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Full text of "The building law of the city of Boston : Chapter 550 of Acts of 1907 (as amended by Acts 1908, Chap. 336; Acts 1909, Chap. 313; Acts 1910, Chap. 631; Acts 1912, Chaps. 369 and 370)"

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The Building Law 



of the 



City of Boston 



Chapter 550 of Acts of 1907 

(As Amended by Acts 1908, Chap. 336; Acts 1909, Chap. 313; Acts 1910, 
Chap. 631 ; Acts 1912, Chaps. 369 and 370) 



PUBLISHED BY 

William H. Sayward 

166 DEVONSHIRE STREET 
BOSTON 

1912 



CONTENTS. 



PAGES 

SECTIONS 1-10. Building Department. 

Organization, Officers, Powers, etc 5 

SECTION 11. Building Terms. 

Definitions of Words Used : 9 

SECTIONS 12-13. Buildings, Requirements for All. 

Permits, Prohibitions, etc lo 

SECTIONS 14-16. Building Materials. 

Brick, Iron, Steel, Concrete, Wood, etc 12 

SECTION 17. Building Classification. 

First, Second, Third, Composite 19 

SECTIONS 18-41. Building Construction. 

Height, Excavations, Piling, etc 21 

SECTIONS 42-76. Tenement Houses, Additional Re- 
quirements FOR. 

Definitions of Terms, Fire-escapes, etc 32 

SECTIONS 77-111. Theatres and Places of Public As- 
sembly. 

Construction, Courts, Curtains, etc 45 

SECTIONS 112-124. Plumbing and Plumbers. 

Definition of Terms, Registration, Inspection, etc. . . 54 
SECTION 125. Hazardous Buildings and Appliances. 

Regulations Relative to ' 62 

SECTION 126. Combustible Materials. 

Habitable Buildings Not to be Used for Storage, etc. . . 63 
SECTIONS 127, 129. Enforcement of Act. 

Jurisdiction in Equity and at Law 63 

SECTION 128. Board of Health, Powers of. 

Relating to Occupants, Light, Ventilation, etc 63 

SECTION 132. Nuisance. 

When a Building becomes a Nuisance 64 

SECTION 133. Repeals. 

Acts 1892, Chapter 419 65 

SECTION 134. This Act takes Effect 

August I, 1907 65 



THE BUILDING LAW 

OF THE 

CITY OF BOSTON 



ACTS, 1907 — CHAP. 550 



(As Amended by Acts igo8, Chap. 336 ; Ads igog, Chap. 313; Acts 
1910, Chap. 631; Acts 1912, Chaps. 369 and 370.) 



AN ACT RELATIVE TO THE CONSTRUCTION, 
ALTERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF BUILD- 
INGS IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section i. There shall be in the city of Boston a department to 
be called the building department, which shall be under the charge of 
the building commissioner. The commissioner, who shall have had 
at least five years' experience as an architect, a builder, or a civil 
engineer, shall be appointed by the mayor, for a term of five years. 
He shall receive such salary as shall be fixed by the city council, 
with the approval of the mayor. 

The present officers and employees of the building department, 
except the board of appeal, shall hold their several offices and posi- 
tions until removed or discharged according to law. 

The commissioner may, with the approval of the mayor, appoint 
such number of inspectors, employees, and assistants as the city 
council shall, from time to time, determine. No person shall be 
appointed as inspector of construction who has not had at least five 
years' experience as a builder, civil engineer, or architect, or as a 
superintendent or foreman or a competent mechanic in charge of 
construction. 

The commissioner may appoint as his deputy an inspector in the 
department who shall, during the absence or disability of the com- 
missioner, exercise all the powers of the commissioner^ No officer 
connected with the department shall engage in any other business 
or be interested in the doing of work or the furnishing of material 
for the construction, repair or maintenance of any building, or in the 
making of plans or of specifications therefor, unless he is the owner 
of the building or a member of the board of appeal. 

The clerk of the department shall, under the direction of the 
commissioner, keep a record of the business of the department, and 
the commissioner shall submit to the mayor a yearly report of such 
business. The records of the department shall be open to public 

5 



inspection. The commissioner may require plans and specifica- 
tions of any proposed structure or for the alteration of any structure 
or building to be filed with him, duplicates of which, when approved 
by the commissioner, shall be kept at the building during the progress 
of the work. Such duplicates shall be open to the inspection of any 
inspector in said department. 

The commissioner shall grant permits for the construction, altera- 
tion, removal or tearing down of buildings or structures, and for 
plumbing, gas fitting, and the setting and maintenance of steam 
boilers and furnaces when applications for the same are made and 
filed in conformity with law. 

All permits issued by the commissioner shall be on printed forms 
approved by him. 

If the commissioner finds that the terms of a permit are being 
violated, he may, after notice mailed to the person to whom the ^ 
permit was issued, order the whole or any part of the work, which is 
being done under the permit, to be stopped, and such work shall not 
be resumed until the terms of the permit have been complied with. 

All applications for permits under the provisions of this act shall 
be in writing, on forms furnished by the department. The com- 
missioner may require the material facts set forth in the same to be 
verified by the oath of the applicant; he may also require, in his 
discretion, a survey of a lot on which any proposed building is to be 
erected to be filed with the application. Every application shall 
state the name and address of the owner. 

Sect. 2. The commissioner, or one of his inspectors, shall examine 
as often as is practicable every building in the course of construction 
or alteration, and shall make a record of all violations of this act and 
of all other matters relative thereto. The publication of such 
records with the consent of the commissioner shall be privileged. 

Sect. 3. The commissioner, or one of his inspectors, shall examine 
any building reported as dangerous or damaged, and shall make a 
record of such examination, stating the nature and estimated amount 
of the damage, and the purpose for which the building was used, 
and in case of fire the probable origin thereof; and shall examine all 
buildings in respect to which applications have been made for permits 
to raise, enlarge, alter, or repair, and shall make a record of every 
such examination. 

Sect. 4. The commissioner, or one of his inspectors, shall inspect 
every building or other structure or anything attached to or con- 
nected therewith which he has reason to believe is unsafe or danger- 
ous to life, limb, or adjoining buildings, and if he finds it unsafe or 
dangerous, he shall forthwith in writing notify the owner, agent, or 
any person having an interest therein, to secure the same, and shall 
affix in a conspicuous place upon its external walls a notice of its 
dangerous condition. The notice shall not be removed or defaced 
without his consent. 

The commissioner may with the written approval of the mayor 
order any building which in his opinion is unsafe to be vacated 
forthwith. 

Sect. 5. The person notified as provided in the preceding section 
shall secure or remove said building, structure, attachment or con- 



nection forthwith. If the public safety so requires, the commissioner, 
with the approval of the mayor, may at once enter the building or 
other structure, the land on which it stands or the abutting land or 
buildings, with such assistance as he may require, and secure the 
same, and may erect such protection for the public by proper fence or 
otherwise as may be necessary, and for this purpose may close a 
public highway. 

Sect. 6.* There shall be in said department a board to be called 
the board of appeal. Said board shall consist of five members 
appointed by the mayor in the following manner: One member from 
two candidates, one to be nominated by the Real Estate Exchange 
and Auction Board and one by the Massachusetts Real Estate Ex- 
change; one member from two candidates, one to be nominated by 
the Boston Society of Architects and one by the Boston Society of 
Civil Engineers; one member from two candidates, one to be nomi- 
nated by the Master Builders Association and one by the Con- 
tractors and Builders Association; one member from two candidates 
to be nominated by the Building Trades Council of the Boston Cen- 
tral Labor Union; and one member selected by the mayor. These 
appointments shall be subject to confirmation by the board of 
aldermen. The appointments first made shall be for the terms of 
one, two, three, four, and five years, respectively, so that the term 
of one member shall expire each year. AH subsequent appointments 
shall be for the term of five years. Vacancies shall be filled in the 
same manner in which original appointments are made. Each 
member of said board shall be paid ten dollars per day for actual 
service but not more than one thousand dollars in any one year. No. 
member shall act in any case in which he is interested, and in case 
any member is so disqualified, or is absent from illness or other cause, 
the remaining members shall designate a substitute. 

All the members of said board shall be residents of or engaged in 
business in Boston. 

Every decision of the board shall be in writing and shall require 
the assent of at least three members. 

Sect. 7. An applicant for a permit whose application has been 
refused may appeal therefrom within ninety days. A person who 
has been ordered by the commissioner to incur any expense may 
within ten days after being notified of such order appeal therefrom 
by giving to the commissioner notice in writing of his appeal. Such 
notice or a certified copy thereof shall at once be transmitted by the 
commissioner to the board of appeal. After notice given to such 
parties as the board shall order, a hearing shall be had, and the board 
shall affirm, annul, or modify said refusal or order. The board may 
vary the provisions of this act in specific cases which appear to them 
not to have been contemplated by this act although covered by it, 
or in cases where manifest" injustice is done, provided that the de- 
cision of the board in such a case shall be unanimous and shall not 
conflict with the spirit of any provision of this act. 

The decision shall specify the variations allowed and the reasons 
therefor, and shall be filed in the office of the commissioner within 

* As amended by Acts of 19 10, Chapter 631. 



ten days after the hearing. A certified copy shall be sent by mail or 
otherwise to the applicant and a copy kept publicly posted in the 
office of the commissioner for two weeks thereafter. If the order or 
refusal of the commissioner is affirmed, such order or refusal shall 
have full force and effect. If the order or refusal is modified or 
annulled, the commissioner shall issue a permit in accordance with 
such decision. 

The provisions of this section shall also apply to any similar 
action or order of the commissioner of wires, under the provisions of 
chapter two hundred and sixty-eight of the acts of the year eighteen 
hundred and ninety-eight, or of any amendment thereof or addition 
thereto, except that in respect thereto the words " commissioner of 
wires " shall be substituted for the word " commissioner." 

Sect. 8. Methods of construction or maintenance equivalent to 
those required by the provisions of this act may be allowed with the 
written consent of the commissioner and the board of appeal specify- 
ing the same. A record of the required and the equivalent method 
allowed shall be kept in the office of the commissioner. 

It shall be the duty of the board of appeal to submit to the mayor 
on or before the first day of February in each year a report giving a 
summary of all decisions of the board, together with such recom- 
mendations for revision of the law as may seem to them advisable. 
The commissioner shall cause the report to be printed as a separate 
document for public distribution. 

Any requirement necessar^^ for the strength or stability of any 
proposed structure or for the safety of the occupants thereof, not 
specifically covered by this act, shall be determined by the commis- 
sioner, subject to appeal. 

Sect. 9. The building limits* of the city of Boston as they now 
exist shall continue until changed by ordinance, and the city council 
may by ordinance from time to time extend and define said building 
limits, and may establish other limits in any part of the city within 
which every building built after the establishment thereof shall be of 
the first or second class. This restriction shall not apply to wharves, 
nor to buildings not exceeding twenty-seven feet in height on wharves, 
nor to market sheds or market buildings not exceeding such height, 
nor to elevators for the storage of coal or grain, if the external parts 
of such buildings, elevators, or other structures are covered with 
slate, tile, metal, or other equally fireproof material, and the mode of 
construction and the location thereof are approved by the commis- 
sioner. Temporary structures to facilitate the prosecution of any 
authorized work may be erected under such conditions as the com- 
missioner may prescribe. 

Sect. 10. The provisions of this act shall not apply to bridges, 
quays, or wharves, nor to buildings on land ceded to the United 
States or owned and occupied by the Commonwealth, nor to the 
Suffolk County court house, jail, or house of correction, nor to rail- 
road stations, nor to portable school buildings erected and main- 
tained by the schoolhouse department, nor to voting booths erected 
and maintained by the board of election commissioners. 

*See page 66 for *' Building Limits." 



Except as otherwise provided by law, the provisions of this act 
shall not be held to deprive the board of health, the police commis- 
sioner, the board of street commissioners, the board of park com- 
missioners, the board of examiners of gas fitters, the commissioner 
of wires, or the fire commissioner of the city of Boston of any power 
or authority which they have at the date of the passage of this act, 
or of the remedies for the enforcement of the orders of said boards 
or officers; unless such powers, authorities, or remedies are incon- 
sistent with the provisions of this act; nor to repeal any existing 
law, not herein expressly repealed, except so far as it may be incon- 
sistent with the provisions of this act. 

DEFINITIONS. 

Sect. ii. In this act the following terms shall have the meanings 
respectively assigned to them: — 

First class building : — A first class building shall consist of fireproof 
material throughout, with floors constructed of iron, steel or rein- 
forced concrete beams, filled in between with terra-cotta or other 
masonry arches or with concrete or reinforced concrete slabs; wood 
may be used only for under and upper floors, windows and door 
frames, sashes, doors, interior finish, hand rails for stairs, necessary 
sleepers bedded in the cement, and for isolated furrings bedded in 
mortar. There shall be no air space between the top of any floor 
arches and the floor boarding. 

Second class building : — All buildings not of the first class, the exter- 
nal and party walls of which are of brick, stone, iron, steel, concrete, 
reinforced concrete, concrete blocks, or other equally substantial 
and fireproof material. 

Third class building : — A wooden frame building. 

Composite building: — A building, partly of second class and partly 
of third class construction. 

Foundation : — That part of a wall below the level of the street 
curb, or, if a wall is not on a street, that part of the wall below the 
level of the highest ground next to the wall, or, if so construed by the 
commissioner, that part of a party or partition wall below the cellar 
floor. 

Height of a building: — The vertical distance of the highest point of 
the roof above the mean grade of the curbs of all the streets upon 
which it abuts, and if it does not abut on a street, above the mean 
grade of the ground adjoining the building. 

Party wall: — A wall that separates two or more buildings, and is 
used or adapted for the use of more than one building. 

Partition wall: — An interior wall of masonry in a building. 

Thickness of wall: — The minimum thickness of such wall. 

Story of a building: — That part of a building between the top of 
any floor beams and the top of the floor or roof beams next above. 

Basement: — That story of a building not more than forty per cent 
of which is below the grade of the street. 

Cellar: — That part of a building more than forty per cent of which 
is below the grade of the street, and in third class buildings that part 
of the building which is below the sills. 



10 

Gas fitting shall mean the work of putting together any fittings, 
pipes, or fixtures or other appliances which are to contain gas for heat, 
light or power purposes and will be subject to inspection under exist- 
ing laws. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL BUILDINGS. 

Sect. 12.* No building, structure or foundation shall be con- 
structed or altered without a permit, and such work shall be done in 
accordance with drawings bearing the approval of the commissioner. 

Every structure in process of construction, alteration, repair or 
removal, and every neighboring structure or portion thereof affected 
by such process or by any excavation, shall b^ sufficiently supported 
during such process. 

The commissioner may take such measures as the public safety 
requires to carry these provisions into effect. 

All buildings shall have leaders sufficient to discharge the roo 
water in such a manner as not to flow upon any public way or any 
neighboring property. Such leaders may project into a public way 
not over seven inches. 

Every chimney flue shall be carried to a height sufficient to protect 
adjoining buildings from fire and smoke, and, unless the roof is 
covered with incombustible material, shall extend at least four feet 
above the highest point of contact with the roof. 

Every permanent building more than twenty feet high having a 
flat roof shall have permanent means of access to the roof from the 
inside by an opening not less than two feet by three feet, with a 
fixed stepladder. 

Every building shall have, with reference to its height, condition, 
construction, surroundings, character of occupation and number of 
occupants, reasonable means of egress in case of fire, satisfactory to 
the commissioner, except that in all factories or workshops hereafter 
built or altered, of second class construction, where ten or more per- 
sons are employed above the second floor, one exit shall consist of 
a fireproof stairway enclosed in incombustible material. No build- 
ing hereafter erected shall be occupied or permitted to be occupied 
until said means of egress have been provided in accordance with 
plans and drawings approved by the building commissioner. 

Water pipes in every building shall be properly protected from 
frost. 

All chimneys of masonry construction shall have walls at least 
eight inches thick, or be constructed of four-inch brick walls with a 
suitable flue lining. 

Every building used for habitation shall have such number of 
water-closets as the board of health may require; every building 
where persons are employed shall have at least one water-closet for 
every twenty persons therein employed, and in any building where 
both sexes are employed, separate accommodations shall be furnished 
for men and women. Every enclosure containing one or more 
water-closets shall be provided with adequate ventilation to the 
outer air either by window or by suitable light shaft. 

* As amended by Acts of 1912, Chapter 369. 



11 

In every first and second class building all of the outside finish 
shall be of incombustible material, except window and door frames, 
and except finish about show windows in the first story. Where 
store fronts are carried up more than one story the columns and 
lintels shall be of, or finished with, incombustible material; but in 
no case shall store fronts be carried more than two stories unless the 
same are constructed and finished throughout with fireproof material, 
except window and door frames. 

Every ventilating flue shall be constructed of, or lined with, in- 
combustible material. 

Every floor in second class buildings shall have its beams tied to 
the walls and to each other with wrought-iron straps or anchors at 
least three eighths of an inch thick by one and one half inches wide, 
and not less than eighteen inches long, so as to form continuous ties 
across the building not more than ten feet apart. Walls running 
parallel, or nearly parallel, with floor beams shall be properly tied 
once in ten feet to the floor beams by iron straps or anchors of the 
size above specified. 

Every wooden header or trimmer more than four feet long, carry- 
ing a floor load of over seventy pounds per square foot, shall, at 
connections with other beams, be framed or hung in stirrup irons, 
and joint-bolted. All tail beams and similar beams of wood shall be 
framed or hung in stirrup irons. 

PROHIBITIONS. 

Sect. 13. No alteration or repair of a wooden building within the 
building limits shall be made without a permit from the commis- 
sioner, and no permit to increase the height or ground area of such 
a building shall be granted, nor shall a permit for alterations or 
repairs be granted if the estimated cost of the proposed alterations 
or repairs exceeds one half of the cost of a like new building. 

No wooden building, within or without the building limits, shall 
be moved to any position within the building limits. 

No recess or chase shall be made in any external or party wall so 
as to leave the thickness at the back less than eight inches. 

No roof or floor timber entering a party wall shall have less than 
four inches of solid brickwork between it and the end of any other 
timber. 

No part of any roof shall be constructed in such a manner as to 
discharge snow, ice, or other material upon a public street or alley. 

No elevated staging or stand for observation purposes shall be 
constructed or occupied upon the roof of any building. 

No chimney shall be corbelled from a wall more than the thickness 
of the wall. 

No chimney shall be hung from a wall which is less than twelve 
inches thick. 

No masonry shall rest upon wood, except piles and mud sills. 

No part of any floor timber shall be within two inches of any 
chimney. 

No studding or furring shall be within one inch of any chimney. 

No furnace or boiler for heating shall be placed upon a wooden floor. 



12 

No smoke pipe shall project through any external wall or window. 

No steam, furnace, or other hot air pipes shall be carried within 
one inch of any woodwork, unless such pipes are double or otherwise 
protected by incombustible material. 

No observation stand shall be constructed or maintained except 
in accordance with plans approved by the commissioner. 

No closet of any kind shall be constructed under any staircase 
leading from the cellar or basement to the first story. 

No boiler shall be placed or maintained under any public way. 

No part of any structure, except cornices, permanent awnings, 
string courses, window caps and sills, bay windows, under such 
terms, conditions, regulations and restrictions as may be required 
by the mayor and board of aldermen, and outside means of egress, 
as otherwise provided, and signs as provided in chapter three hun- 
dred and fifty-two of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and 
ninety-five, shall project over any public way or square. No cornice 
or bay window shall so project more than three feet; nor more than 
twelve inches over a way of a width of thirty feet or less. 
' No building within forty feet of the property of any adjoining 
owner shall be erected for or converted to use as a stable, unless 
such use is authorized by the board of health after a public hearing. 
Written notice of such hearing shall be given to the adjoining owners, 
and published at least three times in at least two newspapers pub- 
lished in Boston, ten days at least before the hearing. 

MATERIALS. 

Strength of Materials. 

Sect. 14. The stresses in materials hereafter used in the construc- 
tion of all buildings, produced by their own weight and the loads 
herein specified, shall not exceed the limits assigned in the following 
paragraphs of this section : — 

(a) Timber. 
Unit Stresses in Pounds per Square Inch. 



On Extreme Fibre 
of Beams. 



Shearing along 
the Grain. 



Compression 
Perpendicular 
to the Grain. 



White pine and spruce . 

White oak 

Yellow pine (long-leaved) 



1,000 
1,000 
1,500 



80 
150 
100 



250 
600 
500 



Stresses due to transverse loads combined with direct tension or 
compression shall not exceed the extreme fibre stresses given above. 

In computing deflection, the modulus of elasticity shall be taken 
as follows: — 



13 



Pounds per 
Square Inch. 



White pine 

Spruce 

Yellow pine (long-leaved) 
White oak 



750,000 

900,000 

1,300,000 

850,000 



Columns (Centrally Loaded). 
For wooden columns with flat ends, where L is the length of the 
column, D is its least diameter, the average stress per square inch 
on a cross-section shall be limited as follows: — 





AvKRAGB Stress per Squ 


A.RE Inch. 


L 
D 


White Pibe 
and Spruce. 


Long-leaved 
Yellow Pine. 


White Oak. 


to 10 

10 to 15 

15 to 20 

20 to 25 

25 to 30 


630 

595 
560 

525 
490 


900 
850 
800 
750 
700 


810 

765 
720 

675 
630 



No column shall be used with a greater unsupported length than 
thirty times its least diameter. 

For excentric loads see section sixteen. 



(&) Wrought Iron and Steel. 
Unit Stresses in Pounds per Square Inch. 





Wrought Iron. 


SteeH 


Extreme fibre of rolled beams or shapes . 
Tension 


12,000 
12,000 
12,000 
9,000 
15,000 
18,000 


16,000 
16,000 


Compression in flanges of built beams . . 

Shearing (see below for bolts) 

Direct bearing, including pins and rivets, 
Bending on pins 


16,000 
10,000 
18,000 
22,500 




Modulus of elasticity 


27,000,000 


29,000,000 





1 These stresses (except for rivets) are for steel having an ultimate tensile 
strength of from fifty-five thousand to sixty-five thousand pounds per square inch, 
an elastic limit of not less than one half the ultimate strength, and a minimum 
percentage of elongation in eight inches of one million four hundred thousand, 
divided by the ultimate strength. 



14 

For compression members twelve thousand for iron and sixteen 
thousand for steel, reduced according to the following formula: — 

12,000 (or 16,000 for steel). 



U 



1 + 



20,000 r^ 

in which L is the length of the column in inches, and r is the radius 
of gyration in inches taken around the axis about which the column 
will bend (for free columns, the least radius of gyration). 

The stresses due to transverse loads combined with direct tension 
or compression shall not exceed the extreme fibre stress given above 
for rolled beams and shapes, or in case of built members the above 
tension and compression stresses (see section sixteen). 

Compression flanges of beams shall be proportioned to resist lateral 
flexure unless properly stayed or secured against it. If the ratio 
of unsupported length of flange to width of flange does not exceed 
twenty, no allowance need be made for lateral flexure. If the ratio 
is seventy the allowable stress on the extreme fibre shall be one half 
of that above specified, and proportionally for intermediate ratios. 

Shearing and bearing stresses on bolts shall not be higher than 
eighty per cent of those allowed by the above table. All connections 
in skeleton buildings, all splices in steel trusses and girders, and all 
connections of such trusses and girders to the sides of steel columns 
shall, if possible, be made by means of rivets rather than by bolts. 

(c) Cast Iron. 

Unit Stresses in Pounds per Square Inch. 

Extreme fibre stress, tension 3,000 

Extreme fibre stress, compression 16,000 

Cast iron shall not be used for columns in buildings of more than 
seventy-five feet in height, nor in cases where the value of the length 
divided by least radius of gyration exceeds seventy. 

Cast Iron Columns (Centrally Loaded and Unsupported 
Laterally) . 



Where the Length 

divided by the 

Least Radius of 

Gyration equals — 


Average Stress 

per Square 
Inch of Section. 


Where the Length 
divided by the 
Least Radius of 

Gyration equals — 


Average Stress 

per Square 
Inch of Section. 


10 
20 
30 

40 


1 1 ,000 

10,700 
10,400 

10,000 


50 
60 
70 


9,800 
9-500 
9,200 



15 
{d) Stone Work, in Compression. 

Stresses in Tons of Two Thousand Pounds per Square 
Foot. 

First quality dressed beds and builds, laid solid in mortar of one 
part Portland cement to three parts sand, or one part natural cement 
to two parts sand. 

Granite 60 

Marble and limestone 40 

Sandstone 30 

In cases where poorer mortar is used, to avoid stain from cement, 
stresses shall be less than above, and must be approved by the 
building commissioner. 

(e) Brickwork in Compression. 

Stresses in Tons of Two Thousand Pounds per Square 
Foot. 

(i.) For first class work of hard-burned bricks, including piers in 
which the height does not exceed six times the least dimension, 
laid in: — 

(a) One part Portland cement, three parts sand, by volume, dry . 20 

(b) Onepart natural cement, two parts sand, by volume, dry . . 18 

(c) One part natural cement, one part lime and six parts sand, 

by volume, dry 12 

(d) Lime mortar, one part lime, six parts sand, by volume, dry . . 8 

(2.) For brick piers of hard-burned bricks, in which the height is 
from six to twelve times the least dimension: — 

Mortar (a) 18 

Mortar (b) 15 

Mortar (c) 10 

Mortar (d) . . . . 7 

(3.) For brickwork made of " light-hard " bricks, the stresses 
shall not exceed two thirds of the stresses for like work of hard- 
burned bricks. 

(/) Concrete. 

When the structural use of concrete is proposed, a specification, 
stating the quality and proportions of materials, and the methods of 
mixing the same, shall be submitted to the building commissioner, 
who may issue a permit at his discretion and under such further con- 
ditions, in addition to those stated below, as he sees fit to impose. 

A . In first class Portland cement concrete, containing one part 
cement to not more than six parts mixed properly graded aggregate, 
except in piers or columns of which the height exceeds six times the 
least dimension, the compressive stress shall not exceed thirty tons 
of two thousand pounds per square foot. 



16 

B. In piers and columns of first class Portland cement concrete, 
containing one part cement to not more than five parts mixed 
properly graded aggregate, where the height of the pier or column 
is more than six times and does not exceed twelve times its least 
dimension, the compressive stress shall not exceed twenty-five tons 
of two thousand pounds per square foot. 

By " aggregate " shall be understood all the materials in the 
concrete except the cement. Cinders concrete shall be used con- 
structively only for floors, roofs, and for filling. 

Rules for the computation of reinforced concrete columns may 
be formulated from time to time by the building commissioner with 
the approval of the board of appeal. 

In reinforced concrete beams or slabs subjected to bending stresses, 
the entire tensile stress shall be assumed to be carried by the steel, 
which shall not be stressed above the limits allowed for this material. 
First class Portland cement concrete in such beams or slabs, con- 
taining one part cement to not more than five parts mixed properly 
graded aggregate, may be stressed in compression to not more than 
five hundred pounds per square inch. In case a richer concrete is 
used, this stress may be increased with the approval of the commis- 
sioner to not more than six hundred pounds per square inch. 

In reinforced concrete the maximum shearing force upon the 
concrete, when uncombined with compression upon the same plane 
shall not exceed sixty pounds per square inch, unless the building 
commissioner with the consent of the board of appeal shall fix some 
other value. 

If the imbedded steel has no mechanical bond with the concrete, 
its holding power shall not exceed the allowable shearing strength 
of the concrete. 

(g) In General. 

Under the prescribed loads, beams shall be so proportioned that 
the deflection shall not exceed one three hundred and sixtieth (^i^) 
of the span. 

Stresses for materials and forms of material, not herein mentioned, 
shall be determined by the building commissioner. Provision for 
wind bracing shall be made wherever it is necessary, and all buildings 
shall be constructed of sufficient strength to bear with safety the load 
intended to be placed thereon, in addition to the weight of the materi- 
als used in construction. 

No cutting for piping or any other purpose shall be done which 
would reduce the strength of any part of the structure below what is 
required by the provisions of this act. 

Quality of Materials. 

Sect. 15. All materials shall be of such quality for the purposes 
for which they are to be used as to insure, in the judgment of the 
building commissioner, ample safety and security to life, limb and 
neighboring property. The building commissioner shall have power 
to reject all materials which in his opinion are unsuitable, and may 
require tests to be made by the architect, engineer, builder or owner 
to determine the strength of the structural materials before or after 



17 

they are incorporated in a building, and may require certified copies 
of results of tests made elsewhere from the architect, engineer, 
builder, owner or other interested persons. 

Hollow cast iron columns, if used, shall be shown by measurements 
and tests satisfactory to the commissioner to be of practically uni- 
form thickness, and free from blow holes. 

MORTARS. 

All mortars shall be made with such proportion of sand as will 
insure a proper degree of cohesion and tenacity, and secure through 
adhesion to the material with which they are used, and the building 
commissioner shall condemn all mortars not so made. 

(c) Mortar below level of water shall be no poorer' than one 
part Portland cement and three parts sand; 

{b) Mortar for first class buildings shall, for the lower half of their 
height, be no poorer than one part natural cement to two parts sand ; 
and, for the upper half, no poorer than one part of natural cement, 
one half part of lime, and three parts of sand; 

(c) Mortar for second class buildings and for such parts of third 
class buildings as are below the level of the sidewalk, shall be no 
poorer than one part of natural cement, one of lime, and four of sand; 

(d) Mortar for third class buildings, above ground, shall be no 
poorer than one part lime and four parts sand. 

The building commissioner may allow lime mortar in setting stone 
where cement will stain. 

CONCRETE. 

Concrete shall be used immediately after mixing; it shall not be 
placed in the work after it has begun to harden; and it shall be 
deposited in such manner and under such regulations as to secure 
a compact mass of the best quality for the proportions used. Forms 
shall remain until the concrete has hardened so as to be able to carry 
its load safely, and shall be removed without jar. 

The commissioner may require an applicant for a permit for the 
structural use of concrete to have an inspector satisfactory to the 
commissioner at all times on the work while concrete is being mixed 
or deposited, and such inspector shall make daily reports to the 
commissioner on the progress of the work. 

CEMENT. 

Cement shall conform to the specifications of the American Asso- 
ciation for Testing Materials, as modified from time to time by that 
association. 

REINFORCED CONCRETE. 

Reinforced concrete slabs, beams or girders, if rendered continuous 
over supports by being unbroken in section, shall be provided with 
proper metal reinforcement at the top over said supports and 
may be computed as continuous beams, as hereinafter described. 



18 

The modulus of elasticity of the concrete, if not shown by direct 
tests, may for beams and slabs be taken as one fifteenth that of steel, 
and for columns one tenth that of steel. 

The reinforcing metal shall be covered by not less than three 
fourths inch of concrete in slabs, and by not less than one and one 
half inches of concrete in beams and columns. 

METHODS OF COMPUTATION. 

Sect. i6. Beams or girders of metal or reinforced concrete shall 
be considered as simply supported at their ends, except when they 
extend with unbroken cross-section over the supports, in which case 
they may be considered as continuous. 

The span of a beam shall be considered as the distance from centre 
to centre of the bed plates or surfaces upon which it rests. If it is 
fastened to the side of a column, the span shall be measured to the 
centre of the column. 

In slabs, beams or girders continuous over supports, provision 
shall be made for a negative bending moment at such supports equal 
to four fifths of the positive bending moment that would exist at the 
centre of the span if the piece were simply supported; and the posi- 
tive bending moment at the centre of the span may be taken equal 
to the negative bending moment at the support. 

In the case of a slab of reinforced concrete with parallel ribs or 
girders beneath, the rib or girder may be considered to include a por- 
tion of the slab between the ribs, forming a T-beam. The width of 
the T-beam on top shall not exceed one third the span of the rib 
nor the distance from centre to centre of the ribs. 

Reinforced concrete columns shall be proportioned on the assump- 
tion that the concrete and the steel are shortened in length in the 
same proportion. The steel members shall be tied together at inter- 
vals sufficiently short to prevent buckling. 

If a column is loaded excentrically or transversely, the maximum 
fibre stress, taking account of the direct compression, the bending 
which it causes, its excentricity and the transverse load, shall not 
exceed the maximum allowable stress in compression. 

If a tension piece is loaded excentrically or transversely, the maxi- 
mum fibre stress, taking account of the direct tension, its excentricity 
and the transverse load, shall not exceed the maximum allowable 
stress in tension. 

An excentric load upon a column shall be considered to affect 
excentrically only the length of column extending to the next point 
below at which the column is held securely in the direction of the 
excentricity. 

If a piece is exposed to tension and compression at different times, 
it shall be proportioned to resist the maximum of each kind, but the 
unit stresses shall be less than those used for stress of one kind, 
depending upon the ratio and the relative frequence of the two 
maxima. 

Net sections shall be used in proportioning steel tension members, 
and in deducting rivet holes they shall be taken as one eighth of an 
inch greater in diameter than the rivets. 



19 

The length of a steel compression member between supports in any 
direction shall not exceed one hundred and twenty times its radius 
of gyration about an axis perpendicular to that direction. 

The webs of plate girders shall be proportioned to resist buckling 
in cases where they are not supported laterally, according to the 
formula : — 

15,000 



I d2 

I + — 

3,000 t^ 



in which t = thickness of web, in inches; d = clear, unsupported 
dimension horizontally or vertically, whichever is the lesser. 

In proportioning the flanges of plate girders, one eighth of the 
gross area of the web may be considered as available in each flange. 
If the length of the top flange unsupported laterally exceeds twenty 
times its width, the allowable stress shall be reduced, as in the case 
of rolled beams. 

Pins shall be computed by assuming the forces in the bars to act 
at the centre of the bearing areas. 

In riveted trusses the centre of gravity lines of members coming 
together at a joint shall, if possible, intersect at a point. Excen- 
tricity due to a non-fulfillment of this rule shall be allowed for in the 
computations. The centre of gravity of the rivets connecting one 
piece to another shall, in general, lie as nearly as practicable in the 
centre of gravity line of the piece. 

CLASSIFICATION. 
First and Second Class Bxiildings. 

Sect. 17. Every building over seventy-five feet in height here- 
after erected or raised and every house adapted for habitation more 
than five stories in height and exceeding sixty-five feet above the 
basement or covering more than five thousand superficial square 
feet on the ground floor, regardless of height, shall be constructed 
as a first class building; and all other houses may, except as herein 
otherwise provided, be of second or third class construction. 

New buildings adapted for habitations, and not more than five 
stories above the cellar or basement, may be erected of second class 
construction, but no such building shall exceed five thousand square 
feet in superficial area or sixty-five feet in height. The first story or 
basement, or both the first story and basement, in such buildings, 
so constructed, altered, remodelled or enlarged, m^y be used for 
mercantile purposes, provided, that the walls and ceilings surrounding 
the areas so used shall be fire-stopped to the satisfaction of the 
commissioner. 

New buildings, of concrete, concrete blocks or brick, not over three 
stories in height, adapted for the occupancy of a single family and 
having a superficial area of not more than twelve hundred square 
feet, may be constructed with external and party or division walls 
of eight inches in] thickness : provided, however, that where the party 



20 

wall of a building thus constructed joins or becomes the party wall 
of another such building, the floor timbers in each of such buildings 
shall be so spaced or protected that their ends shall not approach 
nearer than within eight inches of each other. 

Restriction of Areas. 

Any first class building used above the first floor as a warehouse or 
store for the storage or sale of merchandise shall have all vertical 
openings protected by fireproof enclosures. Such enclosures shall, 
if enclosing stairs or escalators, have automatic doors, and all glass 
in said enclosure shall be wire glass. 

Such buildings shall so be divided by brick walls built like party 
walls with the same openings allowed, that no space inside such build- 
ings shall exceed in area ten thousand square feet, except that when 
any such building has a frontage of not less than fifty feet on each of 
two streets, such space may exceed ten thousand' square feet in area, 
provided that buildings in which such extension of area beyond ten 
thousand square feet is permitted shall have automatic fire sprinklers 
installed, and means of ingress and egress satisfactory to the com- 
missioner and the board of appeal. 

Second class buildings used above the first floor as warehouses or 
stores for the storage or sale of merchandise shall so be divided by 
brick walls, built like party walls with the same openings allowed, 
that no space inside such buildings shall exceed in area ten thousand 
square feet, and no existing wall in any second class building shall 
be removed so as to leave an area of more than ten thousand square 
feet, nor shall any existing wall, separating areas which combined 
would exceed ten thousand square feet in area, have openings cut in 
it greater in area or number than is allowed by this act for party 
walls. 

Every second class building more than three stories high and used 
above the first floor as a warehouse or store for the storage or sale 
of merchandise shall have all vertical openings for elevators and 
stairways, air or light shafts, through its floors protected by fireproof 
enclosures. Such enclosures shall be supported on fireproof sup- 
ports and framing, and shall, if enclosing stairs or escalators, have 
automatic doors, and all glass in said enclosures shall be wire 
glass. 

No building used above the first floor for the storage or sale of 
merchandise shall have less than two means of egress from every 
story, one of which means may be either an outside fire escape or 
through a brick wall closed by automatic doors into a building of the 
same class ; except that an independent monumental stairway extend- 
ing from the basement to the second floor may be constructed. 

Btuldings for Manufacturing Purposes. 

Buildings outside the building limits and adapted exclusively for 
manufacturing, storage, mechanical or stable purposes, may be 
built under such conditions as the commissioner shall prescribe. If 
of wood such buildings shall not exceed forty-five feet in height. 



21 
CONSTRUCTION. 

Height. 

Sect. i8. No building, structure or part thereof shall be of a 
height exceeding two and one half times the width of the widest 
street on which the building or structure stands, whether such street 
is a public street or place or a private way, nor exceeding one hundred 
and twenty-five feet in any case. The width of such street, place or 
private way shall be measured from the face of the building or 
structure to the line of the street on the other side. If the street is 
of uneven width, the width shall be the average width of the part of 
the street opposite the building or structure; if the effective width 
of the street is increased by an area or setback, the space between the 
face of the main building and the lawfully established line of the street 
may be built upon to the height of two and one half times the width 
of the street. 

All buildings or structures hereafter erected in any part of the city 
shall be subject to the restrictions imposed by chapter four hundred 
and fifty-two of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety- 
eight, by chapter five hundred and forty-three of the acts of the year 
nineteen hundred and two, by chapter three hundred and eighty- 
three of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and five, and by chap- 
ter four hundred and sixteen of the acts of the year nineteen hundred 
and seven, so far as the restrictions imposed by said acts relate to the 
districts described therein: and shall also be subject to any restric- 
tions lawfully imposed by the park commissioners of said city.* 

Excavations. 

Sect. 19. All excavations shall so be protected, by sheet piling if 
necessary, by the persons causing the same to be made, that the ad- 
joining soil shall not cave in by reason of its own weight. It shall 
be the duty of the owner of every building to furnish, or cause to 
be furnished, such support that his building shall not be endangered 
by any excavation: provided, that the owner of any building which 
is endangered by an excavation carried by an adjoining owner more 
than ten feet below the grade of the street may recover the expense 
so caused of supporting such building from the persons causing such 
excavation to be made. All permanent excavations shall be pro- 
tected by retaining walls. In case of any failure to comply with the 
provisions of this section the commissioner may enter upon the 
premises and may furnish such support as the circumstances may 
require. Any expense so incurred may be recovered by the city from 
the persons required by law to furnish the support. 

Piling. 

Sect. 20. All buildings shall, if the commissioner determines that 
piling is necessary, be constructed on foundation piles which, if of 
wood, shall be not more than three feet apart on centres in the direc- 
tion of the wall, and the number, diameter and bearing of such piles 

* See pages 68, 69, for titles of chapters mentioned. 



22 

shall be sufficient to support the superstructure proposed. The 
commissioner shall determine the grade at which the piles shall be 
cut. The commissioner may require any applicant for a permit to 
ascertain by boring the nature of the ground on which he proposes 
to build, and he may require an inspector satisfactory to the com- 
missioner to be at all times on the work while piles are being driven, 
who shall keep an accurate record of the length of each pile, the 
weight and fall of the hammer, and the penetration of each pile for 
each of the last two blows of the hammer. 

Plain concrete piles shall be made in place by methods which are 
reasonably certain to secure perfect, full sized piles. Reinforced 
concrete piles if properly designed to resist the shock of driving, and 
if driven with a cushion to lessen the shock or by a water jet, may be 
molded, allowed to harden, and then driven in place. 

In case concrete piles are used, whether reinforced or not, their bear- 
ing power shall be determined by putting in one or more test piles 
and loading them after the concrete has hardened. The load allowed 
shall not be more than one half the load under which the pile begins 
to settle. In no case, however, shall the load on a concrete pile 
exceed that specified herein for concrete in columns. Concrete for 
piles shall have not more than five parts of properly made and mixed 
aggregate to one part of Portland cement; and the aggregate shall 
all be capable of passing through a one inch ring. 

All wood piles shall be capped with block granite levellers, each 
leveller having a firm bearing on the pile or piles which it covers, 
or with first class Portland cement concrete, not less than sixteen 
inches thick, above the pile caps, containing one part of cement to 
not more than six parts of properly graded aggregate of stone and 
sand, the concrete to be filled in around the pile heads upon the 
intervening earth. 

Foundations of First and Second Class Buildings. 

Sect. 21. Foundations of first and second class buildings may be 
of brick, stone or concrete. The thickness shall be as stated in 
section twenty-three. Foundations of rubble stone shall be allowed 
only under buildings less than forty-five feet in height and for a 
depth of less than ten feet. 

The walls and piers of every building shall have a foundation, the 
bearing of which shall be not less than four feet below any adjoining 
surface exposed to the frost, and such foundation, with the super- 
structure which it supports, shall not overload the material on which 
it rests. 

Cellars. 

Sect. 22. The cellar of every building, where the grade or nature 
of the gound so requires, shall be sufficiently protected from water 
and damp by a bed at least two inches thick over the whole, of con- 
crete, cement and gravel, tar and gravel, or asphalt, or by bricks 
laid in cement. No cellar or basement floor of any building shall 
be constructed below the grade of twelve feet above mean low water, 
unless such cellar is made waterproof to the satisfaction of the com- 
missioner. All metal foundations and all constructional metal work 



23 

underground shall be protected from dampness by concrete, or by 
other material approved by the commissioner. 

Thickness of Walls. 

Sect. 23. Except as provided in section seventeen, the external 
walls above the foundation of houses for habitation of first or second 
class construction, and not exceeding sixteen hundred square feet in 
area and not over three stories high, shall be not less than eight inches 
thick for external walls and not less than twelve inches thick for party 
walls. In case any part of such building is adapted for any use 
other than habitation, all walls shall be not less than twelve inches 
thick. All other houses for habitation, not exceeding five thousand 
feet in superficial area and not exceeding five stories or sixty-five feet 
in height, above the basement, shall have all walls not less than 
twelve inches thick. 

The external and party walls of every building of the first or sec- 
ond class, except houses for habitation, less than sixty-five feet in 
height shall be twelve inches thick in the upper two stories not 
exceeding twenty-five feet in height. In the section of two stories, 
but not exceeding twenty-five feet next below, the walls shall be 
sixteen inches thick. In the next lower section of three stories, but 
not exceeding thirty-seven feet, the walls shall be twenty inches 
thick, and in each succeeding section of three stories, but not exceed- 
ing thirty-seven feet or any part thereof, the walls shall be four 
inches thicker than the section next above it. The foundation walls 
shall be at least four inches thicker than the required thickness of the 
walls of the first story. The thickness herein given shall apply to 
all masonry walls unless they are reinforced by a frame or skeleton 
of steel. 

In reckoning the thickness of walls, ashlar shall not be included 
unless the walls are at least sixteen inches thick and the ashlar is 
at least eight inches thick, or unless alternate courses are at least 
four and eight inches to allow bonding with the backing. Ashlar 
shall be properly held by metal clamps to the backing or properly 
bonded to the same. 

Anchors. 

Sect. 24. All walls of a first or second class building meeting at an 
angle shall be securely bonded, or shall be united every. five feet 
of their height by anchors made of at least two inches by half an inch 
of steel or wrought iron, well painted, and securely built into the side 
or partition walls not less than thirty-six inches, and into the front 
and rear walls at least one half the thickness of such walls. 

Brickwork — Bonding. 

Sect, 25. Every eighth course, at least, of a brick wall shall be a 
full heading or bonding course, except where walls are faced with 
face brick, in which case in every eighth course at least every other 
brick shall be a full header. No diagonal header ties shall be 
used. 



24 

Vaulted Walls. 

Sect. 26. If the air spaces are headed over and the walls are built 
solid for at least three courses below the floor and roof beams, walls, 
if of brick, may be built hollow. They shall contain, exclusive of 
withes, the same amount of material as is required for solid walls, 
and the masonry on the inside of the air space in walls over two 
stories in height shall be not less than eight inches thick, and the 
parts on either side shall be securely tied together with ties not more 
than two feet apart in each direction. 

Walls Framed with Iron or Steel. 

Sect. 27. Walls may be built in part of iron or steel or with a 
reinforced concrete or metal famework. In such metal framework 
the beams and girders shall be riveted to each other at their respec- 
tive junction points. If columns made of rolled iron or steel are 
used, their different parts shall be riveted to each other, and the 
beams and girders resting upon them shall, if possible, have riveted 
connections to unite them with the columns. If cast iron columns 
are used, each successive column shall be bolted to the one below it 
by at least four bolts not less than three fourths of an inch in diame- 
ter, and the beams and girders shall be bolted to the columns. At 
each line of floor or roof beams, lateral connections between the ends 
of the beams and girders shall be made in such manner as rigidly to 
connect the beams and girders with each other in the direction of 
their length. 

All party walls of skeleton construction shall have curtain walls of 
brick, not less than twelve inches thick. 

All outside walls of skeleton construction shall have curtain walls 
which may be of masonry, terra-cotta, concrete, or reinforced con- 
crete, constructed and supported under such conditions as the 
commissioner shall prescribe. 

If the metal or other framework is so designed that the enclosing 
walls do not carry the weight of floors or roof, then the walls shall be 
of masonry or concrete construction and shall be thoroughly an- 
chored to the iron skeleton, and whenever the weight of such walls 
rests upon beams or columns, such beams or columns shall be made 
strong enough in each story to carry the weight of wall resting upon 
them without reliance upon the walls below them. 

Party Walls Above Roof. 

Sect. 28. In buildings less than forty-five feet in height all party 
walls shall be built to a height at least twelve inches above the roof 
covering, and shall be capped with stone, cement or metal securely 
fastened to the masonry. In all other buildings such walls shall be 
carried thirty inches above the roof. 

Walls — Cornices. 

Sect. 29. Where a wall is finished with a stone cornice, the great- 
est weight of material of such cornice shall be on the inside of the 
face of the wall. All cornices of second class buildings shall be of 



25 

brick or covered with fireproof material, and the walls shall be carried 
up to the boarding of the roof; and where the cornice projects above 
the roof the masonry shall be carried up to the top of the cornice and 
covered with metal, like parapet walls. 

Piers and Hearths. 

Sect. 30. Piers and walls shall have caps or plates, where they are 
needed, sufficient properly to distribute the load. 

Hearths shall be supported by trimmer arches of brick or stone; 
or shall be of single stones at least six inches thick, built into the 
chimney and supported by iron beams, one end of which shall be 
securely built into the masonry of a chimney or of an adjoining wall, 
or which shall otherwise rest upon an incombustible support. Brick 
jambs of every fireplace, range or grate opening shall be at least 
eight inches wide each, and the backs of such openings shall be at 
least eight inches thick. Hearths and trimmer arches shall be at 
least twelve inches longer on either side than the width of such open- 
ings, and at least eighteen inches wide in front of the chimney breast. 
Brickwork over fireplaces and grate openings shall be supported by 
proper iron bars, or brick or stone arches. 

Walls — Doorways in Party Walls. 

Sect. 31. Openings for doorways in party walls shall not exceed 
one hundred square feet each in area, and each opening shall have two 
sets of fire doors separated by the thickness of the wall, hung in a 
manner satisfactory to the commissioner, except that the aggregate 
width of all openings in any story shall not exceed fifty per cent of 
the length of the wall in which such openings occur. Openings, 
not exceeding one hundred and forty-four square inches, constructed 
and protected as shall be approved by a writing signed by the fire 
commissioner, and filed with the commissioner, may be permitted 
in any wall or floor. 

Fire Protection. 

Sect. 32. All structural metal supporting or forming part of the 
frame, floors, roof or columns of any building, except as otherwise 
exempted in this act, shall be protected against the effect of heat. 

This protection shall consist of concrete, or of porous terra-cotta or 
brick set in cement mortar. When block construction is used, it shall 
be clamped in place with steel clamps, or wrapped securely with 
number twelve galvanized-iron wire or metal lathing in such manner 
as to hold each block in place, and shall be plastered with lime or 
other mortar at least three fourths of an inch thick in addition to the 
protection. 

The protection on all floor and roof beams shall be at least one inch 
thick, on all floor and roof girders and on all beams carrying masonry 
at least one inch thick on top and two inches thick elsewhere, on all 
columns carrying only floors three inches, and on all columns built 
into 01 carrying walls four inches. 

If terra-cotta blocks are used for protection, such blocks may be 
hollow, but each face shall be solid, and no flange .shall be less than 
one inch thick. 



26 

Plaster on wire or metal lath shall not be considered as a fire pro- 
tection for steel or iron structural members, but may be used with an 
air space under arches as a suspended ceiling, provided that such 
arches have at least one inch of thickness of fireproofing under the 
flanges in addition to such ceiling, and that the metal lath and plaster 
are suspended separately from the arches and are not less than one 
inch below the same. 

All protection shall be applied directly to the metal work and shall 
not be broken into nor interrupted by any pipes, wires, chases or 
conduits of any kind. 

About isolated columns on the exterior of buildings, the thickness 
of protection may be reduced to one inch, when the same is covered 
with an outer shell of cast iron or steel. 

When a column or girder is formed of built-up shapes, the spaces 
between flanges shall be filled solid with protecting material, but this 
protection need not extend more than one inch beyond the edges of 
projecting angles, bars or channels. The protection shall cover all 
lugs, brackets, braces, etc. 

The metal work of all trusses carrying masonry or floor loads shall 
be protected, as hereinbefore described, but said provisions shall not 
apply to trusses which carry roof load only. 

When a wall or partition is formed with a framework of angles, 
channels, or other built-up shapes, and such wall or partition is filled 
in flush with both faces of the frame with terra-cotta blocks, ad- 
ditional protection may be omitted. 

The above requirements as to fireproofing shall not apply to iron 
or steel in second or third class buildings in any case in which the use 
of wood without fire protection would be permissible under this act. 

In work in connection with alterations of existing buildings, the 
character and amount of protection for steel and ironwork shall be 
made satisfactory to the commissioner. 

In positions where the protection of isolated or exposed columns is 
likely to be broken or damaged by trucks or merchandise, there shall 
be outside of the protection a guard at least five feet high of iron or 
wood, bound with wire or steel so as to be self-supporting. 

Spaces between and behind all studding or furring shall be filled 
solid with bricks and mortar or other fireproof material for a space 
of five inches in height above the floor beams or plaster grounds. 
Spaces between the strap furring on brick walls shall be filled solid 
with mortar for five inches below the bottom of the floor beams. The 
spaces between the stringers of stairs and joists of landings, unless un- 
ceiled or of fireproof construction, shall be stopped solid with wood, 
brick or terra-cotta or other approved material as often as twice in 
each flight of stairs. The spaces between floor beams on bearing 
partitions shall be stopped in a similar manner. 

In every building of second or third class construction each floor 
shall be thoroughly stopped by a continuous layer of asbestos 
fabric, magneso calcite or other fire-resisting material approved by 
the commissioner.^ 

The tops of all heating furnaces and smokepipes_ shall be at least 
one foot below the nearest wooden beams or ceiling. All ceilings 
immediately over a furnace or boiler, and for six feet on each side 



27 

thereof, and all ceilings over indirect radiators shall, except under 
fireproof floors, be metal lathed and plastered. 

All hot-air register boxes in the floors or partitions of buildings 
shall be set in soapstone or equally fireproof borders not less than two 
inches in width, shall be made of tin plate, and shall have double 
pipes and boxes properly fitted to the soapstone. Hot-air pipes 
and register boxes shall be at least one inch from any woodwork, 
and register boxes shall be fifteen inches by twenty-five inches, or 
larger, and their connecting pipes shall be two inches from any wood- 
work. If indirect hot water or indirect steam heat is used, the com- 
missioner may modify or dispense with the foregoing requirements. 

Fireproof Partitions. 

Sect. 33. Partitions in buildings of first'class construction shall 
be constructed of plastering applied to metal lathing, or to plaster 
boards, or to hollow blocks composed of cement, plaster, or terra- 
cotta. When block construction is used it shall be self-supporting 
above all openings, thoroughly bonded and set in Portland cement. 
The blocks shall start from the floor and shall be continuous to the 
floor above, except that in the upper story, where there is a space 
between the ceiling of the top story and the roof, these partitions 
need not extend above the ceiling. If plastered on both sides the 
blocks shall be not less than four inches thick up to a height of fifteen 
feet, and shall be increased one inch for every additional eight feet 
or fraction thereof. The thickness of webs shall be not less than three 
fourths of an inch. 

If partitions are not plastered on both sides, the thickness of 
blocks shall be one inch greater than as specified above. 

Timbers in Walls of Second Class Buildings. 

Sect. 34. The ends of all wooden floor or roof beams in second 
class buildings shall enter the wall to a depth of at least four inches. 
When the wall is eight inches thick it shall be corbelled or the beams 
shall be hung in metal hangers; and the ends of all such beams shall 
so be shaped or arranged that in case of fire they may fall without 
injury to the wall. 

Alteration of Existing Buildings. 

Sect, 35. Any building, except those of third class construction 
within the building limits, having not more than five floors above the 
mean grade of all the sidewalks, may be altered, remodelled or 
enlarged for use as a house for habitation using second class con- 
struction. 

The first story or basement, or both the first story and basement, 
in such buildings may be used for mercantile purposes, provided that 
the walls and ceilings surrounding the area so used shall be fire- 
stopped to the satisfaction of the commissioner. 

The height of any such building shall not be increased unless the 
walls and foundations conform to the provisions of this act. The 
number of stories of such a building shall not exceed five above the 
cellar or basement. 



28 

Every such building, more than thirty-three feet in height, so 
altered, remodelled or enlarged, shall be provided with at least two 
independent exits satisfactory to the commissioner. 

Every such building, so altered, remodelled or enlarged, shall have, 
in addition to the exposure on the widest street, an exposure as long 
as the average width of the building, upon a space open from the 
ground to the sky, at least ten feet wide for the first three stories, 
and increasing in width five feet for the next two stories. If the pro- 
posed building is more than five stories in height, said space shall be 
twenty feet: provided, that if the basement and first story are 
adapted or enlarged for use for mercantile purposes, the exposure 
required by this section shall not apply to that part of the building; 
and provided, also, that sufficient space be retained on the lot for 
the storage of ashes and garbage. 

Such exposure may be either upon private or public ways, or upon 
land which is dedicated for the use of the building, and may be 
divided and placed as approved by the building commissioner. 

These spaces shall remain undiminished so long as the building is 
used for habitation. 

If the building is situated on the corner of streets or private ways 
not less than ten feet wide the commissioner may approve the omis- 
sion of the whole or part of this additional exposure. 

If in the opinion of the commissioner the alteration proposed to be 
made in a building is of such extent as, when done, to produce a 
practically new structure or to impair the stability or increase the 
fire risk of the structure as a whole, then the whole structure shall be 
made to conform to the provisions of this act for a new structure of 
the same class. A building damaged by fire or other casualty may 
be repaired or restored so as to conform to its original condition, or 
may be reconstructed in some or all of its parts, so as to conform to 
the requirements of this act for new buildings, as the commissioner 
may specify in his permit. 

Every living room in a building adapted for habitation shall have 
a window on the open air of an area not less than ten square feet and 
distant in a three story building not less than six feet from any 
opposite wall; distant in a four story building not less than eight feet 
from any opposite wall; distant in a five story building not less than 
ten feet from any opposite wall. This shall not apply to the con- 
struction of third class buildings, except the provision for a window 
on the open air of an area. 

The exposure required under this section shall apply to all build- 
ings hereafter constructed adapted for habitation, except as is other- 
wise provided for tenement houses. 

Floors — Loads. 

Sect. 36. All new or renewed floors and stairs shall be so con- 
structed as to carry safely the weight to which the proposed use of the 
building may subject them, and every permit granted shall state for 
what purpose the building is designed to be used;_ but the least 
capacity per superficial square foot, exclusive of materials, shall be: — 

For floors of houses for habitation, fifty pounds. 



29 

For office floors and for public rooms of hotels and houses exceed- 
ing five hundred square feet, one hundred pounds. 

For floors of retail stores and public buildings, except school- 
houses, or for light manufacturing, one hundred and twenty-five 
pounds. 

For floors of schoolhouses, other than floors of assembly rooms, 
sixty pounds, and for floors of assembly rooms, one hundred and 
twenty-five pounds. 

For floors of drill rooms, dance halls and riding schools, two hun- 
dred pounds. 

For floors of warehouses and mercantile buildings, at least two 
hundred and fifty pounds. 

For flat roofs, forty pounds. 

For stairs, landings, platforms and fire escapes, seventy pounds. 

The loads not included in this classification shall be determined 
by the commissioner. 

The full floor load specified in this section shall be included in 
proportioning all parts of buildings designed for warehouses, or for 
heavy mercantile and manufacturing purposes. In other buildings, 
however, reductions may be allowed, as follows: for girders carrying 
more than one hundred square feet of floor, the live load may be 
reduced ten per cent. For columns, piers, walls and other parts 
carrying two floors, a reduction of fifteen per cent of the total live 
load may be made; where three floors are carried, the total live load 
may be reduced by twenty per cent; four floors, twenty-five per 
cent; five floors, thirty per cent; six floors, thirty- five per cent; 
seven floors, forty per cent; eight floors, forty -five per cent; nine 
or more floors, fifty per cent. 

The commissioner may prescribe the maximum loads which may be 
imposed upon the floors of existing buildings. 

Shutters. 

Sect. 37. In all first or second class mercantile or manufacturing 
buildings over thirty feet in height, outside openings in party walls, 
or in any rear or side wall within twenty feet of an opposite wall or 
building, shall have metal frames and sashes and shall be glazed with 
wire glass or shall be protected by shutters. Such shutters shall 
be covered on both sides with tin or shall be made of other sub- 
stantial fireproof material, and hung on the outside, either upon 
independent metal frames or upon metal hinges attached to the 
masonry, and shall be made to be handled from the outside, and one 
such shutter in each room shall have a protected hand-hole eight 
inches in diameter. 

Elevators. 

Sect. 38. Elevators and hoists for freight which do not run above 
the first story may be constructed without fireproof enclosures. 
Freight and passenger elevators may be placed in areas or hallways 
where the same are continuous and unbroken, such elevators to be 
protected by metal grille. Except as above provided, all shafts for 
elevators, hoists, dumb-waiters, lifts, light and ventilating shafts or 
other air ducts shall be constructed of fireproof material. The tops 



30 

of all such shafts shall be covered with fireproof material unless the 
shaft extends above the upper floor of the building, and in that case 
the shaft shall be carried at least three feet above the roof and shall 
be covered with a skylight. Such shafts, if for freight or passenger 
elevators, shall be of brick at least eight inches thick, or of metal 
covered on both sides with at least one inch of plaster applied im- 
mediately to the metal, or with some other equally substantial fire- 
proof material. 

Every opening into a shaft or hoistway shall be protected by self- 
closing gates, rails, trap-doors, or other equivalent devices. 

Every elevator shall be provided with a safety attachment to 
prevent the falling of the car. The machinery over the elevator 
shall have underneath it a grille sufficient to protect the car from 
falling material. 

Every opening into an elevator shaft or hoistway and every open- 
ing through a floor, other than a stairway, shall be closed when not in 
use. 

All elevator shaft openings, other than openings into passenger 
elevator shafts, shall be furnished with metal-covered or incom- 
bustible doors, hung in a manner satisfactory to the commissioner, 
and shall be provided with iron thresholds. Wire glass panels may 
be used in such doors. Outside windows or openings of every eleva- 
tor shaft shall have three vertical iron rods, painted red, equally 
spaced off in such window or opening. 

Freight elevators shall be equipped with a suitable danger signal 
to warn people of the approach of the elevator. 

The space between the car and door of each landing shall be not 
more than two inches. 

No elevator shall be used in any building until the same is approved 
in writing by the commissioner. 

In case any freight or passenger elevator is not constructed or 
furnished in compliance with this act, or has become unsafe, the com- 
missioner shall post a conspicuous warning and prohibition at each 
entrance to such elevator. It shall thereafter, until a new written 
permit is given by the commissioner, be a penal offence hereunder 
to operate the said elevator, or to remove or deface the said notice. 

Freight elevator wells hereafter built on the line of the external 
wall of a building shall be so constructed that there shall be no recess 
in the outer wall along the whole line of the same, and that no 
more than four inches space shall be allowed between the platform 
of the car and the outer wall. The side of the platform and the 
line of the doorway shall be flush with the well-way, and the door 
openings from the said elevator well into the building shall be placed 
at least six inches back from the face of the well, so as to allow space 
enough for self-closing gates to operate between the door and the well 
opening. Outside openings to freight elevators shall be protected 
by self-closing slatted gates, " vertical," with spaces not wider than 
two inches between the slats. 

All elevators running at a speed of more than one hundred feet a 
minute, shall be operated by competent persons not less than eigh- 
teen years of age, and no other person shall operate or have the care 
or charge of such an elevator. 



31 

No elevator shall be operated by or placed in charge of any person 
under sixteen years of age. 

No elevator shall hereafter be installed in any building without a. 
permit having been granted therefor, and the applicant shall submit 
a plan showing the proposed location of the shaftway, the area and 
situation of the machine room, and the said plan shall be filed as 
part of the records of the department. All elevators hereafter 
installed shall be located so as to give easy and safe access to all the 
principal parts of the machinery for inspection and repairs. 

All passenger elevators hereafter built operated by drum and cables, 
shall have an overspeed governor to prevent the car from descending 
at overspeed, and all passenger and freight elevators shall have a 
slack cable device to stop the machinery in case the car is held up or 
the cables part. 

If any accident shall occur t© any elevator affecting life or limb or 
damaging any part of the machinery or running parts of the elevator, 
it shall be the duty of the engineer or superintendent in charge 
immediately, before any repairs are made, or any broken pieces are 
removed, to notify the commissioner of the accident, before the 
elevator is operated again, so that the cause of the accident may be 
determined, any faulty construction remedied, and satisfactory 
repairs made. 

All elevator cables hereafter installed that pass through bevelled 
sockets, the ends returning and refitting into the same, shall have in 
addition lead or babbitt metal poured into the ends of the socket, 
to prevent the possibility of the cable's slipping. 

AH manufacturers of elevators shall be required to test, in the 
presence of an inspector, the safety devices of every elevator in- 
stalled before the same is turned over to the owners for use, and the 
commissioner shall be notified by the manufacturer at least twenty- 
four hours before such test is made. An inspector may require a test 
of the safety device of any elevator if in his judgment the same is 
required. 

The commissioner may require additional safeguards on elevators, 
if in his judgment the condition, use or surroundings of the elevator 
demand them. 

The commissioner may, with the approval of the mayor, appoint 
competent elevator inspectors in addition to those already detailed, 
one for every one thousand elevators and hoistways in the city of 
Boston. 

Wooden Buildings. 

Sect. 39. Every wooden building hereafter erected shall have a 
foundation of concrete, rubble, block granite or brick, laid in mortar 
or other equally substantial material, carried to the surface of the 
ground. Every such foundation if of brick or concrete, shall be at 
least twelve inches thick; if of granite, shall be at least sixteen inches 
thick; if of rubble, shall be at least twenty inches thick; and shall 
be laid at least four feet below any surface exposed to frost and upon 
solid ground or upon piles properly spaced. 

Every wooden building hereafter erected or altered, the sills of 
which do not rest directly upon a foundation as above described, but 



32 

on an underpinning, shall have such underpinning made of brick, 
stone or concrete; and if the building is thirty-three feet or less in 
height above the highest street level of its principal front, the under- 
pinning, if of brick or concrete, shall be at least eight inches thick, 
and if the building is of greater height, the underpinning, if of brick 
or concrete, shall be at least twelve inches thick; every underpin- 
ning of stone shall be at least sixteen inches thick. Every wooden 
building, hereafter erected on soft and marshy land, and used for a 
workshop or other like purpose, or as a temporary structure, may, if 
the commissioner approves, rest upon mud sills or blocks, or on piles. 

Every wooden building hereafter erected or altered shall have all 
its parts of sufficient strength to carry the weight of the superstruc- 
ture; shall be built with sills, posts, girts, studs and plates, properly 
framed, mortised, tenoned, braced and pinned in each story, or 
with a balloon frame ; the posts and girts shall be not less than four 
by six inches in cross section, and the studs shall be not more than 
twenty inches apart. Wooden buildings hereafter erected for other 
purposes than habitation shall not be situated within five feet of the 
line of the lot unless the side wall on such line or lines be of brick or 
concrete, built to the under side of the roof. 

Sect. 40. No wooden building hereafter erected to be used as a 
habitation shall be more than three stories in height above the base- 
ment, nor more than forty-five feet in height above the street level, 
nor shall any part of such building, except the eaves and cornice, 
be nearer than three feet to the line of any adjoining lot, and if built 
on land of the same owner, nearer than six feet to any other building, 
unless the side wall of such adjoining building is constructed as a solid 
brick or concrete wall not less than eight inches thick and carried 
twelve inches above the roof. 

Every wooden building hereafter constructed to form a block of 
two or more houses shall have a brick or concrete party wall between 
adjoining houses, which shall be not less than eight inches thick, shall 
be carried twelve inches above the roof, and shall be capped with a 
metallic covering. 

Flooring during Construction. 

Sect. 41. If, in the erection of an iron or steel frame building, the 
spaces between the girders or floor beams of a floor are not filled 
and covered by the permanent construction of such floors before 
another story is added to the building, a close plank flooring shall be 
placed and maintained over such spaces during construction. If and 
when such flooring cannot be used without serious interference with 
the work of construction, such provision shall be made to protect 
the workmen from falling materials as will be satisfactory to the 
commissioner. 

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TENEMENT HOUSES. 

Definitions. 

Sect. 42. Certain words are defined as follows: — 
(i.) A tenement house is any house, building, structure or por- 
tion thereof, occupied, or adapted for occupation, as a dwelling by 



33 

more than three families living independently of one another and 
doing their cooking upon the premises, or by more than two families 
above the first story so living and cooking. A family living in a 
tenement house may consist of one or more persons. 

An existing tenement house is any building erected as such or 
converted to such use or as altered for such use or so used before the 
passage of this act, and any building adapted for such use, provided 
that a permit was issued for the erection of said building before the 
passage of this act. 

A tenement house hereafter erected is any tenement house other 
than an existing tenement house as above defined. 

(2.) A corner lot is a lot situated at the junction of two or more 
streets, or of two or more streets and alleys or open passageways not 
less than fifteen feet in width. 

(3.) A yard is an open unoccupied space on the same lot with a 
building and between the extreme rear line of said building and the 
rear line of the lot. 

(4.) A court is an open unoccupied space other than a yard on the 
same lot with a building. An inner court is a court not extending to 
a street, or alley, or open passageway, or yard. An outer court is a 
court extending to a street, or alley, or open passageway, or yard. 
A vent court is an inner court for the lighting and ventilation of 
water-closets, bathrooms, public halls, and stair halls only. An 
intake is a passageway connecting an inner court with a street, or 
alley, or open passageway, or yard. 

(5.) A shaft, whether for air, light, elevator, dumb-waiter, or any 
other purpose, is an enclosed space within a building, extending to 
the roof, and covered either by a sk\'light or by the roof. A vent 
shaft is a shaft used solely to ventilate or light water-closet compart- 
ments or bathrooms. 

(6.) A public hall is a hall, corridor, or passageway not within an 
apartment. 

(7.) A stair hall includes the stairs, stair landings, and those parts 
of the public hall through which it is necessary to pass in going from 
the entrance floor to the roof. 

(8.) An apartment is a room, or suite of two or more rooms, occu- 
pied, or suitable for occupation, as a residence for one family, 

(9.) Repairs means any renewal of any existing part of a building, 
or of its fixtures or appurtenances, which does not lessen the strength 
of the building. 

Fire-escapes. 

Sect. 43. In all tenement houses hereafter erected and more than 
three stories in height above the basement or cellar there shall be 
provided one of the following means of egress for escape from fire: 
(i) an interior enclosed stairway as described in this section; or 
(2) an exterior iron fire-escape and stairs as hereinafter described; 
or (3) iron balconies connecting with adjoining houses, or with adjoin- 
ing parts of the same house separated from each other by a brick 
partition wall in which there are no openings except such as are 
protected with fireproof self-closing doors; and every apartment 
above the first floor shall have access to one of such means of egress. 



34 

(i.) Interior fire-escapes may consist of wooden circular stairs, 
occupying a space of a diameter not less than four feet six inches. 
Such stairs shall extend from the top floor to the level of the base- 
ment, where they shall open into either an outer or an inner court or 
yard. These stairs shall be separated in the basement from the base- 
ment by brick walls at least eight inches thick, and the stairs above 
the basement shall be enclosed with fireproof partitions clear to a 
vent skylight, and shall have on each floor, in a public hall accessible 
from each apartment, a fireproof self-closing door and fireproof 
frame ; the door to open into the corridor, and to be so arranged that 
it cannot be opened from the stair side ; such staircase to be provided 
with a ventilating skylight at least nine square feet in area. The 
soffits of the stairs, if they are of wood, shall be plastered on metal 
lathing. 

(2.) Exterior fire-escapes shall be of iron, with iron grated floor, 
and capable of bearing a load of seventy pounds per square foot. 
The stair treads shall be of iron, and the pitch of the stairs shall not 
exceed sixty degrees. 

Balconies shall be at least three feet four inches wide, and the stairs 
at least twenty inches. There shall be a landing at the foot of each 
flight, and at the level of the second floor there shall be cantilever 
ladders. The rails on horizontal balconies and on the stairs shall be 
at least two feet ten inches high at all points. 

(3.) Balconies connecting adjoining houses, or adjoining parts of 
the same house as described above, shall be not less than thirty 
inches wide and capable of sustaining a load of seventy pounds per 
square foot. Railings shall be not less than two feet ten inches high, 
and shall be of iron. 

Bulkheads and Scuttles. 

Sect 44. Every tenement house of the first or second class here- 
after erected shall have in the roof a fireproof bulkhead with a fire- 
proof door to the same, and shall have fireproof stairs with a guide 
or hand rail leading to the roof, except that in such tenement houses 
which do not exceed sixty- five feet in height, such bulkheads may 
be of wood covered with metal on the outside and plastered on metal 
lathing on the inside; provided that the door shall be covered with 
metal on both sides. 

Every other tenement house shall have in the roof a bulkhead or 
scuttle. No scuttle shall be less in size than two feet by three feet, 
and all scuttles shall be covered on the outside with metal, and shall 
be provided with stairs or stationary ladders leading thereto and 
easily accessible to all tenants of the building, and kept free from 
encumbrance, and all scuttles and ladders shall be kept so as to be 
ready for use at all times. No scuttle shall be situated in a closet or 
room, but all scuttles shall be in the ceiling of the public hall on the 
top floor, and access through the scuttle to the roof shall be direct 
and uninterrupted. Scuttles shall be hinged so as to readily open. 
Every bulkhead hereafter constructed in a tenement house shall be 
constructed as provided for tenement houses hereafter erected and 
shall have stairs with a guide or hand rail leading to the roof, and such 
stairs shall be kept free from encumbrance at all times. No lock 



35 

shall be placed on any scuttle or bulkhead door, but either may be 
. fastened on the inside by movable bolts or hooks. All key-locks on 
scuttles and on bulkhead doors shall be removed. No stairway lead- 
ing to the roof in a tenement house shall be removed. 

Stairs and Public Halls. 

Sect. 45. Every tenement house hereafter erected shall have at 
least one stairway extending from the entrance floor to the roof, and 
every tenement house hereafter erected containing more than one 
hundred rooms above the first floor, exclusive of water-closets and 
bathrooms, shall have an additional separate stairway for every 
additional one hundred rooms or fraction thereof. Public halls 
therein shall each be at least three feet wide in the clear, and stairs 
shall be at least three feet wide between the wall and the stair rail. 

Each stairway shall have an entrance on the entrance floor from 
a street or alley or open passageway or from an outer court, or from 
an inner court which connects directly with a street or alley or open 
passageway. All stairs shall be constructed with a rise of not more 
than eight inches, and with treads not less than nine inches wide and 
not less than three feet long in the clear. Where winders are used all 
treads at a point eighteen inches from the strings on the wall side 
shall be at least ten inches wide. 

In every tenement house all stairways shall be provided with 
proper balusters and railings kept in good repair. No public hall 
or stairs in a tenement house shall be reduced in width so as to be 
less than the minimum width prescribed in this section. 

Stair Halls, Construction of. 

Sect. 46. In tenement houses hereafter erected which do not 
exceed five stories above the cellar or basement or sixty-five feet in 
height the stair halls shall either be constructed with iron beams and 
fireproof filling or shall be filled in between the floor beams with at 
least five inches of cement deafening. In such houses the stairs may 
be of wood, provided that the soffits are covered with metal laths 
and plastered with two coats of mortar, or with good quality plaster- 
boards not less than one half inch in thickness made of plaster and 
strong fibre, and all joints made true and well pointed, and provided 
that such stairs are furnished with firestops. 

Stair HaUs, how Enclosed. 

Sect. 47. In second class and third class tenement houses hereafter 
erected, the stair halls may be enclosed with wooden stud partitions, 
if such partitions are covered on both sides with metal laths or with 
good quality plaster-boards not less than one half inch in thickness, 
made of plaster and strong fibre, and all joints made true and well 
pointed, and provided that the space between the studs is filled in 
with brick and mortar or other incombustible material to the height 
of the floor beams. 

Entrance Halls. 

Sect. 48. Every entrance hall in every tenement house hereafter 
erected shall be at least three feet six inches wide in the clear, from 



36 

the entrance up to and including the stair enclosure, and beyond 
this point at least three feet wide in the clear, and shall comply with 
all the conditions of the preceding sections of this act as to the con- 
struction of stair halls, except that in a fireproof tenement house 
hereafter erected the entrance hall may be enclosed with terra-cotta 
blocks not less than four inches thick and angle-iron construction, 
instead of brick walls. If such entrance hall is the only entrance 
to more than one stairway, that portion of said hall between the 
entrance and the stairway shall be increased at least eighteen inches 
in width in every part for each additional stairway. 

Cellar Ceilings. 

Sect. 49. In all tenement houses of the second or third class here- 
after erected, the cellar and basement ceilings shall be lathed with 
metal laths and plastered. 

Partitions, Construction of. 

Sect. 50. In all tenement houses of the second or third class here- 
after erected all stud partitions which rest directly over each other 
shall run through the wooden floor beams and rest upon the cap of the 
partition below, and shall have the studding filled in solid between 
the uprights to the depth of the floor beams with suitable materials. 

Wooden Tenement Houses. 

Sect. 51. Outside of the building limits, tenement houses not 
exceeding three stories in height above the basement, nor eighteen 
hundred square feet in area, may be erected of wood. No wooden 
tenement house shall be increased in height so as to exceed three 
stories above the basement or cellar. 

Shafts. 

Sect. 52. All elevator or dumb-waiter shafts hereafter constructed 
in any tenement house shall be fireproof throughout, with fireproof 
self-closing doors at all openings at each story. But nothing in this 
section shall be so construed as to require enclosures about elevators 
or dumb-waiters in the well-hole of stairs where the stairs themselves 
are enclosed in walls of incombustible materials, and are entirely 
constructed of fireproof materials as hereinbefore provided. Every 
vent shaft hereafter constructed in any tenement house shall have 
an intake of at lea^t the dimensions provided for vent courts in sec- 
tion sixty-one, and shall be of the same minimum dimensions; and 
the skylight covering such vent shaft shall be raised at all points at 
least one foot above the top of the walls of such vent shaft, and the 
space between the top of said walls and the skylight shall remain at 
all points open and unobstructed except for such supports essential 
to the stability of the skylight, as may be approved by the 
commissioner. 

Bakeries and Fat Boiling. 

Sect. 53. No bakery and no place of business in which fat is boiled 
shall be maintained in any tenement house which is not fireproof 



37 

throughout, unless the ceiling and side walls of said bakery or of the 
said place where fat boiling is done are made safe by fireproof materi- 
als around the same, and there shall be no openings either by door 
or window, dumb-waiter shafts or otherwise, between said bakery 
or said place where fat is boiled in any tenement house and the other 
parts of the building. 

Other Dangerous Businesses. 

Sect. 54. All transoms and windows opening into halls from any 
part of a tenement house where paint, oil, spirituous liquors or drugs 
are stored for the purpose of sale or otherwise shall be glazed with 
wire-glass, or they shall be removed and closed up as solidly as the 
rest of the wall. There shall be between any such hall and such part 
of said tenement house a fireproof self-closing door. 



LIGHT AND VENTILATION. 

Yards. 

Sect. 55. The requirements for yards hereinafter provided shall 
be deemed sufficient ior all tenement houses. 

Except in those cases hereinafter provided for, there shall be, 
behind every tenement house hereafter erected, a yard extending 
across the entire width of the lot, and at every point open from the 
ground to the sky unobstructed, except by fire-escapes or unenclosed 
outside stairs. 

The depth of said yard shall be measured from the extreme rear 
wall of the house to the rear line of the lot, and at right angles to said 
line, except that where there is an alley or open passageway in the 
rear of the lot the depth of the yard may be measured to the middle 
of said alley or open passageway. On an irregular lot of several 
depths, where there is more than one rear line to the lot, such yard 
may extend across the entire width of the lot in sections, provided 
that each section of the yard is in every part and at every point of 
the minimum depth hereinafter prescribed. Where the side lines 
of a lot converge toward the rear, the depth of the yard shall be such 
as to give it an area equal to the greatest width of the yard multiplied 
by the depth hereinafter prescribed. 

Except on a corner lot, the depth of the yard behind every tene- 
ment house hereafter erected fifty feet in height or less shall be not 
less than twelve feet in every part. All yards without exception shall 
be increased in depth at least one foot for every additional ten feet 
of height of the building, or fraction thereof, above fifty feet. 

Except as hereinafter otherwise provided, the depth of the yard 
behind every tenement house hereafter erected upon a corner lot 
shall not be less than six feet in every part. But where such corner 
lot is more than twenty-five feet in width, the depth of the 3'ard for 
that portion in excess of twenty-five feet shall be not less than twelve 
feet in every part, and shall increase in depth as above provided. 

Whenever a tenement house is hereafter erected upon a lot which 
runs through from street to street, or from a street to an alley or open 



38 

passageway, and said lot is one hundred and fifty feet or more in 
depth, said yard space shall be left midway between the two streets, 
and shall extend across the entire width of the lot, and shall be not 
less than twenty-four feet in depth from wall to wall, and shall be 
increased in depth at least two feet for every additional ten feet in 
height of the building, or fraction thereof, above fifty feet. 

When a tenement house hereafter erected does not front upon a 
street, a public alley, or a passageway, not less than fifteen feet wide, 
the requirements in this section as to yards shall apply to the front 
of such tenement house as well as to the rear. Neither the yard 
behind one tenement house nor any part thereof shall be deemed to 
satisfy in whole or in part the requirement of a yard in front of another 
tenement house. 

Cases in which No Yard shall be required. 

Sect. 56. No yard shall be required behind a tenement house 
hereafter erected upon a lot which abuts at the rear upon a railroad 
right of way, a cemetery or a public park. 

No yard shall be required behind a tenement house hereafter 
erected upon a lot entirely surrounded by streets or by streets, alleys 
or open passageways, not less than fifteen feet in width, or by such 
streets, alleys, and passageways and a railroad right of way, a ceme- 
tery or a public park. 

No yard shall be required behind a tenement house hereafter 
erected upon a lot less than one hundred and fifty feet deep and 
running through from street to street or from a street to an alley or 
open passageway not less than fifteen feet in width, or upon a corner 
lot adjoining a lot less than one hundred and fifty feet deep and 
running through from street to street, or from a street to such an 
alley or open passageway. 

No yard shall be required behind a tenement house hereafter 
erected upon a corner lot adjoining a lot more than one hundred 
and fifty feet deep and running through from street to street or from 
a street to an alley or open passageway not less than fifteen feet in 
width; but if there be no yard, an outer court upon such corner lot 
shall extend from the street along the line of such adjoining lot to a 
point in line with the middle line of the block; the width of said court 
to be not less than the width of court prescribed in the ensuing 
paragraph. 

No yard shall be required behind a tenement house hereafter 
erected upon a corner lot adjoining two or more lots any one of 
which bounds upon a single street or alley, or open passageway not 
less than fifteen feet in width ; but if there be no yard an outer court 
upon such corner lot shall extend from the street, or from such alley 
or open passageway along a lot line either to the extreme rear of an 
adjoining lot or to the extreme rear of said corner lot: provided, that 
the width of said court measured from the lot line to the opposite 
wall of the building, for tenement houses fifty feet or less in height, 
shall be not less than six feet in every part, and for every additional 
ten feet of height of the tenement house shall be increased one foot 
throughout the whole length of said court. 



39 

Courts. 

Sect. 57. No court of a tenement house hereafter erected shall 
be covered by a roof or skylight, but every such court shall be at 
every point open to the sky unobstructed. Except such courts as 
are provided for in section fifty-six, all courts, except for fire-escapes , 
may start at the second tier of beams. 

Outer Courts. 

Sect. 58. The provisions of this section shall apply only to tene- 
ment houses hereafter erected. Where one side of an outer court 
is located on the lot line, the width of the said court, measured from 
the lot line to the opposite wall of the building, for tenement houses 
fifty feet or less in height shall not be less than six feet in every part ; 
and for every ten feet of increase or fraction thereof in height of such 
tenement houses, such width shall be increased one foot throughout 
the whole length of the court, and except where the court runs 
through from the yard to the street, said width shall never be less 
than one eighth of the length of the court. 

Where an outer court is located between wings or parts of the same 
building, or between different buildings on the same lot, the width 
of the court, measured from wall to wall, for tenement houses fifty 
feet or less in height shall not be less than twelve feet in every part, 
and for every ten feet of increase or fraction thereof in the height 
of the said building, such width shall be increased two feet through- 
out the whole length of the court. The depth of such courts shall 
never exceed four times their width. 

Wherever an outer court changes its initial horizontal direction, 
or wherever any part of such court extends in a direction so as not 
to receive direct light from the street or yard, or from an alley, or 
open passageway not less than fifteen feet in width, the length of 
that part of the court shall never exceed its width, such length to be 
measured from the point at which the change of direction begins. 
Wherever an outer court between parts of the same building is 
twelve feet or less in depth, its width may be one half its depth, pro- 
vided that such width is never less than four feet in the clear. This 
exception shall also apply to every offset or recess in outer courts. 
And no window except windows of water-closet compartments, 
bathrooms, or halls shall open upon any offset or recess less than four 
feet in width. 

Inner Courts. 

Sect. 59. The provisions of this section shall apply only to tene- 
ment houses hereafter erected. Where one side of an inner court is 
located on the lot line and the building does not exceed fifty feet in 
height, the least width of the court shall be not less than eight feet, 
and the area of the court shall be not less than one hundred and 
twenty-eight square feet. For every ten feet or fraction thereof of 
increase in the height of the building above fifty feet the minimum 
width of such inner courts shall be increased by one foot, and the 
area thereof shall never be less than twice the square of such mini- 
mum width. Where an inner court is not located on the lot line. 



40 

but is enclosed on all four sides, and the building does not exceed 
fifty feet in height, the least width of said court shall be not less than 
sixteen feet and the area not less than two hundred and fifty-six 
square feet. For every ten feet, or fraction thereof, of increase in 
the height of said building above fifty feet, the minimum width of 
such inner courts shall be increased by two feet, and the area of the 
court shall never be less than the square of such minimum dimension. 

Vent Courts. 

Sect. 6o. Inner courts used solely for the lighting and ventilation 
of water-closets, bathrooms, public halls, or stair halls, or for in- 
terior fire-escapes, may be constructed in any tenement house, and 
shall be not less than fifteen square feet in area, nor less than three 
feet in the least horizontal dimension for buildings fifty feet or less 
in height. For every increase of ten feet or fraction thereof in the 
height of such buildings the least dimension shall be increased by 
one foot, and the area by not less than eight square feet. 

Intakes. 

Sect. 6i. Every inner court in a tenement house hereafter erected 
shall be provided with one or more horizontal intakes at the bottom. 
Such intakes, in vent courts, shall be not less than four square feet 
in area, so arranged as to be easily cleaned ; in other inner courts they 
shall be not less than three feet wide and seven feet high, and there 
shall be at least two open grille doors, containing not less than fifteen 
square feet of unobstructed openings, one at the inner court and the 
other at the street or yard as the case may be. 

Nothing contained in the foregoing sections concerning outer and 
inner courts shall be construed as prohibiting windows in walls that 
cut off the angles of such courts, provided that the running length 
of the walls containing such windows does not exceed six feet. 

Buildings on the Same Lot with Tenement Houses. 

Sect. 62. No tenement house shall hereafter be so enlarged or its . 
lot so diminished, and no building of any kind shall be hereafter so 
placed upon the same lot with a tenement house, as to decrease the 
minimum depth of yards or the minimum size of courts or yards 
prescribed in this act for tenement houses hereafter erected. 

Rooms, Lighting and Ventilation of. 

Sect. 63. In every tenement house hereafter erected there shall 
be in each room, except water-closet compartments and bathrooms, 
windows of a total area of at least one eighth of the floor area of the 
room, opening directly on a street or public alley or open passageway 
not less than fifteen feet wide or upon a yard or court of the dimen- 
sions hereinbefore specified, or upon a railroad right of way, cemetery 
or public park; and such windows shall be located so as properly to 
light all parts of the room. The top of at least one window shall be 
not less than eight feet above the floor, and the upper half of it shall 
be made so as to open the full width. 



41 

Every alcove in every tenement house hereafter erected shall be 
provided with an opening into a room, such opening to be equal in 
area to eighty per cent of that side of the alcove in which the opening 
is located; and the alcove shall have at least one window of not less 
than fifteen square feet of glazed' surface opening as provided in this 
section. 

Rooms, Size of. 

Sect. 64. In every tenement house hereafter erected all rooms, 
except water-closet compartments and bathrooms, shall be of the 
following minimum sizes: In each apartment there shall be at least 
one room containing not less than one hundred and twenty square 
feet of floor area and provided with a chimney flue and thimble, 
except where said room is furnished with heat from a central heating 
apparatus, and every other room shall contain at least ninety square 
feet of floor area. Each room shall be in every part not less than 
eight and one half feet high from the finished floor to the finished 
ceiling; provided that only one half of an attic room need be eight 
and one half feet high. 

No portion of a room in any such tenement house shall be par- 
titioned off so as to form a room not conforming to the provisions of 
sections sixty-three and sixty-four, or so as to form an alcove not 
conforming to sections sixty-three and seventy. 

PubUc HaUs. 

Sect. 65. Except as otherwise provided in section sixty-six, in 
every tenement house hereafter erected, every public hall shall have 
at least one window opening directly upon a street, a public alley 
or open passageway not less than ten feet in width, a railroad right 
of way, a cemetery or a public park, or upon a yard or court or a 
vent court as provided in section sixty. Either such window shall 
be at the end of said hall, with the plane of the window substantially 
at right angles to the axis of the hall, or there shall be at least one 
window opening as above prescribed in every twenty feet in length 
or fraction thereof of the hall ; but this provision for one window in 
every twenty feet of hall-way shall not apply to that part of the 
entrance hall between the entrance and the first flight of stairs, pro- 
vided that the entrance door contains not less than five square feet 
of glazed surface. At least one of the windows provided to light 
each public hall shall be at least two feet six inches wide and five feet 
high, measured between the stop beads. 

Any part of a hall which is shut off from any other part of said hall 
by a door or doors shall be deemed a separate hall within the meanmg 
of this section. 

Windows for Stair Halls, Size of. 

Sect. 66. In every tenement house hereafter erected the aggregate 
area of windows to light or ventilate stair halls on each floor shall be 
at least fifteen square feet: provided, however, that when there shall 
be, within the space enclosed by the stairway and its landings, from 
the second story upward, an open area for light and ventilation 
whose least horizontal dimension shall be equal to the width of the 



42 

stairs, but in no case less than three feet, then the windows required 
in sections sixty-five and sixty-six may be omitted. 

There shall be in the roof, directly over each stair well, in all tene- 
ment houses hereafter erected, without windows as above provided, 
a ventilating skylight provided with ridge ventilators, having a mini- 
mum opening of forty square inches, or else such skylight shall be 
provided with fixed or movable louvres. The glazed roof of the 
skylight shall not be less than twenty square feet in area. 

Privacy. 

Sect. 67. In every apartment of four or more rooms in a tenement 
house hereafter erected, at least one water-closet compartment shall 
be accessible without passing through any bedroom. 

Basements in Tenement Houses hereafter erected. 

Sect. 68. In tenement houses hereafter erected no room in the 
basement shall be occupied for living purposes, unless all of the 
following conditions are complied with : — 

(i.) Such room shall be at least eight and one half feet high in 
every part from the floor to the ceiling. 

(2.) There shall be appurtenant to such room the use of a separate 
water-closet, constructed and arranged as required by section 
sixty-nine. 

(3.) Such room shall have a window or windows opening upon the 
street, an alley or open passageway not less than fifteen feet in width, 
a railroad right of way, cemetery or public park or upon a yard or 
court. The total area of windows in such room shall be at least one 
eighth of the floor area of the room, and one half of the sash shall be 
made to open full width, and the top of each window shall be within 
six inches of the ceiling. 

(4.) The floor of such room shall be damp-proof and waterproof, 
and all walls surrounding such room shall be damp-proof. 

Water-closets in Tenement Houses hereafter erected. 

Sect. 69. In every tenement house hereafter erected there shall be 
a separate water-closet in a separate compartment within each apart- 
ment of four or more rooms. Where apartments consist of less than 
four rooms there shall be at least one water-closet for every three 
rooms, and on the same floor with said rooms. Every such water- 
closet shall be placed in a compartment completely separated from 
every other water-closet, and such compartment shall be not less 
than two feet and four inches wide, and shall be enclosed with plas- 
tered partitions, or some equally substantial material, which shall 
extend to the ceiling. Such compartment shall have a window, 
opening directly, or through a straight horizontal shaft of the same 
dimensions as the window and not more than four feet long, upon a 
street, a railroad right of way, cemetery or public park or a yard or 
alley or open passageway not less than four feet wide, or upon a vent 
court or upon a covered passageway not more than twenty feet long 
and at least twenty feet wide, and twenty feet high. Every such 
window shall be at least one foot by three feet between stop beads; 



43 

and the whole window shall be made so as to open readily. When, 
however, such water-closet compartment is located on the top floor 
and is lighted and ventilated by a skylight over it, no window shall 
be necessary, provided that the roof of such skylight contains at 
least three square feet of glazed surface and is arranged so as to open 
readily. Nothing in this section in regard to the separation of 
water-closet compartments from each other shall apply to a general 
toilet room containing several water-closets, hereafter placed in a 
tenement house, provided that such water-closets are supplemental 
to the water-closet accommodations required by law for the use of 
the tenants of the said house. Nothing in this section in regard to 
the ventilation of water-closet compartments shall apply to a water- 
closet hereafter placed in an existing tenement house, to replace a 
defective fixture in the same position and location. No water-closet 
shall be maintained in the cellar of any tenement house without a 
permit in writing from the board of health ; and said board shall have 
power to make rules and regulations governing the maintenance of 
such closets. Every water-closet compartment in any tenement 
house shall be provided with proper means for lighting the same at 
night. If fixtures for gas or electricity are not provided in such 
compartment, then the door of such compartment shall be provided 
with translucent glass panels, or with a translucent glass transom, 
not less in area than four square feet. The floor of every such 
water-closet compartment shall be made waterproof with asphalt, 
tile, stone or some other waterproof material; and such water- 
proofing shall extend at least six inches above the floor on all sides of 
the compartment except at the door opening, so that the floor can 
be washed or flushed without leaking. No drip trays shall be per- 
mitted. No water-closet fixtures shall be inclosed with any 
woodwork. 

Lighting and Ventilation of Existing Tenement Houses. 

Sect. 70. Excepting water-closet compartments and bathrooms, 
wherever a room in any tenement house has a window or windows of 
less than nine square feet of glazed surface opening on a street, a 
railroad right of way, cemetery, public park, alley or open passage- 
way not less than ten feet in width, such window or windows shall 
be enlarged and provided with the above mentioned glazed surface, 
and wherever such room does not open as above provided, or opens 
upon an alley or open passageway less than ten feet in width or upon 
a shaft or upon a court less than six feet in its least dimension, then 
such room shall be provided with a sash window communicating with 
another room in the same apartment, having windows of at least the 
superficial area prescribed for the windows of rooms in tenement 
houses hereafter erected and opening on a street, a railroad right of way, 
cemetery, public park or alley or open passageway at least ten feet in 
width, or on a court or courts at least equivalent to the courts re- 
quired in sections fifty-eight and. fifty-nine; and such new sash 
window shall contain not less than fifteen square feet of glazed sur- 
face and shall be made so as to open readily. One wall of every 
alcove in an existing tenement house shall be provided with an 
opening equal in area to eighty per cent of the wall. No tenement 



44 

house shall be so altered as to reduce the provisions for the light and 
ventilation of any room or alcove or public hall or stair hall below 
the requirements of this act. 

Skylights. 

Sect. 71. In every existing tenement house there shall be in the 
roof, directly over each stair well, a ventilating skylight, provided 
with ridge ventilators and also with fixed or movable louvres or 
movable sashes. But this section shall not apply to any tenement 
house now having windows as provided in section sixty-five or a 
bulkhead in the roof over the main stairs, which bulkhead is provided 
with windows made so as to open readily, and with not less than 
twelve square feet of glass in the top of the bulkhead. All skylights 
hereafter placed in any tenement house shall conform to the pro- 
visions of section sixty-six. All the existing dome lights or other 
obstructions to skylight ventilation shall be removed. 

Where the public hall in an existing tenement house is not pro- 
vided with windows opening as provided in section sixty-five, and 
where there is not a stair well as provided in section sixty-six, all 
doors leading from such public hall into apartments shall be provided 
with translucent glass panels of an area of not less than four square 
feet for each door; or such public hall may be lighted by a window or 
windows at the end thereof with the plane of the window at right 
angles to the axis of the hall, said window opening upon the street, 
a railroad right of way, cemetery, public park, or an alley or open 
passageway at least ten feet in width, or upon a yard or court of the 
dimensions hereinbefore provided. 

Water-closets in Existing Tenement Houses. 

Sect. 72. In existing tenement houses the woodwork enclosing 
the space underneath the seat of all water-closets used in common 
by two or more families shall be removed and such space shall be 
left open. The floor or other surface beneath and around such 
closets shall be maintained in good order and repair, and the floors 
made waterproof to the satisfaction of the board of health. 

Every such water-closet shall be located in a compartment com- 
pletely separated from every other water-closet, and such compart- 
ment shall be ventilated to the satisfaction of the board of health. 
There shall be provided at least one water-closet for every three 
families or for every nine rooms in every existing tenement house. 

Water Supply. 

Sect. 73. In every tenement house hereafter erected there shall 
be in each apartment a proper sink with running water. _ 

Every existing tenement house shall have water furnished in suf- 
ficient quantity at one or more places on each floor occupied by or 
suitable to be occupied by one or more families. The owner shall 
provide proper and suitable tanks, pumps or other appliances to 
receive and to distribute a sufficient supply of water at each floor in 
the said house at all times of the year, during all hours of the day and 
night. 



45 

The woodwork enclosing sinks located in the public halls or stairs 
shall be removed, and the space underneath the sinks shall be left 
open. The floors and wall surfaces beneath and around the sink 
shall be maintained in good order and repair. 

Drainage of Courts and Yards. 

Sect. 74. In every tenement house all courts, areas, intakes and 
yards shall be properly graded, drained and paved or otherwise 
surfaced to the satisfaction of the board of health. 

Receptacles for Garbage and Ashes. 

Sect. 75. The owner of every tenement house shall provide 
therefor suitable, covered, water-tight receptacles satisfactory to 
the board of health, for ashes, rubbish, garbage, refuse and other 
matter. No person shall place ashes, rubbish, garbage, refuse or 
other matter in the yards, open areas or alleys connected with, or 
appurtenant to, any tenement house except in suitable receptacles 
provided for the same. 

Powers of the Building Commissioner. 

Sect. 76. The commissioner shall not dispense with any of the 
requirements of sections forty -two to seventy-five, inclusive. 

THEATRES.* 

Definition. 

Sect. 77. Every building hereafter erected so as to contain an 
audience hall and a stage, with curtain, movable or shifting scenery, 
and machinery, adapted for the giving of plays, operas, spectacles or 
similar forms of entertainment, and of a size to provide seats for more 
than five hundred spectators shall be a theatre within the meaning 
of this act. No existing building not now used as a theatre shall be 
altered and used as a theatre, unless it conforms to the provisions 
of this act for a new theatre. 

Construction. 

Sect. 78. Every theatre hereafter built shall be of fireproof con- 
struction throughout, except that the floor boards may be of wood, 
and the steel work of the stage, of the fly galleries, and of the rigging 
loft need not be fireproofed. 

Open Courts. 

Sect. 79. Every theatre built in a block not on a corner shall have 
an open court or passageway on both sides extending from the pro- 
scenium line to the line of the street on the front, or, in case the build- 
ing abuts on a street both in front and rear, these passages may extend 
from the line of the front of the auditorium to the line of the rear 
street. These passages shall be at least six feet wide throughout 
their length, and shall not be closed by any locked gate or doorway. 

* Compare with "Existing Theatres," page 52. 



46 

They shall immediately adjoin the auditorium, or a side passage or 
lobby directly connected therewith. These passages shall be open 
to the sky opposite the whole depth of the auditorium, but may be 
carried out to the street front or rear through passages enclosed by 
brick walls or other fireproof material equally efficient, and covered 
by a solid brick vault at least eight inches thick, each passage to be 
not less than eight feet wide and ten feet high throughout. 

Sect. 8o, Every theatre built upon the corner of two streets shall 
have one inner court on the side of the building away from the side 
street, such court to be of the same description as the courts provided 
for in the preceding paragraph. 

Stores, etc. 

Sect. 8i. Nothing in this act shall be construed to prohibit the use 
of any part of a theatre building for stores, offices, or for habitation, 
provided that the parts so used shall be built with exits to the street 
entirely distinct from the rest of the building and shall be separated 
from the rest of the building by solid partitions or walls, without 
any openings in the same. 

Floor Levels. 

Sect. 82. In all theatres, the entrances shall be not more than one 
step above the level of the sidewalk of the main street, and the stage 
shall be not more than five feet above the said level. 

Proscenium Wall. 

Sect. 83. The stage of every theatre shall be separated from the 
auditorium by a wall of fireproof construction, which wall shall 
extend the whole width of the auditorium and the whole height to the 
roof of the portion occupied by the stage. There shall be no open- 
ings through this wall except the curtain opening, one doorway each 
side behind the boxes, and one doorway which shall be located at 
or below the level of the stage. The doorways shall not exceed 
twenty-one superficial feet each, and shall have standard fire-doors 
hung in a manner satisfactory to the commissioner. The finish or 
decorative features around the curtain opening of every theatre shall 
be of fireproof material. 

Curtain. 

Sect. 84. The proscenium or curtain opening of every theatre shall 
have a fire-resisting curtain reinforced by wire netting or otherwise 
strengthened. If of iron, or similar heavy material, and made to 
lower from the top, it shall be so arranged as to be stopped securely 
at a height of seven feet above the stage floor, the remaining opening 
being closed by a curtain or valance of fire-resisting fabric. 

Stage Floor. 

Sect, 85. The part of the stage floor, usually equal to the width 
of the proscenium opening, used in working scenery, traps or other 
mechanical apparatus, may be of wood, and no flooring used thereon 
shall be less than one and one eighth inches in thickness. 



47 

Ventilators. 

Sect. 86. There shall be one or more ventilators near the centre, 
and above the highest part of the stage of every theatre, of a com- 
bined area of opening satisfactory to the commissioner, and not less 
than one tenth of the area of the undivided floor space behind the 
curtain at the stage floor level. The openings in every such ventila- 
tor shall be closed by valves or louvres so counterbalanced as to 
open automatically, which shall be kept closed, when not in use, by 
a fusible link and cord reaching to the prompter's desk, and readily 
operated therefrom. Such cord shall be of combustible material, 
and so arranged that if it is severed the ventilator will open automati- 
cally. 

Skylight coverings for ventilators shall have sheet metal frames set 
with double-thick glass, each pane thereof measuring not less than 
three hundred square inches, or shall be protected with wire glass. 
If wire glass is not used, a suitable wire netting shall be placed imme- 
diately beneath the glass, but above the ventilator opening. Il- 
luminating fixtures over the auditorium shall be suspended and 
secured in a manner approved by the commissioner. 

Glass on illuminating fixtures over the auditorium shall be secured 
from danger of falling as the commissioner shall require, but in no 
case shall any glass more than six inches in diameter or length be 
hung over the auditorium unless protected from falling by a wire 
netting or similar device satisfactory to the commissioner. 

Seats in Auditoriiim. 

Sect. 87. All seats in the auditorium excepting those contained in 
boxes shall be spaced not less than thirty inches from back to back, 
measured in a horizontal direction, and shall be firmly secured to the 
floor. No seat in the auditorium shall have more than six seats inter- 
vening between it and an aisle, on either side. 

The platforms for seats in balconies and galleries shall nowhere 
have a greater rise than twenty-one inches, nor be less than thirty 
inches from back to back. 

Aisles. 

Sect. 88. All aisles on the respective floors in the auditorium, 
having seats on both sides of the same, shall be not less than thirty 
inches wide where they begin, and shall be increased in width toward 
the .exits in the ratio of one inch to five running feet. Aisles having 
seats on one side only shall be not less than two feet wide at their 
beginning and shall increase in width, the same as aisles having seats 
on both sides. 

Changes in Level. 

Sect. 89. All changes in the levels of the floors of such buildings, 
except under stairways, from story to story, and except the necessary 
steps in galleries and balconies rising toward the exits, shall be made 
by inclines of no steeper gradient than two in ten within the audi- 
torium, and rising toward the exits, and one in ten for all others. 



48 

Lobbies. 

Sect. 90. Preceding each division of the theatre there shall be 
foyers, lobbies, corridors, or passages, the aggregate capacity of which 
on each floor or gallery shall be sufficient to contain the whole num- 
ber to be accommodated on such floor or gallery in the ratio of one 
square foot of floor room for each person. 

Stage Doors. 

Sect. 91. There shall be not less than two exit doors, each not 
less than three feet in width, located on opposite sides of the stage, 
and opening directly upon a street, alley, court, or courtway leading 
to a public thoroughfare. 

Room Exits. 

Sect. 92. All rooms in theatres for the use of persons employed 
therein shall have passages to at least two independent means of exit. 

Doors to Open Outward. 

Sect. 93. All doors of exit or entrance shall open outward, and 
shall be hung so as to swing in such a manner as not to become an 
obstruction in a passage or corridor, and no such doors shall be fas- 
tened so as to be inoperative when the building is occupied by an 
audience. 

False Doors. 

Sect. 94. No mirrors shall be so placed as to give the appearance 
of a doorway or exit, hallway, or corridor, nor shall there be any 
false doors or windows. 

Main Floor and First Gallery Exits. 

Sect. 95. A common exit may serve for the main floor of the 
auditorium and the first gallery, provided that its capacity be equal 
to the aggregate capacity of the outlets from the main floor and the 
said gallery; and provided that the lowermost run of any exit lead- 
ing from a gallery shall not open directly at right angles with the 
central axis of a common exit unless there is a clear space or landing of 
at least one and one quarter times the width of the exit between the 
foot of such exit and such centre line or nearest exit doorway. 

Exits. 

Sect. 96. Two distinct and separate exits shall be provided for 
each gallery and balcony above the main floor; and the same shall 
be located on opposite sides of the galleries. 

All gallery or balcony exits shall start with a width of not less than 
four feet at the uppermost gallery. 

Exits from balconies and galleries shall not communicate with the 
basement or cellar. 

Aggregate Width of Exit. 

Sect. 97. The aggregate width of all the exits previously described 
shall be estimated on a basis of not less than twenty inches for every 



49 

one hundred persons for whom seats are provided in the sections of 
the auditorium served by the respective exits. 

Emergency Exits. 

Sect. 98. In addition to the exits previously described there shall 
be one exit from each side of each gallery, balcony, and main floor of 
auditorium, at least five feet wide, leading to exterior balconies not less 
than four feet wide and twenty feet long on each side of the audi- 
torium. From such balconies there shall be staircases extending to 
the ground level, which may be counterweighted, with risers of not 
over eight and one half inches and treads of not less than nine and 
one half inches, exclusive of nosing. The aggregate width of these 
emergency stairs shall be not less than ten inches for every one hun- 
dred people served thereby, no single stairs being less than thirty 
inches wide. If counterweighted, these stairs shall be lowered dur- 
ing all performances. 

Where all such stairs are in an interior court, each run shall be 
covered by a light awning of iron. 

Nothing herein shall prohibit the building of emergency stairs and 
exits inside the walls of the building, provided that they are sur- 
rounded by a fireproof partition not less than four inches thick 
separating the exits and stairways from the audience room or audi- 
torium. 

Additional Requirements. 

Sect. 99. The commissioner shall have power to require a greater 
number or capacity of exits than is herein prescribed. 

In every theatre there shall be over every exit, on the inside, and 
over every opening to a fire-escape, on the inside, an illuminated 
sign, bearing the word " exit " or " fire-escape," respectively, in 
letters not less than four inches high. The lights for the exit signs, 
passages, stairs, lobbies, auditoriums, rear of auditoriums, balconies, 
galleries, and for the balconies and stairs outside the building, shall 
be so arranged that they can be turned on or off independently of the 
means provided on the stage or in any part of the building in the 
rear of the proscenium wall. Every exit sign shall be kept illumi- 
nated, and every outside balcony and fire-escape shall be kept well 
lighted during the performance, except outside exits during a per- 
formance before sunset. 

Plans showing the exits and stairways shall be legibly printed so 
as to occupy a full page of every programme or play-bill. 

In said buildings there shall be such number of gas pipe outlets as 
the commissioner may require, fitted with no less than two gas 
burners. Such burners shall be inspected and tried at least once 
in every three months by inspectors of the department, to ascertain 
if they are in proper working order. The inspector shall make a 
report of each visit, stating the condition of the burners and the 
action of the inspector in regard to them. 

The commissioner shall have authority to order any defect in the 
working of such burners as are necessary for public safety to be 
remedied. 



50 

So much of this section as applies to the inspection of gas burners 
shall appty to buildings now used as theatres. 

Stairs. 

Sect. ioo. The cut of the stair stringers shall not exceed seven 
and one half inches rise, nor be less than ten and one half inches 
tread. There shall be no flights of stairs of more than fifteen or less 
than three steps between landings. 

Landings of Stairs. 

Sect. ioi. Every landing shall be at least four feet wide. When 
straight stairs return directly on themselves, a landing of full width 
of both flights, without any steps, shall be provided. The outer 
line of landings shall be curved to a radius of not less than two feet 
to avoid square angles. Stairs turning at an angle shall have a 
proper landing without winders introduced at the turn. No door 
shall open immediately upon a flight of stairs, but a landing at least 
two feet wider than the width of the door opening shall be provided 
between such stairs and such door. When two side flights connect 
with one main flight, no winders shall be introduced, and the width 
of the main flight shall be at least equal to the aggregate width of the 
side flights. 

Hand-rails. 

Sect. 102. All enclosed stairways shall have, on both sides, strong 
hand-rails, firmly secured to the wall, about three inches distant there- 
from and about three feet high above the stairs. 

All stairways eight feet and over in width shall be provided with 
a central rail of metal or hard wood, not less than two inches in diame- 
ter, placed at a height of about three feet above the centre of the 
treads, supported on wrought metal or brass standards of sufficient 
strength, securely bolted to the treads or risers of the stairs; and at 
the head of each flight of stairs, and on each side of the landing, the 
post or standard shall be at least six feet in height, and the rail shall 
be secured to the post. 

Measurements for Width of Stairs. 

Sect. 103. The width of all stairs shall be measured in the clear 
between the hand-rails. 

No winding or circular stairs shall be permitted. 

Radiators Forbidden in Passageways. 

Sect. 104. No coil or radiator or floor register shall be placed in 
any aisle or passageway used as an exit; but all such coils and 
radiators may be placed in recesses formed in the wall or partition 
to receive the same. 

No boiler, furnace, engine or heating apparatus, except steam, 
hot water or hot air pipes or radiators, shall be located under the 
auditorium or under any passage or stairway or exit of any theatre. 



51 

Sprinklers and Standpipes. 

There shall be at least two two-inch high-service standpipes on the 
stage of every theatre, with ample provision of hose nozzles at each 
level of the stage on each side, and the water shall be kept turned 
on during the occupation of the building by an audience. The said 
pipes shall in no case be sealed, and shall have two gates, one above 
the other, with a proper test or waste valve; the lower gate to be 
kept open at all times. The proscenium opening of every theatre 
shall be provided with a two and one half inch perforated iron pipe, 
or equivalent equipment of automatic or open sprinklers, so con- 
structed as to form, when in operation, a complete water curtain for 
the whole proscenium opening, and there shall be for the rest of the 
stage a complete system of fire apparatus and perforated iron pipes, 
automatic or open sprinklers. Such pipes or sprinklers shall be sup- 
plied with water by high pressure sfervice, and shall be at all times 
ready for use. 

PLACES OF PUBLIC ASSEMBLY. 

Sect. 105.* Every building hereafter erected with a hall or 
assembly-room to contain a public audience of more than eight 
hundred persons, or with more than one superimposed gallery or 
balcony, shall be of fireproof construction throughout; except that 
halls or assembly-rooms, the mean level of the main floor of which is 
not more than five feet above the grade of the adjacent street, may 
have roofs of second class construction. 

Every building hereafter erected with a hall or assembly-room to 
contain an audience of more than six hundred persons, the main 
floor of which is raised more than fifteen feet above the level of the 
principal street upon which it faces, shall be of fireproof construction 
throughout. 

The capacity of a hall or assembly-room shall be estimated on the 
basis of six square feet for each person. 

If several halls or assembly-rooms are provided in one building, 
their aggregate capacity shall be considered as determining whether 
or not the building shall be of fireproof construction, unless the 
several halls are enclosed by or separated from each other by fire- 
proof walls, with fireproof doors in the same, in which case the build- 
ing may be of second class construction. 

No existing building shall be altered to contain a hall or assembly- 
room exceeding the foregoing dimensions, unless the whole building 
as altered shall conform to the provisions of this act. All seats in 
places of public assemblage shall be spaced as hereinbefore provided, 
and, while said places of public assemblage are occupied by an 
audience, shall be secured in such manner as will be satisfactory to 
the building commissioner of the city of Boston. No temporary 
seats or other obstructions shall be allowed in any aisle, passageway 
or stairway of a place of public assemblage, and no person shall 
remain in any aisle, passageway or stairway of any such building 
during any performance. 

* As amended by Acts of 1912, Chapter 370. 



52 

Moving Picture Shows. 

Sect. io6. All moving picture shows shall be subject to the pro- 
visions of chapter one hundred and seventy-six and of chapter four 
hundred and thirty-seven of the acts of the year nineteen hundred 
and five, and of any amendments thereof or additions thereto now or 
hereafter made. 

Exits, Etc. 

Sect. 107. Every building hereafter erected containing a hall or 
assembly room shall conform to all the aforesaid requirements as to 
exits, stairways, exit lights, aisles, and seats which apply to theatres, 
subject to such exceptions as the board of appeal shall approve. 

Roof Gardens. 

Sect. 108. Nothing herein contained shall prevent the placing 
of a roof garden, art gallery, or rooms for similar purposes above a 
theatre, provided the floor of the same forming the roof over such 
theatre shall be constructed of fireproof materials, and shall have no 
covering boards or sleepers of wood. Every roof over such garden 
or other rooms shall have all supports and rafters of steel, and, if 
covered, shall be covered with glass or fireproof material, or both. 

Exits from Roof Gardens. 

Sect. 109. Exits from roof gardens may communicate with stairs 
leading from the auditorium of the theatre, but they shall be at 
least four in number, not less than four feet six inches wide, and dis- 
tinct and separate from each other from roof to street. 

Summer Theatres. 

Sect. iio. Summer theatres, if built without the building limits, 
and located thirty feet distant from any other building or structure 
or adjoining lot lines, and of no greater seating capacity than seven 
hundred and fifty persons, and not more than one story high, without 
balconies, or galleries, may be constructed as follows: — 

The auditorium, without a cellar or basement, with open sides of 
double the number of exits as hereinbefore provided, opening di- 
rectly into the surrounding courts or gardens at the grade level, and 
the adjoining dressing-rooms, may be of wooden construction, but 
the stage shall be enclosed in brick walls not less than twelve inches 
thick, or shall be plastered on metal lathing throughout: provided, 
that the openings leading to the dressing-rooms shall be provided 
with fire-doors. 

Otherwise, all protective features and arrangements shall comply 
with all previous sections of this title. 

Existing Theatres.* 

Sect, iii.f All stairs of theatres shall have throughout proper 
hand-rails on both sides firmly secured to walls or to strong posts and 

* Compare with "Theatres," page 45. 

t As amended by Acts of 1908, Chapter 336, and Acts of 1909, Chapter 3i3- 



53 

balusters. Stairways twelve feet or more wide shall have one or 
more intermediate rails not more than eight feet apart and properly- 
supported. 

No boiler, furnace, engine or heating apparatus, except steam, hot 
water or hot air pipes or radiators, shall be located under the audi- 
torium nor under any passage or stairway or exit of any theatre. 

In every theatre there shall be over every exit, on the inside, and 
over every opening to a fire-escape, on the inside, an illuminated 
sign, bearing the word " exit " or " fire-escape," respectively, in 
letters not less than four inches high. An emergency arc light or 
its equivalent shall be installed in the auditorium, which light or 
lights, exit lights, and all lights in halls, corridors, or any other part 
of the building used by the audience except the general auditorium 
lighting, shall be fed independently of the stage lighting and shall be 
controlled only from the lobby or other convenient place in the front 
of the house. Every exit sign shall be kept illuminated and every 
outside balcony and fire-escape shall be kept well lighted during the 
performance, except outside exits during a performance in the day- 
time and before sunset. 

The exits and openings to fire-escapes of all theatres shall open 
outward and have fastenings on the inside only. They shall be 
unfastened during every performance and shall be so arranged that 
they can easily be opened from within. Plans showing the exits and 
stairways shall be legibly printed so as to occupy a full page of every 
programme or playbill. 

No temporary seats or other obstructions shall be allowed in any 
aisle or stairway of a theatre, and no person shall remain in any aisle 
or stairway of any such building during any performance. 

The proscenium or curtain opening of every theatre shall have a 
fire-resisting curtain of incombustible material, reinforced by wire 
netting, or otherwise strengthened. If of iron, or similar heavy 
material, and made to lower from the top, it shall be so arranged as 
to be stopped securely at a height of seven feet above the stage floor, 
the remaining opening being closed by a curtain or valance of fire- 
resisting fabric. The curtain shall be raised at the beginning and 
lowered at the end of every performance, and shall be of proper 
material, construction and mechanism. 

There shall be one or more ventilators near the centre, and above 
the highest part of the stage of every theatre, of a combined area of 
opening satisfactory to the building commissioner, and not less than 
one tenth of the area of the proscenium opening. Every such ventila- 
tor shall have a valve or louvre so counterbalanced as to open auto- 
matically, and shall be kept closed, when not in use, by a fusible 
link and cord reaching to the prompter's desk or any other place 
easily reached from the stage level and readily operated, therefrom. 
Such cord shall be of combustible material, and so arranged that if it 
is severed the ventilator will open automatically. 

There shall be at least two two-inch high-service standpipes on 
the stage of every theatre, with ample provision of hose nozzles 
at each level of the stage on each side, and the water shall be kept 
turned on during the occupation of the building by an audience. 
The said pipes shall in no case be sealed and shall have a gate and 



54 

check valve and shall have a test valve placed between the gate 
valve and check valve. The proscenium opening of every theatre 
shall be provided with a two and one half inch perforated iron pipe 
or equivalent equipment of automatic or open sprinklers, as the com- 
missioner may direct, so constructed as to form when in operation a 
complete water curtain for the whole proscenium opening, and there 
shall be for the rest of the stage a complete system of fire apparatus 
and perforated iron pipes, automatic or open sprinklers. Such 
pipes or sprinklers shall be supplied with water by high pressure 
service, and shall be ready for use at all times. 



PLUMBING. 
Definition of Terms. 

Sect. 112. The following terms shall have the meanings respec- 
tively assigned to them : — 

" Repair of leaks " shall mean such repairs as are necessary to 
protect property but do not involve any extensive change in con- 
struction. 

" Y-branches " shall mean a branch at sufficient angle to direct 
the flow and prevent backing up. 

" Air pipes " or " back air pipes " shall mean air pipes from traps 
that extend toward the main soil pipe or the outer air and connect 
with not more than three traps. 

" Vent pipes " shall mean general lines of back air pipes connecting 
with more than three fixtures. 

" Drain" shall mean that part of the drainage system of a build- 
ing extending through basement or cellar to sewer. 

" Soil pipe " shall rnean that part of the drainage system of a 
building, of four inches or more internal diameter, between basement 
or cellar and the highest fixture in the building. 

" Ventilation pipe " shall mean the extension of the soil pipe from 
the highest fixture to and through the roof. 

" Surface drain "shall mean a connection with drain in the base- 
ment to allow egress of surface water or overflow. 

" Fixture " shall mean any receptacle or outlet placed for the pur- 
pose of disposing of waste water or other matter, and connecting 
with the waste, soil or drain pipe of a building. 

Registration. 

Sect. 113. No plumber shall engage in or work at the business of 
plumbing unless he shall first have registered his name and place of 
business in the office of the commissioner, and no person shall by 
display of sign or plumbing material, or otherwise, advertise as a 
plumber unless he shall have been registered or licensed as such. 
Every master plumber shall conspicuously display his certificate 
or license within his place of business. Notice of any change in the 
place of business of a registered or licensed master plumber shall 
immediately be given by him to the commissioner. 



Notices. 

Sect. 114. Every plumber, before doing any work in a building, 
shall, except in the case of repair of leaks, file in the office of the 
commissioner, upon blanks for that purpose, an application for a 
permit, and if required by the commissioner a plan or sketch of the 
work to be performed; and no such work shall be done in any build- 
ing without a written permit from the commissioner. 

Connection with Sewer or Drain. 

Sect. 115. The plumbing of every building shall be separately 
and independently connected outside the building with the public 
sewer, if such sewer is provided, or with a proper and sufficient 
private drain or sewer laid outside of the building, and if a sewer is 
not accessible, with a proper cesspool. Several buildings may have 
a common sewer connection if such connection is approved by the 
commissioner and the superintendent of sewers. 

Inspection and Tests. 

Sect. 116. Pipes or other fixtures shall not be covered or concealed 
from view until approved by the commissioner, who shall examine 
or test the same within two working days after notice that they 
are ready for inspection. Plumbing shall not be used unless, when 
roughed in, the wastes, vents and back air pipes and traps are first 
tested by water or sufficient air pressure in the presence of an inspec- 
tor, when such testing is practicable. 

Soil and Waste Pipes and Traps. 

Sect. 117. The waste pipe of every independent sink, basin, 
bath-tub, water-closet, slop-hopper, urinal or other fixture shall 
be furnished with a separate trap, which shall be placed as near 
as practicable to the fixture which it serves. A sink and set 
of three wash-trays may be connected to the house drain through 
one five inch round trap, when the outlet of the sink is not over three 
feet six inches from the nearest outlet from the wash-trays; and in 
such case the trap shall be above the , floor. The outlet from each 
fixture shall enter the trap separately. Not more than four wash- 
bowls or sinks in a continuous line may be connected to the house 
drain through one five inch round trap. Two or more fixtures on 
the same level with not more than two feet of waste pipe and con- 
necting into the soil or waste pipe not more than eighteen inches below 
the top water line of the trap, shall not require other vent than the 
continuation of the soil or waste pipe full size for its whole length. 
Lateral branches of soil or waste pipe, if more than twenty feet in 
length, shall be extended through the roof undiminished in size. 
All connections on lead waste and back air pipes and of lead pipes 
to brass ferrules and soldering nipples shall be full size wiped soldered 
branch, round or flange joints. Soil and waste pipes shall have 
proper T-Y or Y branches for all fixture connections. No con- 
nection to lead bends for water-closets or slop sinks shall be per- 
mitted, except the required back air pipe where a continuous vent is 
not practicable. 



58 

Earthenware traps shall have heavy brass floor plates soldered to 
the lead bends and bolted to the trap flange, and the joint made gas 
tight with red or white lead. Rubber washers for floor connections 
shall not be used. 

Back Air Pipes, Vents, Etc. 

Traps shall be protected from siphonage or air pressure by special 
iron or brass air pipes of a size not less than the waste pipes they 
serve; back air pipes shall not be connected to the trap or branched 
into the waste pipe, except where a continuous vent is not practi- 
cable, but a suitable non-siphon trap may be used without a back air 
pipe upon the approval of the commissioner. Back air pipes shall 
enter the waste pipe within eighteen inches from the trap and shall 
be a continuation of the waste pipe. Lead air pipes may be used only 
for short connections where they are exposed to view. Air pipes 
for water-closet traps shall be connected to the highest point of 
bend or trap, and may be of two inch bore if for not more than three 
fixtures and less than thirty feet in length; if for more than three 
fixtures or more than thirty feet in length they shall be of three inch 
bore. Air pipes shall be run as direct as practicable, and if one and 
one half inches or less in diameter shall not exceed thirty feet in 
length. Two or more air pipes may be connected together or with 
a vent pipe ; but in every such case the connection shall be above the 
top of the fixture. The trap for the upper fixture on a line of soil 
or waste pipe, if within five feet of the stack in a horizontal line, shall 
not require a special air pipe, unless the outlet is branched into a 
stack more than eighteen inches below the top water line of the trap. 
Diameters of vent pipes shall be not less than two inches for main 
vents through less than seven stories; three inches for water-closets 
on more than three floors, and for other fixtures in more than seven 
stories. All vent pipes shall be increased one inch in diameter before 
passing through the roof. Vent lines shall be connected at the bottom 
with a soil or waste pipe or with the drain, in such a manner as to 
prevent accumulation of rust scale and properly to drip the water of 
condensation. Offsets shall be made at an angle of not less than 
forty-five degrees. Soil pipes or iron waste pipes, vents and back 
air pipes, shall be supported by clamps to the woodwork, iron drive 
hooks to brick walls, or bolted clamps to iron girders. 

All traps, except for water-closets, not provided with special air 
pipes shall be suitable non-siphon traps and shall have at least a 
four Inch water seal. Round traps shall be not less than four inches 
in diameter and eight inches long, and made of eight-pound lead. 
All trap screws shall be water sealed. 

Chemical Laboratories. 

Fixtures and waste pipes in chemical laboratories shall be installed 
in accordance with plans approved by the commissioner. 

Stables. 

The drainage of stable fixtures shall be constructed according to 
plans approved by the commissioner. 



57 

Sect, i i8. In buildings where a series of bathrooms or kitchens are 
located directly over each other and have a common soil or waste 
pipe, the back air pipe required shall be a vent line connecting with 
each outlet branch close to the water-closet connection or outlet 
from the sink trap, each branch vent to connect to vent line above the 
top of the highest fixture on each floor, the vent line to connect to 
main vent line above the top of the highest fixture in the building. 

In the case of batteries of water-closets or other fixtures the special 
air pipe from each trap may be omitted, provided that the soil or 
waste pipe, undiminished in size, is continued to a point above the 
roof or revented into the main soil pipe system above the top of the 
uppermost fixture. 

The commissioner shall prepare explanatory sketches showing the 
method of construction described in this section. 



Refrigerator Wastes and Drip Pipes. 

Sect. 119. All drip or overflow pipes shall be extended to some 
place in open sight, and in no case shall any such pipe be connected 
directly with the drain pipe. No waste pipe from a refrigerator or 
other receptacle in which provisions are stored shall be connected 
directly with a drain or other waste pipe. The waste pipes from all 
other fixtures shall be connected directly with a drain pipe. Re- 
frigerator wastes connecting with two or more stories shall be sup- 
plied with a trap on the branch for each floor and extended through 
the roof. 

Water-Closets, Etc. 

Sect. 120. Every water-closet or line of water-closets shall be 
supplied with water from a tank or cistern, and shall have a flushing 
pipe of not less than one and one quarter inches in diameter. Privy 
vaults shall be of brick and cement of a capacity of not less than 
fifty cubic feet, of easy access, convenient to open, and clean, and 
water tight. The inside shall be not less than two feet from the next 
lot and from any public or private way. 

Sect. 121. The diameters of soil and waste pipes shall be not less 
than those given in the following table: — 

Inches. 

Soil pipes 4 

Main waste pipes 2 

Main waste pipes for kitchen sinks on five or more 

floors 3 

Branch waste pipes for laundry tubs i| 

Branch waste for kitchen sinks 1 5 

Branch waste for urinals i| 

No branch waste for other fixtures shall be less than . i J 

Except that, with the approval of the commissioner, a three-inch 
soil pipe may be used for one water-closet where it is not practicable 
to use a four-inch pipe. 



58 



Ferrules, Clean-outs, Etc. 

Brass ferrules shall be of the best quality, bell-shaped, extra heavy 
cast brass, not less than four inches long and two and one quarter 
inches, three and one half inches, and four and one half inches in 
diameter, and of not less than the following weights: — 

Diameters. Weights. 

2^ inches i pound o ounces. 

3h „ I „ 12 „ 

4l „ 2 „ 8 „ 

One and one half inch ferrules shall not be used. 

Soldering nipples shall be of heavy cast brass or of brass pipe, iron 
pipe size. If cast, they shall be of not less than the following 
weights : — 

1 1 inches o pounds Bounces. 

2 ,, o ,, 14 ,, 

2i „ I „ 6 „ 

3 .. 2 „ o „ 

4 ,. • • ■ 3 ., 8 „ 

Where clean-outs are used, the screw cap shall be of brass, extra 
heavy, and not less than one eighth of an inch thick. The engaging 
parts shall have not less than six threads of iron pipe size, and shall 
be tapered. Clean-outs shall be full size of trap up to four inches 
in diameter, and not less than four inches for larger traps. 

The screw cap shall have a solid square or hexagonal nut, not less 
than one half inch high, with a least diameter of one and one half 
inches. The bodies of brass clean-out ferrules shall be at least equal 
in weight and thickness to the calking ferrule for the same size of pipe. 

The use of lead pipes is restricted to short branches of the soil and 
waste pipes, bends and traps, and roof connections of inside leaders. 
" Short branches " of lead pipe shall mean not more than: — 

5 feet of 1 5 inch pipe. 

5 ,> „ I| n .. 

4 „ „ 2 „ „ 
2 „ „ 3 .- .. 
2 „ „ 4 .. '< 

The pipe shall be not less than the following average thickness 
and weight per linear foot : — 









Weights per 


Diameters. 


Thicknesses. 


Linear Foot. 


l| inches, 


- 





2.50 pounds. 


i^ „ 


.14 


inches. 


2.68 


2 ,, 


•15 




3.61 „ 


2| „ 


.20 




5.74 


3 .. 


.21 




7-54 


3l ., 


.22 




9.00 „ 


4 » 


•23 




10.66 „ 


4l M 


.24 




12.34 



59 



Diameters. 


Thicknesses. 


Weights per 
Linear Foot. 


5 inches, 

6 „ 

7 ,. 

8 „ 


.25 inches, 
.28 „ 
.30 „ 
.32 „ 


14.50 pounds 
18.76 

23-27 
28.18 


9 - 

10 ,, 

12 ,, 


-34 » 
■36 .„ 

•37 n 

■37 ,. 


33-70 

40.06 ,, 
45-02 
48.98 



Brass pipe for soil, waste, vent and back air pipes shall be thor- 
oughly annealed, seamless, drawn brass tubing, of not less than 
number thirteen Stubbs gauge. 

No slip joints or unions shall be used on traps, waste, vents or back 
air pipes. Threaded connections on brass traps shall be of the same 
size as pipe threads for the same size of pipe, and shall be tapered, 
•bnnections between lead and iron shall be made by brass sleeves 
or screw nipples wiped to the lead and calked or screwed into the 
iron. 

The following average thicknesses and weights per linear foot shall 
be used: — 







Weights per 


Diameters. 


Thicknesses. 


Linear Foot. 


1 5 inches. 


.14 inches, 


2.84 pounds 


2 ,, 


.15 M 


3-82 


2i „ 


•20 


6.08 




3 .. 


.21 „ 


7.92 




3§ ., 


.22 „ 


9-54 




4 n 


■23 „ 


11.29 




\\ „ 


.24 „ 


13-08 




5 n 


.25 „ 


15-37 




6 „ 


.28 „ 


19.88 





Cast Iron Pipes, Etc. 

Cast iron pipes shall "be uncoated, sound, cylindrical and smooth, 
free from cracks and other defects, of uniform thickness and of the 
grade known to commerce as " extra heavy." If buried under 
ground they shall be coated with asphaltum or red lead. 

Pipe, including the hub, shall weigh not less than the following 
average weights per linear foot : — 

Weights per 
Diameters. Linear Foot. 

2 inches 5I pounds. 



3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

10 
12 



9i 

13 

17 

20 

(not stock size) 27 

33^ 

45 

54 



60 

All joints shall be made with picked oakum and molten lead run 
full, and be made gas tight. No cement joints nor connections 
between iron and cement or tile pipe or brick drains shall be made 
within any building. 

Wrought Iron Pipe. 

Galvanized wrought iron pipe shall be of not less than the follow* 
ing thickness and weight per linear foot: — 











Weights per 


Diameters. 


Thicknesses. 


Linear Foot. 


I* 


inches, 


.14 


inches, 


2.68 


pounds 


2 




•15 




3-61 




2i 




.20 




5^74 




3^ 




.21 




7^54 




3l 




.22 




9.00 




4 




•23 




10.66 




4l 




•24 




12.34 




5 




•25 




14-50 




6 




.28 




18.76 




7 




•30 




23^27 




8 




•32 




28.18 




9 




•34 




33-70 




ID 




.36 




40.06 




II 




•37 




45.02 




12 




•37 




48.98 





The threaded part of the pipe if less than one and one half inches 
long, shall be of the thickness and weight known as " extra heavy " 
or "extra strong." 

Fittings on wrought iron vent or back air pipes shall be galvanized , 
recessed, cast iron threaded fittings. Fittings for " Plumber's 
tubing " shall be heavy weight, with sharp threads. 

Fittings for waste or soil or refrigerator waste pipes of wrought 
iron or brass pipe shall be galvanized, cast iron, or brass, recessed 
and threaded drainage fittings, with smooth interior waterway 
and threads tapped, so as to give a uniform grade to branches of not 
less than one quarter of an inch per foot. 

All joints on wrought iron or brass pipe shall be screwed joints 
made up with red lead, and any burr formed in cutting shall carefully 
be reamed out. 

Drain Pipes, Etc. 

Sect. 122. Drain and connecting ventilation pipes, vents and back 
air pipes shall be of sufficient size, and made of extra heavy cast iron 
pipe if under ground, and if above ground shall be made of extra 
heavy cast iron, galvanized wrought iron of standard weight, or of 
not less than number thirteen Stubbs gauge brass pipe within the 
building, except that lead pipes may be used for short connections 
exposed to view. Cast iron drains shall extend not less than ten feet 
from the inside face of the wall, beyond and away from the building. 

Drain pipes above ground shall be secured by irons to walls, sus- 
pended from floor timbers by strong iron hangers, or supported on 



61 

brick piers. Proper man-holes shall be supplied to reach clean-outs 
and traps. Ever>- drain pipe shall have a fall of not less than one 
quarter inch per foot, and shall be extended from a point ten feet 
outside the inside face of the wall, unobstructed, to and through the 
roof, undiminished in size, and to a height not less than two feet above 
the roof, and not less than one foot above the top of any window 
within fifteen feet, and not less than eight feet above the roof if the 
roof is used for drying clothes or as a roof garden. The drain pipe 
shall be supplied with a Y branch fitted with a brass clean-out 
or with an iron stopper, if required, on the direct run, at or near the 
point where the drain leaves the building. Changes in direction shall 
be made with curved pipes, and all connections with horizontal or 
vertical pipes shall be made with Y branches. Saddle hubs shall not 
be used. All drain pipes shall be exposed to sight within the build- 
ing, if such exposure is practicable, and shall not be exposed to pres- 
sure where they pass through the wall. 

Steam Exhausts, Etc. 

No steam, or vapor, or water of a temperature over one hundred 
and thirty degrees Fahrenheit shall be discharged from any premises 
into any sewer, drain or catch-basin, nor shall any matter or thing 
be discharged into any sewer which may tend to cause an obstruction 
of the public sewer or a nuisance or a deposit therein or any injury 
thereto. 

All high pressure steam boilers shall be connected with a blow-oflf 
tank of a capacity not less than thirty per cent of the largest boiler 
connected with such tank. The location of and the connections to 
said blow-off tank shall be subject to the approval of the superin- 
tendent of sewers. 

No steam exhaust or steam drip, unless it be provided with a cool- 
ing tank of a capacity approved by the superintendent of sewers, 
or unless it be connected with the blow-off tank, shall connect with 
any drain leading to the sewer. Ever}' blow-off tank shall be sup- 
plied with a vapor pipe not less than two inches in diameter, which 
shall be carried above the roof and above the highest windows of the 
building. 

The superintendent of sewers may require such additional means 
for cooling the blow-oft tanks by the injection of cold water or other- 
wise as may be necessary- to reduce the temperature of the water 
passing from the blow-off tank so that it shall not exceed one hundred 
and thirty degrees Fahrenheit. 

Special Traps, Etc. 

Sect. 123. Every building from which, in the opinion of the super- 
intendent of sewers, grease may be discharged in such quantity as to 
clog or injure the sewer, shall have a special grease trap satisfactory 
to the superintendent of sewers. Ever}' building in which gasoline, 
naphtha or other inflammable compounds are used for business pur- 
poses shall be provided with a special trap, satisfactory to the superin- 
tendent of sewers, so designed as to prevent the passage of such 



62 

material into the sewer, and ventilated with a separate pipe rising to 
a point four feet above the roof. All non-siphon traps shall be of a 
type approved by the commissioner. The waste pipe of every wash 
stand for vehicles shall be provided with a sand box of sufficient 
capacity. 

The waste pipe from the sink of every hotel, eating house, restau- 
rant or other public cooking establishment, shall be connected to a 
grease trap of sufficient size, easily accessible to open and clean, 
placed as near as practicable to the fixture that it serves. 

Roof Leaders and Surface Drains. 

Sect. 124. Rain water leaders when connected with house drains 
shall be suitably trapped and, within the proposed surface drainage 
area, shall not be connected at the top of the stack, nor extended 
down through the interior of the building, except by special permit 
from the commissioner. Wherever a surface drain is installed in a 
cellar or basement, it shall be provided with a deep seal trap and back 
water valve. Drain pipes from fixtures in cellars and basements 
liable to back flow from a sewer shall be supplied with back water 
valves. 

HAZARDOUS BUILDINGS AND APPLIA.NCES FOR POWER 
AND HEAT. 

Sect. 125. No building shall be used for a grain elevator, or for 
the storage or manufacture of high combustibles or explosives, or 
for chemical or rendering works, without a permit from the com- 
missioner, and no engine, dynamo, boiler or furnace shall be placed 
in any building without a permit from the commissioner. Every 
application for such permit shall be in writing, shall be filed with the 
commissioner, and shall set forth the character of the building, the 
size, power and purposes of the apparatus, and such other informa- 
tion as the commissioner may require. The commissioner may, 
after an examination of the premises described in the application, 
and after hearing the applicant and any objectors, issue a permit for 
placing a boiler or furnace on such premises, upon such conditions 
as he shall prescribe, or he may refuse such permit. If the applica- 
tion is for anything other than a boiler or furnace the applicant shall 
publish in at least two daily newspapers published in the city of 
Boston, and on at least three days in each, and, if so directed by the 
commissioner, shall also post conspicuously on the premises, a copy 
of the application, and shall deliver copies thereof to such persons 
as the commissioner may designate. 

If no objection is filed with the commissioner before the expiration 
of ten days after the time of the first publication of notice, or within 
ten days of the delivery and first posting of the notice, if such de- 
livery or posting is required, the commissioner shall, if the_ arrange- 
ment, location, and construction of the proposed apparatus is proper, 
and in accordance with the provisions of this act, issue a permit for 
the same. If objection is filed, the application shall be referred 
to the board of appeal, which may, in its discretion, require the de- 



63 

posit by the objector of a reasonable sum as security for the payment 
of the costs. 

After such notice as the board shall order it shall hear the same, and 
shall direct the commissioner to issue a permit, under such conditions 
as it may prescribe, or to withhold the same. If the permit is re- 
fused, the applicant, and if it is granted, the objectors shall pay such 
costs as the board may order. 

The commissioner may, from time to time, after public notice 
and hearing, prescribe conditions on which any or all boilers or 
furnaces may be maintained in buildings, and, if any person interested 
objects to such conditions and appeals from his decision establishing 
the same, the appeal shall be referred to the board of appeal, and 
thereupon said board shall prescribe the conditions. 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS. 

Sect. 126. No building adapted for habitation, nor any part 
thereof, nor the lot upon which it is located, shall be used as a place 
for the storage, keeping or handling of any combustible article, 
except under such conditions as may be prescribed by the fire com- 
missioner. No such building nor any part thereof, nor of the lot 
upon which it is located, shall be used as a place for the storage, 
keeping or handling of any article dangerous or detrimental to life 
or health, nor for the storage, keeping or handling of feed, hay, straw, 
excelsior, cotton, paper stock, feathers or rags. 

ENFORCEMENT OF ACT. 

Sect. 127. Every structure and part thereof and appurtenant 
thereto shall be maintained in such repair as not to be dangerous. 
The owner shall be responsible for the maintenance of all buildings 
and structures. The lessee under a recorded lease shall be deemed 
the owner under the provisions of this act. 

POWERS OF THE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

Sect. 128. The board of health may by vote limit the number of 
occupants who shall be permitted to dwell in any building or in any 
part or parts thereof. They shall cause a copy of any such vote to 
be served upon the owner of the building, his agent or other persons 
having the charge thereof. If the owner, agent, or other persons 
having charge of said building allow or permit more people than are 
permitted by said vote to occupy the building or any part or parts 
thereof, said board may order the premises to be vacated, and they 
shall not again be occupied without the permission of the board. The 
board may make such further regulations as to overcrowding, ventila- 
tion, the construction of water-closets, the lighting of hallways, and 
the occupation of buildings or parts thereof, not inconsistent with 
other laws, as they may deem proper. Said board may permit rooms 
in private stables to be occupied for sleeping purposes by grooms 
and coachmen. 



64 

ENFORCEMENT — JURISDICTION IN EQUITY. 

Sect. 129. Any court having jurisdiction in equity or any justice 
thereof shall, upon the application of the city by its attorney, 
have jurisdiction in equity: — 

To restrain the construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, use 
or occupation of a building, structure or other thing constructed or 
used in violation of the provisions of this act, and to order its removal 
or abatement as a nuisance ; 

To restrain the further construction, alteration, repair, main- 
tenance, use or occupation of a building, structure or other thing, 
which is unsafe or dangerous; 

To restrain the unlawful construction, alteration, repair, main- 
tenance, use or occupation of any building, structure or other thing; 

To compel compliance with the provisions of this act ; 

To order the removal by the owner of a building, structure or other 
thing unlawfully existing, and to authorize the commissioner, with 
the written approval of the mayor, in default of such removal by the 
owner, to remove it at the owner's expense. 

Any person, the value of whose property may be affected by any 
decision of the board of appeal, may have the action of said board 
reviewed by the court by any appropriate process, provided that 
proceedings are instituted within thirty days after the date of such 
decision. 

The person applying for the review shall file a bond with sufficient 
surety, to be approved by the court, for such sum as shall be fixed 
by the court, to indemnify and save harmless the person or persons 
in whose favor the decision was rendered from all damages and costs 
which they may sustain in case the decision of said board is af- 
firmed. 

In case the decision of the board is affirmed the court, on motion, 
shall assess damages, and execution shall issue therefor. 

Any person having any duty to perform under the provisions of 
this act may, so far as may be necessary for the performance of his 
duties, enter any building or premises in the city of Boston, 

JURISDICTION AT LAW. 

Sect. 130. The municipal court of the city of Boston, concurrently 
with the superior court, shall have jurisdiction throughout the city 
of prosecutions and proceedings at law under the provisions of this 
act, and also of all provisions of law relative to plumbing and gas- 
fitting. 

PROCEDURE. 

Sect. 131. Upon the entry of any case brought under the provi- 
sions of this act the court shall, at the request of eitherparty, ad- 
vance the case, so that it may be heard and determined with as little 
delay as possible. 

NUISANCE. 

Sect. 132. A buildmg or structure which is erected or maintained 
in violation of the provisions of this act shall be deemed a common 



65 

nuisance without other proof thereof than proof of its unlawful con- 
struction, and the commissioner may abate and remove it in the same 
manner in which boards of health may remove nuisances under the 
provisions of sections sixty-seven, sixty-eight and sixty-nine of 
chapter seventy- five of the Revised Laws. 

Whoever violates any provision of this act, or whoever builds, 
alters, or maintains any structure or any part thereof in violation of 
any provision of this act, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding 
five hundred dollars. 

REPEALS. 

Sect. 133. So much of chapter four hundred and nineteen of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-two and of all acts in 
amendment thereof as is unrepealed is hereby repealed. So much of 
any other act as is inconsistent herewith is hereby repealed. 

Sect. 134. This act shall take effect upon the first daj' of August 
in the year nineteen hundred and seven. [Approved June 22, igoy.] 



66 



BUILDING LIMITS OF CITY OF 
BOSTON. 



" The building limits. . . are established as follows: All that por- 
tion of the city which is included within a line beginning at the 
intersection of the centre lines of Dover and Albany Sts., and thence 
running east through the centre of said Dover St. to the harbor com- 
missioners' line; thence by the said harbor commissioners' line 
around the northerly portion of the city to a point on Charles River 
at the intersection of said line with the easterly line of St. Mary's 
St. extended; thence along said easterly line of St. Mary's St. and 
the boundary line between Brookline and Boston to the centre of 
Longwood Ave.; thence through the centre of said avenue to the 
centre of St. Alphonsus St. ; thence through the centre of said street to 
the centre of Ward St. ; thence through the centre of said Ward St. 
to the centre of Parker St. ; thence through the centre of said Parker 
St. to the centre of Ruggles St. ; thence through the centre of said 
Ruggles St. to the centre of Washington St.; thence through the 
centre of said Washington St. to a point opposite the centre of 
Palmer St. ; thence through the centre of said Palmer St. and through 
the centre of Eustis St. to the centre of Hampden St.; and thence 
through the centre of said Hampden St. and the centre of Albany 
St. to the point of beginning; the said district being shown on a plan 
made by the city surveyor, dated June 28, 1881, and deposited in 
the office of the city engineer." — Chapter 45, Section 27, Revised 
Ordinances of 1898 of the City of Boston. 1908. Twelfth Revision. 
Sixth Edition. 



67 



SOME FURTHER ACTS, ORDI- 
NANCES, ETC., IN RELATION 
TO BUILDING. 



Note. — Many Acts of the Legislature and many Ordinances of 
the City have from time to time been passed which have more or less 
relation to building work, but no attempt is made in this publication 
to analyze or set them forth, or to give anything more than the 
Act passed by the Massachusetts Legislature in the year 1907, 
entitled, " An Act Relative to the Construction, Alteration, and 
Maintenance of Buildings in the City of Boston," as specifically 
amended by subsequent Acts to date. 

Reference by title is, however, made in the following partial list 
of laws and ordinances to assist those who may desire information, 
but it is quite possible that upon examination it may be found that 
some of these laws or ordinances have been superseded. We take 
no responsibility, therefore, for any incompleteness or inaccuracy 
in this list. 



REVISED LAWS AND ACTS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 



REVISED LAWS. 

Chapter 48, Sect. 103. Building line. 

Chapter 102, Sects. 69 and 71. Erection, etc., of stables in 
certain cities regulated. 

Chapter 28, Sect. 16. Building line on parkways. 

Chapter 33, Sect. 19. Fence a nuisance, when. 

Chapter 104, Sect. 27. Elevator cabs to have safety devices. 

Chapter 104, Sect. 29. Watchmen, lights, etc., in hotels, etc. 

Chapter 103. On the supervision of plumbing. 

Chapter ioi. Sects. 1-5. Burnt or dangerous buildings. 

ACTS. 
1873. 

Chapter 4. An Act to authorize the erection of wooden build- 
iags in the City of Boston for sanitary purposes. 

1888. 

Chapter 105. An Act providing for the registration and licensing 
of plumbers in the cities and towns of the Commonwealth. 



68 

1889. 

Chapter 129. An Act relating to buildings in the public parks 
of the City of Boston. 

1893. 

Chapter 477. An Act relative to the licensing of plumbers and 
the supervision of the business of plumbing. 

1894. 

Chapter 455. An Act relative to the licensing of plumbers and 
the supervision of the business of plumbing. 

1895. 

Chapter 352. An Act relative to advertising signs and struc- 
tures encroaching on public ways in the City of Boston. 
Chapter 453. An Act relative to plumbing. 

1897. 

Chapter 300, Sects, i, 3, and 4. An Act relative to the use 
of buildings for stables. 

Chapter 265. An Act relative to the licensing of gas fitters and 
to the supervision of the business of gas fitting in the City of Boston. 

1898. 

Chapter 452. An Act relative to the height of buildings on and 
near Copley Square in the City of Boston. 

Chapter 268. An Act to facilitate the inspection of wires in 
buildings in the City of Boston. 

1899. 

Chapter 161. An Act relative to the erection and alteration of 
buildings in the City of Boston. 

Chapter 457. An Act to limit the height of buildings in the 
vicinity of the State House. 

Chapter 222. An Act to provide for the further protection of 
the public health in the City of Boston. (Board of health may cause 
certain buildings to be vacated, etc. Certain buildings may be 
removed.) 

1901. 

Chapter 525. An Act relative to the improvement of the State 
House grounds. (Height of buildings referred to.) 

1902. 

Chapter 543. An Act relative to the improvement of the State 
House and to the height of buildings on Beacon Street and Bowdoin 
Street, in the City of Boston. 



69 

1904. 

Chapter 333. An Act relative to the height of buildings in the 
City of Boston. 

1905. 

Chapter 383. An Act relative to the height of buildings in the 
City of Boston. 

1907. 

Chapter 416. An Act relative to the height of buildings on 
Rutherford Avenue in the City of Boston, 

Chapter 463. An Act relative to the licensing of theatres and 
public halls in the City of Boston. 

1909. 

Chapter 536. An Act relative to the supervision of the business 
of plumbing. 

1910. 

Chapter 597. An Act relative to the supervision of the business 
of plumbing. 

Chapter 284. An Act relative to the construction, alteration, 
inspection, and maintenance of buildings in the City of Boston. 

1911. 

Chapter 342. An Act to regulate the construction of garages 
in the City of Boston. 

1912. 

Chapter 518. Relative to the registration of plumbers. 



ORDINANCES AND REGULATIONS OF THE CITY OF 
BOSTON. 

Revised Ordinances of 1898. 

Chapter 47, Sect. 51. Permanent excavations in streets. 

Sect. 52. Gratings in streets 

Sect. 53 (as amended by Ordinances 191 1, Chap. 8, Sect. i). 
Coal holes and openings in streets. 

Sect. 54. Descending entrances to be guarded. 

Sect. 55 (as amended by Ordinances 1911, Chap. 8, Sect. i). 
Erection of canopy, awnings, etc. 

Ordinances 1902. 

Chapter 3 (as amended by Ordinances 1911, Chap. 8, Sect. 8). 
Bay windows over streets; regulation; permits by building com- 
missioner. 



70 
Ordinances 1910. 

Chapter 9, Sect. 12. Construction of coal holes, vaults, coal 
slides, etc., under streets, etc. 

Sect. 13. Moving buildings through streets. Provisions, etc. 
Sect. 19. Guarding entrances, etc., on level or below street, etc. 

Revised Regulations 1898. 

Chapter 6, Sect. 27 (as amended by Ordinances 191 1, Chap. 8, 
Sect, 6). Moving of buildings through streets. 

Sect. 28 (as amended by Ordinances 191 1, Chap. 8, Sect. 7). 
Moving buildings, provisions as to shade trees and other obstacles. 

Sect. 32. Bay windows over streets. 

Sect. 33 (as amended by Ordinances 1911, Chap. 8, Sect. 6). 
Distance of projections over streets. 

Revised Regulations Pertaining to Gas Fitting and Gas-Fitting 
Materials. 

Adopted July 29, 1898, by the Board of Health and the Building 
Commissioner, to take effect October i, 1898. Amended August 16, 
1899, (Authorized by Acts of 1897, Chapter 265.) 



71 



FEES FOR PERMITS FOR BUILDING, 
OCCUPATION AND OPENING OF 
STREETS, MOVING OF BUILDINGS, 
ETC., IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. 



On and after November 4, 191 2, the present schedule of fees collected 
upon the issuance of permits will be abandoned and the following 
schedule will be established : 

1. For first-class buildings ^25.00 

2. For second-class buildings 20.00 

3. For third-class buildings. i5-oo 

4. For alterations 5.00 

5. For taking down buildings 5.00 

6. For boilers, engines, etc i.oo _ 

7. For new plumbing 5.00 

8. For alterations in plumbing i.oo 

9. For new gas-fitting 5.00 

10. For alterations in gas-fitting .25 

11. For the installation of elevators 5.00 

Fees for permits granted for sheds, automobile houses, and like 
small buildings, and for preliminary permits for driving piles and for 
concrete foundations will be determined in the discretion of the 
Commissioner, 

ARTHUR G. EVERETT, 

Building Comtnissioner. 



Permits for the following purposes are to be applied for at the 
mmit Ofifice of the Public Works Department, 28 Court Square, 
on blanks furnished by the department: 

Openings in streets or sidewalks, 50 cents each. (Limited to 100 
linear feet on one permit.) 



72 

Emergency permits (for foregoing purpose), 50 cents each. 

Erecting, altering, or repairing buildings (occupation of street or 
sidewalk), i cent per square foot per month up to 5,000 feet, and 
one-half cent per foot per month in excess of 5,000 feet ; the minimum 
charge to be at one month rate. 

Painting or minor repairs, 50 cents each. This applies to occupa- 
tions of not over one week. 

Moving buildings in streets, $5.00 per day; minimum charge, 
$10.00. 



}' 



^"""iWWI 





INDEX. 



SECTION PAGE 

A 

Access to Roofs, permanent means of, required 12 10 

Accidents, Elevator, to be reported to Building Com- 
missioner 38 31 

"Air Pipes" — Plumbing, definition of 112 54 

requirements of 117, 118 56 

Aisles, Public Building, must conform to require- 
ments for theatres 107 52 

no obstructions or temporary seats in 105 51 

persons not to remain in 105 51 

Aisles, Theatre, regulations for 88 47 

persons not to remain in 1 1 1 53 

Alterations, prohibitions relating to 13 11 

Alterations and Repairs, permits required for 13 11 

Alteration of Existing Buildings, general regula- 
tions for 35 27 

Anchors, provision for 24 23 

" Apartment," in tenement houses defined 42 33 

Appeal, Board of {see Board of Appeal), appoint- 
ment; terms; vacancies; qualifications; de- 
cisions; reports, etc 6, 7, 8 7, 8 

Appeals from Board of Appeals 129 64 

Appliances for Power and Heat, hazardous buildings, 

regulations for 125 62 

Arc Light, for emergency in existing theatres 1 1 1 53 

Areas, buildings, restriction of 17 20 

Art Galleries, may be placed above theatres 108 52 

Ashes and Garbage, tenement-house, receptacles for, 75 45 
Assembly, Places of Public, capacity; must be 

fireproof; general requirements 105 51 

Assembly-Rooms, capacity, dimensions, etc 105 51 

Assistants, Building Department, appointed by 

commissioner i 5 

Auditoriums, Theatre, heating apparatus under ... 104 50 

seating regulations for 87 47 

B 

Bakeries and Fat Boiling, prohibited in tenement 

houses; exceptions 53 36 

Balconies, tenement-house, requirements of 43 34 

" Basement," definition of 11 9 

73 



74 



SECTION PAGE 

Basements, tenement-house, requirements for 68 42 

Beams, proportions of, in general 14 16 

Beams and Girders, computations relating to ... . 16 12 

Board of Appeal, absence, to be filled 6 7 

appointed by mayor, on nominations 6 7 

appeals from to be heard in equity courts 129 64 

decisions of, to be in writing 6 7 

to specify variations allowed 6 7 

applicants to have copy of - 7 8 

summary of, in annual report 8 8 

hearings on appealed cases 7 7 

may allow equivalent methods, etc 8 8 

may vary provisions of this Act 7 7 

members of, how appointed 6 7 

terms of 6 7 

compensation of 6 7 

not to act when interested 6 7 

to be Boston men 6 7 

reports, annual, to mayor 8 8 

to contain summary of decisions 8 8 

to be printed separately 8 8 

vacancies in, how filled 6 7 

who may appeal to 7 7 

Board of Examiners of Gas Fitters, not affected 

by this Act 10 9 

Board of Health, may limit number of occupants 

in any building 128 63 

not affected by this Act 10 9 

powers of, defined 128 63 

Board of Park Commissioners, not affected by this 

Act 10 9 

Board of Street Commissioners, not affected by this 

Act 10 9 

Board, City, Certain, authority of, not curtailed 

by this Act 10 9 

Boilers and Furnaces, public hearings on 125 62 

not to be placed on wooden floors 13 11 

or under public ways (boilers) 13 12 

or under certain parts of theatres 104, 1 1 1 50, 53 

Bonding Brickwork, provision for 25 23 

Booths, Voting, not affected by this Act 10 8 

Brickwork, Bonding, provision for 25 23 

Brickwork in Compression, stresses of 14 15 

Bridges, Quays, Etc., not affected by this Act 10 8 

Building Commissioner, appointment of i 5 

authority and powers of 1 1 4> 5 5» 6. 7 

has power to reject materials 15 16 

may appoint deputy ; powers of i 5 

enforce requirements 12 10 

enter any building or premises 129 64 

require duplicate plans to be kept at building . . i 6 



75 



l8 



Biiilding Commissioner (continued) may require 

plans and specifications 

stop work for violation of permits 

order unsafe buildings vacated 

take measures for public safety 

not to dispense with tenement-house restrictions . 

quaKfications required of 

salary of, fixed by City Council 

term of office 

to approve plumbing of chemical laboratories .... 

elevators 

stable drainage 

enforce requirements for all buildings 

examine all buildings in course of construction, 
buildings dangerous, damaged or unsafe. . . 3 

keep records of violations 

have charge of building department 

post notice of unsafe elevators 

prescribe conditions for buildings outside limits, 

submit annual report to mayor 

Building Construction {see separate subjects), 

equivalents in methods of, may be allowed 

height, excavations, cellars, walls, etc., regulations 

for 

Building Department, commissioner to be in charge 

of 

commissioner, how appointed 

term of office 

qualifications required 

salary of, fixed by City Council 

may appoint inspectors, employees and as- 
sistants 

clerk to keep records open to public 

employees to retain positions until removal or dis- 
charge 

inspectors, qualifications required of 

officers, commissioner, salary, term, etc 

may enter buildings and premises 5, 129 

not to engage in other business 

furnish material 

be financially interested 

present to hold office until removed or dis- 
charged 

requirements and restrictions of 

records to be open to public inspection 

under charge of commissioner 

Building, Egress, satisfactory, before occupancy . . . 

Building Inspection, commissioner, or inspectors, to 

examine all buildings in course of construction. 

Building Law, 1907, approved June 22 

in effect, August i 



SECTION 


PAGE 


I 


6 


I 


6 


4 


6 


12 


ID 


76 


45 


I 


5 


I 


5 


I 


5 


117 


56 


3» 


30 


117 


56 


12 


10 


2 


6 


.4.5 


6,7 


2 


6 


I 


5 


38 


30 


17 


20 


I 


5 



12 



2 
134 
134 



21 
5 

5 
5 
5 
5 

5 
5 

5 
5 
5 
7.64 
5 
5 
5 

5 
5 

■5 
5 

ID 

6 
65 
65 



76 



Building Law, 1907 (continued), exceptions and 

exemptions from provisions of 

equity courts given power to enforce 

law courts given jurisdiction in law cases 

not to deprive certain city boards and officers of 

power 

officials may enter buildings and premises 

violators of, may be fined $500 

Building Limits, present to continue until changed . . 

city council may change, extend and define 

Building Materials (see separate subjects), com- 
bustible, not to be housed in habitable build- 
ings 

commissioner has power to reject 

method of computing strength of 

quality of mortar, cement and concrete 

strength of; tables of stresses , 

stresses, tables of 

Building, Occupation, not until means of egress are 

provided 

Building Permits {see, also, Permits), applications 

for 

how and by whom granted 

if terms of, are violated, commissioner may stop 

work 

must be on approved printed forms 

requirements for 

Building Prohibitions, list of general 

" Biiildmg, Story of," definition of 

Btiildings, classes of, defined 

height of, defined 

regulations for 

inspection during construction 

outside finish of 

prohibitions relating to alterations 

moving 

repairs 

requirements for all 

commissioner may enforce 

restriction of areas 

record of violations to be kept 

Buildings, Alterations of Existing, general regula- 
tions for 

Buildings, Classification of, first and second classes, 

regulations for constructing 

Buildings, Composite, definition of 

Buildings, Dangerous or Damaged, commissioner 

to examine and make record 

Buildings, Exposures, regulations for 

Buildings, Federal, not affected by this Act 

Buildings, First-Class, definition of 



SECTION 


PAGE 


ID 


8 


129 


64 


130 


64 


10 


9 


129 


64 


132 


65 


9 


8 


9 


8 


126 


63 


15 


16 


16 


18 


15 


15 


14 


12 


14 


12 


12 


10 




6 




6 




6 




6 




6 


13 


II 


II 


9 


II 


9 


II 


9 


18 


21 


2 


6 


12 


II 


13 


II 


13 


II 


13 


II 


12 


ID 


12 


10 


17 


20 


2 


6 


35 


27 


17 


19 


17 


19 


II 


9 


3-4 


6 


35 


28 


10 


8 


II 


9 



107 


52 


II 


9 


10 


8 


II 


9 


132 


64 


132 


65 


39 


31 


40 


32 


13 


II 


40 


32 


127 


63 


127 


63 



77 

SECTION PAGE 

Buildings, Hazardous {see Hazardous Buildings) . . 125 62 

must have permits 125 62 

hearings on 125 62 

Buildings, Occupants of, board of health may limit 

number of 128 63 

Buildings, Outside Limits, commissioner to pre- 
scribe conditions for 17 20 

Buildings, Public {see Public Buildings), must con- 
form to regulations for theatres 

Buildings, Second-Class, definition of 

Buildings, State, not affected by this Act 

Buildings, Third-Class, definition of 

Buildings Unlawfully Constructed, deemed nui- 
sances 

abatement and removal of 

Buildings, Wooden, general regulations for con- 
struction of 

height of 

not to be moved within building limits 

proximity to other buildings 

Buildings and Structures, owner responsible for 

maintenance of 

responsibility of lessees 

Bulklieads and Scuttles, tenement-house, require- 
ments for 44 34 

C 

Ceilings, Cellar, tenement-house, construction of . . . 

" Cellar," definition of •. 

Cellars, requirements for 

ceilings, tenement-house, construction of 

Cement, required qualifications for 

Chemical Laboratories, plumbing of, to be approved 

by commissioner 

Chimneys, floor timber, studding, etc., distance 

from 

. restrictions relating to 

thickness of walls 

Chimney Flues, height of 

lining required 

City Council, to fix salary of building commissioner. 
City Officers, Certain, authority of, not curtailed 

by this Act 

Classes of Buildings, definitions of 

Clean-Outs, Ferrules, Etc., required diameter and 

weight of 

Clerk, Bxxilding Department, duties of, defined 

Closets, under staircases, restrictions 

Columns, computations relating to 

cast-iron, restrictions 



49 


36 


II 


9 


22 


22 


49 


36 


15 


17 


117 


56 


13 


II 


13 


II 


12 


10 


12 


10 


12 


10 


I 


5 


10 


9 


II 


9 


121 


58 


I 


5 


13 


12 


16 


18 


14 


14 



78 

SECTION PAGE 

Combustible Materials, not to be housed in hab- 
itable buildings 126 63 

Commissioner, Building {see Building Commis- 
sioner), appointment, qualifications, term, sal- 
ary, etc I 5 

Commissioner, Fire, not affected by this Act 10 9 

Commissioner of Wires, not affected by this Act ... 10 9 

provisions of section 7 apply to 7 8 

Composite Buildings, definition of 11 9 

Computations, Building Materials, methods of 16 18 

Concrete, regulations for use of 14 15 

required qualifications of 15 1 7 

stresses of 14 15 

Concrete, Reinforced, required qualifications of . . . . 14, 15 16, 17 
Construction, Building (see separate subjects), 
height, excavation, cellars, walls, etc., regula- 
tions for 18 21 

first- and second-class buildings 17 19 

equivalents may be allowed by appeal board and 

commissioner 8 8 

Control, of exit, etc., lights in theatres 99, 1 1 1 49. 53 

of ventilators in theatre 86, 1 1 1 47, 53 

Corbels, Chimney, restrictions relating to 13 11 

" Comer Lot," definition of 42 33 

Correction, House of, not affected by this Act 10 8 

Cotton, Paper Stock, Etc., not to be housed in hab- 
itable buildings 126 63 

Court House, Suffolk County, not affected by this 

Act 10 8 

Court, Municipal, given jurisdiction in law proceed- 
ings 130 64 

Courts, Area, theatres must have open. . 79i 80 45, 46 

Courts, Equity, given jurisdiction to enforce pro- 
visions of this Act 129 64 

" Courts," Tenement-House, definition of 42 33 

general regulations for 57 39 

inner, provision for 59 39 

outer, provision for 5^ 39 

vent, regulations for 60 40 

Curtains, theatres nuist have fireproof 84, 1 1 1 46, 53 

Cutting for Piping, restrictions concerning 14 16 



D 

Damaged Buildings, commissioner to examine, and 

make record 3> 4 

Dangerous Buildings, commissioner to examine, 

and make record 3,4 

Decisions, Board of Appeal, applicants to have copy, 7 

specify variations, etc 7 



79 

SECTION PAGE 

Definitions, building law terms ii 9 

certain words relating to tenement-houses 42 32 

Deputy Biiilding Commissioner, appointment of . . . i 5 

powers of i 5 

Doors, stage, in theatres, provision for 91 48 

** Drain," plumbing, definition of 112 54 

Drains, Surface, must have seal trap and back- 
water valve 124 62 

Drainage of Courts and Yards, tenement-house, to 

satisfaction of board of health 74 45 

Drainage, Stable, commissioner to approve fixtures 

for 117 56 

Drainage Fittings, certain, must be galvanized, etc. . 121 60 



E 

Egress, means of, in case of fire 12 

means of, provided before occupation 12 

from tenement-houses, provision for 43 

stores and storage buildings 17 

Elevators, accidents to be reported 38 

inspectors may be appointed 38 

manufacturers required to test 38 

permits for, how obtained 38 

to be approved by commissioner 38 

unsafe, commissioner to post notice 38 

who may operate them 38 

Elevators and Hoists, general regulations for 38 

fireproof enclosures for 38 

exceptions 38 

Elevator Shafts, tenement-house, regulations for . . . 52 
Employees, Building Department, to be appointed 

by commissioner i 

to retain positions until removal or discharge .... I 

Enclosures, fireproof, for elevators and hoists .... 38 
Enforcement of Building Law, equity and law 

courts given jurisdiction 129, 130 

Engines, not to be placed under certain parts of 

theatres 104, 1 1 1 

Entrance Halls, tenement-house, construction of . . . 48 
Equity Coiurts, given jurisdiction under this Act .... 129 
Equivalents, in methods of construction and main- 
tenance, may be allowed 8 

Examiners oif Gas Fitters, not affected by this Act . . 10 

Excavations, general regulations for 19 

Excelsior, Cotton, Etc., not to be housed in hab- 
itable buildings 126 

Exemptions, from provisions of this Act 10 

Exhausts, Steam, regulations pertaining to 122 

Existing Theatres, general regulations for 1 1 1 

Exits, Etc., Lights, in theatres, control and supply of, 99, 1 1 1 



10 
10 

33 
20 

31 
31 
31 
31 
30 
30 
30,31 
29 
29 
29 
36 

5 

5 

38 

64 

50,53 
35 
64 



9 
21 

63 

8 
61 

52 
49-53 



80 

SECTION PAGE 

Exits, Public Buildings, must conform to regula- 
tions for theatres 107 52 

Exits, Roof Garden, requirements for 109 52 

Exits, Signs, in existing theatres lii 53 

Exits, Theatre, general regulations for 9i-99i m 48, 53 

Exposixres, required for buildings 35 28 

F 

Fat-Boiling, prohibited in tenement houses 53 36 

exceptions 53 37 

Feathers, Rags, Etc., not to be housed in habitable 

buildings 126 63 

Federal Buildings, not affected by this Act 10 8 

Feed, Hay, Straw, Etc., not to be housed in hab- 
itable buildings 126 63 

Ferrules, Clean-outs, Etc., required diameter and 

weight of 121 58 

Fire, means of egress in case of ....... 12 lo 

Fire-Escapes, interior and exterior in tenement 

houses 43 33 

stores and storage buildings 17 20 

in what they shall consist 17 20 

tenement-house, general regulations for 43 33 

exterior and interior 43 33 

theatres, outside, to be lighted 99. 1 1 1 49> 53 

Fire Commissioner, not affected by this Act 10 9 

Fire Protection, general requirements for 32 25 

Fireproofing, regulations for 32 25 

Fireproof Partitions, how to be constructed 33 27 

First-Class Buildings, definition of 11 9 

Fittings, Drainage, must be galvanized, etc 121 60 

" Fixture," plumbing, meaning of term 112 54 

Flooring during Construction, regulations for 41 32 

Floors, security of, required 12 11 

theatre, required levels of, and changes 82, 89 46, 47 

stage, requirements for 85 46 

Floors of Existing Buildings, commissioner to pre- 
scribe maximum loads for 36 29 

Floors, Loads, least capacity for. 36 28 

Floors,"Wooden, furnaces and boilers not to be placed 

on , 13 II 

Floor Timber, not to be within two inches of 

chimney 13 1 1 

Flues, Chimney, height of 12 10 

lining required for certain _. . 12 ID 

FlueSjVentilating, must be of incombustible material, 12 11 

" Foundation," definition of 11 9 

regulations for 21 22 

Foundations, First- and Second-Class Buildings, 

general regulations of 2i 22 



81 

SECTION PAGE 

Furnaces and Boilers, hazardous buildings, public 

hearings on 125 62 

not to be placed on wooden floors 13 1 1 

under certain parts of theatres 104, 1 11 50, 53 

Furring, not within one inch of chimney 13 11 

G 

Garbage and Ashes, tenement-house, receptacles for, 75 45 
Gardens, Roof (see Roof Gardens), above theatres, 

provisions for 108 52 

Gas Pipe Outlets, theatre, two required 99 49 

inspection of 99 49 

** Gas Fitting," definition of 11 lO 

municipal court given j urisdiction in law cases .. . 130 64 
Gas Fitters, Board of Examiners of, not affected by 

this Act 10 9 

Gates in Stage Standpipes, of theatres 104, 1 1 1 51 , 53 

Girders and Beams, computations relating to 16 18 

Granite, stresses of 14 15 

H 

Habitable Buildings, combustible materials not to 

be housed in 126 63 

" Hall, Public," tenement-house, defined 42 33 

requirements for 45 35 

" Hall, Stair," tenement-house, defined 42 33 

requirements for 45 35 

construction of 46 35 

Halls, Entrance, tenement-house, construction of. . . 48 35 

Halls, Public, capacity of 105 51 

general requirements for 105 51 

must be fireproof 105 51 

Handrails, theatre stairs, requirements for 102, iii 50, 52 

Hay, Straw, Etc., not to be housed in habitable build- 
ings 126 63 

Hazardous Buildings, and appliances for power and 

heat 125 62 

must have permits 125 62 

application, hearings, etc 125 62 

Headers, Wooden, requirements for 12 11 

Health, Board of, may limit number of occupants 

in any building 128 63 

not to be affected by this Act 10 9 

powers of, defined 128 63 

Hearings, Public, hazardous buildings and ap- 
pliances for power and heat 125 62 

Hearths and Piers, regulations for 30 25 

Heat and Power, appliances for 125 62 

Heating Apparatus, theatre, under auditoriums, etc., 

regulations for 104, ill 50, 53 



SECTION 


PAGE 


II 


9 


i8 


21 


38 


29 


38 


29 


38 


29 


10 


8 



2 


6 


116 


55 


I 


5 


I 


5 


129 


64 


38 


31 


61 


40 


14 


13,14 



82 



" Height of Buildings," definition of 

regulations for 

Hoists and Elevators, fireproof enclosures for 

exceptions 

general regulations for 

House of Correction, not affected by this Act 

Houses, Tenement {see Tenement Houses), ad- 
ditional requirements for 42 32 

I 

Inspection, Building, commissioner, or inspectors 

to examine all buildings being constructed 

Inspection, Plumbing, work must be approved 

Inspectors, Building, appointment by commissioner, 

qualifications required of 

may enter any building or premises 

Inspectors, Elevator, commissioner may appoint . . . 

Intakes, tenement-house, provision for 

Iron, Wrought and Cast, strength of 

J 

Jail, Suffolk County, not affected by this Act 10 8 

Jurisdiction, given courts of equity 129 64 

at law 130 64 

L 

Laboratories, Chemical, plumbing of, to be ap- 
proved by commissioner 117 56 

Landings, Stair, theatre, required dimensions of . . . . loi 50 

Laws, certain former Acts applicable 18 21 

Law Courts, given jurisdiction under this Act 130 64 

Leaders, Roof, projections of, etc 12 10 

requirements for 124 62 

" Leaks, Repair of," plumbing, definition of 112 54 

Lessees, when responsible for maintenance 127 63 

Lessee under Recorded Lease, deemed owner of 

building or structure 127 63 

Light, tenement-house, provision for 55 37 

Lights, Exit, public buildings must conform to 

theatre requirements 107 52 

Lights in Theatres, for exits, etc 99i 1 1 1 49. 53 

Lighting, Tenement-House, board of health may 

regulate 128 63 

Lighting, Theatre, independently fed or governed 

system in halls, etc 99, 1 1 1 49, 53 

Limestone, stresses of 14 ^5 

Lining, Chimney, when required 12 10 



83 

SECTION PAGE 

Loads, Floor, provision for, in constructing 36 28 

commissioner to prescribe maximum for existing 

buildings 36 29 

Lobbies, Theatre, requirements for 90 48 

M 

Maintenance of Buildings, owners and lessees, re- 
sponsibility of 127 63 

Maintenance, Methods of, equivalents may be 

allowed by appeal board and commissioner .... 8 8 

Marble, Building, stresses of 14 15 

Market Buildings, restrictions of section 9 not to 

apply to 9 8 

Masonry, Brick and Stone, not to rest on wood 13 11 

exceptions 13 1 1 

Materials, Building {see Building Materials), 

strength of 14 12 

stresses, tables of 14 12 

Materials, Combustible, not to be housed in hab- 
itable buildings 126 63 

Methods of Computation, strength of building ma- 
terials 16 18 

Methods of Maintenance and construction, equiva- 
lents may be allowed 8 8 

Mortars, required qualifications of 15 17 

stresses of 14 15 

Moving Buildings, prohibitions relating to 13 1 1 

wooden, within building limits prohibited 13 1 1 

Moving Picture Shows, subject to chapters 176 

and 437, Acts of 1905 106 52 

N 

Nipples, Soldering, required diameter and weight of, 121 58 
Nuisances, buildings unlawfully constructed de- 
clared to be 132 64 

abatement and removal of 132 65 

O 

Oak, White, strength of 14 12 

Observation Stands, commissioner must approve 

plans of 13 12 

Obstructions, in aisles, etc., of public buildings 105 51 

of theatres 1 1 1 53 

Occupants of Buildings, board of health may limit 

number of 128 63 

Occupation of buildings forbidden until egress pro- 
vided 12 10 



84 

SECTION PAGE 

OflScers, Building Department, may enter buildings 

and premises 129 64 

not to engage in other business i 5 

furnish materials i 5 

be financially interested I 5 

requirements and restrictions i 5 

to serve until removal or discharge i 5 

Officers, City, Certain, powers of, not curtailed 

by this Act 10 9 

Offices, Stores, Etc., in theatre buildings 81 46 

Opening Outward of doors, etc., in theatres 93, m 48, 53 

Overcrowding, Tenement Houses, board of health 

may regulate, to prevent 128 63 

Owners, responsible for maintenance of buildings 

and structures 127 63 

P 

Paper Stock, Cotton, Etc., not to be housed in 

habitable building 126 63 

Park Commissioners, may impose restrictions 18 21 

not affected by this Act 10 9 

Partitions, Tenement-House, construction of 50 36 

Partitions, Fireproof, how to be constructed 33 27 

" Party Walls," definition of 11 9 

above roof 28 24 

prohibition concerning 13 11 

Passageways, Public Assemblage, no temporary 

seats or obstructions in 105 51 

no persons during performance 105 51 

Passageways, Theatre, radiators, floor registers, 

etc., not to be placed in 104 50 

Permits, Building, applications for i 6 

requirements of I 6 

applicants may appeal to board of appeal 7 7 

action thereon 7 7 

building commissioner shall grant, for construc- 
tion I 6 

hazardous 125 62 

if terms are violated commissioner may stop work, i 6 

to be on approved printed forms I 6 

required for all buildings 12 10 

Permits, other than Building, required for altera- 
tions 12 10 

boilers, steam 1,125 6, 62 

elevators 38 30, 3^ 

explosives, chemicals, rendering, etc 125 62 

furnaces 1, 125 6, 62 

gas-fitting I 6 

plumbing 1,114 6,55 

commissioner to grant, on application I 6 



85 

SECTION PAGE 

Picture Shows, Moving, subject to chapters 176 

and 437, Acts of 1905 106 52 

Piers and Hearths, regulations for 30 25 

Piling, regulations for 20 21 

Pine, White and Yellow, strength of 14 12 

Pipes, Back Air, plumbing, requirements for 117 56 

Pipes, Brass, diameter, thickness and weight re- 
quired 121 59 

Pipes, Cast-iron, diameter and weight required .... 121 59 

Pipes, Drain, requirements relating to 122 60 

Pipes, Lead, plumbing, restricted to short branches, 121 58 

required diameter, thickness and weight 121 58 

Pipes, Refrigerator and Drip, plumbing, regulations 

„. for 119 57 

Pipes, Smoke, not to project through walls or 

windows 13 12 

Pipes, Soil and Waste, plumbing, requirements for, 117 55 

required diameters for 121 57 

Pipes, Steam, Etc., not to be within one inch of wood 

work 13 12 

restrictions concerning 13 12 

Pipes, Waste and Soil, plumbing, requirements for, 117 55 

required diameters for 121 57 

Pipes, Wrought-Iron, diameter, thickness and 

weight required 121 60 

Piping, Cutting for, restrictions relating to 14 16 

Plans of theatre on program 99, 1 1 1 49, 53 

Plans and Specifications, building commissioner 

may require i 6 

duplicates to be kept at buildings i 6 

observation stands, commissioner must approve . . 13 12 

Plumbers, must be registered or licensed 113 54 

get permits 1 14 55 

notify commissioner on changing place of busi- 
ness 113 54 

Plumbing, " air pipes," definition of 112 54 

requirements for 117, 118 56, 57 

clean-outs, required diameter and weight of 121 58 

connection with sewer or drain 115 55 

definition of terms used in 112 54 

" drain, " meaning of 112 54 

drain pipes, requirements for 122 60 

drains, surface, must have seal trap and back- 
water valve 124 62 

exhausts, steam, regulations for 122 61 

ferrules, required diameter and weight of 121 58 - 

fittings, drainage, must be galvanized 121 60 

'' fixture," definition of 112 54 

inspection and tests of work 116 55 

laboratory, to be approved by commissioner 117 56 



SECTION PAGE 

Plumbing {continued) , leaders, roof, requirements for, 124 62 

" leaks, repair of," meaning of 112 54 

municipal court givenjurisdiction in law cases. . . 130 64 
nipples, soldering, required diameter and weight 

of 121 58 

pipes, back air, requirements for 117 56 

brass, required diameter, thickness and weight, 121 59 
cast-iron, required diameter, thickness and 

weight. 121 59. 

lead, required diameter, thickness and weight . . 121 58 

restricted to short branches 121 58 

refrigerator and drip, regulations for 119 57 

soil and waste, requirements for I 117 55 

required diameter of 121 57 

vent, definition of 112 54 

wrought-iron, required diameter, thickness 

and weight 121 60 

plumbers must be registered or licensed 113 54 

apply for permits _ 114 55 

give notice of change of place of business 113 54 

roof leaders, requirements for 124 62 

" soil pipe," definition of 112 54 

soldering nipples, required diameter and weight of, 121 58 
stable drainage fixtures to be approved by com- 
missioner 117 56 

" surface drain," meaning of 112 54 

must have sea! trap and back-water valve 124 62 

terms used in, defined 112 54 

tests and inspection of work 116 55 

to be inspected and approved 116 55 

traps, requirements for 117 55 

special, when required 123 61 

" vent pipes," definition of 112 54 

" ventilation pipe," definition of 1 12 54 

vents, requirements for 117 56 

waste pipes and traps, provisions for 117 55 

water-closets, requirements for 120 57 

" Y-branches," definition of 112 54 

Police Commissioner, not affected by this Act 10 9 

Portable School BuUdings, not affected by this 

Act 10 8 

Power and Heat, appliances for 125 62 

Prohibitions 13 11 

Projections over Public Ways, restrictions relating 

to 13 12 

Proscenium Walls, theatres must have 83 46 

Public Buildings, aisles of, must conform to require- 
ments for theatres 107 52 

aisles, passageways and stairways to be clear 105 51 

aisles, passageways and stairways, no person in, 

during performances 105 51 



SECTION 


PACK 


107 


52 


107 


52 


105 


51 


107 


52 


105 


51 


105 


51 


107 


52 


125 


62 


12 


10 


4 


6 


13 


12 



87 



Public Buildings (continued), exits of, must conform 

to requirements for theatres 

exit lights must conform to requirements for 

theatres 

obstructions in aisles, etc 

seats must conform to requirements for theatres . . 

seats, temporary, not allowed in aisles, etc 

seats to be secured 

stairways must conform to requirements for 

theatres 

Public Hearings, on hazardous buildings and ap- 
pliances 

Public Safety, commissioner may take necessary 

measures 

power of, relating to 

Public Ways, boilers not to be placed under 

Public Ways and Squares, projections over, regula- 
tions for 13 

Q 

Quays, Wharves, Etc., not affected by this Act 10 

R 

Radiators, theatre, forbidden in passageways 

Rags, Feathers, Etc., not to be housed in habitable 

buildings 

Railroad Stations, not affected by this Act 

Recess, or Chase, requirements relating to 

" Repair of Leaks," plumbing, meaning of 

" Repairs," tenement-house, defined . 

prohibitions relating to 

Repairs and Alterations, permits required for 

Repeals, chapter 419, Acts of 1892, repealed by this 

Act 133 65 

Reports, board of appeal to mayor 8 8 

to be printed separately 8 8 

Responsibility for Maintenance, of owners and 

lessees 127 63 

Restrictions, tenement-house, commissioner not to 

dispense with 

Roofs, not to discharge on street or alley 

observation stands not to be erected on 

permanent means of access to 

Roof Gardens, above theatres, provisions for 

exits required for 

Roof Leaders, requirements for 

Rooms, Tenement-House, lighting and ventilation 

of 

size of, regulations for 



104 


50 


126 


63 


10 


8 


13 


II 


112 


54 


42 


33 


13 


II 


13 


II 



76 


45 


13 


II 


13 


II 


12 


10 


108 


52 


109 


52 


124 


62 


63 


40 


64 


41 



SECTION PAGE 
S 

Salaries, building commissioner i 5 

members of appeal board 6 7 

Sandstone, stresses of 14 15 

School Buildings, Portable, not affected by this Act, 10 8 
Scuttles and Bulkheads, tenement-house, require- 
ments for 44 34 

Sealing of Standpipes, on stage of theatres for- 
bidden 104, III 51 , 53 

Seats, Theatre, arrangement, and space for 87 47 

Seats, Public Buildings, must conform to require- 
ments for theatres 107 52 

temporary, not allowed in aisles, etc 105 51 

to be secured 105 51 

*' Shaft," definition of 42 33 

Shafts, Elevator, tenement-house, regulations for ... 52 36 

Shutters, provision and requirements for 37 29 

Skylights, tenement-house, regulations for 71 44 

Smoke Pipes, not to project through wall or window, 13 12 

" Soil Pipe," plumbing, definition of 112 54 

Soil and Waste Pipes and Traps, plumbing, require- 
ments for 117 55 

Soldering Nipples, required diameter and weight of , 121 58 

Specifications and Plans, commissioner may require, i 6 

duplicate to be kept at building i 6 

observation stands, commissioner must approve . . 13 12 
Sprinklers and Standpipes, theatre, regulations for, 104,111 51,53 

Spruce, strength of 14 12 

Stables, restrictions relating to location of 13 12 

Stables, Drainage of, fixtures to be approved by 

commissioner 117 56 

Stage Doors, theatre, requirements for 91-94 48 

Stage, Theatre, fire apparatus on 104, 1 1 1 51 , 53 

Staging or Stands for Observation, not to be 

erected on roofs 13 11 

Stairs, Theatre, how to be constructed 100-103, m 5o. 52 

persons not to remain on 1 1 1 53 

Stairs and Public Halls, tenement-house, require- 
ments for 45 35 

Stair Halls, tenement-house, construction of 46 35 

Stairways, Public Buildings, must conform to re- 
quirements for theatres 107 52 

persons not allowed during performances 105 51 

temporary seats and obstructions not allowed .... 105 51 

Stands, Observation, not to be erected on roofs 13 11 

commissioner must approve plans of 13 12 

Standpipes and Sprinklers, theatre, regulations for, 104,111 51,53 

State Buildings, not affected by this Act 10 8 

Stations, Railroad, not affected by this Act 10 8 

Steam Exhausts, regulations pertaining to 122 61 

Steel Stresses 14 13 



89 



SECTION PAGE 

Stirrup Irons, when required 12 11 

Stonework in Compression, restrictions relating to, 14 15 

Store Fronts, outside finish of 12 11 

Stores, Offices, Etc., in theatre buildings 81 46 

Stores and Storage Buildings, fire-escape, require- 
ments for 17 20 

" Story," Building, definition of 11 9 

Straw, Hay, Feed, Etc., not to be housed in 

habitable building 126 63 

Stresses, Building Materials, tables of 14 12 

Street Commissioners, not affected by this Act .... 10 9 

Structures, Temporary, commissioner may prescribe 

conditions for 9 8 

Studding, not within one inch of chimney 13 11 

Stmmier Theatres, outside building limits, how 

may be constructed no 52 

" Surface Drain," plumbing, meaning of 112 54 

Stirface Drains, must have deep seal trap and back- 
water valve 124 62 

T 
Tables, Stresses, showing strength of building 

materials 14 12 

Temporary Seats in public buildings 105 51 

Temporary Seats in theatres in 53 

Temporary Structures, commissioner to prescribe 

conditions for 9 8 

Tenement Houses, additional requirements for .... 42 32 

" apartment," definition of 42 33 

ashes, receptacles for 75 45 

bakeries and fat-boiling in, prohibited 53 36 

balconies, requirements for 43 34 

basements, requirements for 68 42 

bulkheads, construction of 44 34 

cellar ceilings, construction of 49 36 

" corner lot," definition of 42 33 

" courts," definition of 42 33 

general regulations for 57 39 

inner, regulations for 59 39 

outer, regulations for 58 39 

vent, regulations for 60 40 

dangerous business in, regulated 54 37 

definitions of certain words 42 32 

drainage of courts and yards 74 45 

egress, provision for, in case of fire 43 33 

elevator shafts, regulations for 52 36 

entrance halls, construction of 48 35 

fire-escapes, construction of 43 34 

in what they shall consist 43 33 

general, regulations for 43 34 

internal and external 43 34 



90 

SECTION PAGE 

Tenement Houses (continued), garha.ge, receptacles 

for 75 45 

" hall, stair," definition of 42 33 

intakes, provision for 61 40 

light, provision for 55 37 

lighting, board of health may regulate 128 63 

other buildings on same lot ...... 62 40 

outside limits, restrictions 51 36 

overcrowding, board of health may prevent 128 63 

partitions, construction of 50 36 

" public hall," definition of 42 33 

" repairs," definition of 42 33 

rooms of, lighting and ventilation 63 40 

size of 64 41 

scuttles, construction of 44 34 

" shaft," definition of 42 33 

skylights, regulations for 71 44 

stairs and public halls 45 35 

stair halls, construction of 46 35 

ventilation, board of health may regulate 128 63 

water-closets, requirements for 69, 72 42, 44 

water supply, regulations for 73 44 

windows in public halls of 65 41 

for stair halls 66 41 

" yard," definition of 42 33 

yards, requirements and regulations for 55 37 

where not required 56 3^ 

Tenement-House Requirements, commissioner not 

to dispense with 76 45 

Terms Used in Plumbing, meaning of, defined 112 54 

Tests, Elevator, manufacturers must make 38 31 

Tests, Plumbing, work must be approved 116 55 

Theatres, aisles, regulations for 88 47 

aisles, persons not to remain in 1 1 1 53 

arc light in auditorium in existing theatres 1 1 1 53 

art galleries above 108 52 

auditoriums, heating apparatus, boilers, etc., 

under 104, m 50, 53 

boilers and engines, etc., under theatres 104, ill 50, 53 

control of exit, etc., lights 99. m 49. 53 

curtains, must have fireproof 84, lii 46, 53 

existing 1 1 1 52 

exits 91-99. m 48, 52 

exit signs 99. m 49. 53 

fire-escapes, outside, to be lighted 99. m 49. 53 

fireproof construction required 78 45 

curtains required 84, III 46, 53 

floor levels of 82 46 

furnaces under theatres 104, 1 1 1 50, 53 

gas pipe outlets required 99 49 

gates in stage standpipes 104, 1 1 1 5^ . 53 



SECTION PAGE 

Theatres (continued), handrails, stair, require- 
ments for 102, III 50, 52 

heating apparatus under theatres 104, 1 1 1 50, 53 

inspection, gas pipe outlets, required 99 49 

landings, stair, required dimensions of loi 50 

lighting, independently fed or governed system 

in auditorium, halls, etc 99, ill 49, 53 

lights for exits, etc 99, 1 1 1 49, 53 

lobbies, requirements for 90 48 

obstructions in aisles, etc 1 1 1 53 

open courts required 79, 80 45 

opening outward of doors, etc 93, 11 1 48, 53 

plans on program 99, 1 11 49, 53 

proscenium walls required 83 46 

curtains, required 84, 1 1 1 46, 53 

public buildings must conform to requirements 

for 107 52 

radiators forbidden in passageways of 104 50 

roof gardens may be above 108 52 

seats in auditorium, requirements for 87 47 

temporary ill 53 

stage doors must be provided 91 48 

floors, requirements for 85 46 

stage fire apparatus 104, iii 51, 53 

stairs, how to be constructed lOO, 1 1 1 50, 52 

sprinklers, automatic, required 104, 11 1 51, 54 

standpipes required 104, iii 51, 53 

stores, offices, etc., under 81 46 

" theatre," definition of 77 45 

valves in stage standpipes 104, iii 51, 54 

ventilators, requirements for 86, 1 1 1 47, 53 

ventilator, control of 86, 11 1 47, 53 

Theatres, Construction of, general regulations 

relating to 77 45 

Theatre Exits, general regulations for 91-99, m 48, 52 

Theatres, Existing, general regulations for iii 52 

Theatres, Summer, outside building Hmits, how 

may be constructed lio 52 

Third-Class Buildings, definition of 11 9, 

Timbers, in walls, how to be treated 34 27 

Traps, Plumbing, requirements for 117 55 

Traps, Special, grease, inflammable compounds, 

non-siphon 123 61 

Trimmers, Wooden 12 11 

Trusses, Riveted, rule for computation 16 19 



U 

Unsafe Buildings, commissioner may order vacated. 4 6 

to post notices on 4 6 



92 

SECTION PAGE 

V 

Vacancies, in board of appeal, how filled 6 7 

Valves, of stage standpipes in theatres 104, 1 1 1 51 , 54 

Vaulted Walls, regulations for 26 24 

Ventilation, Tenement-House, board of health may 

regulate 128 63 

provision for 55 37 

" Ventilation Pipe," plumbing, definition of 112 54 

VentilatingFlues, must be of incombustible material, 12 11 

Ventilators, Theatre, control of 86, 1 1 1 47, 53 

requirements for 86, 1 1 1 47, 53 

** Vent Pipes," plumbing, definition of 112 54 

Vents, plumbing, requirements for ^ . . . . 117 56 

Violators of Building Laws, may be fined $500 132 65 

Voting Booths, not affected by this Act 10 8 

W 

Walls, general regulations for construction of 23, 34 23, 27 

framed with Iron or steel 27 24 

proscenium, theatres must have 83 46 

Walls above Roof, Party, requirements for 28 24 

Walls, Cornices, regulations for , . 29 24 

Walls, Curtain, party and outside, must have 27 24 

Walls, Parallel, to be properly tied 12 11 

" Walls, Partition," definition of 11 9 

" Walls, Party," definition of 1 1 9 

must have curtain 27 24 

openings for doorways in 31 25 

wooden buildings to have 40 32 

" Walls, Thickness of," meaning of, defined 11 9 

regulations relating to 23 23 

Walls, Vaulted, regulations for . . 26 24 

Waste Pipes and Traps, plumbing, requirements for, 117 55 

Water-Closets, number required 12 10 

requirements for 120 57 

tenement-house, provisions for 67, 69 42 

ventilation of 12 10 

Water Pipes, protection from frosts 12 10 

Water Supply, tenement-house, requirements for. . . 73 44 
Wharves, Market Buildings, Etc., restrictions of, 

section 9 not to apply to 9 8 

Wharves, Quays, Etc., not affected by this Act 10 8 

Wind-Bracing, provision for, required 14 16 

Windows, habitable buildings, regulations for 35 28 

tenement-house, in public halls 65 41 

for stair halls 66 41 

Wires, Commissioner of, not affected by this Act ... 10 9 

provisions of section 7 apply to 7 8 

Wooden Buildings, construction of, general regu- 
lations for 39 31 



93 

SECTION PAGE 

Wooden Buildings (continued), height of, require- 
ments 40 32 

not to be moved within limits 13 11 

proximity to other buildings 40 32 

Wooden Headers, requirements for 12 11 

Wooden Trimmers, when required 12 11 

Y 

" Y-Branches," plumbing, definition of 112 54 

" Yard," definition of 42 33 

Yards, Tenement-House, general regulations for . . . 55 37 

when not required 56 38 






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