not more than ten (10) 
in. beyond the street line when more than ten (10) ft. above 
the ground or sidewalk level. 

312.1.3. Balconies. — Balconies, including railings and supporting 
brackets, no parts of which are less than ten (10) ft. above the 
ground or sidewalk level, may be constructed to project not more 



than twenty-two (22) in. beyond the street line. When permitted 
by article 6 and subject to approval of the building official, 
fire escapes that are part of a required exitway may be con- 
structed to project not more than four (4) ft. six (6) in. beyond 
the street line provided no part, including any movable ladder oi 
stair, is lower than ten (10) ft. above the ground or sidewalk 
level when not in use. 

312.1.4. Cornices or Roof Eaves. — Main cornices or roof eaves 
located at least twelve (12) feet above the curb level shall pro- 
ject not more than three (3) feet. 

312.1.5. Oriel Windows. — Oriel windows with the lowest portion 
at least ten (10) feet above the curb level shall project not more 
than two and one-half (2-1/2) feet. 

312.1.6. Marquees. — For the purpose of this section a marquee 
shall include any object or decoration attached to or a part of 
said marquee. 

a. Marquees may be erected on public buildings, theaters, 
hotels, terminals, large department stores, supermarkets,' 
multi-family dwellings, and similar buildings of an es- 
sentially public nature. 

b. Projection and Clearance. — The horizontal clearance be- 
tween a marquee and the curb line shall be not less than 
two (2) feet. A marquee projecting more than two-thirds 
(2/3) of the distance from the property line to the curb 
line shall be not less than ten (10) feet above the ground 
or pavement below. 

c. Thickness. — The maximum height or thickness of a 
marquee measured vertically from its lowest to its highest 
point shall not exceed three (3) feet when the marquee 
projects more than two-thirds (2/3) of the distance from 
the property line to the curb line and shall not exceed 
nine (9) feet when the marquee is less than two-thirds 
(2/3) of the distance from the property line to the curb 
line. 

d. Roof Construction. — The roof or any part thereof may 
be a skylight of approved plastics, or wired glass not 
less than one-fourth (1/4) inch thick with no single 
pane more than eighteen (18) inches wide. Every roof and 
skylight of a marquee shall be sloped to downspouts 
which shall conduct any drainage from the marquee in a 
manner not to spill over the sidewalk. 

e. Construction. — A marquee shall be supported entirely 



312 

from the building and constructed of noncombustible 
material. Marquees shall be designed and constructed to 
withstand wind or other lateral loads and live loads as 
required in article 7 of this code. Structural members 
shall be protected to prevent deterioration as required 
by article 8. 
f. Location Prohibited. — Every marquee shall be so located 
as not to interfere with the operation of any exterior 
standpipe or to obstruct the clear passage of stairways 
or exitways from the building or the installation or 
maintenance of street lighting. 

312.1.7. Light Fixtures. — Light fixtures that are supported 
entirely from the building may be constructed to project not 
more than two (2) ft. beyond the street line, provided no part 

i of the fixture is less than eight (8) ft. above the ground or 
sidewalk level. 

312.1.8. Flagpoles. — Flagpoles that are supported entirely from 
the building may be constructed to project not more than 
eighteen (18) ft. beyond the street line, but not closer than two 
(2) ft. to the curb line, provided that no part of the flagpole 
is less than fifteen (15) ft. above the ground or sidewalk level. 

312.1.9. Signs. 

a. Wall signs may be constructed to project not more than 
twelve (12) in. beyond the street line when conforming 
to the requirements of article 14. 

b. Projecting signs may be constructed to project not more 
than ten (10) ft. beyond the street line, but notcloser 
than two (2) ft. to the curb line, when conforming to 
the requirements of article 14, and provided that no part 
of the sign is less than ten (10) ft. above the ground 
or sidewalk level. 

312.2. Awnings. — Awnings supported entirely from the building 
may be constructed to project beyond the street line as follows: 

312.2.1. Store Front Awnings. — Store front awnings may be 
constructed to project beyond the street line not more than 
eight (8) ft., provided no part of the awning is less than eight 
(8) ft. above the ground or sidewalk level, except for a flexible 
valance, which may be not less than seven (7) ft. above the 
ground or sidewalk level, and provided that the awning box or 
cover does not project more than twelve (12) in. They shall be 
equipped with a mechanism or device for raising and holding 



the awning in a retracted or closed position against the face of 
the building. 

312.2.2. Drop Awnings. — Awnings over windows or doors may 
be constructed to project beyond the street line not more than 
five (5) feet provided that no part of the awning is less than 
eight (8) feet above the ground or sidewalk level. 

312.2.3. Construction. — Subject to the provisions of section 315, 
awnings shall be constructed of a noncombustible frame covered 
with flameproofed canvas or cloth, slow-burning plastic, sheet 
metal, or other equivalent material. 



SECTION 313.0. PERMISSIBLE YARD AND COURT EN- 
CROACHMENTS 

No part of any building or structure shall extend into side 
courts, inner courts or yards required for light and ventilation 
of habitable and occupiable rooms by the provisions of article 5, | 
or of the zoning law or other statutes controlling building 
construction, except as hereinafter provided; but in no case shall 
the encroachment exceed twenty (20) per cent of the legal area j 
of yard or court required for light and ventilation purposes. 

313.1. Roof eaves may project not more than three (3) feet 
beyond the face of the walls or other vertical planes forming 
the bounds of the minimum required legal yard or court area. 

313.2. Steps and Architectural Features. — Steps, window sills, 
belt courses and similar architectural features, rain leaders and 
chimneys may project not more than two (2) feet beyond the 
face of the walls or other vertical planes forming the bounds of 
the minimum required legal yard or court area. 

313.3. Exterior Stairways and Fire Escapes. — Outside stairways, 
fire tower balconies, fire escapes or other required means of 
egress may project not more than four (4) feet beyond the face 
of the walls or other vertical planes forming the bounds of the 
minimum required legal yard or court area. 

SECTION 314.0. SPECIAL AND TEMPORARY PROJECTION 

Special and temporary projections shall be subject to the ap- 
proval of the Public Improvements Commission and Public 
Works Department as required and the provisions of this 
section. 



312-315 

314.1. Alley Projections. — The permissible projections beyond 
street lot lines shall apply in general to building projections into 
alleyways except as may be modified by the building official, 
ordinance, or by special deed restriction. 

314.2. Special Permits. — When authorized by special permit, 
vestibules and storm doors may be erected for periods of time 
not exceeding seven (7) months in any one year, and shall pro- 
ject not more than three (3) feet nor more than one-fourth 
(1/4) the width of the sidewalk beyond the street lot line. 
Temporary entrance awnings may be erected with a minimum 
clearance of seven (7) feet to the lowest portions of the hood or 
awning when supported on removable steel or other approved 
noncombustible supports. 

SECTION 315.0. AWNINGS AND CANOPIES 

Awnings and canopies shall be subject to the approval of the 
Public Improvements Commission and Public Works Department 
as required and the provisions of this section. 

315.1. Permit. — A permit shall be obtained from the building 
official for the erection, repair or replacement of any fixed 
awning, canopy or hood except as provided in section 315.1.1, 
and for any retractable awning located at the first story level 
and extending over the public street or over any portion of a 
court or yard beside a building serving as a passage from a 
required exitway to a public street. 

315.1.1. Exemption from Permit. — No permit shall be required 
for the erection, repair or replacement of fixed or retractable 
awnings installed on one- and two-family dwellings, unless they 
project over public property, or for retractable awnings installed 
above the first story or when the awning does not project over 
the public street or over any court or yard serving as a passage 
from a required exitway to a public street. 

315.2. Special Applications of Awnings. — Except as may be 
limited by section 312.2, fixed awnings supported in whole or 
part by members resting on the ground and used for patio 
covers, car ports, summer houses or other similar uses shall 
comply with the requirements of section 315.4 for design and 
structure. Such structures shall be braced as required to provide 
rigidity. 

315.3. Canopies. — Canopies shall be constructed of a metal 
framework, with an approved covering, attached to the building 



at the inner end and supported at the outer end by not more 
than two (2) stanchions with braces anchored in an approved 
manner and placed not less than two (2) feet in from the curb 
line. The horizontal portion of the framework shall be not less 
than eight (8) feet nor more than twelve (12) feet above the' 
sidewalk and the clearance between the covering or valance anc 
the sidewalk shall be not less than seven (7) feet. The width ol 
canopies shall not exceed eight (8) feet. 

315.4. Design and Construction. — Fixed awnings, canopies and* 
similar structures shall be designed and constructed to withstand 
wind or other lateral loads and live loads as required by article 
7 of this code. With due allowance for shape, open construction 
and similar features that relieve the pressures or loads. Structural 
members shall be protected to prevent deterioration. 

SECTION 316.0. ACCESSIBILITY TO FIRE FIGHTING 

316.1. Frontage. — Every building, exclusive of accessory build- 
ings, shall have at least eight (8) percent of the total perimeter 
of the building fronting directly upon a street or frontage 
space. For the purposes of this section, building perimeter shall 
be measured at that story having the maximum enclosed floor 
area. 

316.2. Building Access. — Provisions shall be made for access 
by the fire department to every building as follows: 

316.2.1. Above Grade. — Access shall be provided directly from 
the outdoors to each story below a height of 100 ft. except to 
the first story or ground floor, by at least one (1) window or 
readily identifiable access panel within each fifty (50) feet or 
fraction thereof of horizontal length of every wall that fronts on 
a street or frontage space. Windows shall be openable or break- 
able from both the inside and the outside, and shall have a 
height when open of at least forty-eight (48) inches and a width 
of at least thirty-six (36) inches. Panels shall be openable from 
both the inside and outside and shall have a height when open 
of forty-eight (48) inches and a width of at least thirty-two (32) 
inches. The sill of the window or panel shall not be higher than 
thirty-six (36) inches above the inside floor. 

316.2.2. Below Grade. — Access shall be provided directly from 
the outdoors to the first basement or cellar story below grade, 
except in one- and two-family dwellings, within each one 
hundred (100) feet or fraction thereof of horizontal length of 



315-316 

every wall that fronts on a street or frontage space. Such access 
shall be by stairs, doors, windows or other means that provide 
an opening forty-eight (48) inches high and thirty-two (32) inches 
wide, the sill of which shall not be higher than thirty-six (36) 
inches above the inside floor. If an areaway is used to provide 
below grade access, the minimum horizontal dimension shall be 
at least one-third (1/3) the depth of the areaway or six (6) 
feet whichever is less. 

a. Access to additional stories below grade is not mandatory 

since they are required to be sprinklered as provided in 

section 1213. 

316.2.3. Signs. — Where wall signs are erected to cover doors or 
windows of existing buildings, access panels shall be provided 
as necessary to comply with the requirements of sections 316.2.1. 
and 316.2.2 above. 

316.2.4. Location. — Wherever practicable, one access opening 
in each story shall provide access to a stairway, or where there 
is no stairway at the exterior wall, one access opening in each 
story shall be located as close as practicable to a stairway. 

316.2.5. Exemptions. — The provisions of 316.2.1 through 3 16.2.4 
above shall not apply to any story that is completely protected 
by an automatic sprinkler system conforming to the construction 
requirements of article 12. 



RS3 



List of Reference Standards 

First and Second Fire Zones 

RS 3-1 FIRST FIRE ZONE 

All that portion of the city which is included within a 
line beginning at the intersection of the centre lines of 
Dover and Albany streets, and thence running east 
through the centre of said Dover street to the harbor 
commissioners' line; thence by said harbor commis- 
sioners' line around the northerly portion of the city 
to a point on Charles River at the intersection of said 
line with the easterly line of St. Mary's street extended; 
thence along said easterly line of St. Mary's street 
and the boundary line between Brookline and Boston 
to the centre of Longwood avenue; thence through 
the centre of said avenue to the centre of St. Alphonsus 
street; thence through the centre of said street to the 
centre of Ward street; thence through the centre of 
said Ward street to the centre of Parker street; thence 
through the centre of said Parker street to the centre 
of Ruggles street; thence through the centre of said 
Ruggles street to the centre of Washington street; 
thence through the center of said Washington street 
to a point opposite the centre of Palmer street; thence 
through the centre of said Palmer street and through 
the centre of Eustis street to the centre of Hampden 
street; and thence through the centre of said Hampden 
street and the centre of Albany street to the point 
of beginning. 

RS 3-2 SECOND FIRE ZONE 

All that portion of the city which is included within a 
line beginning at the intersection of the boundary 
lines between the City of Boston and the cities of 
Somerville and Everett; thence by the boundary lines 
between the City of Boston and the cities of Everett 
and Chelsea to the intersection with the centre line 



of Trumbull street extended northerly; thence by said 
centre line of Trumbull street extended, the centre line 
of Trumbull street and said centre line extended south- 
erly to the harbor line; thence by said harbor line 
to its intersection with the easterly line of Pier No. 5, 
belonging to the Boston and Albany Railroad Company; 
thence by a straight line across Boston Harbor to its 
intersection with the harbor line at the easterly corner 
of Pier No. 1 in South Boston; thence by the harbor 
line in the northerly, easterly and southerly portions 
of South Boston to an angle in said harbor line nearly 
opposite the intersection of the centre line of Columbia 
road with the centre line of location of the Old Colony 
Railroad; thence by a straight line to the said inter- 
section; and by the centre lines of Columbia road, 
Blue Hill avenue, Seaver street, Columbus avenue, 
Atherton and Mozart streets, Chestnut avenue, Sheri- 
dan, Centre and Perkins streets, South Huntington 
avenue, Castleton street and the centre line of said 
Castleton street extended to the boundary line between 
the City of Boston and the town of Brookline; thence 
by said boundary line to a point therein one hundred 
feet southwest of Washington street in the Brighton 
district; thence by a line parallel to and one hundred 
feet southwesterly from the centre line of Washington 
street to an angle formed by the intersection of said 
line with the extension of a line parallel to and one 
hundred feet northwesterly of the centre line of Market 
street; thence by said extension and said line parallel 
to and one hundred feet northwesterly of the centre 
line of Market street to a point one hundred feet 
south of the centre line of Western avenue; thence 
by a line parallel to and one hundred feet south of 
the centre line of Western avenue and said line ex- 
tended to a point in the boundary line between the 
City of Boston and the town of Watertown south of 
Watertown Bridge, so called; thence by said boundary 
line and the boundary lines between the Cities of 
Cambridge and Somerville to the point of beginning, 
but not including area within the boundaries of the 
first fire zone. 

Also those portions of Hyde Park upon or within 



RS3 

one hundred feet of the following named streets and 
squares: Everett square, so called; Fairmount avenue 
from River street to the Neponset river; River street 
from the location of the Boston and Providence Rail- 
road to Winthrop street; Hyde Park avenue on the 
easterly side from the northerly side of Oak street to 
Everett street; Hyde Park avenue on the westerly side 
from the northerly side of Pine street extension, so 
called, to a point on said Hyde Park avenue opposite 
the southerly line of Everett street; Harvard avenue 
from River street to Winthrop street; Maple street 
from River street to a point one hundred and eighty 
feet southerly therefrom; Central avenue from River 
street to Winthrop street; Davison street from Fair- 
mount avenue to a point three hundred feet north- 
easterly therefrom; Grove street; Pierce street from 
Fairmount avenue to a point three hundred feet north- 
easterly therefrom; Knott street from Fairmount avenue 
to a point three hundred feet easterly therefrom; Rail- 
road avenue from Fairmount avenue to a point three 
hundred feet northeasterly therefrom; Station street 
from the Neponset river to a point three hundred 
feet northeasterly from Fairmount avenue; Walnut 
street from Fairmount avenue to a point three hundred 
feet southwesterly therefrom; Maple street from Fair- 
mount avenue to a point one hundred and twenty-five 
feet westerly therefrom. 



ARTICLE 
SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



4 



400.0 

401.0 

402.0 

403.0 

404.0 — 

405.0 

406.0 

407.0 

408.0 

409.0 

410.0 

411.0 

412.0 

413.0 
414.0 
415.0 
416.0 

417.0 
418.0 

TABLES 



Scope 
Definitions 
Explosion Hazards 
Volatile Flammables 

Omitted 

Existing Buildings 

Liquified Petroleum Gases 

Pyroxylin Plastics 

Use and Storage of Motion 
Picture Film 

Use and Storage of Com- 
bustible Fibers 

Combustible Dusts, Grain 
Processing and Storage 

Paint Spraying and Spray 
Booths 

Dry Cleaning Establishments 

Private Garages 

Public Garages 

Motor Fuel Service Stations 

Motor Vehicle Repair Shops 

Places of Public Assembly 



419.0 Public Assembly Other than 

Occupancy Group F-l 



420.0 — 




421.0 


Omitted 


422.0 


Drive-In Motion Picture The- 




atres 


423.0 


Omitted 


424.0 


Parking Lots 


425.0 — 




428.0 


Omitted 


429.0 


Swimming Pools 


430.0 


Open Parking Structures 


431.0 


Deleted 


432.0 


Inter-Communicating Floor 




Levels 


433.0 


Covered Malls, Covered 




Walkways and Tunnels 


434.0 


Radioactive Materials and 




Radiation-Producing 




Equipment 


RS 4 


Reference Standards 



403.2.1.1. 4-1 Capacity of Outside Underground Tanks for Volatile Flammable 

Liquids 
408.4.2. 4-2 Exposure Distance for Pyroxylin 
418.3.4.1. 4-3 Wheelchair Viewing Positions 
430.4.1. 4-4 Height and Area Limitation for Open Parking Structures 



SECTION 400.0. SCOPE 



In addition to the general requirements of this Code governing 
the location, construction and equipment of all buildings and 
structures and the fireresistive, height and area limitations of 
section 221.1, table 2-1 and section 221.2, table 2-2, the pro- 
visions of this article shall control all buildings and structures 
designed for high hazard uses and occupancies which involve 
extreme fire, smoke, explosion or toxic gas risks, and places of 
assembly in which people congregate in large numbers and which 
are susceptible to panic incidental to crowds. Except as herein 
specifically provided, reference standard RS 4 shall be deemed 
to comply with the requirements of this article. 



Chemical plants, packing plants, grain elevators, refineries, flour 
mills, and other special structures may be constructed in ac- 
cordance with the recognized practices and requirements of the 
specific industry. The building official may permit such varia- 
tions from the requirements of this code which will secure 
reasonable and economical construction with the necessary fire, 
life and property safeguards. In granting such variations, due 
regard shall be given to the isolation of the structure and fire 
hazard from and to surrounding property. 

400.1. Occupancies Involving Explosion Hazards. — The provi- 
sions of this article shall apply to all occupancies involving the] 
storage, manufacture, handling or filling of flammable and 
volatile solids, liquids or gases which generate combustible and 
explosive air-vapor mixtures and toxic gases including nitro- 
cellulose film; pyroxylin plastics; grain and other combustible 
dusts and pulverized fuels; combustible fibers; pyroxylin lacquer 
spraying operations; liquified petroleum gases; alcohol, ether 
and gasoline; flammable dusts and residues resulting from fab- 
rication, grinding and buffing operations, and all other explosion 
hazard risks. 

400.2. Special High Hazards. — When necessary to resist a higher 
degree of fire severity than specified herein, for high concen- 
trations of combustible contents and for buildings of high 
hazard occupancies which exceed five (5) stories or sixty-five (65) 
feet in height, the building official may exceed the requirements 
of section 221.1 table 2-1 governing the fireresistance ratings 
of types of construction and protection of structural elements. 

400.3. Exitway Facilities. — The exitway facilities of buildings 
for hazardous uses and occupancies shall conform to the re- 
quirements of article 6, except as may be modified by more 
restrictive provisions of this article for specific uses. 

400.4. Heating and Venting. — The requirements herein pre- 
scribed for the installation of heating and venting appliances 
and equipment for high hazard uses and occupancies shall be 
construed as supplemental to the provisions of article 5, 10, 
11 and 18. 

400.5. Light and Electric Wiring. — Wherever flash fires and 
explosion hazards are involved, all artificial lighting shall be 
restricted to incandescent electric lights or other approved 
lighting with keyless sockets and dust-tight, vapor-proof gloves 
protected against mechanical injury. All wiring in vaults or com- 
partments for the storage of highly flammable materials shall 



400-402 

be in metal or other approved conduit complying with the pro- 
visions of article 15. 

400.6. Boiler and Hazardous Equipment Room. — Boilers and 
other equipment or devices, including breechings which involve 
flame or spark producing apparatus shall not be exposed to fire 
or explosive-hazard gases, vapors or volatile flammable liquids. 
Such rooms and equipment shall be segregated by construction 
of not less than two (2) hour fireresistance except as may be 
required for specific occupancies without openings in the en- 
closure walls and with means of direct entrance and egress from 
the exterior, or such equipment shall be located in accessory 
structures segregated from the main building. 

400.7. Fire-Fighting and Extinguishing Equipment. — All build- 
ings designed for specific hazardous occupancies shall be pro- 
tected with approved automatic sprinkler systems or such other 
fire-extinguishing and auxiliary equipment as herein provided 
and in accordance with the requirements of article 12. 

400.8. Segregation of Storage Spaces. — All rooms and spaces 
used for the storage of volatile and flammable materials shall 
be separately enclosed and segregated with fireresistive construc- 
tion as herein required for specific occupancies. 

400.9. Restricted Locations. — Except as otherwise specifically 
provided in section 302.3, no high hazard occupancies shall be 
located in the First Fire Zone, nor in a building of unprotected 
frame (type 4-B) construction, nor in any case within two 
hundred (200) feet of the nearest wall of a building classified 
in a public assembly, school or institutional occupancy group. 

SECTION 401.0. DEFINITIONS 

For definitions to be used in the interpretation of this article, 
see section 201.0. 

SECTION 402.0. EXPLOSION HAZARDS 

Every structure, room or space with occupancies involving ex- 
plosion hazards shall be equipped and vented with explosion 
relief systems and devices arranged for automatic release under 
predetermined increase in pressure as herein provided for specific 
occupancies or in accordance with reference standard RS4-1. 
402.1. Venting Devices. — Venting devices to relieve the pressure 
resulting from explosive air-vapor mixtures shall consist of 
windows, skylights, vent flues or releasing roof or wall panels 



which discharge directly to the open air or to a public place oil 
other unoccupied space not less than twenty (20) feet in width 
on the same lot. Such releasing devices shall be so located that 
the discharge end shall be not less than ten (10) feet vertically 
and twenty (20) feet horizontally from window openings or ex- 
terior exitway stairs or balconies in the same or adjoining build- 
ings or structures. The exhaust shall always be in the direction 
of least exposure and never into the interior of the building. 

402.2. Area of Vents. — The aggregate clear vent relief area shall 
be regulated by the type of construction of the building andl 
shall be not less than herein prescribed: 

Heavy reinforced concrete frame 1 square foot for 80 

cubic feet of volume 

Light structural steel frame and ordinary 

construction 1 square foot for 65 

cubic feet of volume 

Light wood frame construction 1 square foot for 50 

cubic feet of volume 

In no case shall the combined area of open windows, pivoted 
sash or wall panels arranged to open under internal pressure be 
less than ten (10) per cent of the area of the enclosure walls, 
with not less than fifty (50) per cent of the opening arranged 
for automatic release. 

402.3. Construction of Vents. — All explosion relief devices shall 
be of an approved type constructed of light weight, noncom- 
bustible and corrosion-resistive materials, and the discharge end 
shall be protected with approved screens of not more than three- 
quarter (3/4) inch mesh, arranged to blow out under relatively 
low pressures. 

SECTION 403.0. VOLATILE FLAMMABLES 

403.1. Process Storage. 

403.1.1. Construction of Enclosures. — Process rooms shall be 
separated from other uses and occupancies by walls, floors, and 
ceilings of not less than two (2) hour fireresistance with one and 
one-half (1-1/2) hour fire doors or the approved labeled equiv- 
alent complying with article 9. The interior door openings shall 
be provided with noncombustible sills not less than six (6) inches 
high and the room shall be vented as required in section 402. 



402-403 

Floors shall be liquid tight and drained to comply with 
section 874. 

403.1.2. Fire Protection. — First aid fire appliances and auto- 
matic sprinklers or other extinguishing equipment shall be 
provided in accordance with article 12 and reference standard 
RS4-24. Provisions shall be made to prevent leaking flammable 
vapors from being exposed to open flames, fire or sparks. 
403.2. Main Storage. — Main storage systems of volatile flam- 
mable liquids shall be constructed and installed in accordance 
with applicable portions of reference standards RS4-2 and 
RS4-3. Such storage may be either outside underground, outside 
aboveground, inside underground, or outside storage house. No 
bulk storage tank shall be located less than three hundred (300) 
feet from any building of assembly (occupancy group F), school 
(occupancy group G) or institutional (occupancy group H) 
occupancies. 

403.2.1. Outside Underground System. — Outside tanks shall be 
buried underground below the basement level of adjacent build- 
ings, with the top of the tanks not less than two (2) feet below 
grade or with a reinforced concrete or other approved struc- 
tural cover not less than four (4) inches thick and a twelve (12) 
inch earth cover. The maximum capacity of such tanks shall De- 
limited by their location in respect to adjacent buildings which 
are not an essential part of the installation and adjacent lot 
lines as provided in section 403.2.1.1., table 4-1. 
403.2.1.1. Table 4-1. Capacity of Outside Underground Tanks 
for Volatile Flammable Liquids 

Fire Separation Quantity of Storage 

in Feet in Gallons 

50 Unlimited 

40 50,000 

30 20,000 

25 12,000 

20 6,000 

10 3,000 

a. When within ten (10) feet of any building not an essen- 
tial part of the installation, and the top of the tank is 
above the lowest floor of the building, the capacity of 
the tank shall be not more than five hundred and fifty 
(550) gallons/ 



b. The capacity of storage of combustible liquids other than 
volatile flammable as herein defined shall be restricted 
to five (5) times the values specified in section 403.2.1.1. 
table 4-1. 

403.2.2. Outside Aboveground System. — Aboveground tanks 
shall be located only outside the First Fire Zone; and the capa- 
city, location, construction and exposures shall be subject to 
special approvals of the building official and the fire official; 
but in no case shall the fire separation be less than specified in 
reference standard RS4-2. 

403.2.3. Inside Underground System. — Inside underground tanks 
shall be located not less than two (2) feet below the level of the 
lowest floor of the building in which located or any other 
building within a radius often (10) feet of the tank. In no case 
shall such tanks be located under the sidewalk or beyond the 
building line. It shall be unlawful to cover any tanks from sight 
until after inspection and test and written approval of the build- 
ing official and fire department. The maximum limit of indi- 
vidual tank capacity shall be not more than five hundred and 
fifty (550) gallons and the entire system shall be subject to 
special approval of the building official and fire department. 

403.2.4. Outside Storage House. — All outside storage houses 
shall be constructed of noncombustible (types 1 or 2) construc- 
tion. No opening shall be permitted in the enclosure walls with- 
in eleven (11) feet of adjoining property lines or with a fire ex- 
posure of less than eleven (11) feet from any building or struc- 
ture not a part of the installation. 

403.2.5. Special Restrictions. — The building official may re- 
quire greater fire separations or he may limit storage capacities 
under severe exposure hazard conditions when necessary for 
public safety. 

403.3. Accessory Occupancy. — A one-source sprinkler system 
shall be provided in all portions of residential (occupancy groups 
L-l and L-2) institutional (occupancy groups H-l and H-2) and 
assembly and school buildings (occupancy groups F and G) 
occupied for storage or workshop purposes which involve highly 
combustible and flammable materials. 

SECTION 404.0. OMITTED 
SECTION 405.0. OMITTEE 



403-406 
SECTION 406.0. EXISTING BUILDINGS 

406.1. Special Permit for Existing Occupancies. — Any existing 
hazardous occupancy which was heretofore authorized by a per- 
mit issued under the provisions of law or the regulations of 
the fire and building officials may be continued by special per- 
mit provided the continuance of such occupancy does not en- 
danger the public safety. 

406.2. Existing Occupancy Prohibited. — No existing building of 
frame (type 4) construction which is more than two (2) stories 
in height or more than five thousand (5,000) square feet in 
area; or of nonfireproof (type 3) construction which is more 
than four (4) stories in height shall be continued in use or here- 
after occupied for the manufacture of pyroxylin plastics or 
similar materials of high fire hazard and explosive characteristics. 

406.3. Places of Assembly. 

406.3.1. Change of Occupancy. — No existing building or struc- 
ture or part thereof shall be altered or converted into a place 
of assembly unless it complies with all provisions of this code 
applicable to places of public assembly hereafter erected. 

406.3.2. Existing Occupancy Altered. — When an existing build- 
ing or structure heretofore used as a place of public assembly 
is altered and the cost of such alteration is more than fifty 
(50) per cent of the physical value of the building as defined 
in article 1 Part II, all provisions of this code relating to new 
places of public assembly shall be complied with. When the 
cost of such alteration is less than fifty (50) per cent of the 
physical value of the building, such alterations shall comply as 
nearly as is practicable with the provisions of this code which 
govern the arrangement and construction of seats, aisles, pas- 
sageways, stage and appurtenant rooms, fire-fighting and ex- 
tinguishing equipment and the adequacy of exitways. 

406.3.3. Increase in Occupancy Load. — Whenever the occupancy 
load of an existing place of public assembly is increased beyond 
the approved capacity of its exitways, the building or part there- 
of shall be made to comply with the requirements for a new 
building hereafter erected for such public assembly occupancy. 

406.4. Swimming Pools. 

406.4.1. Change of Occupancy. — No existing pool used for 
swimming or bathing or accessory equipment or part thereof 
shall be altered or converted for any other occupancy unless it 
complies with all provisions of this code applicable to the use 
intended. 



406.4.2. Continuation of Existing Occupancy. — Existing swim- 
ming pools may be continued without change, provided the 
safety requirements of section 429.8 are observed where required 
by the building official. 

SECTION 407.0. LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES 

The design, construction, location, installation and operation 
of facilities for propane, butane and other petroleum gases, 
normally stored in the liquid state under pressure for use in 
all buildings and structures shall be in conformance with refer- 
ence standard RS4-4. Refineries, tank farms and utility gas 
plants shall be subject to special approval in accordance with 
reference standard RS4-4. 

SECTION 408.0. PYROXYLIN PLASTICS 

The provisions of this section and reference standard RS4-5 
shall regulate all buildings, structures and parts thereof for the 
storage, handling or fabrication of pyroxylin plastics permitted 
by Massachusetts Law whether in raw material, process, finished 
product or scrap. 

408.1. Exceptions. — The provisions of this section and of refer- 
ence standard RS4-5 shall not apply to the incidental storage of 
articles manufactured from pyroxylin plastics offered for sale 
in mercantile buildings. (See section 205.) 

408.2. Restrictions. — No permit for the storage or manufacture 
of pyroxylin plastics, except as specified in section 408.1, shall 
be issued for a building or structure hereafter erected, altered 
or used which is occupied or located as follows: 

408.2.1. Places of Assembly and Schools. — Within fifty (50) 
feet of the nearest wall of a school, theatre or other place of 
public assembly; 

408.2.2. Residential Building. — As a residential building, occu- 
pancy groups L-l, L-2 or L-3; 

408.2.3. High Hazard Occupancies. — In quantities exceeding 
one thousand (1,000) pounds in buildings where paints, var- 
nishes, or lacquers are manufactured, stored or kept for sale; or 
where matches, resin, oils, hemp, cotton, or any explosives are 
stored or kept for sale; 

408.2.4. Other Flammable Materials. — Where drygoods, gar- 
ments or other materials of a highly flammable nature are 



406-408 

manufactured in any portion of the building above that used for 
permitted nitro-cellulose products; 

408.2.5. Tenant Factory Building. — In quantities exceeding one 
hundred (100) pounds in any tenant factory building (occupancy 
group D) in which more than five (5) people are employed or 
likely to congregate on one (1) floor at any one time. 
408.3. Inside Storage. — All pyroxylin raw material and pro- 
ducts intended for use in further manufacture shall have storage 
limited to one-half (1/2) day's supply but not to exceed the re- 
quirements as herein provided: 

408.3.1. Cabinets. — Quantities of more than twenty-five (25) 
pounds and not more than five hundred (500) pounds shall be 
stored in approved cabinets constructed of noncombustible 
materials but in no case shall the total quantity of storage be 
more than one thousand (1,000) pounds in any workroom or 
space enclosed in floors, walls, and ceilings of not less than two 
(2) hour fireresistance; 

408.3.2. Vaults. — Quantities of more than one thousand (1,000) 
pounds and not more than ten thousand (10,000) pounds shall 
be stored in vaults enclosed in floors, walls and ceilings of not 
less than four (4) hour fireresistance. The interior storage volume 
of the vault shall be not more than fifteen hundred (1,500) cubic 
feet and the vault shall be constructed vapor and gas-tight in 
accordance with the approved rules, with one and one-half 
(1-1/2) hour vapor-tight fire doors or the approved labeled fire 
door assembly equivalent on each side of the door opening. The 
vault shall be drained and provided with scuppers; 

408.3.3. Tote Boxes and Scrap Containers.— During manufacture, 
pyroxylin materials and products not stored in finished stock 
rooms, cabinets or vaults shall be kept in approved covered 
noncombustible tote boxes. Scrap and other refuse material 
shall be collected in approved noncombustible containers in 
quantities not greater than three hundred and fifty (350) pounds 
and removed at frequent intervals as directed by the building 
and /or fire official; 

408.3.4. Ventilation. — Each separate compartment in storage 
vaults shall be vented directly to the outer air through flues 
complying with the requirements of article 10 for low tempera- 
ture chimneys, or exterior metal smokestacks, or as otherwise 
provided in the approved rules. The vent shall discharge not less 
than four (4) feet above the roof of the building or on a street, 
court or other open space not less than fifty (50) feet distant 



from any other opening in adjoining walls which are not in 
the same plane, nor nearer than twenty-five (25) feet vertically 
or horizontally to an exterior exitway stairway or fire escape. 
The area of the vent shall be not less than one (1) square 
inch for each seven (7) pounds of pyroxylin stored; 

408.3.5. Structural Strength. — The floors, walls, roof and doors 
of all vaults, structures or buildings used for the storage or 
manufacture of pyroxylin materials and products shall be de- 
signed to resist an inside pressure load of not less than three 
hundred (300) pounds per square foot; 

408.3.6. Fire Protection. — Vaults located within buildings for 
the storage of raw pyroxylin shall be protected with an ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system having not less than one 
(1) head to each twelve (12) square feet of protected area. When 
vaults are subdivided into two (2) or more sections, not less 
than one (1) head shall be provided in each section. 

408.4. Isolated Storage Buildings. — Pyroxylin products in quan- 
tities greater than permitted for interior storage shall be housed 
in isolated storage buildings. Such buildings shall be used for 
no purpose other than packing, receiving, shipping and storage 
of pyroxylin plastics unless otherwise approved by the building 
official. 

408.4.1. Capacity.— The maximum storage in any fire area en- 
closed in construction of four (4) hour fireresistance shall be not 
greater than one hundred thousand (100,000) pounds. The stor- 
age capacity of the building and its separation from lot lines 
and other buildings on the same lot shall be limited as provided 
in section 408.4.2 table 4-2. When equipped with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system complying with the provisions of 
article 12 and as herein modified, the exposure distances may 
be decreased fifty (50) per cent. Such systems shall be provided 
with not less than one (1) automatic sprinkler head for each 
thirty-two (32) square feet of protected area. 

408.4.2. Table 4-2 Exposure Distance for Pyroxylin Storage 
Buildings 

Maximum Quantity Stored Fire Separation from Lot Line 

in Pounds or Other Buildings in Feet 

1,000 40 

2,000 50 

3,000 60 

4,000 70 



408-409 
408.4.2. Table 4-2 Continued 

5,000 80 

10,000 100 

20,000 125 

30,000 150 

40,000 160 

50,000 180 

75,000 200 

100,000 225 

150,000 250 

300,000 300 

408.5. Protection. 

408.5.1. Heating Equipment. — All radiators, heating coils, piping 
and heating apparatus shall be protected with approved noncom- 
bustible mesh to maintain a clearance of six (6) inches of all 
pyroxylin products from such equipment. All piping and risers 
within six (6) feet of the floor shall be insulated with approved 
noncombustible covering unless protected with wire guards. 

408.5.2. Lighting Control. — All lighting shall comply with the 
provisions of section 400.5 and shall be controlled from panel 
boards located outside of storage compartments and vaults. 

408.5.3. Standpipes. — First-aid standpipes shall be provided for 
each five thousand (5,000) square feet of floor area equipped 
with one and one-half (1-1/2) inch hose, complying with article 12. 

408.5.4. Automatic Sprinklers. — All manufacturing and storage 
spaces and vaults shall be protected with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system as herein specified and with fire pails and por- 
table fire extinguishers complying with article 12 and as approved 
by the fire department. 

408.5.5. Special Protection. — Special chemical extinguishers and 
other first-aid fire appliances shall be provided around motors 
and other electrical equipment in accordance with articles 12 and 
15 and approved rules. 



SECTION 409.0. USE AND STORAGE OF MOTION 
PICTURE FILM 

The use and storage of motion picture film and related opera- 
tions shall comply with reference standard RS4-12 and the pro- 
visions of this section. 



409.1. Film. — The projection, use or storage of film having £ 
nitrocellulose base or an other flammable type base shall not be 
permitted except under conditions specified in special permits 1 
when issued by the fire department and when permitted by law. 
Safety film meeting the specifications and test standards of ref-H 
erence standard RS4-13 may be projected, used and stored. 

409.2. Projection Machines. — Projection machines shall meet the 
electrical requirements of article 15. The lamp housing of projec- 
tion machines using carbon-arc or other light sources that emit | 
gaseous discharge shall be equipped with, or connected to a 
mechanical ventilation system of adequate capacity to exhaust 
the products of combustion through ducts directly to the out- 
doors. Such duct systems shall comply with the requirements of 
article 18. When more than one projection machine or other 
facility employing a carbon-arc or similar light source is used, 
all may be vented by the same duct system if the capacity is 
adequate for all facilities so connected. 

409.3. Projection Rooms or Booths. — When enclosed, rooms or 
booths, for the use and operation of motion picture projectors 
hereafter installed as an integral part of a building, shall be 
enclosed in walls, floor and ceiling of approved noncombustible 
materials and construction, as herein provided. 

409.3.1. Construction of Projection Rooms. — The size of the 
room shall be adequate to accommodate the apparatus and 
equipment, permit manual operation, and provide a clear work- 
ing space of at least two (2) feet around the projection apparatus, 
but in no case less than forty-eight (48) square feet in area and 
seven (7) feet in height for one projector and twenty-four (24) 
square feet for each additional machine. Observation and pro- 
jector openings shall in no case exceed a maximum of seven 
hundred twenty (720) square inches in area and port shutters 
may be omitted. 

409.3.2. Exitways from Projection Rooms. — At least two (2) 
exitways shall be provided, equipped with incombustible or 
metal clad self-closing doors, opening outwardly, not less than 
two (2) feet by six (6) feet in size, unless otherwise approved 
by the building official. No point within the room, booth, or 
gallery shall be more than fifty (50) feet from an opening into 
a corridor or space that provides access to an exitway at a 
distance not greater than seventy-five (75) feet. 

409.3.3. Ventilation of Projection Rooms or Booths. — Ventila- 
tion shall be provided by an approved mechanical system of 



409 

ventilation, exhausting either directly to the outdoors or through 
a noncombustible flue, which shall be used for no other purpose. 
The exhaust capacity shall be not less than fifteen (15) cubic 
feet nor more than fifty (50) cubic feet per minute for each arc 
lamp, plus two hundred (200) cubic feet per minute for the 
volume of the room. All ventilating flues shall be constructed 
and installed to comply with article 18. All fresh air intakes 
other than direct open air supply shall be protected with fire 
shutters arranged to operate automatically. 

409.3.4. Lighting Control. — Provisions shall be made for control 
of the auditorium lighting and the emergency lighting systems of 
theatres from inside of the booth and from at least one other 
convenient point in the building as required in section 418.8. 

409.3.5. Electrical Equipment. — Separate compartments of simi- 
lar construction to the projection booth shall be provided for 
storage batteries and motor generators, respectively. Ventilation 
shall be provided for such compartments; ventilation for motor 
compartment being independent of any other system. The duct 
from such compartments leading to outdoors shall be constructed 
of approved acid-resisting noncombustible material. 

409.4. Motion Picture Studios. 

409.4.1. Construction.— All buildings designed or used as motion 
picture studios shall be protected with an approved two-source 
automatic sprinkler system complying with the provisions of 
article 12; except that the building official may exempt rooms 
designed for housing electrical equipment from this requirement 
when constructed of fireproof (type 1) construction. 

409.4.2. Special Rooms. — Rooms and spaces used as carpenter 
and repair shops, dressing rooms, costume and property stage 
rooms shall be enclosed in floors, walls and ceilings of not less 
than two (2) hour fireresistive construction. 

409.4.3. Trim, Finish and Decorative Hangings. — All perma- 
nently attached acoustic, insulating and light reflecting materials 
and temporary hangings on walls and ceilings shall comply with 
the requirements of article 9. 

409.5. Film Laboratories. — No film laboratories shall be con- 
ducted in other than buildings or structures built of noncom- 
bustible materials equipped throughout with an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system. 



409.6. Film Exchange. — All film exchanges and depots shall be 
housed in buildings and structures of noncombustible con- 
struction equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system. 

SECTION 410.0. USE AND STORAGE OF COMBUSTIBLE 
FIBERS 

The provisions of this section shall apply to all buildings and 
structures involving the storage or use of finely divided com- 
bustible vegetable or animal fibers and thin sheets or flakes of 
such materials, involving a flash fire hazard, including among 
others, cotton, excelsior, hemp, sisal, jute, kapok, and paper 
and cloth in the form of scraps and clippings in excess of one 
thousand (1,000) pounds. The provisions of reference standard 
RS4-6 except as herein specifically provided shall be deemed to 
conform to the provisions of this Code. 

410.1. Construction Requirements. — All buildings designed for 
the storage of combustible fibers as herein described shall be 
constructed within the limits of height and area specified in 
section 221.2 table 2-2 for high hazard occupancy (occupany 
group A) except as follows: 

410.1.1. Special Limits. — No single storage room or space shall 
be more than twelve hundred fifty (1,250) square feet in area or 
more than twelve thousand five hundred (12,500) cubic feet in 
volume unless of protected noncombustible (type 2-B) or better 
construction; 

410.1.2. Floor Loads. — The floors of all buildings designed for 
the storage of combustible fibers shall not be loaded in excess 
of one-half (1/2) the safe load capacity of the floor, nor shall 
such materials be piled to more than two-thirds (2/3) of the 
clear story height; 

410.1.3. Salvage Doors. — Every exterior wall shall be provided 
with a door to each storage compartment arranged for quick 
removal of the contents; 

410.1.4. Wall Openings. — All openings in outside walls shall be 
equipped with approved fire doors and fire windows complying 
with article 9; 

410.1.5. Roof Openings. — All skylights, monitors and other roof 
openings shall be protected with galvanized wire or other ap- 



409-411 

proved corrosion-resistive screens with not less than thirty-six 
(36) meshes to the square inch or with wired glass in stationary 
frames; 

410.1.6. Boiler Rooms. — All power and heating boilers and 
furnaces shall be located in detached boiler houses or in a seg- 
regated boiler room enclosed in three (3) hour fireresistive con- 
struction with direct entrance from the outside, except that rooms 
containing gas-fired heating equipment may have openings into 
the warehouse protected with one and one-half (1-1/2) hour fire 
doors or their approved equivalent; 

410.1.7. Deleted. 

410.2. Fire Protection. — Fire-extinguishing equipment shall be 
provided complying with article 12 consisting of casks, pails and 
portable chemical extinguishers and standpipes. Where deemed 
necessary by the building official, a system of outside hydrants 
and hose shall be provided. An approved automatic sprinkler 
system complying with article 12 shall be required when the 
area within type A fire divisions exceeds one thousand (1,000) 
square feet. 

410.3. Housekeeping. — No ashes, waste, rubbish or sweepings 
shall be kept in wood or other combustible receptacles and shall 
be removed from the premises daily. No grass or weed shall be 
allowed to accumulate at any point on the premises. 

410.4. Open Storage. — Only temporary open storage of com- 
bustible fibers shall be permitted on the same premises with a 
fiber warehouse and shall be kept covered on top and sides with 
tarpaulins secured in place. Not more than seven thousand two 
hundred (7,200) cubic feet of fiber shall be stored in the open; 
and fire-extinguishing equipment shall be provided as directed 
by the building official. 

410.5. Special Treatments. — When combustible fibers are packed 
in approved special noncombustible containers or when packed 
in bales covered with approved wrappings to prevent ready igni- 
tion, or when treated by approved chemical dipping or spraying 
processes to eliminate the flash fire hazard, the restrictions 
governing combustible fibers shall not apply. 

SECTION 411.0. COMBUSTIBLE DUSTS, GRAIN 
PROCESSING AND STORAGE 

The provisions of this section and of reference standard RS4-7 
except as herein specifically modified shall apply to all buildings 



in which materials producing flammable dusts and particles which 
are readily ignitable and subject to explosion hazards are stored 
or handled, including among others, grain bleachers and eleva- 
tors, malt houses, flour, feed or starch mills, wood flour manu- 
facturing and manufacture and storage of pulverized fuel and 
similar uses. 

411.1. Construction Requirements. 

411.1.1. Buildings. — All such buildings and structures, unless 
herein otherwise specifically provided, shall be of fireproof (type 
1), noncombustible (type 2), or of laminated planks or lumber 
sizes qualified for heavy timber mill (type 3A) construction, 
within the height and area limits of high hazard occupancy 
(occupancy group A) of section 221.2 table 2-2; except that when 
erected of fireproof (type 1A or IB) construction and the height 
and area may be unlimited. 

411.1.2. Grinding Rooms. — Every room or space for grinding 
or other operations producing flammable dust shall be enclosed 
with floors and walls of not less than two (2) hour fireresistance 
when the area is not more than three thousand (3,000) square 
feet and of not less than four (4) hour fireresistance when the 
area is greater than three thousand (3,000) square feet. 

411.1.3. Conveyors. — All conveyors, chutes, piping and similar 
equipment passing through the enclosures of such rooms or 
spaces shall be constructed dirt and vapor-tight, of approved 
noncombustible materials complying with the applicable re- 
quirements of article 16. 

411.2. Explosion Relief. — Means for explosion relief shall be 
provided as specified in section 402, or such spaces shall be 
equipped with the equivalent mechanical ventilation complying 
with article 18. 

411.3. Grain Elevators. — Grain elevators, malt houses and 
buildings for similar uses shall be located within thirty (30) 
feet of interior lot lines or structures on the same lot, except 
when erected along a railroad right of way. 

411.4. Deleted. 

SECTION 412.0. PAINT SPRAYING AND SPRAY BOOTHS 

The provisions of this section shall apply to the construction, 
installation and use of buildings and structures or parts thereof 
for the spraying of flammable paints, varnishes, and lacquers or 
other flammable materials, mixtures, or compounds used for 



411-412 

painting, varnishing, staining or similar purposes. All such con- 
struction and equipment shall comply with reference standard 
RS4-8. 

412.1. Location of Spraying Processes. — Such processes shall 
be conducted in a spraying space, spray booth, spray room or 
shall be isolated in a detached building or as otherwise ap- 
proved by the building official. 

412.2. Construction. 

412.2.1. Spray Spaces. — All spray spaces shall be ventilated 
with an approved exhaust system to prevent the accumulation of 
flammable mist or vapors. When such spaces are not separately 
enclosed, noncombustible spray curtains shall be provided to 
restrict the spread of fire. 

412.2.2. Spray Booths. — All spray booths shall be constructed 
of approved noncombustible materials equipped with mechanical 
ventilating systems. 

412.2.3. Spray Rooms. — All spray rooms shall be enclosed in 
partitions of substantial construction of approved noncombus- 
tible materials consistent with the requirements of reference 
standard RS4-8. Floors shall be waterproofed and drained in 
an approved manner. Floor drains to the building drainage 
system and the public services shall be prohibited. 

412.2.4. Storage Rooms. — Spraying materials in quantities of 
not more than twenty (20) gallons may be stored in approved 
cabinets ventilated at top- and bottom; when in quantities of 
more than twenty (20) gallons and not more than one hundred 
(100) gallons, they may be stored in approved double-walled 
noncombustible cabinets vented directly to the outer air; and 
all spraying materials in quantities of more than one hundred 
(100) gallons shall be stored in an enclosure of not less than 
two (2) hour fireresistance or in a separate exterior storage 
building. In no case shall such storage be in quantities of more 
than two hundred and fifty (250) gallons, except when stored 
in isolated storage buildings; and except further that not more 
than twenty-five (25) gallons of spraying materials shall be 
stored in buildings in which pyroxylin products are manufac- 
tured or stored. 

412.3. Ventilation of Spraying Processes. — Spraying or dipping 
spaces shall be mechanically ventilated during spraying or dip- 
ping operations so that the velocity of air is at least one hun- 
dred (100) linear feet per minute in the breathing zone of the 
operator, conveying air toward the exhaust hood. The ventilat- 



ing system shall be of sufficient capacity to prevent the accumu- 
lation of mist or vapors. Air shall be admitted to the spraying 
or dipping spaces in an amount equal to the capacity of the 
fan or fans and in a manner that prevents short-circuiting the 
path of air in the working zone of such spaces. The exhaust fan 
control shall be interconnected with spray guns so that they can- 
not be operated without the ventilation system being in opera- 
tion. Exhaust fans shall in addition, be arranged to operate 
independently of spray guns. Ventilation equipment shall be 
kept in operation for a sufficient length of time after spraying 
or dipping operations to exhaust all vapors, fumes, or residues 
of spraying materials from the spray space, dip space, or drying 
room. 

412.3.1. Ventilating Ducts. — Ventilating ducts shall run di- 
rectly to the outer air and be protected with a hood against the 
weather. Ventilating ducts shall be constructed and installed to 
comply with section 1019 and 1119 and article 18, but shall not 
terminate within ten (10) feet horizontally of any chimney outlet, 
or within twenty (20) feet of any exitway or any opening in an 
adjoining wall. 

412.3.2. Make-up Air. — Make-up air shall be supplied from a 
point outside the spraying or dipping space. 

412.3.3. Exhaust System. — The exhaust system from any spray- 
ing, dipping, or drying space shall not be connected to any 
other ventilating . system or be discharged into a chimney or 
flue used for the purpose of conveying gases of combustion. 

412.3.4. Equipment Location. — Unless equipped with approved 
explosion-proof motors with nonferrous blade fans, the me- 
chanical exhaust equipment shall be located outside the spray 
spaces. 

412.3.5. Access Doors. — Adequate access doors or panels, 
tightly fitted, shall be provided to permit inspection and clean- 
ing of ducts. 

412.4. Electrical Equipment. — Artificial lighting and electric 
equipment shall comply with section 400.5. 

412.5. Fire Protection. — Sprinkler heads shall be provided in 
all spray, dip and immersing spaces and storage rooms and 
shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of article 
12. When buildings containing spray areas are not equipped with 
an approved automatic sprinkler system, the sprinkler heads in 
booths and other spray areas and storage rooms may be sup- 
plied from the building water supply when approved by the 



412-413 

building official, to comply with the provisions of section 1213 
for partial sprinkler systems. 

SECTION 413.0. DRY CLEANING ESTABLISHMENTS 

Before any dry cleaning plant is constructed or an existing 
plant is remodeled or altered, complete drawings shall be filed 
showing to scale the relative location of the dry cleaning area, 
the boiler room, finishing department, solvent storage tanks, 
pumps, washers, drying tumblers, extractors, filter traps, stills, 
piping and all other equipment involving the use of flammable 
liquid solvents. All dry cleaning by immersion and agitation 
shall be carried on in closed machines, installed and operated 
in accordance with reference standard RS4-9. 

413.1. Classification. — For the purpose of this code, all dry 
cleaning and dry dyeing establishments shall be classified as 
follows: 

413.1.1. High Hazard. — All establishments employing gasoline 
or other solvents having a flash point below one hundred (100) 
degrees F. (Tag. closed-cup). 

413.1.2. Moderate Hazard. — All establishments employing sol- 
vents having a flash point between one hundred (100) degrees 
F. and one hundred thirty-eight and two-tenths (138.2) degrees 
F. (Tag. closed-cup). 

413.1.3. Low Hazard. — All establishments employing solvents 
with a flash point higher than one hundred thirty-eight and 
two-tenths (138.2) degrees F. (Tag. closed-cup). 

413.2. Construction of Dry Cleaning Plants. 

413.2.1. High Hazard. — The construction or installation of high 
hazard dry cleaning establishments shall be prohibited. 

413.2.2. Moderate Hazard. — Moderate hazard dry cleaning es- 
tablishments shall meet all of the requirements of this code ap- 
plicable to industrial occupancy group D-l buildings. The room 
or space in which such operations are conducted shall be en- 
closed in not less than two (2) hour fireresistive construction 
with not less than two (2) exitways from each dry cleaning or 
dry dyeing room or space. 

413.2.3. Low Hazard. — Low hazard dry cleaning establishments 
shall meet all of the requirements of this code applicable to 
industrial occupancy group D-2 buildings; except that such oc- 
cupancies shall not be located in basements nor in a building 
used for public assembly (occupancy group F) or for institu- 
tional (occupancy group H) purposes. 



413.2.4. Floor Construction of Dry Cleaning Plants. — The floor 
finish in moderate hazard dry cleaning establishments shall be 
noncombustible and impervious. 

413.2.5. Basements of Dry Cleaning Plants. — The basements of | 
all buildings in which moderate hazard dry cleaning establish- 
ments are conducted shall be completely separated from the 
superstructure with unpierced floor construction of not less 
than two (2) hour fireresistance. The access to such basements 
shall be from the exterior only. 

413.3. Boiler Room Separation. — Boiler rooms and heating 
equipment for moderate hazard dry cleaning plants shall be 
separated from drying rooms, dry cleaning and dry dyeing 
rooms with solid walls of not less than two (2) hour fireresis- 
tance; or such boiler rooms shall be located in a separate 
building. 

413.4. Ventilation. — Mechanical ventilation systems in moderate 
hazard plants shall be adequate to effect ten (10) complete air 
changes per hour. Low hazard dry cleaning establishments shall 
be provided with mechanical ventilation adequate to effect four 
(4) complete air changes per hour. Ventilating systems shall be 
arranged in such manner as to prevent solvent vapors from 
being admitted to the combustion area of any device requiring 
an open flame. Sufficient make-up air shall be introduced into 
all parts of the establishment to equal the air exhausted by the 
dry cleaning units, dryers, and exhaust ventilating system. Such 
air shall not contain any flammable vapors. Openings or stacks 
discharging solvent vapor-air mixtures to the outdoors shall be 
located in accordance with the provisions of article 18. 

413.5. Solvent Storage. — Interior above ground storage shall 
be permitted for solvents with a flash point above one hundred 
(100) degrees F. (tag. closed-cup) provided the aggregate quan- 
tity of such solvent in use in the system and in storage is not 
more than five hundred and fifty (550) gallons and the capacity 
of any individual tank is not more than two hundred and 
seventy-five (275) gallons. 

413.6. Electric Wiring and Equipment. — All electrical equipment 
and wiring shall conform to the requirements of article 15 for 
hazardous locations; and the cylinders and shells of all washing 
machines, drying tumblers, drying cabinets, extractors, and all 
above ground storage containers shall be grounded as therein 
required. 



413 

413.7. Fire Protection. — Every dry cleaning room, and dry dye- 
ing room employing moderate hazard solvents shall be protected 
with a fire-extinguishing system consisting of approved auto- 
matic sprinklers, manually controlled steam blankets, carbon 
dioxide flooding systems or other approved fire-extinguishing 
equipment. 

413.8. Coin-Operated Units. — In coin-operated establishments 
all dry cleaning units shall be installed in such a manner that 
the working or maintenance portion of the equipment shall be 
separated from the front of the units by solid noncombustible 
partitions. Coin-operated units shall be located within a diked 
area, all parts of which are impervious to the solvent used in 
such units. The diked section shall be a four (4) inch curb above 
above the floor. Provisions shall be made for the collection of 
solvent spillage into tanks of capacity sufficient to contain all of 
the solvent in the dry cleaning units served, and for return of 
the solvent to the cleaning units through a closed pipe system. 
Access doors to the space in back of the units shall be kept 
closed and locked. Solvent storage tanks and other sources of 
danger shall be so situated as to be inaccessible to the general 
public. In addition to the mechanical ventilation required for 
low hazard dry cleaning establishments, the following mechanical 
ventilation shall be provided: 

413.8.1. Inward Flow. — All dry cleaning units shall have facili- 
ties that create an inward flow of one hundred (100) cubic feet 
of air per minute into the unit when the loading door is opened. 

413.8.2. Emergency Ventilation. — Emergency ventilation of the 
space in back of the dry cleaning units shall be provided so 
that in emergencies a minimum of one (1) air change per minute 
in the enclosed space will be provided. Emergency ventilation 
equipment shall be on a circuit that is separate from the general 
lighting and power circuits, and shall be taken off ahead of the 
main switchboard, or shall be connected to the emergency light- 
ing power source when such source is provided. 

413.8.3. Scavenger Duct. — A scavenger duct system shall be 
provided in the space in back of the units at each unit, and 
shall be designed to pick up vapor surrounding the equipment 
near the floor and exhaust it at the rate of one hundred (100) 
cubic feet per minute. Scavenger ducts shall not be less than 
five (5) square inches in area. 



413.9. Separation of Direct-Fired Dryers. — In moderate hazard 
dry cleaning establishments, direct-fired dryers shall not be used. 
In low hazard dry cleaning establishments using nonflammable 
solvents only, direct-fired dryers may be used, but such dryers 
shall not be located within twenty-five (25) feet of a dry clean- 
ing unit unless a noncombustible partition (which may be glazed), 
equipped with self-closing doors, is provided between the dry 
cleaning unit and the flame producing device. This partition may 
provide either complete or partial separation, provided that any 
partial separation shall be so arranged that the line of air travel 
around the partition from the cleaning units to the dryer is a 
minimum of twenty-five (25) feet. Where a solid noncombustible 
partition is constructed extending to the ceiling and all portions 
of the enclosure are solid, except for self-closing access doors, 
and outdoor air for combustion and drying is supplied, the 
separation may be reduced to fifteen (15) feet. 

SECTION 414.0. PRIVATE GARAGES 

Private garages shall comply with the requirements of reference 
standard RS4-21 and the provisions of this section. 
414.1. Attached Garages. 

414.1.1. One- and Two-Family Dwellings. — Private garages, 
attached to, or located above or below, a one- or two-family 
dwelling shall have walls, partitions, floors and ceilings separating 
the garage space from the dwelling constructed of not less than 
one (1) hour fireresistance, with the sills of all door openings 
between them raised not less than four (4) inches above the 
garage floor. There shall be only one (1) opening between the 
garage and each dwelling unit and there shall be no opening 
from a garage directly into a living room, sleeping room or 
kitchen. The door opening protectives shall be three-quarter 
(3/4) hour fire doors complying with article 9 or one and three- 
quarter (1-3/4) inch bonded solid core wood doors. 

414.1.2. Multi-Family Dwellings. — Private garages located above 
or below multi-family dwellings and in which no gasoline or oil 
is stored or handled shall be of protected construction of not 
less than two (2) hour fireresistance. 

414.1.3. Deleted. 

414.1.4. Other Conditions. — All private garages not falling 
within the purview of sections 414.1.1 or 414.1.2, attached to 
or located beneath a building shall comply with the require- 
ments of section 415.1.3 for public garages. 



413-415 

414.2. Means of Egress. — Where living quarters are attached to, 
or located above or below a private garage, required means of 
egress facilities shall be protected from the garage area with one 
(1) hour fireresistive construction. 

414.3. Floors. — Garage floors shall be of concrete. The sills of 
all door openings connecting a garage with a dwelling shall be 
raised at least four (4) inches above the garage floor. 

SECTION 415.0. PUBLIC GARAGES 

Public garages shall comply with the applicable requirements of 
the following sections and the requirements of reference standard 
RS4-21. The portions of such buildings and structures in which 
gasoline, oil and similar products are dispensed shall comply 
with the requirements of section 416; the portions in which 
motor vehicles are repaired shall comply with section 417; and 
the portions in which paint spraying is done shall comply with 
the requirements of section 412. 

415.1. Construction. — All group 1 public garages hereafter 
erected shall be classified as storage buildings, moderate hazard 
(occupancy group B-l) and all group 2 public garages shall be 
classified as storage buildings, low hazard (occupancy group B-2) 
and shall conform to the height and area limitations of section 
221.2 table 2-2 except as herein specifically provided. The areas 
used for dispensing gasoline in such buildings shall be located 
on the grade floor and shall comply with the requirements of 
section 416. 

415.1.1. Basements. — The first floor construction of public 
garages of all classifications with basements shall be constructed 
of not less than two (2) hour fireresistance and shall be water 
and vapor proof. Where openings are provided in the floor they 
shall be protected by a curb or ramp not less than six (6) inches 
high above the floor to avoid the accumulation of explosive 
liquids or vapors and prevent them from spilling to the lower 
floor. There shall be not less than two (2) means of egress from 
such areas, one (1) of which shall be directly to the outside 
independent of the exitways serving other areas of the building. 
A one-source sprinkler system shall be provided in basement and 
sub-basement public garages. 

415.1.2. Mixed Occupancy. — No group 1 public garage shall be 
located within, or attached to, a building occupied for any other 
use, unless separated from such other use by construction meet- 



ing the requirements of section 902.4 table 9-2 for type A fire 
divisions. Elevators, stairways, and exitway passageways con- 
necting group 1 garages to other occupancies shall be accessible 
only through vestibules constructed of materials having a two (2) 
hour fireresistance rating. The floor area of such vestibules shall 
be at least fifty (50) square feet but not more than seventy-five 
(75) square feet. Ventilation shall be provided by a louver per- 
manently open to the outdoor air having a net free area of one 
hundred forty-four (144) square inches, located near the floor. 
Vestibule doors shall be one and one-half (1-1/2) hour self- 
closing fire doors, with a six (6) inch high sill provided at the 
door between the vestibule and the garage. Both doors shall 
swing in the direction of the elevators, stairways or exitway 
passageways. 

415.1.3. Roof Storage of Motor Vehicles. — The roof of a public 
garage shall not be used for the parking or storage of motor 
vehicles unless the building is of construction type 1A, IB or 
2A, except as otherwise provided for on open parking structures. 
When the roof of a building is used for parking or storage of 
motor vehicles it shall be provided with a parapet wall or guard 
rail not less than three (3) feet six (6) inches in height and a 
wheel guard not less than eight (8) inches in height located and 
sufficiently anchored so as to prevent any vehicle from striking 
the parapet wall or guard rail. Guard rails shall comply with 
the requirements for railings in article 7. 

415.1.4. Floor Construction and Drainage. — Floors of public 
garages shall be graded to drain through oil separators or traps 
to avoid accumulation of explosive vapors in building drains or 
sewers as provided in article 15. The floor finish shall be of con- 
crete or other approved non-absorbent, noncombustible material. 
415.2. Ventilation. — Public garages shall be ventilated in accor- 
dance with the following provisions: 

415.2.1. Mechanical Ventilation. — Garage spaces above or below 
grade except as provided in section 415.2.3 below shall be pro- 
vided with mechanical ventilation according to one (1) of or a 
combination of the following methods: 

a. Air exhaust at the rate of not less than one (1) cfm per 
square foot of total floor area with properly designed 
means for air inflow. 

b. Air supply at the rate of not less than one (1) cfm per 
square foot of total floor area with properly designed 
means for air outflow. 



415 

c. Air exhaust or air supply at a rate sufficient to maintain 
an average concentration of carbon monoxide not to 
exceed one hundred (100) parts per one million (1,000,000) 
parts of air for periods longer than one (1) hour and 
with a maximum concentration at any time not to exceed 
four hundred (400) parts of carbon monoxide per one 
million (1,000,000) parts of air. The concentration of 
carbon monoxide shall be determined by periodic tests 
taken between three (3) and four (4) feet from the floor 
by means of approved carbon monoxide detector tubes 
or other equivalent means. This method of mechanical 
ventilation may be used only if the overall design includes 
automatic ventilating fan control by means of approved 
carbon monoxide monitoring devices or by other ap- 
proved means located so as to provide full protection for 
the occupancy. 

415.2.2. Air Supply and Exhaust. — Air supply shall be taken 
from an uncontaminated source. Exhaust outlets shall be located 
in accordance with the requirements of article 18 with one-half 
(1/2) of them located six (6) inches above floor level. In public 
garages where motor vehicles are parked by mechanical means, 
the ventilation requirements shall be one-half (1/2) of those re- 
quired above. 

415.2.3. Natural Ventilation. — Garage spaces above grade pro- 
vided with natural ventilation having a free openable area of at 
least five (5) per cent of the total floor area of the space and 
having adjustable openings measuring at least six (6) inches by 
four (4) inches located within six (6) inches of the floor and at 
most sixteen (16) feet apart on all outside and court walls need 
not be provided with mechanical ventilation. 

415.2.4. Repair Shops or Rooms. — When motor vehicles are 
to be operated or engines are run for test purposes or minor 
adjustments, provisions shall be made to collect the exhaust 
fumes from each vehicle individually and to discharge such 
fumes to the outer air by means of a positive induced draft. 
The discharge from such systems shall be located so as not to 
create a hazard to adjoining properties, but not less than eight 
(8) feet above the adjacent ground level on the exterior of the 
building and shall discharge into a yard or court. When neces- 
sary to discharge across a walkway or private thoroughfare the 
discharge opening shall be carried to a height of not less than 
twenty-five (25) feet above the ground level or to a distance 



four (4) inches above the highest point of the wall of the build- 
ing or structure on which it is located. 

415.2.5. Pits. — No pits shall be installed in floors below the! 
first; and pits in first and upper stories shall be provided with 
mechanical ventilation adequate to provide the ventilation re- 
quired under section 415.2. The ventilation system shall be 
operated at all times the pits are occupied by human beings. 

415.3. Special Hazards. — No process shall be conducted in 
conjunction with public garages involving volatile flammable 
solvents, except as provided in section 403 for the storage and 
handling of gasoline and other volatile flammables. 

415.4. Heating and Protection of Equipment. — Radiation and 
heating coils and pipes located within six (6) inches of the floor 
shall be protected with wire mesh or other approved noncom- 
bustible shields of adequate strength; and with asbestos or 
other insulation on top of the equipment when located in par- 
titions or near combustible racks or woodwork. 

415.5. Boiler Rooms of Public Garages. — All heat generating 
plants other than approved direct fired heaters shall be located 
in separate buildings or shall be separately enclosed within the 
structure with solid, water and vapor tight masonry. All rooms 
housing boilers, stoves or other heating apparatus shall be cut 
off from all other parts of the building with four (4) hour 
fireresistive construction with entrance from outside only, and 
no openings through the fire division other than those necessary 
for heating pipes or ducts. 

415.6. Sprinkler and Standpipe Requirements. — A one-source 
sprinkler system shall be provided in garages more than ten 
thousand (10,000) square feet in area or more than four (4) 
stories high used for the storage of trucks loaded with combus- 
tible materials, when of other than fireproof or protected 
noncombustible construction (types 1A or IB) and (2A or 2B); 
and in all group 1 public garages, as defined in article 2, 
located in buildings of which the upper stories are designed for 
other uses, when such garages have a storage capacity of 
twenty (20) or more automobiles; except that when such build- 
ings are more than seventy (70) feet in height, a two-source 
sprinkler system shall be provided. In group 2 public garages, 
as defined in article 2, located in buildings of which their 
upper stories are designed for other uses, standpipe systems 
complying with sections 1207 and 1208 or section 1209 shall be 
provided. 



415-416 
415.6.1. Bus Garages. — A one-source sprinkler system shall be 

provided in all bus garages which are more than thirty (30) 
feet or two (2) stories in height, or which are designed as 
passenger terminals for four (4) or more buses, or for the 
storage or loading of four (4) or more buses. 
415.7. Vehicle Exitways. — Vehicle exitways from garages shall 
have a clear and unobstructed view, as they approach pedes- 
strian sidewalks, of at least a ten (10) foot width from the 
center line of the lane to the corner of the building at the 
sidewalk. At a distance back five (5) feet from the sidewalk 
line this width may be reduced to five (5) feet. 



SECTION 416.0. MOTOR FUEL SERVICE STATIONS 

416.1. Construction. — Buildings and structures used for the stor- 
age and sale of motor fuel oils may be of all types of con- 
struction within the height and area limitations of section 221.2 
table 2-2 for business (occupancy group E) buildings and as 
modified by sections 303 and 304. 

416.1.1. Opening Protectives. — All permissible openings in walls 
with a fire separation distance of less than twenty (20) feet 
shall be protected with approved fire windows or fire doors 
complying with article 9, except doors in such walls to rest 
rooms. 

416.1.2. Basements. — Motor fuel service stations shall have no 
cellars or basements; and when pits are provided they shall 
be vented as required in section 415.2. 

416.2. Gasoline Storage. — All volatile flammable liquid storage 
tanks shall be installed below ground and vented as specified 
in section 403. 

416.3. Location of Pumps. — No gasoline pumps or other mech- 
anical equipment shall be installed so as to permit servicing of 
motor vehicles standing on a public street or highway; except 
when necessitated by the widening of streets or highways, the 
use of the outer driveway of existing service stations may be 
continued for servicing of vehicles when approved by the authority 
having jurisdiction. The canopies and supports over pumps and 
service equipment when located less than twenty (20) feet from 
interior lot lines or from any building or structure shall be 
constructed of approved noncombustible materials. 



SECTION 417.0. MOTOR VEHICLE REPAIR SHOPS 

All buildings and structures designed and used for repair and 
servicing motor vehicles, motor boats, aircraft, or other motor 
driven means of transportation shall be subject to the limita- 
tions of section 221.1 table 2-1 and section 221.2 table 2-2 for 
moderate hazard industrial buildings (occupancy group D-l). 
Such buildings shall be used solely for that purpose. 

417.1. Enclosure Walls. — Exterior walls, when located within 
six (6) feet of interior lot lines or other buildings shall have 
no openings therein. 

417.2. Handling of Volatile Flammables. — All volatile flam- 
mables shall be stored and handled as provided in section 416.2. 

417.3. Ventilation. — All rooms and spaces used for motor 
vehicle repair shop purposes shall be provided with an approved 
system of mechanical ventilation providing at least four (4) 
air changes per hour and meeting the requirements of section 
415.2 and article 18. 

417.4. Fire Prevention. — No open gas flames except heating 
devices complying with section 415.5, torches, welding apparatus, 
or other equipment likely to create an open flame or spark 
shall be located in a room or space in which flammable liquids 
or highly combustible materials are used or stored. 



SECTION 418.0. PLACES OF PUBLIC ASSEMBLY 

The provisions of this section shall apply to all buildings and 
structures, or parts thereof, which are classified in the occu- 
pancy group F-l, and in all other places of public assembly, 
(occupancy groups F-2, F-3 and F-4), except as specifically 
exempted in section 419. 
418.1. Restrictions. 

418.1.1. High Hazard Occupancies. — No place of public assem- 
bly shall be permitted in a building classified in the high 
hazard group (occupancy group A). 

418.1.2. Deleted. 

418.1.3. Frame Construction. — No theatre with stage, fly gallery 
and rigging loft shall be permitted in a building of frame 
type 4-B construction. 

418.1.4. Location. — All buildings used for assembly purposes 
shall front on at least one (1) street in which the main entrance 



417-418 

and exitway discharge shall be located. The main exitway dis- 
charge shall be of sufficient width to accommodate one-half (Vi) 
of the total occupant load, but shall be not less than the total 
required width of all aisles, exitway passageways and stairways 
leading thereto, and shall connect to a stairway or ramp leading 
to a street. A bowling alley shall have a main exitway of 
sufficient capacity to accommodate fifty (50) per cent of the 
total occupant load, without regard to the number of aisles 
which it serves. 

418.1.5. Trim, Finish and Decorative Hangings. — All perma- 
nent acoustic, insulating and similar materials and accessories 
shall comply with the flame resistance requirements of article 9. 
Moldings and decorations around the proscenium openings shall 
be constructed entirely of noncombustible material. 

418.1.6. Existing Buildings. — Nothing herein contained shall 
prohibit the alteration of a building heretofore occupied as a 
place of public assembly for such continued use provided the 
occupancy load is not increased and seats, aisles, passageways, 
balconies, stages, appurtenant rooms and all special permanent 
equipment comply with the requirements of this article. 

418.1.7. New Buildings. — No building not heretofore occupied 
as a place of public assembly shall hereafter be altered to be 
so occupied unless it is made to comply with all the pro- 
visions of this article. 

418.2. Means of Egress Requirements. — Every place of assem- 
bly and parts thereof including tiers, balconies and individual 
rooms so used shall have means of egress sufficient to provide 
for the total capacity thereof as determined in accordance with 
article 6, except as herein provided for or as specifically ex- 
empted in section 419. 

418.2.1. Types of Exitways. — Each level of an assembly occu- 
pancy shall have access to the main exitway and in addition 
shall be provided with exitways of sufficient width to accom- 
modate two-thirds (2/3) of the total occupant load served by 
that level. Such exitways shall open directly to a street or 
into an exitway court, enclosed stairway, outside stairway, or 
exitway passageway leading to a street. Such exitways shall 
be located as far apart as practicable and as far from the 
main exitway as practicable. Such exitways shall be accessible 
from a cross aisle or a side aisle. The number, location and 
construction of all exitways shall comply with all the pro- 
visions of section 418.2. 



418.2.2. Minimum Number of Exitways. — Every place of public 
assembly with an occupant load of one thousand (1000) persons 
shall have at east four (4) separate exitways as remote from 
each other as practicable. Every place of public assembly with 
an occupant load of six hundred (600) to one thousand (1000) 
persons shall have at least three (3) separate exitways as re- 
mote from each other as practicable. Every place of public 
assembly with an occupant load of three hundred (300) to six 
hundred (600) shall have at least two (2) separate exitways as 
remote from each other as practicable. Every place of public 
assembly with an occupant load of less than three hundred 
(300) shall have at least two (2) means of egress as remote 
from each other as practicable; consisting of separate exitway 
discharges or doors leading to a corridor or other spaces 
giving access to two (2) separate and independent exitways in 
different directions. 

418.2.3. Number of Stairways in Auditorium. — Each tier above 
the main floor of a theatre or other auditoruim shall be pro- 
vided with at least two (2) interior enclosed or protected stair- 
ways which shall be located on opposite sides of the struc- 
ture; except that enclosures shall not be required for stairs 
serving the first balcony only, or mezzanine thereunder. Such 
stairways shall discharge to a lobby on the main floor. Exit- 
way stairways serving galleries above the balcony shall lead 
directly to the street or open public space as provided in 
section 418.2.1. 

418.2.4. Emergency Means of Egress from Main Floor of 
Auditorium. — In addition to the main floor entrance and exit- 
way, emergency means of egress shall be provided in con- 
formance with section 418.2.1. on both sides of the auditorium 
which lead directly to an exitway and/or exitway discharge 
to the street independent of other exitways, or to an exitway 
court as defined in this code. 

418.2.5. Emergency Egress from Balconies and Galleries.— 

Emergency means of egress shall be provided in conformance 
with section 418.2.1. from both sides of each balcony and 
gallery with direct exitways and/or exitway discharges to the 
street or to an exitway court. There shall be no communication 
from any portion of the building to the emergency exitway 
stairways except from the tier for which such exitway is ex- 
clusively intended. 



418 
18 2 6. Exitway Courts. — All exitway courts shall be not less 
urn six (6) feet wide for the first six hundred (600) persons 
) be accommodated or fraction thereof, and shall be increased 
ne (1) foot in width for each additional two hundred fifty 
>50) persons. Such courts shall extend sufficiently in length 
b indicate the side and rear emergency exitways from the 

uditorium. 

18.2.7. Hardware. — All required exitways shall be equipped 
'ith self-releasing panicproof latches or bolts of an approved 
/pe complying with section 614.4.2. 

18.2.8. Width of Exitway Doors. — Exitway openings shall be 
t least thirty-six (36) inches wide for single doors and at 

feast sixty-six (66) inches but not more than eighty-eight (88) 
iches wide for the doors swinging in pairs, except that in 
ssembly spaces having an occupant load of over three hundred 
300) persons, single door openings shall be at least forty-four 
44) inches wide. 

U8.2.9. Exitway Lights. — All exitway doors shall be marked 
: vith illuminated signs complying with section 626 which shall 
; >e kept lighted at all times during occupancy of the building. 
U8.3. Theatre Type Seating. 

1118.3.1. Fixed Seats. — In all theatres and similar places of 
issembly except churches, stadiums and reviewing stands, in- 
dividual fixed seats shall be provided with an average width 
taf not less than twenty (20) inches and no seat less than nine- 
teen (19) inches wide. All seats shall be provided with separating 
arms and arranged in rows not less than thirty-three (33) 
[inches apart, back to back, measured horizontally. The spacing 
between the back of one (1) chair in any row and any part 
of the chair in the row behind it, including arm blocks, when 
[the seat is in the lift-up position for automatic operation and 
in the horizontal position for non-lift-up or nonautomatic opera- 
tion, when measured horizontally between plumb lines, shall 
be at least twelve (12) inches, and this spacing shall be increased 
for the following reason: 

Where a difference in floor level occurs between any two (2) 
rows, the spacing shall be increased by one (1) inch where the 
difference in level is at least six (6) inches but less than eleven 
(11) inches; by two (2) inches where the difference in level 
is at least eleven (11) inches but less than seventeen (17) inches; 
by three (3) inches where the difference in level is at least 
seventeen (17) inches but less than twenty-three (23) inches; 



and by four (4) inches where the difference in level is twentj 
three (23) inches and over. 

418.3.2. Continental Seating. — With Continental seating, th 
spacing of rows of unoccupied seats shall provide a clear widt 
between rows measured horizontally as follows (automati 
or self-rising seats shall be measured in the seat-up position 
other seats shall be measured in the seat-down position): 
Eighteen (18) inches clear width, between rows of eighteen (1£ 
seats or less; twenty (20) inches clear width between rows o 
thirty-five (35) seats or less; twenty-one (21) inches clear widtl 
between rows of forty-five (45) seats or less; twenty-two (22 
inches clear width between rows of forty-six (46) seats or more 

418.3.3. Number of Seats. — Aisles shall be provided so tha 1 
no more than seven (7) seats intervene between any seat an< 
the aisle or aisles, except as indicated for continental seatinj 
in section 418.3.2 and as follows : 

With Continental seating, the number of intervening seat 
between any seat and an aisle may be increased to forty-nin< 
(49) where exitway doors are provided along each side aisl< 
of the row of seats at the rate of one (1) pair of exitway door: 
for each five (5) rows of seats. Such exitway doors shall provid( 
a minimum clear width of sixty-six (66) inches. 

418.3.4. Wheel Chair Viewing. — Performance viewing position' 
shall be provided for wheel chair persons in accordance with 
section 418.3.4.1. table 4-3. These positions shall be located 
so as not to interfere with egress from any row of seats and 
shall be reachable by means of ramps and/or elevators. Steps 
shall not be allowed in the line of travel from the main ap- 
proach entry to the designated locations. 

418.3.4.1. Table 4-3 Wheel Chair Viewing Positions 

Capacity of Number of 

Assembly Space Viewing Positions 

75 to 500 Minimum 2 

501 to 1000 Minimum 3 

1001 to 1500 Minimum 4 

Over 1500 — Minimum 4 plus 1 for each 400 over 1500 

418.3.5. Box Seats. — In boxes or loges with level floors, the 
seats need not be fastened when not more than fourteen (14) 
in number. 



418 
418.4. Aisles. — Every portion of any assembly building which 
contains seats, tables, displays, equipment or other materials 
shall be provided with aisle leading to exitways as follows: 

418.4.1. Longitudinal Aisles. — The width of longitudinal aisles 
at right angles to rows of theatre type seats and with seats 
on both sides of the aisle shall be not less than three (3) feet 
six (6) inches, increasing one and one-half (IV2) inches for each 
ifive (5) feet in length toward the exitway, cross aisle, or foyer. 
The width of the longitudinal aisle with banks of seats on one 
side only shall be not less than thirty-six (36) inches, increasing 
one and one-half (l'/2) inches for each five (5) feet in length 
toward the exit, cross aisle, or foyer. Minimum widths shall be 
measured at the point farthest from an exitway, cross aisle, 
or foyer. 

418.4.2. Cross Aisles. — When there are twenty-seven (27) or 
more rows of seats on the main floor of theatres, cross aisles 
shall be provided so that no block of seats shall have more 
than twenty-two (22) rows. The width of such cross aisles shall 
not be less than the sum of the required width of the widest 
aisle plus fifty (50) per cent of the total required width of the 
remaining aisles which it serves; but no cross aisle shall be 
less than forty-two (42) inches wide, or when bordering on 
means of entrance not less than forty-eight (48) inches wide. 
In balconies and galleries of theatres, one or more cross aisles 
shall be provided when there are more than ten (10) rows of 
seats. 

418.4.3. Gradient. — Aisles shall not exceed a gradient of one 
(1) foot of rise in eight (8) feet of run. 

418.4.4. Balcony Steps. — Steps may be provided in balconies 
and galleries only, and such steps shall extend the full width 
of the aisle with treads and risers complying with article 6, 
which shall be illuminated by lights on both sides or by a 
step light or otherwise to insure an intensity of not less than 
one (1) foot candle. 

418.4.5. Railings and Protective Guards. — Metal or other ap- 
proved noncombustible railings or protective guards shall be 
provided on balconies and galleries as herein provided: 

a. A railing or protective guard at least thirty (30) inches 
high above the floor shall be provided along the fascia 
of all balconies, loges, and boxes, except that the guard 
shall be at least thirty-six (36) inches high at the bottom 
of stepped aisles. When rails or other parts of such 



guards are designed with ledges more than two and one 
half (2'/2) inches wide, the top surface of the ledge: 
shall slope down toward the seating area at an angh 
of at least thirty (30) degrees from the horizontal. Th< 
guards shall provide an unperforated curb or toeguarc 
at least twelve (12) inches high above the level of th< 
floor of the balcony, loge, or box. 

b. Railings and protective guards at least thirty (30) inches 
high above the floor shall be provided at cross aisles 
where fixed seat backs of any adjacent lower level dc, 
not project at least twenty-four (24) inches above the] 
cross aisle level. 

c. Where seatings are arranged in successive tiers, and the 
height of rise between platforms exceeds eighteen (18) 
inches, a railing or protective guard, not less than twenty- 
six (26) inches in height along the entire row of seats 
at the edge of the platform, shall be used. 

d. Guards shall be designed to meet the load requirements 
for railings in article 7. 

418.5. Theatre Foyers. 

418.5.1. Capacity. — Adjacent to the main floor and to each 
balcony, if any, of every theatre or similar place of public 
assembly for theatrical use with stage and scenery loft, not 
including churches, and except in the first story, there shall 
be a foyer, consisting of a lobby, corridor, or passageway, 
one or more, with an aggregate net floor area exclusive of 
stairs and landings of not less than one (1) square foot for each 
occupant of the main floor or balcony thus served (non-comu- 
lative). One such area may serve two or more main floors or 
balconies on the same level if large enough for the largest 
two occupancy loads served. A main floor with a balcony 
seating of not more than one hundred and fifty (150) persons 
may have a common foyer. The use of foyers and lobbies and 
other available spaces for harboring occupants until seats become 
available shall not encroach upon the clear floor area herein 
prescribed or upon the required clear width of front exitways. 
418.5.2. Egress. — When the foyer is not directly connected to 
the public street through the main lobby, an unobstructed 
corridor or passageway shall be provided, which leads to and 
equals in minimum width the required width of main entrances 
and exitways. 



418 

418.5.3. Gradient. — The rear foyer shall be at the same level 
as the back of the auditorium and the exitways leading there- 
from shall not have a steeper gradient than one (1) foot in 
eight (8) feet. 

418.5.4. Construction. — The partitions separating the foyer 
from the auditorium and other adjoining rooms and spaces of 
theatres shall be constructed of not less than two (2) hour 
fire re si stance; except that opening protectives may be con- 
structed of noncombustible materials without fireresistance 
rating. 

418.5.5. Waiting Spaces. — Waiting spaces for harboring occu- 
pants shall be located only on the first or auditorium floor. 
Separate means of egress in addition to the required theatre 
means of egress shall be provided from the waiting space based 
on an occupancy of one (1) person for each three (3) square 
feet of waiting space area. 

418.6. Theatre Stage Construction. 

418.6.1. Stage Enclosure Walls. — Except as provided for in 
section 418.9.6, every stage hereafter erected or altered for 
theatrical performances which is equipped with portable or fixed 
scenery, lights and mechanical appliances, shall be enclosed on 
all sides with solid walls of not less than four (4) hour fire- 
resistance, extending continuously from foundation to at least 
[four (4) feet above the roof. There shall be no window opening 

in such walls within six (6) feet of an interior lot line; and 
all permissible window openings shall be protected with three- 
quarter (3/4) hour fire windows complying with article 9. 

418.6.2. Floor Construction. 

a. In Class F-la structures the entire stage shall be of not 
less than three (3) hours fireresistive construction com- 
plying with the requirements of section 213.0 except as 
follows: 

1. Any portion of the stage floor used for passing 
scenery and scenic elements to a lower level may 
consist of heavy timber construction supporting tight 
fitting traps of at least three (3) inches nominal 
solid wood or of equivalent materials in terms of 
fireresistance, strength, and stiffness properties. Stage 
lifts shall comply with the provisions of article 13. 
Any portion of the stage floor that is equipped 
with stage lifts shall be of noncombustible con- 



struction. Joints between lift platforms and adjacen 

floors will be tightly fitted. 
2. Finish flooring shall comply with the provisions o; 

section 922.1.2 table 9-4, article 9. 

b. In Class F-lb structures, raised platforms may be buill 

as stages when they are supported on floors having the 

fireresistance ratings required by section 221.1 table 2-1 

and section 213.0, in accordance with the following: 

1. The area below the platform shall be enclosed or 
all sides with solid construction. 

2. The horizontal area of stage construction shall nol 
exceed the following: $ 

Maximum area 
Wood frame 400 square feel! 

Fire retardant treated wood 1,200 square feel] 

Noncombustible frame unlimited, 

3. The floor of the stage, when wood is used, shall 
be at least one (1) inch nominal thickness, and shall/ 
be laid on a solid, noncombustible backing, or all' 
spaces between supporting members shall be fire- j 
stopped with noncombustible material. 

418.6.3. Roofs and Rigging Lofts. — The roof over the stage in 
Class F-la structures shall be of not less than three (3) hourj 
fireresistive construction. The rigging loft, fly galleries and pin! 
rails need not be fire protected, but shall be constructed of 
approved noncombustible materials. 

418.6.4. Footlights and Stage Electrical Equipment. — Footlights 
and border lights shall be installed in troughs constructed of 
noncombustible materials. All electrical equipment shall con- 
form to the requirements of article 15. The switchboard shall 
be so located as to be accessible at all times and shall be 
fully protected from falling objects and the storage or placing 
of stage equipment against it shall be prohibited. 

418.6.5. Stage Means of Egress. — At least one (1) approved 
means of egress shall be provided from each side of the stage 
and from each side of the space under the stage, and from each 
fly gallery and from the gridiron to a street, exitway court or 
passageway to a street. An iron ladder shall be provided from 
the gridiron to a scuttle in the stage roof. All required exit- 
way openings to the outer air shall be protected with approved 
self-closing fire doors, complying with article 9. All exterior 
openings which are located on the stage for egress or loading 



418 

ind unloading purposes which are likely to be open during 
occupancy of the theatre, shall be constructed with vestibules 
to prevent air draughts into the auditorium. In Class F-la 
structures, at least two (2) means of egress, remote from each 
Dther, shall be available from every point on a stage, each 
•vithin a travel distance limitation of one hundred and twenty- 
'ive (125) feet. The occupant load of the stage shall be based 
upon one (1) person per fifteen (15) square feet for the per- 
forming area and on one (1) person per fifty (50) square feet 
for the remaining area. When any portion of a stage is used 
for audience seating at any time, means of egress of adequate 
capacity shall be provided for that portion, within the travel 
distance limitations for assembly space seating. Exitway openings 
serving a stage directly shall have a capacity of seventy-five 
(75) persons per unit of exit width. In Class F-lb structures, 
at least two exitways, remote from each other shall be available 
from every point on a stage, each within a travel distance 
limitation of one hundred and fifty (150) feet. The occupant 
load of the stage shall be based upon one (1) person per 
twenty-five (25) square feet of area. When any portion of a 
stage is used for audience seating at any time, means of egress 
•of adequate capacity shall be provided for that portion within 
the travel distance limitations for assembly space seating. Exit- 
iway openings serving a stage directly shall have a capacity 
of one hundred (100) persons per unit of egress width. 

418.6.6. Proscenium Wall. — There shall be no other openings 
jin the wall separating the stage from the auditorium except 
the main proscenium opening; two (2) doorways at the stage 
level, one (1) on each side thereof; and, where necessary, not 
more than two (2) doorways to the musicians pit from the space 
below the stage floor. Each such doorway shall not exceed 
twenty-one (21) square feet in area and shall be protected with 
approved automatic and self-closing fire door assemblies com- 
plying with article 9 with a combined fireresistance rating of 
three (3) hours or the approved labeled equipment. 

418.6.7. Proscenium Curtain. — When stage ventilation is pro- 
vided for by means other than emergency exhaust fans, the pro- 
scenium opening shall be protected with an automatic firere- 
sistive and smoke-tight curtain designed to resist an air pressure 
of not less than ten (10) pounds per square foot normal to 
its surface, both inward and outward. The curtain shall with- 
stand a one-half (1/2) hour fire test at a temperature of not 



less than seventeen hundred (1700) degrees F. without the 
passage of flame. The curtain shall be operated by an auto- 
matic heat activated device to descend instantly and safely 
and to completely close the proscenium opening at a rate of : 
temperature rise of fifteen (15) to twenty (20) degrees F. per 
minute; and by an auxiliary closing of the proscenium open- I 
ing. When stage ventilation is provided for by emergency ex- 
haust fans, the proscenium curtain shall have fireresistive prop- 
erties conforming with the requirements of article 9. No curtain 
shall be located between the audience area and the stage unless 
it is designed to permit the air movement that is required for 
the operation of the emergency exhaust fan stage ventilation 
system to bypass or pass through the curtain without excessive 
billowing. Motion picture screens shall be noncombustible, or 
have a flame spread rating not over twenty-five (25), or be of 
materials that have been rendered flameproof in accordance with 
the provisions of article 9. The construction supporting screens 
shall be noncombustible, and shall comply with the require- 
ments of article 7. When the provisions of section 418.9.6 are 
followed, there are no requirements for a proscenium curtain. 

418.6.8. Deleted. 

418.6.9. Stage Ventilation. — Stage ventilation shall be provided 
by either of the following systems: 

a. Metal or other approved noncombustible ventilators, 
equipped with movable shutters or sash shall be pro- 
vided over the stage, constructed to open automatically 
and instantly by approved heat activated devices, with 
an aggregate clear area of opening not less than one- 
eighth (1/8) the area of the stage, except as otherwise 
provided in section 418.1.2. Supplemental means shall 
be provided for manual operation of the ventilator. 

b. Emergency ventilation shall be provided for all stages 
in F-la places of assembly to provide a means of re- 
moving smoke and combustion gases to the outdoors in 
the event of a fire, as follows: 

1. A mechanical exhaust system shall be provided of 
sufficient capacity to exhaust an amount of air at 
least equai to the sum of the following: 
2 cfm per square foot of the performing area. 
4 cfm per square foot of that portion of stage area 
that is not designated as performing area. 
4 cfm per square foot of rigging loft area. 



418 

2. The exhaust system shall be activated both manually 
and automatically, manual operation shall be by 
means of a manually operated switch located at 
the fire control station as required by section 418.9.6 
and adjacent to at least one means of egress from 
the stage. Such means of egress shall be remote 
from the fire control station. Automatic activation 
shall be by means of the sensing devices that start 
the operation of the sprinklers. Exhaust air openings 
of ducts shall be located so as to provide the most 
effective removal of smoke and combustion gases. 

3. The exhaust system shall be provided with an auto- 
matic emergency by-pass damper in the exhaust 
duct on the suction side of the fan. Such damper 
shall close to the fan in the event of a power 
failure to the fan motor and shall open directly to 
the outdoors if the fan is located outside the build- 
ing, or shall open to a duct leading directly to the 
outdoors if the fan is located inside in the building. 
When located inside the building, the fan shall be 
insulated with a minimum of one (1) inch mag- 
nesia block or the equivalent in insulating and 
fireresistive qualities. Exhaust fans shall have drive 
and bearings located outside of the fan impeller 
housing. The exhaust system shall not be connected 
to exhaust openings in any space other than the 
stage or rigging loft, and shall be constructed to 
comply with the provisions of article 18. All 
switches shall be clearly labelled "emergency stage 
ventilation" and shall be painted red. 

4. The emergency ventilation system shall be connected 
to both the normal and emergency light and power 
circuits. 
418.7. Auxiliary Stage Spaces. — Auxiliary stage spaces such as 
understage areas, dressing rooms, green rooms, storage room, 
work shops, and similar spaces associated with the use of the 
stage shall be of fireproof (type 1) construction and shall be 
separated from the stage and all other parts of the building 
by walls of not less than three (3) hour fireresistance and the 
requirements herein prescribed. 

418.7.1. Understage Areas. — When the stage floor is equipped 
with traps or stage lifts, the room or space below the stage 



into which the traps or lifts open shall be completely enclosed! 
by construction having at least the fireresistance rating re-fi 
quired for the stage floor, and such room or space shall not |t 
be used as a workshop or storage area. Storage shall not be il 
deemed to include the location in this area of scenery or t 
scenic elements used during a performance. However, no com- 1 
bustible material that has a flame-spread rating greater than I 
twenty-five (25) or that has not been rendered flame-proof in 
accordance with article 9 of this code may be stored in this 
location at any time. 

418.7.2. Exitway Access. — No point within any auxiliary stage 
space shall be more than fifty (50) feet from a door providing 
access to an exitway. 

418.7.3. Number of Means of Egress. — There shall be at least 
two (2) independent means of egress available from every 
auxiliary space, one (1) of which shall be available within a 
travel distance of seventy-five (75) feet. A common path of 
travel of twenty (20) feet to the two (2) exitways shall be 
permitted. 

418.7.4. Occupant Load. — The occupant load of dressing rooms] 
shall be based on one (1) person per fifty (50) square feet of 
area. 

418.7.5. Sprinklers. — Auxiliary stage spaces shall be equipped I 
with automatic sprinklers installed in conformance with the I 
provisions of article 12. 

418.7.6. Combustibles. — No workshop involving the use of com- 1 
bustible or inflammable paint, liquids, or gases or their storage 
shall open directly upon a stage. 

418.7.7. Interior Finish. — The interior finish of auxiliary stage 
spaces shall comply with the requirements of article 9. 

418.7.8. Opening Protectees. — Openings and necessary doorways 
at stage level connecting such rooms with the stage shall be 
protected with one and one-half (1-1/2) hour self-closing fire 
doors or the approved labeled equivalent complving with arti- 
cle 9. 

418.8. Lighting. — During occupancy, all places of assembly 
shall be lighted to comply with the requirements of section 
627, or as herein prescribed. 

418.8.1. Aisles. — Aisles or cross aisles shall be provided at 
all times with at least one-half (1/2) foot candle of artificial 
illumination by electrical means. 



418 

418.8.2. Other Places of Public Assembly. — All areas and por- 
tions of buildings used as places of public assembly other than 
theatres shall be lighted by electric light to provide a general 
illumination of not less than five (5) foot candles. 

418.8.3. Exitway Lighting. — In addition to the requirements of 
article 6, lighting shall be provided in the following areas: 

a. Foyers and Waiting Spaces. — Foyers and waiting spaces 
shall be artificially lighted by electrical means at all 
times during occupancy of a place of assembly so as 
to provide all illumination of at least five (5) foot candles 
at the level of the floor and on the surface of all stairs, 
steps, ramps, and escalators within the foyers and waiting 
spaces. 

b. Open Exterior Spaces. — Yards or courts which serve as 
open exterior spaces shall be artificially lighted by elec- 
trical means at all times between sunset and sunrise 
during occupancy of a place of assembly so as to pro- 
vide illumination of at least five (5) foot candles at the 
level of the floor over at least the required area. 

418.8.4. Control. — The lighting of exitways, aisles and audi- 
toriums shall be controlled from a location inaccessible to un- 
authorized persons. Supplementary control shall be provided 
as specified in section 409.3.4. in the motion picture projec- 
tion room. 

418.8.5. Emergency Lighting. — All assembly spaces shall be pro- 
vided with emergency lighting facilities sufficient to provide 
at least five (5) foot candles of illumination at the floor level. 
Such lighting shall be on circuits that are separate from the 
general lighting and power circuits, either taken, off ahead of 
the main switch or connected to a separate emergency lighting 
power source, and be arranged to operate automatically in the 
event of failure of the normal lighting system. 

418.9. Fire Protection and Fire Fighting Equipment. — Every 
theatre-type structure classified in the F-l occupancy group 
shall be equipped with fire-extinguishing equipment complying 
with the requirements of article 12 and as herein specified. 
418.9.1. Sprinkler System. — Approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems complying with the provisions of section 1213, 1214, and 
as herein noted for Class F-l a structures shall be provided 
to protect all parts of the building except the auditorium, 
foyers and lobbies or in the immediate vicinity of automatic 
equipment or over dynamos and electric equipment. Such pro- 



tection shall be provided above all rigging lofts over the stage, 
under the gridiron, under all fly galleries, in dressing rooms, 
over the proscenium opening on the stage side, under the stage, 
in all basements, cellars, work rooms, store rooms, property 
rooms and in toilet, lounge and smoking rooms. Sprinkler: 
above rigging lofts shall be located so that no gridiron 01 
other obstruction intervenes between the sprinkler heads anc 
the scenery or scenic elements. 

418.9.2. Standpipes. — Standpipe fire lines complying with the 
provisions of sections 1207 and 1208 shall be provided with 
outlets and hose attachments one on each side of the audito 
rium in each tier; one on each side of stage; and protecting each 
property, store, and work room. 

418.9.3. Hose Outlets. — A sufficient quantity of hose shall 
be provided, equipped with regulation fire department coup- 
lings, nozzle and hose spanner, to reach all areas as specified 
in article 12. 

418.9.4. First-Aid Hand Equipment. — Approved portable two 
and one-half (2-1/2) gallon fire extinguishers shall be provided 
and located as follows: two (2) on each tier or floor of the 
stage; one (1) immediately outside of the motion picture pro- 
jection room; one (1) in each dressing room; and one (1) in 
each work, utility and storage room. Fire axes and firehooks 
shall also be provided as directed by the fire official; and all 
fire extinguishers and fire tools shall be securely mounted on 
walls in plain view and readily accessible. 

418.9.5. Vertical Water Curtains. — A deluge sprinkler system 
designed to form a vertical water curtain that completely sepa- 
rates the audience areas from stage areas and rigging lofts 
may be substituted for the enclosure requirements of section 
418.6.1. and the curtain requirements of section 418.6.7 when 
constructed as follows: 

a. Stage areas and rigging lofts totally sprinklered in ac- 
cordance with section 418.9.1. shall be completely sepa- 
rated from audience area by a vertical water curtain 
with sprinkler heads spaced to provide a water density 
of at least three (3) gpm per linear foot. The water 
curtain system shall be controlled by a deluge valve 
actuated by a "rate of rise system" and "fixed tempera- 
ture system." The heat actuating devices shall be located 
on not more than ten (10) foot centers around the 
perimeter of the sprinklered area or as otherwise required 



418 

Ifor the type of device used to assure operation of the 
system. In addition to the automatic controls, manual 
operating devices shall be located at the first control 
station as required by section 418.9.7. below and adjacent 
to at least one (1) exitway from the stage. Such exitway 
shall be remote from the fire control station. 

b. When openings are provided in the stage floor for stage 
lifts, trap doors or stairs, sprinklers spaced five (5) feet 
on centers shall be provided around the opening at the 
ceiling below the stage, and baffles at least twelve (12) 
inches in depth shall be installed around the perimeter 
of the opening. 

c. All valves controlling sprinkler supplies shall be pro- 
vided with tamper switches wired to an annunciator panel 
located at the fire control station. 

d. The operation of any section of the sprinkler system and 
the deluge system shall activate the emergency ventilating 
equipment required in section 418.6.9. 

e. The water flow alarm, tamper switches and deluge system 
equipment shall be provided with central station super- 
vision in addition to the required local alarm. 

418.9.6. Emergency Control Panel. — In Class F-la structures, an 
emergency control panel shall be provided, as follows: 

a. It shall be located on or adjoining the stage, except 
that where the stage is surrounded by seating, it shall 
be located so as to permit a view of the audience and 
stage areas. It shall be manned in accordance with the 
requirements of the fire department at all times during 
the presentation of a performance to an audience. 

b. It shall be equipped with tell-tale lights to indicate when 
feeders and sub-feeders of emergency light and power 
circuits are in operation in assembly spaces, and all 
exitways, including foyers and waiting spaces. 

c. It shall, when a deluge type sprinkler system is pro- 
vided, be equipped with manual operating devices to 
activate the sprinkler system. It shall also be provided 
with a signal system to show when any portion of the 
sprinkler system has been deactivated. 

d. It shall be provided with switches to provide for op- 
eration of the emergency ventilating system. Controls 
for the ventilating system shall be electrically supervised. 
The supervisory circuit shall be provided with a trouble 



bell and light, both of which shall be activated in tfrJ 
event of a failure in the ventilation system. A silencing 
switch may be provided, and where provided, shall hav< 
either an automatic reset or shall ring again when the 
trouble is corrected. 

e. It shall be equipped with a public address system serving j 
loudspeakers in the assembly space. The public address i 
system shall be connected to both the normal and emer- \ 
gency light and power circuits. 

f. It shall be equipped with an alarm system and intercom 
connected to the manager's office, the dressing rooms, 
and to a supervisory central fire station. 

In Class F-lb structures having an occupant load over six 
hundred (600) persons, an emergency control panel shall be pro- 
vided, as follows: 

a. It shall be located so as to have a view of the audi- ! 
ence and stage areas, and shall be manned during the) 
presentation of a performance to an audience, by a com- 
petent person instructed in its use. 

b. It shall be equipped with tell-tale lights to indicate when 
feeders and sub-feeders of emergency light and power; 
circuits are in operation in assembly spaces and all exit- 1 
ways, including foyers and waiting spaces. 

c. It shall be equipped with a public address system serving 
loudspeakers in the assembly space. The public address 
system shall be connected to both the normal and emer- 1 
gency light and power circuits. 

SECTION 419.0. PUBLIC ASSEMBLY OTHER THAN OC- 
CUPANCY GROUP F-l 

Other places of public assembly including exhibition halls, 
armories, bowling alleys, broadcasting studios, chapels, churches, 
community houses, dance halls, gymnasiums, lecture halls, mu- 
seums, night clubs, rinks, roof gardens and similar occupancies 
shall comply with the general means of egress requirements of 
article 6 and the applicable requirements of section 418, ex- 
cept as otherwise provided for in sections 418.4.5 and 418.5.4 or 
as herein specifically exempted. Places of public assembly which 
are equipped with a stage, movable scenery, scenery loft and 
dressing rooms shall comply with all the requirements of section 
418 for occupancy group F-l. 

419.1. Number of Exitways. — Every tier, floor level and story 
of places of public assembly shall be provided with the mini- 



418-419 

mum number of required, approved exitways, as provided for 
in sections 418.1.4, 418.2 and the applicable subsections of 
section 418.2. 

419.2. Aisles With Fixed Seats. — All rows of seats shall be 
individually fixed or fixed in rigid units between longitudinal 
aisles complying with sections 418.3 and 418.4 except as pro- 
vided for chapels and churches in which the minimum side 
aisle width shall be thirty-six (36) inches. Where permitted, 
continuous fixed benches shall comply with the provisions of 
section 421.7. 

419.3. Aisles Without Fixed Seats. — Tables and chairs in all 
rooms and spaces for public assembly shall provide convenient 
access by unobstructed aisles not less than thirty-six (36) inches 
wide which lead to required exitways complying with article 6. 
Tables and chairs shall be so arranged that the distance from 
any chair at any table by way of a path between tables and 
chairs is not greater than eighteen (18) feet to an aisle leading 
to an exitway. The width of the path shall be at least eighteen 
(18) inches; except that it may be reduced by one (1) inch for 
each one (1) foot that the distance to the aisle is less than 
eighteen (18) feet, but may not be reduced to less than twelve 
(12) inches. Chairs, when placed with the front edge of the seat 
on a line with the edge of the table, shall not protrude into 
this path. Booths containing up to eight (8) seats may be used, 
provided they open directly on an aisle. 

419.6. Kitchen and Service Pantries. — Where kitchen and service 
pantries are provided, they shall be separately enclosed in 
partitions, floors and ceilings of not less than one (1) hour 
fireresistance, except for opening protectives; and no required 
exitway shall pass through such areas. 

419.7. Bowling Alleys. — The storage and use of all volatile 
flammable liquids shall comply with section 403 and the finish- 
ing rooms shall be separately enclosed in two (2) hour fire- 
resistive construction with floor finish of concrete or other 
noncombustible, nonabsorbent material. Finishing rooms shall 
not be permitted in areas below grade. 

419.8. Skating Rinks. — No skating rinks shall be located be- 
low the floor nearest grade. 

419.9. Exhibition Type Areas. — When a building or a portion 
of a structure exceeding fifteen thousand (15,000) square feet 
in area is used as an exhibition hall, museum or other occu- 
pancy group F-3 occupancy for the display or sale of com- 



bustible products, goods or materials, or having combustible 
display equipment either on a temporary or permanent basis 
the following requirements shall apply. 

419.9.1. Sprinklers. — An approved automatic sprinkler system 
complying with the provisions of sections 1213 and 1214 shall 
be installed throughout the exhibit space and accessory areas. 

419.9.2. Draft Curtains. — Draft curtains and emergency smoke 
and heat venting equipment shall be installed in accordance 
with the provisions of reference standard RS4-22. 

419.9.3. Fan Requirements. — Fans in air-handling systems serving 
these areas shall be arranged to shut down automatically when 
the temperature of the air in the system becomes abnormally 
high in accordance with the provisions of reference standard 
RS4-23. 

419.9.4. Means of Egress. — The arrangement of temporary 
partitions or booths shall not obstruct any exitway and shall 
not increase the access to exitway travel distance from any 
part of the exhibition floor. Means of egress routes shall be 
clearly marked and not obscured. 

SECTION 420.0. OMITTED 
SECTION 421.0. OMITTED 

SECTION 422.0. DRIVE-IN MOTION PICTURE THEATRES 

The location of drive-in motion picture theatres shall be ap- 
proved by the City of Boston authority having jurisdiction thereof. 

422.1. Arrangement of Lanes. — Separate entrance and exitway 
lanes shall be provided not less than twelve (12) feet in width, 
with not less than forty (40) foot intervals between access lanes. 
The parking space for each car shall not be less than nine (9) 
feet by twenty (20) feet in area, and so arranged to provide 
continuous lanes of travel. 

422.2. Projection Booth.— The projection booth shall comply 
with sections 409.3 and 409.4 and shall be supported on a struc- 
ture of type 2-C or other approved noncombustible construction. 
No motor vehicle shall be permitted to park within twenty (20) 
feet of the projection booth or room. 

422.3. Projection Screens. — Projection screens and supporting 
structures shall comply with the requirements of section 418.6.7. 
and shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of 



419-424 

article 7 as applied to signs. Motor vehicle parking spaces shall 
not be closer than twenty (20) feet to any projection screen. 

422.4. Toilet Facilities. — Separate toilet facilities shall be pro- 
vided for each sex as required in article 17 for places of public 
assembly. 

422.5. Fire Protection. — Sufficient approved portable fire ex- 
tinguishers shall be provided in readily accessible locations, 
plainly and visibly identified by signs, at distances of not 
more than one hundred and fifty (150) feet so as to be available 
to every motor vehicle as directed by the fire official. The 
fire extinguishers shall be mounted on posts or platforms pro- 
tected from mechanical injury with substantial guards as approved 
by the building official. 

SECTION 423.0. OMITTED 

SECTION 424.0. PARKING LOTS 

This section shall apply to the construction, alteration, and use 
of open parking lots. Open parking lots shall be unobstructed 
and free of other uses. 

424.1. Curb Cuts. — Parking lots shall be arranged to afford 
ready means of entrance and exit at sidewalk level; and special 
permits shall be secured for curb cuts from the administrative 
authorities. For the purposes of this section, a curb cut shall 
be defined as the total length of cut curb, including splays. 

424.1.1. Street Frontage. — For street frontages of one hundred 
(100) feet or less, the amount of cut curb shall not exceed 
sixty (60) per cent of the frontage of the lot. No single curb 
cut shall exceed thirty (30) feet in length, and there shall not 
be more than two curb cuts on any street frontage of one 
hundred (100) feet or less. The minimum distance between two 
curb cuts shall be five (5) feet. For additional street frontage 
over one hundred (100) feet there may be an additional curb 
cut for each fifty (50) feet of frontage. 

424.1.2. Distance From Lot Lines. — No curb cut shall com- 
mence within eight (8) feet of a side lot line, except that on 
lots with street frontages of fifty (50) feet or less, or on corner 
lots, the curb cut may commence two (2) feet, six (6) inches 
from the side lot line. 



424.1.3. Distance From Intersections. — The distance of curb 
cuts from the intersection of street lines shall comply with the 
zoning resolution. 

424.1.4. Limit. — Notwithstanding any of the above computations, 
no curb cut shall be less than ten (10) feet. 

424.2. Lanes and Parking Spaces. — Access lanes shall be pro- 
vided for each row of cars not less than twelve (12) feet in 
width; and the parking space shall be not less than eight (8) 
feet by eighteen (18) feet in area for each motor vehicle. 

424.3. Parking Lot Offices. — Parking lot offices, attendant shel- 
ters, storage facilities, and similar structures used in conjunction 
with open parking lots may be provided for accessory use, 
but shall comply with the fire district limitations of section 303. 

424.4. Protection of Adjoining Property. — Open parking lots 
shall be completely separated from adjoining land by curbs or 
bumpers of concrete, masonry, steel, heavy timber, or other 
similar and equally substantial materials, securely anchored so 
as to stop motor vehicles. Curbs and bumpers shall be at 
least eight (8) inches high and eight (8) inches wide. The only 
openings permitted in required curbs and bumpers shall be 
for drainage and for motor vehicle entrances and exits, and 
at pedestrial entrances. 

424.5. Surface and Drainage. — All driveways and open spaces 
used for the parking or storage of motor vehicles shall be 
surfaced with concrete asphalt, or equivalent durable, dust- 
less materials. Where the surface paving of an open parking 
lot is nonporous, such lot shall be drained to dry wells or a 
storm water system. An asphaltic concrete surface, not to ex- 
ceed one and one-half (1-1/2) inches in thickness after com- 
paction, shall be considered a porous surface provided such 
surface will pass an amount of water equivalent to one-half 
(1/2) inch of rainfall per hour. Parking lots graded with rolled 
or compacted cinders, gravel or other approved nonabsorbent 
materials to prevent raising of dust shall be maintained to 
prevent drainage onto adjoining property or the sidewalk. 

424.6. Electric Illumination. — Electric light wiring shall be pro- 
vided on approved standards to furnish adequate automatic 
illumination of driveways and lanes as required by the munici- 
pal authorities for street lighting, but in no case shall such 
illumination be less than one-tenth (1/10) of one (1) watt per 
square foot of parking area. 



424-429 

424.7. Fire Protection. — Fire protection shall be provided in 
accordance with pertinent regulations of the Fire Department 
of the City of Boston. 

424.8. Sidewalk Protection. — Suitable barriers subject to the 
approval of the building official shall be erected where re- 
quired to prevent enroachment of vehicles upon abutting side- 
walks or other public ways. 

SECTION 425.0. OMITTED 

SECTION 426.0. OMITTED 

SECTION 427.0. OMITTED 

SECTION 428.0. OMITTED 

SECTION 429.0. SWIMMING POOLS 

429.1. General. — Pools used for swimming or bathing shall 
be in conformity with the requirements of this section, pro- 
vided, however, these regulations shall not be applicable to 
any such pool less than twenty-four (24) inches deep or having 
a surface area less than two-hundred and fifty (250) square 
feet, except when such pools are permanently equipped with 
a water recirculating system or involves structural materials. 
For purposes of this code, pools are classified as private 
swimming pools or public and semi-public swimming pools, as 
defined in section 429.2. 

Materials and constructions used in swimming pools shall 
comply with the applicable requirements of this Code. 
Pools used for swimming or bathing and their equipment or 
accessories which are constructed, installed and maintained in 
accordance with reference standard RS4-19 shall be deemed 
to conform to the requirements of this Code, provided the 
requirements of section 429.8 and Article VI of the Sanitary 
Code of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of 
Public Health are included in the installation. 

429.2. Classification of Pools. — Any constructed pool which 
is used, or intended to be used, as a swimming pool in con- 
nection with a single family residence and available only to 
the family of the householder and his private guests shall be 
classified as a private swimming pool. 



Any swimming pool other than a private swimming pool shall 
be classified as a public or semi-public swimming pool. 

429.3. Plans and Permit. 

429.3.1. Permits. — No swimming pool or appurtenances thereto 
shall be constructed, installed, enlarged or altered until a 
permit has been obtained from the building official. The ap- 
proval of all city, and state authorities having jurisdiction over 
swimming pools shall be obtained before applying to the build- 
ing official for a permit. Certified copies of these approvals 
shall be filed as part of the supporting data for the application 
for the permit. 

429.3.2. Plans. — Plans shall accurately show dimensions and 
construction of pool and appurtenances and properly estab- 
lished distances to lot lines, buildings, walks and fences; de- 
tails of water supply system, drainage and water disposal 
systems, and all appurtenances pertaining to the swimming 
pool. Detail plans of structures; vertical elevations; and sections 
through the pool showing depth shall be included. 

429.4. Locations. — Private swimming pools shall not encroach 
on any front or side yard required by this code or the zoning 
code. No wall of a swimming pool shall be located less than 
six (6) feet from any rear or side property line or ten (10) 
feet from any street property line. 

429.5. Design and Construction. — Pools shall be constructed 
so as to be water tight and easily cleaned. They shall be 
built of approved non-absorbent materials with smooth white 
or light colored surfaces and shall be free of open cracks and 
open joints. All corners at the juncture of pool walls and pool 
floor shall be coved with a maximum radius of six (6) inches 
at depths less than five (5) feet and with a maximum radius 
of three (3) feet less than the depth of the pool at the point 
in question, for depths greater than five (5) feet. 

429.5.1. Structural Design. — The pool structure shall be engi- 
neered and designed to withstand the expected forces to which 
it will be subjected, in conformance with the requirements 
of article 7. 

429.5.2. Wall Slopes. — The side and end walls of all artificial 
and semi-artificial pools shall be vertical and shall have a 
safety ledge at the deep end of the pool, located at a level 
four (4) feet six (6) inches below the surface of the water. 
Safety ledges shall be four (4) inches wide, sloping one quarter 
(1/4) inch toward the pool. 



429 

429.5.3. Floor Slopes. — The slope of the floor on the shallow 
side of transition point shall not exceed one (1) foot vertical 
to twelve (12) feet horizontal. The transition point between 
shallow and deep water shall not be more than five (5) feet 
deep. There shall be no break in slope on the shallow side 
of the transition point. 

429.5.4. Surface Cleaning. — All swimming pools shall be pro- 
vided with a recirculating skimming device or overflow gutters 
to remove scum and foreign matter from the surface of the 
water, in conformance with Article VI of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts, Department of Public Health Sanitary Code. 

429.5.5. Walkways. — Walkways shall be continuous around the 
pool with a minimum width of four (4) feet of unobstructed 
clear distance including a curb at the pool edge, if such curb 
is used. Walkways of a width of eight (8) feet are desirable. 
A minimum of three (3) feet walk width shall be provided 
around any piece of diving equipment. All walks, decks, and 
terraces shall have a minimum slope of one-quarter (1/4) inch 
per foot toward adequate drains or points at which the water 
will have a free unobstructed flow to approved points of dis- 
posal at all times. 

429.5.6. Steps and Ladders. — Steps or ladders for entering 
and leaving the pool shall be of such construction as to mini- 
mize danger of accidents. Except in a flush deck pool, a 
minimum of one (1) ladder shall be provided for each seventy- 
five (75) feet of swimming pool perimeter, and not less than 
two such devices shall be provided at any pool. At least one 
shall be provided at the shallow end of the pool. Step holes 
inserted into the pool wall shall not be permitted. Stairways 
shall not project into the pool, but shall be recessed into the 
wall and walkway of the pool, except when not exceeding four 
(4) in number and extending the full length of any side of the 
pool. Ladders shall have an approved handrail on each side 
leading out over the walkway. Stairways shall have an approved 
handrail at one side or in the center of the stairstep except 
that handrails may be omitted when there are not more than 
four (4) steps in number or extending the full length of any 
side. Handrails and treads of ladders or stairs shall be of an 
approved non-slip material. 

429.5.7. Markings. — In addition to the requirements of Article 
VI of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of 
Public Health Sanitary Code, pool markings shall be as herein 



prescribed. Swimming lanes shall be marked on the bottom 
with dark colored material of the same kind as the pool lining. 
The outlet of the pool shall be plainly marked by a black or j 
dark colored circle or by the use of a conspicuously colored 
outlet grating. The depth of water at the deepest point and at 
the five (5) foot point shall be conspicuously marked on both 
sides of a pool with deep water at one end. In large pools 
with deep water only in the middle, the three (3) and five (5) 
foot depth lines shall be conspicuously marked on the bottom, 
and portions of the area may also be designated by surface 
floats. 

429.6. Water Supply, Treatment and Drainage Systems. — All 
water supply, treatment and drainage systems shall conform 
to the requirements of Article VI of the Sanitary Code, De- 
partment of Public Health, Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

429.7. Appurtenant Structures and Accessories. — All appurtenant 
structures and accessories shall comply with the requirements 
of Article VI of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Depart- 
ment of Public Health, Sanitary Code as well as herein pre- 
scribed. 

429.7.1. Appurtenant Structures. — All appurtenant structures, 
installation, and equipment, such as showers, dressing rooms, 
equipment houses or other buildings and structures, including 
plumbing, heating and air conditioning, amongst other ap- 
purtenant to a swimming pool, shall comply with all applicable 
requirements of this code and the zoning laws of the City of 
Boston. 

429.7.2. Accessories. — All swimming pool accessories shall be 
designed, constructed, and installed so as not to be a safety 
hazard. Installations or structures for diving purposes shall 
be properly anchored to insure stability, and properly designed 
and located for maximum safety. 

429.8. Safety Precautions. 

429.8.1. Electrical Safety. — The construction and installation 
of electric wiring for equipment in or adjacent to swimming 
pools, to metallic appurtenances in or within five (5) feet of 
the pool, and to auxiliary equipment such as pumps, filters, and 
similar equipment shall conform to article 680 of the Massachu- 
setts Electric Code, Form FPR-11. 

429.8.2. Equipment Installations. — Pumps, filters, and other 
mechanical and electrical equipment for public and semi-public 
swimming pools shall be enclosed in such a manner as to be 



429-430 

accessible only to authorized persons and not to bathers. Con- 
struction and drainage shall be such as to avoid the entrance 
and accumulation of water in the vicinity of electrical equipment. 
429.8.3. Swimming Pool Safety Enclosures. — Every person own- 
ing land on which there is situated a swimming pool, shall 
erect and maintain thereon an adequate enclosure either surround- 
ing the property or pool area, sufficient to make such body of 
water inaccessible to small children. Such enclosure, including 
gates therein, must be not less than four (4) feet above the under- 
lying ground; all gates must be self-latching with latches placed 
four (4) feet above the underlying ground or otherwise made 
inaccessible from the outside to small children. 

SECTION 430.0. OPEN PARKING STRUCTURES 

Open parking structures shall comply with the most restric- 
tive applicable requirements of reference standard RS4-21 and 
of this section. In addition, the portions of such buildings 
and structures in which gasoline, oil and similar products are 
dispensed shall comply with the requirements of section 416; 
the portions in which motor vehicles are repaired shall comply 
with section 417; and the portions in which paint spraying is 
done shall comply with the requirements of section 412. 
430.1. General Requirements. — Passenger vehicle structures shall 
be constructed of noncombustible materials throughout, in- 
cluding structural framing floors, roofs and walls. Any en- 
closed rooms or spaces on the premises shall comply with the 
applicable requirements of this code. Open passenger vehicle 
parking structures are those structures used for the parking 
or storage of passenger motor vehicles designed to carry not 
more than nine (9) persons. 

430.1.1. Ramp type parking structures are those employing 
a series of continuously rising floors or a series of intercon- 
necting ramps between floors permitting the movement of pas- 
senger automobiles under their own power to and from the 
street level. 

430.1.2. Deleted. 

430.1.3. For special fireresistive requirements, see section 905.0. 

430.1.4. For exitway requirements, see section 611.5. 

430.1.5. The minimum clear height of any parking tier shall 
be at least seven (7) feet. 



430.2. Separations. — Parking structures may be erected with-j 
out enclosure walls except that an enclosure wall with not less! 
than two (2) hour fireresistance, without openings therein, shall 
be provided when located within fifteen (15) feet of interior lot; 
lines. Open parking structures in buildings of other occupancy 
group classification shall not be permitted unless separated from 
other occupancies by construction having at least a two (2) 
hour fireresistance rating. 

430.3. Basements. — Basements and other below grade areas of 
open parking structures shall comply with the requirements as 
set forth in section 415.1.2, basements of public garages, and 
section 905.0. 

430.4. Heights and Areas. — Heights and areas of open parking 
structures shall not exceed the limits in the following table, 4-4, 
except as noted in section 905.2.2. 

430.4.1. Table 4-4 Height and Area Limitation for Open Parking 
Structures 

Construction Maximum Allowable Allowable Area per 

Classification Height (Feet) Parking Tier (sq. ft.) 

1-A Unlimited Unlimited 

1-B Unlimited Unlimited 

2- A 100 50,000 

2-B 100 50,000 



430.4.2. The area of an open parking structure having not 
more than two (2) tiers above grade shall not be limited. 

430.4.3. The areas of structures wherein more than twenty-five 
(25) per cent of the perimeter has frontage on street or other 
open space leading to a street, each of which is not less than 
thirty (30) feet wide may be increased as provided in section 
308.1. The above limits of height permit parking on the roof. 
430.5. Ramps.— Ramps used for the movement of motor vehicles 
and as required exits need not be enclosed when serving tiers 
above grade. Such ramps shall have a gradient not exceeding 1 
in 7, with nonslip surfaces. A landing having a minimum dimen- 
sion of twenty (20) feet shall be provided at the discharge point 
of all ramps at the street level, within the street line. Where a 
ramp is also used for the parking of motor vehicles, it shall 
be considered as a parking tier and may not serve as an exit- 
way for the occupants of the structure. 



430-432 

430.6. Elevators. — Passenger elevators in open parking struc- 
tures shall comply with the requirements of article 16 except 
that hoistways may be enclosed with non-combustible con- 
struction. 

430.7. Curbs and Bumpers. — Curbs or bumpers of noncom- 
bustible materials shall be provided at the perimeter of each 
parking tier. Such curbs or bumpers shall be at least twelve 
(12) inches high, substantially anchored, and so located that no 
part of any motor vehicle will contact a wall, partition or 
railing. 

430.8. Railings. — Substantial railings or protective guards of 
noncombustible materials shall be provided at the perimeter of 
all parking tiers, except where exterior walls are provided, and 
around all interior floor openings. Such railings or guards shall 
be at least three feet six inches (3'-6") high, and shall be de- 
signed in accordance with the requirements of article 7. 

430.9. Floor Openings. — A curb or ramp at least six (6) inches 
high shall also be provided at all interior floor openings. All 
floors shall be pitched to provide adequate drainage. 

SECTION 431.0. OMITTED 

SECTION 432.0. INTER-COMMUNICATING FLOOR 
LEVELS 

Where necessary for the functional design of the building, any 
structure other than one classified in occupancy group H-2, 
Institutional, may be permitted to have a maximum of three 
(3) communicating floor levels without enclosure or protection 
between such areas, provided that there is compliance with all 
of the conditions prescribed within this section and subject to 
the approval of the building official. 

432.1. Arrangement. — The arrangement of such levels must be 
permitted by section 221.2 table 2-2 of this code. 

432.2. Grade. — The lowest or next to the lowest level is a level 
accessible from the street, or from outside the building at grade, 
with floor level at main entrance not more than twenty-one (21) 
inches above nor more than twelve (12) inches below grade at 
said main entrance. 

432.3. Unobstructed View. — The entire area including all com- 
municating floor levels shall be sufficiently open and unobstruc- 
ted so that it may be reasonably assumed that a fire or other 



dangerous condition in any part will be immediately obvious to 
the occupants of ail communicating levels and areas. 

432.4. Exitways. — Exitway capacity shall be sufficient to pro 
vide simultaneously for all the occupants of all communicating 
levels and areas. All communicating levels in the same fire area 
shall be considered as a single floor area for purposes of deter- 
mination of required exitway capacity. Each floor level, con- 
sidered separately, shall have at least one-half (1/2) of its 
required exitway capacity provided by exitways leading directly 
out of that area without traversing another communicating floor 
level or being exposed to the spread of fire or smoke therefrom. 

432.5. Enclosing Walls. — The enclosing walls of the space created 
by the communicating floor levels shall have a fireresistive rating 
not less than that required for interior exitway stairways, section 
618, with approved fire doors or windows provided in openings 
therein, all so designed and installed as to provide a complete 
barrier to the spread of fire or smoke through such openings. | 

SECTION 433.0. COVERED MALLS, COVERED WALK- 
WAYS AND TUNNELS 

This section shall apply to connections between buildings such 

as covered malls, covered walkways and tunnels, located above 

or below grade level, that are used as a means of travel by 

persons. 

433.1. Definitions. 

433.1.1. Covered Mall. — A covered or roofed interior area hav- 
ing a minimum horizontal dimension of thirty (30) feet used as 
a pedestrian public-way and connecting buildings and/or a 
group of buildings housing individual or multiple tenants. 

433.1.2. Covered Walkway. — A roofed, unobstructed walkway 
the least horizontal dimension is less than thirty (30) feet, con- 
necting buildings and used as a means of travel by persons and 
where less than fifty (50) per cent of the perimeter is enclosed. 

433.1.3. Enclosed Walkway. — A roofed, unobstructed walkway 
where the least horizontal dimension is less than thirty (30) feet, 
connecting buildings and used as a means of travel by persons 
and where fifty (50) per cent or more of the perimeter is en- 
closed. 

433.1.4. Tunneled Walkway. — An unobstructed underground 
walkway connecting buildings and used as a means of travel by 
persons. 



432-433 
433.2. Construction. 

433.2.1. Covered Mall.— 

a. The roof construction and supporting members of a 
covered mall shall be required to be of a type of con- 
struction in accordance with section 221.1 table 2-1 and 
section 221.2 table 2-2 as permitted for the buildings 
connected, but not less than one (1) hour or heavy tim- 
ber construction throughout. All unprotected walls and 
openings separating a tenant area from the mall area 
shall be provided with an automatically actuated water 
curtain unless the tenant area is provided with a com- 
plete automatic sprinkler system. 

b. Concealed spaces, when permitted in a mall roof as- 
sembly, shall be separated from adjoining buildings by 
not less than one (1) hour fireresistive construction. 

c. Except where an approved automatic sprinkler system is 
installed, combination or dry standpipe hose cabinets 
shall be provided for each two hundred (200) feet of 
mall length. 

d. Access openings not less than four (4) feet in size in the 
roof for fire department use shall be provided for each 
one hundred (100) feet of mall length on each side of 
the mall. 

433.2.2. Covered Walkway. — A covered walkway shall be of 
any type of construction permitted by this Code, provided the 
walls and openings at the point of connection to the building 
shall be protected so as to reasonably prevent the spread of 
fire from one building into the other. 

433.2.3. Enclosed Walkway. — An enclosed walkway shall be re- 
quired to be of a type of construction permitted for the build- 
ings connected. Separation between the enclosed walkway and 
the building to which it is connected, except when used as an 
exitway outlet, shall be of not less than one (1) hour fireresistive 
construction, and openings therein shall be protected by a fixed 
or automatic self-closing fire assembly having a three-fourths 
(3/4) hour fireresistive rating. 

433.2.4. Tunneled Walkway. — A tunneled walkway shall be of 
a type of construction suitable for underground location. Separa- 
tion between the tunneled walkway and the building to which 
it is connected shall be not less than two (2) hour fireresistive 
construction, and openings therein shall be protected by a fire 



assembly having a one and one-half (1-1/2) hour fireresistivej 
rating. 

433.3. Transparent or Translucent Roofs. — In lieu of the roof 
construction outlined in section 433.2, roofs of covered malls, 
covered walkways and enclosed walkways may be constructed 
of noncombustible supporting elements and approved translucent 
or transparent panels, subject to the limitations herein established 
and any further requirements of the building official. Wall and 
opening protection shall be in conformance with section 433.2. 

433.3.1. Structural Requirements. — All supporting members and 
paneling shall conform to the requirements of article 7. 

433.3.2. Slope. — Flat roofs shall not be allowed. Roofs shall be 
pitched at a minimum of four (4) feet vertical in twelve (12) feet 
horizontal. Curved roof surfaces shall have a rise equal to 
fifteen (15) per cent of the span. 

433.3.3. Condensate. — Provisions shall be made in the design of 
the roof structure for the removal of condensate from the inner 
surface of the roof structure. Such provisions may be either in- 
corporated into the design of the supporting element or may be 
attached thereto, but in no case shall they be detrimental to 
the use of the enclosed area below. 

433.3.4. Plastic Panels. — Plastic panels to be incorporated as a 
part of the construction of covered malls, walkways, and tunnels 
shall comply with the applicable requirements of article 20. 

433.3.5. Glass Panels. — Size, shape and type of material used 
shall be subject to approval of the building official. 

433.3.6. Allowable Areas. — When complying with the provisions 
of this code, covered malls constructed of transparent or trans- 
lucent materials whose supporting elements are of type 1 con- 
struction may not be more than fifty thousand (50,000) square 
feet in area. For all other types of allowable construction, the 
basic allowable area for covered malls constructed of transpar- 
ent or translucent materials shall be twice the value indicated 
in section 221.2 table 2-2 for occupancy group F-3. All areas 
regardless of construction shall be sprinkered in conformance 
with section 1213.1.5. 

433.4. Multiple Levels. — Balconies and mezzanines in covered 
malls shall conform to the requirements of section 432.0. 

433.5. Allowable Areas. — (For other than transparent or trans- 
lucent roofs). When complying with the provisions of this code, 
covered malls of type 1 construction may not be more than one 
hundred and fifty thousand (150,000) square feet unless sprin- 



433 

klers are provided. For all other types of construction, the basic 
allowable area for covered malls shall be as indicated in sec- 
tion 221.2 table 2-2 for group F-3 occupancy. The area of 
covered malls may be tripled when the covered mall is provided 
with a complete automatic sprinkler system. Unlimited areas 
as provided in section 221.2 table 2-2 shall not apply. Refer 
to section 433.3.6 for allowable areas explicitly for transparent 
or translucent roofs. 

433.6. Exitways. 

433.6.1. Covered Mall. — One-half (1/2) of the required egress 
width for buildings connected by a covered mall shall lead to 
the outside by means other than through the mall. The covered 
mall connecting buildings shall have not less than two (2) inde- 
pendent exitways located as remotely as practicable from each 
other. These exitways shall have a total exit width equal to that 
required for the exitways from all buildings which are within 
one hundred (100) feet travel distance to the mall exitways. The 
maximum distance of travel to an exitway measured within the 
mall shall not exceed two hundred (200) feet. In order to pro- 
vide free and unencumbered travel in the mall to the outside, 
each side of the mall floor area shall be provided with an un- 
obstructed space, not less than twelve (12) feet in width; parallel 
to the building lines and extending to the exitway from the 
mall. This width shall be designed to carry the weight of fire 
trucks. 

433.6.2. Enclosed and Tunneled Walkways. — Enclosed and 
tunneled walkways shall not be accepted as a required means of 
egress unless they comply with the provisions of this article. 
When the length of enclosed or tunneled walkways not meeting 
the provisions of this article for required exitways is more than 
one and one-half (1-1/2) times the maximum allowable distance 
of travel of the most restrictive occupancy being connected, one 
(1) or more exitways from the enclosed or tunneled walkway 
shall be provided. Such exitways shall be located as remotely 
from points of connection between the enclosed or tunneled 
walkway and the buildings as is practicable. 

433.7. Ventilation. — Smoke and heat venting shall be provided 
for covered malls and enclosed walkways and tunneled walk- 
ways. Such venting systems shall be in accordance with refer- 
ence standard RS4-22. 



SECTION 434.0. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AND 
RADIATION-PRODUCING EQUIPMENT 

This section shall apply to the construction, alteration, and use 
of buildings or spaces for radioactive materials and radiation- 
producing equipment. In addition to the requirements of this 
section, occupancies involving radioactive materials and radiation- 
producing equipment shall also comply with applicable require- 
ments of the Health Code of the City of Boston, and of title 
10 of the code of federal regulations relating to atomic energy, 
and of reference standard RS4-20. 

434.1. Laboratories. — All laboratories required to register under 
the requirements of the above codes shall comply with the 
following: 

434.1.1. Construction. — All buildings in which such laboratories 
occur shall be of noncombustible group I construction. 

434.1.2. Floors. — All floors shall comply with the fireresistance 
requirements for the class of construction, and provide the 
degree of radioactive resistance required by applicable city, state, 
and federal regulations. A finished material shall by applied to 
provide a continuous nonporous surface which may be readily 
removed. 

434.1.3. Interior Finish. — All insulation of acoustical treatments 
and interior partitions shall be of noncombustible material. Walls 
and ceilings shall have nonporous finishes of class A rating. 

434.1.4. Sprinkler Protection. — Automatic sprinkler protection 
complying with the construction provisions of article 12 shall 
be provided, and such protection shall be designed for the type 
of combustible materials wherever such material is used, and for 
the radioactive material that may be expected to melt, vaporize, 
or oxidize under fire conditions. Laboratory equipment sus- 
ceptible to damage from water or other materials used in the 
sprinkler system may be shielded by hoods except when the 
equipment provided a source of combustion. Where sprinkler 
protection uses water, or small water-spray installations are used 
to fight small isolated fires, floors shall be provided with 
drainage so that water may be carried to retention tanks for 
later disposal as required when contamination of water is to 
be anticipated. 

434.1.5. Electrical Equipment. — Artificial lighting and electric 
equipment shall comply with section 400.5. 



434 

434.1.6. Ventilation. — Exhaust air from areas in which radio- 
active materials are used or stored shall be exhausted to the 
outdoors in such manner as not to create a health hazard, and 
shall not be recirculated to other areas of the building. Air 
pressure in rooms in which radioactive materials are used or 
stored shall be maintained below the air pressure of adjoining 
rooms, so that there is no flow of radioactive gases or dusts 
into adjoining rooms. 

a. Ducts shall be of sheet steel not less than No. 16 
manufacturers' standard gage or of other equivalent non- 
combustible material having a melting point above 
1800°F. Exhaust ducts within the building, on the dis- 
charge side of the fan, shall be welded airtight. Exhaust 
ducts within the building, on the suction side of the fan 
shall have laps in the direction of air flow with smoke- 
tight joints, and shall be subjected to a smoke test in ac- 
cordance with the requirements for chimneys in article 
10. Access hatches with tight-closing covers shall be pro- 
vided for cleaning and for fire-fighting in the exhaust 
system ducts. 

b. Fume hoods shall be exhausted to the outdoors. Con- 
trols for hood fans shall be interlocked so that contam- 
inated air cannot be drawn into any space from a hood 
where the exhaust fan is not in operation. 

c. Fan equipment other than the impeller and impeller 
housing shall be located outside the exhaust stream. 

d. When the degree of contamination of the exhaust stream 
exceeds the concentration limits permitted by the health 
code, the duct system shall be equipped with devices to 
decontaminate the air to a safe level before discharging 
to the outdoor air. 

434.1.7. Plumbing. — Drainage lines from sinks used for radio- 
active wastes shall be without traps, and shall lead to retention 
tanks as required in section 434.1.4. 

434.2. Radiation Machines. — Radiation machines or particle 
accelerators, linear accelerators, cyclotrons, syncrotons, betatrons 
shall be located only in buildings of noncombustible group I 
construction; however, this requirement shall not apply to con- 
ventional medical, dental, research, or industrial x-ray machines 
of less than 1,000,000 volt capacity. 

434.3. Storage. — Radioactive materials shall be stored in sealed 
containers. When required by the building official to avoid too 



concentrated an exposure within any one space, radioactive 
materials shall be stored in vaults designed in accordance with 
the radiation shielding or other requirements for the materials 
to be stored. When any materials are subject to melting, vapor- 
ization, or oxidation under fire conditions, the storage vaults 
shall be constructed of walls having a fireresistance rating of at 
least four (4) hours, and the vaults shall be equipped with auto- 
matic sprinklers complying with the construction requirements 
of article 12 and shall be vented through devices to decontam- 
inate the air to a safe level. Doors opening into storage vaults 
shall meet shielding requirements and have a fire-protection 
rating of not less than three (3) hours. All bins, shelving, parti- 
tions, and pallets in storage vaults shall be of noncombustible 
materials. Other methods of storage permitted by the health 
department or the atomic energy commission, such as storage 
under water, may be used. 



RS4 



List of Reference Standards 



ANSI PH22.31 1967 
Motion Picture Safety Film 

APHA 1957 

Swimming Pools and other Public Bathing Places, 

Recommended Practice for Design, Equipment and 

Operation 

Mass-DPS Form B-3 1947 

Tents Used as Public Halls, Miscellaneous Halls, 
and Mercantile or Other Establishments, Regulations 
Applicable to 

Mass-DPS Form B-5 1967 

Construction, Alteration, Remodeling, and Recon- 
struction of Grandstands, Bleachers, Stadia or Arenas, 
and Race Track Crash Barriers, Regulations Governing 

Mass-DPS Form C 1955 

Use of the Cinematograph and Similar Apparatus for 
the Exhibition of Motion Pictures-Laws, Rules and 
Regulations Governing the 

Mass-DPS FPR 2 1963 

Dry-Cleaning and Dry-Dyeing, and the Keeping, 
Storage and Use of Cleaning and Dyeing Fluid in 
Connection Therewith. 

Mass-DPS FPR 4 1968 

Construction and Maintenance of Buildings or Other 
Structures Used as Garages and the Related Storage, 
Keeping and Use of Gasoline. 

Mass-DPS FPR 5 1962 

Construction, Location, Installation and Operation of 
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Systems, Gas Piping and 
Appliance Installations in Buildings. 



Mass-DPS FPR 6 1948 
Manufacturing and Handling of Plastics. 

Mass-DPS FPR 13 1965 

Keeping, Storage, Manufacture or Sale in Limited 

Quantities of Flammable Fluids, Solids, or Gases. 

NFPA Vol. 1 1969-70 
Flammable Liquids 

NFPA 24 1969 

Outside Protection (Yard Piping) 

NFPA 30 1969 

Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 

NFPA 32 1964 

Dry Cleaning Plants 

NFPA 33 1969 

Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible 

Materials 

NFPA 34 1966 

Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible Li- 
quids 

NFPA 40 1967 

Cellulose Nitrate Motion Picture Film 

NFPA 42 1967 

Pyroxylin Plastic in Factories, Storage, Handling and 

Use 

NFPA 43 1967 

Pyroxylin Plastic in Warehouses, Wholesale and Retail 

Stores 

NFPA 58 1969 

Liquefied Petroleum Gases, Storage and Handling 

NFPA 59 1968 

Liquefied Petroleum Gases at Utility Gas Plants 



RS4 

NFPA 60 1961 

Pulverized Fuel Systems, Installation and Operation of 

NFPA 61 A 1962 

Starch Factories, Prevention of Dust Explosions in 

NFPA 61B 1959 

Terminal Elevators, Prevention of Dust Explosions 

NFPA 61C 1962 

Flour and Feed Mills, Allied Grain Storage Elevators, 

Prevention of Dust Explosions 

NFPA 63 1964 

Industrial Plants, Fundamental Principles for Preven- 
tion of Dust Explosions in 

NFPA 64 1959 

Country Grain Elevators, Prevention of Dust Ignitions 

in 

NFPA 68 1954 

Explosion Venting Guide 

NFPA 88 1968 

Garages 

NFPA 90A 1969 

Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems 

NFPA 102 1967 

Tents and Grandstands and Air-Supported Structures 

Used for Places of Assembly 

NFPA 204 1968 

Smoke and Heat Venting Guide 

NFPA 329 1965 

Underground Flammable and Combustible Liquid 

Tanks, Leakage From 

NFPA 501B 1968 
Mobile Homes 



NFPA 654 1963 

Dust Explosion Prevention in Plastic Industry 

NFPA 656 1959 

Spice Grinding Plants, Prevention of Dust Ignitions in 

NFPA 657 1967 

Confectionery Manufacturing Plants, Prevention of 

Dust Explosions in 

NFPA 701 1969 

Flame-Resistant Textiles and Films, Standard Method 

of Tests for 

NFPA 801 1955 

Radioactive Materials, Safe Practice for Laboratories 

Handling of 

NFPA 802 1960 

Nuclear Reactors, Fire Protection Practice for 

US Federal Test Method Standard No. 191 1968 
Method 5190 Textile Test, Burning Rate of Cloth, 
30° Angle 

RS 4-1 NFPA 68 1954 

Explosion Venting Guide 

RS 4-2 NFPA 30 1969 

Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 

RS 4-3 Mass. FPR 13 1965 

Keeping, Storage, Manufacture or Sale in Limited 
Quantities of Flammable Fluids, Solids, or Gases. 

NFPA 329 1965 

Underground Flammable and Combustible Liquid 

Tanks, Leakage From 

RS 4-4 Mass. FPR 5 1962 

Construction, Location, Installation and Operation of 
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Systems, Gas Piping and 
Appliance Installations in Buildings, Rules and Regu- 
lations Governing the 

NFPA 58 1969 

Liquified Petroleum Gases, Storage and Handling 



RS 4-1 RS 4-7 

NFPA 59 1968 

Liquified Petroleum Gases at Utility Gas Plants 

Mass. FPR 6 1948 

Manufacturing and Handling of Plastics 

NFPA 42 1967 

Pyroxylin Plastic in Factories, Storage, Handling and 

Use 

NFPA 43 1967 

Pyroxylin Plastic in Warehouses, Wholesale and Retail 

Stores 

NFPA 654 1963 

Plastics Industry, Dust Explosion Prevention 

Mass. FPR 13 1965 

Keeping, Storage, Manufacture or Sale in Limited 

Quantities of Flammable Fluids, Solids or Gases. 

NFPA 60 1961 

Pulverized Fuel Systems, Installation and Operation of 

NFPA 61A 1962 

Starch Factories, Prevention of Dust Explosions in 

NFPA 61B 1959 

Terminal Elevators, Prevention of Dust Explosions 

NFPA 61C 1962 

Flour and Feed Mills, Allied Grain Storage Elevators, 

Prevention of Dust Explosions 

NFPA 63 1964 

Industrial Plants, Fundamental Principles for Pre- 
vention of Dust Explosions in 

NFPA 64 1959 

Country Grain Elevators, Prevention of Dust Ignitions 

in 

NFPA 654 196J 

Plastics Industry, Dust Explosion Prevention 



NFPA 656 1959 

Spice Grinding Plants, Prevention of Dust Ignitions in 

NFPA 657 1967 

Confectionery Manufacturing Plants, Prevention of 

Dust Explosions in 

RS 4-8 NFPA 33 1969 

Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible 
Materials 

NFPA 34 1966 

Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible 

Liquids 



RS 4-9 Mass-DPS FPR 2 1963 

Dry-Cleaning and Dry-Dyeing, and the Keeping, 
Storage and Use of Cleaning and Dyeing Fluid in 
Connection Therewith. 

NFPA 32 1964 

Dry Cleaning Plants 



RS 4-10 NFPA 24 1969 

Outside Protection (Yard Piping) 

RS 4-11 NFPA 102 1967 

Tents and Grandstands and Air-Supported Structures 
Used for Places of Assembly 

Mass-DPS Form B-3 1947 

Tents Used as Public Halls, Miscellaneous Halls, and 
Mercantile or Other Establishments, Regulations Ap- 
plicable to 

Mass-DPS Form B-5 1967 

Construction, Alteration, Remodeling, and Recon- 
struction of Grandstands, Bleachers, Stadia or Arenas, 
and Race Track Crash Barriers, Regulations Governing 



RS 4-8 RS 4-21 
RS 4-12 Mass-DPS Form C 1955 

Use of the Cinematograph and Similar Apparatus for 

the Exhibition of Motion Pictures, Laws, Rules and 

Regulations Governing the 

RS 4-13 ANSI PH22.31 1967 
Motion Picture Safety Film 

NFPA 40 1967 

Cellulose Nitrate Motion Picture Film 

RS 4-14 NFPA 701 1969 

Flame-Resistant Textiles and Films, Methods of Tests 
for 

RS 4-15 US Federal Test Method Standard No. 191 

Method 5190 Textile Test, Burning Rate of Cloth, 
30° Angle 

RS 4-16 deleted 

RS 4-17 deleted 

RS 4-18 deleted 

RS 4-19 APHA 1957 

Swimming Pools and Other Public Bathing Places, 
Recommended Practice for Design, Equipment and 
Operation 

RS 4-20 NFPA 801 1955 

Radioactive Materials, Safe Practice for Laboratories 
Handling 

NFPA 802 1960 

Nuclear Reactors, Fire Protection Practice for 

RS 4-21 Mass FPR 4 1968 

Construction and Maintenance of Buildings or Other 
Structures Used as Garages and the Related Storage, 
Keeping and Use of Gasoline. 



NFPA 88 1968 

Garages 

RS 4-22 NFPA 204 1968 

Smoke and Heat Venting Guide 

RS 4-23 NFPA 90A 1969 

Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems 

RS 4-24 NFPA Vol. 1 1969-70 
Flammable Liquids 



5 



ARTICLE 
LIGHT, HEAT, VENTILATION AND NOISE CONTROL 



500.0 


Scope 


515.0 


Omitted 


501.0 


Definitions 


516.0 


Ventilation of Shafts other 


502.0 


Plans and Specifications 




than Elevator and Dumb- 


503.0 


Standards of Natural Light 




waiter Hoistways and 


504.0 


Standards of Natural Ventila- 




Stairways 




tion 


517.0 


Omitted 


505.0 


Standards of Heating 


518.0 


Courts 


506.0 


Existing Buildings 


519.0 


Omitted 


507.0 


Standards of Artificial Light 


520.0 


Obstruction of Courts 


508.0 


Standards of Mechanical 


521.0 


Fire Emergency Exhaust Sys- 




Ventilation 




tem 


509.0 


Ventilation of Special Spaces 


522.0 


Omitted 


510.0 


Omitted 


523.0 


Window Cleaning Safeguards 


511.0 


Omitted 


524.0 


Noise Control in Multiple 


512.0 


Institutional Buildings 




Dwellings 


513.0 


Omitted 


RS5 


Reference Standards 


514.0 


Omitted 







TABLES 

5-1 505.1.1. Minimum Space Temperature Requirements 



FIGURE 

5-1 508.2.1. Minimum Outside Air Requirements for Ventilation and Air 
Conditioning 

SECTION 500.0. SCOPE 

The provisions of this article shall establish and control the 
minimum requirements for light, heat, ventilation, and noise 
control except as otherwise provided in articles 4 and 6. 

500.1. Standards. — The provisions of reference standard RS 5 
are a part of this article. 

500.2. Tests and Inspections. — All equipment and systems shall 
be tested and /or inspected to disclose defects or operating con- 
ditions dangerous to life or health. Such equipment or systems 
shall not be operated until defects or dangerous conditions are 
corrected. 

SECTION 501.0. DEFINITIONS 

For definitions to be used in the interpretation of this article 2. 



SECTION 502.0. PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

Plans for all buildings and structures other than one- and two- 
family and multi-family dwellings, which are designed for hu- 
man occupancy, shall designate the number of occupants to be 
accommodated in the various rooms and spaces. When means of 
artificial lighting and ventilation are required, the application 
shall include details and description of the mechanical system 
to be installed as herein required or as specified in article 18. 



SECTION 503.0. STANDARDS OF NATURAL LIGHT 



503.1. Natural Light Requirements. — Provide every habitable 
room with natural light complying with the provisions of this 
article. 

503.2. Natural Light Sources and Locations. — Natural light, 
when required, shall be admitted by windows, skylights, moni- 
tors, glazed doors, transoms, fixed lights, jalousies, or other 
natural-light transmitting media. Such sources shall face or open 
upon the sky, or upon a public street, space, alley, park, high- 
way, or right of way, or upon a yard, court, plaza, or space 
above a setback, when such yard, court, plaza, or space above 
a setback is located upon the same lot and is of the dimensions 
required by the applicable provisions of the zoning resolution. 

503.3. Area of Natural Light Sources. — The transmitting area 
of all sources of natural light not closer than thirty (30) inches 
to the finished floor shall aggregate at least ten (10) percent of 
the floor area of the space served. 



SECTION 504.0. STANDARDS OF NATURAL VENTILA- 
TION 

504.1. Occupiable Rooms. — Ventilation of occupiable rooms 
shall be by natural or mechanical means, or both, except where 
mechanical ventilation is required by Sections 508.0. or 509.0. 

504.2. Habitable Rooms. — All habitable rooms shall have 
natural ventilation. 






502-505 

504.3. Alcoves. — An alcove or room opening off another room 
or space shall be ventilated as a separate room, unless the 
opening between the alcove and the room or space is at least 
eighty (80) percent of the area of the common wall, and the 
floor area of the alcove does not exceed twice the area of the 
opening. 

504.4. Balconies. — The area of an interior balcony or mezza- 
nine which opens to form part of another room or space shall 
be added to the area of the room or space in which it is 
located to compute the ventilation required for both spaces. 

504.5. Natural Ventilation Openings. — Natural ventilation shall 
be from unobstructed windows, skylights, monitors, doors, 
louvers, jalousies, or other similar openings. Such openings 
shall be direct to the sky, public street, space, alley, park, high- 
way, or right of way; or upon a yard, court, plaza, or space 
above a setback, where such yard, court, plaza, or space above 
a setback is located on the same lot and is of the character- 
istics required by the applicable provisions of the zoning code 
and section 518. 

504.6. Area of Natural Ventilating Openings. — Natural venti- 
lating openings from habitable spaces shall have a free area 
when open of at least five (5) percent of the floor area of the 
space ventilated. In occupiable spaces, the free openable area 
shall be the basis to determine the minimum requirements for 
supplementary mechanical ventilation. Free openable area is 
the cross sectional area at plane of greatest restriction to air 
flow, exclusive of insect screening. 



SECTION 505.0. STANDARDS OF HEATING 

505.1. Heating Requirements. — All habitable or occupiable 
spaces, and spaces listed in table 5-1 shall be heated in ac- 
cordance with the requirements of this article and reference 
standard RS 5-1. Heating systems shall be capable of producing 
the temperature listed in table 5-1 when outdoor temperature 
is plus five (5) degrees F., and wind velocity is fifteen (15) 
miles per hour, plus due allowance for stack effect in tall 
buildings. Heating equipment shall not be required when either 
of the following conditions exist: 



a. Where occupancy is seasonal, the space contains no 
undrained water pipes, and the rooms or buildings will 
not be occupied between November 1 and May 1 of the 
following year. 

b. Where the processes or activities normally conducted 
within the space will generate sufficient heat to produce 
the prescribed indoor temperature during the time of 
occupancy. 



505.1.1. Table 5-1 Minimum Space Temperature Requirements* 

Minimum 
Temperature 
Rooms or Spaces (degree F.) 

Habitable rooms in all buildings G\70 

Building equipment and machinery rooms 50 

Patients' rooms, bathrooms and toilet rooms, stairs 
and corridors in hospitals and nursing homes. 75 

Bathrooms and toilet rooms, except patients' bath- 
rooms and toilet rooms in hospitals and nursing 
homes. 70 

Offices, waiting rooms, art galleries, museums, li- 
braries, meeting rooms, churches, classrooms, audi- 
toriums, lecture halls, night clubs, restaurants, 
theatres, nursery rooms, and spaces where persons 
are engaged in sedentary activities 70 

Laboratories, light machine work, product inspections, 
loft buildings, shops, stores, display rooms, show 
rooms, sales rooms, and spaces where persons are 
engaged in moderate physical activities. 65 

Gymnasia, dance halls, skating rinks, bowling alleys, 
heavy assembly workrooms or shops, and spaces 
where persons are engaged in vigorous physical 
activities. 60 

Automotive repair shops 50 

Storage areas, garages, space where work or pro- 
cess requires a low temperature None 

Hospital operating rooms, and recovery, labor, and 
delivery rooms 80 

Swimming pools, bath houses, and shower rooms 75 



505-506 
NOTE: *Where the listed temperatures differ from those that 
are required to be maintained under the provisions of rules, 
regulations, or laws of the state or city, the higher temperature 
shall apply. 

505.2. Minimum Temperature Requirements. — Where the occu- 
pancy of any space does not conform exactly with one of the 
listed spaces, the temperature shall be determined by the re- 
quirements of the listed space to which it most nearly conforms. 

505.3. Devices Producing Incidental Heat. — Devices within a 
space such as motors, generators, resistors, lights, compressors, 
steam-heated vessels, etc. which are in constant use during the 
period of occupancy and which produce heat may be considered 
as a supplementary heating device. Their heating capacity may 
be deducted from the required capacity of the heating devices 
in the room in the following percentage: 

a. If the equipment heat is liberated within 

seventy two (72) inches of the floor 100 percent 

b. If the equipment heat is liberated above 

seventy two (72) inches from the floor 60 percent 

c. If the equipment heat is liberated within 

an exhaust hood 30 percent 

505.4. Capacity of Heat Sources. — Heat sources shall have a 
gross output capacity sufficient to provide for the required heat- 
ing load, including, if applicable, appropriate allowance for 
process loads, uncontrolled distribution losses, the heating of 
domestic hot water and temperature recovery (so-called pick-up) 
after night set-back. 

SECTION 506.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

506.1. Unsafe Conditions. — If any existing space does not meet 
the requirements of this article for light and ventilation and, in 
the opinion of the building official, is dangerous to the health 
and safety of the occupants, upon his written order the repairs 
or installations required to conform to this article shall be made. 

506.2. Alterations. — No building, or part thereof, shall here- 
after be altered or rearranged so as to reduce any of the space 
conditions to less than the required standards prescribed in this 
article. No additional room shall be created unless made to 
conform to the requirements of this article. 



506.3. Noise Control. — In multi-family dwellings, the installa- 
tion of new mechanical equipment shall conform to the require- 
ments of Section 524.0. Repairs to existing equipment is not 
considered as new equipment. 

SECTION 507.0. STANDARDS OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT 

507.1. Artificial Light Requirements. — Adequate means for pro- 
ducing artificial light shall be provided in every occupiable 
space in every building hereafter erected and in the portions of 
existing buildings where alterations are performed, except as 
follows: 

a. Artificial light is not required in rooms or spaces nor- 
mally occupied exclusively during the daylight hours 
between one hour after sunrise and one hour before sun- 
set and which- have natural light sources as required by 
Sections 503.2. and 503.3. 

b. Artificial light is not required in rooms or spaces with 
less than forty (40) sq. ft. floor area if they are not 
regularly occupied and if they contain no heat produc- 
ing equipment, no hazardous equipment or automatic 
safety devices. 

507.2. Means of Egress. — Provide artificial illumination of 
means of egress as required in article 6. 

507.3. Places of Assembly. — Provide artificial illumination of 
places of assembly as required in articles 4 and 6. 

507.4. Bathrooms and Toilet Rooms. — Provide artificial illum- 
ination of bathrooms and toilet rooms averaging not less than 
ten (10) foot candles, thirty (30) inches above the floor. 

SECTION 508.0. STANDARDS OF MECHANICAL VENTI- 
LATION 

508.1. Areas Requiring Mechanical Ventilation. — Mechanical 

ventilation shall be provided in all occupiable rooms or spaces 
where the requirements for natural ventilation are not met; in 
all rooms or spaces, which because of the nature of their use or 
occupancy, involve the presence of dust, fumes, gases, vapors, 
or other noxious or injurious impurities, or substances which 
create a fire hazard; or where required by the provisions of 
Section 509.0. or articles 4 and 6. 



506-508 
508.2. Outside Air. — Where mechanical ventilation is required 
the minimum amount of outside air introduced into any room 
or enclosed space shall be at least equal to the amount required 
by Figure 5-1. 

508.2.1. Figure 5-1 Minimum Outside Air Requirements for 
Ventilation and Air Conditioning 



700 



600 



500 



400 



300 



o 200 
< 

Q_ 

en 
9= 
< 100 



1 

B 




\ 1 
\ A 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


- 




\ 










- 


^ I 


V 










- 


- 












- 


- 












- 


- 












— 


1 


I 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 



4 8 12 16 20 24 28 
MINIMUM OUTDOOR AIR, CU. FT. PER PERSON PER MIN. 



508.2.2. Curve A- Ventilation Only. — The values obtained from 
Curve A represent the minimum volume of outdoor air required 
for adults quietly occupied. Where the space has mechanical 
cooling, the values of Curve A represent the minimum amount 
of air to be circulated. 

a. Values of Curve A shall be increased by twenty-five (25) 
percent for areas in which the occupancies contain or 
involve: 

L. Grade school children 

2. Light smoking 

3. Food Service 

4. Other occupancies involving light air contam- 
ination 

b. Values of Curve A shall be increased fifty (50) percent 
for areas in which the occupancies contain or involve: 

L. Manual labor 

2. Sports 

3. Dancing 

4. Heavy smoking 

5. Other occupancies involving heavy air contam- 
ination 

c. Values of Curve A shall be increased by an appropriate 
amount to remove excess heat or moisture generated by 
equipment in the occupied area. 

508.2.3. Curve B- Mechanical Cooling. — The values obtained 
from Curve B represent the minimum volume of outdoor air 
required for adults quietly occupied where adequate control is 
maintained over temperature and humidity and where odor re- 
moval apparatus is used if smoking is permitted in the occupied 
area. 

a. Where only part of the above-mentioned controls are 
maintained, the values of Curve B must be increased in 
accordance with good engineering design and subject to 
the approval of the building official. 

508.3. Means of exhaust. — Exhaust may be accomplished by: 

a. Forcing leakage through openings communicating directly 
to the outdoor air. 

b. By drawing the vitiated air from spaces into the return 
air duct of the system apparatus. When exhaust is to 
a return air duct the system apparatus shall be equipped 
to mix outdoor and return air under conditions which 
assures that the minimum amount of outdoor air will 



508 

never be less than the sum of the minimum outdoor 
air ventilation requirements of all the spaces served by 
that system, 
c. By drawing air into a fan powered exhaust system dis- 
charging directly to the outdoor air. 

508.4. Make-up Air. — Sufficient air to replace the exhaust 
quantity shall be admitted to spaces which are under forcible 
exhaust by one or by any combination of the following methods: 

a. If permitted by this Code, by infiltration through louvres, 
registers, or other permanent openings in walls, doors, 
or partitions of adjoining spaces where air is supplied 
in sufficient excess to meet the requirements of both 
spaces. 

b. By infiltration through natural ventilation openings when 
the heating system is properly designed to permit such 
infiltration without causing drafts objectionable to the 
occupants. 

c. By other methods acceptable to the building official, 
and in conformance with good engineering practice. 

d. If permitted by this Code, exhaust may be accomplished 
by forcing leakage through permanent openings to ad- 
joining spaces from which air is removed by method 
508. 3. c. provided the total amount of ventilation of 
both spaces is not reduced to less than the amounts 
required by Figure 5-1 and provided the space is not of 
the type from which recirculation of air is prohibited. 

508.5. Prohibited Use of Recirculated Air. — Air drawn from the 
following spaces may not be recirculated: mortuary rooms, 
hospital operating rooms, bathrooms, water closet compartments, 
locker rooms, toilet rooms, rooms that must be isolated to 
prevent the spread of infection, or any space where flammable 
vapors, dust, odors, or noxious gases are present in amounts 
exceeding the Threshold- Limit Values established for same by 
reference standard RS 5-2. 

508.6. Use of Adsorption Devices. — If recirculation of air is 
permitted, the required outdoor air supply may be reduced up 
to fifty (50) percent, provided that an equivalent quantity of 
the recirculated air is passed through approved adsorption de- 
vices. The adsorption material, the material quantity and the 
means provided for maintaining the effectiveness of the adsorp- 
tion devices shall be acceptable to the building official and in 
conformance with good engineering practice. 



508.6.1. Improper Maintenance. — Should adsorption devices be 
improperly maintained in the opinion of the building official, 
he may order their removal. If the adsorption devices are 
removed the ventilating system shall not be operated unless 
it will supply one hundred (100) percent of the outdoor air 
required by this section or section 509.0. 

508.6.2. Test Records. — The building owner shall continuously 
maintain a record showing the manufacturer's recommendation 
for frequency of tests, the method of making tests, and the 
results of periodic tests of the adsorption devices. Such tests 
shall be made and certified by the manufacturer or by a labora- 
tory acceptable to the building official at least twice every six 
(6) months. The records of- such tests shall be maintained for 
a period of at least two (2) years, and shall be available for 
inspection by the building official. 

508.7. Installation of Ventilating Systems. — Where mechanical 
ventilation is installed as an alternate or supplement to natural 
ventilation, or is required under the conditions herein prescribed, 
the system, equipment, and distributing ducts shall be installed 
in accordance with the applicable provisions of articles 10, 11 
and 18. 

SECTION 509.0 VENTILATION OF SPECIAL SPACES 

509.1. Kitchens. — Kitchens shall be ventilated as follows: 

509.1.1. Dwelling Units. — Kitchens located within dwelling units 
and having a floor area of greater than seventy (70) square feet 
shall have natural ventilation as prescribed in section 504.0. 
When the floor area is seventy (70) square feet or less, the 
kitchen shall be ventilated by either of the following: 

a. Natural means complying with section 504.0. 

b. Mechanical means exhausting at least two (2) cfm of 
air per square foot of floor area. 

509.1.2. Other than Dwelling Units. — Kitchens, except those 
located within dwelling units, and any spaces where cooking 
of any kind is done, shall be ventilated by either of the following: 

a. Natural means complying with section 504.0. or mechan- 
ically- air cooled means complying with Figure 5-1 section 
508.2 and supplemented with auxiliary mechanical supply 
and exhaust ventilation adequate to remove the fumes 
and smoke from the cooking equipment when operating, 
in accordance with the provisions of article 18. 



508-509 

b. Non-air cooled mechanical means exhausting at least 
three (3) cfm of air per square foot of floor area, but 
in no case less than one hundred fifty (150) cfm. 

509.1.3. Warming Area. — Kitchens, snack bars, or pantries, 
where the operation consists of heating or warming previously 
prepared food that was cooked elsewhere, or where food is 
prepared in vending machines, may be ventilated by either or 
a combination of the following: 

a. Natural ventilation complying with section 504.0. 

b. Mechanical ventilation complying with section 508.0. 

509.1.4. Means of Exhaust. — Air shall be exhausted through 
ducts or chimneys constructed in accordance with the provisions 
of articles 10, 11 and 18. 

509.1.5. Make-up Air. — Make-up air shall be provided by one 
of the methods described in section 508.4. 

509.2. Bathrooms and Toilet Rooms. — Bathrooms and toilet 
rooms shall be ventilated as follows: 

509.2.1. Natural Ventilation. — When ventilated by natural means, 
the natural ventilation openings shall comply with sections 
504.5. and 504.6. except: 

a. In no case shall the net free area of the ventilation 
openings be less than one and one-half (1-1/2) square 
feet. 

b. In occupancy groups H-l and H-2, the ventilation open- 
ing may be to a vent shaft provided that the net free 
area of the opening is not less than three (3) square 
feet. The vent shaft cross-sectional area shall be equal 
to the sum of the required minimum ventilation openings 
plus one-fifth (1/5) square foot for every foot of height 
but not less than nine (9) square feet and open to the 
outer air at the top; or, the vent shaft may be open 
at the sides above the roof with louvres providing net 
free area equal to the area of the shaft. 

509.2.2. Natural Ventilation by Shaft or Duct. — Ventilation 
may be by individual vent shafts or ducts constructed of non- 
combustible materials with a minimum cross-sectional area of 
one (1) square foot plus one-third (1/3) square loot for each 
additional water closet or urinal above two (2) in number. 
The upper termination of such ducts shall be equipped with 
a wind actuated ventilator cap with throat area equal to the 
duct area. 



509.2.3. Mechanical Ventilation. — When a bathroom or toilet 
room is not ventilated by natural ventilation as required by 
this section, it shall be mechanically ventilated as follows: 

a. Rooms containing only one water closet or urinal shall 
be mechanically ventilated by an exhaust system capable 
of exhausting at least fifty (50) cfm. 

b. Rooms containing more than one water closet or urinal, 
and any auxiliary spaces such as those used in hand 
basins, slop sinks, and locker rooms, shall be mechanically 
ventilated by an independent exhaust system capable of 
exhausting at least forty (40) cubic feet of air per minute 
per water closet or urinal. The outdoor air supply shall 
conform to the requirements of section 508.0. 

c. Toilet exhaust systems shall be arranged to expel air 
directly to the outdoors. 

509.2.4. Make-up Air. — Make-up air shall be provided by one 
of the methods described in section 508.4. 

509.3. Inside Locker Rooms. — Inside locker rooms and dressing 
rooms for more than one (1) person shall be ventilated at a 
rate of four (4) changes of air per hour or as required by 
section 508.3., whichever is greater. 

509.4. Corridors. — Corridors shall have ventilation provisions 
to supply outdoor air in conformance to whichever of the 
following is greater: 

a. For make-up of air exhausted to adjoining spaces. 
Provisions for make-up air supply shall conform to section 
508.4. 

b. Natural sources complying with section 504.5. to provide 
ventilating- openings equivalent to at least two and one- 
half (2-1/2) percent of the floor area. 

c. In occupancy groups H-l, I-U2 and L-2 mechanical 
supply of at least one-half (1/2) cubic foot of outdoor 
air per minute per square foot of floor area. 

509.5. Crawl Spaces. 

509.5.1. Buildings and Structures Without Basements. — In 
buildings and structures constructed without basements, and 
in which the first floor construction does not bear directly on 
the ground, a space at least eighteen (18) inches high shall be 
provided directly under the floor beams, girders or still of the 
first floor construction. Where the floor above such a space is 
constructed of wood or metal, the space shall be ventilated by 
one of the following means: 



509 

a. At least four widely separated ventilating openings, 
providing a total net free area of at least one-eight 
hundreth (1/800) of the area of the crawl space, shall 
be provided in the foundation walls, and the ground 
within the crawl space shall be covered with a vapor 
barrier in durability equivalent to at least fifty-five (55) 
pound roofing felt with unsealed laps and with a 
transmission rate of one (1) perm or less. 

b. At least two (2) ventilating openings, providing a total 
net free area of at least one-fifteen hundreth (1/1500) 
the area of the crawl space shall be provided in founda- 
tion walls, provided that a vapor barrier with a trans- 
mission rate of one (1) perm or less is installed over 
the entire underside of the first floor construction and 
overlaps the walls. 

509.5.2. Buildings and Structures With Basements. — No founda- 
tion wall vents shall be required where one side of a crawl 
space is completely open, except for structural members, to a 
basement that has an area at least equivalent to that of the 
crawl space, provided that the basement is naturally ventilated 
by openings complying with Sections 504.5. and 504.6. 

509.6. Ventilation of Boiler Rooms. — Boiler rooms shall be 
ventilated in a manner that will provide air for combustion in 
accordance with the provisions of articles 10 and 11. 

509.7. Ventilation of Spaces With Excessive Temperatures, 
Strong Odors, Hazardous Concentrations of Toxic Substances, 
or Airborne Irritants. — Each such space shall be ventilated by 
a system designed and installed to prevent any of the following 
conditions: 

a. Excessive temperatures that may be detrimental to the 
occupants. 

b. Concentrations of substances in the air in amounts 
exceeding the Threshold Limit Values established for 
same by reference standard RS 5-2. 

c. The danger of concentrations of any other airborne 
irritants and impurities, such as steam, gases, vapor, 
and dust, that may be injurious to health. 

Where the exhausted air may contain toxic substances or strong 
objectionable odors, the exhaust system shall be independent 
of exhaust systems serving other parts of the building. 

509.8. Ventilation for Special Uses and Occupancies. — Special 
uses and occupancies shall be ventilated in accordance with 



the requirements of articles 4 and 6. Ventilation of stage areas 
shall be in accordance with the requirements of article 4. 

SECTION 510.0 OMITTED 



SECTION 511.0 OMITTED 

SECTION 512.0 INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS 

Spaces in buildings of the institutional occupancy group shall be 
lighted and ventilated as herein required except that in buildings 
used for enforced detention of people (occupancy group H-l) 
openings to the street or court may be indirectly through 
intermediate corridors or other approved means. 



SECTIONS 513.0.-515.0. OMITTED. 



SECTION 516.0. VENTILATION OF SHAFTS OTHER 
THAN ELEVATOR AND DUMBWAITER HOISTWAYS 
AND STAIRWAYS. 

All enclosed vertical shafts extending through more than two 
(2) stories of every building or structure, except elevator or 
dumbwaiter hoistways, and stairways, shall be automatically 
vented to the outer air as herein required or as specified in 
section 911. 

516.1. Extending to Roof. — Shaft enclosures extending to the 
roof shall be provided with a metal skylight constructed to 
comply with section 928.2. or with windows of equivalent area 
or with approved automatic means of removing hot air and 
gases. 

516.2. Thermostatic Control. — The operation of fire shutters, 
skylights and other vent relief devices may be controlled by 
fusible links designed to operate at a fixed temperature of not 
more than one hundred and sixty (160) degrees F., or by 
electric or pneumatic operation under a rapid rise in temperature 
at a rate of fifteen (15) to twenty (20) degrees F. per minute 
or by other approved methods. 



509-518 
516.3. Not Extending to Roof. — Shaft enclosures not extending 
to the roof shall have means of gas and smoke relief or 
adequate mechanical ventilation conforming to section 911.1. 
and article 18. 

SECTION 517.0. OMITTED 

SECTION 518.0. COURTS 

All courts required to serve for light and ventilation purposes 
shall comply with requirements of this section. 

518.1. Width of Court. 

518.1.1. Minimum Width. — Every such court shall have a mini- 
mum width of three (3) inches for each foot of height or frac- 
tion thereof but not less than five (5) feet for outer courts 
and twice these values for inner courts as defined in 518.4.1. 

518.1.2. Irregular Court Width. — In the case of irregular or 
gore-shaped courts, the required minimum width of court may 
be deemed to be the average width, provided that no such 
court shall be less than five (5) feet at any point. 

518.2. Area of Court. — The cross-sectional area of- a required 
court shall be not less than one and one-half (1-1/2) times the 
square of its required minimum width; nor shall the length of 
any court be more than twice its required minimum width. 

518.3. Access to Court. — A door or other means of access shall 
be provided at the bottom of every court for purposes of clean- 
ing. 

518.4. Air Passages to Court. 

518.4.1. Inner Court. — Every court serving one or more habitable 
rooms that does not open for its full height on one or more 
sides to a street or legal yard shall be connected at or near the 
bottom with a street or yard by a horizontal passage of fire- 
resistive construction. Such passage shall have a cross-sectional 
area of not less than twenty-one (21) square feet, and shall 
remain fully open at both ends and unobstructed for its full 
size and length, except that grilles of noncombustible construction 
complying with the approved rules may be permitted at the ends 
of the passage. 

518.4.2. Fire-resistance. — The walls, floors and ceilings of such 
passages shall have a fire-resistance rating conforming to sec- 
tion 220.1., Table 2-1, but not less than two (2) hours in 
buildings of types 1, 2 or 3 construction and not less than 
three-quarter (3/4) hour in type 4 construction. 



518.5. Court Walls. — When in the opinion of the building 
official, windows facing on courts do not receive adequate direct 
light by reason of peculiar arrangement or orientation, he may 
require the walls to be constructed of light colored masonry, 
or to be painted and maintained a light color to furnish addi- 
tional reflected light. 

518.6. Court Drainage. — The bottom of every court shall be 
graded and drained to a public sewer or other approved dis- 
posal system complying with the Massachusetts Plumbing Code; 
and shall be paved with concrete or other non-absorbent material 
when required by the building official. 

SECTION 519.0. OMITTED 

SECTION 520.0. OBSTRUCTION OF COURTS 

520.1. Permissible Projections. — Every required court shall re- 
main unobstructed for its required area and full height, except 
for the projections permitted in section 313. In residential 
and institutional buildings, clothes poles, arbors, garden trellises 
and other such accessories shall not be prohibited in the open 
spaces at ground level. 

520.2. Motor Vehicle Parking. — When approved by the building 
official, required court areas may be used for automobile 
parking spaces or private garages not exceeding one (1) story 
in height when accessory to and only for the use of the occu- 
pants of a residential building, provided required windows for 
light and ventilation are not obstructed thereby. 

SECTION 521.0. FIRE EMERGENCY EXHAUST SYSTEM. 

In all buildings and structures herein required to have fire 
emergency exhaust systems, the exitways shall be constructed 
with: 

a. Vertical fire vent stacks and lateral fire vent ducts as 
herein provided, or 

b. Windows to the outer air, or 

c. Mechanical exhaust systems, or 

d. Other equivalent approved means for dissipating smoke, 
heated air and toxic gases directly to the outer air in 
the event of fire. 



518-521 

521.1. Where Required. — Fire emergency exhaust systems shall 
be provided: 

a. In buildings used for H-l and H-2 (institutional) 
occupancy and for L-l and L-2 (hotel and apartment 
house) occupancy groups which: 

1. Exceed three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in height, 
and 

2. Exceed ten thousand (10,000) square feet in floor 
area, and 

3. Are occupied by more than fifty (50) persons above 
the first floor, or have more than twenty-five (25) 
sleeping rooms above the first floor. 

b. In all fully enclosed industrial buildings without exterior 
window openings for ventilation purposes. 

521.2. Fire Vent Ducts. — Exitways which are not ventilated 
by windows opening directly to the outer air shall have a 
system of collecting fire ducts in each story to remove the 
smoke and gases in event of fire. Fire vent ducts shall connect 
to screened openings of not less than one (1) square foot in 
area located in each exitway and complying with sections 1009 
and 1119. Ducts shall have cross-sectional area equal to the 
sum of the screened openings upstream of the section. 

521.3. Thermostatic Operation. — When not connected to a vent 
stack, the inlet openings on each story shall be controlled by 
automatic opening heat-operated devices as required in section 
516.2. 

521.4. Fire Vent Stacks. — When the fire ducts do not discharge 
directly to the outer air in each story, one or more fire vent 
stacks of adequate capacity shall be installed to accommodate 
the discharge from the fire duct system in any enclosed fire 
area on one floor, but in no case shall any individual stack be 
less than four (4) square feet in area, and all stacks shall 
terminate in an approved wind-actuated ventilator outlet above 
the roof. 

521.5. Location of Stacks. — The vent stack shall be located 
in as central a position as practicable with respect to the floor 
area vented thereby, preferably in the vicinity of vertical shafts, 
and shall extend continuously to the roof. 

521.6. Vent Control of Stacks. — The vent control of the 
vertical stacks shall consist of approved noncombustible dampers, 
shutters, or glazed metal sash designed to open outwardly, 
located not less than twenty (20) feet distant from window 



openings or exit doors in adjoining walls, and shall be equipped 
with a thermostatic unit arranged to open at a predetermined 
rate of temperature rise in accordance with the approved rules. 
Auxiliary mechanical means for manual operation of all vent 
controls shall be provided in an accessible location designated 
by the building official. 

521.7. Stack Construction. — The stack enclosure shall be con- 
structed to be vapor and smoke tight with walls of not less 
than two (2) hours fire-resistance, with no openings other than 
the fire duct inlets and the top outlet. 

521.8. Mechanical Exhaust Systems. — When mechanical exhaust 
is required to operate the emergency system either in horizontal 
ducts or vertical vent stacks, the installation shall be thermo- 
statically controlled and installed in accordance with the pro- 
visions of article 18 and the approved rules. 

SECTION 522.0. OMITTED. 

SECTION 523.0. WINDOW CLEANING SAFEGUARDS. 

All buildings and structures over fifty (50) feet or four (4) 
stories in height, other than one- and two-family and multi- 
family dwellings (occupancy groups L-2 and L-3), in which the 
windows are cleaned from the outside shall be provided with 
anchors or other approved safety devices for all window open- 
ings. Such anchors, belt terminals or other devices shall be of 
approved design, constructed of corrosion-resistive materials 
securely attached to the window frames or anchored in the 
enclosure walls of the building. Cast iron or cast bronze anchors 
shall be prohibited. 

Industrial Bulletin No. 21-Revised Rules and Regulations for 
the Prevention of Accidents in Window Cleaning, Massachusetts 
Department of Labor and Industry contains further mandatory 
requirements for window cleaning safeguards. 

523.1. Exterior Scaffolds. — Window cleaning anchors may be 
eliminated on buildings which provide mechanically operated 
exterior scaffolds, or other approved methods for washing 
windows. 

523.2. Pivoted Windows. — Buildings of occupancy group E 
(Business Buildings) over forty (40) feet or three (3) stories in 
height, in which the windows are designed to pivot for cleaning 
from the inside, shall be provided with a roof mounted, record- 



521-524 

ing type anemometer to determine the wind velocity; and no 
window shall be pivoted when the wind velocity exceeds fifteen 
(15) miles per hour. 

SECTION 524.0. NOISE CONTROL IN MULTIPLE DWEL- 
LINGS 

524.1. Requirements. — Interior walls, partitions and floor-ceiling 
constructions in spaces or buildings of occupancy groups L-l 
and L-2 shall be designed and constructed in accordance with 
the requirements of this section, to provide minimum protection 
for each dwelling unit from extraneous noises emanating from 
other dwelling units. In addition, airborne sound from exterior 
mechanical equipment of buildings in any occupancy group shall 
conform to the requirements of this section. 

524.2. Field Testing. — Where conditions indicate that the in- 
stalled construction or equipment does not meet the noise control 
prescribed in this section, measurements shall be taken to 
determine conformance or nonconformance. For conformance 
with this section, the results of such measurements shall not 
fail by more than two (2) decibels to meet the requirements 
in any octave band, or by more than two (2) points to meet 
any sound transmission class or impact noise rating requirements. 

524.3. Acoustical Isolation of Dwelling Units. 
524.3.1. Airborne Noise. 

a. Walls, partitions, and floor-ceiling constructions separa- 
ting dwelling units from each other or from public halls, 
corridors, or stairs shall have a minimum sound trans- 
mission class rating of forty-five (45) for airborne noise. 
The requirement shall not apply to dwelling unit entrance 
doors. 

b. Sound transmission class ratings shall be obtained by 
tests conducted in accordance with the procedures of 
reference standard RS 5-3, except as provided in (c.) 
below. 

c. The sound transmission class ratings of construction 
assemblies as listed in the applicable standards specified 
in reference standards RS 5-3, RS 5-4, and RS 5-5 may 
be used to determine conformance with the requirements 
of (a.) above and with any other section that requires 
a specific sound transmission class rating. 



d. Penetrations or openings in walls, partitions, or floors 
for pipe sleeves, medicine cabinets, hampers, electric 
devices, or similar items shall be packed, sealed, lined, 
backplastered, or otherwise isolated by sufficient mass 
to maintain the required sound transmission class ratings. 

e. Where grilles, registers, or diff users in one (1) dwelling 
unit are connected by ductwork with grilles, registers, or 
diffusers in another dwelling unit, the duct shall be 
designed by means of length, offsets, sound absorbent 
lining, sound traps, or any combination thereof, to pro- 
vide a minimum noise reduction of thirty (30) decibels 
in the third octave band relative to transmitted sound. 
Such ductwork systems shall not transmit self-generated 
noises, due to any attached part or component, which 
results in radiation of noise into any habitable space. 

524.3.2. Structure-Bourne Noise. 

a. Floor-ceiling constructions separating dwelling units from 
each other or from public halls or corridors shall have 
a minimum impact noise rating of fifty (50). 

b. Such impact noise rating shall be obtained by tests 
conducted in accordance with the procedure of reference 
standard RS 5-4, except as provided in (c.) below. 

c. The impact noise rating of a floor-ceiling construction 
listed in the applicable standards specified in reference 
standards RS 5-3, RS 5-4, and RS 5-5 shall be used to 
determine conformance with the requirements of (a.) 
above and with any other paragraph that requires a 
specific impact noise rating. Constructions shall be de- 
signed and installed to avoid short circuiting the isola- 
tion devices that are incorporated into the constructions. 



RS5 



REFERENCE STANDARD RS 5 

LIGHT, HEAT, VENTILATION AND NOISE CONTROL 



List of Reference Standards 



ACGIH 1968 

Industrial Ventilation, A Manual of Recommended 

practice. Appendix — Threshold Limit Values. 

ASHRAE 1967 

Guide and Data Book, Handbook of Fundamentals 

ASHRAE 1968 

Guide and Data Book, Applications 

ASHRAE 1969 

Guide and Data Book, Equipment 

ASTM E90 1966 

Recommended Practice for Laboratory Measurement 
of Airborne Sound Transmission Loss of Building 
Floors and Walls 

IBI 1967 

Noise Control with Insulation Board for Homes, 

Apartment, Motels, Offices. 4th edition. 

NCMA 1955 

Sound Reduction Properties of Concrete Masonry 

Walls 

NCMA 1959 

Sound Transmission Loss and Air Flow Resistance 

Measurements on Concrete Block Walls. 

US FHA 1967 

Guide to Airborne, Impact, and Structure Bourne 

Noise Control in Multifamily Dwellings 



RS 5-1 ASHRAE 1967 

Guide and Data Book — Handbook of Fundamentals ' 

ASHRAE 1968 

Guide and Data Book — Applications 

ASHRAE 1969 

Guide and Data Book — Equipment 

RS 5-2 ACGIH 1968 

Industrial Ventilation, A Manual of Recommended 
Practice. Appendix — Threshold Limit Values. 

RS 5-3 ASTM E90 1966 

Recommended Practice for Laboratory Measurement 
of Airborne Sound Transmission Loss of Building 
Floors and Walls 

RS 5-4 US FHA 1967 

Guide to Airborne, Impact, and Structure Borne 
Noise Control in Multifamily Dwellings 

RS 5-5 IBI 1967 

Noise Control with Insulation Board for Homes, 
Apartments, Motels, Offices. 4th Edition. 

NCMA 1955 

Sound Reduction Properties of Concrete Masonry 

Walls 

NCMA 1959 

Sound Transmission Loss and Air Flow Resistance 

Measurements on Concrete Block Walls. 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



ARTICLE 



6 



600.0 Scope 

601.0 Definitions 

602.0 Plans and Specifications 

603.0 Occupancy Requirements 

604.0 Unlimited One Story 

Buildings 
605.0 Air-Conditioned Buildings 

606.0 Existing Buildings 

607.0 Maintenance of Exitways 

608.0 Occupancy Load 
609.0 Types and Location of 

Exitways 
610.0 Capacity of Means of 

Egress Parts 
611.0 Number of Exitways 

612.0 Exitway Access — Passage- 

ways, Corridors, and 
Balconies 



613.0 



614.0 
615.0 
616.0 
617.0 
618.0 
619.0 
620.0 
621.0 
622.0 
623.0 
624.0 
625.0 
626.0 
627.0 
RS6 



Grade Passageways and 
Lobbies as Exitway 
Elements 

Means of Egress Doorways 

Revolving Doors 

Horizontal Exitways 

Exitway Ramps 

Interior Exitway Stairways 

Access to Roof 

Smokeproof Towers 

Exterior Exitway Stairways 

Moving Exitway Stairways 

Elevators in Exitways 

Fire Escapes 

Omitted 

Exitway Signs and Lights 

Means of Egress Lighting 

Reference Standards 



TABLES 



6-1 
6-2 
6-3 
6-4 



608.1.4 
609.3.2 
610.2.1 
614.1.1 



Occupancy Allowances 

Maximum Allowable Exitway Access Travel Distance 
Determination of Exitway and Access Requirements 
Maximum Occupant Load — For Spaces With One Door 



SECTION 600.0. SCOPE 



The provisions of this article shall control the design, construc- 
tion and arrangement of building elements required to insure 
safe means of egress from all buildings hereafter erected, and 
from all buildings hereafter altered to a new occupancy load, or 
occupancy group, or required for inherent fire safety of the 
occupants. Existing buildings and occupancies shall be controlled 
by the provisions of section 606. 

600.1. Modification of Means of Egress Requirements. — When 
strict compliance with the provisions of this Code is not prac- 
tical, the building official may accept alternate means of egress 
which will accomplish the same purpose, by the procedure 
established in article 1 for modification of this Code or by 
adoption of approved rules. 



600.2. Minimum Requirements. — It shall be unlawful to alter 
any building or structure in any manner that will reduce the 
means of egress below the requirements of this Code for new 
buildings of the proposed use and occupancy. 

600.3. Other Standards. — Compliance with the applicable provi- 
sions of reference standard RS 6 shall be deemed to meet the 
requirements of this article, unless otherwise specifically provided 
herein. 

SECTION 601.0. DEFINITIONS 

For definitions to be used in the interpretation of this article, 
see section 201. 

SECTION 602.0. PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

602.1. Arrangement of Exitways. — The plans shall show in 
sufficient detail the location, construction, size and character of 
all exitways together with the arrangement of aisles, corridors, 
passageways and hallways leading thereto and the exitway dis- 
charges therefrom all in compliance with the provisions of 
this Code. 

602.2. Number of Occupants. — In other than one- and two- 
family dwellings, the plans and the application for permit shall 
designate the number of occupants to be accommodated on every 
floor, and in all rooms and spaces when required by the build- 
ing official. When not otherwise specified, the minimum number 
of occupants to be accommodated by the means of egress facil- 
ities shall be determined by the occupancy load prescribed in 
section 608. The posted occupancy load of the building shall be 
limited to that number. 

SECTION 603.0. OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 

Every building and structure and part thereof hereafter erected 
shall have the prescribed number of exitways of one or more of 
the approved types defined in this article. Every exitway in com- 
bination with the exitway access thereto and exitway discharge 
therefrom shall provide a safe and continuous means of egress to 
a street or to an open space with direct access to a street. 
603.1. General Requirements. — The occupancy group classifica- 
tion of the building, the number of occupants, the floor area, 



600-603 

r the travel distance to an exitway and the capacity of the exitway 

shall be considered in determining the exitway requirements. 

603.2. Mixed Occupancy Groups. — When a building is classified 
in more than one occupancy group in accordance with the pro- 
visions of article 2, the exitway requirements for the entire 
building shall be determined on the basis of the occupancy group 
having the strictest exitway requirements, or the exitway require- 
ments for each building section shall be determined separately or 
when places of assembly, night clubs and rooms and spaces for 
similar occupancies are provided in a building section, the exit- 
ways shall be adequate for the combined occupancy tributary 
thereto. 

603.3. Incidental Occupancies. — When a building contains inci- 
dental occupancies classified in occupancy groups other than 
that under which the building is classified, the exitway require- 
ments for the floor on which such occupancies occur shall be 
based upon those of the occupancy group under which the 
building is classified; but the exitway access and exitway require- 
ments for the incidental occupancy shall be based upon the 
occupancy group classification of the incidental occupancy. 

603.4. Multiple Occupancy. — Where a building, floor, or space 
is used for multiple purposes involving different activities at 
different times, that occupancy involving the greatest number of 
occupants shall be used in determining the exitway requirements 

603.5. Multiple Tenants. — When more than one (1) tenant 
occupies any one (1) floor of a building or structure, each tenant 
shall be provided with separate direct access to the required 
number of approved exitways without passing through premises 
occupied by other tenants, except as permitted for balconies in 
section 612.7. 

603.6. Building Access. — All buildings classified in occupancy 
groups other than A, B-l or B-2, open structures of D-2 or 
L-3, shall have at least one (1) primary entrance accessable to 
and usable by individuals in wheelchairs. Such entrance shall 
provide access to a level that makes elevators available in build- 
ings where elevators are provided. Where ramps are used to 
comply with this requirement, they shall have a slope not 
greater than 1 in 10, and shall otherwise conform to the pro- 
visions of section 617. 



SECTION 604.0. UNLIMITED ONE STORY BUILDINGS 

In one (1) story business, industrial and storage buildings of 
unlimited area when permitted under the provisions of section 
309, sufficient exitways shall be provided to accommodate the 
entire occupancy load on each front of the building; and the 
unobstructed length of travel to a street exitway or to the en- 
trance of an enclosed tunnel or other enclosed exitway leading 
to a street shall not exceed the maximum travel distances pro- 
vided in section 609.3.2 table 6-2 except as may be specifically 
provided for in reference standard RS 6-1. 

SECTION 605.0. AIR-CONDITIONED BUILDINGS 

605.1. Location of Stairways. — In all buildings, without exterior 
window openings in all stories, that are artificially ventilated 
and/or air conditioned as provided in section 517, the stairway 
element of required exitways shall be located as to be accessible 
to the fire department either through the access openings speci- 
fied in section 861 or as otherwise approved in at least alternate 
stories of the building. 

605.2. Exhaust Ducts. 

605.2.1. Exitways. — No exhaust ducts or vents of air-condi- 
tioning systems shall discharge into stairway enclosures. 

605.2.2. Exitway Access. — Corridors serving as exitway access 
shall not be used as the return exhaust from air-conditioned 
spaces through louvres or other devices in the doors or parti- 
tions enclosing such air-conditioned spaces, unless such pas- 
sageways are equipped with approved products of combustion 
detectors to automatically stop the supply and exhaust fans and 
close the louvres and unless such use is approved by the build- 
ing official. 

SECTION 606.0. EXISTING BUILDINGS 



606.1. Owner Responsibility. — The owner or lessee of every 
existing building and structure shall be responsible for the safety 
of all persons in or occupying such premises with respect to 
the adequacy of means of egress therefrom as required by this 
Code. 

606.2. Unsafe Means of Egress. 



604-606 
606.2.1. Inadequate Exitways.— In any existing building or 
structure, not now provided with exitway facilities as herein 
prescribed for new buildings and in which the exitways are 
deemed inadequate for safety by the building official, such addi- 
tional provision shall be made for safe means of egress as he 
shall order. 

606.3. No Change in Use. — When there is no change in occu- 
pancy group or occupancy load, the minimum exitway require- 
ments shall be as follows: 

606.3.1. New Exitways. — If new or altered exitway facilities 
are installed or constructed they shall comply with all the re- 
quirements for new buildings. 

606.3.2. Existing Exitways. — In all buildings (other than one- 
and two-family dwellings), exceeding three (3) stories or forty 
(40) feet in height, or having more than seventy (70) occupants 
above or more than forty (40) occupants below the grade floor, 
all existing unenclosed stairways shall be enclosed with partitions 
and opening protectives of three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresistance 
rating complying with article 9; or such exitways may be pro- 
tected with a partial sprinkler system operated on the house 
water supply when complying with article 12. Existing enclosures 
of substandard fireresistive construction shall be covered on the 
stair side only with the component materials required for a 
three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresistive assembly. 

606.3.3. Fire Excapes. — In buildings not over five (5) stories 
or seventy (70) feet in height, fire escapes complying with the 
requirements of section 624 may be accepted as a secondary 
means of egress when deemed adequate by the building official 
and when approved access to the street is provided from the 
termination of the fire escape. 

606.4. Existing Occupancy Changed. — In every building or 
structure in which there is a change from one occupancy group 
to another or when there is an increase in occupancy load, 
the exitway facilities serving the new use and occupancy shall 
be made to comply with all the provisions of this article for 
buildings hereafter erected. 



SECTION 607.0. MAINTENANCE OF EXITWAYS 



607.1. Obstructions. — It shall be unlawful to obstruct, or re- 
duce in any manner the clear width of any doorway, hallway, 
passageway, exitway access or any other portion of a means 
of egress required by the provisions of this Code. 

607.2. Exterior Exitways. — Exterior stairways and fire escapes 
shall be kept clear of all flower boxes, pots and other obstruc- 
tions; and no display sign or other obstruction shall be attached 
to the building as to interfere with free operation and use of 
such elements of a means of egress. 

607.3. Maintenance. — All exterior stairways and fire escapes 
shall be kept free of snow and ice. They shall be properly 
painted before and after erection; and shall be scraped and 
painted as often as necessary to maintain them in safe condi- 
tion and good repair. 



SECTION 608.0. OCCUPANCY LOAD 



608.1. Design Occupancy Load. — In determining required exit- 
way facilities, the number of occupants for whom exitway 
facilities shall be provided shall be established by the largest 
number computed as follows: 

608.1.1. The actual number of occupants for whom each occupied 
space, floor, or building, as the case may be, is designed for, or, 

608.1.2. The number of occupants computed at the rate of one 
occupant per unit of area as prescribed in section 608.1.4 table 
6-1, or, 

608.1.3. The number of occupants of any space as computed in 
608.1.1 or 608.1.2 above plus the number of occupants similarly 
computed for all spaces that discharge through the space in 
order to gain access to an exitway. 



608.1.4. Table 6-1. Occupancy Allowances 

Net Floor 
Occupancy Group Area per Occupant 

(square feet) 

Billiard Rooms 50 

Bowling Alleys 50 See section 608. 1.4. a. 

Classrooms 20 

Courtrooms 40 

Dance Floors 10 

Dining Spaces (non-residential) 12 

Exhibition Spaces 10 

Garages and Open Parking Structures 250 

Gymnasiums 15 

Habitable rooms 140 

Industrial Shops 200 

In schools : 50 

Institutional Sleeping Rooms 

Adults 75 

Children 50 

Infants 25 

K indergarten 35 

Kitchen (non-residential ) 200 

Laboratories 50 

Preparation rooms 100 

Locker rooms 12 

Lodge rooms 15 

Offices 100 

Passenger Terminals or Platforms See section 608.1 .4.b. 

Sales area (retail) 

First floor and basement 25 

All other floors 50 

Seating Areas (audience in all assembly occupancies) 

Fixed Seats See section 608. 1. 4. c. 

M oveable Seats 10 

Skating Rinks 15 

Stages 15 performing area 

50 other areas 

Standing room (audience in all assembly occupancies) 4 

Storage rooms 200 

a. or if greater, the following: allow five (5) persons per 
alley, which shall include fifteen (15) feet of runway, 
plus one (1) person for each ten (10) square feet of 
space remaining, 

b. 1.5 times the capacity of all passenger vehicles that can 
be unloaded simultaneously, 

c. designed number of seats or occupants. 



608.2. Mezzanine Floors. — The occupancy load of a mezzanine I 
floor discharging through a floor below shall be added to thejl 
main floor occupancy and the capacity of the exitways shall be I 
designed for the total occupancy load thus established. 

608.3. Roofs. — Roof areas occupied as roof gardens or for 
assembly, storage or other purposes shall be provided with exit- I 
way facilities to accommodate the required occupancy load, but 
in no case shall there be less than two (2) approved means ofH 
egress for assembly uses from such roof areas. 

608.4. Special or Unlisted Occupancies. — Where data regarding 
the square feet per person for an occupancy is not listed in 
section 608.1.4. table 6-1, the occupant load shall be established' 
by the architect or engineer, subject to the approval of the I 
building official. 

608.5. Conflict. — When there are special requirements for speci- 
fic occupancies and uses in article 4 which differ from general I 
requirements herein prescribed, such special provisions shall il 
take precedence. 

608.6. Non-Simultaneous Occupancy. — The occupant load of, 
toilets, locker rooms, meeting rooms, storage rooms, employee I 
cafeterias, and similar rooms or spaces that are not occupied 
at the same time as other rooms or spaces on the same floor 
of a building, may be omitted from the occupant load calcula- 
tion of the floor on which they are located, to the extent that 
such spaces only serve occupied rooms on the same floor. 

608.7. Modifications. 

608.7.1. When the actual occupant load of any space will be 
significantly lower than that listed in section 608.1.4 table 6-1, 
the building official may establish a lower basis for the deter- 
mination of the occupant load. 

608.7.2. When a building existing on the effective date of this 
Code is altered or changed in occupancy or use so as to re- 
quire enlarged exitway facilities, the building official may author- 
ize the alteration or change in occupancy or use without an 
enlargement of exitway facilities, provided the occupant load 
is limited to that accommodated by the existing exitway facilities 
as determined by the provisions of this Code, and the building 
or space is posted accordingly with a sign. Such signs shall be 
at least twelve (12) inches in width and sixteen (16) inches in 
height. The lettering shall be red on a white backg, ound. The 
letters shall be not less than one and one-quarter (1-1/4) inches 
high. 



608-609 
SECTION 609.0. TYPES AND LOCATION OF EXITWAYS 



All approved means of egress and parts thereof, including door- 
ways, passageways, corridors, hallways, interior stairways, ex- 
terior stairways, moving stairways, smoke-proof towers, ramps, 
horizontal exitways, bridges, balconies, fire escapes and com- 
binations thereof shall be arranged and constructed as provided 
herein and in compliance with article 16 for moving stairways 
and article 9 for fire enclosure requirements. 



609.1. Arrangement. — All exitways and access thereto and 
discharge therefrom shall be so located that they are clearly 
visible or their locations clearly indicated. They shall be kept 
readily accessible and unobstructed at all times. They shall be 
so arranged as to lead directly to the street or to an area of 
refuge with supplemental means of egress that will not be ob- 
structed or impaired by fire, smoke or other cause. 

609.2. Remote Locations. — Whenever more than one (1) means 
of egress is required from any room, space or floor of a build- 
ing, they shall be placed as remote from each other as practi- 
cable, and shall be arranged to provide direct access in separate 
directions from any point in the area served. Door openings 
to scissor stairs shall be at least fifteen (15) feet distant from 
each other. 



609.3. Length of Travel. 



609.3.1. General Requirement. — Where not otherwise specifically 
required by other sections of this Code, the maximum travel 
distance of exitway access from the most remote point in any 
room or space to the center of a door opening directly on an 
open exterior space or to an exitway shall not be greater than 
the limit specified in section 609.3.2 table 6-2 for the occupancy 
group classification of the room or space, nor greater than the 
specific minimum travel distance requirements of article 4. 



609.3.2. Table 6-2. Maximum Allowable Exitway Access Travel 
Distance. 



Occupancy Group 

of Building or 

Space 


Group 
Desig- 
nation 


Maximum 
Distance 

Unsprin- 
klered 


Travel 
(ft.) 

Sprin- 
klered 


High Hazard 


A 


75 


150 


Storage 


B-l 


100 


150 




B-2* 


125 


175 


Mercantile 


C 


150 


200 


Industrial 


D-l 


125 


175 




D-2 


150 


200 


Business 


E 


200 


300 


Assembly 


F 


150 


200 


School 


G 


100 


150 


Institutional 


H-l 


125 


175 




H-2 


125 


175 


Residential** 


L-l 


150 


200 




L-2 


150 


200 




L-3 


N.R. 


N.R. 



N.R. — No Requirements 

♦Except that all Public Garages shall be one hundred (100) 
feet if unsprinklered and one hundred and fifty (150) feet 
if sprinklered. See 611.5.2 for open parking structures. 
**Unless otherwise specified in sections 611.3.1, 613.3.2, or 
621.1.1. 

609.3.3. Travel Distance Within Dwelling Units. — In buildings 
classified in occupancy groups L-l and L-2, the maximum travel 
distance from the centerline of a door from any habitable room 
within a dwelling unit either to the centerline of a door opening 
on a corridor providing access to the exitway or to a door 



609-610 

| within the unit opening on an exitway shall not be greater than 
forty (40) feet. Such travel distance shall be included in the 
maximum travel distance established in section 609.3.2 table 6-2. 

609.3.4. Measurement. — Travel distance shall be measured along 
a natural and unobstructed path of travel. Where the path of 
travel is over an access stair, it shall be measured along an 
inclined straight line through the center of the outer edge of 
each tread. 

SECTION 610.0. CAPACITY OF MEANS OF EGRESS PARTS 



610.1. Unit of Egress Width. — Except as provided in sections 
614 and 622, the unit of egress width for all approved types of 
means of egress parts and facilities specified in section 609 shall 
be twenty-two (22) inches with a credit of one-half (1/2) unit 
for each twelve (12) inches clear width in addition to one (1) 
or more twenty-two inch units. Fractions of a unit of width 
less than twelve (12) inches shall not be credited. 

610.2. Design Capacity Allowance. — Except as may be specifi- 
cally modified in article 4, the design capacity of the means of 
egress shall be measured in units of egress width and the number 
of persons per unit of width shall be determined by the occupancy 
group classification and the means of egress part as listed in 
section 610.2.1 table 6-3. Where computations of total required 
width give fractional results, the next larger whole number of 
egress units or whole number plus one-half (1/2) may be 
neglected in cases where such fractions constitute less than ten 
(10) percent of the total required number of units. Notwith- 
standing any of the above computations, no means of egress 
part or facility shall be narrower than the minimum width require- 
ments specified in section 610.2.1 table 6-3 or elsewhere in 
this Code. 



610.2.1 Table 6-3. 

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NOTES on Table 6-3 

a. Where a door opening is divided by mullions into two or more door open- 
ings, each such opening shall be measured separately in computing the number 
of units of egress width. 

b. Reduce listed capacity of ramps by 25 percent when slope exceeds 1 in 10. 

c. See section 612.2. 

d. Except as otherwise required for schoolhouses by the Board of Schoolhouse 
Structural Standards of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

e. Except as otherwise required for tents in Form B-3 Regulations — Massachusetts 
Department of Public Safety. 

f. Applies to corridors serving patients. Other corridors shall have a minimum 
width of 44 inches. 

g. There shall be no patient bedrooms between an exitway and the end of the 
corridor (dead end). 

h. See section 611.1 and 611.2. 

610.3. Sprinkler Allowance. — When the building is protected 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system complying with the 
requirements of article 12, and such sprinkler protection is not 
specifically required by this Code, the capacity per story per 
unit egress width may be increased fifty (50) percent above the 
values specified in section 610.2.1 table 6-3. 

610.4. Horizontal Exitway Allowance. — When an approved 
horizontal exitway complying with the provisions of section 616 
is provided in buildings of storage, mercantile, industrial, busi- 
ness, school and assembly occupancies, the capacity per story 
per unit egress width of stairways may be increased fifty (50) 
percent above the value specified in section 610.2.1 table 6-3; 
and in buildings of institutional occupancy groups, the capacity 
per unit egress width may be increased one hundred (100) 
percent. 

610.5. Combined Total Allowance. — When both approved auto- 
matic sprinklers and horizontal exitways are provided as specified 
in this Code, the capacity per unit egress width of stairways 
may be increased seventy-five (75) percent above the values 
specified in section 610.2.1 table 6-3. 

610.6. Area of Refuge Allowance. — The capacity of required 
area of refuge enclosed within Type A fire divisions or fire walls 
shall be computed on a net floor area allowance of three (3) 
square feet for each occupant to be accommodated therein, not 
including areas of stair, elevator and other shafts or courts. 

SECTION 611.0. NUMBER OF EXITWAYS 

The following general requirements apply to buildings of all 
occupancy groups. More restrictive requirements that may be 



provided in article 4 for special uses and occupancies shall take 
precedence over the general provisions of this section. 

611.1. Exitways from Floors Above and Below Grade. — There 
shall be not less than two (2) approved independent exitways 
serving every floor area above and below the first or grade 
floor, at least one (1) of which shall be an interior enclosed 
stairway, except in one- and two-family dwellings and as modi- 
fied in section 611.3 and section 621.1. Exitways in dwellings 
shall be so arranged that they may be reached without passing 
through another living unit, except as permitted for balconies 
in section 612.7. 

611.2. Grade Floor Exitways. — From the first or grade floor 
direct exitways shall be provided to the street consisting of one 
(1) unit of egress width for each fifty (50) occupants on the 
grade floor in buildings of the high hazard occupancy group and 
for each one hundred (100) occupants in all other occupancy 
groups, in addition to the exitways from upper and lower floors. 

611.3. Buildings with One Exitway. — Only one (1) exitway con- 
sisting of an interior enclosed stairway shall be required in 
buildings of the occupancy group and characteristics specified: 
611.3.1. Residential Buildings. — 

a. In multi-family dwellings, occupancy group L-2, not 
more than, three (3) stories and attic in height for not 
more than six (6) families, nor more than three thousand 
(3,000) square feet in area for types 1A, IB, 2A or 2B 
construction nor more than two thousand four hundred 
(2,400) square feet in area for types 3A or 3B construc- 
tion. The distance of travel to the one required exitway 
shall not exceed fifty (50) feet and the stairway shall 
be enclosed in partitions of two (2) hour fireresistance 
with three-quarter (3/4) hour fire doors complying with 
provisions of article 9 at the openings. 

b. In multi-family dwellings, occupancy group L-2, not 
over two (2) stories and nonhabitable attic in height, for 
not more than eight (8) families, nor more than four 
(4) families to a floor nor more than three thousand 
(3,000) square feet in area for all types of construction 
except types 2C, 3C and 4B. The distance of travel to 
the one (1) required exitway shall not exceed fifty (50) 
feet and the stairway shall be enclosed with partitions of 
not less than one and one-half (1-1/2) hour fireresistance 



611-612 

with three-quarter (3/4) hour fire doors complying with 
article 9 at the openings, 
c. Every sleeping room in buildings allowed by sections 
611. 3.1. a. and 611.3. l.b. to have only one (l)exitway, 
unless it has two (2) doors providing separate ways of 
exitway access, or has a door leading directly to the out- 
side of the building, shall have at least one (1) outside 
window which can be opened from the inside without 
the use of tools and of such design that it may serve 
as an emergency exit if the normal avenues of escape 
are blocked, providing a clear opening of at least four 
hundred (400) square inches, with no dimension less 
than sixteen (16) inches and with the bottom of the 
opening not more than four (4) feet above the floor. 

611.4. Basement Recreation Rooms. — In residential buildings 
(occupancy group L-l and L-2), the basements of which are 
used as playrooms or for similar recreation purposes, with an 
occupancy load of twelve (12) or more, such areas and the 
exitway shall be enclosed with partitions and ceilings of not less 
than three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresistive construction. A direct 
secondary exitway from the basement to the street, shall be 
acceptable in lieu of the requirements for an enclosed stairway. 

611.5. Open Parking Structures. 

611.5.1. Number of Exitways. — Open parking structures shall 
have not less than two (2) exitways from each parking tier. 

611.5.2. Distance to Exitway. — The maximum distance from 
any point on a parking tier to an exitway at that tier shall not 
exceed one hundred (100) feet if driver parked. 

611.5.3. Ramps as Exitways. — Ramps used for the movement 
of vehicles need not be enclosed and may be considered as re- 
quired exitways 

a. in structures not exceeding eighty-five (85) feet in height 
where vehicles are attendant parked, or 

b. in other structures having not less than two (2) en- 
closed stairways. 

SECTION 612.0. EXITWAY ACCESS-PASSAGEWAYS, 
CORRIDORS, AND BALCONIES 

612.1. Exitway Access. — Direct exitway access shall be pro- 
vided to required exitways through a continuous path consisting 
of aisles, corridors, balconies, or passageways kept readily 
accessible and unobstructed at all times and kept free of com- 
bustible contents except that in buildings classified in occupancy 



groups H-l and H-2, and schoolhouses in occupancy group G, 
combustible contents may be stored in noncombustible lockers 
and combustible bulletin boards meeting the requirements of 
section 922.1.2., table 9-4, shall be permitted. 

612.1.1. Turnstiles and Gates. — Access from public areas through 
turnstiles, gates, rails or similar devices shall not be permitted 
unless they conform to the requirements of section 615.0. 

612.2. Dead Ends. — Exitway access passageways and corridors 
in all stories above the first which serve more than one (1) 
exitway shall provide direct connection to such exitways in 
opposite directions from any point in the corridor so that dead 
ends are avoided. In no case shall the length of travel in a 
dead end corridor be more than the length listed in section 
610.2.1 table 6-3 except that when a corridor is completely 
enclosed in construction having a two (2) hour fireresistance 
rating, with all corridor doors being self-closing and having a 
fire protection rating of one and one-half (1-1/2) hour, the per- 
missible length of dead ends may be increased one hundred 
(100) percent above the length listed in section 610.2.1 table 
6-3. Dead end distance shall be measured from the centerline 
of the door opening nearest to the closed end of the corridor 
to the center of an exitway door opening, or to the center of 
that point in the corridor where travel to two (2) or more 
exitways becomes available in two (2) directions. 

612.3. Minimum Dimensions. 

612.3.1. Width — Capacity. — The minimum width and capacity 
of corridors shall be as listed in section 610.2.1 table 6-3. The 
required minimum width shall be measured in the clear between 
the narrowest points produced by any projections such as radi- 
ators, lockers, drinking fountains, or room or locker door 
swings, except that such width may be reduced by projections 
up to eighteen (18) inches wide to the extent of two (2) inches 
per unit of egress width if the total area of such projections 
does not exceed five (5) percent of the area of the wall on 
which they occur. 

612.3.2. Height. — A clear height of seven feet six inches (7'6") 
shall be provided for at least seventy-five (75) percent of the 
floor area, with no point less than seven (7) feet in height. 
No projection below the ceiling shall be located so as to ob- 
struct full view of exitway signs. 



612 
612.3.3. Length Between Smoke Barriers. — The maximum dis- 
tance between smoke barriers that subdivide corridors shall be 
two hundred (200) feet for educational buildings of occupancy 
group G and one hundred fifty (150) feet for institutional occu- 
pancy groups H-l and H-2. Smoke barriers shall consist of 
partitions constructed of noncombustible materials or fire re- 
tardant treated wood and containing smoke stop doors conform- 
• ing to the following: 

Smoke stop doors. — Smoke stop doors shall be self-closing, 
swinging doors of metal, metal covered, or one and three- 
quarter (1-3/4) inch bonded solid core wood with clear wire 
glass panels having an area of at least six hundred (600) square 
inches per door, except that in buildings not over two (2) 
stories high, smoke stop doors may be of one and three-eighths 
I (1-3/8) inch bonded solid core wood with clear wire glass 
panels, unless the doors are also used as horizontal exitways in 
which case they shall comply with the provisions of section 616. 
Smoke stop doors shall close the opening completely with only 
such clearance as is reasonably necessary for proper operation. 
Smoke stop doors shall normally be in the closed position, ex- 
cept that they may be left open if they are arranged to close 
automatically by an approved device which is actuated by an 
interior fire alarm system meeting the requirements of article 12. 

612.4. Opening Protectives. 

612.4.1. Doors. — In buildings of H-l, H-2 or L-l occupancy 
groups (institutional or hotel) more than two (2) stories in 
height, or with more than twenty-five (25) occupants above the 
first floor, all doors from rooms opening on a corridor or pas- 
sageway serving as an exitway access shall be three-quarter 
(3/4) hour fire doors or one and three-quarter (1-3/4) inch 
thick bonded solid core wood doors or their approved equivalent 
complying with article 9. 

a. Transoms in the walls of corridors shall have the equiv- 
alent fireresistance of the door, but operable transoms 
shall not be permitted. 

b. Louvres shall be prohibited except in the lower third of 
toilet room doors when used as a source of make-up air 
for the toilet room ventilation required in article 5. 

612.4.2. Borrowed Lights. — In corridors required to have a one 
(1) hour fireresistance rating, fixed one-quarter (1/4) inch wire 
glass panels may be installed in not more than twenty (20) 



percent of the common wall between the corridor and any room 
or space, provided that no panel exceeds seven hundred and 
twenty (720) square inches in area. 

612.5. Changes in Level. — Changes in level requiring less than 
two (2) risers in a corridor shall be by a ramp complying with 
section 617. Risers and treads shall comply with the require- 
ments of section 618. 

612.6. Exterior Corridors. — Exterior corridors shall be roofed, 
and shall have solid floors drained to prevent accumulations of 
standing water. Such floors may serve as fire canopies when so 
constructed. Exterior corridors shall be protected along their 
outer side by guards or parapets at least three (3) feet six (6) 
inches high. Openings in guards or parapets shall be of such 
dimensions as to prevent the passage of a five (5) inch diameter 
ball. Where the outer side of an exterior corridor is more than 
fifty (50) percent enclosed with solid material, it shall be treated 
as an interior corridor. 

612.7. Balconies. — Balconies may serve as a means of egress 
from dwelling units in buildings classified in occupancy group 
L-2 under the following conditions: 

612.7.1. They shall serve at least two (2) dwelling units. 

612.7.2. They shall be constructed as required for exterior 
corridors, except that parapets or guards shall not be higher 
than four (4) feet on the outer side of the balcony. 

612.7.3. The dwelling units served by balconies shall be sepa- 
rated from each other by construction having at least a two (2) 
hour fireresistance rating. Such separation shall extend at least 
three (3) feet beyond the outside face of the exterior wall of 
the building. An opening at least twenty (20) inches wide shall 
be provided between the end of this separation and the balcony 
parapet or guard, and the opening shall be maintained free and 
unobstructed for the full height of the balcony, except that 
privacy screens openable from either side may be permitted in 
the opening. 

612.7.4. Access from dwelling units to the balconies shall be 
through doors having glass panels at least two (2) feet wide and 
four (4) feet high, without muntins, screens, or other obstruc- 
tions to hinder entry by breaking the glass panels. The doors 
shall be lockable only from the inside by devices that can be 
easily released from the outside after breaking the glass. A 
combination lock or lock required to be opened by a key or 
removable device or tool shall not be used. 



612-613 
SECTION 613.0. GRADE PASSAGEWAYS AND LOBBIES 
AS EXITWAY ELEMENTS 

Every required interior and exterior vertical exitway which does 
not adjoin a street shall be directly connected to the street or 
to an open court leading to the street by an enclosed passage- 
way, hallway, lobby or other unobstructed exitway element, 
constructed as provided in this section and in section 909.0, 
and maintained free of all obstructions at all times. Not more 
than fifty (50) percent of the total number of exitways provided 
for a building, area or part thereof may be served by a single 
grade passageway, hallway, lobby or other unobstructed exit- 
way, except as provided in section 613.8 below. 

613.1. Capacity. — The capacity of exitway passageways, hall- 
ways, lobbies, or other unobstructed exitway elements, shall be 
as listed for the exitway element in section 610.2.1 table 6-3. 

613.2. Minimum Width. — The minimum width of an exitway 
passageway, hallway, lobby or other unobstructed exitway ele- 
ment, serving one (1) vertical exitway shall be equal to the 
width of the vertical exitway. The minimum width of an exit- 
way passageway serving two (2) or more vertical exitways shall 
be equal to seventy-five (75) percent of the width of all of the 
vertical exitways that it serves. Width shall be measured in the 
clear between the narrowest points at any projections such as 
radiators, door swings or pilasters. 

613.3. Height. — Exitway passageways shall have a clear height 
of seven feet six inches (7'6") for at least seventy-five (75) 
percent of the floor area, with no point less than seven (7) 
feet in height. No projection below the ceiling shall be located 
so as to obstruct full view of exitway signs. 

613.4. Changes in Level. — Changes in level requiring less than 
two (2) risers in an exitway passageway shall be by a ramp 
complying with section 617.0. Risers and treads shall comply 
with the requirements of section 618.0. 

613.5. Construction. — The construction of exitway passageways 

shall be as required by section 221.1, table 2-1, for the appli- 
cable construction type of the building. 

613.6. Openings. — No openings other than exitway doors shall 
be permitted in exitway passageways, except as provided in 
section 613.8 below. 

613.7. Interior Finish. — The interior finish of passageways, 
hallways, lobbies, and other unobstructed exitway elements, 



shall be in accordance with the requirements of section 922.1.2, 

table 9-4. 

613.8. Street Floor Lobbies. — Street floor lobbies may be used 

as exitway passageways when they comply with the requirements 

of section 613.1 through 613.7 above subject to the following 

modifications: 

613.8.1. Vertical Exitways Served. — One hundred (100) percent 
of the total number of vertical exitways provided for a building 
may be served by a street floor lobby, if egress is provided in 
two (2) different directions from the discharge points of all 
vertical exitways to open exterior spaces that are remote from 
each other. 

613.8.2. Width. — Street floor lobbies serving as exitway pas- 
sageways shall be increased in width to accommodate the occu- 
pant load of all communicating spaces on the lobby floor that 
have egress through them. 

613.8.3. Openings. — Openings between street floor lobbies ser- 
ving as exitway passageways and elevators or communicating 
spaces shall comply with the following: 

a. Doors. — All doors shall be one and one-half (1-1/2) 
hour self-closing fire doors, except that when the com- 
municating space is unsprinklered and is classified in 
occupancy groups F, G, H or L or is completely sprink- 
lered in accordance with the construction provisions of 
article 12 and is classified in occupancy groups B-2, C, 
D-2 or E, then three-quarter (3/4) hour self-closing fire 
doors may be provided. In lieu of three-quarter (3/4) 
hour doors, glass or other noncombustible doors may be 
used if installed in combination with one and one-half 
(1-1/2) hour automatic fire doors located on the lobby 
side and protected by automatic sprinklers over the doors 
on the room side. The maximum amount of door opening 
in any wall shall not exceed twenty (20) percent of the 
area of such wall. 

b. Show Windows. — Show windows facing on street floor 
lobbies serving as exitway passageways shall have a 
maximum floor area of twenty-four (24) square feet, shall 
be protected by automatic sprinklers complying with the 
construction requirements of article 12, shall be glazed 
by one-quarter (1/4) inch polished plate glass or equiva- 
lent, and shall be backed by construction having a two 
(2) hour fireresistance rating. All openings in such back 



613-614 

construction shall comply with the provisions of a. above. 

Adjoining show windows shall be separated from each 
other by construction having a two (2) hour fireresistance 
rating. 
613.8.4. Occupancy. — Street floor lobbies serving as exitway 
passageways may be occupied by newsstands, candy and tobacco 
stands, information booths or similar occupancies, if such stands 
or booths are constructed of noncombustible materials, occupy 
not more than a total of five (5) percent of the net floor area 
of the lobby, and do not infringe upon the required clear width 
of the lobby at any point. 

SECTION 614.0. MEANS OF EGRESS DOORWAYS 

The requirements of this section shall apply to all doorways 
serving as a component or element of a required means of egress; 
except this section shall not apply to doorways leading to or 
from required stairways (see section 618.6, 620.5 and 621.3). 

614.1. Number of Doorways. — When the occupancy load exceeds 
the number of persons listed in section 614.1.1 table 6-4 there 
shall be at least two (2) means of egress door openings as remote 
from each other as practicable. Such doorways shall provide 
independent access to separate exitways except that these doors 
may open upon a common access way leading to separate exit- 
ways either in opposite directions. 

614.1.1. Table 6-4. Maximum Occupant Load — For Spaces With 
One Door 

Occupancy Group Max. Occupant Load 

Classification with One (1) Door 

A 10 

B 50 

C 75 

D 50 

E 75 

F 75 

G 75 

H 15 

L 20 

614.2. Size of Means of Egress Doors. — The required width of 
means of egress doors shall be determined from the capacity as 
listed in section 610.2.1 table 6-3. A door forty (40) inches wide 



shall be deemed the equivalent of two (2) full units of egress 
width. The height of doors shall in no case be less than six and 
two-thirds (6-2/3) feet. In applying the provision of this Code the 
nominal door dimensions shall be used for computing required 
size of doors. The maximum width of a single door shall be 
forty-eight (48) inches. The minimum width shall be thirty (30) 
inches except as provided in article 4 or as tabulated below: 

a. Single doors opening from classrooms to corridors, 
thirty-six (36) inches. 

b. All door openings used by patients in buildings classified 
occupancy group H-2, forty-four (44) inches. 

c. Doors swinging in pairs (no mullion), forty-eight (48) 
inch opening. 

614.3. Location of Exitway Doors. — The doorways opening from 
a building to a street or grade passageway to a street shall be 
located as remote as practicable from each other. The required 
doorways opening from a room or space within a building lead- 
ing to an exitway hallway shall be located as remote as practicable 
from each other. The distance of exitway access travel from any 
point in a room or space to a required exitway door shall not 
exceed the limitations of section 609.3.2, table 6-2, unless other- 
wise specifically provided for in this Code. 

614.4. Swing of Doors. — Except as provided in reference stan- 
dard RS6-4, all means of egress doors shall be hung to swing 
in the direction of egress travel without obstructing the required 
width of egress component. Grade exitway doors shall not project 
more than twelve (12) inches beyond the street lot line comply- 
ing with section 312.1.1. Where separate doors are provided for 
entrance and exitway use, and the entrance door is designed to 
swing only inwards under normal use, it shall be equipped with 
an emergency release bracket that will disengage the door 
operator and permit the door to swing outward under total 
pressure of not more than fifteen (15) pounds. 

614.5. Door Hardware. 

614.5.1. Operation. — Required means of egress doors shall be 
readily openable at all times from the side from which egress is 
to be made and shall not require a key to operate from that 
side, except that locks may be used in penal and mental insti- 
tutions and areas, where required for security, and in banks, 
museums, jewelry stores and other places where extra safeguards 
are required, subject to the approval of the building official, 
and provided the locks are equipped with electrical release de- 



614 

vices for remote control in case of emergency. Except as other- 
wise approved by the building official for security requirements 
doors opening into interior enclosed stairs shall not be locked 
from either side except that doors may be locked to prevent 
access to the stair from the outdoors at the street floor. Hard- 
ware shall be provided on all exitway doors to hold them in a 
closed position against the pressure of expanding gases. 

614.5.2. Panic Proof. — Exitway doors shall be equipped with 
panic proof hardware in rooms of occupancy group F-l, F-2 if 
the occupancy load exceeds one hundred (100) persons, F-3 and 
F-5 if the occupancy load exceeds three hundred (300) persons, 
and F-4 and G except when opening directly outdoors at grade 
from rooms having an occupant load of less than seventy-five 
(75) persons. The panic proof hardware shall be of an approved 
type and shall release when a pressure exceeding fifteen (15) 
pounds is applied to the releasing device in the direction of 
egress. The releasing device shall be placed at least three (3) 
feet but not more than four (4) feet above the floor. Required 
panic hardware shall not be equipped with any locking or 
dogging device, set screw, or other arrangement which can be 
used to prevent the release of the latch when pressure is ap- 
plied to the releasing device. 

614.5.3. Remote Control. — In rooms of occupancy group H-l 
(institutional) occupied as places of detention, approved releas- 
ing devices with remote control shall be provided for emergency 
use. 

614.5.4. Fireresistance of Hardware. — Exitway doorways of 
specified fireresistance rating shall include approved hardware 
in the assembly to comply with sections 904 and 917. 

614.5.5. Mechanical Operations. — Where required exitway doors 
are arranged to be opened by mechanical devices of any kind, 
they shall be so constructed that the door may be opened 
manually and will release under a total pressure of not more 
than fifteen (15) pounds applied in the direction of exitway 
travel. 

614.6. Door Construction. — All required exitway doors shall 
be self-closing fire doors complying with article 9, except for 
grade floor exitway doors and as herein provided for approved 
collapsible revolving doors and where one and three-quarter 
(1-3/4) inch bonded solid core wood doors are permitted. 
614.6.1. Grade Exitway Doors. — Exitway doors at grade maybe 
glazed with plate glass not less than seven thirty-seconds (7/32) 



inches thick, or with any other approved glazing materials. 
Approved plate glass doors having one (1) or more unframed 
edges may be used provided they are constructed of tempered 
glass not less than one-half (1/2) inches thick. 

SECTION 615.0. REVOLVING DOORS 

615.1. Limitations of Use. 

615.1.1. Where Permitted. — Except in places of occupancy 
group F (assembly) which either have an occupancy load of 
more than two hundred (200) or are excluded by reference 
standard RS6-2, and except in buildings of occupancy group 
H (institutional), approved automatic collapsible revolving doors 
when constructed and installed as herein provided shall be ac- 
cepted in required exitway doorways from the first floor to the 
street. These automatic collapsible revolving doors shall not 
exceed fifty (50) percent of the required exitway capacity at any 
location. Approved swinging doors may be provided to furnish 
one-half (1/2) the required egress width in accordance with 
provisions of this article, and these shall be located within 
twenty (20) feet of the revolving door with one (1) swinging 
door adjacent to each side of the revolving door. 

615.1.2. Prohibited Construction. — Braces or other devices that 
prevent normal operation of the automatic releasing mechanism 
shall be prohibited. 

615.2. Width of Passage. 

615.2.1. Unit Egress Width. — Automatic collapsible revolving 
doors approved as an element of a required exitway shall pro- 
vide a minimum of one (1) clear unit egress width of passage- 
way through the vestibule when the leaves are in a collapsed 
position. 

615.2.2. Minimum Diameter — The minimum diameter of ap- 
proved revolving doors shall be adequate to provide the required 
clear egress width when collapsed, but in no case less than six 
and one-half (6-1/2) feet in diameter. 

615.3. Speed Control. — All approved automatic collapsible re- 
volving doors shall be equipped with an approved speed con- 
trol governor adjustable to safe traffic speed as required by the 
approved rules, but in no case more than fifteen (15) revolutions 
per minute. 

615.4. Construction. — All approved automatic collapsible re- 
volving doors shall be constructed as follows: 



614-616 

615.4.1. Operating Mechanism. — Each wing is independently 
supported by a hanger with a corrosion resistant safety release 
which, when pressure of between sixty (60) to eighty (80) pounds 
is exerted simultaneously on the wings on opposite sides of the 
door pivot, the door wings will fold back on themselves in 
the direction of egress. 

615.4.2. Use of Wood. — Where not otherwise required by the 
provisions of article 9, the doors may be constructed of wood 
or other approved materials of similar combustible characteristics 
with a minimum thickness of one and one-quarter (1-1/4) inches. 

615.4.3. Floor Covering. — Approved mats or other floor cover- 
ings complying with the provisions of article 9, not more than 
one-half (1/2) inch thick, may be installed within the enclosure 
when permanently secured to the structural flooring and finishing 
flush with the adjacent floor area. 

615.4.4. Glazing. — The doors shall be glazed with not less than 
one-quarter (1/4) inch plate glass and provided with at least 
one (1) push bar. 

615.5. Maintenance. — The owner shall be responsible at all 
times for the operation and maintenance of revolving doors, 
and shall have the doors inspected at intervals not to exceed 
six (6) months. All parts of the doors, including the safety 
release and speed control mechanism, shall be maintained in good 
working order. Inspection reports shall be made in writing and 
kept on file at the premises for at least two (2) years. 

SECTION 616.0. HORIZONTAL EXITWAYS 

A horizontal exitway is a way of passage from one building 
to an area of refuge in another building on approximately the 
same level, or a way of passage through or around a fire wall 
or fire partition to an area of refuge on approximately the same 
level in the same building, which affords safety from fire or 
smoke from the area of escape and areas communicating there- 
with. 

616.1. Horizontal Exitway Types. — A horizontal exitway may 
consist of any one of the following types: 

616.1.1. Doors through walls or partitions having at least a 
two (2) hour fireresistance. 

616.1.2. Balconies (open air) or exterior vestibules leading 
around the end of a fire division to another fire area or building. 

616.1.3. Bridges or tunnels between two (2) buildings. 



616.2. Door Requirements. — When serving as horizontal exit- 
ways doors shall comply with the following: 

616.2.1. Size of openings in fire walls or fire divisions shall 
comply with the provisions of section 908, but in no case shall 
the width of one (1) opening used as a required exitway be 
greater than eighty-eight (88) inches nor shall the area exceed 
eighty (80) square feet. 

616.2.2. Opening Protectives. — The opening in fire walls or fire 
divisions which are required to have a fireresistance rating of 
two (2) hours shall be protected with a one and one-half (1-1/2) 
hour door assembly. Doors in fire divisions or fire walls having 
a three (3) hour or four (4) hour fireresistance rating shall be 
as required by section 917. 

616.2.3. Door Swing. — Doors shall be self-closing and swinging 
in the direction of exitway travel and when travel is in both 
directions as when two (2) areas of refuge serve as areas of 
refuge for each other, at least two (2) door openings shall be 
provided, the doors of which swing in opposite directions. 
Double-acting doors shall not be permitted. 

616.2.4. Unlocked Doors. — Horizontal exitway doors shall be 
kept unlocked and unobstructed whenever the area on either 
side of the horizontal exitway is occupied. 

616.3. Balcony, Bridge and Tunnel Requirements. — When ser- 
ving as horizontal exitways, balconies, bridges and tunnels 
shall comply with the following: 

616.3.1. Their width shall be equal to at least the width of 
the doors opening on them, but in no case less than forty-four 
(44) inches. 

616.3.2. They shall be enclosed at each end by doors complying 
with 616.2 above. 

616.3.3. The floor level at doors shall be the same as that of 
the building except that the floor level of open balconies or 
open bridges shall be not less than five (5) inches lower. 

616.3.4. Where there is a difference in level between the areas 
connected, the floors of the horizontal exitways shall be ramped 
not more than one (1) inch in ten (10) inches. 

616.3.5. Exterior wall openings within thirty (30) feet horizon- 
tally of any open bridge or balcony or below any open bridge 
or balcony shall be provided with opening protectives having a 
three-quarter (3/4) hour fire protection rating. 



616-617 

616.3.6. Balconies shall not face or open on yards or courts 
less than twelve (12) feet wide, and shall be constructed as 
required for exterior corridors. 

616.3.7. Exterior bridges shall be constructed of noncombus- 
tible materials. Interior bridges or tunnels shall be constructed 
of materials providing a two (2) hour fireresistance rating. 

616.4. Area of Refuge. — The areas connected by the horizontal 
exitway shall be either public areas or spaces occupied by the 
same tenant and the area of refuge shall be adequate to house 
the total occupancy load of both connected areas as provided in 
section 610.6. 

616.5. Egress from Area of Refuge. 

616.5.1. Stairway Exitway. — When the horizontal exitway is 
not at ground level, there shall be at least one (1) interior en- 
closed stairway or smokeproof tower on each side of the hori- 
zontal exitway and any fire area nqt having a stairway accessible 
thereto shall be considered as part of an adjoining section with 
such stairway; but in no case shall the length of travel between 
the horizontal exitway and the required stairway exceed the re- 
quirements of section 609.3. 

616.6. Capacity. — The capacity of horizontal exitways shall be 
determined by the requirements listed in section 610.2.1 table 
6-3. Only the widths of doors swinging in the direction of exit- 
way travel to the area of refuge shall be counted. 



SECTION 617.0. EXITWAY RAMPS 



Ramps may be used as exitways components. When used in 
lieu of interior stairways, they shall comply with all the applic- 
able requirements of required interior stairways as to enclosure, 
capacity, and limiting dimensions. 

617.1. Capacity. — The capacity of ramps shall be as listed in 
section 610.2.1 table 6-3. 

617.2. Maximum Grade. — Unless otherwise limited by regula- 
tions of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, ramps shall not 
have a slope steeper than as follows: 1 in 8 except that in 
buildings classified in occupancy group H the slope shall not 
exceed 1 in 10, and except as provided in article 4 for places 
of assembly, in section 603.6 for building access, and in section 
616.3.4 for horizontal exitways. 



617.3. Design. 

617.3.1. Changes in Direction. — Ramps shall be straight with 
changes in direction being made at level platforms or landings, 
except that ramps having a slope not greater than one (1) in 
twelve (12) at any place, may be curved. 

617.3.2. Length. — The sloping portion of ramps shall be at 
least three (3) feet but not more than thirty (30) feet long be- 
tween level platforms or landings. 

617.3.3. Platforms. — Level platforms or landings, at least as 
wide as the ramp, shall be provided at the bottom, at inter- 
mediate levels where required, and at the top of all ramps. 
Level platforms shall be provided on each side of door open- 
ings into or from ramps, having a minimum length in the 
direction of exitway travel of three (3) feet, and when a door 
swings on the platform or landing a minimum length of five (5) 
feet. 

617.3.4. Doors. — Door openings into or from ramps shall com- 
ply with the requirements for stair exitway doors in section 
618.6. No door shall swing over the sloping portion of a ramp. 

617.3.5. Guards and Railings. — Guards and railings of ramps 
shall comply with the applicable requirements of section 618.5 
except that only ramps having a slope steeper than one (1) in 
twelve (12) need comply with the requirements for handrails, 
and intermediate handrails shall not be required. 

617.3.6. Surface. — Approved non-slip surfaces shall be provided 
for all exterior ramps, interior ramps exceeding a slope of one 
(1) in ten (10) and where the use is such as to involve or con- 
tribute to the danger of slipping. 

SECTION 618.0. INTERIOR EXITWAY STAIRWAYS 

618.1. Capacity of Exitway Stairs. — The capacity of stairways 
and doors per unit of egress width shall be computed in accor- 
dance with section 610.2.1, table 6-3. 

618.2. Minimum Dimensions. 

618.2.1. Width. — All interior required stairways shall be not 
less than forty-four (44) inches in width except as follows: 

a. Such width may be reduced to thirty-six (36) inches in 
buildings of occupancy groups L-l, L-2 and L-3 serving 
not more than thirty (30) occupants per stair on any 
floor and in buildings classified in occupancy groups B, 
D and E serving not more than sixty (60) persons per 



617-618 

stair and in exitways from boiler rooms and similar 
service spaces not open to the public or in general use 
by employees. 

b. Such width may be reduced to thirty (30) inches for 
unenclosed stairways located within a single dwelling 
unit, or when serving mezzanines or balconies having 
an occupant load not exceeding twenty-five (25) persons. 

c. When the boiler room is less than three hundred (300) 
square feet in area, housing a low pressure boiler, and is 
completely enclosed in two (2) hour fireresistive construc- 
tion with approved opening protectives and an iron ladder 
or other approved direct exitway is furnished to the 
street, the primary exitway stairway may be omitted. 

618.2.2. Headroom. — Headroom in a flight of stairs shall be 
measured vertically from an inclined plane, which contains the 
line of the nosing or upper front edge of each tread and extends 
to its intersection with a landing, to any point directly above 
the plane that limits the headroom of the stair or vertically 
from the same inclined plane up to a parallel inclined plane 
through a point limiting the headroom. The minimum headroom 
thus measured shall be seven feet zero inches (7'0") except that 
six feet eight inches (6'8") shall be permitted over a landing or 
when the parallel inclined planes are each at an angle of twenty- 
two and one-half (22-1/2) degrees or less with the horizontal. 

618.2.3. Restrictions. — No stairways shall reduce in width in 
the direction of exitway travel. 

618.3. Landings and Platforms. — Landings and platforms shall 
be provided at the head and foot of each flight of stairs, except 
at the head of basement stairs in one- and two-family dwellings, 
and shall comply with the following: 

618.3.1. Width. — The least dimension of landings and platforms 
perpendicular to direction of travel shall be not less than the 
required width of stairway. On a straight run stair, the distance 
between risers of upper and lower flights at intermediate landings 
or platforms need not be more than forty-four (44) inches. 

618.3.2. Vertical Rise. — In buildings of occupancy group F 
(assembly) and occupancy group H (institutional), the height of 
vertical rise shall not exceed eight and one-third (8-1/3) feet 
between landings and intermediate platforms. In all other build- 
ings, no stairway shall have more than fifteen (15) nor less than 
three (3) risers between landings. 



618.3.3. Landings and platforms shall be enclosed on sides by 
walls, grilles or guards at least three (3) feet high. 
618.4. Treads and Risers. 

618.4.1. Dimensions. — Treads and risers of required stairs shall 
be so proportioned that the sum of two (2) risers and a tread, 
exclusive of projection of nosing, is not less than twenty-four 
(24) inches nor more than twenty-five and one-half (25-1/2) 
inches. The maximum riser height and minimum tread width 
shall comply with the following: 





Maximum 




Minimum 


Occupancy Group 


Riser Height 




Tread Width 




(inches) 




(inches) 


One- and Two-Family Dwellings 








(Occupancy Group L-3) 








Closed Risers 


8-1 '4 


9 


plus 1-1 4 nosing 


Open Risers 


8-1/4 


9 


plus 1 2 nosing 


All Other Residential (Occupancy 








Groups L-l and L-2) 


8 


9 


plus 1-1/4 nosing 


Institutional (Occupancy Group 








H-2) 


7 


10 


plus nosing 


Assembly and Other Institutional 


7-1 2 


9- 


1 2 plus nosing 


All Others 


7-3 4 


9- 


1 2 plus nosing 



NOTE: Treads may be undercut a distance equal to the nosing. A nosing shall 
not be required when tread width is eleven (11) inches or wider. 

618.4.2. Winders. — No winders shall be permitted in required 
exitway stairways except that in one- and two-family dwellings 
and in ornamental stairways not required as an element of an 
exitway, treads with a minimum width of four (4) inches and an 
average width of nine (9) inches may be permitted. The width 
of winder treads when measured eighteen (18) inches from the 
narrower end shall be at least equal to the width of tread 
above or below the winding section. 

618.4.3. Curving or Skewed Stairs. — Curving or skewed stairs 
may be used as elements of required means of egress when the 
tread and riser relationship is in accordance with 618.4.1 . when 
measured at a point eighteen (18) inches in from the narrow 
end of the tread; and no tread shall be more than three (3) 
inches narrower or three (3) inches wider at any point than the 
width established eighteen (18) inches in from the narrow end; 
and when the stairs have a radius of twenty-five (25) feet or 
more at the inner edges. 

618.5. Stairway Guards and Handrails. — Unless otherwise speci- 
fically provided for in this code all stairways shall have con- 
tinuous guards and handrails on both sides, and in addition 



618 

thereto, stairways required to be more than eighty-eight (88) 
inches in width shall have intermediate handrails dividing the 
stairway into portions not more than eighty-eight (88) inches 
wide except that on monumental outside stairs intermediate 
handrails may be omitted. No guard shall be required for inside 
edge of stairs which reverse direction at intermediate landings, 
where the horizontal distance between successive flights is not 
more than one (1) foot. Similarly no guard shall be required 
for intermediate landings which are no more than one (1) foot 
clear of walls. 

618.5.1. Handrail Details. 

Handrails may project not more than three and one-half (3-1/2) 
inches into the required stair width and shall provide one and 
one half (1-1/2) inch finger clearance. 

Handrails shall be about three (3) feet, measured vertically, 
above the center of the treads. 

Handrails shall be returned to walls or posts at each end of 
the stairway, except in one- and two-family dwellings. 

618.5.2. Guard Details. 

Guards shall be not less than forty-two (42) inches in height 
measured vertically above the nosing of the tread except guards 
protecting changes in level one (1) story or less on interior bal- 
conies and mezzanines shall be not less than thirty-six (36) 
inches high. 

Guards shall be constructed so that the area in the plane of 
the guard from the top of the tread to the top of the guard 
is subdivided or filled in one (1) of the following methods: 

a. Two (2) horizontal rails for thirty-six (36) inches high 
guards with a curb at least one (1) inch high above the 
nosing at the edge of the stairs and at least three (3) 
inches high at the edge of the landings. 

b. A sufficient number of intermediate longitudinal rails 
constructed so that the clear distance between rails 
(measured at right angles to the rail) does not exceed 
ten (10) inches. The bottom rail shall be not more than 
(10) inches (measured vertically) from the tread nosing. 
In lieu of the proceeding, the building official may ac- 
cept a two (2) rail guard when the hazard involved is 
otherwise minimized by the railing construction and/or 
limited vertical separation of the stair from a horizontal 
surface below. 



c. Balusters spaced not more than six (6) inches apart. 

d. Panels of wire mesh, or expanded metal, or ornamental 
grills which provide protection equivalent to that pro- 
vided by the intermediate rails or balusters specified in 
the two preceding paragraphs. 

e. Walls. 

f. Any combination of the foregoing. 

618.6. Stair Exitway Doors. 

618.6.1. Width. — The total width of all exitway doors (or door) 
to a stairway at any one landing shall be not less than the 
number of units of egress width required for the capacity of the 
stairway which services the floor or area from which the exitway 
doors (or door) lead; but in no case shall such a door be less 
than thirty (30) inches nominal width- in occupancy group L-3 
buildings (one- and two-family dwellings) and thirty-two (32) | 
inches nominal width in occupancy group E (business) buildings. 

618.6.2. Direction of Swing. — All doors shall swing on a landing 
in the direction of exitway travel. When open, stair exitway doors 
shall not reduce the width of landings to less than the minimum 
required for its capacity and in no case to less than thirty-six 
(36) inches. 

618.6.3. Door Construction. — All doorway opening protectives, 
including the frames and hardware, shall be approved self- 
closing swinging doors complying with article 9 except in one- 
and two-family dwellings where one and three-quarter (1-3/4) 
inch bonded solid wood doors are permitted. 

618.7. Spiral Stairways — Permitted Uses. 

618.7.1. Unenclosed spiral stairways of noncombustible con- 
struction, and having a tread length of at least thirty (30) 
inches, may be used as an element of a required means of egress 
from mezzanine or balcony areas not more than two hundred 
and fifty (250) square feet in area nor more than one-third (1/3) 
the area of the floor below, nor having an occupancy load ex- 
ceeding twenty-five (25) persons. The maximum number of 
persons per unit of egress width shall be ten (10). Spiral stairways 
may also be used as an element of a required means of egress 
in a single family dwelling. 

618.7.2. Unenclosed spiral stairways may serve as access stairs 
between two (2) floor levels in buildings other than occupancy 
group H provided that the total unenclosed area of the two (2) 
levels thus integrated does not exceed the allowable area for 
one (1) floor in section 221.2, table 2-2. Except as permitted 



618 

in 618.7.1, such stairs shall be additional to and shall not ob- 
struct or interfere with the required means of egress. The max- 
imum number of persons per unit of egress width shall be ten 
(10). 

618.8. Monumental and Service Stairways. — Except as otherwise 
provided for in section 418.2.2, monumental, ornamental, service, 
convenience, or other supplementary stairways in buildings of 
other than occupancy groups D, F, and H (industrial, assembly, 
and institutional) providing access between not more than two 
adjoining stories and when not a part of a required exitway may 
be erected without stairway enclosures when the total unenclosed 
area between the fire divisions of the two levels thus integrated 
does not exceed the allowable area for one floor in section 
221.2, table 2-2. Such stairways shall be additional to and shall 
not obstruct or interfere with required exitways. 

618.9. Stairway Construction. — Unless otherwise provided here- 
in, all required interior stairways shall be built entirely of non- 
combustible materials with solid risers, treads, and landing 
platforms and all finish floor surfaces of non-slip noncombustible 
materials; except that wood handrails shall be permitted, com- 
plying with the requirements of section 618.5. 

618.9.1. Strength. — All stairways, platforms, landings and floors 
in areas used as a means of egress, in other than one- and two- 
family dwellings, shall be adequate to support a live load of 
one hundred (100) pounds per square foot. 

618.9.2. Enclosures. — See section 221.1, table 2-1. 

618.9.3. Combustible Construction. — In all buildings of type 
3 or 4 construction of all occupancy groups other than assembly 
and institutional buildings, not over three (3) stories or forty 
(40) feet in height with not more than seventy-five (75) occu- 
pants above nor more than forty (40) occupants below the 
grade floor, the stairways and their enclosures may be con- 
structed of wood or other approved materials of similar com- 
bustible characteristics and of adequate strength. 

618.9.4. Enclosures for Combustible Construction. — The enclo- 
sure and underside of stairways of combustible construction, 
except in one- and two-family dwellings, shall be protected with 
fireresistive partitions and ceilings as herein required, firestopped 
as specified in section 877, 909 and 921; and the space below 
the stairs shall be kept open or shall be solidly enclosed with 
fireresistive partitions. 



SECTION 619.0. ACCESS TO ROOF 

619.1. Access. — In buildings or in building sections more than 
three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in height with roofs having a 
slope of less than twenty (20) degrees, access to the roof shall be 
provided by means of a stairway or a ladder and trap door, 
except that access to setback roof areas may be through a door 
or window opening to the roof. Where the roof is used as a 
roof garden or for other habitable purposes, sufficient stairways 
shall extend to it to provide the necessary exitway facilities 
from the roof as required for such occupancy. Roof trap doors 
shall be constructed to comply with section 927. 

619.2. Roof Enclosures. — Stairways extending through roofs 
shall be enclosed in roof structures of fireresistive construction 
meeting the requirements of section 927. 

SECTION 620.0. SMOKEPROOF TOWERS 

620.1. Where used as a required exitway, smokeproof towers 
shall conform to the requirements of this section. 

620.2. Access. — Exitway access to the stairway at each story 
shall be through a vestibule or balcony with an unobstructed 
width not less than the required stairway width, but not less 
than forty-four (44) inches in any case, open on at least one (1) 
side to a street, alley, yard or court with four (4) feet high guard 
railings across the open side. Outside vestibules or balcony 
floors shall be level with or installed below the building floor 
where climatic conditions involve possibility of door obstruction 
by snow or ice. No step shall be permitted into the stair en- 
closure. 

620.3. Court Size. — The yard or court shall have a minimum 
area of two hundred (200) square feet and a minimum dimen- 
sion of ten (10) feet and the exterior open side of the vestibule, 
balcony or landing shall have a minimum area of eighteen (18) 
square feet and a minimum width of thirty (30) inches. 

620.4. Interior Open Courts. — When interior open courts are 
used to vent the access balcony or vestibule, special provision 
shall be made in the design to avoid the creation of vertical 
drafts resulting in negative pressures which would retard the 
opening of the exitway door to the stairway from the balcony 
or vestibule. 

620.5. Opening Protectives. 



619-621 

620.5.1. Windows. — All window openings in the exterior wall 
of the building, facing on the yard or court within thirty (30) 
feet below or to the side of any access balcony or vestibule 
shall be protected with three-quarter (3/4) hour opening pro- 
tectees complying with article 9. 

620.5.2. Doors. — Door openings from building to vestibules 
or balconies and to the stairways shall be not less than forty- 
four (44) inches wide. The doors shall be capable of being 
opened from both sides without a key, complying with all the 
requirements of section 618.6 for exitway doors for stairways, 
except that the fireresistance rating shall be not less than one 
and one-half (1-1/2) hours or the approved labeled equivalent 
complying with article 9. 

620.6. Terminal Passageway. — The smokeproof tower shall ter- 
minate at grade level and shall provide egress to the street 
independently of all other stairways. When grade passageways 
are used, they shall comply with the requirements of section 
613; except that there shall be no openings therein other than 
the smokeproof tower and street exitway doorways and the enclo- 
sure walls shall be of four (4) hour fireresistive construction 
and the floor and roof of three (3) hour fireresistive construc- 
tion. 

620.7. Construction. — The construction of smokeproof towers 
shall be of walls with a four (4) hour fireresistive rating without 
openings other than the required doorways; with platforms, 
landings and balconies of not less than three (3) hour fireresis- 
tive construction and with stairways complying with all the 
applicable construction details specified for interior stairways 
in section 618. 

SECTION 621.0. EXTERIOR EXITWAY STAIRWAYS 



621.1. As Required Exitway. — Exterior stairways conforming to 
the requirements for interior stairways in all respects, except as 
to enclosures and except as herein specifically modified, may 
be accepted as an element of a required means of egress in 
buildings not exceeding six (6) stories or seventy-five (75) feet in 
height for other than occupancy group H (institutional) provided 
there is at least one (1) additional approved interior stairway, 
except as provided in section 621.1.1 for residential buildings 
and section 621.3 for single exitway buildings. 



Exterior stairways which are accepted as exitway elements in 
residential buildings of occupancy groups L-2 and L-3 shall be 
relieved from requirements for fire doors, but shall be provided 
with handrails and guards as required for interior stairs and as 
required by section 612.2 and shall be covered by a roof pro- 
viding protection from the weather. 

621.1.1. Motel Buildings. — In the residential portion of motels 
(occupancy group L-l) not more than three (3) stories and non- 
habitable attic or forty-five (45) feet in height, interior enclosed 
stairways may be omitted where at least one (1) door from 
each motel unit opens onto an open porch or balcony served 
by at least two (2) stairways so located as to provide a choice 
of independent, unobstructed means of egress directly to the 
grade. Such porches and stairways shall comply with the require- 
ments for interior stairways as specified in section 618.0. Porches 
and balconies shall be not less than four and one-half (4-1/2) 
feet in width. The stairways shall be not less than three feet 
eight inches (3'8") in width and shall be located remotely from 
each other. The maximum travel distance from any motel unit 
to the nearest stairway shall be seventy-five (75) feet. Porches 
and stairways shall be located at least ten (10) feet from adjacent 
property lot lines and from other buildings on the same lot 
unless openings in such buildings are protected by three-quarter 
(3/4) hour fireresistive doors or windows. 

621.2. Guards and Canopies. — Guards shall be provided on all 
exposed sides of required exterior stariways to a height of at 
least three feet six inches (3'6") constructed of wire or other 
noncombustible weather resisting mesh of such dimensions as 
to prevent the passage of a five (5) inch diameter ball. The top 
of the stairway shall be protected with a hood or canopy of 
metal or other approved noncombustible material. 

621.3. Opening Protectees. 

621.3.1. Doors. — Except as specified in section 621.1 for resi- 
dential buildings, access shall be provided at each story through 
a three-quarter (3/4) hour self-closing fire door of the required 
number of unit egress widths. Doors shall open upon a landing 
either level with or not more than one (1) five (5) inch step 
below the floor. 

621.3.2. Windows. — In buildings more than three (3) stories in 
height, or with an occupancy load of more than seventy-five (75) 
above or more than forty (40) below grade, the openings below 



621-622 

and within ten (10) feet horizontally of the stairway shall be 
protected with approved three-quarter (3/4) hour automatic 
fire windows. 

621.4. Location. 

621.4.1. Access to Street. — All required exterior stairways shall 
be located so as to lead directly to a street or open space with 
direct access to a street; or when located on the rear of the 
building may lead through a passageway at grade complying 
with section 613. 

621.4.2. Projection. — In no case shall exterior stairways project 
beyond the street lot line. 

621.5. Construction. — Exterior stairs shall be constructed entirely 
of noncombustible materials, except that handrails may be of 
wood and except that on buildings of type 3 or 4 construction 
classified in occupancy groups other than F or H, exterior stairs 
may be built of combustible materials when the buildings are 
two (2) stories or thirty (30) feet in height or less and have an 
occupant load not exceeding forty (40) persons per floor above 
the street below. Treads, landings, and platforms shall be solid 
and unperforated but risers may be open. 

621.6. Capacity. — The capacity of exterior stairs shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with the requirements of section 610.2.1 
table 6-3. 

SECTION 622.0. MOVING EXITWAY STAIRWAYS 

622.1. When Acceptable. — Moving stairways of the horizontal 
non-slip tread type moving in the direction of egress may be 
used subject to the approval of the building official as an ap- 
proved exitway element in buildings of all occupancy groups 
except groups F and H, when constructed and approved in 
accordance with the requirements of this article and the provi- 
sions of article 16. When accepted as an element of a required 
means of egress, they shall be enclosed with fireresistive parti- 
tions as specified in section 618. 

622.1.1. Additional Requirements. — Only escalators moving in 
the direction of egress may be credited as exitways, except that 
any escalator may be credited when it is connected to an auto- 
matic fire detection system that will cause it to stop simultan- 
eously with the detection of fire. The detection system shall com- 
ply with the construction provisions of article 16. Where an 
escalator provides exitway facilities from only one floor of a 



building, the automatic detection system shall be located on that 
floor. Where escalators provide exitway facilities from more than 
one floor, the detection system shall be located on all floors so 
served, and shall cause escalators on all floors of the section 
of the building that they serve to stop operating. The stopping 
mechanism shall operate to bring the escalator to a gradual, 
rather than an abrupt stop. In factories and office buildings re- 
versible escalators may be accepted as a required element of a 
means of egress, provided that a readily accessible main operating 
panel, from which all escalator units in the exitway group may 
be stopped or reversed, is located on the street or ground floor 
adjacent to and in the same enclosure with the escalators. 

622.2. Limiting Dimensions. 

622.2.1. Width. — The width between moving stairway balustrades 
shall be not less than twenty-two (22) inches nor more than 
forty-eight (48) inches, measured at the narrowest point at a 
height of twenty-seven (27) inches vertically above the nose line 
of the steps. In no case shall such width exceed the width of 
the steps by more than thirteen (13) inches. 

622.2.2. Treads and Risers. — The depth of the moving tread 
shall be not less than fifteen and three-quarters (15-3/4) inches; 
and the rise between treads shall not exceed eight and one-half 
(8-1/2) inches. 

622.3. Capacity. — The occupancy capacity shall be computed 
in accordance with section 610.2.1, table 6-3 based on the fol- 
lowing: 

Units of Minimum Width (in.) at 

Egress Width Step Balustrade(a) Enclosure (b) 

1-1/2 24 32 52 

2 40 48 68 

a. Measured 27 inches above front edge of tread. 

b. Clear width above handrails. 

622.4. Landings and Platforms. — Landings and platforms shall 
be provided at the top and bottom of each unit as required 
for interior exitway stairways. 

622.5. Railings. — Guards shall be surmounted with moving 
handrails traveling at the same speed as the stairway. 

622.6. Egress. — Means of egress to the street shall be provided 
as specified herein for interior stairways except that in mer- 
cantile buildings completely equipped with a two-source auto- 



622-624 

matic sprinkler system, moving stairways may be accepted for 
one-third (1/3) the total required exitway capacity when dis- 
charging through the main grade floor area. 
622.7. Construction. 

622.7.1. Noncombustible Materials. — Only noncombustible ma- 
terials shall be used in the construction of moving stairways in 
accordance with article 16. 

622.7.2. Fireresistance. — The enclosure shall afford the fire- 
resistance required for approved interior exitway stairways. 

622.7.3. Extension to Roof. — The construction shall comply 
with all the applicable requirements of this Code for interior 
exitway stairways except that a fixed stairway or ladder and trap 
door may be substituted for the extension to the roof when 
required. 

622.7.4. Height of Travel Per Unit. — No single moving stair- 
way unit shall have a vertical travel of more than two (2) 
stories nor more than thirty-five (35) feet. Escalators shall have 
an inclination of not over thirty (30) degrees from the horizontal. 

622.7.5. Rate of Travel. — The maximum speed of an escalator 
shall not exceed one hundred twenty-five (125) feet per minute, 
measured along the angle of inclination. 

SECTION 623.0. ELEVATORS IN EXITWAYS 

Elevators shall not be allowed as exitways, nor installed in a 
common enclosure with exitway stairways. The path of travel 
of any exitway stairway shall not pass directly in front of any 
elevator hoistway door except as noted in section 623.1. 
623.1. Grade Corridor. — The width of a grade corridor into 
which exitway stairways and elevators discharge shall not be 
less than three-quarters (3/4) of the combined width for stair- 
ways and elevators; but in no case shall the width of corridor 
be less than five (5) feet when accommodating the discharge 
from five (5) or less elevators; and not less than one-half (Vi) 
foot additional for each additional elevator. 

SECTION 624.0. FIRE ESCAPES 

624.1. Where Permitted. — Fire escapes shall be permitted only 
by special order of the building official in existing buildings 
or structures not exceeding seventy (70) feet in height, when 
constructed in accordance with the approved rules and when 



more adequate exitway facilities cannot be provided. The capac- | 
ity of fire escapes shall be as provided in section 610.2.1, tablei 
6-3 for stairs. 

624.2. Location. — When located on the front of the building I 
and projecting beyond the building line, the lowest landing; 
shall be not less than ten (10) or more than fourteen (14)1 
feet above grade, equipped with a counterbalanced stairway 
to the street and with fixed ladder to the roof. In alleyways I 
and thoroughfares less than thirty (30) feet wide, the clearance I 
under the lowest landing shall be not less than fourteen (14) I 
feet. 

624.3. Construction. — All fire escapes shall be constructed in I 
accordance with reference standard RS6-3. 

SECTION 625.0. DELETED 

SECTION 626.0. EXITWAY SIGNS AND LIGHTS 

626.1. Size and Location. — The location of all required exit- 
ways on every floor except in occupancy group L-3 shall be 
clearly indicated by approved signs reading "EXIT" with letters 
to be not less than five (5) inches in height with one-half (Vi) 
inch strokes. Exitway signs shall be installed immediately above 
the head and on the center line of each exitway door or pair 
of exitway doors and visible from the immediate exitway access. 
Such signs shall be placed at an angle with the exitway opening 
if such placement is required for the signs to serve their pur- 
poses. In long corridors, in open floor areas, and in all other 
situations where the location of the exitway may not be readily 
visible or understood, directional signs shall be provided to 
serve as guides from all portions of the corridor or floor. 

626.2. Power Source. — Except in buildings not provided with 
artificial lighting all "EXIT" signs shall be illuminated at all 
times when the building is occupied from independently con- 
trolled electric circuit or other source of power. 

626.3. Exitway Sign Design. — Exitway signs shall read only 
"EXIT" and shall be of the externally lighted or internally 
lighted type, except that they may be nonilluminated in build- 
ings not provided with artificial lighting. 

626.3.1. Externally Lighted-. — The artificial light source on 
externally lighted signs shall provide at least twenty-five (25) 
foot candles on the exposed face of the sign. Visibility of the 
sign shall not be obscured by the location of the light source. 



624-626 

626.3.2. Internally Lighted. — For internally lighted signs, the 
average initial brightness of the letters shall be at least twenty- 
five (25) foot lamberts, and where an illuminated background 
is used, its average - initial brightness shall be at least two 
hundred and fifty (250) foot lamberts. The light source shall 
not be modified or changed nor shall lamp life multipliers be 
used so as to reduce these brightness levels. 

626.3.3. Sign Color. — Externally lighted signs shall have either 
red letters on a white background or white letters on a red 
background (or other approved color combinations) impressed, 
mounted, or painted such that both letters and background 
shall be in a vertically flat plane. The background of internally 
lighted signs shall be either stenciled metal with a light gray 
or white color, or translucent frosted, opal glass, slow-burning 
plastic, or the plastic edge-glow type with white plastic sep- 
arators. The letters for internally lighted signs shall be trans- 
lucent red or other approved color. 

626.3.4. Durability. — In locations where breakage may occur, 
exitway signs shall be of shock resistant materials, or shall 
otherwise be protected against breakage. The signs shall be 
washable, non-toxic, non-radioactive and if subjected to fire 
must be self-extinguishing when the flame is removed. 

626.4. Directional Sign Design. — Directional exitway signs shall 
comply with all of the requirements for exitway signs in section 
626.3 and shall also include a red arrow on white background 
or white arrow on red background (or other approved color 
combinations), not less than eight and one-half (8V2) inches 
long from tail to head, with a body not less than one-half 
O/2) inch wide. The words "THIS WAY OUT" or words of 
similar meaning may be added to the directional signs. Direc- 
tional signs shall be suitably lighted as heretobefore described 
in these regulations for "Exit Signs." 

626.5. False Exits. — Any door, passageway, stair or other 
means of communication that is not an exitway or that is not 
a way to an exitway, but is so located as to be mistaken for 
an exitway, shall be identified with a sign reading "NOT AN 
EXIT", or shall be identified by a sign indicating its use or 
purpose, or shall be provided with a directional exitway sign. 

626.5.1. Mirrors. — No full length mirror which reflects an 
egress shall be placed or remain unless provided with an ap- 
proved guard rail at least thirty-two (32) inches from the floor. 



SECTION 627.0. MEANS OF EGRESS LIGHTING 

Means of egress lighting shall be in conformance with the 
requirements of this section and the provisions of reference 
standard RS 6-3 when more restrictive. 

627.1. Artificial Lighting. — All required means of egress, except 
one and two family dwellings in occupancy group L-3, shall 
be equipped with artificial lighting facilities to provide the 
intensity of illumination herein prescribed continuously during 
the time that conditions of occupancy of the building require 
that the exitways be available. 

627.2. Intensity of Illumination. — Except as provided for in 
section 627.3 illumination of at least three (3) foot candles 
measured at the floor level shall be maintained continuously, 
during occupancy, in exitways and their access facilities for 
their full length at changes in direction in and intersections of 
corridors, balconies, exitway passageways, stairs, ramps, escala- 
tors, bridges, tunnels, landings and platforms. Illumination shall 
be so arranged that the failure of any one (1) light shall not 
leave any area in darkness. 

627.3. Places of Assembly. — In places of assembly for the 
exhibition of motion pictures or other projections by means 
of directed light, the illumination of floors of exitway access 
areas may be reduced during such period of projection to not 
less than one (1) foot candle. 

627.4. Independent Power Source. — Emergency lights shall be 
provided with a second or emergency source of current and a 
transfer switch which will automatically disconnect the normal 
service and instantly connect the emergency service when the 
voltage of the normal service falls below fifty (50) percent of 
the nominal lamp voltage and which will also automatically 
disconnect the emergency service and instantly connect the 
normal service when the voltage of the latter is restored to 
eighty (80) percent of the nominal lamp voltage. The emer- 
gency source of current shall be either a separate feeder from 
a reliable generating plant independent of that from which the 
normal service is taken, or an approved trickle charge wet 
ceil battery or battery system. 

627.4.1. Duration of Illumination. — Emergency lighting shall 
produce and maintain, for a period of not less than one and 
one-half (l'/2) hours, the minimum intensity of illumination. 



627 

627.4.2. Inspection. — Complete emergency lighting systems of 
batteries and generators, transfer switches and related lights 
shall be inspected and tested at intervals of once a week and a 
record kept thereof by the building owner. 

627.4.3. Location. — All emergency lighting fixture heads shall 
be located, directed and locked into position so that they pro- 
vide a continuous path of light to a required egress. 

627.5. Restrictions. — Phosphorescent materials shall not be 
used as a method of providing illumination nor shall battery 
operated electric lights or portable lamps or lanterns be used 
as primary sources of lighting. 



RS6 



REFERENCE STANDARD RS 6 
MEANS OF EGRESS 

List of Reference Standards 

RS 6 Mass. DPS Form B-l 1969 

Regulations Applicable to Buildings 

Mass. DPS Form B-2 1968 

Building Regulations for Schoolhouses, Board of 

Schoolhouse Structural Standards 

Mass. DPS Form B-4 1950 

Installation, Use and Maintenance of Revolving 

Doors, Rules and Regulations 

NFPA 101 1967 

Life Safety Code 

RS6-1 NFPA 101 1967 

Life Safety Code 

RS 6-2 Mass. DPS Form B-4 1950 

Installation, Use and Maintenance of Revolving 
Doors, Rules and Regulations 

RS 6-3 Mass. DPS Form B-l 1969 

Regulations Applicable to Buildings 

RS 6-4 Mass. DPS Form B-2 1968 

Building Reg"lations for Schoolhouses, Board of 
Schoolhouse Structural Standards 



ARTICLE 



7 



STRUCTURAL AND FOUNDATION LOADS 
AND STRESSES 



700.0 


Scope 


727.0 


701.0 


Definitions 




702.0 


Design Safe Load 


728.0 


703.0 


Test Safe Load 




704.0 


Design Live Load 


729.0 


705.0 


Design Dead Load 


730.0 


706.0 


Existing Buildings 


731.0 


707.0 


Unit Live Loads 


732.0 


708.0 


Concentrated Loads 


733.0 


709.0 


Impact Loads 




710.0 


Special Loads 


734.0 


711.0 


Roof Loads 


735.0 


712.0 


Snow Load 




713.0 


Wind Load 


736.0 


714.0 


Wind on Vertical Surfaces 


737.0 


715.0 


Wind Load on Roof 


738.0 


716.0 


Wind Loads on Signs, Tank 


739.0 




and Radio Towers, Chim- 


740.0 




neys and Other Building 


741.0 




Elements 


742.0 


717.0 


Unusual Wind Exposures 


743.0 


718.0 


Overturning and Sliding 


744.0 


719.0 


Earthquake Load 




720.0 


Combined Loading 




721.0 


Live Load Reduction 


745.0 


722.0 


Allowable Working Stresses 


746.0 


723.0 


Alloy and Special Steels 


747.0 


724.0 


Light Weight Metals 


748.0 


725.0 


Bearing Pressures of Soils 


749.0 




and Rocks 


RS 7 


726.0 


Subsurface Explorations 





Bearing Test and Settlement 
Analysis 

Allowable Foundation Pres- 
sure 

Spread Foundations 

Footing Design 

Timber Footings 

Steel Grillages 

Unreinforced Concrete 
Foundations 

Masonry Unit Footings 

Reinforced Concrete 
Foundations 

Floating Foundations 

Pile Foundations 

Corrosion Protection 

Allowable Pile Loads 

Timber Piles 

Precast Concrete Piles 

Cast-In-Place Concrete Piles 

Concrete-Filled Pipe Piles 

Concrete Filled Pipe with 
Steel Core (Drilled-In- 
Caissons) 

Structural Steel Piles 

Composite Piles 

Special Piles and Caissons 

Lateral Support 

Foundation Piers 

Reference Standards 



TABLES 

7-1 725.2.3 Allowable Bearing Pressures of Foundation Materials 

SECTION 700.0. SCOPE 



The provisions of this article shall control the structural design 
of all buildings and structures and their foundations hereafter 
erected to insure adequate strength of all parts thereof for the 
safe support of all super-imposed live and special loads including 
wind to which they may be subjected in addition to their own 
dead load, without exceeding the allowable stresses prescribed in 



this code. In no case shall the assumed loads be less than the 
minimum values established herein. The provisions of reference 
standard RS-7 shall become part of this article. 

SECTION 701.0. DEFINITIONS 

For definitions to be used in the interpretation of this article, 
see section 201. 

SECTION 702.0. DESIGN SAFE LOAD 

702.1. Structural Analysis. — The safe load for any structural 
member or system of construction shall be determined by 
accepted engineering analysis except as provided in sections 
703 and 803 for tests of assemblies not capable of analysis. 

702.2, Check Tests. — When there is reasonable doubt as to the 
design capacity of any structural unit or assembly, or as to the 
adequacy of a structure to serve the purpose for which it was 
intended, the building official may require that check tests be 
made of the assembled unit and its connections or he may 
accept certified reports of such tests from accredited testing 
authorities conducted in accordance with the approved rules. 

SECTION 703.0. TEST SAFE LOAD 

703.1. When Required. — When not capable of design by accepted 
engineering analysis, any system of construction or structural 
unit and its connections shall be subjected to the tests prescribed 
in article 8 or to such other tests acceptable to the building 
official that simulate the actual loads and conditions of applica- 
tion that occur in normal use; or he may accept certified reports 
of such tests conducted by an accredited testing laboratory pro- 
viding such tests meet the requirements of this code and the 
approved rules. Such tests shall not be required to be made on 
any concrete or masonry construction until it is at least sixty 
(60) days old. 

703.2. Test Load. — When approved by test, every structural 
assembly shall sustain without failure a minimum superimposed 
load equal to its own dead load plus one-half (0.5) times the 
dead load plus one and eight-tenths (1.8) times the live load 
(the applied test load equals 0.5D + 1.8L), or to a load 
causing a stress equal to eighty (80) per cent of the yield point 



701-705 

of the constituent materials whichever is less. Under tne ap- 
proved working load, the deflection shall not exceed the limits 
prescribed in section 803 or 804. 

SECTION 704.0. DESIGN LIVE LOAD 

704.1. Required Live Load. — The live loads to be assumed in 
the design of buildings and structures shall be the greatest load 
produced by the intended use and occupancy, but in no case 
less than the minimum uniformly distributed unit loads required 
in section 707 for specific uses. 

704.2. Loads Not Specified. — Where the occupancy or use of a 
space does not conform to any of those specifically provided for 
in reference standard RS 7-2, the design load shall be deter- 
mined by the architect or engineer and submitted to the building 
official for approval. 

SECTION 705.0. DESIGN DEAD LOAD 

705.1. Construction Materials. — In estimating dead load for the 
purposes of structural design, the actual weight of the building 
materials or construction assemblies to be supported except as 
provided for in section 705.1, shall be used, but in no case less 
than the unit dead loads prescribed in reference standard RS 7-1. 

705.2. Service Equipment. — The weight of all building service 
equipment including plumbing stacks, heating and air conditioning 
equipment, electrical equipment, elevators, elevator machinery, 
flues, and similar fixtures shall be included in the dead load 
supported by the structural frame. The weight of equipment that 
is part of the occupancy of a given area shall be considered as 
live load. 

705.3. Partition Load. 

705.3.1. In structures in which permanent partitions occur, their 
weight shall be counted as affecting the design of all supporting 
structural members, including columns and foundations, as part 
of the dead load; and in those portions of office buildings in 
which the prescribed live load does not exceed fifty (50) pounds 
per square foot, allowance for partition weight shall always be 
made whether or not partitions are shown on plans. 

705.3.2. If a layout of partitions is included in the building 
plans, the weights of the partitions and their locations shall be 
determined in accordance therewith; or such layout shall be 



used to determine an equivalent load per square foot of floor 
to be applied uniformly as a superimposed dead load for pur- 
poses of design. But the allowance for partition weight in por- 
tions of buildings given to office occupancy, when expressed 
in pounds per square foot of floor, shall in no case be less 
than a minimum of two (2) pounds for each foot of story height 
for each square foot of floor. 

705.3.3. — In estimating loading from actual weights of partitions 
it may be assumed that the partition occupies a space one (1) 
foot wide, and a deduction may be made of the live load 
displaced on this width. 

705.3.4. — The equivalent uniform partition loads in reference 
standard RS 7-1 may be used in lieu of actual partition weights 
except for bearing partitions or partitions in toilet room areas, 
at stairs and elevators and similar areas where partitions are 
concentrated. In such cases, actual partition weights shall be 
used in design. 

705.3.5. — Arch action of partitions shall not be assumed to 
relieve the supporting members. 

SECTION 706.0. EXISTING BUILDINGS 

In the reconstruction, repair, extension or alteration of existing 
buildings, the allowable working stresses used in design shall be 
as follows: 

706.1. Building Extended. — When an existing building is altered 
by an extension in height or area, all existing structural parts 
affected by the addition shall be strengthened where necessary 
and all new structural parts shall be designed to meet the 
requirements for buildings hereafter erected; 

706.2. Building Repaired. — When repairs are made to the 
structural portion of an existing building, and the uncovered 
structural portions are found unsound, such parts shall be made 
to conform to the requirements for buildings hereafter erected; 

706.3. Existing Live Load. — When an existing building hereto- 
fore approved is altered or repaired within the limitations pre- 
scribed in article 1 - Part II, the structure may be designed for 
the loads and stresses applicable at the time of erection, subject 
to the approval of the building official. 

706.4. Posted Live Load. — Any existing building heretofore 
approved, in which there is no change in use to a new occu- 
pancy group requiring greater floor loads, may be posted for 



705-708 

the originally approved live loads, provided the building is 
structurally safe in all its parts and adequate for its existing use, 
subject to the approval of the building official. 

SECTION 707.0. UNIT LIVE LOADS 

The plans for all buildings and structures intended for other 
than residential uses shall specify the live loads for which each 
floor or part thereof has been designed. 

707.1. Uniform Live Load. — The minimum design values estab- 
lished in reference standards RS 7-2 for various occupancies or 
uses shall be used. 

707.2. Heavy Truck Loads. — The floor loads for garages designed 
to house trucks or buses exceeding twenty thousand (20,000) 
pounds gross weight shall be determined by the actual load con- 
ditions; but in no case shall the assumed load be less than one 
hundred and fifty (150) per cent of the maximum wheel load on 
any point of the floor construction. 

SECTION 708.0. CONCENTRATED LOADS 

In the design of floors and structural systems, consideration 
shall be given to the effects of known or probable concentrations 
of load to which they may be subjected. 

708.1. — The concentrated live loads established in reference 
standard RS 7-2 for various occupancies or uses shall be used 
placed so as to produce maximum stress. 

708.2. — Floors that support any items of machinery, electrical 
or mechanical equipment, or other concentrated live load in 
excess of one thousand (1,000) pounds (including the weights of 
pads or bases) shall be designed to support such weight as a 
concentrated load or group of concentrated loads. 

708.3. Nonconcurrence. 

708.3.1. — When a concentrated live load is present, the uniformly 
distributed load may be considered to be omitted in the area 
occupied by the concentrated load. 

708.3.2. — Where reference standard RS 7-2 indicates that the 
concentrated live load is nonconcurrent with the uniform live 
load, it may be assumed that the total concentrated load is to 
be omitted when the uniform load is present and that the total 
uniform load is to be omitted when the concentrated load is 
present. 



SECTION 709.0. IMPACT LOADS 

The unit live loads specified in section 707 shall be assumed 
to include adequate allowance for ordinary impact conditions. 
Provision shall be made in the structural design for special uses 
which involve moving loads, vibration and impact forces. The 
minimum added allowance for impact for all hangers supporting 
floors and balconies shall be thirty-three (33) per cent of the live 
loads contributing to the stress in the hanger. 

709.1. Elevators. — All moving elevator, dumbwaiter, and escala- 
tor loads shall be increased one hundred (100) per cent for im- 
pact and the structural supports shall be designed within the 
limits of deflection specified by the state safety code for elevators. 

709.2. Machinery. — Unless machinery is isolated from the 
support framing, the loads for supports of reciprocating or 
heavy power driven units shall be increased at least fifty (50) 
per cent and the loads for supports of light shaft or motor 
driven units shall be increased at least twenty-five (25) per cent 
to provide for impact. 

709.2.1. — Care shall be taken to avoid near resonant conditions 
for machinery and other vibratory loads. 

709.3. Crane Runways. 

709.3.1. Vertical Loads. — Actual maximum wheel loads occur- 
ring when the crane is lifting its capacity load shall be used. To 
allow for impact, the lifted load shall be increased twenty-five 
(25) per cent or the wheel loads increased fifteen (15) per cent 
whichever produces greater stress condition. 

709.3.2. Horizontal Loads. — The lateral load (due to crane 
trolley travel) shall be twenty (20) per cent of the sum of the 
capacity load and trolley weight, applied one-half (1/2) at the 
top of each rail and acting in either direction normal to the 
runway rail. The longitudinal load (due to crane travel) shall be 
twenty (20) per cent of the maximum total reaction (not including 
impact) on the rail being considered, applied at the top of the 
rail and acting parallel to the runway. 

709.4. Assembly Structures. — Seating areas in grandstands, 
stadiums, and similar assembly structures shall be designed 
to resist the simultaneous application of a horizontal swaying 
load of at least twenty-four (24) pounds per linear foot of seats 
applied in a direction parallel to the row of the seats, and of at 
least ten (10) pounds per linear foot of seats in a direction 
perpendicular to the row of the seats. When this load is used 



709 

in combination with wind for outdoor structures, the wind load 
shall be one-half (1/2) of the design wind load, and the pro- 
visions of article 7 relating to infrequent stress conditions shall 
apply to this loading condition. 

709.5. Monorail Beams and Supports. 

709.5.1. — Vertical loads shall be the sum of the capacity load 
and trolley weight. To allow for impact, the lifted load shall be 
increased ten (10) per cent for hand-operated and twenty-five 
(25) per cent electrically-operated trolleys. 

709.5.2. — Longitudinal loads shall be twenty (20) per cent of the 
sum of the capacity load and the weight of the trolley. 

709.5.3. — Lateral load shall be twenty (20) per cent of the sum 
of the capacity load and the weight of the trolley. 

709.5.4. — Centrifugal forces shall be considered for curved tracks. 

709.6. Passenger Vehicles. — Areas used for, and restricted by 
physical limitations of clearance to, the transit or parking of 
passenger vehicles shall be designed for the uniformly distributed 
and concentrated loads for parking areas for such vehicles as 
provided in reference standard RS 7-2, applied without impact. 
An exception with regard to concentrated loads is made for 
members or constructions which, because of physical limitations, 
cannot be subjected to direct load from the vehicle or from a 
jack or hoist used to raise or suspend the vehicle. Such members 
or constructions shall be designed for the loads corresponding to 
the actual usage. 

709.7. Truck Loads. — Minimum loads (including vertical, lateral, 
and longitudinal) and the distribution thereof shall meet the 
applicable requirements of reference standard RS 7-3, except 
that impact shall be taken as ten (10) per cent of the vertical 
reaction. 

709.8. Railroad Equipment. — Minimum loads (including vertical, 
lateral, longitudinal, and impact) and the distribution thereof 
shall meet the applicable requirements of reference standard 
RS 7-4. 

709.9. Heliports and Helistops. 
709.9.1. Concentrated Loads. 

a. Landing Area — Helicopter landing areas shall be designed 
for the most severe of the following vertical loads acting 
at any location: 
1. A single concentrated load equal to three-quarters 

(3/4) of the gross weight of the helicopter and acting 

on an area of one (1) square foot. 



2. Concentrated loads representing the gross wheel 

reactions of the helicopter acting simultaneously 

and increased one-third (1/3) for impact. 

b. Taxiing Area — Helicopter taxiing areas shall be designed 

for concentrated loads in accordance with (a. 2) above. 

709.9.2. Uniform Live Load. — The landing and taxiing areas 

shall be capable of supporting a uniformly distributed live load 

of forty (40) psf acting nonconcurrently with the concentrated 

loads. 

SECTION 710.0. SPECIAL LOADS 

Provisions shall be made for all special loads herein prescribed 
and all other special loads to which the building or structure 
may be subjected. 

710.1. Below Grade. — All retaining walls and other walls below 
grade shall be designed to resist lateral soil pressures with due 
allowance for hydrostatic pressure and for all superimposed 
vertical loads. When a portion or the whole of the adjacent 
soil is below a free water surface, calculations shall be based 
on the weight of the soil as diminished by buoyancy, plus full 
hydrostatic pressure. 

710.2. Hydrostatic Uplift. — All foundation slabs and other 
footings subjected to water pressure shall be designed to resist 
a uniformly distributed uplift equal to the full hydrostatic 
pressure. 

710.3. Railings and Parapets. 

710.3.1. — Railings and parapets around stairwells, balconies, 
areaways, and roofs, and other railings in similar locations 
other than those for places of assembly, shall be designed to 
resist the simultaneous application of a lateral force of forty (40) 
plf and a vertical load of fifty (50) plf, both applied to the top 
of the railing. For railings and parapets at the front of theater 
balconies and in similar locations in places of assembly, the 
lateral force shall be increased to fifty (50) plf and the vertical 
load to one hundred (100) plf. An exception is made for railings 
in one- and two- family dwellings, which shall be designed for 
a lateral force of twenty (20) plf plus a vertical load of twenty 
(20) plf, both applied at the top of the railing. The total lateral 
force and total vertical load shall be at least two hundred (200) 
pounds each. 

710.3.2. — Intermediate and bottom rails, if provided, shall be 



709-710 

designed for the simultaneous application of forty (40) plf 
applied horizontally and fifty (50) plf applied vertically; however, 
lateral and vertical design loads on intermediate and bottom rails 
need not be considered in the design of posts and anchorages. 
For railings having solid panels, the panels shall be designed 
for a uniform lateral load of twenty (20) psf. 

710.3.3. — Where railings or parapets support lighting fixtures, 
allowance shall be made for the additional loads imposed thereby. 

710.3.4. — Railings, bumpers, or similar devices used in parking 
areas to resist the impact of moving vehicles shall be designed 
to resist a lateral load of three hundred (300) plf applied at 
least twenty-one (21) inches above the roadway; but in no case 
shall the load be less than twenty-five hundred (2,500) pounds 
per vehicle. 

710.4. Construction Loads and Erection Stresses. — Construction 
loads and erections stresses shall be limited by appropriate con- 
struction and erection procedures to the basic design loads and 
corresponding working stresses required by this code for the 
particular occupancies and materials of construction. 

710.5. Sidewalks and Driveways. 

710.5.1. — All sidewalks and driveways or portions thereof that 
are structurally supported shall be designed for a live load of 
one hundred (100) psf uniformly distributed and in accordance 
with the provisions of article 8. Where subject to intentionally 
or accidentally imposed wheel loads of vehicles, such portions 
of sidewalks and driveways shall be designed for a uniformly 
distributed load of six hundred (600) psf or for the maximum 
vehicular wheel load that could be imposed thereon, whichever 
develops the greater stresses. Where the imposed load is limited 
by physical restrictions to the weight of passenger cars the 
provisions of section 709.6 shall apply. 

710.5.2. — Appurtenant components of sidewalks and driveways, 
including manholes, manhole covers, vault covers, gratings, etc., 
shall be designed for the loads prescribed in section 710.5.1 
above, and shall conform to the standards of the city agency 
having jurisdiction. 

710.6. Columns in Parking Areas. — Unless specially protected, 
columns in parking areas subject to impact of moving vehicles 
shall be designed to resist the lateral load due to impact and 
this load shall be considered a load of infrequent occurence. 
For passenger vehicles, this lateral load shall be taken as a 
minimum of twenty-five hundred (2,500) pounds applied at least 



twenty-one (21) inches above the roadway and acting simul- 
taneously with other design loads. 

710.7. Bins and Bunkers. — Loads on component parts of bins 
and bunkers may be reduced for friction on sidewalls, but in 
all cases the sidewalls and their supports shall be proportioned 
for the probable increase of vertical loads. Where stresses would 
be increased in any component by arching of the fill, the effect 
of such arching shall be considered. 

710.8. Temperature Loads. — The design of enclosed buildings 
more than two hundred and fifty (250) feet in plan dimension 
shall provide for the forces and/or movements resulting from an 
assumed expansion corresponding to a change in temperature 
of 40° F. For exterior exposed frames, arches or shells regard- 
less of plan dimensions, the design shall provide for the forces 
and/or movements resulting from an assumed expansion and 
contraction corresponding to an increase or decrease in tempera- 
ture of 50° F. For determining required anchorage for piping, 
the forces shall be determined on the basis of temperature 
variations for the specific service conditions. Friction forces in 
expansion bearings shall be considered. 

710.9. Shrinkage and Creep. — The design of reinforced concrete 
components shall provide for the forces and/or movements 
resulting from shrinkage and creep of the concrete between 
contraction joints. The design of arches and similar structures 
shall provide for effects of shrinkage, plus rib-shortening, plus 
plastic flow. 

SECTION 711.0. ROOF LOADS 

The structural components and supports of roofs and marquees 
shall be designed to resist wind, live, dead and other loads as 
prescribed below. 

711.1. Minimum Roof Load. 

711.1.1. — Snow load as provided in section 712.0. 

711.1.2. — Wind load as provided in section 715.0. 

711.1.3. — Earthquake load as provided in section 719.0. 

711.2. Concentrated Loads. — The provisions of section 708 
shall apply. 

711.3. Overhanging Eaves. — In other than one (l)and two (2) 
family dwellings overhanging eaves, cornices and other roof 
projections shall be designed for a uniformly distributed live 



710-712 

load of at least sixty (60) pounds per square foot, or more 
if required by the provisions of section 712.2.3. 
711.4. Special Loads. 

711.4.1. — When used for purposes such as promenades, assembly 
areas, or roof gardens, design shall be made for live loads cor- 
responding to the particular usage, as indicated in reference 
standard RS 7-2. Such loads shall be considered as noncon- 
current with the wind load or with the live load specified in 
section 711.1. The design live and wind loads for roofs, as 
specified elsewhere in this article, shall be deemed to provide for 
incidental use of the roof of a building by the occupants thereof. 

711.4.2. — Roofs shall be designed for the maximum possible 
depth of water that may be ponded thereon as determined by 
the relative levels of roof deck and overflow weirs, scuppers, 
edges or serviceable drains in combination with the deflected 
structural elements. 

711.4.3. — Girders and roof trusses (other than joists) over garage 
areas regularly utilized for the repair of vehicles and over man- 
ufacturing floors or storage floors used for commercial purposes 
shall be capable of supporting, in addition to the specified live 
and wind loads, a concentrated live load of two thousand (2,000) 
pounds applied at any lower chord panel point for trusses, and 
at any point of the lower flange for girders. 

711.4.4. — Where roofs are landscaped, the uniform design live 
load on the landscaped portions shall be thirty (30) psf. The 
weight of the landscaping materials shall be considered as dead 
load and shall be computed on the basis of saturation of the 
earth. The areas adjacent to the landscaped portions shall be 
considered as assembly areas, unless specific provision is made 
to prevent such use. 

711.4.5. — Where equipment is placed on roofs, the design shall 
provide for the support of such equipment. 



SECTION 712.0. SNOW LOAD 

712.1. Shape of Roof. — When the effect of the shape of roof 
structure as determined by actual test indicates lesser or greater 
snow retention value than specified in this article, the roof load 
shall be modified accordingly. The effect of adjacent vertical 
surfaces shall be in accordance with section 712.2.3. 
712.1.1. — Flat roofs and roofs having a rise of two (2) inches 



or less per foot of run shall be designed to support a vertical 
snow load of thirty (30) pounds per square foot of horizontal 
projection 

712.1.2. — Roofs having a rise of more than two (2) and less 
than twelve (12) inches per foot of run shall be designed for a 
vertical snow load of (34r2r) pounds per square foot of horizon- 
tal projection in which r is the rise in inches per foot of run. 

712.1.3. — Roofs having a rise of twelve (12) inches or more per 
foot of run shall be designed for a vertical snow load of ten 
(10) pounds per square foot of horizontal projection. 

712.1.4. — If the roof under consideration is above an area which 
is normally unheated or extensively insulated so that normal 
melting is prevented, then the snow load applied under sections 
712.1.1, 712.1.2, 712.1.3 and 712.2.1 shall be increased by one- 
third (1/3). 

712.2. Special Snow Load Conditions. 

712.2.1. Valleys. — For horizontal valleys, loadings shall be 
increased to provide for accumulations of snow. The loading 
intensity shall be assumed to vary from forty-five (45) psf at 
the low point to fifteen (15) psf at the ridge. 

712.2.2. — For a roof having curved or pyramidal shapes, the 
proposed live load shall be established by the architect or 
engineer subject to approval by the building official. 

712.2.3. — For a roof having a rise of six (6) inches per foot or 
less, and which abuts or is not more than fifteen (15) feet away 
from a vertical surface that extends to a height of H feet above 
the roof deck, the design snow load intensity shall be modified 
as follows: 

a. H less than three (3) feet: No change. 

b. H at least three (3) feet but less than ten (10) feet: 
Design load shall vary linearly from a maximum of 
12H pounds per square foot at the vertical surface to a 
minimum at a distance of 2H from the vertical surface. 
The minimum shall be the design load as otherwise 
specified in this section. 

c. H equal to ten (10) feet or more: Design load shall vary 
linearly from a maximum of one hundred twenty (120) 
pounds per square foot at the vertical surface to a 
minimum at a distance of twenty (20) feet from the 
vertical surface. The minimum shall be the design load 
as otherwise specified in this section. 

712.2.4. — For roofs subject to additional snow load due to 



712-714 

sliding snow from adjacent inclined surfaces, the design snow 
load shall be established by the architect or engineer, subject 
to the approval of the building official. 

712.2.5. — Whenever any building is to be constructed above the 
roof of an adjoining building, it shall be the duty of the person 
causing such building to be constructed to protect the roof, sky- 
lights and other roof outlets of the adjoining building from 
possible injury resulting from drift and/or sliding snow loads to 
the extent prescribed in sections 712.2.3 and 712.2.4. Such 
person shall be afforded a license to enter and inspect the 
adjoining building and perform such work thereon as may be 
necessary for such purposes; otherwise the duty of protecting the 
roof, skylights and other roof outlets of the adjoining building 
shall devolve upon the owner thereof. 

SECTION 713.0. WIND LOAD 

The structural frame of all buildings, signs, tanks and other 
exposed structures or parts of structures shall be designed to 
resist the horizontal pressures due to wind in any direction, 
both inwardly and outwardly, allowing for suction on the lee- 
ward side, as provided in sections 714 to 718 inclusive. 
713.1. Torsional Resistance. — The structural frame of all buildings 
and structures subjected to wind or other lateral loads shall be 
designed to resist the torsional moment due to eccentricity of 
the resultant load with respect to the center of resistance of the 
structure, to the wind or other lateral load. 

SECTION 714.0. WIND ON VERTICAL SURFACES 

The wind pressures on vertical surfaces shall be those pre- 
scribed in section 714.1, distributed in accordance with section 
714.2 and if required, modified by sections 714.3 and 714.4. 
714.1. Design Pressures. — Design pressures due to wind acting 
on vertical surfaces shall be not less than the pressure (P) as 
prescribed in reference standard RS 7-5 as modified by the 
proper coefficients specified in this code. 

714.1.1. — Total horizontal pressure on the walls of rectangular 
buildings (combining the effect of pressure on the windward 
walls and suction on the leeward walls) ... 1.0 P. 

714.1.2. — Total horizontal pressure acting simultaneously on 
each of any two (2) perpendicular walls of a rectangular building 



(combining the effect of pressure on the windward walls and 

suction on the leeward walls) . . . 0.7 P. 

714.1.3. — Pressure in or out on an exterior wall . . . 0.7 P. 

714.2. Distribution of Wind Force. — The wind pressure shall 
be distributed between opposite walls, two-thirds (2/3) as a 
normal pressure on the windward side and one-third (1/3) as a 
normal outward suction on the leeward side. 

714.3. Wail Framing and Wall Panels. — In buildings provided 
with one-third (1/3) or more wall openings or subject to being 
open or broken, an internal pressure of 2/3 P or internal suction 
of 1/3 P whichever is critical shall be assumed to occur simul- 
taneously with the above external pressures and suctions. For 
lesser amounts of wall openings the internal pressure or suction 
assumed shall be one-half (1/2) of the foregoing values. 

714.4. Secondary Members. — Secondary wall framing, wall 
panels, sheathing and girts and their connections shall be 
designed for external and internal pressures or suctions which 
are one and one-half (1-1/2) times those values determined in 
accordance with sections 714.1, 714.2, and 714.3. 

714.5. Design Wind Load for Glass. — Firmly supported lights of 
glass of four (4) square feet or more in area installed in a 
vertical position, or at an angle of not more than twenty (20) 
degrees from the vertical, shall be designed to withstand wind 
pressure in accordance with design criteria stated in reference 
standard RS 7-6. 

SECTION 715.0. WIND LOAD ON ROOFS 

The external wind pressures and suctions specified in sections 
715.1 and 715.2 shall be considered in the design of primary 
roof framing and trusses. 

External wind pressures and suctions to be considered in the 
design of secondary roof framing, purlins, roof panels and 
sheathing and their connections shall be one and one-half (1-1/2) 
times those determined in accordance with those sections. Internal 
pressures to be considered in the design of secondary roof 
framing and roof panels and sheathing and their connections 
shall be those specified in section 714.3 for wall elements. 
715.1. Horizontal and Pitched Roofs. — Design wind forces on 
roofs, assumed to be acting on primary roof framing members, 
shall be not less than the pressure (P) specified in section 714.1 
modified by the following coefficients. 



714-716 

715.1.1. — For roof slopes thirty (30) degrees or less, either a 
pressure of 0.4P or a suction of 1.2P over the entire roof area. 
715.1.2.— For roof slopes of more than thirty (30) degrees either: 

a. a pressure of 0.6P on the windward slope with a suction 
of 0.4P on the leeward slope; or 

b. a pressure of 0.9P on the windward slope with a zero 
suction on the leeward slope. 

715.2. Curved Roofs. — The external wind forces assumed to be 
acting upon the primary framing members in the windward 
quarter of curved roofs shall be not less than the wind pressure 
specified in section 714.1 multiplied by the rise-to-span ratio of 
the entire roof arch and shall be considered as acting as an 
inward acting pressure. An external suction of not less than 
seven-tenths (7/10) of the pressure specified in section 714.1 
shall be assumed to be acting upon the center half of all arch 
roofs and an external suction of not less than six-tenths (6/10) 
of such pressures shall be assumed to be acting upon the lee- 
ward quarter of all such roofs. All wind pressures acting upon 
curved roofs shall be considered as acting normal to the chord 
of the curved section under consideration. 

715.3. Test Determination. — With the approval of the building 
official, wind force on a building may be based on shape 
coefficients obtained from wind tunnel tests of models or by 
other approved methods. Such shape coefficients shall include 
the full effect of openings in wall or roof surfaces. In such 
cases the velocity pressure "q" to be used at any height shall 
be taken as .77 p. 

715.4. Anchorage. — Roof framing shall be anchored to wall 
framing and walls to foundations so as to resist wind uplift and 
sliding in excess of seventy-five (75) per cent of the dead load 
resistance. 

715.5. Uplift on Eaves. — Overhanging eaves, cornices and other 
local projections shall be designed and constructed to withstand 
an upward pressure of 1.5 P. 



SECTION 716.0. WIND LOADS ON SIGNS, TANK AND 
RADIO TOWERS, CHIMNEYS AND OTHER BUILDING 
APPURTENANCES 

Minimum wind pressures to be used in the design of these 
and other building appurtenances shall be determined using the 



value of P as specified in section 714.1 applied either in con- 
formance with this section or in conformance with reference 
standard RS 7-11. 

716.1. Signs and Towers. — The wind pressure on ground signs 
and towers other than radio and television towers, and their 
supports or portions thereof having seventy-five (75) per cent or 
more of solid surface shall be assumed at 1.2 P and having less 
than seventy-five (75) per cent of solid surface shall be 1.6 P of 
net exposed area of the structure normal to the direction of the 
wind. 

716.2. Roof Structures. — The wind pressure on roof signs, tank 
towers, stacks, chimney and other exposed roof structures with 
plane surfaces shall be assumed at 1.6 P applied to the net 
projected area of the structure normal to the direction of the 
wind except as provided in sections 716.3 and 716.4. 

716.3. Shielding Effect. — No shielding effect of one element by 
another shall be considered when the distance between them 
exceeds four (4) times the projected smallest dimension of the 
windward element. 

716.4. Effect of Shape. — The wind pressure on circular tanks, 
stacks or other circular structures shall be assumed 0.7P applied 
to the projected area; and for hexagonal or octagonal structures 
1.0P. 

716.4.1. — For special shaped structures such as spheres, guys, 
cables, solid girders, the design wind pressure shall be deter- 
mined as provided for in section 715.3. 

SECTION 717.0. UNUSUAL WIND EXPOSURES 

For buildings and structures located in unusually exposed 
positions subjected to higher wind loads than herein specified, 
the design wind load shall be determined by the highest values 
in reference standard RS 7-5. 

SECTION 718.0. OVERTURNING AND SLIDING 

The overturning moment due to the wind load on all structures 
shall not exceed seventy-five (75) per cent of the moment of 
stability resulting from the dead load of the building, unless the 
building or structure is anchored to resist the excess overturning 
moment and the excess horizontal shear over sliding friction. 



716-721 
SECTION 719.0. EARTHQUAKE LOAD 

All structures except one (1) or two (2) family dwellings and 
minor accessory buildings shall be capable of safely withstanding 
the lateral forces prescribed for Zone 2 in reference standard 
RS 7-12. 



SECTION 720.0. COMBINED LOADING 

The structural frame of all buildings shall be investigated for 
the combined effect of lateral and vertical loading and the 
individual members of the frame shall be proportioned as follows: 

720.1. With Earthquake. — For combined stresses due to earth- 
quake load together with dead, live and snow loads, the allow- 
able working stress for the structural material may be increased 
thirty-three and one-third (33-1/3) per cent. 

720.2. Wind. — For combined stresses due to wind load together 
with dead, live and snow loads, the allowable working stress 
for the structural material may be increased thirty-three and 
one-third (33-1/3) per cent. 

720.3. Minimum Section. — The section determined for the 
combined loadings herein specified shall be compared with that 
required for dead, live and snow loads only, and the section of 
greatest strength shall determine that to be used in the structure. 



SECTION 721.0. LIVE LOAD REDUCTION 

In all buildings and structures except places of assembly, the 
design live loads may be reduced on columns, piers, walls, 
trusses, girders and foundations as herein specified; but in no 
case shall a reduction be applied to the roof live load. 
721.1. Live Loads 100 Pounds or Less. — For live loads of one 
hundred (100) pounds or less per square foot, the design live 
load on any member supporting one hundred fifty (150) square 
feet or more may be reduced at the rate of eight-hundredths 
(0.08) per cent per square foot of area supported by the mem- 
bers, except for reductions controlled by section 721.2. The 



reduction shall exceed neither R as determined by the following 
formula, nor sixty (60) per cent: 
R = 100 x ( D + L \ 

U.33L I 
in which 

R = reduction in per cent 

D = dead load per square feet of an area supported by the 

member 
L design live load per square feet of area supported by 
the member 

721.2. Special Limitations. 

721.2.1. — For live loads exceeding one hundred (100) pounds 
per square foot, no reduction shall be made, except that the 
design live loads on columns may be reduced twenty (20) per 
cent. 

721.2.2. — No live load reduction shall be permitted for the fol- 
lowing: members and connections (other than columns, piers, 
and walls) supporting floor areas used for storage (including 
warehouses, library stacks, and record storage); and areas used 
as place of assembly, for manufacturing, and for retail or whole- 
sale sales. For columns, piers, and walls supporting such floor 
areas the maximum live load reduction shall be twenty (20) per 
cent. 

721.2.3. — No live load reduction shall be permitted for calculating 
shear stresses at the heads of columns in flat slab or flat plate 
construction. 

721.3. Foundations and Column Supports. — The full dead load 
plus the reduced live load as herein prescribed shall be used in 
the design of foundations and of trusses or girders which sup- 
port columns. 

SECTION 722.0. ALLOWABLE WORKING STRESSES 

722.1. Controlled Materials. — The design and working stresses 
of all controlled materials as defined in section 201, or of any 
structural material that is identified as to manufacture and grade 
by mill tests or the strength and stress grade is otherwise con- 
firmed to the satisfaction of the building official, shall conform 
to the specifications and methods of design of accepted engi- 
neering practice or to the approved rules in the absence of 
applicable standards. A building or structure may be erected in 
whole or in part of controlled design and materials. 



721-725 

722.2. Ordinary Materials. — The use of ordinary materials without 
selection and without controlled design and supervision, or when 
the material is not identified as to strength and stress grade, 
shall be limited to the average unit working stresses prescribed 
in reference standard RS 7-7. 

722.3. New Materials. — For materials and assemblies which are 
not specifically provided for in this code the working stresses 
shall be specifically established by individual tests as provided in 
sections 703 and 803 on the actual materials to be used until 
adequate statistical evidence permits the establishing of generally 
applicable working stresses by the building official with sub- 
sequent testing limited to representative samples for quality 
control as he may require. 

SECTION 723.0. ALLOY AND SPECIAL STEELS 

The use of alloy, high carbon or other special high-strength 
steels shall be permitted in the design and construction of 
buildings and structures as controlled materials and as prescribed 
in section 833 in accordance with provisions of referenced 
standards. 



SECTION 724.0. LIGHT WEIGHT METALS 

When not specifically provided for in article 8 light weight 
metals and their alloys may be used in the design and con- 
struction of buildings or structures only after special approval 
of the building official, subject to the determination of the physi- 
cal properties by tests as prescribed in article 8 and in accor- 
dance with the provisions of section 834. 

SECTION 725.0. BEARING PRESSURES OF SOILS AND 
ROCKS 

All applications for permits for the construction of new 
buildings or structures, and for the alteration of permanent 
structures which require changes that may affect their foundation, 
shall be accompanied by a statement describing the soils in the 
bearing strata, including sufficient records and data to establish 
their character and load-bearing capacity. Such records shall be 
certified by a licensed professional engineer. 



725.1. Satisfactory Foundation Materials. — The foundations of 
every permanent structure shall be supported by satisfactory 
bearing strata which shall mean: 

a. Natural strata of rock, gravel, sand, inorganic silt, in- 
organic clay, or any combination of these materials with 
the limitations stated in section 725.2.3. 

b. Compacted fills which satisfy the provisions of section 
752.2. l.d. 

c. Natural strata or artificial fills which can be changed into 
satisfactory bearing materials by pre-consolidation with a 
temporary surcharge in accordance with the provisions of 
section 725. 2. I.e. 

725.1.1. — Where footings are supported at different levels, or at 
different levels from footings of adjacent structures, foundation 
plans shall include vertical sections showing to true scale all such 
variations in grade. The effect of such differences in footing 
levels on the bearing materials shall be considered in the design. 

725.1.2. — Foundations shall be constructed so that freezing 
temperatures will not penetrate into underlying soils that contain 
more than five (5) per cent (by weight), passing a No. 200 
mesh sieve. The foundations and grade beams of permanent 
structures, except when founded on sound rock, and except 
as otherwise provided in section 725.1.3 shall be carried down 
at least four (4) feet below an adjoining surface exposed to 
natural freezing. No foundation shall be placed on frozen soil. 
Foundations shall not be placed in freezing weather unless 
adequately protected. 

725.1.3. — Foundations of detached garages or similar accessory 
structures not exceeding eight hundred (800) square feet in area 
and not over one (1) story high, and grade beams of all struc- 
tures, need not be carried more than one (1) foot below an 
adjoining surface exposed to natural freezing if the underlying 
soil to a depth of at least four (4) feet beneath the surface, and 
extending at least four (4) feet outside the building, is sand, 
gravel, cinders, or other granular materials containing not more 
than five (5) per cent (by weight) passing a No. 200 mesh sieve. 

725.1.4. — Foundations subject to hydrostatic uplift shall have 
adequate provisions to prevent heaving. 

725.1.5. — Basements and cellars shall be waterproofed in a 
manner consistent with their proposed use up to the maximum 
probable ground-water level. Under boilers, furnaces, and other 
heat-producing apparatus, suitable insulation shall be installed 



725 
to protect the waterproofing against damage from heat as 
specified in articles 10 and 11. Foundations under heat-producing 
units shall be so insulated as to prevent evaporation of moisture 
from any underlying soil that is subject to shrinkage, and to 
protect the heads of wood piles against damage from heat. 
725.2. Classification of Bearing Materials and Allowable Bearing 
Pressures. 

725.2.1. Classification of Bearing Materials. — The terms used 
in this section shall be interpreted in accordance with generally 
accepted engineering nomenclature. In addition, the following 
more specific definitions are used for bearing materials in the 
Greater Boston area: 

a. Rocks 

Shale — A soft, fine-grained sedimentary rock. 
Slate — A hard, fine-grained metamorphic rock of sedi- 
mentary origin. 

Conglomerate — A hard, well cemented metamorphic rock 
consisting of fragments ranging from sand to gravel and 
cobbles set in a fine-grained matrix (locally known as 
Roxbury Puddingstone.) 

b. Granular Materials 

Gravel — A mixture of mineral grains at least seventy (70) 

per cent (by weight) of which is retained on a No. 4 

mesh sieve and possessing no dry strength. 

Sand — A mixture of mineral grains at least seventy (70) 

per cent (by weight) of which passes a No. 4 mesh sieve 

and which contains not more than fifteen (15) per cent 

(by weight) passing a No. 200 mesh sieve. 

Coarse Sand — A sand at least fifty (50) per cent (by 

weight) of which is retained on a No. 20 mesh sieve. 

Medium Sand — A sand at least fifty (50) per cent (by 

weight) of which passes a No. 20 mesh sieve and at 

least fifty (50) per cent (by weight) is retained on a No. 

60 mesh sieve. 

Fine Sand — A sand at least fifty (50) per cent (by weight) 

of which passes a No. 60 mesh sieve. 

Well-graded Sand and Gravel — A mixture of mineral 

grains which contains between twenty-five (25) per cent 

and seventy (70) per cent (by weight) passing a No. 4 

mesh sieve, between ten (10) and forty (40) per cent (by 

weight) passing a No. 20 mesh sieve, and containing not 

more than eight (8) per cent (by weight) passing a No. 

200 mesh sieve. 



c. Cohesive Materials 

Glacial Till — A very dense, heterogeneous mixture ranging 
from very fine material to coarse gravel and boulders and 
generally lying over bedrock. It can be identified from 
geological evidence and from the very high penetration 
resistance encountered in earth boring and sampling 
operations. 

Clay — A fine-grained, inorganic soil possessing sufficient 
dry strength to form hard lumps which cannot readily be 
pulverized by the fingers. 

Hard Clay — An inorganic clay requiring picking for 
removal, a fresh sample of which cannot be molded by 
pressure of the fingers. 

Medium Clay — An inorganic clay which can be removed 
by spading, a fresh sample of which can be molded by a 
substantial pressure of the fingers. 

Soft Clay — An inorganic clay, a fresh sample of which 
can be molded with slight pressure of the fingers. 
Inorganic Silt — A fine-grained, inorganic soil consisting 
chiefly of grains which will pass a No. 200 mesh sieve, 
and possessing sufficient dry strength to form lumps 
which can easily be pulverized with the fingers. 
Note: Dry strength is determined by drying a wet pat of 
soil and breaking it with the fingers. 

d. Compacted Granular Fill 

A fill consisting of gravel, sand-gravel mixtures, coarse 
or medium sand, crushed stone, or slag, containing not 
more than eight (8) per cent (by weight) passing a No. 
200 mesh sieve and having no plasticity, shall be con- 
sidered satisfactory bearing material when compacted in 
nine (9) inch thick layers, measured before compaction, 
with adjustment of water content as necessary to achieve 
required compaction by applying to each layer a minimum 
of four (4) coverages of one of the following: 

1 . A vibratory roller with a steel drum with minimum 
weight of two (2) tons with a speed not exceeding 
one and one-half (1-1/2) miles per hour; 

2. A rubber-tired roller having four (4) wheels abreast 
and weighted to a total load of not less than thirty- 
five (35) tons; 



725 

3. With the treads of a crawler type tractor with total 
load of not less than thirty-five (35) tons; 

4. Other types of materials, compaction equipment, and 
procedures as may be approved by the building 
official on the basis of sufficient evidence that they 
will achieve compacted fills having satisfactory prop- 
erties. 

The building official will require a competent inspector, 
qualified by experience and training and satisfactory to 
him. to be on the project at all times while fill is being 
placed and compacted. The inspector shall make an 
accurate record of the type of material used, including 
grain-size curves, thickness of lifts, type of compaction 
equipment and number of coverages, the use of water 
and other pertinent data. Whenever the building official 
or the inspector questions the suitability of a material, 
or the degree of compaction achieved, bearing tests shall 
be performed on the compacted material in accordance 
with the requirements of section 727.0. A copy of all 
these records and test data shall be filed with the building 
official. 

c. Preloaded Materials 

1 . The building official may allow the use of certain 
otherwise unsatisfactory natural soils and uncom- 
pacted fills for the support of one (1) story struc- 
tures, after these materials have been preloaded to 
effective stresses not less than one hundred and fifty 
(150) per cent of the effective stresses which will be 
induced by the structure. 

2. The building official may require the loading and 
unloading of a sufficientlylarge area, conducted under 
the direction of a competent engineer, approved by 
the building official, who shall submit a report con- 
taining a program which will allow sufficient time 
for adequate consolidation of the material, and an 
analysis of the preloaded material and of the prob- 
able settlements of the structure. 

725.2.2. Bearing Values. — The maximum pressure on soils 
under foundations shall not exceed values specified in section 

725.2.3, table 7-1, except when determined in accordance with 
provisions of section 727.0 and in any case subject to the 
modifications of subsequent sections of this article. 



725.2.3. Table 7-1 

Allowable Bearing Pressures of Foundation Materials 

Class of Material Allowable Bearing I 

Pressure in Tons 
Per Square Foot(*}| 



1 


Massive igneous rocks and conglomerate, 
all in sound condition (sound condition 






allows minor cracks) 


100 


2 


Slate in sound condition (minor cracks 






allowed) 


50 


3 


Shale in sound condition (minor cracks 






allowed) 


10(0 


4 


Residual deposits of shattered or broken 






bedrock of any kind except shale 


10 


5 


Glacial Till 


10 


6 


Gravel, well-graded sand and gravel 


5 


7 


Coarse sand 


3 


8 


Medium sand 


2 


9 


Fine sand 


1 to2(t) 


10 


Hard clay 


5 


11 


Medium clay 


2(t) 


12 


Soft clay 


l(t) 


13 


Inorganic silt, shattered shale, or any 
natural deposit of unusual character not 






provided for herein 


CO 


14 


Compacted granular fill 


2to5($) 


15 


Preloaded materials 


(*■) 



* 



The allowable bearing pressure given in this section, or when 
determined in accordance with the provisions of section 727 
will assure that the soils will be stressed within limits that 
lie safely below their strength. However, such allowable 
bearing pressure for Classes 9 to 12, inclusive, do not assure 
that the settlements will be within the tolerable limits for a 
given structure. 

Alternatively, the allowable bearing pressure shall be computed 
from the unconfined compressive strength of undisturbed 
samples, and shall be taken as 1.50 times that strength for 
round and square footings, and 1.25 times that strength for 
footings with length-width ratios of greater than four (4); 
for intermediate ratios interpolation may be used. 
Value to be fixed by the building official in accordance with 
sections 726.0. and 727.0. 



725-727 
SECTION 726.0. SUBSURFACE EXPLORATIONS 

726.1. Where Required. — Where borings or tests are required, 
they shall be made at a sufficient number of locations and to 
such depths, and they shall be supplemented by such field or 
laboratory tests and engineering analyses, as are necessary in 
the opinion of the building official. When it is proposed to 
support the structure directly on bedrock, the building official 
may require drill holes or core borings to be made into the 
rock to a sufficient depth to prove that bedrock has been 
reached. 

726.2. Soil Samples and Borings Reports. — Samples of the 
strata penetrated in test borings or test pits, representing the 
natural disposition and conditions at the site, shall be available 
for examination of the building official. Wash or bucket samples 
shall not be accepted. Duplicate copies of the results obtained 
from all completed and uncompleted borings, plotted to a true 
relative elevation and to scale and of all test results or other 
pertinent soil data shall be filed with the building official. 

SECTION 727.0. BEARING TEST AND SETTLEMENT 
ANALYSES 

Whenever the allowable bearing pressure on bearing materials, 
or the load bearing capacity of single piles or groups of piles 
is in doubt, the building official may require load tests and/or 
settlement analyses to be made at the expense of the applicant 
and the results anaylzed under the direction of a foundation 
engineer approved by the building official. 

727.1. Approval of Test Method. — The apparatus and procedure 
used shall be approved by the building official before they are 
used. A complete record of the test results together with a soil 
profile shall be filed by the licensed engineer who shall have a 
fully qualified representative on the site during all boring and test 
operations. 

727.2. Loading Equipment. — The load shall be applied by direct 
weight or by means of a recently calibrated jack. Each load shall 
be maintained constant for the required period with an accuracy 
of plus or minus three (3.0) per cent. 

727.2.1. Area. — For bearing materials of Classes 1 to 5, inclusive, 
the loaded area shall be not less than one (1) square foot and 
for other classes not less than four (4) square feet. 



727.3. Loading Procedure. — The application of the test load 
shall be in steps equal to not more than one-half (1/2) the 
contemplated design load, to at least twice the contemplated 
design load, except as provided in section 727.7. The unloading 
shall be in at least two (2) steps, to the design load and then 
to zero (0) load. During the loading cycle the contemplated design 
load and twice the contemplated design load shall be maintained 
constant for at least twenty-four (24) hours and until the rate 
of settlement or rebound does not exceed two hundredths (.02) 
of an inch per twenty-four (24) hours. The load for all other 
load steps including the zero (0) load at the end of the test shall 
be maintained constant for a period of not less than four (4) 
hours. Sufficient readings for each load step shall be made to 
define properly the time-deflection curve. 

727.4. Measurements. — Observation of vertical movement shall 
be made with dial extensometers graduated to at least one 
thousandth (.001) of an inch. The readings shall be sufficient in | 
number to define the progress of the settlement or rebound i] 
and shall be referred to a beam, the ends of which rest on or^ 
are fixed to reliable supports located at least eight (8) feet from" 
the center of the test. In addition, the elevation of the supports I 
shall be checked frequently with reference to a fixed benchmark. I 
The entire measuring setup shall be protected against direct sun- 1 
light, frost action, and other disturbances that might affect its I 
reliability. Temperature readings, both inside and outside the 
test enclosure, shall be made when the vertical movements are 
recorded. 

727.5. Additional Requirements for Soil Bearing Tests. — Bearing 
tests shall be applied at the elevations of the proposed bearing 
surfaces of the structure, except that the load may be applied | 
directly on the surface of compacted granular material, Class 14. 
The excavation immediately surrounding an area to be tested 
shall be made no deeper than one (1) foot above the plane of 
application of the test. The test plate shall be placed with 
uniform bearing. For the duration of the test, the material 
surrounding the test area shall be protected effectively against 
evaporation and frost action. 

727.6. Determination of Design Load. — The proposed design 
load shall be allowed provided that the requirements of section 
725 are fulfilled and the settlements under the design load and 
twice the design load do not exceed three-eights (3/8) of an inch 
and one (1) inch, respectively. 



727 

727.7. Additional Requirements for Pile Load Tests. — A single 
pile shall be load tested to not less than twice the design load. 
When two (2) or more piles are to be tested as a group, the 
total load shall be not less than one and one-half (1-1/2) times 
the design load for the group. 

Provided that the load-settlement curve shows no sign of 
failure and provided that the permanent settlement of the top 
of the pile, after removal of all load at the completion of the 
test, does not exceed one-half (1/2) inch, the maximum design 
load shall be the load allowed in this part for the type of pile 
or one-half (1/2) of the maximum applied load, whichever is 
less. 

Whenever the soil conditions are such that substantial driving 
resistance and/or significant support of the pile test load is 
derived from soil strata overlying the intended bearing stratum 
this support shall be removed or the results of the pile test shall 
be analyzed so as to evaluate the actual support furnished by 
the bearing stratum. 

727.8. Application of Pile Load Test Results. — The results of 
the load test can be applied to other piles within the area of 
substantially similar sub-soil conditions as that for the test pile, 
providing the performance of the test pile has been satisfactory 
and the remaining piles are of the same type, shape and size 
as the test pile; are installed using the same methods and equip- 
ment and are driven into the same bearing strata as the load 
tested pile to an equal or greater penetration resistance. 

727.9. Settlement Analysis. — Whenever a structure is to be 
supported by medium or soft clay (materials of classes 1 1 and 
12), the settlements of the structure and of neighboring structures 
due to consolidation of the clay shall be given careful con- 
sideration, particularly if there are large variations in thickness 
of the clay or the structure has substantial variation in net load 
at foundation grade. The building official may require a settle- 
ment analysis to be made by a competent engineer with special- 
ized training and experience in soil mechanics in case the live 
and dead loads of the structure, as specified in article 7, minus 
the weight of the excavated material, induce a maximum stress 
greater than three hundred (300) pounds per square foot at 
midheight of the underlying soft clay. 

727.9.1. — The settlement analysis will be based on a computation 
of the net increase in stress that will be induced by the structure 
and realistically appraised live loads, after deducting the weight 



of excavated material under which the clay was fully consoli- 
dated. The effects of fill loads within the building area or fill 
and other loads adjacent to the building shall be included in the 
settlement analysis. The appraisal of the live loads may be based 
on surveys of actual live loads of existing buildings with similar 
occupancy. The soil compressibility may be derived using one or 
more of the following methods: 

a. A review of settlement records and behavior of other 
buildings in Greater Boston having similar subsoil pro- 
files. 

b. Consolidation tests on undisturbed specimens with a 
diameter of at least two and one-half (2-1/2) inches. The 
report shall include a description of the method of 
sampling and of the quality of the samples. 

c. Consolidation test data from other projects in Greater 
Boston where the clay is found to be similar when 
compared on the basis of detailed description of undis- 
turbed soil samples, the natural water content and the 
liquid and plastic limits. 

727.9.2. — Should the analysis indicate that the settlements would 
cause excessive stresses in the structure or would impair its 
usefulness, the design of the foundation and/or the superstruc- 
ture shall be modified so that the anticipated settlements will be 
reduced to tolerable values. 

SECTION 728.0. ALLOWABLE FOUNDATION PRESSURE 

The maximum allowable pressures on foundation materials shall 
be in accordance with section 725.0 and as modified herein. 

728.1. Rock Foundations. — Where subsurface explorations at 
the project site indicate variations or doubtful characteristics in 
the structure of the rock upon which it is proposed to construct 
foundations, a sufficient number of borings shall be made to a 
depth of not less than ten (10) feet below the level of the 
footings to provide assurance of the soundness of the foundation 
bed and its bearing capacity. 

728.2. Bearing Pressure on Rock. — The tabulated bearing pres- 
sures for rocks of Classes 1 and 3, inclusive, shall apply where 
the loaded area is on the surface of sound rock. Where the 
loaded area is below such surface these values may be increased 
ten (10) per cent for each foot of additional depth, but shall not 
exceed three (3) times the tabulated values. 



727-729 

728.3. Bearing Pressures for Classes 4 to 9, Inclusive. — The 

allowable bearing pressures for materials of Classes 4 to 9, 
inclusive, may exceed the tabulated values by five (5) per cent 
for each foot of depth of the loaded area below the minimum 
required in section 729.0 but shall not exceed twice the tabulated 
values. For areas of foundations smaller than three (3) feet in 
least lateral dimension, the allowable design bearing pressures 
shall be one-third (1/3) of the allowable bearing pressures 
multiplied by the least lateral dimension in feet. 

728.4. Bearing Pressures on Clay. — The tabulated bearing pres- 
sures for Classes 10 to 12, inclusive, shall apply only to pressures 
directly under individual footings, walls, and piers; and in case 
structures are founded on or are underlain by deposits of these 
classes, the total load over the area of any one bay or other 
major portion of the structure, minus the weight of all materials 
removed, divided by the area, shall not exceed one-half (1/2) 
the tabulated bearing pressures. 

728.5. Vertical Pressures. — The computed vertical pressure at 
any level beneath a foundation shall not exceed the allowable 
bearing pressures for the material at that level. Computation of 
the vertical pressure in the bearing materials at any depth below 
a foundation shall be made on the assumption that the load is 
spread uniformly at an angle of sixty (60) degrees with the hori- 
zontal; but the area considered as supporting the load shall not 
extend beyond the intersection of sixty (60) degree planes of 
adjacent foundations. 

728.6. Investigation of Settlement. — Whenever there is any 
doubt about the settlements of a proposed structure or the 
effect on neighboring structures, the building official shall 
require that the magnitude and distribution of the probable 
settlements be investigated. This requirement shall also apply 
to slabs on grade. 

728.7. Disturbance of Bearing Materials. — Whenever the bearing 
materials are disturbed from any cause, for example by the in- 
ward or upward flow of water and/or by construction activities, 
the extent of the disturbance shall be evaluated and appropriate 
remedial measures taken, satisfactory to the building official. 

SECTION 729.0. SPREAD FOUNDATIONS 

Except when erected upon sound bedrock or when protected 
from frost, foundation walls, piers and other permanent sup- 



ports of all buildings and structures shall extend a minimum of 
four (4) feet below finished grade except as provided in section 
725.1.3. Spread footings of adequate size shall be provided when 
necessary to properly distribute the load within the allowable 
bearing pressure of the soil. 

729.1. Depth of Spread Foundations. — The bottom surface of 
any footing resting on material of classes 4 to 15, inclusive, 
shall be at least eighteen (18) inches below the lowest ground 
surface or the surface of a floor slab bearing directly on the 
soil immediately adjaceent to the footing. 

729.2. Light Structures. — One-story structures without masonry 
walls and not exceeding eight hundred (800) square feet in area 
may be founded on a layer of satisfactory bearing material not 
less than three (3) feet thick, which is underlain by highly 
compressible material, provided that the stresses induced in the 
unsatisfactory material by the live and dead loads of the struc- 
ture and the weight of any new fill, within or adjacent to the 
building area, will not exceed two hundred and fifty (250) 
pounds per square foot. 



SECTION 730.0. FOOTING DESIGN 

730.1. Design Loads. — The loads to be used in computing the 
pressure upon bearing materials directly underlying foundations 
shall be the live and dead loads of the structure, as specified 
in section 721 including the weight of the foundations and of any 
immediately overlying material, but deducting from the resulting 
pressure per square foot the total weight of a one (1) square foot 
column of soil, including the water in its voids, which extends 
from the lowest immediately adjacent surface of the soil to the 
bottom of the footing, pier or mat. Foundations shall be con- 
structed so as to resist the maximum probable hydrostatic 
pressures. 

730.2. Pressure Due to Lateral Loads. — Where the pressure on 
the bearing material due to wind or other lateral loads is less 
than one-third (1/3) of that due to dead and live loads, it may 
be neglected in the foundation design. Where this ratio exceeds 
one-third (1/3) foundations shall be so proportioned that the 
pressure due to combined dead, live, wind loads, and other 
lateral loads shall not exceed the allowable bearing pressures 
by more than one-third (1/3). 



729-733 

730.3. Earthquake Loads. — Special provision shall be made in 

the foundation design to comply with the provisions of section 
719. 

730.4. Vibratory Loads. — Where machinery or other vibrations 
may be transmitted through the foundations, consideration shall 
be given in the design of the footings to prevent detrimental 
disturbance of the soil. 

730.5. Eccentric Loads. — Eccentricity of loadings in foundations 
shall be fully investigated and the maximum pressure on the 
basis of straight-line distribution shall not exceed the allowable 
bearing pressures. 

SECTION 731.0. TIMBER FOOTINGS 

731.1. Where Permitted. — Timber footings may be used only for 
wood frame structures. Such footings shall be placed entirely 
below the permanent water level unless the timber is treated in 
accordance with the provisions of section 740.5. 

731 .2. Untreated Timber. — The compressive stresses perpendicular 
to the grain in untreated timber footings, supported upon piles, 
with the pile cut-off and the top of the footing and capping 
entirely below permanent ground water or mean low water level, 
shall not exceed seventy (70) per cent of the allowable stresses 
for the species and grade of lumber in accordance with the 
provisions of section 853. 

SECTION 732.0. STEEL GRILLAGES 

Structural steel grillage foundations shall have at least six (6) 
inches of concrete cover below the bottom of the steel and shall 
have at least four (4) inches of concrete cover above the steel 
and between the sides of the steel and the adjacent soil. 

SECTION 733.0. UNREINFORCED CONCRETE FOUNDA- 
TIONS. 

733.1. Concrete Strength. — Concrete in unreinforced foundation 
footings shall be so proportioned as to develop an ultimate 
compressive strength of not less than two thousand (2000) 
pounds per square inch at twenty-eight (28) days. 

733.2. Placement. — No concrete for foundations shall be poured 
through water. When placed under or in the presence of water, 



the concrete shall be deposited by approved and properly operated 
equipment which insures minimum segregation of the mix and 
negligible turbulence of the water. 

733.3. Dimensions. — In unreinforced concrete footings, the edge 
thickness shall be not less than twelve (12) inches for footings 
on soil or rock; except for wood frame buildings up to two (2) | 
stories in height, these thicknesses may be reduced to eight (8) 
inches. 

733.4. Protection. — Concrete footings shall be protected from 
freezing during construction and for a period of not less than 
five (5) days thereafter and in no case shall water be allowed 
to flow through the deposited concrete. 

SECTION 734.0. MASONRY UNIT FOOTINGS 

734.1. Dimensions. — Masonry unit footings shall be laid in 
cement mortar or cement-lime mortar complying with section 
816 and the depth shall be not less than twice the total pro- 
jection beyond the wall, pier or column; and the width shall be 
not less than twelve (12) inches wider than the wall supported 
thereon. 

734.2. Offsets. — The maximum offset of each course in brick 
foundation walls stepped up from the footings shall be one and 
one-half (1-1/2) inches if laid in single courses, and three (3) 
inches if laid in double courses. 

SECTION 735.0. REINFORCED CONCRETE 
FOUNDATIONS 

735.1. Design. — Reinforced concrete foundations shall comply 
with sections 841, 842, 843 and 844 and the applicable reference 
standards therein listed for the design of reinforced concrete. 

735.2. Pile Caps. — The minimum distance from the edge of the 
cap to the nearest pile surface shall be six (6) inches and there 
shall be at least two (2) inches of concrete between the top of 
the pile and the steel reinforcement of the cap. The pile caps 
shall extend not less than three (3) inches below the pile cut-off. 

735.3. Protection. — When the concrete is deposited directly 
against the ground, the reinforcement shall have a minimum 
cover of three (3) inches, at all other surfaces of foundation 
concrete, the reinforcement shall have a minimum cover of two 
(2) inches. 



733-737 
SECTION 736.0. FLOATING FOUNDATIONS 

The design of floating foundations shall include a settlement 
analysis in accordance with the provisions of section 727.9. 

SECTION 737.0. PILE FOUNDATIONS 

737.1. Site Investigation. — In addition to the provisions of 
section 726.0, the building site shall be investigated for all 
conditions which might promote deterioration of pile foundations, 
and approved protective measures meeting the requirements of 
section 738.0 shall be taken to prevent corrosion or other 
destructive action from deleterious conditions. 

737.2. Spacing. — The minimum center-to-center spacing of piles 
shall be not less than twice the diameter at cut-off of a round 
pile, nor less than one and three-quarter (1-3/4) times the diag- 
onal dimension of a rectangular pile. When driven to or pene- 
trating into rock, the spacing shall be not less than twenty-four 
(24) inches. When receiving principal support from end-bearing 
on materials other than rock or through frictional resistance, 
the spacing shall be not less than thirty (30) inches. 

737.3. Walls. — All piles in wall foundations shall be staggered 
about the center line of the wall at a minimum distance of one- 
half (1/2) the top diameter therefrom. A foundation wall re- 
strained laterally so as to ensure stability both during and after 
construction may be supported by a single row of piles. 

737.4. Isolated Columns. — An isolated column when supported 
by piles shall rest upon not less than three (3) piles, at least 
one (1) of which is offset; except that for one (1) story buildings 
an isolated column may rest upon two (2) piles when its axis is 
not more than one and one-half (1-1/2) inches off the line 
connecting the centers of the two (2) piles, or upon a single 
pile when other than wood or wood-composite piles are used 
and its axis is not more than one and one-half (1-1/2) inches off 
the center of the pile, provided the top of the pile is laterally 
supported. 

737.5. Minimum Dimensions. — Piles of uniform cross section 
shall have a minimum outside nominal dimension of ten (10) 
inches except as provided in section 741.2.1. Tapered concrete 
piles shall have a minimum butt diameter at cut-off of twelve 
(12) inches and a diameter of not less than eight (8) inches 
measured one (1) foot above the tip. 



737.6. Splices. — Splices shall be avoided insofar as practicable. 
Where used, splices shall be such that the resultant vertical and 
lateral loads at the splices are adequately transmitted. Splices 
shall be so constructed as to provide and maintain true align- 
ment and position of the component parts of the pile during 
installation and subsequent thereto. The ends of each section of 
steel pipe or other steel elements shall be cut perpendicular to 
the axis and bearing surfaces shall be true-fitted with milled or 
ground faces or by flame cutting or other approved method. 
Splices shall develop one hundred (100) per cent of the strength 
of pile section in whatever state of stress. 

737.7. Jetting. — Jetted piles shall be driven to the required load 
resistance as determined by the application of the approved pile 
driving formula in section 739.2.1, after the flow of jet water 
has stopped. 

737.8. Precautions. — When piles have been damaged in driving, 
or driven in locations and alignment other than those indicated 
on the plans, or that have capacities less than required by the 
design, the affected pile groups and pile caps shall be investigated 
and if necessary, the pile groups or pile caps shall be redesigned 
or additional piles shall be driven to replace the defective piles. 
Piles shall be driven to embedment in the supporting stratum, 
as determined by borings. 

737.8.1. Method of Driving. — The method of driving shall be 
such as not to impair the strength of the pile and shall meet 
with the approval of the building official. Measurements to 
determine the value of "s", as defined in section 739. 2.1. a, 
shall not be made immediately after the introduction of fresh 
cushion block material, or an interruption in the driving opera- 
tion or when the pile head is shattered, broomed, crumpled, or 
otherwise damaged. 

The cushion block, where used, shall be of hardwood with its 
grains parallel with the axis of the pile and be enclosed in a 
tight-fitting steel housing, or a demonstrated equal. Wood chips, 
pieces of rope, old hose, or automobile tires and similar materials 
shall not be used as a cushion block. 

Shattered, broomed, crumpled, or otherwise damaged pile heads 
shall be cut back to sound material before continuing the 
driving. 

In case a follower is used, it shall be of steel, seasoned white 
oak or hickory, equipped on its lower end with a metal socket 



737-738 
or hood suitable for encasing the pile head and to protect it 
from being damaged during driving. 

737.8.2. Pile Heave. — Where piles are driven through soft soil 
to hard bearing material providing high point resistance, the 
grades of all piles or pile casings previously driven or redriven 
shall be measured to detect heave; and if heave of one-half 
(1/2) inch or more occurs in any pile or pile casing, such pile 
or pile casing shall be redriven to its original point elevation and 
thereafter to the required final driving resistance. A preaugered 
hole for each pile may be used, as required, to reduce detrimental 
heave and negative friction. 

737.8.3. Records. — The owner shall engage a competent in- 
spector, qualified by experience and training and satisfactory to 
the building official to be present at all times while piles are 
being driven and to inspect all work in connection with the 
piles. The inspector shall make an accurate record of the 
material and the principal dimensions of each pile, of the weight 
and fall of the ram, the type, size, and make of hammer, the 
number of blows per minute, the energy per blow, the number 
of blows per inch for the last six (6) inches of driving, together 
with the grades at point and cut-off. A copy of these records 
shall be filed in the office of the building official. 



SECTION 738.0. CORROSION PROTECTION 

Where boring records, previous experience, or site investiga- 
tions indicate any condition which might promote deterioration 
or possible deleterious action on pile materials due to soil con- 
stituents, changing water levels or other causes such pile materials 
shall be adequately protected as stated herein. 

738.1. Wood Preservative Treatments. — The preservative treat- 
ment of timber piles shall comply with the provisions of section 
740.5 and the applicable standards in reference standard RS 7-9. 

738.2. Steel and Steel-Concrete Piles. — At locations where steel 
and steel-concrete piles will be in contact with sea water or any 
other material that is known to be corrosive to steel, one of the 
following procedures shall be used: 

a. Remove all such objectionable material. 

b. Effectively protect the steel surface from pile cut-off 
grade to a grade fifteen (15) feet below the bottom of 
the objectionable materials by means of: 



1. Cathodic protection as approved by the building 
official; or 

2. An approved encasement of not less than three (3) 
inches of dense concrete; or 

3. An effective protective coating subject to the approval 
of the building official; or 

4. Deducting one-eighth (1/8) inch in thickness of 
material from exposed surfaces when computing 
the area of steel for support of load. 

SECTION 739.0. ALLOWABLE PILE LOADS 

The allowable load on piles shall be determined by the appli- 
cable formulas complying with accepted engineering practice 
and as stated herein. The maximum load capacity shall be 
limited by the supporting capacity as obtained from bearing 
upon or embedment in bearing materials as defined in sections 
725 and 728 but in no case shall the load exceed the capacity 
of the pile designed in accordance with the provisions of section 
739.1 and the requirements of article 8 for the construction 
materials involved. 

739.1. Lateral Support of Axially Loaded Piles. — The length 
of a pile below the ground surface shall be considered as a 
plain column with continuous lateral support. The length above 
the ground surface shall be designed as an unsupported column 
in accordance with the provisions of section 748. 

739.2. Determination of Allowable Load. — In the absence of 
capacities based on load tests, except for the type of piles 
covered in sections 742.2 and 7.44.0 the load on a single pile 
shall not exceed the higher of the two (2) values determined 
in accordance with sections 739.2.1 and 739.2.2, nor the max- 
imum loads on piles as provided in sections 739.2.3 and 740.0 
thru 746.0. 

739.2.1. Driving Formula 

a. Where the design load capacity of the pile does not ex- 
ceed fifty (50) tons, the allowable load may be computed 
by means of the following driving formula: 

R= L^E 

/Wp 

s+o.iyWr 

where 

R= allowable pile load in pounds 



739 
E= energy per blow in foot-pounds which for drop 
hammers is the product of the weight in pounds 
of the hammer and the height of fall in feet, 
and which for other types of hammers may be 
taken as that established by the hammer manu- 
facturer. For batter piles, proper allowance shall 
be made for the resultant loss of energy. 

Wp = the ratio of the weight W p of the pile and other 
Wr driven parts to the weight W r of the striking 
part of the hammer, except that this ratio shall 
not be entered into the formula as less than unity. 
s = the average penetration in inches per blow for 
the final six (6) inches of driving, except that if 
an abrupt high increase in resistance is en- 
countered, "s" shall be taken as the average 
penetration per blow for the last five (5) blows. 
The minimum value of "s" which may be used 
in the formula is five hundredths (5/100) of an 
inch. 
When the design load capacity of a pile exceeds fifty (50) 
tons the required driving resistance shall be increased, 
above that required by the driving formula, in section 
739. 2.1. a, based on load tests or past experience under 
similar conditions. 

The energy E per blow in foot-pounds delivered by the 
hammer shall be numerically not less than fourteen (14) 
per cent of R in pounds and/ W r \ shall not be greater 
than 3.5. \W / 

The value of "s" must be determined with the hammer 
operating at one hundred (100) per cent of the rated 
number of blows per minute for which the hammer is 
designed. 

Any driving resistance developed in strata overlying the 
bearing material shall be discounted. 
If the driving of the pile has been interrupted for more 
than one (1) hour, the value of "s" shall not be deter- 
mined until the pile is driven at least an additional 
twelve (12) inches, except when it encounters refusal on 
or in a material of Classes 1 to 5, inclusive. 
When the constant tapered portion of a pile, including a 
timber pile, is driven through a layer of gravel, sand, or 



hard clay (Classes 6 to 10, inclusive, and Class 14) 
exceeding five (5) feet in thickness, and through an 
underlying soft stratum, the bearing capacity shall not be 
determined in accordance with the driving formula, unless 
jetting is used during the entire driving of the tapered 
portion of the pile through the layer of gravel, sand, 
hard clay, or Class 14 material, or unless a hole is pre- 
excavated through said layer for each pile. 

739.2.2. Friction Formula in Clay. — The allowable load on a 
pile stopped in inorganic clay may be based on a friction value 
of five hundred (500) pounds per square foot of embedded pile 
surface for a design load not to exceed twenty-two (22) tons, 
or on a friction value determined from pile load tests. The 
embedded length shall be the length of the pile below the 
surface of the inorganic clay, or below the surface of imme- 
diately overlying satisfactory bearing material. The area of em- 
bedded pile surface shall be computed by multiplying the 
embedded length by the perimeter of the smallest circle or poly- 
gon that can be circumscribed around the average section of the 
embedded length of the pile. The method of determining the 
allowable load described in this paragraph shall not be used for 
a pile in which the drive-pipe is withdrawn or for piles which 
are driven through the clay to or into firmer bearing materials. 

In case these piles are in clusters the allowable load shall be 
computed for the smaller of the following two (2) areas: (1) the 
sum of the embedded pile surfaces of individual piles; (2) the 
area obtained by multiplying the perimeter of the polygon 
circumscribing the cluster at the surface of the satisfactory 
bearing material by the average embedded length of pile. 

739.2.3. Jacked Piles. — The allowable load on a single pile 
installed by jacking shall not exceed one-half (1/2) the load 
applied to the pile at the completion of jacking, provided that 
the final load is kept constant for a period of four (4) hours 
and that the settlement during that period does not exceed one- 
twentieth (1/20) of an inch. 

739.3. Negative Friction. — Where a pile or a group of piles is 
placed in subsiding fill or soil, the effect of the downward 
frictional forces shall be given consideration in the design. 

739.4. Limiting Load. — Where weaker materials underlie the 
bearing material into which the piles are driven, the allowable 
pile load shall be limited by the provision that the vertical 
pressures in such underlying materials produced by the loads on 



739-740 

all piles in a foundation shall not exceed the allowable bearing 
pressures of such materials as established by analysis applying 
accepted principals of soil mechanics. Piles or pile groups shall 
be assumed to transfer their loads to the underlying materials 
by spreading the load uniformly at an angle of sixty (60) degrees 
with the horizontal, starting at a polygon circumscribing the 
piles at the top of the satisfactory bearing material in which 
they are embedded; but the area considered as supporting the 
load shall not extend beyond the intersection of the sixty (60) 
degree planes of adjacent piles or pile groups. 
739.4.1. — The allowable load on a pile shall not be limited to 
the load obtained by multiplying its point area by the allowable 
bearing pressure given in section 725.0. 

SECTION 740.0. TIMBER PILES 

740.1. Species. — Piles shall be of type I species, type II species 
or other species approved for such use by the building official. 

a. Type I species shall include southern yellow pine, oak, 
Douglas fir and other woods of similar strength and 
physical characteristics. 

b. Type II species shall include Norway pine, spruce and 
other woods of similar strength and physical characteristics. 

740.2. Quality Requirements. — The quality of all round timber 
piles shall at least conform to class A and B, round timber piles 
listed in reference standard RS 7-10. 

Round timber piles shall be cut above the ground swell, have 
a continuous taper from the point of butt measurement to the 
tip and be free from decay, red heart, or insect attack. All 
knots and limbs shall be trimmed or smoothly cut flush with the 
surface of the pile or swell surrounding the knot. A straight line 
from the center of the butt to the center of the tip shall lie 
entirely within the body of the pile. The axis of a wood pile 
shall not deviate from a straight line more than one (1) inch 
for each ten (10) feet of length. Short crooks shall not deviate 
more than two and one-half (2-1/2) inches in five (5) feet. 
Spiral grain shall not exceed one-half (1/2) of a complete twist 
in any twenty (20) feet of length, unsound or cluster knots are 
prohibited and splits and shakes are limited. 

740.3. Minimum Dimensions. 

a. Piles shall be of adequate size to resist the applied loads 



without having to endure compressive stress parallel with 
the grain in excess of the following: 

1. Six hundred (600) pounds per square inch for type I 
species of wood or four hundred twenty-five (425) 
pounds per square inch for type II species of wood 
on the pile cross section located at the surface of 
the bearing stratum for piles driven into materials 
of classes 6 thru 10. 

2. Three hundred sixty (360) pounds per square inch for 
type I species of wood or two hundred fifty-five 
(255) pounds per square inch for type II species of 
wood on the pile cross section at the tips of piles 
driven to bearing on materials of classes 1 thru 5. 

b. The piles shall measure at least six (6) inches in diameter 
at the tip and at least ten (10) inches in diameter at the 
cut-off, with these measurements being taken under the 
bark. 

c. All piles shall be driven in one (1) piece except as 
provided in section 746 for composite piles. 

740.4. Cut-Off. — The tops of all timber piles shall be cut off 
in a horizontal plane; and if not treated by an approved pre- 
servative process, the cut-off shall be below mean low water 
level or lowest ground water level, and shall be subject to the 
building official's approval. He may require the owner to 
install and maintain in good condition at least one (1) ground 
water observation well within the building, which shall be 
accessible to the building official. 

740.5. Treated Piles. — Timber piles pressure treated with creosote 
or creosote-coal-tar solution, and conforming to the requirements 
of this section, may be cut off above permanent ground water 
level when used for the support of buildings not exceeding two 
(2) stories in height. 

740.5.1. Treatment. — Creosoted wood piles of southern yellow 
pine, Douglas fir, red oak or Norway pine shall be creosoted 
under pressure in accordance with reference standard RS 7-9 to 
a final net retention of not less than twenty (20) pounds per 
cubic foot of creosote for piles exposed to sea water and not 
less than twelve (12) pounds of creosote per cubic foot for 
piles for other normal exposure. The tops of such piles at cut- 
off shall be given three (3) coats of hot creosote, followed by a 
coat of coal-tar pitch; and the cut-off shall be made in sound 
wood and be encased not less than three (3) inches in the 
concrete pile cap. 



740-741 
740.5.2. Certification. — Before any treated piles are driven, the 
building official shall be furnished three (3) copies of a certificate 
of inspection, issued by an approved independent testing labora- 
tory, certifying that the piles were free of decay, were properly 
peeled and otherwise prepared before treatment; and that the 
method of treatment, the chemical composition and the amount 
of retention of the preservative conform to the requirements of 
this section. 

740.6. Maximum Load on Wood Piles. — The load on a wood 
pile shall not exceed the allowable load specified in section 739. 
For timber piles driven into material of classes 6 through 10 
the area at the surface of the bearing stratum shall be used to 
compute the allowable load. 

740.6.1. The maximum load on a timber pile shall not exceed 
thirty-five (35) tons. 

740.7. Precautions in Driving. — To avoid damage to the pile, 
the size of the hammer shall be such that the driving energy in 
foot-pounds per blow shall not exceed numerically the point 
diameter of the pile in inches multiplied by fifteen hundred 
(1500). The total driving energy in foot-pounds for six (6) 
inches of penetration shall for all types of hammers be numeri- 
cally no greater than the point diameter in inches times thirty- 
two thousand (32,000) for type I species of wood or times 
twenty-two thousand (22,000) for type II species of wood. For 
the last inch of penetration the energy in foot-pounds shall not 
exceed numerically the point diameter in inches multiplied by 
six thousand (6,000). In any case driving shall be stopped 
immediately when abrupt high resistance to penetration is 
encountered. Any sudden decrease in driving resistance shall be 
investigated with regard to the possibility of breakage of the 
pile; and if such sudden decrease in driving resistance cannot 
be correlated to boring data, and if the pile cannot be removed 
for inspection, it shall be considered adequate reason for rejection 
of the pile. 

SECTION 741.0. PRECAST CONCRETE PILES 

741.1. Concrete Strength. — No precast concrete pile shall be 
driven before the concrete has attained a compressive strength 
of not less than four thousand (4000) pounds per square inch 
based on tests of cylinders cast from the same batches and 
cured under the same conditions as the pile concrete. These 



piles shall be so proportioned, cast, cured, handled and driven 
as to resist without significant cracking the stresses induced by 
handling and driving as well as by loads. 

741.2. Design. — The piles shall be designed and reinforced in 
accordance with the applicable reinforced concrete regulations 
cited in section 842.0. If for any reason the pile is injured, 
or the reinforcement is exposed, its use shall be condemned. 
The lateral reinforcement at both ends of the pile shall be 
spaced sufficiently close to resist impact stresses due to driving 
and in no case more than three (3) inches on center. When 
driven to or into bearing materials of Classes 1 to 5, inclusive, 
or through materials containing boulders, they shall have metal 
tips of approved design. 

741.2.1. Dimensions. — The minimum lateral dimension of a 
precast concrete pile shall be ten (10) inches. 

741.2.2. Limitation of Load. — The load on a precast concrete 
pile shall not exceed the allowable load specified in section 739 
nor twenty-five (25) per cent of the twenty-eight (28) day strength 
of the concrete, but not exceeding twelve hundred (1200) pounds 
per square inch. For prestressed concrete piles twenty-five (25) 
per cent of the effective prestress in the concrete after losses 
shall be deducted from twenty-five (25) per cent of the twenty- 
eight (28) day strength or twelve hundred (1200) pounds per 
square inch, whichever is less, in computing the maximum pile 
load. 

741.3. Protection. — A minimum covering of two (2) inches of 
concrete shall be provided over all reinforcements, except that 
for piles to be exposed to sea water and other severe environ- 
ments, a three (3) inch protective covering shall be furnished in 
the zone of such exposure. 

741 .4. Minimum Spacing. — The minimum spacing center-to-center 
of precast concrete piles shall be two and one-half (2-1/2) times 
the square root of the cross-sectional area at the butt. 

741.5. Splices. — Splices shall not be permitted in precast con- 
crete piles. 

741.6. Driving Precautions. — When driving through extremely 
soft soil or in pre-drilled or jetted holes, the hammer ram veloc- 
ity and stroke shall be reduced to avoid critical tensile stresses. 
If a pile-driving cap is used, it shall fit loosely around the pile 
top so as not to restrain the pile from rotating. 

The top of the pile must be perpendicular to the longitudinal 
axis of the pile, and the ends of any prestressing or reinforcing 



741-742 
steel shall be cut flush with the top of the pile to prevent 
direct impact on the steel during driving. 

SECTION 742.0. CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE PILES 

In this section a distinction is made between poured-concrete 
piles and compacted-concrete piles. A poured-concrete pile is 
formed by pouring concrete into a driven casing that is perma- 
nently installed in the ground. A compacted-concrete pile is 
formed by placing concrete having zero (0) slump, in small 
batches, and compacting each batch. All cast-in-place concrete 
piles shall be so made and placed as to ensure the exclusion of 
all foreign matter and to secure a well-formed unit of full 
cross-section. The minimum strength of concrete for cast-in- 
place piles shall be three thousand (3000) pounds per square 
inch. While placing the concrete the casing or drive-pipe shall 
contain not more than three (3) inches of water. 
742.1. Poured Concrete Piles. 

742.1.1. Design. — The shape of the pile may be cylindrical, or 
conical, or a combination thereof, or it may be a succession of 
cylinders of equal length, with the change in diameter of ad- 
joining cylinders not exceeding one (1) inch. 

742.1.2. Loading. — The load on poured-concrete piles shall not 
exceed the allowable load specified in section 739 nor twenty- 
five (25) per cent of the twenty-eight (28) day strength of the 
concrete, but not exceeding eleven hundred (1,100) pounds per 
square inch, when applied to the cross-sectional area computed 
on the following bases: 

a. For metal-cased piles driven to and into materials of 
Classes 1 to 4, inclusive, using the diameter measured 
one (1) foot above the point, except that when the rock 
is immediately overlain by a bearing stratum consisting of 
one (1) or a combination of bearing materials of Classes 
5, 6 and 7, using the diameter at the surface of the 
bearing stratum. 

b. For metal-cased piles, driven through compressible mater- 
ials, including Classes 11, 12, 13 and 15 and into a 
bearing stratum consisting of one (1) or a combination 
of bearing materials of Classes 5 to 10, inclusive, using 
the diameter at the surface of the bearing stratum. 

742.1.3. Installation. — Immediately before filling with concrete, 
the inside of the casing shall be thoroughly cleaned to the 



bottom and inspected by lowering a light bulb, or by means of 
a light beam. To be accepted: (a) the diameter shall not vary 
more than twenty (20) per cent from the original value, (b) the 
point of the casing shall not deviate more than ten (10) per cent 
of the length of the pile from the design alignment, and (c) the 
casing shall not deviate by more than four (4) per cent of the 
length of the casing from a straight line connecting the mid- 
points of the ends of the casing. If the bottom of the casing is 
out of sight, the shape and alignment of the casing shall be 
surveyed with a suitable instrument. No load shall be allowed 
on a pile, the casing of which shows signs of buckling. No 
casing or drive-pipe shall be filled with concrete until all casings 
or drive-pipes within a radius of seven (7) feet, or within the 
heave range, whichever is greater, have been driven to the re- 
quired resistance. 
742.2. Compacted Concrete Piles. 

742.2.1. Loading. — The load on compacted concrete piles shall 
be limited by the provisions of section 739.4.1 except that the 
circumscribing polygon shall start at the junction of the shaft 
and the enlarged base, and the bearing area shall be taken at 
planes six (6) feet or more below said junction; and the allow- 
able load on a compacted concrete pile shall not exceed one 
hundred forty (140) tons. 

742.2.2. Installation. — The installation of such piles shall fulfill 
the following listed requirements: 

a. The drive-pipe used for installing the piles shall be not 
less than twenty (20) inches outside diameter for piles 
which have an allowable load of eighty-five (85) tons 
or greater, and not less than sixteen (16) inches outside 
diameter for piles which have an allowable load of less 
than eighty-five (85) tons. For loads less than fifty (50) 
tons, smaller drive casings may be used subject to the 
approval of the building official. 

b. The enlarged base of the pile shall be formed on or in 
bearing materials of Classes 1 to 9, inclusive. The Class 
9 material (fine sand) shall have a maximum of six (6) 
per cent by weight finer than the No. 200 mesh sieve 
and shall be non-plastic. 

c. The concrete in the base shall have a minimum com- 
pressive strength at twenty-eight (28) days of four thou- 
sand (4000) pounds per square inch, shall be of zero (0) 



742 
slump, and shall be placed in batches not to exceed five 

(5) cubic feet in volume. 

The last batch of concrete shall be driven into the en- 
larged base with not less than twenty-five (25) blows, 
each of not less than one hundred and forty thousand 
(140,000) foot-pounds. For lower allowable loads, the 
required number of blows on the last batch shall vary 
in proportion to the allowable load. On the basis of 
test data, and subject to approval by the building official, 
the hammer blow energy may be reduced, in which case 
the number of blows on the last batch shall vary in- 
versely with the energy delivered per blow. 
During injection of the last five (5) cubic feet the level 
of concrete in the drive casing shall be not more than 

(6) inches above the bottom of the casing. 

As the drive-pipe is being withdrawn, not less than two 
(2) blows of at least forty thousand (40,000) foot-pounds 
each shall be applied to compact each batch of concrete 
in an uncased shaft. 

An uncased shaft shall not be formed through inorganic 
clay or inorganic silt unless a hole is made through such 
soil by a non-displacement method, at least equal to the 
inside diameter of the drive-pipe unless the individual 
piles are located more than nine (9) feet apart and 
outside the heave range. Compacted concrete piles shall 
have cased shafts when spaced closer than nine (9) feet 
apart and when installed through inorganic clay or 
inorganic silt. 

An uncased shaft shall not be formed through peat or 
other organic soils. 

The permanent metal casing shall be fastened to the 
enlarged base in such a manner that the two (2) will 
not separate. The concrete may be placed in the metal 
casing in the same manner as for poured-concrete piles. 
No metal casing shall be filled with concrete until after 
all piles within a radius of at least nine (9) feet have 
been driven. The stresses in metal-cased shafts shall not 
exceed eleven hundred (1,100) pounds per square inch on 
the concrete and, in addition, nine-thousand five hundred 
(9,500) pounds per square inch on the steel casing, por- 
vided that its wall thickness is at least two-tenths (2/10) 



of an inch. When required by soil conditions allowance 

shall be made for corrosion as specified in section 738. 

742.2.3. Spacing. — The center-to-center spacing of piles shall 

be not less than three (3) times the shaft diameter and not less 

than three and one-half (3.5) feet. 

SECTION 743.0. CONCRETE FILLED PIPE PILES 

743.1. Concrete Strength and Placement. — Concrete-filled pipe 
piles may be driven open-end or closed-end. Concrete shall have 
a minimum compressive strength of three thousand (3000) pounds 
per square inch at twenty-eight (28) days' age. After driving all 
pipes within a seven (7) foot radius, or within heave range 
whichever is greater, and immediately before filling with concrete, 
the inside of the pipe shall be thoroughly cleaned to the bottom 
and inspected by lowering a light bulb, or by means of a light 
beam. To be acceptable: (a) the diameter shall not vary more 
than twenty (20) per cent from the original value, (b) the point 
of the pile shall not deviate more than ten (10) per cent of the 
length of the pile from the design alignment and (c) the pile 
shall not deviate by more than six (6) per cent of the length of 
the pile from a straight line connecting the midpoints of the 
ends of the pile. If the bottom on the pile is out of sight, or 
cannot be seen because the pile cannot be dewatered, the shape 
and alignment of the pile shall be surveyed with a suitable 
instrument. No load shall be allowed on a pile which shows 
signs of buckling. Concrete shall not be placed through water, 
except that the building official may approve the use of a 
properly operated tremie or pumped concrete in still water, 
providing the pipe is proven to be free of other material. 

743.2. Steel Pipe. — All steel pipe shall conform to the applicable 
standards listed in reference standard RS 7-8 for welded and 
seamless steel pipe and tubes and for hot rolled carbon steel 
sheets. The yield point used in the design of steel casings shall 
be that of the fabricated element as determined by test. 

743.3. Design. — The load on concrete-filled pipe piles shall not 
exceed the allowable load determined in accordance with section 
739.0, nor a load computed on the basis of stress in the con- 
crete at twenty-five (25) per cent of the twenty-eight (28) day 
strength, but not exceeding eleven hundred (1100) pounds per 
square inch, and stress in the steel at nine thousand (9000) 



742-744 
pounds per square inch, nor shall the load carried by the steel 
on this basis exceed one-half (1/2) the total load on the pile. 

743.4. Minimum Thickness. — The minimum wall thickness of all 
load-bearing pipe shall be two-tenths (2/10) inches. When re- 
quired by soil conditions, allowance shall be made for corrosion 
as specified in section 738. 

743.5. Splices. — All splices of the steel section shall be welded 
to one hundred (100) per cent of the strength of the pipe and 
otherwise shall comply with section 737.7 and shall be designed 
to insure true alignment of the pipe and uniform transmission 
of load from one (1) pipe length to another. 



SECTION 744.0. CONCRETE FILLED PIPE WITH STEEL 
CORE (DRILLED-IN-CAISSONS) 

744.1. Construction. — These units shall consist of a shaft section 
of concrete-filled pipe extended to and firmly seated in bedrock 
of classes 1 or 2 with an uncased socket drilled into the bed- 
rock which is filled with cement grout. The steel core shall be 
centered in the shaft and shall extend through the cement grout 
to the bottom of the socket. 

744.2. Steel Shell. — The steel shell shall be seamless or welded 
steel pipe with a minimum yield point of thirty-three thousand 
(33,000) pounds per square inch fitted with an approved cutting 
shoe and structural cap, or with other approved means of 
transmitting the superstructure load. The minimum diameter 
for drilled caissons shall be twenty-four (24) inches and minimum 
shell thickness five-sixteenths (5/16) inches. Steel shall be pro- 
tected under the conditions specified in section 738. Splices 
shall be welded to develop one hundred (100) per cent of the 
strength of the pipe. 

744.3. Concrete Fill. — The concrete fill of caissons shall be con- 
trolled concrete with a minimum compressive strength of four 
thousand (4000) pounds per square inch at twenty-eight (28) 
days. It shall be so placed that it shall fill completely the space 
between the steel core and the pipe. In case the socket cannot 
be kept free from inflow of water, the pipe shall be filled to 
its top with clean water before placing the cement grout. 
The details of the design and the installation, including the 
cleaning and inspection of the socket, the placement of concrete 
under water or in the dry, the method of centering the steel 



core and all other phases of the work shall be submitted to the 
building official for approval. 

744.4. Rock Socket. — A socket, approximately of the inside 
diameter of the pipe, shall be made in bedrock of Classes 1 or 
2 to a depth that will assure load transfer when computed for 
a bearing on the bottom surface of the socket in accordance 
with sections 725 and 728 acting together with a bond stress on 
the perimeter surface of the socket of one hundred (100) pounds 
per square inch. Before placement of concrete, the socket and 
pipe shall be thoroughly cleaned and the rock inspected by a 
competent engineer or geologist satisfactory to the building 
official. This inspection may be performed by means of an 
underwater television camera, the position of which is readily 
controllable to permit thorough inspection of the exposed rock 
surface in the socket. 

744.5. Steel Core. — The steel core shall consist of a structural 
steel member. The mating ends of the sections shall be spliced 
so to safely withstand the stresses to which they may be sub- 
jected. The minimum clearance between structural core and 
shell shall be two (2) inches. When such cores are installed in 
more than one (1) length, they shall be assembled to develop 
the full compressive strength of the section. 

744.6. Driving Precautions. — The steel shell shall be driven not 
more than two (2) per cent of the length out of plumb. 

744.7. Spacing. — The minimum center-to-center spacing shall 
be not less than two and one-half (2-1/2) times the outside 
diameter of the steel shell. 

744.8. Allowable Load. — The load on concrete-filled pipe piles 
with steel cores shall not exceed the allowable load determined 
in accordance with the provisions of section 744.4 nor that 
computed on the basis of eleven hundred (1100) pounds per 
square inch on the area of the concrete plus nine thousand 
(9,000) pounds per square inch on the net area of the steel 
pipe plus sixteen thousand (16,000) pounds per square inch on 
the area of the steel core. 

SECTION 745.0. STRUCTURAL STEEL PILES 

745.1. Steel. — Steel sections may be of any type of steel per- 
mitted by the provisions of reference standard RS 8-42. 

a. Rolled structural steel piles shall be of H form, with 
flange projection not exceeding fourteen (14) times the 



744-746 

minimum thickness of metal in either flange or web and 
with total flange width at least eighty-five (85) per cent 
of the depth of the section. No section shall have a 
nominal thickness of metal less than four-tenths ( .4 ) 
inch nor a nominal depth in the direction of the web of 
less than eight (8) inches. 

b. The use of built-up sections or sections of other than 
"H" form will be permitted if the several components of 
the section are adequately connected to develop the 
strength of the adjacent components and if the ratio 
of width to thickness of the component parts does not 
exceed the values for conventional "H" sections. 

c. The tips of all steel H piles having a thickness of metal 
less than five-tenths (0.5) inches which are driven to end 
bearing on rock of class 1 through 3 by an impact ham- 
mer, shall be reinforced. The installation of all steel H 
piles by impact hammer to end bearing on rock of classes 
1 through 3 shall be conducted so as to terminate driving 
directly when the pile reaches refusal on the rock surface. 

d. Structural caps shall be rigidly attached to the pile 
section and shall be designed to transfer the full load 
into the piles; except that when the pile extends into 
the footing sufficiently to develop the full load by bond, 
or to permit the use of mechanical devices to develop the 
full load by shear, structural caps shall not be required. 

745.2. Splices. — If piles are spliced, the splice shall develop one 
hundred (100) per cent of the strength of the section. 

745.3. Protection. — Structural steel piles shall be protected 
under the conditions specified in section 738 or due allowance 
shall be made for corrosion as therein specified. 

745.4. Allowable Load. — The load on such piles shall not 
exceed the allowable load determined in accordance with section 
739, nor a load based on stress of eight thousand five hundred 
(8,500) pounds per square inch on the cross-section. 



SECTION 746.0. COMPOSITE PILES 

746.1. Design. — A composite pile shall consist of a combination 
of not more than two (2) of any of the different types of piles 
provided for in this part. The pile shall fulfill the requirements 
for each type and in addition the provisions of this section. 



The requirements of section 742.1.3 shall apply to the entire 
length of a pipe-shell composite pile. 

746.2. Limitation of Load. — The allowable load on composite 
piles shall be that allowed for the weaker of the two (2) sections. 
For wood-composite piles the allowable load shall not exceed 
eighty (80) per cent of that allowed for the wood section alone. 
Wood-shell composite piles shall not be used for support of 
buildings exceeding two (2) stories in height. 

746.3. Splices. — The connection between the two (2) types of 
piles shall be constructed so as to prevent their separation, to 
maintain their alignment, to support the load, and to be water- 
tight where concrete must be placed subsequent to the driving. 

746.4. Spacing. — The center-to-center spacing shall be governed 
by the larger of the spacings, required in this part, for the types 
composing the pile. 



SECTION 747.0. SPECIAL PILES AND CAISSONS 

Types of piles or caissons not specifically covered by the 
provisions of this code may be permitted provided sufficient 
test data, design and construction information are filed for the 
approval of the building official. 



SECTION 748.0. LATERAL SUPPORT 

748.1. Surrounding Materials. — Any soil other than water or 
fluid soil shall be deemed to afford continuous lateral support 
to any type of pile or pier. When piles are driven through soil 
which will be removed subsequent to the completion of the [ 
foundation, the resistance offered by such material shall not be 
considered to contribute to the lateral supporting capacity. 

748.2. Lack of Support. — The portion of a pile or pier that 
is not laterally supported shall be designed as a column in 
accordance with section 842 taking into consideration the end 
fixity conditions. 



746-749 

SECTION 749.0. FOUNDATION PIERS 

A foundation pier is here, defined as a structural member 
which extends to a satisfactory bearing material, and which may 
be constructed in an excavation that afterwards is backfilled by 
an approved method, or by filling the excavation with concrete, 
or which may be built by sinking an open or pneumatic caisson. 

749.1. Manner of Construction. — The manner of construction 
shall be by non-displacement methods and shall permit in- 
spection of the bearing material in place. 

749.2. Base Enlargement. — The bases of foundation piers may 
be enlarged by spread footings, pedestals or belled bottoms. 
749.2.1. Belled Bases. — Bell-shaped bases shall have a minimum 
edge thickness of four (4) inches. The bell roof shall slope not 
less than sixty (60) degrees with the horizontal unless the base 
is designed in accordance with sections 841 or 842. 

749.3. Design of Piers. — Foundation piers may be designed as 
concrete columns with continuous lateral support. The unit 
compressive stress in the concrete at the least cross section 
shall not exceed twenty-five (25) per cent of the twenty-eight 
(28) day strength of the concrete nor eleven hundred (1100) 
pounds per square inch. 

749.3.1. — When the center of cross section of a foundation pier 
at any level deviates from the resultant of all forces more than 
one sixtieth (1/60) of its height or more than one tenth (1/10) 
of its diameter, it shall be reinforced as provided in section 
842. The restraining effect of the surrounding soil may be taken 
into account. 

749.4. Placement. — With approval of the building official, con- 
crete may be placed through still water by means of a properly 
operated tremie or pumped concrete. 

749.5. Inspection. — The owner shall engage a competent in- 
spector, qualified by experience and training and satisfactory 
to the building official, to be present at all times while founda- 
tion piers are being installed, to inspect and approve the bearing 
soil and the placing of the concrete. The inspector shall make 
a record of the type of bearing soil upon which the pier rests, 
of the dimensions of the pier, and of the class of concrete used 
in its construction. A copy of these records shall be filed in 
the office of the building official. 



RS7 



REFERENCE STANDARD RS 7 

List of Reference Standards 

RS 7 AASHO 1965 

Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges 

AREA 1969 

Specifications for Steel Railway Bridges 

ASCE Paper No. 3269 1961 

Wind Forces on Structures— 1961 Transactions of 
the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 126, 
Part II 

ASTM A252 1969 

Specification for Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe Piles 

ASTM D25 1958 

Standard Specification for Round Timber Piles 

AWPA CI 1968 

Standard for the Preservative Treatment of all Timber 

Products by Pressure Processes 

AWPA C3 1969 

Standard for the Preservative Treatment of Piles by 

Pressure Processes 

AWPA M2 1967 

Standard for Inspection of Treated Timber Products 

AWPA M4 1962 

Standard for the Care of Pressure-Treated Wood 

Products 

ICBO 1967 

Uniform Building Code, Vol. I, section 2314 

Dead Load Requirements 



Minimum Requirements for Uniformly Distributed 
and Concentrated Live Loads 

Minimum Wind Pressures for Height and Area 
Locations 

Required Nominal Thickness of Glass 

RS 7-1 Dead Load Requirements 

Categories PSF 

Walls and Partitions (Unplastered) 

Clay Brick (per inch thickness) 

High absorbtion 8.5 

Medium absorbtion 10.0 

Low absorbtion 11.5 

Concrete Brick (per inch thickness) 

Lightweight aggregate 8.5 

Heavyweight aggregate 11.5 

Sand Lime Brick (per inch thickness) 9.5 

Solid Concrete Block (per inch thickness) 

Lightweight aggregate 6.5 

Heavyweight aggregate 9.0 

Hollow Concrete Block (per inch thickness) 

Lightweight aggregate 5.0 

Heavyweight 7.0 

Solid Gypsum Block (per inch thickness) 6.0 

Hollow Gypsum Block (per inch thickness) 3.5 

Facing Tile (per inch thickness) 7.0 

Glass Block (per inch thickness) 5.0 

Clay Tile (per inch thickness) 

Load bearing 6.0 

Non-load bearing 5.0 

Split Terra Cotta Furring Tile 

(per inch thickness) 5.5 

Wood Stud (2 inch x 4 inch) Unplastered 4.0 

Combination Walls 

8 inch brick and clay tile 60 

12 inch brick and clay tile 80 

8 inch brick and concrete block 72 

12 inch brick and concrete block 90 



RS7-1 

Categories PSF 

Walls and Partitions (Plastered) 

Plaster work (to be added to values obtained 
for unplastered walls above) 

Gypsum (one side) 5 

Cement (one side) 10 

Gypsum on wood lath 8 

Gypsum on metal lath 8 

Gypsum on plaster board or fiber board 8 

Cement on wood lath 10 

Cement on metal lath 10 

Gypsum, with sand aggregate, per inch 8.5 
Gypsum, with lightweight aggregate, per 

inch 4 

Gypsum, with wood fibers, per inch 6.5 

Cement, with sand aggregate, per inch 10 
Cement with lightweight aggregate, per 

inch 5 
Lath and Plaster Partitions 

2 inch solid cement on metal lath 25 

2 inch solid gypsum on metal lath 18 

2 inch solid gypsum on gypsum lath 18 

2 inch metal studs gypsum & metal lath both 
sides 18 

3 inch metal studs gypsum & metal lath both 
sides 19 

4 inch metal studs gypsum & metal lath both 
sides 20 

4 inch wood studs plaster one side 12 

4 inch wood studs plaster both sides 20 
6 inch wood studs plaster & wood lath both 

sides 18 
6 inch wood studs plaster & metal lath both 

sides 18 
6 inch wood studs plaster & plaster boards, 

both sides 18 
6 inch wood studs unplastered gypsum board 

both sides (dry wall) 10 

Ceilings 

Plaster on tile or concrete 5 

Suspended metal lath & gypsum plaster 10 

Suspended metal lath & cement plaster 12 



Categories PSF 



Plaster on wood lath 


8 


Suspended acoustical tile 


2 


Plaster board, unplastered 


3 


Plaster, 3/4 inch, and metal lath 


8 


Floor Finishes 




Resilient flooring (asphalt tile, linoleum, etc.) 


2 


Asphalt block, 2 inch 


24 


Wood block, 3 inch 


10 


Hardwood flooring, per inch 


4 


Softwood subflooring, per inch 


3 


Plywood subflooring, per inch 


3 


Ceramic or quarry tile, 1 inch 


12 


Terrazzo, 1 inch 


12 


Slate, 1 inch 


15 


Cement, 1 inch 


12 


Solid flat tile on 1 inch mortar base 


23 


Cinder finish, per inch thick 


12 


Gypsum slab, per inch thick 


5 


Floor Fill 




Cinder concrete, per inch thick 


9 


Cinder no cement, per inch thick 


5 


Sand per inch 


8 


Stone concrete, per inch thick 


12 


Roof and Wall Coverings 




Clay tile (with mortar) 


30 


Clay tile (without mortar) 


20 


3-ply roofing and gravel 


6 


4-ply roofing and gravel 


7 


5-ply roofing and gravel 


8 


Aluminum, tin, or copper sheet 


1 


Insulation 




Fiberglass per inch 


1.5 


Foam glass per inch 


0.8 


Urethane 1 inch 


1.0 


Urethane 2 inch 


1.2 


Cork per inch 


1.0 


Vegetable fiber boards per inch 


1.5 


Bats and blankets per inch 


0.5 


Fiberboard, per inch 


1.5 


Gypsum sheathing, per inch 


4.0 


Wood sheathing, per inch 


3.0 



RS7-1 

Categories PSF 

Wood shingles, in place 3.0 

Asphalt shingles, in place 6 

Asbestos-cement shingles, in place 4 

Cement tile, 3/8 inch in place 16 

Stucco (cement) per inch 10 

Slate, 3/16 inch, in place 7 

Slate, 1/4 inch, in place 10 

Skylight, metal frame, 3/8 inch wire glass 10 

Corrugated iron 2 

Corrugated metal 2 

Formed steel decking 3 
Glass 

Single strength 1.2 

Double strength 1.6 

Plate, wired or structured 1/8 inch 1.6 
Insulating double 1/8 inch plates with air 

space 3.5 
Insulating double 1/4 inch plates with air 

space 7.1 

Miscellaneous Materials PCF 

Cast stone masonry (cement stone sand) 144 

Masonry ashlar 

Granite 165 

Limestone, crystalline 165 

Limestone, oolitic 135 

Marble ashlar 173 

Sandstone ashlar 144 

Masonry brick 

Hard (low absorbtion) 140 

Medium (medium absorbtion) 120 

Soft (high absorbtion) 100 

Masonry rubble mortar 

Limestone crystalline 147 

Limestone oolitic 138 

Granite 153 

Masonry dry rubble 

Granite 130 

Limestone (oolitic) 125 

Marble 130 

Sandstone (bluestone) 1 10 



Categories PSF 

Rubble stone masonry 156 

Terra cotta architectural (filled) 120 

Terra cotta architectural (unfilled) 72 

Concrete, stone (plain) 144 

Concrete, stone (reinforced) 150 

Concrete, cinder 108 

Fill, cinder 57 

Earth (dry) 100 

Earth (wet) 120 

Cork (compressed) 14 

Timber, ash 45 

Timber, Douglas Fir 35 

Timber, Cypress 35 

Timber, hemlock 35 

Timber, oak 45 

Southern pine, short leaf 35 

Southern pine, long leaf 35 

Redwood 35 

Spruce 35 

Elm 45 

Excavated earth 120 

Quarried Stone 100 
Bituminous Substances 

Coal, anthracite 97 

Coal, bituminous 84 

Coal, lignite 78 

Coal, charcoal 33 

Coal, coke 75 

Graphite 131 

Paraffine 56 

Petroleum 54 

Petroleum, gasoline 42 

Tar, bituminous 75 

Steel 490 

Iron 450 

Water 62.5 
Partition Loads 



RS7-1 

Equivalent Uniform Partition Loads 



RS7-2 



Partition Weight 
(plf) 



Equivalent Uniform Load (psf) 
(To be added to floor dead and 
live loads) 



50 or less 

51 to 100 
101 to 200 
201 to 350 

Greater than 350 





6 

12 

20 

20 plus a concen- 
trated live load 
of the weight in 
excess of 350 plf 



RS 7-2 Minimum Requirements for Uniformly Distributed 
and Concentrated Live Loads 



Table A — Uniformly Distributed Live Loads 



Occupancy or Use 

Armories and Drill Spaces 
Assembly Spaces: 

Assembly Halls 

Auditoriums 

Churches 

Court Rooms 

Dance Halls 

Exhibition Halls 

Galleries 

Gymnasiums 

Lecture Halls 

Lodge Rooms 

Mess Halls 

Museums 

Passenger Stations 

Restaurants _ 

Alleys (See Driveways and Yards) 
Apartments (See Residential Areas) 
Bakery 
Balconies 

Exterior 

Interior and Mezzanines 
Bowling Alleys (See Recreational Areas) 
Catwalks 

Class Rooms (See Schools) 
Cornices 



Live Load (PSF) 



150 



a) Fixed seating 
— b) Movable seating 
c) Other — See note b 



a) 60 — See note a 

b) 100 



150 

100 
As required by use 

40 

75 



Table A — Uniformly Distributed Live Loads 

Occupancy or Use Live Loads (PSF) 

Corridors 

In schools (See Schools) 

First floor all areas or uses, 100 

Upper Floors (Same as that required for the 
occupancy of the area being served, or as 
noted herein) 
Court Rooms (See Assembly Spaces) 
Dance Halls (See Assembly Spaces) 
Dormitories (See Residential Areas) 
Dwellings (See Residential Areas) 
Driveways and Yards 

Pedestrian 100 

Vehicular 250 

Elevator Machine Rooms 100 

Equipment Rooms (Mechanical and Electrical Equipment) 75 
Exhibition Rooms (See Assembly Spaces) 
Exitways 100 

Fire Escapes 100 

Garages 

Passenger Cars 75 

Trucks — Load 3 to 10 tons (Buses) 

Columns 120 

Beams 120 

Girders 120 

Floor Slab 175 

Trucks — Load more than 10 tons (Buses) 250 

Note: Design considerations for garages must 
also include concentrated load require- 
ment of Table B, and member selection 
is to be based on resultant maximum 
stress condition. 
Grandstands, Reviewing Stands and Bleachers 100 

Hospitals 
Operating Rooms, Laboratories and Service Areas 60 

Private Rooms, Wards, and Personnel Areas 40 

X-Ray, Therapy and Similar Uses 75 

Others (As Required by Use) 
Hotels (See Residential Areas) 
Ice Skating Rinks 

Playing surface 250 

Others (As Required by Use) 
Libraries 

Reading and Study Rooms 60 

Stack Rooms 150(c) 

Others (As Required by Use) 
Lobbies and Similar Areas (All Buildings) '00 

Locker Rooms 75 

Loft Buildings !25 

Laboratories (Scientific) ^® 

Laundries 1*0 

Manufacturing 

Light 100 

Heavy (Minimum as listed, but not less than 
actual loads) 250 



RS7-2 
Table A — Uniformly Distributed Live Loads 

Occupancy or Use Live Loads (PSF) 

Repair Areas 100 

Museums (See Assembly Spaces) 

Marquees 75 

Office Buildings 

Office Rooms 50 

Letter File Rooms 80 

Card File Rooms 125 

Open Parking Structures (See Garages) 
Penal Institutions, Reformatories, Jails 
Homes of Correction 

Cell Blocks 40 

Corridors 100 

Plaza Areas (Open) accessible to the public 

(including landscaped portions) 100 

Public Dining Rooms (See Assembly Spaces) 
Printing Plants 

Press Rooms 150 

Paper Storage (50 lb. per ft. of clear story height) 
Others 100 

Passenger Stations (See Assembly Spaces) 
Recreational Areas 
Bowling Alleys 

Playing surface (excludes weight of machinery, 

but includes construction of alleys) 75 

Concourse 100 

Others (As Required by Occupancy or Use) 
Pool Rooms and Similar 75 

Residential Areas 
Apartments, Hotels, Motels, Tenements, 

Guest Rooms, Living Areas, and Private Corridors 40 
First Floor Corridors, Public Spaces and 

Corridors serving public spaces 100 

Public Corridors at Upper Floors 60 

Dormitories 

Partitioned Living Areas 40 

Non-partitioned Living Areas 60 

First Floor corridors, public spaces and 

corridors serving public spaces 100 

Public Corridors at Upper Floors 60 

Dwellings 

Multi-family units (Same requirements as those 

for Apartments above) 
One and two family units 

First floor 40 

Upper floors and habitable attics 30 

Uninhabitable attics 20(b) 

Rest Rooms 

Serving places of Assembly 100 

Others 50 

Restaurants (See Assembly Spaces) 
Roller Skating Rinks 
Skating surface 100 

Others (As Required by Occupancy or Use) 



Table A — Uniformly Distributed Live Loads 

Occupancy or Use Live Loads (PSF) 



Sidewalks 


250 


Schools 




Classrooms 


50 


Fixed seats 


60 


Movable seats 


100 


Corridors 


100 


Shops 




Automotive and Press 


100 


Others 


60 


Others (As Required by Occupancy or Use of the 




Area) 




Stairs 


100 


Storage 




Light 


125 


Heavy 


250 


Hay or Grain 


300 


Warehouse 


150 


Cold 




No overhead system (250 psf plus 150 psf for 




trucks) 




With overhead system 




Floor 


150 


Roof 


250 


Stores and Shops 




Banking Rooms 


100 


Retail Sales 




Heavy — all floors 


125 


Light — all floors' 


100 


Wholesale Sales 


100 


Telephone Equipment Rooms 


80 


Theaters 




Balconies (As Required by Occupancy or Use) 




Dressing Rooms 


40 


Lobbies, Corridors, Aisles 


100 


Orchestra Floors 


60 


Projection Rooms 


100 


Standing Space 


100 


Stage Floor 


150 



Notes: 

a. Uniform load shall be applied to the gross floor area. 

b. Live load need be applied to joists or to bottom chords of 
trusses or trussed rafters only in those portions of attic space having 
a clear height of 42 in. or more between joist and rafter in con- 
ventional rafter construction; and between bottom chord and any 
other member in trussed or trussed rafter construction. However, 
joists or the bottom chords of trusses or trussed rafters shall be 
designed to sustain the imposed dead load or using the formula 
1000/net floor area per occupant, but shall not be less than 50 
psf nor 10 psi, whichever is greater, uniformly distributed over the 
entire span. 

c. Minimum of 150 but not less than actual. 



RS7-2 



Table B — Concentrated Live Loads 



Use or Location 

Elevator machine room 

floor 
Gratings, checkered 

plates and similar 

metal decks 
Floor registers and 

similar floor insets 

Garages 

Passenger vehicles 



Load (lbs.) 



200 (on area 

of 1.0 sq. 

in.) 
250 (on area 

of 2 ft. x 

2 ft.) 

2,500 (on area 
of 20 sq. in) 

For slab or 
deck design 



1,500 (each 
wheel) 



Trucks, b 


uses 


150 per cent 
of maximum 






wheel load 
with vehicle 
loaded (on 
area of 20 
sq. in.) 


Floor of office 


2,000 


areas 






Resident and multi- 


200 (on area 


ple dwellii 


igs 


of 4.0 sq. 

in.) 


Scuttles and 


sky- 


200 


light ribs 






Steel joists — 


■for 


800 (for 


each indiv 


idual 


trussed 


joist 




joists apply 
at a panel 
point) 


Roofs 




250 (on area 
of 2 ft. x 
2 ft.) 



Remarks 

See Reference Standard 
RS 16 

Nonconcurrent with uni- 
form live load 

Nonconcurrent with uni- 
form live load 



The concentrated load 
may be assumed to 
represent the reaction 
of a jack placed under 
one end of the vehicle. 
Omit uniform live load 
in area (6 ft. x 9 ft.) 
representing one half 
the vehicle, adjacent 
to the point of load 
concentration. 

To be used in lieu of 
uniform live load in 
stalls of mechanized 
garages where there 
is no slab or deck. 

Same as for Garages — 
Passenger Vehicles 



Nonconcurrent with uni- 
form live load 

Nonconcurrent with uni- 
form live load 

Nonconcurrent with uni- 
form live load 

Nonconcurrent with uni- 
form live load 



Nonconcurrent with uni- 
form live load. Not 
applicable, for aw- 
nings, canopies, and 
similar constructions 
where access by per- 
sons is difficult and 
not intended. 



Table B — Concentrated Live Loads 



Use or Location 

Stair and fire 
escape treads 



Boiler rooms 



Remarks 

Nonconcurrent with uni- 
form live load 



Load(lbs.) 

300 (on area 

1 ft. wide 

by depth of 

the tread 

and spaced 

at 3 ft. 

center-to- 
center) 
3,000 The concentrated load 

of 3,000 lbs. may be 
assumed to represent 
the weight of minor 
items of equipment 
(pumps, etc.) in tem- 
porary locations dur- 
ing installation. In ad- 
dition provision shall 
be made for support- 
ing the weight of the 
empty boiler at per- 
tinent locations on the 
floor to provide for 
replacement of the 
boiler. 

Note a: Except when otherwise indicated loads are assumed to be 
applied over an area 2-'/2 ft. x 2-'/2 ft. 



RS 7-3 AASHO 1965 

Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges 



RS 7-4 AREA 1969 

Specifications for Steel Railway Bridges 



RS 7-5 









RS7-3 RS7-6 


Table of Minimui 


m Wind Pressures 


for Height and 


Area Locations 








Height in Feet 




P in 


lbs. per sq. ft. 






A 


B 


C 


to less than 


25 


20 


20 


20 


25 to less than 


50 


25 


25 


20 


50 to less than 


100 


30 


25 


20 


100 to less than 


150 


35 


30 


20 


150 to less than 


200 


45 


30 


20 


200 to less than 


300 


45 


35 


25 


300 to less than 


400 


45 


40 


30 


400 to less than 


500 


55 


45 


35 


500 to less than 


600 


55 


50 


40 


600 to less than 


700 


55 


55 


45 


700 to less than 


800 


65 


60 


50 


800 to less than 


900 


65 


65 


55 


900 to less than 


1000 


65 


65 


60 


1000 and over 




in ; 


accordance with 






sound engineering 
principles approved 
by the building 
official 



A. are the values of P for a structure on islands in 
Boston Harbor (including former islands now 
having causeways thereto). 

B. are the values of P for a structure any part of 
which lies within 800 feet of mean low water 
line fas determined by mean low water at U. S. 
Navy Yard at Charlestown). 

C. are the values of P for every other structure. 

RS 7-6 Required Nominal Thickness of Glass 

The required nominal thickness of glass shall be deter- 
mined from the chart within this reference standard. 
The modified design wind load to be used as the 
abscissa for entering this chart shall be determined 
by dividing the appropriate general design wind load 



from section 713 by the relative resistance value for 
the glass type involved. For this purpose the relative 
resistances to wind load for equal thicknesses of glass 
shall be assumed as follows: 

Relative 
Glass Type Resistance 

Regular Plate or Sheet 1.0 

Laminated 0.6 

Wired Glass 0.5 

Heat Strengthened 2.0 

Fully-Tempered 4.0 

Rough-Rolled Plate 1.0 

Sandblasted 0.4 

Factory Fabricated Double Glazing (Use only the 

thickness of the thinner of the two lights) 1.5 



RS7-6 



Required Nominal Thickness of Glass 

2001 




10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 

Modified Design Wind Load (Pounds per Square Foot) 

This chart is based on minimum thicknesses allowed in Federal 
Specification DD-G-451b 

Design Factor - 2.5 



RS 7-7 

The allowable working stresses for ordinary materials 
as defined in sections 701 and 722 shall be reduced 
below the allowable values specified in Article 8 by 
the amounts listed below. When the structural material 
is identified in regard to manufacture and grade and 
the identification is accompanied by satisfactory mill 
tests or the strength and stress grade of the materials 
are otherwise confirmed to the satisfaction of the 
building official, the allowable working stresses may 
be increased to comply with the provisions of Article 8. 
10% Reduction 

Reinforced Concrete Stresses Section 842 

Reinforced Gypsum Concrete Stresses . Section 850 

Steel Reinforcement Stresses Section 830 

Structural Steel Stresses Section 827 

Open-Web Steel Joist Stresses Section 829 

Formed Steel Construction Stresses .... Section 828 
Stresses for all materials not otherwise 
noted in this reference standard 

25% Reduction 

Cast Steel Stresses Section 831 

RS 7-8 ASTM A252 1969 

Specification for Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe Piles 

RS 7-9 AWPA CI 1968 

Standard for the Preservative Treatment of all Timber 
Products by Pressure Processes 

AWPA C3 1969 

Standard for the Preservative Treatment of Piles by 

Pressure Processes 

AWPA M4 1962 

Standard for the Case of Pressure-Treated Wood 

Products 

AWPA M2 1967 

Standard for Inspection of Treated Timber Products 



RS 7-7 RS 7-12 
RS 7-10 ASTM D25 1958 

Standard Specification for Round Timber Piles 

RS 7-11 ASCE Paper No. 3269 1961 

Wind Forces On Structures — 1961 Transactions of 
The American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 126, 
Part II 

RS 7-12 ICBO 1967 

Uniform Building Code, Vol. I, Section 2314, "Earth- 
quake Regulations" 



MATERIALS AND TESTS 



800.0 


Scope 


813.0 


801.0 


Definitions 


814.0 


802.0 


Basic Classification of 


815.0 




Construction Materials 


816.0 


803.0 


Tests 


817.0 


804.0 


Conditions of Acceptance 


818.0 


805.0 


Approvals 


819.0 


806.0 


Masonry Construction Units 


820.0 


807.0 


Brick Units 


821.0 


808.0 


Structural Clay Tile Units 


822.0 


809.0 


Glazed Masonry Units 


823.0 


810.0 


Concrete Units 


824.0 


811.0 


Gypsum Units 


825.0 


812.0 


Structural Glass Block Units 


826.0 



ARTICLE 



8A 



Architectural Terra Cotta 

Natural Stone 

Cast Stone 

Mortar and Grout for Masonry 

Concrete Aggregates 

Ready-Mix Concrete 

Structural Wood Glues 

Interior Lathing and Plastering 

Exterior Lathing and Stucco 

Plastering Materials 

Plaster Bases 

Fiber Boards 

Plywood 

Wall Boards and Sheathing 



TABLE 

8-1 816.2.1. Mortar Proportions (Parts by Volume) 

SECTION 800.0, SCOPE 



The provisions of this article shall govern the quality, work- 
manship and requirements for all materials and methods and 
the minimum specifications for enclosure walls and wall thick- 
ness hereafter used in the construction of buildings and structures. 
All materials and methods of construction shall conform to the 
approved rules, the standards for materials and tests of approved 
authoritative agencies, the requirements of accepted engineering 
practice and the certification requirements of reference standard 
RS 8-60 as herein specified. 

800.1. Accepted Engineering Practice. — The quality, use and 
installation of all materials and methods of building construction 
shall be controlled by the standards of accepted engineering 
practice as listed in reference standard RS 8, except where other- 
wise specifically provided in this code. 

800.2. Material Standards. — All building units used in wall, 
partition and floor construction and for fireproofing or other 
insulation purposes shall comply with the applicable standards 
listed in reference standard RS 8. 

800.3. New Materials. — All new building materials, equipment, 
appliances, systems or methods of construction not provided for 
in this code, and any material of questioned suitability proposed 



for use in the construction of a building or structure, shall be 
subjected to the tests prescribed in this Code and in the ap- 
proved rules to determine its character, quality and limitations 
of use. 

800.4. Used Materials. — The use of all second-hand materials 
which meet the minimum requirements of this code for new 
materials shall be permitted. 

800.5. Alternate Test Procedure. — In the absence of approved 
rules or other accepted standards, the building official shall 
make or cause to be made the necessary tests and investigations, 
or he may accept duly authenticated reports from recognized 
testing authorities in respect to the quality and manner of use 
of new materials as provided in section 116. The cost of all 
tests and other investigations required under the provisions of 
this code shall be borne by the applicant. 

SECTION 801.0. DEFINITIONS 

For definitions to be used in the interpretation of this article, 
see section 201.0. 

SECTION 802.0. BASIC CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTRUC- 
TION MATERIALS 

All materials and methods used in the design and construction 
of buildings and structures shall be classified as controlled 
materials or ordinary materials as defined in sections 201 and 
722. The design procedures and construction shall be based on 
the assumptions, limitations and methods of stress determination 
of the specified reference standards. 

SECTION 803.0. TESTS 

All structural units and assemblies unless approved or other- 
wise provided for in this code shall be tested in accordance 
with the appropriate Reference Standard specified in this Code 
for the particular unit or assembly. Also, the building official 
may require reasonable tests from time to time similarly con- 
ducted to determine quality or conformance with the provisons 
of this Code. In the absence of test procedures governing any 
specific material or method of construction, the building official 
shall either accept authenticated reports from approved recog- 



800-803 

nized authoritative sources which meet the requirements of this 
code or shall specify the method and manner of making the 
test. 

803.1. Strength Tests. — To determine the safe uniformly dis- 
tributed working load, when not capable of design by accepted 
engineering analysis, or to check the adequacy of the structural 
design of an assembly when there is reasonable doubt as to its 
strength or stability, every system of construction, sub-assembly 
or assembled unit and its connections shall be subjected to 
strength tests prescribed in this code, or to such other tests 
acceptable to the building official that simulate the loads and 
conditions of application that the completed structure will be 
subjected to in normal use. Structural load determinations shall 
include but not be limited to consideration of transverse floor 
and roof loading, wall compression and racking, concentrated 
loads, plaster bond as affected by deflections, puncture pene- 
tration of materials and assemblies as specified in section 
804.6, and soil tests. 

803.1.1. Strength Tests for Glass. — The working strength of 
glass for any location in which it is required to withstand 
specific loads shall be determined as provided in reference 
standard RS 7-6. 

803.2. Durability and Endurance Tests. — Whenever required by 
the building official or specified herein or in the approved rules, 
the material or construction shall be subjected to approved 
testing procedures to determine resistance to fatigue, durability, 
and weather resistance. These procedures may include subjecting 
the material or construction to sustained and repetitive loading 
as a measure of its resistance to fatigue. 

803.3. Maintenance Test. — In addition to durability and endur- 
ance tests, tests of all materials shall be made to assure the 
maintenance of the standards of approved materials when 
reasonable doubt exists as to quality and when required by 
the building official. 

803.4. Workmanship Test. — Whenever there is reasonable doubt 
as to the stability or structural safety of a completed building or 
structure or part thereof for the intended occupancy, the building 
official may require a load test of the building unit or portion 
of the structure in question. Such existing structure shall be sub- 
jected to its own dead load plus a superimposed load equal to 
one-half (0.5) times the dead load plus one and eight-tenths 
(1.8) times the live load (applied test load equals 0.5D ■+■ 1.8L), 



or to a load causing a stress equal to eighty (80) per cent of 
the yield point of the constituent materials whichever is less. The 
test load shall be left in place for a period of twenty-four (24) 
hours. If during the test, or upon removal of the test load, the 
structure shows evidence of failure, the building official shall 
order such reinforcement or modifications deemed necessary to 
insure adequacy of the structure for the rated capacity; or in lieu 
thereof, he may specify a reduced working load to which the 
structure shall be limited. The structure shall be considered to 
have successfully met the test requirements if the total deflection 
does not exceed the theoretical deflection computed by accepted 
engineering formulae. When the total deflection is greater than 
such theoretical value, the structure shall be considered safe for 
the design load, if it recovers seventy-five (75) percent of the 
maximum deflection within twenty-four (24) hours after removal 
of the test load. This provision shall in no way relieve com- 
pliance with the maximum permissible deflection limitations 
under working loads allowed by this code. 

803.5. Tests of Service Equipment and Devices. — Tests of 
service equipment and accessories shall include proscenium cur- 
tain and stage ventilation, article 4; structural load tests, article 
7; flues and chimneys, article 10; boilers, article 11; sprinkler 
and standpipe equipment, article 12; electric installations, article 
15; moving stairways, elevator interlocks and safety devices, 
article 16; refrigerating equipment, article 18; plumbing systems 
and devices as required by article 17 and all other service tests 
required by the approved rules. 

803.6. Fire Tests. — In the determination of flash points, com- 
bustibility, flameresistance and fireresistance of construction 
materials and methods, all tests shall be conducted in con- 
formity to sections 903 and 904. 

803.7. Prefabricated Construction Tests. — Prefabricated assem- 
blies or sub-assemblies not capable of design by accepted 
engineering analysis, shall meet all the requirements and tests 
for at-site construction. The floor panels and other prefabricated 
units shall be assembled to form an integrated test specimen 
constructed as in practice, of not less than three (3) units in 
width with two (2) longitudinal joints; and when designed on the 
assumption of a simple span, such units shall be tested with 
flat end supports. 

803.8. Test Specimens. — The selection and construction of all 
test specimens and the details of test procedure herein required 



803-804 

shall conform to the recognized test procedures listed in the 
reference standards. All test specimens and constructions shall 
be truly representative of the materials, workmanship and details 
to be normally applied in practice. When structural or fire- 
resistive properties of the material are dependent upon adequate 
curing, the age of the concrete compression test specimens shall 
be not less than seven (7) nor more than twenty-eight (28) days 
and as required by reference standard RS 9-2 for fireresistive 
properties, unless otherwise approved by the building official. 
803.9. Conditions of Support and Loading Interaction. — Load 
tests shall be performed in such a manner that the supports for 
the members or assemblies being tested will simulate the condi- 
tions of support in the building, except that conditions of 
partial fixity may be approximated by condition of full or zero 
restraint, whichever produces a more severe stress condition in 
the member being tested. The test conditions shall be such as to 
obviate all interaction of fills, finishes, partitions, supports, or 
members whose interaction normally would be neglected in 
design. Where continuous, multiple, intersecting, or connected 
members are used in the test, all interacting members shall be 
simultaneously and fully loaded and additional tests shall be 
performed under partial live loading as necessary to produce 
maximum stresses. 

SECTION 804.0. CONDITIONS OF ACCEPTANCE 

Where, because of practical difficulties, design calculations for 
the strength or deflection characteristics of a member or assem- 
bly cannot be executed, its evaluation may be based on load 
tests performed and evaluated in accordance with the require- 
ments of this article. These provisions shall apply only to load 
tests made to assist in establishing the structural adequacy of 
members or assemblies before their incorporation into the 
structure. Load tests to establish the adequacy of construction 
already in place shall conform to the requirements of section 
803.4. 

804.1. Test Load Factor. 

a. The test specimen shall sustain for a period of twenty- 
four (24) hours, without visible damage other than hair- 
line cracks, its own weight, plus a superimposed test 
load equal to the dead load to be added at the site 



plus one hundred fifty (150) percent of the design live 
load. 

b. After completion of the test required by section 804.1. a. 
and removal of all superimposed loads, the recovery 
of deflection within twenty-four (24) hours shall be at 
least seventy-five (75) percent of the deflection due 
to the superimposed loads. 

c. The test specimen shall sustain without collapse its own 
weight, plus a superimposed test load equal to fifty (50) 
percent of its weight plus one hundred fifty (150) per- 
cent of the dead load to be added at the site, plus two 
hundred fifty (250) percent of the design live load. 

804.2. Working Load Deflection. -The deflection properties 
of the member or assembly under working loads shall conform 
to the applicable requirements of this Code and the reference 
standards, as well as to any special requirements of the job 
specifications. Such deflections may be predicted on the basis 
of short-time tests, plus a suitable allowance, approved by the 
building official, for the effects of shrinkage and creep. 

804.3. Wall and Partition Assemblies. — Bearing wall and parti- 
tion assemblies shall sustain the load test both with and without 
window framing. 

804.4. Comparative Tests. — When not available from existing 
authoritative test data, the building official may require com- 
parative tests of assemblies of standard traditional forms of 
construction used for similar purposes to assist in determining 
the adequacy of the new construction. 

804.5. Concentrated Load Tests. — When not capable of design 
all floor construction in the occupancy or use classification 
groups specified in reference standard RS 7-2, Table B shall be 
subjected to the concentrated loads therein prescribed when such 
loading causes stresses greater than the uniformly distributed 
load specified for such occupancies or uses in reference standard 
RS 7-2 Table A. 

804.6. Puncture Penetration Tests. — All finish floor constructions 
in which light gage metal or other thin materials are used as the 
structural floor shall withstand the application of a two hundred 
(200) pound concentrated load applied to the top surface on an 
area of one (1) square inch at any point or points of the con- 
struction designated by the building official. 



804-806 
SECTION 805.0. APPROVALS 

805.1. Written Approval. — Any material, appliance, equipment, 
system or method of construction meeting the requirements of 
this code shall be approved by the building official in writing 
within a reasonable time after satisfactory completion of all 
required tests and submission of required test reports. 

805.2. Approval Record. — Whenever any material, appliance, 
equipment, system or method of construction shall have been 
approved by the building official, a record of such approval, 
including all the conditions and limitations of its permitted use, 
shall be kept on file in his office and shall be open to public 
inspection during business hours. 

805.3. Identification of Product. — When identification of a 
material is necessary for structural safety, the approved material 
shall be identified by the approved label and the grade mark, 
trademark or other manufacturer's identification for which 
official recognition is desired. A drawing of the identification 
marks shall be filed with the building official and kept in the 
official records. 

805.4. Heretofore Approved Materials. — The use of any material 
already fabricated or of any construction already erected, which 
conformed to requirements or approvals heretofore in effect, 
shall be permitted to continue, if not detrimental to life, health 
or safety of the public. 

SECTION 806.0. MASONRY CONSTRUCTION UNITS 

The quality of materials assembled in masonry and the method 
and manner of their assembly shall be suitable for their use and 
shall conform to the minimum requirements of reference standard 
RS 8. 

806.1. Identification. — The materials entering into masonry shall 
be classified for the purposes of this code as follows: 

Brick 

Structural Clay Tile 

Glazed Masonry Units 

Concrete Units 

Gypsum Units 

Structural Glass Block Units 

Architectural Terra Cotta 

Natural Stone 

Cast Stone 

Mortar for Masonry 



A material of masonry other than those classified in this article, 
which is incombustible and otherwise sufficiently embodies the 
characteristics of one of the materials here classified, and which 
satisfies the requirements of this article for that material may be 
included by the building official in the classification of that 
material which is most closely resembles. 

806.2. Nominal Dimensions. — Dimensions and thicknesses speci- 
fied herein are nominal dimensions; actual dimensions may 
vary from the prescribed minimum in accordance with accepted 
tolerances in the building industry. 

806.3. Second-Hand Units. — Brick and other second-hand mason- 
ry units may be reused subject to the requirements of this 
code as to quality, condition and compliance with the require- 
ments for new masonry units. The unit shall be good, whole, 
sound material, free from cracks and other defects that would 
interfere with its proper laying or use; and shall be cleaned free 
from old mortar before reuse. 

SECTION 807.0. BRICK UNITS 

All clay, shale and sand-lime brick shall be selected on the 
appropriate grade specified by reference standards RS 8-1 and 
RS 8-2. See Section 810.0 for concrete brick. The minimum 
grade permitted for brick in contact with the ground and sub- 
ject to water, frost and freezing action shall be grade SW; when 
subject to frost without danger of water saturation, grade MW; 
and when not subject to weathering or when used as back-up 
in exterior walls or for interior construction, grade NW. Under- 
burned clay brick shall not be used in isolated brick piers, 
nor in a bearing wall which is more than forty (40) feet in 
height. Brick for fire protection, fireresistive walls or fire stop- 
ping shall be of grade MW or better. 

SECTION 808.0. STRUCTURAL CLAY TILE UNITS 

Structural clay tile shall consist of well burned hollow units of 
clay or shale classified for use as load bearing wall tile, floor 
tile, or fireproofing and non-load bearing partition tile. 
808.1. Load Bearing Wall Tile. — Structural clay load bearing 
wall tile shall be classified for physical quality as grade LBX 
or grade LB and shall be in conformance with reference standard 
RS 8-4. 



806-810 

808.2. Floor Tile. — Structural clay floor tile shall be classified 
for physical quality as grade FT1 or grade FT2 and shall 
conform to reference standard RS 8-6. 

808.2.1. Arches. — Structural clay floor tile used in floor and 
roof arches shall be at least grade FT2. 

808.3. Fireproofing and Non-Load Bearing Partition Tile. — 
Structural clay non-load bearing tile, used for partitions, fire- 
proofing, and furring shall be classified as grade NB and shall 
conform to reference standard RS 8-5. 

808.3.1. Fireresistance. — Structural clay tile in fire resistive 
construction shall be of grade NB or better, and shall conform 
to the requirements of section 221.1 Table 2-1. 

808.4. Exposure. — Any structural clay tile exposed to the weather 
shall be at least of grade LBX. 



SECTION 809.0. GLAZED MASONRY UNITS 

Structural clay load-bearing facing tile, facing brick, and other 
solid masonry units made from clay, shale, fire-clay, or mixtures 
thereof having a finish consisting of a ceramic glaze shall be in 
conformance with reference standard RS 8-7. 



SECTION 810.0. CONCRETE UNITS 

Concrete units as classified in this code shall include concrete 
bricks, solid load bearing units, hollow load bearing units and 
hollow non-load bearing units of concrete made from Portland 
cement, water and suitable aggregates, such as sand, gravel, 
crushed stone, bituminous or anthracite cinders, expanded clay 
or shale and blast furnace slag. The materials shall conform to 
the specific reference standards herein noted except that cinder 
aggregate for concrete blocks shall contain not more than twenty 
(20) per cent of combustible matter. 

810.1. Quality. — Cast concrete units shall be of sound, compact 
structure, uniform in shape and free from cracks, warpage or 
other defects that would impair their serviceability or strength 
when laid in the wall. 

810.2. Hollow Load Bearing Units. — Hollow load bearing 
concrete units shall conform to reference standard RS 8-8 and 
when used unprotected below grade or unprotected against the 



weather by stucco, brick or other approved facings or veneers 
shall be grade U; when used protected below grade or pro- 
tected exterior subject to frost action, grade P or better; for 
interior and protected exterior use not subject to frost action, 
grade G or better. 

810.3. Hollow Non-Load Bearing Units. — Hollow non-load 
bearing concrete units shall conform to reference standard RS 8-9 
and may be used in non-load bearing interior partitions and 
non-load bearing exterior walls where effectively protected from 
the weather. 

810.4. Solid Load Bearing Units. — Solid load bearing units shall 
conform to reference standard RS 8-10 and when used unpro- 
tected below grade or unprotected against the weather by stucco, 
brick or other approved facings or veneers shall be grade U; 
when used protected below grade or protected exterior subject 
to frost action, grade P or better; for interior and protected 
exterior use not subject to frost action, grade G or better. 

810.5. Concrete Brick. — Concrete brick shall conform to refer- 
ence standard RS 8-3 and when exposed to severe frost action 
shall be grade U; when exposed to moderate frost action shall 
be grade P or better; and when used in backup or interior 
masonry, or where effectively protected against moisture pene- 
tration, grade G or better. 

810.6. Concrete Fireproofing and Furring Units. — Concrete units 
may be used for fireproofing or furring when graded for wea- 
thering according to this section except that the exterior use of 
hollow non-load bearing units shall not be permitted for fire- 
proofing purposes. All non-load bearing units shall be clearly 
marked to distinguish them from load bearing units. 

810.7. Concrete Floor Tile. 

810.7.1. Structural Fillers. — Structural concrete filler-block or 
tile when included in strength calculations in ribbed floor 
construction shall have webs and shells not less than one (1) 
inch thick and shall develop an average compressive strength 
on the net area not less than that of the rib concrete. 

810.7.2. Other Fillers. — Removable tile and permanent fillers 
which are not included in strength calculations shall be of 
adequate strength to insure integrity of the unit and safety in 
handling as approved by the building official. 



810-815 
SECTION 811.0. GYPSUM UNITS 

A gypsum building unit in the form of tile or block for use in 
non-loadbearing construction in the interior of buildings and for 
the protection of columns, elevator shafts, etc., against fire shall 
conform to reference standard RS 8-11. 

811.1. Use. — Gypsum tile or block shall not be used in load 
bearing masonry, in masonry exposed to weather or soil, nor 
in masonry exposed to frequent or continuous wetting. Gypsum 
partition tile or block shall not be used for partitions to receive 
Portland cement plaster, ceramic tile, marble or structural glass 
wainscots unless self-furring metal lath is placed over the gypsum 
tile. 

SECTION 812.0. STRUCTURAL GLASS BLOCK UNITS 

Glass block may be solid or hollow. All mortar bearing sur- 
faces of the block shall be precoated or prepared to insure 
adhesion between mortar and glass. Glass blocks shall not be 
used in fire walls, party walls or fire division walls, or for load- 
bearing construction. 

SECTION 813.0. ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 

All approved architectural terra cotta units shall be formed 
with a strong, homogeneous body of hard-burned, weather- 
resisting clay which gives off a sharp, metallic ring when struck. 
All units shall be formed to engage securely with and anchor 
to the structural frame or masonry wall, and shall conform to 
reference standards RS 8-4 and RS 8-5. 

SECTION 814.0. NATURAL STONE 

Natural stone for masonry shall be sound, free from loose or 
friable inclusions; and shall have the characteristics of strength, 
durability, fire resistance, and resistance to impact and abrasion 
commensurate with the proposed use. Sandstone in masonry ex- 
posed to the weather shall be laid with its natural bed horizontal. 

SECTION 815.0. CAST STONE 

815.1. Description. — Cast stone shall be precast of Portland 



cement, aggregates, and water with or without admixtures, or 
strength, durability, and fire-resistance commensurate with its 
proposed use, and in accordance with reference standard RS 8-12. 

815.2. Limitations. — The intended use for cast stone shall be as 
a trim, veneer, or facing on a structure with no unit dimension 
in excess of eighteen (18) inches. Cast stone shall not project 
more than six (6) inches beyond its supporting material. Cast 
stone shall have reinforcing as required for reinforced concrete 
with no less than three (3) inch damp-proofing protection of 
the reinforcing. 

815.3. Strength. — The minimum compressive strength of cast 
stone when delivered to the building site shall be sixty-five 
hundred (6,500) pounds per square inch when tested as three- 
inch by three-inch (3" x 3") cylinders or two-inch by two-inch 
(2" x 2") cubes. 

The average water absorption of cast stone when delivered to 
the building site shall be not more than six (6) percent by dry 
weight of the specimens when tested as three-inch by three-inch 
(3" x 3") cylinders or two-inch by two-inch (2" x 2") cubes. 

815.4. Exceptions. — Other precast concrete, whether fabricated 
at factory or site, not in compliance with the preceding shall 
be in conformance with section 1912.0. 



SECTION 816.0. MORTAR AND GROUT FOR MASONRY 

816.1. Materials. — All Portland, natural and masonry cements, 
quicklime and hydrated lime for use in masonry mortar and 
grout shall meet the minimum strength and durability require- 
ments of reference standards RS 8-13 thru RS 8-17. Masonry 
shall be laid in mortar, except plain concrete, plain gypsum 
concrete, stone masonry in underwater masonry, and retaining 
walls not in buildings which may be laid without mortar. 

816.2. Mortar Types and Proportions. — Mortar for masonry 
construction shall conform to one (1) of the following types and 
shall be mixed to a consistent workability in the specified 
proportions measured by volume with clean fresh water free 
from harmful amounts of acids, alkalis, oils or organic materials; 
and with approved aggregates composed of hard, strong, durable 
mineral particles well graded from fine to coarse, free from 
injurious amounts of acids, alkalis, oils, saline, organic and other 



815-816 

deleterious substances. Masonry mortars shall have a flow after 
suction of not less than seventy (70) percent, and shall conform 
to reference standard RS 8-18 and the following table: 

816.2.1. Table 8-1 

Mortar Proportions (Parts by Volume) 

Masonry Hydrated Lime Damp 

Mortar Portland Cement or Lime Putty Loose 

Type Cement Type II Min. Max. Aggregate 

Ml — — 1/4 

1 1 — — 

s l ~ l / 4 l / 2 Not less than 2- 

*/2 * ~~ ~~ 1/4 and not more 

N 1 - 1/2 1-1/4 than 3 times the 

— 1 — — sum of the vol- 

O — 1 — — umes of thecem- 

1 — 1-1/4 2-1/2 ents and lime used. 

Grout shall conform to reference standard RS 8-19. 



816.2.2. Lime Putty. — Lime putty shall be made by slaking to 
a smooth paste fresh and properly burned quicklime. The resul- 
tant paste shall be stored in a suitable box or other receptacle 
for not less than forty-eight (48) hours before being mixed with 
sand. Hydrated lime may be substituted in equivalent amount 
for lime putty. 

816.3. Types of Mortar Permitted. — Unit masonry shall be laid 
in mortar of the following types: 
Type of Masonry Types of Mortar Permitted 

Masonry in contact with earth M or S 

Grouted and filled cell masonry M or S 

Masonry above grade or interior masonry: 

Piers of solid units M, S or N 

Piers of hollow units M or S 

Walls of solid units M, S or N 

Walls of hollow units M, S or N 

Cavity walls and masonry bonded 
hollow walls: 

Design wind pressure exceeds 20 psf M or S 
Design wind pressure 20 psf or less M, S or N 



Type of Masonry 



Types of Mortar Permitted 



Glass block masonry 
Nonloadbearing partitions and fire- 
proofing 
Gypsum partition tile or block 
Fire brick 

Linings of existing masonry, above or 

below grade 
Masonry other than above 
NOTE: 



S or N 

M, S, N, O or Gypsum 

Gypsum 

Refractory air-setting 

mortar 

M or S 
M, S or N 



Mortar or grout under metal bases of columns or 
beams resting upon concrete shall be made without 
lime. 



816.4. Special Mortars. — The building official may approve other 
special masonry mortars in place of the mortar types listed in 
section 816.2, provided they develop the minimum compressive 
strengths specified for the respective mortars they replace. The 
strength classification of a special mortar or special mix may be 
determined by compressive strength tests with the materials and 
in the proportions representative of those to be used in actual 
practice. In no case shall the allowable unit working stresses 
in the masonry be more than one-fourth (1/4) the average 
ultimate compressive strength of the assembled test samples. 

816.5. Gypsum Mortar. — Gypsum mortar shall be composed of 
one (1) part of unfibered calcined neat gypsum to not more 
than three (3) parts sand by weight. Only gypsum mortar shall 
be used with gypsum tile and block units. Gypsum shall con- 
form to reference standard RS 8-20. 



816.6. Mortars for Ceramic Wall and Floor Tile. — Mortars for 
installing ceramic wall and floor tile shall be of the following 
composition measured by volume: 



1/3 hydrated lime: 4 sand 
1/2 hydrated lime: 



sand 
sand 



Walls: Scratch coat — 1 cement 

Setting bed and 

Leveling coat — 1 cement 
Floors: Setting bed — 1 cement 
Ceilings: Scratch coat and 

Setting bed — 1 cement 
or other mortars of comparable adhesive strength and durability, 
in accordance with reference standard RS 8-21. 



1/2 hydrated lime: 3 sand 



816-817 
816.6.1. Dry-Set Portland Cement Mortars. — Dry-set Portland 
Cement Mortars to be used in the installation of ceramic tile 
shall be in accordance with standard specification for dry-set 
Portland cement mortar listed in reference standard RS 8-22. 
816.7. Organic Adhesives. — Organic adhesives to be used in 
installing ceramic tile shall have a shear bond strength in accor- 
dance with commercial standard for adhesives for installations 
of clay tile listed in reference standard RS 8-23. 

SECTION 817.0. CONCRETE AGGREGATES 

817.1. Aggregate Quality. — All concrete aggregates shall conform 
to reference standards RS 8-24 and RS 8-25 for organic im- 
purities, soundness, mortar strength, durability, weather-resist- 
ance, fireresistance, and wearing qualities. In addition, coarse 
aggregate subjected to the test for organic impurities showing 
a color darker than two-thirds (2/3) the intensity of the standard 
color shall be rejected. 

817.2. Fireresistance. — Coarse aggregate in concrete shall be 
rated in respect to the fireresistance of concrete made therewith 
on the basis of performance in fire test on building elements 
such as columns, floors, partitions and walls conducted in 
accordance with standard fire test specifications applicable to 
such test. Protective coverings of encasements of concrete for 
steel in fireresistive construction shall likewise be selected on the 
basis of performance in applicable standard fire tests. All con- 
crete constructions shall meet the requirements of article 9 as 
regulated by the provisions of section 221.1. table 2-1. 

817.2.1. Grade 1 Concrete. — Grade 1 concrete shall mean 
concrete made with aggregates such as blast-furnace slag, expanded 
clays, and calcareous, igneous, and most silicate crushed stones 
and gravels and shales, as well as any other aggregates performing 
as required by this code, for the appropriate construction when 
tested in accordance with standard methods of fire tests of 
building construction and materials as controlled by section 
903.0. 

817.2.2. Grade 2 Concrete. — Grade 2 concrete shall mean con- 
crete made with aggregates such as cinders and crushed stones 
and gravels composed essentially of quartz and quartzite cherts 
as well as any other aggregates performing as required by this 
code for the appropriate construction when tested in accordance 



with standard methods of fire tests of building construction and 
materials as controlled by section 903.0. 

817.3. Size of Aggregates. — Fine aggregates shall be well graded 
from fine to coarse and shall conform to reference standards 
RS 8-24 and RS 8-25. Coarse aggregates shall not exceed one- 
fifth (1/5) of the narrowest dimension between sides of the form 
nor three-fourths (3/4) of the minimum clear spacing between 
reinforcing bars, and shall conform to reference standards 
RS 8-24 and RS 8-25. 

817.4. Special Aggregates. — Special aggregates, including among 
others, perlite, vermiculite and other processed mica, pumice, 
lava, tufa, volcanic glass, slag, coke, expanded clay and shale 
used in concrete and plaster construction shall meet all the 
requirements of the approved rules and shall be classified in 
their respective fireresistant grades as determined by test. When 
used for fire protection purposes only, the building official may 
waive mortar strength requirements for such aggregates providing 
the concrete is shown by test to have adequate strength for the 
intended use. 

SECTION 818.0. READY-MIX CONCRETE 



H 



818.1. Control. — Ready-mix concrete for use in ordinary or in 
controlled materials procedure shall conform to reference standard 
RS 8-26 and other appropriate portions of section 842 for 
reinforced concrete. 

818.2. Transportation. — Ready-mix concrete shall be transported 
in approved conveyances which insure delivery of the concrete 
at the site in a plastic, workable and unhardened state. The 
maximum amount of concrete hauled in an agitator shall not 
exceed the approved rating of the conveyance; and the period 
of delivery shall not exceed the time in which loss of plasticity 
may occur and generally not more than one and one-half (1-1/2) 
hours, after either the introduction of the mixing water to the 
cement and aggregates, or the introduction of the cement to the 
aggregates. 

818.3. Ordinary Materials Procedure. — When ready-mix is used 
under the ordinary materials procedure, either the cement con- 
tent in bags per yard of concrete together with the maximum 
allowable water content, or the compressive strength and maxi- 
mum permissible slump shall be specified. In no case shall the 
cement factor and water cement ratio violate the requirements 



817-821 

of tables RS 8-45-1 or RS 8-45-2 of reference standard RS 8-45, 
nor shall the specified or required twenty-eight (28) day compres- 
sive strength (f'c) exceed four thousand (4,000) psi. 

SECTION 819.0. STRUCTURAL WOOD GLUES 

819.1. Quality of Glue. — Glues used in structural assemblies of 
built-up or laminated lumber sections shall develop the full 
strength of the wood, shall not produce decomposition or 
deleterious chemical reaction in the wood structure, shall not be 
attractive to vermin and shall conform to reference standard 
RS 8-27. 

819.2. Manufacturer's Requirements. — Approved structural glues 
shall be handled, mixed and applied as prescribed by the 
manufacturer and the gluing shall be done only in accordance 
with the timber construction standards listed in reference standard 
RS 8-27. 

819.3. Types of Glue. — Structural glues shall be classified as dry 
use and wet use in conformance with reference standard RS 8-27. 

SECTION 820.0. INTERIOR LATHING AND PLASTERING 

All interior lathing and plastering shall conform to the standards 
for lathing, furring and accessories and gypsum and Portland 
cement plastering listed in reference standard RS 8-28 through 
RS 8-32 except as may be otherwise provided in this Code 
for specific materials. 
820.1. Installation. 

820.1.1. Inspection. — The building official shall be notified not 
less than twenty-four (24) hours in advance of all plastering 
work, and no plaster shall be applied until after the lathing 
or other plaster base has been inspected and approved by him. 

820.1.2. Weather Protection. — When plastering work is in 
progress, the building or structure shall be temporarily enclosed 
and in freezing weather the enclosure shall be heated to protect 
the plaster from injury. 

SECTION 821.0. EXTERIOR LATHING AND STUCCO 

All exterior lathing, plastering and stucco work shall be installed 
of Portland cement or other approved mortar as provided in 



the reference standard RS 8-32 or as provided in this Code 
for specific materials. 

821.1. Reinforcement. — All stucco work shall be reinforced 
with approved metal lath or wire fabric except when applied 
directly to a masonry or concrete base, or when installed on a 
masonry base which is protected with bituminous surfacing. 

821.2. Minimum Weight. — Metal lath, expanded metal and 
wire reinforcing fabric shall weigh not less than the following: 



Minimum Weight 



Type of 


Minimum 


Maximum 


Pounds per 


Enforcement U.S. Gage 


Mesh Inches 


Square Yard 


Metal lath 


— 


— 


3.4 


Expanded metal 




— 


— 


1.8 


Woven wire . . . 




18 


1 


1.74 


Woven wire . . . 




17 


1-1/2 


1.41 


Woven wire . . . 




16 


2 


1.47 


Welded wire . . . 




18 


4 sq. in. 


0.67 


Welded wire . . . 




17 


4 sq. in. 


0.82 


Welded wire . . . 




16 


4 sq. in. 


1.10 



821.3. Corrosion Resistance. — All metal lath and stucco rein- 
forcing fabric shall be protected with a zinc, or other approved 
rust-resistive coating or rust-inhibitive paint, or shall be manu- 
factured from approved corrosion-resistive alloys. 

821.4. Sheathing. — Except in back-plastered construction, the 
studs shall be covered with approved sheathing complying with 
section 855; or not less than No. 18 U.S. gage galvanized wire 
shall be stretched horizontally at six (6) inch centers and shall 
be covered with not less than fourteen (14) pound waterproof 
felt or paper before applying the reinforced stucco; or an 
approved paperbacked wire fabric may be used of not less 
than No. 16 U.S. gage galvanized wire with stiffening ribs not 
more than five (5) inches on centers to which is attached a 
double layer or fibrous waterproof backing. The mesh opening 
shall not exceed two by two (2 x 2) inches. 

821.5. Back-Plastered Construction. — In back-plastered construc- 
tion, when spacing of studs exceeds sixteen (16) inches, approved 
horizontal noncombustible cross-furring at not more than sixteen 
(16) inch centers shall be first applied; unless approved stiffened 
lath is used and the frame is adequately stiffened as provided in 
section 855. 



821-822 

821.6. Application on Masonry Base. — When applied directly to 
masonry or monolithic concrete, the surfaces shall be com- 
pletely roughened, hacked or bush-hammered to provide bond, 
and a preparatory dash coat of Portland cement grout shall be 
applied. The dash coat shall be kept damp for at least two (2) 
days after application and before applying succeeding stucco 
coats. 

821.7. Protection. 

821.7.1. From Freezing. — At all times during application and for 
a period of not less than forty-eight (48) hours after application 
of each coat, provisions shall be made to keep stucco work 
above fifty (50) degrees F. 

821.7.2. From Moisture. — Stucco shall be kept a sufficient 
height above ground surfaces as provided in section 855 and all 
sills, coping and projecting courses shall be flashed and provided 
with drips as therein specified. 

821.7.3. From Rapid Drying. — Stucco shall be protected from 
heat, sun, and wind for the first forty-eight (48) hours to 
prevent premature drying. 



SECTION 822.0. PLASTERING MATERIALS 

All sand, quick-lime, hydrated lime, hair binder, gypsum, Keene 
and Portland cements, Pozzuolanic cements and aggregates and 
other materials used in plastering shall be stored, protected and 
applied in accordance with reference standards RS 8-33, RS 8-16, 
RS 8-32 and RS 8-13. 

822.1. Special Cements and Plasters. — Approved cements used in 
plastering may have admixtures of approved plasticity agents 
added in the manufacturing process or when mixing the plaster 
at the site in the approved proportions. All premixed special 
plasters, cements and aggregates shall be packaged and identified 
with the approved label. 

822.2. Lime Piaster. — Lime and hydrated lime plasters for use 
in base and finish coats shall be applied in accordance with 
reference standard RS 8-30 and the manufacturer's specifications. 

822.3. Gypsum Plaster. — All gypsum plaster shall comply with 
reference standard RS 8-28. Gypsum plaster shall not be used 
on exterior surfaces. 

822.4. Gypsum Plasters with Special Aggregates. — When gypsum 
is used with manufactured aggregates in place of natural sand 



for plaster, the mixture shall be proportioned and applied in 
accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and refer- 
ence standards RS 8-28 and RS 8-31. 

SECTION 823.0. PLASTER BASES 

823.1. Fiber Boards. — Approved fiber boards used as plaster ^ 
bases shall comply with section 824. The surface of such boards 
shall be of a rough, fibrous texture to insure mechanical and 
suction bond; and the boards shall meet the bond and strength 
tests specified by reference standard RS 8-34. 

823.2. Gypsum Lath. — Except when greater thickness is required 
for fireresistance under the provisions of article 9, or as herein , 
specified, gypsum lath used for plastering shall be not less than 
three-eights (3/8) inch thick and shall comply with reference 
standard RS 8-35. 

823.3. Perforated Gypsum Lath. — Where required to provide 
specified time-temperature performance, perforated gypsum lath 
shall be not less than three-eight (3/8) inches thick. The openings 
shall be equivalent to three-quarter (3/4) inch diameter holes for 
each sixteen (16) square inches of lath surface; or the lath shall 
be perforated as determined by full size tests for load, strength 
and fireresistance ratings. 

823.4. Metal Lath. — The dimensions and sizes of expanded, 
ribbed and sheet metal lath shall comply with reference standard 
RS 8-32, and shall be fabricated from not less than No. 30 
U.S. gage steel sheets. It shall be manufactured from copper- 
bearing steel, coated with rust-inhibitive paint after cutting, or 
cut from zinc-coated steel sheets. 

823.5. Wire Lath. — All types of wire lath shall comply with 
reference standard RS 8-32, and shall be fabricated from woven 
or welded wire of not less than No. 19 W&M gage with not 
more than two and one-half (2-1/2) meshes to the inch. Woven 
or welded wire reinforcement shall be coated with zinc or rust- 
inhibitive paint. 

823.6. Paper-Backed Lath. — Expanded metal or wire lath backed 
with integral approved paper shall be fabricated from the 
minimum gages and weights specified in sections 823.4 and 823.5. 

823.7. Combustible Lath. — Wood lath shall be erected horizon- 
tally on walls and partitions and ceiling lath shall run in one 



822-824 

direction only; but in neither case shall it extend through cross- 
partitions from room to room. Wood lath shall be not less than 
one(l) inch wide nor less than five-sixteenth (5/16) inches thick. 
The lath joints shall be staggered so that not more than seven 
(7) laths occur in any one continuous break. 

SECTION 824.0. FIBER BOARDS 

Insulating boards manufactured with wood or other vegetable 
fibers used as building boards for sheathing, roof decks, plaster 
bases, interior wall and ceiling finish, roof insulation or sound 
deadening, shall be vermin proof, resistant to rot-producing 
fungi and water-repellent and shall meet the strength and 
durability tests specified in reference standard RS 8-34. When 
required under the provisions of article 9, the boards shall be 
protected or treated to develop the required fireresistance or 
flameresistance as determined by test. 

824.1. Jointing. — To insure tight-fitting assemblies, edges shall 
be manufactured square or shiplapped, beveled, tongue-and- 
grooved or U-jointed; and shall be installed in accordance with 
reference standard RS 8-32. 

824.2. Plaster Base. — When used as a plaster base, fiber boards 
shall be permitted in fireresistive construction complying with 
the test provisions of article 9, except where specifically pro- 
hibited in fireproof (type 1) and noncombustible (type 2) con- 
struction. 

824.3. Roof Insulation. — When used as roof insulation in all 
types of construction, fiber boards shall be protected with an 
approved type of roof covering. 

824.4. Wall Insulation. — When installed and firestopped to 
comply with article 9, fiber boards may be used for wall 
insulation in all types of construction. In firewall and fire 
division construction, unless treated to be noncombustible, the 
boards shall be cemented directly to the masonry or other 
noncombustible base and shall be protected with an approved 
noncombustible veneer anchored to the base without intervening 
air spaces. 

824.5. Dry Wall Construction. — Where fireresistance ratings are 
required, provision shall be made for interlocking, lapping or 
otherwise protecting the joints between adjacent boards to insure 
smoke and flame tightness. 



824.6. Insulating Roof Deck. — When used as roof decking in 
open beam construction fiber board insulating roof deck shall 
have a minimum nominal thickness not less than one (1) inch. 

SECTION 825.0. PLYWOOD 

825.1. Quality. — All plywood when used structurally shall meet 
the performance standards and all other requirements of reference 
standard RS 8-36 for the type, grade and identification index or 
species group of plywood involved, and shall be so identified by 
an approved agency. Working stresses shall conform to the 
standards of accepted engineering practice as presented in refer- 
ence standard RS 8-36. 

825.2. Types. — Plywood for interior use may be either of the 
moisture resistant or exterior type; plywood for exterior use shall 
be of the exterior waterproof type. Exterior plywood may be 
applied directly to the framing as a siding, provided it has a I ( 
nominal thickness of three-eighths (3/8) inch. Joints shall occur' 
over framing members, unless wood or plywood sheathing is I 
used or joints are lapped horizontally a minimum of one and i 
one-half (1-1/2) inches or otherwise made waterproof to the I 
satisfaction of the building official. If plywood is used as lapped I 
siding without sheathing, the wall framing to which it is attached I 
shall be diagonally braced. 

825.3. Spans. — The maximum spans for plywood roof sheathing j 
and subflooring shall be limited by the allowable stresses and 
deflections for the design live load but shall have not less than I 
the identification index listed in reference standard RS 8-36 
item 4, provided it is continuous over two (2) or more spans 
and laid with face grain perpendicular to the supports. 

825.3.1. — The allowable span for plywood combination sub- 
floor underlayment shall conform to the provisions of reference 
standard RS 8-36 item 5. 

825.3.2. Vertical Maximum Stud Spacing. — Stud spacing for 
vertical sheathing and for use in stress-skin panel or other 
prefabricated constructions shall be determined by accepted 
engineering analysis or by the tests prescribed for prefabricated 
assemblies in section 803. 



824-826 
SECTION 826.0. WALLBOARDS AND SHEATHING 

826.1. Sheathing. — Sheathing of gypsum, processed fiber and 
other approved materials shall conform to reference standards 
RS 8-39 and RS 8-40. When used in frame construction, they 
shall meet requirements of sections 855.1 and 855.2. When re- 
quired to meet fireresistance ratings the assembled construction 
shall comply with section 221.1 table 2-1 for structural elements 
and article 9 for trim and finishes. 

826.2. Wallboards. — Wallboard of gypsum, processed fiber and 
other approved materials shall conform to reference standard 
RS 8-41. When required to meet fireresistance ratings the 
assembled construction shall comply with section 221.1 table 2-1 
for structural elements and article 9 for trim and finishes. 



ARTICLE 



8B 



STEEL, MASONRY, CONCRETE, GYPSUM AND 
LUMBER CONSTRUCTION 



827.0 


Structural Steel Construction 


844.0 


828.0 


Cold-Formed Steel 


845.0 


829.0 


Open Web Steel Joists 


846.0 


830.0 


Reinforcing Steel 


847.0 


831.0 


Cast Steel Construction 


848.0 


832.0 


Cast Iron Construction 


849.0 


833.0 


Special Steels 


850.0 


834.0 


Light Weight Metal Alloys 


851.0 


835.0 


Masonry Wall Construction 


852.0 


836.0 


Bonding of Walls 




837.0 


Lateral Bracing of Walls 


853.0 


838.0 


Chases and Recesses in Bearing 






Walls 


854.0 


839.0 


Corbeled and Projected 






Masonry 


855.0 


840.0 


Bearing on Hollow Unit Walls 


856.0 


841.0 


Plain Concrete 


857.0 


842.0 


Reinforced Concrete 




843.0 


Controlled Concrete 





Ordinary Concrete 

Omitted 

Short Span Floor Filling 

Concrete-filled Pipe Columns 

Pneumatic Concrete 

Minimum Concrete Dimensions 

Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 

Reinforced Brickwork 

Reinforced Hollow Block 
Construction 

Lumber and Timber Con- 
struction 

Heavy Timber Type 
Construction 

Wood Frame Construction 

Stress Skin Panels 

Structural Glued, Laminated 
and Built-Up Lumber Con- 
struction 



SECTION 827.0. STRUCTURAL STEEL CONSTRUCTION 



Structural steel construction used in all buildings and structures 
shall be fabricated from materials of uniform quality, free from 
defects that would vitiate the strength or stability of the struc- 
ture. Design, fabrication and erection shall conform to reference 
standard RS 8-42. 

827.1. Plans. — Design plans drawn to appropriate scale shall 
show the size, section and relative locations of all structural 
members with floor levels, column centers and all offsets fully 
dimensioned; and the design loads shall be clearly indicated 
for all parts of the building or structure. 

827.2. Identification. — Structural steel that is required to have a 
minimum yield point greater than thirty-six thousand (36,000) 
psi shall at all times in the fabricator's plant, be marked, 
segregated, or otherwise handled so that the separate alloys and 
tempers are positively identified, and after completion of fabrica- 
tion, shall be marked to identify the alloy and temper. Such 



markings shall be affixed to completed members and assemblies 
or to boxed or bundled shipments of multiple units prior to 
shipment from the fabricator's plant. 

827.3. Shop Drawings. — Shop drawings, giving complete informa- 
tion necessary for the fabrication of the component parts of the 
structure, including the types of material, the location, type and 
size of all rivets, bolts and welds, shall be prepared in advance 
of the actual fabrication. They shall clearly distinguish between 
shop and field rivets, bolts and welds. Shop drawings shall be 
made in conformity with the best modern practice and with due 
regard to safety, speed and economy in fabrication and erection. 

827.4. Welding. — All welded construction shall be designed by 
engineers and shall be supervised by engineers and qualified 
technicians experienced and skilled in welded construction. Welds 
shall be made by welders, tackers and welding operators who 
have been previously qualified to perform the type of work 
required, by tests as prescribed in reference standard RS 8-73. 
Unless otherwise specifically provided for in this Code or 
reference standards, all provisions of reference standard RS 8-73 
shall apply. 

827.5. Painting and Protective Coating of Structural Steel. 

827.5.1. — All structural steel, except as provided in 827.5.2, 
shall receive one (1) coat of paint, zinc or bituminous coating, or 
equivalent metal protection before erection. The protection shall 
be applied thoroughly and evenly to dry surfaces which have 
been cleaned of loose mill scale, loose rust, weld slag flux 
deposit, dirt, and other foreign matter. Oil and grease deposits 
shall be removed by solvent. Surfaces inaccessible after assembly 
shall be treated as required above prior to assembly. 

827.5.2. — Surfaces of structural steel shall not be required to 
receive metal protection when the structural steel is used under 
the conditions listed in a through g below. However, these 
surfaces shall be cleaned of oil or grease by solvent cleaners 
and be cleaned of dirt and other foreign material by thorough 
brushing with a fiber brush. 

a. Structural steel that is encased in concrete or surfaces 
that abut concrete at interior iocations. 

b. Structural steel encased in. non-corrosive fire resistive 
materials that are bonded or secured to the steel surface 
by an approved method that will insure a durable bond. 

c. Surfaces of structural steel that are to be riveted, bolted, 
or welded together. 



827 

d. Surfaces of structural steel within two (2) inches of field 
welds shall be free of protective coatings that would 
prevent proper welding or produce objectionable fumes 
while welding is being done. 

e. Surfaces of structural steel that have been machine 
finished but shall be protected against corrosion by a 
rust-inhibiting coating that can be easily removed prior 
to erection of which has characteristics that make removal 
unnecessary prior to erection. 

f. Surfaces of types of structural steels that have been 
specifically approved for use without metal protection. 

g. Structural steel members that are completely concealed 
by interior finish such as lath and plaster, masonry, etc., 
need not be painted except that where such members 
are adjacent to piping, are in shower or steam rooms, 
are exposed to chemical fumes, or are exposed to other 
conditions of potentially aggresive corrosion, such mem- 
bers shall be painted. 

827.5.3. — Parts of structural steel members left unpainted be- 
cause of welding, bolting, or riveting operations not exempted 
from painting by the provisions of 827.5.2 above shall receive a 
field application of metal protection as prescribed in 827.5.1 
above. 

827.5.4. — Structural steel that will remain exposed to the weather 
or to a corrosive atmosphere shall receive an additional coat of 
metal protection of another color after erection, except for types 
of structural steels that have been specifically approved for use 
under exposure to the weather without metal protection. 

827.5.5. — All abrasions to, or deterioration of, the protective 
coating shall be spot painted. 

827.5.6. — Primary frame steel built into exterior masonry walls 
shall have adequate protection against corrosion by encasing 
in one and one-half (1-1/2) inches of Portland cement mortar 
or by a mastic asphalt or pitch one-eighth (1/8) inch thick or 
its approved equivalent. 

827.6. Quality Control. 

827.6.1. Reference. — The provisions of reference standard RS 8-60 
shall apply. 

827.6.2. Welding Operations. — The certification of welding opera- 
tions prescribed by reference standard RS 8-60 shall include a 
check to ascertain that the welders employed on the work are 
qualified in accordance with the provisions of this code. 



SECTION 828.0. COLD-FORMED STEEL 

828.1. General Requirements. — Materials, design, and construc- 
tion methods shall meet the requirements of reference standard 
RS 8-43. 

828.2. Deleted. 

828.3. Structural Systems. — Formed steel floor, wall, and roof 
systems may be designed and constructed to resist all vertical 
and horizontal moments and shears resulting from lateral forces. 
Such members when designed to transmit horizontal shears due 
to wind or other lateral forces, shall be connected to the sup- 
porting structure so as to adquately resist all primary and 
secondary stresses. When concrete topping or other approved 
decking is installed in a manner to insure composite action of 
the assembly, the strength of the composite member may be 
included in the calculations. 

828.4. — Deleted. 

828.5. Protection. 

828.5.1. Shop Coat. — All individual structural members and 
assembled panels of light gage and formed steel construction, 
except where fabricated of approved corrosion-resistive metallic 
steel or of steel having a corrosion-resistive or other approved 
coating, shall be protected against corrosion with an approved 
shop coat of paint, enamel, or other approved protection. 

828.5.2. Field Coat. — After erection where directly exposed to 
the weather, except when encased in concrete made of non- 
corrosive aggregates, or where fabricated of approved corrosion- 
resistive steel, or of galvanized or otherwise adequately protected 
steel, individual structural members and assembled panels of 
light gage and formed steel construction shall be given an 
additional coat of approved protection. 

828.5.3. Siding. — Exposed siding or sheathing shall be fabricated 
of approved corrosion-resistive steel or otherwise protected at 
the ground level for a height of four (4) feet above grade. 

828.5.4. Protection at Exterior Walls. — Floor or roof construc- 
tion which extends into an exterior wall shall be adequately 
waterproofed and protected from the weather to prevent corrosion. 

828.6. Tests. — When not capable of design by accepted engi- 
neering analysis, the building official shall require tests of the 
individual or assembled structural units and their connections 
as prescribed in reference standard RS 8-43. At least three (3) 
specimens truly representative of the construction to be used 



828-829 

in practice shall be subjected to the prescribed test and the 
mean of the results shall determine the safe working value; 
provided that any individual test varying more than ten (10) 
per cent from the mean value shall cause rejection of the series. 

SECTION 829.0. OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS 

Steel joists may be used as secondary members in floor and 
roof construction, other than around stairwells, shafts and other 
floor openings. The materials, design, and construction methods 
shall meet the requirements of reference standard RS 8-44. 

829.1. Design. 

829.1.1. Loads and Stresses. — Connections of all members shall 
be designed with the minimum possible eccentricity and all 
secondary stresses shall be included with primary stresses in the 
design. In all buildings subject to heavy concentrations or 
moving loads, the construction shall be designed to resist the 
vertical and lateral components of such loads in addition to the 
live and dead loads specified in article 7. 

829.1.2. Partitions. — The joists shall be designed to support the 
dead load of partitions wherever they occur in addition to all 
other imposed dead and live loads. 

829.2. Protection. — Painting of steel joists shall be in accordance 
with the requirements of section 828 for light gage cold-formed 
steel; or the joists shall be dipped in an approved hot asphalt, 
or shall be protected by painting, dipping or spraying with ap- 
proved cold asphalt at the place of manufacture. The paint or 
asphalt coating shall conform to the requirements of reference 
standard RS 8-44 and shall have a minimum dry film thickness 
of 1.0 mil. All abrasions shall be touched up at the job site 
with the same material. 

829.3. Height and Area Limitations. — When the main structural 
frame is designed to resist all horizontal and vertical moments 
and shears due to lateral forces, and the secondary system con- 
sists of steel joists which are attached to the supporting beams 
and girders of the frame as specified in the standard, steel joist 
construction of the required fireresistance may be used in all 
buildings within the height limits of section 221.2 table 2-2. 

829.4. Tests. — When not subject to accepted engineering analysis 
as regulated by reference standard RS 8-44, the assembly shall 
meet the load test requirements specified in sections 803 and 804. 



SECTION 830.0. REINFORCING STEEL 

Metal reinforcement for reinforced concrete, reinforced gypsum 
concrete, reinforced brickwork and reinforced hollow block 
construction shall comply with the applicable standards listed in 
reference standard RS 8-45. 

830.1. Identification. — All reinforcing bars shall be rolled with 
raised symbols or letters impressed on the metal identifying the 
manufacturing mill, the bar size, and the minimum yield point. 
When required by the building official, the grade of material 
shall be identified by satisfactory mill tests. All bundles or rolls 
of cold-drawn steel wire reinforcement and of one-quarter (1/4) 
inch rounds shall be securely tagged to identify the manufacturer 
and the grade of steel. 

830.2. High Yield Steels.— When the yield point of reinforcing 
bar steel is fifty thousand (50,000) pounds per square inch or 
more, and when not otherwise provided for in reference standard 
RS 8-45, the building official shall approve working stresses for 
tension in bending and compression in vertical column reinforce- 
ment not more than forty (40) per cent of the minimum yield 
point; but such working stresses shall be not more than thirty 
thousand (30,000) pounds per square inch, except when pre- 
stressed reinforcement is used. 

830.3. Column Reinforcement. 

830.3.1. Structural Steel Sections. — The allowable unit stress on 
structural steel column sections shall be not more than the values 
listed in reference standard RS 8-42. 

830.3.2. Cast Iron Sections. — All cast iron used as reinforcement 
in combination with concrete shall be of pit-cast water pipe 
grade complying with the standards listed in reference standard 
RS 8-46, and the allowable unit stress shall be not more than 
ten thousand (10,000) pounds per square inch. 

830.3.3. Steel Pipe Sections. — The allowable unit stress on steel 
pipe used in concrete-filled pipe columns shall be in conformance 
with section 847.0. 

830.4. Tests. — When unidentified reinforcement is approved for 
use under ordinary material procedure, not less than three (3) 
tension and three (3) bending tests shall be made on representa- 
tive specimens of the reinforcement from each shipment and 
grade of reinforcing steel proposed for use in the work. 



830-832 
SECTION 831.0. CAST STEEL CONSTRUCTION 

831.1. Materials. — Carbon steel casting for building construction 
shall be cast from open hearth or basic oxygen steel conforming 
to the requirements of reference standard RS 8-47. All castings 
shall be free from injurious blow holes or other defects which 
would impair the structural strength. 

831.2. Higher Strength Cast Steel. — Higher strength cast steel 
may be used when approved under controlled material procedure. 

831.3. Welding Cast Steel. — Cast steel designed for use in 
welding shall be of weldable grade complying with the approved 
rules. 

SECTION 832.0. CAST IRON CONSTRUCTION 

832.1. Materials. — Cast iron for building construction shall be 
a good foundry mixture providing clean, tough, gray iron, free 
from serious blow holes, cinder spots and cold shuts; con- 
forming to the applicable standards listed in reference standard 
RS 8-48. 

832.2. Limitations of Use. — Cast iron columns shall not be 
used where subject to eccentric loads which produce a net 
tension in the section, nor in any part of a structural frame 
which is required to resist stress due to wind. Cast iron columns 
shall not be used in the primary structural frames of buildings 
whose height exceeds one hundred (100) feet or twice the width 
at the ground level. Cast iron shall not be used for columns 
required to have four (4) hour fireresistive protection. Cast iron 
columns supporting a floor shall not be longer than seventy (70) 
times the least radius of gyration or twenty-four (24) times the 
outside diameter or least side. Cast iron columns supporting 
roof loads only shall not be longer than ninety-six (96) times the 
least radius of gyration or thirty (30) times the outside diameter 
or least side, cast iron columns shall not be smaller than six (6) 
inches in outside diameter or side. 

832.3. Multi-Story Columns. — Cores of superimposed columns 
shall be of the same dimensions above and below a splice. When 
a column of smaller diameter is superimposed over one of 
larger diameter, the larger column shall be tapered down to the 
smaller diameter over a length of not less than six (6) inches. 
832.3.1. Column Bases of Steel and Iron. — Cast iron bases shall 
be planed on top and bases which rest on structural steel 
members shall be planed on the bottom. 



832.4. Thickness of Metal. — The minimum thickness of cast 
iron shall be not less than herein specified: 

832.4.1. Columns. — In columns, the metal shall be not less than 
one-twelfth (1/12) the smallest dimension of the cross-section 
and in no case less than three-quarter (3/4) inch. 

832.4.2. Bases and Brackets. — In bases and flanges, the metal 
shall be not less than one (1) inch thick reinforced with fillets 
and brackets. The outer edge of the ribs of ribbed bases shall 
be inclined not less steeply than forty-five (45) degrees. A side 
of the bed plate of ribbed bases exceeding three (3) feet in 
length shall have a reinforcing flange at least three (3) inches high. 

832.4.3. Lintels. — In lintels, the metal shall be not less than 
three-quarter (3/4) inches thick and shall be limited to use on 
spans of not more than six (6) feet. 

832.5. Inspection. — No cast iron column shall be erected in place 
before it has been inspected and approved by the building 
official. The use of any cast iron column in which blow holes 
or imperfections reduce the effective area of the cross-section 
more than ten (10) per cent shall be prohibited. Where required 
by the building official, hollow cast iron columns, except when 
open at both ends and without flanges, shall have two (2) three- 
eighths (3/8) inch holes drilled in the shell to exhibit the thick- 
ness thereof. If the columns are cast on the side, both holes 
shall be in the top side as cast, one hole about twelve (12) 
inches toward each end from mid-length of the column. If the 
columns are cast on end, both holes shall be at mid-height at 
ninety (90) degrees from one another about the axis of the col- 
umn. Additional holes shall be drilled when required by the 
building official. If the core of a cast iron column is found to 
have shifted more than one quarter (1/4) the thickness of the 
shell, the strength shall be computed assuming the thickness all 
around to be that of the thinnest part. 

SECTION 833.0. SPECIAL STEELS 

833.1. Identification. — When not otherwise provided for by 
reference standard RS 8-42, silicon, nickel and other corrosion- 
resistive alloy steels and high strength steels required to have a 
minimum yield point greater than thirty-six thousand (36,000) 
psi, may be used in the design and construction of buildings 
and structures with the approval of the building official. Every 
such special steel shall be marked or otherwise identified to 



832-835 
clearly distinguish it from all other classes of steel. 
833.2. Design and Workmanship. — When not otherwise pro- 
vided for by reference standard RS 8-42, design and fabrication 
methods shall conform to the approval of the building official. 

SECTION 834.0. LIGHTWEIGHT METAL ALLOYS 

Aluminum and other approved lightweight metals and alloys 
shall be used for structural purposes in buildings and structures 
in accordance with the applicable standards listed in reference 
standard RS 8-49. 

SECTION 835.0. MASONRY WALL CONSTRUCTION 

835.1. Design. — All masonry construction shall comply with the 
provisions of this article governing quality of materials and 
manner of construction; and shall be of adequate strength and 
proportions to support all superimposed loads either within the 
empirical provisions of the applicable sections of article 8 or 
reference standard RS 8-51 or shall be designed in accordance 
with reference standards RS 8-50 and RS 8-58. 

835.2. Wetting of Masonry. 

835.2.1. Clay or Shale Bricks. — All brick having an absorption 
rate in excess of 0.025 oz. per square inch per minute shall be 
wetted before laying. The method of wetting shall be such as 
to insure that each unit is nearly saturated, surface dry when 
laid. During freezing weather, units that require wetting shall be 
sprinkled with warm water, immediately before laying and shall 
be protected against formation of films of ice. No units with 
ice on the surface shall be laid. 

835.2.2. Structural Clay Tile. — Structural clay tile having a one 
(1) hour boiling water absorption of twelve (12) per cent or 
more shall be wetted before laying. 

835.2.3. Concrete Masonry Units. — Concrete masonry units 
shall not be wetted before laying. 

835.3. Precautions Against Freezing. — Adequate equipment shall 
be used for heating the masonry materials and protecting the 
masonry during freezing or near-freezing weather. No frozen 
material or materials containing ice shall be used. 

Sand shall be heated in such a manner as to remove frost or 
ice. Water or sand shall not be heated to a temperature above 



one hundred and sixty (160) degrees F. When necessary to re- 
move frost, the masonry units shall be heated. 
When the outside temperature is below forty (40) degrees F., 
an air temperature of at least forty (40) degrees F. shall be 
maintained on both sides of the masonry for a period of at 
least forty-eight (48) hours if type M mortar is used and seventy- 
two (72) hours if type N or O mortar is used. These periods 
may be reduced to twenty-four (24) and forty-eight (48) hours, 
respectively, if high-early-strength cement is used. For type S 
mortars or stronger, the masonry shall be moist and above fifty 
(50) degrees F. for seventy-two (72) hours without drying. All 
methods and materials for the protection of the fresh masonry 
work against freezing shall be subject to the approval of the 
building official. In general, methods and materials commonly 
accepted as suitable for the protection of reinforced concrete 
construction in freezing weather shall be used. Salt or other 
chemicals for lowering the freezing temperature of the mortar 
shall not be used. 

835.4. Incorporation of Combustibles. — No lumber or other 
combustible materials, except nailing blocks and ornamental 
timber to an extent permitted by the chasing restrictions of 
section 838 and the provisions of section 900.2 shall be incor- 
porated in masonry walls, except as approved for combustible 
aggregates or component materials after fire test. 

835.5. Use of Existing Masonry Walls. — An existing masonry 
wall may be used in the construction of a post-code building 
and in the repair, alteration or enlargement of a building 
providing it meets the requirements of this code, and is struc- 
turally sound or can be made so by reasonable repairs. Existing 
masonry walls which are structurally sound but which are of 
insufficient thickness for their proposed use shall be strengthened 
by an addition of similar material not less than six (6) inches 
in thickness laid in mortar of required proportions. Foundations 
and lateral supports shall be provided as required for newly 
constructed walls under similar conditions. Such additions or 
linings shall be thoroughly bonded to the existing masonry by 
means at least equivalent to those in section 836.0. If the 
existing wall is covered with plaster or other covering that 
might impair the bond of the lining, such covering shall be 
stripped off and the masonry cleaned. The repair, lining, or 
other strengthening of an existing masonry wall to be used in 
the construction of a post-code building and in the repair, 



835-836 

alteration or enlargement of a building shall be in every respect 
satisfactory to the building official and subject to such conditions 
as he may in any case prescribe. 

835.6. Mortar Coverage. — Hollow units shall be laid with full 
mortar coverage on horizontal face shells, and all head or end 
joints shall be filled solidly with mortar for a distance in from 
the face of the unit not less than the thickness of the longitud- 
inal face shells, except that full web and face-shell bedding shall 
be used in loadbearing masonry if required by structural design. 
Solid units shall be laid with full head and bed joints. 



SECTION 836.0. BONDING OF WALLS 

All multiple wythe masonry loadbearing and non-loadbearing 
walls shall be bonded in accordance with one of the methods 
indicated in sections 836.0.1 through 836.0.3. 
836.0.1. Bonding with Masonry Headers. — Where the facing and 
backing of solid masonry construction are bonded by means of 
masonry headers, at least four (4) per cent of the wall surface 
of each face shall be composed of headers extending at least 
three (3) inches into the backing. The distance between adjacent 
full length headers shall not exceed twenty-four (24) inches 
either vertically or horizontally. In walls in which a single 
header does not extend through the wall, headers from the 
opposite sides shall overlap at least three (3) inches or headers 
from opposite sides shall be covered with another header course 
overlapping the header below at least three (3) inches. 
836.0.2. Bonding with Metal Ties. — The facing and backing 
(adjacent wythes) of masonry walls shall be bonded with cor- 
rosion-resistant three-sixteenths (3/16) inch diameter (one-eighth 
(1/8) inch diameter for veneer), steel ties or metal wire of 
equivalent stiffness embedded in the horizontal mortar joints. 
There shall be at least one (1) metal tie for each four and one- 
half (4-1/2) square feet of wall area. Ties shall not be aligned 
vertically insofar as possible or practical. The maximum vertical 
distance between ties shall not exceed twenty-four (24) inches and 
the maximum horizontal distance shall not exceed thirty-six (36) 
inches, except that for cavity walls having less than a four (4) 
inch wythe, the maximum vertical distance between ties shall not 
exceed sixteen (16) inches or two (2) courses of masonry units, 
whichever is greater. Rods or ties bent to rectangular shape 



shall be used with hollow masonry units laid with the cells 
vertical. In other walls, the ends of ties shall be bent to ninety 
(90) degree angles to provide hooks at least two (2) inches long. 
Additional bonding ties shall be provided at all openings and 
shall be spaced not more than three (3) feet apart around the 
perimeter and within twelve (12) inches of the opening. 
Walls bonded in accordance with this section or section 836.0.3 
shall conform to the allowable stress, lateral support, thickness, 
height, and mortar requirements for cavity walls unless the 
collar joints in such walls are filled with mortar. 
836.0.3. Bonding with Prefabricated Joint Reinforcement. — The 
facing and backing (adjacent wythes) of masonry walls may be 
bonded with prefabricated joint reinforcement. There shall be at 
least one (1) cross wire serving as a tie for each four and one- 
half (4-1/2) square feet of wall area. The vertical spacing of the 
reinforcement shall not exceed sixteen (16) inches or two (2) 
courses of masonry units, whichever is greater. The longitudinal 
bars or wires shall be not less than No. 9 gage and the joint 
reinforcement shall meet the 'approval of the building official. 
At least one (1) longitudinal bar or wire shall be provided for 
each six (6) inches of wall thickness or fraction thereof. 

836.1. Ashlar, Natural or Cast Stone. — In ashlar masonry, bond 
stones uniformly distributed shall be provided to the extent of at 
least ten (10) per cent of the wall area. Such bond stones shall 
extend at least four (4) inches into the backing wall. Rubble 
stone masonry, twenty-four (24) inches thick or less, shall have 
bond stones with a maximum spacing of three (3) feet vertically 
or horizontally and, if the masonry is thicker than twenty-four 
(24) inches shall have one (1) bond stone for each six (6) 
square feet of wall surface on both sides. 

836.2. Buttresses and Piers. — All buttresses shall be bonded into 
the wall by a masonry bond. The piers and buttresses shall have 
sufficient strength and stability with sufficient bonding or anchor- 
age between the walls and the supports to resist wind pressure 
and suction. 

836.3. Bonding of Intersecting Walls and Partitions. — Masonry 
walls and partitions shall be securely anchored or bonded at 
points where they meet or intersect by one of the following 
methods: 

836.3.1. Bonding. — Walls may be bonded by laying at least 
fifty (50) percent of the units at the intersection in a true 
masonry bond with alternate units having a bearing of at least 



836 

three (3) inches upon the unit below, by metal ties, joint rein- 
forcement, anchors as specified in 836.3.3 below, or by other 
equivalent method. 

836.3.2. Interior Non-Loadbearing Walls. — Interior non-load- 
bearing walls shall be anchored at their intersection, at vertical 
intervals of not more than two (2) feet on centers, with at 
least twenty-two (22) gage corrosion-resistant, corrugated metal 
ties at least seven-eighths (7/8) inches wide extending at least 
four (4) inches into the masonry or with other ties which 
provide equivalent anchorage. 

836.3.3. Walls Carried Up Separately. — Where the courses of 
meeting or intersecting walls are carried up separately corner 
intersections shall be made by regularly toothing or blocking with 
eight (8) inch maximum offsets and providing metal anchors 
having a minimum section of one-quarter (1/4) inch by one 
and one-half (1-1/2) inches with ends bent up at least two (2) 
inches, or cross pins at the joints. Such anchors shall be at 
least two (2) feet long with a maximum vertical spacing of 
four (4) feet. Other types of metal ties, joint reinforcement, or 
anchors shall be spaced to provide equivalent anchorage at the 
intersection. 

836.4. Erection Precautions. — Temporary bracing shall be used 
wherever necessary to take care of any loads to which the walls 
may be subjected during erection. Such bracing shall remain in 
place as long as may be required for safety. 

836.5. Bonding Faced or Composite Walls. — Faced or com- 
posite walls may be bonded as provided for in sections 836.0.1, 
836.0.2, and 836.0.3. Where the facing and backing are bonded 
by means of masonry headers, such headers shall extend at 
least three (3) inches into a hollow masonry back-up unit 
specifically designed to receive and provide mortar bedding for 
the header. 

836.6. Bonding Cavity and Masonry Bonded Hollow Walls. 

836.6.1. Cavity Walls. — Wythes of cavity walls shall be bonded 
as required in sections 836.0.2 or 836.0.3. 

836.6.2. Masonry Bonded Hollow Walls. — Wythes of masonry 
bonded hollow walls shall be bonded as required in section 
836.0.1. 

836.7. Masonry Laid In Stack Bond. — Where unit masonry is 
laid in stack bond, continuous prefabricated joint reinforcement 
or other steel bar or wire reinforcement shall be embedded in 



the horizontal mortar beds at vertical intervals not to exceed 
sixteen (16) inches. 

836.8. Longitudinal Bond. — In each wythe of masonry load- 
bearing and non-loadbearing walls, at least sixty (60) per cent 
of the stretchers in any transverse vertical plane shall lap the 
units above the below at least two (2) inches or one-third (1/3) 
the height of the unit, whichever is greater, or the masonry walls 
or partitions shall be reinforced longitudinally as required in 
section 836.7. 



SECTION 837.0. LATERAL BRACING OF WALLS 

Lateral support for masonry walls may be obtained by cross 
walls, columns, pilasters, or buttresses, where the limiting 
distance is measured horizontally; or by floors, roofs, spandrel 
beams, or girts, where the limiting distance is measured vertically. 
Sufficient bonding or anchorage shall be provided between the 
walls and the supports to resist the assumed wind or other 
horizontal forces, acting either inward or outward, and shall 
meet the requirements of sections 837.2 and 837.3. All members 
relied upon for lateral support shall be designed on the basis 
of allowable stress and shall have sufficient strength to transfer 
the horizontal force, acting in either direction, to adjacent 
structural members or to the ground. Where walls are dependent 
upon floors or roofs for their lateral support, provision shall 
be made in the building to transfer the lateral forces to the 
ground. 

837.1. Bracing. — Masonry walls, whether loadbearing or non- 
loadbearing, shall be provided with lateral support by means of 
horizontal or vertical members or constructions at intervals not 
to exceed those specified in reference standards RS 8-50 and 
RS 8-58 or, for non-loadbearing walls or for loadbearing walls 
where it is desired to obviate the need for structural analysis, 
at intervals not to exceed those specified in this section. 
Where a masonry wall containing no openings is supported in 
both horizontal and vertical spans, the allowable distance between 
lateral supports as indicated in this section may be increased; 
but if both horizontal and vertical distances exceed the allowable 
distance, the sum of the horizontal and vertical spans between 
supports may be no more than three (3) times the allowable 
distance permitted for support in only one direction. 



836-837 

837.1.1. Load Bearing Exterior Masonry Wails. — Except as 
provided in reference standard RS 8-51, loadbearing exterior 
masonry walls shall be proportioned on the basis of structural 
analysis. 

837.1.2. Non-Loadbearing Exterior Masonry Walls. — In lieu of 
structural analysis, non-loadbearing exterior masonry walls may 
be proportioned so that the maximum slenderness ratio does not 
exceed twenty (20). In the case of a gable, the height of the wall 
shall be based on the average height. Where the wall panel 
contains openings having a dimension in excess of fifty (50) per 
cent of the corresponding dimension of the panel, the wall shall 
be proportioned by structural analysis. 

837.1.3. Interior Loadbearing Walls. — In lieu of analysis of 
stresses, interior loadbearing masonry walls may be proportioned 
so that the maximum slenderness ratio does not exceed twenty 
(20). 

837.1.4. Partitions. — The distance between lateral supports of a 
partition shall not exceed forty-eight (48) times its normal 
thickness, excluding plaster, when supported in the horizontal 
span by piers, cross walls, etc., nor thirty-two (32) times its 
nominal thickness, excluding plaster when supported in the 
vertical span. 

837.1.5. Faced or Composite Walls. — The slenderness ratio for 
faced or composite walls shall not exceed the value allowed for 
the weakest of the combination of masonry units or mortars of 
which the wall is composed. 

837.1.6. Rubble Stone Masonry. — In lieu of structural analysis, 
rubble stone masonry walls may be proportioned so that the 
slenderness ratio does not exceed fourteen (14) for exterior walls 
and sixteen (16) for interior walls. 

837.2. Floor Anchorage. 

837.2.1. Wood Joists. — Wood floor joists five (5) feet or more 
above grade bearing in masonry walls shall be anchored to the 
wall at intervals not to exceed six (6) feet by metal anchors 
having a minimum cross section of 0.25 square inches and at 
least sixteen (16) inches long. The anchors shall be securely 
fastened to the joists and built at least three and one half 
(3-1/2) inches into the masonry. Joists five (5) feet or more 
above grade and parallel to the walls shall be tied to the 
wall with metal straps that are spaced not more than eight (8) 
feet on centers and that engage at least three (3) joists. Anchors 
shall be in line with the bridging or blocking. 



837.2.2. Steel Joists. — Steel floor joists bearing on masonry 
shall be anchored to the masonry in a manner at least equivalent 
to that required for wood joists. 

837.2.3. Concrete Slabs. — Concrete slabs bearing on masonry 
walls require no additional anchorage, except as may be required 
by section 838.5. 

837.2.4. Continuity. — The ends of joists, rafters, beams, or 
girders required to be anchored into walls or bearing partitions 
shall be continuous and the opposite end shall be similarly 
anchored into a wall or bearing partition. However, if dis- 
continuous, the discontinuous ends shall lap each other at least 
six (6) inches and shall be well bolted or spiked together, shall 
be butted and fastened by metal straps or ties, or other means 
shall be provided for the transfer of thrust between the dis- 
continuous ends. 

837.3. Roof Anchorage. — Roof construction, other than cast-in- 
place concrete slabs, shall be securely anchored to loadbearing 
masonry walls with minimum one half (1/2) inch bolts spaced 
eight (8) feet on center, or their equivalent. The bolts shall 
extend and be embedded a minimum of fifteen inches (15") 
vertically into the masonry, or where a continuous bond beam 
is provided, shall be hooked tightly around or welded to at least 
0.2 square inches of continuous longitudinal bond beam rein- 
forcement placed at least six (6) inches from the top of the 
wall. 

SECTION 838.0. CHASES AND RECESSES IN BEARING 
WALLS 

838.1. Where Permitted. — Chases and recesses shall be prohibited 
in any wall less than twelve (12) inches thick or in the required 
area of piers and buttresses. Vertical chases adjacent to bearings 
of beams or lintels, vertical chases wider than twelve (12) inches, 
and all horizontal chases shall be proportioned on the basis of 
the analysis of stress. 

838.1.1. Exceptions for Eight Inch Walls^ — In buildings of 
residential occupancy not over two (2) stories in height, vertical 
chases not more than four (4) inches deep and not more than 
four (4) square feet of wall area may be built in eight (8) inch 
walls, except that recesses below windows may extend from floor 
to sill and be the width of the opening above. 



837-839 

838.2. Maximum Size. — The maximum permitted depth of a 
chase in any wall shall be not more than one-third (1/3) the 
wall thickness, and the maximum length of a horizontal chase or 
the maximum horizontal projection of a diagonal chase shall not 
exceed four (4) feet except as provided in section 838.5; and 
except further that the length of the apron below window sills 
in all walls may equal the width of the window opening. The 
aggregate area of recesses and chases in any wall shall be not 
more than one fourth (1/4) of the area of the face of the wall 
in any one story. Masonry directly above chases or recesses 
wider than twelve (12) inches shall be supported on lintels. 

838.3. Fireresistive Limitations. — It shall be unlawful to have 
chases or recesses which reduce the thickness of material below 
the minimum specified in article 9 for fire walls, fire divisions, 
fire partitions or required fireprotective covering of structural 
members. 

838.4. Hollow Walls. — When chases and recesses are permitted 
in hollow walls and walls constructed of hollow blocks or tile, 
they shall be built-in with the wall. It shall be unlawful to cut 
chases in such walls after erection. 

838.5. Continuous Chases. — Horizontal chases for the bearing 
of reinforced concrete floor and roof slabs may be continuous 
provided anchors are installed above and below the floor con- 
struction to resist the bending and uplift in the wall due to 
flexure of the slab. 

SECTION 839.0. CORBELED AND PROJECTED MASONRY 

839.1. Limitations. — No wall less than twelve (12) inches thick 
shall be corbeled except to support firestopping around floor 
framing; and except that eight (8) inch foundation walls may 
be corbeled to support brick-veneer frame and ten (10) inch 
cavity walls as provided in section 871. The maximum total 
horizontal projection of corbels shall be not more than one-half 
(1/2) the thickness of the wall. The maximum projection of one 
(1) unit shall neither exceed one-half (1/2) the depth of the 
unit nor one-third (1/3) its width at right angles to the face 
which is offset. 

839.2. Hollow Walls. — Corbeling of hollow masonry or masonry 
built of hollow units shall be supported on at least one (1) full 
course of solid masonry. 



839.3. Molded Cornices. — Unless structural support and anchor- 
age is provided to resist the overturning moment, the center of 
gravity of all projecting masonry or molded cornices, including 
loads thereon, shall lie within the middle third of the supporting 
wall. Terra cotta and metal cornices shall be provided with a 
structural frame of approved noncombustible material anchored 
in an approved manner. 

SECTION 840.0. BEARING ON HOLLOW UNIT WALLS 

840.1. Bearing Details. — Concentrated loads shall be supported 
upon a solid construction of solid masonry, concrete, or masonry 
of hollow units with cells filled with mortar, grout, or concrete 
and of sufficient height to distribute safely the loads to the wall, 
pilaster, or column, or other adequate provisions shall be made 
to distribute the loads. 

840.1.1. Joist Bearing. — Solid construction for support under 
joists shall be at least two and one-quarter (2-1/4) inches in 
height, and joists supported on such construction shall extend 
into the masonry at least three (3) inches. 

840.1.2. Beam Bearing. — Solid construction for support under 
beams, girders, or other concentrated loads shall be at least 
four (4) inches in height and the bearing of beams shall extend 
into the masonry at least three (3) inches. 

SECTION 841.0. PLAIN CONCRETE 

Plain concrete is concrete cast in place and not reinforced, or 
reinforced only for shrinkage or changes of temperature. Plain 
concrete shall be designed, mixed, placed and cured in accor- 
dance with the applicable requirements of section 843 for control- 
led concrete, or section 844 for ordinary concrete, as applicable, 
and reference standard RS 8-45 and RS 8-60. The building 
official shall require an applicant for a permit involving the 
structural use of concrete to have approved inspection personnel 
perform inspections or other quality control duties when such 
duties are required by this code. 

841.1. Limitations. — Plain concrete in loadbearing masonry or 
where exposed to soil or where used for fire-resistive purposes, 
shall be of such proportions as to have a strength of at least 
fifteen hundred (1500) pounds per square inch and where 
exposed to wetting or freezing at least two thousand (2,000) 
pounds per square inch. 



839-842 

841.2. Documentation. — Shall conform to section 842.1. 

841.3. On Site Certification. — Shall conform to section 842.2. 

SECTION 842.0. REINFORCED CONCRETE 

Concrete materials, design, and construction shall meet the 
requirements of section 843 for controlled materials or of section 
844 for ordinary materials, as applicable, and shall otherwise 
conform to reference standard RS 8-45. Precast concrete con- 
struction utilizing a thin skin or slab stiffened or supported by a 
system of ribs shall conform to the requirements of reference 
standard RS 8-63. The building official shall require an applicant 
for a permit involving the structural use of concrete to have 
approved inspection personnel perform inspections or other 
quality control duties when such duties are required by this 
code. The architect or engineer responsible for the design 
drawings as evidenced by his seal thereon shall prepare, super- 
vise, or check said design working drawings and shop details 
for the construction. 

842.1. Documentation. — All required attestations shall become 
a part of the documentation to be filed with the building 
official and shall be subject to verification by strength tests, as 
hereinafter described, by check sampling of ingredients, or by 
such other inspections as the building official or the architect 
or engineer responsible for the design drawings may elect. Where 
automatic or semi-automatic batching equipment is used, all 
recordable data including tapes, equipment readings, and truck 
tickets together with the required reports certifying the mix shall 
be available for inspection for a period of two (2) years. 

842.2. On Site Certification. — Certification of concrete and 
concrete construction shall conform to the requirements of 
reference standard RS 8-60, and the provisions of this section. 
842.2.1. — When elements and operations on elements which are 
required by reference standard RS 8-60 to be subject to certifica- 
tion, said certification shall include: 

a. Strength Tests. — Strength tests shall be performed on 
all structural concrete. The provisons of reference stan- 
dard RS 8-45 shall apply. Test cylinders shall be made 
and stored on the job site in an insulated curing box of 
sufficient size and strength to contain the required 
number of cylinders and to minimize the hazard of 
disturbance during curing. The box shall be heated as 



required to maintain proper curing conditions. Such 
box shall be located in an area free from vibration such 
as pile driving and traffic of all kinds. No concrete 
requiring inspection shall be delivered to the site until 
such storage curing box has been provided. Cylinders 
shall remain in the curing box until ready for delivery 
to the testing laboratory but not less than twenty-four 
(24) hours. Actual preparation and testing of the cylin- 
ders shall be performed by competent individuals with 
demonstrated experience acceptable to the architect or 
engineer responsible for the design drawings and the 
building official and all concrete failing to meet the 
specified minimum strength requirements shall be rejected 
by said architect or engineer or building official pending 
verification of the adequacy of the construction by core 
testing in accordance with reference standard RS 8-68. 

b. Additional Tests. — Each sample recovered for the pur- 
pose of strength tests shall be additionally checked for 
slump, air content, unit weight, and temperature in 
accordance with the standard procedures noted in refer- 
ence standard RS 8-45. 

c. Forms, Reinforcement and Placing. — The size and dim- 
ensions of the concrete members formed by the concrete 
forms; sizes and positions of reinforcement, in place; and 
the placement of concrete, including temperatures, pro- 
tections against excessive temperatures, curing, the erec- 
tion and connection of precast members, the amount of 
water added in the field; and tensioning of all prestressed 
elements shall be recorded and compliance with the pro- 
visions of this code shall be certified. 

842.2.2. — When elements and operations on elements are not 
required by reference standard RS 8-60 to be subject to certifica- 
tion, quality control and inspection shall be provided in sufficient 
scope to assure conformance with the requirements of this 
section (and of the cited reference standards.) 
842.3. Embedded Mechanical Facilities. — Plumbing and heating 
piping and electrical conduits may be embedded in reinforced 
concrete floor and wall construction and in column fireproofing 
as provided in section 914.3. Piping for radiant heating purposes 
may be embedded in the structural floor or wall slabs, or may 
be installed in a separate concrete layer placed in addition to 
the required fireproof covering, as approved by the building 



842-846 

official. In any case, the required area of reinforcement shall be 
provided in addition to such piping; and the conduits, pipes or 
other embedded mechanical facilities shall be so placed as to 
leave the strength and fireresistance of the construction undimin- 
ished. All embedment of mechanical facilities shall conform to 
reference standard RS 8-45. 

SECTION 843.0. CONTROLLED CONCRETE 

When controlled materials procedure is followed in the design 
and construction of a concrete building or structure and certified 
in conformance with reference standard RS 8-60 the allowable 
working stresses shall conform to accepted engineering practice 
in accordance with the building code requirements for concrete 
listed in reference standard RS 8-45. The ultimate compressive 
strength of the concrete shall not be limited in controlled con- 
crete procedure, provided proper provision is made to limit 
deflections and cracking. 

SECTION 844.0. ORDINARY CONCRETE 

When ordinary material procedure is followed in the construction 
of a concrete building or structure and certified for compliance 
with reference standard RS 8-60 (if required thereby), the design 
shall conform to accepted engineering practice in accordance 
with building code requirements listed in reference standard 
RS 8-45. In no case shall the cement factor and water cement 
ratio violate the requirements of tables RS 8-45-1 or RS 8-45-2 
of reference standard RS 8-45 nor shall the specified or required 
twenty-eight (28) day compressive strength (f'c) exceed four 
thousand (4,000) psi. 

SECTION 845.0. OMITTED 

SECTION 846.0. SHORT SPAN FLOOR FILLING 

For spans not exceeding ten (10) feet between steel flanges, the 
safe supporting capacity of concrete floor and roof slabs built as 
fireproof floor filling between steel beams shall be determined by 
the provisions of reference standard RS 8-45 or in accordance 
with the approved rules for stone and light weight aggregate 
concrete and other approved fireresistive floor filling. 



SECTION 847.0. CONCRETE-FILLED PIPE COLUMNS 

Concrete-filled pipe columns shall be manufactured from stan- 
dard, extra strong, or double extra strong steel pipe and tubing, 
filled with concrete. Pipe or tubing for such columns may have 
round, square, or rectangular cross sections. 
Steel equal in quality to that described in reference standard 

RS 8-42 shall be used for pipe. Pipe shall be new and full size, 
shall be made by the seamless process or fully welded to develop 
equivalent strength. All pipe shall be mill tested and approved. 
Round pipe shall be standard weight or heavier. The wall thick- 
ness of square and rectangular pipe shall not be less than three- 
sixteenths (3/16) inch. 

Filling shall be standard weight, machine-mixed, stone or gravel 
concrete and shall have a minimum compressive strength of 
thirty-five hundred (3,500) pounds per square inch when pro- 
portioned and tested by procedures described in reference stan- 
dard RS 8-45. Concrete while being placed shall be compacted 
by a mechanical method which will ensure complete filling of 
the pipe with dense concrete of homogeneous quality. 
Bases, caps, web ties, brackets and shear heads shall be of 
steel meeting the requirements listed in reference standard RS 8-42 
847.1. Design. — The safe supporting capacity of concrete-filled 
pipe columns shall be computed in accordance with the approved 
rules or as determined by test, or as follows: 
847.1.1. Allowable Axial Loads. — The axial load P a shall not 
exceed that obtained from formulas found in reference standard 
RS 8-42, multiplied by the effective transformed area A tr and 
with P a substituted for F a and r tr 2 substituted for r 2 . The values 
of A tr and r tr z shall be evaluated by 

A = A -i- _£- r tr 2 - — 

A tr A s+ — lr - " 

2n Atr 

in which 

As = area of the pipe and reinforcing steel 

Ac = area of the concrete filling 

Ic = moment of inertia of the concrete filling 

Is = moment of inertia of steel pipe and reinforcing 

n = E_ E 483 

E c 60,000 VTT " VFc 
f'c = concrete compressive strength, psi 



847 
847.1.2. Induced Bending Moment. — The computed bending 
moment in columns shall take account of the effect of the axial 
load on the deflection including the deflection induced by the 
axial load itself. This moment M r may be approximated by 



M r = 



C m M 



Pc(Kl/r tr ) 2 
" 149,000,000A tr 



in which C m shall be evaluated in accordance with reference 
standard RS 8-42, with P c substituted for f a and P a substituted 
for F a . 
M = bending moment neglecting the effect of the axial load on 

the deflection 
Pc = applied axial load 

At braced points M r may be taken equal to M. 
847.1.3. Combined Bending and Axial Compression. — Provided 
that no part of the concrete filling is stressed in tension, col- 
umns subjected to bending as well as axial load shall be so 
proportioned that 

P a 21,000 ^ 

in which f^ is the compressive bending stress based on the 
moment given by section 847.1.2 at the point under consider- 
ation. The above expression applies directly to columns flexed 
about one principal axis and to round columns. In the latter 
case moment acting about several axes shall be added vectorially 
and ft, obtained from the resultant moment. For square and 
rectangular columns the second (bending) term shall be treated 
as 

f bx + f by 
21,000 

At braced points P a in the above formula may be computed for 

Kl h 

- = and C m =l. 

r tr 



847.1.4. Combined Bending and Axial Compression with Net 
Tension. — If bending is sufficient to cause net tension at some 
point in the concrete fill the column shall be so proportioned 
that 

P c M r - sP c 

Pb M S 

In the above 

P 1 



P a 21,000A tr 

r tr 2 

s = kern distance for the uncracked section= 

c 

c =distance from centroid to extreme fiber 
M ^allowable moment with P c =0 which can be approximated 
as 21,000S in which S is the section modulus of the pipe 
and reinforcing steel alone 

The above expression applies to columns flexed about one 
principal axis and to round columns. In the latter case moments 
acting about several axes shall be added vectorially to obtain the 
resultant movement. 

For square or rectangular columns with bending about both 
principal axes, the section shall be so proportioned that 

P c M rx - s x P c M ry - s y P c 

+ + — — < 1 

P b min. M ox M oy 

where the subscripts x and y indicate that the quantity is com- 
puted with respect to the x or y axis independently and Pt>min. 
is the smaller of P^ x and P by . 

847.2. Connections. — All caps, base-plates and connections shall 
be of approved types and shall be positively attached to the 
shell and anchored to the concrete core. When the pipe is 
slotted to accommodate webs of brackets or other connections, 
the integrity of the shell shall be restored by welding to insure 
hooping action of the composite section. Such fixtures and their 
attachments to the pipe and reinforcement shall be such as to 
ensure that the allowable stresses, under the maximum conditions 
of loading, are not exceeded. 

847.3. Reinforcement. — Longitudinal steel having a yield point 
approximating that of the pipe may be used to increase the 
strength of the columns. The steel reinforcement shall be in the 



847-848 

form of rods, structural shapes or pipe embedded in the concrete 
core with sufficient clearance to insure the composite action of 
the section, but not nearer than one (1) inch to the exterior 
steel shell. Such steel shall be new, straight and continuous for 
the entire length of the column with ends so detailed as to de- 
velop the computed stress. The ends of such steel shall be ar- 
ranged for even bearing with the pipe and milled after filling if 
necessary to obtain uniform bearing. The strength of this rein- 
forcement shall be calculated by adding its area to the area of 
the steel pipe and including it in the calculations. 

847.4. Fireresistive Protection. — Pipe columns shall be of such 
size or so protected as to develop the required fireresistance 
ratings specified in section 221.1 table 2-1. When an outer steel 
shell is used to enclose the fireproof covering, it shall not be 
considered as either load bearing or as increasing the stiffness 
of the column section. The minimum diameter of pipe columns 
shall be four (4) inches except that in frame structures not ex- 
ceeding three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in height, three (3) 
inch columns may be used in the basement and as secondary 
steel members. 

847.5. Approvals. — Details of column connections and splices 
shall be designed and shop fabricated by approved methods and 
shall be tested in accordance with approved rules as required by 
the building official. 

847.6. Tests. — Copies of sanctioned tests of filled pipe columns 
subjected to axial loads made in accordance with this section 
shall be filed with the building official for each size of column 
produced by a manufacturer. These tests shall be made on 
specimens the length of which approximates twenty-four (24) 
times the smallest outside dimension of the pipe. Tests shall 
be made in an approved laboratory. For acceptance the ratio 
of the test strength to P a shall not be less than the factor of 
safety used as the denominator in Formula (1.5-1) from refer- 
ence standard RS 8-42, excepting that in computing P a for 
sanctioned tests n rather than 2n shall be used. 

847.7. Identification. — Columns shall be labeled with manufac- 
turer's name and date of manufacture. 



SECTION 848.0. PNEUMATIC CONCRETE 

Construction methods for mortar or concrete deposited pneu- 
matically (shotcrete) shall conform to the applicable provisions of 
reference standard RS 8-52, and shall be protected and cured 



to prevent the temperature falling below fifty (50) degrees F. and 
to prevent loss of moisture at the surface. Reinforcement for 
pneumatic mortar shall be adequate to meet structural require- 
ments and shall consist of round bars or mesh not less than 
No. 12 U.S. gage in diameter, spaced not less than two (2) 
inches either way. 

848.1. General Requirements. — Pneumatically placed concrete 
and mortar shall consist of a mixture of aggregate and cement 
pneumatically applied by suitable mechanism, and to which 
water is added immediately prior to discharge from the appli- 
cator for the dry mix or at a point removed from the appli- 
cator as in the wet mix. Except as specified in the following 
sections, pneumatically placed concrete shall conform to the 
requirements of this code for reinforced concrete. 

848.1.1. Proportions. — The proportion of cement to aggregate, 
in loose dry volume, shall not be less than one (1) to four and 
one-half (4-1/2). 

848.1.2. Water. — The water content at the time of discharge, 
including moisture in the aggregate, shall not exceed a water- 
cement ratio of 0.50 by weight. 

848.1.3. Mixing. — The cement and aggregate shall be thoroughly 
mixed prior to the addition of water. At the time of mixing the 
aggregate shall contain not less than three (3) per cent moisture. 

848.2. Rebound. — Any rebound or accumulated loose aggregate 
shall be removed from the surfaces to be covered prior to 
placing the initial or any succeeding layers of pneumatically 
placed concrete and mortar. 

848.3. Joints. — Unfinished work shall not be allowed to stand 
for more than thirty (30) minutes unless all edges are sloped 
to a thin edge. Before placing additional material adjacent to 
previously applied work, these sloping edges shall be cleaned 
and wetted. 

848.4. Damage. — Any pneumatically placed concrete which 
sags after placement shall be removed. 

SECTION 849.0. MINIMUM CONCRETE DIMENSIONS 

The dimensions of reinforced concrete structural elements in 
buildings of fireproof (types 1A and IB) construction shall be 
adequate to meet the fire and strength tests of this code. Any 
floor finish not placed monolithically with floor slabs, shall not 
be included in the calculations for structural strength, unless 
specifically approved by the building official. 



848-850 
SECTION 850.0. REINFORCED GYPSUM CONCRETE 

Reinforced gypsum concrete for use in buildings and structures 
shall consist of a mixture of calcined gypsum and water, with 
or without the addition of wood chips, shavings, fiber or other 
approved aggregates. The manufacture, design, and construction 
of both poured in place and precast gypsum concrete shall 
comply with the requirements of reference standard RS 8-53. 

850.1. Limitations. — Gypsum concrete shall not be used where 
exposed directly to the weather or where subject to frequent or 
continuous wetting. To prevent saturation or freezing, protection 
from the weather and from contact with moisture shall be fur- 
nished during shipment and storage of prefabricated units, and 
after erection or pouring at the site. 

850.1.1. Fire Protection. — Fire protection coverage for steel 
reinforcement in gypsum shall be limited to a minimum of 
one-half (1/2) inch in thickness. 

850.1.2. Wearing Surface. — In no case shall gypsum concrete 
be used for a wearing surface in gypsum construction. 

850.1.3. Prohibited Use in Floors. — Gypsum concrete shall not 
be used in floors of garages, dance halls, gymnasiums, armories 
or floors used for any other purpose where subject to extreme 
vibration, impact, or heavy, moving load concentrations. 

850.1.4. Grade Construction. — The ventilated space underneath 
first floor construction shall be not less than two (2) feet high 
and the underside of first floor construction shall be damp- 
proofed with an approved protective covering. 

850.2. Poured in Place Gypsum Concrete. — The wood aggre- 
gates and gypsum shall be pre-mixed at the mill, requiring only 
the addition of water at the job or site. 

850.2.1. Reinforcing. — Bundles or rolls of welded wire fabric 
shall be securely tagged so as to identify the type and grade 
of steel, and the size. 

850.3. Precast Gypsum Concrete. — Precast gypsum concrete units 
may be used for floor construction and shall be of uniform 
thickness except for rabbets at support and shall be solid; such 
units may be used for roof construction and shall be of uniform 
thickness, whether solid or hollow, or recessed on the under side. 
850.3.1. Span. — The span of precast gypsum concrete shall not 
exceed four (4) feet in floors and six (6) feet in roofs except in 
so-called suspension construction in which the span for floors 
shall not exceed six (6) feet and in roofs shall not exceed eight 



(8) feet. For the purpose of this section any span over three (3) 
feet shall be called long span. 

850.3.2. Thickness. — Except as otherwise provided in section 

850.3.3, precast gypsum concrete units shall have not less than 
the following: 

a. Solid units in roofs shall be not less than two (2) inches 
thick, nor if long span, less than three (3) inches thick. 

b. Solid units in floors shall be not less than two and one 
half (2-1/2) inches thick, nor, if long span, less than four 
(4) inches thick. 

c. Hollow units in roofs shall be not less than three (3) 
inches nor the shell in compression less than three fourths 
(3/4) inch thick; if long span, the units shall be not less 
than five (5) inches thick nor the shell in compression 
less than one and three eighths (1-3/8) inches thick. 

d. Recessed units in roofs shall be not less than five (5) 
inches thick nor the panel less than one and three eighths 
(1-3/8) inches thick. 

850.3.3. Construction and Erection. — Precast solid reinforced 
gypsum concrete units not more than fifteen (15) inches wide and 
bound on the long edges with structural or pressed sheet steel 
of approved design anchored to the units shall be not less than 
two (2) inches thick. If the length of units is not less than one 
and one half (1-1/2) times the span and the steel bearing on 
the edges is designed to interlock with adjoining units in the 
manner of tongue and groove, and if of sufficient strength to 
transmit the load on one unit to adjoining units, the end joints 
may be staggered at random provided they are not less than 
two (2) feet apart and the construction may be designed as 
continuous. Precast gypsum concrete units for floor and roof 
construction shall be reinforced and unless the shape or marking 
of the unit is such as to ensure its being placed right side up, 
the reinforcing shall be symmetrical so that the unit can support 
its load either side up. All units shall be metal bound or other- 
wise reinforced for handling stresses and precaution shall be 
observed to provide temporary anchorage to the structural frame 
during erection and to prevent damage or destruction from the 
weather and wind before final completion of the installation. 

850.3.4. Approvals. — Precast gypsum concrete units shall not be 
used structurally in floors or roofs until the manufacturer thereof 
has submitted satisfactory evidence of their quality and the 
building official has given his approval. Approval shall be 



850-853 

conditioned upon such requirements as to design, materials, 
methods of manufacture, erection and support as the building 
official shall determine. 

850.3.5. Test Cylinders. — Not less than three (3) compression 
specimens for each one hundred (100) yards of gypsum concrete 
cured and stored under the same conditions as the prefabricated 
member shall be tested at the age of shipment. The test speci- 
mens shall develop an average compressive strength at the time 
of shipment not less than twice the stress used in the design. 

SECTION 851.0. REINFORCED BRICKWORK 

All systems of brick masonry reinforced with steel in grouted 
mortar joints for use in the design and construction of buildings 
and structures shall conform to the requirements of this section 
and reference standard RS 8-58. Reinforced brickwork shall 
incorporate only controlled materials and be certified in con- 
formance with reference standard RS 8-60. 

851.1. Design. — The formulae and assumptions used in the 
design of reinforced masonry shall be those contained in reference 
standard RS 8-58. 

851.2. Foundation Piers. — Minimum dimensions for reinforced 
brick used as a foundation pier shall be as required by section 
749.4. 

SECTION 852.0. REINFORCED HOLLOW BLOCK CON- 
STRUCTION 

Walls constructed of hollow block or other hollow unit masonry 
and reinforced with steel rods grouted solidly into certain 
vertical cells and horizontal beams shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with reference standard RS 8-50. Rein- 
forced concrete masonry shall incorporate only controlled ma- 
terials and shall be certified in conformance with reference 
standard RS 8-60. 

SECTION 853.0. LUMBER AND TIMBER CONSTRUCTION 

853.1. Design. — Structural lumber and timber and its fastenings 
shall be adequately designed and assembled to safely sustain all 
imposed loads. When stress-grade lumber is used and properly 
identified and controlled, working stresses may be in accordance 



with the accepted engineering practice standards in reference 
standard RS 8-76. All lumber used for load supporting purposes 
shall be identified by the grade mark of a lumber grading in- 
spection agency approved by the building official. Grading 
practices and identification shall be in accordance with rules 
published by an agency recognized as being competent. In lieu 
of a grade mark on the material, a certificate of inspection as 
to species and grade issued by a lumber grading or inspection 
agency approved by the building official may be accepted for 
precut, remanufactured, or rough sawn lumber; also for sizes 
larger than three (3) inches nominal thickness. 

853.2. Minimum Dimensions. 

853.2.1. Sizes of Structural Members. — All lumber sizes spec- 
ified in this code are nominal sizes. Nominal sizes may be 
shown on the plans. Computations to determine the required 
size of members shall be based on the net dimensions (actual 
sizes). 

853.2.2. Structural Posts. — Afl isolated structural posts shall 
have a minimum dimension of four (4) inches: 

853.3. Fabrication. 

853.3.1. Connections. — All connections shall be fabricated with 
approved timber connectors, bolts, lag screws, spikes, nails or 
gluing or other approved connecting devices in accordance with 
reference standard RS 8-76. Bolted connections shall be snugged 
up tightly without crushing wood fibers under the washers. All 
nailed connections shall meet the minimum requirements of 
reference standard RS 8-77. 

853.3.2. Cambering. — Trusses and long span girders shall be 
designed with a camber or other provisions to provide for 
possible deflections. 

853.3.3. Cutting and Notching. — It shall be unlawful to notch, 
cut or pierce wood beams, joists, rafters or studs in excess of 
the limitations herein specified unless proven safe by structural 
analysis, or suitably reinforced to transmit all calculated loads. 
Notches in the top or bottom of joists shall not exceed one- 
sixth (1/6) the depth of the member and shall not be located in 
the middle one-third (1/3) of the span. Notches located closer 
to the supports than three (3) times the depth of the member 
shall not exceed one-fifth (1/5) the depth. Holes bored or cut 
into joists for piping or electrical cables shall not be closer than 
two (2) inches to the top or bottom of the joist and the dia- 
meter of the hole shall not exceed one-third (1/3) the depth of 



853-854 

. the joist. In studs of bearing walls or partitions, notches or bored 
holes made to receive piping, electrical conduit, air conditioning 
or heating duct work or for other fabricating purposes shall not 

• be cut or bored more than one-third (1/3) the depth of the stud. 
When the stud is cut or bored in excess of one-third (1/3) its 

1 depth it shall be reinforced to be equal in load carrying capacity 

, to a stud notched not more than one-third (1/3) its depth. 

j 853.4. Trimmer and Header Beams. — When determined neces- 
sary by stress analysis, trimmer and header beams shall be hung 
in approved metal or other approved non-combustible stirrups 
or hangers, unless supported on a masonry wall or girder. All 

I such beams shall be spiked together. 

i 853.5. Bearing and Anchorage on Girders. — All members framing 

\ into girders shall be anchored or tied to secure continuity. The 

; ends of all wood beams or joists resting on girders shall bear 
not less than four (4) inches or shall be supported in approved 
metal stirrups, hangers, or on wood clips or ribbon strips. Beams 
framing from opposite sides shall lap at least six (6) inches and 
be bolted or spiked together; and when framing end to end, 

! they shall be secured together by metal ties, straps or dogs. 
853.6. Maintenance. — All connections in the joints of timber 
trusses and structural frames shall be inspected periodically and 
bolts and other connectors shall be maintained tight. 

SECTION 854.0. HEAVY TIMBER TYPE CONSTRUCTION 

854.1. Wood. — All structural wood members sawn or glued 
laminated used in heavy timber type construction shall be stress- 
grade timbers identified as to grade and strength by approved 
authoritative manufacturing, testing or inspection agencies or 

■ bureaus. All structural timber members shall have the minimum 
dimensions specified in section 217 for type 3-A construction. 

854.2. Other Structural Materials. — Structural steel or reinforced 
concrete members may be substituted for timber in any part of 
the structural frame, protected to develop the required fire- 
resistance specified in section 221.1 table 2-1, but not less than 
three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresistance. Structural members sup- 
porting walls shall be protected to afford the same fireresistance 
rating as the wall supported. 

854.3. Columns. — Columns shall be continuous or superimposed 
throughout all stories by means of reinforced concrete or metal 
caps with brackets, or shall be connected by properly designed 



steel or iron caps, with pintles and base plates, or by timber I 
splice plates affixed to the columns by means of metal con- I 
nectors housed within the contact faces or by other approved 
methods. Girders or trusses supporting columns shall have at 
least three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresistance. 

854.4. Floors. — The planks shall be laid so that no continuous 
line of joints will occur except at points of support and so that 
they are not spiked to supporting girders. Flooring shall notjf 
extend closer than one-half (1/2) inch to walls to provide an I 
expansion joint, but the joint shall be covered at top or bottom ! 
to avoid flue action. 

854.5. Beams and Girders. 

854.5.1. Wall and Girder Supports. — Wall plate boxes of self- 1 
releasing type or approved hangers shall be provided where 
beams and girders enter masonry. An air space of one-half (1/2) IS 
inch shall be provided at the top, end and sides of the member 
unless approved durable or treated wood is used. Where inter- 1 
mediate beams are used to support a floor, they shall rest on I 
top of the girders, or shall be supported by ledgers or blocks I 
securely fastened to the sides of the girders, or they may be; 
supported by approved metal hangers into which the ends of I 
the beams shall be closely fitted. Wood beams and girders sup- 1 
ported by walls required to have a fireresistance rating of two I 
(2) hours or more shall have not less than four (4) inches ofH 
solid masonry between their ends and the outside face of the H 
wall and between adjacent beams. Adequate roof anchorage \ 
shall be provided. I 

SECTION 855.0. WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION 



The exterior walls, interior partitions, floors and roofs of jj 
wood frame construction shall be designed, braced and con-'; 
structed to develop adequate strength and rigidity to resist all » 
vertical and lateral forces due to both dead and live loads \ 
without exceeding the stresses allowed in this section for the I 
various grades and species of wood. Standard balloon, braced, I 
platform, and post and beam types of construction shall be I 
acceptable framing methods. Sizes of wood members stated in \ 
this section are nominal sizes, materials, design, and construction I 
methods shall meet the requirements in those applicable sections 
of reference standard RS 8-76. 
855.1. Wood — Stud Frame. 
855.1.1. Bearing Walls. — Posts and studs in bearing walls and 



854-855 

partitions shall be designed as columns, with due allowance for 
lateral support furnished by sheathing, intermediate bracing, 
horizontal bridging, wall coverings and the floor and roof 
assemblies. The walls shall be fabricated in such a manner as 
to provide adequate support for the material used to enclose 
the building and to provide for transfer of all lateral loads to 
the foundation, in accordance with section 804.3. 

855.1.2. Non-Bearing Walls. — Studs in non-bearing walls and 
partitions shall not be spaced more than forty-eight (48) inches 
on centers unless otherwise approved after test as an integrated 
assembly, and may be erected with the long dimension parallel 
to the wall. 

855.1.3. Bracing. — In buildings more than one (1) story in 
height and where necessary for strength in one (1) story buildings, 
the corner posts shall be the equivalent of not less than three 
(3) pieces of two (2) by four (4) inch studs, braced by not less 
than one (1) piece of one (1) by four (4) inch continuous dia- 
gonal brace let into the studs and into top and bottom plates 
or by other approved methods. Bracing may be omitted when 
diagonal wood sheathing or plywood panels are used, or other 
sheathing specified in section 855.2 is applied vertically in panels 
of not less than four (4) feet by eight (8) feet in area with 
approved nailing complying with reference standard RS 8-77. 
Ledger or ribbon boards used to support joists shall be not less 
than one (1) by four (4) inches in size, cut into and securely 
nailed to each stud. 

855.1.4. Mortise and Tenon Framing. — Where mortise and tenon 
framing is used, the vertical members of the frame shall be not 
less than four (4) by six (6) inches in size and shall be designed 
as a column. 

855.1.5. Multiple Stories. — When the frame is more than one (1) 
story in height and studs and posts are not continuous from sill 
to roof, the members shall be secured together with approved 
clips, splices or other connections to insure a continuous, well 
integrated structure. Sheet metal clamps, ties or clips shall be 
formed of galvanized steel or other approved corrosion-resistive 
materials equivalent to No. 20 U.S. gage steel sheets for two (2) 
inch framing members and not less than No. 18 U.S. gage for 
three (3) inch structural members. For four (h) inch and larger 
members, column splices and beam and girder supports shall 
comply with section 854. 



855.1.6. Framing Over Openings. — Headers, doublejoists, trusses 
or other approved assemblies of adequate size to transfer all 
superimposed loads to the vertical member shall be provided 
over all window and door openings in bearing walls and partitions. 

855.1.7. Empirical Provisions in Lieu of Design. — The provisions 
of this section may be used in lieu of structural analysis only 
for those buildings in occupancy group L-3 where the specific 
occupancies correspond to a live load requirement of forty (40) 
psf or less. Refer to reference standard RS 8-78 for these pro- 
visions. 

855.2. Wall Sheathing. — Except as' provided in section 855.3 
for weather boarding or when stucco construction complying 
with section 821.5 is used, all enclosed buildings shall be 
sheathed with one of the materials of the following nominal 
thickness or any other material of equal strength and durability 
approved by the building official: 

Reinforced cement mortar 1 inch 

Wood sheathing 1 inch 

Plywood 5/16 inch 

Gypsum sheathing 1/2 inch 

Fiber boards 1/2 inch 

855.2.1. Paper-Backed Lath Sheathing. — In one^ and two-family I 
dwellings and one (1) story commercial buildings with brick or 
similar veneers the sheathing may consist of a layer or paper- 
backed lath complying with section 821.4 with a one (1) inch, 
intermediate space which shall be mortar filled as each course of f i 
veneering is applied. 

855.3. Exterior Weather Boarding, Veneers and Condensation. — 
To secure weather-tightness in framed walls and other unoccupied 
spaces, the exterior walls shall be faced with an approved 
weather-resisting covering properly attached to resist wind and 
rain. The cellular spaces shall be so ventilated as not to vitiate 
the firestopping at floor, attic and roof levels or shall be pro- I 
vided with interior non-corrodible vapor-type barriers complying 
with the approved rules; or other means shall be used to avoid 
condensation and leakage of moisture. The following materials 
shall be acceptable as approved weather coverings of the nominal 
thickness specified: 

Brick Masonry veneers 2 inches 

Stone veneers 2 inches 

Clay tile veneers 1/4 to 1 inch 

Stucco or exterior plaster 3/4 inch 



855 

Precast stone facing 5/8 inch 

Wood siding (without sheathing) 5/8 inch 

Wood siding (with sheathing) 1/2 inch 

Protected fiber board siding 1/2 inch 

Wood shingles 3/8 inch 

Exterior plywood (without sheathing) See sec. 825.2 

Exterior plywood (with sheathing) 5/16 inch 

Asbestos shingles 5/32 inch 

Asbestos cement boards 1/8 inch 

Aluminum clapboard siding 024 inch 

Formed steel siding 29 gage 

Hardboard siding 1/4 inch 

855.3.1. Masonry Veneers. — Refer to section 863.3.1. 

855.3.2. Metal Veneers. — Veneers of metal shall be fabricated 
from approved corrosion-resistive materials or shall be protected 
front and back with porcelain enamel or shall be otherwise 
treated to render the metal resistant to corrosion. Such veneers 
shall be not less than No. 29 gage in thickness mounted on 
wood or metal furring strips or approved sheathing on the 
frame construction. 

855.3.3. Height of Veneers. — Refer to sections 863.2 and 863.3.1. 

855.3.4. Nailing. — All weatherboarding and wall and roof cov- 
erings shall be securely nailed with aluminum, copper, zinc, 
zinc-coated or other approved corrosion-resistive nails in accor- 
dance with reference standard RS 8-77 or the approved manufac- 
turer's standards. 

Shingles and other weather coverings shall be attached with 
appropriate standard shingle nails to furring strips securely 
nailed to studs, or with approved mechanically-bonding nails 
except when sheathing is wood not less than one (1) inch nomi- 
nal thickness or plywood not less than five-sixteenths (5/16) inch 
thick. 

Wood shingles or shakes attached with approved corrosion- 
resistive annular grooved nails may be applied over fiberboard 
shingle backer and fiberboard sheathing when the installation 
is in accordance with the approved manufacturer's standards. 
Wood shingles or shakes and asbestos shingles or siding may be 
nailed directly to nail base fiberboard sheathing not less than 
one-half (1/2) inch nominal thickness with approved corrosion- 
resistive annular grooved nails when the installation is in accor- 
dance with the approved manufacturer's standards. 



855.4. Foundation Anchorage. — When required to resist wind 
uplift or lateral forces as determined in conjunction with article 
7, wall sills shall be anchored to the foundation walls or piers at 
corners and at intermediate intervals of not more than eight (8) 
feet with properly anchored one-half (1/2) inch bolts. Sill plates 
shall be at least equivalent to a two (2) by six (6) inch member. 

855.5. At-Grade Protection. 

855.5.1. Wood Framing. — All exterior wood framework of 
buildings whether structural or non-loadbearing shall be supported 
on approved foundation walls at least eight (8) inches above the 
finished grade. 

855.5.2. Metal Siding. — Exposed metal siding or sheathing shall 
be protected from corrosion at the ground level by supporting 
the foundation channel at sufficient height above grade on the 
concrete apron or other approved water-resisting foundation. 

855.6. Floors. 

855.6.1. Bridging. — Except as hereinafter noted, in all floor, 
attic and roof framing, there shall be not less than one (1) line 
of bridging for each eight (8) feet of span. The bridging shall 
consist of not less than one (1) by three (3) inch lumber, double- 
nailed at each end, or of equivalent metal bracing of equal 
rigidity. A line of bridging shall also be required at supports 
where adequate lateral support is not otherwise provided. 

855.6.2. Flooring. — The flooring of wood frame construction 
shall be of adequate strength and stiffness to support required 
loads and, where necessary for strength and for lateral support 
of the building, subflooring shall be provided. 

855.7. Roofs. 

855.7.1. Types of Decking and Sheathing. — Roof deck sheathing 
shall consist of not less than one (1) inch boards or plywood 
of the thickness specified in section 825.3, or other approved 
materials of equivalent strength and rigidity. When open-deck 
sheathing is used on pitched roofs, it shall consist of not less 
than one (1) by four (4) inch roofers spaced not more than six 
(6) inches on centers or material of equivalent strength and 
rigidity. 

855.7.2. Wood Shingles. — Wood shingles and handsplit shakes 
complying with reference standard RS 8-79 may be used for 
roof covering where permitted in section 928.3, and may be 
installed on tight decking or on spaced roof boards. 

855.8. Flashing. — Approved corrosion-resistive flashing shall be 
provided at top and sides of all exterior window and door 



855-856 

openings in such manner as to be leakproof. Similar flashings 
shall be installed at the intersection of chimneys or other masonry 
construction with frame or stucco walls, with projecting lips on 
both sides under stucco copings; under and at the ends of 
masonry, wood or metal copings and sills; continuously above 
all projecting wood trim; at wall and roof intersections; under 
built-in gutters; at a junction of chimneys and roofs; in all roof 
valleys and around all roof openings. When veneers of natural 
or artificial stone are used, fourteen (14) pounds felt or paper 
shall be attached to the sheathing with flashing wherever neces- 
sary to prevent moisture penetration behind the veneer. 
855.9. Interior Finish. — In all habitable spaces, interior wall 
and partition surfaces shall be finished with materials which do 
not exceed the combustible limitations of section 904.0 and 
are of adequate strength to resist a horizontal force of not less 
than five (5) pounds per square foot. 



SECTION 856.0. STRESS SKIN PANELS 

856.1. Integrated Assemblies. — Approved panels or other inte- 
grated assemblies fabricated of dimension lumber with wood 
stress-coverings glued thereto, or consisting of structural units of 
metal-covered or molded plywood or other approved plastics, 
formed and molded into prefabricated loadbearing members shall 
be permitted for use in floors, roofs, walls, partitions and 
ceilings when designed in accordance with reference standard 
RS 8-54, or meeting the test requirements of sections 803, 804, 
and 805. 

856.2. Splices. — Splices and connections between panels shall be 
weathertight and of sufficient strength to resist two and one-half 
(2-1/2) times the design live load to which they will be sub- 
jected in normal use. The fastenings of covering assemblies to 
structural studs, ribs or joists shall provide rigidity equivalent to 
approved gluing. Nailing shall not be acceptable for that purpose. 

856.3. Molded Plywood Units. — Structural units of plywood or 
other approved plastics of similar combustible characteristics 
formed and molded into prefabricated load-bearing members 
shall conform to the approved rules and shall be identified by 
the approved label. The design shall be based on approved 
engineering analysis confirmed by the tests prescribed in sections 
803 and 804. 



SECTION 857.0. STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED 
TIMBER AND BUILT-UP LUMBER CONSTRUCTION 

Buildings and structures may be designed and erected of glued 
laminated structural members of standard commercial or stress 
grade lumber, or of composite members of plywood and di- 
mension lumber. 

857.1. Structural Glued Laminated Timber. — Structural glued 
laminated timber shall be manufactured and constructed under 
the controlled material procedure to meet the requirements of 
reference standards RS 8-55 and RS 8-56. Structural design shall 
be in accordance with reference standard RS 8-51 or with other 
approved engineering standards. 

857.2. Glued Lumber Members. — Built-up beam and column 
sections consisting of one or more webs with glued lumber 
flanges and stiffeners, shall be designed in accordance with 
approved engineering analysis. 

857.2.1. Gluing Surfaces. — In glued lumber constructions, the 
surfaces shall be worked to a smooth, flat surface without 
sanding and free from wax, grease or oil to insure a complete 
glue bond over the entire contact. Factory sanded plywood shall 
not be prohibited. 

857.3. Mechanically Laminated Members. — Mechanically lamin- 
ated members shall be designed and constructed in accordance 
with reference standard RS 8-76. 



ARTICLE 

BUILDING ENCLOSURES, WALLS AND WALL 
THICKNESS 



8C 



859.0 


Enclosure Walls 


871.0 


Foundation Walls 


860.0 


Protection of Wall Openings 


872.0 


Retaining Walls 


861.0 


Fire Access Panels 


873.0 


Isolated Piers 


862.0 


Structural Glass Block Walls 


874.0 


Waterproofing 


863.0 


Wall Veneers 


875.0 


Ratproofing 


864.0 


Structural Glass Veneers 


876.0 


Protection Against Decay and 


865.0 


Thin Stone and Tile Veneers 




Termites 


866.0 


Metal Veneers 


877.0 


Fire Protection and Fire- 


867.0 


Plastic Veneers 




stopping 


868.0 


Thickness of Solid Masonry 
Walls 


878.0 


Thermal Insulating Materials 


869.0 


Thickness of Panel Walls 


RS 8 


Reference Standards 


870.0 


Parapet Walls 







TABLES 

8-2 859.5.9.1. Requirements for Glass Panels Subject to Impact Loads 
8-3 863.2.1. Minimum Thickness of Veneer 
8-4 871.2.2.a Thickness of Foundation Walls. 



SECTION 859.0. ENCLOSURE WALLS 



All buildings, except as may be provided for miscellaneous 
structures designed for special uses, shall be enclosed on all sides 
with independent or party walls or frame, masonry or other 
approved construction. Such walls shall be constructed to afford 
the fireresistance specified in section 221.1 table 2-1 as other- 
wise required in this code. 

859.1. Projections. — Exterior enclosure walls shall be constructed 
entirely within property lines or building lines when established 
by law, except for authorized projections beyond the street lot 
line in accordance with the provisions of section 312. 

859.2. Exterior Wail Pockets. — In exterior walls of all buildings 
and structures, wall pockets or crevices in which moisture may 
accumulate shall be avoided or protected with adequate caps or 
drips, or other approved means shall be provided to prevent 
water damage. 

859.3. Gutters and Coping. — Unless constructed with parapet 
walls and coping as required by section 870 whereby provision 



would be made for interior drains, all exterior walls shall be 
provided with gutters and downspouts or leaders to dispose of 
roof drainage in compliance with article 17. Exceptions may be 
made for: 

a. Roofs with overhangs greater than twelve (12) inches in 
width for one (1) story or twenty-four (24) inches in 
width for two (2) story, and 

b. One (1) and two (2) story buildings not over six hundred 
and fifty (650) square feet in area. 

Roofs of buildings and of all parts thereof shall be sloped to 
drain at a pitch of not less than one (1) inch in ten (10) feet. 
Means shall be provided to prevent rain water from any part 
of a building except window sills, copings and cornices not 
more than one (1) foot wide and awnings or marquises dis- 
charging off the outer edge, from filling or flowing upon a 
public way. 

859.4. Exceptions. — The provisions of this article shall not be 
deemed to prohibit the omission of exterior walls for all or 
part of a story of a building in accordance with the provisions 
of section 906.1. 

859.5. Glass in Walls. 

859.5.1. Scope. — The provisions of sections 859.5.2 through 
859.5.5 shall apply to the use of glass in the exterior wall of a 
building and shall be limited to exterior application wherein the 
glass would not be subjected to any loads normal to the face of 
glass other than those due to wind. For applications involving 
human impact, the provisions of section 859.5.9 shall apply. 
For other cases, the strength and mode of installation of glass 
shall be approved by the building official. 

859.5.2. Support for Glass Panels. — Glass shall be firmly held 
in place. The supports shall be of adequate strength to resist 
the applicable design wind loads as prescribed in article 7. 

859.5.3. Glass Requirements. — Unless otherwise stated herein, 
glass shall meet the requirements of reference standard RS 8-59 
for the applicable type, size, thickness and quality. 

859.5.4. Thickness of Glass. — Thicknesses of glass panels shall 
be chosen as required by reference standard RS 7-6 and article 7. 

859.5.5. Installation of Glass Panels. — Glass panels shall be 
handled and installed so that their strength is not impaired by 
chipping or scratching, shall be fully and firmly bedded in their 
supports, and shall be mounted in a manner that will accommo- 



859 

date differential movements due to thermal and loading conditions. 

859.5.6. Protection of Glass Panels. — Glass panels installed in 
areas where they will be subject to unusual conditions of con- 
struction damage, such as spatter from welds or locations near 
materials hoists, shall be protected by a hardboard covering or 
its equivalent during the period that such work is in progress. 

859.5.7. Deflection of Support. — The deflection of members 
supporting glass panels under the design wind load (measured 
perpendicular to the plane of the panel) shall not exceed L/175, 
where L is the span of the supporting member. In no case 
shall such deflection exceed three-quarter (3/4) inch. 

859.5.8. Jalousies. — In jalousie windows and doors regular 
plate, float, sheet or rolled glass thickness shall be not less than 
three-sixteenths (3/16) inch; glass length shall not be more than 
forty-eight (48) inches; glass edges shall be smooth. Other types 
of glass may be used if approved by the building official. 

859.5.9. Panels Subject to Human Impact Loads. — Glass in 
prime and storm doors, interior doors, fixed glass panels that 
may be mistaken for means of egress or ingress, shower doors 
and tub enclosures, or in similar installations wherein one (1) 
or more of the following criteria apply, shall meet the require- 
ments set forth in section 859.5.9.1. table 8-2 or by comparative 
tests, shall be proven to produce equivalent performance: 

a. Openings are located in regularly occupied spaces. 

b. Lowest point of panel is less than eighteen (18) inches 
above finished floor. 

c. Minimum dimension of panel is larger than eighteen 
(18) inches. 



859.5.9.1. Table 8-2 



Requirements for Glass Panels Subject to Impact Loads 



1,2 



Glass Type 



Individual 

Opening 

Area 



Requirements 



Regular plate, sheet Over 6 

or rolled (annealed) sq. ft. 



Regular plate, sheet 


Over 6 


or rolled (annealed) 


sq. ft. 


surface sandblasted, 




etched, or otherwise 




depreciated 




Regular plate, sheet 


Over 6 


or rolled (annealed) 


sq. ft. 


obscure 




Laminated 


Over 6 




sq. ft. 


Fully-tempered 


Over 6 




sq. ft. 


Wired 


Over 6 




sq. ft. 



All unframed glass 
doors (swinging) 



Not less than 3/16 in. thick. 
Must be protected by a push- 
bar or protective grille firmly 
attached on each exposed 
side 3 , if not divided by a 
muntin. 

Not less than 7/32 in. thick. 
Must be protected by a push- 
bar or protective grille firmly 
attached on each exposed 
side 3 . 

Not less than 3/16 in. thick. 
Must be protected by a push- 
bar or grille firmly attached 
on each exposed side 3 . 
Not less than 1/4 in. thick. 
Shall pass impact test re- 
quirements of reference stan- 
dard RS 8-75. 

Shall pass impact test re- 
quirements of reference stan- 
dard RS 8-75. 

Not less than 7/32 in. thick. 
Shall pass impact test re- 
quirements of reference stan- 
dard RS 8-75. 

Shall be fully-tempered glass 
and pass impact test require- 
ments of reference standard 
RS 8-75. 



NOTES: 

i Glass less than single strength (SS) in thickness shall not 
be used. 

2 If short dimension is larger than twenty-four (24) inches, 
glass must be double strength (DS) or thicker. 

3 Building owners and tenants shall maintain push-bars or 
protective grilles in safe condition at all times. 



859-861 
SECTION 860.0. PROTECTION OF WALL OPENINGS 

860.1. Fire-Protected Openings. — Openings in exterior walls 
when required to be fire-protected shall comply with the pro- 
visions of article 9. 

860.2. Area of Openings. — All openings facing on a street, 
yard, court, or public space which are required for light and 
ventilation shall comply with the provisions of article 5. 

860.3. Structural Strength. 

860.3.1. Against Wind Forces. — In all buildings required to 
resist wind pressure under the provisions of article 7, exterior 
window openings shall be designed to resist the specified wind 
load. 

860.3.2. Sash or Frames. — The glass or other approved glazing 
material and when used, metal frames or other reinforcement, 
shall be adequate to resist the wind loads specified in article 7 
blowing both inwardly and outwardly. 

SECTION 861.0. FIRE ACCESS PANELS 

Completely enclosed buildings, without exterior openings in the 
enclosure walls, or without ready access for the purpose of 
fighting fire, shall be provided with access panels as required 
herein. 

Access panels shall be not less than thirty-two (32) inches by 
forty-eight (48) inches in size. 

When required to be fireresistive, access panels shall be equip- 
ped with approved opening protectives, complying with article 9, 
which are readily openable from both the outside and the inside. 

861.1. Multi-Story Buildings. — In all exterior walls of the 
building required to have thirty (30) foot wide open space 
adjacent thereto (see sections 307.1 and 308.1) each floor below 
a height of one hundred (100) feet shall be provided with access 
panels spaced not more than fifty (50) feet apart in each story. 

861.2. Single-Story Buildings. — In one (1) story buildings, not 
more than eighty-five (85) feet in height: 

a. Roof vents shall be provided, spaced not more than 
one hundred twenty-five (125) feet apart; and 

b. Grade level doors, or fire access panels shall be provided 
spaced not more than one-hundred (100) feet apart in all 
exterior walls of the building required to have thirty (30) 



foot wide open space adjacent thereto (see sections 307.1 
and 308.1). 

861.3. Construction of Access Panels. — Access panels: 

a. Shall have a sill height of not more than thirty-six (36) 
inches; and 

b. Shall be readily identifiable from the outside, and; 

c. Shall be readily openable from the outside or shall be 
glazed with plain flat glass. 

861.4. Location. — Wherever practicable, one access opening in 
each story shall provide access to a stairway, or where there is 
no stairway at the exterior wall, one access opening in each 
story shall be located as close as practicable to a stairway. 

861.5. Exemptions. — The provisions of this article shall not 
apply to any story that is completely protected by an automatic 
sprinkler system conforming to the construction requirements of 
article 12. 

SECTION 862.0. STRUCTURAL GLASS BLOCK WALLS 

Masonry of glass blocks may be used in non-loadbearing 
exterior or interior walls and in openings that might otherwise 
be filled with windows, either isolated or in continuous bands, 
provided the glass block panels have a thickness of at least 
three and one-half (3-1/2) inches, at the mortar joint and the 
mortared surfaces of the blocks are satisfactorily treated for 
mortar bonding. 

862.1. Exterior Wall Panels. — The maximum dimensions of 
glass block wall panels in exterior walls when used singly or 
in multiples forming continuous bands of structural glass blocks 
between structural supports shall be twenty-five (25) feet in 
length and twenty (20) feet in height between structural supports 
and expansion joints; and the area of each individual panel 
shall be not more than two hundred and fifty (250) square 
feet. Intermediate structural supports shall be provided to 
support the dead load of the wall and all other superimposed 
loads. When individual panels are more than one hundred and 
forty-four (144) square feet in area a supplementary stiffener 
shall be provided behind the panels, anchored thereto and to 
the structural supports. Panels shall be set in recesses at the 
jambs and panels exceeding ten (10) feet in horizontal dimension 
between supports shall be set in recesses at the head so as 
to provide a bearing surface at least one (1) inch wide along 
the panel edges. 



861-862 

862.2. Joint Materials. — Glass blocks shall be laid up in type S 
or N mortar with approved galvanized or other non-corrosive 
metal wall ties in the horizontal mortar joints of exterior panels. 
The sills of glass block panels shall be coated with approved 
asphaltic emulsion, or other elastic waterproofing material previous 
to laying the first mortar course and the perimeter of the panels 
shall be caulked to a depth of not less than one-half (1/2) inch 
with nonhardening caulking compound on both faces; or other 
approved expansion joints shall be provided. When laid up in 
joint materials other than mortars herein defined, no single 
panel shall be more than one hundred (100) square feet in area 
nor more than ten (10) feet in either length or height. Both 
vertical and horizontal mortar joints shall be at least one- 
fourth (1/4) inch and not more than three-eighths (3/8) inch 
thick and shall be completely filled. 

862.3. Wind Loads. — Exterior wall panels shall be held in 
place in the wall opening to resist both the internal and external 
pressures due to wind specified in sections 713 and 714. 

862.4. Interior Wall Panels. — Structural glass blocks shall not be 
used in fire walls or party walls or for load-bearing construction. 
Blocks in interior walls shall be erected with mortar in metal 
frames or reinforcement as provided in this section for exterior 
walls or other approved joint materials, except that wood strip 
framing may be used in partitions not required to be fire- 
resistive. For interior walls, glass block panels shall not exceed 
two hundred - fifty (250) square feet of unsupported area nor 
twenty-five (25) feet in one direction between supports. 

862.5. Fireresistance Rating. — Nothing herein contained shall 
be construed to prohibit the use of glass blocks in an opening 
protective assembly or nonbearing partition or wall when re- 
quired to afford a specific fireresistance, provided approval of 
the building official is secured after satisfactory time-temper- 
ature performance under the prescribed test procedure of article 9. 

862.6. Access Panels. — Access panels shall be provided in ex- 
terior glass block walls for fire department use to comply with 
section 861. 

862.7. Reinforcement. — Glass block panels shall have approved 
reinforcement in the horizontal mortar joints, extending from 
end to end of mortar joints but not across expansion joints, 
with any unavoidable joints spliced by lapping the reinforcement 
not less than six (6) inches. The reinforcement shall be spaced 
at not more than two (2) feet vertically. In addition, reinforce- 



ment shall be placed in the joint immediately above and below 
all openings within a panel. 

862.8. Expansion Joints. — Every exterior glass block panel shall 
be provided with expansion joints at the sides and top. Expan- 
sion joints shall be entirely free of mortar, and shall be filled 
with resilient material. 

SECTION 863.0. WALL VENEERS 

Veneer as used in this section refers to an exposed facing 
wythe or brick, tile, ceramic, terra cotta, concrete masonry 
units, cast stone, precast concrete, natural stone, or other 
weather-resistant noncombustible units securely attached to a 
surface for the purpose of providing ornamentation, protection 
or insulation, but not intentionally so bonded as to exert 
common action under load. 

863.1. Backing Surfaces for Veneers. — Veneers for other than 
frame buildings, shall be attached only to substantial, rigid, 
noncombustible surfaces which are plumb, straight and of true 
plane; and no wood backing surfaces shall be used except in 
frame construction. The backing shall provide sufficient rigidity, 
stability and weather resistance; and the veneer shall be installed 
and anchored as required in this code for the specific material. 

863.2. Limitations, — Veneer shall not be assumed to add to the 
strength of any wall, nor shall it be assumed to support any 
load other than its own weight. No veneer shall be less than 
the thicknesses specified in the following table. The height and 
length of veneer areas shall be unlimited, except as required to 
control expansion and contraction. 

863.2.1. Table 8-3 

Minimum Thickness of Veneer 

Ceramic veneer (architectural terra cotta — anchored type) 1 inch 

Brick 2 inches 

Stone (natural) 2 inches 

Stone (cast artificial) 1-1/2 inches 

Clay tile (structural) 1-3/4 inches 

Clay tile (flat slab) 1/4 to 1 inch 

Marble slabs 1 inch 

Precast Stone Facing 5/8 inch 

Structural Glass 11/32 inch 

Aluminum Clapboard Siding 024 inch 

Metal (approved corrosion-resistive) 29 U.S. gage 

Aluminum 03 inch 



862-863 

863.3. Design. — All anchor attachments shall be designed to 
resist a positive or negative horizontal force of thirty (30) psf, 
and adhesion type veneer shall be designed to have a bond 
sufficient to withstand a shearing stress of fifty (50) psi. In 
lieu of design, veneer may be installed in accordance with the 
requirements of sections 863.3.1. and 863.3.2. 

863.3.1. Veneer on Wood. — Anchored masonry veneer attached 
to wood frame structures shall be supported on footings or 
foundation walls. Where anchored veneer exceeding twenty (20) 
feet in height is applied, it shall be supported in a manner that 
will provide for movement between the veneer and its backing. 
Veneer of unit masonry shall be attached directly to wood studs, 
by one of the following means: 

a. With at least twenty-two (22) gage corrosion-resistance 
corrugated steel ties at least seven-eighths (7/8) inch wide 
at vertical intervals of not more than twenty-four (24) 
inches and horizontal intervals of not more than thirty- 
two (32) inches, but in no case less than one (1) tie for 
each three and one-half (3-1/2) square feet of wall area. 

b. Directly to a one (1) inch reinforced cement mortar base. 

863.3.2. Veneer on Masonry. — Veneer attached to masonry or 
concrete backing shall not be limited in height other than by 
compressive stresses. Veneer shall be securely attached to the 
masonry or concrete backing by one of the following means 
or by a means that is equivalent in strength: 

a. Metal ties conforming to section 836.0.2 except that ties 
shall be spaced not more than twenty-four (24) inches 
apart either horizontally or vertically. 

b. Corrosion-resistant dovetail slot anchors where the backing 
and the veneer have been designed for this type of at- 
tachment. Such anchors shall be formed from at least 
sixteen (16) gage steel at least one (1) inch wide. 

c. Adhesion type masonry veneer shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations 
and setting plans. 

d. Where anchored veneer is not grouted to the backing, it 
shall be supported in a manner that will provide for 
movement between the veneer and its backing. 

863.4. Support. — The weight of all anchored type veneer shall be 
supported upon footings, foundation walls, or other supports 
without dependence upon anchors for vertical support. Veneer 
above openings shall be supported upon lintels. 



SECTION 864.0. STRUCTURAL GLASS VENEERS 

864.1. Dimensions. — The minimum thickness of glass veneer 
shall be eleven thirty-seconds (11/32) inch and the area of 
individual panels shall not exceed ten (10) square feet, with a 
maximum length of four (4) feet. The edge of each unit shall be 
ground square with a slight arris; and all exposed, external 
corners and angles shall be rounded to a radius of not more 
than three-sixteenths (3/16) inch. 

864.2. Construction. 

864.2.1. Backing Surface. — The glass veneer shall be set in 
mastic cement on a float coat of one (1) inch thick cement 
mortar reinforced with wire lath attached to non-combustible 
furring spaced not more than twelve (12) inches on centers or 
the veneer may be set by other approved methods. 

864.2.2. Support of Veneer. — The base course of glass units 
shall be supported on a corrosion-resistive metal frame anchored 
to the backing and caulked with a waterproof compound at 
grade. 

864.3. Reinforcement. — Metal reinforcing of cold formep 1 cor- 
rosion-resistive angles of not less than No. 16 U.S. gage or 
other approved reinforcement shall be provided in all horizontal 
joints anchored into the wall with expansion or toggle bolts. 

864.4. Expansion Joints. — Expansion joints shall be provided 
at ends and intermediate sections caulked with an approved 
waterproofing compound. Where necessary for water-tightness, 
exposed edges shall be protected with corrosion-resistive metal 
or other approved noncombustible flashing. 

864.5. Other Loads. — No signs, awning brackets or other loads 
shall be hung directly from glass veneers, but shall be supported 
on framing anchored to or otherwise supported by the wall, 
free from contact with the glass. 



SECTION 865.0. THIN STONE AND TILE VENEERS 

865.1. Size Limitation. — Where subject to frost and freezing 
temperatures, tile and terra cotta units shall be frostproof and 
shall not be more than two hundred and eighty-eight (288) 
square inches in area; and where not subject to frost action, the 
size of the tile may be increased not more than fifty (50) per 
cent in area. 



864-868 

865.2. Construction. — One (1) inch thick marble, terra cotta, 
and similar materials; or ceramic tile one-quarter (1/4) to one (1) 
inch in thickness shall be set in accordance with reference stan- 
dards RS 8-21 and RS 8-61. 

865.3. Jointing. — All joints shall be grouted and pointed with 
an approved waterproofed cement compound. 

SECTION 866.0. METAL VENEERS 

866.1. Materials. — Veneers of metal shall be fabricated from 
approved corrosion-resistive alloys, or shall be covered front and 
back with approved porcelain enamel, or otherwise treated to 
render the metal resistant to corrosion. 

866.2. Construction. — The metal veneer shall be securely attached 
to the masonry or supported on approved metal framing pro- 
tected by painting, galvanizing or other approved protection 
or on wood studs and furring strips, treated with an approved 
preservative process. 

866.3. Waterproofing. — All joints and edges exposed to the 
weather shall be caulked with approved durable waterproofing 
material or by other approved means to prevent penetration of 
moisture. 

866.4. Grounding Metal Veneers. — Grounding of metal veneers 
on all buildings shall comply with the requirements of Article 15, 
and Massachusetts State Law. 

SECTION 867.0. PLASTIC VENEERS 

Veneers of approved weather-resisting, noncombustible plastics 
shall be erected and anchored on an approved substrate water- 
proofed or otherwise protected from moisture absorption and 
sealed with a coat of mastic or other approved waterproof 
coating in accordance with the approval of the building official 
and the applicable portions of articles 9 and 20. 

SECTION 868.0. THICKNESS OF MASONRY WALLS 

All masonry walls shall be of the minimum thickness specified 
by reference standard RS 8-51, unless designed in accordance 
with reference standard RS 8-50. In no case shall the combined 
stress due to all loads exceed the allowable working stresses 
specified for the materials of construction in this code and 
reference standard RS 8-50. 



SECTION 869.0. THICKNESS OF PANEL WALLS 

869.1. Solid Panel Walls. — Panel, apron or spandrel walls as 
defined in article 2 supported at vertical intervals not exceeding 
thirteen (13) feet in height, shall not be limited in thickness, 
provided they meet the fireresistive requirements of article 9 
and section 221.1 table 2-1 and are constructed of approved 
noncombustible weather-resisting materials of adequate strength 
to resist the wind loads specified in sections 713 and 714. 

869.2. Hollow Panel Walls. — Unless constructed of the materials 
and thickness specified by this code for masonry, hollow panel 
walls shall be tested and approved in the assembled unit as 
constructed in normal practice to develop the required fireresist- 
ance ratings specified in section 221.1 table 2-1 for exposure 
on each face. 

869.3. Weather Resistance. — When the construction as tested 
and approved for fireresistance does not possess the required 
weather resistance, it shall be covered on the exterior with 
approved corrosion-resistive metal facings or other approved 
noncombustible weather-resisting veneers. 

869.4. Anchorage. — All panel walls shall be anchored to the 
structural frame to insure adequate lateral support and resistance 
to wind. 

SECTION 870.0. PARAPET WALLS 

Unless specifically provided for in sections 906.4, 907 or other 
provisions of this code, required parapets for exterior masonry 
walls shall extend not less than two (2) feet above the roof. 
Nothing in this section shall be construed as requiring parapets 
for masonry exterior walls in one- and two-family dwellings and 
structures where the roof overhangs the wall or in places where 
such walls are capped with cornices or gutters. 

870.1. Minimum Thickness and Height. — Parapet walls shall be 
the same thickness as the wall below; but in no case shall the 
required thickness exceed twelve (12) inches, nor shall the height 
be more than four (4) times the thickness unless laterally sup- 
ported by noncombustible bracing or buttresses. 

870.2. Coping. — The top of all parapet walls exposed to the 
weather shall be coped with approved noncombustible and 
weather-resisting materials. 

870.3. Construction Requirements. — All cells in the hollow 
masonry units and all joints in solid, cavity, or masonry bonded 



869-871 

hollow wall construction shall be filled solid with mortar. All 
corners of masonry parapet walls shall be reinforced with 
joint reinforcement or its equivalent at vertical intervals not 
greater than twelve (12) inches. Such reinforcement shall extend 
around the corner for at least four (4) feet in both directions 
and splices shall be lapped at least six (6) inches. 



SECTION 871.0. FOUNDATION WALLS 

871.1. Design. — Foundation walls shall be designed to resist frost 
action and to support safely all vertical and lateral loads as 
provided in article 7. The maximum compressive stress due to 
combined load shall be within the values specified for the 
materials used in the construction. Unless properly reinforced, 
tensile stresses shall be eliminated in the masonry insofar as 
practicable; but in any case shall not exceed those permitted by 
this code for plain masonry. 

871.2. Minimum Thickness. — The thickness of foundation walls 
shall be not less than the thickness of the wall supported and 
the minimum thickness shall be limited for the various materials 
of construction as herein specified. Eight (8) inch foundation 
walls may be permitted under brick-veneered frame and under 
ten (10) inch cavity walls when the total height of wall supported 
including gables is not more than twenty (20) feet. 

871.2.1. Concrete. — When reinforced concrete is required to 
resist stresses, foundation walls shall be not less than eight (8) 
inches thick. Concrete in foundation walls shall have a minimum 
compressive strength at twenty-eight (28) days of two thousand 
(2,000) psi, when tested in accordance with reference standard 
RS 8-61. 

871.2.2. Hollow and Solid Masonry and Mass Concrete. — The 
thickness of masonry foundation walls shall not be less than 
shown in the following table. The combined height of eight (8) 
inch foundation wall and the wall supported shall not exceed 
thirty-five (35) feet. 



871.2.2.a. Table 8-4 

THICKNESS OF FOUNDATION WALLS 



Foundation Wall 








Construction 


Maximum Depth Below Grade (feet) 1 - 2 


Type 


Thickness 
(Inches) 


Frame 


Masonry 
Veneer 


Masoni 


Hollow 
masonry 


8 

10 
12 


4 (6) 

5 (7) 
7 


4.5 (6) 

5.5 (7) 
7 


5 (7) 

6 (7) 

7 


Solid 
masonry 


8 

10 
12 


5 (7) 

6 (7) 
7 


5.5 (7) 
6 (7) 
7 


6 (7) 
6.5 (7) 

7 


Mass 










concrete 


8 


7 


7 


7 



NOTES: 

1. Depth below grade may be increased up to those shown in parentheses when 
such increase is warranted by soil conditions and is required by the building 
official. 

2. Where height of unbalanced fill (height of finish grade above basement flooi 
or inside grade) exceeds seven (7) feet for coarse sands and gravel or four (4 
feet for other soils, foundation wall thickness shall be determined by structura 
analysis as required in section 871.1. 

871.2.3. Hollow Unit Walls. — Foundation walls of approved 
hollow masonry units shall be provided with not less than four 
(4) inches of solid masonry at girder bearings or shall be 
strengthened with buttresses; and shall only be allowed for 
support of one (1) and two (2) story buildings. 

871.2.4. Rubble Stone. — Foundation walls of rough or random 
rubble stone shall be not less than sixteen (16) inches thick 
Rough or random rubble stone masonry without level beds 
shall not be used for foundation walls more than ten (10) feet 
high or supporting buildings more than forty-five (45) feet high. 

871.2.5. Bonding. — All masonry foundation walls shall be bonded 
as required for superstructure walls in section 836. 



871-872 

871.3. Increased Thickness With Depth. — When any foundation 
;wall, other than a wall that is designed as a retaining wall, 

extends more than twelve (12) feet below the top of the first 
floor beams, the thickness of the wall shall be increased four (4) 
inches for each additional twelve (12) feet or fraction thereof in 
depth. 

871.4. Corbels on Eight Inch Foundation Walls. — Where an 
eight (8) inch wall is corbeled, the top course shall be a full 

f header course at least six (6) inches in length, extending not 

[ higher than the bottom of the floor framing. The maximum 

projection of one (1) unit shall neither exceed one-half (1/2) 

: the depth of the unit nor one-third (1/3) its width at right 

angles to the face which is offset; unless specifically provided 

for herein the provisions of section 839 shall apply. 

871.5. Lateral Stability. — Foundation walls of buildings and 
structures which serve as retaining walls shall conform to the 
applicable requirements of section 872. 

871.6. Lateral Bracing. — The equivalent unbraced height of a 
wall supported by lateral soil pressure shall be determined by a 
recognized method of elastic analysis. 

871.7. Restrictions. — Sand lime brick or gypsum tile shall not be 
used in foundation walls nor as part of the required thickness 
thereof. Wood shall not be used in the foundations of permanent 
structures, except as may be provided in article 7. 

SECTION 872.0. RETAINING WALLS 

Walls built to retain or support the lateral pressure of earth or 
water or other superimposed loads shall be designed and con- 
structed of approved masonry, reinforced concrete, steel sheet 
piling or other approved materials within stresses allowed by 
this code. 

872.1. Design. — Retaining walls shall be designed subject to the 
requirements of section 872.1.1 to resist the pressure of the 
retained material including both dead and live load surcharges 
to which they may be subjected, and to insure stability against 
overturning, sliding, excessive soil pressure and water uplift. 
Particular attention shall be paid to the type of backfill and 
drainage. 
872.1.1. Factor of Safety. 

a. Overturning. — The minimum factor of safety against 
overturning of the structure as a whole shall be one 



and one-half (1-1/2). Stability against overturning shall be 
provided by the dead load of the structure by the allow- 
able uplift capacity of piling, by anchors, by the weight 
of soil directly overlying footings provided that such soil 
cannot be excavated without recourse to major modifica- 
tion of the structure or by any combination of these 
factors, 
b. Sliding. — The minimum factor of safety against sliding 
of the structure under lateral load shall be one and one- 
half (1-1/2). Resistance to lateral loads shall be provided 
by friction between the foundation and the underlying 
soil, by passive earth pressure, by batter piles, or by 
plumb piles, subject to the following. 

1. The resistance to lateral loads due to passive earth 
pressure shall be discounted where the abutting soil 
could be removed, inadvertently, by excavation. 

2. In the case of pile supported structures, frictional 
resistance between the foundation and the underlying 
soil shall be discounted. 

3. The available resistance to friction between the foun- 
dation and the underlying soil shall be predicated on 
an assumed friction factor of 0.5 for soils of classes 
1 through 9. A greater value of coefficient of friction 
may be used subject to verification by analysis and 
test. For soils of poorer classes, the stability shall be 
analyzed by approved procedures of soil mechanics. 

872.2 Hydrostatic Pressure. — In addition to earth pressure, walls 
shall be designed and constructed to resist hydrostatic pressures 
corresponding to the maximum probable ground water level. 

872.3. Coping. — All masonry retaining walls other than rein- 
forced concrete walls shall be protected with an approved coping. 

872.4. Wood Retaining Walls. — Wood retaining walls may be 
used subject to the requirements of section 876.4. 

SECTION 873.0. ISOLATED PIERS 

Isolated masonry piers shall be bonded as required for solid 
walls of the same thickness and shall be provided with adequate 
means for distributing the load on the top of the pier. 
873.1. Construction. — Isolated piers shall be built of solid units, 
for which hollow units filled with concrete shall not be sub- 
stituted unless designed and constructed in conformance with 



872-875 

jequirements for columns in reference standard RS 8-50. The 
unsupported height of isolated piers shall not exceed twelve 
112) times their least dimension. 

'373.2. Piers Within Walls. — When the clear horizontal distance 
between piers in masonry walls exceeds ten (10) feet they shall 
be considered isolated piers. 

573.2.1. Exceptions. — Thickening of portions of walls for non- 
structural purposes whether or not directly under concentrated 
loads shall not necessarily be construed as creating an isolated 
pier. 

SECTION 874.0. WATERPROOFING 

374.1. Steel Frame. — Exterior steel columns and girders before 
mbedment in masonry of the required fireresistance specified 

in section 221.1 table 2-1 shall be protected from moisture by 
approved waterproofing material, a parging coat of cement 
mortar or by a minimum of eight (8) inches of weathertight 
masonry. 

874.2. Chases. — The backs and sides of all chases in exterior 
walls with less than eight (8) inches of approved masonry to 
the exterior surface shall be insulated and waterproofed. 

874.3. Foundations. — Exterior walls and floors in contact with 
earth below grade enclosing habitable or occupiable rooms or 
spaces shali be made waterproof. Floors and portions of exterior 
walls below grade shall be reinforced to withstand water pres- 
sure as prescribed in sections 710 and 871 if required. 

874.4. Types of Waterproofing. — Portions of exterior walls below 
grade, required herein to be made waterproof shall be protected 
with not less than a one-coat application of approved water- 
proofing paint, or a one-half (1/2) inch thick parging coat of 
Portland cement mortar or other approved waterproof covering; 
and if furred shall be done so with impervious material. The 
processes and methods used to render buildings, structures or 
parts thereof watertight, as herein required, shall meet with the 
approval of the building official. 

874.5. Protection From Heat. — Under boilers, furnaces, and 
other heat-producing apparatus, suitable insulation shall be 
installed to protect the waterproofing against damage from heat. 

SECTION 875.0. RATPROOFING 

All buildings and structures and the walls enclosing habitable 
or occupiable rooms and spaces in which persons live, sleep or 



work; or in which feed, food or foodstuffs are stored, prepared, 
processed, served or sold shall be constructed rat and vermin- 
proof in accordance with the provisions of this section. Every 
basement or cellar in buildings hereafter erected shall be com- 
pletely covered with a ratproof floor of concrete, or solid masonry 
laid in cement mortar, not less than two (2) inches thick, or 
other approved flooring. 

875.1. Grade Protection. 

875.1.1. Apron. — When required for protection against rodents, 
all exterior walls at and near grade shall be constructed or as- 
sembled of component materials, or chemically or otherwise 
treated to render the construction rat or vermin-proof. When 
not provided with a continuous masonry foundation wall, a 
masonry or reinforced concrete apron, not less than four (4) 
inches in thickness or of other approved noncombustible, water- 
resisting and rat-proofing material of required strength, shall be 
installed around the entire perimeter of the buildings. 

875.1.2. Height of Apron. — The apron shall extend sufficiently 
above grade to provide for the average snow fall, but not less 
than eight (8) inches above, nor less than twenty-four (24) 
inches below grade level; and, if serving as a foundation bearing 
wall, to sufficiently greater depth to assure protection from 
frost action as required in section 729. When the superstructure 
walls are not constructed of masonry, the spaces between studs 
shall be filled to a height of two (2) feet above grade with 
concrete or other material indestructible by rats. 

875.2. Grade Floors. — Where continuous concrete grade floor 
slabs are provided, no open spaces shall be left between slab 
and walls, and all openings in the slab shall be protected. 

875.3. Opening Protection. 

875.3.1. Wall Openings. — Openings in the apron required for 
ventilation or other purposes shall be guarded with corrosion- 
resistive rodent-proof shields of not less than No. 22 U.S. gage 
perforated steel sheets, or No. 20 B & S gage aluminum or No. 
16 U.S. gage expanded metal or wire mesh screens, with no 
more than one-half (1/2) inch mesh openings. 

875.3.2. Slab Openings. — Access openings in grade floor slabs 
shall be protected with concrete, masonry, metal or other 
corrosion-resistive non-combustible covers of adequate strength 
to support the floor loads. 

875.3.3. Pipes and Conduits. — All openings for pipe, conduit, 
cable and similar purposes at or near grade shall have snugly- 
fitted collars to eliminate all open spaces. 



875-876 
SECTION 876.0. PROTECTION AGAINST DECAY AND 
TERMITES 

876.1. Where Conditions are Favorable to Decay. 

876.1.1. Wood in Contact with the Ground. — All wood in con- 
tact with the ground and supporting permanent structures shall 
be approved treated wood. 

876.1.2. Untreated Wood. — Untreated wood may be used where 
entirely below ground water level or continuously submerged in 
fresh water and may be used in contact with the ground for 
detached accessory buildings not intended for human occupancy, 
for temporary structures and for fences. 

876.2. Wood Joists or the Bottom of Wood Structural Floors.— 
When wood joists or the bottom of wood structural floors with- 
out joists are closer than eighteen (18) inches or wood girders 
are closer than twelve (12) inches, to exposed ground located 
within the periphery of the building over crawl spaces or un- 
excavated areas, they shall be approved durable species or 
treated wood. Ventilation 'shall be provided as required in section 
508.0. 

876.2.1. Additional Requirements. — Positive drainage shall be 
provided for all areas under the building not occupied by base- 
ments or cellars, and the ground surface shall be covered with a 
vapor barrier. All loose wood and debris including wood forms 
shall be removed from spaces under the building. All stumps 
and roots shall be grubbed to a minimum depth of twelve (12) 
inches. 

876.3. Sills. — All sills which rest on concrete or masonry exterior 
walls and are less than eight (8) inches from exposed earth shall 

be of approved durable species or treated wood. 

876.3.1. Sleepers and Sills. — Sleepers and sills on a concrete or 
masonry slab which is in direct contact with earth shall be raised 
by masonry or concrete at least three (3) inches above the top 
of such slab except when approved durable species or treated 
wood is used. 

876.3.2. Posts or Columns. — Wood posts or columns in cellars 
shall be supported by piers projecting at least three (3) inches 
above the finish floor and separated therefrom by an approved 
impervious barrier except when approved durable species or 
treated wood is used. Posts or columns used in damp locations 
below grade shall be of approved durable species or treated wood. 

876.3.3. Wall Pockets. — Ends of wood girders entering masonry 
or concrete walls shall be provided with a one-half (1/2) inch 



air space on top, sides and end unless approved durable species 
or treated wood is used. 

876.3.4. Clearance Between Wood Siding. — Clearance betweer 
wood siding and earth on the exterior of a building shall be noi 
less than six (6) inches. 

876.4. Wood Used in a Retaining Wail. — Wood used in a re- 
taining wall shall be approved durable species or treated wood. 
Retaining walls of wood shall be limited to the following: 

a. When the wall is not more than two (2) feet in height 
and is located on the property line. 

b. When the wall is not more than four (4) feet in height 
and is separated from the property line by a minimum 
distance equal to the height of the wall. 

c. The wall shall not exceed six (6) feet in height. A wood 
retaining wall shall be separated from any permanent;' 
building by a minimum distance equal to the height oil 
the wall. 

876.5. Where Approved Durable Species or Treated Woods! 
are Required. — Where approved durable species or treated woods 
are required in this code, the building official may require; 
identification by an approved mark of certificate of inspection. 1 

876.6. Treatment. — Where treatment of wood members is re-l 
quired by this code, preservatives and methods of treatment^ 
shall conform to the standards for treatment and preserving of 
lumber listed in reference standards RS 8-62 and RS 7-9. 

SECTION 877.0. FIRE PROTECTION AND FIRESTOPPING 

To prevent the free passage of flame through concealed spaces 
or openings in event of fire, provision shall be made to trim all 
combustible framing away from sources of heat, to provide 
effective fire barriers against the spread of fire between all sub- 
divisions and all stories of the building, to provide adequate fire 
separation against exterior exposure, and to firestop all vertical 
and horizontal draft openings as specified herein. 
877.1. Beam Separation in Ordinary Construction (types 3-B 
and 3-C). — All wood and other combustible floor, roof and 
other structural members framing into masonry walls shall be 
cut to a bevel of three (3) inches in the depth and shall project 
not more than four (4) inches into the wall; and the distance 
between embedded ends of adjacent beams or joists entering j 
into the wall from opposite sides shall be not less than four (4) 
inches. 



876-877 

877.2. Girder Separation in Heavy Timber Construction (type 
3-A). — Wood girders framing into masonry or concrete walls 
shall have at least eight (8) inches of masonry or concrete 
between their ends and the outside face of walls and at least 
eight (8) inches of masonry between adjacent beams entering 
the wall from opposite sides. The girders shall be fire-cut, 
supported in pockets or in self-releasing metal boxes, or other- 
wise supported to minimize destruction of the wall in the 
event of fire. 

877.3. Flues and Chimneys. — The space about a chimney shall 
be firestopped at each floor and ceiling level with noncombustible 
material, unless such space is treated as a vertical opening and 
is enclosed as provided in article 9. Combustible framing or 
other woodwork shall be trimmed not less than two (2) inches 
away from all flues, chimneys and fireplaces, and six (6) inches 
away from flue openings. 

877.4. Fireplaces. — Hearths of noncombustible construction and 
fireboards, mantels and other combustible trim shall comply 
with section 1013 governing fireplace construction. 

877.5. Concealed Roof Spaces. — Concealed roof spaces enclosed 
by combustible ceiling and roof construction shall be subdivided 
into areas of not more than three thousand (3,000) square feet 
as provided in section 219.0. 

877.6. Exterior Cornices. — Exterior cornices where permitted of 
combustible construction in section 926, or when erected with 
combustible frames shall be firestopped at maximum intervals 
of twenty (20) feet. If noncontinuous, they shall have closed 
ends, with at least four (4) inches separation between adjoining 
sections. 

877.7. Wall Furring. — In masonry wall construction (types 3-A, 
3-B and 3-C) and in frame construction (types 4-A and 4-B) 
where walls are furred, the space between the inside of the 
furring and the face of the wall for the full depth of the com- 
bustible floor or roof joists shall be firestopped. 

877.8. Combustible Trim and Finish. — The space behind com- 
bustible trim and finish where permitted under this code and all 
other hollow spaces where permitted in fireresistive construction 
shall be back-filled with noncombustible materials or firestopped 
as required in section 921.0. 

877.9. Firestopping. — Firestopping meeting the requirements of 
section 921 shall be provided in stud walls and partitions at 
each floor level and between the ceiling of the top story and 



roof space; in all furred spaces of frame walls and studded 
off spaces of masonry walls at maximum intervals of eight (8) 
feet; at the top and bottom and at least once in the middle 
of each run of stairs; in concealed wall pockets for sliding 
doors; for chases at floor and ceiling levels; at openings for 
pipes, belts, shafting, chutes and conveyors passing through 
combustible floors or partitions with close-fitting noncombustible 
caps or metal shutters or other approved noncombustible means; 
and in all other locations that would permit the free travel of 
flame. 

877.10. Steel Framing. — Where structural steel beams or other 
metal members frame into exterior, party, fire or enclosure walls 
of reinforced concrete, the ends shall have protection against 
fire of the rating specified for the wall. 

SECTION 878.0. THERMAL INSULATING MATERIALS 

Insulating batts, blankets, fills or similar types of materials, 
including vapor barriers and breather papers or other coverings 
which are a part of the insulation, incorporated in construction 
elements shall be installed and used in a manner that will not 
increase the fire hazard characteristics of the building or any part 
thereof. 

878.1. Exposed Installation. — Such materials when exposed as 
installed shall comply with the interior finish requirements as 
regulated in section 922. 

878.2. Deleted. 

878.3. Facings and Coverings. — Vapor barriers, breather papers 
or other coverings of insulating materials, when installed adjacent 
to or not more than one and one-half (1-1/2) inches from the 
unexposed surface of ceiling or sidewall interior finish, or when 
installed in completely enclosed wall, ceiling joist or rafter 
spaces, firestopped as required in section 877 are not required to 
have a flame resistance rating. 



RS8 



List of Reference Standards 

AA 1967 

Aluminum Construction Manual 

AASHO 1965 

Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges 

ACI 214 1965 

Recommended Practice for Evaluation of Compres- 
sion Test Results of Field Concrete 

ACI 318 1963 

Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete 

ACI 506 1966 

Recommended Practice for Shotcreting 

ACI 525 1963 

Minimum Requirements for Thin-Section Pre-Cast 

Concrete Construction 

ACI 211.2 1969 

Recommended Practice for Selecting Proportions for 

Structural Lightweight Concrete 

AISC 1969 

Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection 

of Structural Steel for Buildings 

AISI 1968 

Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel 

Structural Members 

AISI 1968 

Design of Light Gage Cold-Formed Stainless Steel 

Structural Members 

AITC 1966 

Timber Construction Manual Section 4 



AITC 100-65 1965 

Timber Construction Standards 

AITC 103-65 1965 

Standard for Structural Glued Laminated Timber 

ANSI A42.1 1964 
Specifications for Gypsum Plastering 

ANSI A42.2 1946 

Specifications for Portland Cement Stucco 

ANSI A42.3 1946 

Specifications for Portland Cement Plastering 

ANSI A42.4 1967 

Specifications for Interior Lathing and Furring 

ANSI A42.5 1960 

Specifications for Lime Cement Stucco 

ANSI A59.1 1968 

Specifications for Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 

ANSI A94.1 1961 
Specifications for Interior Marble 

ANSI A94.2 1961 

Specifications for Thin Exterior Marble Veneer (Two 

Inches and Less in Thickness) 

ANSI A94.3 1961 

Specifications for Thin Exterior Marble in Curtain 

or Panel Walls 

ANSI A97.1 1965 

Specifications for Application and Finishing of 

Wallboard 

ANSI A108.1 1967 

Specifications for (Including Requirements of Related 
Divisions) Installation of Glazed Ceramic Wall Tile 
in Cement Mortars 



RS 8 

ANSI A108.2 1967 

Specifications for (Including Requirements of Related 
Divisions) Installation of Ceramic Mosiac Tile in 
Cement Mortars 

ANSI A108.3 1967 

Specifications (Including Requirements of Related 
Divisions) for Installation of Quarry Tile and Pavers 
in Cement Mortars 

ANSI A108.5 1967 

Specifications for Installation of Ceramic Tile with 

Dry Set Portland Cement Mortar 

ANSI A118.1 1967 

Specifications for Dry-Set Portland Cement Mortar 

ANSI Z26.1 1950 

Safety Glazing Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles 

Operating on Land Highways 

APA 1967 

Design and Fabrication of Flat Plywood Stressed 

Skin Panels 

APA 1967 

Design and Fabrication of Plywood Beams 

APA 1967 

Design and Fabrication of Plywood Curved Panels 

APA 1967 

Fabrication of Plywood Folded Plates 

APA 1964 

Lab. Bulletin 58-B — Plywood Folded Plate Design 

Method 

APA 1966 

Plywood Design Specifications 



ASTM A27 1965 

Specifications for Mild-To-Medium Strength Carbon- 
Steel Castings for General Application 

ASTM A48 1964 

Specifications for Gray Iron Castings 

ASTM A 148 1965 

Specifications for High-Strength Steel Castings for 

Structural Purposes 

ASTM A377 1966 

Specifications for Cast Iron Pressure Pipe 

ASTM C5 1959 

Specifications for Quicklime for Structural Purposes 

ASTM C6 1949 

Specifications for Normal Finishing Hydrated Lime 

ASTM CIO 1964 

Specifications for Natural Cement 

ASTM C22 1950 

Specifications for Gypsum 

ASTM C28 1968 

Specifications for Gypsum Plasters 

ASTM C31 1969 

Making and Curing Concrete Compression and 

Flexure Test Specimens in the Field 

ASTM C33 1969 

Specifications for Concrete Aggregates 

ASTM C34 1962 

Specifications for Structural Clay Load Bearing Wall 

Tiles 

ASTM C35 1967 

Specifications for Inorganic Aggregates for Use in 

Gypsum Plaster 



RS 8 

ASTM C36 1968 

Specifications for Gypsum Wall Board 

ASTM C37 1967 

Specifications for Gypsum Lath 

ASTM C39 1968 

Test for Compressive Strength of Molded Concrete 

Cylinders 

ASTM C42 1968 

Method of Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and 

Sawed Beams of Concrete 

ASTM C52 1954 

Specifications for Gypsum Partition Tile or Block 

ASTM C55 1966 

Specifications for Concrete Building Brick 

ASTM C56 1962 

Specifications for Structural Clay Non-Load Bearing 

Tile 

ASTM C57 1957 

Specifications for Structural Clay Floor Tile 

ASTM C61 1964 

Specifications for Keene's Cement 

ASTM C62 1966 

Specifications for Building Brick (Solid Masonry Units 

Made from Clay or Shale) 

ASTM C73 1967 

Specifications for Calcium Silicate Face Brick (Sand- 
Lime Brick) 

ASTM C79 1967 

Specifications for Gypsum Sheathing Board 



ASTM C90 1966 

Specifications for Hollow Load-Bearing Concrete Ma- 
sonry Units 

ASTM C91 1969 

Specifications for Masonry Cement 

ASTM C94 1969 

Specifications for Ready-Mixed Concrete 

ASTM C126 1969 

Specifications for Ceramic Glazed Structural Clay 

Facing Tile, Facing Brick, and Solid Masonry Units 

ASTM C129 1964 

Specifications for Hollow Non-Load Bearing Concrete 

Masonry Units 

ASTM C143 1966 

Test for Slump of Portland Cement Concrete 

ASTM C145 1966 

Specifications for Solid Load-Bearing Concrete 

Masonry Units 

ASTM C150 1968 
Specifications for Portland Cement 

ASTM C172 1968 
Sampling Fresh Concrete 

ASTM C192 1969 

Making and Curing Concrete Compression and 

Flexure Test Specimens in the Laboratory 

ASTM C206 1949 

Specifications for Special Finishing Hydrated Lime 

ASTM C207 1949 

Specifications for Hydrated Lime for Masonry Pur- 
poses 



RS8 

ASTM C208 1960 

Specifications for Structural Insulating Board Made 

from Vegetable Fibers 

ASTM C270 1968 

Specifications for Mortar for Unit Masonry 

ASTM C330 1969 

Specifications for Lightweight Aggregates for Struc- 
tural Concrete 

ASTM C331 1969 

Specifications for Lightweight Aggregates for Concrete 

Masonry Units 

ASTM C332 1966 

Specifications for Lightweight Aggregates for Insu- 
lating Concrete 

ASTM C476 1963 

Specifications for Mortar and Grout for Reinforced 

Masonry 

ASTM C494 1968 

Specifications for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete 

ASTM C595 1968 

Specifications for Blended Hydraulic Cements 

ASTM D2277 1966 

Specification for Fiberboard Nail-Base Sheathing 

AWPA C2 1969 

Standard for the Preservative Treatment of Lumber, 

Timbers, Bridge Ties and Mine Ties by Pressure 

Processes 

AWPA C4 1969 

Standard for Preservative Treatment of Poles by 

Pressure Processes 



AWPA C9 1967 

Standard for the Preservative Treatment of Plywood 

by Pressure Processes 

AWS D 1.0-69 1969 

Code for Welding in Building Construction 

NCMA 1968 

Specification for the Design and Construction of 

Loadbearing Concrete Masonry 

NFoPA 1966 

Simplified Spans for Joists and Rafters in Residential 

Construction 

NFoPA 1968 

National Design Specification for Stress Grade Lum- 
ber and Its Fastenings 

NFoPA 1957 

Wood Structural Design Data 

SCPI 1966 

Recommended Building Code Requirements for En- 
gineered Brick Masonry 

SJI-AISC 1966 

Standard Specifications and Load Tables for Long 

Span Steel Joists, LJ-Series and LH-Series 

SJI-AISC 1965 

Standard Specifications and Load Tables for Open 

Web Steel Joists, J-Series and H-Series 

USDC CS31 1952 

Wood Shingles (Red Cedar, Tidewater, Red Cypress 

and California Redwood) 

USDC CS181 1952 

Adhesive, Water Resistant Organic, for Installation 

of Clay Tile 



RS8-1 RS8-4 

USDC CS253 1963 

Structural Glued — Laminated Lumber 



US Fed. Specification DD-G-451c 1968 

Glass, Flat and Corrugated, for Glazing Mirrors, 

and Other Uses 



US Fed. Specification SS-S-721c 1964 
Stone, Architectural Cast 

VI 1963 

Standard Specifications for Vermiculite Plastering 

Empirical Provisions for Wood Frame Construction 

Minimum and Empirical Thickness Requirements for 
Masonry Walls 

Minimum Nailing Schedule 

On Site Quality Control 

Plywood Construction 

RS 8-1 ASTM C62 1966 

Specifications for Building Brick (Solid Masonry Units 
Made from Clay or Shale) 

RS8-2 ASTM C73 1967 

Specifications for Calcium Silicate Face Brick (Sand- 
Lime Brick) 

RS 8-3 ASTM C55 1966 

Specifications for Concrete Building Brick 

RS8-4 ASTM C34 1962 

Specifications for Structural Clay Load Bearing Wall 
Tile 



RS8-5 ASTM C56 1962 

Specifications for Structural Clay Non-Load Bearing 
Tile 

RS 8-6 ASTM C57 1957 

Specifications for Structural Clay Floor Tile 

RS8-7 ASTM CI 26 1969 

Specifications for Ceramic Glazed Structural Clay 
Facing Tile, Facing Brick, and Solid Masonry Units 

RS 8-8 ASTM C90 1966 

Specifications for Hollow Load-Bearing Concrete 
Masonry Units 

RS8-9 ASTM CI 29 1964 

Specifications for Hollow Non-Load Bearing Concrete 
Masonry Units 

RS8-10 ASTM C145 1966 

Specifications for Solid Load-Bearing Concrete Ma- 
sonry Units 

RS8-11 ASTM C52 1954 

Specifications for Gypsum Partition Tile or Block 

RS 8-12 U.S. Federal Spec. SS-S-721c 1964 
Stone, Architectural, Cast 



RS8-13 ASTM CI 50 1968 

Specifications for Portland Cement 

RS8-14 ASTM CIO 1964 

Specifications for Natural Cement 

RS8-15 ASTM C91 1968 

Specifications for Masonry Cement 

RS8-16 ASTM C5 1959 

Specifications for Quicklime for Structural Purposes 



RS 8-5 RS 8-26 
RS 8-17 ASTM C207 1969 

Specifications for Hydrated Lime for Masonry 
Purposes 

RS 8-18 ASTM C270 1968 

Specifications for Mortar for Unit Masonry 

RS 8-19 ASTM C476 1963 

Specifications for Mortar and Grout for Reinforced 
Masonry 

RS8-20 ASTM C22 1950 

Specifications for Gypsum 

! RS 8-21 ANSI A108.5 1967 

Specifications for Installation of Ceramic Tile with 
Dry Set Portland Cement Mortar 

RS8-22 ANSI Al 18.1 1967 

Specifications for Dry-Set Portland Cement Mortar 

RS8-23 USDC CS181 1952 

Adhesive- Water Resistant Organic, for Installation of 
Clay Tile 

RS8-24 ASTM C33 1969 

Specifications for Concrete Aggregates 

RS 8-25 ASTM C330 1969 

Specifications for Lightweight Aggregates for Struc- 
tural Concrete 

ASTM C331 1969 

Specifications for Lightweight Aggregates for Concrete 

Masonry Units 

ASTM C332 1966 

Specifications for Lightweight Aggregates for Insulat- 
ing Concrete 

RS 8-26 ASTM C94 1969 

Specifications for Ready-Mixed Concrete 



RS8-27 AITC 103-65 1965 

Standard for Structural Glued Laminated Timber 

RS8-28 ANSI A42.1 1964 

Specifications for Gypsum Plastering 

RS 8-29 ANSI A42.4 1967 

Specifications for Interior Lathing and Furring 

RS 8-30 ANSI A42.5 1960 

Specifications for Lime Cement Stucco 

RS 8-31 VI 1963 

Standard Specifications for Vermiculite Plastering 

RS 8-32 ANSI A42.2 1946 

Specifications for Portland Cement Stucco 

ANSI A42.3 1946 

Specifications for Portland Cement Plastering 

RS 8-33 ASTM C35 1967 

Specifications for Inorganic Aggregates for Use in 
Gypsum Plaster 

ASTM C6 1949 

Specifications for Normal Finishing Hydrated Lime 

ASTM C206 1949 

Specifications for Special Finishing Hydrated Lime 

ASTM C28 1968 

Specifications for Gypsum Plasters 

ASTM C61 1964 

Specifications for Keene's Cement 

ASTM C595 1968 

Specifications for Blended Hydraulic Cements 

RS 8-34 ASTM C208 1960 

Specifications for Structural Insulating Board Made 
from Vegetable Fibers 



RS 8-27 RS 8-36 

RS8-35 ASTM C37 1967 

Specifications for Gypsum Lath 

RS8-36 PLYWOOD CONSTRUCTION 

1.1 DEFINITIONS — 

1.1.1. Plywood. — Plywood is a laminated board or 
panel, consisting of an odd number of veneer sheets 
placed alternately crosswise and bonded together with 
either a water-resistant or waterproof adhesive that 
forms a bond stronger than the wood itself. 

1.1.2. Plywood Component. — A plywood component, 
for the purposes of this standard, shall be defined as 
an element of a structural member formed by the 
assembly of plywood parts or of plywood parts with 
parts of wood or other materials so as to form an 
integral assemblage. 

1.2. Conformance With Standard. — Materials, design, 
and fabrications shall conform to reference standard 
RS8-37 except that the word "should" in that stan- 
dard shall be mandatory. 

1.3. Exterior Use. — All plywood when permanently 
exposed in outdoor applications shall be of exterior 
type. Plywood used for covering the exterior of out- 
side walls and applied directly to supports shall be 
at least 3/8 inch nominal thickness. Panel joints shall 
be backed solidly by studs or by nailing pieces at 
least 2 inches wide (nominal), except over sheathing 
or where applied as lapped siding, or when other- 
wise made waterproof. Plywood siding applied over 
sheathing shall be not less than 1/4 inch thick. 

1.4. Roof Sheathing. — Where plywood is used as 
roof sheathing the spans shall not exceed the values 
given in table RS8-36-1. 



Table RS 8-36-1 

Maximum Spans For Plywood Roof and Floor 

Sheathing a 

(Plywood continuous over two or more spans and face 
grain perpendicular to supports) 







R 


qpf 








Maximurr 


i Span 




\ 






(In X h. 


es) 


Load 

, / ' 


(psf) 


Floor 


Panel 


/ 


i 




Identi- 


Edges 


Edges 






Maximum 


fication 


Blocked 


Un- 


Total 


Live 


Spand 


Index 




Blocked 


Load 


Load 


(Inches) 


12/0 


12 


12 


130 


100 





16/0 


16 


16 


75 


55 





20/0 


20 


20 


55 


45 





24/0 


24 ,e 


24 


60 


45 





30/12 


30 


26 


55 


40 


12 f 


32/16 


32 


28 


50 c 


40 


168 


36/16 


36 


30 


50 c 


35 c 


168 


42/20 


42 


32 


45 c 


35 c 


208 


48,24 . 


48 


36 


40 c 


40 


24 



Notes — 

a These values apply for Structural I and II, 
Standard Sheathing, and C-C grades only. Spans shall 
be limited to values shown because of possible effect 
of concentrated loads. 

b Identification Index appears on all panels in the 
construction grades listed in footnote a. 

c For roof live load of 40 psf or total load of 55 
psf, decrease spans by 13 per cent or use panel with 
next greater Identification Index. 

d Plywood edges shall have approved tongue and 
groove joints or shall be supported with blocking, 
unless 1/4 inch minimum thickness Underlayment is 
installed, or finish floor is 25/32 inch wood strip. 
Allowable uniform load based on deflection of 1/360 
of span is 100 psf. 

e 1/2 inch Structural I, when continuous over one 
support, may be laid with face grain parallel to sup- 
ports provided all panel edges are blocked or other 
approved type edge support is provided, the spacing 
of the supports does not exceed 24 inches oh center, 
and the live load does not exceed 30 pounds per 
square foot. For other grades, a thickness of 5/8 
inch is required. 



RS 8-36 

f May be 16 inches if 25/32 inch wood strip 
flooring is installed at right angles to joists. 

g May be 24 inches if 25/32 inch wood strip 
flooring is installed at right angles to joists.. 

1.5. Plywood Subfloors. — Where plywood is used as 
structural subflooring the maximum spans shall not 
exceed the values given in. table RS8-36-1. If resilient 
flooring or carpeting is to be applied directly to a 
plywood subfloor without separate underlayment, the 
panels shall be underlayment grade C-C plugged, or 
any sanded grade of exterior type plywood. This 
thickness shall not be less than the values prescribed 
for the given spans and loads shown in Table RS8-36-2. 



Table RS 8-36-2 

Minimum Thickness For Plywood Combination Sub- 
Floor— Underlayment a 

(Plywood continuous over two or more spans and 
face grain perpendicular to supports) 

Maximum Spacing Of Supports (In.) 
Species Group 16 20 24 

1 1 2 in. 5 8 in. 3 4 in. 

2,3 5/8 in. 3 4 in. 7/8 in. 

4 3 4 in. 7 8 in. 1 in. 

Note — 

a Applicable to Underlayment Grade, C-C (Plug- 
ged) and all grades of sanded Exterior type plywood. 
Spans limited to values shown because of possible 
effect of concentrated loads. Allowable uniform load 
based on deflection of 1 /360th of span is 100 psf. 
Plywood edges shall have approved tongue and groove 
joints or shall be supported with blocking unless 
1/4 inch minimum thickness Underlayment is installed, 
or finish floor is 25/32 inch wood strip. If wood strips 
are perpendicular to supports, thickness as shown for 
16- and 20-inch spans may be used on 24 inch span. 



1.6. Special 1-1/8 Inch Plywood Subflooring for 48 
Inch Span. — Such material, if conforming to design 
specifications of the American Plywood Association 
special 2-4-1 panel may be used over girders spaced 
not more than 48 inches on centers, with edges on 
2 inch x 4 inch blocking securely attached to main 
girders, provided the total floor load does not exceed 
80 psf. A tongue and groove joint may be used in 
lieu of blocking. 

1.7. Plywood Wall Sheathing. — Plywood may be ap- 
plied either horizontally or vertically and as indicated 
in building code provisions for the bracing of exterior 
walls. 

1.8. Fastening. — Plywood sheathing and subflooring 
— Plywood sheathing and subflooring shall have the 
maximum fastener spacing on framing as prescribed 
in Table RS8-36-3. 

Table RS 8-36-3 
Fastening Schedule 







Fastener 


Spacing 






(in,) 3 


Plywood 




Inter- 


Thickness 


Common Nail and Staple 


Panel 


mediate 


(in.) 


Size Type 


Edges 


Support 


Plywood Roof 


and Wall Sheathing 






1/2 or less 


6d Smooth or deformed 


6 


12 


5/8 or greater 


8d Smooth or deformed 


6 


12 


5/16, 3/8, 1/2 


16 gage galvanized wire sta- 
ples, 3/8 in. minimum crown. 
Length of one in. plus ply- 
wood thickness except 1-1/4 








inch, for 5/16 in. plywood 


4 


8 


Plywood Subfli 


aoring 






1/2 


6d Smooth or deformed 


6 


10 


5,8, 3,4, 7,8 


8d Smooth or 6d deformed .. 


6 


10 


1, 1-1 8 


lOd Smooth or 8d deformed.. 


6 


6 


1,2 


16 gage gahanized wire sta- 








ples, 3 8 in. minimum crown. 


4 


7 


5 8 


1-5 8 in. long 


2-1,2 


4 



NOTE — 

a Where spans are 48 inches or more nails shall 
be spaced at 6 inches at all supports. 



RS 8-36 
1.9. Plywood Siding. — Plywood siding shall be applied 
and nailed as prescribed in Table RS8-36-4. 



Table RS 8-36-4 










Plywood 


Siding 












Plywoodb,c 
Thickness 


Nail 


/ 
Nail 


Nail Sp 
Panel 


lacing (in.) 
A 


Type of 


Intermediate 


Siding 


(in.) 


Size 


Type 


Edges 2 


Supports 


Panel 












Siding 


3 8 e 

1 2, 5 8 and 


6d 


Corrosive 
resistant box 


6 


12 




thicker 


8d 


or casing 
nails 


6 


12 


Lap 

Siding 


3 8 


6d 


Corrosive 
resistant box 




One nail per 
stud for 




1 2 and 


8d 


or casing 
nails 




width 12 in. 
or less. 




thicker 






4 


8 in. for 
width 

greater than 
12. in. 



NOTES — 

a Minimum edge distance of 3/8 in. 

b In direct-to-stud applications 5-ply panels of 
1/2 in. nominal thickness or more may be used over 
studs 24 in. o.c. if texturing does not penetrate 
through the face veneer. All other panels must be 
used over studs spaced not more than 16 in. on 
center. 

c Special requirement: Nails on ship-lap edges of 
5/8 in. and thicker panel siding 3/8 in. from exposed 
edge and slant driven towards edge; do not set. 

e When separate sheathing is applied, 3/8 in. 
panel and 303 siding may be used over supports 
spaced 24 inches on center, 1/4 inch over supports 
16 inches on center. 

1.10. Plywood Diaphragms. — Plywood diaphragms 
may be used to resist horizontal forces when designed 
and constructed in accordance with reference standard 
RS8-57. 



RS 8-37 APA 1966 

Plywood Design Specifications 

RS 8-38 APA 1967 

Design and Fabrication of Plywood Beams 

APA 1967 

Design and Fabrication of Plywood Curved Panels 

APA 1964 

Lab. Bulletin 58-B — Plywood Folded Plate Design 

Method 

APA 1967 

Fabrication of Plywood Folded Plates 

RS8-39 ASTM C79 1967 

Specifications for Gypsum Sheathing Board 

RS8-40 ANSI A97.1 1965 

Specifications for Application and Finishing of Wall- 
board 

RS8-41 ASTM C36 1968 

Specifications for Gypsum Wall Board 

RS 8-42 AISC 1969 

Specification for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection 
of Structural Steel for Buildings 

Modifications. — Unless otherwise specifically dated, 
national standards cited within this reference standard 
shall be those current on June 1, 1969. The provisions 
of AISC 1969 Specification for the Design, Fabrica- 
tion, and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings 
shall be applied in conformance with the AISC 1969 
Commentary on the Specification for the Design, 
Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Build- 
ings and shall be subject to the following modifica- 
tions: (The section and paragraph numbers are from 
that standard.) 



RS8-37 RS8-42 

1.3. Loads and Forces. — 

Delete this section and substitute the following: 
"The provisions of the Boston Code for loads shall 
apply." 

1.4. Material.— 

General. — The provisions relating to certification as 
the term is used in this section shall be only as re- 
quired and approved by the building official. 

1.4.1.3. Add the following new subsection: 

"Steels of higher strength than are covered by the 
above mentioned ASTM Specifications may be used 
provided the design is based upon the minimum prop- 
erties of such higher strength steel as certified by the 
manufacturer's test reports and approved by the 
building official." 

1.4.1.4. Add the following new subsection: 
"Structural steel members installed in buildings in the 
year 1924 or earlier shall not be stressed in excess of 
16,000 psi. Similar members installed after 1924 and 
prior to the year 1943, and after 1942 and prior to 
October 1963 shall not be stressed in excess of 18,000 
psi and 20,000 psi respectively. 

Structural steel which has previously been used in a 
building or other structure or which has been fabri- 
cated for such use, shall not be used in another 
building or structure except with the approval of the 
building official and under such conditions as he may 
in each case specify." 

1.4.2. Add the following sentence at the end of this 
subsection: 

"The building official may require reasonable tests 
from time to time of metals and alloys to determine 
their quality and whether they conform to the re- 
quirements of this section." 



1.4.6. Add the following new subsection: 
"Pipe Steel. 

Pipe steel shall conform to the following specifications: 
Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe, ASTM A53-65." 

1.5. Allowable Unit Stresses 

1.5.1.3. Compression. — Add the following subsection: 
"1.5.1.3.6. The above formulas (1.5-1) and (1.5-2) 
shall be used in conjunction with section 847.0 of the 
Boston code (Concrete Filled Pipe Columns)." 

1.5.5. Masonry Bearing. — Delete this section and 
substitute the following: 

"The applicable provisions of the Boston Code shall 
apply." 

1.5.6. Wind and Seismic Stresses. — Delete and sub- 
stitute the following: 

"The applicable provisions of article 7 of the Boston 
Code shall apply." 

1.6. Combined Stresses 

1.6.1. Axial Compression and Bending. — At the end 

of this subsection add the following sentence: 
"This section shall be used in conjunction with sec- 
tion 847.0 of the Boston Code (Concrete Filled Pipe 
Columns.)" 

1.10. Plate Girders and Rolled Beams 

1.10.9. Horizontal Forces. — Delete reference to sec- 
tion 1.3.4 and substitute applicable provisions of the 
Boston Code for loads. 

1.11. Composite Construction 

1.11.1. Definition. — Add the following paragraph: 
"Concrete materials shall meet the applicable require- 
ments of the building code. Where concrete having 
aggregates other than those in accordance with RS8-24 
is used, the capacity of the shear connectors to resist 



RS 8-42 

the applied load under the proposed conditions of use 
shall be investigated. Composite construction used for 
members subject to heavy vehicle loads (except where 
the applied vehicle load is limited to passenger cars), 
shall be proportioned in accordance with the require- 
ments of reference standard RS8-74." 

1.20. Expansion 

Delete this text and substitute the following: 
"The provisions of section 710.8 of the Boston Build- 
ing Code shall apply." 

1.24. Shop Painting 

Delete this section. The provisions of section 827 
shall apply. 

1.25. Erection 

Delete section 1.25.5 and add the following: 
"1.25.5. Field Connections.— 

Field connections shall meet the requirements for cor- 
responding types of shop connections as described in 
section 1.23. No holes, copes, or cuts of any type 
shall be made to facilitate erection unless specifically 
shown on the shop drawings or authorized in writing 
by the party or parties designated for inspection of 
said work." 

Add Section as follows: 

"Section 1.27. Minimum Thickness of Metal. — All 

exterior members of structural steel, except roofing and 
siding, that are exposed to the weather shall have a 
protective coating as required by the provisions of 
Section 1.24 and shall have a minimum thickness of 
metal of 0.23 inch. Exception: The minimum thickness 
of metal need only conform to the requirements for 
stress under the following conditions: 

( 1 ) Exterior members exposed to the weather. — An 
approved type of atmospheric corrosion resistant 
steel is used or exposed surfaces are zinc coated 



with a minimum weight of coating of approximately 
0.6 ounces per square foot of exposed surface and 
covered with a protective coating as required by 
section 1.24 or exposed surfaces are protected by 
other approved means. 

(2) Members not exposed to the .weather. — All 
members except that members located where they 
would be subject to accidental impact shall be 
stiffened to resist such impact. 

(3) Roofing and siding. — All members provided 
that surfaces which are exposed to the weather 
shall have a protective coating. 

(4) Temporary construction that will be in place 
for a period of one year, or less, provided that all 
surfaces which are exposed to the weather shall 
have a protective coating. 

(5) Joists or purlins that are exposed to the 
weather but which are spaced not more than 30 
inches center-to-center, do not support more than 
200 square feet of floor or roof area, and which 
have a protective coating as required by section 
1.24." 

AISI 1968 

Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel 
Structural Members 

Modifications. — The provisions of AISI 1968 specifi- 
cation for the design of cold-formed steel structural 
members shall be subject to the following modifica- 
tions. The section and paragraph numbers are from 
that standard. 

3.1.2. Wind, Earthquake and Combined Forces. — De- 
lete sections 3.1.2.1 and 3.1.2.2 and substitute the 
following: 

"The provisions of the Boston Building Code for 
loads shall apply." 
4.2. Welds.— 

4.2.1. Fusion Welds. — In the last paragraph delete 
the words "Code for Welding in Building Construc- 
tion or the Special Ruling on Gas-Metal Arc Welding 
with Carbon Dioxide Shielding of the American 
Welding Society," and substitute "Reference Stan- 
dard RS8-73." 



RS8-42 RS8-43 
Section 6 Tests for Special Cases. — 

1. Add to paragraph 6.1(e) the following sentence: 

"All laboratories shall be subject to the approval of 

the building official." 

Add the following section: 

"Section 7. Fabrication and Erection. — 

The applicable provisions of reference standard RS8-42 

shall apply, supplemented as follows: 

7.1 Fabrication. — 

(a) Straightening and flattening. — All material shall 
be clean and straight. If straightening or flattening is 
necessary, it shall be done by a suitable process or 
method and in a manner that will not injure the 
material. 

(b) Profiles and distortion. — Profiles used struc- 
turally shall conform to the specified dimension. Care 
shall be taken not to stretch, bend, or otherwise dis- 
tort parts of the sections unless such forming is an 
integral part of the design. 

(c) Cutting and punching. — Components may be 
cut by slitting, shearing, sawing, or flame cutting. All 
punched holes and sheared or flame cut edges of ma- 
terial in members subject to calculated stress shall be 
clean and free from notches and burred edges. 

(d) Bolted and riveted connections. — Holes for 
bolts or rivets shall be 1/16 inch larger than the 
nominal diameter of the bolt and rivet when the 
diameter of bolt or rivet is 1/2 inch and larger, and 
1/32 inch larger than the nominal diameter of the 
bolt or rivet when the diameter is less than 1/2 inch. 

7.2 Erection. — Care shall be taken to avoid damage 
when loading, unloading, and handling members." 

AISI 1968 

Specification for the Design of Light Gage Cold- 
Formed Stainless Steel Structural Members 
Modifications. — The provisions of AISI 1968 specifi- 
cation for the design of light gage cold-formed stain- 
less steel structural members shall be subject to the 
following modifications. The section and paragraph 
numbers are from that standard. 

3.9. Wind or Earthquake Stresses. — Delete section 



3.9.1 and 3.9.2 and substitute the following: 
"The provisions of the Boston Building Code for 
loads shall apply." 
4.2. Welds.— 

4.2.1. Fusion Welds. — In the third paragraph delete 
the words "Code for Welding in Building Construc- 
tion, D1.0 of the American Welding Society, of 
latest edition, " and substitute "Reference Standard 
RS8-73." 

Section 6 Tests for Special Cases. — 

1. Add to paragraph 6.2.1(c) the following sentence: 
"All laboratories shall be subject to the approval 
of the building official." 
Add the following section: 

"Section 7. Fabrication and Erection. — 

The applicable provisions of reference standard RS8-42 
shall apply, supplemented as follows: 

7.1 Fabrication. — 

(a) Straightening and flattening. — All material shall 
be clean and straight. If straightening or flattening is 
necessary, it shall be done by a suitable process or 
method and in a manner that will not injure the 
material. 

(b) Profiles and distortion — Profiles used struc- 
turally shall conform to the specified dimension. Care 
shall be taken not to stretch, bend, or otherwise dis- 
tort parts of the sections unless such forming is an 
integral part of the design. 

(c) Cutting and punching. — Components may be 
cut by slitting, shearing, sawing, or flame cutting. All 
punched holes and sheared or flame cut edges of ma- 
terial in members subject to calculated stress shall be 
clean and free from notches and burred edges. 

(d) Bolted and riveted connections. — Holes for 
bolts or rivets shall be 1/16 inch larger than the 
nominal diameter of the bolt and rivet when the dia- 
meter of bolt or rivet is 1/2 inch and larger, and 
1/32 inch larger than the nominal diameter of the 
bolt or rivet when the diameter is less than 1/2 inch. 

7.2 Erection. — Care shall be taken to avoid damage 
when loading, unloading, and handling members." 



RS 8-43 RS 8-45 
SJI-AISC 1965 

Standard Specifications and Load Tables for Open 
Web Steel Joists, J-Series and H-Series 

SJI-AISC 1967 

Standard Specifications and Load Tables for Long 
Span Steel Joists, LJ-Series and LH-Series 
Modifications. — The provisions of the standard speci- 
fications for open web steel joists as listed above shall 
be subject to the following modifications. The section 
and paragraph numbers are from those standards. 
Minimum thickness of metal. — The provisions of refer- 
ence standard RS8-42 shall apply. 
Specific Modifications — Open Web Steel Joists 
5.10 Inspection. — 
Delete this section. 

Specific Modifications — Longspan Steel Joists 
104.11 Inspection. — 
Delete this section. 

ACI 318 1963 

Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete 
Modifications. — The provisions of ACI 318 1963 
shall be subject to the following modifications. The 
section and paragraph numbers are from that stan- 
dard, unless otherwise noted. 
101 Scope. — 

(a) Insert the words "plain and" after the words 
"construction of in the second line. 

(b) Delete this paragraph. 

104 Approval of special systems of design or construc- 
tion. — Delete this section and substitute the following: 
"Nothing in this article shall be construed to prohibit 
the use of any system of design, alternate to those in- 
dicated, provided that it can be demonstrated to the 
satisfaction of the building official that such system 
of design will provide a factor of safety against struc- 
tural failure, fire safety, and such other characteristics 
pertinent to the safety of life, health, and property as 
prescribed in the Boston Code or as may be required 
by the building official. The building official may 
approve any system of construction which is not 



covered by or which conflicts with the requirements 
of the Boston Code, on the basis of satisfactory ex- 
perience records and tests as prescribed by sections 
803 and 804 and sections 903 and 904. Whenever the 
code prescribes the use of a particular material, the 
building official may permit the use of any material 
shown to be equivalent for the use intended, in terms 
of health, fire, and/or structural safety. Nothing 
contained in this code shall be construed to require 
the use of any particular material for the purpose of 
meeting performance requirements of this code." 

402 Add the following new paragraph: 

(c) Special cements may be used subject to the ap- 
proval of the building official. Such cements shall 
meet the requirements for Portland cement in regard 
to soundness, setting time and strength of the Ameri- 
can Society for Testing and Materials for the particular 
type. Air-entraining cements shall produce a resultant 
air content in field mixtures at point of deposit not 
in excess of 5.0% when measured by means of an 
air meter in conformity with Standard Methods of 
Test for Determination of Air Content of Freshly 
Mixed Concrete by Pressure Method of the American 
Society for Testing and Materials. 

403 Add the following new paragraph: 

(c) Concrete aggregates for which there are no stan- 
dard specifications also may be employed in concrete 
for particular uses subject to the approval of the 
building official. Very lightweight aggregates such as 
pumice, expanded perlite, exfoliated vermiculite, 
weighing less than 40 pounds per cubic foot dry and 
loose may be employed only in non-structural concrete. 
406, 407 and 408 Admixtures. — The requirements 
for the use of admixtures shall be in accordance with 
the three (3) previously cited sections as modified 
by the following: 

"Admixtures, other than air-entraining and water- 
reducing agents, may be used only when batch plant 
observations are made by a representative of, or em- 
ployee of, or other qualified individuals responsible 
to the architect or engineer who prepared the design 
drawings with said individual subject to the approval 
of the building official and the architect or engineer. 



RS 8-45 

When admixtures are used, the provisions of reference 
standard RS8-45 shall apply except that water-reducing 
agents shall conform to reference standard RS8-69. 
Type A or D, with the requirements for compressive 
strength increased to one hundred ten (110) per cent 
(all ages) and for durability increased to one hundred 
(100) per cent. In addition, no anti-freeze agents shall 
be used. Admixtures shall be added only through 
calibrated dispensing devices. These dispensers shall 
be regularly inspected and certified as to accuracy by 
the manufacturer of the admixture. 
410 Specifications cited in this code*.— 
(a) Delete the asterisk and note applying to same. 

501 Add the following new paragraph: 

(e) The provisions of this section apply to site-mixed 
concrete, ready-mixed concrete (either central or tran- 
sit mixed) and to precast concrete made at a casting 
plant. 

502 Method of determining the proportions of concrete. 
— Delete the entire contents of this section except for 
the title and first sentence labeled "( a )" an d substi- 
tute the following text whose section and paragraph 
numbers are not from the referenced national standard: 
502.1. Method I — Mixes with Minimum Cement 
Factor. 

502.11. Minimum Cement Factor. — The cement factor 
used in the work shall not be less than the factor 
given in table RS8-45-1 for the corresponding strength 
of concrete. 

Table RS8-45-1 Minimum Cement Factor 
Specified Compressive Minimum Bags of Cement 

Strength in 28 Days Cubic Yard of Concrete 

(f'c)-psi (all aggregates) 

2,000 5.00 

2,500 5.25 

3,000 5.75 

3,500 6.50 

3,750 6.75 

4,000 7.00 

5,000 7.50 

Over 5,000 Permitted only by 

Method II 



502.12. Water-Cement Ratio. — The concrete used in 
the work, whether proportioned on the basis of pre- 
liminary tests or of prequalified mix designs, shall be 
produced by using a water-cement ratio corresponding 
to a point on the strength vs. water-cement ratio 
curve representing (at a slump of five (5) inches ± one 
(1) inch for concrete manufactured with gravel or 
stone aggregate and at a slump of four (4) inches 
± one (1) inch for concrete manufactured with light- 
weight aggregate) a strength of concrete at least 
twenty-five (25) per cent higher than the specified 
strength called for on the plans. The cement factor 
shall not be less than the factor shown in table 
RS8-45-1. The water-cement ratio shall not exceed 
the ratio shown in table RS8-45-2. 
Table RS8-45-2 

Maximum Permissible Water-Cement Ratios For Concrete (Method 

No. 1) 





Maximum permissible water-cement ratio* 


Specified 


Non-air-entrained 


Air-entrained 


compressive 
strength in 


concrete 


concrete 










28 days, 


I .S. gal. 


Absolute 


U.S. gal. 


Absolute 


psi f'c 


per 94- 


ratio bv 


per 94- 


ratio bv 




lb. bag 


weight 


1b. bag 


weight 




of cement 




of cement 




2500 


7-1 4 


0.642 


6-1 4 


0.554 


3000 


6-1 2 


0.576 


5-1 4 


0.465 


3500 


5-3 4 


0.510 


4-1 2 


0.399 


4000 


5 


0.443 


4 


0.354 



*Including free surface moisture on aggregates. 

502.13. Preliminary Tests. — Except as provided in ) 
section 502.14, preliminary tests of concrete shall be i 
made in advance of the beginning of any concreting J 
operation and shall be subject to certification. Pre- | 
liminary tests shall consist of compressive strength \\ 
tests of molded concrete cylinders made in accordance ' 
with reference standards RS8-64 and RS8-65. A curve | 
representing the relation between the average strength , 
of the concrete at twenty-eight (28) days, or at earlier y 
periods, and the water-cement ratio shall be established j 
for the range of strength values required for the work. 
The tests shall include at least four (4) different 



RS 8-45 

water-cement ratios and at least four (4) cylinder 
specimens for each water-cement ratio. The cylinder 
strength tests shall be supplemented by tests to con- 
firm that the cement and aggregates conform to the 
provisions of reference standard RS8-45. 
502.14. Prequalified Mixes. — In lieu of the making of 
preliminary tests for individual buildings or groups of 
buildings, a concrete producer may provide concrete 
proportioned on the basis of prequalified or previously 
accepted mix designs, which designs, including the 
applicable batching weights and results of applicable 
preliminary tests and of tests to confirm that the 
cement and aggregates conform to the provisions of 
reference standard RS8-45, shall be submitted not less 
often than once a year to the building official for re- 
view and prequalification. The preliminary tests shall 
be made under the supervision of an architect or 
engineer engaged by the producer. Concrete propor- 
tioned according to prequalified mixes shall be pro- 
duced only from batch plants satisfactory to the build- 
ing official. Separate prequalification shall be required 
for mixes utilizing different combinations of aggregates 
and admixtures from all sources which are to be 
utilized. 

502.15. Quality Control and Certification of Materials 
and of Batching. — Where concrete materials are used 
for structural elements, quality control and certifi- 
cation shall be provided at the batch plant for con- 
formance to reference standards RS8-60 and in suffi- 
cient scope to: 

( 1 ) Determine and record the actual batched weights 
and the water-cement ratios used; 

(2) Verify that such weights and ratios conform 
to the weights and proportions required by the pre- 
liminary test mix (or the prequalified mix) adjusted 
for moisture content and graduation of aggregates; 

(3) Verify conformance of the quality and condi- 
tion of the materials to reference standard RS8-45. 

(4) Verify that the ingredients are the same or 
equal to those used for the preparation of the pre- 
liminary test or prequalifying mixes; 

(5) For all concrete, attestation of the results of 
the quality control and certification at the batch plant 



shall appear on a ticket accompanying each load ofj 
concrete. 

502.2. Method II — Mixes Determined From Perfor- 
mance Data Performance Concrete. 

502.21. Preliminary Tests. — Preliminary tests of con- 
crete shall be performed in accordance with the pro- 
visions of section 502.13. Mixes with performance data 
from previous projects, similarly proportioned, maybe 
accepted in lieu of preliminary tests for the proposed 
project, subject to approval of the architect or engi- 
neer responsible for the design drawings and to 
approval by the building official, provided that ac- 
ceptable performance data from such previous projects 
are submitted and the conditions of paragraph 502.24 
below, are met. 

502.22. Performance Cement Factor. — The cement 
factor used in the work shall be as determined in 

502.23 below. 

502.23. Strength.— 

(1) Concrete manufactured with stone or gravel 
aggregate. — The concrete used in the work shall be 
produced using a water-cement ratio corresponding 
to a point on the strength vs. water-cement ratio 
curve representing a strength of concrete, at the de- 
sign slump, at least twenty-five (25) per cent higher 
than the specified strength called for on the plans. 
However, if the producer demonstrates to the satis- 
faction of the architect or engineer responsible for 
the design drawings and the building official, on the 
basis of job performance records of the coefficient 
of variation (described in reference standard RS8-66) 
that the quality control exercised in the producer's 
plant warrants a change in the twenty-five (25) per 
cent factor, the change may be permitted. In no case, 
however, shall the concrete used in the work be pro- 
duced using a water-cement ratio in excess of, or a 
cement factor less than, that corresponding to a point 
in the strength vs. water-cement ratio curve representing 
a strength of concrete, at the design slump, fifteen 
(15) per cent higher than the specified strength called 
for on the plans. The design slump shall be as speci- 
fied by the architect or engineer responsible for the 
design drawings and the concrete shall be placed at 
a slump equal to or less than the design slump. 



RS 8-45 

(2) Concrete manufactured with lightweight aggre- 
gate. — The concrete used in the work shall be pro- 
portioned on a strength vs. cement content basis at 
a given consistency in accordance with reference stan- 
dard RS8-67 for a strength, at the design slump, at 
least twenty-five (25) per cent higher than the specified 
strength called for on the plans. The provision of (1) 
above relating to reduction in the strength requirement 
for demonstrable quality control shall apply. 

502.24. Materials. — The cement, aggregates, admix- 
tures and other ingredients of the concrete used for 
the individual building or group of buildings shall be 
the same and from the same sources as those in the 
preliminary tests or previously used mixes. 

502.25. Batching. — The concrete shall be produced in 
a plant acceptable to the building official and con- 
crete produced according to previous performance 
data shall be produced in a plant with automatic 
or semi-automatic batching maintaining documentation 
as required in section 842.1 of the Boston Building 
Code for all ingredients. 

502.26. Quality Control and Certification of Materials 
and of Batching. — The provisions of 502. 15 shall apply. 

502.27. — Subaqueous concrete shall contain twenty 
(20) per cent more cement than previously required. 
504. Strength tests of concrete. — 

Delete paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) and substitute the 
following: 

"(a) Whenever strength tests of concrete specimens 
are required by the provisions of the Boston building 
code, compression test samples shall be taken directly 
from the mixer in accordance with reference standard 
RS8-70 and cured in accordance with reference stan- 
dard RS8-71 and tested at the age of 28 days in 
accordance with reference standard RS8-64. Three 
test cylinders shall be molded for each 150 cubic 
yards or fraction thereof of each class of concrete 
placed in any one day's concreting. Additional speci- 
mens may be molded and tested where there is a 
question as to the required interval between placing 
of concrete and stripping of forms or placing the 
structure into use. 

(b) The test cylinders shall be tested by an approved 
concrete testing laboratory. The testing of each batch 



of three test cylinders shall be considered as one 
strength test. The strength of such test shall be the 
average of the breaking strengths of the three cylinders 
comprising the test except that, if one of the speci- 
mens shall show manifest evidence of improper sam- 
pling, molding, handling, or testing, it shall be dis- 
carded and the remaining two averaged. If more than 
one cylinder must be discarded, the entire strength 
test shall be voided. 

(c) The average of any three consecutive strength 
tests representing each class of concrete shall be equal 
to or greater than the specified strength (f'c) and not 
more than 10 per cent of the strength tests shall have 
values less than the specified strength, but no test 
shall show an average strength less than 85 per cent 
of the specified strength (f # c)." 

(e) In the 6th line, change the words "as outlined 
in chapter 2" to the words "as described in the Bos- 
ton Code for core tests and load tests of concrete 
construction." 

Add new paragraph "(f) All strength tests of concrete 
and testing of concrete materials required by the 
provisions of the Boston Code shall be performed 
by approved concrete testing laboratories."' 

604. Depositing. — 

At the end of paragraph (a), delete the words "unless 

approved by the engineer." 

Add the following new paragraph: 

(e) Subaqueous concrete shall be placed carefully by 

Tremie, covered bottom-dump-bucket, or other suitable 

means to minimize "wash" of cement or segregation 

of constituents. Subaqueous construction equipment, 

materials, and methods shall have the approval of 

the building official. 

605. Add the following new paragraph: 

(b) No blasting shall be carried out in the vicinity 
of the construction which will affect the resultant 
quality of the concrete after deposit. 
608. Add the following new section: 
"Concrete Utilizing Preplaced Aggregate. — 
(a) The use of concrete formed by the injection of 
grout into a mass of preplaced coarse aggregate will 
be permitted where it can be demonstrated by success- 
ful prototype installation that the proposed mix, ma- 



RS 8-45 

terials, and method of placement will produce a 
concrete of the specified strength and free of areas or 
inclusions of uncemented aggregate. 

1. Prototypes. — At least two (2) prototypes, from 
either previous work or samples prepared for the 
proposed project shall be prepared. The forms shall 
be stripped, and a minimum of six (6) cores recovered 
and tested to demonstrate the strength of the concrete 
produced by the proposed materials and methods of 
installation. In addition, the homogeneity of the pro- 
totypes shall be demonstrated by demolishing the pro- 
totypes in the presence of the building official or his 
agent. 

2. In-Place Concrete. — The concrete, as finally 
placed in the work, shall be prepared using the same 
materials, mix, equipment, and procedures utilized to 
prepare the successful prototype installations. 

3. Cylinders. — All preparation and placement of 
structural concrete utilizing pre-placed aggregates shall 
be subject to certification. Compression test cylinders 
shall be prepared and tested as required for premixed 
concrete, except that the cylinders shall be prepared 
under conditions that will simulate the conditions 
under which the concrete in the work is installed." 
703. Conduits and pipes embedded in concrete. — Add 
the following paragraph: 

"(c) No conduits, pipes, or other similar embedded 
items will be permitted in prestressed or post-tensioned 
concrete members other than as shown on the ap- 
proved plans. Computations demonstrating the effects 
of such embedded items on the structural adequacy 
of prestressed or post-tensioned concrete members 
shall be submitted to the building official." 
808. Add the following sentence: 
(a) The specified minimum coverage applies also at 
the bottom of rustications. 

902. Design loads, and 903. Resistance to wind, 
earthquake and other forces. — 

Delete these sections. Building code requirements for 
loads shall apply. 

907. Effective depth of beam or slab.— 
At the end of paragraph (b) add the words "or pro- 
vision shall be made to inhibit wear." 



909. Control of deflections.— 

Add the following to paragraph (b): 
"For flexural members of lightweight concrete the 
fractions given in table 909(b) shall be multiplied by 
the cube root of the ratio of 3,000,000 to the modu- 
lus of elasticity of the concrete being used." 
912. Limiting dimensions of columns.— 
(a) Add the introductory phrase "Except for precast 
members," 

1004. Allowable stresses. — wind and earthquake forces. 
— Delete this section. Boston Code requirements for 
combination of loads shall apply. 
Add the following paragraph to chapter 22: 
2204. Plain Concrete Walls — 

(a) The ratio of unsupported height to thickness 
or the ratio of unsupported length to thickness (which- 
ever is the greater) for plain concrete walls shall not 
exceed 20. 

(b) Plain concrete walls shall be proportioned so 
that the tensile stress does not exceed the allowable 
stress in concrete given in table 1002(a), and the 
allowable stress in compression shall be 0.25f # c for 
walls having a ratio of height to thickness of 10 or 
less, and shall be reduced proportionally to 0.15f'c 
for walls having a ratio of height to thickness of 20. 
2401. Scope.— 

Add the following paragraph: 

"(b) The provisions of reference standard RS8-63 
shall apply for thin-section precast members." 

RS 8-46 ASTM A377 1966 

Specifications for Cast Iron Pressure Pipe 

RS 8-47 ASTM A27 1965 

Specifications for Mild-To-Medium Strength Carbon- 
Steel Castings for General Application 

ASTM A 148 1965 

Specifications for High-Strength Steel Castings for 

Structural Purposes 

RS 8-48 ASTM A48 1964 

Specifications for Gray Iron Castings 

RS 8-49 A A 1967 

Aluminum Construction Manual 

RS 8-50 NCMA 1968 

Specification for the Design and Construction of 



RS 8-45 RS 8-51 

Load-Bearing Concrete Masonry. Where conflict arises 
between this reference standard and the Boston Code, 
the more stringent requirements of the two shall 
apply. 

Minimum and Empirical Thickness Requirements for 
Masonry Walls 

1.1. Minimum Thickness Requirements. — Whether 

proportioned on the basis of analysis of stresses in 

accordance with reference standards RS 8-50 and 

RS 8-58 or empirical rules contained herein, in no 

case shall the thickness of masonry construction be 

less than the dimensions shown in table RS 8-51-1. 

The minimum thickness of a wythe shall be two (2) 

inches. 

Table RS 8-51-1 

Minimum Thickness of Masonry 

Type of Masonry Nominal Thickness 

(Inches) 
Loadbearing walls (exterior or 
interior) — 

Solid masonry 6 

Grouted or filled cell masonry ... 6 

Hollow masonry 6 

Cavity or masonry bonded hollow 

walls 8a 

Stone ashlar masonry 12 

Stone rubble masonry 16 c 

Non-loadbearing walls — 

Exterior walls 4 

Partitions 3 

Columns — 

Solid unit masonry 6 

Hollow unit masonry 8 

Facing of faced walls 2 D 

Notes — 

a Overall wall thickness including cavity. 

b In no case less than 1/8 the height of the facing 

unit, 
c Twelve (12) inches for one story buildings. 

1.11. Decrease in Thickness. — Whether proportioned 
on the basis of empirical provisions or the analysis 
of stresses, where walls of hollow units or masonry 



bonded hollow walls are decreased in thickness, a 
course or courses of solid masonry shall be inter- 
posed between the wall below and the thinner wall 
above, or special units or construction shall be used 
that will adequately transmit the loads from the 
shells of the units above to the shells of those below. 
Except for window-paneled backs, -and permissible 
chases and recesses (section 838.0) walls shall not 
vary in thickness between their lateral supports. When 
a change in thickness, resulting from minimum thick- 
ness requirements, would occur between floor levels, 
the greater thickness shall be carried up to the higher 
floor level. 

2.1. Empirical Thickness Requirements for Loadbear- 

ing Walls. — Where the height of exterior or interior 
loadbearing masonry walls does not exceed the fol- 
lowing requirements, such walls, if they meet the 
provisions of reference standards RS 8-50 and RS 8-58 
with regard to compressive stress and of table RS 8-51-1 
with regard to minimum thickness, may be considered 
to be adequate to resist the applied wind loads and 
other shearing forces. All other provisions of this 
reference standard shall apply only to that masonry 
not designed under the provisions of reference stan- 
dards RS 8-50 and RS 8-58. 

2.11. Multi-story Buildings. — For limitations on 8 inch 
walls see (6) below. 

(1) Exterior solid walls. — The thickness of solid ex- 
terior masonry bearing walls shall be at least 8 in- 
ches for the top floor and 12 inches for a maximum 
of 55 feet, measured downward from the top floor 
level. Any additional height shall be provided by 
16 inch lower walls up to a maximum building 
height of 104 feet. Buildings taller than 104 feet 
shall be structurally analyzed and designed. The 
slenderness ratio shall not exceed 20. 

(2) Interior solid walls. — Interior solid walls shall 
be at least 8 inches thick for the uppermost 55 feet 
of wall height and 12 inches for the lower walls for 



RS 8-51 

a maximum building height of 104 feet. Taller walls 
shall be designed by structural analysis. 

(3) Cavity walls. — Cavity walls or masonry bonded 
hollow walls shall be at least 8 inches thick for the 
top floor and 12 inches thick for the lower walls 
up to a maximum total height of 40 feet except that 
10 inch cavity walls may be used for a maximum 
total height of 25 feet. Taller walls shall be designed 
by structural analysis. 

(4) Walls of hollow units. — Loadbearing walls of 
hollow units shall be at least 8 inches thick for the 
top floor and at least 12 inches for the lower walls 
for a maximum building height of 40 feet. Hollow 
unit walls 40 feet high may be supported by solid 
masonry walls whose height is no more than 35 
feet above the first tier of beams. 

(5) Stiffened walls. — Where solid masonry bearing 
walls are stiffened by, and tied to, reinforced concrete 
floors or masonry cross walls at distances not greater 
than 20 feet apart, they may be 12 inches thick for 
the uppermost 70 feet, measured downward from the 
top of the wall. 

(6) Eight inch walls. — Notwithstanding other pro- 
visions in this section, the thickness of masonry bear- 
ing walls may be 8 inches where: (a) the toal height 
of the wall above its support does not exceed 35 
feet except for cavity walls for which (3) above shall 
apply; and (b) the distance from floor-to-floor or 
floor-to-roof does not exceed 12 feet; and (c) the 
floor live load does not exceed 60 psf; and (d) the 
roof is designed so that the dead load imparts no 
lateral thrust to the wall. 

2.12. One-Story Buildings. —The bearing walls of 
one story buildings except as otherwise specifically 
provided for herein shall be at least 6 inches thick 
provided the vertical loads on the roof impart no 
lateral thrust to the wall. 

2.13. Walls of Residence Buildings. — In residence 
buildings not more than three stories high, bearing 
walls other than coursed or rough or random rubble 



stone, may be 8 inches thick when not over 35 feet 
high and the roof is designed so that the dead load 
imparts no lateral thrust to the wall. Such walls in 
one story residence buildings, and in one story private 
garages, may be 5-1/2 inches thick. 

2.14. Walls above Roof Level. — Masonry walls above 
roof level, 12 feet or less in height, enclosing stair- 
ways, machinery rooms, shafts, or penthouses, may 
be 8 inches thick and may be considered as neither 
increasing the height nor requiring any increase in 
the thickness of the wall below. Parapet walls shall 
conform to the provisions of section 870.0. 

2.15. Faced or Composite Walls. — Neither the thick- 
ness or height of faced or composite walls, nor the 
distance between lateral supports, shall exceed that 
prescribed for masonry of either of the types forming 
the facing or the backing. 

2.16. Cavity or Masonry Bonded Hollow Walls. — 

Where both the facing and backing wythes are con- 
structed of solid masonry units, the wythes may be 
3 inches thick. Otherwise, the wythes of cavity walls 
shall each have a thickness of at least 4 inches and 
the cavity shall be at least 2 inches but not more 
than 4 inches wide. Wythes less than 4 inches thick 
shall not have raked joints and the backing wythe 
of cavity or masonry bonded hollow walls shall be 
at least as thick as the facing wythe. A cavity or 
masonry bonded hollow wall may be constructed to 
its maximum permissible height on top of a solid 
masonry wall whose maximum height is 35 feet 
above the first tier of beams. Roof construction shall 
be designed so that the dead load imparts no lateral 
thrust to the wall. 

2.17. Rubble Stone Walls. — Rough, random, or 
coursed rubble stone walls shall be 4 inches thicker 
than is required for other types of masonry, but in 
no case less than 12 inches thick. 

2.18. Wall Thickness Increase Due to Span Length. — 

When the clear span between bearing walls or between 
a bearing wall and an intermediate support is more 
than 26 feet, the effects of temperature, of rotation 
of end supports, and of eccentricity shall be investi- 
gated. In lieu of such investigation, the thickness of 



RS8-51 RS8-59 

such walls shall be increased 4 inches for each 12-1/2 
feet or fraction thereof, that such span is in excess 
of 26 feet. 

2.2. Empirical Thickness Requirements forNon-Load- 
bearing Walls. — Provided that they conform to the 
provisions of section 837.0, non-loadbearing masonry 
walls, including curtain walls and panel walls, may 
be 4 inches less in thickness than required in section 
2.1 for loadbearing walls, except as provided below. 

2.21. Partitions. — The minimum thickness for parti- 
tions shall be as follows: 

Height of Walls Thickness 

8 feet and under 3 inches 

Over 8 feet to 1 1 feet 4 inches 

Over 11 feet to 16 feet 6 inches 

V Over 16 feet to 21 feet 8 inches 

Over 21 feet to 27 feet 10 inches 

ACI 506 1966 

Recommended Practice for Shotcreting 

RS 8-53 ANSI A59.1 1968 

Specifications for Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 

RS 8-54 APA 1967 

Design and Fabrication of Flat Plywood Stressed 
Skin Panels 

RS 8-55 USDC CS253 1963 

Structural Glued-Laminated Lumber 

AITC 100-65 1965 
Timber Construction Standards 

AITC 1966 

Timber Construction Manual Section 4 

SCPI 1966 

Recommended Building Code Requirements for Engi- 
neered Brick Masonry. Where conflict arises between 
this reference standard and the Boston Code, the 
more stringent requirements of the two shall apply. 

US Federal Spec. DD-G-451c 1968 

Glass, Plate, Sheet, Figured (Float, Flat for Glazing, 

Corrugated, Mirrors and Other Uses.) 



RS 8-60 ON SITE QUALITY CONTROL 

The minimum extent of required on site certifica- 
tion of materials and methods of construction shall 
be as outlined in this reference standard. The certi- 
fication shall be by an individual acceptable to the 
architect or engineer responsible for the design draw- 
ings and approved by the building official unless 
otherwise provided for in this Code. The certification 
when required shall be for conformance with all 
requirements of this Code and the reference standards. 

1.0. Materials.— 

1.1. Controlled Materials. — Evidence of the certifi- 
cation of all controlled materials furnished and used 
under the provisions of sections 201 and 722 shall 
be verified at the job site. 

1.2. All Other Materials and Assemblies. — Evidence 

of all attestations, documents, and all other off site 
quality controls as may be required by any portion 
of the code shall be available and verified at the job 
site. 

2.0. Methods of Construction. — 

2.1. Structural Steel. — Welding operations and the 
tensioning of high strength bolts in connections where 
the calculated stresses in the welds or bolts are 50 
per cent or more of basic allowable values and any 
other special connections as the building official may 
require. 

2.2. Concrete. — All operations relating to the con- 
struction of all structural elements and assemblies. 

2.2.1. Exceptions. — 

.1 Operations relating to the construction of mem- 
bers and assemblies (other than prestressed members) 
which involve the placement of a total of less than 



RS 8-60 

50 cubic yards of concrete and provided that the con- 
crete is used at levels of calculated stress less than 
70 per cent of basic allowable values. 

.2 Placing of concrete for all: 

.2.1 Short span floor and roof construction as per 
section 846. 

.2.2 Walls and footings for buildings in occupancy 
group L-3. 

.3 Size and location of reinforcement for walls 
and footings for buildings in occupancy group L-3. 

2.3. Aluminum. — Welding operations in connections 
where the calculated stresses in the welds are 50 
per cent or more of the basic allowable values and 
any other special connections as the building official 
may require. 

2.4. Wood. — Fabrication of glued-laminated assem- 
blies and of plywood components. 

2.5. Reinforced Masonry. — Placement and bedding 
of units; sizes of members, including thickness of 
walls and wythes; sizes of columns; the size and 
position of reinforcement, in place, and provisions 
for curing and protection against freezing for all 
reinforced masonry construction; fabrication of pre- 
fabricated units. 

2.5.1. Exceptions. — 

.1 All operations relating to the construction of 
members and assemblies which involve the placement 
of a total of less than 50 cubic yards of masonry 
and provided that this masonry is used at levels of 
calculated stress 70 per cent or less of basic allowable 
values. 



.2 All masonry work for buildings in occupancy 
group L-3. 

.3 All mixing of mortar. 

2.6. Unreinforced Masonry. — Placement and bed- 
ding of units and sizes of members including thick- 
ness of walls and wythes; sizes of columns; and pro- 
visions for curing and protection against freezing for 
all masonry construction proportioned on the basis 
of structural analysis as described in reference stan- 
dard RS 8-50. 

2.6.1. Exceptions.— 

.1 All operations relating to the construction of J 
members and assemblies which involve the placement 
of a total of less than 50 cubic yards of masonry j 
and provided that this masonry is used at levels of 
calculated stress 70 per cent or less of basic allowable 
values. 

.2 All masonry work for buildings in occupancy 
group L-3. 

.3 All mixing of mortar. 

2.7. Other. — Requirements as may be established 
in other articles of this code or by the building 
official. 



RS 8-61 ANSI A108.1 1967 

Specifications for (Including Requirements of Related 
Divisions) Installation of Glazed Ceramic Wall Tile 
in Cement Mortars 

ANSI A108.2 1967 

Specifications for (Including Requirements of Related 
Divisions) Installation of Ceramic Mosaic Tile in 
Cement Mortars 



RS8-60 RS8-63 

ANSI A108.3 1967 

Specifications for (Including Requirements of Related 
Divisions) Installation of Quarry Tile and Pavers in 
Cement Mortars 

ANSI A94.1 1961 
Specifications for Interior Marble 

ANSI A94.2 1961 

Specifications for Thin Exterior Marble Veneer (Two 

Inches and Less in Thickness) 

ANSI A94.3 1961 

Specifications for Thin Exterior Marble in Curtain or 

Panel Walls 

AWPA C2 1969 

Standard for the Preservative Treatment of Lumber, 

Timbers, Bridge Ties and Mine Ties by Pressure 

Processes 

AWPA C9 1967 

Standard for the Preservative Treatment of Plywood 

by Pressure Processes. 

AWPA C4 1969 

Standard for Preservative Treatment of Poles by 

Pressure Processes 

ACI 525 1963 

Minimum Requirements for Thin-Section Precast Con- 
crete Construction 

Modification. — The provisions of ACI 525 1963 shall 
be subject to the following modification. The section 
and paragraph number is from that standard. 
Admixtures. — 

Delete last sentence of paragraph 8 and substitute the 
following: 

"The use of other admixtures will be permitted pro- 
vided they do not alter the intent of any section of 
these requirements or of reference standard RS8-45, 



and provided their use is in accordance with pertinent 
information in "Admixtures for Concrete" reported 
by ACI Committee 212. 

RS 8-64 ASTM C39 1966 

Test for Compressive Strength of Molded Concrete 
Cylinders 

RS 8-65 ASTM C192 1969 

Making and Curing Concrete Compression and Flexure 
Test Specimens in the Laboratory 

RS 8-66 ACI 214 1965 

Recommended Practice for Evaluation of Compression 
Test Results of Field Concrete 

RS 8-67 ACI 211-2 1969 

Recommended Practice for Selecting Proportions for 
Structural Lightweight Concrete 

RS 8-68 ASTM C42 1968 

Method of Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and 
Sawed Beams of Concrete 

RS 8-69 ASTM C494 1968 

Specifications for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete 

RS 8-70 ASTM CI 72 1968 

Sampling Fresh Concrete 

RS 8-71 ASTM C31 1969 

Making and Curing Concrete Compression and Flexure 

Test Specimens in the Field 

To section 6. (a) add the following: 

The following size cylinders will be permissible for the 

following nominal size aggregate: 

Size Cylinder Size Aggregate 

6" x 12" 2" and smaller 

4" x 8" 1" and smaller 

3" x 6" 1/2" and smaller 



RS 8-63 RS 8-76 

For cylinders smaller than 6" x 12", evidence must 
be presented to relate their compressive strength num- 
ber to that of the standard 6" x 12" cylinder. 

RS 8-72 ASTM C143 1969 

Test for Slump of Portland Cement Concrete 

RS 8-73 AVVS D 1.0-69 1969 

Code for Welding in Building Construction 

RS 8-74 AASHO 1965 

Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges 

RS 8-75 ANSI Z26.1 1966 

Safety Glazing Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles 
Operating on Land Highways 

RS 8-76 NFoPA 1957 

Wood Structural Design Data 

NFoPA 1968 (As amended 1967) 

National Design Specification for Stress-Grade Lumber 
and Its Fastenings. 

Modifications. — The provisions of NFoPA 1968 Na- 
tional Design Specification for Stress-Grade Lumber 
and Its Fastenings shall be subject to the following 
modifications. The section and paragraph numbers 
are from that standard. 

Part I. General Requirements for Structural Design.— 
100-A Practice defined. — Delete the second paragraph 
of 100-A-l and substitute the following: 
"In this specification the word "should" is to be 
considered as mandatory unless otherwise indicated 
in these modifications." 

Part II. Allowable Unit Stresses for Stress-Grade 
Lumber. — 

200-F Grade identification. — Delete this section in 
its entirety. 

200-H-l Other species and grades. — Add the following 
standards: 

"Machine stress rating as approved by the American 
Lumber Standards Committee." 



203-A Increase in unit stresses. — Add the following 
introductory paragraph: 

"In lieu of the building code provisions for combina- 
tion of loads, the provisions of this section shall 
apply." 

Part III. Design Loads.— 

Delete this part in its entirety and substitute the 
following: 

"The loads provisions of the Boston building code 
shall apply." 

Part IV. Design Formulas and Provisions. — 
400-C-6 Delete the first three sentences and substitute 
the following: 

"Beams with notches shall be checked for stress at 
the notched section on the basis of net depth. Beams 
containing bored holes within 1-1/2 diameters of the 
top or bottom of the beam shall be treated as though 
notched to the depth of the inner extreme of the 
hole. In all cases the effects of notches or holes shall 
be accounted for in the design and reinforcement shall 
be supplied if required." 

400-C-7 Change this section to read as follows: 
"The lateral distribution of a concentrated load for 
moment from a critically loaded beam to adjacent 
parallel beams may be calculated by the method in- 
dicated in appendix A." 

400-1-2 Delete this part and substitute the following: 
"For bridging see section 855.6.1. of the Boston 
building code." 

405 Timber-concrete composite construction. — Delete 
this section in its entirety and substitute the following: 
"405 Composite timber-concrete construction — Where 
the tensile strength of wood and the compressive 
strength of concrete are to be used compositely, the 
joining of the two materials shall be such as to resist 
all horizontal shear at the plane of junction and pro- 
visions shall be made to prevent separation of the 
wood from the concrete by the use of nails, grooves, 
or other suitable devices. The design shall be executed 
in accordance with the principles applicable to com- 
posite steel-concrete construction, as set forth in refer- 
ence standard RS8-42. The resistance of shear con- 



RS 8-76 

nectors shall be determined in accordance with the 
applicable provisions of the Boston building code 
requirements for load tests." 
Part V. Timber Connector Joints. — 
500-D-5 Change this paragraph to read: 
"For connectors used in lumber, pressure-impregnated 
with fire-retardant chemicals, where the treated wood 
is kiln dried after treatment, the tabulated loads shall 
be reduced 10 per cent. Where the treated wood is 
not kiln dried after treatment, the load adjustments 
applicable to unseasoned wood shall apply." 
Part VIII. Nail, Spike, Drift-Bolt, and Wood-Screw 
Joints. — 

800-C-l The "should" in this paragraph is advisory. 
Part IX. Mechanically Laminated Members.— 
The provisions of Part I to VIII shall be supple- 
mented, as follows: 

a. General. — 

(1) Beams loaded perpendicular to the edges of the 
laminations (wide faces of laminations parallel to the 
direction of the load) — Mechanically laminated beams 
with full length laminations all of the same grade, 
shall be assumed to be as strong and stiff as sawn 
beams of the same external net dimension. Allowable 
stresses for members laminated of combinations of 
grades shall be limited to the allowable stress of the 
values assigned for the lowest grade used. 

(2) Beams loaded perpendicular to wide faces of 
laminations. — Mechanically laminated beams with 
laminations horizontal shall be designed on the basis 
of specific placement of butt joints and test data per- 
taining to the particular construction with respect to 
butt joints, and on the basis of fastenings used to 
transfer shear between laminations. 

b. Laminated trusses. — 

(1) End joints in laminations. — End joints in out- 
side laminations shall be located at panel points only. 
End joints shall not be located closer than 2 feet in 
adjacent laminations; they shall not be permitted in 
the first panel; and end joints in a given cross section 
shall be separated by at least two unspliced lamina- 
tions. In chords of only four laminations, only one of 



the outside laminations may have an end joint at a 
given panel point. 

(2) Lamination bolts. — One or more 1/2 inch 
minimum diameter bolts, extending through all lam- 
inations, shall be placed at each panel point in order 
to distribute the loads, introduced by the web mem- 
bers, to all laminations. 

(3) Axial compression. — The axial compression 
in a mechanically laminated chord shall be assumed 
to be resisted by simple column action of the in- 
dividual laminations, or the entire section may be 
assumed to act as a mechanically laminated column. 
In the latter case for 2 inch nominal thickness lam- 
inations in panels up to 5 feet, full column action 
may be assumed; and for panel lengths of 5 feet to 
8 feet, a straight line reduction from full column 
strength to 50 per cent of this value shall be used. 
Panel lengths over 8 feet shall not be used with 2 
inch nominal thickness laminations. Proportionately 
longer panel lengths may be used with 3 inch nominal 
thickness laminations. 



The type and amount of nails shown in the schedule 
below are the minimum amount required and shall be 
increased where necessary for structural adequacy. 

MINIMUM NAILING SCHEDULE 

Number and 
Building Element Nail Type Distribution 

Stud to sole plate Common-toe-nail 4 — 8d 

Stud to cap plate Common-toe-nail 2— 16d 

Double studs Common-direct lOd 12" o.c. or 

16d 24" o.c. 

Corner studs Common-direct 16d 24" o.c. 

Sole plate to joist or 

blocking Common 16d 16" o.c. 

Double cap plate Common-direct 16d 16" o.c. 

Cap plate laps Common-direct 3— 16d 

Ribbon strip — 6" or less Common-direct 2 — lOd ea. bearing 

Ribbon strip — over 6". Common-direct 3 — lOd ea. bearing 

Roof rafter to plate Common-toe-nail 3 — 16d 

Roof rafter to ridge Common-toe-nail 2— 16d 

Jack rafter to hip Common-toe-nail 3 — lOd 

Floor joists to studs. 

(no ceiling joist) Common-direct 5 — lOd or 3— 16d 



RS 8-76 RS 8-77 

Number and 
Building Element Nail Type Distribution 

Floor joists to studs Common-direct 2 — lOd 

(with ceiling joists) ... Common-direct 2 — lOd 

Floor joists to sill or 

girder Common-toe-nail 3 — 8d or 2 — 16d 

Double joist to joist Common-direct lOd stgd. (a 16" o.c. 

Ledger strip Common-direct 3 — 16d at ea. joist 

Ceiling joists to plate ... Common-toe-nail 2 — 16d 
Ceiling joists (laps over 

partition) Common-direct 3 — 16d 

Collar beam Common-direct 4 — lOd 

Bridging to joists Common-direct 2 — 8d ea. end 

Bridging to studs Common-direct 

or toe 2 — lOd ea. end 

Diagonal brace (to stud 

and plate) Common-direct 2 — 8d ea. bearing 

Tail beams to headers 
(when nailing permit- 
ted) Common-end 1 — 20d ea. 4 sq. ft. 

floor area 
Header beams to trim- 
mers (when nailing 

permitted) Common-end 1 — 20d ea. 8 sq. ft. 

floor area 
1" Sub-flooring (6" or 

less) Common-direct 2 — 8d ea. joist 

1" Sub-flooring (8" or 

more) Common-direct 3 — 8d ea. joist 

2" Sub-flooring Common-direct 2 — 16d ea. joist 

1" Wallsheathing(8"or 

less in width) Common-direct 2 — 8d ea. stud 

1" Wall sheathing (over 

8" in width) Common-direct 3 — 8d ea. stud 

Plywood Roof and Wall 
Sheathing 

1/2" or less Common-direct 6d — 6" o.c. edges and 

12" o.c. intermediate 

5/8" or greater Common-direct 8d — 6" o.c. edges and 

12" o.c. intermediate 
5/16", 3/8", 1/2" 16 ga. galvanized 4" o.c. edges and 

wire staples. 3/8" 8" o.c. intermediate 
minimum crown. 
Length of 1" plus 
plywood except 
1-1/4" for 5/16" 
plywood. 
Plywood Sub-flooring 

1/2" Common-direct 6d — 6" o.c. edgesand 

10" o.c. intermediate 

5/8", 3/4", 7/8" Common-direct 8d — 6" o.c. edges and 

10" o.c. intermediate 



Building Element Nail Type 

1", 1-1/8" Common-direct 

1/2" 16 ga. galvanized 

wire staples. 3/8" 
min. crown 

5/8" 1-5/8" length 

1" Roof decking (6" or 

less in width) Common-direct 

1" Roof decking (over 

6" in width) Common-direct 

Built-up girders and 

beams Common-direct 

Continuous header to 

stud Common-toe-nail 

Continuous header — 

two pieces Common-direct 

1/2" Fiberboard 

sheathing 1-1/2" galvanized 

Roofing Nail 
6d Common Nail 
16 gage galvan- 
ized staple. 1-1/8' 
long with mini- 
mum crown of 
7/16" 



Number and 
Distribution 

lOd or 8d ring shank 
— 6" o.c. edges and 
6" o.c. intermediate 
4" o.c. edges and 7" 
7" o.c. intermediate 

2-1/2" o.c. edges and 
4" o.c. intermediate 

2 — 8d ea. rafter 

3 — 8d ea. rafter 
20d at 32" o.c. 

4 — 8d 

16d at 16" o.c. 



3" o.c. exterior edge 
6" o.c. intermediate 



25/32" Fiberboard 
sheathing 



1-3/4" Galvani- * 
zed Roofing Nail 
8d Common Nail 
16 gage galvan- 
ized staple, 1-1/2" 
in. long with min- 
imum crown of 
7/16" 



■^3" o.c. exterior edge 
6" o.c. intermediate 



Gypsum sheathing 12 gage 1-1/4" 

Large head Cor- 
rosion-resistive 4" o.c. on edge 

8" o.c. intermediate 

Shingles — wood Corrosion-resistive 2 — No. 14 B&S each 

bearing 
Weather boarding Corrosion-resistive 2 — 8d ea. bearing 



RS 8-77 RS 8-78 



Ceiling Joist Nailing To Every Rafter 
(Number of 16d Nails) 



Slope of Roof 


4/12 


5/12 


6/12 


7/12 


9/12 


12/12 


Rafter spacing, 














o.c. (in.) 


16 24 


16 24 


16 24 


16 24 


16 24 


16 24 


Width of building 














Up to 24 ft 


5 8 


4 7 


3 5 


3 4 


3 3 


3 3 


24 to 30 ft 


7 11 


6 9 


4 7 


3 6 


3 4 


3 3 



Shingle nails shall penetrate not less than 3/4 inch 
into nailing strips, sheathing or supporting construc- 
tion except as otherwise provided in section 855.3.4. 



RS 8-78 EMPIRICAL PROVISIONS FOR WOOD FRAME 
CONSTRUCTION 

Empirical Provisions in Lieu of Design. — The pro- 
visions of this reference standard may be used in lieu 
of structural analysis only for those buildings in oc- 
cupancy group L-3 where the specific occupancies 
correspond to a live load requirement of 40 psf, or 
less, and to constructions wherein the supporting 
framing consists of multiple, closely spaced members, 
such as joists, studs, platform or balloon frames. All 
requirements established in this reference standard 
may be reduced when an analysis of stresses, executed 
in accordance with reference standard RS8-76 indi- 
cates such reduction is feasible. 
1.1. Stud Walls and Partitions.— 

1.1.1. Studs shall be of equivalent or better grade 
than the minimum grades for the various species as 
established in reference standard RS8-76. 

1.1.2. Corner posts shall be 3-stud members or mem- 
bers of equivalent strength. 

1.1.3. Load bearing studs shall be set with the larger 
cross section dimension perpendicular to the wall or 
partition. Studs in exterior walls of one story build- 
ings of construction class type 4 shall be at least 2 
inches x 4 inches spaced not more than 24 inches 
on center. Studs for other classes of construction or 
multiple story buildings shall be at least 2 inches x 4 
inches spaced not more than 16 inches on center. 



1.1.4. Stud walls resting on concrete or masonry 
shall have sills at least 2 inches in nominal thickness. 
Where such sills bear on concrete, they shall be 
fastened with minimum 1/2 inch bolts embedded at 
least 6 inches. Each sill piece shall have at least two 
anchor bolts, with one bolt located at least 1 inch 
from each end of the plate, and with intermediate 
spacing not more than 8 feet. Where such sills bear 
on masonry, they shall be anchored in accordance 
with the applicable provisions of article 8. 

1.1.5. Stud partitions that rest directly over each other 
and are not parallel to floor joists or beams may 
extend down between the joists and rest on the top 
plate of the partition, partition girder, or foundation 
below, or may be constructed on sill plates running 
on top of the beams or joists. 

1.1.6. All load bearing stud partitions shall be sup- 
ported on walls, other partitions, double joists or 
beams, solid bridging, or on beams at least as wide 
as the studs. Joists supporting a partition parallel to 
the joists wherein the joists are spaced apart to permit 
the passage of piping or duct work shall be provided 
with solid blocking at intervals of not more than 
16 inches. 

1.1.7. Load bearing partitions perpendicular to joists 
shall not be offset from supporting girders, walls, or 
partition by more than the depth of the joists unless 
the joists are proportioned on the basis of analysis 
of stress. 

1.1.8. In interior walls and in bearing partitions, 
double studs shall be provided at the sides of openings 
that are greater than 3 feet-6 inches up to 6 feet in 
width, and triple-studs shall be provided at the sides 
of openings of greater width. 

1.1.9. Headers shall be provided over each opening 
in exterior walls and bearing partitions. Where the 
opening does not exceed 3 feet each end of the 
header shall be supported on a stud or framing 
anchor. Where the opening exceeds 3 feet in width 
each end of the header shall be supported on one 
stud and where the opening exceeds 6 feet each end 
shall be supported on two studs. 



RS 8-78 
1.1.10. All studs in exterior walls and in bearing 
partitions shall be capped with double top plates in- 
stalled to provide overlapping at corners and at 
intersections with other walls and bearing partitions. 
End joints in double top plates shall be offset at 
least 24 inches. In lieu of double top plates, a con- 
tinuous header of similar dimensions may be used. 
For platform frame construction, studs shall rest on 
a single bottom plate. 

1.2. Bracing of exterior walls. — Exterior stud walls 
shall be braced by 1 inch x 4 inch continuous diag- 
onal strips let into the face of the studs and into the 
top and bottom plates at each corner of the building. 
Bracing may also be provided by one of the following 
means: 

1.2.1. Wood board sheathing of 1 inch nominal 
thickness, applied diagonally. 

1.2.2. For one and two-story dwellings, plywood 
sheathing at least 4 feet x 8 feet (except where cut to 
fit around openings and for similar purposes) and at 
least 5/16 inch thick on studs spaced 16 inches or 
less on centers and at least 3/8 inch thick on studs 
spaced more than 16 inches but not exceeding 24 
inches on centers. 

1.2.3. For one story dwellings and for the upper 
story of two story dwellings, fiberboard sheathing 
applied vertically in panels at least 4 feet x 8 feet (ex- 
cept where cut to fit around openings and for similar 
purposes). Fiberboard sheathing shall be at least 1/2 
inch in thickness and shall conform to the provisions 
of reference standard RS8-80. 

1.2.4. For one story dwellings and for the upper 
story of two story dwellings, gypsum board sheathing 
applied horizontally in panels at least 2 feet x 8 feet 
(except where cut to fit around openings and for 
similar purposes). Gypsum boards shall be at least 
1/2 inch thick and shall conform to the provisions 
of reference standard RS8-39. 

1.3 Floor and roof framing. — 

1.3.1. Span tables. — Joists and rafters may be used 
in accordance with reference standard RS8-81. 

1.3.2. Bridging. — See section 855.6.1. 



1.3.3. Notches. — See section 853.3.3. In addition, for 
stair stringers, the minimum effective depth of the 
wood at any notch shall be 3-1/2 inches unless the 
stringer is continuously supported on a wall or 
partition. 

1.3.4. Support.— 

.1 Floor or roof framing may be supported on 
stud partitions. 

.2 Tail beams over 12 feet long and all header 
and trimmer beams over 6 feet long shall be hung in 
metal stirrups having anchors, or by other methods 
providing adequate support. Trimmers and headers 
shall be doubled where the header is 4 feet or more 
in length. 

.3 Except where supported on a 1 inch x 4 inch 
ribbon strip and nailed to the adjoining stud, the ends 
of floor joists shall have at least 1-1/2 inch of bearing 
on wood or metal, nor less than 4 inches on masonry. 

.4 Joists framing from opposite sides of and sup- 
ported on a beam, girder, or partition shall be lapped 
at least 4 inches and fastened, butted end-to-end and 
tied by metal straps or dogs, or otherwise tied to- 
gether in a manner providing adequate support. 

.5 Joists framing into the side of a wood girder 
shall be supported by framing anchors, on ledger 
strips at least 2 inches x 2 inches, or by equivalent 
methods. 

.6 Wood joists and rafters bearing on masonry 
walls shall be anchored to such walls in accordance 
with the applicable provisions of article 8. 

1.3.5. Rafters and Ceiling Joists. — 

.1 Where rafters meet to form a ridge, they shall 
be placed directly opposite each other and nailed to a 
ridge board at least 1 inch thick, and not less than 
the cut end of the rafters in depth. 

.2 Provisions shall be made to resist the thrust 
from inclined rafters by connection of collar beams 
at least 1 inch x 6 inches, by connection to joists, 
or by equivalent means. 



RS8-78 RS8-81 

.3 Where ceiling joists are not parallel to rafters, 
subflooring or metal straps attached to the ends of 
the rafters shall be installed in a manner to provide 
a continuous tie across the building. 

.4 Ceiling joists shall be continuous, or where 
they meet over interior partitions, shall be securely 
joined to provide a continuous tie across the building. 

.5 Valley rafters shall be double members. Hip 
rafters may be single members. Valley and hip rafters 
shall be 2 inches deeper than jack rafters. 

.6 Trussed rafters shall be designed in accordance 
with the provisions of reference standard RS8-76. 

1.3.6. Built-up members shall be securely spiked or 
bolted together and provision shall be made to resist 
the horizontal shear between laminations. 

1.3.7. Nailing schedule. — The size and number of 
nails for connections shall be in accordance with 
reference standard RS8-77. 

RS 8-79 USDC CS31 1952 

Wood Shingles (Red Cedar, Tidewater, Red Cypress 
and California Redwood) 

RS 8-80 ASTM D2277 1966 

Specifications for Fiberboard Nail-Base Sheathing 

RS 8-81 NFoPA 1966 

Simplified spans for Joists and Rafters in Residential 
Construction 



ARTICLE 
FIRERESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS 



9 



900.0 Scope 

901.0 Definitions 

902.0 Fire Hazard Division 

Classification 
903.0 Fireresistance Tests 

904.0 Flame Resistance Tests 

905.0 Special Fireresistive 

Requirements 
906.0 Enclosure Walls 

907.0 Fire Walls and Party Walls 

908.0 Fire Wall or Vertical Type A 

Fire Division Openings 
909.0 Fire Partitions 

910.0 Fireresistive Partitions and 

Type B Fire Divisions 
911.0 Vertical Shafts and 

Hoistways 
912.0 Wall Lintels 
913.0 Beams and Girders 

914.0 Columns 

915.0 Trusses 

916.0 Exterior Opening 

Protectives 



TABLES 

9-1 902.4 Type B Fire Divisions (Separations) 

9-2 902.4 Type A Fire Divisions 

9-3 908.3.1 Opening Protectives for Fire Walls and Fire Divisions 

9-4 922.1.2 Interior Finish Flame Spread Limit Requirements 



917.0 
918.0 
919.0 
920.0 

921.0 
922.0 
923.0 

924.0 



925.0 
926.0 

927.0 
928.0 
RS 9 



Fire Doors 

Fire Windows and Shutters 

Wired Glass 

Fireresistive Requirements 
for Plaster 

Firestopping 

Interior Finish and Trim 

Application of Interior 
Finish 

Combustible Materials 
Permitted in Floor 
Construction of Type 1 
and Type 2 Buildings 

Omitted 

Restrictions of Exterior 
Appendages and Trim 

Roof Structures 

Roof Coverings 

Reference Standards 



SECTION 900.0. SCOPE 



The provisions of this article shall govern the use and assembly 
of all materials of construction with respect to fireresistance, 
flame spread resistance, and smoke and toxic fume limitation. 
The provisions shall also control the location and function of 
integral structural and fire protective elements of buildings, and 
provide for the installation of safeguards against the spread of 
fire within buildings and between buildings. The provisions of 
the reference standards RS-9 shall be a part of this article. 
900.1. Performance Standards. — The requirements of this article 
shall constitute the minimum functional performance standards 
for fire-protection purposes; and shall not be deemed to decrease 



or waive any strength provisions or in any other manner de- 
crease the requirements of this code in respect to structural 
safety. 



900.2. Use of Combustibles. — All materials and forms of con- 
struction that develop the fireresistance required by this code 
shall be acceptable for fireproofing and structural purposes; 
except that the use of combustible component materials in 
structural units or structural assemblies shall be limited to type 
3 and type 4 construction except as follows: 



900.2.1. Combustible Components. — Combustible aggregates 
may be incorporated in concrete mixtures approved for fire- 
resistive construction as provided in sections 811 and 850 for 
gypsum concrete, in section 845 for cinder concrete and any 
other approved component material or admixture may be used 
in assemblies that meet the fireresistive test requirements of this 
code; and wood nailing strips or any other material of similar 
combustible characteristics may be embedded in concrete and 
masonry construction for securing trim and finish. 



900.2.2. Filler Units. — When not included in strength calcula- 
tions, filler units that contain component combustible materials 
may be used in all fireresistive floor construction provided the 
complete assembly meets the required fire test performance. 



900.3. Reinforced Concrete. — All reinforced concrete mixtures 
which meet the requirements of section 817 for concrete aggre- 
gates and the provisions of this article for time-temperature 
performance shall be accepted in fireresistive construction and 
shall be classified in accordance with the degree of fireresistance 
required in article 2 and in section 221.1 table 2-1 and section 
221.2 table 2-2. 



900-902 
SECTION 901.0. DEFINITIONS 

For definitions to be used in the interpretation of this article, 
see section 201.0. 



SECTION 902.0. FIRE HAZARD DIVISION 
CLASSIFICATION 

Fire hazard division classification of buildings and structures 
for the segregation of occupancies or spaces by fire divisions 
as prescribed in section 213 shall be as specified in sections 
below except as modified in article 6. 

902.1. Segregation by Type A Fire Divisions. — When different 
occupancies are to be segregated by fire divisions under the pro- 
visions of section 213, the occupancies shall be separated from 
each other, vertically and horizontally, by Type A fire divisions 
having at least the fire-resistance ratings listed in section 902.4 
table 9-2 for the occupancy groups involved. Every building sec- 
tion shall be constructed of elements having at least the fire- 
resistance rating of a construction class required for the area 
and height of the building section as listed in section 221.1 
table 2-1 and section 221.2 table 2-2. 

902.2. Segregation by Type B Fire Divisions. — When different 
spaces are to be segregated under the provisions of section 213, 
the occupancies shall be separated from each other, vertically 
and horizontally, by fire separations having at least the fire- 
resistance ratings listed in section 902.4 table 9-1. In buildings 
of construction types I and II, Type B Fire Divisions shall be 
constructed of noncombustible materials. 

902.3. Unclassified Uses. — The building official shall determine 
the fire hazard classification of a building or structure designed 
for a use not specifically provided in section 902.4 tables 9-1 
and 9-2 in accordance with the fire characteristics and potential 
fire hazard of the occupancy group which it most nearly re- 
sembles; or its designation shall be fixed by the approved rules. 

902.4. Required Fireresistance Rating for Fire Divisions. 



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902-903 
902.5. Notes for Table 9-1. 

902.5.1. An office, or group of offices, whose use is accessory 
to an occupancy, and totals four hundred (400) square feet or 
less in area shall not be required to be separated with a type 
B Fire Division. Such office, or group of offices, totalling more 
than four hundred (400) square feet in area shall not be re- 
quired to be separated with a type B Fire Division if such 
offices exit directly without having to pass through the area of 
the related occupancy. 

902.5.2. Counters and backbars for the sale of publications, 
tobacco products, liquors, or candies, or for making of reser- 
vations for travel, car rental, or theatre, or otherwise involving 
similar business and mercantile activities that are accessory to 
an occupancy and are limited in area to one hundred (100) 
square feet within the area of the occupancy, need not comply 
with the requirements of this table. 

902.5.3. The provisions of this table shall not apply to closets 
seventy-five (75) square feet or less in area. 

902.5.4. Nonresidential kitchens shall be separated by fire divi- 
sions from adjoining dining spaces except when the following 
conditions are complied with: 

a. The cooking equipment is vented directly to the out- 
doors, and 

b. A draft curtain of noncombustible material, at least 
twenty-four (24) inches down from the ceiling, is pro- 
vided to separate the cooking facilities from dining 
spaces, and 

c. Sprinkler heads constructed in accordance with the pro- 
visions of article 12 are provided on the cooking facil- 
ities side of the curtain, or any opening between the 
kitchen and dining space, located within twenty-four (24) 
inches of the curtain or opening, and spaced not more 
than forty-eight (48) inches on centers if the opening is 
more than sixty (60) inches wide. When fire separations 
consisting of type B fire divisions are provided, double- 
action doors may be permitted. 

SECTION 903.0. FIRERESISTANCE TESTS 

All fire tests of building materials and construction shall be 
conducted in accordance with the applicable fire test procedure 
as specified herein; except that the hose-stream test therein pre- 



scribed for one (1) hour construction shall be required for all 
assemblies and constructions approved for a fireresistance rating 
of three-quarter (3/4) hours. The fireresistance rating of mate- 
rials and assemblies listed in reference standard RS 9-1 may be 
used to determine conformance with the fireresistance require- 
ments of this code. In addition to the performance results, test 
reports shall give all technical data pertaining to the nature of 
the constituent materials, such as the physical properties, chem- 
ical composition and properties, coefficient of expansion, thick- 
nesses of materials, etc. Except as listed in reference standard 
RS 9-1, any assembly using a component having a structural 
base of noncombustible material covered with an integrally 
manufactured combustible surfacing material, shall have an 
approved fireresistance rating. 

903.1. Structural Building Assemblies. — Built-up masonry units 
and composite assemblies of structural materials including walls, 
partitions, columns, girders, beams and slabs and assemblies 
of slabs and beams or other combinations of structural units 
for use in floor and roof construction shall be regulated by the 
fireresistance ratings of section 221.1 table 2-1 based on the 
test procedures of reference standard RS 9-2. 

903.2. Protection of Unoccupied Space. — Where a fireresistance 
rating is required for floor and roof assemblies, the ceiling may 
be omitted over unusable space and flooring or decking of the 
tested assembly may be omitted where unusable enclosed space 
occurs above provided the fireresistance of the assembly is not 
reduced to less than one (1) hour. 

903.3. Column, Beam and Girder Protection. — To evaluate 
column, beam and girder protection for structural units when 
the fireproofing is not a structural part of the element, in lieu 
of full size tests of loaded specimens, the structural sections 
encased in the material proposed for use as insulation and fire 
protection may be subjected to the standard test procedure 
without load. 

903.4. Roof Coverings. 

903.4.1. Size of Specimen. — Roof coverings shall be tested in 
a complete assembly of roof deck and roof covering constructed 
and applied as in practice with a panel area of not less than 
twelve (12) square feet and no dimension less than thirty-two 
(32) inches. 

903.4.2. Test Procedure. — The tests shall be conducted to de- 
termine ability to resist ignition, duration of flaming and sus- 
ceptibility to fire spread. 



903 

903.5. Classification of Roof Coverings. — Roof coverings shall 
be classified as A, B or C on the basis of their resistance to 
exterior fire exposure as listed in reference standard RS 9-3 
or as determined by tests made in conformance with reference 
standard RS 9-4 for those not listed. 

903.5.1. Limitations of Use. — Every roof placed on a building 
shall be covered with Class A or B roof covering, except that 
Class C roof covering may be placed on buildings classified in 
Occupancy Group L when not more than three (3) stories or 
forty (40) feet in height, and on buildings permitted by this code 
to be of type 4 A or 4B construction. 

903.5.2. Combustible Roof Decking. — Unless attached directly 
to noncombustible framework, all roof covering shall be applied 
to a closely fitted deck. 

903.5.3. Roof Insulation. — Approved combustible roof insula- 
tion may be applied on top of roof decking or slab provided 
that it is protected with the roof covering applied directly 
thereto. 

903.5.4. Wood Shake or Wood Shingle. — Roofing shall be 
limited to use in areas outside of the fire limits where the ex- 
terior fire exposure hazard is reduced by required fire separa- 
tions as provided in section 928.3 and on frame (type 4B) 
construction. 

903.6. Opening Protectives. 

903.6.1. Structural Integrity. — Opening protectives, including 
frames, self-closing devices, and hardware, shall be classified as 
to fire-protection rating in accordance with the test procedures 
of reference standards RS 9-5 and RS 9-6, and shall be in- 
stalled, maintained, and operated in accordance with the pro- 
visions of reference standard RS 9-7. All opening protectives 
shall bear the identification of an approved testing laboratory 
or agency certifying to the performance rating thereof, in accor- 
dance with the acceptance requirements of article 1. 

903.6.2. Smoke and Flame Barrier. — Tests of door and window 
assemblies shall be considered unsuccessful unless the assembly 
prevents the passage of smoke or flames in considerable volume 
and remains securely in the opening during the fire exposure 
and following the hose-stream test. 

903.6.3. Labeled Fire Doors. — Opening protective assemblies 
including the frames, hardware and operation which comply 
with the standards and accepted practice, including shop inspec- 
tion, of an approved testing laboratory or agency, shall be 



deemed to meet the requirements of this code for their recom- 
mended and approved locations and use as listed in section 917. 

903.6.4. Door Openings More Than 120 Square Feet. — Labeled 
fire doors for openings which are more than one hundred and 
twenty (120) square feet in area may be approved as conforming 
to all the standard construction requirements of tested and ap- 
proved fire door assemblies except as to size. 

903.6.5. Labeled Fire Windows and Shutters. — Fire window 
assemblies and shutters which comply with section 918, and 
the standards and accepted practice of the Underwriters' 
Laboratories, Inc., or other approved testing authorities shall 
be deemed to meet the requirements for their recommended 
and required locations under this code. 

903.6.6. Labeled Fire Dampers. — Only fire dampers which 
have been tested, listed and labeled by Underwriters' Labora- 
tories, Inc., or an equivalent test and labeling by other approved 
testing laboratories shall be deemed to meet the requirements 
of this code for the recommended locations and use as listed 
in section 1812.1. 

903.7. Combustibility Tests. — Where the behavior of materials 
under exposure to fire is specified in this Code the character- 
istics of materials shall be determined by the following tests 
and criteria. 

903.7.1. Noncombustible Materials. — A noncombustible material 
is one which, in the form in which it is used, meets any of the 
following requirements: 

a. Materials which pass the test procedure for defining 
noncombustibility of elementary materials listed in refer- 
ence standard RS 9-8 when exposed to a furnace temper- 
ature of thirteen hundred eighty-two (1382) degrees F. 
for a period of five (5) minutes, and do not cause a 
temperature rise of the surface or interior thermocouples 
in excess of fifty-four (54) degrees F. above the furnace 
air temperature at the beginning of the test and which 
do not flame after an exposure of thirty (30) seconds. 

b. Materials having a structural base of noncombustible 
material as defined in paragraph a., with a surfacing not 
more than one-eighth (1/8) inch thick which has a flame- 
spread rating not greater than fifty (50) when tested in 
accordance with the method of test for surface burning 
characteristics of building materials listed in reference 
standard RS 9-9. 



903 

c. Materials other than defined in paragraphs a. and b., 
having a flame-spread rating not greater than twenty- 
five (25) without evidence of continued progressive com- 
bustion, and of such composition that surfaces that 
would be exposed by cutting through the material in 
any way would not have a flame-spread rating greater 
than twenty-five (25) when tested in accordance with 
method of test for surface burning characteristics of 
building materials listed in reference standard RS 9-9. 

d. The term noncombustible does not apply to the flame- 
spread characteristics of interior finish or trim materials. 
No material shall be classed as noncombustible building 
construction material which is subject to increase in com- 
bustibility or flamespread rating beyond the limits herein 
established through the effects of age, moisture or other 
atmospheric conditions. 

903.7.2. Fire-Retardant Treated Wood Tests. — Where permitted 
for use as a structural element, fire-retardant treated wood shall 
be tested in accordance with the standard method of test for 
surface burning characteristics of building materials (tunnel test) 
listed in reference standard RS 9-9 and shall show a flame- 
spread rating not greater than twenty-five (25) when exposed 
for a period of not less than thirty (30) minutes, with no evi- 
dence of significant progressive combustion. The material shall 
bear the identification of an approved authoritative testing 
agency showing the performance rating thereof. 
903.8. Fire-Retardant Treated Wood. — Wood that has been 
pressure treated with fire-retardant chemicals in accordance with 
reference standards RS 9-10 or RS 9-11 may be used in type 
1 and 2 constructions for non-bearing partitions, structural ele- 
ments, roof framing and sheathing, in accordance with Note 
6, as indicated by note in section 221.1 table 2-1 provided that 
the assembly in which such material is used shall produce the 
required fireresistance when tested in accordance with reference 
standard RS 9-2. 

903.8.1. Limitations. — Fire-retardant treated wood may not 
be used where exposed to the weather or in interior spaces 
where the relative humidity is normally eighty (80) per cent or 
more. There shall be no fabrication of the material after treat- 
ment, such as cutting, shaping or grooving for splines or ring 
connectors so as to expose untreated surfaces, except that the 
material may be cut to length, shaped, or grooved if the ex- 



posed surfaces or edges are tightly butted against other material 
that is noncombustible or that is fire retardant treated, so that 
no untreated wood is left exposed to danger of ignition. Holes 
may be bored or cut for plumbing or heating pipes and for 
electric outlets only if the openings are covered with tightly- 
fitted noncombustible escutcheons or cover plates. The allowable 
working stresses of the material shall be ninety (90) per cent of 
the allowable stresses for untreated lumber of like classification. 

903.8.2. Structural Elements. — Where used as a structural ele- 
ment or as furring, such material shall meet the requirements of 
section 903.7.2. 

903.8.3. Interior Finish. — Where used as interior finish or trim, 
such material shall meet the requirements of section 904.1. 

903.8.4. Area Increase. — Fire-retardant treated wood may be 
used in construction types 3A, 3B and 4A buildings in lieu 
of untreated wood for wall studs, bearing partition studs, 
columns, beams, girders, joists, rafters, trusses, sole and cap 
plates, subflooring and roof decks and when so used, the area 
limitations of section 221.1 table 2-1 for buildings of construc- 
tion type 3A, 3B and 4A may be increased by thirty-three and 
one-third (33-1/3) per cent. 



SECTION 904.0. FLAME RESISTANCE TESTS 

All materials which are required to restrict the spread of flame 
or to be flame resistant under the provisions of this code, in- 
cluding but not limited to interior finish materials, fireretardant 
treated wood, tents and tarpaulins, and interior hangings and 
decorations, shall meet the requirements for their respective use 
and classifications as determined by the applicable test pro- 
cedures listed herein. 

904.1. Interior Finish Materials. — All materials used for interior 
finish shall be classified in accordance with the surface flame- 
spread rating obtained as prescribed in the provisions of reference 
standard RS9-9. Where an interior finish material is comprised 
of two (2) or more materials, laminated, glued, nailed or other- 
wise secured together, the test rating for flame spread shall be 
based upon the composite of the materials in the form in which 
it will be used in construction. Interior finish materials shall 



903-905 

be grouped in the following classes, in accordance with their 

surface flame spread characteristics: 

Interior Finish Class Flame-Spread Rating 

A to 25 

B 26 to 75 

C 76 to 225 

D 226 to 500 

SECTION 905.0. SPECIAL FIRERESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS 

In buildings or parts thereof of the occupancies and types of 
construction herein specified, the general fireresistive require- 
ments of section 221.1 table 2-1 and the height and area limi- 
tations of section 221.2 table 2-2 shall be subject to the following 
exceptions and modifications, and to Massachusetts Department 
of Public Safety, Board of Fire Prevention Regulations Form 
FPR No. 4. 

905.1. Public Garages. — Subject to the approval of the building 
official, existing buildings and structures altered or converted 
for use to a garage, motor vehicle repair shop or gasoline 
service station, more than one (1) story in height, unless of 
fireproof (type 1) construction, or heavy timber (type 3-A) 
construction, shall have the partitions, columns and girders and 
all floor and roof construction protected and insulated with 
noncombustible materials or assemblies of component materials 
having a fireresistance rating of not less than three-quarter (3/4) 
hours; except that existing roof trusses shall be exempt from 
all fireproofing requirements. 

905.2. Open Parking Structures. — For general construction re- 
quirements, see section 430. 

905.2.1. — Open parking structures shall be provided with stand- 
pipe in accordance with the requirements of Article 12. 

905.2.2. — When a sprinkler system is installed in accordance 
with section 1213 in types 2A, and 2B construction, the area 
maybe unlimited. 

905.3. Petroleum Bulk Storage Buildings. — Warehouses for the 
bulk storage of not more than fifty thousand (50,000) gallons 
of lubricating oils with a flash point of not less than three 
hundred (300) degrees F. in approved sealed containers may be 
erected outside the first and second fire zones of masonry 
wall (type 3) construction not more than five thousand (5,000) 
square feet in area and not more than one (1) story or twenty 
(20) feet in height; or to proportionate areas in other types 



of construction as regulated by section 221.2 table 2-2. Not 
more than one (1) motor vehicle may be stored in such build- 
ings unless separately enclosed with a Type A fire division of 
two (2) hours fireresistance. 

905.4. Packing and Shipping Rooms. — Every packing or shipping 
room located on or below a floor occupied for mercantile uses 
shall be separated therefrom by fire divisions of not less than 
the fireresistance of the type of construction of the building 
but in no case less than three-quarter (3/4) hours fireresis- 
tance. 

905.5. Truck Loading and Shipping Areas. — Truck loading and 
shipping areas shall be permitted within any business building 
provided such areas are enclosed in construction of not less 
than the fireresistance of the type of construction of the build- 
ing but in no case less than three-quarter (3/4) hours; and 
direct access is provided therefrom to the street. 

905.6. Residential Buildings. 

905.6.1. Protected Ordinary Construction. — Multi-family dwel- 
lings (occupancy group L-2) of protected ordinary (type 3-B) con- 
struction may be increased to six (6) stories or seventy-five 
(75) feet in height when the first floor above the basement 
or cellar is constructed of not less than three (3) hour fire- 
resistive construction, the floor area is subdivided by two (2) 
hour fire walls into fire areas of not more than three thousand 
(3,000) square feet, and the stairways, public hallways and 
exitways are enclosed in two (2) hour fireresistive construction. 

905.6.2. Protected Noncombustible Construction.— When of three- 
quarter (3/4) hour protected noncombustible (type 2-B) con- 
struction, multi-family dwellings (use group L-2) may be in- 
creased to nine (9) stories or one hundred (100) feet in height 
when separated not less than fifty (50) feet from any other 
building on the lot and from interior lot lines, the exitways 
are segregated in a fire area enclosed in a continuous fire 
wall of two (2) hour fireresistance and the first floor is not 
less than one and one half (1-1/2) hours fireresistive construction. 

905.6.3. Retail Business Use. — Subject to the restrictions of the 
zoning laws, the first floor of buildings of unprotected non- 
combustible (type 2-C), masonry wall (type 3-C) or frame 
(type 4-B) construction may be occupied for retail store use, 
provided the ceilings and enclosure walls are protected to afford 
three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresistance and the exitways from 
the residence floors are separately enclosed in accordance with 
the requirements of section 909.5 and article 6. 



905-906 
905.7. Grade Floor Protection. 

905.7.1. Non-Fireproof Construction. — In all buildings other 
than one- and two-family dwellings (occupancy group L-3) and 
other than fireproof (types 1A and IB) construction with hab- 
itable or occupiable stories or basements below grade, the 
ceilings, partitions and supports below the grade floor shall 
be protected with noncombustible materials or assemblies of 
component materials having a fireresistance rating of not less 
than three-quarter (3/4) hours or shall be of heavy mill (type 
3A) construction, or shall be equipped with automatic sprinklers; 
but in no case less than the required fireresistance of the occu- 
pancy group and type of construction required by section 221.1 
table 2-1 and section 221.2 table 2-2. 

905.7.2. Protected Noncombustible Construction. — In all build- 
ings of one and one-half (1-1/2) hour protected noncombustible 
(type 2-A) construction, more than four (4) stories or fifty 
(50) feet in height, in other than residential occupancy groups, 
the floor above the basement or cellar shall be constructed with 
a fireresistance of not less than two (2) hours. 

905.7.3 One- and Two-Family Dwellings. — One- and two-family 
dwellings (occupancy group L-3), not more than (2) stories 
and attic or thirty-five (35) feet in height, shall be exempt 
from the requirements of section 905.7. 

905.7.4. Below Grade Assembly Uses. — No dance hall, skating 
rink or similar places of public assembly for amusement, enter- 
tainment, instruction, or service of food or refreshment shall 
be located in rooms or spaces, the floor levels of which are 
more than three (3) feet below grade unless the floor construc- 
tion above and below is of not less than one and one-half 
(1-1/2) hours fireresistance. 

SECTION 906.0. ENCLOSURE WALLS 

All exterior masonry ?nd other enclosure walls shall comply 
with the structural provisions of articles 7 and 8 and with the 
fireresistance requirements of section 221.1 table 2-1 as regulated 
by the location and type of construction. Where other provisions 
of this code require a space or facility to be enclosed, the con- 
struction requirements for the enclosure shall not apply to any 
exterior wall that forms part of the enclosure. 
906.1. Exceptions. — The provisions of this code shall not be 
deemed to prohibit the omission of enclosure walls for all or 



part of a story when required for special uses and occupancies; 
except that when so omitted, the open areas shall be separated 
from the rest of the area and from the upper and lower stories 
of the building by wall and floor construction of the fireresistance 
required in section 221.1 table 2-1; and except as otherwise 
specifically permitted in this code, and the piers, columns and 
other structural supports within the open portion shall be con- 
structed with the fireresistance required for exterior bearing walls 
in section 221.1 table 2-1. 

906.2. Stone Masonry Piers. — In buildings of fireproof (types 1A 
and IB) construction, stone masonry shall not be used for in- 
terior isolated piers, columns, arches or vaultings, that support 
loads in addition to their dead weight except in church and 
similar monumental buildings; but this shall not prohibit the use 
of stone facings on loadbearing piers installed in accordance with 
the provisions of sections 863 and 873. 

906.3. Fire Canopies. — All fire canopies required by section 
918.5.1 shall be constructed of noncombustible materials ex- 
tending out at least two (2) feet horizontally from the wall and 
at least as long as the width of the lower opening and constructed 
to provide a fireresistance rating required for the exterior wall. 

906.4. Parapets. — Parapets shall be provided on all exterior 
walls of buildings of construction types 3A, 3B or 3C that have 
roof construction of combustible materials, shall be at least 
two (2) feet high, shall be of materials and assembly having at 
least the fireresistance rating of the wall below and shall other- 
wise conform to the requirements of section 870.0. Exceptions 
where parapets need not be provided on the exterior walls shall 
be made for the following buildings: 

906.4.1. One (1) story buildings less than twenty-two (22) feet 
high; or 

906.4.2. A building whose roof has a pitch of more than twenty 
(20) degrees to the horizontal and whose overhang, fascia, 
cornice or gutter is of noncombustible construction, or if of 
combustible construction, is separated from the roof and ceiling 
construction by construction having the fireresistance rating 
required for the exterior wall of the building. Combustible 
members, including roof sheathing, shall not extend through this 
construction, but shall have at least four (4) inches of solid non- 
combustible material below, at the sides, and at the ends of 
such members; or 



906-907 

906.4.3. A building is provided with a fire canopy, or not more 
than two (2) feet below the roof level, continuous around that 
portion of the wall that is without a parapet, constructed as 
required by section 906.3; or 

906.4.4. A building whose roof has a class A roof covering, 
and any overhangs, cornices, or gutters are constructed as re- 
quired by section 906.4.2 above. 

SECTION 907.0. FIRE WALLS AND PARTY WALLS 

Fire walls, party walls and other Type A Fire Divisions shall 
be constructed of noncombustible materials or assembly of non- 
combustible materials or form of construction of the required 
strength and fireresistance rating specified in section 221.1 table 
2-1 for the type of construction but not less than the fire- 
resistance rating required in section 902.4 table 9-2 for the 
occupancies involved. The construction shall comply with all 
the structural provisions for bearing and nonbearing walls of 
this code. 

907.1. Solid Brick. — In other than frame buildings, when con- 
structed of solid brick masonry, the wall thickness shall conform 
to the requirements of section 868; except that in all buildings 
more than twenty-five (25) feet in height used for moderate fire 
hazard storage (occupancy group B-l) and all high hazard uses 
(occupancy group A), no part of an unplastered masonry fire 
wall shall be less than twelve (12) inches thick. 

907.2. Reinforced Concrete. — When constructed of reinforced 
concrete, the wall thickness shall be not less than six (6) inches 
for the uppermost twenty-five (25) feet or portion thereof and 
shall increase two (2) inches for each additional twenty-five (25) 
feet or portion thereof measured down from the top of the wall; 
except that in buildings more than twenty-five (25) feet in height 
used for storage of moderate fire hazard (occupancy group B-l) 
and high hazard (occupancy group A), no part of an un- 
plastered reinforced concrete fire wall shall be less than eight 
(8) inches thick. 

907.3. Frame Dwellings. — In one- and two-family dwellings 
(occupancy group L-3), of frame (type 4) construction, party 
walls shall be not less than three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresistive 
construction and shall extend through intersecting walls of frame 
construction to the outside of all combustible wall and roof 
sheathing. 



907.4. Other Frame Buildings. — In frame buildings, in occupancy 
groups other than one- and two-family dwellings, all fire walls, 
party walls and type A fire divisions shall not be less than two 
(2) hour fireresistive construction, but in no case less than rating 
required in section 902.4 table 9-2. These divisions shall project 
at least twelve (12) inches through the exterior wall which pro- 
jection may be eliminated where the exterior walls are constructed 
of noncombustible materials for a distance of at least eighteen 
(18) inches on each side of the fire division and their junction 
is smoke tight. 

907.5. Cutting Fire Walls. — Chases or recesses shall not be cut 
into fire divisions so as to reduce their thickness below that 
required for all fireresistance rating, except that no chases, 
recesses or pockets for insertion of structural members subse- 
quent to erection shall be cut in walls of eight (8) inches or 
less in thickness. 

907.5.1. Where combustible members such as joists, beams, or 
girders bear on, or frame into, vertical fire divisions, such mem- 
bers shall not extend through the wall and shall have at least 
four (4) inches of solid noncombustible material below, at the 
sides, and at the ends of each such member. 

907.6. Hollow Fire Walls and Type A Fire Divisions. — Vertical 
fire divisions and walls that are hollow shall be firestopped with 
at least four (4) inches of noncombustible material so as to 
prevent passage of flame, smoke, or hot gases through the 
hollow spaces to the story above or below, or to hollow spaces 
within connecting floor or roof construction. 

907.7. Combustible Insulation. — The building official may 
permit the application of cork or fiber board or other com- 
bustible insulation if laid up without intervening air spaces and 
cemented or attached directly to the face of the fire wall and 
protected on the exposed surface as provided in section 824. 

907.8. Continuity of Fire Walls and Type A Fire Divisions.— 
Fire walls and other vertical type A fire divisions shall be con- 
tinuous between foundation, roof, or horizontal type A fire 
divisions and through any concealed space in floor or roof con- 
struction. Horizontal type A fire divisions shall be continuous 
between exterior walls and/or vertical type A fire divisions. 
907.8.1. When roof construction is combustible on both sides of 
a type A vertical fire division, the division shall extend through 
the roof construction to a height of at least four (4) inches 
above the high point at the roof framing. Decking shall tightly 



907-908 

butt the fire division. Above the decking of roofs that are flatter 
than twenty (20) degrees to the horizontal blocking shall be 
constructed to form cants on both sides of the fire division 
with slopes not steeper than 1:4. Combustible decking shall not 
extend over the top of the fire division. 

907.8.2. Except as required in 907.8.3 below, when roof construc- 
tion is noncombustible on one (1) or both sides of a vertical 
fire division, the vertical fire division may terminate at the 
underside of the noncombustible roof construction provided the 
junction of the wall and roof construction is made smoke tight. 

907.8.3. When a vertical type A fire division is required by 
section 902.4 table 9-2 to have a fireresistance rating of three (3) 
or four (4) hours, and the roof construction has a fireresistance 
rating of less than two (2) hours, the fire division shall extend 
above the roof construction to form a parapet at least three (3) 
feet high. 

907.8.4. Fire walls and Type A fire divisions shall be so con- 
structed that the removal or collapse of construction on one side 
will not endanger the support of construction on the other side. 

907.8.5. Fire walls and fire divisions shall be made smoke tight 
at their junction with exterior wails. 

907.9. Offset Fire Walls and Divisions. — Fire walls and other 
type A fire divisions may be offset if the construction between 
the offset divisions, including their supports, has at the same 
fireresistance rating as the fire division, with all hollow spaces 
within the construction firestopped with noncombustible material. 

SECTION 908.0. FIRE WALL OR VERTICLE TYPE A 
FIRE DIVISION OPENINGS 

Openings in said walls and fire divisions shall not exceed the 
limits in size and area herein prescribed and the opening pro- 
tectees shall conform to the provisions of sections 903, 904 
and 917. 

908.1. Size of Openings. — In buildings without sprinkler system 
no opening through a fire wall or verticle type A fire division 
shall exceed one hundred and twenty (120) square feet in area, 
with no dimension greater than twelve (12) feet, and the aggre- 
gate width of all openings at any level shall not exceed twenty- 
five (25) per cent of the length of the wall. Where the areas on 
both sides of a fire division are sprinklered in accordance with 
article 12, the size of the opening may be one hundred and fifty 
(150) sq. ft. in area, with no dimension greater than fifteen (15) 



feet. In buildings fully sprinklered in compliance with the pro- 
visions of article 12, the size and aggregate width of openings 
through fire divisions and walls shall be unlimited. 

908.2. First Story Exceptions. — In buildings of all types of con- 
struction, when the entire areas on both sides of a fire wall 
are protected with an approved automatic sprinkler system com- 
plying with article 12, openings designed for the passage of 
trucks may be constructed not more than two hundred and 
forty (240) square feet in area with a minimum distance of 
three (3) feet between adjoining openings. Such openings shall be 
protected with approved automatic opening protectives of three 
(3) hour fire resistance and provided with an approved water 
curtain for such openings in addition to all other requirements. 

908.3. Opening Protectives. — Except as section 917.1 may re- 
quire, every opening in a fire wall or vertical type A fire 
division shall be protected by opening protectives having the 
fireresistance rating prescribed in section 908.31 table 9-3. 
908.3.1. Table 9-3 Opening Protectives for Fire Walls and Fire 
Divisions. 

Fire-Resistance Rating of Fire Fire Protection Rating of 

Wall or Division in which Opening Protection* 

opening occurs 
3 or 4 hours 3 hours (Class A) 

2 or 1-1/2 hours 1-1/2 hours (Class B) 

1 hour 3/4 hour (Class C) 

*When not a part of a means of egress, the opening protective 
shall be applied on each face of the opening, with each pro- 
tective individually having the required rating except that only 
a single protective shall be required when it is installed wholly 
within the thickness of the wall. 

908.4. Horizontal Exitway. — Door openings in a fire wall ser- 
ving as a horizontal means of egress shall be protected with an 
approved one and one-half (1-1/2) hour self-closing swinging 
fire door or its labeled equivalent when designed as an exitway 
from one side. When serving as a dual exitway, there shall be 
adjacent openings with swinging fire doors opening in opposite 
directions. Signs shall be provided indicating as an exit, the 
door which swings in the direction of travel from that side. The 
size of openings shall comply with section 616. An automatic 
fire door, fire curtain, or water curtain shall be provided on 
the opposite side of each such opening. 



908-909 
SECTION 909.0. FIRE PARTITIONS 

909.1. Construction. — Fire partitions required for the enclosure 
of exitways and areas of refuge shall be constructed of approved 
masonry, reinforced concrete or other approved noncombustible 
materials having the minimum fireresistance prescribed by sec- 
tion 221.1 table 2-1, except that partitions constructed of com- 
bustible materials to provide the required fireresistance may be 
accepted for use in exitways of buildings of types 3 and 4 con- 
struction as regulated by section 221.1 table 2-1 and the pro- 
visions of section 618.9. 

909.2. Bearing Partitions. — When fire partitions are used as 
bearing walls, they shall comply with all the structural provi- 
sions of article 8 governing height and thickness. 

909.3. Continuity. — When fire partitions around vertical shafts 
are not continuous from floor to floor, the offset in the floor 
construction shall be of construction with a fireresistance rating 
not less than that of the partition construction, nor less than 
that of the fireresistance rating required in section 902.4 table 
9-2 for the specific occupancy involved. 

909.4. Openings. 

909.4.1. Size. — No other openings shall be permitted in fire 
partitions except exitways doors, and the aggregate permissible 
width of such doorways shall not exceed twenty-five (25) per 
cent of the length of the wall, nor shall the maximum area of 
any individual opening exceed forty-eight (48) square feet. 

909.4.2. Protectives. — All opening protectives in fire partitions 
in other than one- and two-family dwellings shall comply with 
the provisions of sections 903 and 918 for construction, except 
as provided in section 618.93 for buildings not more than three 
(3) stories in height. 

909.5. Combustible Stair Enclosures. 

909.5.1. Construction. — Stair enclosures constructed of approved 
combustible assemblies protected with component materials to 
afford the required fireresistance ratings shall be continuous 
through combustible floor construction and shall provide an 
unbroken fire barrier in combination with protected floors, 
ceilings and fire doors, separating the exitways from the un- 
protected areas of the building. Such enclosures shall be fire- 
stopped to comply with sections 877.9 and 921. 

909.5.2. Openings for Lighting. — Openings for the purpose of 
providing light in such enclosures may be protected with wired 
glass with single panes not more than three hundred and sixty 



(360) square inches in area and a total area in one story of 
not more than seven hundred and twenty (720) square inches. 
Such light panels shall comply with the provisions of section 
919 and shall be contained in stationary sash and frames of 
steel or other approved noncombustible materials. 

SECTION 910.0. FIRERESISTIVE PARTITIONS AND TYPE 
B FIRE DIVISIONS 

910.1. Construction. — Type B fire divisions shall be constructed 
of materials or assembly of materials having at least the firere- 
sistance ratings required by section 902.4 table 9-1, except that 
when used to separate different tenant apartments, suites, stores, 
offices or other spaces from each other the fireresistance rating 
prescribed shall be that indicated in section 902.4 table 9-1 but 
in no case less than one (1) hour and shall continue through 
any concealed spaces of the floor or roof construction above. 

910.2. Supports — All fireresistive partitions shall extend from 
the top of the fireresistive floor below to the fireresistive ceiling 
above, and shall be securely attached thereto. They shall be 
supported on fireproofed steel or reinforced concrete construc- 
tion; except that the supporting beams and girders of fireresis- 
tive partitions constructed of combustible materials shall be pro- 
tected with component materials or assemblies to afford the 
required fireresistance of the partitions supported. All hollow 
vertical spaces shall be firestopped at every floor level as re- 
quired in sections 877 and 921. 

910.3. Openings. — Door openings shall not exceed one hundred 
and twenty (120) square feet in area and where required to be 
fire protected, they shall comply with the provisions of sections 
904 and 917. 

910.4. Exceptions. 

910.4.1. Non-Fireproof Construction. — In buildings and struc- 
tures of masonry enclosed (type 3) and frame (type 4) construc- 
tion, protected wood studs or other combustible assemblies 
constructed with component materials to afford the required fire- 
resistance specified in section 221.1 table 2-1 shall be approved 
for enclosures of exitways where permitted in section 618.93 
and for all nonbearing partitions. 

910.4.2. Fireproof Construction. — In buildings and structures 
of fireproof (type 1) or of protected noncombustible (type 2) 
construction: 



909-911 

a. Of other than group H, L-l and L-2 occupancies, parti- 
tions of a single thickness of wood or approved com- 
posite panels, and glass or other approved materials of 
similar combustible characteristics, may be used to sub- 
divide rooms or spaces into offices, entries, or other 
similar compartments, provided they do not establish a 
public corridor or a private corridor serving an occupant 
load of fifty (50) or more in areas occupied by a single 
tenant and not exceeding five thousand (5,000) square 
feet between fireresistive partitions and fireresistive floors, 
or type A fire divisions. 

1. Larger areas may be subdivided with fireretardant 
wood or with materials of similar combustible 
characteristics when complying with section 903.72, 
but not to exceed fifty (50) per cent increase in area. 

b. Nonbearing partitions that are not required to have a 
fireresistance rating may be constructed of fireretardant 
treated wood and furring as provided in section 903.8, 
and except that such partitions and furring may be con- 
structed of combustible materials in spaces classified in 
class E, L-2 or L-3 occupancies provided the space 
containing the combustible portions does not exceed 
five thousand (5,000) square feet in area within a non- 
combustible enclosure having a fireresistance rating of at 
least one (1) hour, is of a single tenancy and glass or 
approved light transmitting plastic is used for glazing. 



SECTION 911.0. VERTICAL SHAFTS AND HOISTWAYS 

The provisions of this section for the enclosure shafts shall 
apply to all shafts except that floor openings accommodating 
a slide pole in a fire house shall be exempt from these provisions 
and except as provided for stairway enclosures in section 618, 
flue enclosures in section 1008, incinerator chutes in sections 
1016 and 1017, duct shafts in sections 1018 and 1019, pipe 
shafts in section 1117 and elevator and dumbwaiter hoistways 
in article 16. 

911.1. Wall Enclosure. — The shafts shall be enclosed with 
materials having at least the fireresistance rating required by 
section 221.1 table 2-1 and as supplemented herein. 



911.1.1. Open Shafts. — The enclosing wall of shafts that are 
open to the outer air at the top shall be constructed of materials 
specified in article 8 for exterior walls of buildings and structures. 

911.1.2. Closed Shafts. — The enclosing walls of interior covered 
shafts shall be constructed of approved masonry, reinforced con- 
crete or other approved construction with a fireresistance rating 
of not less than two (2) hours, except as provided in section 911. 

911.1.3. Shafts in Residential Buildings. — In one- and two- 
family dwellings of other than fireproof or noncombustible 
construction, shafts may be supported on and constructed of 
combustible materials or assemblies having a fireresistance rating 
of not less than three-quarter (3/4) hours, and shall extend not 
less than three (3) feet above the roof with a ventilating skylight 
of noncombustible construction as specified in section 927.2. 

911.2. Top Enclosure. 

911.2.1. Not Extending to Roof. — A shaft that does not extend 
into the top story of the building shall be enclosed with top 
construction of the same strength and fireresistance as the floors 
of the building or structure in which it occurs, but in no case 
less than that of the fireresistance rating of the shaft enclosure. 

911.2.2. Extending to Roof. — A shaft that extends through or 
serves the top most story of a building shall extend through the 
roof at least thirty-six (36) inches above any combustible roof 
construction. Where the roof construction is of noncombustible 
materials, the shaft shall extend through any concealed space 
within the roof construction and may terminate at the underside 
of the roof deck. Pipes and ducts penetrating shaft construction 
shall comply with the requirements of this code. 

911.3. Bottom Enclosure. — All shafts that do not extend to the 
bottom of the building or structure shall be enclosed at the 
lowest level with construction of the same strength and fire- 
resistance as the lowest floor through which it passes, but in 
no case with a fireresistance rating less than that of the shaft 
enclosure. 

911.4. Shaft Openings. — No openings other than necessary for 
the purpose of the shaftway shall be constructed in shaft en- 
closures; and except in shafts that contain only one opening 
below the roof terminus, all openings shall be protected with 
approved fire doors, curtains, shutters or fixed metal sash with 
wired glass complying with the provisions of sections 917, 918 
and 919. 



911 
911.4.1. Where a window is located in a shaft wall that is an 
exterior wall and is ten (10) stories or less above grade or three 
(3) stories or less above a roof, it shall be protected against 
entrance by a permanently secured grille consisting of five-eighths 
(5/8) inch diameter bars ten (10) inches o.c. vertically, or by a 
stationary metal sash window having one-eighth (1/8) inch thick 
solid section steel muntins, eight (8) inches o.c. one way. 
911.5. Venting of Closed Shafts. — All closed shafts having an 
area exceeding four (4) square feet shall be provided with a 
smoke vent having an area of at least three and one half (3-1/2) 
per cent of the maximum shaft area at any floor, but in no 
event less than one half (1/2) square foot. Smoke vents may be 
windows, louvers, skylights, vent ducts, or similar devices. Vent 
ducts shall be enclosed by construction having the same fire- 
resistance rating as required for the shaft enclosure. Such vent 
ducts 'shall extend vertically, diagonally, or horizontally as 
follows: 

911.5.1. Through any roof of the building provided the vent 
opening is at least ten (10) feet from any window, door, outside 
stairway, or interior lot line. This dimension may be reduced to 
five (5) feet if the vent duct is extended up to at least the level 
of the top of the window or door. A vent that is required to 
extend above a roof shall extend at least eight (8) inches above 
a roof assembly constructed of noncombustible materials, and 
at least thirty-six (36) inches above a roof assembly constructed 
of combustible materials that are within a horizontal distance 
of ten (10) feet. 

911.5.2. Through an exterior wall of the building, provided 
there are no openings in the wall within a distance of thirty (30) 
feet vertically above the vent opening, and within five (5) feet 
either side of the vent opening. When a side of a shaft is an 
exterior wall or a wall of a roof bulkhead, the required vent 
may be a louver or window. Any window or louver located in 
a shaft wall above a roof constructed of combustible materials 
shall have its sill at least thirty-six (36) inches above the roof. 

911.5.3. Of the total required vent area for shafts, at least one- 
third (1/3) shall be clear opening to the outdoors, either in the 
form of fixed louvers, ridge vents, or hooded or goosenecked 
openings. In lieu thereof, skylights or trap doors may be used 
if constructed and arranged to open automatically by fusible link 
or other mechanical device when subjected to a temperature of 
one hundred and sixty (160) degrees F. or to a rapid rise in 



temperature at a rate of fifteen (15) to twenty (20) degrees F. 
per minute. The remaining portion of the required vent area may 
be a window or skylight glazed with plain glass not more than 
one eighth (1/8) inch thick or slow burning plastic. 

911.6. Equipment Rooms. — Any room, space, or compartment 
containing equipment or machinery that communicates with a 
shaft enclosure shall comply with all requirements for shafts. 
The required louver or glazing shall not be located in any door 
leading into such room, space or compartment. 

911.7. Existing Shaftways. — In all existing shaftways of buildings 
of assembly (occupancy groups Fl, F2, F3 and F4), institutional 
(occupancy groups HI and H2) and residential (occupancy 
groups LI and L2) classifications, which are not already en- 
closed as herein required, the building official shall direct such 
construction as he may deem necessary to insure the safety of 
the occupants. 

SECTION 912.0. WALL LINTELS 

912.1. Fire Protection. — Lintels over openings wider than four 
(4) feet in masonry walls, other than in walls of masonry veneer 
on wood frame structures, shall be fire protected as required by 
section 913 for structural members, when the full load over the 
opening is not relieved by a masonry arch of required strength. 
The members of an assembled metal lintel that support only 
outer face masonry that is securely bonded or anchored to 
backing, need not be fire protected, provided that the inner 
members of the assembly support the full load imposed upon 
the lintel and are fire protected as required for structural mem- 
bers supporting masonry. 

912.2. Stone Lintels. — The use of stone lintels on spans exceed- 
ing four (4) feet shall not be permitted unless supplemented by 
fire protected structural members or masonry arches of the re- 
quired strength to support the superimposed loads. 

SECTION 913.0. BEAMS AND GIRDERS 

All beams and girders shall be protected with noncombustible 

materials or assemblies of component materials to afford the 

fireresistance specified in section 221.1 table 2-1 and as herein 

modified. 

913.1. Protection of Beams and Girders. — Beams and girders 

that are required to be fire protected, and that support only 



911-913 

one (1) floor or a roof, and/or a nonbearing wall not more 

than one (1) story high, shall be individually encased on all 
sides with materials having the required fireresistance rating; or 
shall be protected by a ceiling as specified in section 913.2 
having the required fireresistance rating; or shall be protected 
by a combination of both a ceiling and individual encasement 
which, together, provide the required fireresistance rating. Beams 
and girders that are required to be fire protected, and that 
support more than one (1) floor or a nonbearing wall more 
than one (1) story high, or a bearing wall, shall be individually 
encased on all sides for their entire length or height with ma- 
terials having the required fireresistance rating. Similar indi- 
vidual encasement shall be provided for all structural elements 
supporting stairway enclosures. 

913.1.1. Ceilings that contribute to the required fireresistance 
rating of a floor or roof assembly shall be continuous between 
exterior walls, vertical fire divisions, or vertical partitions having 
at least the same fireresistance rating as the ceiling. 

913.2. Ceiling Fixtures. — Ceilings required to have a fireresis- 
tance rating may be pierced to accommodate noncombustible 
electric outlet boxes or recessed lighting fixtures, if the aggre- 
gate area of such openings does not exceed sixteen (16) square 
inches in each ninety (90) square feet of ceiling area and the 
electrical outlet boxes or recessed lighting fixtures are con- 
structed of steel at least .022 inches thick and sealed tightly at 
the ceiling. Noncombustible pipes, ducts, and additional or 
larger electrical or other service facilities may pierce ceilings 
that are required to have a fireresistance rating only when the 
type of ceiling to be used has been tested with such types of 
facilities installed in pla ^ind the proportionate area of open- 
ings for such facilities to be installed in the ceiling does not 
exceed the proportionate area of such openings in the assembly 
tested, and provided no opening is larger than that in the 
assembly tested. Protection for such openings shall be the same 
as provided in the test. Duct openings installed in accordance 
with the foregoing shall be protected by fire dampers comply- 
ing with the requirements of article 18. 

913.3. Firestopping of Ceiling Spaces. — Floor or roof assem- 
blies required to have a fireresistance rating shall have any con- 
cealed spaces therein firestopped as outlined below. 

913.3.1. Firestopping of Non-Combustible Construction. — The 
concealed space above fireresistive ceilings shall be firestopped 



into areas not exceeding three thousand (3,000) square feet with 
materials listed in section 921.0 for the full height of the con- 
cealed space. Access to each such concealed space may be 
through one (1) or more openings not exceeding nine (9) square 
feet and protected by self-enclosing opening protectives having 
the fire protection rating required by section 221.1 table 2-1. 
Fire-stopping shall not be required where the structural members 
within the concealed space are individually protected with 
materials having the required fireresistance rating, or where 
the ceiling is not an essential part of the fireresistance assembly. 
Fire-stopping shall not be required where a concealed space is 
sprinklered in accordance with the construction requirements 
of article 12. Concealed spaces over boiler rooms and under 
roofs may be ventilated to the outer air. 

913.4. Firestopping of Wood Joist Construction. — Where the 
ceilings are suspended below wood joist flooi; construction, the 
space between the ceiling and the floor above shall be fire- 
stopped in areas of not more than one thousand (1,000) square 
feet with materials meeting the requirements of section 921.0. 

913.5. Wall Supports. — Structural members which support walls 
shall be protected in conformance with section 913.1 to afford 
not less than the required fireresistance of the wall construction 
supported thereon. 

913.6. Exterior Exposed Beams and Girders. — Beams and 
girders exposed to the outdoors on buildings that do not ex- 
ceed two (2) stories or thirty (30) feet in height, which are re- , 
quired by section 221.1 table 2-1 to have a fireresistance rating I 
not exceeding one (1) hour need not be protected on any face I 
of the member that has an exterior separation of thirty (30) j 
feet or more, provided the outdoor area within the thirty (30) I 
foot separation distance is not used for storage of materials, 
or for motor vehicle parking. 

913.7. Beams and Girders in Cavity Walls. — Where beams and 
girders occur within exterior cavity walls, portions of such I 
structural members facing the exterior need not be individually 
fire protected if the outer wythe of the cavity wall provides the 
required fireresistance rating and is located not more than two 
and one-half (2-1/2) inches from such structural members, and 
if all surfaces of the structural members are fire protected from I 
the interior of the building by materials having the required ± 
fireresistance rating. 



913-914 

913.8. Elevators. — Beams and girders located wholly within the 
shaft and not an integral part of the support of the shaft need 
not be fire protected. 

913.9. Embedments and Enclosures. — Pipes, wires, conduits, 
ducts, or other service facilities shall not be embedded in the 
required fire protection of a structural member that is required 
to be individually encased; except that pipes, wires, and conduits 
may be installed in the space between the required fire protec- 
tion and the structural member protected, provided that where 
such facilities pierce the required fire protection, the area of the 
penetrations does not exceed two (2) per cent of the area of the 
fire protection, on any one (1) face, the penetrations are closed 
off with close-fitting metal escutheons or plates and the con- 
cealed space shall be fire-stopped at each story in accordance 
with the provisions of section 913.3. 

913.10. Impact Protection. — Where the fire protective covering 
of a structural member is subject to impact damage from mov- 
ing vehicles, the handling of merchandise, or other activity, the 
fire protective covering shall be protected by corner guards or 
by a substantial jacket of metal or other noncombustible ma- 
terial to a height adequate to provide full protection. Where 
applicable, such protection shall be designed in accordance with 
the requirements of section 710. 

SECTION 914.0. COLUMNS 

All steel, iron and other approved metal columns and rein- 
forcement in concrete columns shall be protected with noncom- 
bustible materials or assemblies of component materials to afford 
the fireresistance specified in section 221.1 table 2-1 and as here- 
in modified. Columns that are required to be fire protected, and 
that support only one floor or a roof, and/or a non-bearing 
wall not more than one (1) story high, shall be individually en- 
cased on all sides with materials having the required fireresis- 
tance rating; or shall be protected by a ceiling as specified in 
section 913.2 having the required fireresistance rating; or shall 
be protected by a combination of both a ceiling and individual 
encasement which, together, provide the required fireresistance 
rating. Columns that are required to be fire protected, and that 
support more than one (1) floor or support a bearing wall or 
non-bearing wall more than one (1) story high, shall be indi- 
vidually encased on all sides for their entire length or height 



with materials having the required fireresistance rating; (or shall 
be protected by a combination of both a ceiling and individual 
encasement which, together, provide the required fireresistance 
rating.) 

914.1. Exterior Columns. — Columns located in exterior walls 
or along the outer lines of a building or structure -shall be fire- 
protected as required by this section and shall be protected 
against corrosion by cement parging, waterproofing, or other 
approved methods complying with section 874. 

914.2. Columns in Cavity Walls. — Where columns occur within 
exterior cavity walls, portions of such structural members facing 
the exterior need not be individually fire protected if the outer 
wythe of the cavity wall provides the required fireresistance 
rating and is located not more than two and one half (2-1/2) 
inches from such structural members, and if all surfaces of the 
structural members are fire protected from the interior of the 
building by materials having the required fireresistance rating. 

914.3. Embedments and Enclosures. — Pipes, wires, conduits, 
ducts, or other service facilities shall not be embedded in the 
required fire protection of a structural member that is required 
to be individually encased; except that pipes, wires, and conduits 
may be installed in the space between the required fire protec- 
tion and the structural member protected, provided that where 
such facilities pierce the required fire protection, the area of the 
penetrations does not exceed two (2) per cent of the area of the 
fire protection on any one face, the penetrations are closed off 
with close-fitting metal escutcheons or plates and the concealed 
space shall be firestopped at each story in accordance with the 
provisions of section 913.3. 

914.4. Mechanical Protection. — Where the fire protective cover- 
ing of a structural member is subject to impact damage from 
moving vehicles, the handling of merchandise, or other activity, 
the fire protective covering shall be protected by corner guards 
or by a substantial jacket of metal or other noncombustible 
material, to a height adequate to provide full protection. Where 
applicable, such protection shall be designed in accordance with 
the requirements of section 710. 

914.5. Exterior Exposed Columns. — Columns exposed to the out- 
doors on buildings that do not exceed two (2) stories or thirty 
(30) feet in height, which are required by section 221.1 table 2-1 
to have a fireresistance rating not exceeding one (1) hour 
need not be protected on any face of the member that has an 



914-915 

exterior separation of thirty (30) feet or more, provided the 
outdoor area within the thirty (30) foot separation distance is 
not used for storage of materials, or for motor vehicle parking. 
The interior faces of exterior columns shall be protected and 
insulated as otherwise required. 

914.6. Anchors, Bands and Ties. 

914.6.1. Concrete Reinforcement. — Concrete fire protection on 
structural metal columns shall be reinforced and anchored by 
wire mesh, metal caging, metal clips or spirally wound wire of 
approved types. Wire fabric shall be not less than No. 12 U.S. 
gage, four (4) by four (4) inch mesh or its equivalent; spirally 
wound wire shall be not less than No. 10 U.S. gage with not 
over four (4) inch pitch or equivalent heavier wire at a maxi- 
mum pitch of eight (8) inches. 

914.6.2. Gypsum Concrete Reinforcement. — Poured-in-place 
gypsum fire protection shall be reinforced and anchored by wire 
fabric of not less than No. 16 U.S. gage, two (2) by two (2) 
inch mesh or No. 14 U.S. gage, four (4) by four (4) inch mesh. 

914.6.3. Masonry Unit Ties. — Block and tile fireproofing units 
shall be securely anchored or bounded by wall ties, metal mesh 
or metal u-clips in the horizontal joints, or by outside tie wires 
not less than No. 16 U.S. gage with at least one (1) tie around 
every block course; or shall consist of special masonry units 
designed to furnish positive anchorage to the structural member 
and to each other. 

914.6.4. Exposed Ties. — When outside tie wires are used, they 
shall be protected by not less than one-half (1/2) inch of ce- 
ment mortar, or gypsum plaster or the equivalent fireresistive 
covering. 

914.7. Reinforced Concrete Columns.— The thickness of pro- 
tection required outside of reinforcing steel in the concrete 
columns shall be proportioned by test to meet the fireresistive 
requirements of section 221.1 table 2-1 based on the fireresistive 
classification of concrete aggregates. 

SECTION 915.0. TRUSSES 

All trusses shall be protected with noncombustible materials 
or assemblies of component materials to afford the fireresistance 
specified in section 221.1 table 2-1 and as herein modified. 
915.1. Protection of Trusses. — Trusses that are required to be 
fire protected, and that support only one floor or a roof, and/or 



a non-bearing wall not more than one (1) story high, shall be 
individually encased on all sides with materials having the re- 
quired fireresistance rating; or shall be protected by a ceiling as 
specified in section 913.2 having the required fireresistance 
rating; or shall be protected by a combination of both a ceiling 
and individual encasement which, together, provide the required 
fireresistance rating. Trusses that are required to be fire pro- 
tected, and that support more than one floor or support a bear- 
ing wall or non-bearing wall more than one story high, shall be 
individually encased on all sides for their entire length or height 
with materials having the required fireresistance rating. 
With the use of a continuous ceiling of the specified firere- 
sistance rating, the enclosed truss space shall have an access 
doorway with maximum dimensions of three (3) by three (3) 
feet, equipped with an opening protective of the same fire- 
resistance rating as the required truss protection. When the 
trusses or the roof decking are permitted to be constructed of 
combustible materials, the space above the required fireresistive 
ceiling shall be subdivided into maximum areas of three thousand 
(3,000) square feet as required for attic spaces in section 219. 

915.2. One Story Buildings. — In all one (1) story buildings re- 
quired to be of fireresistive construction, no protection shall be 
required for the members of roof trusses, purlins or roof beams 
when the height to the lowest chord is twenty (20) feet or more 
from the floor. 

915.3. Roofs Less Than Twenty (20) Feet High. — In multi- 
story buildings of types of construction in which fire protected 
coverings of the structural framework are required by section 
221.1 table 2-1 and the provisions of this code, the fire protec- 
tion of individual members of the roof truss may be omitted 
when the clear height of the lower chord of the truss is more 
than fifteen (15) and less than twenty (20) feet above the floor, 
gallery or balcony immediately below and a three-quarter (3/4) 
hour continuous ceiling is installed. 

915.4. Roofs Twenty (20) Feet or Higher. — When every part of 
the structural framework is twenty (20) feet or more above the 
floor immediately below, all fire protection of the structural 
members may be omitted, including the protection of roof beams 
and purlins. 

915.5. Roof Slabs and Arches. — Where the omission of fire 
protection from roof trusses and purlins is permitted, the hori- 
zontal or sloping roofs in fireproof (type 1) and noncombustible 



915-916 

(type 2) construction, immediately above such trusses, shall be 
constructed of noncombustible materials of the required strength 
without a specified fireresistance rating, or of mill type con- 
struction in buildings not over five (5) stories or sixty-five (65) 
feet in height. 

SECTION 916.0. EXTERIOR OPENING PROTECTIVES 

Where specified herein, the exterior openings of all buildings 
and structures, more than three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in 
height, other than churches (occupancy group F4), residential 
buildings (occupancy groups L2 and L3) and buildings of frame 
(type 4) construction, shall have approved opening protectives 
meeting the requirements of section 903.6 and the provisions 
of article 4 for special uses and occupancies. 

916.1. Horizontal Exposure. — Approved protectives shall be 
provided in every opening facing a street thirty (30) feet or 
less in width, or within thirty (30) feet horizontally in a direct 
line not in the same plane of any unprotected noncombustible 
(type 2-C), unprotected frame (type 4-B) structure, or within 
thirty (30) feet horizontally of any opening in another building 
of any type of construction. 

916.2. Vertical Exposure. — Approved protectives shall be pro- 
vided in every opening which is less than fifty (50) feet vertically 
above the roof of an adjoining structure within a horizontal dis- 
tance of thirty (30) feet of the wall in which the opening is 
located, unless such roof construction affords a fireresistance of 
not less than one and one-half (1-1/2) hours. 

916.3. General Exposure. 

916.3.1. Interior Lot Line Exposure. — Opening protectives shall 
be provided in every permissible wall opening in buildings of 
high hazard (occupancy group A) within eleven (11) feet of an 
interior lot line; in buildings of moderate hazard (occupancy 
group Bl) within six (6) feet of such lot lines; and in wall 
openings of frame buildings which are erected within six (6) 
feet of interior lot lines, except for store fronts and window 
and door openings in dwellings of occupancy groups L2 and L3. 

916.3.2. Exterior Opening. — Exterior openings above the third 
floor level of a building or above a height of forty (40) feet, 
except buildings in occupancy group L3, open parking structures 
and buildings of construction types 4A and 4B, shall have 
opening protectives when: 



a. any part of the opening is less than thirty (30) feet dis- 
tant in a direct unobstructed line not in the same plane, 
from an opening in another building or from a wood 
frame building, or 

b. any part of the opening is above and less than thirty 
(30) feet in a direct unobstructed line from any roof 
construction that has a fireresistance rating of less than 
one (1) hour or that has unprotected openings therein 
within this distance, whether the roof construction is on 
the same building or on an adjacent building. 

916.4. First Story Openings. — The required fireresistive opening 
protectives may be omitted in show windows or other openings 
on the lowest story of a building facing on a street or public 
space not less than thirty (30) feet in width. 

916.5. Non-Automatic Protectives. — Required opening protec- 
tives in exterior openings, if not self-closing or automatic, shall 
be kept closed by the occupants at all times when not required 
for light or ventilation under the provisions of article 5. 

916.6. Opening Protective Required Ratings. — In a building or 
space classified in occupancy group A, all opening protectives 
shall be three-quarter (3/4) hour (Class E) opening protectives 
meeting the requirements of reference standard RS 9-7. Such 
protectives shall be fixed self-closing or automatic. Alternately, 
these openings may be protected with three-quarter (3/4) hour 
(Class F) protectives together with outside sprinklers installed 
in accordance with construction requirements of article 12. In 
such cases, there shall be an automatic dry pipe sprinkler head 
centered over each opening with the orifice directed against the 
opening. All opening protectives required by section 221.1 
table 2-1 or by section 916.3.2 above in buildings classified in 
other than occupancy group A shall be three-quarter (3/4) hour 
(Class F) openings. 

916.6.1. Exterior windows and doors, including their frames 
and glazing, that are not required by this code to have a fire- 
protection rating, may be of combustible materials. Glazing in 
balcony doors shall comply with the requirements of section 
612.7.4. 

SECTION 917.0. FIRE DOORS 

917.1. Fire Door Assemblies. — Approved fire door assemblies 
as defined in this Code shall be constructed of any material or 



916-917 

assembly of component materials which meet the test require- 
ments of sections 903 and 904 and the fireresistance rating here- 
in required. 

Fireresistance 
Location Rating in Hours 

Fire walls and fire divisions of 3 or more 
hour construction 3 

Fire walls and fire divisions of 2 hour 
construction 1-1/2 

Shaft enclosures and elevator hoistways of 
2 hour construction 1-1/2 

Stairway and exitway enclosures of 1 hour 
or less except fire towers and grade 

passageways 3/4 

Doors in exitways of residential and business use buildings not 
more than three (3) stories for forty (40) feet in height with an 
occupancy load of not more than forty (40) below or seventy 
(70) above grade and doors from hotel rooms (occupancy group 
LI), from hospital rooms (occupancy group H2), and from 
school rooms (occupancy group G) to corridors providing access 
to an exitway may be of noncombustible construction or of one 
and three-quarter (1-3/4) inch bonded solid-core wood doors. 

917.2. Labeled Protective Assemblies.— Labeled protective as- 
semblies meeting the requirements of sections 903.6.3 and 903.6.5, 
and reference standards RS 9-5, RS 9-6 and RS 9-7, including 
shop inspection, shall be approved for use in the following 
typical and special situations: 

917.2.1. Typical Situations. 

Class A Doors — Fire wall openings in accordance with section 
908. 

Class B Doors — Verticle shafts and openings in fire partitions 
in accordance with sections 909 and 911. 

Class C Doors — Openings in corridor, room and fireresistive 
partitions in accordance with section 910. 

Class D Doors and Windows — Openings in exterior walls in 
exposing and exposed buildings of high hazard use (occupancy 
group A) in accordance with article 4 and along exterior 
stairways in accordance with section 621. 

Class E Doors and Windows — Openings in exterior walls and 
along fire escapes except where. class D protectives are re- 
quired in accordance with section 624. 



917.2.2. Special Situations. — Approved labeled opening pro- 
tective assemblies shall be accepted as complying with the re- 
quired time-temperature performance ratings specified in this 
code including the following special situations: 
Class A Doors — High pressure boiler room walls in accordance 
with sections 618 and 1115. 
Volatile flammables, film, pyroxylin products and fur storage 

vaults in accordance with sections 403, 408 and 409. 
Grinding and grain processing rooms in accordance with 

section 411. 
Paint and flammable storage rooms in accordance with sec- 
tion 412. 
Dry cleaning rooms of high and moderate hazard in accor- 
dance with section 413. 
Proscenium walls of theatres in accordance with section 418. 
Transformer room walls in accordance with article 15. 
Class B Doors — Motion picture studios in accordance with 
section 409. 
Dressing rooms in accordance with section 418. 
Show rooms in public garages in accordance with section 415. 
Theatre exits and property rooms in accordance with section 

418. 
Fire and smokeproof towers in accordance with section 620. 
Horizontal exits in accordance with sections 616 and 908. 
Class C Doors — Projection and trial exhibition rooms in ac- 
cordance with section 409. 
Paint spray rooms in accordance with section 412. 
Service stations and repair shops in accordance with sections 

416 and 417. 
Kitchen and service pantries in places of assembly in accor- 
dance with section 419. 
Corridor rooms and all fireresistive partitions in accordance 
with section 910. 
Class D Doors — Attached garages in accordance with sections 
414 and 917. 
Switchboard rooms where required by article 15. 

917.3. Deleted. 

917.4. Glass Panels. — Wired glass panels shall be permitted in 
fire doors within the limitations of section 919 and as herein 
specifically prescribed. 

917.5. Alternate Closing Devices. — Except as may be otherwise 
provided for openings in fire enclosures and fire division walls, 



917-918 

all fire doors shall be self-closing. Fire doors shall be kept 
closed at all times, except that approved fail-safe electromagnetic 
holders activated by approved rate of temperature rise and 
smoke detection devices (installed in compliance with their 
listing) located on both sides of opening and capable of con- 
nection to a local or central fire alarm may be used on exit 
doors and smoke screen doors in horizontal hallways, exitways 
and corridors. Holders shall not be used on fire doors con- 
necting to stairways or other vertical openings. 

SECTION 918.0. FIRE WINDOWS AND SHUTTERS 

918.1. Fireresistance Rating. — Approved assemblies of fire win- 
dows and fire shutters shall meet the test requirements of sections 
903 and 904, or shall be approved labeled assemblies meeting 
the requirements of section 903.6.5. 

Steel window frame assemblies of one-eighth (1/8) inch minimum 
solid section or of not less than No. 18 U.S. gage formed 
sheet steel members fabricated by pressing, mitering, riveting, 
interlocking or welding and having provision for glazing with 
one-quarter (1/4) inch wired glass as required in section 919.0, 
when securely installed in the building construction and glazed 
with one-quarter (1/4) inch wired glass, shall be deemed to meet 
the requirements for a three-quarter (3/4) hour fire window 
assembly. 

918.2. Window Mullions. — All metal mullions which exceed 
a nominal height of twelve (12) feet shall be protected with 
insulating materials to afford the same fireresistance as required 
for the wall construction in which the protective is located. 

918.3. Swinging Fire Shutters. — When fire shutters of the swing- 
ing type are used in exterior openings, not less than one (1) 
row in every three (3) vertical rows shall be arranged to be 
readily opened from the outside and shall be identified by dis- 
tinguishing marks or letters not less than six (6) inches high. 

918.4. Rolling Fire Shutters. — When fire shutters of the rolling 
type are used, they shall be approved counter-balanced construc- 
tion that can be readily opened from the outside. 

918.5. Vertical Separation of Windows. 

918.5.1. Where Required. — In all buildings and structures ex- 
ceeding three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in height, openings 
located vertically above one another in exterior walls which are 
required to have a firesistance rating of more than three-quarter 



(3/4) hours shall be separated by apron or spandrel walls not 
less than three (3) feet in height extending between the top of 
any opening and the bottom of the opening next above, or j 
the floor above shall be protected by fire canopies conforming J 
to provisions of section 906.3, set backs or other means of 
preventing vertical spread of fire. No vertical separation is re- 
quired between exterior openings when the building is of un- 
protected construction (types 2C, 3C, and 4B), or when the 
lower of any two (2) successive exterior openings under con- 
sideration opens onto a room or space used for assembly, 
business, educational or residential occupancy. 
918.5.2. Fireresistance Rating. — The apron or spandrel walls 
shall be constructed with the same fireresistance required for the 
exterior wall in which located as specified in section 221.1 
table 2-1; except that when such required rating exceeds three- 
quarter (3/4) hours, approved wired glass construction in fixed 
noncombustible sash and frames not exceeding one-third (1/3) 
of the area of such apron or spandrel may be located therein, 
and except further that in exterior non-bearing enclosure walls 
which are not required to be of more than three-quarter (3/4) 
hour fireresistance, the provisions of this section in respect to 
apron or spandrel walls shall not apply. 



SECTION 919.0. WIRED GLASS 

Wired glass in approved opening protective assemblies shall 
be not less than one-quarter (1/4) inch thick and shall be 
limited in area and location as herein required. 

919.1. Fire Wall Protectives. — Wire glass in fire doors located 
in fire walls shall be prohibited, except that when serving as a 
functioning element in a required means of egress, the self- 
closing swinging door may be provided with a vision panel of 
not more than one hundred (100) square inches with no dimen- 
sion exceeding twelve (12) inches. 

919.2. Fire Partition Protectives. — Wired glass vision panels 
may be used in fire doors of one and one-half (1-1/2) hour 
fireresistance rating intended for use in fire partitions; but in 
no case shall the glass panels be more than one hundred (100) 
square inches in area with no dimension exceeding twelve (12) 
inches. 



918-920 

919.3. Fireresistive Partition Protectives.— Wired glass panels 
in three-quarter (3/4) hour fire doors, smoke stop partitions 
and fi