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Full text of "The building law of the city of Boston. Being acts of 1907, chapter 550"

Engineering 



flOUTOSSI 



3 Jfl 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

* KTLvIEKT O!T CIVIL 



THE BUILDING LAW 



OF THE 



CITY OF BOSTON. 



BEING ACTS OF J907, CHAPTER 550. 



Published by 

THE MASTER BUILDERS ASSOCIATION, 
No. 166 Devonshire Street, 

BOSTON, 
October, 1907. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

SECTIONS 1-10. BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

Organization, Officers, Powers, etc. . . . 1 

SECTION 11. BUILDING TERMS. 

Definitions of Words Used 7 

SECTIONS 12-13. BUILDINGS, REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL. 

Permits, Prohibitions, etc. 7 

SECTIONS 14-16. BUILDING MATERIALS. 

Brick, Iron, Steel, Concrete, Wood, etc 10 

SECTION 17. BUILDING CLASSIFICATIONS. 

First, Second, Third, Composite . . . 16 

SECTIONS 18-41. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION. 

Height, Excavations, Piling, etc. . , . . .... . 18 

SECTIONS 42-76. TENEMENT HOUSES, ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR. 

Definitions of Terms, Fire-escapes, etc. . . > . . . . . . 29 

SECTIONS 77-111. THEATRES AND PLACES OF PUBLIC ASSEMBLY. 

Construction, Courts, Curtains > etc 41 

SECTIONS 112-124. PLUMBING AND PLUMBERS. 

Definition of Terms, Registration, Inspection, etc. ..... 49 

SECTION 125. HAZARDOUS BUILDINGS AND APPLIANCES 

Regulations Relative to . . ' . .' ... . . ... 57 

SECTION 126. COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS. 

Habitable Buildings Not to be Used for Storage, etc . . . . . 58 

SECTIONS 127, 129. ENFORCEMENT OF ACT. 

Jurisdiction in Equity and at Law . . . . .' . . . . 58 

SECTION 128. BOARD OF HEALTH, POWERS OF. 

Relating to Occupants, Light, Ventilation, etc. . . . . . . 58 

SECTION 132. NUISANCE. 

When a Building becomes a Nuisance. . . . . . . ; . 59 

SECTION 133. REPEALS. 

Acts 1892, Chapter 419 59 

SECTION 134. THIS ACT TAKES EFFECT 

August 1, 1907 ...... 59 



CIVIL ENGINEERING 
0. of C. 

THE BUILDIN LIBRARY 




OF THE 

CITY OF BOSTON. 



ACTS, J907 CHAP* 550. 



AN ACT RELATIVE TO THE CONSTRUCTION, ALTERATION AND MAINTENANCE 
OF BUILDINGS IN THE CITY OF BOSTON. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

SECTION 1. There shall be in the city of Boston a department to be 
called the building department, which shall be under the charge of the 
building commissioner. The commissioner, who shall have had at least 
five years' experience as an architect, a builder, or a civil engineer, shall 
be appointed by the mayor, for a term of five years. He shall receive 
such salary as shall be fixed by the city council, with the approval of the 
mayor. 

The present officers and employees of the building department, except 
the board of appeal, shall hold their several offices and positions until 
removed or discharged according to law. 

The commissioner may, with the approval of the mayor, appoint such 
number of inspectors, employees, and assistants as the city council shall, 
from time to time, determine. No person shall be appointed as inspector 
of construction who has not had at least five years' experience- as a 
builder, civil engineer, or architect, or as a superintendent or foreman or 
a competent mechanic in charge of construction. 

The commissioner may appoint as his deputy an inspector in the de- 
partment who shall, during the absence or disability of the commissioner, 
exercise all the powers of the commissioner. No officer connected with 
the department shall engage in any other business or be interested in the 
doing of work or the furnishing of material for the construction, repair 
or maintenance of any building, or in the making of plans or of specifi- 
cations therefor, unless he is the owner of the building or a member of 
the board of appeal. 

The clerk of the department shall, under the direction of the commis- 
sioner, keep a record of the business of the department, and the commis- 
sioner shall submit to the mayor a yearly report of such business. The 
records of the department shall be open to public inspection. The com- 

800296 



. - :- - : /. 

.->/-! V .* * Jl *** * 

* 4 * Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

missioner may require plans and specifications of any proposed structure 
or for the alteration of any structure or building to be filed with him, 
duplicates of which, when approved by the commissioner, shall be kept 
at the building during the progress of the work. Such duplicates shall be 
open to the inspection of any inspector in said department. 

The commissioner shall grant permits for the construction, alteration, 
removal or tearing down of buildings or structures, and for plumbing, 
gas fitting, and the setting and maintenance of steam boilers and 
furnaces when applications for the same are made and filed in conformity 
with law. 

All permits issued by the commissioner shall be on printed forms 
approved by him. 

If the commissioner finds that the terms of a permit are being violated, 
he may, after notice mailed to the person to whom the permit was issued, 
order the whole or any part of the work, which is being done under the 
permit, to be stopped, and such work shall not be resumed until the 
terms of the permit have been complied with. 

All applications for permits under the provisions of this act shall be in 
writing, on forms furnished by the department. The commissioner may 
require the material facts set forth in the same to be verified by the oath 
of the applicant; he may also require, in his discretion, a survey of a 
lot on which any proposed building is to be erected to be filed with the 
application. Every application shall state the name and address of the 
owner. 

SECT. 2. The commissioner, or one of his inspectors, shall examine 
as often as is practicable every building in the course of construction or 
alteration, and shall make a record of all violations of this act and of all 
other matters relative thereto. The publication of such records with the 
consent of the commissioner shall be privileged. 

SECT. 3. The commissioner, or one of his inspectors, shall examine 
any building reported as dangerous or damaged, and shall make a record 
of such examination, stating the nature and estimated amount of the 
damage, and the purpose for which the building was used, and in case 
of fire the probable origin thereof; and shall examine all buildings in 
respect to which applications have been made for permits to raise, en- 
large, alter, or repair, and shall make a record of every such examination. 

SECT. 4. The commissioner, or ore of his inspectors, shall inspect 
every building or other structure or anything attached to or connected 
therewith which he has reason to believe is unsafe or dangerous to life, 
limb, or adjoining buildings, and if he finds it unsafe or dangerous, he 
shall forthwith in writing notify the owner, agent, or any person having 
an interest therein, to secure the same, and shall affix in a conspicuous 
place upon its external walls a notice of its dangerous condition. The 
notice shall not be removed or defaced without his consent. 

The commissioner may with the written approval of the mayor order 
any building which in his opinion is unsafe to be vacated forthwith. 

SECT. 5. The person notified as provided in the preceding section 
shall secure or remove said building, structure, attachment or connection 
forthwith. If the public safety so requires, the commissioner, with the 
approval of the mayor, may at once enter the building or other structure, 
the land on which it stands or the abutting land or buildings, with such 
assistance as he may require, and secure the same, and may erect such 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 5 

protection for the public by proper fence or otherwise as may be neces- 
sary, and for this purpose may close a public highway. 

SECT. 6. There shall be in said department a board to be called the 
board of appeal. Said board shall consist of five members appointed by 
the mayor in the following manner: One member from two candidates, 
one to be nominated by the Real Estate Exchange and Auction Board 
and one by the Massachusetts Real Estate Exchange; one member from 
two candidates, one to be nominated by the Boston Society of Architects 
and one by the Boston Society of Civil Engineers; one member from two 
candidates, one to be nominated by the Master Builders Association and 
one by the Contractors and Builders Association; one member from two 
candidates to be nominated by the Building Trades Council of the 
Boston Central Labor Union; and one member selected by. the mayor. 
These appointments shall be subject to confirmation by the board of 
aldermen. The appointments first made shall be for the terms of one, 
two, three, four, and five years, respectively, so that the term of one 
member shall expire each year. All subsequent appointments shall be 
for the term of five years. Vacancies shall be filled in the same manner 
in which original appointments are made. Each member of said board 
shall be paid ten dollars per day for actual service but not more than one 
thousand dollars in any one year. No member shall act in any case in 
which he is interested, and in case any member is so disqualified, the 
remaining members shall designate a substitute. 

- r All the members of said board shall be residents of or engaged in busi- 
ness in Boston. 

Every decision of the board shall be in writing and shall require the 
assent of at least three members. 

SECT. 7. An applicant for a permit whose application has been 
refused may appeal therefrom within ninety days. A person who has 
been ordered by the commissioner to incur any expense may within ten 
days after being notified of such order appeal therefrom by giving to the 
commissioner notice in writing of his appeal. Such notice or a certified 
copy thereof shall at once be transmitted by the commissioner to the 
board of appeal. After notice given to such parties as the board shall 
order, a hearing shall be had, and the board shall affirm, annul, or modify 
said refusal or order. The board may vary the provisions of this act in 
specific cases which appear to them not to have been contemplated by 
this act although covered by it, or in cases where manifest injustice is 
done, provided that the decision of the board in such a case shall be 
unanimous and shall not conflict with the spirit of any provision of this 
act. 

The decision shall specify the variations allowed and the reasons there- 
for, and shall be filed in the office of the commissioner within ten days 
after the hearing. A certified copy shall be sent by mail or otherwise 
to the applicant and a copy kept publicly posted in the office of the com- 
missioner for two weeks thereafter. If the order or refusal of the com- 
missioner is affirmed, such order or refusal shall have full force and effect. 
If the order or refusal is modified or annulled, the commissioner shall 
issue a permit in accordance with such decision. 

The provisions of this section shall also apply to any similar action or 
order of the commissioner of wires, under the provisions of chapter two 
hundred and sixty-eight of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and 



6 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

ninety-eight, or of any amendment thereof or addition thereto, except 
that in respect thereto the words " commisioners of wires " shall be sub- 
stituted for the word " commissioner." 

SECT. 8. Methods of construction or maintenance equivalent to 
those required by the provisions of this act may be allowed with the 
written consent of the commissioner and the board of appeal specifying 
the same. A record of the required and the equivalent method allowed 
shall be kept in the office of the commissioner. 

It shall be the duty of the board of appeal to submit to the mayor on 
or before the first day of February in each year a report giving a sum- 
mary of all decisions of the board, together with such recommendations 
for revision of the law as may seem to them advisable. The commis- 
sioner shall cause the report to be printed as a separate document for 
public distribution. 

Any requirement necessary for the strength or stability of any pro- 
posed structure or for the safety of the occupants thereof, not specifically 
covered by this act, shall be determined by the commissioner, subject to 
appeal. 

SECT. 9. The building limits of the city of Boston as they now exist 
shall continue until changed by ordinance, and the city council may by 
ordinance from time to time extend and define said building limits, and 
may establish other limits in any part of the city within which every 
building built after the establishment thereof shall be of the first or 
second class. This restriction shall not apply to wharves, nor to build- 
ings not exceeding twenty-seven feet in height on wharves, nor to market 
sheds or market buildings not exceeding such height, nor to elevators for 
the storage of coal or grain, if the external parts of such buildings, 
elevators, or other structures are covered with slate, tile, metal, or other 
equally fireproof material, and the mode of construction and the location 
thereof are approved by the commissioner. Temporary structures to 
facilitate the prosecution of any authorized work may be erected under 
such conditions as the commissioner may prescribe. 

SECT. 10. The provisions of this act shall not apply to bridges, quays, 
or wharves,, nor to buildings on land ceded to the United States or 
owned and occupied by the Commonwealth, nor to the Suffolk County 
court house, jail, or house of correction, nor to railroad stations, nor to 
portable school buildings erected and maintained by the schoolhouse 
department, nor to voting booths erected and maintained by the board 
of election commissioners. 

Except as otherwise provided by law, the provisions of this act shall 
not be held to deprive the board of health, the police commissioner, 
the board of street commissioners, the board of park commissioners, the 
board of examiners of gas fitters, the commissioner of wires, or the fire 
commissioner of the city of Boston of any power or authority which they 
have at the date of the passage of this act, or of the remedies for the 
enforcement of the orders of said boards or officers; unless such powers, 
authorities, or remedies are inconsistent with the provisions of this act ; 
nor to repeal any existing law, not herein expressly repealed, except so 
far as it may be inconsistent with the provisions of this act. 




Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 



DEFINITIONS. 

SECT. 11. In this act the following terms shall have" 
respectively assigned to them: 

First class building: A first class building shall consist of fireproof 
material throughout, with floors constructed of iron, steel or reinforced 
concrete beams, filled in between with terra-cotta or other masonry 
arches or with concrete or reinforced concrete slabs; wood may be used 
only for under and upper floors, windows and door frames, sashes, doors, 
interior finish, hand rails for stairs, necessary sleepers bedded in the 
cement, and for isolated furrings bedded in mortar. There shall be no 
air space between the top of any floor arches and the floor boarding. 

Second class building: All buildings not of the first class, the ex- 
ternal and party walls of which are of brick, stone, Iron, steel, concrete, 
reinforced concrete, concrete blocks, or other equally substantial and 
fireproof material. 

Third class building: A wooden frame building. 

Composite building: A building, partly of second class and partly 
of third class construction. 

Foundation: That part of a wall below the level of the street curb, 
or, if a wall is not on a street, that part of the wall below the level of the 
highest ground next to the wall, or, if so construed by the commissioner, 
that part of a party or partition wall below the cellar floor. 

Height of a building: The vertical distance of the highest point of 
the roof above the mean grade of the curbs of all the streets upon which 
it abuts, and if it does not abut on a street, above the mean grade of the 
ground adjoining the building. 

Party wall : A wall that separates two or more buildings, and is 
used or adapted for the use of more than one building. 

Partition wall : An interior wall of masonry in a building. 

Thickness of wall: The minimum thickness of such wall. 

Story of a building : That part of a building between the top of any 
floor beams and the top of the floor or roof beams next above. 

Basement : That story of a building not more than forty per cent 
of which is below the grade of the street. 

Cellar: That part of a building more than forty per cent of which is 
below the grade of the street, and in third class buildings that part of 
the building which is below the sills. 

Gas fitting shall mean the work of putting together any fittings, pipe 
or fixtures or other appliances which are to contain gas for heat, light 
or power purposes and will be subject to inspection under existing laws. 



REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL BUILDINGS. 

SECT. 12. No building, structure or foundation shall be constructed 
or altered without a permit, and such work shall be done in accordance 
with drawings bearing the approval of the commissioner. 

Every structure in process of construction, alteration, repair or re- 
moval, and every neighboring structure or portion thereof affected by 
such process or by any excavation, shall be sufficiently supported during 
such process. 



8 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

The commissioner may take such measures as the public safety re- 
quires to carry these provisions into effect. 

All buildings shall have leaders sufficient to discharge the roof water 
in such a manner as not to flow upon any public way or any neighboring 
property. Such leaders may project into a public way not over seven 
inches. 

Every chimney flue shall be carried to a height sufficient to protect 
adjoining buildings from fire and smoke, and, unless the roof is covered 
with incombustible material, shall extend at least four feet above the 
highest point of contact with the roof. 

Every permanent building more than twenty feet high having a flat 
roof shall have permanent means of access to the roof from the inside 
by an opening not less than two feet by three feet, with a fixed step- 
ladder. 

Every building shall have, with reference to its height, condition, con- 
struction, surroundings, character of occupation and number of occu- 
pants, reasonable means of egress in case of fire, satisfactory to the 
commissioner, except that in all factories or workshops hereafter built or 
altered, of second class construction, where ten or more persons are 
employed above the second floor, one exit shall consist of a fireproof 
stairway enclosed in incombustible material. 

Water pipes in every building shall be properly protected from frost. 

All chimneys of masonry construction shall have walls at least eight 
inches thick, or be constructed of four-inch brick walls with a suitable 
flue lining. 

Every building used for habitation shall have such number of water- 
closets as the board of health may require; every building where persons 
are employed shall have at least one water-closet for every twenty 
persons therein employed, and in any building where both sexes are 
employed, separate accommodations shall be furnished for men and 
women. Every enclosure containing one or more water-closets shall be 
provided with adequate ventilation to the outer air either by window 
or by suitable light shaft. 

In every first and second class building all of the outside finish shall 
be of incombustible material, except window and door frames, and except 
finish about show windows in the first story. Where store fronts are 
carried up more than one story the columns and lintels shall be of, or fin- 
ished with, incombustible material; but in no case shall store fronts be car- 
ried more than two stories'unless the same are constructed and finished 
throughout with fireproof material, except window and door frames. 

Every ventilating flue shall be constructed of, or lined with, incom- 
bustible material. 

Every floor in second class buildings shall have its beams tied to the 
walls and to each other with wrought-iron straps or anchors at least 
three eighths of an inch thick by one and one half inches wide, and not 
less than eighteen inches long, so as to form continuous ties across the 
building not more than ten feet apart. Walls running parallel, or nearly 
parallel, with floor beams shall be properly tied once in ten feet to the 
floor beams by iron straps or anchors of the size above specified. 

Every wooden header or trimmer more than four feet long, carrying a 
floor load of over seventy pounds per square foot, shall, at connections 
with other beams, be framed or hung in stirrup irons, and joint-bolted. 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 9 

All tail beams and similar beams of wood shall be framed or hung in 
stirrup irons. 

PROHIBITIONS. 

SECT. 13. No alteration or repair of a wooden building within the 
building limits shall be made without a permit from the commissioner, 
and no permit to increase the height or ground area of such a building 
shall be granted, nor shall a permit for alterations or repairs be granted 
if the estimated cost of the proposed alterations or repairs exceeds one 
half of the cost of a like new building. 

No wooden building, within or without the building limits, shall be 
moved to any position within the building limits. 

No recess or chase shall be made in any external or party wall so as to 
leave the thickness at the back less than eight inches. 

No roof or floor timber entering a party wall shall have less than four 
inches of solid brickwork between it and the end of any other timber. 

No part of any roof shall be constructed in such a manner as to dis- 
charge snow, ice, or other material upon a public street or alley. 

No elevated staging or stand for observation purposes shall be con- 
structed or occupied upon the roof of any building. 

No chimney shall be corbelled from a wall more than the thickness 
of the wall. 

No chimney shall be hung from a wall which is less than twelve inches 
thick. 

No masonry shall rest upon wood, except piles and mud sills. 

No part of any floor timber shall be within two inches of any chimney. 

No studding or furring shall be within one inch of any chimney. 

No furnace or boiler for heating shall be placed upon a wooden floor. 

No smoke pipe shall project through any external wall or window. 

No steam, furnace, or other hot air pipes shall be carried within one 
inch of any woodwork, unless such pipes are double or otherwise pro- 
tected by incombustible material. 

No observation stand shall be constructed or maintained except in 
accordance with plans approved by the commissioner. 

No closet of any kind shall be constructed under any staircase leading 
from the cellar or basement to the first story. 

No boiler shall be placed or maintained under any public way. 

No part of any structure, except cornices, permanent awnings, string 
courses, window caps and sills, bay windows, under such terms, con- 
ditions, regulations and restrictions as may be required by the mayor 
and board of aldermen, and outside means of egress, as otherwise pro- 
vided, and signs as provided in chapter three hundred and fifty-two of 
the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-five, shall project over 
any public way or square. No cornice or bay window shall so project 
more than three feet; nor more than twelve inches over a way of a 
width of thirty feet or less. 

No building within forty feet of the property of any adjoining owner 
shall be erected for or converted to use as a stable, unless such use is 
authorized by the board of health after a public hearing. Written 
notice of such hearing shall be given to the adjoining owners, and pub- 
lished at least three times in at least two newspapers published in 
Boston, ten days at least before the hearing. 



10 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 



MATERIALS. 

Strength of Materials. 

SECT. 14. The stresses in materials hereafter used in the construc- 
tion of all buildings, produced by their own weight and the loads herein 
specified, shall not exceed the limits assigned in the following paragraphs 
of this section : 

(a) TIMBER. 

Unit Stresses in Pounds per Square Inch. 





On Extreme 
Fibre of 
Beams. 


Shearing along 
the Grain. 


Compression 
Perpendicular to 
the Grain. 


White pine and spruce 


1 000 


80 


250 


White oak, 


1,000 


150 


600 


Yellow pine (long-leaved), .... 


1,500 


100 


500 



Stresses due to transverse loads combined with direct tension or com- 
pression shall not exceed the extreme fibre stresses given above. 

In computing deflection, the modulus of elasticity shall be taken as 
follows : 

Pounds per 
Square Inch. 

White pine, 750,000 

Spruce, 900,000 

Yellow pine (long-leaved), 1,300,000 

White oak ............ 850,000 

Columns (centrally loaded). 

For wooden columns with flat ends, where L is the length of the col- 
umn, D is its least diameter, the average stress per square inch on a 
cross-section shall be limited as follows : 



AVERAGE STRESS PER SQUARE INCH. 



L 
D 


White Pine 
and Spruce. 


Long-leaved 
Yellow Pine. 


White Oak. 


to 10, 


630 


900 


810 


10 to 15 ... 


595 


850 


765 


15 to 20 


560 


800 


720 


20 to 25, 


525 


750 


675 


25 to 30 


490 


700 


630 











No column shall be used with a greater unsupported length than thirty 
times its least diameter. 

For excentric loads see section sixteen. 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 



11 



(6) WROUGHT IRON AND STEEL. 

Unit Stresses in Pounds per Square Inch. 





Wrought 
Iron. 


Steel. 1 


Extreme fibre of rolled beams or shapes, 
Tension, 


12,000 
12,000 


16,000 
16,000 


Compression in flanges of built beams, . . . 
Shearing (see below for bolts), . 
Direct bearing including pins and rivets 


12,000 
9,000 
15,000 


16,000 
10,000 
18,000 


Bending on pins, 


18,000 


22,500 








Modulus of elasticity 


27,000,000 


29,000,000 









For compression members twelve thousand for iron and sixteen thou- 
sand for steel, reduced according to the following formula: 

12,000 (or 16,000 for steel). 

1 L 2 
1 + - 

20,000 r 2 

in which L is the length of the column in inches, and r is the radius of gyration in 
inches taken around the axis about which the column will bend (for free columns, 
the least radius of gyration). 

The stresses due to transverse loads combined with direct tension or 
compression shall not exceed the extreme fibre stress given above for 
rolled beams and shapes, or in case of built members the above tension 
and compression stresses (see section sixteen). 

Compression flanges of beams shall be proportioned to resist lateral 
flexure unless properly stayed or secured against it. If the ratio of 
unsupported length of flange to width of flange does not exceed twenty, 
no allowance need be made for lateral flexure. If the ratio is seventy 
the allowable stress on the extreme fibre shall be one half of that above 
specified, and proportionally for intermediate ratios. 

Shearing and bearing stresses on bolts shall not be higher than eighty 
per cent of those allowed by the above table. All connections in skeleton 
buildings, all splices in steel trusses and girders, and all connections of 
such trusses and girders to the sides of steel columns shall, if possible, be 
made by means of rivets rather than by bolts. 

(c) CAST IRON. 

Unit Stresses in Pounds per Square Inch. 

Extreme fibre stress, tension, 3,000 

Extreme fibre stress, compression, 16,000 

Cast iron shall not be used for columns in buildings of more than 



1 These stresses (except for rivets) are for steel having an ultimate tensile strength of from fifty- 
five thousand to sixty-five thousand pounds per square inch, an elastic limit of not less than one 
half the ultimate strength, and a minimum percentage of elongation in eight inches of one million 
four hundred thousand, divided by the ultimate strength. 



12 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 



seventy-five feet in height, nor in cases where the value of the length 
divided by least radius of gyration exceeds seventy. 

Cast Iron Columns (centrally loaded and unsupported laterally). 



Where the Length 
divided by the 
Least Radius of 
Gyration equals 


Average Stress 
per Square 
Inch of Section. 


Where the Length 
divided by the 
Least Radius of 
Gyration equals 


Average Stress 
per Square 
Inch of Section. 


10 
20 
30 
40 


11,000 
10,700 
10,400 
10,000 


50 
60 
70 


9,800 
9,500 
9,200 



(d} STONE WORK, IN COMPRESSION. 

Stresses in Tons of Two Thousand Pounds per Square Foot. 

First quality dressed beds and builds, laid solid in mortar of one part 
Portland cement to three parts sand, or one part natural cement to two 
parts sand. 

Granite, ........................ 60 

Marble and limestone, .................. 40 

Sandstone, ....................... 30 

In cases where poorer mortar is used, to avoid stain from cement, 
stresses shall be less than above, and must be approved by the building 
commissioner. 

(e} BRICKWORK IN COMPRESSION. 

Stresses in Tons of Two Thousand Pounds per Square Foot. 

(1.) For first class work of hard-burned bricks, including piers in 
which the height does not exceed six times the least dimension, laid 
in: 

(a) One part Portland cement, three parts sand, by volume, dry, ....... 20 

(6) One part natural cement, two parts sand, by volume, dry, ........ 18 

(c) One part natural cement, one part lime and six parts sand, by volume, dry, 12 

(d) Lime mortar, one part lime, six parts sand, by volume, dry, ....... 8 

(2.) For brick piers of hard-burned bricks, in which the height is from 
six to twelve times the least dimension : 

Mortar (a), . ................ ..... 18 

Mortar (6), ...... ................ 15 

Mortar (c), ...................... 10 

Mortar (d), ...................... 7 

(3.) For brickwork made of " light-hard " bricks, the stresses shall not 
exceed two thirds of the stresses for like work of hard-burned bricks. 



(/) CONCRETE. 

When the structural use of concrete is proposed, a specification, stating 
the quality and proportions of materials, and the methods of mixing the 
same, shall be submitted to the building commissioner, who may issue a 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 13 

permit at his discretion and under such further conditions, in addition 
to those stated below, as he sees fit to impose. 

A. In first class Portland cement concrete, containing one part 
cement to not more than six parts mixed properly graded aggregate, 
except in piers or columns of which the height exceeds six times the 
least dimension, the compressive stress shall not exceed thirty tons of 
two thousand pounds per square foot. 

B. In piers and columns of first class Portland cement concrete, con- 
taining one part cement to not more than five parts mixed properly 
graded aggregate, where the height of the pier or column is more than 
six times and does not exceed twelve times its least dimension, the com- 
pressive stress shall not exceed twenty-five tons of two thousand pounds 
per square foot. 

By " aggregate " shall be understood all the materials in the concrete 
except the cement. Cinders concrete shall be used constructively only 
for floors, roofs, and for filling. 

Rules for the computation of reinforced concrete columns may be for- 
mulated from time to time by the building commissioner with the 
approval of the board of appeal. 

In reinforced concrete beams or slabs subjected to bending stresses, 
the entire tensile stress shall be assumed to be carried by the steel, 
which shall not be stressed above the limits allowed for this material. 
First class Portland cement concrete in such beams or slabs, containing 
one part cement to not more than five parts mixed properly graded 
aggregate, may be stressed in compression to not more than five hun- 
dred pounds per square inch. In case a richer concrete is used, this 
stress may be increased with the approval of the commissioner to not 
more than six hundred pounds per square inch. 

In reinforced concrete the maximum shearing force upon the concrete, 
when uncombined with compression upon the same plane shall not ex- 
ceed sixty pounds per square inch, unless the building commissioner 
with the consent of the board of appeal shall fix some other value. 

If the imbedded steel has no mechanical bond with the concrete, its 
holding power shall not exceed the allowable shearing strength of the 
concrete. 

(0) IN GENERAL. 

Under the prescribed loads, beams shall be so proportioned that the 
deflection shall not exceed one three hundred and sixtieth (3^) of 
the span. 

Stresses for materials and forms of material, not herein mentioned, 
shall be determined by the building commissioner. Provision for wind 
bracing shall be made wherever it is necessary, and all buildings shall be 
constructed of sufficient strength to bear with safety the load intended 
to be placed thereon, in addition to the weight of the materials used in 
construction. 

No cutting for piping or any other purpose shall be done which would 
reduce the strength of any part of the structure below what is required 
by the provisions of this act. 



14 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

Quality of Materials. 

SECT. 15. All materials shall be of such quality for the purposes 
for which they are to be used as to insure, in the judgment of the building 
commissioner, ample safety and security to life, limb and neighboring 
property. The building commissioner shall have power to reject all 
materials which in his opinion are unsuitable, and may require tests to 
be made by the architect, engineer, builder or owner to determine the 
strength of the structural materials before or after they are incorporated 
in a building, and may require certified copies of results of tests made 
elsewhere from the architect, engineer, builder, owner or other interested 
persons. 

Hollow cast iron columns, if used, shall be shown by measurements 
and tests satisfactory to the commissioner to be of practically uniform 
thickness, and free from blow holes. 

MORTARS. 

All mortars shall be made with such proportion of sand as will insure 
a proper degree of cohesion and tenacity, and secure thorough adhesion 
to the material with which they are used, and the building commissioner 
shall condemn all mortars not so made. 

(a) Mortar below the level of water shall be no poorer than one part 
Portland cement and three parts sand; 

(6) Mortar for first class buildings shall, for the lower half of their 
height, be no poorer than one part natural cement to two parts sand; 
and, for the upper half, no poorer than one part of natural cement, one 
half part of lime, and three parts of sand ; * 

(c) Mortar for second class buildings and for such parts of third class 
buildings as are below the level of the sidewalk, shall be no poorer than 
one part of natural cement, one of lime, and four of sand; 

(d) Mortar for third class buildings, above ground, shall be no poorer 
than one part lime and four parts sand. 

The building commissioner may allow lime mortar in setting stone 
where cement will stain. 

CONCRETE. 

Concrete shall be used immediately after mixing; it shall not be placed 
in the work after it has begun to harden; and it shall be deposited in such 
manner and under such regulations as to secure a compact mass of the 
best quality for the proportions used. Forms shall remain until the 
concrete has hardened so as to be able to carry its load safely, and shall 
be removed without jar. 

The commissioner may require an applicant for a permit for the 
structural use of concrete to have an inspector satisfactory to the com- 
missioner at all times on the work while concrete is being mixed or de- 
posited, and such inspector shall make daily reports to the commissioner 
on the progress of the work. 

CEMENT. 

Cement shall conform to the specifications of the American Associa- 
tion for Testing Materials, as modified from time to time by that 
association. 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 15 



REINFORCED CONCRETE. 

Reinforced concrete slabs, beams or girders, if rendered continuous 
over supports by being unbroken in section, shall be provided with 
proper metal reinforcement at the top over said supports and may be 
computed as continuous beams, as hereinafter described. 

The modulus of elasticity of the concrete, if not shown by direct tests, 
may for beams and slabs be taken as one fifteenth that of steel, and for 
columns one tenth that of steel. 

The reinforcing metal shall be covered by not less than three fourths 
inch of concrete in slabs, and by not less than one and one half inches of 
concrete in beams and columns. 

METHODS OF COMPUTATION. 

SECT. 16. Beams or girders of metal or reinforced concrete shall be 
considered as simply supported at their ends, except when they extend 
with unbroken cross-section over the supports, in which case they may 
be considered as continuous. 

The span of a beam shall be considered as the distance from center to 
center of the bed plates or surfaces upon which it rests. If it is fastened 
to the side of a column, the span shall be measured to the centre of the 
column. 

In slabs, beams or girders continuous over supports, provision shall be 
made for a negative bending moment at such supports equal to four 
fifths of the positive bending moment that would exist at the centre of 
the span if the piece were simply supported; and the positive bending 
moment at the centre of the span may be taken equal to the negative 
bending moment at the support. 

In the case of a slab of reinforced concrete with parallel ribs or girders 
beneath, the rib or girder may be considered to include a portion of the 
slab between the ribs, forming a T-beam. The width of the T-beam on 
top shall not exceed one third the span of the rib nor the distance from 
centre to centre of the ribs. 

Reinforced concrete columns shall be proportioned on the assumption 
that the concrete and the steel are shortened in length in the same pro- 
portion. The steel members shall be tied together at intervals suffi- 
ciently short to prevent buckling. 

If a column is loaded excentrically or transversely, the maximum fibre 
stress, taking account of the direct compression, the bending which it 
causes, its excentricity and the transverse load, shall not exceed the 
maximum allowable stress in compression. 

If a tension piece is loaded excentrically or transversely, the maximum 
fibre stress, taking account of the direct tension, its excentricity and the 
transverse load, shall not exceed the maximum allowable stress in tension. 

An excentric load upon a column shall be considered to affect excentri- 
cally only the length of column extending to the next point below at 
which the column is held securely in the direction of the excentricity. 

If a piece is exposed to tension and compression at different times, it 
shall be proportioned to resist the maximum of each kind, but the unit 
stresses shall be less than those used for stress of one kind, depending 
upon the ratio and the relative frequence of the two maxima. 



16 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

Net sections shall be used in proportioning steel tension members, 
and in deducting rivet holes they shall be taken as one eighth of an inch 
greater in diameter than the rivets. 

The length of a steel compression member between supports in any 
direction shall not exceed one hundred and twenty times its radius of 
gyration about an axis perpendicular to that direction. 

The webs of plate girders shall be proportioned to resist buckling in 
cases where they are not supported laterally, according to the formula : 

15,000 



1 d 2 
3,000 t 2 

in which t = thickness of web, in inches; d = clear, unsupported dimen- 
sion horizontally or vertically, whichever is the lesser. 

In proportioning the flanges of plate girders, one eighth of the gross 
area of the web may be considered as available in each flange. If the 
length of the top flange unsupported laterally exceeds twenty times its 
width, the allowable stress shall be reduced, as in the case of rolled beams. 

Pins shall be computed by assuming the forces in the bars to act at the 
centre of the bearing areas. 

In riveted trusses the centre of gravity lines of members coming to- 
gether at a joint shall, if possible, intersect at a point. Excentricity due 
to a non-fulfillment of this rule shall be allowed for in the computations. 
The centre of gravity of the rivets connecting one piece to another shall, 
in general, lie as nearly as practicable in the centre of gravity line of the 
piece. 

CLASSIFICATION. 

First and Second Class Buildings. 

SECT. 17. Every building over seventy-five feet in height hereafter 
erected or raised and every house adapted for habitation more than five 
stories in height and exceeding sixty-five feet above the basement or 
covering more than five thousand superficial square feet on the ground 
floor, regardless of height, shall be constructed as a first class building; 
and all other houses may, except as herein otherwise provided, be of 
second or third class construction. 

New buildings adapted for habitations, and not more than five stories 
above the cellar or basement, may be erected of second class construc- 
tion, but no such building shall exceed five thousand square feet in super- 
ficial area or sixty-five feet in height. The first story or basement, or 
both the first story and basement, in such buildings, so constructed, 
altered, remodelled or enlarged, may be used for mercantile purposes, 
provided, that the walls and ceilings surrounding the areas so used shall 
be fire-stopped to the satisfaction of the commissioner. 

New buildings, of concrete, concrete blocks or brick, not over three 
stories in height, adapted for the occupancy of a single family and 
having a superficial area of not more than twelve hundred square feet, 
may be constructed with external and party or division walls of eight 
inches in thickness: provided, however, that where the party wall of a 
building thus constructed joins or becomes the party wall of another 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 17 

such building, the floor timbers in each of such buildings shall be so 
spaced or protected that their ends shall not approach nearer than within 
eight inches of each other. 

Restriction of Areas. 

Any first class building used above the first floor as a warehouse or 
store for the storage or sale of merchandise shall have all vertical open- 
ings protected by fireproof enclosures. Such enclosures shall, if enclos- 
ing stairs or escalators, have automatic doors, and all glass in said 
enclosure shall be wire glass. 

Such buildings shall so be divided by brick walls built like party walls 
with the same openings allowed, that no space inside such buildings shall 
exceed in area ten thousand square feet, except that when any such 
building has a frontage of not less than fifty feet on each of two streets, 
such space may exceed ten thousand square feet in area, provided that 
buildings in which such extension of area beyond ten thousand square 
feet is permitted shall have automatic fire sprinklers installed, and means 
of ingress and egress satisfactory to the commissioner and the board of 
appeal. 

Second class buildings used above the first floor as warehouses or 
stores for the storage or sale of merchandise shall so be divided by brick 
walls, built like party walls with the same openings allowed, that no 
space inside such buildings shall exceed in area ten thousand square feet, 
and no existing wall in any second class building shall be removed so as to 
leave an area of more than ten thousand square feet, nor shall any exist- 
ing wall, separating areas which combined would exceed ten thousand 
square feet in area, have openings cut in it greater in area or number than 
is allowed by this act for party walls. 

Every second class building more than three stories high and used 
above the first floor as a warehouse or store for the storage or sale of 
merchandise shall have all vertical openings for elevators and stairways, 
air or light shafts, through its floors protected by fireproof enclosures. 
Such enclosures shall be supported on fireproof supports and framing, 
and shall, if enclosing stairs or escalators, have automatic doors, and all 
glass in said enclosures shall be wire glass. 

No building used above the first floor for the storage or sale of mer- 
chandise shall have less than two means of egress from every story, one 
of which means may be either an outside fire escape or through a brick 
wall closed by automatic doors into a building of the same class; except 
that an independent monumental stairway extending from the basement 
to the second floor may be constructed. 

Buildings for Manufacturing Purposes. 

Buildings outside the building limits and adapted exclusively for 
manufacturing, storage, mechanical or stable purposes, may be built 
under such conditions as the commissioner shall prescribe. If of wood 
such buildings shall not exceed forty-five feet in height. 



18 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

Height. 

SECT. 18. No building, structure or part thereof shall be of a height 
exceeding two and one half times the width of the widest street on which 
the building or structure stands, whether such street is a public street or 
place or a private way, nor exceeding one hundred and twenty-five feet 
in any case. The width of such street, place or private way shall be 
measured from the face of the building or structure to the line of the 
street on the other side. If the street is of uneven width, the width shall 
be the average width of the part of the street opposite the building or 
structure; if the effective width of the street is increased by an area or 
setback, the space between the face of the main building and the law- 
fully established line of the street may be built upon to the height of two 
and one half times the width of the street. 

All buildings or structures hereafter erected in any part of the city 
shall be subject to the restrictions imposed by chapter four hundred and 
fifty-two of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, by 
chapter five hundred and forty-three of the acts of the year nineteen 
hundred and two, by chapter three hundred and eighty-three of the acts 
of the year nineteen hundred and five, and by chapter four hundred and 
sixteen of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and seven, so far as the 
restrictions imposed by said acts relate to the districts described therein; 
and shall also be subject to any restrictions lawfully imposed by the park 
commissioners of said city. 

Excavations. 

SECT. 19. All excavations shall so be protected, by sheet piling if 
necessary, by the persons causing the same to be made, that the adjoining 
soil shall not cave in by reason of its own weight. It shall be the duty of 
the owner of every building to furnish, or cause to be furnished, such 
support that his building shall not be endangered by any excavation: 
provided, that the owner of any building which is endangered by an 
excavation carried by an adjoining owner more than ten feet below the 
grade of the street may recover the expense so caused of supporting such 
building from the persons causing such excavation to be made. All per- 
manent excavations shall be protected by retaining walls. In case of 
any failure to comply with the provisions of this section the commis- 
sioner may enter upon the premises and may furnish such support as the 
circumstances may require. Any expense so incurred may be recovered 
by the city from the persons required by law to furnish the support. 

Piling. 

SECT. 20. All buildings shall, if the commissioner determines that 
piling is necessary, be constructed on foundation piles which, if of wood, 
shall be not more than three feet apart on centres in the direction of the 
wall, and the number, diameter and bearing of such piles shall be suffi- 
cient to support the superstructure proposed. The commissioner shall 
determine the grade at which the piles shall be cut. The commissioner 
may require any applicant for a permit to ascertain by boring the nature 
of the ground on which he proposes to build, and he may require an 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 19 

inspector satisfactory to the commissioner to be at all times on the work 
while piles are being driven, who shall keep an accurate record of the 
length of each pile, the weight and fall of the hammer, and the penetra- 
tion of each pile for each of the last two blows of the hammer. 

Plain concrete piles shall be made in place by methods which are rea- 
sonably certain to secure perfect, full sized piles. Reinforced concrete 
piles if properly designed to resist the shock of driving, and if driven 
with a cushion to lessen the shock or by a water jet, may be molded, 
allowed to harden, and then driven in place. 

In case concrete piles are used, whether reinforced or not, their bearing 
power shall be determined by putting in one or more test piles and 
loading them after the concrete has hardened. The load allowed shall 
not be more than one half the load under which the pile begins to settle. 
In no case, however, shall the load on a concrete pile exceed that specified 
herein for concrete in columns. Concrete for piles shall have not more 
than five parts of properly made and mixed aggregate to one part of 
Portland cement; and the aggregate shall all be capable of passing 
through a one inch ring. 

All wood piles shall be capped with block granite levellers, each leveller 
having a firm bearing on the pile or piles which it covers, or with first 
class Portland cement concrete, not less than sixteen inches thick, above 
the pile caps, containing one part of cement to not more than six parts of 
properly graded aggregate of stone and sand, the concrete to be filled in 
around the pile heads upon the intervening earth. 

Foundations of First and Second Class Buildings. 

SECT. 21. Foundations of first and second class buildings may be of 
brick, stone or concrete. The thickness shall be as stated in section 
twenty-three. Foundations of rubble stone shall be allowed only under 
buildings less than forty-five feet in height and for a depth of less than 
ten feet. 

The walls and piers of every building shall have a foundation, the 
bearing of which shall be not less than four feet below any adjoining 
surface exposed to the frost, and such foundation, with the superstruc- 
ture which it supports, shall not overload the material on which it rests. 

Cellars. 

SECT. 22. The cellar of every building, where the grade or nature 
of the ground so requires, shall be sufficiently protected from water and 
damp by a bed at least two inches thick over the whole, of concrete, 
cement and gravel, tar and gravel, or asphalt, or by bricks laid in cement. 
No cellar or basement floor of any building shall be constructed below 
the grade of twelve feet above mean low water, unless such cellar is made 
waterproof to the satisfaction of the commissioner. All metal founda- 
tions and all constructional metal work underground shall be protected 
from dampness by concrete, or by other material approved by the 
commissioner. 

Thickness of Walls. 

SECT. 23. Except as provided in section seventeen, the external walls 
above the foundation of houses for habitation of first or second class con- 
struction, and not exceeding sixteen hundred square feet in area and not 



CM ENGINEERING 



20 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

over three stories high, shall be not less than eight inches thick for 
external walls and not less than twelve inches thick for party walls. In 
case any part of such building is adapted for any use other than habita- 
tion, all walls shall be not less than twelve inches thick. All other 
houses for habitation, not exceeding five thousand feet in superficial area 
and not exceeding five stories or sixty-five feet in height, above the base- 
ment, shall have all walls not less than twelve inches thick. 

The external and party walls of every building of the first or second 
class, except houses for habitation, less than sixty-five feet in height shall 
be twelve inches thick in the upper two stories not exceeding twenty-five 
feet in height. In the section of two stories, but not exceeding twenty- 
five feet next below, the walls shall be sixteen inches thick. In the next 
lower section of three stories, but not exceeding thirty-seven feet, the 
walls shall be twenty inches thick, and in each succeeding section of three 
stories, but not exceeding thirty-seven feet or any part thereof, the walls 
shall be four inches thicker than the section next above it. The founda- 
tion walls shall be at least four inches thicker than the required thickness 
of the walls of the first story. The thickness herein given shall apply to 
all masonry walls unless they are reinforced by a frame or skeleton of 
steel. 

In reckoning the thickness of walls, ashlar shall not be included unless 
the walls are at least sixteen inches thick and the ashlar is at least eight 
inches thick, or unless alternate courses are at least four and eight inches 
to allow bonding with the backing. Ashlar shall be properly held by 
metal clamps to the backing or properly bonded to the same. 

Anchors. 

SECT. 24. All walls of a first or second class building meeting at?an 
angle shall be securely bonded, or shall be united every five feet of their 
height by anchors made of at least two inches by half an inch of steel or 
wrought iron, well painted, and securely built into the side or partition 
walls not less than thirty-six inches, and into the front and rear walls 
at least one half the thickness of such walls. 



Brickwork Bonding. 

SECT. 25. Every eighth course, at least, of a brick wall shall be a 
full heading or bonding course, except where walls are faced with face 
brick, in which case in every eighth course at least every other brick shall 
be a full header. No diagonal header ties shall be used. 

Vaulted Walls. 

SECT. 26. If the air spaces are headed over and the walls are built 
solid for at least three courses below the floor and roof beams, walls, if of 
brick, may be built hollow. They shall contain, exclusive of withes, the 
same amount of material as is required for solid walls, and the masonry 
on the inside of the air space in walls over two stories in height shall be 
not less than eight inches thick, and the parts on either side shall be 
securely tied together with ties not more than two feet apart in each 
direction. 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 21 



Walls Framed with Iron or Steel. 

SECT. 27. Walls may be built in part of iron or steel or with a 
reinforced concrete or metal framework. In such metal framework the 
beams and girders shall be riveted to each other at their respective junc- 
tion points. If columns made of rolled iron or steel are used, their 
different parts shall be riveted to each other, and the beams and girders 
resting upon them shall, if possible, have riveted connections to unite 
them with the columns. If cast iron columns are used, each successive 
column shall be bolted to the one below it by at least four bolts not less 
than three fourths of an inch in diameter, and the beams and girders 
shall be bolted to the columns. At each line of floor or roof beams, lat- 
eral connections between the ends of the beams and girders shall be made 
in such manner as rigidly to connect the beams and girders with each 
other in the direction of their length. 

All party walls of skeleton construction shall have curtain walls of 
brick, not less than twelve inches thick. 

All outside walls of skeleton construction shall have curtain walls 
which may be of masonry, terra-cotta, concrete, or reinforced concrete, 
constructed and supported under such conditions as the commissioner 
shall prescribe. 

If the metal or other framework is so designed that the enclosing walls 
do not carry the weight of floors or roof, then the walls shall be of ma- 
sonry or concrete construction and shall be thoroughly anchored to the 
iron skeleton, and whenever the weight of such walls rests upon beams or 
columns, such beams or columns shall be made strong enough in each 
story to carry the weight of wall resting upon them without reliance upon 
the walls below them. 

Party Walls Above Roof. 

SECT. 28. In buildings less than forty-five feet in height all party 
walls shall be built to a height at least twelve inches above the roof 
covering, and shall be capped with stone, cement or metal securely fas- 
tened to the masonry. In all other buildings such walls shall be carried 
thirty inches above the roof. 

Walls Cornices. 

SECT. 29. Where a wall is finished with a stone cornice, the greatest 
weight of material of such cornice shall be on the inside of the face of 
the wall. All cornices of second class buildings shall be of brick or 
covered with fireproof material, and the walls shall be carried up to the 
boarding of the roof; and where the cornice projects above the roof the 
masonry shall be carried up to the top of the cornice and covered with 
metal, like parapet walls. 

Piers and Hearths. 

SECT. 30. Piers and walls shall have caps or plates, where they are 
needed, sufficient properly to distribute the load. 

Hearths shall be supported by trimmer arches of brick or stone; or 
shall be of single stones at least six inches thick, built into the chimney 



22 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

and supported by iron beams, one end of which shall be securely built 
into the masonry of a chimney or of an adjoining wall, or which shall 
otherwise rest upon an incombustible support. Brick jambs of every 
fireplace, range or grate opening shall be at least eight inches wide each, 
and the backs of such openings shall be at least eight inches thick. 
Hearths and trimmer arches shall be at least twelve inches longer on 
either side than the width of such openings, and at least eighteen inches 
wide in front of the chimney breast. Brickwork over fireplaces and grate 
openings shall be supported by proper iron bars, or brick or stone arches. 

Walls Doorways in Party Walls. 

SECT. 31. Openings for doorways in party walls shall not exceed 
one hundred square feet each in area, and each opening shall have two 
sets of fire doors separated by the thickness of the wall, hung in a manner 
satisfactory to the commissioner, except that the aggregate width of all 
openings in any story shall not exceed fifty per cent of the length of the 
wall in which such openings occur. Openings, not exceeding one 
hundred and forty-four square inches, constructed and protected as shall 
be approved by a writing signed by the fire commissioner, and filed with 
the commissioner, may be permitted in any wall or floor. 

Fire Protection. 

SECT. 32. All structural metal supporting or forming part of the 
frame, floors, roof or columns of any building, except as otherwise ex- 
empted in this act, shall be protected against the effect of heat. 

This protection shall consist of concrete, or of porous terra-cotta or 
brick set in cement mortar. When block construction is used, it shall 
be clamped in place with steel clamps, or wrapped securely with number 
twelve galvanized-iron wire or metal lathing in such manner as to hold 
each block in place, and shall be plastered with lime or other mortar at 
least three fourths of an inch thick in addition to the protection. 

The protection on all floor and roof beams shall be at least one inch 
thick, on all floor and roof girders and on all beams carrying masonry 
at least one inch thick on top and two inches thick elsewhere, on all 
columns carrying only floors three inches, and on all columns built into or 
carrying walls four inches. 

If terra-cotta blocks are used for protection, such blocks may be hol- 
low, but each face shall be solid, and no flange shall be less than one inch 
thick. 

Plaster on wire or metal lath shall not be considered as a fire protection 
for steel or iron structural members, but may be used with an air space 
under arches as a suspended ceiling, provided that such arches have at 
least one inch of thickness of fireproofing under the flanges in addition 
to such ceiling, and that the metal lath and plaster are suspended sep- 
arately from the arches and are not less than one inch below the same. 

All protection shall be applied directly to the metal work and shall not 
be broken into nor interrupted by any pipes, wires, chases or conduits of 
any kind. 

About isolated columns on the exterior of buildings, the thickness of 
protection may be reduced to one inch, when the same is covered with an 
outer shell of cast iron or steel. 

When a column or girder is formed of built-up shapes, the spaces 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 23 

between flanges shall be filled solid with protecting material, but this 
protection need not extend more than one inch beyond the edges of 
projecting angles, bars or channels. The protection shall cover all lugs, 
brackets, braces, etc. 

The metal work of all trusses carrying masonry or floor loads shall be 
protected, as hereinbefore described, but said provisions shall not apply 
to trusses which carry roof load only. 

When a wall or partition is formed with a framework of angles, chan- 
nels, or other built-up shapes, and such wall or partition is filled in flush 
with both faces of the frame with terra-cotta blocks, additional pro- 
tection may be omitted. 

The above requirements as to fireproofing shall not apply to iron or 
steel in second or third class buildings in any case in which the use of 
wood without fire protection would be permissible under this act. 

In work in connection with alterations of existing buildings, the char- 
acter and amount of protection for steel and ironwork shall be made 
satisfactory to the commissioner. 

In positions where the protection of isolated or exposed columns is 
likely to be broken or damaged by trucks or merchandise, there shall be 
outside of the protection a guard at least five feet high of iron or wood, 
bound with wire or steel so as to be self-supporting. 

Spaces between and behind all studding or furring shall be filled solid 
with bricks and mortar or other fireproof material for a space of five 
inches in height above the floor beams or plaster grounds. Spaces 
between the strap furring on brick walls shall be filled solid with mortar 
for five inches below the bottom of the floor beams. The spaces between 
stringers of stairs and joists of landings, unless unceiled or of fireproof 
construction, shall be stopped solid with wood, brick or terra-cotta or 
other approved material as often as twice in each flight of stairs. The 
spaces between floor beams on bearing partitions shall be stopped in a 
similar manner. 

In every building of second or third class construction each floor shall 
be thoroughly stopped by a continuous layer of asbestos fabric, magneso 
calcite or other fire-resisting material approved by the commissioner. 

The tops of all heating furnaces and smoke pipes shall be at least one 
foot below the nearest wooden beams or ceiling. All ceilings imme- 
diately over a furnace or boiler, and for six feet on each side thereof, and 
all ceilings over indirect radiators shall, except under fireproof floors, be 
metal lathed and plastered. 

All hot-air register boxes in the floors or partitions of buildings shall 
be set in soapstone or equally fireproof borders not less than two inches 
in width, shall be made of tin plate, and shall have double pipes and 
boxes properly fitted to the soapstone. Hot-air pipes and register 
boxes shall be at least one inch from any woodwork, and register boxes 
shall be fifteen inches by twenty-five inches, or larger, and their con- 
necting pipes shall be two inches from any woodwork. If indirect hot 
water or indirect steam heat is used, the commissioner may modify or 
dispense with the foregoing requirements. 

Fireproof Partitions. 

SECT. 33. Partitions in buildings of first class construction shall be 
constructed of plastering applied to metal lathing, or to plaster boards. 



24 . Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

or to hollow blocks composed of cement, plaster, or terra-cotta. When 
block construction is used it shall be self-supporting above all openings, 
thoroughly bonded and set in Portland cement. The blocks shall start 
from the floor and shall be continuous to the floor above, except that in 
the upper story, where there is a space between the ceiling of the top 
story and the roof, these partitions need not extend above the ceiling. If 
plastered on both sides the blocks shall be not less than four inches thick 
up to a height of fifteen feet, and shall be increased one inch for every 
additional eight feet or fraction thereof. The thickness of webs shall be 
not less than three fourths of an inch. 

If partitions are not plastered on both sides, the thickness of blocks 
shall be one inch greater than as specified above. 

Timbers in Walls of Second Class Buildings. 

SECT. 34. The ends of all wooden floor or roof beams in second class 
buildings shall enter the wall to a depth of at least four inches. When 
the wall is eight inches thick it shall be corbelled or the beams shall 
be hung in metal hangers; and the ends of all such beams shall so be 
shaped or arranged that in case of fire they may fall without injury to 
the wall. 

Alteration of Existing Buildings. 

SECT. 35. Any building, except those of third class construction 
within the building limits, having not more than five floors above the 
mean grade of all the sidewalks, may be altered, remodelled or enlarged 
for use as a house for habitation using second class construction. 

The first story or basement, or both the first story and basement, in 
such buildings may be used for mercantile purposes, provided that the 
walls and ceilings surrounding the area so used shall be fire-stopped to 
the satisfaction of the commissioner. 

The height of any such building shall not be increased unless the walls 
and foundations conform to the provisions of this act. The number of 
stories of such a building shall not exceed five above the cellar or base- 
ment. 

Every such building, more than thirty-three feet in height, so altered, 
remodelled or enlarged, shall be provided with at least two independent 
exits satisfactory to the commissioner. 

Every such building, so altered, remodelled or enlarged, shall have, in 
addition to the exposure on the widest street, an exposure as long as the 
average width of the building, upon a space open from the ground to the 
sky, at least ten feet wide for the first three stories, and increasing in 
width five feet for the next two stories. If the proposed building is more 
than five stories in height, said space shall be twenty feet : provided, that 
if the basement and first story are adapted or enlarged for use for mer- 
cantile purposes, the exposure required by this section shall not apply to 
that part of the building; and provided, also, that sufficient space be 
retained on the lot for the storage of ashes and garbage. 

Such exposure may be either upon private or public ways, or upon 
land which is dedicated for the use of the building, and may be divided 
and placed as approved by the building commissioner. 

These spaces shall remain undiminished so long as the building is used 
for habitation. 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 25 

If the building is situated on the corner of streets or private ways not 
less than ten feet wide the commissioner may approve the omission of the 
whole or part of this additional exposure. 

If in the opinion of the commissioner the alteration proposed to be 
made in a building is of such extent as, when done, to produce a practi- 
cally new structure or to impair the stability or increase the fire risk of 
the structure as a whole, then the whole structure shall be made to con- 
form to the provisions of this act for a new structure of the same class. 
A building damaged by fire or other casualty may be repaired or restored 
so as to conform to its original condition, or may be reconstructed in 
some or all of its parts, so as to conform to the requirements of this act 
for new buildings, as the commissioner may specify in his permit. 

Every living room in a building adapted for habitation shall have a 
window on the open air of an area not less than ten square feet and dis- 
tant in a three story building not less than six feet from any opposite 
wall; distant in a four story building not less than eight feet from any 
opposite wall ; distant in a five story building not less than ten feet from 
any opposite wall. This shall not apply to the construction of third class 
buildings, except the provision for a window on the open air of an area. 

The exposure required under this section shall apply to all buildings 
hereafter constructed adapted for habitation, except as is otherwise pro- 
vided for tenement houses. 

Floors Loads. 

SECT. 36. All new or renewed floors and stairs shall be so con- 
structed as to carry safely the weight to which the proposed use of the 
building may subject them, and every permit granted shall state for what 
purpose the building is designed to be used; but the least capacity per 
superficial square foot, exclusive of materials, shall be: 

For floors of houses for habitation, fifty pounds. 

For office floors and for public rooms of hotels and houses exceeding 
five hundred square feet, one hundred pounds. 

For floors of retail stores and public buildings, except schoolhouses, or 
for light manufacturing, one hundred and twenty-five pounds. 

For floors of schoolhouses, other than floors of assembly rooms, sixty 
pounds, and for floors of assembly rooms, one hundred and twenty-five 
pounds. 

For floors of drill rooms, dance halls and riding schools, two hundred 
pounds. 

For floors of warehouses and mercantile buildings, at least two hun- 
dred and fifty pounds. 

For flat roofs, forty pounds. 

For stairs, landings, platforms and fire escapes, seventy pounds. 

The loads not included in this classification shall be determined by 
the commissioner. 

The full floor load specified in this section shall be included in pro- 
portioning all parts of buildings designed for warehouses, or for heavy 
mercantile and manufacturing purposes. In other buildings, however, 
reductions may be allowed, as follows: for girders carrying more than 
one hundred square feet of floor, the live load may be reduced ten per 
cent. For columns, piers, walls and other parts carrying two floors, a 
Deduction of fifteen per cent of the total live load may be made; where 



26 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

three floors are carried, the total live load may be reduced by twenty per 
cent; four floors, twenty-five per cent; five floors, thirty per cent; six 
floors, thirty-five per cent; seven floors, forty per cent; eight floors, 
forty-five per cent; nine or more floors, fifty per cent. 

The commissioner may prescribe the maximum loads which may be 
imposed upon the floors of existing buildings. 

Shutters. 

SECT. 37. In all first or second class mercantile or manufacturing 
buildings over thirty feet in height, outside openings in party walls, or 
in any rear or side wall within twenty feet of an opposite wall or building, 
shall have metal frames and sashes and shall be glazed with wire 
glass or shall be protected by shutters. Such shutters shall be covered 
on both sides with tin or shall be made of other substantial fireproof 
material, and hung on the outside, either upon independent metal frames 
or upon metal hinges attached to the masonry, and shall be made to be 
handled from the outside, and one such shutter in each room shall have a 
protected hand-hole eight inches in diameter. 

Elevators. 

SECT. 38. Elevators and hoists for freight which do not run above 
the first story may be constructed without fireproof enclosures. Freight 
and passenger elevators may be placed in areas or hallways where the 
same are continuous and unbroken, such elevators to be protected by 
metal grille. Except as above provided, all shafts for elevators, hoists, 
dumb-waiters, lifts, light and ventilating shafts or other air ducts shall 
be constructed of fireproof material. The tops of all such shafts shall be 
covered with fireproof material unless the shaft extends above the upper 
floor of the building, and in that case the shaft shall be carried at least 
three feet above the roof and shall be covered with a skylight. Such 
shafts, if for freight or passenger elevators, shall be of brick at least 
eight inches thick, or of metal covered on both sides with at least one 
inch of plaster applied immediately to the metal, or with some other 
equally substantial fireproof material. 

Every opening into a shaft or hoistway shall be protected by self- 
closing gates, rails, trap-doors, or other equivalent devices. 

Every elevator shall be provided with a safety attachment to prevent 
the falling of the car. The machinery over the elevator shall have under- 
neath it a grille sufficient to protect the car from falling material. 

Every opening into an elevator shaft or hoistway and every opening 
through a floor, other than a stairway, shall be closed when not in use. 

All elevator shaft openings, other than openings into passenger ele- 
vator shafts, shall be furnished with metal-covered or incombustible 
doors, hung in a manner satisfactory to the commissioner, and shall be 
provided with iron thresholds. Wire glass panels may be used in such 
doors. Outside windows or openings of every elevator shaft shall have 
three vertical iron rods, painted red, equally spaced off in such window 
or opening. 

Freight elevators shall be equipped with a suitable danger signal to 
warn people of the approach of the elevator. 

The space between the car and door of each landing shall be not more 
than two inches. 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 27 

No elevator shall be used in any building until the same is approved 
in writing by the commissioner. 

In case any freight or passenger elevator is not constructed or fur- 
nished in compliance with this act, or has become unsafe, the com- 
missioner shall post a conspicuous warning and prohibition at each 
entrance to such elevator. It shall thereafter, until a new written 
permit is given by the commissioner, be a penal offence hereunder to 
operate the said elevator, or to remove or deface the said notice. 

Freight elevator wells hereafter built on the line of the external wall 
of a building shall be so constructed that there shall be no recess in the 
outer wall along the whole line of the same, and that no more than four 
inches space shall be allowed between the platform of the car and the 
outer wall. The side of the platform and the line of the doorway shall 
be flush with the well-way, and the door openings from the said elevator 
well into the building shall be placed at least six inches back from the 
face of the well, so as to allow space enough for self-closing gates to 
operate between the door and the well opening. Outside openings to 
freight elevators shall be protected by self-closing slatted gates, " ver- 
tical ", with spaces not wider than two inches between the slats. 

All elevators running at a speed of more than one hundred feet a 
minute, shall be operated by competent persons not less than eighteen 
years of age, and no other person shall operate or have the care or charge 
of such an elevator. 

No elevator shall be operated by or placed in charge of any person 
under sixteen years of age. 

No elevator shall hereafter be installed in any building without a 
permit having been granted therefor, and the applicant shall submit a 
plan showing the proposed location of the shaftway, the area and situ- 
ation of the machine room, and the said plan shall be filed as part of 
the records of the department. All elevators hereafter installed shall be 
located so as to give easy and safe access to all the principal parts of the 
machinery for inspection and repairs. 

All passenger elevators hereafter built operated by drum and cables, 
shall have an overspeed governor to prevent the car from descending at 
overspeed, and all passenger and freight elevators shall have a slack cable 
device to stop the machinery in case the car is held up or the cables part. 

If any accident shall occur to any elevator affecting life or limb or 
damaging any part of the machinery or running parts of the elevator, it 
shall be the duty of the engineer or superintendent in charge imme- 
diately, before any repairs are made, or any broken pieces are removed, 
to notify the commissioner of the accident, before the elevator is operated 
again, so that the cause of the accident may be determined, any faulty 
construction remedied, and satisfactory repairs made. 

All elevator cables hereafter installed that pass through bevelled 
sockets, the ends returning and refitting into the same, shall have in 
addition lead or babbitt metal poured into the ends of the socket, to 
prevent the possibility of the cable's slipping. 

All manufacturers of elevators shall be required to test, in the pres- 
ence of an inspector, the safety devices of every elevator installed before 
the same is turned over to the owners for use, and the commissioner 
shall be notified by the manufacturer at least twenty-four hours before 



28 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

such test is made. An inspector may require a test of the safety device 
of any elevator if in his judgment the same is required. 

The commissioner may require additional safeguards on elevators, if 
in his judgment the condition, use or surroundings of the elevator 
demand them. 

The commissioner may, with the approval of the mayor, appoint com- 
petent elevator inspectors in addition to those already detailed, one for 
every one thousand elevators and hoistways in the city of Boston. 

Wooden Buildings. 

SECT. 39. Every wooden building hereafter erected shall have a 
foundation of concrete, rubble, block granite or brick, laid in mortar or 
other equally substantial material, carried to the surface of the ground. 
Every such foundation if of brick or concrete, shall be at least twelve 
inches thick; if of granite, shall be at least sixteen inches thick; if of 
rubble, shall be at least twenty inches thick; and shall be laid at least 
four feet below any surface exposed to frost and upon solid ground or 
upon piles properly spaced. 

Every wooden building hereafter erected or altered, the sills of which 
do not rest directly upon a foundation as above described, but on an 
underpinning, shall have such underpinning made of brick, stone or 
concrete; and if the building is thirty-three feet or less in height above 
the highest street level of its principal front, the underpinning, if of brick 
or concrete, shall be at least eight inches thick, and if the building is of 
greater height, the underpinning, if of brick or concrete, shall be at 
least twelve inches thick; every underpinning of stone shall be at least 
sixteen inches thick. Every wooden building, hereafter erected on soft 
and marshy land, and used for a workshop or other like purpose, or as a 
temporary structure, may, if the commissioner approves, rest upon mud 
sills or blocks, or on piles. 

Every wooden building hereafter erected or altered shall have all its 
parts of sufficient strength to carry the weight of the superstructure; 
shall be built with sills, posts, girts, studs and plates, properly framed, 
mortised, tenoned, braced and pinned in each story, or with a balloon 
frame; the posts and girts shall be not less than four by six inches in 
cross section, and the studs shall be not more than twenty inches apart. 
Wooden buildings hereafter erected for other purposes than habitation 
shall not be situated within five feet of the line of the lot unless the side 
wall on such line or lines be of brick or concrete, built to the under side 
of the roof. 

SECT. 40. No wooden building hereafter erected to be used as a 
habitation shall be more than three stories in height above the basement, 
nor more than forty-five feet in height above the street level, nor shall 
any part of such building, except the eaves and cornice, be nearer than 
three feet to the line of any adjoining lot, and if built on land of the same 
owner, nearer than six feet to any other building, unless the side wall of 
such adjoining building is constructed as a solid brick or concrete wall 
not less than eight inches thick and carried twelve inches above the roof. 

Every wooden building hereafter constructed to form a block of two 
or more houses shall have a brick or concrete party wall between adjoin- 
ing houses, which shall be not less than eight inches thick, shall be 






Acts- of 1907, Chapter 550. 29 

carried twelve inches above the roof, and shall be capped with a metallic 
covering. 

Flooring during Construction. 

SECT. 41. If, in the erection of an iron or steel frame building, 
the spaces between the girders or floor beams of a floor are not filled 
and covered by the permanent construction of such floors before another 
story is added to the building, a close plank flooring shall be placed and 
maintained over such spaces during construction. If and when such 
flooring cannot be used without serious interference with the work of 
construction, such provision shall be made to protect the workmen from 
falling materials as will be satisfactory to the commissioner. 

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TENEMENT HOUSES. 

Definitions. 

SECT. 42. Certain words are defined as follows: 

(1.) A tenement house is any house, building, structure or portion 
thereof, occupied, or adapted for occupation, as a dwelling by more than 
three families living independently of one another and doing their cook- 
ing upon the premises, or by more than two families above the first story 
so living and cooking. A family living in a tenement house may consist 
of one or more persons. 

An existing tenement house is any building erected as such or con- 
verted to such use or as altered for such use or so used before the passage 
of this act, and any building adapted for such use, provided that a permit 
was issued for the erection of said building before the passage of this act. 

A tenement house hereafter erected is any tenement house other than 
an existing tenement house as above defined. 

(2.) A corner lot is a lot situated at the junction of two or more 
streets, or of two or more streets and alleys or open passageways not 
less than fifteen feet in width. 

(3.) A yard is an open unoccupied space on the same lot with a build- 
ing and between the extreme rear line of said building and the rear line 
of the lot. 

(4.) A court is an open unoccupied space other than a yard on the 
same lot with a building. An inner court is a court not extending to a 
street, or alley, or open passageway, or yard. An outer court is a court 
extending to a street, or alley, or open passageway, or yard. A vent 
court is an inner court for the lighting and ventilation of water-closets, 
bathrooms, public halls, and stair halls only. An intake is a passageway 
connecting an inner court with a street, or alley, or open passageway, 
or yard. 

(5.) A shaft, whether for air, light, elevator, dumb-waiter, or any 
other purpose, is an enclosed space within a building, extending to the 
roof, and covered either by a skylight or by the roof. A vent shaft is a 
shaft used solely to ventilate or light water-closet compartments or 
bathrooms. 

(6.) A. public hall is a hall, corridor, or passageway not within an 
apartment. 

(7.) A stair hall includes the stairs, stair landings, and those parts of 



30 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

the public hall through which it is necessary to pass in going from the 
entrance floor to the roof. 

(8.) An apartment is a room, or suite of two or more rooms, occupied 
or suitable for occupation, as a residence for one family. 

(9.) Repairs means any renewal of any existing part of a building, or 
of its fixtures or appurtenances, which does not lessen the strength of 
the building. 

Fire-escapes. 

SECT. 43. In all tenement houses hereafter erected and more than 
three stories in height above the basement or cellar there shall be pro- 
vided one of the following means of egress for escape from fire: (1) an 
interior enclosed stairway as described in this section; or (2) an exterior 
iron fire-escape and stairs as hereinafter described; or (3) iron balconies 
connecting with adjoining houses, or with adjoining parts of the same 
house separated from each other by a brick partition wall in which there 
are no openings except such as are protected with fireproof self-closing 
doors; and every apartment above the first floor shall have access to one 
of such means of egress. 

(1.) Interior fire-escapes may consist of wooden circular stairs, occu- 
pying a space of a diameter not less than four feet six inches. Such stairs 
shall extend from the top floor to the level of the basement, where they 
shall open into either an outer or an inner court or yard. These stairs 
shall be separated in the basement from the basement by brick walls at 
least eight inches thick, and the stairs above the basement shall be 
enclosed with fireproof partitions clear to a vent skylight, and shall 
have on each floor, in a public hall accessible from each apartment, a 
fireproof self-closing door and fireproof frame; the door to open into the 
corridor, and to be so arranged that it cannot be opened from the stair 
side; such staircase to be provided with a ventilating skylight at least 
nine square feet in area. The soffits of the stairs, if they are of wood, 
shall be plastered on metal lathing. 

(2.) Exterior fire-escapes shall be of iron, with iron grated floor, and 
capable of bearing a load of seventy pounds per square foot. The stair 
treads shall be of iron, and the pitch of the stairs shall not exceed sixty 
degrees. 

Balconies shall be at least three feet four inches wide, and the stairs 
at least twenty inches. There shall be a landing at the foot of each 
flight, and at the level of the second floor there shall be cantilever lad- 
ders. The rails on horizontal balconies and on the stairs shall be at 
least two feet ten inches high at all points. 

(3.) Balconies connecting adjoining houses, or adjoining parts of the 
same house as described above, shall be not less than thirty inches wide 
and capable of sustaining a load of seventy pounds per square foot. 
Railings shall be not less than two feet ten inches high, and shall be of 
iron. 

Bulkheads and Scuttles. 

SECT. 44. Every tenement house of the first or second class here- 
after erected shall have in the roof a fireproof bulkhead with a fireproof 
door to the same, and shall have fireproof stairs with a guide or hand rail 
leading to the roof, except that in such tenement houses which do not 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 31 

exceed sixty-five feet in height, such bulkheads may be of wood covered 
with metal on the outside and plastered on metal lathing on the inside; 
provided that the door shall be covered with metal on both sides. 

Every other tenement house shall have in the roof a bulkhead or 
scuttle. No scuttle shall be less in size than two feet by three feet, and 
all scuttles shall be covered on the outside with metal, and shall be pro- 
vided with stairs or stationary ladders leading thereto and easily accessi- 
ble to all tenants of the building, and kept free from encumbrance, and 
all scuttles and ladders shall be kept so as to be ready for use at all times. 
No scuttle shall be situated in a closet or room, but all scuttles shall be 
in the ceiling of the public hall on the top floor, and access through the 
scuttle to the roof shall be direct and uninterrupted. Scuttles shall be 
hinged so as to readily open. Every bulkhead hereafter constructed in a 
tenement house shall be constructed as provided for tenement houses 
hereafter erected and shall have stairs with a guide or hand rail leading 
to the roof, and such stairs shall be kept free from encumbrance at all 
times. No lock shall be placed on any scuttle or bulkhead door, but 
either may be fastened on the inside by movable bolts or hooks. All 
key-locks on scuttles and on bulkhead doors shall be removed. No stair- 
way leading to the roof in a tenement house shall be removed. 

Stairs and Public Halls. 

SECT. 45. Every tenement house hereafter erected shall have at 
least one stairway extending from the entrance floor to the roof, and 
every tenement house hereafter erected containing more than one hun- 
dred rooms above the first floor, exclusive of water-closets and bath- 
rooms, shall have an additional separate stairway for every additional 
one hundred rooms or fraction thereof. Public halls therein shall each 
be at least three feet wide in the clear, and stairs shall be at least three 
feet wide between the wall and the stair rail. 

Each stairway shall have an entrance on the entrance floor from a 
street or alley or open passageway or from an outer court, or from an 
inner court which connects directly with a street or alley or open passage- 
way. All stairs shall be constructed with a rise of not more than eight 
inches, and with treads not less than nine inches wide and not less than 
three feet long in the clear. Where winders are used all treads at a 
point eighteen inches from the strings on the wall side shall be at least 
ten inches wide. 

In every tenement house all stairways shall be provided with proper 
balusters and railings kept in good repair. No public hall or stairs in a 
tenement house shall be reduced in width so as to be less than the 
minimum width prescribed in this section. 

Stair Halls, Construction of. 

SECT. 46. In tenement houses hereafter erected which do not 
exceed five stories above the cellar or basement or sixty-five feet in 
height the stair halls shall either be constructed with iron beams and 
fireproof filling or shall be filled in between the floor beams with at least 
five inches of cement deafening. In such houses the stairs may be of 
wood, provided that the soffits are covered with metal laths and plastered 
with two coats of mortar, or with good quality plaster-boards not less 



32 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

than one half inch in thickness made of plaster and strong fibre, and all 
joints made true and well pointed, and provided that such stairs are 
furnished with firestops. 

Stair Halls, how Enclosed. 

SECT. 47. In second class and third class tenement houses here- 
after erected, the stair halls may be enclosed with wooden stud parti- 
tions, if such partitions are covered on both sides with metal laths or 
with good quality plaster-boards not less than one half inch in thickness, 
made of plaster and strong fibre, and all joints made true and well 
pointed, and provided that the space between the studs is filled in with 
brick and mortar or 'other incombustible material to the height of the 
floor beams. 

Entrance Halls. 

SECT. 48. Every entrance hall in every tenement house hereafter 
erected shall be at least three feet six inches wide in the clear, from the 
entrance up to and including the stair enclosure, and beyond this point 
at least three feet wide in the clear, and shall comply with all the condi- 
tions of the preceding sections of this act as to the construction of stair 
halls, except that in a fireproof tenement, house hereafter erected the 
entrance hall may be enclosed with terra-cotta blocks not less than four 
inches thick and angle-iron construction, instead of brick walls. If such 
entrance hall is the only entrance to more than one stairway, that portion 
of said hall between the entrance and the stairway shal be increased at 
least eighteen inches in width in every part for each additional stairway. 

Cellar Ceilings. 

SECT. 49. In all tenement houses of the second or third class 
hereafter erected, the cellar and basement ceilings shall be lathed with 
metal laths and plastered. 

Partitions, Construction of. 

SECT. 50. In all tenement houses of the second or third class here- 
after erected all stud partitions which rest directly over each other shall 
run through the wooden floor beams and rest upon the cap of the parti- 
tion below, and shall have the studding filled in solid between the up- 
rights to the depth of the floor beams with suitable materials. 

Wooden Tenement Houses. 

SECT. 51. Outside of the building limits, tenement houses not ex- 
ceeding three stories in height above the basement, nor eighteen hundred 
square feet in area, may be erected of wood. No wooden tenement 
house shall be increased in height so as to exceed three stories above the 
basement or cellar. 

Shafts. 

SECT. 52. All elevator or "dumb-waiter shafts hereafter constructed 
in any tenement house' shall be fireproof throughout, with fireproof self- 
closing doors at all openings at each story. But nothing in this section 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 33 

shall be so construed as to require enclosures about elevators or dumb- 
waiters in the well-hole of stairs where the stairs themselves are enclosed 
in walls of incombustible materials, and are entirely constructed of fire- 
proof materials as hereinbefore provided. Every vent shaft hereafter 
constructed in any tenement house shall have an intake of at least the 
dimensions provided for vent courts in section sixty-one, and shall be 
of the same minimum dimensions; and the skylight covering such vent 
shaft shall be raised at all points at least one foot above the top of the 
walls of such vent shaft, and the space between the top of said walls and 
the skylight shall remain at all points open and unobstructed except 
for such supports essential to the stability of the skylight, as may be 
approved by the commissioner. 

Bakeries and Fat Boiling. 

SECT. 53. No bakery and no place of business in which fat is boiled 
shall be maintained in any tenement house which is not fireproof through- 
out, unless the ceiling and side walls of said bakery or of the said place 
where fat boiling is done are made safe by fireproof materials around 
the same, and there shall be no openings either by door or window, dumb- 
waiter shafts or otherwise, between said bakery or said place where fat 
is boiled in any tenement house and the other parts of the building. 

Other Dangerous Businesses. 

SECT. 54. All transoms and windows opening into halls from any 
part of a tenement house where paint, oil, spirituous liquors or drugs 
are stored for the purpose of sale or otherwise shall be glazed with wire- 
glass, or they shall be removed and closed up as solidly as the rest of the 
wall. There shall be between any such hall and such part of said tene- 
ment house a fireproof self-closing door. 

LIGHT AND VENTILATION. 

Yards. 

SECT. 55. The requirements for yards hereinafter provided shall be 
deemed sufficient for all tenement houses. 

Except in those cases hereinafter provided for, there shall be, behind 
every tenement house hereafter erected, a yard extending across the 
entire width of the lot, and at every point open from the ground to the 
sky unobstructed, except by fire-escapes or unenclosed outside stairs. 

The depth of said yard shall be measured from the extreme rear wall 
of the house to the rear line of the lot, and at right angles to said line, 
except that where there is an alley or open passageway in the rear of the 
lot the depth of the yard may be measured to the middle of said alley or 
open passageway. On an irregular lot of several depths, where there is 
more than one rear line to the lot, such yard may extend across the entire 
width of the lot in sections, provided that each section of the yard is in 
every part and at every point of the minimum depth hereinafter pre- 
scribed. Where the side lines of a lot converge toward the rear, the 
depth of the yard shall be such as to give it an area equal to the greatest 
width of the yard multiplied by the depth hereinafter prescribed. 

Except on a corner lot, the depth of the yard behind every tenerre.it 



34 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

house hereafter erected fifty feet in height or less shall be not less than 
twelve feet in every part. All yards without exception shall be increased 
in depth at least one foot for every additional ten feet of height of the 
building, or fraction thereof, above fifty feet. 

Except as hereinafter otherwise provided, the depth of the yard behind 
every tenement house hereafter erected upon a corner lot shall not be 
less than six feet in every part. But where such corner lot is more than 
twenty-five feet in width, the depth of the yard for that portion in 
excess of twenty-five feet shall be not less than twelve feet in every part, 
and shall increase in depth as above provided. 

Whenever a tenement house is hereafter erected upon a lot which runs 
through from street to street, or from a street to an alley or open passage- 
way, and said lot is one hundred and fifty feet or more in depth, said 
yard space shall be left midway between the two streets, and shall extend 
across the entire width of the lot, and shall be not less than twenty-four 
feet in depth from wall to wall, and shall be increased in depth at least 
two feet for every additional ten feet in height of the building, or fraction 
thereof, above fifty feet. 

When a tenement house hereafter erected does not front upon a street, 
a public alley, or a passageway, not less than fifteen feet wide, the re- 
quirements in this section as to yards shall apply to the front of such 
tenement house as well as to the rear. Neither the yard behind one 
tenement house nor any part thereof shall be deemed to satisfy in whole 
or in part the requirement of a yard in front of another tenement house. 

Cases in which no Yard shall be required. 

SECT. 56. No yard shall be required behind a tenement house 
hereafter erected upon a lot which abuts at the rear upon a railroad 
right of way, a cemetery or a public park. 

No yard shall be required behind a tenement house hereafter erected 
upon a lot entirely surrounded by streets or by streets, alleys or open 
passageways, not less than fifteen feet in width, or by such streets, alleys, 
and passageways and a railroad right of way, a cemetery or a public park. 

No yard shall be required behind a tenement house hereafter erected 
upon a lot less than one hundred and fifty feet deep and running through 
from street to street or from a street to an alley or open passageway not 
less than fifteen feet in width, or upon a corner lot adjoining a lot less 
than one hundred and fifty feet deep and running through from street 
to street, or from a street to such an alley or open passageway. 

No yard shall be required behind a tenement house hereafter erected 
upon a corner lot adjoining a lot more than one hundred and fifty feet 
deep and running through from street to street or from a street to an 
alley or open passageway not less than fifteen feet in width; but if there 
be no yard, an outer court upon such corner lot shall extend from 
the street along the line of such adjoining lot to a point in line with the 
middle line of the block; the width of said court to be not less than the 
width of court prescribed in the ensuing paragraph. 

No yard shall be required behind a tenement house hereafter erected 
upon a corner lot adjoining two or more lots any one of which bounds 
upon a single street, or alley, or open passageway not less than fifteen 
feet in width; but if there be no yard an outer court upon such corner 
lot shall extend from the street, or from such alley or open passageway 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 35 

along a lot line either to the extreme rear of an adjoining lot or to the 
extreme rear of said corner lot: provided, that the width of said court 
measured from the lot line to the opposite wall of the building, for tene- 
ment houses fifty feet or less in height, shall be not less than six feet in 
every part, and for every additional ten feet of height of the tenement 
house shall be increased one foot throughout t>he whole length of said 
court. 

Courts. 

SECT. 57. No court of a tenement house hereafter erected shall be 
covered by a roof or skylight, but every such court shall be at every 
point open to the sky unobstructed. Except such courts as are pro- 
vided for in section fifty-six, all courts, except for fire-escapes, may 
start at the second tier of beams. 

Outer Courts. 

SECT. 58. The provisions of this section shall apply only to tene- 
ment houses hereafter erected. Where one side of an outer court is 
located on the lot line, the width of the said court, measured from the 
lot line to the opposite wall of the building, for tenement houses fifty feet 
or less in height shall not be less than six feet in every part; and for 
every ten feet of increase or fraction thereof in height of such tenement 
houses, such width shall be increased one foot throughout the whole 
length of the court, and except where the court runs through from the 
yard to the street, said width shall never be less than one eighth of the 
length of the court. 

Where an outer court is located between wings or parts of the same 
building, or between different buildings on the same lot, the width of the 
court, measured from wall to wall, for tenement houses fifty feet or less 
in height shall not be less than twelve feet in every part, and for every 
ten feet of increase or fraction thereof in the height of the said building, 
such width shall be increased two feet throughout the whole length of 
the court. The depth of such courts shall never exceed four times their 
width. 

Wherever an outer court changes its initial horizontal direction, or 
wherever any part of such court extends in a direction so as not to receive 
direct light from the street or yard, or from an alley, or open passageway 
not less than fifteen feet in width, the length of that part of the court 
shall never exceed its width, such length to be measured from the point 
at which the change of direction begins. Wherever an outer court be- 
tween parts of the same building is twelve feet or less in depth, its width 
may be one half its depth, provided that such width is never less than 
four feet in the clear. This exception shall also apply to every offset or 
recess in outer courts. And no window except windows of water-closet 
compartments, bathrooms, or halls shall open upon any offset or recess 
less than four feet in width. 

Inner Courts. 

SECT. 59. The provisions of this section shall apply only to tene- 
ment houses hereafter erected. Where one side of an inner court is 
located on the lot line and the building does nr>f ^YPPPH fiff,y feet in 
height, the least width of the court shall be not lesd (than eight feel, ttu<l : 



CIVIL ENGINEERS 



36 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

the area of the court shall be not less than one hundred and twenty- 
eight square feet. For every ten feet or fraction thereof of increase in 
the height of the building above fifty feet the minimum width of such 
inner courts shall be increased by one foot, and the area thereof shall 
never be less than twice the square of such minimum width. Where an 
inner court is not located on the lot line, but is enclosed on all four sides, 
and the building does not exceed fifty feet in height, the least width of 
said court shall be not less than sixteen feet and the area not less than 
two hundred and fifty-six square feet. For every ten feet, or fraction 
thereof, of increase in the height of said building above fifty feet, the 
minimum width of such inner courts shall be increased by two feet, and 
the area of the court shall never be less than the square of such minimum 
dimension. 

Vent Courts. 

SECT. 60. Inner courts used solely for the lighting and ventilation 
of water-closets, bathrooms, public halls, or stair halls, or for interior 
fire-escapes, may be constructed in any tenement house, and shall be not 
less than fifteen square feet in area, nor less than three feet in the least 
horizontal dimension for buildings fifty feet or less in height. For every 
increase of ten feet or fraction thereof in the height of such buildings 
the least dimension shall be increased by one foot, and the area by not 
less than eight square feet. 

Intakes. 

SECT. 61. Every inner court in a tenement house hereafter erected 
shall be provided with one or more horizontal intakes at the bottom. 
Such intakes, in vent courts, shall be not less than four square feet in 
area, so arranged as to be easily cleaned ; in other inner courts they shall 
be not less than three feet wide and seven feet high, and there shall be 
at least two open grille doors, containing not less than fifteen square feet 
of unobstructed openings, one at the inner court and the other at the 
street or yard as the case may be. 

Nothing contained in the foregoing sections concerning outer and 
inner courts shall be construed as prohibiting windows in walls that cut 
off the angles of such courts, provided that the running length of the 
walls containing such windows does not exceed six feet. 

Buildings on the Same Lot with Tenement Houses. 

SECT. 62. No tenement house shall hereafter be so enlarged or its 
lot so diminished, and no building of any kind shall be hereafter so 
placed upon the same lot with a tenement house, as to decrease the 
minimum depth of yards or the minimum size of courts or yards pre- 
scribed in this act for tenement houses hereafter erected 

Rooms, Lighting and Ventilation of. 

SECT. 63. In everyjtenement house hereafter '"erected there shall 
be in each room, except water-closet compartments and bathrooms, 
windows of a total area of at least one eighth of the floor area of the 
room, opening directly*pn a street or public alley or open passageway 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 37 

not less than fifteen feet wide or upon a yard or court of the dimensions 
hereinbefore specified, or upon a railroad right of way, cemetery or public 
park; and such windows shall be located so as properly to light all parts 
of the room. The top of at least one window shall be not less than eight 
feet above the floor, and the upper half of it shall be made so as to open 
the full width. 

Every alcove in every tenement house hereafter erected shall be pro- 
vided with an opening into a room, such opening to be equal in area to 
eighty per cent of that side of the alcove in which the opening is located; 
and the alcove shall have at least one window of not less than fifteen 
square feet of glazed surface opening as provided in this section. 

Rooms, Size of. 

SECT. 64. In every tenement house hereafter erected all rooms, 
except water-closet compartments and bathrooms, shall be of the fol- 
lowing minimum sizes: In each apartment there shall be at least one 
room containing not less than one hundred and twenty square feet of 
floor area and provided with a chimney flue and thimble, except where 
said room is furnished with heat from a central heating apparatus, and 
every other room shall contain at least ninety square feet of floor area. 
Each room shall be in every part not less than eight and one half feet 
high from the finished floor to the finished ceiling; provided that only 
one half of an attic room need be eight and one half feet high. 

No portion of a room in any such tenement house shall be partitioned 
off so as to form a room not conforming to the provisions of sections 
sixty-three and sixty-four, or so as to form an alcove not conforming to 
sections sixty-three and seventy. 

Public Halls. 

SECT. 65. Except as otherwise provided in section sixty-six, in every 
tenement house hereafter erected, every public hall shall have at least 
one window opening directly upon a street, a public alley or open pas- 
sageway not less than ten feet in width, a railroad right of way, a ceme- 
tery or a public park, or upon a yard or court or a vent court as pro- 
vided in section sixty. Either such window shall be at the end of said 
hall, with the plane of the window substantially at right angles to the 
axis of the hall, or there shall be at least one window opening as above 
prescribed in every twenty feet in length or fraction thereof of the hall ; 
but this provision for one window in every twenty feet of hall-way shall 
not apply to that part of the entrance hall between the entrance and the 
first flight of stairs, provided that the entrance door contains not less 
than five square feet of glazed surface. At least one of the windows 
provided to light each public hall shall be at least two feet six inches 
wide and five feet high, measured between the stop beads. 

Any part of a hall which is shut off from any other part of said hall 
by a door or doors shall be deemed a separate hall within the meaning 
of this section. 

Windows for Stair Halls, Size of. 

SECT. 66. In every tenement house hereafter erected the aggregate 
area of windows to light or ventilate stair halls on each floor shall be at 
least fifteen square feet: provided, however, that when there shall be, 



38 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

within the space enclosed by the stairway and its landings, from the 
second story upward, an open area for light and ventilation whose least 
horizontal dimension shall be equal to the width of the stairs, but in no 
case less than three feet, then the windows required in sections sixty- 
five and sixty-six may be omitted. 

There shall be in the roof, directly over each stair well, in all tenement 
houses hereafter erected, without windows as above provided, a venti- 
lating skylight provided with ridge ventilators, having a minimum 
opening of forty square inches, or else such skylight shall be provided 
with fixed or movable louvres. The glazed roof of the skylight shall not 
be less than twenty square feet in area. 

Privacy. 

SECT. 67. In every apartment of four or more rooms in a tenement 
house hereafter erected, at least one water-closet compartment shall 
be accessible without passing through any bedroom. 

Basements in Tenement Houses hereafter erected. 

SECT. 68. In tenement houses hereafter erected no room in the 
basement shall be occupied for living purposes, unless all of the following 
conditions are complied with : 

(1.) Such room shall be at least eight and one half feet high in every 
part from the floor to the ceiling. 

(2.) There shall be appurtenant to such room the use of a separate 
water-closet, constructed and arranged as required by section sixty-nine. 

(3.) Such room shall have a window or windows opening upon the 
street, an alley or open passageway not less than fifteen feet in width, a 
railroad right of way, cemetery or public park or upon a yard or court. 
The total area of windows in such room shall be at least one eighth of 
the floor area of the room, and one half of the sash shall be made to open 
full width, and the top of each window shall be within six inches of the 
ceiling. 

(4.) The floor of such room shall be damp-proof and waterproof, and 
all walls surrounding such room shall be damp-proof. 

Water-closets in Tenement Houses hereafter erected. 

SECT. 69. In every tenement house hereafter erected there shall be 
a separate water-closet in a separate compartment within each apart- 
ment of four or more rooms. Where apartments consist of less than four 
rooms there shall be at least one water-closet for every three rooms, and 
on the same floor with said rooms. Every such water-closet shall be 
placed in a compartment completely separated from every other water- 
closet, and such compartment shall be not less than two feet and four 
inches wide, and shall be enclosed with plastered partitions, or some 
equally substantial material, which shall extend to the ceiling. Such 
compartment shall have a window, opening directly, or through a 
straight horizontal shaft of the same dimensions as the window and not 
more than four feet long, upon a street, a railroad right of way, cemetery 
or public park or a yard or alley or open passageway not less than four 
feet wide, or upon a court vent or upon a covered passageway not more 
than twenty feet long and at least twenty feet wide, and twenty feet 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 39 

high. Every such window shall be at least one foot by three feet be- 
tween stop beads; and the whole window shall be made so as to open 
readily. When, however, such water-closet compartment is located on 
the top floor and is lighted and ventilated by a skylight over it, no 
window shall be necessary, provided that the roof of such skylight con- 
tains at least three square feet of glazed surface and is arranged so as 
to open readily. Nothing in this section in regard to the separation of 
water-closet compartments from each other shall apply to a general 
toilet room containing several water-closets, hereafter placed in a tene- 
ment house, provided that such water-closets are supplemental to the 
water-closet accommodations required by law for the use of the tenants 
of the said house. Nothing in this section in regard to the ventilation 
of water-closet compartments shall apply to a water-closet hereafter 
placed in an existing tenement house, to replace a defective fixture in 
the same position and location. No water-closet shall be maintained 
in the cellar of any tenement house without a permit in writing from the 
board of health; and said board shall have power to make rules and 
regulations governing the maintenance of such closets. Every water- 
closet compartment in any tenement house shall be provided with proper 
means of lighting the same at night. If fixtures for gas or electricity 
are not provided in such compartment, then the door of such compart- 
ment shall be provided with translucent glass panels, or with a trans- 
lucent glass transom, not less in area than four square feet. The floor 
of every such water-closet compartment shall be made waterproof with 
asphalt, tile, stone or some other waterproof material; and such water- 
proofing shall extend at least six inches above the floor on all sides of 
the compartment except at the door opening, so that the floor can be 
washed or flushed without leaking. No drip trays shall be permitted. 
No water-closet fixtures shall be inclosed with any woodwork. 

Lighting and Ventilation of Existing Tenement Houses. 

SECT. 70. Excepting water-closet compartments and bathrooms, 
wherever a room in any tenement house has a window or windows of less 
than nine square feet of glazed surface opening on a street, a railroad 
right of way, cemetery, public park, alley or open passageway not less 
than ten feet in width, such window or windows shall be enlarged and 
provided with the above mentioned glazed surface, and wherever such 
room does not open as above provided, or opens upon an alley or open 
passageway less than ten feet in width or upon a shaft or upon a court 
less than six feet in its least dimension, then such room shall be pro- 
vided with a sash window communicating with another room in the same 
apartment, having windows of at least the superficial area prescribed for 
the windows of rooms in tenement houses hereafter erected and opening 
on a street, a railroad right of way, cemetery, public park or alley or open 
passageway at least ten feet in width, or on a court or courts at least 
equivalent to the courts required in sections fifty-eight and fifty-nine; 
and such new sash window shall contain not less than fifteen square 
feet of glazed surface and shall be made so as to open readily. One 
wall of every alcove in an existing tenement house shall be provided 
with an opening equal in area to eighty per cent of the wall. No ten- 
ement house shall be so altered as to reduce the provisions for the light 



40 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

and ventilation of any room or alcove or public hall or stair hall below 
the requirements of this act. 

Skylights. 

SECT. 71. In every existing tenement house there shall be in the 
roof, directly over each stair well, a ventilating skylight, provided with 
ridge ventilators and also with fixed or movable louvres or movable 
sashes. But this section shall not apply to any tenement house now 
having windows as provided in section sixty-five or a bulkhead in 
the roof over the main stairs, which bulkhead is provided with windows 
made so as to open readily, and with not less than twelve square feet 
of glass in the top of the bulkhead. All skylights hereafter placed in 
any tenement house shall conform to the provisions of section sixty- 
six. All the existing dome lights or other obstructions to skylight 
ventilation shall be removed. 

Where the public hall in an existing tenement house is not provided 
with windows opening as provided in section sixty-five, and where 
there is not a stair well as provided in section sixty-six, all doors lead- 
ing from such public hall into apartments shall be provided with trans- 
lucent glass panels of an area of not less than four square feet for each 
door; or such public hall may be lighted by a window or windows at the 
end thereof with the plane of the window at right angles to the axis of 
the hall, said window opening upon the street, a railroad right of way, 
cemetery, public park, or an alley or open passageway at least ten feet in 
width, or upon a yard or court of the dimensions hereinbefore provided. 

Water-closets in Existing Tenement Houses. 

SECT. 72. In existing tenement houses the woodwork enclosing the 
space underneath the seat of all water-closets used in common by two or 
more families shall be removed and such space shall be left open. The 
floor or other surface beneath and around such closet shall be maintained 
in good order and repair, and the floors made waterproof to the satis- 
faction of the board of health. - 

Every such water-closet shall be located in a compartment completely 
separated from every other water-closet, and such compartment shall be 
ventilated to the satisfaction of the board of health. There shall be 
provided at least one water-closet for every three families or for every 
nine rooms in every existing tenement house. 

Water Supply. 

SECT. 73. In every tenement house hereafter erected there shall be 
in each apartment a proper sink with running water. 

Every existing tenement house shall have water furnished in sufficient 
quantity at one or more places on each floor occupied by or suitable to be 
occupied by one or more families. The owner shall provide proper and 
suitable tanks, pumps or other appliances to receive and to distribute a 
sufficient supply of water at each floor in the said house at all times of 
the year, during all hours of the day and night. 

The woodwork enclosing sinks located in the public halls or stairs shall 
be removed, and the space underneath the sinks shall be left open. The 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 41 

floors and wall surfaces beneath and around the sink shall be maintained 
in good order and repair. 

Drainage of Courts and Yards. 

SECT. 74. In every tenement house all courts, areas, intakes and 
yards shall be properly graded, drained and paved or otherwise surfaced 
to the satisfaction of the board of health. 

Receptacles for Garbage and Ashes. 

SECT. 75. The owner of every tenement house shall provide there- 
for suitable, covered, water-tight receptacles satisfactory to the board of 
health, for ashes, rubbish, garbage, refuse and other matter. No person 
shall place ashes, rubbish, garbage, refuse or other matter in the yards, 
open areas or alleys connected with, or appurtenant to, any tenement 
house except in suitable receptacles provided for the same. 

Powers of the Building Commissioner. 

SECT. 76. The commissioner shall not dispense with any of the 
requirements of sections forty-two to seventy-five, inclusive. 

THEATRES. 

Definition. 

SECT. 77. Every building hereafter erected so as to contain an 
audience hall and a stage, with curtain, movable or shifting scenery, and 
machinery, adapted for the giving of plays, operas, spectacles or similar 
forms of entertainment, and of a size to provide seats for more than five 
hundred spectators shall be a theatre within the meaning of this act. 
No existing building not now used as a theatre shall be altered and used 
as a theatre, unless it conforms to the provisions of this act for a new 
theatre. 

Construction. 

SECT. 78. Every theatre hereafter built shall be of fireproof con- 
struction throughout, except that the floor boards may be of wood, and 
the steel work of the stage, of the fly galleries, and of the rigging loft 
need not be fireproof ed. 

Open Courts. 

SECT. 79. Every theatre built in a block not on a corner shall have 
an? open court or passageway on both sides extending from the pro- 
scenium line to the line of the street on the front, or, in case the building 
abuts on a street both in front and rear, these passages may extend from 
the line of the front of the auditorium to the line of the rear street. 
These passages shall be at least six feet wide throughout their length, and 
shall not be closed by any locked gate or doorway. They shall imme- 
diately adjoin the auditorium, or a side passage or lobby directly con- 
nected therewith. These passages shall be open to the sky opposite the 
whole depth of the auditorium, but may be carried out to the street front 
or rear through passages enclosed by brick walls or other fireproof ma- 



42 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

terial equally efficient, and covered by a solid brick vault at least eight 
inches thick, each passage to be not less than eight feet wide and ten 
feet high throughout. 

SECT. 80. Every theatre built upon the corner of two streets shall 
have one inner court on the side of the building away from the side 
street, such court to be of the same description as the courts provided 
for in the preceding paragraph. 

Stores, etc. 

SECT. 81. Nothing in this act shall be construed to prohibit the 
use of any part of a theatre building for stores, offices, or for habitation, 
provided that the parts so used shall be built with exits to the street 
entirely distinct from the rest of the building and shall be separated 
from the rest of the building by solid partitions or wal s, without any 
openings in the same. 

Floor Levels. 

SECT. 82. In all theatres, the entrances shall be not more than one 
step above the level of the sidewalk of the main street, and the stage 
shall be not more than five feet above the said level. 

Proscenium Wall. 

SECT. 83. The stage of every theatre shall be separated from the 
auditorium by a wall of fireproof construction, which wall shall extend 
the whole width of the auditorium and the whole height to the roof of 
the portion occupied by the stage. There shall be no openings through 
this wall except the curtain opening, one doorway each side behind the 
boxes, and one doorway which shall be located at or below the level of 
the stage. The doorways shall not exceed twenty-one superficial feet 
each, and shall have standard fire-doors hung in a manner satisfactory 
to the commissioner. The finish or decorative features around the 
curtain opening of every theatre shall be of fireproof material. 

Curtain. 

SECT. 84. The proscenium or curtain opening of every theatre 
shall have a fire resisting curtain reinforced by wire netting or otherwise 
strengthened. If of iron, or similar heavy materia 1 , and made to lower 
from the top, it shal be so arranged as to be stopped securely at a height 
of seven feet above the stage floor, the remaining opening being closed 
by a curtain or valance of fire-resisting fabric. 

Stage Floor. 

SECT. 85. The part of the stage floor, usually equal to the width 
of the proscenium opening, used in working scenery, traps or other 
mechanical apparatus, may be of wood, and no flooring used thereon 
shall be less than one and one eighth inches in thickness. 

Ventilators. 

SECT. 86. There shall be one or more ventilators near the center, 
and above the highest part of the stage of every theatre, of a combined 
area of opening satisfactory to the commissioner, and not less than one 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 43 

tenth of the area of the undivided floor space behind the curtain at the 
stage floor level. The openings in every such ventilator shall be closed 
by valves or louvres so counterbalanced as to open automatically, which 
shall be kept closed, when not in use, by a fusible link and cord reaching 
to the prompter's desk, and readily operated therefrom. Such cord shall 
be of combustible material, and so arranged that if it is severed the 
ventilator will open automatically. 

Skylight coverings for ventilators shall have sheet metal frames set 
with double-thick glass, each pane thereof measuring not less than three 
hundred square inches, or shall be protected with wire glass. If wire 
glass is not used, a suitable wire netting shall be placed immediately 
beneath the glass, but above the ventilator opening. Illuminating fix- 
tures over the auditorium shall be suspended and secured in a manner 
approved by the commissioner. 

Glass on illuminating fixtures over the auditorium shall be secured 
from danger of falling as the commissioner shall require, but in no case 
shall any glass more than six inches in diameter or length be hung over 
the auditorium unless protected from falling by a wire netting or similar 
device satisfactory to the commissioner. 

Seats in Auditorium. 

SECT. 87. All seats in the' auditorium excepting those contained 
in boxes shall be spaced not less than thirty inches from back to back, 
measured in a horizontal direction, and shall be firmly secured to the 
floor. No seat in the auditorium shall have more than six seats inter- 
vening between it and an aisle, on either side. 

The platforms for seats in balconies and galleries shall nowhere have 
a greater rise than twenty-one inches, nor be less than thirty inches from 
back to back. 

Aisles. 

SECT. 88. All aisles on the respective floors in the auditorium, 
having seats on both sides of the same, shall be not less than thirty inches 
wide where they begin, and shall be increased in width toward the exits 
in the ratio of one inch to five running feet. Aisles having seats on one 
side only shall be not less than two feet wide at their beginning and shall 
increase in width, the same as aisles having seats on both sides. 

Changes in Level. 

SECT. 89. All changes in the levels of the floors of such buildings, 
except under stairways, from story to story, and except the necessary 
steps in galleries and balconies rising toward the exits, shall be made 
by inclines of no steeper gradient than two in ten within the auditorium, 
and rising toward the exits, and one in ten for all others. 

Lobbies. 

SECT. 90. Preceding each division of the theatre there shall be 
foyers, lobbies, corridors, or passages, the aggregate capacity of which on 
each floor or gallery shall be sufficient to contain the whole number to be 
accommodated on such floor or gallery in the ratio of one square foot of 
floor room for each person. 



44 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

Stage Doors. 

SECT. 91. There shall be not less than two exit doors, each not 
less than three feet in width, located on opposite sides of the stage, and 
opening directly upon a street, alley, court, or courtway leading to a 
public throughfare. 

Room Exits. 

SECT. 92. All rooms in theatres for the use of persons employed 
therein shall have passages to at least two independent means of exit. 

Doors to Open Outward. 

SECT. 93. All doors of exit or entrance shall open outward, and 
shall be hung so as to swing in such a manner as not to become an ob- 
struction in a passage or corridor, and no such doors shall be fastened 
-so as to be inoperative when the building is occupied by an audience. 

False Doors. 

SECT. 94. No mirrors shall be so placed as to give the appearance 
of a doorway or exit, hallway, or corridor, nor shall there be any false 
doors or windows. 

Main Floor and First Gallery Exits. 

SECT. 95. A common exit may serve for the main floor of the 
auditorium and the first gallery, provided that its capacity be equal to 
the aggregate capacity of the outlets from the main floor and the said 
gallery; and provided that the lowermost run of any exit leading from 
a gallery shall not open directly at right angles with the central axis of 
a common exit unless there is a clear space or landing of at least one and 
one quarter times the width of the exit between the foot of such exit and 
such centre line or nearest exit doorway. 

Exits. 

SECT. 96. Two distinct and separate exits shall be provided for 
each gallery and balcony above the main floor; and the same shall be 
located on opposite sides of the galleries. 

- All gallery or balcony exits shall start with a width of not less than 
four feet at the uppermost gallery. 

fe Exits from balconies and galleries shall not communicate with the 
basement or cellar. 

Aggregate Width of Exits. 

SECT. 97. The aggregate width of all the exits previously de- 
scribed shall be estimated on a basis of not less than twenty inches for 
every one hundred persons for whom seats are provided in the sections 
of the auditorium served by the respective exits. 

Emergency Exits. 

SECT. 98. In addition to the exits previously described there shall 
be one exit from each side of each gallery, balcony, and main floor of 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 45 

auditorium, at least five feet wide, leading to exterior balconies not less- 
than four feet wide and twenty feet long on each side of the auditorium. 
From such balconies there shall be staircases extending to the ground 
level, which may be counterweighted, with risers of not over eight and 
one half inches and treads of not less than nine and one half inches, 
exclusive of nosing. The aggregate width of these emergency stairs 
shall be not less than ten inches for every one hundred people served 
thereby, no single stairs being less than thirty inches wide. If counter- 
weighted, these stairs shall be lowered during all performances. 

Where all such stairs are in an interior court, each run shall be covered 
by a light awning of iron. 

Nothing herein shall prohibit the building of emergency stairs and 
exits inside the walls of the building, provided that they are surrounded 
by a fireproof partition not less than four inches thick separating the 
exits and stairways from the audience room or auditorium. 

Additional Requirements. 

SECT. 99. The commissioner shall have power to require a greater 
number or capacity of exits than is herein prescribed. 

In every theatre there shall be over every exit, on the inside, and over 
every opening to a fire-escape, on the inside, an illuminated sign, bearing 
the word " exit " or " fire-escape," respectively, in letters not less than 
four inches high. The lights for the exit signs, passages, stairs, lobbies, 
auditoriums, rear of auditoriums, balconies, galleries, and for the bal- 
conies and stairs outside the building, shall be so arranged that they can 
be turned on or off independently of the means provided on the stage 
or in any part of the building in the rear of the proscenium wall. Every 
exit sign shall be kept illuminated, and every outside balcony and fire- 
escape shall be kept well lighted during the performance, except outside 
exits during a performance before sunset. 

Plans showing the exits and stairways shall be legibly printed so as to 
occupy a full page of every programme or play-bill. 

In said buildings there shall be such number of gas pipe outlets as the 
commissioner may require, fitted with no less than two gas burners. 
Such burners shall be inspected and tried at least once in every three 
months by inspectors of the department, to ascertain if they are in 
, proper working order. The inspector shall make a report of each visit, 
stating the condition of the burners and the action of the inspector in 
regard to them. 

The commissioner shall have authority to order any defect in the 
working of such burners as are necessary for public safety to be remedied. 

So much of this section as applies to the inspection of gas burners 
shall apply to buildings now used as theatres. 

Stairs. 

SECT. 100. The cut of the stair stringers shall not exceed seven 
and one half inches rise, nor be less than ten and one half inches tread. 



There shall be no flights of stairs of more than fif 
steps between landings. 



een or less than three 



CIVIL ENGINEERING 
U. of C. 

iccnrUTIAM IIRPlRY 



46 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 



Landings of Stairs. 

SECT. 101. Every landing shall be at least four feet wide. When 
straight stairs return directly on themselves, a landing of the full width 
of both flights, without any steps, shall be provided. The outer line of 
landings shall be curved to a radius of not less than two feet to avoid 
square angles. Stairs turning at an angle shall have a proper landing 
without winders introduced at the turn. No door shall open immedi- 
ately upon a flight of stairs, but a landing at least two feet wider than 
the width of the door opening shall be provided between such stairs and 
such door. When two side flights connect with one main flight, no 
winders shall be introduced, and the width of the main flight shall be at 
least equal to the aggregate width of the side flights. 

Hand-rails. 

SECT. 102. All enclosed stairways shall have, on both sides, strong 
hand-rails, firmly secured to the wall, about three inches distant there- 
from and about three feet high above the stairs. 

All stairways eight feet and over in width shall be provided with a 
central rail of metal or hard wood, not less than two inches in diameter, 
placed at a height of about three feet above the centre of the treads, 
supported on wrought metal or brass standards of sufficient strength, 
securely bolted to the treads or risers of the stairs; and at the head of 
each flight of stairs, and on each side of the landing, the post or standard 
shall be at least six feet in height, and the rail shall be secured to the post. 

Measurements for Width of Stairs. 

SECT. 103. The width of all stairs shall be measured in the clear 
between the hand-rails. 

No winding or circular stairs shall be permitted. 

Radiators Forbidden in Passageways. 

SECT. 104. No coil or radiator or floor register shall be placed in 
any aisle or passageway used as an exit; but all such coils and radiators 
may be placed in recesses formed in the wall or partition to receive the 
same. 

No boiler, furnace, engine or heating apparatus, except steam, hot 
water or hot air pipes or radiators, shall be located under the auditorium 
or under any passage or stairway or exit of any theatre. 

Sprinklers and Standpipes. 

There shall be at least two two-inch high-service stand pipes on the 
stage of every theatre, with ample provision of hose nozzles at each level 
of the stage on each side, and the water shall be kept turned on during 
the occupation of the building by an audience. The said pipes shall in 
no case be sealed, and shall have two gates, one above the other, with a 
proper test or waste valve; the lower gate to be kept open at all times. 
The proscenium opening of every theatre shall be provided with a two 
and one half inch perforated iron pipe, or equivalent equipment of 
automatic or open sprinklers, so constructed as to form, when in opera- 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 47 

tion, a complete water curtain for the whole proscenium opening, and 
there shall be for the rest of the stage a complete system of fire apparatus 
and perforated iron pipes, automatic or open sprinklers. Such pipes 
or sprinklers shall be supplied with water by high pressure service, and 
shall be at all times ready for use. 

PLACES OF PUBLIC ASSEMBLY. 

SECT. 105. Every building hereafter erected with a hall or assem- 
bly-room to contain a public audience of more than eight hundred 
persons, or with more than one superimposed gallery or balcony, shall be 
of fireproof construction throughout; except that halls or assembly- 
rooms, the mean level of the main floor of which is not more than five 
feet above the grade of the adjacent street, may have roofs of second 
class construction. 

Every building hereafter erected with a hall or assembly-room to 
contain an audience of more than six hundred persons, the main floor of 
which is raised more than fifteen feet above the level of the principal 
street upon which it faces, shall be of fireproof construction throughout. 

The capacity of a hall or assembly-room shall be estimated on the basis 
of six square feet for each person. 

If several halls or assembly-rooms are provided in one building, their 
aggregate capacity shall be considered as determining whether or not the 
building shall be of fireproof construction, unless the several halls are 
enclosed by or separated from each other by fireproof walls, with fireproof 
doors in the same, in which case the building may be of second class 
construction. 

No existing building shall be altered to contain a hall or assembly- 
room exceeding the foregoing dimensions, unless the whole building as 
altered shall conform to the provisions of this act. 

Moving Picture Shows. 

SECT. 106. All moving picture shows shall be subject to the pro- 
visions of chapter one hundred and seventy-six and of chapter four 
hundred and thirty-seven of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and 
five, and of any amendments thereof or additions thereto now or here- 
after made. 

Exits, Etc. 

SECT. 107. Every building hereafter erected containing a hall or 
assembly-room shall conform to all the aforesaid requirements as to 
exits, stairways, exit lights, aisles, and seats which apply to theatres, 
subject to such exceptions as the board of appeal shall approve. 

Roof Gardens. 

SECT. 108. Nothing herein contained shall prevent the placing of 
a roof garden, art gallery, or rooms for similar purposes above a theatre, 
provided the floor of the same forming the roof over such theatre shall 
be constructed of fireproof materials, and shall have no covering boards 
or sleepers of wood. Every roof over such garden or other rooms shall 
have all supports and rafters of steel, and, if covered, shall be covered 
with glass or fireproof material, or both. 



48 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

Exits from Roof Gardens. 

SECT. 109. Exits from roof gardens may communicate with stairs 
leading from the auditorium of the theatre, but they shall be at least 
four in number, not less than four feet six inches wide, and distinct and 
separate from each other from roof to street. 

Summer Theatres. 

SECT. 110. Summer theatres, if built without the building limits, 
and located thirty feet distant from any other building or structure or 
adjoining lot lines, and of no greater seating capacity than seven hun- 
dred and fifty persons, and not more than one story high, without bal- 
conies, or galleries, may be constructed as follows: 

The auditorium, without a cellar or basement, with open sides of 
double the number of exits as hereinbefore provided, opening directly 
into the surrounding courts or gardens at the grade level, and the ad- 
joining dressing-rooms, may be of wooden construction, but the stage 
shall be enclosed in brick walls not less than twelve inches thick, or shall 
be plastered on metal lathing throughout: provided, that the openings 
leading to the dressing-rooms shall be provided with fire-doors. 

Otherwise, all protective features and arrangements shall comply with 
all previous sections of this title. 

Existing Theatres. 

SECT. 111. All stairs and landings of theatres shall have through- 
out proper hand-rails on both sides firmly secured to walls or to strong 
posts and balusters. Stairways twelve feet or more wide shall have one 
or more intermediate rails not more than eight feet apart and properly 
supported. 

No boiler, furnace, engine or heating apparatus, except steam, hot 
water or hot air pipes or radiators, shall be located under the auditorium 
nor under any passage or stairway or exit of any theatre. 

In every theatre there shall be over every exit, on the inside, and over 
every opening to a fire-escape, on the inside, an illuminated sign, bearing 
the word " exit " or " fire-escape," respectively, in letters not less than 
four inches high. The lights for the exit signs, passages, stairs, lobbies, 
auditoriums, rear of auditoriums, balconies, galleries, and for the bal- 
conies and stairs outside the building, shall be so arranged that they can 
be turned on or off independently of the means provided on the stage or 
from any part of the building in the rear of the proscenium wall. Every 
exit sign shall be kept illuminated and every outside balcony and fire- 
escape shall be kept well lighted during the performance, except outside 
exits during a performance in the daytime and before sunset. 

The exits and openings to fire-escapes of all theatres shall open out- 
ward and have fastenings on the inside only. They shall be unfastened 
during every performance and shall be so arranged that they can easily 
be opened from within. Plans showing the exits and stairways shall be 
legibly printed so as to occupy a full page of every programme or play- 
bill. 

No temporary seats or other obstructions shall be allowed in any aisle, 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 49 

or stairway of a theatre, and no person shall remain in any aisle, passage- 
way or stairway of any such building during any performance. 

The proscenium or curtain opening of every theatre shall have a fire- 
resisting curtain of incombustible material, reinforced by wire netting, 
or otherwise strengthened. If of iron, or similar heavy material, and 
made to lower from the top, it shall be so arranged as to be stopped 
securely at a height of seven feet above the stage floor, the remaining 
opening being closed by a curtain or valance of fire-resisting fabric. 
The curtain shall be raised at the beginning and lowered at the end of 
every performance, and shall be of proper material, construction and 
mechanism. 

There shall be one or more ventilators near the centre, and above the 
highest part of the stage of every theatre, of a combined area of opening 
satisfactory to the building commissioner, and not less than one tenth 
of the area of the proscenium opening. Every such ventilator shall have 
a valve or louvre so counterbalanced as to open automatically, and shall 
be kept closed, when not in use, by a fusible link and cord reaching to 
the prompter's desk, and readily operated therefrom. Such cord shall be 
of combustible material, and so arranged that if it is severed the ven- 
tilator will open automatically. 

There shall be at least two two-inch high-service standpipes on the 
stage of every theatre, with ample provision of hose nozzles at each level 
of the stage on each side, and the water shall be kept turned on during 
the occupation of the building by an audience. The said pipes shall have 
two gates, one above the other, with a proper test or waste valve; the 
lower gate to be kept open at all times. The proscenium opening of 
every theatre shall be provided with a two and one half inch perforated 
iron pipe or equivalent equipment of automatic or open sprinklers, as 
the commissioner may direct, so constructed as to form when in operation 
a complete water curtain for the whole proscenium opening, and there 
shall be for the rest of the stage a complete system of fire apparatus and 
perforated iron pipes, automatic or open sprinklers. Such pipes or 
sprinklers shall be supplied with water by high pressure service, and 
shall be ready for use at all times. 

PLUMBING. 

Definition of Terms. 

SECT. 112. The following terms shall have the meanings respec- 
tively assigned to them: 

" Repair of leaks " shall mean such repairs as are necessary to protect 
property, but do not involve any extensive change in construction. 

" Y-branches " shall mean a branch at sufficient angle to direct the 
flow and prevent backing up. 

" Air pipes " or " back air pipes " shall mean air pipes from traps that 
extend toward the main soil pipe or the outer air and connect with not 
more than three traps. 

" Vent pipes " shall mean general lines of back air pipes connecting 
with more than three fixtures. 

" Drain " shall mean that part of the drainage system of a building 
extending through basement or cellar to sewer. 

" Soil pipe " shall mean that part of the drainage system of a building, 



50 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

of four inches or more internal diameter, between basement or cellar and 
the highest fixture in the building. 

" Ventilation pipe " shall mean the extension of the soil pipe from the 
highest fixture to and through the roof. 

" Surface drain " shall mean a connection with drain in the basement 
to allow egress of surface water or overflow. 

" Fixture " shall mean any receptacle or outlet placed for the purpose 
of disposing of waste water or other matter, and connecting with the 
waste, soil or drain pipe of a building. 

Registration. 

SECT. 113. No plumber shall engage in or work at the business of 
plumbing unless he shall first have registered his name and place of 
business in the office of the commissioner, and no person shall by display 
of sign or plumbing material, or otherwise, advertise as a plumber unless 
he shall have been registered or licensed as such. Every master plumber 
shall conspicuously display his certificate or license within his place of 
business. Notice of any change in the place of business of a registered 
or licensed master plumber shall immediately be given by him to the 
commissioner. 

Notices. 

SECT. 114. Every plumber, before doing any work in a building, 
shall, except in the case of repair of leaks, file in the office of the com- 
missioner, upon blanks for that purpose, an application for a permit, 
and if required by the commissioner a plan or sketch of the work to be 
performed; and no such work shall be done in any building without a 
written permit from the commissioner. 

Connection with Sewer or Drain. 

SECT. 115. The plumbing of every building shall be separately and 
independently connected outside the building with the public sewer, if 
such sewer is provided, or with a proper and sufficient private drain or 
sewer laid outside of the building, and if a sewer is not accessible, with a 
proper cesspool. Several buildings may have a common sewer connec- 
tion if such connection is approved by the commissioner and the super- 
intendent of sewers. 

Inspection and Tests. 

SECT. 116. Pipes or other fixtures shall not be covered or concealed 
from view until approved by the commissioner, who shall examine or 
test the same within two working days after notice that they are ready 
for inspection. Plumbing shall not be used unless, when roughed in, 
the wastes, vents and back air pipes and traps are first tested by water 
or sufficient air pressure in the presence of an inspector, when such 
testing is practicable. 

Soil and Waste Pipes and Traps. 

SECT 117. The waste pipe of every independent sink, basin, bath- 
tub, water-closet, slop-hopper, urinal or other fixture shall be furnished 
with a separate trap, which shall be placed as near as practicable to the 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 51 

fixture which it serves. A sink and set of three wash-trays may be con- 
nected to the house drain through one five inch round trap, when the 
outlet of the sink is not over three feet six inches from the nearest outlet 
from the wash-trays; and in such case the trap shall be above the floor. 
The outlet from each fixture shall enter the trap separately. Not more 
than four wash-bowls or sinks in a continuous line may be connected 
to the house drain through one five inch round trap. Two or more 
fixtures on the same level with not more than two feet of waste pipe and 
connecting into the soil or waste pipe not more than eighteen inches 
below the top water line of the trap, shall not require other vent than the 
continuation of the soil or waste pipe full size for its whole length. 
Lateral branches of soil or waste pipe, if more than twenty feet in length, 
shall be extended through the roof undiminished in size. All connections 
on lead waste and back air pipes and of lead pipes to brass ferrules and 
soldering nipples shall be full size wiped soldered branch, round or flange 
joints. Soil and waste pipes shall have proper T-Y or Y branches for 
all fixture connections. No connection to lead bends for water-closets 
or slop sinks shall be permitted, except the required back air pipe where 
a continuous vent is not practicable. 

Earthenware traps shall have heavy brass floor plates soldered to the 
lead bends and bolted to the trap flange, and the joint made gas tight 
with red or white lead. Rubber washers for floor connections shall not 
be used. 

Back Air Pipes, Vents, Etc. 

Traps shall be protected from siphonage or air pressure by special 
iron or brass air pipes of a size not less than the waste pipes they serve; 
back air pipes shall not be connected to the trap or branched into the 
waste pipe, except where a continuous vent is not practicable, but a 
suitable non-siphon trap may be used without a back air pipe upon the 
approval of the commissioner. Back air pipes shall enter the waste 
pipe within eighteen inches from the trap and shall be a continuation of 
the waste pipe. Lead air pipes may be used only for short connections 
where they are exposed to view. Air pipes for water-closet traps shall be 
connected to the highest point of bend or trap, and may be of two inch 
bore if for not more than three fixtures and less than thirty feet in length ; 
if for more than three fixtures or more than thirty feet in length they 
shall be of three inch bore. Air pipes shall be run as direct as practicable 
and if one and one half inches or less in diameter shall not exceed thirty 
feet in length. Two or more air pipes may be connected together or 
with a vent pipe; but in every such case the connection shall be above 
the top of the fixture. The trap for the upper fixture on a line of soil or 
waste pipe, if within five feet of the stack in a horizontal line, shall not 
require a special air pipe, unless the outlet is branched into a stack more 
than eighteen inches below the top water line of the trap. Diameters 
of vent pipes shall be not less than two inches for main vents through 
less than -seven stories; three inches for water-closets on more than three 
floors, and for other fixtures in more than seven stories. All vent pipes 
shall be increased one inch in diameter before passing through the roof. 
Vent lines shall be connected at the bottom with a soil or waste pipe or 
with the drain, in such a manner as to prevent accumulation of rust 
scale and properly to drip the water of condensation. Offsets shall be 



52 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

made at an angle of not less than forty-five degrees. Soil pipes or iron 
waste pipes, vents and back air pipes, shall be supported by clamps to 
the woodwork, iron drive hooks to brick walls, or bolted clamps to iron 
girders. 

All traps, except for water-closets, not provided with special air pipes 
shall be suitable non-siphon traps and shall have at least a four inch 
water seal. Round traps shall be not less than four inches in diameter 
and eight inches long, and made of eight-pound lead. All trap screws 
shall be water sealed. 

Chemical Laboratories. 

Fixtures and waste pipes in chemical laboratories shall be installed in 
accordance with plans approved by the commissioner. 

Stables. 

The drainage of stable fixtures shall be constructed according to plans 
approved by the commissioner. 

SECT. 118. In buildings where a series of bathrooms or kitchens are 
located directly over each other and have a common soil or waste 
pipe, the back air pipe required shall be a vent line connecting with each 
outlet branch close to the water-closet connection or outlet from the sink 
trap, each branch vent to connect to vent line above the top of the high- 
est fixture on each floor, the vent line to connect to main vent line above 
the top of the highest fixture in the building. 

In the case of batteries of water-closets or other fixtures the special air 
pipe from each trap may be omitted, provided that the soil or waste pipe, 
undiminished in size, is continued to a point above the roof or revented 
into the main soil pipe system above the top of the uppermost fixture. 

The commissioner shall prepare explanatory sketches showing the 
method of construction described in this section. 

Refrigerator Wastes and Drip Pipes. 

SECT. 119. All drip or overflow pipes shall be extended to some 
place in open sight, and in no case shall any such pipe be connected 
directly with the drain pipe. No waste pipe from a refrigerator or other 
receptacle in which provisions are stored shall be connected directly with 
a drain or other waste pipe. The waste pipes from all other fixtures 
shall be connected directly with a drain pipe. Refrigerator wastes con- 
necting with two or more stories shall be supplied with a trap on the 
branch for each floor and extended through the roof. 

Water-Closets, Etc. 

SECT. 120. Every water-closet or line of water-closets shall be sup- 
plied with water from a tank or cistern, and shall have a flushing pipe 
of not less than one and one quarter inches in diameter. Privy vaults 
shall be of brick and cement of a capacity of not less than fifty cubic 
feet, of easy access, convenient to open, and clean, and water tight. The 
inside shall be not less than two feet from the next lot and from any 
public or private way. 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 53 

SECT. 121. The diameters of soil. and waste pipes shall be not less 
than those given in the following table : 

Inches. 

Soil pipes, 4 

Main waste pipes, 2 

Main waste pipes for kitchen sinks on five or more floors, ... 3 

Branch waste pipes for laundry tubs, 1 

Branch waste for kitchen sinks, ; . \\ 

Branch waste for urinals, l| 

No branch waste for other fixtures shall be less than, .... 1^ 

Except that, with the approval of the commissioner, a three inch soil 
pipe may be used for one water-closet where it is not practicable to use a 
four inch pipe. 

Ferrules, Clean-outs, Etc. 

Brass ferrules shall be of the best quality, bell-shaped, extra heavy 
cast brass, not less than four inches long and two and one quarter inches, 
three and one half inches, and four and one half inches in diameter, and 
of not less than the following weights : 

Diameters. Weights. 

2 inches, 1 pound ounces. 

3^ " 1 "12 " 

4* " 2 "8 " 

One and one half inch ferrules shall not be used. 
Soldering nipples shall be of heavy cast brass or of brass pipe, iron 
pipe size. If cast, they shall be of not less than the following weights: 

H inches, pounds 8 ounces. 

2 " " 14 " 

2 " 1 " 6 " 

3 " 2 " " 

4 " 3 " 8 " 

Where clean-outs are used, the screw cap shall be of brass, extra heavy, 
and not less than one eighth of an inch thick. The engaging parts shall 
have not less than six threads of iron pipe size, and shall be tapered. 
Clean-outs shall be full size of trap up to four inches in diameter, and 
not less than four inches for larger traps. 

The screw cap shall have a solid square or hexagonal nut, not less than 
one half inch high, with a least diameter of one and one half inches. 
The bodies of brass clean-out ferrules shall be at least equal in weight 
and thickness to the calking ferrule for the same size of pipe. 

The use of lead pipes is restricted to short branches of the soil and 
waste pipes, bends and traps, and roof connections of inside leaders. 
" Short branches " of lead pipe shall mean not more than : 

5 feet of 1 inch pipe. 
5 " " H " " 

4 " "2 " " 

() 1C II O II K 

2 u 4 " 



54 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 



The pipe shall be not less than, the following average thickness and 
weight per linear foot : 



Diameters. 


Thicknesses. 


Weights per 
Linear Foot. 


Diameters. 


Thicknesses. 


Weights per 
Linear Foot. 


1 inches, 





2.50 pounds. 


5 inches, 


.25 inches, 


14.50 pounds. 


H 




.14 inches, 


2.68 




6 




.28 




18.76 




2 - 




.15 




3.61 




7 




.30 




23.27 




2* 




.20 




5.74 




8 




.32 




28.18 




3 




.21 




7.54 




9 




.34 




33.70 




3* 




.22 




9.00 




10 




.36 




40.06 




4 




.23 




10.66 




11 




.37 




45.02 




4* 




.24 




12.34 




12 




.37 




48.98 





Brass pipe for soil, waste, vent and back air pipes shall be thoroughly 
annealed, seamless, drawn brass tubing, of not less than number thirteen 
Stubbs gauge. 

No slip joint or unions shall be used on traps, waste, vents or back 
air pipes. Threaded connections on brass traps shall be of the same size 
as pipe threads for the same size of pipe, and shall be tapered. Connec- 
tions between lead and iron shall be made by brass sleeves or screw 
nipples wiped to the lead and calked or screwed into the iron. 

The following average thicknesses and weights per linear foot shall 
be used : 



Diameters. 


Thicknesses. 


Weights per 
Linear Foot. 


Diameters. 


Thicknesses. 


Weights per 
Linear Foot. 


1 inches, 


.14 inches, 


2.84 pounds. 


4 inches, 


.23 inches, 


11.29 pounds. 


2 


.15 " 


3.82 


4* " 


.24 " 


13.08 " 


2| " 


.20 " 


6.08 


5 


.25 " 


15.37 " 


3 


.21 " 


7.92 


6 


.28 " 


19.88 " 


3i " 


.22 " 


9.54 









Cast Iron Pipes, Etc. 

Cast iron pipes shall be uncoated, sound, cylindrical and smooth, free 
from cracks and other defects, of uniform thickness and of the grade 
known to commerce as " extra heavy." If buried under ground they 
shall be coated with asphaltum or red lead. 

Pipe, including the hub, shall weigh not less than the following average 
weights per linear foot : 



Diameters. 


Weights 
per Linear Foot. 


Diameters. 


Weights 
per Linear Foot. 


2 inches, . . . 
3 " ... 


5 pounds. 

9 " 


7 inches (not stock size), . . 
8 " 


27 pounds. 
33i " 


4 " "... 
5 " 


13 

17 " 


10 " 

12 " 


45 
54 " 


6 " ... 


20 







Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 



All joints shall be made with picked oakum and molten lead run full, 
and be made gas tight. No cement joints nor connections between iron 
and cement or tile pipe or brick drains shall be made within any building. 

Wrought Iron Pipe. 

Galvanized wrought iron pipe shall be of not less than the following 
thickness and weight per linear foot : 



Diameters. 


Thicknesses. 


Weights per 
Linear Foot. 


Diameters. 


Thicknesses. 


Weights per 
Linear Foot. 


1 inches, 


.14 inches, 


2.68 pounds. 


6 inches, 


.28 inches, 


18.76 pounds. 


2 




.15 




3.61 




7 




.30 




23.27 




2* 




.20 




5.74 




8 




.32 




28.18 




3 




.21 




7.54 




9 




.34 




33.70 




3^ 




.22 




9.00 




10 




.36 




40.06 




4 




.23 




10.66 




11 




.37 




45.02 




4* 




.24 




12.34 




12 




.37 




48.98 




o 




.25 


I 


14.50 











The threaded part of the pipe if less than one and one half inches long, 
shall be of the thickness and weight known as " extra heavy " or " extra 
strong." 

Fittings on wrought iron vent or back air pipes shall be galvanized, 
recessed, cast iron threaded fittings. Fittings for " Plumber's tubing " 
shall be heavy weight, with sharp threads. 

Fittings for waste or soil or refrigerator waste pipes of wrought iron or 
brass pipe shall be galvanized, cast iron, or brass, recessed and threaded 
drainage fittings, with smooth interior waterway and threads tapped, so 
as to give a uniform grade to branches of not less than one quarter of 
an inch per foot. 

All joints on wrought iron or brass pipe shall be screwed joints made 
up with red lead, and any burr formed in cutting shall carefully be 
reamed out. 

Drain Pipes, Etc. 

SECT. 122. Drain and connecting ventilation pipes, vents and 
back air pipes shall be of sufficient size, and made of extra heavy cast 
iron pipe if under ground, and if above ground shall be made of extra 
heavy cast iron, galvanized wrought iron of standard weight, or of not 
less than number thirteen Stubbs gauge brass pipe within the building, 
except that lead pipes may be used for short connections exposed to view. 
Cast iron drains shall extend not less than ten feet from the inside face 
of the wall, beyond and away from the building. 

Drain pipes above ground shall be secured by irons to walls, suspended 
from floor timbers by strong iron hangers, or supported on brick piers. 
Proper man-holes shall be supplied to reach clean-outs and traps. Every 
drain pipe shall have a fall of not less than one quarter inch per foot, 
and shall be extended from a point ten feet outside the inside face of 
the wall, unobstructed, to and through the roof, undiminished in size, 
and to a height not less than two feet above the roof, and not less than 



56 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 

one foot above the top of any window within fifteen feet, and not less 
than eight feet above the roof if the roof is used for drying clothes or 
as a roof garden. The drain pipe shall be supplied with a Y branch 
fitted with a brass clean-out or with an iron stopper, if required, on the 
direct run, at or near the point where the drain leaves the building. 
Changes in direction shall be made with curved pipes, and all connec- 
tions with horizontal or vertical pipes shall be made with Y branches. 
Saddle hubs shall not be used. All drain pipes shall be exposed to sight 
within the building, if such exposure is practicable, and shall not be 
exposed to pressure where they pass through the wall. 

Steam Exhausts, Etc. 

No steam, or vapor, or water of a temperature over one hundred and 
thirty degrees Fahrenheit shall be discharged from any premises into 
any sewer, drain or catch-basin, nor shall any matter or thing be dis- 
charged into any sewer which may tend to cause an obstruction of the 
public sewer or a nuisance or a deposit therein or any injury thereto. 

All high pressure steam boilers shall be connected with a blow-off tank 
of a capacity not less than thirty per cent of the largest boiler connected 
with such tank. The location of and the connections to said blow-off 
tank shall be subject to the approval of the superintendent of sewers. 

No steam exhaust or steam drip, unless it be provided with a cooling 
tank of a capacity approved by the superintendent of sewers, or unless it 
be connected with the blow-off tank, shall connect with any drain leading 
to the sewer. Every blow-off tank shall be supplied with a vapor pipe 
not less than two inches in diameter, which shall be carried above the 
roof and above the highest windows of the building. 

The superintendent of sewers may require such additional means for 
cooling the blow-off tanks by the injection of cold water or otherwise as 
may be necessary to reduce the temperature of the water passing from 
the blow-off tank so that it shall not exceed one hundred and thirty 
degrees Fahrenheit. 

Special Traps, Etc. 

SECT. 123. Every building from which, in the opinion of the super- 
intendent of sewers, grease may be discharged in such quantity as to 
clog or injure the sewer, shall have a special grease trap satisfactory to 
the superintendent of sewers. Every building in which gasoline, naphtha 
or other inflammable compounds are used for business purposes shall be 
provided with a special trap, satisfactory to the superintendent of sewers, 
so designed as to prevent the passage of such material into the sewer, 
and ventilated with a separate pipe rising to a point four feet above the 
roof. All non-siphon traps shall be of a type approved by the commis- 
sioner. The waste pipe of every wash stand for vehicles shall be pro- 
vided with a sand box of sufficient capacity. 

The waste pipe from the sink of every hotel, eating house, restaurant 
or other public cooking establishment, shall be connected to a grease trap 
of sufficient size, easily accessible to open and clean, placed as near as 
practicable to the fixture that it serves. 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 57 



Roof Leaders and Surface Drains. 

SECT 124. Rain water leaders when connected with house drains 
shall be suitably trapped and, within the proposed surface drainage area, 
shall not be connected at the top of the stack, nor extended down through 
the interior of the building, except by special permit from the commis- 
sioner. Wherever a surface drain is installed in a cellar or basement, it 
shall be provided with a deep seal trap and back water valve. Drain 
pipes from fixtures in cellars and basements liable to back flow from a 
sewer shall be supplied with back water valves. 

HAZARDOUS BUILDINGS AND APPLIANCES FOR POWER AND HEAT. 

SECT. 125. No building shall be used for a grain elevator, or for 
the storage or manufacture of high combustibles or explosives, or for 
chemical or rendering works, without a permit from the commissioner, 
and no engine, dynamo, boiler or furnace shall be placed in any building 
without a permit from the commissioner. Every application for such 
permit shall be in writing, shall be filed with the commissioner, and shall 
set forth the character of the building, the size, power and purposes of 
the apparatus, and such other information as the commissioner may 
require. The commissioner may, after an examination of the premises 
described in the application, and after hearing the applicant and any 
objectors, issue a permit for placing a boiler or furnace on such premises, 
upon such conditions as he shall prescribe, or he may refuse such permit. 
If the application is for anything other than a boiler or furnace the 
applicant shall publish in at least two daily newspapers published in the 
city of Boston, and on at least three days in each, and, if so directed 
by the commissioner, shall also post conspicuously on the premises, a 
copy of the application, and shall deliver copies thereof to such persons 
as the commissioner may designate. 

If no objection is filed with the commissioner before the expiration of 
ten days after the time of the first publication of notice, or within ten 
days of the delivery and first posting of the notice, if such delivery or 
posting is required, the commissioner shall, if the arrangement, location, 
and construction of the proposed apparatus is proper, and in accordance 
with the provisions of this act, issue a permit for the same. If objection 
is filed, the application shall be referred to the board of appeal, which 
may, in its discretion, require the deposit by the objector of a reasonable 
sum as security for the payment of the costs. 

After such notice as the board shall order it shall hear the same, and 
shall direct the commissioner to issue a permit, under such conditions 
as it may prescribe, or to withhold the same. If the permit is refused, 
the applicant, and if it is granted, the objectors shall pay such costs as 
the board may order. 

The commissioner may, from time to time, after public notice and 
hearing, prescribe conditions on which any or all boilers or furnaces may 
be maintained in buildings, and, if any person interested objects to such 
conditions and appeals from his decision establishing the same, the 
appeal shall be referred to the board of appeal, and thereupon said board 
shall prescribe the conditions. 



58 Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 



COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS. 

SECT 126. No building adapted for habitation, nor any part 
thereof, nor the lot upon which it is located, shall be used as a place for 
the storage, keeping or handling of any combustible article, except under 
such conditions as may be prescribed by the fire commissioner. No 
such building nor any part thereof, nor of the lot upon which it is 
located, shall be used as a place for the storage, keeping or handling of 
any article dangerous or detrimental to life or health, nor for the storage, 
keeping or handling of feed, hay, straw, excelsior, cotton, paper stock, 
feathers or rags. 

ENFORCEMENT OF ACT. 

SECT. 127. Every structure and part thereof and appurtenant 
thereto shall be maintained in such repair as not to be dangerous. The 
owner shall be responsible for the maintenance of all buildings and 
structures. The lessee under a recorded lease shall be deemed the owner 
under the provisions of this act. 

POWERS OF THE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

SECT. 128. The board of health may by vote limit the number of 
occupants who shall be permitted to dwell in any building or in any part 
or parts thereof. They shall cause a copy of any such vote to be served 
upon the owner of the building, his agent or other persons having the 
charge thereof. If the owner, agent, or other persons having charge of 
said building allow or permit more people than are permitted by said 
vote to occupy the building or any part or parts thereof, said board may 
order the premises to be vacated, and they shall not again be occupied 
without the permission of the board. The board may make such further 
regulations as to overcrowding, ventilation, the construction of water- 
closets, the lighting of hallways, and the occupation of buildings or parts 
thereof, not inconsistent with other laws, as they may deem proper. 
Said board may permit rooms in private stables to be occupied for sleep- 
ing purposes by grooms and coachmen. 

ENFORCEMENT JURISDICTION IN EQUITY. 

SECT. 129. Any court having jurisdiction in equity or any justice 
thereof shall, upon the application of the city by its attorney, have juris- 
diction in equity : - 

To restrain the construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, use or 
occupation of a building, structure or other thing constructed or used in 
violation of the provisions of this act, and to order its removal or abate- 
ment as a nuisance; 

To restrain the further construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, 
use or occupation of a building, structure or other thing, which is unsafe 
or dangerous; 

To restrain the unlawful construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, 
use or occupation of any building, structure or other thing; 

To compel compliance with the provisions of this act; 

To order the removal by the owner of a building, structure or other 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550. 



01 I. 



ASSOCI 



thing unlawfully existing, and to authorize the commissioner, with the 
written approval of the mayor, in default of such removal by the owner, 
to remove it at the owner's expense. 

Any person, the value of whose property may be affected by any 
decision of the board of appeal, may have the action of said board re- 
viewed by the court by any appropriate process, provided that proceed- 
ings are instituted within thirty days after the date of such decision. 

The person applying for the review shall file a bond with sufficient 
surety, to be approved by the court, for such sum as shall be fixed by the 
court, to indemnify and save harmless the person or persons in whose 
favor the decision was rendered from all damages and costs which they 
may sustain in case the decision of said board is affirmed. 

In case the decision of the board is affirmed the court, on motion, shall 
assess damages, and execution shall issue therefor. 

Any person having any duty to perform under the provisions of this 
act may, so far as may be necessary for the performance of his duties, 
enter any building or premises in the city of Boston. 

JURISDICTION AT LAW. 

SECT. 130. The municipal court of the city of Boston, concurrently 
with the superior court, shall have jurisdiction throughout the city of 
prosecutions and proceedings at law under the provisions of this act, and 
also of all provisions of law relative to plumbing and gas-fitting. 

PROCEDURE. 

SECT. 131. Upon the entry of any case brought under the provi- 
sions of this act the court shall, at the request of either party, advance 
the case, so that it may be heard and determined with as little delay 
as possible. 

NUISANCE. 

SECT. 132. A building or structure which is erected or maintained 
in violation of the provisions of this act shall be deemed a common 
nuisance without other proof thereof than proof of its unlawful con- 
struction, and the commissioner may abate and remove it in the same 
manner in which boards of health may remove nuisances under the pro- 
visions of sections sixty-seven, sixty-eight and sixty-nine of chapter 
seventy -five of the Revised Laws. 

Whoever violates any provision of this act, or whoever builds, alters, or 
maintains any structure or any part thereof in violation of any provision 
of this act, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars. 

REPEALS. 

SECT. 133. So much of chapter four hundred and nineteen of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-two and of all acts in 
amendment thereof as is unrepealed is hereby repealed. So much of 
any other act as is inconsistent herewith is hereby repealed. 

SECT. 134. This act shall take effect upon the first day of August 
in the year nineteen hundred and seven. [Approved June 22, 1907.] 



ORGANIZATION 

OF THE 

BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 



BUILDING COMMISSIONER. 

JOHN A. ROONEY. 

CLERK OF DEPARTMENT. 

CHARLES S. DAMRELL. 

SUPERVISOR OF PLANS. 

MICHAEL W. FITZSIMMONS. 

CONSTRUCTION DIVISION. 

EDMUND J. TURNER Supervisor. 

JOHN H. MAHONEY Supervisor. 

EDWIN D. KELLY (Concrete) Supervisor. 

JOHN CURRIE Inspector. 

JOHN J. DUNIGAN ' Inspector. 

THOMAS H. GRINNELL Inspector. 

WILLIAM T. HATHAWAY , Inspector. 

THOMAS M. HINCHEY Inspector. 

ALPHONSUS C. HICKEY . Inspector. 

THOMAS F. KEARNEY Inspector. 

WILLIAM F. MURPHY Inspector. 

CORNELIUS J. MURPHY . Inspector. 

ABRAHAM T. ROGERS Inspector. 

CORNELIUS J. REGAN Inspector. 

EGRESS DIVISION. 
LEVI W. SHAW Supervisor. 

PLUMBING DIVISION. 
DENNIS H. COLLINS Supervisor. 

GASFITTING DIVISION. 

DAVID A. FINNEGAN . . . .... ... Supervisor. 

ELEVATOR DIVISION. 
PATRICK H. COSTELLO Supervisor. 



BOARD OF APPEAL 

UNDER THE BUILDING LAW. 
Sec Sects. 6, 7, 8. 



CIYIL ENGINEERS 
U. of C. 

ASSOCIATION LIBRA! 



GEORGE R. SWASEY, Chairman. 

WILLIAM D. AUSTIN, Secretary, 50 Bromfield St. 

NEIL McNEIL. EDWARD H. ELDRIDGE. 



DENNIS J. SULLIVAN. 



INDEX. 



References in this Index are to Pages and Sections of the Existing Law. 

A. 

Page. Section. 

ACCESS TO ROOFS. 

permanent means of, required 8 12 

ACCIDENTS, ELEVATOR. 

to be reported to Building Commissioner 27 38 

" AIR PIPES " PLUMBING. 

definition of 49 112 

requirements of 51 117, 118 

AISLES, PUBLIC BUILDING. 

must conform to requirements for theatres 47 107 

AISLES, THEATRE. 

regulations for 43 88 

ALTERATIONS. 

prohibitions relating to 9 13 

ALTERATIONS AND REPAIRS. 

permits required for 9 13 

ALTERATION OF EXISTING BUILDINGS. 

general regulations for 24 35 

ANCHORS. 

provision for 20 24 

" APARTMENT." 

in tenement houses defined 30 42 

APPEAL, BOARD OF. (See BOARD OF APPEAL.) 

appointment; terms; vacancies; qualifications; decisions; re- 
ports, etc 5 6, 7, 8 

APPEALS FROM BOARD OF APPEALS 58 129 

APPLIANCES FOR POWER AND HEAT. 

hazardous buildings; regulations for 57 125 

AREAS. 

buildings, restriction of 17 17 

ART GALLERIES. 

may be placed above theatres 47 108 

ASHES AND GARBAGE. 

tenement house, receptacles for 41 75 

ASSEMBLY, PLACES OF PUBLIC. 

capacity; must be fireproof; general requirements 47 105 

ASSEMBLY-ROOMS. 

capacity, dimensions, etc 47 105 

63 



64 Index. 

Page. Section. 

ASSISTANTS, BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

appointed by commissioner 3 1 

AUDITORIUMS, THEATRE. 

heating apparatus under 46 104 

seating regulations for 43 87 

B. 

BAKERIES AND FAT BOILING. 

prohibited in tenement houses; exceptions 33 53 

BALCONIES. 

tenement house, requirements of 30 42 

" BASEMENT." 

definition of 7 11 

BASEMENTS. 

tenement house, requirements for 38 68 

BEAMS. 

proportions of 13 14 

BEAMS AND GIRDERS. 

computations relating to 15 16 

BOARD OF APPEAL. 

appointed by Mayor, on nominations 5 6 

appeals from to be heard in equity courts 58 129 

decisions of, to be in writing 5 6 

to specify variations allowed 5 6 

applicants to have copy of 5 7 

summary of, in annual report 6 8 

hearings on appealed cases 5 7 

may vary provisions of this Act 5 7 

members of, how appointed 5 6 

terms of 5 6 

compensation of 5 6 

not to act when interested 5 6 

to be Boston men 5 6 

reports, annual, to mayor 6 8 

to contain summary of decisions 6 8 

to be printed separately 6 8 

vacancies in, how filled 5 6 

who may appeal to 5 7 

BOARD OF EXAMINERS OF GAS FITTERS. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

BOARD OF HEALTH. 

may limit number of occupants in any building 58 128 

not affected by this Act ., 6 10 

powers of, defined 58 128 

BOARD OF PARK COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this Act .' . 6 10 

BOARD OF STREET COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

BOARDS, CITY, CERTAIN. 

authority of, not curtailed by this Act 6 10 



Index. 65 

Page. Section. 
BOILERS AND FURNACES. 

hazardous buildings, public hearings on 57 125 

not to be placed on wooden floors 9 13 

or under public ways 9 13 

BONDING BRICKWORK. 

provision for 20 25 

BOOTHS, VOTING. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

BRICKWORK, BONDING. 

provision for 20 25 

BRICKWORK IN COMPRESSION. 

stresses of 12 14 

BRIDGES, QUAYS, ETC. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

BUILDING COMMISSIONER. 

appointment of 3 1 

authority and powers of 3 1, 4, 5 

has power to reject materials 14 15 

may appoint deputy; powers of 3 1 

enforce requirements 7 12 

enter any building or premises 59 129 

require duplicate plans to be kept at building 4 1 

plans and specifications 4 1 

stop work for violation of permits 4 1 

order unsafe buildings vacated 4 4 

take measures for public safety 7 12 

not to dispense with tenement-house restrictions. 41 76 

qualifications required of 3 1 

salary of, fixed by City Council . 3 1 

term of office 3 1 

to approve plumbing of chemical laboratories 52 117 

elevators 27 38 

stable drainage 52 117 

enforce requirements for all buildings 7 12 

examine all buildings in course of construction 4 2 

buildings dangerous, damaged or unsafe 4 3, 4, 5 

keep records of violations 4 2 

have charge of Building Department 3 1 

post notice of unsafe elevators 27 38 

prescribe conditions for buildings outside limits 17 17 

submit annual report to mayor 3 1 

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION. (See separate subjects.) 

equivalents in methods of, may be allowed 6 8 

height, excavations, cellars, walls, etc., regulations for 18 18 

BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

commissioner to be in charge of 3 1 

how appointed 3 1 

term of office 3 1 

qualifications required 3 1 

salary of, fixed by City Council 3 1 

may appoint inspectors, employees and assistants 3 1 



66 



Index. 



Page. Section. 

BUILDING DEPARTMENT, continued. 

clerk to keep records open to public 3 1 

employees to retain positions until removal or discharge 3 1 

inspectors, qualifications required of 3 1 

officers, commissioner, salary, term, etc 3 1 

may enter buildings and premises 10 14 

not to engage in other business 3 1 

furnish material 3 1 

be financially interested 3 1 

present to hold office until removed or discharge 3 1 

requirements and restrictions of 3 1 

records to be open to public inspection 3 1 

under charge of commissioner 3 1 

BUILDING INSPECTION. 

commissioner, or inspectors, to examine all buildings in course 

of construction 4 2 

BUILDING LAW, 1907. 

approved June 22 59 134 

in effect, August 1 59 134 

exceptions and exemptions from provisions of 6 10 

equity courts given power to enforce 58 129 

law courts given jurisdiction in law cases 59 130 

not to deprive certain city boards and officers of power 6 10 

officials may enter buildings and premises 59 129 

violators of may be fined $500 59 132 

BUILDING LIMITS. 

present to continue until changed 6 9 

City council may change, extend and define 6 9 

BUILDING MATERIALS. (See separate subjects.) 

combustible, not to be housed in habitable buildings 58 126 

commissioner has power to reject 14 15 

method of computing strength of 15 16 

quality of mortar, cement and concrete 14 15 

strength of; tables of stresses 10 14 

stresses, tables of 10 14 

BUILDING PERMITS. (See, also, PERMITS.) 

applications for 4 1 

how and by whom granted 4 1 

if terms of, are violated commissioner may stop work 4 1 

must be on approved printed forms 4 1 

requirements for 4 1 

BUILDING PROHIBITIONS. 

list of general 9 13 

" BUILDING, STORY OF." 

definition of 7 11 

BUILDINGS. 

classes of, defined 7 11 

height of, defined 7 11 

regulations for 18 18 

inspection during construction 4 2 

outside finish of. . 8 12 



Index. 67 

Page. Section. 
BUILDINGS, continued. 

prohibitions relating to alterations 9 13 

moving , 9 13 

repairs 9 13 

requirements for all 7 12 

commissioner may enforce 7 12 

restriction of areas 17 17 

record of violations to be kept 4 2 

BUILDINGS, ALTERATION OF EXISTING. 

general regulations for 24 35 

BUILDINGS, CLASSIFICATION OF. 

first and second classes 16 17 

regulations for constructing 16 17 

BUILDINGS, COMPOSITE. 

definition of 7 11 

BUILDINGS, DANGEROUS OR DAMAGED. 

commissioner to examine and make record 4 3, 4 

BUILDINGS, EXPOSURES. 

regulations for 24 35 

BUILDINGS, FEDERAL. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

BUILDINGS, FIRST-CLASS. 

definition of 7 11 

BUILDINGS, HAZARDOUS. (See HAZARDOUS BUILDINGS.) 

appliances for heat and power in 57 125 

must have permits 57 125 

hearings on 57 125 

BUILDINGS, OCCUPANTS OF. 

board of health may limit number of 58 128 

BUILDINGS OUTSIDE LIMITS. 

commissioner to prescribe conditions for 17 17 

BUILDINGS, PUBLIC. (See PUBLIC BUILDINGS.) 

must conform to regulations for theatres 47 107 

BUILDINGS, SECOND-CLASS. 

definition of 7 11 

BUILDINGS, STATE. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

BUILDINGS, THIRD-CLASS. 

definition of 7 11 

BUILDINGS UNLAWFULLY CONSTRUCTED. 

deemed nuisances 59 132 

abatement and removal of 59 132 

BUILDINGS, WOODEN. 

general regulations for construction of 28 39 

height of 28 40 

not to be moved within building limits 9 13 

proximity to other buildings 28 40 

BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES. 

owner responsible for maintenance of 58 127 

responsibility of lessees 58 127 



68 Index. 

Page. Section. 

BULKHEADS AND SCUTTLES. 

tenement house, requirements for 30 44 

c. 

CEILINGS, CELLAR. 

tenement-house, construction of 32 49 

" CELLAR." 

definition of 7 11 

CELLARS. 

general regulations for 18 18 

requirements for 19 22 

ceilings, tenement-house, construction of 32 49 

CEMENT. 

required qualifications for 14 15 

CHEMICAL LABORATORIES. 

plumbing of, to be approved by commissioner 52 117 

CHIMNEYS. 

floor timber not to be within two inches of 9 13 

restrictions relating to 9 13 

thickness of walls 8 12 

CHIMNEY FLUES. 

height of 8 12 

lining required 8 12 

CITY COUNCIL. 

to fix salary of building commissioner 3 1 

CITY OFFICERS, CERTAIN. 

authority of, not curtailed by this Act 6 10 

CLASSES OF BUILDINGS. 

definitions of 7 11 

CLEAN-OUTS, FERRULES, ETC. 

required diameter and weight of 53 121 

CLERK, BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

duties of, defined 3 1 

CLOSETS. 

under staircases, restrictions 9 13 

COLUMNS. 

computations relating to 15 16 

cast iron, restrictions 12 14 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS. 

not to be housed in habitable buildings 58 126 

COMMISSIONER, BUILDING. (See BUILDING COMMISSIONER.) 

appointment, qualifications, term, salary, etc 3 1 

COMMISSIONER, FIRE. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

COMMISSIONER OF WIRES. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

provisions of sect. 7 apply to 5 7 

COMPOSITE BUILDINGS. 

definition of 7 11 

COMPUTATIONS, BUILDING MATERIALS. 

methods of 15 16 



Index. 69 

Page. Section. 

CONCRETE. 

regulations for use of 12 14 

required qualifications of 14 15 

stresses of 13 14 

CONCRETE, REINFORCED. 

required qualifications of 15 15 

CONSTRUCTION, BUILDING. (See separate subjects.) 

height, excavation, cellars, walls, etc., regulations for. . 18 18 

first and second class buildings 16 17 

equivalents may be allowed by appeal board and commissioner . . 6 8 

CORBELS, CHIMNEY. 

restrictions relating to 9 13 

" CORNER LOT." 

definition of 29 42 

CORRECTION, HOUSE OF. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

COTTON, PAPER STOCK, ETC. 

not to be housed in habitable buildings 58 126 

COURT HOUSE, SUFFOLK COUNTY. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

COURT, MUNICIPAL. 

given jurisdiction in law proceedings 59 130 

COURTS, AREA. 

theatres must have open 41 79, 80 

COURTS, EQUITY. 

given jurisdiction to enforce provisions of this Act 58 129 

" COURTS," TENEMENT-HOUSE. 

definition of 29 42 

general regulations for 35 57 

inner, provision for 35 59 

outer, provision for 35 58 

vent, regulations for 36 60 

CURTAINS. 

theatres must have fireproof. 42 84 

CUTTING FOR PIPING. 

restrictions concerning 13 14 



D. 

DAMAGED BUILDINGS. 

commissioner to examine, and make record 4 3, 4 

DANGEROUS BUILDINGS. 

commissioner to examine, and make record 4 3, 4 

DECISIONS, BOARD OF APPEAL. 

applicants to have copy 5 7 

must be in writing 5 7 

specify variations, etc 5 7 

DEFINITIONS. 

building law terms 7 11 

certain words relating to tenement-houses 29 42 



70 Index. 

Page. Section. 

DEPUTY BUILDING COMMISSIONER. 

appointment of 3 1 

powers of 3 1 

DOORS. 

stage, in theatres, provision for 44 91 

" DRAIN." 

plumbing, definition of 49 112 

DRAINS, SURFACE. 

must have seal trap and back-water valve 57 124 

DRAINAGE OF COURTS AND YARDS. 

tenement-house, to Satisfaction of board of health 41 74 

DRAINAGE, STABLE. 

commissioner to approve fixtures for 52 117 

DRAINAGE FITTINGS. 

certain, must be galvanized, etc 51 121 

E. 

EGRESS. 

means of, in case of fire 8 12 

from tenement-houses, provision for 30 43 

stores and storage buildings 17 17 

ELEVATORS. 

accidents to be reported 27 38 

inspectors may be appointed 28 38 

manufacturers required to test 27 38 

permits for, how obtained 27 38 

to be approved by commissioner 27 38 

unsafe, commissioner to post notice 27 38 

who may operate them 27 38 

ELEVATORS AND HOISTS. 

general regulations for 26 38 

fireproof enclosures for 26 38 

exceptions 26 38 

ELEVATOR SHAFTS. 

tenement-house, regulations for 32 52 

EMPLOYEES, BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

to be appointed by commissioner 3 1 

to retain positions until removal or discharge 3 1 

ENCLOSURES. 

fireproof for elevators and hoists 26 38 

ENFORCEMENT OF BUILDING LAW. 

Equity and law courts given jurisdiction 58 129, 130 

ENTRANCE HALLS. 

tenement-house, construction of 32 48 

EQUITY COURTS. 

given jurisdiction under this act 58 129 

EQUIVALENTS. 

in methods of construction and maintenance may be allowed .... 6 8 

EXAMINERS OF GAS FITTERS. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 



Index. 71 

Page. Section. 

EXCAVATIONS. 

general regulations for. 18 18, 19 

EXCELSIOR, COTTON, ETC. 

not to be housed in habitable buildings 58 126 

EXEMPTIONS. 

from provisions of this Act 6 10 

EXHAUSTS, STEAM. 

regulations pertaining to 56 122 

EXISTING THEATRES. 

general regulations for 48 111 

EXITS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

must conform to regulations for theatres 47 107 

EXITS, ROOF GARDEN. 

requirements for 48 109 

EXITS, THEATRE. 

general regulations for 44 91-99 

EXPOSURES. 

required for buildings 24 35 

F. 

FAT-BOILING. 

prohibited in tenement-houses 33 53 

exceptions 33 53 

FEATHERS, RAGS, ETC. 

not to be housed in habitable buildings 58 126 

FEDERAL BUILDINGS. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

FEED, HAY, STRAW, ETC. 

not to be housed in habitable buildings 58 126 

FERRULES, CLEAN-OUTS, ETC. 

required diameter and weight of 53 121 

FIRE. 

means of egress in case of 8 12 

FIRE-ESCAPES. 

interior and exterior in tenement-houses 30 43 

stores and storage buildings 17 17 

in what they shall consist 30 43 

tenement-house, general regulations for 30 43 

exterior and interior 30 43 

FIRE COMMISSIONER. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

FIRE PROTECTION. 

general requirements for 22 32 

FIREPROOFING. 

regulations for 22 32 

FIREPROOF PARTITIONS. 

how to be constructed .. 23 33 

FIRST-CLASS BUILDINGS. 

definition of . . 711 



72 Index. 

Page. Section. 

FITTINGS, DRAINAGE. 

must be galvanized, etc 55 121 

" FIXTURE." 

plumbing, meaning of term 50 112 

FLOORING DURING CONSTRUCTION. 

regulations for 29 41 

FLOORS. 

security of, required 8 12 

theatre, required levels of 42 82 

stage, requirements for 42 85. 89 

FLOORS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS. 

commissioner to prescribe maximum loads for 26 36 

FLOORS, LOADS. 

least capacity for 25 36 

FLOORS, WOODEN. 

furnaces and boilers not to be placed on 9 13 

FLOOR TIMBER. 

not to be within two inches of chimney 9 13 

FLUES, CHIMNEY. 

height of ' 8 12 

lining required for certain 8 12 

FLUES, VENTILATING. 

must be of incombustible material 8 12 

"FOUNDATION." 

definition of 7 11 

regulations for 18 18 

FOUNDATIONS, FIRST AND SECOND CLASS BUILDINGS. 

general regulations of 19 21 

FURNACES AND BOILERS. 

hazardous buildings, public hearings on 57 125 

not to be placed on wooden floors 9 13 



G. 

GARBAGE AND ASHES. 

tenement-house, receptacles for 41 75 

GARDENS, ROOF. (See ROOF GARDENS.) 

above theatres, provisions for 47 108 

GAS PIPE OUTLETS. 

theatre, two required 45 99 

inspection of 45 99 

" GAS FITTING." 

definition of 7 11 

municipal court given jurisdiction in law cases 59 130 

GAS FITTERS, BOARD OF EXAMINERS OF. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

GIRDERS AND BEAMS. 

computations relating to , 15 16 

GRANITE. 

stresses of . . 12 14 



Index. 73 

H. 

Page. Section. 
HABITABLE BUILDINGS. 

combustible materials not to be housed in 58 126 

" HALL, PUBLIC." 

tenement-house, defined 29 42 

requirements for 31 45 

" HALL, STAIR." 

tenement-house, denned 29 42 

requirements for 31 45 

construction of 31 46 

HALLS, ENTRANCE. 

tenement-house, construction of 32 48 

HALLS, PUBLIC. 

capacity of 47 105 

general requirements for 47 105 

must be fireproof 47 105 

HANDRAILS. 

theatre stairs, requirements for 46 102 

HAY, STRAW, ETC. 

not to be housed in habitable buildings 58 126 

HAZARDOUS BUILDINGS. 

appliances for power and heat 57 125 

hearings on boilers and furnaces for 57 125 

must have permits 57 125 

application, hearings, etc 57 125 

HEADERS, WOODEN. 

requirements for , 8 12 

HEALTH, BOARD OF. 

may limit number of occupants in any building 58 128 

not to be affected by this Act 6 10 

powers of, defined 58 128 

HEARINGS, PUBLIC. 

hazardous buildings and appliances 57 125 

HEARTHS AND PIERS. 

regulations for 21 30 

HEAT AND POWER. 

appliances for, in hazardous buildings - 57 125 

HEATING APPARATUS. 

theatre, under auditoriums, regulations for 46 104 

" HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS." 

definition of 7 11 

regulations for 18 18 

HOISTS AND ELEVATORS. 

fireproof enclosures for 26 38 

exceptions 26 38 

general regulations for 26 38 

HOUSE OF CORRECTION. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

HOUSES, TENEMENT. (See TENEMENT HOUSES.) 

additional requirements for 29 42 



74 



Index. 



I. 



Page. Section. 



INSPECTION, BUILDING. 

commissioner, or inspectors, to examine all buildings being 

constructed 4 2 

INSPECTION, PLUMBING. 

work must be approved 50 1 16 

INSPECTORS, BUILDING. 

appointment by commissioner 3 1 

qualifications required of 3 1 

may enter any building or premises 59 129 

INSPECTORS, ELEVATOR. 

commissioner may appoint 28 38 

INTAKES. 

tenement-house, provision for 36 61 

IRON, WROUGHT AND CAST. 

strength of 11 14 

J. 

JAIL, SUFFOLK COUNTY. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

JURISDICTION. 

given courts of equity 58 129 

law 58 130 

L. 

LABORATORIES, CHEMICAL. 

plumbing of, to be approved by commissioner 52 117 

LANDINGS, STAIR. 

theatre, required dimensions of 46 101 

LAW COURTS. 

given jurisdiction under this Act 49 130 

LEADERS, ROOF. 

projections of 8 12 

requirements for 57 124 

" LEAKS, REPAIR OF." 

plumbing, definition of 49 112 

LESSEES. 

when responsible for maintenance 58 127 

LESSEE UNDER RECORDED LEASE. 

deemed owner of building or structure 58 127 

LIGHT. 

tenement-house, provision for 33 55 

LIGHTS, EXIT. 

public buildings, must conform to theatre requirements 47 107 

LIGHTING, TENEMENT-HOUSE. 

board of health may regulate 58 128 

LIMESTONE. 

stresses of.. 12 14 



Index. 75 

Page. Section. 
LINING, CHIMNEY. 

when required 8 12 

LOADS, FLOOR. 

provision for, in constructing 25 36 

commissioner to prescribe maximum for existing buildings 26 36 

LOBBIES, THEATRE. 

requirements for 43 90 

M. 

MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS. 

owners and lessees, responsibility of 58 127 

MAINTENANCE, METHODS OF. 

equivalents may be allowed by appeal board and commissioner . . 6 8 

MARBLE, BUILDING. 

stresses of 12 14 

MARKET BUILDINGS. 

restrictions of sect. 9 not to apply to 6 9 

MASONRY, BRICK AND STONE. 

not to rest on wood 9 13 

exceptions 9 13 

MATERIALS, BUILDING. (See BUILDING MATERIALS.) 

strength of 10 14 

stresses, tables of 10 14 

MATERIALS, COMBUSTIBLE. 

not to be housed in habitable buildings 58 126 

METHODS OF COMPUTATION. 

strength of building materials 10 14 

METHODS OF MAINTENANCE. 

equivalents may be allowed by appeal board and commissioner . . 6 8 

MORTARS. 

required qualifications of 14 15 

stresses of 12 14 

MOVING BUILDINGS. 

prohibitions relating to 9 13 

wooden, within building limits prohibited 9 13 

MOVING PICTURE SHOWS. 

subject to chapters 176 and 437, Acts, 1905 47 106 

N. 

NIPPLES, SOLDERING. 

required diameter and weight of 53 121 

NUISANCES. 

buildings unlawfully constructed declared to be 59 132 

abatement and removal of : 59 132 

0. 

OAK, WHITE. 

strength of 10 14 

OBSERVATION STANDS. 

commissioner must approve plans of 9 13 



76 Index. 

Page. Section. 

OCCUPANTS OF BUILDINGS. 

board of health may limit number of 58 128 

OFFICERS, BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

may enter buildings and premises 59 129 

not to engage in other business 3 1 

furnish materials 3 J 

be financially interested 3 1 

requirements and restrictions 3 1 

to serve until removal or discharge 3 1 

OFFICERS, CITY, CERTAIN. 

powers of, not curtailed by this act 6 10 

OFFICES, STORES, ETC. 

in theatre buildings 42 81 

OVERCROWDING, TENEMENT-HOUSES. 

board of health may regulate to prevent 58 128 

OWNERS. 

responsible for maintenance of buildings and structures 58 129 



P. 

PAPER STOCK, COTTON, ETC. 

not to be housed in habitable building 58 126 

PARK COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this act 6 10 

PARTITIONS, TENEMENT-HOUSE. 

construction of 32 50 

PARTITIONS, FIREPROOF. 

how to be constructed 23 33 

" PARTY WALLS." 

definition of 7 11 

prohibition concerning 9 13 

PASSAGEWAYS, THEATRE. 

radiators not to be placed in 46 104 

PERMITS, BUILDING: 

applications for 4 1 

requirements of 4 1 

applicants may appeal to board of appeal 5 7 

action thereon 5 7 

building commissioner shall grant, for construction 4 1 

if terms are violated commissioner may stop work 4 1 

to be on approved printed forms 4 1 

required for all buildings 7 12 

PERMITS, OTHER THAN BUILDING. 

required for alterations 7 12 

boilers, steam 4 1 

elevators 27 38 

furnaces 4 1 

gas-fitting 4 1 

plumbing 50 114 

commissioner to grant, on application 4 1 



Index. 77 

Page. Section. 

PICTURE SHOWS, MOVING. 

subject to chapters 176 and 437, Acts, 1905 47 106 

PIERS AND HEARTHS. 

regulations for 21 30 

PILING. 

regulations for 18 18, 20 

PINE, WHITE AND YELLOW. 

strength of 10 14 

PIPES, BACK AIR. 

plumbing, requirements for 51 117 

PIPES, BRASS. 

diameter, thickness and weight required 54 121 

PIPES, CAST-IRON. 

diameter and weight required 54 121 

PIPES, DRAIN. 

requirements relating to 55 122 

PIPES, LEAD. 

plumbing, restricted to short branches 53 121 

required diameter, thickness and weight , 54 121 

PIPES, REFRIGERATOR AND DRIP. 

plumbing, regulations for 52 119 

PIPES, SMOKE. 

not to project through walls or windows 9 13 

PIPES, SOIL AND WASTE. 

plumbing, requirements for 50 117 

required diameters for 53 121 

PIPES, STEAM, ETC. 

not to be within one inch of woodwork 9 13 

restrictions concerning 9 13 

PIPES, WASTE AND SOIL. 

plumbing, requirements for 50 117 

required diameters for 53 121 

PIPES, WROUGHT-IRON. 

diameter, thickness and weight required 55 121 

PIPING, CUTTING FOR. 

restrictions relating to 13 14 

PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS. 

building commissioner may require 4 1 

duplicates to be kept at buildings 4 1 

observation stands, commissioner must approve 9 13 

PLUMBERS. 

must be registered or licensed 50 113 

get permits 50 114 

notify commissioner on changing place of business 50 113 

PLUMBING. 

" air pipes," definition of 49 112 

requirements for 51 117, 1 18 

appliances for heat and power in hazardous buildings '. . . . 57 125 

clean-outs, required diameter and weight of . 53 121 

connection with sewer or drain 50 115 

definition of terms used in. . 49 112 



78 Index. 

Page. Section. 

PLUMBING, continued. 

" drain," meaning of 49 112 

drain pipes, requirements for 55 122 

drains, surface, must have seal trap and back-water valve 57 124 

exhausts, steam, regulations for 56 122 

ferrules, required diameter and weight of 53 121 

fittings, drainage, must be galvanized 51 121 

" fixture," definition of 50 112 

hazardous buildings, hearings on 57 125 

hearings on hazardous buildings and appliances 57 125 

inspection and tests of work 50 116 

laboratory, to be approved by commissioner 52 117 

leaders, roof, requirements for 57 124 

" leaks, repair of," meaning of 49 112 

municipal court given jurisdiction in law cases 59 130 

nipples, soldering, required diameter and weight of 53 121 

pipes, back air, requirements for 51 117 

brass, required diameter, thickness and weight 54 121 

cast iron, required diameter, thickness and weight 54 121 

lead, required diameter, thickness and weight 54 121 

restricted to short branches 53 121 

refrigerator and drip, regulations for .- 52 119 

soil and waste, requirements for 50 117 

required diameter of 53 121 

vent, definition of 49 112 

wrought iron, required diameter, thickness and weight. ... 55 121 

plumbers must be registered or licensed 50 113 

apply for permits 50 114 

give notice of change of place of business 50 113 

roof leaders, requirements for 57 124 

" soil pipe," definition of 49 112 

soldering nipples, required diameter and weight of 53 121 

stable drainage fixtures to be approved by commissioner 52 117 

" surface drain," meaning of 50 112 

must have seal trap and back-water valve 57 124 

terms used in, defined 49 112 

tests and inspection of work 50 116 

to be inspected and approved 50 116 

traps, requirements for 50 117 

special, when required 56 123 

" vent pipes," definition of 49 112 

" ventilation pipe," definition of 50 112 

vents, requirements for 51 117 

waste pipes and traps, provisions for 50 117 

water-closets, requirements for 52 120 

" y-branches," definition of 49 112 

POLICE COMMISSIONER. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

PORTABLE SCHOOL BUILDINGS. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 



CIVIL ENGINEERING 

79 



Index. 



POWER AND HEAT. ._. __._ _ 

appliances for, in hazardous buildings * 57 

PROHIBITIONS, BUILDING. 

complete list of 9 13 

relating to alterations, repairs and moving 9 13 

PROJECTIONS OVER PUBLIC WAYS. 

restrictions relating to 9 13 

PROSCENIUM WALLS. 

theatres must have 42 83 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

aisles of, must conform to requirements for theatres 47 107 

exits of, must conform to requirements for theatres 47 107 

exit lights must conform to requirements for theatres 47 107 

seats must conform to requirements for theatres 47 107 

stairways must conform to requirements for theatres 47 107 

PUBLIC HEARINGS. 

on hazardous buildings and appliances 57 125 

PUBLIC SAFETY. 

commissioner may take necessary measures 7 12 

power of, relating to 4 4 

PUBLIC WAYS. 

boilers not to be placed under 9 13 

PUBLIC WAYS AND SQUARES. 

projections over, regulations for 9 13 

Q. 

QUAYS, WHARVES, ETC. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

R. 

RADIATORS. 

theatre, forbidden in passageways 46 104 

RAGS, FEATHERS, ETC. 

not to be housed in habitable buildings 58 126 

RAILROAD STATIONS. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

RECESS, OR CHASE. 

requirements relating to 9 13 

" REPAIR OF LEAKS " 

plumbing, meaning of 49 112 

" REPAIRS." 

tenement-house, defined 9 13 

prohibitions relating to 9 13 

REPAIRS AND ALTERATIONS. 

permits required for 9 13 

REPEALS. 

138 chapter 419, acts, 1892, repealed by this Act 59 133 

REPORTS. 

board of appeal to mayor 6 8 

to be printed separately 6 8 



80 Index. 

Page. Section. 

RESPONSIBILITY FOR MAINTENANCE. 

of owners and lessees 58 127 

RESTRICTIONS. 

tenement-house, commissioner not to dispense with 41 76 

ROOFS. 

not to discharge on street or alley 9 13 

observation stands not to be erected on \ . . . . 9 13 

permanent means of access to 8 12 

ROOF GARDENS. 

above theatres, provisions for 47 108 

exits required for 48 109 

ROOF LEADERS. 

requirements for 57 124 

ROOMS, TENEMENT-HOUSE. 

lighting and ventilation of 36 63 

size of, regulations for 37 64 

s. 

SALARIES. 

building commissioner 3 1 

members of appeal board 5 6 

SANDSTONE. 

stresses of 12 14 

SCHOOL BUILDINGS, PORTABLE. 

not affected by this act 6 10 

SCUTTLES AND BULKHEADS. 

tenement-house, requirements for 30 44 

SEATS, THEATRE. 

arrangement, and space for 43 87 

SEATS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

must conform to requirements for theatres 47 107 

" SHAFT." 

definition of 29 42 

SHAFTS, ELEVATOR. 

tenement-house, regulations for 32 52 

SHUTTERS. 

provision and requirements for 26 37 

SKYLIGHTS. 

tenement- house, regulations for 40 71 

SMOKE PIPES. 

not to project through wall or window 9 13 

" SOIL PIPE." 

plumbing, definition of 49 112 

SOIL AND WASTE PIPES AND TRAPS. 

plumbing, requirements for 50 117 

SOLDERING NIPPLES. 

required diameter and weight of 53 121 

SPECIFICATIONS AND PLANS. 

commissioner may require 4 1 

duplicate to be kept at building 4 1 

observation stands, commissioner must approve 9 13 



Index. 



81 



Page. Section. 
SPRINKLERS AND STANDPIPES. 

theatre, regulations for 46 104 

SPRUCE. 

strength of 10 14 

STABLES. 

restrictions relating to location of 9 13 

STABLES, DRAINAGE OF. 

fixtures to be approved by commissioner 52 117 

STAGE DOORS. 

theatre, requirements for 44 91-94 

STAGING OR STANDS FOR OBSERVATION. 

not to be erected on roofs 9 13 

STAIRS, THEATRE. 

how to be constructed '. 45 100-103 

STAIRS AND PUBLIC HALLS. 

tenement-house, requirements for 31 45 

STAIR HALLS. 

tenement-house, construction of 31 46 

STAIRWAYS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

must conform to requirements for theatres 47 107 

STANDS, OBSERVATION. 

not to be erected on roofs 9 13 

commissioner must approve plans of 9 13 

STANDPIPES AND SPRINKLERS. 

theatre, regulations for 46 104 

STATE BUILDINGS. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

STATIONS, RAILROAD. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

STEAM EXHAUSTS. 

regulations pertaining to 56 122 

STEEL. 

tensile strength of 11 14 

STIRRUP IRONS. 

when required 8 12 

STONEWORK IN COMPRESSION. 

restrictions relating to 12 14 

STORE FRONTS. 

outside finish of 8 12 

STORES, OFFICES, ETC. 

in theatre buildings 42 81 

STORES AND STORAGE BUILDINGS. 

fire-escape, requirements for 17 17 

"STORY," BUILDING. 

definition of 7 11 

STRAW, HAY, FEED, ETC. 

not to be housed in habitable building 58 126 

STRESSES, BUILDING MATERIALS. 

tables of 10 14 

STREET COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 



82 Index. 

Page. Section. 

STRUCTURES, TEMPORARY. 

commissioner may prescribe conditions for 6 9 

SUMMER THEATRES. 

outside building limits, how may be constructed 48 110 

" SURFACE DRAIN." 

plumbing, meaning of 50 112 

SURFACE DRAINS. 

must have deep seal trap and back-water valve 57 124 

T. 

TABLES, STRESSES. 

showing strength of building materials 10 14 

TEMPORARY STRUCTURES. 

commissioner to prescribe conditions for 6 9 

TENEMENT-HOUSES. 

additional requirements for 29 42 

" apartment," definition of 30 42 

ashes, receptacles for 41 75 

bakeries and fat-boiling in, prohibited 33 53 

balconies, requirements for 30 42 

basements, requirements for 38 68 

bulkheads, construction of 30 42 

cellar ceilings, construction of 32 49 

" corner lot," definition of 29 42 

" courts," definition of 29 42 

general regulations for 35 57 

inner, regulations for 35 59 

outer, regulations for 35 58 

vent, regulations for 36 60 

dangerous business in, prohibited 33 54 

definitions of certain words 29 42 

drainage to satisfaction of board of health 41 74 

egress, provision for '. . 30 43 , 

elevator shafts, regulations for 32 52 

entrance halls, construction of 32 48 

fire-escapes, construction of 30 42 

in what they shall consist 30 43 

general, regulations for 30 43 

internal and external 30 43 

garbage, receptacles for 41 75 

general requirements for 29 42 

" hall stair," definition of 29 42 

intakes, provision for 36 61 

light, provision for 33 55 

lighting, board of health may regulate 58 128 

other buildings on same lot 36 62 

outside limits, restrictions 32 51 

overcrowding, board of health may prevent 58 128 

partitions, construction of 32 50 

" public hall," definition of 29 42 

" repairs," definition of 30 42 



Index. 83 

Page. Section. 
TENEMENT-HOUSES, continued. 

rooms of, lighting and ventilation 37 63 

size of 37 64 

scuttles, construction of 30 42 

" shaft," definition of 29 42 

skylights, regulations for 40 71 

stair halls, construction of 31 46 

ventilation, board of health may regulate 58 128 

water-closets, requirements for 38 69, 72 

water supply, regulations for 40 73 

windows in public halls of : 37 65 

for stair halls 37 66 

" yard," definition of 29 42 

yards, requirements and regulations for 33 55, 56 

where not required 34 56 

TENEMENT-HOUSE REQUIREMENTS. 

commissioner not to dispense with 41 76 

TERMS USED IN PLUMBING. 

meaning of, defined 49 112 

TESTS, ELEVATOR. 

manufacturers must make 27 38 

TESTS, PLUMBING. 

work must be approved 50 116 

THEATRES. 

aisles, regulations for 43 88 

art galleries above 47 108 

auditoriums, heating apparatus under 46 104 

curtains, must have fireproof 42 84 

fireproof construction required 41 78 

curtains required 42 84 

floor levels of 42 82 

gas pipe outlets required 45 99 

handrails, stair, requirements for 46 102 

inspection, gas pipe outlets, required 45 99 

landings, stair, required dimensions of 46 101 

lobbies, requirements for 43 90 

open courts required 41 79, 80 

proscenium walls required 42 83 

curtains, required 42 84 

public buildings must conform to requirements for 47 107 

radiators forbidden in passageways of 46 104 

roof gardens may be above 47 108 

seats in auditorium, requirements for 43 87 

stage doors must be provided 44 91 

floors, requirements for 42 85 

stairs, how to be constructed 45 100 

sprinklers, automatic, required 46 104 

standpipes required 46 104 

stores, offices, etc., under 42 81 

" theatre," definition of 41 77 

ventilators, requirements for 42 86 



84 Index. 

Page. Section. 

THEATRES, CONSTRUCTION OF. 

general regulations relating to 41 77 

THEATRE EXITS. 

general regulations for 44 91-99 

THEATRES, EXISTING. 

general regulations for 48 111 

THEATRES, SUMMER. 

outside building limits, how may be constructed 48 100 

THIRD-CLASS BUILDINGS. 

definition of 7 11 

TIMBERS. 

in walls, how to be treated 24 34 

TRAPS, PLUMBING. 

requirements for 50 117 

TRAPS, SPECIAL. 

grease, inflammable compounds, non-siphon 56 123 

TRIMMERS, WOODEN. 

when required 8 12 

TRUSSES, RIVETED. 

rule for computation 16 16 

u. 

UNSAFE BUILDINGS. 

commissioner may order vacated 4 4 

to post notices on 4 4 

V. 

VACANCIES. 

in board of appeal, how filled 5 6 

VAULTED WALLS. 

regulations for 20 26 

VENTILATION, TENEMENT-HOUSE. 

board of health may regulate 58 128 

provision for 33 55 

" VENTILATION PIPE." 

plumbing, definition of 50 112 

VENTILATING FLUES. 

must be of incombustible material 8 12 

VENTILATORS, THEATRE. 

requirements for 42 86 

" VENT PIPES." 

plumbing, definition of 49 112 

VENTS. 

plumbing, requirements' for 51 117 

VIOLATORS OF BUILDING LAWS. 

may be fined $500 59 132 

VOTING BOOTHS. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 



Index. 



85 



W. 

Page. Section. 

WALLS. 

general regulations for construction of 18 18 

framed with iron or steel 21 27 

proscenium, theatres must have 42 83 

WALLS ABOVE ROOF, PARTY. 

requirements for 21 28 

WALLS, CORNICES. 

regulations for 21 29 

WALLS, CURTAIN. 

party and outside, must have 21 27 

WALLS, PARALLEL. 

to be properly tied 8 12 

"WALLS, PARTITION." 

definition of 7 11 

"WALLS, PARTY." 

definition of 7 11 

must have curtain 21 27 

openings for doorways in 22 31 

wooden buildings to have 28 40 

" WALLS, THICKNESS OF." 

meaning of, defined 7 11 

regulations relating to 19 23 

WALLS, VAULTED. 

regulations for 20 26 

WASTE PIPES AND TRAPS. 

plumbing, requirements for 50 117 

WATER-CLOSETS. 

number required 8 12 

requirements for 52 120 

tenement-house, provisions for 38 67, 69 

ventilation of 8 12 

WATER PIPES. 

protection from frosts 8 12 

WATER SUPPLY. 

tenement-house, requirements for 40 73 

WHARVES, MARKET BUILDINGS, ETC. 

restrictions of, sect. 9 not to apply to 6 9 

WHARVES, QUAYS, ETC. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

WIND-BRACING. 

provision for, required 13 14 

WINDOWS. 

habitable buildings, regulations for 25 35 

tenement-house, in public halls 37 65 

for stair halls 37 66 

WIRES, COMMISSIONER OF. 

not affected by this Act 6 10 

provisions of sect. 7 apply to 5 7 



86 Index. 

Page. Section. 

WOODEN BUILDINGS. 

construction of, general regulations for 28 39 

height of; requirements 28 40 

not to be moved within limits 9 13 

proximity to other buildings 28 40 

WOODEN HEADERS. 

requirements for ,. . . 8 12 

WOODEN TRIMMERS. 

when required 8 12 

Y. 

" Y-BRANCHES." 

plumbing, definition of 49 112 

" YARD." 

definition of 29 42 

YARDS, TENEMENT-HOUSE. 

general regulations for 33 55 

when not required 34 56 



I The Master Builders Association 

OF BOSTON, 
No. 166 Devonshire Street. 






THE 

MASTER BUILDERS ASSOCIATION 

OF BOSTON. 



BOARD OF MANAGEMENT, 
1907. 

(Regular meeting fifth day of each month.) 



PRESIDENT. 
IRA G. HERSEY. 

VICE-PRESIDENT. 
S. FRED HICKS. 

SECRETARY AND TREASURER. 
WILLIAM H. SAYWARD. 

TRUSTEES. 
WM. A. SHERRY. 
(Term expires December, 1907.) 

WALTER A. WENTWORTH. 
(Term expires December, 1907:) 

WILLIAM B. JOHNSON. 
(Term expires December, 1908.) 

HAZEN E. RICKER. 

(Term expires December, 1908.) 

FRANK C. FARQUHAR. 
(Term expires December, 1909.) 

JACKSON H. TOWNSEND. 
(Term expires December, 1909.) 



The Master Builders Association. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MEMBERS. 



A 

Aberthaw Construction Co. Concrete Work. 

American Enameled Brick and Tile Co. Enameled Brick, Tile. 

American Fire Proofing Co. Salamander Fireproofing. 
American Luxfer Prism Co. Luxfer Prism Sash, Skylights. 

American Painting and Decorating Co. Painting and Decorating. 
Appleton, Samuel. Employers' Liability Insurance. 

B 

Badger, E. B. & Sons Co. Copper Workers. 

Barker, William P. Granite Quarries. 

Barker & Company, Inc. Lumber. 

Barnard, George A. Roofer. 

Barry, Joseph A. Lumber on Commission. 

Bay State Hardware Co. Hardware. 

Beck, Edward C. Painter. 

Berry & Ferguson. Masons' Supplies. 

Blair, Isaac & Co. Building Movers. 

Blanchard Lumber Co. Wholesale Lumber. 

Boice & Grogan Lumber Co. Wholesale Lumber. 

Boston Bridge Works (Inc.). Iron and Steel Workers. 

Boston Building Wrecking Co. Building Wreckers. 

Boston Plate and Window Glass Co. Window Glass. 

Bowker, Torrey Co. Marble Workers. 

Briggs Brothers. Stair Builders. 

Brockway-Smith Corporation. Doors, Windows, Blinds. 

Brown, A. S., Jr. Surety Bonds. 

Brown-Ketcham Iron Works. Iron and Steel Workers. 
Buerkel & Co. Plumbers and Steam Fitters. 

Burditt & Williams Co. Hardware. 

Burke Brothers. Carpenter Builders. 

Butler, Philip H. & Co. Marble Workers. 

Byrne, Thos. W. Electrical Contractor. 



Campbell, P. J. & Sons. Freestone Workers. 

Carew, Joseph F. Freestone Worker. 

Carlisle, E. A., Pope & Co. Doors, Windows, Blinds. 

Carnegie Steel Co. (Limited). Iron and Steel Merchants. 

Carr, The George W. Co. Cement and Asphalt Work. 

Cavanagh, George H. Pile Driver. 



The Master Builders Association. 



Cavanagh, John & Son. 
Chandler & Barber. 
Charles River Stone Co. 
Cheeves, Wm. R. 
Christie, John & Son. 
Clark, Cyrus T. Co. 
Clark, E. W. & Co. 
Clark & Lee. 
Clark & Smith Co. (Inc.) 
Cleveland Stone Co. 
Clinton Wire Cloth Co. 
Connery & Wentworth. 
Connolly Brothers. 
Consolidated Stone Co. 
Cook, E. L. 
Cook, Wm. A. 
Crafts, Henry's Sons. 
Croft Iron Works Co. 
Cuddihy, M. H. & Sons. 
Currier, Charles E. Co. 
Curtis & Pope Lumber Co. 
Cutler, Frank E. 
Cutting, George H. & Co. 



Building Moving Co. 

Hardware. 

Freestone Workers. 

Granite Worker. 

Lathers. 

Painters. 

Mason Builders. 

Carpenter Builders. 

Lumber Dealers. 

Stone Dealers. 

Wire Workers and Metal Lathing. 

Mason Builders. 

General Contractors. 

Stone Dealers. 

Brick Manufacturer. 

Fireproof Doors. 

Masons' Supplies. 

Iron and Steel Workers. 

North River Bluestone. 

Carpenter Builders. 

Lumber. 

Painter. 

General Contractors. 



Daniel, John. 

Davenport-Brown Co. 

Davis, James A. & Co. 

Day, E. F. & Co. 

Dodge, Charles A. & Co. 

Dodge, Chas. H., Construction Co. 

Donovan, D. F. & Co. 

Drisko, O. H. & Son. 

Dugad, Geo. R. & Co. 



Carpenter Builder. 

Wood Workers, Builders' Finish. 

Masons' Supplies. 

Brick Manufacturers. 

Mason Builders. 

Mason Builders. 

Plasterers. 

Carpenter Builders. 

Stone Masons. 



Eagles & Irwin. 

Eastern Expanded Metal Co. 

Elston, A. A. & Co. 

Elston, Thos. & Co. 

Emery, John A. 

Empire Stone Co. 

Essex Trap Rock & Construction Co. 



Mason Builders. 

Metal Lathing. 

Building Wreckers. 

Building Wreckers. 

Mason Builder. 

Limestone. 

Broken Stone. 



Fait, J. P. & Co. 

Farquhar, John's Sons, Incorporated. 

Farquharson, T. J. 

Fillmore, W. Company. 

Fiske & Company. 



Freestone Workers. 

Roofers. 

Carpenter. 

Carpenter Builders. 

Brick and Terra-Cotta. 



The Master Builders Association. 



Fletcher & Lahey. 
Fraser, J. C. & Sons. 
French, J. W. & Co. 
Fuller, Seth W. Co. 



Granite. 

Carpenters and Builders. 

Plumbers. 

Electrical Engineers. 



Gale, George W., Lumber Co, 
Gallagher & Munro Co. 
Gallagher, Robert Co. 
Genasco Roofing Company. 
Gerry & Northup. 
Gibson, Richard. 
Goss, John L. 
Graham & Cameron. 
Granite Railway Co. 
Greene & Haley. 



Lumber and Builders' Finish. 

Plasterers. 

Plasterers. 

Roofers. 

Carpenter Builders. 

Carpenter Builder. 

Granite. 

Stair Builders. 

Granite. 

Roofers and Sheet Metal Workers. 



H 



Haberstroh, L. & Son. 

Hall, Charles E. & Co. 

Hallowell Granite Co. 

Ham & Carter Co. 

Ham, L. M. & Co. 

Hannon, Frank J. 

Harrington, Robinson & Co. 

Harvey, George W. Co. 

Hastings, A. W. & Co. 

Hayes, George Co. 

Heath & Milligan Manufacturing Co. 

Hecla Iron Works. 

Hersey, Ira G. 

Hicks, S. D. & Son. 

Hind, Thomas J. 

Hodges, F. L. 

Horton & Hemenway. 

Hosmer, Jerome C. 

Huckins, P. S. & Co. 

Hunt, H. H. 

Hunter, J. B. & Co. 

Hussey, H. & Co. 



Painters. 
Marble Workers. 
Granite. 

Masons' Supplies. 
Iron and Steel Workers. 
Teamster Sand and Gravel. 
Iron and Steel Merchants. 
Mason Builders. 
Doors, Windows, Blinds. 
Pile Drivers. 

Paints, Oils and Varnishes. 
Iron and Steel Workers. 
Carpenter Builder. 
Copper Workers. 
Roofer and Concrete Worker. 
Carpenter Builder. 
General Contractors and Builders. 
Carpenter Builder. 
Hard Pine Lumber. 
Carpenter Builder. 
Hardware. 
Plumbers. 



Jacobs, David H. & Son. 
James & Marra. 
Johnson Brothers. 
Johnson, Wm. B. 
Johnson, Thomas J. & Co. 



Mason Builders. 

Freestone Workers. 

Mason Builders. 

Plumber. 

Doors, Windows, Blinds. 



Kearns, W. F. Co. 
Kenrick Brothers. 



Metal Lathing, Fireproofing. 
Plumbers and Steam Fitters. 



The Master Builders Association. 



Lally, Thomas J. 

Larivee, Cyril J. 

Leatherbee, C. W., Lumber Co. 

Lewis, Edwin C. 

Logue, Chas. 

Lombard Fire-Proofing Co. 

Lombard, S. & R. J. 

Lyons, Thomas J. (Estate of). 



Macauley, George W. 

Mack, J. J. & T. F. 

Mack & Moore. 

Mainland, John Y. 

Marshall, H. Newton Company. 

McConnell, Wm. A. 

McCoy, James E. 

McGann, The T. F. & Sons Co. 

McGaw, John & Sons. 

Mclntosh, A. Co. 

McKay, J. J. 

McLauthlin, George T. Co. 

McLellan, James D. 

McLoughlin, John. 

McNeil Brothers. 

McNinch, Robert W. 

McQuesten, Geo. Co. 

Meaney, E. F. & Co. 

Miller, S. N. & Co. 

Miller, William L. 

Mills & Moore. 

Mitchell, William H. & Son Co. 

Mitchell & Sutherland (Inc.) 

Moriaty, John D. 

Morrison, George W. 

Morss & Whyte Co. 

Moulton & Webb. 

Muir Brothers. 

Murtfeldt, Wm. A. Co. 



National Fire-Proofing Co. 
New England Structural Co. 
Nicholson, Jos. & Son. 
Nilson Brothers. 
Norcross Brothers Co. 
Norcross, William C. Co. 
Norton, W. A. Co. 
Norwood & Ramsdell. 



M 



N 



Masonry Pointer. 
Lumber. 
Lumber. 

Electrical Engineer. 

General Contractor. 

Fireproofing. 

Granite. 

Mason Builder. 



Builders' Finish. 

Mason Builders. 

Building Contractors. 

Carpenter Builder. 

Painters. 

Floor Layer. 

Mason Builder. 

Manufacturers of Metal Goods. 

Carpenter Builders. 

Plasterers. 

Granite Jobber. 

Iron and Steel Workers. 

Carpenter Builder. 

Gas Fitter. 

Carpenter Builders. 

Lumber. 

Hard Pine Lumber. 

Freestone Workers. 

Mason Builders. 

Pile Driver, Engines and Boilers. 

Metal Workers. 

Plumbers. 

Carpenter Builders. 

Floor Layer. 

Carpenter Builder. 

Wire Workers. 

Builders' Finish. 

Plasterers. 

Roofers and Concrete Workers, 



Fireproof Materials. 

Iron and Steel Workers. 

Carpenters and Builders. 

Painters. 

General Contractors. 

Masons' Supplies. 

Pile Drivers and Piling. 

Masons and Builders. 



The Master Builders Association. 



O'Brien, D. A. & Son. Roofers. 

O'Connell, John. Gas Fitter. 

O'Riorden, Patrick (Estate of). Teamster, Sand and Gravel. 



Parker, Charles S. Sons. Roofers. 
Parker, Thomas Co., Incorporated. Plasterers and Stucco Workers. 

Parry Brick Co. Brick Manufacturers. 
Penn Metal Ceiling and Roofing Co., Ltd. Metal Ceiling, Metal Roofing. 

Perry, Lewis F., & Whitney Co. Painters. 

Perry-Matthews-Buskirk Stone Co. Limestone and Sandstone. 

Pickett, R. H. & J. C. Masonry Pointers. 

Pigeon Hill Granite Co. Granite. 

Pitman & Brown Co. General Contractors. 

Pittsburg Plate Glass Co. Window Glass. 

Plummer, R. B., Jr. Carpenter Builder. 

Powers, Frank H. Carpenter Builder. 

Pratt, Amasa & Co. Doors, Windows, Blinds. 

Pray, William. Mason Builder. 

Preble, Walter H. Co. Mason Builders. 

Puritan Iron Works. Vanes Stable Fittings. 



Rand, David L. Mason Builder. 

Ricker, E., Son & Co. Granite Workers. 

Rilovich, Martin. % Floor Layer. 

Robbins, A. B., Iron Co. Iron Workers. 

Rockland-Rockport Lime Co. Lime Manufacturers. 

Rockport Granite Co. Granite. 

Roebling Construction Co. Fireproof Construction. 

Rogers, F. M. & Co. Painters. 

Root, W. A. & H. A. (Inc.) Mason Builders. 

Ross, H. F. Co. Carpenter Builders. 

Russell, J. & Co. Metal Lathing. 



Sawyer, E. D., Lumber Co. Lumber. 

Sayward, William H. Mason Builder. 

Schupbach & Zeller. Painters. 
Simpson Bros. Corporation. Asphalt and Cement Workers. 

Smith, E. M. & Son. Whitewashes. 

Smith, G. W. & F., Iron Co. Iron and Steel Workers. 

Smith, H. W. & E. G. Piling, Teaming. 

Smith, James. Mason Builder. 

Smith & Lovett Co. Iron and Steel Workers. 

Snow, F. A. (c. E.) Sewers and Foundations. 

Soley, John & Sons (Inc.). Building Movers. 

Soule, L. P. & Son Co. Mason Builders. 

Spiers-Fish Brick Co. Brick, Lime and Cement. 



The Master Builders Association. 



Standard Plate Glass Co. 
Stearns, A. T., Lumber Co. 
Stevens, F. W. 
Sullivan, William J. (Inc.). 
Sweatt & Gould. 



Plate and Window Glass. 

Lumber and Builders' Finish. 

Carpenter and Builder. 

Freestone Worker. 

Granite Workers. 



Taylor, E. R. Co. 
Tidd, Lyman R. 
Townsend, J. H. 
Travelers Insurance Co. 
Tufts, George M. 



Waldo Brothers. 
Wallburg & Sherry. 
Warren Brothers Co. 
Washburn, D. & Sons. 
Waterproofing Co., The. 
Weston, W. M. Co. 
Wheeler, R. B. 
Whitcomb, E. Noyes Co. 
Whitcomb, Frank L. 
White, John. 
Whitney, Arthur C. 
Whittier Machine Co. 
Whyte, Oliver Co. 
Wight, Edward A. (Estate of), 
Wilkinson, James & Co. 
Willcutt, L. D. & Sons Co. 
Wilson, J. T. & Son. 
Windsor Cement Co. 
Wingate, James I. & Son. 
Wood, William H. & Co. 
Woodbury & Leighton Co. 
Wyman- Allen Lumber Co. 



Cement and Asphalt Work. 

Pile Driver. 

Plasterer. 

Liability Insurance. 
Carpenter Builder. 

W 

Masons' Supplies, Fireproof Material- 

Painters- 

Roofing, Granolithic and Asphalt. 

Brick Manufacturers. 

Waterproofing and Dampproofing. 

Lumber. 
Lumber. 

Carpenter Builders. 

Carpenter Builder. 

Painter. 

General Contractor. 

Elevators and Machinery. 

Wire Workers. 

Lumber. 

Electrical Contractors. 
Mason Builders. 

Carpenters and General Contractors. 
Mason Supplies and Wall Plaster. 

Painters. 
Lumber. 

General Contractors. 
Lumber Dealers. 



Young, William N. 



Carpenter Builder. 



The Master Builders Association. 



LIST OF MEMBERS BY TRADES. 



ASPHALT AND CEMENT FLOORING AND PAVING. 

Carr, The George W. Co. Simpson Bros. Corporation. 

Hind, Thos. J. Taylor, E. R. Co. 

Murtfeldt, W. A. Co. Warren Brothers Co. 

BELLS, SPEAKING TUBES, AND ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES. 

Fuller, Seth W. Co. Lewis, Edwin C. 

BOILER MAKERS. 

Whittier Machine Co. 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS AND DEALERS. 

American Enameled Brick and Fiske & Company. 

Tile Co. Ham & Carter Co. 

Cook, E. L. Norcross, W. C. Co. 

Crafts, Henry's Sons. Parry Brick Co. 

Curtis & Pope Lumber Co. Spiers-Fish Brick Co. 

Day, E. F. & Co. Waldo Brothers. 

Dodge, Charles A. & Co. Washburn, D. & Sons. 

BRIDGE AND WHARF BUILDERS. 

Boston Bridge Works (Inc.). Miller, William L. 

Cavanagh, George H. Norton, W. A. Co. 

Hayes, George Co. Tidd, Lyman R. 

BROKEN STONE. 

Essex Trap Rock & Construction Co . 

BUILDERS' FINISH. 

Davenport-Brown Co. Moulton & Webb. 

Gale, George W., Lumber Co. Pratt, Amasa & Co. 

Leatherbee, C. W., Lumber Co. Ross, H. F. Co. 

Macauley, George W. Stearns, A. T., Lumber Co. 

BUILDING MOVERS. 

Blair, Isaac & Co. Cavanagh, John & Son. 

Soley, John & Sons (Inc.). 

BUILDING WRECKERS. 

Boston Building Wrecking Co. Elston, A. A. & Co. 

Elston, Thomas A. & Co. 



The Master Builders Association. 

CARPENTERS. 

Briggs Brothers. Mainland, John Y. 

Burke Brothers. McGaw, John & Sons. 

Clark & Lee. McLellan, James D. 

Currier, Charles E. Co. McNeil Brothers. 

Daniel, John. Mitchell & Sutherland (Inc.). 

Drisko, 0. H. & Son. Morrison, George W. 

Farquharson, Theodric J. Nicholson, J. & Son. 

Fraser, J. C. & Sons. Norcross Brothers Co. 

Fillmore, W. Co. Pitman & Brown Co. 

Gerry & Northup. Plummer, R. B., Jr. 

Gibson, Richard. Powers, Frank H. 

Harvey, George W. Co. Ross, H. F. Co. 

Hersey, Ira G. Stevens, F. W. 

Hodges, F. L. Tufts, George M. 

Horton & Hemenway. Whitcomb, E. Noyes Co. 

Hosmer, Jerome C. Whitcomb, Frank L. 

Hunt, H. H. Whitney, Arthur C. 

Logue, Chas. Wilson, J. T. & Son. 

Young, Wm. N. 

CAST-STONE. 
Aberthaw Construction Co. 

CLEANERS AND POINTERS OF MASONRY. 
Lally, Thomas J. Pickett, R. H. & J. C. 

CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION. 

Aberthaw Construction Co. Murtfeldt, Wm. A. Co. 

Carr, The George W. Co. Simpson Bros. Corporation. 

Hind, Thomas J. Taylor, E. R: Co. 

Warren Brothers Co. 

COPPER WORKERS. 

Badger, E. B. & Sons Co. Hicks, S. D. & Son. 

DERRICKS, ENGINES, STEAM PUMPS. 
Miller, William L. 

DOORS, WINDOWS, AND BLINDS. 

Brockway-Smith Corporation. Johnson, Thomas J. & Co. 

Carlisle, E. A., Pope & Co. Pratt, Amasa & Co. 

Gale, George W., Lumber Co. Ross, H. F. Co. 

Hastings, A. W. & Co. Stearns, A. T., Lumber Co. 

DRAIN AND SEWER PIPE. 

Berry & Ferguson. Fiske & Company. 

Dodge, Charles A. & Co. Waldo Brothers/ 

Windsor Cement Co. 



The Master Builders Association. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, ELECTRIC LIGHT WIRING. 

Byrne, Thos. W. Lewis, Edwin C. 

Fuller, Seth W. Co. Wilkinson, James & Co. 

ELEVATORS AND MACHINERY. 
McLauthlin, George T. Co. Whittier Machine Co. 

EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY INSURANCE. 
Appleton, Samuel. Paige, John C. & Co. 

Travelers Insurance Co. 

FIREPROOF BUILDING MATERIAL. 

Aberthaw Construction Co. Kearns, W. F. Co. 

American Fire Proofing Co. (Sala- Lombard Fire-Proofing Co. 
mander). National Fire-Proofing Co. 

Eastern Expanded Metal Co. Roebling Construction Co. 

Fiske & Company. Waldo Brothers. 

Windsor Cement Co. 

FIREPROOF DOORS, SHUTTERS, AND FITTINGS. 

American Fire Proofing Co. Lombard Fire-Proofing Co. 

Cook, Wm. A. McLauthlin, Geo. T. Co. 

FIREPROOF FLOORS. 

Aberthaw Construction Co. 

FLAG POLES. 
Smith, H. W. & E. G. 

FLOOR LAYERS. 

McConnell, W. A. Moriaty, John D. 

Rilovich, Martin. 

FREESTONE WORKERS. 

Campbell, P. J. & Sons. Fait, J. P. & Co. 

Carew, Joseph F. James & Marra. 

Charles River Stone Co. Meany, E. F. & Co. 

Sullivan, William J. (Inc.). 

GAS FITTERS. 

McLoughlin, John. O'Connell, John. 

GRANITE QUARRIES. 

Barker, William P. Lombard, S. & R. J. 

Goss, John L. Norcross Brothers Co. 

Granite Railway Co. Pigeon Hill Granite Co. 

Hallowell Granite Co. Rockport Granite Co. 



The Master Builders Association. 

GRANITE WORKERS. 

Cheeves, Wm. R. McKay, J. J. (Jobber). 

Fletcher & Lahey. Norcross Brothers Co. 

Granite Railway Co. Pigeon Hill Granite Co. 

Hallowell Granite Co. Bicker, E., Son & Co. 

Lombard, S. & R. J. Rockport Granite Co. 

Sweatt & Gould. 

GRANOLITHIC AND CONCRETE WALKS AND DRIVEWAYS. 

Aberthaw Construction Co. Murtfeldt, Wm. A. Co. 

Carr, The George W. Co. Simpson Bros. Corporation. 

Hind, Thomas J. Taylor, E. R. Co. 

Warren Brothers Co. 

HARDWARE DEALERS. 

Bay State Hardware Co. Chandler & Barber. 

Burditt & Williams Co. Hunter, J. B. & Co. 

IRON AND STEEL MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS. 

Carnegie Steel Co. (Ltd.) Harrington, Robinson & Co. 

IRON AND STEEL WORKERS. 

Boston Bridge Works (Inc.). New England Structural Co. 

Croft Iron Works Co. Robbins, A. B. Iron Co. 

Ham, L. M. & Co. Saunders, George C. 

Hecla Iron Works. Smith, G. W. & F., Iron Co. 

McLauthlin, George T. Co. Smith & Lovett Co. 

Whittier Machine Co. 

KILN-DRIED FLOORING. 
Gale, George W., Lumber Co. 

LATHER. 

Christie, John & Son. 

LUMBER DEALERS. 

Barker & Company, Inc. McNinch, Robert W. 

Blanchard Lumber Co. McQuesten, Geo. Co. 

Boice & Grogan Lumber Co. Pratt, Amasa & Co. 

Clark & Smith Co. (Inc.) Sawyer, E. D., Lumber Co. 

Curtis & Pope Lumber Co. Stearns, A. T., Lumber Co. 

Gale, George W., Lumber Co. Weston, W. M. Co. 

Huckins, P. S. & Co. Wheeler, R. B. 

Larivee, Cyril J. Wight, Edward A. (Estate of). 

Leatherbee, C. W., Lumber Co. Wood, Wm. H. & Co. 

Wy man- Allen Lumber Co. 

LUMBER ON COMMISSION. 
Barry, Joseph A. 

MARBLE WORKERS. 

Bowker, Torrey Co. Butler, Philip H. & Co. 

Hall, Charles E. & Co. 



The Master Builders Association. 

MASON BUILDERS. 

Clark, E. W. & Co. Mack & Moore. 

Connery & Wentworth. McCoy, James E. 

Connolly Brothers. Miller, S. N. & Co. 

Cutting, George H. & Co. Norcross Brothers Co. 

Dodge, Charles A. & Co. Norwood & Ramsdell. 
Dodge, Charles H., Construction Pitman & Brown Co. 

Co. Pray, William. 

Eagles & Irwin. Preble, Walter H. Co. 

Emery, John A. Rand, David L. 

Harvey, George W. Co. Root, W. A. & H. A. (Inc.). 

Jacobs, David H. & Son. Sayward, William H. 

Johnson Brothers. Smith, James. 

Lyons, Thomas J. (Estate of). Soule, L. P. & Son Co. 

Mack, J. J. & T. F. Willcutt, L. D. & Sons Co. 

Woodbury & Leighton Co. 

MASONS' SUPPLIES. 

Berry & Ferguson. Ham & Carter Co. 

Crafts, Henry's Sons. Norcross, W. C. Co. 

Davis, James A. & Co. Rockland-Rockport Lime Co. 

Dodge, Charles A. & Co. Waldo Brothers. 

Fiske & Company. Windsor Cement Co. 

METAL LATHING. 

Christie, John & Son. Kearns, W. F. Co. 

Clinton Wire Cloth Co. Roebling Construction Co. 

Eastern Expanded Metal Co. Russell, J. & Co. 

Waldo Brothers. 

METAL WORKERS. 

Badger, E. B. & Sons Co. McGann, T. F. & Sons Co. 

Barnard, George A. Mills & Moore. 

Farquhar, John's Sons (Inc.). Penn Metal Ceiling and Roofing 

Hicks, S. D. & Son. Co., Ltd. 

MILL WORK. 
Gale, George W., Lumber Co. Ross, H. F. Co. 

MONOLITH AND ASBESTOLITH. 

Simpson Bros. Corporation. 

NORTH RIVER BLUESTONE. 
Cuddihy, M. H. & Sons. 

PAINTERS. 

American Painting & Decorating Nilson Brothers. 

Co. Perry, Lewis F., & Whitney Co. 

Beck, Edward C. Rogers, F. M. & Co. 

Clark, Cyrus T. Co. Schupbach & Zellar. 

Cutler, Frank E. Wallburg & Sherry. 

Haberstroh, L. & Son. White, John. 

Marshall, H. Newton Company. Wingate, James I. & Son. 



The Master Builders Association. 

PAINTS, OILS, AND VARNISHES. 
Heath & Milligan Mfg. Co. 

PILE DRIVERS. 

Cavanagh, George H. Miller, William L. 

Hayes. George Co. Norton, W. A. Co. 

Tidd, Lyman R. 

PILING (Dealers in). 
Norton, W. A. Co. Smith, H. W. & E. G. 

PLASTERERS. 

Donovan, D. F. & Co. Mclntosh, A. Co. 

Gallagher & Munro Co. Muir Brothers. 

Gallagher, Robert Co. Parker, Thomas Co., Inc. 

Townsend, J. H. 

PLUMBERS. 

Buerkel & Co. Johnson, W. B. 

French, J. W. & Co. Kenrick Brothers. 

Hussey, H. & Co. Mills & Moore. 

Mitchell, Wm. H. & Son Co. 

PRISM LIGHTS FOR SIDEWALKS, SKYLIGHTS AND WINDOWS. 

American Luxfer Prism Co. 

ROOFERS. 

Barnard, George A. O'Brien, D. A. & Son. 

Farquhar, John's Sons (Inc.). Parker, Charles S. Sons. 

Genasco Roofing Company. Penn Metal Ceiling and Roofing 
Hind, Thomas J. Co., Ltd. 

Murtfeldt, W. A. Co. Warren Brothers Co. 

ROOFING SLATE AND ROOFING MATERIALS. 

Farquhar, John's Sons (Inc.). 

SAND AND GRAVEL. 
Hannon, Frank J. O'Riorden, Patrick (Estate of). 

SANDSTONE AND LIMESTONE. 

Cleveland Stone Co. Empire Stone Co. 

Consolidated Stone Co. Perry-Matthews-Buskirk Stone Co. 

SEA WALL BUILDER. 
Miller, William L. 

SEWERS. 
Snow, F. A. (c. E.). 



The Master Builders Association. 

SIDEWALK AND VAULT LIGHTS. 
Aberthaw Construction Co. American Luxfer Prism Co. 

SOAPSTONE. 

Butler, Philip H. & Co. 

STABLE FITTINGS. 

Puritan Iron Works. 

STAIR BUILDERS. 

Briggs Brothers. Graham & Cameron. 

STONE MASONS. 
Dugad, Geo. R. & Co. 

STEAM AND HOT WATER HEATING APPARATUS. 

Buerkel & Co. French, J. W. & Co. 

Kenrick Bros. 

SURETY BONDS. 

Brown, Albert S., Jr. 

TEAMSTERS AND EXCAVATORS. 

Hannon, Frank J. O'Riorden, Patrick (Estate of). 

Smith, H. W. & E. G. 

TERRA-COTTA. 
Fiske & Company. Waldo Brothers. 

TILES. 

American Enameled Brick and Fiske & Company. 
Tile Co. Waldo Brothers. 

VANES. 
Puritan Iron Works. 

WALL PLASTER. 

Windsor Cement Co. 

WATER-TIGHT CELLARS. 

Carr, The George W. Co. Simpson Bros. Corporation. 

Hind, Thomas J. Taylor, E. R. Co. 

Murtfeldt, Wm. A. Co. Warren Brothers Co. 

Waterproofing Co., The. 

WATER-WORKS. 

Snow, F. A. (c. E.). 



The Master Builders Association. 

WHITEWASHING AND KALSOMINING. 

Smith, E. M. & Son. 

WINDOW GLASS. 

American Luxfer Prism Co. Pittsburg Plate Glass Co. 

Boston Plate and Window Glass Co. Standard Plate Glass Co. 

WIRE WORKERS. 

Clinton Wire Cloth Co. Morss & Whyte Co. 

Whyte, Oliver Co. 

WOOD AND COAL. 

Crafts, Henry's Sons. 



The Master Builders Association. 



THE MASTER BUILDERS ASSOCIATION 

OF BOSTON. 



PREAMBLE TO BY-LAWS. 

THE special aims of this Association are : 

(a.) To make membership in the Association a reasonable assurance 
to the public of the skill, honesty, and responsibility of its members: 

First. By requiring that those admitted to membership shall 
have established an honorable reputation on the three fundamental 
points above named, and making continuance in this membership 
depend upon fair dealing between members and between members 
arid the public. 

Second. By offering to members and to the public opportunity 
for the consideration of all cases of improper practice and the 
securing of redress therefor so far as the parties concerned may 
submit to the mediation of the Association. 

(6.) To provide methods and means whereby members may avail 
themselves of the greater power of combined effort through the Associa- 
tion acting as an authoritative body, in demanding and securing just 
and honorable dealing from the public whom they serve. 

(c.) To secure uniformity of action among the individuals forming the 
Association, upon the general principles herein set forth, and upon such 
other principles as may be decided upon, from time to time, as best for 
the good of all concerned. 



The Master Builders Association. 



EXCHANGE ROOMS, 
166 DEVONSHIRE STREET, BOSTON. 



EXCHANGE RENDEZVOUS. 

AT the Exchange Rooms of the Association during 'Change Hours 
(from 11.30 A.M. to 1.30 P.M.) every day in the year, except Sundays and 
holidays, may be found the principal contractors engaged in the various 
lines of building work in Boston and vicinity, thus affording the best 
possible opportunity for convenient service, not only to each other, but 
to the public generally, and especially to architects and owners. 

ARCHITECTS' PRIVILEGES. 

Architects are granted the privileges of the Exchange floor at all times, 
and will be admitted by the gatekeeper upon announcement that they 
are members of that profession. 

ADMISSION DURING 'CHANGE HOURS, 
(from 11.30 A.M. to 1.30 P.M.) 

During 'Change Hours none but members and their authorized repre- 
sentatives, and such persons as have been granted the privileges of the 
Exchange, will be admitted to the floor of the Exchange, unless specially 
invited by members, and then only under the following regulations: 

Members may pass visitors to the Exchange floor if they choose 
so to do, with the understanding that such visitors are not expected 
and will not be permitted to remain upon the Exchange floor for 
the purpose of transacting business with persons other than the 
member introducing them. 

No member is privileged, under the above rule, to invite to the 
Exchange floor any person other than those whom he may wish 
admitted as his personal guests. He is expected not to invite 
any person to the Exchange floor whom he may find waiting in the 
lobby or hallways for some other member, unless he, too, has 
business with him. This regulation is essential for the protection 
of members against intrusion of parties whom they may not desire 
to have admitted and also to permit more perfect accommodation 
to visitors, as well as better administration of gate service. 



The Master Builders Association. 



THE UNIFORM CONTRACT. 



THE UNIFORM CONTRACT. 

THE two organizations best representing the mutual interests of owners 
and builders in this country, namely, the American Institute of Archi- 
tects and the National Association of Builders, realizing the disadvan- 
tage as well as danger to the interests of both owner and builder arising 
from variation in forms of contract for building work, and believing that 
general use of a standard blank will result in benefit to the community, 
have prepared, approved and recommended a blank form of contract, 
which has become known as " The Uniform Contract." 

It is not claimed for this form that it never can be modified to advan- 
tage, but it is claimed that the interests of both owner and builder have 
been justly and fairly considered in its preparation and will be reasonably 
protected by its use. 

It is anticipated that if owner or builder desires modification in the 
form as printed, changes will be made by erasure or interlineation, thus 
attracting the attention of the contracting parties to the variations 
proposed and giving opportunity to either approve or disapprove of 
same, thus avoiding the serious results often following the execution of 
contracts without full and fair understanding of their provisions. 

Every builder about to sign a contract is especially cautioned to re- 
member that his position as one of the contracting parties entitles him 
to as much choice in form of contract as the owner; that his responsibility 
is so great he cannot afford to ignore this point; and that inasmuch as a 
form for general use has been prepared, approved and recommended by 
responsible bodies representing both interests, he should insist that this 
form be used. 

These blanks may be obtained of the licensed publisher, Mr. E. G. Soltmann, 
No. 125 East 42d Street, New York City, or of Adams, Gushing & Foster, stationers, 
No. 168 Devonshire Street, Boston. 

UNIFORM SUB-CONTRACT. 

A form for use between General and Sub-Contractors has been pre- 
pared by Mr. Soltmann, which he offers for sale on same terms as the 
Uniform Contract blank. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 1 II ,*U 
BERKELEY 

Return to desk from which borrowed. 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



ENGINEERING | \" 
DEC 1 9 195QCV 



t.::.- 



DUE NRLF 



-5/985 



JJL21 '88 



MAR 2 6 1985 



LD 21-100m-9,'48(B399sl6)476 



YC 33244 



GENERAL LIBRARY -U.C. BERKELF 



8000^1553^ 



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Engineering 
Library 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY