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Full text of "The building law of the city of Boston : being Acts of 1907, chapter 550, as amended, also general and special acts relating to buildings and their maintenance, use and occupancy"

THE BUILDING LAW OF THE 
CITY OF BOSTON. 



BEING ACTS OF 1907, CHAPTER- 550, AS AMENDED, 

ALSO Special acts relating to Buildings 

AND Their Maintenance, use and 

Occupancy. 




City of Boston 

PRINTING DEPARTMENT 

1914 



THE BUILDING LAW OF THE 
CITY OF BOSTON. 



CHAPTER 550, ACTS OF 1907 — AS AMENDED. 

An Act Relative to the Construction, Alteration 
AND Maintenance of Buildings in the City 
OP Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. There shall be in the city of Boston a 
department to be called the building department, which 
shall be under the charge of the building commissioner. 
The commissioner, who shall have had at least five years' 
experience as an architect, a builder, or a civil engineer, 
shall be appointed by the mayor, for a term of five years. 
He shall receive such salary as shall be fixed by the city 
council, with the approval of the mayor. 

The present officers and employees of the building 
department, except the board of appeal, shall hold their 
several ofl&ces and positions until removed or discharged 
according to law. 

The commissioner may, with the approval of the mayor, 
appoint such number of inspectors, employees, and assist- 
ants as the city council shall, from time to time, determine. 
No person shall be appointed as inspector of construction 
who has not had at least five years' experience as a builder, 
civil engineer, or architect, or as a superintendent or fore- 
man or a competent mechanic in charge of construction. 

The commissioner may appoint as his deputy an inspec- 
tor in the department who shall, during the absence or 
disability of the commissioner, exercise all the powers of 
the commissioner. No officer or employee connected with 



4 City of Boston Building Law. 

the department shall be interested in the doing of work 
or the furnishing of material or appliances for the con- 
struction, alteration, or maintenance of any building, or 
in the making of plans or of specifications therefor, unless 
he is the owner thereof or a member of a board within the 
building department. No such officer or employee shall 
be engaged in any work which is inconsistent with his 
duties or with the interests of the department. 

[1913, c. 704, sect. 1.] 

The clerk of the department shall, under the direction 
of the commissioner, keep a record of the business of the 
department, and the commissioner shall submit to the 
mayor a yearly report of such business. The records of 
the department shall be open to public inspection. The 
commissioner may require plans and specifications of any 
proposed structure or for the alteration of any structure 
or building to be filed with him, duplicates of which, when 
approved by the commissioner, shall be kept at the build- 
ing during the progress of the work. Such duplicates 
shall be open to the inspection of any inspector in said 
department. 

The commissioner shall grant permits for the construc- 
tion, alteration, removal or tearing down of buildings or 
structures, and for plumbing, gas fitting, and the setting 
and maintenance of steam boilers and furnaces when 
applications for the same are made and filed in conformity 
with law. 

All permits issued by the commissioner shall be on 
printed forms approved by him. 

If the commissioner finds that the terms of a permit 
are being violated, he may, after notice mailed to the per- 
son to whom the permit was issued, order the whole or 
any part of the work, which is being done under the permit, 
to be stopped, and such work shall not be resumed until 
the terms of the permit have been complied with. 

All appUcations for permits under the provisions of this 



City of Boston Building Law. 5 

act shall be in writing, on forms furnished by the depart- 
ment. The commissioner may require the material facts 
set forth in the same to be verified by the oath of the 
apphcant; he may also require, in his discretion, a survey 
of a lot on which any proposed building is to be erected 
to be filed with the application. Every application shall 
state the name and address of the owner. 

Sect. 2. The commissioner, or one of his inspectors, 
shall examine as often as is practicable every building 
in the course of construction or alteration, and shall 
make a record of all violations of this act and of all other 
matters relative thereto. The publication of such records 
with the consent of the commissioner shall be privileged. 

Sect. 3. The commissioner, or one of his inspectors, 
shall examine any building reported as dangerous or 
damaged, and shall make a record of such examination, 
stating the nature and estimated amount of the damage, 
and the purpose for which the building was used, and in 
case of fire the probable origin thereof; and shall examine 
all buildings in respect to which apphcations have been 
made for permits to raise, enlarge, alter, or repair, and 
shall make a record of every such examination. 

Sect. 4. The commissioner, or one of his inspectors, 
shall inspect every building or other structure or anything 
attached to or connected therewith which he has reason 
to believe is not provided with sufficient means of egress 
in case of fire satisfactory to the commissioner, exists 
in violation of any provision of this act or is unsafe or 
dangerous to life, limb, or adjoining buildings, and if he 
finds it not provided with sufficient means of egress in 
case of fire satisfactory to the commissioner, or to exist 
in violation of any provision of this act, or unsafe or dan- 
gerous, he shall forthwith in writing notify the owner, 
agent, or any person having an interest therein, to secure 
the same, to provide sufficient means of egress in case of 
fire or to comply with the provision of this act which is 



6 City of Boston Building Law. 

being violated, and shall affix in a conspicuous place upon 
its external walls a notice of its dangerous condition or 
of its condition as a fire-trap or of its being a common 
nuisance within the provisions of this act. The notice 
shall not be removed or defaced without his consent. 

[1914, c. 205, sect. 1.] 

The commissioner may with the written approval of 
the mayor order any building which in his opinion is 
unsafe, not provided with sufficient means of egress in 
case of fire or exists in violation of any provision of this 
act, to be vacated forthwith. 

[1914, c. 205, sect. 1.] 

Sect. 5. The person notified as provided in the pre- 
ceding section shall provide sufficient means of egress in 
case of fire satisfactory to the building commissioner, or 
shall comply with the provision of this act which is being 
violated, or shall secure or remove said building, struc- 
ture, attachment or connection forthwith. If the public 
safety so requires, the commissioner, with the approval 
of the mayor, may at once enter the building or other 
structure which he finds unsafe or dangerous, the land on 
which it stands or the abutting land or buildings, with 
such assistance as he may require, and secure the same, and 
may erect such protection for the public by proper fence 
or otherwise as may be necessary, and for this purpose 
may close a public highway. 

[1914, c. 205, sect. 1.] 

Sect. 6. There shall be in said department a board 
to be called the board of appeal. Said board shall con- 
sist of five members appointed by the mayor in the fol- 
lowing manner: One member from two candidates, one 
to be nominated by the Real Estate Exchange and Auction 
Board and one by the Massachusetts Real Estate Ex- 
change; one member from two candidates, one to be nom- 
inated by the Boston Society of Architects and one by 
the Boston Society of Civil Engineers; one member from 



/ 



City of Boston Building Law. 7 

two candidates, one to be nominated by the Master 
Builders Association and one by the Contractors and 
Builders Association; one member from two candidates 
to be nominated by the Building Trades Council of the 
Boston Central Labor Union; and one member selected 
by the mayor. These appointments shall be subject 
to confirmation by the board of aldermen. The appoint- 
ments first made shall be for the terms of one, two, three, 
four, and five years, respectively, so that the term of one 
member "shall expire each year. All subsequent appoint- 
ments shall be for the term of five years. Vacancies shall 
be filled in the same manner in which original appoint- 
ments are made. Each member of said board shall be 
paid ten dollars per day for actual service but not more 
than one thousand dollars in any one year. No member 
shall act in any case in which he is interested, and in case 
any member is so disquaUfied, or is absent from illness or 
other cause, the remaining members shall designate a 
substitute. » 

[1910, c. 631, sect. 1.] 

All the members of said board shall be residents of or 
engaged in business in Boston. 

Every decision of the board shall be in writing and shall 
require the assent of at least three members. 

Sect. 7. An applicant for a permit whose application 
has been refused may appeal therefrom within ninety 
days. A person who has been ordered by the commis- 
sioner to incur any expense may within ten days after 
being notified of such order appeal therefrom by giving 
to the commissioner notice in writing of his appeal. Such 
notice or a certified copy thereof shall at once be trans- 
mitted by the commissioner to the board of appeal. After 
notice given to such parties as the board shall order, a 
hearing shall be had, and the board shall afiirm, annul, or 
modify said refusal or order. The board may vary the 
provisions of this act in specific cases which appear to 



8 City of Boston Building Law. 

them not to have been contemplated by this act although 
covered by it, or in cases where manifest injustice is 
done, provided that the decision of the board in such a 
case shall be unanimous and shall not conflict with the 
spirit of any provision of this act. 

The decision shall specify the variations allowed and 
the reasons therefor, and shall be filed in the office of the 
commissioner within ten days after the hearing. A 
certified copy shall be sent by mail or otherwise to the 
applicant and a copy kept publicly posted in the office 
of the commissioner for two weeks thereafter. If the 
order or refusal of the commissioner is affirmed, such order 
or refusal shall have full force and effect. If the order 
or refusal is modified or annulled, the commissioner shall 
issue a permit in accordance with such decision. 

The provisions of this section shall also apply to any 
similar action or order of the commissioner of wires, under 
the provisions of chapter two hundred and sixty-eight of 
the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, 
or of any amendment thereof or addition thereto, except 
that in respect thereto the words "commissioners of wires" 
shall be substituted for the word "commissioner." 

Sect. 8. Methods of construction or maintenance 
equivalent to those required by the provisions of this act 
may be allowed with the written consent of the commis- 
sioner and the board of appeal specifying the same. A 
record of the required and the equivalent method allowed 
shall be kept in the office of the commissioner. 

It shall be the duty of the board of appeal to submit 
to the mayor on or before the first day of February in 
each year a report giving a summary of all decisions of 
the board, together with such recommendations for 
revision of the law as may seem to them advisable. The 
commissioner shall cause the report to be printed as a 
separate document for public distribution. 

Any requirement necessary for the strength or stability 



City of Boston Building Law. 9 

of any proposed structure or for the safety of the occu- 
pants thereof, not specifically covered by this act, shall 
be determined by the commissioner, subject to appeal. 

Sect. 9. The building limits of the city of Boston as 
they now exist shall continue until changed by ordinance, 
and the city council may by ordinance from time to time 
extend and define said building hmits, and may establish 
other limits in any part of the city within which every 
building built after the establishment thereof shall be of 
the first or second class. This restriction shall not apply 
to wharves, nor to buildings not exceeding twenty-seven 
feet in height on wharves, nor to market sheds or market 
buildings not exceeding such height, nor to elevators for 
the storage of coal or grain, if the external parts of such 
buildings, elevators, or other structures are covered with 
slate, tile, metal, or other equally fireproof material, and 
the mode of construction and the location thereof are 
approved by the commissioner. Temporary structures 
to facihtate the prosecution of any authorized work may 
be erected under such conditions as the commissioner 
may prescribe. Single and two-family dwellings not to 
be occupied, or intended, arranged, or designed to be 
occupied, by more than two famihes, may be built of 
third class construction in all parts of the city of Boston 
not included in the building Umits of said city as they 
existed prior to the twenty-second day of September 
in the year nineteen hundred and thirteen; but no such 
building shall occupy more than sixty per cent of the area 
of the lot upon which it is situated, and all such buildings 
shall be constructed with pitched roofs not less than 
thirty degrees with the horizontal. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 1.] 

Sect. 10. The provisions of this act shall not apply 
to bridges, quays, or wharves, nor to buildings on land 
ceded to the United States or owned and occupied by 
the Commonwealth, nor to the Suffolk County court house, 



10 City of Boston Building Law. 

jail, or house of correction, nor to railroad stations, nor to 
portable school buildings erected and maintained by the 
schoolhouse department, nor to voting booths erected and 
maintained by the board of election commissioners. 

Except as otherwise provided by law, the provisions 
of this act shall not be held to deprive the board of health, 
the police commissioner, the board of street commissioners, 
the board of park commissioners, the board of examiners 
of gas fitters, the commissioner of wires, or the fire com- 
missioner of the city of Boston of any power or authority 
which they have at the date of the passage of this act, 
or of the remedies for the enforcement of the orders of 
said boards or officers; unless such powers, authorities, 
or remedies are inconsistent with the provisions of this 
act; nor to repeal any existing law, not herein expressly 
repealed, except so far as it may be inconsistent with the 
provisions of this act. 

Definitions. 

Sect; 11. In this act the following terms shall have 
the meanings respectively assigned to them: — 

First Class Building: — A first class building shall con- 
sist of fireproof material throughout, with floors con- 
structed of iron,' steel or reinforced concrete beams, filled 
in between with terra-cotta or other masonry arches or 
with concrete or reinforced concrete slabs; wood may be 
used only for under and upper floors, windows and door 
frames, sashes, doors, interior finish, hand rails for stairs, 
necessary sleepers bedded in the cement, and for isolated 
furrings bedded in mortar. There shall be no air space 
between the top of any floor arches and the floor boarding. 

Second Class Building: — All buildings not of the first 
class, the external and party walls of which are of brick, 
stone, iron, steel, concrete, reinforced concrete, concrete 
blocks, or other equally substantial and fireproof material. 

Third Class Building: — A wooden frame building. 



City of Boston Building Law. 11 

Composite Building: — A building, partly of second class 
and partly of third class construction. 

Foundation: — That part of a wall below the level of the 
street curb, or, if a wall is not on a street, that part of 
the wall below the level of the highest ground next to the 
wall, or, if so construed by the commissioner, that part of 
a party or partition wall below the cellar floor. 

Height of a Building: — The vertical distance of the 
highest point of the roof above the mean grade of the curbs 
of all the streets upon which it abuts, and if it does not 
abut on a street, above the mean grade of the ground 
adjoining the building. 

Party Wall: — A wall that separates two or more build- 
ings, and is used or adapted for the use of more than one 
building. 

Partition Wall: — An interior wall of masonry in a 
building. 

Thickness of Wall: — The minimum thickness of such 
wail. 

Story of a Building: — That part of a building between 
the top of any floor beams and the top of the floor or roof 
beams next above. 

Basement: — That story of a building not more than 
forty per cent of which is below the grade of the street. 

Cellar: — That part of a building more than forty per 
cent of which is below the grade of the street, and in third 
class* buildings that part of the building which is below 
the sills. 

Gas fitting shall mean the work of putting together any 
fittings, pipe or fixtures or other appliances which are to 
contain gas for heat, light or power purposes and will be 
subject to inspection under existing laws. 

Requieements for all Buildings. 
Sect. 12. No building, structure or foundation shall 
be constructed or altered without a permit, and such 



12 City of Boston Building Law. 

work shall be done in accordance with drawings bear- 
ing the approval of the commissioher. 

Every structure in process of construction, alteration, 
repair or removal, and every neighboring structure or 
portion thereof affected by such process or by any excava- 
tion, shiall be sufficiently supported during such process. 

The commissioner may take such measures as the public 
safety requires to carry these provisions into effect. 

All buildings shall have leaders sufficient to discharge 
the roof water in such a manner as not to flow upon any 
public way or any neighboring property. Such leaders 
may project into a public way not over seven inches. 

Every chimney flue shall be carried to a height sufficient 
to protect adjoining buildings from fire and smoke, and, 
unless the roof is covered with incombustible material, 
shall extend at least four feet above the highest point of 
contact with the roof. 

Every permanent building more than twenty feet high 
having a flat roof shall have permanent means of access 
to the roof ^f rom the inside by an opening not less than 
two feet by three feet, with a fixed stepladder. 

Every building shall have, with reference to its height, 
condition, construction, surroundings, character of occupa- 
tion and number of occupants, reasonable means of egress 
in case of fire, satisfactory to the commissioner, except 
that in all factories or workshops hereafter built or altered, 
of second class construction, where ten or more persons 
are employed above the second floor, one exit shall con- 
sist of a fireproof stairway enclosed in incombustible 
material. No building hereafter erected shall be occupied 
or permitted to be occupied until said means of egress 
have been provided in accordance with plans and draw- 
ings approved by the building commissioner. 

[1912, c. 369, sect. 1.] 

Water pipes in every building shall be properly pro- 
tected from frost. 



City of Boston Building Law. 13 

All chimneys of masonry construction shall have walls 
at least eight inches thick, or be constructed of four-inch 
brick waUs with a suitable flue liuing. 

Every building used for habitation shall have such 
number of water-closets as the board of health may 
require; every building where persons are employed shall 
have at least one water-closet for every twenty persons 
therein employed, and in any building where both sexes 
are employed, separate accommodations shall be furnished 
for men and women. Every enclosure containing one or 
more water-closets shall be provided with adequate 
ventilation to the outer air either by window or by suitable 
light shaft. 

In every first and second class building all of the outside 
finish shall be of incombustible material, except window 
and door frames, and except finish about show windows 
in the first story. Where store fronts are carried up more 
than one story the columns and lintels shall be of, or 
finished with, incombustible material; but in no case shall 
store fronts be carried more than two stories, unless the 
same are constructed and finished throughout with fire- 
proof material, except window and door frames. 

Every ventilating flue shall be constructed of, or lined 
with, incombustible material. 
/ Every floor in second class buUdings shall have its beams 
/ tied to the walls and to each other with wrought-iron 
straps or anchors at least three eighths of an inch thick 
by one and one half inches wide, and not less than eighteen 
inches long, so as to form continuous ties across the 
building not more than ten feet apart. Walls running 
parallel, or nearly parallel, with floor beams shall be 
properly tied once in ten feet to the floor beams by iron 
straps or anchors of the size above specified. 

Every wooden header or trimmer more than four feet 
long, carrying a floor load of over seventy pounds per 
square foot, shall, at connections with other beams, be 



14 City of Boston Building Law. 

framed or hung in stirrup irons, and joint-bolted. All 
tail beams and similar beams of wood shall be framed or 
hung in stirrup irons. 

All walls, piers and columns acting as supports below 
the first floor of all buildings hereafter built shall be of 
masonry or metal. In all buildings hereafter erected, 
where outside means of egress are to be constructed, the 
building commissioner may order, when he deems it neces- 
sary, all the window openings in the same to be protected 
by metal frames and sash and wire glass, and all doors 
leading to such outside means of egress and the frames of 
the same to be of metal or metal covered. If doors are 
glazed, they shall be glazed with wire glass. Every 
kitchen, kitchenette or room used or adapted to be used 
for cooking purposes either by coal, gas or oil stoves, in 
every building hereafter erected, remodelled or enlarged, 
shall be not less than eight feet in the least dimension. 
Every such kitchen, kitchenette or room to be used for 
cooking purposes shall be lighted and ventilated by window 
openings in an external wall direct to the open air, and 
such window openings shall equal in size in the aggregate 
at least one eighth of the area of the floor of such room. 
When gas, coal or oil stove ovens, broilers or water heaters 
are connected to a ventilating flue, the flue shall be con- 
structed of brick walls not less than eight inches thick, 
or with walls four inches thick lined with terra-cotta flue 
lining at least one inch thick. The building commissioner 
may order the basements of any mercantile building 
hereafter erected to be provided with a system of auto- 
matic sprinklers, approved by him as to location, arrange- 
ment and efficiency. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 2.] 

Pkohibitions. 

Sect. 13. No alteration or repair of a wooden building 
within the building limits shall be made without a permit 



City of Boston Building Law. 15 

from the commissioner, and no permit to increase the 
height or ground area of such a building shall be granted, 
nor shall a permit for alterations or repairs be granted if 
the estimated cost of the proposed alterations or repairs 
exceeds one haK of the cost of a like new building. 

No wooden building, outside the building limits, shall 
be moved to any position within the building limits. 

No recess or chase shall be made in any external or party 
wall so as to leave the thickness at the back less than eight 
inches. 

No roof or floor timber entering a party wall shall have 
less than four inches of soHd brickwork between it and the 
end of any other timber. 

No part of any roof shall be constructed in such a manner 
as to discharge snow, ice, or other material upon a public 
street or alley. 

No elevated staging or stand for observation purposes 
shall be constructed or occupied upon the roof of any 
building. 

No chimney shall be corbelled from a wall more than 
the thickness of the wall. 

No chimney shall be hung from a wall which is less than 
twelve inches thick. 

No masonry shall rest upon wood, except piles and mud 
sills. 

No part of any floor timber shall be within two inches 
of any chimney. 

No studding or furring shall be within one inch of any 
chimney. 

No furnace or boiler for heating shall be placed upon a 
wooden floor. 

No smoke pipe shall project through any external wall 
or window. 

No steam, furnace, or other hot air pipes shall be carried 
within one inch of any woodwork, unless such pipes are 
double or otherwise protected by incombustible material. 



16 City of Boston Building Law. 

No combustible partition shall be within four feet of 
the sides and back or within six feet of the front of any 
boiler, carrying a pressure of over ten pounds, unless the 
partition is covered with incombustible material which 
extends to the full height of the partition from the end or 
back of the boiler to at least five feet in front of it. In 
such case the distance shall be not less than two feet from 
all the sides and five feet from the front of the boiler, and 
all lath and plaster and wooden ceiling beams over the 
boiler and to a distance of not less than four feet in front 
of all such boilers shall be covered with incombustible 
material. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 3.] 

No observation stand shall be constructed or maintained 
except in accordance with plans approved by the com- 
missioner. 

No closet of any kind shall be constructed under any 
staircase leading from the cellar or basement to the first 
story. 

No boiler shall be placed or maintained under any 
pubHc way. 

No part of any structure, except cornices, permanent 
awnings, string courses, window caps and sills, bay windows, 
under such terms, conditions, regulations and restrictions 
as may be required by the mayor and board of aldermen, 
and outside means of egress, as otherwise provided, and 
signs as provided in chapter three hundred and fifty-two 
of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-five, 
shall project over any pubhc way or square. No cornice 
or bay witidow shall so project more than three feet; nor 
more than twelve inches over a way of a width of thirty 
feet or less. 

No building within forty feet of the property of any 
adjoining owner shall be erected for or converted to use 
as a stable, unless such use is authorized by the board of 



City of Boston Buildlistg Law. 17 

health after a public hearing. Written notice of such 
hearing shall be given to the adjoining owners, and pub- 
lished at least three times in at least two newspapers 
published in Boston, ten days at least before the 
hearing. 

No material other than brick, tile, slate, metal, asbestos 
shingles or slag shall hereafter be used to cover or roof any 
building, or the tops and sides and outsides of the frames 
of any dormer window, or any other projection of the roof 
of any building, except wooden cornices on wooden frame 
buildings, but on flat roofs composition or tar and gravel 
may be used or such other quality of fire-resisting roofing 
as the commissioner may authorize. Nothing in this 
section shall be construed to prohibit the use of materials 
approved by the commissioner for repairing any roof now 
covered with wooden shingles, provided, that the building 
is not altered in height or otherwise generally reconstructed, 
nor to prohibit covering with such approved materials 
the roofs of buildings less than sixteen feet in height. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 3.] 

No part of any first or second class building hereafter 
erected, except the eaves and cornices, shall be nearer than 
five feet to the line of any adjoining lot on any side on 
which such building has any opening in the outer wall 
thereof unless all such openings are protected by wire 
glass set in metal frames and sash. 

Materials. 
Strength of Materials. 
Sect, 14. The stresses in materials hereafter used in 
the construction of all buildings, produced by their own 
weight and the loads herein specified, shall not exceed 
the limits assigned in the following paragraphs of this 
section: — 



18 



City of Boston Building Law. 



(a) Timber. 
Unit Stresses in Pounds per Square Inch. 













n Extreme 
Fibre of 
Beams. 


Shearing 
Along 
the Grain. 






O 


o 


White pine and spruce 


1,000 


80 


250 


White oak 


1,000 


150 


600 


Yellow pine (long -leaved) 


1,500 


100 


500 







Stresses due to transverse loads combined with direct 
tension or compression shall not exceed the extreme fibre 
stresses given above. 

In computing deflection, the modulus of elasticity shall 
be taken as follows: — 

Pounds per 
Square Inch. 

White pine, 750,000 

Spruce, 900,000 

Yellow pine (long-leaved), . . . 1,300,000 

White oak, 850,000 

Columns {centrally loaded). 
For wooden columns with flat ends, where L is the 
length of the column, D is its least diameter, the average 
stress per square inch on a cross-section shall be limited as 
follows: — 





L 


Average Stress per Square Inch. 




White Pine 
and Spruce. 


Long-leaved 
Yellow Pine. 


White Oak. 


to 10 


630 
595 
560 
525 
490 


900 
850 
800 
750 
700 


810 


10 to 15 


705 


15 to 20 


720 


20 to 25 


675 


25 to 30 . 


630 







City of Boston Building Law. 



19 



No column shall be used with a greater unsupported 
length than thirty times its least diameter. 
For excentric loads see section sixteen. 

(b) Wrought Iron and Steel. 

Unit Stresses in Pounds per Square Inch. 





Wrought 
Iron. 


Steel.i 


Extreme fibre of rolled beams or shapes 

Tension 


12,000 
12,000 
12,000 
9,000 
15,000 
18,000 


16,000 
16,000 


Compression in flanges of built beams 

Shearing (see below for bolts) 


16,000 
10,000 


Direct bearing, including pins and rivets 

Bending on pins 


18,000 
22,500 


Modulus of elasticity 


27,000,000 


29,000,000 



For compression members twelve thousand for iron and 
sixteen thousand for steel, reduced according to the follow- 
iag formula: — 

12,000 (or 16,000 for steel). 



1 + 



L2 



20,000 r2 

in which L is the length of the column in inches, and r is 
the radius of gyration ia inches taken around the axis 
about which the column will bend (for free columns, the 
least radius of gyration). 

The stresses due to transverse loads combined with 
direct tension or compression shall not exceed the extreme 
fibre stress given above for rolled beams and shapes, or 
in case of built members the above tension and compression 
stresses (see section sixteen). 

Compression flanges of beams shall be proportioned to 
resist lateral flexure unless properly stayed or secured 

1 These stresses (except for rivets) are for steel having an ultimate 
tensile strength of from fifty-five thousand to sixty-five thousand 
pounds per square inch, an elastic limit of not less than one half the 
ultimate strength, and a minimum percentage of elongation in eight 
inches of one million four hundred thousand, divided by the viltimate 
strength. 



20 



City of Boston Building Law. 



against it. If the ratio of unsupported length of flange to 
width of flange does not exceed twenty, no allowance need 
be made for lateral flexure. If the ratio is seventy the 
allowable stress on the extreme fibre shall be one half of 
that above specified, and proportionally for intermediate 
ratios. 

Shearing and bearing stresses on bolts shall not be 
higher than eighty per cent of those allowed by the above 
table. All connections in skeleton buildings, all splices 
in steel trusses and girders, and all connections of such 
trusses and girders to the sides of steel colunms shall, if 
possible, be made by means of rivets rather than by bolts. 

(c) Cast Iron. 

Unit Stresses in Pounds per Square Inch. 

Extreme fibre stress, tension, . . . 3,000 

Extreme fibre stress, compression, . . 16,000 

Cast iron shall not be used for colunms in buildings of 

more than seventy-five feet in height, nor in cases where 

the value of the length divided by least radius of gyration 

exceeds seventy. 

Cast Iron Columns {centrally loaded and unsupported 
laterally) . 



2.2 



10 
20 
30 
40 



Co 



o) ti o 

bfl o3-r3 

< 



11,000 
10,700 
10,400 
10,000 



03 o 

PI -►^rl-s 
^>P 






fto 

CO I-! 

® 53 ° 



50, 
60. 
70, 



9,800 
9,500 
9,200 



City'of Boston Building Law. 21 

(d) Stone Work, in Compression. 

Stresses in Tons of Two Thousand Pounds per Square Foot. 
First quality dressed beds and builds, laid solid in mor- 
tar of one part Portland cement to three parts sand, or 
one part natural cement to two parts sand. 

Granite, 60 

Marble and Limestone, 40 

Sandstone, 30 

In cases where poorer mortar is used, to avoid stain 
from cement, stresses shall be less than above, and must 
be approved by the building commissioner. 

(e) Brickwork in Compression. 
Stresses in Tons of Two Thousand Pounds per Square Foot. 
(1.) For first class work of hard-burned bricks, including 
piers in which the height does not exceed six times the 
least dimension, laid in: — 

(a) One part Portland cement, three parts sand, by 

volume, dry, 20 

(6) One part natural cement, two parts sand by 

volume, dry, 18 

(c) One part natural cement, one part lime and 

six parts sand, by volume, dry, .... 12 

(d) Lime mortar, one part lime, six parts sand, by 

volume, dry, 8 

(2.) For brick piers of hard-burned bricks, in which the 
height is from six to twelve times the least dimension: — 

Mortar (a), 18 

Mortar (6), 15 

Mortar (c), 10 

Mortar (d), 7 

(3.) For brickwork made of "light-hard" bricks, the 
stresses shall not exceed two thirds of the stresses for like 
work of hard-burned bricks. 



22 City of Boston Building Law. 

(/) Concrete. 

When the structural use of concrete is proposed, a 
specification, stating the quahty and proportions of mate- 
rials, and the methods of mixing the same, shall be sub- 
mitted to the building commissioner, who may issue a 
permit at his discretion and under such further conditions, 
in addition to those stated below, as he sees fit to impose. 

A. In first class Portland cement concrete, containing 
one part cement to not more than six parts mixed properly 
graded aggregate, except in piers or columns of which the 
height exceeds six times the least dimension, the com- 
pressive stress shall not exceed thirtj'' tons of two thousand 
pounds per square foot. 

B. In piers and columns of first class Portland cement 
concrete, containing one part cement to not more than 
five parts mixed properly graded aggregate, where the 
height of the pier or column is more than six times and 
does not exceed twelve times its least dimension, the 
compressive stress shall not exceed twenty-five tons of 
two thousand pounds per square foot. 

By ''aggregate" shall be understood all the materials 
in the concrete except the cement. Cinders concrete shall 
be used constructively only for floors, roofs and for filling. 

Rules for the computation of reinforced concrete col- 
umns may be formulated from time to time by the building 
commissioner with the approval of the board of appeal. 

In reinforced concrete beams or slabs subjected to 
bending stresses, the entire tensile stress shall be assumed 
to be carried by the steel, which shall not be stressed 
above the limits allowed for this material. First class 
Portland cement concrete in such beams or slabs, con- 
taining one part cement to not more than five parts mixed 
properly graded aggregate, may be stressed in compres- 
sion to not more than five hundred pounds per square inch. 
In case a richer concrete is used, this stress may be 



City of Boston Building Law. 23 

increased with the approval of the commissioner to not 
more than six hundred pounds per square inch. 

In reinforced concrete the maximum shearing force upon 
the concrete, when uncombined with compression upon 
the same plane shall not exceed sixty pounds per square 
inch, unless the building commissioner with the consent 
of the board of appeal shall fix some other value. 

If the imbedded steel has no mechanical bond with the 
concrete, its holding power shall not exceed the allowable 
shearing strength of the concrete. 

(g) In Genekal. 

Under the prescribed loads, beams shall be so propor- 
tioned that the deflection shall not exceed one three 
hundred and sixtieth (3-50) of the span. 

Stresses for materials and forms of material, not herein 
mentioned, shall be determined by the building commis- 
sioner. Provision for wind bracing shall be made wher- 
ever it is necessary, and all buildings shall be constructed 
of sufficient strength to bear with safety the load intended 
to be placed thereon, in addition to the weight of the 
materials used in construction. 

No cutting for piping or any other purpose shall be done 
which would reduce the strength of any part of the struc- 
ture below what is required by the provisions of this act. 

Quality of Materials. 
Sect. 15. All materials shall be of such quality for 
the purposes for which they are to be used as to insure, 
in the judgment of the building commissioner, ample 
safety and security to life, limb and neighboring property. 
The building commissioner shall have power to reject all 
materials which in his opinion are unsuitable, and may 
require tests to be made by the architect, engineer, builder 
or owner to determine the strength of the structural mate- 



24 City of Boston Building Law. 

rials before or after they are incorporated in a building, 
and may require certified copies of results of tests made 
elsewhere from the architect, engineer, builder, owner or 
other interested persons. 

Hollow cast iron columns, if used, shall be shown by 
measurements and tests satisfactory to the commissioner 
to be of practically uniform thickness, and free from 
blow holes. 

Mortars. 

All mortars shall be made with such proportion of sand 
as will insure a proper degree of cohesion and tenacity, 
and secure thorough adhesion to the material with which 
they are used, and the building commissioner shall con- 
demn all mortars not so made. 

(a) Mortar below the level of water shall be no poorer 
than one part Portland cement and three parts sand; 

(6) Mortar for first class buildings shall, for the lower 
half of their height, be no poorer than one part natural 
cement to two parts sand; and, for the upper half, no 
poorer than one part of natural cement, one half part of 
lime, and three parts of sand; 

(c) Mortar for second class buildings and for such parts 
of third class buildings as are below the level of the side- 
wallc, shall be no poorer than one part of natural cement, 
one of lime, and four of sand; 

(d) Mortar for third class buildings, above ground, 
shall be no poorer than one part lime and four parts sand. 

The building commissioner may allow lime mortar in 
setting stone where cement will stain. 

Concrete, 

Concrete shall be used immediately after mixing; it 

shall not be placed in the work after it has begun to harden; 

and it shall be deposited in such manner and under such 

regulations as to secure a compact mass of the best 



City op Boston Building Law. 25 

quality for the proportions used. Forms shall remain 
until the concrete has hardened so as to be able to carry- 
its load safely, and shall be removed without jar. 

The commissioner may require an applicant for a 
permit for the structural use of concrete to have an 
inspector satisfactory to the commissioner at all times on 
the work while concrete is being mixed or deposited, and 
such inspector shall make daily reports to the commissioner 
on the progress of the work. 

Cement. 

Cement shall conform to the specifications of the 
American Association for Testing Materials, as modified 
from time to time by that association. 

Reinforced Concrete. 

Reinforced concrete slabs, beams or girders, if rendered 
continuous over supports by being unbroken in section, 
shall be provided with proper metal reinforcement at the- 
top over said supports and maj'- be computed as con- 
tinuous beams, as hereinafter described. 

The modulus of elasticity of the concrete, if not shown 
by direct tests, may for beams and slabs be taken as one 
fifteenth that of steel, and for columns one tenth that of 
steel. 

The reinforcing metal shall be covered by not less than 
three fourths inch of concrete in slabs, and by not less 
than one and one half inches of concrete in beams and 
columns. 

Methods of Computation. 

Sect. 16. Beams or girders of metal or reinforced con- 
crete shall be considered as simply supported at their 
ends, except when they extend with unbroken cross- 
section over the supports, in which case they may be 
considered as continuous. 



26 City of Boston Building Law. 

The span of a beam shall be considered as the distance 
from center to center of the bed plates or surfaces upon 
which it rests. If it is fastened to the side of a column, 
the span shall be measured to the centre of the column. 

In slabs, beams or girders continuous over supports, 
provision shall be made for a negative bending moment 
at such supports equal to four fifths of the positive bend- 
ing moment that would exist at the centre of the span if 
the piece were simply supported; and the positive bend- 
ing moment at the centre of the span may be taken equal 
to the negative bending moment at the support. 

In the case of a slab of reinforced concrete with parallel 
ribs or girders beneath, the rib or girder may be considered 
to include a portion of the slab between the ribs, forming 
a T-beam. The width of the T-beam on top shall not 
exceed one third the span of the rib nor the distance from 
centre to centre of the ribs. 

Reinforced concrete columns shall be proportioned on 
the assumption that the concrete and the steel are 
shortened in length in the same proportion. The steel 
members shall be tied together at intervals sufficiently 
short to prevent buckling. 

If a column is loaded excentrically or transversely, the 
maximum fibre stress, taking account of the direct com- 
pression, the bending which it causes, its excentricity and 
the transverse load, shall not exceed the maximum 
allowable stress in compression. 

If a tension piece is loaded excentrically or transversely, 
the maximum fibre stress, taking account of the direct 
tension, its excentricity and the transverse load, shall not 
exceed the maximum allowable stress in tension. 

An excentric load upon a column shall be considered 
to affect excentrically only the length of column extending 
to the next point below at which the column is held 
securely in the direction of the excentricity. 



City of Boston Building Law. 27 

If a piece is exposed to tension and compression at 
different times, it shall be proportioned to resist the 
maximum of each kind, but the unit stresses shall be less 
than those used for stress of one kind, depending upon 
the ratio and the relative frequence of the two maxima. 

Net sections shall be used in proportioning steel tension 
members, and in deducting rivet holes they shall be taken 
as one eighth of an inch greater in diameter than the rivets. 

The length of a steel compression member between 
supports in any direction shall not exceed one hundred 
and twenty times its radius of gyration about an axis 
perpendicular to that direction. 

The webs of plate girders shall be proportioned to resist 
buckling in cases where they are not supported laterally, 
according to the formula: — 

15.000 
1 d2 



3,000 t2 

in which t = thickness of web, in inches; d = clear, 
unsupported dimension horizontally or vertically, which- 
ever is the lesser. 

In proportioning the flanges of plate girders, one eighth 
of the gross area of the web may be considered as available 
in each flange. If the length of the top flange unsupported 
laterally exceeds twenty times its width, the allowable 
stress shall be reduced, as in the case of rolled beams. 

Pins shall be computed by assuming the forces in the 
bars to act at the centre of the bearing areas. 

In riveted trusses the centre of gravity lines of members 
coming together at a joint shall, if possible, intersect at a 
point. Excentricity due to a non-fulfillment of this rule 
shall be allowed for in the computations. The centre of 
gravity of the rivets connecting one piece to another shall, 
in general, lie as nearly as practicable in the centre of 
gravity line of the piece. 



28 City of Boston Building Law. 



Classification. 

First and Second Class Buildings. 
Sect. 17. Every building hereafter erected more than 
seventy-five feet in height, or hereafter increased in height 
to more than seventy-five feet, shall be a first class build- 
ing. Every second class building hereafter erected and 
more than four stories in height, and any second class build- 
ing now in existence and increased in height to more than 
four stories, shall have the first floor and the basement 
and cellar stories of first class construction. Every hotel, 
tenement house and lodging house hereafter erected 
covering more than three thousand five hundred square 
feet or more than five stories in height, shall be a first 
class building; and every building altered or enlarged and 
occupied or to be occupied as a hotel, tenement or lodging 
house to be in excess of sixty feet in height, or in excess of 
three thousand five hundred square feet in superficial area, 
or in excess of five stories in height, shall be a first class 
building. Every building hereafter erected within the 
building limits to be occupied as a permanent schoolhouse 
shall be a first class building. Every building hereafter 
erected as a theatre and every building hereafter altered 
to be occupied as a theatre shall be a first class building. 
Every building hereafter erected for, altered to or con- 
verted to use as a moving picture house shall be a first 
class building. All other buildings may be of second or 
third class construction. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 4.] 

Except as herein otherwise provided, new buildings 
adapted for habitations, and not more than five stories 
in height, may be erected of second class construction, 
but no such building shall exceed three thousand five 
hundred square feet in superficial area or sixty feet in 
height. The first story or basement, or both the first 
story and basement, in such buildings, so constructed, 



City op Boston Building Law. 29 

remodelled or enlarged, may be used for mercantile pur- 
poses, provided, that the first floor and the basement and 
cellar stories shall be of first class construction, and any 
stairway leading from the first floor to the basement or 
from the basement to the cellar shall be enclosed in 
masonry walls not less than eight inches thick or with two- 
inch solid metal and plaster partition, with self-closing 
fireproof doors at the top and bottom of said stairways. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 4. ] 
New buildings, of concrete, concrete blocks or brick, 
not over three stories in height, adapted for the occupancy 
of a single family and having a superficial area of not 
more than twelve hundred square feet, may be con- 
structed with external and party or division walls of 
eight inches in thickness: -provided, however, that where 
the party wall of a building thus constructed joins or 
becomes the party wall of another such building, the floor 
timbers in each of such buildings shall be so spaced or 
protected that their ends shall not approach nearer than 
within eight inches of each other. 

Restriction of Areas. 

Any first class building used above the first floor as a 
warehouse or store for the storage or sale of merchandise 
shall have all vertical openings protected by fireproof 
enclosures. Such enclosures shall, if enclosing stairs or 
escalators, have automatic doors, and all glass in said 
enclosure shall be wire glass. 

Such buildings shall so be divided by brick walls built 
like party walls with the same openings allowed, that no 
space inside such buildings shall exceed in area ten thou- 
sand square feet, except that when any such building has 
a frontage of not less than fifty feet on each of two streets, 
such space may exceed ten thousand square feet in area, 
provided that buildings in which such extension of area 
beyond ten thousand square feet is permitted shall have 



30 City of Boston Building Law. 

automatic fire sprinklers installed, and means of ingress 
and egress satisfactory to the commissioner and the board 
of appeal. 

Second class buildings used above the first floor as 
warehouses or stores for the storage or sale of merchandise 
shall so be divided by brick walls, built like party walls 
with the same openings allowed, that no space inside 
such buildings shall exceed in area ten thousand square 
feet, and no existing wall in any second class building shall 
be removed so as to leave an area of more than ten 
thousand square feet, nor shall any existing wall, separat- 
ing areas which combined would exceed ten thousand 
square feet in area, have openings cut in it greater in 
area or number than is allowed by this act for party 
walls. 

Every second class building more than three stories 
high and used above the first floor as a warehouse or store 
for the storage or sale of merchandise shall have all 
vertical openings for elevators and stairways, air or 
light shafts, through its floors protected by fireproof 
enclosures. Such enclosures shall be supported on fire- 
proof supports and framing, and shall, if enclosing stairs 
or escalators, have automatic doors, and all glass in said 
enclosures shall be wire glass. 

No building used above the first floor for the storage 
or sale of merchandise shall have less than two means of 
egress from every story, one of which means may be either 
an outside fire escape or through a brick wall closed by 
automatic doors into a building of the same class; except 
that an independent monumental stairway extending from 
the basement to the second floor may be constructed. 

Buildings for Manufacturing Purposes. 
Buildings outside the building limits and adapted 
exclusively for manufacturing, storage, mechanical or 
stable purposes, may be built under such conditions as 



( 



City of Boston Building Law. 31 

the commissioner shall prescribe. If of wood such build- 
ings shall not exceed forty-five feet in height. 

Construction. 
Height. 

Sect. 18. No building, structure or part thereof 
shall be of a height exceeding two and one half times the 
width of the widest street on which the building or struc- 
ture stands, whether such street is a public street or place 
or a private way, nor exceeding one hundred and twenty- 
five feet in any case. The width of such street, place or 
private way shall be measured from the face of the build- 
ing or structure to the line of the street on the other side. 
If the street is of uneven width, the width shall be the 
average width of the part of the street opposite the build- 
ing or structure; if the effective width of the street is 
increased by an area or setback, the space between the 
face of the main building and the lawfully established line 
of the street may be built upon to the height of two and 
one half times the width of the street. 

All buildings or structures hereafter erected in any part 
of the city shall be subject to the restrictions imposed by 
chapter four hundred and fifty-two of the acts of the year 
eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, by chapter five 
hundred and forty-three of the acts of the year nineteen 
hundred and two, by chapter three hundred and eighty- 
three of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and five, 
and by chapter four hundred and sixteen of the acts of 
the year niaeteen hundred and seven, so far as the restric- 
tions imposed by said acts relate to the districts described 
therein; and shall also be subject to any restrictions 
lawfully imposed by the park commissioners of said city. 

Excavations. 

Sect. 19. All excavations shall so be protected, by 
Bheet piling if necessary, by the persons causing the same 



32 City of Boston Building Law. 

to be made, that the adjoiniiig soil shall not cave in by 
reason of its own weight. It shall be the duty of the owner 
of every building to furnish, or cause to be furnished, such 
support that his building shall not be endangered by any 
excavation: provided, that the owner of any building 
which is endangered by an excavation carried by an 
adjoining owner more than ten feet below the grade of 
the street may recover the expense so caused of supporting 
such building from the persons causing such excavation 
to be made. All permanent excavations shall be pro- 
tected by retaining walls. In case of any failure to 
comply with the provisions of this section the commis- 
sioner may enter upon the premises and may furnish such 
support as the circumstances may require. Any expense 
so incurred may be recovered by the city from the persons 
required by law to furnish the support. 

Piling. 

Sect. 20. All buildings shall, if the commissioner 
determines that piluig is necessary, be constructed on 
foundation piles which, if of wood, shall be not more than 
three feet apart on centres in the direction of the wall, 
and the number, diameter and bearing of such piles shall 
be sufficient to support the superstructure proposed. The 
commissioner shall determine the grade at which the piles 
shall be cut. The commissioner may require any apphcant 
for a permit to ascertain by boring the nature of the 
ground on which he proposes to build, and he may require 
an inspector satisfactory to the commissioner to be at all 
times on the work while piles are being driven, who shall 
keep an accurate record of the length of each pile, the 
weight and fall of the hammer, and the penetration of 
each pile for each of the last two blows of the hammer. 

Plain concrete piles shaU be made in place by methods 
which are reasonably certain to secure perfect, full sized 
piles. Reinforced concrete piles if properly designed to 



City of Boston Building Law. 33 

resist the shock of driving, and if driven with a cushion 
to lessen the shock or by a water jet, m^ be molded, 
allowed to harden, and then driven in place. 

In case concrete piles are used, whether reinforced or 
not, their bearing power shall be determined by putting 
in one or more test piles and loading them after the con- 
crete has hardened. The load allowed shall not be more 
than one half the load under which the pile begins to 
settle. In no case, however, shall the load on a concrete 
pile exceed that specified herein for concrete in columns. 
Concrete for piles shall have not more than five parts of 
properly made and mixed aggregate to one part of Port- 
land cement; and the aggregate shall all be capable of 
passing through a one inch ring. 

All wood piles shall be capped with block granite 
levellers, each leveller having a firm bearing on the pile 
or piles which it covers, or with first class Portland cement 
concrete, not less than sixteen inches thick, above the 
pile caps, containing one part of cement to not more than 
six parts of properly graded aggregate of stone and sand, 
the concrete to be filled in around the pile heads upon the 
intervening earth. 

Foundations of First and Second Class Buildings. 

Sect. 21. Foundations of first and second class 
buildings may be of brick, stone or concrete. The thick- 
ness shall be as stated in section twenty-three. Founda- 
tions of rubble stone shall be allowed only under buildings 
less than forty-five feet in height and for a depth of less 
than ten feet. 

The walls and piers of every building shall have a 
foundation, the bearing of which shall be not less than 
four feet below any adjoining surface exposed to the 
frost, and such foundation, with the superstructure 
which it supports, shall not overload the material on 
which it rests. 



34 City of Boston Building Law. 

Cellars. 
Sect. 22. The cellar of every building, where the 
grade or nature of the ground so requires, shall be suffi- 
ciently protected from water and damp by a bed at least 
two inches thick over the whole, of concrete, cement and 
gravel, tar and gravel, or asphalt, or by bricks laid in 
cement. No cellar or basement floor of any building 
shall be constructed below the grade of twelve feet above 
mean low water, unless such cellar is made waterproof to 
the satisfaction of the commissioner. All metal founda- 
tions and all constructional metal work underground shall 
be protected from dampness by concrete, or by other 
material approved by the commissioner. 

Thickness of Walls. 

Sect. 23. Except as provided in section seventeen, 
the external walls above the foundation of houses for 
habitation of first or second class construction, and not 
exceeding sixteen hundred square feet in area and not 
over three stories high, shall be not less than eight inches 
thick for external walls and not less than twelve inches 
thick for party walls. In case any part of such building 
is adapted for any use other than habitation, all walls 
shall be not less than twelve inches thick. All other 
houses for habitation, not exceeding five thousand feet in 
superficial area and not exceeding five stories or sixty-five 
feet in height, above the basement, shall have all walls 
not less than twelve inches thick. 

The external and party walls of every building of the 
first or second class, except houses for habitation, less than 
sixty-five feet in height shall be twelve inches thick in the 
upper two stories not exceeding twenty-five feet in height. 
In the section of two stories, but not exceeding twenty- 
five feet next below, the walls shall be sixteen inches thick. 
In the next lower section of three stories, but not exceeding 
thirty-seven feet, the walls shall be twenty inches thick, 



City of Boston Building Law. 35 

and in each succeeding section of three stories, but not 
exceeding thirty-seven feet or any part thereof, the wall 
shall be four inches thicker than the section next above it. 
The foundation walls shall be at least four inches thicker 
than the required thickness of the walls of the first story. 
The thickness herein given shall apply to all masonry 
walls unless they are reinforced by a frame or skeleton of 
steel. 

In reckoning the thickness of walls, ashlar shall not be 
included unless the walls are at least sixteen inches thick 
and the ashlar is at least eight inches thick, or unless alter- 
nate courses are at least four and eight inches to allow 
bonding with the backing. Ashlar shall be properly held 
by metal clamps to the backing or properly bonded to the 
same. 

Anchors. 

Sect. 24. All walls of a first or second class building 
meeting at an angle shall be securely bonded, or shall be 
united every five feet of their height by anchors made of 
at least two inches by half an inch of steel or wrought iron, 
well painted, and securely built into the side or partition 
walls not less than thirty-six inches, and into the front 
and rear walls at least one half the thickness of such walls. 

Brickwork — Bonding. 
Sect. 25. Every eighth course, at least, of a brick wall 
shall be a full heading or bonding course, except where 
walls are faced with face brick, in which case in every 
eighth course at least every other brick shall be a full 
header.' No diagonal header ties shall be used. 

Vaulted Walls. 
Sect. 26. If the air spaces are headed over and the 
walls are built solid for at least three courses below the 
floor and roof beams, walls, if of brick, may be built hollow. 



36 City of Boston Building Law. 

They shall contain, exclusive of withes, the same amount 
of material as is required for solid walls, and the masonry 
on the inside of the air space in walls over two stories in 
height shall be not less than eight inches thick, and the 
parts on either side shall be securely tied together with 
ties not more than two feet apart in each direction. 

Walls Framed with Iron or Steel. 

Sect. 27. Walls may be built in part of iron or steel or 
with a reinforced concrete or metal framework. In such 
metal framework the beams and girders shall be riveted to 
each other at their respective junction points. If columns 
made of rolled iron or steel are used, their different parts 
shall be riveted to each other, and the beams and girders 
resting upon them shall, if possible, have. riveted connec- 
tions to unite them with the columns. If cast iron columns 
are used, each successive column shall be bolted to the 
one below it by at least four bolts not less than three 
fourths of an inch in diameter, and the beams and girders 
shall be bolted to the columns. At each line of floor or 
roof beams, lateral connections between the ends of the 
beams and girders shall be made in such manner as 
rigidly to connect the beams and girders with each other 
in the direction of their length. 

All party walls of skeleton construction shall have cur- 
tain walls of brick, not less than twelve inches thick. 

All outside walls of skeleton construction shall have 
curtain walls which may be of masonry, terra-cotta, con- 
crete, or reinforced concrete, constructed and supported 
under such conditions as the commissioner shall prescribe. 

If the metal or Other framework is so designed that the 
enclosing walls do not carry the weight of floors or roof, 
then the walls shall be of masonry or concrete construction 
and shall be thoroughly anchored to the iron skeleton, 
and whenever the weight of such walls rests upon beams 
or columns, such beams or columns shall be made strong 



CiTT OF Boston Building Law. 37 

enough in each story to carry the weight of wall resting 
upon them without reliance upon the walls below them. 

Party Walls Above Roof. 
Sect. 28. In buildings less than forty-five feet in height 
all party walls shall be built to a height at least twelve 
inches above the roof covering, and shall be capped with 
stone, cement or metal securely fastened to the masonry. 
In all other buildings such walls shall be carried thirty 
inches above the roof. 

Walls — Cornices. 
Sect. 29. Where a wall is finished with a stone cornice, 
the greatest weight of material of such cornice shall be 
on the inside of the face of the wall. All cornices of second 
class buildings shall be of brick or covered with fireproof 
material, and the walls shall be carried up to the boarding 
of the roof; and where the cornice projects above the roof 
the masonry shall be carried up to the top of the cornice 
and covered with metal, like parapet walls. 

Piers and Hearths. 

Sect. 30. Piers and walls shall have caps or plates, 
where they are needed, sufficient properly to distribute 
the load. 

Hearths shall be supported by trimmer arches of brick 
or stone; or shall be of single stones at least six inches 
thick, built into the chimney and supported by iron beams, 
one end of which shall be securely built into the masonry 
of a chimney or of an adjoining wall, or which shall 
otherwise rest upon an incombustible support. Brick 
jambs of every fireplace, range or grate opening shall be 
at least eight inches wide each, and the backs of such 
openings shall be at least eight inches thick. Hearths 
and trimmer arches shall be at least twelve inches longer 
on either side than the width of such openings, and at 



38 City of Boston Building Law. 

least eighteen inches wide in front of the chimney breast. 
Brickwork over fireplaces and grate openings shall be 
supported by proper iron bars, or brick or stone arches. 

Walls — Doorways in Party Walls. 

Sect. 31. Openings for doorways in party walls shall 
not exceed one hundred square feet each in area, and each 
opening shall have two sets of fire doors separated by the 
thickness of the wall, hung in a manner satisfactory to 
the commissioner, except that the aggregate width of all 
openings in any story shall not exceed fifty per cent of the 
length of the wall in which such openings occur. Openings, 
not exceeding one hundred and forty-four square inches, 
constructed and protected as shall be approved by a 
writing signed by the fire commissioner, and filed with the 
commissioner, may be permitted in any wall or floor. 

Fire Protection. 

Sect. 32. All structural metal supporting or forming 
part of the frame, floors, roof or columns of any building, 
except as otherwise exempted in this act, shall be protected 
against the effect of heat. 

This protection shall consist of concrete, or of porous 
terra-cotta or brick set in cement mortar. When block 
construction is used, it shall be clamped in place with steel 
clamps, or wrapped securely with number twelve galvan- 
ized-iron wire or metal lathing in such manner as to hold 
each block in place, and shall be plastered with lime or 
other mortar at least three fourths of an inch thick in 
addition to the protection. 

The protection on all floor and roof beams shall be at 
least one inch thick, on all floor and roof girders and on 
all beams carrying masonry at least one inch thick on top 
and two inches thick elsewhere, on all columns carrying 
only floors three inches, and on all columns built into or 
carrying walls four inches. 



City of Boston Building Law. 39 

If terra-cotta blocks are used for protection, such blocks 
may be hollow, but each face shall be solid, and no flange 
shall be less than one inch thick. 

- Plaster on wire or metal lath shall not be considered as 
a fire protection for steel or iron structural members, but 
may be used with an air space under arches as a suspended 
ceiling, provided that such arches have at least one inch 
of thickness of fireproofing under the flanges in addition 
to such ceiling, and that the metal lath and plaster are 
suspended separately from the arches and are not less than 
one inch below the same. 

All protection shall be applied directly to the metal 
work and shall not be broken into nor interrupted by any 
pipes, wires, chases or conduits of any kind. 

About isolated columns on the exterior of buildings, the 
thickness of protection may be reduced to one inch, when 
the same is covered with an outer shell of cast iron or steel. 

When a column or girder is formed of built-up shapes, 
the spaces between flanges shall be filled solid with pro- 
tecting material, but this protection need not extend more 
than one inch beyond the edges of projecting angles, bars 
or channels. The protection shall cover all lugs, brackets, 
braces, etc. 

The metal work of all trusses carrying masonry or floor 
loads shall be protected, as hereinbefore described, but 
said provisions shall not apply to trusses which carry 
roof load only. 

When a wall or partition is formed with a framework 
of angles, channels, or other built-up shapes, and such 
wall or partition is filled in flush with both faces of the 
frame with terra-cotta blocks, additional protection may 
be omitted. 

The above requirements as to fireproofing shall not 
apply to iron or steel in second or third class buildings in 
any case in which the use of wood without fire protection 
would be permissible under this act. 



40 City of Boston Building Law. 

In work in connection with alterations of existing 
buildings, the character and amount of protection for 
steel and ironwork shall be made satisfactory to the 
commissioner. 

In positions where the protection of isolated or exposed 
columns is likely to be broken or damaged by trucks or 
merchandise, there shall be outside of the protection a 
guard at least five feet high of iron or wood, bound with 
wire or steel so as to be self-supporting. 

Spaces between and behind all studding or furring shall 
be filled solid with bricks and mortar or other fireproof 
material for a space of five inches in height above the 
floor beams or plaster grounds. Spaces between the 
strap furring on brick walls shall be filled solid with 
mortar for five inches below the bottom of the floor beams. 
The spaces between stringers of stairs and joists of land- 
ings, unless unceiled or of fireproof construction, shall be 
stopped solid with wood, brick or terra-cotta or other 
approved material as often as twice in each flight of stairs. 
The spaces between floor beams on bearing partitions 
shall be stopped in a similar manner. 

In every building of second or third class construction 
each floor shall be thoroughly stopped by a continuous 
layer of asbestos fabric, magneso calcite or other fire- 
resisting material approved by the commissioner. 

The tops of all heating furnaces and smoke pipes shall 
be at least one foot below the nearest wooden beams or 
ceiling. All ceilings immediately over a furnace or boiler, 
and for six feet on each side thereof, and all ceilings over 
indirect radiators shall, except under fireproof floors, be 
metal lathed and plastered. 

All hot-air register boxes in the floors or partitions of 
buildings shall be set in soapstone or equally fireproof 
borders not less than two inches in width, shall be made of 
tin plate, and shall have double pipes and boxes properly 
fitted to the soapstone. Hot-air pipes and register boxes 



City of Boston Building Law. 41 

shall be at least one inch from any woodwork, and register 
boxes shall be fifteen inches by twenty-five inches, or 
larger, and their connecting pipes shall be two inches 
from any woodwork. If indirect hot water or indirect 
steam heat is used, the commissioner may modify or 
dispense with the foregoing requirements. 

All vent or smoke pipes for stoves, furnaces or heaters, 
not including gas stoves, hereafter installed, shall be 
placed not nearer than twelve inches to any lath, plaster 
or board partition, ceiling or woodwork. Where such 
pipes pass through a lath and plaster or board partition, 
they shall be protected by ventilated metal collars at 
least six inches larger in diameter than the pipe. Where 
such pipes enter the chimney, the opening into the same 
shall be protected by a metal collar built at least four 
inches into the brickwork of the chimney. No such pipe 
shall pass through the. roof or exterior wall of any build- 
ing. Such pipes, when within eighteen inches of a ceiling, 
shall be protected by having the ceiling over them, and 
at least two feet wide, wire-lathed and plastered, or by 
having a shield of metal of the same width hung from the 
floor timbers, and at least six inches distant therefrom. 
Vent pipes to gas stoves, if placed nearer than three 
inches to any woodwork or lath and plaster partition, 
shall be protected with incombustible material. 
[1914, c. 782, sect. 5. ] 

Fireproof Partitions. 

Sect. 33. Partitions in buildings of first class con- 
struction shall be constructed of plastering applied to 
metal lathing, or to plaster boards, or to hollow blocks 
composed of cement, plaster, or terra-cotta. When 
block construction is used it shall be seK-supporting 
above all openings, thoroughly bonded and set in Portland 
cement. The blocks shall start from the floor and shall 
be continuous to the floor above, except that in the upper 



42 City of Boston Building Law. 

story, where there is a space between the ceiHng of the 
top story and the roof, these partitions need not extend 
above the ceihng. If plastered on both sides the blocks 
shall be not less than four inches thick up to a height of 
fifteen feet, and shall be increased one inch for every 
additional eight feet or fraction thereof. The thick- 
ness of webs shall be not less than three fourths of 
an inch. 

If partitions are not plastered on both sides, the thick- 
ness of blocks shall be one inch greater than as specified 
above. 

Timbers in Walls of Second Class Buildings. 
Sect. 34. The ends of all wooden floor or roof beams 
in second class buildings shall enter the wall to a depth 
of at least four inches. When the wall is eight inches 
thick it shall be corbelled or the beams shall be hung in 
metal hangers; and the ends of all such beams shall so be 
shaped or arranged that in case of fire they may fall with- 
out injury to the wall. 

Alteration of Existing Buildings. 

Sect. 35. Any building, except those of third class 
construction within the building limits, having not more 
than five floors above the mean grade of all the sidewalks, 
may be altered, remodelled or enlarged for use as- a house 
for habitation using second class construction. 

The first story or basement, or both the first story and 
basement, in such buildings may be used for mercantile 
purposes, provided that the walls and ceilings surrounding 
the area so used shall be fire-stopped to the satisfaction of 
the commissioner. , 

The height of any such building shall not be increased 
unless the walls and foundations conform to the provisions 
of this act. The number of stories of such a building shall 
not exceed five above the cellar or basement. 



City of Boston Building Law. 43 

Every such building, more than thirty-three feet in 
height, so altered, remodelled or enlarged, shall be pro- 
vided with at least two independent exits satisfactory to 
the commissioner. 

Every such building, so altered, remodelled or enlarged, 
shall have, in addition to the exposure on the widest street, 
an exposure as long as the average width of the building, 
upon a space open from the ground to the skj^, at least 
ten feet wide for the first three stories, and increasing in 
width five feet for the next two stories. If the proposed 
building is more than five stories in height, said space 
shall be twenty feet: provided, that if the basement and 
first story are adapted or enlarged for use for mercantile 
purposes, the exposure required by this section shall not 
apply to that part of the building; and provided, also, that 
sufficient space be retained on the lot for the storage of 
ashes or garbage. 

Such exposure may be either upon private or public 
ways, or upon land which is dedicated for the use of the 
building, and may be divided and placed as approved by the 
building commissioner. 

These spaces shall remain undiminished so long as the 
building is used for habitation. 

If the building is situated on the corner of streets or 
private ways not less than ten feet wide the commissioner 
may approve the omission of the whole or part of this 
additional exposure. 

If in the opinion of the commissioner the alteration 
proposed to be made in a building is of such extent as, 
when done, to produce a practically new structure or to 
impair the stability or increase the fire risk of the structure 
as a whole, then the whole structure shall be made to 
conform to the provisions of this act for a new structure 
of the same class. A building damaged by fire or other 
casualty may be repaired or restored so as to conform to 
its original condition, or may be reconstructed in some 



44 City op Boston Building Law. 

or all of its parts, so as to conform to the requirements of 
this act for new buildings, as the commissioner may- 
specify in his permit. 

Every living room in a building adapted for habitation 
shall have a window on the open air of an area not less 
than ten square feet and distant in a three story building 
not less than six feet from any opposite wall; distant in 
a four story building not less than eight feet from any 
opposite wall; distant in a five story building not less than 
ten feet from any opposite wall. This shall not apply to 
the construction of third class buildings, except the 
provision for a window on the open air of an area. 

The exposure required under this section shall apply 
to all buildings hereafter constructed adapted for habita- 
tion, except as is otherwise provided for tenement houses. 

Floors — Loads. 

Sect. 36. All new or renewed floors and stairs shall 
be so constructed as to carry safely the weight to which 
the proposed use of the building may subject them, and 
every permit granted shall state for what purpose the 
building is designed to be used; but the least capacity 
per superficial square foot, exclusive of materials, shall 
be: — 

For fioors of houses for habitation, fifty pounds. 

For office floors and for public rooms of hotels and 
houses exceeding five hundred square feet, one hundred 
pounds. 

For floors of retail stores and public buildings, except 
school houses, or for light manufacturing, one hundred and 
twenty-five pounds. 

For floors of schoolhouses, other than floors of assembly 
rooms, sixty pounds, and for floors of assembly rooms, one 
hundred and twenty-five pounds. 

For floors of drill rooms, dance halls and riding schools, 
two hundred pounds. 



City of Boston Building Law. 45 

For floors of warehouses and mercantile buildings, at 
least, two hundred and fifty pounds. 

For flat roofs, forty pounds. 

For stairs, landings, platforms and fire escapes, seventy 
pounds. 

The loads not included in this classification shall be 
determined by the commissioner. 

The full floor load specified in this section shall be 
included in proportioning all parts of buildings designed 
for warehouses, or for heavy mercantile and manufacturing 
purposes. In other buildings, however, reductions may 
be allowed, as follows: for girders carrying more than one 
hundred square feet of floor, the live load may be reduced 
ten per cent. For columns, piers, walls and other parts 
carrying two floors, a reduction of fifteen per cent of the 
total live load may be made; where three floors are carried, 
the total live load may be reduced by twenty per cent; 
four floors, twenty-five per cent; five floors, thirty per 
cent; six floors, thirty-five per cent; seven floors, forty 
per cent; eight floors, forty-five per cent; nine or more 
floors, fifty per cent. 

The commissioner may prescribe the maximum loads 
which may be imposed upon the floors of existing buildings. 

No use or occupation of a building for a purpose other 
than that for which it is designed to be used, as set forth 
in the permit upon which it was erected, and no change 
in the use or occupation of a building which will increase 
the floor load beyond the capacity prescribed for such use 
and occupation shall be made unless upon application 
therefor the commissioner shall issue a permit on condition 
that the proposed use will not endanger the safety of the 
building or the health or safety of the occupants thereof. 
[1914, c. 595, sect. 1. ] 

Shutters. 
Sect. 37. In all first or second class mercantile or 
manufacturing buildings over thirty feet in height, out- 



46 City of Boston Building Law. 

side openings in party walls, or in. any rear or side wall 

within twenty feet of an opposite wall or building, shall 

have metal frames and sashes and shall be glazed with 

wire glass or shall be protected by shutters. Such shutters 

shall be covered on both sides with tin or shall be made of 

other substantial fireproof material, and hung on the 

outside, either upon independent metal frames or upon 

metal hinges attached to the masonry, and shall be made 

to be handled from the outside, and one such shutter in 

each room shall have a protected hand-hole eight inches 

in diameter. 

Elevators. 

Sect. 38. Elevators and hoists for freight which do 
not run above the first story may be constructed without 
fireproof enclosures. Freight and passenger elevators may 
be placed in areas or hallways where the same are con- 
tinuous and unbroken, such elevators to be protected by 
metal grille. Except as above provided, all shafts for 
elevators, hoists, dumb-waiters, lifts, light and ventilating 
shafts or other air ducts shall be constructed of fireproof 
material. The tops of all such shafts shall be covered with 
fireproof material unless the shaft extends above the upper 
floor of the building, and in that case the shaft shall be 
carried at least three feet above the roof and shall be 
covered with a skylight. Such shafts, if for freight or 
passenger elevators, shall be of brick at least eight inches 
thick, or of metal covered on both sides with at least one 
inch of plaster appHed immediately to the metal, or with 
some other equally substantial fireproof material. 

Every opening into a shaft or hoistway shall be pro- 
tected by seK-closing gates, rails, trap-doors, or other 
equivalent devices. 

Every elevator shall be provided with a safety attach- 
ment to prevent the falling of the car. The machinery 
over the elevator shall have underneath it a grille suffi- 
cient to protect the car from falling material. 



City of Boston Building Law. 47 

Every opening into an elevator shaft or hoistway and 
every opening through a floor, other than a stairway, shall 
be closed when not in use. 

All elevator shaft openings, other than openings into 
passenger elevator shafts, shall be furnished with metal 
covered or incombustible doors, hung in a manner satis- 
factory to the commissioner, and shall be provided with 
iron thresholds. Wire glass panels may be used in such 
doors. Outside windows or openings of every elevator 
shaft shall have three vertical iron rods, painted red, 
equally spaced off in such window or opening. 

Freight elevators shall be equipped with a suitable 
danger signal to warn people of the approach of the 
elevator. 

The space between the car and door of each landing 
shall be not more than two inches. 

No elevator shall be used in any building until the same 
is approved in writing by the commissioner. 

In case any freight or passenger elevator is not con- 
structed or furnished in compUance with this act, or has 
become unsafe, the commissioner shall post a conspicuous 
warning and prohibition at each entrance to such elevator. 
It shall thereafter, until a new written permit is given by 
the commissioner, be a penal offence hereunder to operate 
the said elevator, or to remove or deface the said notice. 

Freight elevastor wells hereafter built on the line of the 
external wall of a building shall be so constructed that there 
shall be no recess in the outer wall along the whole line of 
the same, and that no more than four inches space shall 
be allowed between the platform of the car and the outer 
wall. The side of the platform and the line of the door- 
way shall be flush with the well-way, and the door openings 
from the said elevator well into the building shall be placed 
at least six inches back from the face of the well, so as to 
allow space enough for self-closing gates to operate between 
the door and the well opening. Outside openings to freight 



48 City of Boston Building Law. 

elevators shall be protected by self-closing slatted gates, 
"vertical," with spaces not wider than two inches between 
the slats. 

All elevators running at a speed of more than one hun- 
dred feet a minute, shall be operated by competent persons 
not less than eighteen years of age, and no other person 
shall operate or have the care or charge of such an 
elevator. 

No elevator shall be operated by or placed in charge of 
any person under sixteen years of age. 

No elevator shall hereafter be installed in any building 
without a permit having been granted therefor, and the 
applicant shall submit a plan showing the proposed location 
of the shaftway, the area and situation of the machine 
room, and the said plan shall be filed as part of the records 
of the department. All elevators hereafter installed shall 
be located so as to give easy and safe access to all the prin- 
cipal parts of the machinery for inspection and repairs. 

All passenger elevators hereafter built operated by drum 
and cables, shall have an overspeed governor to prevent 
the car from descending at overspeed, and all passenger 
and freight elevators shall have a slack cable device to 
stop the machinery in case the car is held up or the cables 
part. 

If any accident shall occur to any elevator affecting life 
or limb or damaging any part of the machinery or running 
parts of the elevator, it shall be the duty of the engineer 
or superintendent in charge immediately, before any 
repairs are made, or any broken pieces are removed, to 
notify the commissioner of the accident, before the elevator 
is operated again, so that the cause of the accident may be 
determined, any faulty construction remedied, and satis- 
factory repairs made. 

All elevator cables hereafter installed that pass through 
bevelled sockets, the ends returning and refitting into the 



City op Boston Building Law. 49 

same, shall have in addition lead or babbitt metal poured 
into the ends of the socket, to prevent the possibility of 
the cable's shpping. 

All manufacturers of elevators shall be required to test, 
in the presence of an inspector, the safety devices of every 
elevator installed before the same is turned over to the 
owners for use, and the commissioner shall be notified by 
the manufacturer at least twenty-four hours before such 
test is made. An inspector may require a test of the safety 
device of any elevator if in his judgment the same is 
required. 

The commissioner may require additional safeguards on 
elevators, if in his judgment the condition, use or sur- 
roundings of the elevator demand them. 

The commissioner may, with the approval of the mayor, 
appoint competent elevator inspectors in addition to 
those already detailed, one for every one thousand 
elevators and hoist ways in the city of Boston. 

Wooden Buildings. 

Sect. 39. Every wooden buUding hereafter erected or 
enlarged, outside of the building limits, shall have a 
foundation of rubble, block granite or brick or concrete, 
carried up to the surface of the ground, and no round or 
boulder stone shall be used. Every such foundation, if 
of brick or concrete, shall be at least twelve inches thick, 
and if of granite shall be at least eighteen inches thick, 
and if of rubble shall be at least twenty inches thick, and 
shall be laid at least four feet below any surface exposed 
to frost and upon the solid ground or upon pUes properly 
spaced. 

Every such wooden building hereafter erected or 
enlarged, the sills of which do not rest directly upon a 
foundation as above described but on an underpinning, 
shall have such underpinning made of brick, stone or 



50 City of Boston Building Law. 

concrete, and the underpinning, if of brick or concrete, 
shall be at least twelve inches thick, and if of stone shall 
be at least sixteen inches thick. 

, Every wooden building hereafter erected on soft or 
marshy land and used for a workshop or other like 
purpose, or as a temporary structure, may, if the 
commissioner approves, rest upon mud sills or blocks 
or on piles. 

Every wooden building hereafter erected or enlarged 
shall have all its parts of sufficient strength to carry the 
weight of the superstructure, shall be built with sills, 
posts, girts, studs and plates properly framed, mortised, 
tenoned, braced and pinned in each story. The posts 
and girts shall be not less than four inches by six inches 
in cross section, and the studs shall be not more than 
twenty inches on centres, and no ledger board shall be 
used in any structure. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 7.] 

Sect. 40. No wooden building hereafter erected, to be 
used as a habitation, shall be more than three stories nor 
more than forty feet in height above the first floor line; 
nor shall any part of such a building, eaves and cornices 
excepted, which is to be occupied by three or more families 
be placed nearer than five feet from any adjoining lot 
lines, and if built on land of the same owner it shall not 
be nearer than ten feet from any other building; nor shall 
any part of such wooden building, which is to be occupied 
by less than three famihes and is less than three stories 
in height, be nearer than five feet from the line of any 
adjoining lot; nor shall any lot line be moved nearer than 
five feet from any wooden building, or, if built on land of 
the same owner, nearer than ten feet from any other 
building, eaves and cornices excepted, unless in either 
case the wall on the side toward such lot or adjoining build- 
ing is constructed as a brick or concrete wall not less than 



City of Boston Building Law. 51 

eight inches thick and carried twelve inches above the 
roof, all openings therein to be protected by wire glass 
set in metal frames and sash. Wooden buildings hereafter 
constructed to form a block of two or more houses shall 
have brick or concrete party walls between adjoining 
houses, which shall be not less than eight inches thick, 
shall be carried twelve inches above the roof and shall be 
capped with a metallic covering. 

No wooden building hereafter erected to be used in 
whole or in part as a habitation shall exceed twenty-two 
hundred square feet in area, and no such existing building 
shall be enlarged to exceed twentj^-two hundred square 
feet in area. No wooden building hereafter erected to be 
used for purposes other than habitation shall exceed forty 
feet in height above the first floor line, and no such build- 
ing, except buildings erected for the purpose of storing 
ice, which shall not be erected within five hundred feet of 
any other building, shall exceed twenty-two hundred feet 
in area unless the external parts are covered with incom- 
bustible material approved by the commissioner, and no 
such building shall exceed five thousand square feet in 
area in any event: provided, however, that nothing in this 
section shall be construed to affect the provisions of 
section nine of this act; and no such existing building 
shall be altered or enlarged to exceed forty feet in height 
above the first floor line or twenty-two hundred square 
feet in area, unless the external parts of the whole build- 
ing are covered with incombustible material approved by 
the commissioner, or to exceed five thousand square feet 
in area in any event. 

Wooden buildings erected for purposes other than 
habitation shall not be situated within five feet of the 
line of the lot unless the side wall on such line or lines 
be of brick or concrete, carried above the roof at least 
twelve inches and capped with a metallic covering. All 



52 City of Boston Building Law. 

openings in sucli outer walls shall be protected by wire 
glass set in metal frames and sash. 

[1913, c. 704, sect. 2; 1914, c. 248, sect. 1; 1914, c. 782, sect. 8.] 

Flooring during Construction. 

Sect. 41. If, in the erection of an iron or steel frame 
building, the spaces between the girders or floor beams 
of a floor are not filled and covered by the permanent 
construction of such floors before another story is added 
to the building, a close plank flooring shall be placed and 
maintained over such spaces during construction. If 
and when such flooring cannot be used without serious 
interference with the work of construction, such provision 
shaU be made to protect the workmen from falling materials 
as will be satisfactory to the commissioner. 

Additional Requirements for Tenement Houses. 

Definitions. 

Sect. 42. Certain words are defined as follows: — 

(1.) A tenement house is any house, building, structure 
or portion thereof, occupied, or adapted for occupation, 
as a dwelling by more than three families living independ- 
ently of one another and doing their cooking upon the 
premises, or by more than two families above the first 
story so living and cooking. A family living in a tene- 
ment house may consist of one or more persons. 

An existing tenement house is any building erected 
as such or converted to such use or as altered for such use 
or so used before the passage of this act, and any building 
adapted for such use, provided that a permit was issued 
for the erection of said building before the passage of this 
act. 

A tenement house hereafter erected is any tenement 
house other than an existing tenement house as above 
defined. 



City op Boston Building Law. 53 

(2.) A corner lot is a lot situated at the junction of two 
or more streets, or of two or more streets and alleys or 
open passageways not less than fifteen feet in width. 

(3.) A yard is an open unoccupied space on the same 
lot with a building and between the extreme rear Hne of 
said building and the rear hne of the lot. 

(4.) A court is an open unoccupied space other than 
a yard on the same lot with a building. An inner court 
is a court not extending to a street, or alley, or open 
passageway, or yard. An outer court is a court extending 
to a street, or alley, or open passageway, or yard. A vent 
court is an inner court for the hghting and ventilation 
of water-closets, bathrooms, pubHc halls, and stair halls 
only. An intake is a passageway connecting an inner 
court with a street, or alley, or open passageway, or yard. 

(5.) A shaft, whether for air, light, elevator, dumb- 
waiter, or any other purpose, is an enclosed space within 
a building, extending to the roof, and covered either by 
a skylight or by the roof. A vent shaft is a shaft used 
solely to ventilate or hght water-closet compartments or 
bathrooms. 

(6.) A pubhc hall is a hall, corridor, or passageway not 
within an apartment. 

(7.) A stair hall includes the stairs, stair landings, and 
those parts of the pubhc hall through which it is necessary 
to pass in going from the entrance floor to the roof. 

(8.) An apartment is a room, or suite of two or more 
rooms^ occupied or suitable for occupation, as a residence 
for one family. 

(9.) Repairs means any renewal of any existing part 
of a building, or of its fixtures or appurtenances, which 
does not lessen the strength of the building. 

Fire-escapes. 

Sect. 43. In all tenement houses hereafter erected 
more than three stories in height, and in every building 



54 City of Boston Building Law. 

hereafter enlarged and occupied or to be occupied as a 
tenement house, more than three stories in height, there 
shall be provided one of the following means of egress in 
addition to the main and rear staircases; but if the first 
named means of egress is provided it may be considered 
as a rear staircase and no means of egress other than this 
and the main staircase need be provided : 

(1.) An enclosed stairway consisting of iron or rein- 
forced concrete stairs, and stair landings, each not less 
than three feet in width in the clear, surmounted by a 
pent house not less than eight feet high. The stairway 
shall extend from the roof to the level of the ground, and 
shall open into either a street or passageway leading to 
a street; the said stairway shall be lighted to the satis- 
faction of the building commissioner and enclosed in walls 
of brick, stone, terra-cotta or concrete, and said walls 
may be within or without the line of the main wall of 
the building, but access to said stairway shall be only by 
doors through an external wall to balconies leading to the 
same, except at the roof where access to said stairway 
may be directly from the roof. 

(2.) Iron balconies connecting with adjoining build- 
ings or with adjoining parts of the same house separated 
from each other by a brick, terra-cotta or concrete parti- 
tion wall in which there are no openings except such as 
are protected with fireproof self-closing doors, and every 
suite above the first floor, shall have direct access to at 
least two means of egress, one of which shall be an enclosed 
stairway. The said balconies shall be not less than 
thirty inches wide and capable of sustaining a load of 
seventy pounds per square foot; railings shall be of iron, 
stone, terra-cotta or concrete, and three feet high, or 
higher if in the opinion of the commissioner a greater 
height is required for safety. 

(3.) Exterior fire escapes of iron with iron grated 
floors, and capable of bearing a load of seventy pounds 



City of Boston Building Law. 55 

per square foot. The stair treads shall be of iron, 
and the pitch of the stairs shall not exceed sixty 
degrees. 

Balconies shall be at least three feet four inches wide, 
and the stairs at least twenty inches wide. There shall 
be a landing at the foot of each flight, and at the level 
of the second floor there shall be cantilever ladders. The 
rails on all horizontal balconies and on the stairs shall be 
at least two feet ten inches high at all points. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 9.] 

Bulkheads and Scuttles. 

Sect. 44. Every tenement house of the first or second 
class hereafter erected shall have in the roof a fireproof 
bulkhead with a fireproof door to the same, and shall 
have fireproof stairs with a guide or hand rail leading to 
the roof, except that in such tenement houses which do 
not exceed sixty-five feet in height, such bulkheadfi may 
be of wood covered with metal on the outside and plastered 
on metal lathing on the inside; provided that the door 
shall be covered with metal on both sides. 

Every other tenement house shall have in the roof a 
bulkhead or scuttle. No scuttle shall be less in size than 
two feet by three feet, and all scuttles shall be covered on 
the outside with metal, and shall be provided with stairs 
or stationary ladders leading thereto and easily accessi- 
ble to all tenants of the building, and kept free from encum- 
brance, and all scuttles and ladders shall be kept so as 
to be ready for use at all times. No scuttle shall be situated 
in a closet or room, but all scuttles shall be in the ceiling 
of the pubhc hall on the top floor, and access through the 
scuttle to the roof shall be direct and uninterrupted. 
Scuttles shall be hinged so as to readily open. Every 
bulkhead hereafter constructed in a tenement house shall 
be constructed as provided for tenement houses hereafter 
erected and shall have stairs with a guide or hand rail 



56 City op Boston Building Law. 

leading to the roof, and such stairs shall be kept free from 
encumbrance at all times. No lock shall be placed on 
any scuttle or bulkhead door, but either may be fastened 
on the inside by movable bolts or hooks. All key-locks 
on scuttles and on bulkhead doors shall be removed. No 
stairway leading to the roof in a tenement house shall be 
removed. 

Sect. 45. Every tenement house hereafter erected shall 
have a main staircase of fireproof material, extending 
from the entrance floor to the roof, and with a pent house 
constructed of incombustible -material. The said stair- 
case shall not extend below the entrance floor level and 
shall be enclosed in brick, terra-cotta or concrete walls, or 
by two-inch solid metal and plaster partitions. All door 
openings into suites shall have metal covered self-closing 
doors and metal covered frames. Public halls therein 
shall each be at least three feet wide in the clear, and 
stairs shall be at least three feet wide between the wall 
and the stair rail. 

Each stairway shall have an entrance on the entrance 
floor from a street or alley or open passageway or from 
an outer court, or from an inner court which connects 
directly with a street or alley or open passageway. All 
stairs shall be constructed with a rise of not more than 
eight inches, and with treads not less than nine inches 
wide and not less than three feet long in the clear. Where 
winders are used all treads at a point eighteen inches 
from the strings on the wall side shall be at least ten inches 
wide. 

In every tenement house all stairways shall be provided 
with proper balusters and railings kept in good repair. 
No public hall or stairs in a tenement house shall be 
reduced in width so as to be less than the minimum width 
prescribed in this section. 

Public halls, stairs, elevator, light and ventilating 



City of Boston Building Law. 57 

shafts and basements in all tenement houses hereafter 
erected more than three stories in height and having more 
than eight suites, and the basements of all such existing 
tenement houses shall be provided with a system of 
automatic sprinklers approved as to location, arrange- 
ment and efficiency by the building commissioner. 

Public halls and stairs in all tenement houses now 
existing or hereafter erected more than three stories 
in height, and having more than eight suites, shall be 
provided with proper and sufficient Ughts to be kept 
lighted during the night. 

In every existing tenement house, and in every tene- 
ment house hereafter erected more than three stories in 
height, and having more than eight suites, all elevators, 
vent and dumb-waiter shafts, shall be enclosed in the base- 
ment in masonry walls not less than eight inches thick, 
or with two inch solid metal and plaster partitions, with 
a fireproof seK-closing door; and if in any such buUding 
a stairway leads from the first floor to the basement, such 
stairway shall be inclosed in masonry walls not less than 
eight inches thick, or with two inch solid metal and plaster 
partitions, and shall lead directly into a passageway 
inclosed in masonry walls of the same thickness, which 
passageway shall be not less than four feet wide and may 
have one fireproof self-closing door leading into the base- 
ment from said passageway, and shall connect with a 
street, alley or outer court through a self-closing door 
not less than three feet wide. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 10.] 

Stair Halls, Construction of. 

Sect. 46. In tenement houses hereafter erected which 
do not exceed five stories above the cellar or basement or 
sixty-five feet in height the stair halls shall either be con- 
structed with iron beams and fireproof filling or shall be 



58 City of Boston Building Law. 

filled in between the floor beams with at least five inches 
of cement deafening. In such houses the stairs may be of 
wood, provided that the soffits are covered with metal 
laths and plastered with two coats of mortar, or with 
good quality plaster-boards not less than one haK inch 
in thickness made of plaster and strong fibre, and all 
joints made true and well pointed, and provided that such 
stairs are furnished with firestops. 

Stair Halls, how Enclosed. 

Sect. 47. In second class and third class tenement 
houses hereafter erected, the stair halls may be enclosed 
with wooden stud partitions, if such partitions are covered 
on both sides with metal laths or with good quality plaster- 
boards not less than one half inch in thickness, made of 
plaster and strong fibre, and all joints made true and well 
pointed, and provided that the space between the studs 
is filled in with brick and mortar or other incombustible 
material to the height of the floor beams. 

Entrance Halls, 
Sect. 48. Every entrance hall in every tenement 
house hereafter erected shall be at least three feet six 
inches wide in the clear, from the entrance up to and 
including the stair enclosure, and beyond this point at 
least three feet wide in the clear, and shall comply with 
all the conditions of the preceding sections of this act as 
to the construction of stair halls, except that in a fireproof 
tenement house hereafter erected the entrance hall may 
be enclosed with terra-cotta blocks not less than four inches 
thick and angle-iron construction, instead of brick walls. 
If such entrance hall is the only entrance to more than 
one stairway, that portion of said hall between the entrance 
and the stairway shall be increased at least eighteen 
inches in width in every part for each additional stairway. 



City of Boston Building Law. 59 

Cellar Ceilings. 
Sect. 49. In all tenement houses of the second or 
third class hereafter erected, the cellar and basement 
ceilings shall be lathed with metal laths and plastered. 

Partitions, Construction of. 

Sect. 50. In all tenement houses of the second or 
third class hereafter erected all stud partitions which rest 
directly over each other shall run through the wooden 
floor beams and rest upon the cap of the partition below, 
and shall have the studding filled in solid between the 
uprights to the depth of the floor beams with suitable 
materials. 

Wooden Tenement Houses. 
Sect. 51. Outside of the building limits, tenement 
houses not exceeding three stories in height above the 
basement, nor eighteen hundred square feet in area, may 
be erected of wood. No wooden tenement house shall 
be increased in height so as to exceed three stories above 
the basement or cellar. 

Shafts. 

Sect. 52. All elevator or dumb-waiter shafts hereafter 
constructed in any tenement house shall be fireproof 
throughout, with self-closing doors at all openings at 
each story. But nothing in this section shall be so 
construed as to require enclosures about elevators or 
dumb-waiters in the well-hole of stairs where the stairs 
themselves are enclosed in walls of incombustible materials, 
and are entirely constructed of fireproof materials as 
hereinbefore provided. Every vent shaft hereafter con- 
structed in any tenement house shall have an intake 
of at least the dimensions provided for vent courts 
in section sixty-one, and shall be of the same minimum 
dimensions; and the skylight covering such vent shaft 



60 City of Boston Building Law. 

shall be raised at all points at least one foot above 
the top of the walls of such vent shaft, and the 
space between the top of said walls and the skylight shall 
remain at all points open and unobstructed except for 
such supports essential to the stability of the skylight, as 
may be approved by the commissioner. 

Bakeries and Fat Boiling. 

Sect. 53. No bakery and no place of business in which 
fat is boiled shall be maintained in any tenement house 
which is not fireproof throughout, unless the ceiling and 
side walls of said bakery or of the said place where fat boil- 
ing is done are made safe by fireproof materials around 
the same, and there shall be no openings either by door 
or window, dumb-waiter shafts or otherwise, between said 
bakery or said place where fat is boiled in any tenement 
house and the other parts of the building. 

Other Dangerous Businesses. 

Sect. 54. All transoms and windows opening into halls 
from any part of a tenement house where paint, oil, spirit- 
uous liquors or drugs are stored for the purpose of sale or 
otherwise shall be glazed with wire-glass, or they shall be 
removed and closed up as solidly as the rest of the wall. 
There shall be between any such hall and such part of 
said tenement house a fireproof self-closing door. 

Light and Ventilation. 
Yards. 
Sect. 55. The requirements for yards hereinafter pro- 
vided shall be deemed sufficient for all tenement houses. 

Except in those cases hereinafter provided for, there 
shall be, behind every tenement house hereafter erected, 
a yard extending across the entire width of th» lot, and 



City of Boston Building Law. 61 

at every point open from the ground to the sky unob- 
structed, except by fire-escapes or unenclosed outside 
stairs. 

The depth of said yard shall be measured from the 
extreme rear wall of the house to the rear line of the lot, 
and at right angles to said line, except that where there is 
an alley or open passageway in the rear of the lot the 
depth of the yard may be measured to the middle of said 
alley or open passageway. On an irregular lot of several 
depths, where there is more than one rear line to the lot, 
such yard may extend across the entire width of the lot 
in sections, provided that each section of the yard is in 
every part and at every point of the minimum depth here- 
inafter prescribed. Where the side lines of a lot converge 
toward the rear, the depth of the yard shall be such as to 
give it an area equal to the greatest width of the yard 
multiplied by the depth hereinaiter prescribed. 

Except on a corner lot, the depth of the yard behind 
every tenement house hereafter erected fifty feet in height 
or less shall be not less than twelve feet in every part. All 
yards without exception shall be increased in depth at 
least one foot for every additional ten feet of height of the 
building, or fraction thereof, above fifty feet. 

Except as hereinafter otherwise provided, the depth of 
the yard behind every tenement house hereafter erected 
upon a corner lot shall not be less than six feet in every 
part. But where such corner lot is more than twenty- 
five feet in width, the depth of the yard for that portion 
in exoess of twenty-five feet shall be not less than twelve 
feet in every part, and shall increase in depth as above 
provided. 

Whenever a tenement house is hereafter erected upon a 
lot which runs through from street to street, or from a 
street to an alley or open passageway, and said lot is one 
hundred and fifty feet or more in depth, said yard space 



62 City of Boston Building Law. 

shall be left midway between the two streets, and shall 
extend across the entire width of the lot, and shall be not 
less than twenty-four feet in depth from wall to wall, 
and shall be increased in depth at least two feet for every 
additional ten feet in height of the building, or fraction 
thereof, above fifty feet. 

When a tenement house hereafter erected does not front 
upon a street, a public alley, or a passageway, not less 
than fifteen feet wide, the requirements in this section as 
to yards shall apply to the front of such tenement house 
as well as to the rear. Neither the yard behind one 
tenement house nor any part thereof shall be deemed to 
satisfy in whole or in part the requirement of a yard in 
front of another tenement house. 

Cases in which no Yard shall be required. 

Sect. 56. No yard shall be required behind a tenement 
house hereafter erected upon a lot which abuts at the rear 
upon a railroad right of way, a cemetery or a public park. 

No yard . shall be required behind a tenement house 
hereafter erected upon a lot entirely surrounded by streets 
or by streets, alleys or open passageways, not less than 
fifteen feet in width, or by such streets, alleys, and passage- 
ways and a railroad right of way, a cemetery or a public 
park. 

No yard shall be required behind a tenement house 
hereafter erected upon a lot less than one hundred and 
fifty feet deep and running through from street to street 
or from a street tc an alley or open passageway not less 
than fifteen feet in width, or upon a corner lot adjoining 
a lot less than one hundred and fifty feet deep and running 
through from street to street, or from a street to such an 
alley or open passageway. 

No yard shall be required behind a tenement house 
hereafter erected upon a corner lot adjoining a lot more 
than one hundred and fifty feet deep and running through 



City of Boston Building Law. 63 

from street to street or from a street to an alley or open 
passageway not less than fifteen feet in width; but if 
there be no yard, an outer court upon such corner lot 
shall extend from the street along the Hne of such adjoin- 
ing lot to a point in line with the middle line of the block; 
the width of said court to be not less than the width of 
court prescribed in the ensuing paragraph. 

No yard shall be required behind a tenement house 
hereafter erected upon a corner lot adjoining two or more 
lots any one of which bounds upon a single street, or 
alley, or open passageway not less than fifteen feet in 
width; but if there be no yard an outer court upon such 
corner lot shall extend froni the street, or from such alley 
or open passageway along a lot line either to the extreme 
rear of an adjoining lot or to the extreme rear of said 
corner lot: 'provided, that the width of said court measured 
from the lot line to the opposite wall of the building, for 
tenement houses fifty feet or less in height, shall be not 
less than six feet in every part, and for every additional 
ten feet of height of the tenement house shall be increased 
ODe foot throughout the whole length of said court. 

Courts. 
Sect. 57. No court of a tenement house hereafter 
erected shall be covered by a roof or skylight, but every 
such court shall be at every point open to the sky unob- 
structed. Except such courts as are provided for in 
section fifty-six, all courts, except for fire-escapes, may 
start at the second tier of beams. 

Outer Courts. 
Sect. 58. The provisions of this section shall apply 
only to tenement houses hereafter erected. Where one 
side of an outer court is located on the lot line, the width 
of the said court, measured from the lot line to the opposite 
wall of the building, for tenement houses fifty feet or less 



64 City of Boston Building Law. 

in height shall not be less than six feet in every part; and 
for every ten feet of increase or fraction thereof in height 
of such tenement houses, such width shall be increased 
one foot throughout the whole length of the court, and 
except where the court runs through from the yard to 
the street, said width shall never be less than one eighth 
of the length of the court. 

Where an outer court is located between wings or parts 
of the same building, or between different buildings on 
the same lot, the width of the court, measured from wall 
to wall, for tenement houses fifty feet or less in height shall 
not be less than twelve feet in every part, and for every 
ten feet of increase or fraction thereof in the height of 
the said building, such width shall be increased two feet 
throughout the whole length of the court. The depth of 
such courts shall never exceed four times their width. 

Wherever an outer court changes its initial horizontal 
direction, or wherever any part of such court extends Jn 
a direction so as not to receive direct Ught from the street 
or yard, or from an alley, or open passageway not less than 
fifteen feet in width, the length of that part of the court 
shall never exceed its width, such length to be measured 
from the point at which the change of direction begins. 
Wherever an outer court between parts of the same build- 
ing is twelve feet or less in depth, its width may be one 
half its depth, provided that such width is never less than 
four feet in the clear. This exception shall also apply 
to every offset or recess in outer courts. And no window 
except windows of water-closet compartments, bath- 
rooms, or halls shall open upon any offset or recess less 
than four feet in width. 

Inner. Courts. 
Sect. 59. The provisions of this section shall apply 
only to tenement houses hereafter erected. Where one 
side of an inner court is located on the lot line and the 



City of Boston Building Law. 65 

building does not exceed iBfty feet in height, the least 
width of the court shall be not less than eight feet, and 
the area of the court shall be not less than one hundred 
and twenty-eight square feei. For every ten feet or 
fraction thereof of increase in the height of the building 
above fifty feet the minimum width of such inner courts 
shall be iacreased by one foot, and the area thereof shall 
never be less than twice the square of such minimum 
width. Where an inner court is not located on the lot 
line, but is enclosed on all four sides, and the building does 
not exceed fifty feet in height, the least width of said court 
shall be not less than sixteen feet and the area not less 
than two hundred and fifty-six square feet. For every 
ten feet, or fraction thereof, of increase in the height of 
said building above fifty feet, the minimum width of such 
inner courts shall be increased by two feet, and the area 
of the court .shall never be less than the square of such 
minimum dimension. 

Vent Courts. 

Sect. 60. Inner courts used solely for the lighting 
and ventilation of water-closets, bathrooms, public halls, 
or stair halls, or for interior fire-escapes, may be con- 
structed in any tenement house, and shall be not less 
than fifteen square feet in area, nor less than three feet 
in the least horizontal dimension for buildings fifty feet 
or less in height. For every increase of the feet or fraction 
thereof in the height of such buildings the least dimension 
shall be increased by one foot, and the area by not less 
than eight square feet. 

Intakes. 
Sect. 61. Every inner court in a tenement house 
hereafter erected shall be provided with one or more 
horizontal intakes at the bottom. Such intakes, in vent 
courts, shall be not less than four square feet in area, so 
arranged as to be easily cleaned; in other inner courts they 



66 City of Boston Building Law. 

shall be not less than three feet wide and seven feet high, 
and there shall be at least two open grille doors, containing 
not less than fifteen square feet of unobstructed openings, 
one at the inner court and the other at the street or yard 
as the case may be. 

Nothing contained in the foregoing sections concerning 
outer and inner courts shall be construed as prohibiting 
windows in walls that cut off the angles of such courts, 
provided that the running length of the walls containing 
such windows does not exceed six feet. 

Buildings on the Sajne Lot with Tenement Houses. 

Sect. 62. No tenement house shall hereafter be so 
enlarged or its lot so diminished, and no building of any 
kind shall be hereafter so placed upon the same lot with a 
tenement house, as to decrease the minimum depth of 
yards or the minimum size of courts or yards prescribed 
in this act for tenement houses hereafter erected. 

Rooms, Ligiding and Ventilation of. 

Sect. 63. In everj^ tenement house hereafter erected 
there shall be in each room, except water-closet compart- 
ments and bathrooms, windows of a total area of at least 
one eighth of the floor area of the room, opening directly 
on a street or public alley or open passageway not less 
than fifteen feet wide or upon a yard or court of the dimen- 
sions hereinbefore specified, or upon a railroad right of 
way, cemetery or public park; and such windows shall be 
located so as properly to light all parts of the room. 
The top of at least one window shall be not less than eight 
feet above the floor, and the upper half of it shall be made 
so as to open the full width. 

Every alcove in every tenement house hereafter erected 
shall be provided with an opening into a room, such 
opening to be equal in area to eighty per cent of that side 
of the alcove in which the opening is located; and the 



City of Boston Building Law. 67 

alcove shall have at least one window of not less than 
fifteen square feet of glazed surface opening as provided 
in this section. 

Rooms, Size of. 

Sect. 64. In every tenement house hereafter erected 
all rooms, except water-closet compartments and bath- 
rooms, shall be of the following minimum sizes: In each 
apartment there shall be at least one room containing 
not less than one hundred and twenty square feet of 
floor area and provided with a chimney flue and thimble, 
except where said room is furnished with heat from a 
central heating apparatus, and every other room shall 
contain at least ninety square feet of floor area. Each 
room shall be in every part not less than eight and one 
half feet high from the finished floor to the finished ceil- 
ing; provided that only one haK of an attic room need 
be eight and one half feet high. 

No portion of a room in any such tenement house shall 
be partitioned off so as to form a room not conforming to 
the provisions of sections sixty-three and sixty-four, or so 
as to form an alcove not conforming to sections sixty- 
three and seventy. 

Public Halls. 

Sect. 65. Except as otherwise provided in section 
sixty-six, in every tenement house hereafter erected, 
every public hall shall have at least one window opening 
directly upon a street, a public aUey or open passageway 
not less than ten feet in width, a railroad right of way, a 
cemetery or a public park, or upon a yard or court or a 
vent court as provided in section sixty. Either such 
window shall be at the end of said haU, with the plane 
of the window substantially at right angles to the axis of 
the hall, or there shall be at least one window opening 
as above prescribed in every twenty feet in length or 
fraction thereof of the hall ; but this provision for one win- 



68 City of Boston Building Law. 

dow in every twenty feet of hall-way shall not apply to 
that part of the entrance hall between the entrance and 
the first flight of stairs, provided that the entrance door 
contains not less than five square feet of glazed surface. 
At least one of the windows provided to light each public 
hall shall be at least two feet six inches wide and five 
feet high, measured between the stop beads. 

Any part of a hall which is shut off from any other 
part of said hall by a door or doors shall be deemed a 
separate hall within the meaning of this section. 

Windows for Stair Halls, Size of. 

Sect. 66. In every tenement house hereafter erected 
the aggregate area of windows to light or ventilate stair 
halls on each floor shall be at least fifteen square feet: 
provided, however, that when there shall be, within the 
space enclosed by the stairway and its landings, from the 
second story upward, an open area for light and ventilation 
whose least horizontal dimension shall be equal to the 
width of the stairs, but in no case less than three feet, 
then the windows required in sections sixty-five and 
sixty-six may be omitted. 

There shall be in the roof, directly over each stair well, 
in all tenement houses hereafter erected, without windows 
as above provided, a ventilating skylight provided with 
ridge ventilators, having a minimum opening of forty 
square inches, or else such skylight shall be provided with 
fixed or movable louvres. The glazed roof of the skylight 
shall not be less than twenty square feet in area. 

Privacy, 
Sect. 67. In every apartment of four or more rooms 
in a tenement house hereafter erected, at least one water- 
closet compartment shall be accessible without passing 
through any bedroom. 



CiTT OF Boston Building Law. 69 

Basements and Cellars in Tenement Houses and other 
Buildings. 

Sect. 68. In tenement houses hereafter erected no 
room in the basement or cellar shall be occupied for living 
purposes, unless all of the following conditions are complied 
with: — 

(1.) Such room shall be at least eight and one half 
feet high in every part from the floor to the ceihng. 

(2.) There shall be appurtenant to such room the use 
of a separate water-closet, constructed and arranged as 
required by section sixty-nine. 

(3.) Such room shall have a window or windows open- 
ing upon the street, an alley or open passageway not less 
than fifteen feet in width, a railroad right of way, ceme- 
tery or public park or upon a yard or court. The total 
area of windows in such room shall be at least one eighth 
of the floor area of the room, and one half of the sash shall 
be made to open full width, and the top of each window 
shall be within six inches of the ceiling. 

(4.) The floor of such room shall be damp-proof and 
waterproof, and all walls surrounding such room shall be 
damp-proof. 

No room on any floor of any house or building now 
existing or hereafter erected, which floor is in whole or 
in part below the highest point of the curb of a public 
street or way in front and within twenty-five feet of the 
outside wall, and no room on any floor thereof, which 
floor is in whole or in part below the highest point of the 
ground adjacent to such building and within fifteen feet 
thereof, shall be occupied for sleeping purposes unless 
all of the following conditions are complied with: — ■ 

(a.) Such room shall on at least one side abut on an 
outside wall of said building for a space of at least seven 
feet. 

(6.) Such room shall have a window or windows open- 



70 City of Boston Building Law. 

ing directly upon an open space not less than fifteen feet 
square, and open from the ground to the sky without 
obstruction; such window or windows shall have a total 
area of not less than ten square feet and not less than one 
eighth of the floor area of said room, and both halves of 
the sash of each window shall be made to open to their 
full width, and the top of each window shall be within six 
inches of the ceiling. 

(c.) At least sixty per cent of the area of any such 
room shall be above the level of the highest point of the 
ground within fifteen feet of the outside wall or walls of 
said room and in which the windows above required are 
situated. 

(d.) The floor of such room and all walls surrounding 
such room shall be damp-proof and waterproof. 

(e.) Such room shall be at least eight feet six inches 
in height in every part, from floor to ceiling: provided, 
that in tenement houses erected prior to the first day of 
August, nineteen hundred and seven, and in other houses 
and buildings erected prior to the first day of June, nine- 
teen hundred and fourteen, it shall be sufficient if said room 
is seven feet in height over at least four fifths of its area. 

(/.) There shall be appurtenant to such room a water- 
closet, constructed and arranged as required by section 
sixty-nine, and used solely by the occupants of said room 
or by the household of which said occupants are members. 

(g.) No such room shall be occupied for sleeping pur- 
poses without a permit from the board of health, such 
permit to be posted in a conspicuous place in the main 
room of the apartment. A record of all such permits 
shall be kept in the office of the board of health. 

[1914, c. 628, sect. 1.] 

Water-closets in Tenement Houses hereafter erected. 

Sect. 69. In every tenement house hereafter erected 
there shall be a separate water-closet in a separate com- 



City of Boston Building Law. 71 

partment within each apartment of four or more rooms. 
Where apartments consist of less than four rooms there 
shall be at least one water-closet for every three rooms, 
and on the same floor with said rooms. Every such 
water-closet shall be placed in a compartment completely 
separated from every other water-closet, and such com- 
partment shall be not less than two feet and four inches 
wide, and shall be enclosed with plastered partitions, or 
some equally substantial material, which shall extend to 
the ceihng. Such compartment shall have a window, 
opening directly, or through a straight horizontal shaft of 
the same dimensions as the window and not .more than 
four feet long, upon a street, a railroad right of way, 
cemetery or pubhc park or a yard or alley or open passage- 
way not less than four feet wide, or upon a court vent or 
upon a covered passageway not more than twenty feet 
long and at least twenty feet wide, and twenty feet high. 
Every such window shall be at least one foot by three 
feet between stop beads; and the whole window shall be 
made so as to open readily. When, however, such water- 
closet compartment is located on the top floor and is 
lighted and ventilated by a skylight over it, no window 
shall be necessary, provided that the roof of such skylight 
contains at least three square feet of glazed surface and 
is arranged so as to open readily. Nothing in this section 
in regard to the separation of water-closet compartments 
from each other shall apply to a general toilet room con- 
taining several water-closets, hereafter placed in a tene- 
ment house, provided that such water-closets are supple- 
mental to the water-closet accommodations required by 
law for the use of the tenants of the said house. Nothing 
in this section in regard to the ventilation of water-closet 
compartments shall apply to a water-closet hereafter 
placed in an existing tenement house, to replace a defective 
fixture in the same position and location. No water-closet 
shall be maintained in the cellar of any tenement house 



72 City of Boston Building Law. 

without a permit in writing from the board of health; 
and said board shall have power to make rules and regula- 
tions governing the maintenance of such closets. Every 
water-closet compartment in any tenement house shall be 
provided with proper means of lighting the same at night. 
If fixtures for gas or electricity are not provided in such 
compartment^ then the door of such compartment shall 
be provided with translucent glass panels, or with a 
translucent glass transom, not less in area than four 
square feet. The floor of every such water-closet com- 
partment shall be made waterproof with asphalt, tile, 
stone or some other waterproof material; and such 
waterproofing shall extend at least six inches above the 
floor on all sides of the compartment except at the door 
opening, so that the floor can be washed or flushed 
without leaking. No drip trays shaU be permitted. 
No water-closet fixtures shall be inclosed with any 
woodwork. 

Lighting and Ventilation of Existing Tenement Houses. 
Sect. 70. Excepting water-closet compartments and 
bathrooms, wherever a room in any tenement house has a 
window or windows of less than nine square feet of glazed 
surface opening on a street, a railroad right of way, ceme- 
tery, public park, alley or open passageway not less than 
ten feet in width, such window or windows shall be enlarged 
and provided with the above mentioned glazed surface, 
and wherever such room does not open as above provided, 
or opens upon an alley or open passageway less than ten 
feet in width or upon a shaft or upon a court less than six 
feet in its least dimension, then such room shall be pro- 
vided with a sash window communicating with another 
room in the same apartment, having windows of at least 
the superficial area prescribed for the windows of rooms 
in tenement houses hereafter erected and opening on a 
street, a railroad right of way, cemetery, pubhc park or 



City of Boston BuiliJing Law. 73 

alley or open passageway at least ten feet in width, or on a 
court or courts at least equivalent to the courts required 
in sections fifty-eight and fifty-nine; and such new sash 
window shall contain not less than fifteen square feet of 
glazed surface and shall be made so as to open readily. 
One wall of every alcove in an existing tenement house 
shall be provided with an opening equal in area to eighty 
per cent of the wall. No tenement house shall be so 
altered as to reduce the provisions for the light and venti- 
lation of any room or alcove or pubHc hall or stair hall 
below the requirements of this act. 

Skylights. 

Sect. 71. In every existing tenement house there shall 
be in the roof, directly over each stair well, a ventilating 
skylight, pro\dded with ridge ventilators and also with 
fixed or movable louvres or movable sashes. But this 
section shall not apply to any tenement house now having 
windows as provided in section sixty-five or a bulkhead in 
the roof over the main stairs, which bulkhead is provided 
with windows made so as to open readily, and with not 
less than twelve square feet of glass in the top of the bulk- 
head. All skylights hereafter placed in any tenement 
house shaU conform to the provisions of section sixty-six. 
All the existing dome lights or other obstructions to sky- 
light ventilation shall be removed. 

Where the pubhc hall in an existing tenement house is 
not provided with windows opening as provided in section 
sixty-five, and where there is not a stair weU as provided 
in section sixty-six, aU doors leading from such public 
hall into apartments shall be provided with translucent 
glass panels of an area of not less than four square feet for 
each door; or such public hall may be Kghted by a window 
or windows at the end thereof with the plane of the win- 
dow at right angles to the axis of the haU, said window 
opening upon the street, a railroad right of way, cemetery, 



74 City of Boston Building Law. 

public park, or an alley or open passageway at least ten 
feet in width, or upon a yard or court of the dimensions 
hereinbefore provided. 

Water-closets in Existing Tenement Houses. 

Sect. 72. In existing tenement houses the woodwork 
enclosing the space underneath the seat of all water-closets 
used in common by two or more families shall be removed 
and such space shall be left open. The floor or other sur- 
face beneath and around such closet shall be maintained 
in good order and repair, and the floors made waterproof 
to the satisfaction of the board of health. 

Every such water-closet shall be located in a compart- 
ment completely separated from every other water-closet, 
and such compartment shall be ventilated to the satis- 
faction of the board of health. There shall be provided 
at least one water-closet for every three families or for 
every nine rooms in every existing tenement house. 

Water Supply. 

Sect. 73. In every tenement house hereafter erected 
there shall be in each apartment a proper sink with 
running water. 

Every existing tenement house shall have water fur- 
nished in sufficient quantity at one or more places on each 
floor occupied by or suitable to be occupied by one or more 
families. The owner shall provide proper and suitable 
tanks, pumps or other appliances to receive and to dis- 
tribute a sufficient supply of water at each floor in the 
said house at all times of the year, during all hours of the 
day and night. 

The woodwork enclosing sinks located in the public 
halls or stairs shall be removed, and the space underneath 
the sinks shall be left open. The floors and wall surfaces 
beneath and around the sink shall be maintained in good 
order and repair. 



City of Boston Building Law. 75 

Drainage of Courts and Yards. 

Sect, 74. In every tenement house all courts, areas, 
intakes and yards shall be properly graded, drained and 
paved or otherwise surfaced to the satisfaction of the 
board of health. 

Receptacles for Garbage and Ashes. 

Sect. 75. The owner of every tenement house shall 
provide therefor suitable, covered, water-tight receptacles 
satisfactory to the board of health, for ashes, rubbish, 
garbage, refuse and other matter. No person shall place 
ashes, rubbish, garbage, refuse or other matter in the 
yards, open areas or alleys connected with, or appur- 
tenant to, any tenement house except in suitable recep- 
tacles provided for the same. 

[Repealed so far as inconsistent with 1907, c, 550, sect. 128; as 
amended by 1913, c. 586, sect. 1.] 

Powers of the Building Commissioner. 

Sect. 76. The commissioner shall not dispense with 
any of the requirements of sections forty-two to seventy- 
five, inclusive. 

Theatres. 

Definition. 

Sect. 77. Every building hereafter erected so as to 
contain an audience hall and a stage, with curtain, mov- 
able or shifting scenery, and machinery, adapted for the 
giving of plays, operas, spectacles or similar forms of 
entertainment, and of a size to provide seats for more 
than five hundred spectators shall be a theatre within 
the meaning of this act. No existing building not now 
used as a theatre shall be altered and used as a theatre, 
unless it conforms to the provisions of this act for a new 
theater. 



76 City of Boston Building Law. 

Construction. 
Sect. 78, Every theatre hereafter built shall be of 
fireproof construction throughout, except that the floor 
boards may be of wood, and the steel work of the stage, 
of the fly galleries, and of the rigging loft need not be 
fireproof ed. 

Open Courts. 

Sect. 79. Every theatre built in a block not on a 
corner shall have an open court or passageway on both 
sides extending from the proscenium line to the line of 
the street on the front, or, in case the building abuts on 
a street both in front and rear, these passages may extend 
from the line of the front of the auditorium to the line 
of the rear street. These passages shall be at least six 
feet wide throughout their length, and shall not be closed 
by any locked gate or doorway. They shall immediately 
adjoin the auditorium, or a side passage or lobby directly 
connected therewith. These passages shall be open to the 
sky opposite the whole depth of the auditorium, but may 
be carried out to the street front or rear through passages 
enclosed by brick walls or other fireproof material equally 
efficient, and covered by a solid brick vault at least eight 
inches thick, each passage to be not less than eight feet 
wide and ten feet high throughout. 

Sect. 80. Every theatre built upon the corner of two 
streets shall have one inner court on the side of the build- 
ing away from the side street, such court to be of the 
same description as the courts provided for in the preceding 
paragraph. 

Stores, etc. 

Sect. 81. Nothing in this act shall be construed to 
prohibit the use of any part of a theatre building for 
stores, offices, or for habitation, provided that the parts 
so used shall be built with exits to the street entirely 
distinct from the rest of the building and shall be 



City of Boston Building Law. 77 

separated from the rest of the building by soHd par- 
titions or walls, without any openings in the same. 

Floor Levels. 
Sect. 82. In all theatres, the entrances shall be not 
more than one step above the level of the sidewalk of the 
main street, and the stage shall be not more than five 
feet above the said level. 

Proscenium Wall. 

Sect, 83. The stage of every theatre shall be sepa- 
rated from the auditorium by a wall of fireproof construc- 
tion, which wall shall extend the whole width of the 
auditorium and the whole height to the roof of the portion 
occupied by the stage. There shall be no openings 
through this wall except the curtain opening, one doorway 
each side behind the boxes, and one doorway which shall 
be located at or below the level of the stage. The door- 
ways shall not exceed twenty-one superficial feet each, 
and shall have standard fire-doors hung in a manner 
satisfactory to the commissioner. The finish or decora- 
tive features around the curtain opening of every theatre 
shall be of fireproof material. 

Curtain. 

Sect. 84. The proscenium or curtain opening of every 
theatre shall have a fire resisting curtain reinforced by 
wire netting or otherwise strengthened. If of iron, or 
similar heavy material, and made to lower from the top, 
it shall be so arranged as to be stopped securely'- at a 
height of seven feet above the stage floor, the remaining 
opening being closed by a curtain or valance of fire- 
resisting fabric. 

Stage Floor, 

Sect. 85. The part of the stage floor, usually equal to 
the width of the proscenium opening, used in working 



78 City of Boston Building Law. 

scenery, traps or other mechanical apparatus, may be of 
wood, and no flooring used thereon shall be less than one 
and one eighth inches in thickness. 

Ventilators. 

Sect. 86. There shall be one or more ventilators near 
the center, and above the highest part of the stage of 
every theatre, of a combined area of opening satisfactory 
to the commissioner, and not less than one tenth of the 
area of the undivided floor space behind the curtain at 
the stage floor level. The openings in every such venti- 
lator shall be closed by valves or louvres so counter- 
balanced as to open automatically, which shall be kept 
closed, when not in use, by a fusible link and cord reach- 
ing to the prompter's desk, and readily operated therefrom. 
Such cord shall be of combustible material, and so arranged 
that if it is severed the ventilator will open automatically. 

Skylight coverings for ventilators shall have sheet metal 
frames set with double-thick glass, each pane thereof 
measuring not less than three hundred square inches, or 
shall be protected with wire glass. If wire glass is not 
used, a suitable wire netting shall be placed immediately 
beneath the glass, but above the ventilator openings. 
Illuminating fixtures over the auditorium shall be sus- 
pended and secured in a manner approved by the com- 
missioner. 

Glass on illuminating fixtures over the auditorium shall 
be secured from danger of falling as the commissioner 
shall require, but in no case shall any glass more than six 
inches in diameter or length be hung over the auditorium 
unless protected from falling by a wire netting or similar 
device satisfactory to the commissioner. 

Seats in Auditorium. 
Sect. 87. All seats in the auditorium excepting those 
contained in boxes shall be spaced not less than thirty 



City of Boston Building Law. 79 

inches from back to back, measured in a horizontal 
direction, and shall be firmly secured to the floor. No 
seat in the auditorium shall have more than six seats 
intervening between it and an aisle, on either side. 

The platforms for seats in balconies and galleries shall 
nowhere have a greater rise than twenty-one inches, nor 
be less than thirty inches from back to back. 

Aisles. 

Sect. 88. All aisles on the respective floors in the 
auditorium, having seats on both sides of the same, shall 
be not less than thirty inches wide where they begin 
and shall be increased in width toward the exits in the 
ratio of one inch to five running feet. Aisles having 
seats on one side only shall be not less than two feet wide 
at their beginning and shall increase in width, the same 
as aisles having seats on both sides. 

Changes in Level. 

Sect. 89. All changes in the levels of the floors of such 
buildings, except under stairways, from story to story, 
and except the necessary steps in galleries and balconies 
rising toward the exits, shall be made by inclines of no 
steeper gradient than two in ten within the auditorium, 
and rising toward the exits, and one in ten for all others. 

Lobbies. 
Sect. 90. Preceding each division of the theatre there 
shall be foyers, lobbies, corridors, or passages, the aggre- 
gate capacity of which on each floor or gallery shall be 
sufficient to contain the whole number to be accommo- 
dated on such floor or gallery in the ratio of one square 
foot of floor room for each person. 

Stage Doors. 
Sect. 91. There shall be not less than two exit doors, 
each not less than three feet in width, located on opposite 



80 City of Boston Building Law. 

sides of the stage, and opening directly upon a street, 
alley, court, or courtway leading to a public throughfare. 

Room Exits. 
Sect. 92. All rooms in theatres for the use of persons 
employed therein shall have passages to at least two 
independent means of exit. 

Doors to Open Outward. 
Sect. 93. All doors of exit or entrance shall open out- 
ward, and shall be hung so as to swing in such a manner 
as not to become an obstruction in a passage or corridor, 
and no such doors shall be fastened so as to be inoperative 
when the building is occupied by an audience. 

False Doors. 
Sect. 94. No mirrors shall be so placed as to give the 
appearance of a doorway or exit, hallway, or corridor, 
nor shall there be any false doors or windows. 

Main Floor and First Gallery Exits. 
Sect. 95. A common exit may serve for the main floor 
of the auditorium and the first gallery, provided that its 
capacity be equal to the aggregate capacity of the outlets 
from the main floor and the said gallery; and provided 
that the lowermost run of any exit leading from a gallery 
shall not open directly at right angles with the central 
axis of a common exit unless there is a clear space or 
landing of at least one and one quarter times the width 
of the exit between the foot of such exit and such centre 
line or nearest exit doorway. 

Exits. 
Sect. 96. Two distinct and separate exits shall be 
provided for each gallery and balcony above the main 
floor; and the same shall be located on opposite sides of 
the galleries. 



CiTT OF Boston Building Law. 81 

All gallery or balcony exits shall start with a 
width of not less than four feet at the uppermost 
gallery. 

Exits from balconies and galleries shall not com- 
municate with the basement or cellar. 

Aggregate Width of Exits, 

Sect. 97. The aggregate width of all the exits pre- 
viously described shall be estimated on a basis of not less 
than twenty inches for every one hundred persons for 
whom seats are provided in the sections of the auditorium 
served by the respective exits. 

Emergency Exits. 

Sect. 98. In addition to the exits previously described 
there shall be one exit from each side of each gallery, 
balcony, and main floor of auditorium, at least five feet 
wide, leading to exterior balconies not less than four feet 
wide and twenty feet long on each side of the auditorium. 
From such balconies there shall be staircases extending 
to the ground level, which may be counterweighted, with 
risers of not over eight and one half inches and treads of 
not less than nine and one half inches, exclusive of nosing. 
The aggregate width of these emergency stairs shall be 
not less than ten inches for every one hundred people 
served thereby, no single stairs being less than thirty 
inches wide. If counterweighted, these stairs shall be 
lowered during all performances. 

Where all such stairs are in an interior court, each run 
shall be covered by a light awning of iron. 

Nothing herein shall prohibit the building of emergency 
stairs and exits inside the walls of the building, provided 
that they are surrounded by a fireproof partition not less 
than four inches thick separating the exits and stairways 
from the audience room or auditorium. 



82 City of Boston Building Law. 

Additional Requirements. 

Sect. 99. The commissioner shall have power to require 
a greater number or capacity of exits than is herein pre- 
scribed. 

In every theatre there shall be over every exit, on the 
inside, and over every opening to a fire-escape, on the 
inside, an illuminated sign, bearing the word "exit" or 
''fire-escape," respectively, in letters not less than four 
inches high. The lights for the exit signs, passages, stairs, 
lobbies, auditoriums, rear of auditoriums, balconies, 
galleries, and for the balconies and stairs outside the build- 
ing, shall be so arranged that they can be turned on or off 
independently of the means provided on the stage or in 
any part of the building in the rear of the proscenium wall. 
Every exit sign shall be kept illuminated, and every outside 
balcony and fire-escape shall be kept well lighted during 
the performance, except outside exits during a performance 
before sunset. 

Plans showing the exits and stairways shall be legibly 
printed so as to occupy a full page of every programme or 
play-bill. 

In said buildings there shall be such number of gas pipe 
outlets as the commissioner may require, fitted with no 
less than two gas burners. Such burners shall be inspected 
and tried at least once in every three months by inspectors 
of the department, to ascertain if they are in proper work- 
ing order. The inspector shall make a report of each visit, 
stating the condition of the burners and the action of the 
inspector in regard to them. 

The commissioner shall have authority to order any 
defect in the working of such burners as are necessary for 
public safety to be remedied. 

So much of this section as applies to the inspection 
of gas burners shall apply to buildings now used as 
theatres. 



City of Boston Building Law. 83 

Stairs. 

Sect. 100. The cut of the stair stringers shall not 
exceed seven and one-half inches rise, nor be less than ten 
and one half inches tread. There shall be no flights of 
stairs of more than fifteen or less than three steps between 
landings. 

Landings of Stairs. 

Sect. 101. Every landing shall be at least four feet 
wide. When straight stairs return directly on themselves, 
a landing of the full width of both flights, without any 
steps, shall be provided. The outer line of landings shall 
be curved to a radius of not less than two feet to avoid 
square angles. Stairs turning at an angle shall have a 
proper landing without winders introduced at the turn. 
No door shall open immediately upon a flight of stairs, 
but a landing at least two feet wider than the width of 
the door opening shaU be provided between such stairs 
and such door. When two side flights connect with one 
main flight, no winders shall be introduced, and the width 
of the main flight shall be at least equal to the aggregate 
width of the side flights. 

Hand Rails. 

Sect. 102. All enclosed stairways shall have, on both 
sides, strong hand-raUs, flrmly secured to the wall, about 
three inches distant therefrom and about three feet high 
above the stairs. 

All stairways eight feet and over in width shall be 
provided with a central rail of metal or hard wood, not 
less than two inches in diameter, placed at a height of 
about three feet above the centre of the treads, supported 
on wrought metal or brass standards of sufficient strength, 
securely bolted to the treads or risers of the stairs; and 
at the head of each flight of stairs, and on each side of 



84 City of Boston Building Law. 

the landing, the post or standard shall be at' least six 
feet in height, and the rail shall be secured to the post. 

Measurements for Width of Stairs. 

Sect. 103. The width of all stairs shall be measured in 
the clear between the hand-rails. 

No winding or circular stairs shall be permitted. 

Radiators Forbidden in Passageways. 

Sect. 104. No coil or radiator or floor register shall be 
placed in any aisle or passageway used as an exit; but 
all such coils and radiators may be placed in recesses 
formed in the wall or partition to receive the same. 

No boiler, furnace, engine or heating apparatus, except 
steam, hot water or hot air pipes or radiators, shall be 
located under the auditorium or under any passage or 
stairway or exit of any theatre. 

Sprinklers and Standpipes. 

There shall be at least two two-inch high-service stand- 
pipes on the stage of every theatre, with ample provision 
of hose nozzles at each level of the stage on each side, and 
the water shall be kept turned on during the occupation 
of the building by an audience. The said pipes shall in 
no case be sealed, and shall have two gates, one above the 
other, with a proper test or waste valve; the lower gate 
to be kept open at all times. The proscenium opening of 
every theatre shall be provided with a two and one half 
inch perforated iron pipe, or equivalent equipment of 
automatic or open sprinklers, so constructed as to form, 
when in operation, a complete water curtain for the whole 
proscenium opening, and there shall be for the rest of the 
stage a complete system of fire apparatus and perforated 
iron pipes, automatic or open sprinklers. Such pipes or 
sprinklers shall be supplied with water by high pressure 
service, and shall be at all times ready for use. 



City of Boston Building Law. 85 



Places of Public Assembly. 

Sect. 105. Every building hereafter erected with a 
hall or assembly-room to contain a public audience of 
more than eight hundred persons, or with more than one 
superimposed gallery or balcony, shall be of fireproof con- 
struction throughout; except that halls or assembly- 
rooms, the mean level of the main floor of which is not 
more than five feet above the grade of the adjacent street, 
,may have roofs of second class construction. 

Every building hereafter erected with a hall or assembly- 
room to contain an audience of more than six hundred 
persons, the main floor of which is raised more than 
fifteen feet above the level of the principal street upon 
which it faces, shall be of fireproof construction 
throughout. 

The capacity of a hall or assembly-room shall be esti- 
mated on the basis of six square feet for each person. 

If several halls or assembly-rooms are provided in one 
building, their aggregate capacity shall be considered as 
determining whether or not the building shall be of fire- 
proof construction, unless the several halls are enclosed 
by or separated from each other by fireproof walls, with 
fireproof doors in the same, in which case the building 
may be of second class construction. 

No existing building shall be altered to contain a hall 
or assembly-room exceeding the foregoing dimensions, 
unless the whole building as altered shall conform to the 
provisions of this act. 

All seats in places of public assemblage shall be spaced 
as hereinbefore provided, and, while such places of public 
assemblage are occupied by an audience, shall be secured 
in such manner as will be satisfactory to the building 
cormnissioner of the city of Boston. No temporary seats 
or other obstructions shall be allowed in any aisle, passage- 
way or stairway of a place of public assemblage, and no 



86 City of Boston Building Law. 

person shall remain in any aisle, passageway or stairway 
of any building during any performance. 
[1912, c. 370, sect. 1.] 

Every existing building containing a hall or assembly- 
room to which admission is not free, and to which the pro- 
visions of chapter four hundred and ninety-four of the 
acts of the year nineteen hundred and eight, relative to 
the licensing of public entertainments apply, shall have 
all the ways of egress from such building sufficiently 
lighted, and lighted in a manner satisfactory to the building 
commissioner, while the hall or assembly room is occupied 
by an audience. 

[1913, c. 50, sect. 1.] 

Moving Picture Shows. 

Sect. 106. All moving picture shows shall be subject 
to the provisions of chapter one hundred and seventy-six 
and of chapter four hundred and thirty-seven of the acts 
of the year nineteen hundred and five, and of any amend- 
ments thereof or additions thereto now or hereafter made. 

Exits, Etc. 
Sect. 107. Every building hereafter erected contain- 
ing a hall or assembly-room shall conform to all the afore- 
said requirements as to exits, stairways, exit lights, aisles, 
and seats which apply to theatres, subject to such excep- 
tions as the board of appeal shall approve. 

Roof Gardens. 

Sect. 108. Nothing herein contained shall prevent the 
placing of a roof garden, art gallery, or rooms for similar 
purposes above a theatre, provided the floor of the same 
forming the roof over such theatre shall be constructed 
of fireproof materials, and shall have no covering boards 
or sleepers of wood. Every roof over such garden or other 



Ci^Y OF Boston Building Law. 87 

rooms shall have all supports and rafters of steel, and, if 
covered, shall be covered with glass or fireproof material, 
or both. 

^xit% from Roof Gardens. 
Sect. 109. Exits from roof gardens may communicate 
with stairs leading from the auditorium of the theatre, 
but they shall be at least, four in number, not less than 
four feet six inches wide, and distinct and separate from 
each other from roof to street. 

Summer Theatres. 

Sect. 110. Summer theatres, if buUt without the 
building limits, and located thirty feet distant from any 
other building or structure or adjoining lot lines, and of 
no greater seating capacity than seven hundred and fifty 
persons, and not more than one story high, without bal- 
conies, or galleries, may be canstructed as follows: -^ 

The auditorium, without a cellar or basement, with 
open sides of double the number of exits as hereinbefore 
provided, opening directly into the surrounding courts or 
gardens at the grade level, and the adjoining dressing- 
rooms, may be of wooden construction, but the stage 
shall be enclosed in brick walls not less than twelve inches 
thick, or shall be plastered on metal lathing throughout: 
provided, that the openings leading to the dressing-rooms 
shall be provided with fire doors. 

Otherwise, all protective features and arrangements 
shall comply with all previous sections of this title. 

Existing Theatres. 

Sect. 111. All stairs of theatres shall have throughout 
proper hand-rails on both sides firmly secured to walls or 
to strong posts and balusters. Stairways twelve feet or 
more wide shall have one or more intermediate rails not 
more than eight feet apart and properly supported. 



88 City of Boston Building Law.. 

No boiler, furnace, engine or heating apparatus, except 
steam, hot water or hot air pipes or radiators, shall be 
located under the auditorium nor under any passage or 
stairway or exit of any theatre. 

In every theatre there shall be over every exit, on the 
inside, and over every opening to a fire-escape, on the 
inside, an illuminated sign, bearing the word "exit" or 
"fire-escape," respectively, in letters not less than four 
inches high. An emergency arc light or its equivalent 
shall be installed in the auditorium, which light or Ughts, 
exit lights, and all lights in halls, corridors, or any part 
of the building used by the audience, except the general 
auditorium lighting, shall be fed independently of the 
stage lighting, and shall be controlled only from the 
lobby or other convenient place in the front of the house. 
Every exit sign shall be kept illuminated and every outside 
balcony and fire-escape shall be kept well lighted during 
the performance, except outside exits during a performance 
in the daytime and before sunset. 

[1909, c. 313, sect. 1.] 

The exits and openings to fire-escapes of all theatres 
shall open outward and have fastenings on the inside only. 
They shall be unfastened during every performance and 
shall be so arranged that they can easily be opened from 
within. Plans showing the exits and stairways shall be 
legibly printed so as to occupy a full page of every pro- 
gramme or play-bill. 

No temporary seats or other obstructions shall be 
allowed in any aisle, or stairway of a theatre, and no person 
shall remain in any aisle, passageway or stairway of any 
such building during any performance. 

[1908, c. 336, sect. 1.] 

The proscenium or curtain opening of every theatre 
shall have a fire-resisting curtain of incombustible mate- 
rial, reinforced by wire netting, or otherwise strength- 



City of Boston Building Law. 89 

ened. If of iron, or similar heavy material, and made to 
lower from the top, it shall be so arranged as to be 
stopped securely at a height of seven feet above the stage 
floor, the remaining opening being closed by a curtain 
or valance of fire-resisting fabric. The ciirtain shall be 
raised at the beginning and lowered at the end of every 
performance, and shall be of proper material, construction 
and mechanism. 

There shall be one or more ventilators near the center 
and above the highest part of the stage of every theatre, 
of a combined area of opening satisfactory to the building 
commissioner, and not less than one tenth of the area of 
the proscenium opening. Every such ventilator shall 
have a valve or louvre so counterbalanced as to open 
automatically, and shall be kept closed, when not in use, 
by a fusible hnk and cord reaching to the prompter's 
desk, or any other place easily reached from the stage 
level and readily operated therefrom. Such cord shall be 
of combustible material, and so arranged that if it is 
severed the ventilator will open automatically. 

[1909, c. 336, sect. 1.] 

There shall be at least two two-inch high-service 
standpipes on the stage of every theatre, with ample 
provision of hose nozzles at each level of the stage on each 
side, and the water shall be kept turned on during the 
occupation of the building by an audience. The said 
pipes shall in no case bo sealed and shall have a gate and 
check valve and shall have a test valve placed between 
the gate valve and check valve. The proscenium open- 
ing of every theatre shall be provided with a two and 
one half inch perforated iron pipe or equivalent equip- 
ment of automatic or open sprinklers, as the commis- 
sioner may direct, so constructed as to form when in 
operation a complete water curtain for the whole pro- 
scenium opening, and there shall be for the rest of the 



90 City of Boston Building Law., 

stage a complete system of fire apparatus and perforated 
iron pipes, automatic or open sprinklers. Such pipes or 
sprinklers shall be supplied with water by high pressure 
service, and shall be ready for use at all times. 

11909, c. 336, sect. 1.] 

Plumbing. 

Definition of Terms. 

Sect. 112. The following terms shall have the mean- 
ings respectively assigned to them : — 

"Repair of leaks" shall mean such repairs as are 
necessary to protect property, but do not involve any 
extensive change in construction. 

''Y-branches" shall mean a branch at sufficient angle 
to direct the flow and prevent backing up. 

"Air pipes" or "back air pipes" shall mean air pipes 
from traps that extend toward the main soil pipe or the 
outer air and connect with not more than three traps. 

"Vent pipes" shall mean general lines of back air 
pipes connecting with more than three fixtures. 

"Drain" shall mean that part of the drainage system 
of a building extending through basement or cellar to 
sewer. 

"Soil pipe" shall mean that part of the drainage sys- 
tem of a building, of four inches or more internal diameter, 
between basement or cellar and the highest fixture in 
the building. 

"Ventilation pipe" shall mean the extension of the soil 
pipe from the highest fixture to and through the roof. 

"Surface drain" shall mean a connection with drain 
in the basement to allow egress of surface water or overflow. 

"Fixture" shall mean any receptacle or outlet placed 
for the purpose of disposing of waste water or other matter, 
and connecting with the waste, soil or drain pipe of a 
building. 



City op Boston Building Law. 91 

Registration. 

Sect. 113. No plumber shall engage in or work at the 
business of plumbing unless he shall first have registered 
his name and place of business in the office of the commis- 
sioner, and no person shall by display of sign or plumbing 
material, or otherwise, advertise as a plumber unless he 
shall have been registered or licensed as such. Every 
master plumber shall conspicuously display his certificate 
or hcense within his place of business. Notice of any 
change in the place of business of a registered or licensed 
master plumber shall immediately be given by him to 
the commissioner. 

Notices. 

Sect. 114. Every plumber, before doing any work in a 
building, shall, except in the case of repair of leaks, file in 
the office of the commissioner a plan or sketch of the work 
to be performed; and no such work shall be done in any 
building without a written permit from the commissioner. 

Connection with Sewer or Drain. 
Sect. 115. The plumbing of every building shall be 
separately and independently connected outside the 
building with the public sewer, if such sewer is provided, 
or with a proper and sufficient private drain or sewer laid 
outside of the building, and if a sewer is not accessible* 
with a proper cesspool. Several buUdings may have a 
common sewer connection if such connection is approved 
by the commissioner and the superintendent of sewers. 

Inspection and Tests. 
Sect. 116. Pipes or other fixtures shall not be covered 
or concealed from view until approved by the commis- 
sioner, who shall examine or test the same within two 
working days after notice that they are ready for inspec- 
tion. Plumbing shall not be used unless, when roughed 
in, the wastes, vents and back air pipes and traps are first 



92 City of Boston Building Law. 

tested by water or sufficient air pressure in the presence 
of an inspector, when such testing is practicable. 

Soil and Waste Pipes and Traps. 

Sect. 117. The waste pipe of every independent sink 
basin, bath-tub, water closet, slop-hopper, urinal or other 
fixture shall be furnished with a separate trap which shall 
be placed as near as practicable to the fixture which 
it serves. A sink and set of three wash-trays may be 
connected to the house drain through one five inch round 
trap, when the outlet of the sink is not over three feet 
six inches from the nearest outlet from the wash-trays; 
and in such case the trap shall be above the floor. The 
outlet from each fixture shall enter the trap separately. 
Not more than four wash-bowls or sinks in a continuous 
line may be connected to the house drain through one 
five inch round trap. Two or more fixtures on the same 
level with not more than two feet of waste pipe and con- 
necting into the soil or waste pipe not more than eighteen 
inches below the top water line of the trap, shall not 
require other vent than the continuation of the soil or 
waste pipe full size for its whole length. Lateral branches 
of soil or waste pipe, if more than twenty feet in length, 
shall be extended through the roof undiminished in size. 
All connections on lead waste and back air pipes and of 
lead pipes to brass ferrules and soldering nipples shall be 
full size wiped soldered branch, round or flange joints. 
Soil and waste pipes shall have proper T-Y or Y branches 
for all fixture connections. No connection to lead bends 
for water-closets or slop sinks shall be permitted, except 
the required back air pipe where a continuous vent is not 
practicable. 

Earthenware traps shall have heavy brass floor plates 
soldered to the lead bends and bolted to the trap flange, 
and the joint made gas tight with red or white lead. 
Rubber washers for floor connections shall not be used. 



City of Boston Building Law. 93 

Back Air Pipes, Vents, Etc. 
Traps shall be protected from siphonage or air pressure 
by special iron or brass air pipes of a size not less than the 
waste pipes they serve; back air pipes shall not be con- 
nected to the trap or branched into the waste pipe, except 
where a continuous vent is not practicable, but a suitable 
non-siphon trap may be used without a back air pipe 
upon the approval of the commissioner. Back air pipes 
shall enter the waste pipe within eighteen inches from 
the trap and shall be a continuation of the waste pipe. 
Lead air pipes may be used only for short connections 
where they are exposed to view. Air pipes for water- 
closet traps shall be connected to the highest point of 
bend or trap, and may be of two inch bore if for not more 
than three fixtures and less than thirty feet in length; if 
for more than three fixtures or more than thirty feet in 
length they shall be of three inch bore. Air pipes shall 
be run as direct as practicable and if one and one half 
inches or less in diameter shall not exceed thirty feet in 
length. Two or more air pipes may be connected to- 
gether or with a vent pipe; but in every such case the 
connection shall be above the top of the fixture. The 
trap for the upper fixture on a line of soil or waste pipe, 
within five feet of the stack in a horizontal line, shall not 
require a special air pipe, unless the outlet is branched 
into a stack more than eighteen inches below the top 
water fine of the trap. Diameters of vent pipes shall be 
not less than two inches for main vents through less than 
seven stories; three inches for water-closets on more than 
three floors, and for other fixtures in more than seven 
stories. All vent pipes shall be increased one inch in 
diameter before passing through the roof. Vent lines 
shall be connected at the bottom with a soil or waste 
pipe or with the drain, in such a manner as to prevent 
accumulation of rust scale and properly to drip the water 
of condensation. Offsets shall be made at an angle of not 



94 City of Boston Building Law. 

less than forty-five degrees. Soil pipes or iron waste 
pipes, vents and back air pipes, shall be supported by 
clamps to the woodwork, iron drive hooks to brick walls, 
or bolted clamps to iron girders. 

All traps, except for water-closets, not provided with 
special air pipes shall be suitable non-siphon traps and 
shall have at least a four inch water seal. Round traps 
shall be not less than four inches in diameter and eight 
inches long, and made of eight-pound lead. All trap 
screws shall be water sealed. 

Chemical Laboratories. 

Fixtures and waste pipes in chemical laboratories shall 
be installed in accordance with plans approved by the 
commissioner. 

Stables. 

The drainage of stable fixtures shall be constructed 
according to plans approved by the commissioner. 

Sect. 118. In buildings where a spries of bathrooms 
or kitchens are located directly over each other and have 
a common soil or waste pipe, the back air pipe required 
shall be a vent line connecting with each outlet branch 
close to the water-closet connection or outlet from the 
sink trap, each branch vent to connect to vent line above 
the top of the highest fixture on each floor, the vent line 
to connect to main vent line above the top of the highest 
fixture in the building. 

In the case of batteries of water-closets or other fixtures 
the special air pipe from each trap may be omitted, pro- 
vided that the soil or waste pipe, undiminished in size, is 
continued to a point above the roof or revented into the 
main soil pipe system above the top of the uppermost 
fixture. 

The commissioner shall prepare explanatory sketches 
showing the method of construction described in this 
section. 



City of Boston Building Law. 95 

Refrigerator Wastes and Drip Pipes. 
Sect. 119. All drip or overflow pipes shall be extended 
to some place in open sight, and in no case shall any such 
pipe be connected directly with the drain pipe. No waste 
pipe from a refrigerator or other receptacle in which 
provisions are stored shall be connected directly with 
a drain or other waste pipe. The waste pipes from all 
other fixtm-es shall be connected directly with a drain pipe. 
Refrigerator wastes connecting with two or more stories 
shall be supphed with a trap on the branch for each floor 
and extended through the roof. 

Water-Closets, Etc. 

Sect. 120. Every water-closet or line of water-closets 
shall be supplied with water from a tank or cistern, and 
shall have a flushing pipe of not less than one and one 
quarter inches in diameter. Privy vaults shall be of brick 
and cement of a capacity of not less than fifty cubic feet, 
of easy access, convenient to open, and clean, and water 
tight. The inside shall be not less than two feet from the 
next lot and from any pubHc or private way. 

Sect. 121. The diameters of soil and waste pipes shall 
be not less than those given in the following table: — 

Inches. 

Soil pipes, 4 

Main waste pipes, 2 

Main^ waste pipes for kitchen sinks on five or more 

floors, 3 

Branch waste pipes for laundry tubs, . . . . li 

Branch waste for kitchen sinks 1| 

Branch waste for urinals, 1| 

No branch waste for other fixtures shall be less than, Ij 

Except that, with the approval of the commissioner, a 
three inch soil pipe may be used for one water-closet where 
it is not practicable to use a four inch pipe. 



96 City of Boston Building Law. 

Ferrules, Clean-outs, Etc. 

Brass ferrules shall be of the best quality, bell-shaped, 
extra heavy cast brass, not less than four inches long and 
two and one quarter inches, three and one half inches, and 
four and one half inches in diameter, and of not less than 
the following weights: — • 

Diameters. Weights. 

2| inches, 1 pound ounces. 

3| inches, . . . . . .1 pound 12 ounces. 

4| inches, 2 pounds 8 ounces. 

One and one haK inch ferrules shall not be used. 

Soldering nipples shall be of heavy cast brass or of brass 
pipe, iron pipe size. If cast, they shall be of not less than 
the following weights: 

1| inches, pounds 8 ounces. 

2 inches, pounds 14 ounces. 

2 1 inches, 1 pound 6 ounces. 

3 inches, 2 pounds ounces. 

4 inches, 3 pounds 8 ounces. 

Where clean-outs are used, the screw cap shall be of 
brass, extra heavy, and not less than one eighth of an inch 
thick. The engaging parts shall have not less than six 
threads of iron pipe size, and shall be tapered. Clean-outs 
shall be full size of trap up to four inches in diametel", and 
not less than four inches for larger traps. 

The screw caps shall have a solid square or hexagonal 
nut, not less than one half inch high, with a least diameter 
of one and one half inches. The bodies of brass clean-out 
ferrules shall be at least equal in weight and thickness to 
the calking ferrule for the same size of pipe. 

The use of lead pipes is restricted to short branches of 



City of Boston Building Law. 



97 



the soil and waste pipes, bends and traps, and roof con- 
nections of inside leaders. ''Short branches" of lead pipe 
shall mean not more than: — 

5 feet of IJ inch pipe. 
5 feet of 1 1 inch pipe. 
4 feet of 2 inch pipe. 
2 feet of 3 inch pipe. 
2 feet of 4 inch pipe. 



The pipe shall be 
thickness and weight 



not less than the following average 
per linear foot: 



Diameters. 


Thicknesses. 


Weights per 
Linear Foot. 


11 inches 


— — 


2.50 pomids. 


1-| inches 


.14 inch 


2.68 pounds. 


2 inches 


.15 inch 


3.61 pounds. 


2| inches 


.20 inch 


5.74 pounds. 


3 inches 


.21 inch 


7.54 pounds. 


3| inches 


.22 inch 


9.00 pounds. 


4 inches 


.23 inch 


10.66 pounds. 


4^ inches 


.24 inch 


12.34 pounds. 


5 inches 


.25 inch 


14.50 pounds. 


6 inches 


.28 inch 


18.76 pounds. 


7 inches 


.30 inch 


23.27 pounds. 


8 inches 


.32 inch 


28.18 pounds. 


9 inches 


.34 inch 


33.70 pounds. 


10 inches 


.36 inch 


40.06 pounds. 


11 inches 


.37 inch 


45.02 pounds. 


12 inches 


.37 inch 


48.98 pounds. 



Brass pipe for soil, waste, vent and back air pipes shall 
be thoroughly annealed, seamless, drawn brass tubing, of 
not less than number thirteen Stubbs gauge. 

No slip joint or unions shall be used on traps, waste, 
vents or back air pipes. Threaded connections on brass 
traps shall be of the same size as pipe threads for the same 



98 



City of Boston Building Law. 



Diameters. 

1| inches 

2 inches 
2 1 inches 

3 inches 
3 1 inches 

4 inches 
4| inches 

5 inches 

6 inches 



size of pipe, and shall be tapered. Connections between 
lead and iron shall be made by brass sleeves or screw 
nipples wiped to the lead and calked or screwed into the 
iron. 

The following average thicknesses and weights per 
linear foot shall be used : — 

Thicknesses Weights per 

imcKnesses. Linear Foot. 

.14 inch 2.84 pounds. 

.15 inch 3.82 pounds. 

.20 inch 6.08 pounds. 

.21 inch 7.92 pounds. 

.22 inch 9.54 pounds. 

.23 inch 11.29 pounds. 

.24 inch 13.08 pounds. 

.25 inch 15.37 pounds. 

.28 inch 19.88 pounds. 



Cast Iron Pipes, Etc. 

Cast iron pipes shall be uncoated, sound, cylindrical 
and smooth, free from cracks and other defects, of uniform 
thickness and of the grade known to commerce as ''extra 
heavy." If buried under ground they shall be coated 
with asphaltum or red lead. 

Pipe, including the hub, shall weigh not less than the 
following average weights per linear foot: — 



Diameters. 


Weights 

per Linear 

Foot. 


Diameters. 


Weights 

per Linear 

Foot. 


2 inches 

3 inches 


5| pounds. 

91 pounds. 
13 pounds. 
17 pounds. 
20 pounds. 


7 inches (not stock size), 

8 inches 


27 pounds. 
33 1 pounds. 




10 inches 


45 pounds. 




12 inches 


54 pounds. 


6 inches 







All joints shall be made with picked oakum and molten 
lead run full, and be made gas tight. No cement joints 



City of Boston Building Law. 



99 



nor connections between iron and cement or tile pipe or 
brick drains shall be made within any building. 



Wrought Iron Pipe. 

Galvanized wrought iron pipe shall 
the following thickness and weight per 



Diameters. 

1| inches 

2 inches 
2| inches 

3 inches 
3^ inches 

4 inches 
4| inches 

5 inches 

6 inches 

7 inches 

8 inches 

9 inches 

10 inches 

11 inches 

12 inches 



Thicknesses. 

.14 inch 
.15 inch 
.20 inch 
.21 inch 
.22 inch 
.23 inch 
.24 inch 
.25 inch 
.28 inch 
.30 inch 
.32 inch 
.34 inch 
.36 inch 
.37 mch 
.37 mch 



be of not less than 
linear foot : — 

Weights per 
Linear Foot. 

2.68 pounds. 

3.61 pounds. 

5.74 pounds. 

7.54 pounds. 

9.00 pounds. 
10.66 pounds. 
12.34 pounds. 
14.50 pounds. 
18.76 pounds. 
23.27 pounds. 
28.18 pounds. 
33.70 pounds. 
40.06 pounds. 
45.02 pounds. 
48.98 pounds. 



The threaded part of the pipe if less than one and one 
half inches long, shall be of the thickness and weight 
known as "extra heavy" or "extra strong." 

Fittings on wrought iron vent or back air pipes shall be 
galvanized, recessed, cast iron threaded fittings. Fittings 
for "Plumber's tubing" shall be heavy weight, with 
sharp threads. 

Fittings for waste or soil or refrigerator waste pipes of 
wrought iron or brass pipe shall be galvanized, cast iron, 
or brass, recessed and threaded drainage fittings, with 
smooth interior waterway and threads tapped, so as to 
give a uniform grade to branches of not less than one 
quarter of an inch per foot. 



100 City of Boston Building Law. 

All joints on wrought iron or brass pipe shall be screwed 
joints made up with red lead, and any burr formed in 
cutting shall carefully be reamed out. 

Drain Pipes, Etc. 

Sect. 122, Drain and connecting ventilation pipes, 
vents and back air pipes shall be of sufficient size, and 
made of extra heavy cast iron pipe if under ground, and 
if above ground shall be made of extra heavy cast iron, 
galvanized wrought iron of standard weight, or of not 
less than number thirteen Stubbs gauge brass pipe within 
the building, except that lead pipes may be used for short 
connections exposed to view. Cast iron drains shall 
extend not less than ten feet from the inside face of the 
wall, beyond and away from the building. 

Drain pipes above ground shall be secured by irons to 
walls, suspended from floor timbers by strong iron hangers, 
or supported on brick piers. Proper man-holes shall be 
supplied to reach clean-outs and traps. Every drain 
pipe shall have a fall of not less than one quarter inch per 
foot, and shall be extended from a point ten feet outside 
the inside face of the wall, unobstructed, to and through 
the roof, undiminished in size, and to a height not less 
than two feet above the roof, and not less than one foot 
above the top of any window within fifteen feet, and not 
less than eight feet above the roof if the roof is used for 
drying clothes or as a roof garden. The drain pipe shall 
be supplied with a Y branch fitted with a brass clean-out 
or with an iron stopper, if required, on the direct run, at 
or near the point where the drain leaves the building. 
Changes in direction shall be made with curved pipes, 
and all connections with horizontal or vertical pipes shall 
be made with Y branches. Saddle hubs shall not be used. 
All drain pipes shall be exposed to sight within the build- 
ing, if such exposiu-e is practicable, and shall not be 
exposed to pressure where they pass through the wall. 



City of Boston Building Law. 101 

Steam ExhausU, Etc. 

No steam, or vapor, or water of a temperature over 
one hundred and thirty degrees Fahrenheit shall be dis- 
charged from any premises into any sewer, drain or catch- 
basin, nor shall any matter or thing be discharged into 
any sewer which may tend to cause an obstruction of the 
public sewer or a nuisance or a deposit therein or any 
injury thereto. 

All high pressure steam boilers shall be connected with 
a blow-off tank of a capacity not less than thirty per 
cent of the largest boiler connected with such tank. The 
location of and the connections to said blow-off tank 
shall be subject to the approval of the superintendent of 
sewers. 

No steam exhaust or steam drip, unless it be provided 
with a cooling tank of a capacity approved by the super- 
intendent of sewers, or unless it be connected with the 
blow-off tank, shall connect with any drain leading to 
the sewer. Every blow-off tank shall be supplied with 
a vapor pipe not less than two inches in diameter, which 
shall be carried above the roof and above the highest 
windows of the building. 

The superintendent of sewers may require such addi- 
tional means for cooling the blow-off tanks by the injec- 
tion of cold water or otherwise as may be necessary to 
reduce the temperature of the water passing from the 
blow-off tank so that it shall not exceed one hundred and 
thirty degrees Fahrenheit. 

Special Traps, Etc. 
Sect. 123. Every building from which, in the opinion 
of the superintendent of sewers, grease may be discharged 
in such quantity as to clog or injure the sewer, shall have 
a special grease trap satisfactory to the superintendent 
of sewers. Every building in which gasoline, naphtha or 
other inflammable compounds are used for business pur- 



102 City of Boston Building Law. 

poses shall be provided with a special trap, satisfactory 
to the superintendent of sewers, so designed as to prevent 
the passage of such material into the sewer, and ventilated 
with a separate pipe rising to a point four feet above the 
roof. All non-siphon traps shall be of a type approved 
by the commissioner. The waste pipe of every wash 
stand for vehicles shall be provided with a sand box of 
sufficient capacity. 

The waste pipe from the sink of every hotel, eating 
house, restaurant or other public cooking establishment, 
shall be connected to a grease trap of sufficient size, 
easily accessible to open and clean, placed as near as 
practicable to the fixtures that it serves. 

Rooj Leaders and Surface Drains. 

Sect. 124. Rain water leaders when connected with 
house drains shall be suitably trapped and, within the 
proposed surface drainage area, shall not be connected at 
the top of the stack, nor extended down through the 
interior of the building, except by special permit from the 
commissioner. Wherever a surface drain is installed in 
a cellar or basement, it shall be provided with a deep seal 
trap and back water valve. Drain pipes from fixtures in 
cellars and basements liable to back flow from a sewer 
shall be supplied with back water valves. 

Hazardous Buildings and Appliances for Power and 

Heat. 

Sect. 125. No building shall be used for a grain elevator 
or for the storage or manufacture of high combustibles or 
explosives, or for chemical or rendering works, without a 
permit from the commissioner, and no engine, dynamo, 
boiler or furnace shall be placed in any building without 
a permit from the commissioner. Every application for 
such permit shall be in writing, shall be filed with the 



City of Boston Building Law. 103 

commissioner, and shall set forth the character of the 
building, the size, power and purposes of the apparatus, 
and such other information as the commissioner may 
require. The commissioner may, after an examination 
of the premises described in the application, and after 
hearing the applicant and any objectors, issue a permit 
for placing a boiler or furnace on such premises, upon such 
conditions as he shall prescribe, or he may refuse such per- 
mit. If the apphcation is for anything other than a boiler 
or furnace the appHcant shall publish in at least two daily 
newspapers pubhshed in the city of Boston, and on at least 
three days in each, and, if so directed by the commissioner, 
shall also post conspicuously on the premises, a copy of 
the application, and shall deliver copies thereof to such 
persons as the commissioner may designate. 

If no objection is filed with the commissioner before the 
expiration of ten days after the time of the first publication 
of notice, or within ten days of the delivery and first post- 
ing of the notice, if such delivery or posting is required, 
the commissioner shall, if the arrangement, location, and 
construction of the proposed apparatus is proper, and in 
accordance with the provisions of this act, issue a permit 
for the same. If objection is filed, the application shall 
be referred to the board of appeal, which may, in its dis- 
cretion, require the deposit by the objector of a reasonable 
sum as security for the payment of the costs. 

After such notice as the board shall order it shall hear 
the same, and shall direct the commissioner to issue a 
permit, under such conditions as it may prescribe, or to 
withhold the same. If the permit is refused, the applicant, 
and if it is granted, the objectors shall pay such costs as 
the board may order. 

The commissioner may, from time to time, after public 
notice and hearing, prescribe conditions on which any or 
all boilers or furnaces may be maintained in buildings, and, 
if any person interested objects to such conditions and 



104 City of Boston Building Law. 

appeals from his decision establishing the same, the appeal 
shall be referred to the board of appeal, and thereupon 
said board shall prescribe the conditions. 

Combustible Materials. 
Sect. 126, No building adapted for habitation, nor 
any part thereof, nor the lot upon which it is located, shall 
be used as a place for the storage, keeping or handling of 
any combustible article, except under such conditions as 
may be prescribed by the fire commissioner. No such 
building nor any part thereof, nor of the lot upon which it 
is located, shall be used as a place for the storage, keeping 
or handling of any article dangerous or detrimental to life 
or health, nor for the storage, keeping or handling of 
feed, hay, straw, excelsior, cotton, paper stock, feathers 
or rags. 

[Superseded by 1914, c. 795, sects. 6, 7.J 

Enforcement of Act. 
Sect. 127. Every structure and part thereof and 
appurtenant thereto shall be maintained in such repair as 
not to be dangerous. The owner shall be responsible for 
the maintenance of all buildings and structures. The 
lessee under a recorded lease shall be deemed the owner 
under the provisions of this act. 

Powers of the Board of Health. 

Sect. 128. The board of health may by vote limit the 
number of occupants who shall be permitted to dwell in 
any building or in any part or parts thereof. They shall 
cause a copy of any such vote to be served upon the owner 
of the building, his agent, tenant or other persons having 
the charge thereof. If the owner, agent, tenant, or other 
persons having charge of said building allow or permit 
more people than are permitted by said vote to occupy 



City of Boston Building Law. 105 

the building or any part or parts thereof, said board may 
order the premises to be vacated, and they shall not again 
be occupied without the permission of the board, and the 
owner, agent, tenant or other persons having charge of 
said building shall forfeit not more than twenty dollars 
for every day during which he violates such order. The 
board may make such further regulations as to over- 
crowding, ventilation, the construction of water-closets, 
the lighting of hallways, and the occupation of buildings 
or parts thereof, not inconsistent with other laws, as they 
may deem proper. Said board may permit rooms in 
private stables to be occupied for sleeping purposes by 
grooms and coachmen. 

No person shall place ashes, rubbish, garbage, refuse or 
other matter in the yards, open areas or alleys connected 
with or appurtenant to any such building except in suitable 
receptacles provided for the same. 

Every building used for habitation by more than two 
families and every lodging house shall be carefully in- 
spected at least twice a year under the direction of the 
board of health, and whenever said board has made an 
order concerning such a building a reinspection shall be 
made within ten days after the board has been informed 
that the order has been complied with. 

[1913, c. 586, sect. 1.] 

Enforcement — Jurisdiction in Equity. 

Sect. 129. Any court having jurisdiction in equity or 
any justice thereof shall, upon the application of the city 
by its attorney, have jurisdiction in equity: — 

To restrain the construction, alteration, repair, main- 
tenance, use or occupation of a building, structure or other 
thing constructed or used in violation of the provisions of 
this act, and to order its removal or abatement as a 
nuisance : 



106 City of Boston Building Law. 

To restrain the further construction, alteration, repair, 
maintenance, use or occupation of a building, structure or 
other thing, which is unsafe or dangerous; 

To restrain the unlawful construction, alteration, repair, 
maintenance, use or occupation of any building, structure 
or other thing; 

To compel compliance with the provisions of this act; 

To order the removal by the owner of a building, struc- 
ture or other thing unlawfully existing, and to authorize 
the commissioner, with the written approval of the mayor, 
in default of such removal by the owner, to remove it at 
the owner's expense. 

Any person, the value of whose property may be 
affected by any decision of the board of appeal, may have 
the action of said board reviewed by the court by any 
appropriate process, provided that proceedings are 
instituted within thirty days after the date of such 
decision. 

The person applying for the review shall file a bond 
with sufficient surety, to be approved by the court, for 
such sum as shall be fixed by the court, to indemnify and 
save harmless the person or persons in whose favor the 
decision was rendered from all damages and costs which 
they may sustain in case the decision of said board is 
afl&rmed. 

In case the decision of the board is affirmed the court, 
on motion, shall assess damages, and execution shall 
issue therefor. 

Any person having any duty to perform under the 
provisions of this act may, so far as may be necessary for 
the performance of his duties, enter any building or 
premises in the city of Boston. 

Jurisdiction at Law. 
Sect. 130. The municipal court of the city of Boston, 
concurrently with the superior court, shall have jurisdic- 



City of Boston Building Law. 107 

tion throughout the city of prosecutions and proceedings 
at law under the provisions of this act, and also of all 
provisions of law relative to plumbing and gas-fitting. 

Procedure. 

Sect. 131. Upon the entry of any case brought under 
the provisions of this act the court shall, at the request 
of either party, advance the case, so that it may be heard 
and determined with as little delay as possible. 

Nuisance. 

Sect. 132. A building or structure which is erected or 
maintained in violation of the provisions of this act shall 
be deemed a common nuisance without other proof thereof 
than proof of its unlawful construction, and the commis- 
sioner may abate and remove it in the same manner in 
which boards of health may remove nuisances under the 
provisions of sections sixty-seven, sixty-eight and sixty- 
nine of chapter seventy-five of the Revised Laws. 

Whoever violates any provision of this act, or whoever 
builds, alters, or maintains any structure or any part 
thereof in violation of any provision of this act, shall be 
punished by a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars, 
except as hereinbefore provided. 

[1913, c. 586, sect. 2.] 

Repeals. 
Sect. 133. So much of chapter four hundred and nine- 
teen of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety- 
two and of all acts in amendment thereof as is unrepealed 
is hereby repealed. So much of any other act as is incon- 
sistent herewith is hereby repealed. 

Sect. 134. This act shall take effect upon the first day 
of August in the year nineteen hundred and seven. 

[Approved June 22, 1907. 



108 City of Boston Building Law. 



CHAPTER 4, ACTS OF 1873. 

An Act to Authorize the Erection of Wooden Build- 
ings IN the City of Boston for Sanitary Purposes. 

Be it enacted, etc.: 

Section 1. The City of Boston is hereby authorized 
to erect, under directions of its board of health and 
inspector of buildings, any wooden buildings within the 
city, for hospital purposes, the same to remain only so 
long as said board deems it necessary: provided, that every 
such hospital shall be constantly guarded outside by a 
competent force of at least three of the police of said city. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[January 28, 1873. 



CHAPTER 129, ACTS OF 1889. 

An Act Relating to Buildings in the Public Parks 
OF THE City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The park commissioners of the city of 
Boston may erect in the parks of said city that now are 
or hereafter may be under their control, except the 
common, public garden and pubhc squares, structures 
for the shelter and refreshment of persons frequenting 
such parks, aud for other park purposes, of such materials 
and in such places as in the opinion of the fire commis- 
sioners of said city do not endanger buildings beyond the 
limits of the park. Section sixteen of chapter fifty-four 
of the Public Statutes and chapter three hundred and 
seventy-four of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and 
eighty-five shall not apply to such buildings. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved March 18, 1889. 



City of Boston Building Law. 109 

CHAPTER 323, ACTS OF 1891. 

An Act Relating to the Location, Laying Out, and 
Construction of Highways in the City of Boston. 
As Amended by Section 4, Chapter 418, Acts of 
1892. 
Section 9. If any building shall hereafter be placed or 
erected in said city at a grade other than the grade there- 
for, recorded in the ofl&ce of the city surveyor, and which 
the city surveyor shall furnish on the request of the owner 
of the land on which the building is to be placed, or if any 
building shall be placed or erected within the boundaries 
of any way shown on any of the plans hereinbefore pro- 
vided for, after the filing of the plan as aforesaid, and not 
removed at the expense of the owner when required by 
said board of street commissioners, no damage occasioned 
to the estate, of which the land on which the building 
was so placed formed a part at the date of the first adver- 
tisement of the first notice given by said board, relating to 
the plan on which any part of said estate is shown, or to 
any part of said estate, by any subsequent estabhshment 
of any grade of any highway or by any subsequent change 
of any grade of any highway, shall be recovered by, or be 
paid to, the owner of the whole or of any part of such 
estate. 

Sect. 11. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved June 16, 1892. 



CHAPTER 352, ACTS OF 1895. 

An Act Relative to Advertising Signs and Struct- 
ures Encroaching on Public Ways in the City 
OF Boston, 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

No person shall place or maintain any sign or adver- 
tising device upon any post in any public way in the 



110 City of Boston Building Law. 

city of Boston other than by painting; nor place or main- 
tain upon any building or other structure any sign pro- 
jecting into any such way more than one foot, nor any 
other thing projecting into any such way more than four 
feet, nor any sign or other projection the lowest part of 
which is less than ten feet above the sidewalk thereof, 
except that any awning, lamp, illuminated sign, and the 
fixtures thereof, the lowest part of which is not less than 
seven feet six inches above the surface of the sidewalk, 
may, until the right to maintain the same is revoked, be 
maintained as it is at present, or, if hereafter placed, be 
maintained as specified in any permit issued therefor 
by the officer appointed to have charge of the repairs of 
such ways; and any person violating any of the preced- 
ing provisions for more than five days after he is notified 
by said officer that he is so doing shall be punished by a 
fine of two dollars for each day that such violation con- 
tinues after said notice. [Approved May 2, 1895. 



CHAPTER 463, ACTS OF 1897. 

An Act Relative to Filing in the Registry of Deeds 
Notice of the Pendency of Certain Actions. 
Section 13 of chapter 126 of the public statutes is hereby 
amended by inserting after the word "estate", in the second 
line, the words; — or the use and occupation thereof or the 
buildings thereon, — so as to read as follows; — Section 13. 
No writ of entry, petition for partition, or other proceeding, 
either at law or in equity, affecting the title to real estate, 
or the use and occupation thereof or the buildings thereon, 
shall have any effect as against persons other than the 
parties thereto, their heirs and devisees, and persons hav- 
ing actual notice thereof, until a memorandum containing 
the names of the parties to such proceeding, the court in 
which it is pending, the date of the writ or other commence- 



City of Boston Building Law. Ill 

ment thereof, the name of the city or town in which the 
real estate Hable to be affected thereby is situated, and a 
description of such real estate sufficiently accurate for 
identification, is recorded in the registry of deeds for the 
county or district in which such real estate is situated; 
but this section shall not apply to attachments, levies of 
execution, or proceedings in the probate courts, nor to 
any case which is pending on the fifteenth day of June in 
the year eighteen hundred and seventy-seven. 

[Approved June 4, 1897. 



CHAPTER 452, ACTS OF 1898. 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings on and 
NEAR Copley Square, in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Any building now being built, or hereafter 
to be built, rebuilt or altered in the city of Boston, upon 
any land abutting on St. James avenue, between Clarendon 
street and Dartmouth street, or upon land at the corner 
of Dartmouth street and Huntington avenue, now occu- 
pied by the Pierce building, so called, or upon land abutting 
on Dartmouth street, now occupied by the Boston Public 
Library building, or upon land at the corner of Dart- 
mouth street and Boylston street, now occupied by the 
new Old South Church building, may be completed, built, 
rebuilt or altered to the height of ninety feet, and no 
more; and upon any land or lands abutting on Boylston 
street, between Dartmouth street and Clarendon street, 
may be completed, built, rebuilt or altered to the height 
of one hundred feet, and no more; provided, however, that 
there may be erected on any such building, above the 
limits hereinbefore prescribed, such steeples, towers, 
domes, sculptured ornaments and chimneys as the board 
of park commissioners of said city may approve. 



112 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 2, The provisions of chapter three hundred and 
thirteen of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and 
ninety-six, and of chapter three hundred and seventy-nine 
of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-seven, 
so far as they Hmit the height of buildings, shall not be 
construed to apply to the territory specified and restricted 
in section one of this act. 

Sect. 3. The owner of or any person having an interest 
in any building upon any land described in section one of 
this act, the construction whereof was begun but not 
completed before the fourteenth day of January in the 
current year, who suffers damage under the provisions of 
this act by reason or in consequence of having planned 
and begun such construction, or made contracts therefor, 
for a height exceeding that limited by section one of this 
act for the locality where said construction has been 
begun, may recover damages from the city of Boston for 
material bought or actually contracted for, and the use 
of which is prevented by the provisions of this act, for 
the excess of cost of material bought or actually contracted 
for over that which would be necessary for such building 
if not exceeding in height the limit prescribed for that 
locality by section one of this act, less the value of such 
materials as are not required on account of the Imitations, 
resulting from the provisions of this act, and the actual 
cost or expense of any re-arrangement of the design or 
construction of such building made necessary by this 
act, by proceedings begun within two years of the passage 
of this act, and in the manner prescribed by law for obtain- 
ing payment for damages sustained by any person whose 
land is taken in the laying out of a highway in said city. 

Sect. 4. Any person sustaining damage or loss in his 
property by reason of the limit of the height of buildings 
provided for in this act, may recover such damage or loss 
from the city of Boston, by proceedings begun within 
three years of the passage of this act, and in the manner 



City of Boston Building Law. 113 

prescribed by law for obtaining payment for damages 
sustained by any person whose land is taken in the laying 
out of a highway in said city. 

Sect. 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 23, 1898. 



CHAPTER 457, ACTS OF 1899. 

An Act to Limit the Height of Buildings in the 
Vicinity of the State House. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Any building now being built or hereafter 
to be built, rebuilt or altered in that part of the city of 
Boston which Hes within the following described territory, 
to wit : — Beginning at the corner of Beacon street and 
Hancock avenue, thence continuing westerly on Beacon 
street to Joy street, thence continuing northerly on Joy 
street to Myrtle street, thence continuing easterly on 
Myrtle street to Hancock street, thence continuing 
southerly on Hancock street and Hancock avenue to the 
point of beginning, — may be completed, built, rebuilt or 
altered to the height of seventy feet measured on its 
principal front and no higher : provided, however, that there 
may be erected on any such building above the limits 
hereinbefore described, such chimneys and ornamental 
features as the commissioner of buildings of the city of 
Boston may approve, but said ornamental features shall 
not be such as to increase the interior capacity of said 
buildings. 

Sect, 2. If and in so far as this act, or proceedings to 
enforce it, may deprive any person of rights existing under 
the Constitution, any such person now owning land within 
the district above described, sustaining damages in his 
property by reason of the limitations of the height pro- 
vided for in this act of any building on or to be placed on 
such land may recover from the Commonwealth such 



114 City of Boston Building Law. 

damages, as determined by a jury of the superior court 
for the county of Suffolk, on his petition therefor filed in 
the office of the clerk of said court within one year after 
the passage of this act, such determination and payment 
of the damages to be made under the same rules of law, 
so far as applicable, as govern the determination and 
payment of damages for the taking of lands for highways 
in said city. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved June 2, 1899. 



CHAPTER 543, ACTS OF 1902. 

An Act Relative to the Improvement of the State 
House and to the Height of Buildings on Beacon 
Street and Bowdoin Street in the City of 
Boston. 
Section 1. Any part of any building abutting on or 
within forty-two feet of Bowdoin street between Allston 
street and Beacon street may be completed, built, rebuilt 
or altered to the height of one hundred feet above the 
highest grade of that part of said Bowdoin street on 
which the building abuts as such grade has been changed 
and established by the governor and council and no 
higher, and any part of any building on or within ninety- 
five feet of Beacon street between the Claflin building, 
so-called, and Park street may be completed, built, rebuilt 
or altered to the height of seventy feet above the highest 
grade of said Beacon street and no higher: provided, 
however, that there may be erected on any such building, 
such chimneys, pipes, water tanks, elevator houses and 
ornamental features which shall not increase the interior 
capacity of said building as the governor and council may 
approve. 

Sect. 2. Any person owning land on or within forty- 



City of Boston Building Law. 115 

two feet of Bowdoin street, between Allston street and 
Beacon street, or on or within ninety-five feet of Beacon 
street between the Claflin building, so-called, and Park 
street, whose property is damaged more than it is benefited 
by the improvement of the State House, consisting of the 
limitation of the height of buildings on said land, the 
laying out and grading of said streets, the removal of 
buildings between Hancock street and Bowdoin street, 
the reconstruction and extension of the State House and 
the construction of the park between Bowdoin street and 
the State House, may, within two years after the passage 
of this act, and not afterward, file in the office of the 
clerk of the superior court for the county of Suffolk, his 
petition for a jury to determine such damage, and a jury 
of said court shall thereupon determine the question, 
under the rules of law, so far as they are appHcable, under 
which damages for the laying out of highways under the 
Revised Laws are determined. If the jury find that the 
petitioner is damaged more than he is benefited by said 
improvement they shall determine the amount of the 
difference, and the Commonwealth shall pay the same; 
and if the jury shall not so find, judgment shall be entered 
for the Commonwealth, costs taxed and execution issued 
therefor against the petitioner as in civil cases. The city 
of Boston shall repay to the Commonwealth all damages 
which the state shall be required to pay for the change of 
grade of Bowdoin street made under authority of the 
governor and council, and for all expenses incurred in 
making such change. 

Sect. 3. Section two of chapter three hundred and 
eighty-two of the acts of the year nineteen hundred, as 
amended by section one of chapter five hundred and twenty- 
five of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and one, 
is hereby further amended by striking out all of said 
section two after the word "Commonwealth", in the 
seventeenth fine, so as to read as follows : Section 2. The 



116 City of Boston Building Law. 

governor and council may lay out said land for use as a 
park, with driveways, walks, grass plots, curbing and 
railing; may close Mount Vernon street from Beacon 
street to the state house arch; may construct a new 
approach to the state house from Bowdoin street and from 
Beacon street; may build retaining walls and fences; 
may change the grade of Mount Vernon street from Joy 
street to the state house as they shall deem to be most 
advantageous for an approach to the state house; may 
change the grade of Bowdoin street from Beacon street 
to Ashburton place so that the street will be substantially 
level in that part, and may widen Bowdoin street at any 
part to a width not exceeding fifty feet; may grade and 
construct said streets and relay the sewers, pipes, tubes, 
conduits and wires therein wherever necessary, and may 
provide for the proper storage of coal for the use of the 
Commonwealth . 

Sect. 4. Section three of said chapter five hundred 
and twenty-five is hereby repealed. 

Sect. 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved June 28, 1902. 



CHAPTER 242, ACTS OF 1904. 

An Act to Regulate Public Lodging Houses in 
Certain Cities. 

Section 1. In cities of over fifty thousand inhabitants 
every building not licensed as an inn, in which ten or 
more persons are lodged for a price of twenty-five cents or 
less for each person for a day of twenty-four hours, or for 
any part thereof, shall be deemed a public lodging house 
within the meaning of this act. 

Sect. 2. The officer or board having charge of the 
police in any such city may license persons to keep public 



City of Boston Building Law. 117 

lodging houses therein. No fee shall be charged for such 
license, and it shall expire on the thirtieth day of April 
next after the granting of the same. Every such license 
shall specify the street or other place and the number of 
the building, or give some other particular description 
thereof, where the licensee shall exercise his employment; 
and the license shall not protect a person exercising his 
employment in any other place than that so specified. 

Sect. 3. No such license shall be granted in any such 
city until the inspector of buildings thereof, or the other 
officer or board having authority to administer the laws 
and ordinances in regard to the construction of buildings 
therein, has certified that the building is provided with 
sufficient means of escape in case of fire, and that suitable 
appliances are provided for extinguishing fires and for 
giving alarm to the inmates in case of fire; and such 
officer or board may from time to time require such altera- 
tions to be made or such additional appHances to be 
provided as may in his or their judgment be necessary for 
the protection of life and property in case of fire. 

Sect. 4. No such license shall be granted in any such 
city until the board of health thereof has certified that 
the building is provided with a sufficient number of water 
closets and urinals, and with good and sufficient means of 
ventilation; and the said board may from time to time 
require the licensee thoroughly to cleanse and disinfect all 
parts of said building and the furniture therein, to the 
satisfaction of such board. 

Sect. 5. In every public lodging house a register shall 
be kept in which shall be entered the name and address of 
each lodger, together with the time of his arrival and 
departure, and such register shall at all times be open to 
the inspection of the police. 

Sect. 6. The keeper of every public lodging house shall 
at all times, when so required by any officer of the building 



118 City of Boston Building Law. 

department, of the health department, or of the poHce 
department, give him free access to said house or any part 
thereof. 

Sect. 7. Whoever keeps or holds himself out as keeping 
a public lodging house without being duly licensed as here- 
inbefore provided, and whoever is concerned or financially 
interested in any public lodging house, the keeper of which 
is not so licensed, shall be punished by a fine not exceed- 
ing one hundred dollars; and every keeper of a public 
lodging house who violates any provision of this act 
shall be punished by a fine of one hundred dollars, 
and the licensing board shall immediately revoke his 
license. 

Sect. 8. Chapter four hundred and fourteen of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-four is hereby 
repealed. 

Sect. 9. This act shall take effect on the first day of 
June in the year nineteen hundred and four. 

[Approved April 20, 1904. 



CHAPTER 129, ACTS OF 1911. 

An Act to Regulate Public Lodging Houses in 
Certain Cities. 

Section 1. The provisions of chapter two hundred and 
forty-two of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and 
four, regulating public lodging houses in cities of over fifty 
thousand inhabitants, shall also apply to all buildings in 
said cities maintained for furnishing lodging to transient 
persons, and not licensed as an inn, in which ten or more 
persons are lodged, notwithstanding that no price is 
charged for lodging. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect on the first day of 
June in the year nineteen hundred and eleven, 

[Approved March 11, 1911. 



City of Boston Building Law. 119 



CHAPTER 333, ACTS OF 1904. 

An Act Relative to the Height op Buildings in the 
City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The city of Boston shall be divided into 
districts of two classes, to be designated districts A and B. 
The boundaries of the said districts, established as here- 
inafter provided, shall continue for a period of fifteen years, 
and shall be determined in such manner that those parts 
of the city in which all or the greater part of the buildings 
situate therein are at the time of such determination used 
for business or commercial purposes shall be included in 
the district or districts designated A, and those parts of 
the city in which all or the greater part of the buildings 
situate therein are at the said time used for residential 
purposes or for other purposes not business or commercial 
shall be in the district or districts designated B. 

Sect. 2. Upon the passage of this act the mayor of the 
city shall appoint a commission of three members to be 
called "Commission on Height of Buildings in the City of 
Boston." The commission shall immediately upon its 
appointment give notice and public hearings, and shall 
make an order establishing the boundaries of the districts 
aforesaid, and, within one month after its appointment, 
shall cause the same to be recorded in the registry of deeds 
for the county of Suffolk. The boundaries so estabhshed 
shall continue for a period of fifteen years from the date 
of said recording. Any person who is aggrieved by the 
said order may, within thirty days after the recording 
thereof, appeal to the commission for a revision; and the 
commission may, within six months after its appointment, 
revise such order, and the revision shall be recorded in the 
registry of deeds for the county of Suffolk, and shall date 
back to the original date of recording. The members of 
the commission shall serve until the districts have been 



120 City of Boston Building Law. 

established as aforesaid; and any vacancy in the commis- 
sion caused by resignation, death or inability to act shall 
be filled by the mayor, on written application by the 
remaining members of the commission or of ten inhabitants 
of the city. The members of the commission shall receive 
such compensation as the mayor shall determine. 

Sect. 3. In the city of Boston no building shall be 
erected to a height of more than one hundred and twenty- 
five feet above the grade of the street in any district desig- 
nated A, and no building shall be erected to a height of 
more than eighty feet above the grade of the street in any 
district designated B. These restrictions shall not apply 
to grain or coal elevators or sugar refineries in any district 
designated A, nor to steeples, domes, towers or cupolas 
erected for strictly ornamental purposes, of fireproof 
material, on buildings of the above height or less in any 
district. The supreme judicial court and the superior 
court shall each have jurisdiction in equity to enforce the 
provisions of this act, and to restrain the violation thereof. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 13, 1904. 

[Order of December 3, 1904-] 

June 7, 1904, the mayor of the city of Boston, 
under the provisions of chapter 333 of the Acts of 1904, 
appointed the Commission on Height of Buildings in the 
city of Boston, and they on July 5, 1904, made an order 
in accordance with the provisions of said chapter, which 
order is recorded in the Suffolk Registry of Deeds, Book 
2976, page 45. 

Order of July 5, 1904, as amended and revised by order 
of December 3, 1904. 

A. The boundaries of the Districts A, hereby estab- 
lished, are as follows, to wit: 

1. Beginning on the northerly side of that part of the 
said city known as East Boston at the Chelsea Street 



City of Boston Building Law. 121 

Bridge, thence running southeasterly, southerly and 
southwesterly through the centre of Chelsea street to 
Eagle square, thence westerly through said Eagle square 
and the centre of Eagle street to Glendon street, thence 
northerly through the centre of said Glendon street to 
Condor street, thence westerly through the centre of said 
Condor street to Border street, thence southerly and 
southwesterly through the centre of said Border street to 
Sumner street, thence southeasterly through the centre 
of said Sumner street to Orleans street, thence south- 
westerly through the centre of said Orleans street to 
Marginal street, thence southeasterly and easterly through 
the centre of said Marginal street to Jeffries street, thence 
northeasterly through the centre of said Jeffries street to 
Maverick street, thence northwesterly through the centre 
of said Maverick street to the location of the Boston, 
Revere Beach and Lynn Railroad, thence northerly and 
northeasterly along the said Railroad to the property of 
the said city known as Wood Island Park, thence south- 
easterly along the line dividing the said property of the 
said city from the property of the East Boston Company 
and the property of the Commonwealth to the harbor, 
thence southwesterly, westerly, northwesterly, northerly, 
northeasterly, and easterly along the said harbor and 
Chelsea creek, around the said East Boston to the point 
of beginning at said Chelsea Street Bridge; meaning to 
include in the said District A all those portions of wards 
one and two of the said city, as now established by law, 
which are situated within the boundary line hereinbefore 
described. 

2. Beginning on the southerly side of that part of the 
said city known as Charlestown at the Charlestown Bridge, 
thence running northwesterly through the centre of said 
bridge and the approaches thereof to a point on said 
approaches immediately over the centre of the arch con- 
necting Warren avenue with Water street, thence north- 



122 City of Boston Building Law. 

easterly through the centre of said Water street to the 
property of the United States known as the United States 
Navy Yard, thence northwesterly along the southwesterly 
boundary line of said property of the United States to 
Chelsea street, thence northeasterly through the centre 
of said Chelsea street to Medford street, thence north- 
westerly and westerly through the centre of said Medford 
street to the junction of said Medford street. Bunker 
Hill street and Main street, thence northwesterly through 
the centre of said Main street to the property of the said 
city known as the Charlestown Playground, thence north- 
easterly along the southeasterly boundary of said Play- 
ground to the Mystic river, thence easterly, southeasterly, 
southerly and southwesterly along said Mystic river and 
the harbor around said Charlestown to the point of begin- 
ning at said Charlestown Bridge; meaning to include in 
the said District A all those portions of Wards three, four 
and five of the said city as now established by law, which 
are situated within the boundary line hereinbefore 
described. 

3. Beginning on the easterly side of that part of the 
said city known as the city proper at the Congress Street 
Bridge, thence running southeasterly across said bridge 
to that part of said city known as South Boston, thence 
northeasterly, easterly, southeasterly, westerly, southerly 
and easterly around the northerly part of said South Boston 
and the Reserved channel, so-called, to the point on the 
southerly boundary of said Reserved channel where Q 
street extended northerly would meet the said channel, 
thence southerly through the centre of said Q street to 
East First street, thence westerly through the centre of 
East First street to I street, thence southerly through the 
centre of said I street to East Second street, thence 
westerly through the centre of said East Second street to 
the junction of said East Second street, Dorchester street 
and West First street, thence northwesterly through the 



City of Boston Building Law. 123 

centre of said West First street to Dorchester avenue, 
thence southerly through the centre of said Dorchester 
avenue to Dexter street, thence westerly through the 
centre of said Dexter street to EUery street, thence 
southerly through the centre of said Ellery street to 
Southampton street, thence westerly through the centre 
of said Southampton street to Massachusetts avenue, 
thence northwesterly through the centre of said Massa- 
chusetts avenue to Albany street, thence northeasterly 
through the centre of said Albany street to East Dedham 
street, thence northwesterly through the centre of said 
East Dedham street to Harrison avenue, thence north- 
easterly through the centre of said Harrison avenue to 
Troy street, thence southeasterly through the centre of 
said Troy street to Albany street, thence northerly through 
the centre of said Albany street to Broadway, thence 
northwesterly through the centre of said Broadway to 
Washington street, thence northwesterly across said 
Washington street and through the centre of Pleasant 
street to Piedmont street, thence westerly through the 
centre of said Piedmont street to Ferdiaand street, thence 
northwesterly through the centre of said Ferdinand street 
to Columbus avenue, thence southwesterly through the 
centre of Columbus avenue to a point where a line passing 
along the boundary line between the estates now num- 
bered 352 and 356 on Boylston street and extended south- 
easterly would meet said point on Columbus avenue, 
thence from said point northwesterly along said Hne and 
between said estates above mentioned to a point in the 
centre of Boylston street opposite or nearly opposite the 
westerly boundary of the lot on which the Arlington 
Street Church now stands, thence easterly through the 
centre of said Boylston street to Tremont street, thence 
northerly and northeasterly through the centre of said 
Tremont street to Park street, thence northwesterly 
through the centre of said Park street to Beacon street, 



124 City of Boston Building Law. 

thence northeasterly through the centre of said Beacon 
street to Bowdoin street, thence northerly through the 
centre of said Bowdoin street to Cambridge street, thence 
westerly through the centre of said Cambridge street to 
Staniford street, thence northerly through the centre of 
said Staniford street to Green street, thence northwesterly 
through the centre of said Green street to Leverett street, 
thence northwesterly through the centre of said Leverett 
street to the Charles river at Craigie Bridge, thence north- 
easterly, easterly, southeasterly, southerly and south- 
westerly by the said Charles river and the said harbor 
around the said city proper to the point of beginning at 
said Congress Street Bridge; meaning to include in said 
District A the whole of ward six and all those portions 
of wards seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, 
fourteen, fifteen and seventeen of the said city, as now 
established by law, which are situated within the boundary 
line hereinbefore described. 

B. The boundaries of the Districts B hereby estab- 
lished are as follows, to wit: 

1. All those portions of said wards one and two which 
are situated outside the line beginning and ending at said 
Chelsea Street Bridge hereinbefore established as the 
boundary of one of said Districts A. 

2. All those portions of said wards three, four and five 
which are situated outside, the line beginning and ending 
at said Charlestown Bridge hereinbefore established as the 
boundary of one of said District A. 

3. The whole of wards sixteen, eighteen, nineteen, 
twenty, twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty- 
four and twenty-five of the said city, as now established 
by law, and all those portions of said wards seven, eight, 
nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen and 
seventeen which are situated outside the line beginning 
and ending at said Congress-street Bridge hereinbefore 
established as the boundary of one of said Districts A. 



City of Boston Building Law. 125 

Meaning to include in the said Districts B all those 
portions of the said city not included in the Districts 
hereinbefore established as Districts A. 

Wherever in this order the words "harbor," "river," 
"creek" are found, the same are intended to mean the 
furthest line towards deep water on said harbor, river or 
creek respectively on which the erection of wharves or 
other structures is permitted by the State and United 
States authorities. 



[CHAPTER 383, STATUTE OF 1905.] 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings in the 

City of Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Within thirty days after the passage of this 
act the mayor of the city of Boston shall appoint a com- 
mission of three members to determine, in accordance 
with the conditions hereinafter provided, the height of 
buildings within the district designated by the commis- 
sion on height of buildings in the city of Boston as district 
B, in accordance with chapter three hundred and thirty- 
three of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four. 

Sect, 2. Said commission shall immediately upon its 
appointment give notice and public hearings, and shall 
make an order estabHshing the boundaries of or otherwise 
pointing out such parts, if any, of said district B, as it 
may designate in which buildings may be erected to a 
height exceeding eighty feet but not exceeding one hundred 
feet, and the height between eighty feet and one hundred 
feet to which buildings may so be erected, and the condi- 
tions under which buildings may be erected to said height, 
except that such order may provide for the erection of 
buildings as aforesaid to a height not exceeding one hundred 
and twenty-five feet in that portion of said district B 
which lies within fifty feet from the boundary line separat- 



126 City of Boston Building Law. 

ing said district B from the district designated by the com- 
mission on height of buildings in the city of Boston as 
district A in accordance with said chapter three hundred 
and thirty^three, provided said boundary line divides 
the premises affected by such order from other adjoining 
premises both owned by the same person or persons, and 
within sixty days after its appointment shall cause the 
same to be recorded in the registry of deeds for the county 
of Suffolk. Any person who is aggrieved by such order 
may, within sixty days after the recording thereof, appeal 
to the commission for a revision; and the commission may, 
previous to the first day of January in the year nineteen 
hundred and six, revise such order, and the revision shall 
be recorded in the registry of deeds for the county of Suffolk 
and shall date back to the original date of recording. 
The boundaries so established shall continue for a period 
of fifteen years from the date of the recording of the order 
made by the commission on height of buildings in the city 
of Boston under chapter three hundred and thirty-three 
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four. The 
members of the commission shall receive such compensa- 
tion as the mayor shall determine. 

Sect. 3. Within such parts of district B as may be 
designated by the commission as aforesaid (which may, 
except as hereinafter provided, include any parts of said 
district B affected by prior acts limiting the height of 
buildings) buildings may be erected to the height fixed by 
the commission as aforesaid, exceeding eighty feet but 
not exceeding one hundred feet, or one hundred and twenty- 
five feet as hereinbefore provided, and subject to such 
conditions as may be fixed as aforesaid by the commis- 
sion; but within the following described territory, to wit:— 
Beginning at the corner of Beacon street and Hancock 
avenue, thence continuing westerly on Beacon street to 
Joy street, thence continuing northerly on Joy street to 
Myrtle street, thence continuing easterly on Myrtle 



City of Boston Building Law. 127 

street to Hancock street, thence continuing southerly 
on Hancock street and Hancock avenue to the point of 
beginning, no building shall be erected to a height greater 
than seventy feet, measured on its principal front, and 
no building shall be erected on a parkway, boulevard or 
public way on which a building line has been established 
by the board of park commissioners or by the board of 
street commissioners, acting under any general or special 
statute, to a greater height than that allowed by the order 
of said boards; and no building upon land any owner of 
which has received and retained compensation in damages 
for any limitation of height or who retains any claim for 
such damages shall be erected to a height greater than 
that fixed by the limitation for which such damages were 
received or claimed. 

Sect. 4. No limitations of the height of buildings 
in the city of Boston shall apply to churches, steeples, 
towers, domes, cupolas, belfries or statuary not used for 
purposes of habitation, nor to chimneys, gas holders, 
coal or grain elevators, open balustrades, skylights, venti- 
lators, flagstaffs, railings, weather vanes, soil pipes, steam 
exhausts, signs, roof houses not exceeding twelve feet square 
and twelve feet high, nor to other similar constructions such 
as are usually erected above the roof line of buildings. 

Sect. 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 8, 1905. 

[Order of July 21, 1905.] 
Buildings may be erected on streets exceeding sixty- 
four (64) feet in width, to a height equal to one and one- 
quarter times the width of the street upon which the 
building stands; and, if situated on more than one street, 
the widest street is to be taken, the height to be measured 
from the mean grade of the curbs of all the streets upon 
which the building is situated, and not exceeding one 
hundred (100) feet in any event. 



128 City of Boston Building Law. 

If the street is of uneven width, its width will be con- 
sidered as the average width opposite the building to 
be erected. 

The width of a street shall be held to include the width 
of any space on the same side of the street upon which a 
building stands, upon or within which space no building 
can be lawfully erected by virtue of any building line 
established by the Board of Street Commissioners or the 
Board of Park Commissioners acting under general or 
special laws. 

All streets or portions of streets upon which buildings 
may be erected on one side only shall be considered as of 
a width of eighty (80) feet as to that portion upon which 
buildings may be erected on one side only. 

In the case of irregular or triangular open spaces formed 
by the intersection of streets, the width of the street 
shall be taken as the width of the widest street entering 
said space at the point of entrance. 

No building shall, however, be erected on a parkway, 
boulevard or public way on which a building line has been 
established by either of said Boards acting under general 
or special laws to a height greater than that allowed by 
said general or special laws, nor otherwise in violation of 
Section 3 of said Chap. 383, Acts of 1905. 

No building shall be erected to a height greater than 
eighty (80) feet unless its width on each and every public 
street upon which it stands will be at least one-half its 
height. 

Nothing in this order shall be construed as affecting any 
condition or restriction imposed by deed, agreement or by 
operation of law on any property in said Districts B. 

The said Commissioners further provide that buildings 
may be erected to a height not exceeding one hundred and 
twenty-five (125) feet in that portion of the District B as 
established by the Commission on Height of Buildings in 
its order dated December 3, 1904, recorded with Suffolk 



City of Boston Building Law. 129 

Deeds, Book 3008, page 129, which Hes fifty (50) feet 
westerly from the boundary line running from Colmnbus 
avenue to the centre of Boylston street, separating said 
District B from District A, as established by said order; 
'provided, however, that said portion of District B is owned 
by the same person or persons who own the adjoiaiag 
premises in District A. 

Revised Order of November 20, 1905. 

1 . So long as the property owned by the city of Boston 
on Dalton, Belvidere and Scotia streets, bounded 205.5 feet 
on Dalton street, 250 feet on Belvidere street, and 184 feet 
on Scotia street, be said measurements more or less, shall 
be used for a Mechanic Arts High School, any building or 
buildings thereon may be erected to a height of one hun- 
dred (100) feet. 

2. Add at the end of the third paragraph the words: 
"or by the Commonwealth or City," so that the concluding 
part of said paragraph shall read, "established by the 
Board of Street Commissioners or the Board of Park Com- 
missioners acting under general or special laws or by the 
Commonwealth or City." 

3. After the tenth word in the fourth paragraph insert 
the word ''lawfully" so that said paragraph shall read: 
"All streets or portions of streets upon which buildings 
may lawfully be erected, etc." 



CHAPTER 450, ACTS OF 1904. 

An Act Relative to the Licensing and Inspection of 

Theatres and Public Halls. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. In this act the term "theatre" shall mean 
a building or part of a building in which it is designed to 
make a business of the presentation of dramatic, operatic 
or other performances or shows for the entertainment of 



130 City of Boston Building Law. 

spectators, which is capable of seating at least four hun- 
dred persons, and which has a stage for such performances 
that can be used for scenery and other stage appliances. 
The term '' public hall" shall mean any building, or part 
of a building, excluding theatres, armories and churches, 
containing an audience or assembly hall capable of seating 
four hundred persons, and used for public gatherings. 

Sect. 2. In Boston the mayor, and in all other cities 
and towns the chief of the district police, shall be the officer 
to issue licenses for theatres and public halls. The terms, 
conditions and form of each license shall be prescribed by 
the licensing officer, and all licenses shall expire on the 
first day of August in each year. Licenses shall be issued 
upon application: ^provided, that the applicant shall have 
complied with all provisions of law in respect to the theatre 
or public hall for which a license is sought. 

Sect. 3. Licensees shall be responsible, civilly and 
criminally, for non-compHance with laws applicable to 
the building covered by the license, and for non-compliance 
with the conditions of the license, and for any misrepre- 
sentation in the application. The licensing officer shall 
cause a complete inspection of all theatres and public halls 
to be made once in each month and as much oftener as 
practicable. 

Sect. 4. Every inspection shall cover all details 
relating to the condition of the building as regards the 
safety of life and property, and the inspector shall make a 
signed report as to all such details upon a tabulated inspec- 
tion blank, the form of which shall be determined by the 
licensing officer. The forms of such blanks may be 
adapted to the conditions of each class of buildings included 
in the provisions of this act, but they shall be such as to 
enable the inspectors to report a rating on the points and 
in the form hereinafter specified, and shall include a 
detailed table of legal requirements, with a statement as 
to compliance or non-compliance with each. All inspectors 



CiTT OF Boston Building Law. 131 

inspecting theatres during the month shall collate the 
report of their inspections and rate each theatre or public 
hall on the following points in the following form: — 

1. Comphance with existing laws, non-comphance in 
any particular to be specified. 

2. The following ratings of each building as to the 
safety of the audience in the judgment of the inspectors 
in the light of improved methods of insuring safety. 

Condition, whether 

poor, fair, good Remarks, 
or excellent. 
a. Structural condition. 

6. Facility of escape of audience. 

c. Heating apparatus. 

d. Water supply. 

e. Lighting apparatus, 

/. Condition of fire apparatus. 

g. Condition of sprinklers. 

h. Curtains. 

i. Protection against neighborhood hazard. 

j. General condition of appliances and apparatus. 

k. General condition of stage. 

Rating as a whole. 

With regard to safety of audience. 
And such other points as in the opinion of the licensing 
officer may be suitable. These reports and ratings shall 
be signed by the inspectors and rendered to the licensing 
officer on the last day of every month, and shall give the 
date of, all inspections made during the month, with such 
remarks upon the condition of each theatre and public 
hall as may be suitable to give notice of danger or to give 
confidence in the safety of such buildings. After each 
inspection of a theatre or public hall, the inspector shall 
post a notice in conspicuous type in the entrance to such 
theatre or hall in the following form: — 

"This theatre (or hall) has been inspected by official 
inspector (name of inspector) on (date)." 



132 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 5. The licensing officer may call upon any depart- 
ment, board and officer in the city or town where a build- 
ing is situated to cause a competent inspection thereof to 
be made, on any matter as to which the licensing officer 
desires information, and to report such inspection, 
together with recommendations relating to such building, 
to the licensing officer, and it shall be the duty of such 
department, board or officer, when so requested, to cause 
such inspection and report to be made. Each department, 
board and officer may inspect buildings included within 
the provisions of this act at any time, and report inspec- 
tions and recommendations to the licensing officer, who 
shall take such action thereon as he may see fit. 

Sect. 6. The full inspection reports shall be kept on 
file by the licensing officer, but, except as hereinafter pro- 
vided, they shall not be open to examination by the public 
until the expiration of one month from the time when 
they were rendered, except with the consent of the licensing 
officer. Each licensee shall be entitled to examine the 
full reports of his own building at any time. The licensing 
officer shall make a full report annually of the condition 
of all theatres and public halls,' and the report shall be a 
public document, open to examination by the public at all 
times. The reports of inspectors shall be public records 
of matters of public interest, and a fair publication of 
these reports, or part thereof, or comment thereon, by any 
person, in newspapers or otherwise, shall be privileged. 

Sect. 7. The licensing officer may, in his discretion, in 
case of emergency, suspend inspections for a period not 
exceeding one month, and may when in his opinion the 
circumstances warrant, after the first monthly inspections, 
issue a permit exempting a public hall, but not a theatre, 
from regular inspection for not more than six months, on 
condition that he be notified by the licensee of any sub- 
stantial change in the conditions. Such permit shall not 
prevent inspection at any time during the period specified. 



City of Boston Building Law. 133 

Sect. 8. A certified copy of the monthly ratings and 
conclusions of the inspectors in respect to any Ucensed 
building shall be delivered or mailed by the hcensing 
officer to the licensee at the building. If any inspector 
shall report that the laws or the conditions of the Ucense 
are not complied with by any licensee, it shall be the duty 
of the licensing officer to notify the licensee, fixing a time 
within which he shall comply with the law and the condi- 
tions of the license. If, at the expiration of such time 
there has not been such compliance, the licensing officer 
shall give a hearing to the licensee, and if upon investiga- 
tion he shall find that there is cause, he shaU revoke the 
license. The licensing officer shall have power, if, in his 
opinion, the public safety requhes it, to order any theatre 
or public hall to be closed pending a hearing upon the 
revocation of the license for such building, and any person 
failing to comply with such order may be punished by fine 
not exceeding one thousand dollars. 

Sect. 9. Any licensee may post upon his premises a 
certified copy of the complete table of ratings and con- 
clusions relating to the building covered by his license, 
but he shall not post an incomplete copy of such table. 

Sect. 10. Except in Boston, whoever is aggrieved by 
any order or decision of a licensing officer may apply to a 
judge of the superior court sitting in equity for the county 
in which the building affected by such order or decision is 
situated, for the appointment of a board of appeal of three 
disinterested persons to examine the premises and hear 
the parties and render a decision in writing and under 
oath, to be filed in the office of the clerk of courts in said 
county within ten days after such hearing, and the majority 
of said persons shall decide whether the whole or a part of 
the order or requirement shall be complied with, and the 
Hcensing officer shall make his order or decision conform 
to the decision of the said board of appeal. If the decision 
is not unanimous the dissenting member of the board 



134 City of Boston Building Law. 

shall file a written statement of his reasons, under oath. 
The compensation of the members of such board of appeal 
and the taxation of costs in such cases shall be governed 
by sections twenty and twenty-one of chapter one hun- 
dred and four of the Revised Laws. In Boston the appeal 
shall be to the board of appeals as provided in sections 
twelve and thirteen of chapter four hundred and nine- 
teen of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and 
ninety-two. 

Sect. 11. Any court having equity jurisdiction may, 
upon the application of the licensing officer, enforce by 
any suitable process or decree, the provisions of this act 
and any order or requirement of any person made by 
authority of this act. 

Sect. 12. Any person having any duties or powers 
under this act may in the performance of his duty enter 
any building included within the provisions of this act and 
any person who wilfully obstructs his entry may be 
punished by fine not exceeding one thousand dollars. 

Sect. 13. Any person having any duty to perform 
under this act in connection with the licensing or inspection 
of buildings who wilfully makes any false statement or 
report or any false record of any statement, report or 
rating as to any building shall be punished by a fine of 
not more than one thousand dollars or by imprisonment 
for not more than one year. Any licensee under this act 
who wilfully makes any false statement or representation 
in his application for a license shall be punished by a fine 
of not more than one thousand dollars or by imprison- 
ment for not more than one year. 

Sect. 14. Any officer or person having any duty in 
any way connected with the inspections provided for by 
this act, who requests for himself or another, or accepts 
or uses any ticket or pass or privilege or admission, to any 
theatre or public hall, for which he is to pay or has paid 
either nothing or a price less than that demanded of the 



City of Boston Building Law. 135 

public generally, and any owner, proprietor, manager, 
lessee, agent or employee of any theatre or public hall, 
or any other person who issues, delivers, offers or allows 
any such ticket, pass, privilege or admission to any such 
officer or person or to any other person at the request, 
solicitation, procurement, or with the connivance of any 
such officer or person shall be punished by a fine of not 
less than one hundred nor more than one thousand 
dollars. 

Sect. 15. So much of section one hundred and seventy- 
two of chapter one hundred and two of the Revised Laws 
and of any other act as is inconsistent herewith is hereby 
repealed, and all local ordinances, by-laws and regulations 
of any kind inconsistent herewith are hereby annulled. 
The penalty provided in section one hundred and seventy- 
three of said chapter one hundred and two shall apply 
to all acts specified in said section one hundred and seventy- 
three and done without a Ucense under this act. 

Sect. 16. This act shall take effect on the first day of 
September in the year nineteen hundred and four. 

[Appj'oved June 9, 1904- 



CHAPTER 347, ACTS OF 1905. 

An Act to Prohibit the Obstruction of Means of 
Egress from Buildings. 

Section 1. Any article or thing placed upon a fire 
escape or an outside means of egress of any building is 
hereby declared a common nuisance. Any court authorized 
to issue warrants in criminal cases may, upon complaint 
under oath made by any poHce officer that any article or 
thing is placed or maintained upon a fire escape or outside 
means of egress of any building, issue a warrant to bring 
such article or thing when found before a court having 
jurisdiction of the same, and all articles or things seized 



136 City of Boston Building Law. 

under the authority of such a warrant shall be disposed of 
as provided in sections three to eight inclusive of chapter 
two hundred and seventeen of the Revised Laws relative 
to articles seized under clause eleven of section one of 
said chapter. Any owner, lessee, tenant or occupant of 
any building who maintains or permits to remain upon any 
fire escape or outside means of egress of any building any 
article or thing for more than twenty minutes shall be 
punished by a fine of not more than one hundred dollars. 
The existence of any article or thing upon a fire escape or 
outside means of egress of any building shall be prima facie 
evidence that such article or thing was so placed, main- 
tained or permitted to remain by the occupant of the 
premises having access from said building to said fire 
escape or outside means of egress. 

Sect. 2. Every stairway of every building shall be kept 
free and unobstructed, and any person who permits any 
article or thing to remain in any stairway of any building 
in such a manner as may impede the egress of any person 
lawfully in said building, or the egress of any person law- 
fully entitled to enter said building shall be punished by 
a fine of not more than five hundred dollars. The existence 
of any article or thing in any such stairway in any.building 
shall be prima facie evidence that it was placed or per- 
mitted to remain therein by the owner, lessee, tenant or 
occupant of the building. 

[Approved April 28, 1905. 



CHAPTER 437, ACTS OF 1905. 

An Act to Regulate the use of the Cinematograph 
IN Churches and Other Public Buildings. 

The provisions of chapter one hundred and seventy-six 
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and five, being 
an act entitled "An Act to regulate the use of the cine- 



City of Boston Building Law. 137 

matograph," shall apply to the use, keeping, exhibition 
and inspection of cinematographs which are to be used, 
kept or exhibited in any church or other pubHc building, 
whether such use, keeping or exhibition is on premises 
licensed or not licensed for entertainments. 

[Approved May 23, 1905. 



CHAPTER 416. ACTS OF 1907. 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings on 
Rutherford Avenue in the City of Boston. 

Section 1. The width of Rutherford avenue in the 
Charlestown district of the city of Boston, between Chap- 
man street and the Mystic river tracks of the Boston and 
Maine RaUroad crossing the northerly part of said avenue, 
shall be considered as eighty feet in respect to the height 
of buildings that may be erected on the southwesterly and 
westerly side of said avenue, between the points mentioned, 
so as to permit the erection of buildings to the height of 
one hundred feet, as provided for buildings erected on 
streets of the width aforesaid in district B by the com- 
mission appointed on height of buildings in the city of 
Boston, under chapter three hundred and eighty-three of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and five. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 16, 1907. 



CHAPTER 463, ACTS OF 1907. 

An Act Relative to the Licensing of Theatres and 

Public Halls in the City of Boston. 

Section 1. In Boston the mayor shall be the officer to 

issue Ucenses for theatres and public halls, and he may 

require such changes in the structural condition of any 



138 City of Boston Building Law. 

building before issuing a license, as, in his opinion, the 
public safety requires, but no changes shall be ordered in 
excess of the statutory requirements then in force for a 
new building of like character. Whoever is aggrieved by 
any order or decision of the mayor in respect to changes 
that he may require in the structural condition of any 
building before issuing a license as aforesaid shall have 
the right of appeal to the board of appeals established 
by chapter four hundred and nineteen of the acts of the 
year eighteen hundred and ninety-two, or to any similar 
or succeeding board of appeals which may hereafter be 
established for the city of Boston. Said board on receipt 
of the appeal shall within five days thereafter examine the 
premises and hear the parties and render a decision in 
writing within ten days after such hearing, and the ma- 
jority of the board shall decide whether the whole or a 
part of the order or requirement made by the mayor in 
respect to structural changes shall be complied with, or 
whether a license for said building shall be issued; and the 
mayor shall make his order or requirement in respect of 
structural changes and the issuing of said license conform 
to the decision of said board. If the mayor has granted a 
license as aforesaid he shall not revoke or suspend the 
same except by giving five days' written notice to the 
licensee of his intention so to do, and his reasons therefor, 
and if the licefisee is aggrieved by said notice of revoca- 
tion and said reasons he may appeal to the board of 
appeals, who shall within five days from date of his appeal 
examine the premises and hear the parties, and render 
a decision in writing within three days after such hearing; 
and the majority of the board shall decide whether the 
license shall be revoked, and the mayor shall make his 
action conform to the decision of the board and shall not 
revoke the same without the approval of the board. 
Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 28, 1907. 



City of Boston Building Law. 139 

CHAPTER 254, ACTS OF 1909. 

An Act Relative to Entertainments Given in 
Private Dwellings. 

Section one hundred and seventy-tkree of chapter one 
hundred and two of the Revised Laws, as amended by 
section five of chapter four hundred and sixty of the acts 
of the year nineteen hundred and four and by section one 
of chapter three hundred and nine of the acts of the year 
nineteen hundred and seven, is hereby further amended 
by adding at the end of the section the words : — or to 
entertainments given in a private dwelling, except in 
apartments thereof having a seating capacity of four 
hundred or more, — so as to read as follows: — Section 173. 
Whoever offers to view, sets up, sets on foot, maintains, 
carries on, publishes or otherwise assists in or promotes 
any such exhibition, show or amusement, without such 
license, shall be punished by a fine of not more than five 
hundred dollars for each offense. The provisions of this 
section and of the last preceding section, however, shaU 
not apply to pubHc entertainments by religious societies 
in their usual places of worship for a religious or charitable 
purpose, or to entertainments given in school buildings 
by, or for the benefit of, the pupils thereof, and under the 
supervision of the principal or teacher in charge of the 
school classes therein, or to entertainments given in a 
private dwelling, except in apartments thereof having a 
seating capacity of four hundred or more. 



CHAPTER 284, ACTS OF 1910. 
An Act Relative to the Construction, Alteration, 
Inspection, and Maintenance of Buildings in 
THE City of Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. It shall be the duty of the building com- 
missioner of the city of Boston to enforce all provisions 



140 City of Boston Building Law. 

of law relative to the construction, alteration, inspection 
and maintenance of buildings which are or may be appli- 
cable to said city, heretofore enforced by the district 
police, except the provisions of chapter four hundred and 
sixty-five of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and 
seven, relative to the inspection of steam boilers, the 
provisions of chapter three hundred and seventy of the 
acts of the year nineteen hundred and four, as amended 
by chapter two hundred and eighty of the acts of the year 
nineteen hundred and five and by chapter five hundred and 
two of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and eight, 
relative to the keeping, storage, use, manufacture, sale, 
handling and transportation of explosive or inflammable 
fluids or compounds or other explosives, the provisions 
of chapter four hundred and thirty-three of the acts of 
the year nineteen hundred and four, relative to the powers 
and duties of the detective department of the district 
pohce in connection with the investigation or prevention 
of fires, and the provisions of chapter five hundred and 
fourteen of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and 
nine, and acts in amendment thereof or in addition thereto, 
relative to labor, so far as the provisions of said chapter 
are enforced by the district police. 

Sect. 2. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved March 25, 1910. 



CHAPTER 571, ACTS OF 1910. 

An Act to Authorize the Collection of Fees for 
Permits and Licenses Issued by Departments op 
THE City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The heads of the various departments of 
the city of Boston may establish, subject to the approval 



City of Boston Building Law. 141 

of the mayor, reasonable fees or charges for the issuance 
of permits and licenses by said departments: provided, 
however, that the charge for a permit to make excavations 
in any street or sidewalk shall not exceed fifty cents. 

Sect. 2. The authority given in the preceding section 
shall not deprive any of the officials named in section 
twenty-eight of chapter four hundred and eighty-six of the 
acts of the year nineteen hundred and nine of any authority 
given therein to fix the charges for permits and hcenses. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 26, 1910. 



CHAPTER 129, ACTS OF 1911. 
An Act to Regulate Public Lodging Houses in 

Certain Cities. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The provisions of chapter two hundred 
and forty-two of the acts of the year nineteen hundred 
and four, regulating public lodging houses in cities of over 
fifty thousand inhabitants, shall also apply to all buildings 
in said cities maintained for furnishing lodging to transient 
persons, and not licensed as an inn, in which ten or more 
persons are lodged, notwithstanding that no price is 
charged for lodging. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect on the first day of 
June in the year nineteen hundred and eleven. 

[Approved March 11, 1911. 



CHAPTER 342, ACTS OF 1911. 
An Act to Regulate the Construction of Garages 

IN THE City of Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. A garage hereafter erected within the fire 
limits of the city of Boston shall be of first class construe- 



142 City of Boston Building Law. 

tion. A garage hereafter erected in any other part 
of that city shall be either of first or second class 
construction. 

Sect. 2. By the term ''garage" is meant a building 
or that part of a building wherein are kept five or more 
automobiles or motor cars charged with or containing a 
volatile inflammable liquid for fuel or power. Wherever 
hereafter any part of an existing building is converted 
into a garage, the garage shall be deemed to embrace all 
the building not separated from the garage proper by 
fireproof construction satisfactory to the building com- 
missioners, and such building or part of a building shall 
be of first class construction. 

Sect. 3. By the term "volatile inflammable liquid" 
is meant any liquid that will emit inflammable vapor at a 
temperature below one hundred degrees Fahrenheit, when 
tested in the open air. 

Sect. 4. The penalty for violation of this act shall be 
a fine of not less than ten and not more than fifty dollars 
a day, so long as the violation continues. 

[Approved April 27, 1911. 



CHAPTER 259, ACTS OF 1912. 

An Act Relative to the Construction of Garages 
IN THE City of Boston. 

Existing buildings upon premises numbered 337 on 
Newbury street, in Boston, are exempt from the provisions 
of chapter 342, Acts of 1911, but only while such build- 
ings remain of their present size and in their present loca- 
tion: provided, however, that no part of said buildings 
shall be used as a dwelling. 

[Approved March 18, 1912, and took effect. 



City op Boston Building Law. 143 

CHAPTER 280, ACTS OF 1913. 

An Act to Authoeize the Mayor of the City of 
Boston to Grant Permits for Special Moving 
Picture Exhibitions in Churches, Halls or 
Other Buildings. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The mayor of the city of Boston may 
grant permits in writing for special exhibitions of moving 
pictures in churches, halls or other buildings in that city 
which, in his opinion, are in safe condition for said 
exhibitions, and he may prescribe regulations for the 
proper conduct of the same: provided, however, that such 
special exhibitions shall be subject to the laws of the 
commonwealth and the regulations of the district police 
relating to the use of the cinematograph or similar 
apparatus. 

Sect. 2. A fee of two dollars shall accompany each 
application for a permit hereunder. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved March 12, 1913. 



CHAPTER 572, ACTS OF 1913. 

An Act Relative to Building Lines in Cities and 

Towns. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section one hundred and three of chapter 
forty-eight of the Revised Laws is hereby amended by 
striking out the words "parallel to, and," in the third 
line, by striking out the word "twenty-five" in the fourth 
line, and inserting in place thereof the word: — forty, — 
and by inserting after the word "line," in the ninth line, 



144 City of Boston Building Law. 

the following: — and except that buildings or parts of 
buildings existing at the time of the establishment of the 
building line may be permitted to remain and to be main- 
tained to such extent and under such conditions as may- 
be prescribed in the vote establishing such building line, — 
so as to read as follows: — Section 103. If the city council 
of a city or if a town accepts the provisions of this section 
or has accepted the corresponding provisions of earlier 
laws, a building line not more than forty feet distant 
from the exterior line of a highway or town way may be 
established in the manner provided for laying out ways, 
and thereafter no structures shall be erected or maintained 
between such building line and such way, except steps, 
windows, porticos and other usual projections appur- 
tenant to the front wall of a building, to the extent pre- 
scribed in the vote establishing such building line, and 
except that buildings or parts of buildings existing at the 
time of the establishment of the building line may be 
permitted to remain and to be maintained to such extent 
and under such conditions as may be prescribed in the 
vote establishing such building line. Whoever sustains 
damage thereby shall have the same remedies therefor as 
for damages sustained by the laying out of a town way. 
Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 2, 1913. 



CHAPTER 577, ACTS OF 1913. 

An Act to Regulate the Erection and Maintenance 

OF Garages in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. In the city of Boston no building shall be 
erected for, or maintained as a garage for the storage, 
keeping or care for hire of automobiles until the issue of a 
permit therefor by the board of street commissioners of 



City of Boston Building Law. 145 

the city after notice and a public hearing upon an appHca- 
tion filed with said board. The application for the permit 
shall be made by the owner of the parcel of land upon 
which such buUding is to be erected or maintained and 
shall contain the names and addresses of every owner of 
record of each parcel of land abutting thereon. 

Sect. 2. The notice required by the preceding section 
shall include a copy of the appHcation and an order of 
said board specifying the time and place of the public 
hearing, and shall be given by pubUcation once in each 
week for three successive weeks in some one newspaper 
regularly published in said city, and by mailing by prepaid 
registered mail a copy to every owner of record of each 
parcel of land abutting on the parcel of land on which the 
building proposed to be erected for, or maintained as a 
garage is to be, or is situated, and the cost of such notice 
and proceedings shall be borne by the applicant. 

Sect. 3. At the time and place specified in the notice 
for the hearing the said board shall hear all parties inter- 
ested, and after giving consideration to the interests of all 
owners of record notified, the general character of the 
neighborhood in which is situated the land or building 
referred to in the apphcation, and the requirements of 
public convenience, shall determine whether or not the 
application shall be granted and a permit issued. 

Sect. 4. The provisions of this act shall not apply to a 
building maintained as a garage for the storage, keeping 
or care for hire of automobiles at the time of the passage 
of this act, but any enlargement of, or addition to any such 
building shall be subject to the provisions of this act. 

Sect. 5. Whoever erects or maintains a garage in viola- 
tion of this act shall be subject to a fine of not less than 
ten nor more than fifty dollars for every day during which 
such violation continues. [Approved May 2, 1913. 
[1912, c. 259; 1911, c. 342.1 



146 City OF Boston Building Law. 

CHAPTER 680, ACTS OF 1913. 

An Act Relative to Signs, Awnings and Other Pro- 
jections IN Public Ways in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The board of street commissioners of the 
city of Boston is hereby authorized to grant permits, to 
fix the fees therefor, not exceeding one dollar for any one 
permit, and to make rules and regulations for the placing 
and maintaining of signs, advertising devices, clocks, mar- 
quees, permanent awnings, and structures projecting into, 
or placed on or over the public highways of said city, and 
to prescribe penalties for a breach thereof not exceeding 
five dollars for each day during which such sign, advertis- 
ing device, clock, marquee, permanent awning, or structure 
is so placed or maintained contrary to the rules and regu- 
lations made by the board of street commissioners after 
five days' notice to remove the same has been given by 
the said board, or by a police officer of said city. 

Sect. 2. All signs, advertising devices, clocks, marquees, 
permanent awnings and structures authorized by the board 
of street commissioners as provided in the preceding sec- 
tion, shall, after the passage of this act, be subject to the 
requirements of the building commissioner of the city of 
Boston as to their construction and physical connection 
with the buildings to which they are to be attached. 

Sect. 3. This act shall not apply to the poles, wires, 
conduits and appurtenances necessary to the operation of 
steam railroads, street railways, gas, electric light, heat 
and power companies, or to companies engaged in the 
business of transmission of intelligence by electricity or 
other agency. 

Sect. 4. Chapter three hundred and fifty-two of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-five, and all 
other acts and ordinances, or parts thereof, inconsistent 
herewith are hereby repealed. 



City of Boston Building Law. 147 

Sect. 5. This act shall take effect three months after 
its passage. [Approved May 19, 1913. 



CHAPTER 729, ACTS OF 1913. 
An Act Relative to Dry Houses in the City of Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. No bmlding or part of a building hereafter 
erected or altered in the city of Boston shall be used for 
kiln drying lumber unless such building or part of a build- 
ing is of fireproof construction approved by the building 
commissioner. 

Sect. 2. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 29, 1913. 



CHAPTER 540, ACTS OF 1914. 

An Act Relative to the Qualifications of Inspectors 
OF Masonry Construction Employed by the 
Commonwealth or by Counties, Cities and 
Towns. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Persons employed by the commonwealth, 
or by the metropolitan board or commission, or by any 
county, city or town, as inspectors of masonry construction, 
shall have had at least three years practical experience in 
masonry construction, but shall not be required to have 
technical knowledge as engineers, architects or draftsmen, 
unless they have other duties for which such knowledge 
is necessary. The provisions of this section shall apply 
only to persons whose principal duty is the inspection of 
masonry construction, consisting of stone, brick or sub- 
stitutes therefor. 



148 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 2. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 19, 1914- 



CHAPTER 287, ACTS OF 1914. 

An Act Relative to the Business op Plumbing. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Chapter five hundred and thirty-six of the acts of the 
year nineteen hundred and nine is hereby amended by 
striking out section ten and inserting in place thereof the 
following new section: — Section 10. Every person engag- 
ing in the business of plumbing as a master plumber, or 
working at the business of plumbing as a journeyman 
plumber, not having been registered or licensed as herein 
provided; and every person engaging in or working at 
the business of plumbing in a city or town where he has 
been forbidden so to do under the provisions of section 
four of this act; and every person engaged in the business 
of plumbing as a master plumber or employing plumber 
who engages or employs any person to work as a journey- 
man plumber who has not been registered or licensed as 
provided by this act; and every person violating any pro- 
vision of this act or any rule or regulation made hereunder 
shall be punished by a fine not exceeding fifty dollars for 
each offence. [Approved April 2, 1914- 



CHAPTER 566, ACTS OF 1914. 

An Act to Prohibit the Locking of Doors of 
Buildings in Which Operatives are Employed. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Chapter five hundred and fourteeen of the acts of the 
year nineteen hundred and nine is hereby amended by 



City of Boston BxnLDiNG Law. 149 

striking out section ninety-three a.nd inserting in place 
thereof the following new section: — Section 93. No out- 
side or inside doors of any building in which operatives are 
employed shall be so locked, bolted or otherwise fastened 
during the hours of labor as to prevent free egress. Any 
person having charge of any such building or of any room 
thereof, any exit door of which shall be found to bo so 
locked, bolted or otherwise fastened during the hours of 
labor as to prevent free egress, shall be punished by a fine 
of not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than five 
hundred dollars or by imprisonment for not more than 
one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment. 

[Approved May 22, 1914. 



CHAPTER 782, ACTS OF 1914. 

An Act to Ajmend the Building Law of the 
City of Boston. 

Section 6. Elevators hereafter installed shall be pro- 
vided with such shaftway enclosures and doors as may be 
required by the regulations of the Massachusetts board 
of elevator regulations. All shafts for light and ventila- 
tion and skylights over such shafts shall be constructed 
of like materials and in a like manner as required for 
elevator shafts, and all window openings in the same, ex- 
cept in exterior walls, shall be protected by metal frames 
and sash and wired glass. 

Sect. 11. The provisions of this act, so far as 
they are the same as those of existing statutes, shall 
be construed as continuations thereof and not as new 
enactments. 

Sect. 12. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed, but nothing herein contained 
shall be construed to modify the powers and duties con- 
ferred and imposed upon the board of appeals by sections 



150 City of Boston Building Law. 

six, seven and eight of chapter five hundred and fifty of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and seven. 

Sect. 13. This act shall take effect ninety days after 
its passage. [Approved July 7, 1914- 



CHAPTER 786, ACTS OF 1914. 

An Act Exempting a Certain Parcel of Land in the 
City of Boston from Restrictions as to the 
Height of Buildings. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The parcel of land situated in the city of 
Boston bounded by Washington street, Lovering place, 
Harrison avenue and Asylum street is hereby exempted 
from the provisions of chapter three hundred and thirty- 
three of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four 
and chapter three hundred and eighty- three of the acts 
of the year nineteen hundred and five, relative to the 
height of buildings, and is relieved from the restrictions as 
to height placed thereon by the commissioners on the 
height of buildings in the city of Boston acting under the 
authority of said statutes: provided, however, that nothing 
herein shall authorize the erection on said parcel of a 
building exceeding one hundred and twenty-five feet in 
height above the grade of the sidewalk on Washington 
street in front of said parcel, nor the erection of any 
building thereon except in accordance with a permit duly 
granted therefor by the building commissioner of the 
city of Boston. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved July 7, 1914- 



City of Boston Building Law. 151 

CHAPTER 791, ACTS OF 1914. 

An Act Relative to the Operation op the Cinemato- 
graph AND TO THE EXHIBITION OF MOTION PICTURES. 

Be it enacted, etc., as folloivs: 

Section 1. No cinematograph, or similar apparatus, 
involving the use of a combustible film more than ten 
inches in length, shall be kept or used for the purpose of 
exhibiting such films in or upon the premises of a public 
building, public or private institution, schoolhouse, church, 
theatre, special hall, public hall, miscellaneous hall, place 
of assemblage, or place of pubHc resort, until such cine- 
matograph or similar apparatus has been inspected and 
approved by an inspector of the building inspection depart- 
ment of the district poHce, who shall have placed thereon 
a numbered metal tag; nor until a booth, or enclosure, 
which has been inspected and approved by such an 
inspector and his certificate issued therefor, has been 
provided for said apparatus; nor until such precautions 
against fire as the chief of the district poHce may specify 
have been taken by the owner, user or exhibitor therefor : 
provided, however, that no such cinematograph or similar 
apparatus shall be operated with oxyhydrogen gas, so- 
called, or with limelight. In addition, in the city of Boston, 
the location of any booth or enclosure surrounding said 
apparatus, shall be approved by the building commis- 
sioner, who may order such additional precautions against 
fire as he may deem necessary. 

Sect. 15. Any person, firm, corporation or association 
of persons, keeping or using a cinematograph or similar 
apparatus contrary to the provisions hereof, or in violation 
of any rule or regulation made by the chief of the district 
police, or, in the city of Boston, in violation of any regula- 
tion or requirement made by the building commissioner in 



152 City of Boston Building Law. 

accordance with the provisions hereof, shall be punished by a 
fine of not less than fifty nor more than five hundred dollars. 
Sect. 16. Chapters five hundred and sixty-five and 
five hundred and sixty-six of the acts of the year nineteen 
hundred and eight; chapter two hundred and eighty-one 
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and nine; chapters 
forty-eight and four hundred and forty of the acts of the 
year nineteen hundred and eleven; chapter one hundred 
and eighty-two of the acts of the year nineteen hundred 
and twelve and all acts and parts of acts inconsistent 
herewith are hereby repealed. [Approved July 7, 1914- 



CHAPTER 28, REVISED LAWS. 

Sect. 16. In a city which by a vote of its city council, 
or in a town which by vote of a town meeting, accepts 
this section, or has accepted the corresponding provisions 
of earlier laws, the board of park commissioners may, in 
accordance with the provisions of section one hundred and 
three of chapter forty-eight, establish a building line 
distant at no point more than twenty-five feet from any 
exterior line of a parkway, boulevard or public way on 
which a park abuts; and the extreme height to which 
buildings upon such parkway, boulevard or public way 
may be erected shall be seventy feet exclusive of such 
steeples, towers, domes, cornices, parapets, balustrades, 
sculptured ornaments, chimneys and roofs as such board 
may approve. Whoever sustains damage by the estab- 
lishment of such building line shall have the same remedy 
therefor as if his land were taken for the laying out of a 
highway. 

[1896, c. 313r 1897, c. 379.] 



CHAPTER 33, REVISED LAWS. 
Sect. 19. A fence or other structure in the nature of a 
fence which unnecessarily exceeds six feet in height and is 



City of Boston Building Law. 153 

maliciously erected or maintained for the purpose of 
annoying the owners or occupants of adjoining property, 
shall be deemed a private nuisance. Any such owner or 
occupant who is injured either in the comfort or enjoyment 
of his estate thereby may have an action of tort for dam- 
ages according to the provisions of chapter one hundred 
and eighty-six. 

[1887, 348; 148 Mass. 368, 407; 150 Mass. 482; 162 Mass. 544.] 



CHAPTER 48, REVISED LAWS. 

Building Line. 

Section 103. If the city council of a city or if a town 
accepts the pro^asions of this section or has accepted the 
corresponding provisions of earlier laws, a building line 
parallel to, and not more than twenty-five feet distant 
from, the exterior Une of a highway or town way may be 
estabhshed in the manner provided for laying out ways, 
and thereafter no structures shall be erected or maintained 
between such building line and such way, except steps, 
windows, porticos and other usual projections appurte- 
nant to the front wall of a building, to the extent prescribed 
in the vote establishing such building Une. Whoever 
sustains damage thereby shall have the same remedies 
therefor as for damages sustained by the laying out of a 
town way. 

[Chap. 462, of 1893.] 



CHAPTER 101, REVISED LAWS. 
Section 1. In a city or town in which the city council 
or the inhabitants accept the provisions of this and the 
four following sections or have accepted the corresponding 
provisions of earlier laws, the mayor and aldermen or 
selectmen, after notice in writing to the owner of a burnt, 
dilapidated or dangerous building, and a hearing, may 



154 City of Boston Building Law. 

adjudge it to be a nuisance to the neighborhood, or 
dangerous, and may thereupon make and record an order 
prescribing the disposition, alteration or regulation thereof^ 
The city or town clerk shall deliver a copy of the order to 
a constable, who shall forthwith serve an attested copy 
thereof upon such owner, and make return of his doings 
thereon to said clerk. 

Sect. 2. An owner who is aggrieved by such order 
may, within three days after the service thereof upon 
him, apply to the superior court for a jury. The court 
shall issue a warrant for a jury, which shall be impanelled 
by the sheriff within fourteen days after the date of the 
warrant in the manner provided in chapter forty-eight; 
or, instead thereof, if the applicant for a jury so elects 
and after such notice as the court shall order to the adverse 
party, it shall order a trial to be had at the bar of the 
superior court, in the same manner as other civil causes 
are there tried by jury. 

Sect. 3. The jury may affirm, annul or alter such 
order; and the sheriff, if the trial is before him, shall 
return the verdict to the next sitting of the court for 
acceptance; and the verdict, whether before the sheriff 
or in the superior court, being accepted, shall take effect 
as an original order. 

Sect. 4. If the order is affirmed, the applicant shall 
pay the costs; if it is annulled, he shall recover damages 
and costs against the city or town; and if it is altered, 
the court may render such judgment as to costs as justice 
shall require. 

Sect. 5. The mayor and aldermen of a city or select- 
men of a town shall have the same power and authority 
to abate and remove any such nuisance as is given to the 
board of health of a city or town by the provisions of 
sections sixty-seven, sixty-eight and sixty-nine of chapter 
seventy-five. 

[1855, c. 469, sects. 1 to 6; G. S., c. 87, sects. 1 to 4; 128 Mass., 36, 

347.] 



City of Boston Building Law. 155 

CHAPTER 104, REVISED LAWS. 
Section 29. The keeper of a hotel, boarding or lodging 
house or family hotel containing one hundred or more 
rooms, and being four or more stories high, shall have 
therein at least two competent watchmen, each properly 
assigned, and each on duty between the hours of nine 
o'clock at night and six o'clock in the morning. The 
keeper of every hotel, boarding or lodging house or family 
hotel containing fifty or more but less than one hundred 
rooms, and being three stories high, shall have between 
said hours at least one competent watchman on duty 
therein. In all such hotels, lodging houses or family 
hotels, the halls and stairways shall be properly lighted at 
night, and a red light shall be kept during the night at 
the top and bottom of each flight of stairs; and one or 
more proper alarms or gongs, capable of being heard 
throughout the house, shall always remain easy of access 
and ready for use in each of said buildings to give to the 
inmates warning of fire. The keeper of every such hotel, 
boarding or lodging house or family hotel shall keep a 
notice descriptive of such means of escape conspicuously 
posted in every sleeping room. 

[1883, c. 251, sect. 1; 1884, c. 223, sect. 2.] 

Sect. 32. Whoever neglects or refuses to provide 
watchmen as required by the three preceding sections 
shall be punished by a fine of not more than one thousand 
dollars for each offence, and whoever violates any of the 
other provisions of said sections shall be punished by a 
fine of not less than fifty nor more than five hundred 
dollars. 

Sect. 52. The supreme judicial court or the superior 
court shall have jurisdiction in equity to restrain the 
illegal placing, maintenance or use of any building, struc- 
ture or other thing. It may, upon the petition of a city or 
town, by its attorney, for such relief, require the removal 
of any such building, structure or other thing by the 



156 City of Boston Building Law. 

owner, and may authorize the city or town, in default of 
such removal by the owner, to remove it at his expense. 
The provisions of this section shall apply to all such 
structures or other thing so placed which were maintained 
or used prior to, as well as after, the second of May in 
the year eighteen hundred and ninety-nine. Upon such 
petition, the defendant shall be presumed to have acted 
without a license or authority until he proves the 
contrary. 

[1899, c. 326, sect. 52, as amended.] 



CHAPTER 9, ORDINANCES OF 1912. 

CONCEKNING CONTROL OF BuiLDING OPERATIONS. 

In the Year One Thousand Nine Hundred and Thirteen. 
Be it ordained hy the City Council of Boston, as follows: 

Section 1. All persons who shall hereafter take per- 
sonal charge or control of the work of construction, altera- 
tion, removal or tearing down of buildings or structures 
in the City of Boston shall be qualified by education, 
training, or experience for the performance of that duty 
in a manner which shall preserve public safety and con- 
form to the laws, ordinances, rules and regulations relating 
to the construction, alteration, removal or tearing down of 
buildings or structures in the City of Boston. 

Sect. 2. The qualifications of such persons shall be 
determined by a board of examiners as hereinafter pro- 
vided; and no permit for the doing of work described in 
section one of this ordinance shall be issued by the build- 
ing commissioner unless the application for a permit 
therefor contains the name, address and signature of a 
person who is duly licensed, as hereinafter provided, to 
take personal charge or control of such work; provided, 
however, that a permit may be granted if no person Ucensed 



City of Boston Building Law. 157 

as aforesaid has been named in the appUcation therefor 
whenever the work in question is of minor importance, 
and, in the opinion of the building commissioner, stated 
in writing with his reasons therefor upon the appHcation 
for such permit, the work is of such simple character that 
its execution will not endanger the safety of the public, or 
of any person engaged thereon. 

Sect. 3. There shall be in the building department a 
board to be called the board of examiners. Said board 
shall consist of three members to be appointed by the 
mayor in accordance with the provisions of sections nine 
and ten of chapter four hundred eighty-six of the acts 
of the year nineteen hundred nine. Each member shall 
receive ten dollars forWery day or part thereof of actual 
service but not more than one thousand dollars in any 
year. The first appointments shall be for one, two and 
three year terms, respectively, and succeeding appoint- 
ments shall be for terms of three years. 

Sect. 4. The board shall, as soon as practicable after 
the appointments of the members have become operative, 
meet and organize by the selection of a chairman and a 
secretary; and shall hold examinations, under reasonable 
rules and regulations adopted by it, of persons desiring 
to be registered as qualified to have charge or control of 
the construction, alteration, removal, or tearing down of 
buildings or structures. The first examination shall be 
held within thirty days after the date of the organization 
of the board, and shall be advertised once a week for three 
successive weeks in the daily papers published in the City 
of Boston, and in the City Record. Due notice of subse- 
quent examinations shall be posted in the ofl&ces of the 
building department and of the board of examiners and 
published in the City Record. 

The board shall establish various classes of persons to 
be registered, shall determine the qualifications required 



158 City of Boston Building Law. 

for each class, and after examination shall register in 
each class the persons found to possess the requisite 
qualifications therefor. The name and address of each 
person so found to be qualified, with the designation of 
the class in which he is registered, shall thereupon be 
certified by the board to the building commissioner who 
shall make a record of the same which shall be open to 
public inspection. 

Sect. 5. Any person who shall by afl&davit, together 
with such other evidence as may be required by the board, 
show to the board that prior to the passage of this ordi- 
nance he has had charge or control of the construction, 
alteration, removal or tearing down of buildings or struc- 
tures in the class in which he applies to be registered, and 
shall satisfy the board that he is qualified by education, 
training or experience to have charge or control of such 
work, may, without any other examination, be registered 
in said class and be ce];tified to the building commissioner 
as a person qualified within such class. 

Sect. 6. The building commissioner, upon the pay- 
ment of a fee of two dollars, shall issue a license to each 
person certified by the board, and such license shall not 
be transferred. The fees received by the board and by 
the building commissioner shall be paid over to the city 
collector at least once a week. 

Sect. 7. A person who has been duly licensed as afore- 
said shall be entitled to have charge or control of any 
work described in section one of this ordinance, in the 
class in which he is registered, until his license is revoked 
or suspended by the building commissioner upon the order 
of the board. No license shall be revoked or suspended 
except upon proof of charges, filed with the board by the 
building commissioner or other person, specifying that 
the licensee has been careless or negligent in the perform- 
ance of his duty in connection with work under his charge 
or control, or has caused or permitted a violation of the 



City of Boston Building Law. 159 

building laws in connection therewith, or that such laws 
have been violated in connection with such work when 
the licensee knew, or, in the exercise of due diligence, 
should have known, that such violation had occurred. 
Upon learning of such carelessness, or neglect of duty, or 
of such violation of law, the building commissioner shall 
file charges with the board and prosecute the same. Upon 
the filing of such charges by the building commissioner, 
or other person, the board shall give to the licensee notice 
of a hearing upon the charges, which shall be held by the 
board not less than seven days after the date of said 
notice. The notice shall be by personal service or by 
registered mail and shall state the time and place of the 
hearing and contain a copy of the charges. At such 
hearing the licensee may be represented by counsel, and 
the building commissioner may be assisted by a repre- 
sentative of the law department of the city. 

Sect. 8, If, for any cause, a person licensed as herein 
provided, shall cease to have charge or control of any 
work described in section one of this ordinance before 
such work is finished, the work shall stop until another 
person duly Ucensed for the doing of such work has been 
placed in charge thereof. 

Sect. 9. Whenever the board shall determine that a 
sufficient numbqr of persons has been licensed in the 
various classes, it shall post notice of such determina- 
tion in the ofiices of the building department and of 
the board and publish the same in the City Record. No 
person shall, by reason of an3^thing contained in this 
ordinance, be denied a permit by the building com- 
missioner or suffer any penalty until after the expiration 
of thirty days from the date of said publication in the 
City Record. 

Sect. 10. Whoever violates any provision of this 
ordinance shall be punished by a fine of not more than 
fifty dollars for each offence. 



160 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 11. This ordinance shall take effect upon its 
passage. 



In City Council, January 27, 1913. 

Passed. James Donovan, City Clerk. 

Approved January 28, 1913. 

John F. Fitzgerald, Mayor. 

A true copy. 

Attest : 

James Donovan, City Clerk. 

Ordained by authority of chapter 713, Acts of 1912. 



CHAPTER 4, ORDINANCES OF 1913. 
Concerning the Building Limits. 
In the Year One Thousand Nine Hundred and Thirteen. 
Be it ordained hy the City Council of Boston, as follows: 

Section 1. Section twenty-seven of chapter forty- 
five of the Revised Ordinances of 1898 is hereby amended 
by striking out said section and inserting in place thereof 
a new section, as follows : 

Section 27. The building limits referred to in section 
nine of chapter five hundred and fifty of the acts of the 
year 1907 are hereby extended, defined and established 
as follows : 

All that portion of the city which is included within 
a line beginning at the intersection of the boundary lines 
between the City of Boston and the cities of Somerville 
and Everett; thence by the boundary lines between the 
City of Boston and the cities of Everett and Chelsea to 
the intersection with the centre line of Trumbull street 
extended northerly; thence by said centre line of Trum- 
bull street extended, the centre line of Trumbull street 
and said centre line extended southerly to the Harbor 
line; thence by said Harbor line to its intersection with 



City of Boston Building Law. 161 

the easterly line of Pier No. 5 belonging to the Boston 
and Albany Railroad Company; thence by a straight 
line across Boston Harbor to its intersection with the 
Harbor line at the easterly corner of Pier No. 1 in South 
Boston; thence by the Harbor line in the northerly, 
easterly and southerly portions of South Boston to an 
angle in said Harbor line nearly opposite the intersection 
of the centre line of Columbia road with the centre line 
of location of the Old Colony Raihoad; thence by a 
straight line to the said intersection; and bj^ the centre 
lines of Columbia road, Blue Hill avenue, Seaver street, 
Columbus avenue, Atherton and Mozart streets, Chest- 
nut avenue, Sheridan, Centre and Perkins streets. South 
Huntington avenue, Castleton street and the centre 
line of said Castleton street extended to the boundary 
line between the City of Boston and the town of Brook- 
line; thence by said boundary line to a point therein 
one hundred feet southwest of Washington street in the 
Brighton district; thence by a line parallel to and one 
hundred feet southwesterly from the centre line of Wash- 
ington street to an angle formed by the intersection 
of said line with the extension of a line parallel to and 
one hundred feet northwesterly of the centre line of 
Market street; thence by said extension and said line 
parallel to and one hundred feet northwesterly of the 
centre line of Market street to a point one hundred 
feet south of the centre line of Western avenue; thence 
by a line parallel to and one hundred feet south of the 
centre line of Western avenue and said line extended to 
a point in the boundary line between the City of Boston 
and the town of Watertown south of Watertown Bridge, 
so called; thence by said boundary line and the boundary 
lines between the cities of Cambridge and Somerville to 
the point of beginning. 

Also those portions of Ward 26 upon or within one 
hundred feet of the following named streets and squares: 



162 City of Boston Building Law. 

Everett square, so called; Fairmount avenue from River 
street to the Neponset river; River street from the loca- 
tion of the Boston & Providence Railroad to Winthrop 
street; Hyde Park avenue on the easterly side from 
the northerly side of Oak street to Everett street; Hyde 
Park avenue on the westerly side from the northerly 
side of Pine street extension, so called, to a point on said 
Hyde Park avenue opposite the southerly line of Everett 
street; Harvard avenue from River street to Winthrop 
street; Maple street from River street to a point one 
hundred and eighty feet southerly therefrom; Central 
avenue from River street to Winthrop street; Davison 
street from Fairmount avenue to a point three hundred 
feet northeasterly therefrom; Grove street; Pierce street 
from Fairmount avenue to a point three hundred feet 
northeasterly therefrom; Knott street from Fairmount 
avenue to a point three hundred feet easterly therefrom; 
Railroad avenue from Fairmount avenue to a point 
three hundred feet northeasterly therefrom; Station 
street from the Neponset river to a point three hundred 
feet northeasterly from Fairmount avenue; Walnut 
street from Fairmount avenue to a point three hundred 
feet southwesterly therefrom; Maple street from Fair- 
mount avenue to a point one hundred and twenty-five 
feet westerly therefrom. 

This ordinance became operative July 1, 1914. 



Index. 



163 



INDEX. 



References in this Index are to Pages and Sections of the Existing Law. 

Note. — When an asterisk (*) is placed before a figure, see, also, 
regulations of 1914 for escalators and elevators for the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts. 

When a dagger (f) is placed before a figure, see sect. 4, chap. 806, 
Acts of 1913. 

A. 

Page. Section, 
ACCESS TO ROOFS. 

permanent means of, required 12-55 12-44 

ACCIDENTS, ELEVATOR. 

to be reported to Building Commissioner 48 * 38 

ADJOINING PROPERTY. 

commissioner may enter to secure unsafe building. 6 5 

to be supported 12 12 

AIR DUCTS. 

of fireproof material 46 38 

"AIR PIPES"— PLUMBING. 

definition of 90 112 

requirements of 93, 94 117, 118 

AIR SPACES. 

in walls 35 26 

AISLES, PUBLIC BUILDING. 

must conform to requirements for theatres 86 107 

no obstructions or temporary seats in 85 105 

persons not to remain in 86 105 

AISLES, THEATRE. . 

persons not to remain in 88 111 

regulations for 79 88 

ALCOVES IN TENEMENT HOUSES. 

fight and ventilation; opening into 66 63 

ALTERATION. 

construction, inspection and maintenance of build- 
ings, chap. 284, 1910 139 

ALTERATION OF EXISTING BUILDINGS. 

general regulations for 42, 43 35 



164 Index, 

Page. Section. 
ALTERATIONS. 

affecting stability or fire risk 43 35 

bmlding to be examined when application is made. . 5 3 

limit of cost of wooden building, in limits 15 13 

permit required for 4-11 1-12 

prohibitions relating to 15 13 

what constitutes 43 35 

ALTERATIONS AND REPAIRS. 

permits required for 14 13 

ALTERED. 

what buildings may be, for second-class habitation . . 42 35 

ALTERED BUILDINGS. 

height not increased 42 35 

maximum munber of stories 42 35 

ANCHORS. 

for floors 13 12 

for walls 35 24 

provision for 35 24 

"APARTMENT." 

in tenement houses defined 53 42 

APPEAL, BOARD OF. (See Boakd op Appeal.) 

appointment; terms; vacancies; qualifications; de- 
cisions; reports, etc 6,7,8 6, 7, 8 

APPEALS. 

mode of procedure 7 7 

time limit 7 7 

APPEAL FROM BOARD OF APPEAL 106 129 

APPLIANCES FOR POWER AND HEAT. 

hazardous buildings, regulations for 102, 103 125 

APPLICATION FOR PERMIT. 

form of 4 1 

sworn to 5 1 

to bear name and address of owner 5 1 

ARC LIGHT. 

for emergency in existing theatres 88 111 

AREA OF FLOORS. 

maximum undivided 29 17 

AREA OF WOODEN BUILDINGS. 

not to be increased, in alteration, in some cases 15 13 

AREAS. 

buildings, restriction of 29 17 

ART GALLERIES. 

may be placed above theatres 86 108 



Index. 165 

Page. Section. 

ASHES. 

receptacle, tenement house 75 75 

space to be provided 43 35 

ASHES AND GARBAGE. 

tenement house, receptacles for 75 75 

ASHLAR. 

when reckoned in thickness of wall 34 23 

ASSEMBLY, PLACES OF PUBLIC. 

capacity; must be fireproof; general requirements.. . 85, 86 105 

ASSEMBLY ROOMS. 

capacity, dimensions, etc 85 105 

ASSISTANTS, BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

appointed by conunissioner 3 1 

AUDITORIUMS, THEATRE. 

heating apparatus under 84 104 

seating regulations for 78 87 

AUTOMATIC DOORS. 

in stair shafts 29 17 

AWNINGS. 

projection allowed 16 13 

B. 

BAKERIES AND FAT BOILING. 

prohibited in tenement houses; exceptions 60 53 

BAKERIES IN TENEMENT HOUSES. 

fireproofed 60 53 

BALCONIES. 

tenement house, requirements of 54, 55 42 

BALLOON FRAMING. 

not allowed 50 39 

"BASEMENT." 

definition of 11 11 

BASEMENTS. 

tenement house, requirements for 69, 70 68 

BAY WINDOWS. 

projection allowed 16 13 

who fixes projection 16 13 

BEACON STREET. 

height of buildings on, chap. 543, 1902 114 

BEAMS. 

steel, tied lengthwise 36 27 

wood, in walls of second-class buildings 42 34 

BEAMS AND GIRDERS. 

computations relating to 26, 27 16 



166 Index. 

Page. Section, 
BLOW-OFF PIPES. 

how connected 101 122 

BOARD OF APPEAL. 

annual report 8 8 

appointed by Mayor, on nominations 6 6 

appeals from, to be heard in equity courts 106 129 

composition, etc 8 6 

decisions of, to be in writing 6 6 

to specify variations allowed 6 6 

applicants to have copy of 7 7 

summary of, ih annual report 8 8 

hearings on appealed cases 7 7 

may vary provisions of this act 7 7 

may vary provisions of building law 7 7 

members of, how appointed 6 6 

terms of 6 6 

compensation of 6 6 

not to act when interested 6 6 

to be Boston men 6 6 

reports, annual, to mayor 8 8 

to contain summary of decisions 8 8 

to be printed separately 8 8 

to hear appeals on setting engines and dynamos. . . . 103 125 

to approve egress for large areas 30 17 

vacancies in, how filled 6 6 

who may appeal to 7 7 

BOARD OF EXAMINERS OF GAS FITTERS. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

BOARD OF HEALTH. 

may limit number of occupants in any building .... 104 128 

not affected by this act 9 10 

powers of, defined 104, 105 128 

BOARD OF PARK COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

BOARD OF STREET COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

BOARDS, CITY, CERTAIN. 

authority of, not curtailed by this act 9 10 

BOILER. 

permit required for placing 102 125 

BOILERS AND FURNACES. 

hazardous buildings, public hearings on 103 125 

not to be placed on wooden floors 15 13 

or under public ways 16 13 

or under certain parts of theatres 104-111 84-88 



Index. 167 

Page. Section. 

BOLTS. 

in connections, when used 20 14 

BONDING. 

of walls at corners 35 24 

BONDING BRICKWORK. 

provision for 35 25 

BOOTHS, VOTING. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

BORING OF SOIL. 

may be required 32 20 

BOULEVARDS. 

building lines on, sect. 16, chap. 28, R. L 152 

BOWDOIN STREET. 

height of buildings on, chap. 543, 1902 114 

BRACKETS. 

under steel beams, fireproofed 39 32 

BRICKWORK, BONDING, 

provision for 35 25 

BRICKWORK IN COMPRESSION. 

stresses of 21 14 

BRIDGES, QUAYS, ETC. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

BUILDERS. 

licensed, to control building operations, chap. 9, 

Ord. 1912 156 

BUILDING COMMISSIONER. 

appointment of 3 1 

authority and powers of ... .3, 4, 5, 6 1. 4, 5 

has power to reject materials 23 15 

may appoint deputy; powers of 3 1 

may enter any building or premises 106 129 

may require duplicate plans to be kept at building ... 4 1 

may require plans and specifications 4 1 

may stop work for violation of permits 4 1 

may order unsafe buildings vacated 5 4 

may take measures for pubhc safety 12 12 

not to dispense with tenement house restrictions 75 76 

quahfications required of 3 1 

salary of, fixed by City Council 3 1 

term of oflBce 3 1 

to approve plumbing of chemical laboratories 94 117 

to approve elevators 27 38 

to approve stable drainage 94 117 

to examine all buildings in course of construction 5 2 

to examine buildings dangerous, damaged or unsafe. . 5, 6 3, 4. 5 



168 Index. 

Page. Section. 
BUILDING COMMISSIONER. 

to keep records of violations 5 2 

to have charge of Building Department 3 1 

to post notice of unsafe elevators 47 38 

to prescribe conditions for buildings outside limits. . . 30 17 

to submit annual report to Mayor 4 1 

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION. (See separate sub- 
jects.) 

equivalents in methods of, may be allowed 8 8 

height, excavations, cellars, waUs, etc., regulations 

for 31 18 

BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

commissioner to be in charge of 3 

how appointed 3 

term of office 3 

qualifications reqiiired 3 

salary of, fixed by City Council 3 

may appoint inspectors, employees and assistants, 3 

clerk to keep records open to public 4 

employees to retain positions until removal or dis- 
charge 3 

inspectors, qualifications required of 3 

officers, commissioner, salary, term, etc 3 

may enter buildings and premises 106 129 

not to engage in other business 3 

not to furnish material 3 

not to be financially interested 3 

present, to hold office until removal or discharge . . 3 

requirements and restrictions of 3 

records to be open to pubUc inspection 4 

under charge of commissioner 3 

BUILDING EGRESS. 

to be satisfactory before occupancy 12 12 

BUILDING INSPECTION. 

commissioner, or inspectors, to examine aU buildings 

in course of construction 5 2 

BUILDING LAW, 1907. 

approved June 22 107 134 

in effect August 1 107 134 

exceptions and exemptions from provisions of 9 10 

equity courts given power to enforce 105, 106 129 

law courts given jurisdiction in law cases 106 130 

not to deprive certain city boards and officers of 

power 9 10 



9 


10 


106 


129 


107 


132 



Index. 169 

Page. Section. 
BUILDING LAW, 1907. 

not to deprive other departments, etc., of authority 
already held 

officials may enter building and premises 

(^"^^ violators of, may be fined $500 

- BUILDING LAWS. 

amendments thereto, chap. 782, 1914 149 

BUILDING LIMITS. 

present to continue until changed 9 9 

City Council may change, extend and define 9 9 

outline of, chap. 4, Ord. 1913 160 

BUILDING LIN^E. 

in public ways, sect. 103, chap. 48, R. L., and chap. 

572, 1913. 143, 153 

BUILDING LINES. 

on parkways, boulevards, etc., chap. 28, sect. 

16, R. L 152 

BUILDING MATERIALS. (See separate subjects.) 

combustible, not to be kept in habitable buildings . . 

commissioner has power to reject 

method of computing strength of 

quahty of mortar, cement and concrete 

strength of; tables of stresses 18, 19, 20, 21 

BUILDING OPERATIONS. 

control of, chap. 9, Ord. 1912 156 

BUILDING PERMITS. (See, also, Pekmits.) 

apphcations for 4 

how and by whom granted 4 

if terms of, are violated commissioner may stop work, 4 

must be on approved printed forms 4 

requirements for 4 

BUILDING PROHIBITIONS. 

list of general 14 13 

BUILDING, OCCUPATION OF. 

not until means of egress are provided 12 12 

"BUILDING, STORY OF." 

definition of 11 11 

BUILDINGS. 

classes of, defined 

height of, defined 

regulations for 

inspection during construction 

outside finish of 

not covered by law 



104 


126 


23 


15 


23 


16 


24 


15 


,21 


14 



10 


11 


11 


11 


31 


18 


5 


2 


13 


12 


9 


10 



170 Index. 

Page. Section. 
BUILDINGS. 

not affected by fire limits 9 9 

for manufacturing purposes outside limits, maximum 

height 30 17 

on same lot with tenement house 66 62 

in public parks, chap. 129, 1889 108 

height of in Boston, chap. 333, 1904, and chap. 383, 

1905 119,125 

height of on Copley square, chap. 452, 1898 Ill 

height of on Rutherford avenue, chap. 416, 1907. . . 137 
construction, alteration, inspection and maintenance 

of, chap. 284, 1910 139 

burned, dilapidated, dangerous, nuisances, chap. 

101, R. L 153 

occupation or use of, not to be changed without per- 
mit from commissioner 45 36 

prohibitions relating to alterations of wooden build- 
ings 14 13 

moving, wooden buildings 15 13 

repairs, wooden buildings 15 13 

requirements for all 12 12 

commissioner may enforce 12 12 

restriction of areas 29 17 

record of violations to be kept 5 2 

BUILDINGS, ALTRATION OF EXISTING. 

general regulations for 42, 43 35 

BUILDINGS, CERTAIN, OUTSIDE LIMITS. 

commissioner to prescribe conditions for 30 17 

BUILDINGS, CLASSIFICATION OF. 

first and second classes 28 17 

BUILDINGS, COMPOSITE. 

definition of 11 11 

BUILDINGS, DANGEROUS OR DAMAGED. 

commissioner to examine and make record 5 3, 4 

BUILDINGS, EXPOSURES. 

regulations for, when remodelled, etc 42, 43 35 

BUILDINGS, FEDERAL. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

BUILDINGS, FIRST-CLASS. 

definition of 10 11 

BUILDINGS, HAZARDOUS. (See Hazardous 
Buildings.) 

appliances for heat and power in 102, 103 125 

must have permits 102 125 

hearings on 103 125 



Index. 171 

Page. Section. 
BUILDINGS, OCCUPANTS OF. 

board of health may limit momber of ; . . . 104 128 

BUILDINGS, PUBLIC. (See Public Buildings.) 

must conform to regulations for theatres 86 107 

BUILDINGS, SECOND-CLASS. 

definition of 10 11 

BUILDINGS, STATE. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

BUILDINGS, THIRD-CLASS. 

definition of 10 11 

BUILDINGS UNLAWFULLY CONSTRUCTED. 

deemed nuisances 107 132 

abatement and removal of 107 132 

BUILDINGS, WOODEN. 

general regulations for construction of 49, 50, 51 39, 40 

height of 50, 51 40 

not to be moved within building limits 15 13 

proximity to other buildings 50, 51 40 

BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES. 

owner responsible for maintenance of 104 127 

responsibility of lessees 104 127 

BULKHEADS AND SCUTTLES. 

tenement house, requirements for 55 44 

BURNED BUILDINGS. 

chap. 101, R. L 153 

C. 

CAST IRON. 

strength 20 14 

CEILINGS. 

fireproof, furred down 39 32 

in tenement house cellars metal lathed and plastered, 59 49 

over furnances, boilers, etc., to be protected 40 32 

CEILINGS, CELLAR. 

tenement house, construction of 59 49 

"CELLAR." 
definition of 11 11 

CELLARS. 

requirements for 34 22 

ceilings, tenement house, construction of 59 49 

protected from dampness 34 22 

lowest, without waterproofing 34 22 

CEMENT. 

required qualifications for 25 15 

non-staining, may be used 21 14 



172 Index. 

Page. Section. 
CEMENT. 

to conform to standard specifications 25 15 

CHASE. 

required thickness outside 15 13 

CHEMICAL LABORATORIES. 

plumbing of, to be approved by conunissioner 94 117 

CHEMICAL WORKS. 

require permit 102 125 

CHIMNEY FLUES. 

height of 12 12 

lining required 13 12 

CHIMNEYS. 

floor timber not to be within two inches of 15 13 

restrictions relating to 15 13 

thickness of walls . ; 13 12 

how much to be corbelled 15 13 

hung from 12-inch wall 15 13 

CHURCHES. 

use of cinematograph in, regulation for, chap. 437, 

1905 136 

moving picture exhibition in, Mayor to grant per- 
mit for, chap. 280, 1913 143 

CINDER CONCRETE. 

where allowed 22 14 

CINEMATOGRAPH. 

regulation for use of, chap. 437, 1905, and chap. 791, 

1914 136, 151 

operation of, chap. 791, 1914 151 

CITY COUNCIL. 

to fix salary of building commissioner 3 1 

CITY OFFICERS, CERTAIN. 

authority of, not curtailed by this act 9 10 

CLASSES OF BUILDINGS. 

definitions of , 10 11 

CLASSIFICATION. 

of buildings 28 17 

CLEAN-OUTS, FERRULES, ETC. 

required diameter and weight of 96 121 

CLERK, BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

duties of, defined. 4 1 

CLOSETS. 

under staircases, restrictions 16 13 

COLUMNS. 

cast iron, restrictions 20 14 



Index. 173 

Page. Section. 

COLUMNS. 

cast iron, how tested 24 15 

cast iron, parts bolted 36 27 

cast iron, strength 20 14 

eccentric loading, how figured 26 16 

exterior, isolated, fireproofed 39 32 

~ reinforced concrete, rules for strength fixed by com- 
missioner 22 14 

reinforced concrete, requirements 26 16 

to be fireproofed and how 38, 39 32 

reduction of floor loads : 45 36 

wheel guards on 40 32 

steel, parts riveted 36 27 

steel, strength, formula 19 14 

wood, strength 18 14 

to be of masonry or metal, when 14 12 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 104 126 

storage of 104 126 

COMBUSTIBLE ROOFING. 

not permitted 17 13 

COMMISSIONER. 

experience required, appointment, etc 3 1 

salary, how fixed 3 1 

appoints inspectors, employees, etc 3 1 

discretion as to concrete permits 22 14 

power to reject materials 23 15 

in charge of department 3 1 

may abate as a nuisance a building in violation of 

law 107 132 

shall placard buildings: 

(a) not provided with sufficient egress 5 4 

(b) where violations of building law exist 5 4 

(c) unsafe or dangerous buildings 5 4 

may allow "equivalent" methods 8 8 

may allow Ume mortar for stonework 24 15 

may appoint elevator inspectors, one for each 1,000 

elevators 49 38 

miay secure unsafe buildings 6 5 

may support at dangerous excavations 31 19 

may order unsafe building vacated 5 4 

may regulate location of steam and hot water pipes 

from woodwork 41 32 

may require a4ditional safeguards on elevators 49 38 



174 



Index. 



COMMISSIONER. 

may require alterations to conform to rules for new 
buildings 

may require borings for foundations 

may require fire damage repairs to conform to rules 
for new buildings 

may require inspector of piling 

may require more exits in theatres 

may require oath to application 

may require plans and specifications 

may require tests of cast-iron columns 

may require tests of materials 

may require inspector on concrete work 

to determine necessary egress 

to determine necessity for temporary floors 

to determine quality of materials 

to determine requirements for strength not covered 
by this act 

to determine stresses not here given . , 

to fix floor loads not specified 

to fix gas outlets in theatres 

to make rules for reinforced columns 

to grant permits 

to print Board of Appeal report 8 

to inspect unsafe and dangerous buildings 5 

to issue permits for alteration and repair of wooden 

buildings 14 

to issue permits for hazardous buildings 102 

to issue permits for engines, boilers, etc 102 

to issue permits for plumbing 91 

to issue permits in accordance with decisions of 

Board of Appeal 7 

to make record of violation 5 

to notify owners or agents of unsafe and dangeroxis 

buildings 5 

not to waive tenement requirements 75 

or inspector to examine all buildings being con- 
structed or altered, dangerous or damaged, or 

when permit has been requested 5 

' powers in case of violation 4 

to pass on exits in altered habitations 43 

to pass on exposure in altered habitations 43 

to pass on secm-ing of seats in halls, etc 85 

to post notice of dangerous elevators 47 



Page. 


Section. 


43 


35 


32 


20 


43 


35 


32 


20 


82 


99 


5 


1 


4 


1 


24 


15 


23 


15 


25 


15 


12 


12 


52 


41 


23 


15 


8 


8 


22 


14 


45 


36 


82 


99 


22 


14 


4 


1 



13 
125 

125 
114 



4 
76 



2,3 

1 

35 

35 

105 
*38 



Index. 175 

Page. Section. 

COMMISSIONER. 

to prepare sketch of typical plumbing 94 118 

to prescribe conditions for maintaining boilers and 

furnaces 103 125 

to prescribe conditions for certain buildings outside 

V ~ fire limits 30 17 

^o prescribe conditions for temporary structures. ... 9 9 
to prescribe conditions for curtain walls in steel 

frame buildings 36 27 

to prescribe fireproofing of steel in alterations 40 32 

to prescribe maximum floor loads, existing buildings, 45 36 

to submit annual report 4 1 

to take measures for public safety 12 12 

to approve drawings for aU work 12 12 

to approve drawings for egress 12 12 

to approve elevators before used 47 * 38 

to approve egress for extra large areas 30 17 

to approve plumbing, chemical laboratories 94 117 

to approve plumbing, stables 94 117 

to approve stresses in reinforced concrete 22 14 

to approve stresses in stonework 21 14 

to approve smaU openings in walls, etc 38 31 

to approve supports for vent shaft skylight 59 52 

to approve use of wood in foundations 50 39 

to fix grade for cutting piles 32 20 

to decide if piling is necessary 32 20 

to determine cause and remedy for elevator accidents, 48 * 38 
to record examinations to raise, enlarge, alter or 

repair 5 3 

COMMISSIONER, BUILDING. (See Building 
Commissioner.) 

appointment, qualifications, term, salary, etc 3 1 

COMMISSIONER, FIRE, 

not affected by this act 9 10 

COMMISSIONER OF WIRES. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

provisions of sect. 7 apply to 7 7 

governed by decisions of Board of Appeal . 7 7 

COMPOSITE BUILDINGS. 

definition of 11 - 11 

COMPUTATION. 

of concrete, steel, methods 22 16 

COMPUTATIONS, BUILDING MATERIALS. 

methods of 23 16 



176 



Index. 



Page. Section. 

CONCRETE. 

and reinforced concrete piling 32 20 

and blocks for walls, single family house 29 17 

capping for wood piles 32 20 

composition and strength 22 14 

inspector to make daily reports 25 15 

modulus of elasticity 25 15 

protection for metal underground 34 22 

reinforced composition and strength 22 14 

requirements for use 24 15 

specifications to be submitted 22 14 

regulations for use of 22 14 

required qualifications of 24 15 

stresses of 22 14 

CONCRETE, REINFORCED. 

required qualifications of 25 15 

CONSTRUCTION. 

alteration, inspection and maintenance of buildings, 

chap. 284, 1910 139 

general 31 18 

permit for : . . 4 1 

to be supported i 12 12 

CONSTRUCTION, BUILDING. {See separate sub- 
jects.) 

height, excavation, cellars, walls, etc., regulations for, 31 18 

first and second class buildings 28 17 

equivalents may be allowed by appeal board and 

commissioner . 8 8 

CONTINUOUS BEAMS. 

how figured 25 15 

CONTROL. 

building operations, by licensed builders, chap. 9, 

Ord. 1912 156 

of exits, etc., lights in theatres 82, 88 99-111 

of ventilators in theatres 78, 89 86-111 

COPLEY SQUARE. 

height of buildings on, chap. 452, 1898 Ill 

CORBELLING. 

of walls for joists (8-inch walls) 42 34 

CORBELS, CHIMNEY. 

restrictions relating to 15 13 

'CORNER LOT." 

definition of , , , 53 42 



Index. 



177 



Page. Section, 

CORNICE. 

of second-class buildings, material and construction, 37 29 

CORNICE STONE. 

to balance 37 29 

projection allowed 16 13 

CORRECTION, HOUSE OF. 
^"~^ not affected by this act 9 10 

COTTON, PAPER STOCK, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 104 126 

COURTHOUSE, SUFFOLK COUNTY. 
not affected by this act 9 10 

COURT, MUNICIPAL, 
given jurisdiction in law proceedings 106 130 

COURTS, AREA. 
theatres must have open 76 79, 80 

COURTS, EQUITY, 
given jurisdiction to enforce provisions of this act . . 103-107 129-131 

"COURTS," TENEMENT HOUSE. 

drained 75 74 

definition of 53 42 

general regulations for 63 57 

inner, provision for 64 59 

not to have roof or skylight 63 57 

outer, provision for 63 58 

vent, regulations for 65 60 

CURTAIN WALLS. 

in steel frame buildings, thickness 36 27 

CURTAINS. 

theatres must have fireproof 77 84 

CUTTING FOR PIPING, 
restrictions concerning 23 14 

D. 

DAMAGED BUILDINGS. 

commissioner to examine, and make record 5 3,4 

may be restored to original condition or conform to 

rules for new biiildings 43 35 

DAMPPROOFING. 

cellar bottom 34 22 

DANGEROUS BUILDING. 

to be placarded 5 4 

DANGEROUS BUILDINGS. 

commissioner to examine, and make record 5 3, 4 

chap. 101, R.L 153 



178 Index. 

Page. Section. 
DANGEROUS BUSINESS. 

in tenements 60 54 

DANGEROUS OR UNSAFE BUILDINGS. 

to be inspected and owner notified, notice posted; 

owner to secure or remove 5, 6 4, 5 

power of commissioner 6 5 

DECISIONS, BOARD OF APPEAL. 

applicants to have copy 7 7 

must be in writing 7 7 

specify variations, etc 7 7 

DEFINITIONS. 

certain words relating to tenement houses 52, 53 42 

DEFLECTION OF BEAMS. 

allowable 19 14 

DEMOLITION. 

permit for 4 1 

DEPARTMENT, BUILDING. 

organization of 3 1 

DEPUTY BUILDING COMMISSIONER. 

appointment of 3 1 

powers of 3 1 

DILAPIDATED BUILDINGS. 

chap. 101, R. L 153 

DISTANCE FROM LOT LINE. 

tenement house 61 55 

{8ee, also, yards, inner and outer court) 63, 64 58, 59 

wooden buildings 50, 51 40 

DIVISION OF FLOOR AREAS. 

by walls 29 17 

DOORS. 

stage, in theatres, provision for 79 91 

in operative buildings, not to be locked, chap. 566, 

1914 148 

DOORS IN PARTY WALLS. 

size, etc 38 31 

"DRAIN." 

plumbing, definition of 90 112 

for cellar floor to have trap, etc 102 124 

DRAIN PIPES. 

lay out, support, details 100 122 

DRAINS, SURFACE. 

must have seal trap and back-water valve 102 124 

DRAINAGE OF COURTS AND YARDS. 

tenement-house, to satisfaction of board of health. . 75 74 



Index. 179 

Page. Section. 
DRAINAGE FITTINGS. 

certain, miist be galvanized, etc 99 121 

DRAINAGE, STABLE. 

commissioner to approve fixtures for 94 117 

DRY HOUSES. 

, regulation for, chap. 729, 1913 147 

^DUMB WAITER SHAFTS. 

in tenement houses to be fireproof ed 59 52 

to be of fireproof material 46 * 38 

DWELLING, 
private, entertainment in, chap. 254, 1909, amending 

sect. 173, chap. 102, R. L 139 

DYNAMO. 

application to be published 103 125 

permit required 102 125 

E. 

ECCENTRIC LOADING OF COLUMNS. 

how figured 26 16 

EGRESS. 

means of, in case of fire 12 12 

from tenement houses, provision for 54, 55 43 

stores and storage buildings 30 17 

outside, window openings to be protected when and 

how .• 14 12 

buildings, not provided with sufficient, to be plac- 
arded 5 4 

commissioner to approve before occupancy 12 12 

for large areas to be approved 30 17 

outside, projection of 16 13 

for second-class factories and workshops 12 12 

two means, mercantile buildings 30 17 

two means, for altered buildings over 33 feet high. . 43 35 

ELEVATOR CABLES. 

how attached 48 * 38 

operators, minimum age 48 * 38 

safety attachment required 46 * 38 

shaft openings how protected and to be kept closed, 46 * 38 

shaft, grille vmder machinery 46 * 38 

shaft, space between car and walls 47 * 38 

shaft windows to have bars 47 * 38 

shaft, fireproof construction 46 * 38 

shaft, height above roof 46 * 38 

shaft in tenement houses to be fireproofed 59 52 



180 Index. 

Page. Section. 
ELEVATOR SHAFTS. 

tenement house, regulations for 59 52 

no recess in outer wall 47 * 38 

not more than 4 inches between car and walls 47 * 38 

to be of fireproof material 46 * 38 

to have skylights 46 * 38 

ELEVATORS. 

accidents to be reported 48 * 38 

inspectors may be appointed -. 49 * 38 

manufacturers required to test 49 * 38 

permits for, how obtained 48 * 38 

to be approved by commissioner before being used . . 1 47 * 38 

unsafe, commissioner to post notice 1 47 * 38 

who may operate them 48 * 38 

for coal or grain, not restricted by building limits ... 9 9 

freight, construction of shaft and doors 46 * 38 

freight gates in outside doors 47 * 38 

freight not above first story without fireproof in- 

closure 46 * 38 

freight, to have danger signals 47 * 38 

governor and slack cable device required 48 * 38 

in areas and hallways to have grille 46 * 38 

in case of accident, commissioner to be notified .... 48 * 38 

not to be used until approved by commissioner .... 47 * 38 

permit required and plans to be approved 48 * 38 

located to give easy access to machinery 48 * 38 

to be tested by manufacturer in presence of inspector, 49 * 38 

imsafe, penalty for use 47 38 

ELEVATORS AND HOISTS. 

general regulations for 46, 47, 48, 49 * 38 

fireproof inclosures for 46 * 38 

exceptions 46 * 38 

EMPLOYEES, BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

to be appointed by commissioner 3 1 

to retain positions until removal or discharge 3 1 

ENCLOSURES. 

fireproof for elevators and hoists 46 * 38 

ENFORCEMENT OF BUILDING LAW. 

Equity and law courts given jurisdiction 105, 106 129, 130 

ENGINE. 

application to be published 103 125 

permit required for placing 102 125 

ENGINES. 

not to be placed under certain parts of theatres 84-88 104-111 



Index. 



181 



Page. Section, 
ENLARGED. 

what buildings may be 42 35 

ENLARGING BUILDINGS. 

application for 4 1 

to be examined . 5 3 

ENTERTAINMENT. 

in private dwelling, chap. 454, 1909, amending sect. 

173, chap. 102, R. L 139 

ENTRANCE HALLS. 

tenement-house, construction of 58 48 

EQUITY COURTS. 

given jurisdiction under this act 105 129 

EQUIVALENTS. 

in methods of construction and maintenance may be 

allowed 8 8 

ESCALATOR SHAFTS. 

to be fireproofed 29 17 

EXAMINATION OF BUILDINGS. 

dangeroxis or damaged 5 3 

vmder application to alter, etc 5 3 

under construction, when made 5 2 

EXAMINERS OF GAS FITTERS. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

EXCAVATIONS. 

general regulations for 31 18, 19 

how and by whom protected 31 19 

responsibility for cost of supporting 31 19 

retaining walls for 31 19 

EXCELSIOR, COTTON, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 104 126 

EXEMPTION. 

special, from restriction of height of buildings, 

chap. 786, 1914 150 

EXEMPTIONS, 

from provisions of this act 9 10 

EXHAUST PIPES, 

steam, how connected 101 122 

EXHAUSTS, STEAM. 

regulations pertaining to 101 122 

EXHIBITION. 

moving pictures, special, Mayor to grant permit, 

chap. 280, 1913 143 

EXISTING TENEMENT HOUSES. 

defined 52 42 

reqiiirements for lighting and ventilation 72-74 70-72 



182 



Index. 



EXISTING THEATRES. 

general regulations for 87, 88 

EXITS. 

in altered habitations, two required 43 

EXITS, ETC., LIGHTS. 

in theatres, control and supply of 82-88 

EXITS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

must conform to regulations for theatres 86 

EXITS, ROOF GARDEN. 

requirements for 87 

EXITS, SIGNS. 

in existing theatres 88 

EXITS, THEATRE. 

general regulations for 79-82 

EXPLOSIVES AND COMBUSTIBLES. 

buildings for manufacturing, require permit 102 

EXPOSURE. 

for altered habitations, amount 43 

for altered habitations, if on corner, may be omitted, 43 

in altered habitations, not to apply in mercantile 
stories 43 

in altered habitations, not to be diminished 43 

to apply to new buildings (except tenements) 44 

EXPOSURES. 

required for existing buildings altered 43 

F. 

FAMILY. 

definition, for tenement houses 52 

FAT-BOILING. 

place must be fireproof ed 60 

prohibited in tenement houses 60 

exceptions 60 

FEATHERS, RAGS, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 104 

FEDERAL BUILDINGS. 

not affected by this act 9 

FEED, HAY, STRAW, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 104 

FEES. 

for permits and licenses, authorized, chap. 571, 1910, 140 
FENCE. 

erected to annoy, etc., prohibited, chap. 33, R. L. . . . 152 

fire escapes 53, 54, 55 



Section. 

Ill 

35 

99-111 

107 

109 

111 

91-99 

125 

35 
35 

35 
35 
35 

35 

42 

53 
53 
53 

126 

10 

126 



43 



Index. 183 

Page. Section. 
FERRULES, CLEAN-OUTS, ETC. 

reqviired diameter and weight of 96 121 

FIRE. 

means of egress in case of 12 12 

J'IRE-ESCAPES. 

in mercantile buildings 30 17 

interior and exterior in tenement houses 54, 55 43 

minimum load 45 36 

' obstruction of, to be removed by Fire Hazard 
Commissioner. {See Sect. 13 D, c, 795, 1914.) 

stores and storage buildings 30 17 

in what they shall consist 54, 55 43 

theatres, outside to be lighted 82-88 99-111 

FIRE COMMISSIONER. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

FIRE DAMAGE. 

how restored 43 35 

FIRE DOORS. 

in party walls, size, etc 38 31 

shafts, stores, warehouses 29 17 

FIRE STOPPING. 

between stair stringers 40 32 

in alteration work in first story and basement, mer- 
cantile 42 35 

in studding and fiu-ring 40 32 

of bearing partitions 40 32 

of floors 40 32 

to be approved by commissioner 40 32 

FIRE WALLS. 

above roof 37 28 

FIREPLACE, 
construction 37 30 

FIRE PROTECTION. 

general requirements for 38, 39, 40 32 

FIREPROOF ENCLOSURES. 

for shafts in first-class warehouses 29 17 

FIREPROOF PARTITIONS. 

how to be constructed 41 33 

in first-class buildings 41 33 

FIREPROOF STAIRWAYS. 

in mercantile buildings 29 17 

FIREPROOF WINDOWS, 
in mercantile and manufacturing buildings 46 37 



184 Index. 

Page. Section. 

FIREPROOFING. 

regulations for 38, 39, 40 32 

of beams, girders, etc 38 32 

of stair halls in tenements 57 46 

of steel and iron in alterations, as approved by com- 
missioner 38 32 

FIRST-CLASS BUILDINGS. 

definition of 10 11 

warehouse to have fireproof enclosures and automatic 

doors 29 17 

what buildings to be 28 17 

FITTINGS, DRAINAGE. 

must be galvanized, etc , 99 121 

"FIXTURE." 

plumbing, meaning of term 90 112 

FLOOR ANCHORS. 

floor anchors 13 12 

FLOOR AREAS. 

undivided, maximum 29 17 

FLOOR JOISTS. 

distance between ends 15-42 13-34 

distance from chimney 15 13 

in party walls 29 17 

FLOOR LOADS. 

for existing buildings, commissioner to fix 45 36 

full loads to be used in certain bmldings 45 36 

minimum 44 36 

reduction for girders, columns, piers and walls 45 36 

FLOOR OPENINGS. 

to be kept closed 46 38 

FLOOR TIMBER. 

not to be within two inches of chimney 15 13 

FLOOR AND ROOF JOISTS. 

minimum bearing 42 34 

on corbels or hangers 42 34 

splayed at ends 42 34 

FLOORS, 
how fire stopped in second and third class con- 
struction 40 32 

security of, required 13 12 

small openings in, to be approved by commissioner, 38 31 

theatre, required levels of 77 82 

stage, requirements for 77-79 85, 89 

to be constructed to carry proposed leads safely .... 44 36 



Index. 185 

Page. Section. 

FLOORS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS. 

conunissioner to prescribe maximuin loads for 45 36 

FLOORS, LOADS. 

least capacity for 44 36 

-FLOORS, WOODEN. 

V^furnaces and boilers not to be placed on 15 13 

FLOORING DURING CONSTRUCTION. 

regulations for 52 41 

FLUES, CHIMNEY. 

height of 12 12 

lining required for certain 13 12 

FLUES, VENTILATING. 

must be of incombustible material 13 12 

FORMS FOR CONCRETE. 

when and how to be removed 25 15 

FOUNDATION. 

construction or alteration of, requires permit 11 12 

depths below front 38-49 31-39 

for first and second class buildings, materials 33 21 

for wooden buildings, material and thickness 49 39 

metal in, protected with concrete, etc 34 22 

metal work in, protected from dampness 34 22 

not to overload soil 33 21 

of rubble stone, when used 33 21 

walls, thickness 34 22 

"FOUNDATION." 

definition of , 11 11 

regulations for 31 18 

FOUNDATIONS, FIRST AND SECOND CLASS 
BUILDINGS, 

general regulations of 33 21 

FRAME OF WOODEN BUILDING. 

described 50 39 

FURNACE. 

distance below ceiling 40 32 

permit required for setting 4-103 1-125 

FURNACES AND BOILERS. 

hazardous buildings, public hearings on 57 125 

not to be placed on wooden floors 15 13 

under certain parts of theatres 77, 78 104-111 

FURRING. 

distance from chimney 15 13 

fire stopped, where and how 40 32 

not within one inch of chimney 15 31 



186 Index. 

Page. Section. 
FURTHER REQUIREMENTS. 

for strength determined by commissioner 8 8 

Q. 

GARAGES. 

erection and maintenance of. 

chap. 259, 1912 142 

chap. 342, 1911 141 

chap. 577, 1913 144 

GARBAGE. 

receptacle in altered habitations 43 35 

GARBAGE AND ASHES. 

tenement-house, receptacles for 75 75 

GARDENS, ROOF. {See Roof Gardens.) 

above theatres, provisions for. 86 108 

GAS FITTERS, BOARD OF EXAMINERS OF. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

"GAS FITTING." 

definition of 11 11 

municipal court given jurisdiction in law cases 106 130 

permit for • 4 1 

GAS PIPE OUTLETS. 

theatre, two required 82 99 

inspection of 82 99 

GATES IN STAGE STANDPIPES. 

of theatres 77-89 104-111 

GIRDERS AND BEAMS. 

computations relating to 26, 27 16 

GONGS. 

in hotels, lodging houses, etc., when required, sect. 

29, chap. 104, R. L 155 

GRAIN ELEVATORS. 

not affected by building limits 9 9 

require permit for use 103 125 

GRANITE. 

stresses of — 21 14 

H. 

HABITABLE BUILDINGS. 

combustible materials not to be housed in 104 126 

HABITATIONS. 

first story or basement may be used for mercantile 

purposes 28 17 

when to be first, second or third class ... 28 17 



Index. 



187 



Page. Section. 
"HALL, PUBLIC." 

tenement house, defined 63 42 

requirements for 56 45 

"pALL, STAIR." 

"^ tenement house, defined 53 42 

~^~ construction of 57 46 

HALLS. 

capacity of 85 105 

general requirements for 85, 86 105 

must be fireproof when 85 105 

moving picture exhibition in, Mayor to grant permit 

for, chap. 280, 1913 143 

HALLS, ENTRANCE. 

tenement house, construction of 58 48 

HALLS OR ASSEMBLY ROOMS. 

aisles to be kept clear 85 105 

arrangement of seats, passages, etc 85 105 

biiildings altered, for, conform to law 85 105 

construction, requirements 85 105 

exits, same as for theatres 86 107 

seating capacity, how reckoned 85 105 

seats secured during performances 85 105 

HANDRAILS. 

theatre stairs, requirements for 83 102 

HANGERS OR STIRRUP. 

for joists 14 12 

HAY, STRAW, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 104 126 

HAZARDOUS BUILDINGS. 

appliances for power and heat 102 125 

hearings on boilers and furnaces for 103 125 

must have permits 102 125 

application, hearings, etc 103 125 

HEADERS AND TRIMMERS. 

rules for 14 12 

HEADERS, WOODEN. 

requirements for 13 12 

HEALTH, BOARD OF. 

may limit number of occupants in any building .... 104 1 28 

not to be affected by this act 9 10 

powers of, defined 104 128 



188 Index. 

Page. Section. 
HEARINGS, PUBLIC. 

hazardous buildings and appliances for power and 

heat 103 125 

HEARTHS. 

size and how supported 37 30 

HEARTHS AND PIERS. 

regulations for 37 30 

HEAT AND POWER. 

appliances for, in hazardous buildings 102 125 

HEATING APPARATUS. 

theatre, under auditoriums, regulations for 84 104 

HEIGHT. 

of altered buildings not to be increased 42 35 

of buildings to width of street 31 18 

of buildings special acts governing 31 18 

maximum, for all bmldings 31 18 

"HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS." 

definition of 11 11 

regulations for 31 18 

in Boston. 

chap. 333, 1904 119 

chap. 383, 1905 125 

Copley square. 

chap. 452, 1898 Ill 

vicinity of State House, limited. 

chap. 457, 1899 113 

on Beacon street and Bowdoin street. 

chap. 543, 1902 114 

special exemption. 

chap. 786. 1914 150 

HEIGHT OF WOODEN BUILDING. 

if altered not to be increased in some cases 15 13 

HIGHWAYS. 

construction of, laying out of. 

chap. 323, 1891, amended by chap. 418, 1892 109 

HOISTS AND ELEVATORS. 

fireproof enclosures for 46 * 38 

exceptions 46 * 38 

HOTELS. 

watchman, lights, gongs, etc., in, sect. 29, chap. 104, 

R. L 155 

HOUSE OF CORRECTION. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

HOUSES, TENEMENT. {See Tenement Houses.) 



Index. 189 

I. 

Page. Section. 
ILLEGAL STRUCTURES. 

may be ordered removed by Superior or Suprem^e 

Judicial Court, sect. 52, chap. 104, R. L 155 

use of, maintenance of, or placing of, may be 
-^ restrained by Superior or Supreme Judicial Court, 
V_ sect. 52, chap..l04, R. L 155 

INJUNCTION. 

Superior or Supreme Judicial Coiui; may issue, to 
restrain, placing maintenance or use of illegal 
structures, sect. 52, chap. 104, R. L 155 

INNER COURT. 

defined 53 42 

for tenement house, size 64 59 

INSPECTION. 

of concrete work 25 15 

elevators 48 * 38 

alteration, construction and maintenance of build- 
ings, chap. 284, 1910 139 

theatres and public haUs. 

chap. 450, 1904 129 

chap. 463, 1907 137 

INSPECTION, BUILDING. 

commissioner, or inspectors, to examine aU buildings 

being constructed or altered 5 2 

INSPECTION, PLUMBING. 

work must be approved 91 116 

INSPECTOR. 

of masonry construction, qualification of, chap. 

540, 1914 147 

INSPECTORS, BUILDING. 

appointed by commissioner 3 1 

may enter any building or premises 106 129 

qualifications required of 3 1 

to examine all buildings for which permits have been 

requested 5 3 

to examine dangerous and damaged buildings 5 3 

to examine imsafe or dangerous buildings 5 4 

to make record of violations 5 2 

to post notice on unsafe or dangerous buildings 5 4 

to post notice of violations 5 4 

to post notice of insuflScient egress ■ 5 4 



190 Index. 

Page. Section, 

INSPECTORS, ELEVATOR. 

commissioner may appoint 49 * 38 

INTAKE. 

defined ■ 53 42 

for tenement houses, size, etc 65 61 

in tenement houses, size and skylight over 59 52 

tenement house, provision for 65 61 

IRON, WROUGHT AND CAST. 

strength of 19 14 

J. 

JAIL, SUFFOLK COUNTY. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

JOINT BOLTS, 
where required 14 12 

JOISTS. 

in 8-inch party wall, 8 inches apart 29 17 

not to enter 8-inch walls 42 34 

floor and roof, in walls of second-class buildings 42 34 

JURISDICTION. 

given courts of equity 106 129 

law 106 130 

K. 

KITCHENETTE. 

least dimension of 14 12 

L. 

LABORATORIES, CHEMICAL. 

plumbing of, to be approved by commissioner 94 117 

LADDERS. 

to roof scuttles 12-55 12-44 

LANDINGS, STAIR. 

theatre, required dimensions of 83 101 

LAW COURTS. 

given jurisdiction under this act 106 130 

LAWS. 

certain former acts applicable 31 18 

LEAD PIPES. 

size and weight, pl\imbing 97 121 

LEADERS. 

capacity required 12 12 

how connected 102 124 

where not to discharge 12 12 



Index. 191 

Page. Section. 
LEADERS, ROOF. 

projections of 12 12 

requirements for 102 124 

"LEAKS, REPAIR OF." 

plumbing, definition of 90 112 

LESSEE UNDER RECORDED LEASE. 

deemed owner of building or structure 104 127 

LESSEES. 

when responsible for maintenance 104 127 

LEVELLERS. 

block granite on wood piles 32 20 

LICENSED BUILDERS. 

to control biiUding operations, chap. 9, Ord. 1912 . . 156 
LICENSES. 

fees for authorized, chap. 571, 1910 140 

LICENSING. 

theatres and public halls, chap. 450, 1904, and chap. 

463, 1907 129, 137 

LIGHT AND VENTILATION. 

of existing tenement houses 72 70 

of rooms in tenement houses 66 63 

of stairhalls in tenement houses 68 66 

tenement house, provision for 60-62 55 

LIGHT SHAFTS. 

of fireproof material 46 * 38 

LIGHTING, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

board of health may regulate 105 128 

LIGHTS. 

in hotels, lodging houses, etc., when required, sect. 

129, chap. 104, R. L 155 

LIGHTS, EXIT. 

public buildings must conform to theatre require- 
ments 86 107 

LIMESTONE. 

stresses of 21 14 

LIMITS. 

building, outUne of, chap. 4, Ord. 1913 160 

LINING, CHIMNEY. 

when required 13 12 

LIVE LOADS. 

for various buildings 44 36 

LOADS, FLOOR. 

provision for, in constructing 44 36 



192 Index. 

Page. Section. 
LOADS, FLOOR. 

commissioner to prescribe maximum for existing 

buildings 45 36 

LOBBIES, THEATRE, 
requirements for 79 90 

LODGING HOUSES, 
public, regiilation for, chap. 242, 1904, and chap. 129, 

1911 116,141 

watchman, lights, gongs, etc., sect. 29, chap. 104, 

R. L 155 

M. 

MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS. 

owners and lessees, responsibility of 104 127 

MAINTENANCE, METHODS OF. 

equivalents may be allowed by appeal board and 

commissioner 8 8 

MANUFACTURING BUILDINGS. 

outside limits, maximum height and area 30 17 

MARBLE. BUILDING. 

stresses of 21 14 

MARKET BUILDINGS. 

restrictions of sect. 9 not to apply to 9 9 

MASONRY, BRICK AND STONE. 

not to rest on wood 15 13 

exceptions 15 13 

MASONRY CONSTRUCTION. 

qualifications of, inspector of, chap. 540, 1914 147 

MATERIALS. 

quality of 23 15 

MATERIALS, BUILDING. {See Building Ma- 
terials.) 

strength of 17-22 14 

stresses, tables of 17-22 14 

MATERIALS, COMBUSTIBLE. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 104 126 

MERCANTILE PURPOSES. 

first story and basement of habitations may be used 

for 29 17 

METAL. 

window frames and sash 45 37 

METAL WORK. 

in foundations, protected from moisture 34 22 



Index. 193 

Page. Section. 
METHODS OF COMPUTATION. 

strength of building materials. 17-22 14 

METHODS OF MAINTENANCE. 

equivalents may be allowed by appeal board and 

commissioner 8 8 

MORTAR, LIME. 

to prevent staining stone 24 15 

MORTARS. 

required qualifications of 23 15 

MOVING BUILDINGS. 

prohibitions relating to , 15 13 

wooden, within building limits prohibited 15 13 

MOVING PICTURE SHOWS. 

subject to chapters 176 and 437, 1905 86 106 

MOVING PICTURES. 

exhibition of, chap. 791, 1914. 151 

exhibitions, special, mayor to grant permit for, chap. 

280, 1913 143 

MUD SILLS. 

allowed to support masonry 15 13 

N. 

NEIGHBORING STRUCTURES. 

to be supported ^. . 12 12 

powers of commissioner in such cases 12 12 

NIPPLES, SOLDERING. 

required diameter and weight of 96 121 

NOTICE. 

on dangerous or unsafe buildings not to be i emoved . . 5 4 

NUISANCES. 

buildings unlawfully constructed declared to be ... . 107 132 

abatement and removal of, chap. 101, R. L 107, 153 132 

o. 

OAK, WHITE. 

strength of 18 14 

OBSERVATION STANDS. 

commissioner must approve plans of 16 13 

on roofs prohibited 16 13 

OBSTRUCTIONS. 

in aisles, etc., of public buildings, of theatres 85 105 

OCCUPANTS OF BUILDINGS. 

board of health may limit number of 104 128 



194 



Index. 



Page. Section. 
OCCUPATION. 

of buildings forbidden until egress is provided 12 12 

OCCUPATIONS OF BUILDINGS. 

not to be changed without permit 45 36 

OFFICE FORCE OF DEPARTMENT. 

how appointed 3 1 

OFFICERS, BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

may enter buildings and premises 106 129 

not to engage in other business 3 1 

not to f lu-nish materials 3 1 

not to be financially interested 3 1 

requirements and restrictions 3 1 

to serve until removal or discharge 3 1 

OFFICERS, CITY, CERTAIN. 

powers of, not curtailed by this act 9 10 

OFFICES, STORES, ETC. 

in theatre buildings 76 81 

OPENINGS. 

of 144 square inches or less in walls and floors, 

approved by commissioner 38 31 

OPENINGS IN DIVISION WALLS. 

area and number restricted 30 17 

OPERATIVE BUILDINGS. 

doors in, not to be locked, chap. 566, 1914 148 

OUTER COURT. 

defined 53 42 

in tenement houses, size, etc 63 58 

OUTSIDE FINISH. 

in first and second class buildings, materials 13 12 

OVERCROWDING, TENEMENT HOUSES. 

board of health may regulate to prevent 104 128 

OWNER. 

to protect against excavation 31 19 

OWNERS. 

responsible for maintenance of buildings and struc- 
tures 104 127 

P. 

PAPER STOCK, COTTON, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable building 104 126 

PARK COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

PARKWAYS. 

jbuilding lines on, sect. 16, chap. 28, R. L 152 



Index. 



195 



Page. Section. 
PARTITION WALL. 

defined.. 9 11 

PARTITIONS, BEARING. 

to be firestopped 38 32 

thin fireproof 39 32 

PARTITIONS, FIREPROOF. 

how to be constructed 41 33 

PARTITIONS, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

construction of 59 50 

PARTY WALL. 

doors in, size, etc 38 31 

all buildings, thickness ^. 34 23 

in single family houses, first and second class, thick- 
ness 29 17 

in steel frame buildings, thickness 36 27 

in wooden buildings, thickness and height above roof, 51 40 

small openings in 38 31 

definition of 11 11 

above roof 37 28 

prohibition concerning 15 13 

PASSAGEWAYS, PUBLIC ASSEMBLAGE. 

no temporary seats or obstructions in 85 105 

no persons to stand in during performance 85 105 

PASSAGEWAYS, THEATRE. 

radiators, floor registers, etc., not to be placed in 84 104 

PENALTIES. 

for not providing watchmen, Ughts, gongs, etc., in 
hotels and lodging houses, sect. 32, chap. 104, 
R. L 155 

PENDENCY. 

notice of, filed in Registry of Deeds, chap, 463, 1897, 110 

PERMIT. 

for concrete work 22 14 

to state, proposed use of building 44 36 

PERMITS. 

fees for authorized, chap. 571, 1910 140 

what work requires them 4-14 1-13 

who issues 4 1 

PERMITS AND APPLICATIONS. 

in what form 4 1 

PERMITS, BUILDING. 

applications for 4 1 

requirements of 4 1 



196 



Index. 



PERMITS, BUILDING. 

applicants may appeal to board of appeal 

action thereon 

building commissioner shall grant, for construction. . 
if terms are violated commissioner may stop work . . . 

to be on approved printed forms 

required for all buildings 

PERMITS, OTHER THAN BUILDING. 

required for alterations 

boilers, steam 

elevators 

furnaces 

gas fitting 

plumbing 

commissioner to grant, on application 

PICTURE SHOWS, MOVING. 

subject to chapters 176 and 437, acts 1905 86 

PIERS. 

reduced floor loads , used for 45 

to be of masonry or metal, when 14 

to have caps and plates 37 

PIERS AND HEARTHS. 

regulations for 37 

PILES. 

allowed for supporting maaonry 15 

boring may be required previously 32 

commissioner to decide on necessity 32 

commissioner to determine grade for cutting 32 

concrete, allowable load 32 

concrete, how tested 32 

distance apart along wall 32 

inspector may be required 32 

inspector to keep records 32 

number bearing and diameter to be sufficient 32 

of concrete and reinforced concrete, how made and 

driven 32 

regulations for 31, 32 

to be capped with granite or concrete 32 

under wooden buildings on marshy land 50 

PINE, WHITE AND YELLOW. 

strength of 18 

PINS. 

how computed • 27 



Page. 


Section, 


7 


7 


7 


7 


4 


1 


4 


1 


4 


1 


11 


12 


11 


12 


4 


1 


48 


*38 


4 


1 


4 


1 


91 


114 


4 


1 



106 

36 
12 
30 

30 

13 

20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 

20 

18, 20 

20 

39 

14 

16 



Index. 197 

Page. Section. 

PIPES. 

hot air, minirQum distance from woodwork 40 32 

smoke, distance from ceiling 40 32 

steam or hot water, distance from woodwork 41 32 

wires, etc., not to be built into fireproofing of steel, 

etc 39 32 

PIPES, BACK AIR. 

plumbing, requirements for 93 117 

PIPES, BRASS. 

diameter, thickness and weight required 95 121 

PIPES, CAST-IRON. 

diameter and weight required 98 121 

PIPES, DRAIN. 

requirements relating to ^_^ 100 122 

PIPES, LEAD. i^L 

plumbing, restricted to short branches . .' 97 121 

required diameter, thickness and weight 97 121 

PIPES, REFRIGERATOR AND DRIP. 

plimibing, regulations for 95 119 

PIPES, SMOKE. 

not to project through walls or windows 15 13 

PIPES, SOIL. 

plumbing, requirements for 92 117 

required diameters for 95 121 

PIPES, STEAM, ETC. 

not to be within one inch of woodwork 15 13 " 

restrictions concerning 15 13 

PIPES, WASTE. 

pliunbing, requirements for 92 117 

required diameters for ■ 95 121 

PIPES, WROUGHT-IRON. 

diameter, thickness and weight required.. 99 121 

PIPING. 

cutting for, restrictions relative to 23 14 

distance from woodwork 15 13 

PLACARD. 

(a) unsafe elevators, etc 47 38 

(b) vmsaf e buildings, etc 5 4 

(c) buildings where violation of building law exists, 5 4 

(d) buildings where, egress is insufficient 5 4 

PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS. 

building commissioner may require 4 1 

duplicates to be kept at buildings 4 1 

observation stands, commissioner must approve. ... 16 13 



198 Index. 

Page. Section. 
PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS. 

open to inspection of inspector 4 1 

to be filed with application 4 1 

PLASTER BOARD. 

on partitions in first-class buildings 41 33 

on stair walls in tenement houses 57, 58 46, 47 

PLASTERING. 

on fireproof partitions, thickness 41 33 

PLATE GIRDERS. 

data for figuring 27 16 

PLUMBERS. 

must be registered or licensed. 91 113 

must get permits 91 114 

notify commissioner on changing place of business. . 91 113 

PLUMBING. 

"air pipes," definition of 90 112 

requirements for 92-94 117, 118 

back water traps 102 124 

clean-outs, required diameter and weight of 96 121 

connection with sewer or drain 91 115 

definition of terms used in 90 112 

"drain," meaning of 90 112 

drain pipes, details of construction 100 122 

drain pipes, requirements for 100 122 

drains, surface, must have seal trap and back-water 

valve 102 124 

exhausts, steam, regulations for 101 122 

ferrules, clean-outs, etc 95 120 

ferrules, reqiiired diameter and weight of 96 121 

fittings, drainage, must be galvanized 99 121 

"fixture," definition of 90 112 

grease and oil traps if required 101 123 

inspection and tests of work 91 116 

laboratory, to be approved by commissioner 94 117 

leaders, roof, requirements for 102 124 

"leaks, repair of," meaning of 90 112 

municipal court given jurisdiction in law cases 106 130 

nipples, soldering, required diameter and weight of, 96 121 

pipes, back air, requirements for 93 117 

brass, required diameter, thickness and weight. . . 95 121 

cast iron, required diameter, thickness and weight, 98 121 

lead, required diameter, thickness and weight. ... 97 121 

restricted to short branches 96 121 



Index. 199 

Page. Section. 
PLUMBING. 

refrigerator and drip, regulations for 95 119 

soil and waste, requirements for 92 117 

required diameter of 95 121 

vent, definition of 90 112 

wrought iron, required diameter, thickness and 

weight 99 121 

relative to business of, chap. 287, 1914 148 

roof leaders, requirements for 102 124 

soil and waste pipes, sizes required 95 121 

soil and waste pipes, traps and fittings 92 117 

"soil pipe," definition of 90 112 

soldering nipples, required diameter and weight of . . 96 121 

special traps for gasolene, naphtha, etc.^^ 101 123 

stable drainage fixtures to be approved b^ commis- 
sioner .^ 94 117 

"surface drain," meaning of 90 112 

must have seal trap and back-water valve 102 124 

terms used in defined 90 112 

tests and inspection of work 91 116 

to be inspected and approved 91 116 

traps, requirements for 92, 93, 94 117 

special, when required 101 123 

"vent pipes," definition of 90 112 

"ventilation pipe, " definition of 90 112 

vents, requirements for 93 117 

wash stand for vehicles, sand box for 101 123 

waste pipes and traps, provisions for 92 117 

water-closets, requirements for 95 120 

water-closets, water supply for 95 120 

" Y-branches," definition of 90 112 

POLICE COMMISSIONER. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

PORTABLE SCHOOL BUILDINGS. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

POSTS. 

wood, strength of 18 14 

POWER AND HEAT. 

appliances for, in hazardous buildings 102 125 

PRIVACY IN ACCESS TO WATER-CLOSETS. 

in tenement houses 68 67 

PRIVATE BUSINESS. 

prohibited for department employees 3 1 



200 Index. 

Page. Section. 

PRIVATE DWELLING. 

entertainment in, chap. 254, 1909, amending sect. 

173, chap. 102, R. L 139 

PRIVY VAULTS. 

construction and size 95 120 

PROHIBITIONS, BUILDING. 

complete list of 14 13 

relating to alterations, repairs and moving 14 13 

PROJECTIONS OVER PUBLIC WAYS. 

restrictions relating to 16 13 

PROSCENIUM WALLS. 

theatres must have 77 83 

PROTECTION. 

in case of excavation 31 19 

PUBLIC ASSEMBLY. 

places of, requirements, construction 105 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

aisles, passageways and stairways must be clear .... 85 105 

aisles, passageways and stairways, no person to stand 

in during performance 85 105 

aisles of, must conform to requirements for theatres, 86 107 

cinematograph, use in, regulations for, chap. 437, 

1905 136 

exits of, must conform to requirements for theatres, 86 107 

exit lights must conform to requirements for theatres, 86 107 

obstruction in aisles, etc ^ 85 105 

seats must conform to requirements for theatres ... . 86 107 

seats temporary, not allowed in aisles, etc 85 105 

seats to be secured 85 105 

stairways must conform to requirements for theatres, 86 107 

PUBLIC HALL, 
defined 53-67 42-65 

PUBLIC HALLS, 
in existing tenement houses, lighting and ventilation, 73 71 

in tenement houses, lighting and ventilation 67 65 

PUBLIC HALLS AND THEATRES. 

chap. 463, 1907 137 

inspection and licensing of, chap. 450, 1904 129 

PUBLIC HEARINGS. 

on hazardous buildings and appliances 103 125 

PUBLIC LODGING-HOUSES. 

chap. 129, 1911, regulation for, chap. 242, 1904. . .116, 141 

PUBLIC PARKS. 

buildings in, chap. 129, 1889 108 



Index. 



201 



Page. Section. 

PUBLIC SAFETY. 

commissioner may take necessary measures 12 12 

power of, relating to 5 4 

PUBLIC WAYS. 

boilers not to be placed under 16 13 

building line on, sect. 103, chap. 48, R. L 153 

chap. 572, 1913 143 

chap. 680, 1913 ......... 146 

signs and stru-ctures encroaching on, chap. 352, 1895, 109 

PUBLIC WAYS AND SQUARES. 

projections over, regulations for 16 13 

PUBLICATION. 

of records of violations, privileged 5 2 

Q- n^ 

QUALITY OF MATERIALS. ' 

generally 23 15 

who determines 23 15 

QUAYS, WHARVES, ETC. 

liot affected by this act. 9 10 

R. 

RADIATORS. 

theatre, forbidden in passageways 84 104 

RAGS, FEATHERS. ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 104 126 

RAILROAD STATIONS. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

RAISING OF BUILDINGS, 

examination to be made or application to raise 5 3 

RECESS, OR CHASE. 

requirements relating to 15 13 

RECORDS OF DEPARTMENT. 

open to public inspection 4 1 

REGISTER BOXES OR PIPES. 

- distance from woodwork 41 32 

how made and protected 40 32 

minimum size 41 32 

REGISTRATION OF PLUMBERS. 

registration of plumbers ■. 91 113 

REGISTRY OF DEEDS. 

notice of pendency in chap. 463, 1897 110 

REINFORCED CONCRETE. 

beams and slabs, strength. 22 14 



202 



Index. 



REINFORCED CONCRETE. 

beams, how much of slab included 

beams, metal for, if contiiiuous 

columns, requirements 

covering of steel 

frame for walls 

REJECTION OF MATERIAL. 

power of commissioner 

REMODELLED. 

what buildings may be 

REMOVAL OF BUILDINGS. 

permit for 

REMOVAL WORK. 

to be supported 

"REPAIR OF LEAKS." 

plumbing, meaning of 

REPAIR OF WOODEN BUILDINGS. 

within limits, permit required 

REPAIRS. 

defined 

limit of cost, to be called such 

REPAIRS AND ALTERATIONS. 

permits required for 

REPAIRING OF BUILDINGS. 

examination to be made on application 

REPEALS. 

chap. 419, 1892, and all acts inconsistent repealed. . 
REPORT. (Annual.) 

board of appeal to Mayor 

of commissioner 

to be printed separately 

REQUIREMENTS. 

for all buildings 

RESPONSIBILITY FOR MAINTENANCE. 

of owners and lessees 

RESTRICTION. 

of areas 

RESTRICTIONS. 

tenement-house, commissioner not to dispense with, 
RETAINING WALLS. 

for excavation 

RIVETED JOINTS. 

rules for 

when to be used 



Page. 1 


Section. 


26 


16 


25 


15 


26 


16 


25 


15 


36 


27 


23 


15 


42 


35 


4 


1 


12 


12 


90 


112 


14 


13 


53 


42 


15 


13 


14 


13 


5 


3 


107 


133 


8 


8 


4 


1 


8 


8 


11-14 


12 


104 


127 


29 


17 


75 


76 


31 


19 


27 


16 


36 


27 



Index. 203 

Page. Section. 
RIVETING. 

of steel columns 36 27 

of steel frame 36 27 

RIVETS. 

use of 20 14 

ROOF GARDENS. 

above theatres, provisions for 85 108 

exits required for 87 109 

ROOF LEADERS. 

requirements for 102 124 

ROOF LOAD, 
minimum , 45 36 

ROOFING. 

to be brick, tile, slate, etc •'•^'jl ^'^ ^^ 

of shingles not permitted 17 13 

ROOFS. 

not to discharge on street or alley 15 13 

observation stands not to be erected on 16 13 

permanent m.eans of access to 12 12 

ROOMS, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

lighting and ventilation of 66 63 

size of, regulations for 67 64 

RUTHERFORD AVENUE. 

buildings on, height of, chap. 416, 1907 137 

s. 

SALARIES. 

building commissioner 3 1 

members of appeal board 6 6 

SANDSTONE. 

stresses of 21 14 

SANITARY BUILDINGS. 

of wood, chap. 4, 1873 108 

SCHOOL BUILDINGS, PORTABLE. 

not aflfected by this act 9 10 

SCUTTLES. 

in roof, where required 55 12-44 

SCUTTLES AND BULKHEADS. 

tenement house, requirements for 55 44 

SEALING OF STANDPIPES. 

on stage of theatres forbidden 84-89 104-111 

SEATS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

must conform to requirements for theatres 86 107 



204 



Index. 



Page. Section. 

SEATS, THEATRE. 

arrangement and space for. ..,.,.... 78 87 

SECOND-CLASS BUILDING. 

defined 10 11 

what buildings to be 28 17 

SETTING OF BOILERS AND FURNACES. 

permit for 4 1 

"SHAFT." 

definition of \ 53 42 

SHAFT .ENCLOSURE. 

fireproof, how supported 30 17 

in first and second class warehouses and stores to 

have fireproof enclosures 59 52 

to be of fireproof material 46 * 38 

SHAFTS, ELEVATOR. 

tenement house, regvilations for 59 52 

SHEET PILING. 

where used , 31 19 

SHINGLE ROOFS. 

not permitted 17 13 

SHUTTERS. 

on what buildings, how constructed and where placed, 45 37 

provision and requirements for 45 37 

SIGNS. 

projection allowed. 16 13 

SIGNS AND STRUCTURES, 
encroaching on public ways. 

chap. 352, 1895 109 

chap. 680, 1913. . . 146 

SINGLE FAMILY HOUSE. 

thickness of walls 29 17 

SINKS IN EXISTING. TENEMENT. HOUSES.. 

woodwork to be removed • 110 73 

SKELETON CONSTRUCTION, 
method 36 27 

SKYLIGHT. 

not over court in tenement house 63 57 

over elevator shafts 46 * 38 

over stair haU in existing tenement house 73 71 

over stair haU in tenement house 68 66 

over vent shafts in tenement houses 59 52 

tenement-house, regulations for ,73 71 

SMOKE PIPE, 
at least 1 foot below ceiling 41 32 



Index. 205 

Page. Section. 
SMOKE PIPE. 

not to project through wall or window 15 13 

regulations for 41 32 

"SOIL PIPE." 

plumbing, definition of 90 112 

SOIL AND WASTE PIPES AND TRAPS. 

plumbing, requirements for 92-94 117 

SOLDERING NIPPLES. 

required diameter and weight of 96 121 

SPAN OF A BEAM. 

defined 26 16 

SPECIFICATIONS AND PLANS. 

commissioner may require 4 1 

duplicate to be kept at building 4 1 

observation stands, commissioner must" approve. .. . 16 13 

SPRINKLERS. 

automatic, commissioner may order in basements of 

mercantile buildings hereafter erected 14 12 

if installed, larger undi^'ided area allowed 29 17 

SPRINKLERS AND STANDPIPES. 

theatre, regulations for 84 104 

SPRUCE. 

strength of.... 18 14 

STABLES. 

distance from adjoining buildings 16 13 

outside limits maximum height and area 30 17 

public hearings for 17 13 

restrictions relating to location of 16 13 

STABLES, DRAINAGE OF. 

fixtures to be approved by commissioner 94 117 

STAGE DOORS. 

theatre, requirements for 79, 80 91-94 

STAGING OR STANDS FOR OBSERVATION. 

not to be erected on roofs 16 13 

STAIR HALL. 

defined 53 42 

in tenement houses, construction 57, 58 46, 47 

STAIR SHAFTS. 

in first-class stores and warehouses, to be fireproofed, 

automatic doors 29 17 

STAIR STRINGERS. 

to be fire stopped 40 32 

STAIRS. 

in tenement houses, dimensions 56 45 



206 Index. 

Page. Section. 
STAIRS. 

fireproof, to roof bulkhead 55 44 

minimum load for 45 36 

constructed to -carry loads safely 45 36 

to roof to be kept clear 55 . 44 

STAIRS, THEATRE. 

how to be constructed , 83, 84 100-103 

STAIRS AND PUBLIC HALLS. 

tenement house to have lights, when 57 45 

STAIRWAYS AND HALLS. 

in tenement houses 56, 57 45 

STAIRWAYS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

must conform to requirements for theatres 86 107 

persons not allowed to stand on, during performance, 85 105 

STANDPIPES AND SPRINKLERS. 

theatre, regulations for 84 104 

STANDS, OBSERVATION. 

not to be erected on roofs 16 13 

commissioner must approve plans of 16 13 

STATE BUILDINGS. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

STATE HOUSE. 

vicinity of height of buildings, Umit of, chap. 457, 

1899 113 

STATIONS, RAILROAD. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

STEAM EXHAUSTS. 

regulations pertaining to 101 122 

STEEL. 

fireproofing of 38, 39 32 

in foundations, protected 34 22 

in reinforced concrete, strength 22 14 

need not be fireproof ed where wood could be used . . 39 32 

tensile strength of 19 14 

STEEL AND IRON. 

in alteration work to be fireproof ed as required by 

commissioner 40 32 

STEEL COLUMNS. 

parts to be riveted 36 27 

STEEL FRAME. 

be riveted 36 27 

STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 

methods 36 27 



Index. 



207 



Page. Section. 
STIRRUP IRONS. 

when and where required 14 12 

STONEWORK IN COMPRESSION. 

restrictions relating to 21 14 

STOP ORDER. 

how issued 4 1 

STORAGE BUILDING. 

outside limits, maximum height and area 30 17 

STORE FRONTS. 

how protected 13 12 

outside finish of 13 12 

STORES. 

first class, to have fireproof shafts and automatic 

doors /77|.. 29 17 

STORES, OFFICES, ETC. ' 

in theatre buildings 76 81 

STORES AND STORAGE BUILDINGS. 

fire-escape, requirements for 30 17 

"STORY," BUILDING. 

definition of 11 11 

STRAW, HAY, FEED, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable building 104 126 

STREET COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

STREET WIDTH. 

how measured 31 18 

STRENGTH. 

of materials 17-23 14 

sufficient to carry dead and live loads in all cases. . . 17 14 

STRESSES. 

not prescribed to be fixed by conunissioner 23 14 

STRESSES, BUILDING MATERIALS. 

tables of 18-23 14 

STRING COURSES. 

projection allowed 16 13 

STRUCTURAL METAL. 

to be fireproofed and how 38 32 

STRUCTURES, TEMPORARY. 

commissioner may prescribe conditions for 9 9 

STUDDING. 

not to be placed nearer than one inch to chimney . . 15 13 

to be fire stopped 40 32 



208 Index. 

Page. Section. 
SUMMER THEATRES. 

outside building limits, how may be constructed, 

capacity 87 110 

SUPPORT BY CITY FOR DANGEROUS EXCA- 
VATIONS. 

cost may be recovered 31 19 

SUPPORT WORK. 

and adjoining property 12 12 

SUPPORTING WORK. 

power of conamissioner . 12 12 

SUPPORTS. . . 

below first floor, to be of masonry or metal 14 12 

"SURFACE DRAIN." 

must have deep seal trap and back-water valve .... 102 124 

plumbing, meaning of 90 112 

SURVEY OF LOT. 

required 5 1 

T. 

TABLES, STRESSES. 

showing strength of building materials 18-23 14 

TEARING DOWN 

permit for 4 1 

TEMPORARY FLOORS. 

during construction 52 41 

TEMPORARY SEATS. 

in public building 85 105 

in theatres 88 111 

TEMPORARY STRUCTURES. 

commissioner to prescribe conditions for 9 9 

in connection with other work, commissioner to fix 

conditions 9 9 

when permitted 9 9 

TENEMENT HOUSES. 

"apartment," definition of 53 42 

ashes, receptacles for. 75 75 

bakeries and fat boiling in, prohibited 60 53 

basenaents, requirements for ' 69, 70 68 

bulkheads, construction of 55 44 

cellar ceiUngs, construction of 59 49 

" corner lot," definition of ■. 53 42 

" courts," definition of 53 42 

general regulations for 63 57 

inner, regulations for 64 59 



Index. 209 

Page. Section. 
TENEMENT HOUSES. 

outer, regulations for 63 58 

vent, regulations for 65 60 

dangerous business in, regulated 60 54 

defined 52 42 

definitions of certain words 53 42 

drainage of courts and yards 75 74 

egress, provision for, in case of fire 53-55 43 

elevator shafts, regulations for 59 52 

entrance balls, construction of 58 48 

existing, lighting and ventilation 72 70 

fire-escapes, construction of 53—55 43 

in what they shall consist 53-55 43 

general, regulations for 53-55 43 

internal and external .^_^. 54, 55 43 

garbage, receptacles for I. . L 75 75 

hereafter erected to have fire-escapes 53 43 

intakes, provision for 65 61 

light and ventilation, provision for ; 60, 61 55 

lighting, board of health may regulate 105 128 

not to be enlarged to decrease size of yard 66 62 

other buildings on same lot 66 62 

outside limits, restrictions 59 51 

overcrowding, board of health may prevent 104 128 

partitions, construction of 59 50 

"public hall," definition of 53 42 

"repairs," definition of 53 42 

rooms of, lighting and ventilation 66 63 

size of 67 .64 

size of yard 66 62 

scuttles, construction of 55 44 

"shaft," definition of 53 42 

skylights, regulations for 73 71 

stair hall, definition of 53 42 

stair haUs, construction of 57 46 

stairs and public halls 57 45 

to have bulkhead or scuttle 55 44 

ventilation, board of health may regulate 106 128 

water-closets, requirements for 70-74 69, 72 

water supply, regulations for 74 73 

windows in pubUc haUs of 67 65 

for stair halls 68 66 

wooden, limit of height and area 59 51 

"yard," definition of 53 42 



210 Index. 

Page. Section. 

TENEMENT HOUSES. 

yards, requirements and regvilations for 60-63 55, 56 

where not required 62 56 

TENEMENT-HOUSE REQUIREMENTS. 

commissioner not to dispense with 75 76 

TERMS USED IN PLUMBING. 

meaning of, defined 90 112 

TERRA GOTTA PARTITION BLOGKS. 

thiclcness of blocks and webs 41 33 

TESTS, ELEVATOR. 

manufacturers must make 49 *38 

TESTS OF MATERIALS. 

may be required 23 15 

TESTS, PLUMBING. 

work must be approved 91 116 

THEATRES. 

aisles, regulations for 79 S8 

aisles, passageways, etc., persons not to remain in 

during performance 88 111 

arc light in auditoiium in existing theatres 88 111 

art galleries above, regulations for 86 108 

auditoriums, heating apparatus under 84 104 

balcony and gallery platforms for seats, size 78 87 

boilers, engines and heating apparatus under theatres, 84-88 104-111 

control of exits, etc., lights 82-88 99-111 

courts and passages, size, etc 76 79 

curtains, must have fireproof 77 84 

doors to open outward 80 93 

existing, if altered, to conform to new law 75 77 

existing regulations for exits 88 111 

exit passages 76 79 

exit plans on program 82 99 

exit signs 82-88 99-111 

exits 79-82-88 91-99 

111 

exits, location, width, etc 80-82 95-99 

exits to be marked by signs, etc 82 99 

false doors and mirrors not allowed 80 94 

fire-escapes, outside to be lighted 82-88 99-111 

fireproof construction required 76 78 

floor and stage, levels of 77 82 

floor levels, changes by inclines 79 89 

foyers, lobbies, coriidors, passages, capacity required, 79 90 

gas outlets, number, to be inspected and tested .... 82 99 



Index. 211 

Page. Section. 
THEATRES. 

gas pipe outlets required 82 99 

gates in stage standpipes 84-89 104-111 

handrails, stair, requirements for 83 102 

heating apparatus under theatres 84-88 104-111 

inspection, gas pipe outlets, required 82 99 

landings, stair, required dimensions of 83 101 

lighting fixtures over auditorium, protected from 

faUing 78 86 

lighting, independently fed or governed system in 

auditorium, halls, etc 82-88 99-111 

Ughts for exits, etc 82-88 99-111 

lobbies, requirements for 79 90 

obstructions or people in aisles or stairways S8 111 

open courts required .^^ 76 79, 80 

opening outward of doors .^ 80-88 93-111 

plans on program 82-88 99-111 

proscenium wall, construction and openings 77 83 

piosceniimi walls required 77 83 

curtains required 77 84 

pubUc buildings must conform to requirements for . . 86 1 07 

radiators forbidden in passageways of 84 104 

roof gardens may be above 86 108 

room exits for employees 80 92 

seats in auditorium, requirements for 78 87 

skylight over stage 78 86 

sprinklers, automatic, required 84 104 

stage doors must be provided 79 91 

floors, requirements for 77 85 

stage floor, construction 77 85 

stairs, construction, dimensions, handrails, etc 83, 84 100-103 

stairs, how to be constructed 83 100 

standpipes required 84 104 

stores, offices, etc., tmder 76 81 

temporary 88 111 

"theatre," definition of 75 77 

to be fireproof construction except certain portions, 76 78 

ventilators, requirements for 78 86 

THEATRES AND PUBLIC HALLS. 
inspection and licensing of. 

chap. 450, Acts 1904 129 

chap. 463, Acts 1907 137 

THEATRES, CONSTRUCTION OF. 

general regulations relating to 75 77 



212 Index. 

Page. Section. 
THEATRE EXITS. 
general regulations for 79-82 91-99 

THEATRES, EXISTING. 

general regulations for 87-89 111 

THEATRES, SUMMER. 

outside building limits, how may be constructed. ... 83 100 

THICKNESS OF WALLS. 

defined 9 11 

for all buildings 34 23 

for one-family houses 29 17 

in steel frame buildings 36 27 

when ashlar included 34 23 

THIRD CLASS BUILDINGS. 

definition of 10 11 

size and location of window on area 44 35 

TIES. 

steel beams in direction of length 75 77 

TIMBERS. 

in walls, how to be treated (second class bmldings) . . 42 34 

TRAPS, PLUMBING. 

requirements for 92-94 117 

TRAPS, SPECIAL. 

grease, inflammable compounds, non-siphon 101 123 

TRIMMER. 

arches 37 30 

TRIMMERS, WOODEN. 

hung in stirrup irons, when 14 12 

TRUSSES, RIVETED. 

center of gravity line 27 16 

need not be fireproof ed, when 39 32 

u. 

UNDERPINNING FOR WOODEN BUILDINGS. 

materials and thickness 50 39 

UNSAFE BUILDINGS. 

commissioner may order vacated 6 4 

commissioner to post notices on 6 4 

commissioner may take down or shore up 6 5 

owner to take down or secure 6 5 

to be placarded 5 4 

UNSUITABLE MATERIAL. 

commissioner has power to reject 23 15 



Index. 213 

V. 

Page. Section. 
VACANCIES. 

in board of appeal, how filled 6 6 

VACATE BUILDINGS, 
commissioner may. 

(a.) when unsafe or dangerous 5 4 

(&.) where violation exists 5 4 

(c.) where egress is insufficient 5 4 

VACATED. 

building to be, when ordered by commissioner with 

approval of Alayor 5 4 

VALVES. 

of stage standpipes in theatres 84-89 104-111 

VAULTED WALLS. ^ 

regulations for i. 35 26 

VENT COURT. 

defined 53 42 

VENT COURTS. 

for tenement houses, size, etc 65 60 

"VENT PIPES." 

plumbing, definition of 90 112 

regulation for 41 32 

VENT SHAFTS. 

defined 53 42 

of fireproof material 46 38 

in tenement houses to have intakes and skylights. . 59 52 

VENTILATING FLUES. 

must be of incombustible material 13 12 

to stoves, broilers or heaters to be of brick 14 12 

"VENTILATION PIPE." 

plumbing, definition of 90 112 

VENTILATION, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

board of health may regulate. 105 128 

VENTILATORS, THEATRE. 

requirements for 78 86 

VENTS. 

plumbing, requirements for 93 117 

VIOLATIONS OF BUILDING LAWS. 

to be recorded 5 2 

VIOLATIONS OF PERMIT. 

action to be taken 4 1 

VIOLATORS OF BUILDING LAWS. 

may be fined $500 107 132 



214 



Index. 



Page. Section. 
VOTING BOOTHS. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

w. 

WALLS. 

general regulations for construction of 31 18 

framed with iron or steel 36 27 

proscenium, theatres must have 77 83 

to be of masonry or metal, when 14 12 

8 inches thick to be corbelled for joists 42 34 

floor loads reduced in figuring 45 36 

if steel frame, how constructed 36 27 

in steel frame building, thickness 36 27 

party i above roof, height and finish 37 28 

not to be removed to enlarge floor areas over limit ... 30 17 

small openings in 38 31 

thickness, single family house 29 17 

to be bonded at angles 35 24 

to restrict areas, within limits 29 17 

WALLS ABOVE ROOF, PARTY. 

requirements for 37 28 

WALLS, CORNICES. 

regulations for 37 29 

WALLS, CURTAINS. 

party and outside, must have 36 27 

WALLS, PARALLEL. 

to be properly tied 13 12 

"WALLS, PARTITION." 

definition of 11 H 

"WALLS, PARTY." 

definition of 11 H 

must have curtain 36 27 

openings for doorways in 38 31 

wooden buildings to have, when 51 40 

"WALLS, THICKNESS OF." 

meaning of, defined 11 H 

regulations relating to 34 23 

WALLS, VAULTED. 

regulations for 35 26 

WASTE PIPES AND TRAPS. 

plumbing, requirements for 92 117 

WATCHMAN. 

in hotels, etc., when required, sect. 29, chap. 104, 

R. L 155 



Index. 



215 



Page. Section. 



WATER-CLOSETS. 

immber required 

requirements for 

tenement house, provisions for 

ventilation of 

in existing tenement houses, number and ventilation, 

in existing tenement houses, woodwork to be re- 
moved 

in tenement houses, access to 

in tenement house cellar, permit from Board of 
Health 

in tenement houses, floors to be waterproofed 

in tenement houses, number, lighting, ventilation . . 

number, in buildings where persons are employed . . 

number, in habitations 

separate for men and women 

water supply for 

WATER PIPES. 

protection from frosts 

WATER SUPPLY. 

tenement house, requirements for 

WATERPROOFING CELLARS. 

when required 

WHARVES AND BUILDINGS THEREON. 

not restricted by building limits 

not subject to building laws 

WHARVES, MARKET BUILDINGS, ETC. 

restrictions of, sect. 9 not to apply to 

WHARVES, QUAYS, ETC. 

not affected by this act 

WHEEL GUARDS. 

on columns 

WIDTH OF STREET. 

how measured 

WIND BRACING. 

provision for, required 

WINDERS ON STAIRS. 

width 

WINDOWS. 

habitable buildings, regulations for 

tenement house, in public halls 

for stair haUs 



13 

95 

68-70 

13 

74 

74 
68 

72 
72 
72 
13 
13 
13 
95 

12 

74 

34 

9 
9 



9 

40 

31 

23 

56 

44 
67 
68 



12 

129 

67,69 

12 

72 

72 
67 

69 
69 
69 
12 
12 
12 
120 

12 

73 

22 

9 
10 

9 

10 

32 

18 
14 
45 

35 

65 

66 



216 Index. 

Page. Section. 

WINDOWS. 

in first and second class mercantile and manufactur- 
ing buildings within 20 feet of opposite wall to 

have metal frames and wire glass 45 37 

in existing tenement houses 72 '70 

in living rooms of habitations, distance from opposite 

waU 44 35 

size 44 35 

third-class buildings exempt 44 35 

WINDOW CAPS AND SILLS. 

projection allowed 16 13 

WINDOWS IN ELEVATOR SHAFTS. 

to have red iron bars 47 * 38 

WINDOWS IN TENEMENT HOUSES. 

basement rooms 69 68 

courts, exception 65 61 

public halls 67 65 

size and location 66 63 

of water-closets, bathrooms, halls on court of what 

minimum size ' 64 58 

WIRE GLASS. 

in automatic doors, stair shafts 29 17 

WIRES, COMMISSIONER OF. 

not affected by this act 9 10 

provisions of sect. 7 apply to 7 7 

WOOD. 

in foundation of wooden buildings on marshy land. 50 39 

WOOD CONSTRUCTION. 

allowed vmder masonry, when. 15 13 

WOOD POSTS. 

strength 18 14 

WOODEN BUILDINGS. 

allowed within building limits, for: 

(a) buildings on wharves not exceeding 27 feet in 

height 9 9 

(b) market sheds not over 27 feet in height 9 9 

(c) elevators for grain or coal 9 9 

(d) temporary structures to facilitate building 

operations 9 9 

(e) dwellings for one and two families, under 

certain restrictions 9 9 

construction of, general regulations for 49 39 

description of frame 50 39 

for sanitary purposes, chap. 4, 1873 108 



Index. 217 

Page. Section. 

WOODEN BUILDINGS. 

foundations for 49 39 

habitations, distance from lot line and next building, 50 40 

habitations, maximum height, niimber of stores .... 50 40 

height of, requirements 50, 51 40 

not habitations, distance from lot line 51 40 

proximity to other buildings 50, 51 40 

regulations concerning 49-51 39, 40 

tenement houses, limit of size and area 59 51 

when to have brick party walls 51 40 

within limits, not to be enlarged 15, 42 13, 35 

WOODEN HEADERS. 

requirements for 13 12 

WOODEN TRIMMERS. 

requirements for 13 12 

WORK. 

requiring permit 11 12 

WROUGHT IRON. 

strength of 19 14 

Y. 

"Y-BRANCHES." 

plumbing, definition of 90 112 

YARD. 

for tenement house, not to be built on 66 62 

size, etc 61-63 55, 56 

to be drained 75 74 

"YARD." 

definition of 53 42 

YARDS, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

general regulations for 60-62 55, 56 

when not required 62, 63 56 



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