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Full text of "The building law of the city of Boston. Being Acts of 1907, chapter 550, as amended, also general and special acts relating to buildings and their maintenance, use and occupancy"

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THE BUILDING LAW OF THE 
CITY OF BOSTON. 



BEING ACTS OF 1907, CHAPTER 550, AS AMENDED, 

ALSO GENERAL AND SPECIAL ACTS RELATING 

TO BUILDINGS AND THEIR MAINTENANCE, 

USE AND OCCUPANCY. 




City of Boston 

BUILDING DEPARTMENT 

Room 901, City Hall Annex 

I 9 I 9 



Compiled, Codified and Indexed by 

Charles S. Damrell, 
Clerk of Building Department, City of Boston. 



THE BUILDING LAW OE THE 
CITY OF BOSTON. 



CHAPTER 550, ACTS OF 1907 — AS AMENDED. 

An Act Relative to the Construction, Alteration 
AND Maintenance of Buildings in the City 
OF Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

SECTION 1. 

Par. 1. — There shall be in the city of Boston a depart- 
ment to be called the building department, which shall 
be under the charge of the building commissioner. The 
commissioner, who shall have had at least five years' 
experience as an architect, a builder, or a civil engineer, 
shall be appointed by the mayor, for a term of five years. 
He shall receive such salary as shall be fixed by the city 
council, with the approval of the mayor. 

Par. 2. — The present oflScers and employees of the 
building department, except the board of appeal, shall 
hold their several offices and positions until removed or 
discharged according to law. 

Par. 3. — The commissioner may, with the approval of 
the mayor, appoint such number of inspectors, employees, 
and assistants as the city council shall, from time to time, 
determine. No person shall be appointed as inspector of 
construction who has not had at least five years ' experience 
as a builder, civil engineer, or architect, or as a superin- 
tendent or foreman or a competent mechanic in charge of 
construction. 

Par. 4. — The commissioner may appoint as his deputy 
an inspector in the department who shall, during the 



4 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 1, Par. 4.] 

absence or disability of the commissioner, exercise all the 
powers of the commissioner. No officer or employee 
connected mth the department shall be interested in the 
doing of work or the furnishing of material or appliances 
for the construction, alteration, or maintenance of any 
building, or in the making of plans or of specifications 
therefor, unless he is the owner thereof or a member of a 
board within the building department. No such officer 
or employee shall be engaged in any work which is incon- 
sistent with his duties or with the interests of the depart- 
ment. 

[1913, c. 704, sect. l.| 

Par. 5. — The clerk of the department shall, under the 
direction of the commissioner, keep a record of the business 
of the department, and the commissioner shall submit to 
the mayor a yearly report of such business. The records 
of the department shall be open to public inspection. The 
commissioner may require plans and specifications of any 
proposed structure or for the alteration of any structure 
or building to be filed with him, duplicates of which, when 
approved by the- commissioner, shall be kept at the build- 
ing during the progress of the work. Such duplicates 
shall be open to the inspection of any inspector in said 

department. 

Permits. 

Par. 6. — The commissioner shall grant permits for the 
construction, alteration, removal or tearing down of build- 
ings or structures, and for plumbing, gas fitting, and the 
setting and maintenance of steam boilers and furnaces 
when applications for the same are made and filed in 
conformity with law. 

Par. 7. — ■ All permits issued by the commissioner shall 
be on printed forms approved by him. 

Par. 8. — If the commissioner finds that the terms of a 
permit are being violated, he may, after notice mailed to 
the person to whom the permit was issued, order the whole 



City of Boston Building Law. 5 

Sect. 1, Par. 8.] 

or any part of the work, which is being done under the 
permit, to be stopped, and such work shall not be resumed 
until the terms of the permit have been compUed with. 

Par. 9. — All applications for permits under the pro- 
visions of this act shall be in writing, on forms furnished 
by the department. The commissioner may require the 
material facts set forth in the same to be verified by the 
oath of the applicant; he may also require, in his discre- 
tion, a survey of a lot on which any proposed building is to 
be erected to be filed with the appUcation. Every appli- 
cation shall state the name and address of the owner. 

SECTION 2. 

Par. 1. — The commissioner, or one of his inspectors, 
shall examine as often as is practicable every building 
in the course of construction or alteration, and shall 
make a record of all violations of this act and of aU other 
matters relative thereto. The publication of such records 
with the consent of the commissioner shall be privileged. 

SECTION 3. 
Par. 1. — The commissioner, or one of his inspectors, 
shall examine any building reported as dangerous or 
damaged, and shall make a record of such examination, 
stating the nature and estimated amount of the damage, 
and the purpose for which the building was used, and in 
case of fire the probable origin thereof; and shall examine 
all buildings in respect to which appUcations have been 
made for permits to raise, enlarge, alter, or repair, and 
shall make a record of every such examination. 

SECTION 4. 
Placards. 

Par. 1. — The commissioner, or one of his inspectors, 
shall inspect every building or other structure or anything 
attached to or connected therewith which he has reason 



6 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 4, Par. 1.] 

to believe is not provided with sufficient means of egress 
in case of fire satisfactory to the commissioner, exists 
in violation of any provision of this act or is unsafe or 
dangerous to life, limb, or adjoining buildings, and if he 
finds it not provided with sufficient means of egress in 
case of fire satisfactory to the commissioner, or to exist 
in violation of any provision of this act, or unsafe or dan- 
gerous, he shall forthwith in writing notify the owner, 
agent, or any person having an interest therein, to secure 
the same, to provide sufficient means of egress in case of 
fire or to comply with the provision of this act which is 
being violated, and may affix in a conspicuous place upon 
its external walls a notice of its dangerous condition or 
of its condition as a fire-trap or of its being a common 
nuisance within the provisions of this act. The notice 
shall not be removed or defaced without his consent. 

[1914, c. 205, sect. 1.] 
[1919, c. 155, sect. 1, Special Act.] 

Buildings Vacated. 
Par. 2. — The commissioner may with the written 
approval of the mayor order any building which in his 
opinion is unsafe, not provided with sufficient means of 
egress in case of fire or exists in violation of any provision 
of this act, to be vacated forthwith. 

1914, c. 205, sect. 1.] 

SECTION 5. 
Commissioner May Secure Buildings. 
Par. 1. — The person notified as provided in the preceding 
section shall provide sufficient means of egress in case of 
fire satisfactory to the building commissioner, or shall 
comply with the provision of this act which is being 
violated, or shall secure or remove said building, structure, 
attachment or connection forthwith. If the public 



City of Boston Building Law. 7 

Sect. 5, Par. 1.] 

safety so requires, the commissioner, with the approval 
of the mayor, may at once enter the building or other 
structure which he finds unsafe or dangerous, the land on 
which it stands or the abutting land or buildings, with 
such assistance as he may require, and secure or remove the 
same and may erect such protection for the public by 
proper fence or otherwise as may be necessary, and for this 
purpose may close a public highway. 

[1914, c. 205, sect. 1.] 
[1919, c. 155, sect. 2, Special Act.] 

SECTION 6. 
Board of Appeal. 

Par. 1. — There shall be in said department a board to 
be called the board of appeal. Said board shall consist 
of five members appointed by the mayor in the following 
manner: One member from two candidates, one to be 
nominated by the Real Estate Exchange and Auction 
Board and one by the Massachusetts Real Estate Ex- 
change; one member from two candidates, one to be 
nominated by the Boston Society of Architects and one 
by the Boston Society of Civil Engineers; one member 
from two candidates, one to be nominated by the Master 
Builders Association and one by the Contractors and 
Builders Association; one member from two candidates 
to be nominated by the Building Trades Council of the 
Boston Central Labor Union; and one member selected 
by the mayor. These appointments shall be subject to 
confirmation by the board of aldermen. The appoint- 
ments first made shall be for the terms of one, two. three, 
four, and five years, respectively, so that the term of one 
member shall expire each year. All subsequent appoint- 
ments shall be for the term of five years. Vacancies shall 
be filled in the same manner in which original appoint- 
ments are made. Each member of said board shall be 



8 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 6, Par. 1.] 

paid ten dollars per day for actual service but not more 
than one thousand dollars in any one year. No member 
shall act in any case in which he is interested, and in case 
any member is so disqualified, or is absent from illness or 
other cause, the remaining members shall designate a 
substitute. 

[1910, c. 631, sect. 1.] 

Par. 2. — All the members of said board shall be resi- 
dents of or engaged in business in Boston, 

Par. 3. — Every decision of the board shall be in writ- 
ing and shall require the assent of at least three members. 

SECTION 7. 

Par. 1. — An applicant for a permit whose application 
has been refused may appeal therefrom within ninety 
days. A person who has been ordered by the commis- 
sioner to incur any expense may within ten days after 
being notified of such order appeal therefrom by giving 
to the commissioner notice in writing of his appeal. Such 
notice or a certified copy thereof shall at once be trans- 
mitted by the commissioner to the board of appeal. 
After notice given to such parties as the board shall order, 
a hearing shall be had, and the board shall affirm, annul, 
or modify said refusal or order. The board may vary the 
provisions of this act in specific cases which appear to 
them not to have been contemplated by this act although 
covered by it, or in cases where manifest injustice is done, 
provided that the decision of the board in such a case 
shall be unanimous and shall not conflict with the spirit 
of any provision of this act. 

Par. 2. — The decision shall specify the variations al- 
lowed and the reasons therefor, and shall be filed in the 
office of the commissioner within ten days after the hearing. 
A certified copy shall be sent by mail or otherwise to the 
applicant and a copy kept publicly posted in the office 



City of Boston Building Law. 9 

Sect. 7, Par. 2.] 

of the commissioner for two weeks thereafter. If the 
order or refusal of the commissioner is affirmed, such 
order or refusal shall have full force and effect. If the 
order or refusal is modified or annulled, the commissioner 
shall issue a permit in accordance with such decision. 

Par. 3. — The provisions of this section shall also 
apply to any similar action or order of the commissioner 
of wires, under the provisions of chapter two hundred 
and sixty-eight of the acts of the year eighteen hundred 
and ninety-eight, or of any amendment thereof or addi- 
tion thereto, except that in respect thereto the words 
"commissioner of wires" shall be substituted for the 
word "commissioner." 

SECTION 8. 

Par. 1. — Permits. — Before a permit is granted to erect 
any building except temporary buildings or buildings of 
minor importance, there shall be submitted to the com- 
missioner such further drawings, strain sheets, and descrip- 
tion as will clearly show the entire construction, assump- 
tions, calculations of stresses and aU other structural 
details. Such details shall be in the form required by the 
commissioner, and calculation sheets shall be signed by 
the architect, engineer, contractor or other person respon- 
sible for them. 

Par. 2. — Systems not Covered by this Act. — If an appli- 
cant for a permit to build desires to use as a substitute 
for the materials or methods covered by this act materials 
or methods of construction or maintenance not covered by 
it, he shall present to the commissioner plans, formulas, 
and such other information, and shall make such tests or 
present satisfactory evidence of such tests, as the commis- 
sioner may require. Such systems shall not be used until 
after the commissioner has issued general regulations 
fixing the methods to be followed, but no such regulation 



10 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 8, Par. 2.] 

shall have the effect of altering the working stresses for any- 
material herein mentioned or of reducing the fireproofing 
requirements of tliis act. 

Par. 3. — It shall be the duty of the board of appeal to 
submit to the mayor on or before the first day of February 
in each year a report giving a summary of all decisions of 
the board, together with such recommendations for 
revision of the law as the board may deem advisable. The 
commissioner shall cause the report to be printed as a 
separate document for public distribution. 

Par. 4. — -Any requirement necessary for the strength 
or stabiUty of any proposed structure or for the safety of 
the occupants thereof, not specifically covered by this act, 
shall be determined by the commissioner, subject to 
appeal. 

Par. 5. — • Testing. — The commissioner may order load- 
ing tests to be made, at the expense of the owner, on any 
structure or part thereof, at such time and in such manner 
as will satisfactorily demonstrate to him that the unit 
stresses in any materials do not exceed those permitted 
under this act. Concrete construction shall be capable of 
bearing a live and dead load equivalent to twice that 
for which it was designed without causing permanent 
deformation. 

Par. 6. — No such test on the structure shall be required, 
however, until notice thereof in writing has been given by 
the commissioner to the person to whom the building 
permit was issued. 

Par. 7. — Load Test. — When the strength of any floor 
construction cannot be determined by the methods pre- 
scribed in this section or by the apphcation of accepted 
engineering formulas, the safe uniformly distributed carry- 
ing capacity shall be taken as one sixth of the total load 
causing failure to a full-sized construction with the load 



City of Boston Building Law. • 11 

Sect. 8, Par. 7.] 

applied at two points, each at one third of the span from 
the ends of the span. 

Par. 8. — ■ Fire Tests. — In testing the fireproof quah- 
ties of any floor construction, at least one panel of the 
proposed maximum span, carrying a Uve load of at least 
one hundred and fifty pounds per square foot, shall be 
subjected to a fire continuously for four hours at an average 
temperature of seventeen hundred degrees Fahrenheit, 
followed by an application for at least ten minutes of a 
hose stream from a one and one eighth inch nozzle at sixty 
pounds nozzle pressure, without appreciable deterioration 
or the passage of flame through the floor during the test. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 1, Special Act.] 

SECTION 9. 

Buildings Allowed in Building Limits. 

Par. 1. — The building Hmits of the city of Boston 
as they now exist shall continue until changed by ordi- 
nance, and the city council may by ordinance from time 
to time extend and define them, and may estabhsh other 
limits in any part of the city vnthin which every build- 
ing built after the establishment thereof shall be of the first 
or second class. This restriction shall not apply to 
wharves, nor to buildings not exceeding twenty-seven feet 
in height on wharves, nor to market sheds or market build- 
ings not exceeding the said height, nor to elevators for the 
storage of coal or grain, if the external parts of such build- 
ings, elevators or other structures are covered with slate, 
tile, metal, or other equally fireproof material, and the 
mode of construction and the location thereof are approved 
by the commissioner. Temporary structures to facilitate 
the prosecution of any authorized work may be erected 
under such conditions as the commissioner may prescribe. 



12. City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 9, Par. 1.] 

Single and two-family dwellings not to be occupied and 
not intended, arranged, or designed to be occupied, by 
more than two families, may be built of third-class con- 
struction or of composite construction in all parts of the 
city of Boston not included in the building Hmits of the city 
as they existed prior to the twenty-second day of Septem- 
ber in the year nineteen hundred and thirteen; but no such 
building shall occupy more than sixty per cent of the area 
of the lot upon which it is situated, and all such buildings 
shall be constructed with pitched roofs not less than thirty 
degrees with the horizontal. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 1.] 



Third Class Buildings. 
Par. 2. — Buildings of the third class in the city of 
Boston may be reconstructed, altered, enlarged, repaired 
and extended so as to cover a greater area of land: pro- 
vided, that the reconstruction, alteration, enlargement, or 
extension conforms to the requirements of the law in 
respect to new buildings of hke character; and, provided, 
also, that not more than sixty per cent of the lot is covered. 

[1915, c. 352, sect. 1, Special Act.] 

[1917, c. 221, Special Act.] 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 2, Special Act.] 

SECTION 10. 

Exemptions from Act. 
Par.1. — The provisions of this act shall not apply 
to bridges, quays, or wharves, nor to buildings on land 
ceded to the United States or owned and occupied by 
the Commonwealth, nor to the Suffolk County court house, 
jail, or house of correction, nor to railroad stations, nor to 
portable or permanent school buildings erected and main- 
tained by the schoolhouse department except as provided 



City of Boston Building Law. 13 

Sect. 10, Par. 1.] 

in section seventeen of this act and amendments thereof 
or additions thereto, nor to voting booths erected and 
maintained by the board of election commissioners; and 
also provided that permits from the building commissioner 
for the erection of school buildings shall be required and 
that such buildings shall be subject to the inspection of 
the building department. 

[1915, c. 352, sect. 2, Special Act.] 

Par. 2. — Except as otherwise provided by law, the 
provisions of this act shall not be held to deprive the board 
of health, the police commissioner, the board of street com- 
missioners, the board of park commissioners, the board of 
examiners of gas fitters, the commissioner of wires, or the 
fire commissioner of the city of Boston of any power or 
authority which they have at the date of the passage of 
this act, or of the remedies for the enforcement of the 
orders of said boards or officers; unless such powers, 
authorities, or remedies are inconsistent v»^ith the pro- 
visions of this act; nor to repeal any existing law, not 
herein expressly repealed, except so far as it may be 
inconsistent with the provisions of this act. 

SECTION 11. 

Definitions. 

In this act the following terms shall have the meanings 
respectively assigned to them as follows : 

Par. 1. — First Class Building. — A first class building 
shall consist of fireproof material throughout, with floors 
constructed of iron, steel or reinforced concrete beams, 
filled in between with terra cotta or other masonry arches 
or with concrete or reinforced concrete slabs; wood may 
be used only for under and upper floors, windows and 
door frames, sashes, doors, interior finish, hand rails for 
stairs, necessary sleepers bedded in the cement, and for 



14 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 11, Par. 1.] 

isolated furrings bedded in mortar. There shall be no air 
space between the top of any floor arches and the floor 
boarding. 

Par. 2. — Second Class Building. — All buildings not 
of the first class, the external and party v/alls of which are 
of brick, stone, iron, steel, concrete, reinforced concrete, 
concrete blocks, or other equally substantial and fireproof 
material. 

Par. 3. — Third Class Building. — A wooden frame 
building. 

Par. 4. — Composite Buildiyig. — A building partly of 
second class and partly of third class construction. Com- 
posite buildings may be built under the same restrictions 
as, and need comply only with the requirements for, third 
class buildings as to fire protection and exterior finish. 

Par. 5. — Masonry. — Masonry shall include such parts 
of a structure as are constructed with stone, bricks of 
burnt clay, cement, or sand lime, hollow blocks of burnt 
clay or concrete, and stone or cinder concrete, both plain 
and reinforced work. 

Par. 6. — Foundation. — That part of a wall below the 
level of the street curb, or, if a wall is not on the street, 
that part of the wall below the level of the highest ground 
next to the wall, or, in the discretion of the commissioner, 
that part of a party or partition wall below the cellar floor. 

Par. 7. — Underpinning . — In third class buildings the 
wall reaching from the foundation proper to the under 
side of the sills. 

Par. 8. — Height of a Buildiyig. — The vertical distance 
of the highest point of the roof above the mean grade of 
the curbs of all the streets upon which it abuts, and if it 
does not abut on a street, above the mean grade of the 
ground adjoining the building. 

Par. 9. — Party Wall. — A wall that separates two or 
more buildings, and is used or adapted for the use of more 
than one building. 



City of Boston Building Law. 15 

Sect. 11.] 

Pae. 10. — Partition Wall. — An interior wall of masonry 
in a building. 

Pab. 11. — Thickness of Wall. — The minimum thickness 
of such wall. 

Pae. 12. — Story of a Building. — That part of a build- 
ing between the top of any floor beams and the top of the 
floor or roof beams next above. 

Pae. 13. — Basement. — That story of a building not 
more than forty per cent of which is below the grade of 
the street. 

Pae. 14. — ■ Cellar. — That part of a building more than 
forty per cent of which is below the grade of the street, 
and in third class buildings that part of the building which 
is below the sills. 

Pae. 15. — Gas Fitting. — ■ The work of putting together 
any fittings, pipes or fixtures or other appliances which 
are to contain gas for heat, light or power purposes and 
will be subject to inspection under existing laws. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 3, Special Act.] 

SECTION 12. 

Requieements foe All Buildings. 

Permits. 

Pae. 1. — No building, structure or foundation shall be 

constructed or altered without a permit, and such work 

shall be done in accordance with drawings bearing the 

approval of the commissioner. 

Excavations to be Supported. 

Pae. 2. — Every structure in process of construction, 
alteration, repair or removal, and every neighboring 
structure or portion thereof affected by such process or 
by any excavation, shall be sufficiently supported during 
such process. 

Pae. 3. — The commissioner may take such measures 
as the public safety requires to carry these provisions into 
effect. 



16 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 12.] 

Leaders. 

Par. 4. — All buildings shall have leaders sufficient to 
discharge the roof water in such a manner as not to flow 
upon any pubUc way or any neighboring property. Such 
leaders may project into a pubhc v/ay not over seven inches. 

Chimneys — Height Above Roof. 

Par. 5. — Every chimney flue shall be carried to a height 
sufficient to protect adjoining buildings from fixe and 
smoke, and, unless the roof is covered with incombustible 
material, shall extend at least four feet above the highest 
point of contact with the roof. 

' Egress to Roof. 

Par. 6. — Every permanent building more than twenty 
feet high having a flat roof shall have permanent means 
of access to the roof from the inside by an opening not less 
than two feet by three feet, with a fixed stepladder. 

Egress Required. 
Par. 7. — Every building shall have, with reference to 
its height, condition, construction, surroundings, char- 
acter of occupation and number of occupants, reasonable 
means of egress in case of fire, satisfactory to the com- 
missioner, except that in all factories or workshops here- 
after built or altered, of second class construction, where 
ten or more persons are employed above the second floor, 
one exit shall consist of a fireproof stairway enclosed in 
incombustible material. No building hereafter erected 
shall be occupied or permitted to be occupied until said 
means of egress have been provided in accordance with 
plans and drawings approved by the building commis- 
sioner. 

[1912, c. 369, sect. 1.] 

Par. 8. — Water pipes in every building shall be prop- 
erly protected from frost. 



City of Boston Building Law. 17 

Sect. 12.] 

Chimney, Walls and Lining of. 
Par. 9. — All chimneys of masonry construction shall 
have walls at least eight inches thick, or be constructed 
of four-inch brick walls with a suitable flue lining. 

Water-Closets. 
Par. 10. — Every building used for habitation shall 
have such number of water-closets as the board of health 
may require; every building where persons are employed 
shall have at least one water-closet for every twenty 
persons therein employed, and in any building where both 
sexes are employed, separate accommodations shall be 
furnished for men and women. Every enclosure con- 
taining one or more water-closets shall be provided with 
adequate ventilation to the outer air either by window 
or by suitable light shaft. 

Outside Finish. 

Par. 11. — In every first and second class building all 
of the outside finish shall be of incombustible material, 
except window and door frames, ^nd except finish about 
show windows in the first story. Where store fronts are 
carried up more than one story the columns and hntels 
shall be of, or finished with, incombustible material; but 
in no case shall store fronts be carried more than two 
stories, unless the same are constructed and finished 
throughout with fireproof material, except window and 
door frames. 

Par. 12. — Every ventilating flue shall be constructed 
of, or lined with, incombustible material. 

Floor Ties. 
Par. 13. — Every floor in second class buildings shall 
have its beams tied to the walls and to each other with 
wrought-iron straps or anchors at least three eighths of 



18 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 12, Par. 13.] 

an inch thick by one and one half inches wide and not 
less than eighteen inches long, so as to form continuous 
ties across the building not more than ten feet apart. 
Walls running parallel, or nearly parallel, with floor beams 
shall be properly tied once in ten feet to the floor beams by 
iron straps or anchors of the size above specified. 

Wooden Headers and Trimmers. 
Pae. 14. — Every wooden header or trimmer more than 
four feet long, carrying a floor load of over seventy 
pounds per square foot, shall, at connections with other 
beams, be framed or hung in stirrup irons, and joint- 
bolted. All tail beams and similar beams of wood shall 
be framed or hung in stirrup irons. 

Windows on Fire Escapes, Kitchenettes. Sprinklers. 
Par. 15. — All walls, piers and columns acting as sup- 
ports below the first floor of all buildings hereafter built 
shall be of masonry or metal. In all buildings hereafter 
erected, where outside means of egress are to be con- 
structed, the building commissioner may order, when he 
deems it necessary, all the window openings in the same 
to be protected by metal frames and sash and wire glass, 
and aU doors leading to such outside means of egress and 
the frames of the same to be of metal or metal covered. 
If doors are glazed, they shall be glazed with wire glass. 
Every kitchen, kitchenette or room used or adapted to be 
used for cooking purposes, either by coal, gas or oil stoves, 
in every building hereafter erected, remodeUed or enlarged, 
shall be not less than eight feet in the least dimension. 
Every such kitchen, kitchenette or room to be used for 
cooking purposes shall be lighted and ventilated by 
window openings in an external wall direct to the open 
air, and such window openings shall equal in size in the 



City of Boston Building Law. 19 

Sect. 12, Par. 15.] 

aggregate at least one eighth of the area of the floor of 
such room. When gas, coal or oil stove ovens, broilers or 
water heaters are connected to a ventilating flue, the flue 
shall be constructed of brick walls not less than eight 
inches thick, or with walls four inches thick lined with 
terra-cotta flue Hning at least one inch thick. The build- 
ing commissioner may order the basements of any mer- 
cantile building hereafter erected to be provided with a 
system of automatic sprinklers, approved by him as to 
location, arrangement and efficiency. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 2.] 

SECTION 13. 

Prohibitions. 

Wooden Buildings in Building Limits. 

Par. 1. — No alteration or repair of a wooden building 
within the building limits shall be made without a permit 
from the commissioner, and no permit to increase the 
height or groimd area of such a building shall be granted, 
unless such building is on the corner of two intersecting 
ways, in which case the building commissioner shall have 
authority to grant a permit, nor shall a permit for altera- 
tions or repairs be granted if the estimated cost of the 
proposed alterations or repairs exceeds one half of the 
cost of a like new building. 

[1915, c. 352, sect. 3, Special Act.] 

Par. 2. — No wooden building, outside the building 
limits, shall be moved to any position within the building 
limits. 

Recess in Wall. 
Par. 3. — ■ No recess or chase shall be made in any exter- 
nal or party wall so as to leave the thickness at the back 
less than eight inches. 



20 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 13.] 

Timbers in Party Wall. 

Par. 4. — No roof or floor timber entering a party wall 
shall have less than four inches of solid brickwork between 
it and the end of any other timber. 

Par. 5. — No part of any roof shall be constructed in 
such a manner as to discharge snow, ice, or other material 
upon a public street or alley. 

Par. 6. — No elevated staging or stand for observation 
purposes shall be constructed or occupied upon the roof of 
any building. 

Par. 7. — No chimney shall be corbelled from a wall 
more than the thickness of the wall. 

Par. 8. — No chimney shall be hung from a wall which 
is less than twelve inches thick. 

Par. 9. — No masonry shall rest upon wood, except piles 
and mud sills. 

Par. 10. — No part of any floor timber shall be within 
two inches of any chimney. 

Par. 11. — ^No studding or furring shall be within one 
inch of any chimney. 

Par. 12. — • No furnace or boiler for heating shall be 
placed upon a wooden floor. 

Par. 13. — No smoke pipe shall project through any 
external wall or window. 

Par. 14. — No steam, furnace, or other hot air pipes shall 
be carried ^dthin one inch of any wood work unless such 
pipes are double or otherwise protected by incombustible 
material. 

Par. 15. — No combustible partition shall be within four 
feet of the sides and back or within six feet of the front of 
any boiler, carrying a pressure of over ten pounds, unless 
the partition is covered with incombustible material which 
extends to the full height of the partition from the end or 
back of the boiler to at least five feet in front of it. In 
such case the distance shall be not less than two feet from 



City op Boston Building Law. 21 

Sect. 13, Par. 15.] 

all the sides and five feet from the front of the boiler, and 
all lath and plaster and wooden ceiling beams over the 
boiler and to a distance of not less than four feet in front 
of all such boilers shall be covered with incombustible 
material. 

[1914, c. 7S2, sect. 3.] 

Observation Stand. 

Par. 16. — • No observation stand shall be constructed or 
maintained except in accordance with plans approved by 
the commissioner. 

Closet Under Stairs. 

Par. 17. — No closet of any kind shall be constructed 
under any staircase leading from the cellar or basement 
to the first story. 

Boiler Under Public Way. 
Par. 18. — No boiler shall be placed or maintained 
under any public way. 

Projections. 
Par. 19. — No part of any structure, except cornices, 
permanent awnings, string courses, window caps and sills, 
bay windows, under such terms, conditions, regulations 
and restrictions as may be required by the mayor and 
board of aldermen, and outside means of egress, as other- 
wise provided, and signs as provided in chapter three 
hundred and fifty-two of the acts of the year eighteen 
hundred and ninety-five, shall project over any public 
way or square. No cornice or bay window shall so project 
more than three feet; nor more than twelve inches over a 
way of a width of thirty feet or less. 

Stables. 
Par. 20. — ■ No building within forty feet of the property 
of any adjoining owner shall be erected for or converted 
to use as a stable, unless such use is authorized by. the 



22 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 13, Par. 20.] 

board of health after a public hearing. Written notice of 
such hearing shall be given to the adjoining owners, and 
published at least three times in at least two newspapers 
published in Boston, ten days at least before the hearing. 

Roofing Materials. 

Par. 21. — -No material other than brick, tile, slate, 
metal, asbestos shingles, or slag, shall hereafter be used to 
cover or roof any building, or the tops, sides and outsides 
of the frames of any dormer window, or any other pro- 
jection of the roof of any building, except wooden cornices 
on wooden frame buildings; but on flat roofs composition 
of asbestos and asphalt or tar and gravel may be used, 
or such other composition of fire-resisting roofing as the 
commissioner may authorize. Asphalt shingles may also 
be used: 'provided, that each package of shingles is in- 
spected and labelled and that the shingles are made and 
laid in conformity with the specifications promulgated by 
the National Board of Fire Underwriters as modified from 
time to time by said board; and provided, further, that 
within the lines at present constituting the building 
limits of the city of Boston such asphalt shingles may be 
used only on buildings of third class construction, and 
that they shall not be used within the building limits of 
said city as they existed prior to September twenty- 
second, nineteen hundred and thirteen. Nothing in this 
section shall be construed to prohibit the use of materials 
approved by the commissioner for repairing any roof now 
covered with wooden shingles or to prohibit covering with 
such approved materials the roofs of buildings less than 
sixteen feet in height: provided, that the building is not 
altered in height or otherwise generally reconstructed. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 3.] 

[1915, c. 352, Special Act, sect. 3.] 

11916, c. 277, Special Act.] 

[1918, c. 104, Special Act.] 



City of Boston Building Law. 23 

Sect. 13.] 

Lot Line — Distance from, First and Second Class Buildings 

to he Kept. 

Par. 22. — No part of any first or second class building 
hereafter erected, except the eaves and cornices, shall be 
nearer than five feet to the line of any adjoining lot on any 
side on which such building has any opening in the outer 
wall thereof unless all such openings are protected by wire 
glass set in metal frames and sash. 

SECTION 14. 

•Quality and Steength of Materials. Methods of 
Computation. 

Par. 1. — All materials shall be of such quality for the 
purposes for which they are to be used as to insure, in the 
judgment of the commissioner, ample safety and security 
to life, limb and neighboring property. The commissioner 
shall have power to reject all materials which in his 
judgment are unsuitable, and may require tests to be 
made by the architect, engineer, builder, owner or other 
interested persons. Any test thus required shall be made 
under the supervision or direction of the commissioner, 
and at the expense of the owner. 

Par. 2. — Brick. — Brick may be of hard-burned clay, 
sand lime or cement and, except for nogging, fire-stopping 
and nonbearing or curtain walls not exposed to the 
weather, shall be hard and strong, of quality approved as 
satisfactory by the commissioner. Second-hand bricks 
shall be thoroughly cleaned before being used. 

Par. 3. — Hard brick tested for approval shall develop 
an average ultimate compressive strength of three thou- 
sand pounds per square inch. Brick shall be tested flat- 
wise (half bricks permitted) and the average shall be 
taken on at least five samples, none of which must fall 
below twenty-five hundred pounds per square inch. The 



24 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 14, Par. 3.] 

compressive strength of wet brick after forty-eight hours 
in water must be at least two thirds that of dry brick, 
except that, when the lower strength is above three thou- 
sand pounds per square inch, the loss in strength may be 
ignored. 

Pah. 4. — Before brick or other masonry materials are 
submitted to absorption tests, they shall be dried to 
practically constant weight at a temperature between two 
hundred and twenty-five and two hundred and fifty 
degrees Fahrenheit and shall not be fully immersed when 
placed in water. 

Par. 5. — Terra Cotta Floor Tile. — Terra cotta floor 
tile, when tested on end and faced with Portland cement, 
shall give an average compressive strength of not less than 
twenty-five hundred pounds per square inch of net area. 
The average strength shall be computed from the results 
of tests of ten average tiles. 

Par. 6. — Building Blocks. — The term "block" as used 
in this section shall mean any shape of brick or tile which 
forms a hollow or cellular wall. 

Par. 7. — Concrete, hollow and two-piece building 
blocks shall be made of Portland cement and suitable 
aggregates in such proportion as to develop the following 
ultimate compressive strength at twenty-eight days, 
shall average one thousand pounds per square inch of 
gross sectional area of the block as used in the wall and 
shall not fall below seven hundred pounds per square inch 
in any test, when testing at least six ordinary samples. In 
case of hollow building blocks, the gross cross sectional 
area shall be considered as the product of the length by 
the width of the block. No allowance shall be made for 
air spaces of the block. The allowable working stress for 
such blocks shall not exceed one hundred pounds per gross 
square inch. 



City of Boston Building Law. 25 

Sect. 14.] 

Par. 8. — Terra cotta building blocks shall be whole, 
sound and hard burned and shall develop an ultimate^ 
crushing strength per square inch of gross area of not less 
than twelve hundred pounds when tested with the cells 
placed vertically, and three hundred pounds with the cells 
placed horizontally. 

Par. 9. — The allowable working stress for such blocks 
shall not exceed one hundred pounds and fifty pounds per 
gross square inch respectively. 

Par. 10. — The absorption of building blocks to be used 
for bearing or enclosing walls shall not exceed twelve per 
cent in forty-eight hours as an average, or more than 
fifteen per cent in any case. 

Par. 11. — Concrete Aggregates. — The fine aggregates 
shall be sand or crushed screenings passing a one fourth 
inch screen. The coarse aggregate shall consist of gravel, 
crushed stone, slag or cinders retained on a one fourth 
inch screen. Cinders or slag may be used for aggregate 
only for walls of one story buildings, for floor slabs, roof 
slabs, partitions, fireproofing, fire stopping and filling. 

Par. 12. — Sand. — Sand or other fine aggregate for 
concrete shall be of such quality that mortar of one part 
Portland cement and three parts sand by weight shall show 
a tensile strength of not less than seventy per cent of the 
strength of mortar made on the same proportions with 
the same cement and standard Ottawa sand. If the 
tensile strength of such mortar is less than eighty per cent 
of that made with Ottawa sand, additional cement shall 
be used in such amount as may be required by the com- 
missioner. The commissioner may require such tests 
when, in his judgment, they are necessary. 

Par. 13. — Stone. — Stone for concrete shaU be clean, 
hard and durable. For reinforced concrete it shall be 
of suitable size for the work and shall be small enough to 



26 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 14, Par. 13.] 

allow the concrete to pass readily between and easily 
surround the reinforcement, and fill all parts of the forms. 

Par. 14. — Gravel. — Run-of-bank gravel shall be used 
only when and as approved by the commissioner. 

Pab. 15. — Cinders and Slag. — Cinders shall be com- 
posed of hard, clean, vitreous cHnkers, reasonably free 
from sulphides, unburned or partly burned coal and ashes. 
Slag shall be clean and hard. Cinders and slag shall be 
of suitable size for the work. 

Par. 16. — Portland Cement. — Portland cement shall 
conform to the Standard Specifications of the American 
Society for Testing Materials as from time to time revised. 

Par. 17. — Lime. — Lime shall be free from ashes, 
cHnker and other foreign material and shall not be air slaked . 

Par. 18. — Idme Mortar. — Lime mortar shall be made of 
slaked Hme or hydrated lime with proper proportion of sand. 

Par. 19. — Cement-Lime Mortar. — Cement-lime mortar 
shall be thoroughly mixed and made of one part Portlaind 
cement, not more than two parts slaked hme or hydrated 
hme and not more than eight parts of sand by volume, 
but mixtures with larger proportion of cement shall be 
allowed higher stress as hereinafter provided. 

Par. 20. — Portland Cement Mortar. — Portland cement 
mortar shall be thoroughly mixed a,nd made of one part 
Portland cement and not more than three parts of sand 
by volume. Lime putty, or hydrated Hme, may be added 
to an amount equal to fifteen per cent of the volume of 
the cement. 

Par. 21. — Concrete. — Concrete shall mean an approved 
mixture of Portland cement, water and fine and coarse 
aggregate. 

Par. 22. — Mixing. — The ingredients shall be thor- 
oughly mixed and the mixing shall continue until the 
cement is thoroughly distributed and the mass is uniform 
in color. For reinforced concrete the consistency shall 
be such that the concrete wiU entirely enclose the rein- 



City of Boston Building Law. 27 

Sect. 14, Par. 22.] 

forcement, but shall not be so wet as to cause separation 
of the ingredients. 

PAii. 23. — Rubble Concrete. — Rubble concrete shall 
mean an approved mixture of Portland cement, water, 
fine and coarse aggregate to which stones are added after 
depositing. When one-man stones are used to form 
rubble concrete, there shall be not less than three inches 
between the stones and the forms, and between edges of 
adjacent stones. When stones larger than one-man size 
are used to form rubble concrete there shall be not less 
than six inches between the stones and forms, and between 
edges of adjacent stones. Stones shall be clean and wet 
and shall be deposited in concrete already in place, before 
the latter has begun to set. 

Par. 24. — In piers no stone shall be larger than one 
quarter of the horizontal cross section of the pier. Rubble 
concrete shall not be used for any projecting footing. 

Par. 25. — Joints. — Joints formed between portions 
of concrete placed at different times shall be made in such 
a manner as not to weaken the completed structure. 
Whenever fresh concrete joins concrete which is set, or 
partly set, the surface of the old concrete shall be rough, 
clean and thoroughly wet. 

Par. 26. — Use of Concrete. — Concrete shall be used 
immediately after mixing, it shall not be placed in the 
work after it has begun to harden, and it shall be deposited 
in such manner and under such regulations as to secure a 
compact mass of the best quahty for the proportions used. 
Forms shall remain until the concrete has hardened suffi- 
ciently to carrj^ its load safely, and shall be removed 
without damage to the concrete. 

Par. 27. — Inspection of Concrete. — The commissioner 
may require an apphcant for a permit for the structural 
use of concrete to have a competent inspector, satisfactory 
to the commissioner, at all times on the work while con- 
crete is being mixed or deposited, and such inspector 



28 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 14, Par. 27.] 

shall make daily reports to the commissioner on the 
progress of the work. 

Pab. 28. — Steel. — Steel for all structural work in 
buildings, except reinforced concrete work, shall conform 
to the requirements of the Standard Specifications for 
Structural Steel for Buildings of the American Society for 
Testing Materials, as from time to time revised. 

Par. 29. — Wrought Iron. — Wrought iron for struc- 
tural work in buildings shall conform to the requirements 
of the Standard Specifications for Wrought Iron Plates, 
Class B of the said society as from time to time revised. 

Par. 30. — Cast Iron. — Cast iron for all structural work 
in buildings shall conform to the requirements of the 
Standard Specifications for Medium Gray Iron Castings 
of the said society as from time to time revised. 

Par. 31. — Cast Iron Columns. — Cast iron colimins 
shall not be used in the structural frames of buildings 
whose height exceeds two times the least width of base, 
nor in any building over one hundred feet high. Cast 
iron columns shall be faced at ends to a true surface per- 
pendicular to the axis to give full bearing for the cross 
section of the column. 

Par. 32. — AU hoUow cast iron columns, except when 
open at both ends and without flanges, shaU have two 
three eighths of an inch holes drilled on the top or bottom 
side of the column as cast, if the columns are cast on side 
one hole about twelve inches each side of the center of 
the length of the column, to exhibit thickness of the shell. 
Columns cast on end shall have two three eighths of an 
inch holes drilled, at an angle of ninety degrees to each 
other at the middle of the column, to exhibit thickness of 
shell. Additional holes shall be drilled vfhen required by 
the commissioner. 

Par. 33. — Cast Iron Bases and Lintels. — Cast iron 
bases or shoes shall be planed on top. Bases which rest 
on structural steel members shall be planed top and bot- 



City of Boston Building Law. 29 

Sect. 14, Par. 33.] 

torn. The thickness of metal shall be not less than one 
inch. The inclination of the outer edge of the ribs with 
the horizontal shall be not less than forty-five degrees. 
Whenever a side of the bed plate exceeds three feet in 
length a reinforcing flange at least three inches high shall 
be provided along such edge of the plate. 

Pae. 34. — Cast iron Untels shall be not less than three 
fourths of an inch in thickness and shall not be used for 
spans exceeding six feet. 

Par, 35. — Timber. — All timber for structural pur- 
poses shall conform to such specifications as may be 
promulgated by the commisioner but shall be free from 
defects such as injurious ring or round shakes, and through 
shakes that extend to the surface, from unsound and loose 
knots, and knots in groups that will materially impair 
the strength, rot, worm holes and defects caused by 
manufacture. 

Par. 36. — Classes of Timber. — ''Dense" and "sound" 
classes of timber shall be as defined by the American 
Society for Testing Materials in their Standard Definitions 
of Terms relating to Structural Timbers, section three, 
as revised in nineteen hundred and fifteen. 

Strength of Materials. 

Par. 37. — Piers. — Any body . of masonry less than 
four feet long in its greatest horizontal dimension shall be 
called a pier. The height of a pier between openings 
having a continuous wall above or below them shall be 
assumed equal to the height of the opening. The height 
of a pier or wall supporting floors or roofs shall be assumed 
as the distance from top of footing or floor to under side 
of floor or roof beams. 

Par 38. — Stresses. — The stresses in materials used 
in the construction of all buildings, produced by their 
own weight and the loads hereinafter specified, shall not 
exceed the Hmits assigned in this section. 



30 

Sect. 14.] 



City of Boston Building Law. 



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rom Six to Twelv 
Times their Leas 
Dimension, and 
Walls of Height 
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Twenty Times 
their Least Di- 
mension (Tons 
per Square Foot) 


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Least Dime 
and Wall 

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their Leas 
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per Square 
















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City of Boston Building Law. 



31 



Sect. 14.] 




32 



City of Boston Building Law. 



Sect. 14.] 

Far. 41. — No plain concrete bearing pier shall have a 
greater height unsupported laterally than six times, and no 
brick pier greater than twelve times, its least dimension. 
No brick or plain concrete bearing wall, unless it is properly 
braced by cross walls, piers or other means, shall have a 
greater height unsupported than twelve times its least 
dimension. When compression is appUed to a portion of 
a surface of concrete of which the area is at least twice that 
to which the load is appUed, a stress of fifty per cent in 
excess of those allowed by the above table may be used in 
bearing. 

Par. 42. — Stresses for Grout and Stone Masonry. 



Cement to be Portland. 
(Parts Measured by Volume.) 



Tons 

per 

Square 

Foot. 



Grout, 1 part cement, 1 part sand, when not less than two feet 

in least lateral dimension, not more than one half inch joints. 
Granite masonry, with mortar of 1 part cement, 2 parts sand, 

not more than one half inch joints. 
Granite masonry, cement mortar, not more than one half inch 

joints. 
Limestone and inarble masonry, cement mortar, not more than 

one half inch joints. 
Sandstone masonry, cement mortar, not more than one half 

inch joints. 



72 
72 
60 
40 
30 



Par. 'iS.— Provided, however, that in stone masonry 
columns or in piers of excessive height, the loads may be 
modified by the commissioner. 



City of Boston Building Law. 33 

Sect. 14.] 

Par. 44. — Stresses for Structural Steel and Iron. 



Kind of Streps. 


Working Stresses per 
Square Inch. 




Steel. 


Cast Iron. 


Bearing, direct vincluding bearing of stieners) 
Bearing, pins and shop rivets 


20,000 
24,000 
20,000 
16,000 
16,000 

24,000 

10,000 

10,000 

8,000 

16,000 


16,000 


Bearing, field rivets . . . 




Bearing, bolts . . 




Bending (where top flange is stayed laterally 
at distance not greater than 20 times the 
width of flange). 

Bending, pins and rivets 


10,000 1 
4,000 2 


Shearing (including gross section of plate 
girder webs) . 

Shearing, pins and rivets 

Shearing, bolts 


2,000 


Direct tension 










Compression. 



' Tension. 



Par. 45. — The compression flange of a riveted plate 
girder shall not be of a smaller gross cross section than the 
tension flange. When the top flange of the steel plate 
girder, beam or channel is not stayed laterally at distances 
of twenty times its breadth the above stress on extreme 
fibre shall be reduced as follows : — 



l/b 


23. 


25. 


SO. 


35. 


40. 


Stress per square inch 


16,000 


15,200 


14.400 


13,600 


12,800 


l/b 


45. 


50. 


55. 


60. 


65. 


70. 


Stress per square 
inch. 


12,000 


11,200 


10,400 


9,600 


8,800 


8,000 



Where I is length of flange in inches. 

b is breadth of flange in inches. 



34 



City of Boston Building Law 



Sect. 14.1 

Par. 46. — Steel compression members shall not have a 
greater value of 1-r than one hundred and sixty, nor have 
metal (except for filling) less than one fourth of an inch for 
interior columns, nor with metal less than five sixteenths 
of an inch for exterior columns, nor with metal less than 
five sixteenths of an inch for exterior columns enclosed in 
masonry. The stress due to eccentric or transverse com- 
bined with direct loading shall not exceed sixteen thousand 
pounds per square inch. For centrally loaded steel com- 
pression members the safe load in pounds per square inch 
shall be as follows: — 

Par. 47. — Steel Com-pression Memhers. 



l/r 


80 or 

less. 


90. 


100. 


110. 


Stress per square inch 


12,000 


11,000 


10,000 


9,000 






l/r 


120, 130. 


140. 


150. 


160. 


Stress per square inch 


8,000 


7,000 


6,000 


5,000 


4,000 



Where I is the length of the column in inches 

r is the radius of gyration in inches taken around 
the axis about which the column will bend. 



Par. 48. — Cast Iron Co?npressio7i Members. — Cast 
iron compression members shall not have a greater value 
of 1-r than seventy nor a smaller outside diameter or side 
than six inches, nor a greater unsupported length than 
twenty-four times their least dimension or diameter: pro- 
vided, however, that columns supporting roof loads only 
may have a value of 1-r not greater than ninety-six and an 
unsupported length of not more than thirty times the least 



City of Boston Building Law. 



35 



Sect. 14, Par. 48.] 

lateral dimension or diameter. They shall not have metal 
less than three fourths of an inch, nor thinner than one 
twelfth of the greatest lateral dimension or side. The 
stresses due to eccentric or transverse loading, combined 
with those due to central loading, shall not exceed nine 
thousand pounds per square inch. 

Par. 49. — Cast iron columns shall not be used where 
the loading is so eccentric as to cause tension, nor in gar- 
ages, nor in places where they are Hkely to receive impact 
from vehicles. 

Par. 50. — Wherever the core of a column has shifted 
more than one quarter of the thickness of the sheU, the 
strength shall be computed assuming the thickness of metal 
all around to be equal to the thinnest part. 

Par. 51. — ■ For centrally loaded cast iron compression 
members the safe load in pounds per square inch shall be 
as follows : — 





Working Stress. 








l/r 


10. 


20. 


30. 


40. 


50. 


Stress per square inch 


8,600 


8,200 


7,800 


7,400 


7,000 


l/r 


60. 


70. 


80. 


90. 


96. 


Stress per square inch 


6,600 


6,200 


5,800 


5,400 


5,100 



36 

Sect. 14.] 



City of Boston Building Law. 



Par. 52. — Stresses of Timber. 





Steess per Squaee Inch fob Timbers 
USED IN Dry Places. 




Southern Yellow 
Pine, Dense 
Grade. 


Southern Yellow 
Pine, Sound 
Grade. 


a3 
CST3 

1- 


2 


aj 

S 
'a 


IS 
o 


Bearing across grain 

Bearing with grain 

Bending 


350 
1,200 
1,600 

150 


250 

900 

1,200 

100 


200 
1,000 
1,100 

100 


200 

750 

1,000 

100 


200 

700 

1,000 

80 


500 

900 

1,400 


Shear with grain 


200 



Par. 53. — ■ Timber Compression Members. — Timber 
compression members shall not be used of a greater 
unstayed length than thirty times their least dimension for 
isolated columns or forty times their least dimension for 
columns in partitions or truss members. The stresses due 
to eccentric or transverse loading combined with those due 
to central loading shall not exceed the maximum stress 
allowed in the table below. 

For centrally loaded timber compression members the 
safe load per square inch shall be as follows : — 



City of Boston Building Law, 



37 



Sect. 14.] 

Par. 54.- 



Length divided by 
Least Dimensions. 


Southern Yellow 
Pine. Dense 
Grade. 


Southern Yellow 
Pine, Sound 
Grade. 


to 

p 


o 

a 
m 


aj 

03 


? 

'a 

M 
O 


10 or less 


1,000 
900 
800 
700 
600 
500 
400 


750 
675 
600 
525 
450 
375 
300 


840 
750 
660 
580 
500 
420 
330 


620 
560 
500 
440 
380 
320 
250 


585 
525 
465 
405 
350 
290 
230 


750 


15 


675 


20 


600 


25 . . 


525 


30 


450 


35 


375 


40 


300 







Par. 55. — Other Materials. — Stresses for materials 
and forms of material, not herein mentioned, shall be 
determined by the commissioner. 

Par. 56. — Wind Bracing. — Provisions for wind brac- 
ing shall be made where it is necessary in good prSactice or 
as determined by the commissioner. 

Par. 57. — Cutting. — No cutting for piping or any 
other pm-pose shall be done which would reduce the strength 
of any part of the structure below what is required by the 
provisions of this act. 

Par. 58. — Methods of Computation. — Methods for 
reinforced concrete are given in section fifteen. For all 
other materials, the following methods shall be used : — 

Par. 59. — The span of beams, girders, or trusses shall 
be taken as the distance from centre to centre of the bear- 
ings. If connected to the side of a column, the span shall 
be taken to the centre of the column. 

Par. 60. — If a tension piece is loaded eccentrically or 
transversely the maximum combined fiber stress shall not 
exceed the allowed stress in tension. 



38 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 14.] ^.^ 

Pjvk.^1. — An eccentric load upon a column shall be 
taken as affecting eccentrically only the length of column 
extending to the next point below at which the column is 
stayed securely in the direction of the eccentricity. 

Par 62. — If a piece is exposed to tension and com- 
pression at different times it shall be proportioned and 
connected to resist the maximum of each kind of stress. 

Par. 63. — ^ Base-plates, bearing plates, and grillage 
beams shall be figured on the assumption that the maxi- 
mum bending moments are under the centre of bearing. 
[1918, c. 179, sect. 4, Special Act.] 

SECTION 15. 
Reinforced Concrete. 

Par. 1. — Definition. — Reinforced concrete shall mean 
an approved mixture of Portland cement, water and fine 
and coarse aggregate, reinforced by steel. 

Far. 2. — Portland Cement and Aggregate. — The Port- 
land cement and fine and course aggregate for reinforced 
concrete work shaU conform to the quaUty of materials 
as defined in section fourteen of this act. 

Par. 3. — Reinforcements. — Steel for reinforcement 
shall conform to the Standard Specifications for Steel 
Reinforcement Bars of the American Society for Testing 
Materials, as from time to time revised. It shall be free 
from mill scale and loose rust and shall not be coated in 
such manner as to weaken the bond. 

Par. 4. — Mixing. — The ingredients shall be thor- 
oughly mixed, and the mixing shaU continue until the 
cement is thoroughly distributed and the mass is uniform 
in color. The consistency shall be such that the concrete 
will flow freely about and entirely enclose the reinforce- 
ment, but shall not be so wet as to cause separation of the 
ingredients in handling. 



City op Boston Building Law. 39 

Sect. 15.] 

Par. 5. — Inspection. — Siicli portions of section four- 
teen as apply to inspection shall be taken to apply to this 
section also. 

Par. 6. — Forms. — Forms shall be sufficiently tight to 
prevent any considerable loss of material in the pouring. 

Par. 7. — Placing. — Such portion of section fourteen 
as apply to the placing of concrete shall be taken to apply 
to this section also. Concrete shall not be deposited in 
forms until the reinforcement has bpen put in place and 
secured against displacement. 

Par. 8. — Columns shall be poured without any inter- 
ruption to the bottom side of beams or girders which they 
support, or to the bottom of the flare in fiat slab construc- 
tion. Special care shall be taken in their pouring that no 
void may result. 

Par. 9. — Columns and walls shall be poured not less 
than three hours in advance of the beams, girders, or 
slabs, which they support. All columns of the same type 
in a story shall be of concrete mixed in the same pro- 
portions. 

Par. 10. — Structural slabs shall be poured the full 
thickness at the time of pouring floor. 

Par. II. — Stopping Work. — Proper precautions shall 
be taken in stopping concrete work to stop it at the points 
of low shear. 

Par. 12. — High and Low Temperature. — When fresh 
concrete is exposed to a hot or dry atmosphere or wind 
special precautions to prevent premature drying shall be 
taken. 

Par. 13. — Concrete shall not be deposited when the 
temperature is below thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit, 
unless adequate precautions are taken to prevent freezing. 

Par. 14. — Fire Protection. — Main reinforcement in 
floor slabs shall be protected by a minimum of three 
fourths of an inch of concrete; in beams, girders, columns 



40 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15, Par. 14.] 

and walls by one and one half inches from the surface of the 
concrete to the surface of the main reinforcement. 

Pak. 15. — In columns the outer one and one half inches 
of concrete shall be regarded as fireproofing which shall be 
assumed to carry no stress. 

Pae. 16. — Rust Protection. — In foundations and retain- 
ing walls the steel shall be protected and on the side 
toward the earth or water by a minimum of three inches of 
concrete. 

Par. 17. — Spacing of Reinforcement. — Slab reinforce- 
ment bars in tension shall be not farther apart horizontally 
than two and one haK times the total thickness of the 
slab. In beams and girders the lateral spacing of parallel 
bars shall be not less than three diameters from centre to 
centre, and the clear space between two layers of bars 
shall not be less than one inch. 

Pab. 18. — Basis for Design. — Calculations shall be 
made with reference to working stresses and safe loads 
rather than with reference to ultimate strength and ulti- 
mate loads, and shall be based on the following assump- 
tions: — 

Par. 19. — (a) A plane section before bending remains 
plane after bending. 

Par. 20. — (b) The modulus of elasticity of concrete 
in compression, within the usual limits of working stresses, 
is constant. The distribution of compressive stress in 
beams, therefore, is rectilinear. 

Par. 21. — • (c) The tensile strength of the concrete in 
direct resistance to bending is ignored. 

Par. 22. — (d) Under compressive stress the two 
materials are stressed in proportion to their moduU of 
elasticity. 

Par. 23. — (e) Initial stress in the reinforcement due 
to contraction or expansion in the concrete is neglected. 

Par. 24. — Span Length. — The span length for beams 
and slabs simply supported shall be taken as the distance 



City of Boston Building Law. 41 

Sect. 15, Par. 24.] 

from centre to centre of supports, but need not be taken to 
exceed the clear span plus the depth of beam or slab. For 
continuous or restrained beams or slabs, built monolithi- 
cally into supports, the span length may be taken as the 
clear distance between faces of supports. Brackets shall 
not be considered as reducing the clear span in the sense 
here intended, except that when brackets which make an 
angle* of forty-five degrees or more with the axis of a 
restrained beam or the plane of a slab are built monoHthi- 
cally therewith, the span may be measured from the 
section where the total depth is at least one third more 
than the depth at the edge of the bracket. Maximum 
negative moments are to be considered as existing at the 
end of the span as here defined. 

Par. 25. — Bending. — Bending moments for uniformly 
distributed dead and live loads, in beams and slabs rein- 
forced in one direction only shall be computed upon the 
following assumptions, where "w" is the total dead and 
live load per linear foot and "1" is the span length: — 

Par. 26. — (a) for a single span freely supported the 
bending at mid-span is 

8 

Par. 27. — (&) for a single span restrained at the ends, 
the bending at mid-span is 

12 

Par. 28. — ■ (c) for two equal continuous spans freely 
supported, the bending at mid-span is 

10 

and at central support it is >■ 

8 



42 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

Par. 29. — (d) for two equal continuous spans re- 
strained at supports, the bending at mid-span is 

12 

and at central support it is ^ 

10 
Par. 30. — (e) for three or more equal continuous spans 
freely supported, the bending at mid-span of the end span 
and at the first interior support is 

wF 

10 
and the bending at mid-span of interior spans and at other 
interior supports is 

12 

Par. 31. — (/) for three or more equal continuous spans 
restrained at supports, the bending at the first interior sup- 
port for beams is 

10 

and for slabs is 

wF 

12 

and the bending at all other interior supports and at mid- 
span of all spans is 

wP 

12 

Par. 32. — (g) at the restrained ends of continuous 
beams a negative bending of 

wF 
16 

shall generally be assumed, but this shall be increased to 
not more than w]^ for small beams running into large 
columns. 12 



City of Boston Building Law. 



43 



Sect. 15, Par. 32] 



(a) 

K 



6 

















I 










\2 




\ 


\ 




J.Ji. 


12 


IG 




12 


\& 



(c) 



A" 



JO 



8 



X 
10 



12" 16 



X 
12 



ir 



iO 



X 
12 



X.X 
12 IS 



fe) 



^ X 


A 




"" X — 


, 


X 


10 


1 

to 


1 

12 


1 
(2 


1 
(2 





(f) 



16 



X 
12 



12 



iQ bons 
12 Slabs 



X 
12 



44 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

Par. 33. — Beams and slabs shall be considered as 
restrained at the ends when they frame monolithically into 
a structure sufficiently stiff and strong to introduce a 
negative bending moment into the beam at the end in 

amount not less than -— . 
lb 

Par. 34. — For continuous beams subject to other than 
uniformly distributed loads, the positive bending moment 
shall first be computed as though the beam were freely 
supported. The positive moment may then be reduced in 
the same proportion as specified above for beams loaded 
uniformly, and provision shall be made at the restrained 
ends for negative moments having the same ratio to the 
positive moment first computed that the negative moments 

specified above bear to ^. 

Par. 35. — Beams parallel to the main reinforcement 
of a one-way slab into which no other beams frame, and 
which are restrained at the ends by being built monoHthi- 
cally into supporting columns, shall be designed for bend- 

ing moments at the ends equal to — , and at mid-span as 

follows: When the width of columns parallel to the axis of 
the beam is not less than fifteen per cent of the distance, 
centre to centre of columns, or twice the depth of the beam, 

wP ,, . wP 

m= -—: otherwise w = — — . 
20 16 

Par. 36. — For spans of unusual or unequal length and 
other special cases the design shall be such as to carry out 
the intent of this act to the satisfaction of the commissioner. 

Par. 37. — Slabs Supported on Four Sides. — For 
slabs, supported on four sides and reinforced in both 



City of Boston Building Law. 45 

Sect. 15, Par. 37.] 

directions the distribution of loads shall be determined by 

the formula 

I 

r= 0.5 

h 

where 

b is the breadth of slab. 
I is the length of slab. 

r is the proportion of load carried by the transverse 
reinforcement. 

Par. 38. — In placing reinforcement in such slabs 
account shall be taken of the fact that the bending moment 
is greater near the centre of the slab than near the edges, 
and two thirds of the calculated moments shall be assumed 
as carried by the centre half of the slab and one third by the 
outside quarters. 

Par. 39. — Beams supporting rectangular slabs rein- 
forced in both directions shall be assumed to take the 
proportions of load as determined by the formula in this 
section, the distribution of the load being assumed to vary 
in accordance with the ordinates of a parabola having its 
vertex at mid-span. 

Par. 40. — Floor and Roof Openings. — Openings in 
floors and roofs shall be so framed as not to exceed the 
allowable stresses. 

Par. 41. — Depth. — In roof slabs the total depth shall 
not be less than three inches and in floor slabs four inches. 

Par. 42. — In "T" beams the depth below the slab 
shall not exceed eight times the thickness of the slab 
adjacent to the stem. 

Par. 43. — Cinder concrete slabs shall not be less than 
four inches thick; they shall not exceed eight feet in span. 

Par. 44. — Self-Centring. — -Reinforcing materials which 
are self-centring shall not be used in spans exceeding 



46 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15, Par. 44.] 

eight feet. Fireproofmg under self-centring reinforcement 
may be of Portland cement plaster. 

Par. 45. — Bending in Supporting Members. — If a 
beam or floor slab is assumed as fixed or partially restrained 
at a support, the column, wall, or other structure furnishing 
such restraint shall be proportioned to resist the stresses 
thereby induced. 

Par. 46. — "2"" Beams. — Where adequate bond and 
shearing resistance between slab and web of beam is pro- 
vided, the slab may be considered an integral part of the 
beam, but its effective width shall not exceed one fourth 
part of the span length of the beam, nor shall its over- 
hanging width on either side of the web exceed six times 
the thickness of the slab. 

Par. 47. — Columns. — Columns or piers of concrete 
shall be reinforced when the unsupported height exceeds 
six times the least gross dimension, and no reinforced con- 
crete column shall have an unsupported height of more 
than twelve times its least gross dimension, except with 
stresses reduced from those allowed by this act in accord- 

24-^ 
d 
ance with the ratio where h is unsupported height 

and d is least dimension, and - shall not in any case exceed 

d 

eighteen. The maximum effective area of columns shall 
be taken as the area within the outer one and one half 
inches of concrete covering, or, in the case of hooped col- 
umns or columns reinforced with structural shapes, it 
shall be taken as the area within the circle enclosing the 
spiral or the polygon enclosing the structural shapes. 
Longitudinal reinforcement shall be assumed to carry 
stress in proportion to the respective moduli of elasticity 
as given in this act. 



City of Boston Building Law. 47 

Sect. 15.] 

Pak. 48. — Exterior columns and their reinforcement 
shall be so proportioned as to withstand bending in addi- 
tion to the direct load without exceeding the fiber stresses 
specified for beams elsewhere in this act. 

Par. 49. — Reinforced concrete buildings may be sup- 
ported by structural steel or cast iron columns, fireproofed 
in first class construction as provided elsewhere in this act. 
Brackets shall be provided to transmit the load from the 
floors to the columns. Such columns shall be computed 
as follows : — ■ 

Par. 50. — (a) If the brackets are placed immediately 
below the floor the structural steel or cast iron columns 
shall be assumed to carry the load of all the floors above. 

Par. 51. — (5) If the brackets are placed immediately 
above a floor the structural steel or cast iron columns shall 
be assumed to carry all the load above the brackets, and 
the floor or floors below the brackets shall be carried on 
reinforced concrete encasing the metal, designed in accord- 
ance with the requirements of this act, to the next bracket 
below or to the foundation. In this case, however, the 
surrounding concrete shall be so separated from the steel 
or cast iron as to permit the separate action of both. 

Par. 52. — • Circular hollow steel or wrought iron col- 
umns filled with concrete shall be allowed to carry a load 
equal to the capacity of the metal casing plus the capacity 
of the concrete filling. The average unit stress in the 
casing shall be that specified elsewhere in this act for 
columns, and that in the concrete filling shall be in the 
same ratio to the unit stress in the casing which the modu- 
lus of elasticity of the concrete bears to that of the casing. 

Par. 53. — Columns with longitudinal reinforcement 
only shall have a steel area of not less than one per cent 
and not more than four per cent of the required effective 
area, and shall be allowed the stresses given in this act. 



48 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15, Par. 53.] 

Longitudinal reinforcement bars shall be straight and 
shall be secured against lateral displacement by steel ties 
not less than one fourth of an inch in diameter and placed 
not farther apart than sixteen diameter^ of the bars, nor 
more than twelve inches. 

Par. 54. — Columns which have longitudinal reinforce- 
ment to an amount not less than one per cent and not 
more than four per cent of the effective area, and which 
also have hoops or spirals to an amount not less than one 
per cent of the volume of the enclosed core, spaced not 
farther apart in the clear than one sixth of the diameter 
of the enclosed core, and in no case more than two and 
one half inches, shall be allowed the stresses given in this 
act: -provided, however, that no such column shall have a 
height greater than ten diameters of the enclosed core. 
The ends of hoops or spirals shall be united in such a way 
as to develop their full strength. The hoops or spirals 
shall be securely fastened to the longitudinal reinforce- 
ment or to approved spacers. 

Par. 55. — Combination Floors. — Concrete floors with 
permanent blocks or forms of incombustible material 
with ribs of reinforced concrete between shall conform to 
the requirements of this act so far as they are appUcable, 
but the blocks or forms shall not be assumed as taking 
stress. If a slab not less than two inches thick above the 
blocks or forms is cast monolithic with the rib, the rib 
and slab may be considered as a T section. If such con- 
struction forms a flush ceiling, or if a plastered ceiling on 
metal lath is suspended below the ribs, the fireproofing for 
such construction shall be that required for slabs. 

Par. 56. — Working Stresses. — The following table 
gives the compressive strength in pounds per square inch 
which shall be assumed as the basis for design, a bag of 
cement weighing ninety-four pounds being assumed to 



City of Boston Building Law. 



49 



Sect. 15, Par. 56.] 

measure one cubic foot in proportioning material, and the 
values given for aggregate to be the combined volume of 
fine and coarse aggregate measured separately. 



Mixture. 


1:3. 


lAh 


1:6. 


1:7. 


1:7L 


1:9. 


Stone concrete 


3,300 
1,000 


2,800 

875 


2,200 
750 


675 


1,800 
625 


1,400 


Cinders or slag concrete.. 





Par. 57. — In all computations allowable stresses 
shall be used, based, as hereinafter specified, upon as- 
sumed ultimate strengths as given above, and no concrete 
shall be used which, when made under laboratory condi- 
tions into test cylinders eight inches diameter and sixteen 
inches long and tested in compression at an age of twenty- 
eight days, does not show a strength at least equal to that 
given in the table. 

Par. 58. — Concrete one year old shall be considered to 
have a compressive strength twenty-five per cent greater 
than that given in the table for concrete of the same grade 
and proportions. 

Par. 59. — Bearing. — When compression is applied to 
a portion of a concrete surface of which the area is at 
least twice that to which the load is applied, a stress of 
thirty-five per cent of the compressive strength fixed by 
this act shall be allowed. 

Par. 60. — Axial Compression. — For concentric com- 
pression on columns with longitudinal reinforcement 
o^y, twenty-two and five tenths per cent of the compres- 
sive strength fixed by this act shall be allowed. 

Par. 61. — For concentric compression on columns the 
length of which does not exceed ten diameters of the core, 
with longitudinal reinforcement combined with hoops or 



50 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15, Par. 61.] 

spirals, thirty-five per cent of the compressive strength 
fixed by this act shall be allowed. 

Par. 62. — Bending. — Compression on extreme fiber 
in bending shall not exceed thirty-two and five tenths per 
cent of the compressive strength fixed by this act: 'pro- 
vided, however, that adjacent to the supports of continuous 
beams or slabs thirty-seven and five tenths per cent may 
be used. 

Par. 63. — Shear and Diagonal Tension. — In the 
calculation of beams in which the maximum shearing stress 
in a section is used as the means of measuring the resistance 
to diagonal tension stress, the vertical shearing unit stress 

as computed by the formula v = ——, where v is the shearing 

ojd 

unit stress, V is the total sheer, h is the breadth of the beam, 

and jd is the arm of the resisting couple, shall not exceed 

the following percentages of the respective compressive 

strengths fixed by this act. 

Par. 64. — • For beams with horizontal bars only and 
without web reinforcement, two per cent. 

Par. 65. — For beams with web reinforcement consist- 
ing of vertical stirrups looped about the longitudinal 
reinforcing bars in the tension side of the beam, suitably 
anchored in the compression side and spaced horizontally 
not more than one half the depth of the beam, or for beams 
in which longitudinal bars are bent up at an angle of not 
more than forty-five degrees nor less than twenty degrees 
with the axis of the beam and the points of bending are 
spaced horizontally not more than three fourths of the 
depth of the beam apart, or both, the web reinforcement 
being designed, in each case, to carry two thirds of the 
total shear, six per cent. 

Par. 66. — Punching. — Punching shear shall not exceed 
six per cent of the compressive strength fixed by this act. 



City of Boston Building Law. 51 

Sect. 15.] 

Par, 67. — • Bond. — The bond stress between concrete 
and steel bars shall not exceed four per cent, except that 
the bond between concrete and approved deformed steel 
bars shall not exceed five per cent, and between concrete 
and drawn wire shall not exceed three per cent of the com- 
pressive strength fixed by this act. 

Par. 68. — Steel. — The tensile or compressive stress 
in steel shall not exceed sixteen thousand pounds per square 
inch in rods and twenty thousand pounds per square inch 
in drawn wire and other approved cold stretched fabric, 
except that in slabs of stone concrete the tensUe stress in 
rods shall not exceed eighteen thousand pounds per square 
inch, and in drawn wire and other approved cold stretched 
fabric it shall not exceed twenty-two thousand five hundred 
poimds per square inch. 

Par, 69. — Modulus of Elasticity. — The modulus of 
elasticity of concrete shall be taken as — 

gV that of steel for cinder concrete with a compressive 
strength of 1,000 pounds per square inch or less. 

xV that of steel for stone concrete with a compressive 
strength of 2,200 poujids per square inch or less. 

iV that of steel for concrete with a compressive strength 
greater than 2,200 pounds per square inch, but less than 
2,900 pounds per square inch. 

xV that of steel for concrete with a compressive strength 
of 2,900 pounds per square inch or more, the compressive 
strength referred to in all these cases being that fixed by 
this act. 

Par. 70. — Footing General. — Symmetrical, concentric 
column footings shall be designed for punching shear, 
diagonal tension and bending moment. 

Par. 71. — Punching Shear in Footings. — The area 
effective to resist punching shear in column footings shall 
be considered as the area having a width equal to the 



52 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15, Par. 71.] 

perimeter of the column or pier and a depth equal to seven 
eighths the depth of footing from top to centre of reinforc- 
ing steel. 

Par. 72. — Diagonal Tension in Footings. — Shearing 
stresses as indicative of diagonal tension shall be measured 
in footings on vertical sections distant from the face of 
the pier or column equal to the depth of the footing from 
top to centre of reinforcing steel. 

Par. 73. — Bending Moment in Footings. — The bending 
moment in rectangular isolated column footings at a 
section taken at the edge of pier or columns shall be 
determined by multiplying the load on the cantilever pro- 
jection by three eighths the distance from the edge of 
pier or column to the edge of footing. The section of 
maximum moment in a footing supporting a round column 
or pier shall be taken one eighth the radius from the tangent 
toward the centre. The effective area of concrete and steel 
to resist bending moment shall be considered as that within 
a width extending both sides of pier or column a distance 
equal to depth of footing plus one half the remaining 
distance to edge of footing, except that reinforcing steel 
crossing the section other than at right angles shall be con- 
sidered to have an effective area determined by multiplying 
the sectional area by the sine of the angle between the bar 
and the plane of the section. The bond stress in the steel 
shall not exceed that allowed by this act. 

Par. 74. — Flat Slabs. — Floor slabs supported upon 
columns without beams or girders and extending two or 
more bays in each direction shall conform to the following 
requirements. 

Par. 75. — Capital. — Columns may be provided with 
enlarged capitals. The horizontal width of capitals shall 
be taken where the vertical thickness is at least one and 
one half inches, and the contour of capitals shall not fall 
within that of an inverted cone or pyramid whose apex is on 



City of Boston Building Law. 53 

Sect. 15, Par. 75.] 

the centre line of the column, whose sides incline at forty- 
five degrees with the vertical, and whose base lies in a plane 
one and one half inches below the underside of the dropped 
panel and, if no dropped panel is used, below the underside 
of the slab, and has the same size and shape in plan as the 
capital. The width of capital in any direction shall not be 
less than one fifth the distance, centre to centre, of columns 
in that direction, and shall be such that the allowable unit 
stresses elsewhere specified in this act shall not be exceeded. 

Par. 76. — Dropped Panel. — A thickening of the slab 
on the underside in the vicinity of the columns is termed a 
dropped panel. The width of the dropped panel in any 
direction shall be not less than f that of the column 
capital. The depth of the dropped panel below the bottom 
of the slab shall be not more than half the slab thickness, 
but shall be such that the allowable unit stresses shall not 
be exceeded either in shear about the column capital or in 
bending. The allowable unit shear to be used shall be that 
specified for punching shear elsewhere in this act. The 
allowable compression in bending shall be that specified for 
extreme fibers adjacent to support in continuous beams. 

Pap.. 77. — Slab Thickness. — In flat slab construction, 
the minimum thickness of slab shall be not less than ^ 
in the case of roofs or gV in the case of floors, of the dis- 
tance from centre to centre of the columns in the longer 
direction. The thickness shall be such as to withstand the 
shear about the column capital or dropped panel without 
exceeding the allowable stress herein specified for punching 
shear. 

Par. 78. — Bending. — For the purpose of determining 
the bending in flat slab floors, the slab shall be considered 
as divided by lines parallel to the lines of columns into 
strips whose width is one half the distance, L, centre to 
centre, of columns measured at right angles to the span of 
strips. The centre line of alternate strips shall coincide 



54 



City of Boston Building Law. 



Sect. 15, Par. 78.] 

with the centre line of the columns. These shall be known 
as A-strips. The other strips located midway between 
columns shall be known as B-strips. The span length of 
the strips shall be taken as the distance, centre to centre, 
of columns less two thirds the width of the colunm capital 
measured in the direction of the span. 

Par. 79. — Provision shall be made m the A and B strips 
comprising any panel width for the whole bending moment 
specified, and the proportion of the whole provided for 
within each strip shall be not less than that given in the 
following table : — 





Peb Cent, 




A-Strip. 


B-Strip. 


Either 
Strip. 


Positive moment, dropped panel 

Positive moment, no dropped panel 

Negative moment, dropped panel 

Negative moment, no dropped panel. . . . 


60 
55 
80 
65 


25 
25 
15 
20 


15 

20 

5 

15 



Par. 80. — Interior Bays. — If 

I = span as given above = L — f c 
where c = diameter of column capital 
w = total load per square foot 

whether the panels be square or oblong and in whichever 
direction the span be taken, the bending moments at the 
critical portions of interior bays shall be assumed as 
follows : — 

Par. 81. — Positive Bending. — The positive bending 
moment for a whole panel width shall be taken as 

wLV- 



M = 



25 



City of Boston Building Law. 55 

Sect. 15.] 

Par. 82. — Negative Bending. — The negative bending 
moment for a panel width shall be taken as 

M = y^ 

15 

Par. 83. — Wall Bays; Restraint. — For wall bays when 
the wall is of reinforced concrete {I is the distance from the 
inside face of the exterior column to the centre of the 
interior column less one third the width of the interior 
column capital) the bending moment for strips running 
perpendicular to the wall shall be as follows : — • 

Par. 84. — ■ Positive Bending. — • The positive bending 
moment for a panel width shall be taken as 

20 
Par. 85. — Negative Bending. — The negative bending 
moment for a panel width at the interior line of columns 
shall be taken as : — 

12.5 
Par. 86. — ■ The negative bending moment for a panel 
at the wall shall in general be taken as : — ■ 

30 
Par. 87. — This rnay be increased, according to degree of 

restramt, up to '- for complete restraint: provided, 

however, that in case the coefficient for negative bending at 
the wall is increased, the other two bending moment coeffi- 
cients may be correspondingly decreased. 

Par. 88. — Wall Bays; No Restraint. — For wall bays 
supported on one edge upon brick walls or other con- 
struction incapable of providing adequate restraint in 
negative bending, I is the distance from the inner face of 
the wall to the centre of the interior column less one third 
the width of the interior column capital. 



56 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

Par. 89. — Positive Bending. — The positive bending 
moment for a panel width shall be taken as : — 

16 
Par. 90. — Negative Bending. — The negative bending 
moment for a panel width at the interior column line shall 
be taken as : — 

10 

Par. 91. — Negative bending along such walls shall be 
provided for by reinforcement in the top of the slab at 
right angles with the wall equal to four tenths per cent in 
floors and to two tenths per cent in roofs of the area of 
cross section of the slab. 

Par. 92. — Bays discontinuous upon one or two adjacent 
sides shall be treated as wall bays. 

Par. 93. — When a flat slab is supported by a beam or 
wall on one or two sides, the half strip parallel with and 
adjacent to the beam or wall may be reinforced as half a 
B-strip. 

Par. 94. — The bending in exterior concrete columns 
supporting flat slab floors shall in general be taken as: — 

^^ plus ^, 
30 ^ 4 ' 

or more up to 

15 4 

in case of complete restraint, where W is the total load on 
the wall panel and h is the thickness of the exterior column. 

Par. 95. — For floors, half this bending shall be assumed 
as acting below and half above the slab ; for roofs the whole 
bending acts below the slab. 

Par. 96. — Brackets. — Brackets or haunches shall be 
provided on exterior columns when^ necessary to transmit 
the shear and bending from the slab to the column. 



' City of Boston Building Law. 57 

Sect. 15.] 

Par. 97. — Interior Columns. — The least dimension of 
interior concrete columns supporting flat slabs shall be not 
less than one fifteenth the span, centre to centre, of columns 
in the longer direction. 

Par. 98. — Reinforcement. — Reinforcement shall be pro- 
vided at the critical sections of all strips in sufficient quan- 
tity to withstand the bending herein specified without 
exceeding the allowable unit stresses elsewhere specified 
in this act. Reinforcement lying obliquely to the axis of 
any strip shall be counted as having an area effective for 
that strip equal to its actual area of cross-section multiplied 
by the cosine of the angle which it makes with the axis of 
the strip. 

Par. 99. — Bent Bars.— No reinforcing for positive 
bending shall be bent up to the top of the slab further from 
the ceiitre Hiie of the column than one fourth L where L is 
the distance, centre to centre of columns in the direction 
of the reinforcing. Positive reinforcement in A-strips 
shall be provided to within 0.15 L of the centre line of 
interior columns and extending to the inside face of wall 
columns; in B-strips shall be provided extending to within 
0.10 L of the interior column Hne and to the inside face of 
wall support. Negative reinforcement in A-strips shall 
extend beyond the centre Hne of the columns half the 
width of the column capital plus enough to develop the 
strength of the rods; at least one quarter of the negative 
reinforcement shall extend six inches beyond the quarter 
point of the panel or the fifth point of the span length. 
Negative reinforcement in B-strips shaU extend forty 
diameters beyond the centre line of columns, and at least 
half thereof shall extend to the quarter point of the panel. 

Par. 100. — For determining the stress in concrete due 
to the bending in each strip the width shall be taken as the 
width of the strip, except that for negative bending in 
A-strips when a dropped panel is used the width shall be 
that of the dropped panel. 



58 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

Par. 101. — Wall Beams. — Wall beams in flat slab 
construction shall be assumed to carry a width of floor 
equal to one quarter the clear span of the beam in addition 
to the weight of beam and wall. Such beams, when con- 
tinuous, shall be designed for a negative bending at col- 

umns equal to — and the positive bending at mid-span 

shall be assumed as follows : — 

Par. 102. — (a) When the width of the columns (paral- 
lel to the beam) is not less than fifteen per cent of the dis- 
tance, centre to centre, of columns or twice the depth of 
the beam, 

20 
Par. 103.— (6) Otherwise, 

16 
Par. 104. — Brick Walls. — In case a flat slab is sup- 
ported by a brick wall, the wall shall in general be four 
inches thicker than the minimmn thickness otherwise 
required by this act, or have equivalent pilasters. 

Formulas for Reinforced Concrete Construction. 
Par. 105. — These formulas are based on the assump- 
tions and principles given in section fifteen. 

1. Standard Notation. 
Par. 106. — (a) Rectangular Beams. 
The following notation is recommended : 
/s = tensile unit stress in steel; 
fc = compressive unit stress in concrete; 
Es = modulus of elasticity of steel ; 
jBJc = modulus of elasticity of concrete; 
Es. 
Ec 



City of Boston Building Law. 59 

Sect. 15, Par. 106.] 

M = moment of resistance, or bending moment in 

general; 
As = steel area; 
b = breadth of beam; 
d = depth of beam to centre of steel; 
k = ratio of depth of neutral axis to depth, d] 
z = depth below top to resultant of the compressive 

stresses; 
y = ratio of lever arms of resisting couple to depth, d. 
jd =d — z — arm of resisting couple; 

p = steel ratio = — 
bd 

Par. 107.— (&) T-B earns. . 

b = width of flange; 
?)'= width of stem; 
t = thickness of flange. 

Par. 108. — (c) Beams Reinforced for Compression. 
A ' = area of compressive steel ; 

p' = steel ratio for compressive steel; 
/s' = compressive unit stress in steel; 

C= total compressive stress in concrete; 

C = total compressive stress in steel; 

rf' = depth to centre of compressive steel; 
z = depth to resultant of C and C. 

Par. 109. — {d) Shear, Bond and Web Reinforcement. 
y = total shear; 

F' = total shear producing stress in reinforcement; 
y = shearing unit stress; 
w=bond stress per unit area of bar; 
= circumference of perimeter of bar; 
2^0 = sum of the perimeters of all bars; 
T'= total stress in single reinforcing members; 
s = horizontal spacing of reinforcing members. 



60 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

Pab. 110. — (e) Columns. 
A = total net area; 
As = area of longitudinal steel; 
Ac = area of concrete; 
P = total safe load. 

2. Formulas. 

(a) Rectangular Beams. 
Par. 111. — Position of neutral axis, 



k = ^2pn-\-{pny-pn (1) 

Par. 112. — Arm of resisting couple, 

1 

j = l k.. (2) 

3 
[For/s = 15000 to 16000 and /c = 600 to 650, j maybe 
taken at |.] 



K-fc -^ 




Fig. 1. 



City of Boston Building Law. 



61 



Sect. 15.] 

Par. 113. — Fiber stresses, 

M M 



fs = 



Asjd pjhd^ 



Par. 114. 



Par. 115. 



jkbd2 k 



Steel ratio, for balanced reinforcement, 
1 



P=i 



fc\nfc / 
(6) T-Beams. 



(3) 

(4) 

(5) 



<-.. 


b H 














••• 


1^ 

1 

1 



fc ■••'I 



k- b'->l 




Par. 116. — Case I. When the neutral axis lies in the 
flange, use the formulas for rectangular beams. 
Case II. When the neutral axis lies in the stem. 
The following formulas neglect the compression in the 
stem. 

Par 117. — Position of neutral axis, 

j^^^2ndAs+hl (g) 

2nAs-\-m 



62 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

Pab. 118. — Position of resultant compression, 

2kd—t 'S 

Par. 119. — Arm of resisting couple, 

jd = d~z (8) 

Par. 120. — Fiber stresses, 

fs-^. (9^ 

Asjd 

Par. 121.— 

f,= MM =-hJ^.. .. (10) 

-' bt{kd—^t)jd nl-k " 

(For approximate results the formulas for rectangular 
beams may be used.) 

Par. 122. — The following formulas take into account 
the compression in the stem; they are recommended 
where the flange is small compared with the stem: 

Par. 123. — 'Position of neutral axis, 

7^ l 2ndAs + Q) — h')t^ , r nAs-\-{h—V)t \' 
M = ^ ^7- +( ^ ) - 

nAs + {h—h')t /jjs 

6' 

Par. 124. — Position of resultant compression, 

^ ti2kd — t)b + {kd — tyh' 

Par. 125. — Arm of resisting couple, 

jd = d~z (13) 

Par. 126. — Fiber stresses, 

^-5-. <"> 



Par. 127.— 



. ^ 2Mkd /j^N 

•^' [ {2kd — t)ht + ikd — tyb']jd 



City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15, Par. 127.] 

(c) Beams Reinforced for Compression. 



63 




>fs+nf< 

Fig. 3. 
Pab. 128. — Position of neutral axis, 

Par. 129. — Position of resultant compression, 
i]^d+2p'nd'fk—-\ 



z = - 



k''+2p'nfk—-\ 



Par. 130. — Arm of resisting couple, 

jd = d—z. . . 
Par. 131. — Fiber stresses. 



fc = 



''''t-'"+fM)0-i)] 



.(17) 

.(18) 
.(19) 



64 City of Boston Building Law. 



Sect. 15.] 
Par. 132.— 



Par. 133.- 



^-^^=''^'¥ (2"' 



d' 

k 

fs'=nU—- (21) 



{d) Shear, Bond, and Web Reinforcement. 
Par. 134. — For rectangular beams, 



v=^, (22) 

hjd 



Par. 135.— 



^* = r^^ (23) 

jd .%o 

[For approximate results j may be taken at |.] 

Par. 136. — ■ The stresses in web reinforcement may be 
estimated by means of the following formulas: 
Vertical web reinforcement, 

T = ^ ...(24) 

jd 

Par. 137. — Bars bent up at angles between 20 and 45 
deg. with the horizontal and web members inclined at 
45 deg. 

T = i^ (25) 

jd 

Par. 138. — In the text of the report* it is recommended 
that two thirds of the external vertical shear (total shear) 
at any section be taken as the amount of total shear pro- 
ducing stress in the web reinforcement. F' therefore 
equals two thirds of V. 

* Should read "law." 



City of Boston Building Law. 65 

Sect. 15.] 

Par. 139. — The same formulas apply to beams 
reinforced for compression as regards shear and bond 
stress for tensile steel. 

For T-Beams, 

^=r7?T ...(26) 

Par. 140.— 

^ = Tj^ (27) 

Jd.%0 

[For approximate results 7 may be taken at |.] 

(e) Columns. 
Par. 141. — Total safe load, 

P=fc(Ac+nAs) =fcAil + {n-'l)p) (28) 

Par. 142. — Unit stresses, 

A{l-\-{n-l)p) 
Par. 143.— 

fs=nfc (30) 

11918, c. 179, sect. 5, Special Act.] 

SECTION 16. 

STEEL CONSTRUCTION. 

Materials and Stresses. — Materials, stresses and methods 
of computation shall be as provided in section fourteen. 

Par. 1. — General Requirements. — No metal thinner 
than one fourth of an inch shall be used except for fillers or 
beams and channel webs: provided, however, that sheet 
metal may be used in such buildings and under such 
restrictions as the commissioner may allow. Connections 
shall be designed to develop the full strength of the member 
under the conditions of loading even though the computed 
stress is less. 

Par. 2. — Rivets shall be placed in accordance with 
good engineering practice. The diameter of rivet holes 



66 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 16, Par. 2.] 

in tension members shall be assumed as one eighth of an 
inch larger than the rivet. Net sections shall be used in 
proportioning tension members. 

Par. 3. — Beams and Girders. — Every beam, channel, 
lintel or girder supported by a wall shall be properly 
anchored thereto, and shall have bearing plates if neces- 
sary to distribute the load properly at the stresses required 
by this act. 

Par. 4. — Beams and channels acting as skew-backs for 
arches shall be designed to resist the lateral thrusts in 
addition to their vertical loads, and the tie rods, not less 
than three fourths of an inch in diameter, shall be placed 
as near the line of thrust as practicable, and in any event 
shall be spaced not more than eight times the depth of the 
beams, and not more than eight feet. 

Par. 5. — V/here beams or channels are used in pairs 
they shall be connected with steel or iron separators near 
each end and at each concentrated load and not more than 
five feet apart elsewhere, and beams twelve inches or more 
in depth, if connected by bolted separators, shall have two 
bolts for each separator. 

Par. 6. — Steel Columns. — Steel column ends shall 
either be machine faced and brought into actual contact, 
or full riveted connections shall be provided to develop 
the strength of columns. Latticing and tie plates shall be 
provided in accordance with good engineering practice. 

Par. 7.— Plate Girders. — In proportioning the flanges 
of plate girders one eighth of the web may be considered as 
available in each flange. When the top flange is not 
stayed laterally at distances of twenty times its breadth 
the stresses shall be reduced as required in section fourteen. 
Stiffeners, properly fitted at ends, shall be provided over 
supports and under concentrated loads v/ith sufficient 
area in the outstanding legs to transmit the stresses in 
bearing at twenty thousand pounds per square inch, and 
with sufficient rivets to transmit the stresses to the web. 



City of Boston Building Law. 67 

Sect. 16, Par. 7.] 

Intermediate stiffeners shall be so spaced that the clear 
distance between the stiffeners, or the clear distance be- 
tween flange angles, shall not exceed that given by for- 
mula 

d =— {12,000— s) 

where d is the clear distance between stiffeners or flange 

angles 

t is the thickness of web 

s is the shear per square inch. 

Par. 8. — Trusses. — Trusses shall be designed so that 
the stresses in each member can be calculated with 
reasonable accuracy by statical methods. The centre of 
gravity lines of members meeting at a joint shall, if 
possible, intersect at a point. Eccentricity due to a non- 
fidfiUment .of this rule shall be allowed for in the com- 
putations. The centre of gravity of a group of rivets con- 
necting one member to another shall, in general, lie as 
nearly as practicable in the centre of gravity line of the 
member. Trusses shall be properly braced. 

Par. 9. — Riveting. — In skeleton construction, all 
spUces in columns, aU connections of girders or beams to 
columns, and aU connections subject to a reversal of stress 
shall be made by means of rivets. In all types of construc- 
tion, splices in girders and chords of trusses and con- 
nections carrying heavy stresses shall be riveted. Minor 
connections such as floor stringers to girders, carrying 
moderate stresses, may be either riveted or bolted. 
[1918, c. 179, sect. 6. Special Act.] 

SECTION 17. 

CLASSIFICATION. 

First and Second Class Buildings. 
Par, 1. — Every building hereafter erected more 
than seventy-five feet in height, or hereafter increased 



68 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 17, Par. 1.] 

in height to more than seventy-five feet, shall be a first 
class building. Every second class building hereafter 
erected and more than four stories in height, and any 
second class building now in existence and increased in 
height to more than four stories shall have the first floor 
and the basement and cellar stories of first class construc- 
tion. Every hotel, tenement house and lodging house 
hereafter erected covering more than three thousand five 
hundred square feet, or more than five stories in height, 
shall be a first class building; and every building altered 
or enlarged and occupied or to be occupied as a hotel, 
tenement or lodging house to be in excess of sixty feet in 
height, or in excess of three thousand five hundred square 
feet in superficial area, or in excess of five stories in height, 
shall be a first class building. Every building hereafter 
erected within the building limits to be occupied as a 
permanent schoolhouse shall be a first class building. 
Every building hereafter erected as a theatre, and every 
building hereafter altered to be occupied as a theatre, 
shall be a first class building. Every building hereafter 
erected for, altered to or converted to use as a moving 
picture house shall be a first class building. All other 
buildings may be of second or third class construction. 

Par. 2. — Except as is otherwise provided herein, new 
buildings adapted for habitations, and not more than five 
stories in height, may be erected of second class con- 
struction, but no such building shall exceed three thousand 
five hundred square feet in superficial area or sixty feet in 
height. The first story or basement, or both the first 
story and basement, in such buildings, so constructed, 
remodelled or enlarged, may be used for mercantile 
purposes, provided, that the first floor and the basement 
and cellar stories shall be of first class construction, and 
any stairway leading from the first floor to the basement 
or from the basement to the cellar shall be enclosed in 



City of Boston Building Law. 69 

Sect. 17, Par. 2.] 

masonry walls not less than eight inches thick or with 
two inch solid metal and plaster partition, with self- 
closing fireproof doors at the top and bottom of the 
stairway. 

Restriction of Abe as. 

Par. 3. — Any first class building used above the first 
floor as a warehouse or store for the storage or sale of 
merchandise shall have all vertical openings protected 
by fireproof enclosures. Such enclosures shall, if enclosing 
stairs or escalators, have automatic doors, and all glass in 
the enclosure shall be wire glass. 

Par. 4. — Such a building shall be so divided by brick 
walls built like party walls with the same openings allowed, 
that no space inside the buildings shall exceed in area ten 
thousand square feet, except that when any such building 
has a frontage of not less than fifty feet on each of two 
streets, such space may exceed ten thousand square feet 
in area, provided that buildings in which such extension 
of area beyond ten thousand square feet is permitted shall 
have automatic fire sprinklers installed and means of 
ingress and egress satisfactory to the commissioner and 
the board of appeal. 

Par. 5. — Second class buildings used above the first 
floor as warehouses or stores for the storage or sale of 
merchandise shall be so divided by brick walls, built like 
party walls with the same openings allowed, that no 
space inside such buildings shall exceed in area ten thou- 
sand square feet, and no existing wall in any second class 
building shall be removed so as to leave an area of more 
than ten thousand square feet, nor shall any existing wall 
separating areas which combined would exceed ten 
thousand square feet in area, have openings cut in it 
greater in area or number than is allowed in this act for 
party walls. 



70 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 17.] 

Par. 6. — Every second class building more than three 
stories high and used above the first floor as a warehouse 
or store for the storage or sale of merchandise, shall have 
all vertical openings for elevators and stairways, air or 
light shafts, through its floors protected by fireproof 
enclosures. Such enclosures shall be supported by 
fireproof supports and framing, and shall, if enclosing 
stairs or escalators, have automatic doors, and all glass in 
the enclosure shall be wire glass. 

Par. 7. — No building used above the first floor for 
the storage or sale of merchandise shall have less than 
two means of egress from every story, one of which means 
may be either an outside fire escape or through a brick 
wall closed by automatic doors into a building of the same 
class; except that an independent monumental stairway 
extending from the basement to the second floor may be 
constructed. 

Buildings for Manufacturing Purposes 

Par. 8. — Buildings outside the building limits and 
adapted exclusively for manufacturing, storage, mechani- 
cal or stable purposes, may be built under such conditions 
as the commissioner shall prescribe. If of wood such 
buildings shall not exceed forty-five feet in height. 

[1916, c. 248, Special Act, amended by sect. 4, c. 782 of 1914.] 
[1918, c. 179, sect. 7, Special Act.] 

SECTION 18. 

Construction. 
Height. 
Par. 1. — 'No building, structure or part thereof shall 
be of a height exceeding two and one half times the 
width of the widest street on which the building or struc- 
ture stands, whether such street is a public street or place 

) 



City of Boston Building Law. 71 

Sect. 18, Par. 1.] 

or a private way, nor exceeding one hundred and twenty- 
"five feet in any case. The width of such street, place or 
private way shall be measured from the face of the build- 
ing or structure to the line of the street on the other side. 
If the street is of uneven width, the width shall be the 
average width of the part of the street opposite the build- 
ing or structure; if the effective width of the street is 
increased by an area or setback, the space between the 
face of the main building and the lawfully established line 
of the street may be built upon to the height of two and 
one haK times the width of the street. 

Par. 2. — All buildings or structures hereafter erected 
in any part of the city shall be subject to the restrictions 
imposed by chapter four hundred and fifty-two of the acts 
of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, by chapter 
five hundred and forty-three of the acts of the year nine- 
teen hundred and two, by chapter three himdred and 
eighty-three of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and 
five, and by chapter four hundred and sixteen of the acts of 
the year nineteen hundred and seven, so far as the restric- 
tions imposed by said acts relate to the districts described 
therein; and shall also be subject to any restrictions 
lawfully imposed by the park commissioners of said city. 

SECTION 19. 
Excavations. 
Par. 1. — All excavations shall so be protected, by 
sheet piling if necessary, by the persons causing the same 
to be made, that the adjoining soil shall not cave in by 
reason of its own weight. It shall be the duty of the owner 
of every building to furnish, or cause to be furnished, such 
support that his building shall not be endangered by any 
excavation: jrrovided, that the owner of any building 
which is endangered by an excavation carried by an 



72 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 19, Par. 1.] 

adjoining owner more than ten feet below the grade of 
the street may recover the expense so caused of supporting 
such building from the persons causing such excavation 
to be made. All permanent excavations .shall be pro- 
tected by retaining walls. In case of any failure to 
comply with the provisions of this section the commis- 
sioner may enter upon the premises and may furnish such 
support as the circumstances may require. Any expense 
so incurred may be recovered by the city from the persons 
required by law to furnish the support. 

SECTION 20. 

Foundations of Buildings. 

Par. 1. — The foundation loads of every building, except 
temporary structures, shall be carried down to a satisfactory 
bearing material by means of properly designed v/alls, piers, 
grillages or piling which shall be so designed, located or 
otherwise disposed as to permit the entire loads which they 
transmit to be distributed over the bearing area with a 
unit intensity which shall not exceed the allowable value 
given in this section. The bearing area of any pile is the 
area over which it distributes its load. 

Par. 2. — The footing of every foundation shall be 
carried down at least four feet below any adjoining surface 
exposed to freezing and no footing shall be started on soil 
which is in a frozen condition. Foundations shall not be 
laid in freezing weather unless adequate precautions are 
taken against frost action. 

Par. 3. — For the purposes of this section "satisfactory 
bearing material" shall mean only ledge rock in its natural 
bed, natural deposits of sand, gravel or clay, and any 
combination of the foregoing materials which does not 
contain or does not overlie an appreciable amount of 
organic material. 

) 



City of Boston BuildIng Law. 73 

Sect. 20.] 

Par. 4. — In the absence of satisfactory tests of their 
sustaining power, the maximum allowable bearing values 
of the above materials shall be limited by the following 
unit pressures : — 

Tons per 
Square Foot. 

SoHd ledge rock 100 

Shale and hardpan 10 

Gravel, compact sand and hard yellow clay . . 6 
Dry or wet sand of coarse or medium sized grains, 
hard blue clay mixed or unmixed with sand, dis- 
integrated ledge rock . 5 

Medium stiff or plastic clay mixed or unmixed with 

sand, or fine grained dry sand 4 

Fine grained wet sand (confined) . . - , . 3 

Soft clay protected against lateral displacement . 2 

Par. 5. — Definitions. — (a) Solid ledge: Naturally 
formed rock, such as the granites and others of similar 
hardness and soimdness, normally requiring blasting for 
their removal. 

Par. 6. — (6) Shale: Laminated slate or clay rocks 
removable with more or less difficulty by picking. 

Par. 7. — (c) Hardpan : A thoroughly cemented mixture 
of sand and pebbles or of sand, pebbles and clay, with or 
without a mixtiu-e of boulders and difficult to remove by 
picking. 

Par. 8. — {d) Gravel: A natiu-al uncemented mixture of 
course or medimn grained sand with a substantial amount 
of pebbles measuring one fourth of an inch or more in 
diameter. 

Par. 9. — (e) Sand (compact) : Requiring picking for its 
removal. 

Par. 10. — (/) Sand (loose) : Requiring shovelling only. 



74 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 20.] 

Par. 11. — (g) Sand (medium grain): Individual grains 
readily distinguishable by eye though not of pronounced 
size. 

Par. 12. — (h) Sand (fine grained) : Individual grains 
distinguished by eye only with difficulty. 

Par. 13. — • {i) Hard clay: Requiring picking for its 
removal. 

Par. 14. — (j) Disintegrated ledge rock: Residual 
deposits of decomposed ledge. 

Par. 15. — (k) Medium clay: Stiff and plastic but 
capable of being spaded. 

Par. 16. — (I) Soft clay: Putty-like in consistency and 
changing shape readily under relatively shght pressure. 

Par. 17. — ■ Note. — The materials described in items 
c, d, e, f, g, i, j, k, shall be in relatively thick beds, if full 
loading value is used. Otherwise, if underlaid by a softer 
material, the value assigned to that material shall be used. 

Par. 18. — ■ Wherever a building or structure is to rest in 
part only upon solid ledge, the unit intensity of load upon 
the balance of the bearing area shall be not more than one 
half of the values given above for the several classes of soil. 

Par. 19. — Prior to the issuance of a permit for any 
permanent building or structure, the owner shall, by means 
of open pits or by test borings carried at least ten feet into 
a satisfactory bearing material other than ledge rock, 
determine the character and depth of the soil underlying 
the proposed site, and a certified copy of the reports of all 
borings and tests Dit so taken, together with samples, 
taken dry, of the material selected for a foundation bearing, 
shall be filed with the commissioner for his approval and 
classification. The number and location of borings taken, 
together with the method used in maldng and reporting 
them shall be as directed by the commissioner. 

Par. 20. — Foundations for first and second hand * 
buildings may be of brick, stone or concrete. The thick- 

* Should read " class." 



City of Boston Building Law. 75 

Sect. 20, Par. 20.] 

ness shall be as stated in section twenty-three with the 
further provision that all foundation walls below grade 
shall be figured as retaining walls when they act as such. 

Par. 21. — Foundations of stone shall be of square split 
stone except that rubble stone shall be allowed under 
buildings outside of the fire limits, but only when such 
buildings do not exceed forty-five feet in height and the 
foundation wall is less than ten feet in depth. No rubble 
foundation shall be less than twenty inches in thickness. 
All walls shall be properly bonded by tlirough courses. 

Par. 22, — Footings. — The footings of foundation walls 
or piers shall consist of footing stones, concrete, reinforced 
concrete construction or steel grillages. Footings of wood 
construction may be used provided that they are to be 
entirely below the permanent ground water level. 

Par. 23. — Footing Stones.— Footing stones shall be at 
least ten inches in thickness. They shall be fully bedded 
upon the bearing soil. 

Par. 24. — Concrete Footings. — Concrete footings shall 
be not less than twelve inches in thiclmess. They may be 
either stepped or battered to meet the wall or pier which 
they support. The offset of each step or the angle of 
batter shall be such as not to exceed the allowable stresses 
in the concrete. If battered footings are used there shall 
be a square shoulder at the base which shaU be not less 
than four inches in height. 

Par. 25. — Steel grillage foundations shall have at least 
six inches of concrete below and shall be entirely embedded 
in and surrounded by concrete at least four inches thick 
between steel and earth, and the concrete shall be no 
poorer than one part Portland cement and seven and one 
half parts aggregate, measured before mixing. 

Par. 26. — Footing Loads. — Provision shall be made 
in determining the required area of footings for safely 
supporting the full dead loads and the figured live loads 
on the lowest tier of columns, piers or walls, plus the 



76 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 20, Par. 26.] 

weight of the footings themselves and such backfilHng 
and overlying basement floor loads as may come vertically 
over the projecting spread of the footing. 

Par. 27. — Foundation Piers and Caissons. — The foun- 
dation of any building or structure may be carried down to 
ledge or other satisfactory bearing material by isolated 
piers of approved masonry or by open or pneumatic 
caissons, so designed that the working stresses in the 
materials and on the soil do not exceed those established 
by this act. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 8, Special Act.] 

SECTION 21. 

Pile Foundations. 

Par. 1. — General Requirements. — The supporting value 
of piles shall be obtained from embedment in or bearing 
on material as firm as can practicably be obtained, 
and the method of driving shall be such as not to 
impair their strength. The frictional value observed in 
driving for that part of piles embedded in or passing 
through such materials as peat, silt, or fill overlying such 
material, shall not be relied upon for support. No pile or 
group of piles shall be loaded eccentrically, except in cases 
where it is impracticable to avoid it. In such cases the 
unit stress allowable for piles shall not be exceeded. Any 
type of pile construction not provided for in this section 
shall meet such requirements as may be prescribed by the 
commissioner. 

Par. 2. — A detached column or pier footing supported 
by piling shall rest upon not less than three piles, but col- 
umn or pier footings supported by proper and permanent 
masonry or steel construction which provides lateral sup- 
port in all directions may each rest upon a single pile if the 
allowable load per pile is not exceeded. Light wall founda- 
tions may be supported by a single row of piles: provided, 



City of Boston Building Law. 77 

Sect. 21, Par. 2.] 

that the length of wall unsupported laterally by proper 
masonry or steel construction does not exceed ten feet. All 
other foundation waUs requiring piling shall rest upon at 
least two rows of piles, the rows to be at least two feet on 
centres for buildings up to thirty feet in height. For 
buildings exceeding thirty feet in height, if not more than 
two rows of piles are used, the rows shall be soread not 
less than three feet on centres. 

Par. 2A. — Piles under masonry buildings shall be 
capped with concrete or with block granite. If capped 
with plain concrete the proportion shall be one part Port- 
land cement to not more than seven and one half parts 
aggregate, and the capping shall be not less than sixteen 
inches high above the pile heads. All concrete capping 
shall fill the space between and around them for a depth of 
six inches and shall extend for not less than six inches 
beyond the outer edge of the pile cluster. No rubble con- 
crete shall be used for pile capping. If capped with block 
granite, each block shall have a firm bearing on not less 
than three piles, shall be not less than twelve inches thick, 
and shall project sufiiciently to cover fully all pile heads. 

Par. 3. — Piles supporting steel or wooden buildings 
without masonry walls or floors may be capped with timber 
not less than six inches thick, securely joined together and 
to the piles. 

Par. 4. — The commissioner shall require additional 
piles to be driven for all piles which are broken, broomed 
or injured in any way, and for piles having a lower sus- 
taining power than that required for the work. 

Par. 5. — The sustaining power of piles driven by jet- 
ting shall be determined by test loads as directed by the 
commissioner. 

Par. 6. — Wooden Piles. — Wooden piles shall be single 
sticks except as prescribed elsewhere, cut from sound live 
trees, shall be close grained and solid, free from defects, 
such as injurious ring shakes, unsound or loose knots, or 



78 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 21, Par. 6.] 

decay, which may materially impair their strength or dura- 
bility. Piles must be butt-cut above the ground swell and 
have a uniform taper from butt to tip. 

Par. 7. — Short Bends not Allowed. — A line drawn from 
the centre of the butt to the centre of the tip shall be 
within the body of the pile. 

Par. 8. — All knots shall be trimmed close to the body 
of the pile. All piles shall be at least six inches in average 
diameter at tip under the bark. 

Par. 9. — Inspection of All Piles. — The commissioner 
shall require a competent inspector qualified bj'- experience 
and training and satisfactory to him, to be on the work at 
all times while piles are being driven, and the inspector 
shall keep an accurate record of the length, size of tip and 
butt of each pile, the weight and fall of the hammer and 
the penetration of each pile for each of the last three blows. 

Par. 10. — Square timber of approved quahty may be 
used as pihng, in which case the average cross section shall 
be not less than ten inches by ten inches, and the tip not 
le^s than six inches by six inches. 

Par. 11. — Pile heads shall be cut to sound wood before 
capping is placed. 

Par. 12. — Loads on Wooden Piles. — Wooden piles 
driven through fill, silt, peat or other soil incapable of 
adequately resisting lateral bending, to hardpan or ledge, 
or deriving their value from embedments of less than one 
twehth their length in approved soil, shall be figured as 
columns, using the table for timber compression members, 
and using an area equal to the middle cross-section of the 
pile. All such piles shall be of hard wood such as oak, 
southern yellow pine or similar woods, if the commissioner 
shall so decide. 

Par. 13. — The safe load on all other wooden piles driven 
by drop hammer shall not exceed twelve tons each for 



City of Boston Building Law. 79 

Sect. 21, Par. 13.] 

spruce, Norway pine or other soft woods, nor fifteen tons 

•each for southern yellow pine, oak or woods of similar 

strength, and shall be limited by the following formula : — 

j^^ 2WH 

P plus 1 

Par. 14. — When testing for their value the pile head 
shall have sound wood and the fall of the hammer shall be 
ten feet. 

Par. 15. — The safe supporting value of wooden piles 
when driven by single acting power hammer shall be limited 
by the following formula : — 

j^^ 2WH 
P plus 0.1 

Par. 16. — In these formulas: — • 

L is the allowable load in pounds. 

W is the weight of the hammer or striking parts in pounds. 

H is the fall of the hammer in feet. 

P is the average penetration in inches under the last three 
blows after the pile has been driven to a point where 
successive blows produce approximately equal or 
uniformly decreasing penetration. 

Par. 17. — The distance between wooden piles shall be 
not less than twenty-four inches on centres. The tops of 
all wooden piles shall be cut at an elevation not higher than 
grade 5.00, except that the commissioner may in liis dis- 
cretion permit a higher point of cut off, but not exceeding 
grade 9.00 in localities where the level of the ground water 
fluctuates with the tidal variations. 

Par. 18. — "Wooden piles may be driven to a depth not 
exceeding ten feet below the ground surface by means of 
properly designed followers: provided, that such followers 
are constructed of steel or iron, and are equipped with a 



80 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 21, Par. 18.] 

suitable cast iron or steel socket which encases the pile 
head sufl&ciently to avoid injury to them during the driving* 
process. Before using such a follower the pile head shall 
be cut or trimmed so as to expose a sound section of timber 
on which the follower shall rest. If wooden driving blocks 
are inserted between the follower and pile hammer they 
shall be not more than twelve inches in height, of hard 
wood, and shall be replaced as often as their fibers become 
ruptured. In case followers are used, the sustaining value 
of the pile as determined by the driving formula shaU be 
reduced twenty-five per cent unless test loads are applied, 
in which case the commissioner may allow a higher unit 
loading not exceeding the maximum prescribed by this 
section. 

CoNCEETE Piles. 

Par. 19. — Pre-cast Concrete Piles. — Pre-cast concrete 
piles shall be properly designed and reinforced to permit 
handling and driving without injury. The amount of 
longitudinal reinforcing employed shall be not less than 
two per cent nor more than four per cent, with bands or 
hoops not less than one fourth of an inch in diameter and 
spaced not further than ten inches. They shall be 
thoroughly cured before driving. The diameter or lateral 
dimension of such a pile shall be not less than eight inches 
at the point, and shall average not less than eleven inches. 
The length shall not exceed thirty times the average 
diameter when the pile is driven through fill, silt, peat or 
other material having relatively little lateral stiffness, 
to ledge or hardpan, or when it derives its value from 
embedment of less than one twelfth its length in approved 
soil, nor forty times the average diameter in any case. 

Par. 20. — When driven to ledge or hardpan the allowable 
load on any such pile shall not exceed four hundred pounds 
per square inch on the concrete at the average cross section, 



City of Boston Building Law. 81 

Sect. 21, Par. 20.] 

and six thousand pounds per square inch on the longitudinal 
reinforcement. 

Par. 21. — All pre-cast concrete piles shall be protected 
against damage in driving by the use of a suitable cushion 
cap of approved design, and when driven to ledge shall be 
provided with a metal shoe having ample bearing surface. 

Par. 22. — CoM in Place Concrete Piles. — Concrete piles 
cast in place shall be so made and placed as to insure the 
exclusion of any foreign matter, and to secure a perfect 
full sized shape, and shall be spaced at least three feet, 
centre to centre, and more if the commissioner so decides. 
The average diameter of any such pile in place shall be not 
less than eleven inches, and the diameter of the tip shall 
be not less than eight inches. The length shall not exceed 
thirty times the average diameter when the pile is driven 
through fill, silt, peat or other material having relatively 
little lateral stiffness, to ledge or hardpan, or when it 
derives its value from embedment of less than one twelfth 
its length in approved soil, nor forty times the average 
diameter in any case. When driven to ledge or hardpan 
the allowable load on any such pile shall not exceed four 
hundred pounds per square inch on the concrete at the 
average section. 

Par. 23. — General Provisions. — Metal tubes five six- 
teenths of an inch thick or less, remaining in the ground, 
shall not be considered as reinforcement. To be con- 
sidered as reinforcement, all steel rods shall be embedded 
in and covered by three inches of concrete. 

Par. 24. — The safe load for all concrete piles not driven 
to ledge shall be determined by the commissioner, who 
may, if he deems it necessary, require one or more tests 
of the same to be made at the expense of the o^^mer of the 
proposed building or structure, or of the party causing the 
piles to be driven, but the commissioner shall not allow a 
greater load than one half of the test load giving three 



82 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 21, Par. 24.] 

eighths inch total settlement, such total settlement to 
remain constant for a period of twenty-four hours, nor 
shall the prescribed imit stresses be exceeded. Such tests 
shall be made under the supervision of the commissioner, 
and the results shall be filed in his office. No concrete 
pile shall be allowed a greater load than thirty tons in any 
case. 

Par. 25. — All load tests shall be conducted in accordance 
with regulations promulgated by the commissioner and 
to his satisfaction (but in the absence of such regulations 
all load tests shall be in accordance with regulations 
formulated by the commissioner, and to his satisfaction) j* 
but in the absence of such regulations, they shall be 
continued until at least twice the working load allowed has 
been put upon the pile, and an accurate record shall be 
kept, to the nearest one sixteenth inch of settlement for 
and after each increment of load has been added. Incre- 
ments of load shall not exceed ten thousand pounds each, 
and at least eight hours shall elapse between the addition 
of successive increments. Test loads shall be appUed at 
capping grade. 

Par. 26. — All concrete for concrete piles shall be mixed 
in the proportion of one part Portland cement to not 
more than six parts of aggregate, and with a sufiicient 
amount of water to produce a plastic or viscous consistency. 

Par. 27. — Concrete piles shall be capped with concrete 
masonry only, 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 9, Special Act.] 

SECTION 22. 

Cellars — Rat-proofing. 
Par. 1. — Cellars. — The cellar of every build- 
ing, where the grade or nature of the ground so 

* Words in parenthesis above should be stricken out, being a 
repetition. 



City of Boston Building Law. 83 

Sect. 22, Par. 1.] 

requires, shall be sufficiently protected from water and 
damp by a bed at least two inches thick over the 
whole, of concrete, cement and gravel, tar and gravel, 
or asphalt, or by bricks laid in cement. No cellar or 
basement floor of any" building shall be constructed 
below the grade of twelve feet above mean low water, 
unless such cellar is rjaade waterproof. All metal foun- 
dations and all structural metal work underground shall 
be protected from dampness by concrete, waterproofed 
where necessary, or by other material approved by the 
commissioner. 

Par. 2. — Rat-proofing. — The cellar of every building 
hereafter erected within the building limits shall be made 
rat-proof by the use of masonry or metal. All openings 
in foundations, cellars and basements in such buildings, 
except for doors and hatchways, and except algo for such 
windows wholly above ground as may be exempted by the 
commissioner in his discretion, shall be completely covered 
with screens of metal having meghes of not more than 
one half of an inch in least dimension and constructed of 
rods or wire of not less than twenty gauge. 
[1918, c. 179, sect. 10, Special Act.] 

SECTION 23. 

Thickness of Walls. 

Par. 1. — For the purposes of this section a base- 
ment wall shall be construed to include any exterior 
wall between the ground and the first floor, and any 
party, fire and bearing walls from the top of foundations 
to the first fioor. 

Par. 2. — The thickness of masonry walls shall be in all 
cases, irrespective of the requirements of this section, 
sufficient to keep the stresses in the masonry within the 
working stresses prescribed by this act. 



84 



City of Boston Building Law. 



Sect. 23.] 

Par. 3. — For single family dwellings not over three 
stories high with wooden floor beams spanning not more 
than fifteen feet, all exterior, party, bearing or fire waUs 
shall be not less than twelve inches thick for basement 
walls and eight inches thick above the basement : provided, 
however, that the ends of floor timbers on opposite sides 
of a wall in such buildings shall not be nearer than eight 
inches to each other. 

Par. 4. — For dwellings not over three stories high 
with floors spanning not more than twenty feet, all 
exterior walls shall be not less than twelve inches thick 
for basement walls and eight inches thick above the 
basement, and all party, fire, and bearing walls shall be 
not less than twelve inches thick. In case any part of 
such a building is adapted for any use other than habitation 
all walls surrounding that part of the building shall be 
not less than twelve inches thick. 

Par. 5. — For all other residences and for hotels, 
lodging houses, boarding houses, clubs, convents, hospitals, 
asylums and detention buildings, all exterior, party, fire 
and bearing walls above foundations shall have the 
following minimum thickness in inches: 



Stories. 



Base- 
ment. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


12 


12 














12 


12 


12 












12 


12 


12 


12 










12 


12 


12 


12 


12 








16 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 






16 


16 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 




16 


16 


16 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


20 


16 


16 


16 


12 


12 


12 


12 



1 story 

2 story 

3 story 

4 story 

5 story 

6 story 

7 story 

8 story 



building 
building 
building 
building 
building 
building 
building 
building 



12 



Par. 6. — For all other buildings, all exterior, party, 
fire and bearing walls above foundations shall have the 
following minimum thickness in inches: 



City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 23, Par. 6.] 



85 



Stories. 



Base- 


\ 


2. 


^ 


4, 


S. 


6. 


7. 


ment. 
















12 


121 














12 


12 


12 












16 


12 


12 


12 










16 


16 


12 


12 


12 








16 


16 


16 


12 


12 


12 






20 


16 


16 


16 


12 


12 


12 




20 


20 


16 


16 


16 


12 


12 


12 


20 


20 


20 


16 


16 


16 


12 


12 



1 story 

2 story 

3 story 

4 story 

5 story 

6 story 

7 story 

8 story 



building 
building 
building 
building 
building 
building 
building 
building 



12 



1 In case the floor area is less than 500 square feet, the wall thickness 
may be 8 inches. 



Par. 7. — Provided, however, that if any part of any 
building is lower than the rest, the lower part may have 
walls of thicknesses required for a building of height equal 
to that of the low part. 

Par. 8. — The foundation walls shall be at least four 
inches thicker than the required thickness of the walls of 
the first story. The thickness herein given shall apply to 
all masonry walls unless they are reinforced by a frame 
or skeleton of steel or reinforced concrete. 

Par. 9. — For the purposes of this section any balcony 
or mezzanine floor of more than ten feet span shall be 
considered as forming a story in fixing the thickness of 
the waUs which support it. 

Par. 10. — In reckoning the thickness of walls, ashlar 
shall not be considered unless the walls are at least sixteen 
inches thick and the ashlar is at least eight inches thick, 
or unless alternate courses are at least four and eight 
inches to aUow bonding with the backing. Ashlar shall 
be held by metal clamps to the backing or be properly 
bonded to the same. 

Par. 11. — Non-bearing walls not used for fire or party 
walls may be four inches less in thickness than is required 



86 City of Boston Building Law. • 

Sect. 23, Par. 11.] 

by the preceding tables; and such walls supporting stairs 
or stair landings may be eight inches less: provided, 
however, that no such non-bearing or stair wall shall be 
less than eight inches thick nor have a greater height 
unstayed laterally than thirty times its thickness, except 
with the approval of the commissioner. 

Par. 12. — Curtain walls between columns, buttresses 
or projecting piers may be thinner than is required by 
the preceding tables: provided, however, that in single 
family houses not over three stories high such curtain 
walls shall be not less than four inches thick, and in all 
other buildings such curtain walls shall be not less than 
twelve inches thick for fire or party walls nor less than 
eight inches thick for exterior walls, except that the parts 
between the top of one window opening and the bottom 
of the window opening above, if faced with metal, shall 
be backed by at least four inches of incombustible material. 
No curtain wall exceeding twenty feet in length shall have 
a greater height unstayed laterally than thirty times its 
thicloiess. 

Par. 13. — Hollow block walls shall have the same 
minimum thickness as is required for brick walls, but 
shall not be used for bearing walls in buildings over four 
stories high. Solid unreinforced concrete walls shall have 
the same minimum thickness as required for brick walls. 
Reinforced concrete walls shall be of the thickness and 
construction required, by the commissioner, subject to 
the requirements of section fifteen. 

[1918, Special Acts.'c, 179, sect. 11.] 



SECTION 24. 
Anchors. 
Par. 1. — All v/alls of a first or second class building 
meeting at an angle shall be securely bonded, or shall be 



, City of Boston Building Law. 87 

Sect. 24, Par. 1.] 

united every five feet of their height by anchors mad^ of 
at least two inches by half an inch of steel or wrought 
iron, well painted, and securely built into the side or 
partition walls not less than thirty-six inches, and into 
the front and rear walls at least one half the thickness 
of such walls. 

SECTION 25. 

Brickwork — Bonding. 

Par. 1. — ■ Every eighth course, at least, of a brick wall 
shall be a full heading or bonding course, except where 
walls are faced with face brick, in which case in every 
eighth course at least every other brick shall be a full 
header. No diagonal header ties shall be used. 

Par. 2. — • In a skeleton frame building brick facing of 
not more than four inches in thickness may be bonded to 
the frame by metal ties if other suitable precautions sat- 
isfactory to the commissioner are taken. Such lies shall 
be of galvanized wire or other suitable material satisfactory 
to him. 

fl918, Special Acts, c. 179, sect. 12.1 

SECTION 26. 
Vaulted Walls. 

Par. 1. — If the air spaces are headed over and the 
walls are built solid for at least three courses below 
the floor and roof beams, walls, if of brick, may be 
built hollow. They shall contain, exclusive of withes, 
the same amount of material as is required for solid 
walls, and the masonry on the inside of the air space in 
walls over two stories in height shall be not less than 
eight inches thick, and the parts on either side shall be 
securely tied together with ties not more than two feet 
apart in each direction. 



88 City of Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 27. 

Walls Framed with Iron or Steel. 
Par. 1. — Walls may be built in part of iron or steel or 
with a reinforced concrete or metal framework In such 
metal framework the beams and girders^shall be riveted to 
each other at their respective junction points. If columns 
made of roUed iron or steel are used, their different parts 
shall be riveted to each other, and the beams and girders 
resting upon them shall, if possible, have riveted connec- 
tions to unite them with the columns. If cast iron columns 
are used, each successive column shall be bolted to the 
one below it by at least four bolts not less than three 
fourths of an inch in diameter, and the beams and girders 
shall be bolted to the columns. At each line of floor or 
roof beams, lateral connections between the ends of the 
beams and girders shall be made in such manner as rigidly 
to connect the beams and girders with each other in the 
direction of their length. 

Skeleton Party Walls. 

Par. 2,— All party walls of skeleton construction shall 
have curtain walls of brick, not less than twelve inches 
thick. 

PaR/ 3. — AU outside walls of skeleton construction shall 
have curtain walls which may be of masonry, terra-cotta, 
concrete, or reinforced concrete, constructed and supported 
under such conditions as the commissioner shall prescribe. 

Par. 4. — If the metal or other framework is so designed 
that the enclosing walls do not carry the weight of floors 
or roof, then the walls shall be of masonry or concrete 
construction and shall be thoroughly anchored to the iron 
skeleton, and whenever the weight of such walls rests 
upon beams or columns, such beams or columns shall be 



City of Boston Building Law. 89 

Sect. 27, Par. 4.] 

made strong enough in each story to carry the weight of 
wall resting upon them without reliance upon the walls 
below them. 

SECTION 28. 
Paety Walls Above Roof. 

Par. 1. — In buildings less than forty-five feet in height 
all party walls shall be built to a height at least twelve 
inches above the roof covering, and shall be capped with 
stone, cement or metal securely fastened to the masonry. 
In all other buildings such walls shall be carried thirty 
inches above the roof. 

SECTION 29. 

Walls — Cornices. 
Par. 1. — Where a wall is finished with a stone cornice, 
the greatest weight of material of such cornice shall be 
on the inside of the face of the wall. AU cornices of second 
class buildings shaU be of brick or covered with fireproof 
material, and the walls shall be carried up to the boarding 
of the roof; and where the cornice projects above the roof 
the masonry shall be carried up to the top of the cornice 
and covered with metal, like parapet walls. 

SECTION 30. 
Piers and Hearths. 
Par. 1. — Piers and walls shall have caps or plates, 
where they are needed, sufiicient properly to distribute 
the load. 

Par. 2. — Hearths shall be supported by trimmer arches 
of brick or stone; or shall be of single stones at least six 
inches thick, built into the chimney and supported by iron 
beams, one end of which shall be securely built into the 



90 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 30, Par. 2.] 

masonry of a chimney or of an adjoining wall, or which 
shall otherwise rest upon an incombustible support. 
Brick jambs of every fireplace, range or grate opening 
shall be at least eight inches wide each, and the backs of 
such openings shall be at least eight inches thick. Hearths 
and trimmer arches shall be at least twelve inches longer 
on either side than the v/idth of such openings, and at 
least eighteen inches wide in front of the chimney breast. 
Brickwork over fireplaces and grate openings shall be 
supported by proper iron bars, or brick or stone arches. 

SECTION 31. 
Walls — Doorways in, Party Walls. 

Par. 1. — -Openings for doorways in party walls shall 
not exceed one hundred square feet each in area, and each 
opening shall have two sets of fire doors separated by the 
thickness of the wall, hung in a manner satisfactory to 
the commissioner, except that the aggregate width of all 
openings in any story shall not exceed fifty per cent of the 
length of the wall in which such openings occur. Openings, 
not exceeding one hundred and forty-four square inches, 
constructed and protected as shall be approved by a 
writing signed by the fire commissioner, and filed with the 
commissioner, may be permitted in any wall or floor. 

SECTION 32. 
Fire Protection. 

Par. 1. — All structural metal supporting or forming 
part of the frame, floors, roof or columns of any building, 
except as otherwise exempted in this act, shall be protected 
against the effect of heat. 

Protection shall consist of : — 

Par. 2. — (a) Concrete. — • Cast in formes around and in 
direct contact with the structural members and reinforced 
with iron or clamps or hangers or with wires in such a 



City of Boston Building Law. 91 

Sect. 32, Par. 2.] 

manner as to form a thorough bond. Concrete filling 
may be deemed protection for the upper flanges where 
arch construction is used; 

Pae. 3. — (6) Terra Cotia. — Clamped in place with steel 
clamps or wrapped securely with number twelve galvanized 
iron wnQ or metal lath in such manner as to hold each block 
in place, set in mortar no poorer than one part natural 
cement and two parts sand and (except where arches 
abut) plastered with the same mortar at least one half 
inch thick, and at least thick enough to make the entire 
protection as thick as required in paragraph three. Terra 
cotta blocks may be hollow but each face shall be soliH, 
and no shell or web shall be less than three quarter inches 
thick; 

Par. 4. — (c) Brickwork. — • Set in cement mortar; 

Par. 5. — {d) Any material or form of construction that 
will resist the action of flames and a heat of seventeen 
hundred degrees Fahrenheit for at least two hours without 
raising the temperature of the material to be protected 
above five hundred and fifty degrees Fahrenheit, through 
a thickness of two inches, as determined by fire and water 
tests for fireproofing construction adopted by the American 
Society for Testing Materials. 

Par. 6. — This protection shall be, unless it is otherwise 
provided herein, at least three quarter inches thick and at 
least of the thickness named in the following table: — 

On columns carrying masonry walls : — 

One and one half inches against the edges of flanges; 

Four inches elsewhere. 
On columns carrying floors or roofs or both: — 

One and one half inches against the edges of flanges; 

Three inches elsewhere. 
On beams, girders or trusses carrying masonry walls: — 

One inch on top; 

Two inches elsewhere. 



92 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 32, Par. 6.] 

On beams, girders, or trusses carrying floors or roofs or 
both:— 
One inch on top ; 

One and one half inches elsewhere. 
On beams deeper than fifteen inches or having a flange 
width of more than seven and one half inches : — 
One inch on top; 
Two inches elsewhere. 
On lugs, brackets, braces and similar minor construction 
members and beyond the tips of rivets : — 
Three quarters of an inch. 
Par. 7. — 'About isolated columns on the exterior of 
buildings, the thickness of protection may be reduced to 
one inch, when the same is covered with an outer shell of 
cast iron or steel. 

Par. 8. — Plaster on metal lath shall not be considered 
as a fire protection for steel or iron structural members, 
except that where suspended ceilings of metal lath and 
plaster leave not less than one inch of air space against the 
protective covering of such structural member, the pro- 
tective covering may be one inch in thickness. . 

Par. 9. — Metal lath and plaster used for the require- 
ments of this section shall have a total thickness, not 
counting clinches, of not less than three quarters of an 
inch. 

Par. 10. — ^No pipes, wires, cables or other material 
shall be embedded in the required fireproofing of columns 
or other structural members. 

The above requirements as to fire protection shall not 
apply in the following cases : — 

Par. 11. — (a) Structural metal in second or third class 
buildings in any case in which wood without fire protection 
would be permissible under this act. 

Par. 12. — (6) Structural metal which faces on enclosed 
spaces that are strutted up or hung down from floors or 
roofs where the tops, bottoms and walls or partitions of 



City of Boston Building Law. 93 

Sect. 32, Par. 12.] 

such spaces are protected against fire on the outer side, as 
required elsewhere in this act. 

Par. 13. — (c) Lintel angles under stone or brick unless 
over ten feet span. 

Par. 14. — {d) Buildings built in whole or in part of a 
better class of construction than is required by this act 
shall be required to have only such protection for structural 
metal as would be required in a building of the type that 
would be allowed in the given case. 

Par. 15. — (e) Metal work in a non-bearing partition, 
and for furrings and metal used only to support finish or 
equipment, and for metal of stair construction, suspension 
rods for balconies, steel work of theatre stages, fly galleries 
and rigging lofts. 

Par. 16. — (/) Metal, other than columns, carrying no 
other loads than roof loads (without roof gardens), ceilings, 
or suspended balconies not over eight feet Ynde. When a 
suspended ceiling is used it shall be of metal lath and 
plaster with all hanging rods, ties, stiffening, and the like, 
of metal. 

Par. 17. — In work in connection with alterations of 
existing buildings, the character and amount of protection 
for steel and iron work shall be made satisfactory to the 
commissioner. 

Par. 18. — Whenever any protective material or struc- 
tural metal is, in the opinion of the commissioner, liable to 
injury by trucks or merchandise, wood or metal guards 
shall be applied as he may require. 

Par. 19. — In buildings of third class construction the 
exterior walls at each floor level, and all spaces between 
joists over girders and bearing partitions, and from plate to 
roof boarding, shall be firestopped with masonry or metal. 

Par. 20. — In buildings of second class construction 
spaces between strap furring on brick walls shall be filled 
for a distance of five inches below and five inches above the 
floor beams with mortar, and all spaces between joists over 



94 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 32, Par. 20.] 

girders and bearing partitions, and from plate to roof 
boarding shall be firestopped with masonry not less than 
four inches thick. 

Par. 21. — In buildings of second or third class con- 
struction spaces between rafters, over furring enclosing 
spaces under the roof, shaU be firestopped with wood or 
metal, and spaces between stringers of stairs and joists of 
landings, unless stairs are unceiled or of incombustible 
materials, shall be firestopped with masonry or metal or 
not less than seven eighths of an inch of wood, at least 
twice in each flight of stairs. All spaces around chimneys 
shall be thoroughly firestopped with sheet metal, metal 
lath and plaster, or masonry. 

Pab. 22. — Firestopping shall completely fill all openings 
where it is applied; all chases or enclosures for pipes shall 
be firestopped adjacent to other required firestopping and 
by the same materials, except that metal lath and plaster 
may be used. 

Pajr, 23. — No building operations shall be permitted 
which wiU create unnecessary permanent spaces where 
rats will find refuge from their enemies and breed. 

Par. 24. — In every building of second or third class 
construction each floor shall be thoroughly stopped 
by a continuous layer of asbestos fabric, magneso 
calcite or other fire-resisting material approved by the 
commissioner. 

Par. 25. — Furnaces and Smoke Pipes. — The tops of aU 
heating furnaces and smoke pipes shall be at least one foot 
below the nearest wooden beams or ceilings. All ceilings 
immediately over a furnace or boiler, and for six feet on 
each side thereof, and all ceilings over indirect radiators 
shall, except under fireproof floors, be metal-lathed and 
plastered. 

Par. 26. — Register Boxes. — All hot-air register boxes in 
the floors or partitions of buildings shall be set in soapstone 



City of Boston Building Law. 95 

Sect. 32, Par. 26.] 

or equally fireproof borders and not less than two inches 
in width, shall be made of tin plate, and shall have double 
pipes and boxes properly fitted to the soapstone. Hot-air 
pipes and register boxes shall be at least one inch from any 
woodwork, and register boxes shall be fifteen inches by 
twenty-five inches or larger, and their connecting pipes 
shall be two inches from- any v/oodwork. If indirect hot 
water or indirect steam heat is used, the commissioner may 
modify or dispense with the foregoing requirements. 

Par. 27. — Vent and Smoke Pipes. — All vent or smoke 
pipes for stoves, furnaces or heaters, not including gas 
stoves, hereafter installed shall be placed not nearer than 
twelve inches to any lath, plaster or board partition, ceiling 
or woodwork. Where such pipes pass through a lath and 
plaster or board partition, they shall be protected by 
ventilated metal collars at least six inches larger in diameter 
than the pipe. Where such pipes enter the chimney, 
the opening into the same shall be protected by a metal 
collar built at least four inches into the brickwork of the 
chimney. No such pipe shall pass through the roof or 
exterior wall of any building. Such pipes when within 
eighteen inches of a ceiling shall be protected by having the 
ceiling over them, and at least two feet wide, wire-lathed 
and plastered, or by having a shield of metal of the same 
width hung from the floor timbers, and at least six inches 
distant therefrom. Vent pipes to gas stoves, if placed 
nearer than three inches to any woodwork or lath and 
plaster partition, shall be protected with incombustible 
material. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 13, Special Act.] 

SECTION 33. 

Fireproof Partitions. 
Except as is otherwise provided in this section, 
partitions in buildings of first class construction shall 



96 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 33.] 

be constructed of the materials and in the manner herein 

specified: — 

Pae. 1. — (a) Brick in cement mortar; 

Par. 2. — (h) Concrete, consisting of one part Portland 
cement and not more than three parts of sand and six parts 
of stone or gravel, not less than three inches thick if prop- 
erly reinforced with steel, nor less than four inches thick 
otherwise ; 

Par. 3. — (c) Cinder concrete, consisting of one part 
Portland cement and not more than three parts of sand 
and six parts of cinders, not less than four inches thick if 
properly reinforced with steel, nor less than five inches 
thick otherwise; 

Par. 4. — (d) Hollow terra cotta blocks, laid in cement 
mortar, not less than three inches thick; 

Par. 5. — (e) Hollow concrete blocks, of either stone 
or cinder concrete laid in cement mortar, not less than 
three inches thick; 

Par. 6. — (f) Solid or hollow blocks consisting of 
gypsum containing not more than twenty-five per cent 
by weight of cinders, asbestos fiber, wood chips or vegetable 
fiber, laid in gypsum plaster or cement mortar tempered 
with lime, not less than three inches thick ; 

Par. 7. — (g) Metal lath on a steel studding covered 
with Portland cement mortar or gypsum plaster, of a 
finished thickness of not less than two inches in the case 
of solid partitions, nor less than three inches in the case of 
hollow partitions; or 

Par. 8. — (h) Any material or form of construction 
that may be approved by the commissioner if conforming 
to the requirements of the fire test hereinafter prescribed. 
But nothing in this section shall prevent the erection, in 
the discretion of the commissioner, of partitions of pressed 
metal and glass or of temporary partitions of wood and 
glass within rooms or spaces enclosed by fireproof par- 
titions or walls. 



City of Boston Building Law. 97 

Sect. 33.] 

Par. 9. — The thicknesses as above described are for 
partitions up to fifteen feet in height, and they shall be 
increased in thickness one inch for every additional eight 
feet or fraction thereof. If partitions are not plastered on 
both sides, the thicknesses shall be one inch greater than 
those above specified. 

Par. 10. — Construction. — Unless built as approved 
masonry walls, partitions in fireproof buildings shall be 
independently supported at each floor. They shall be 
keyed, or otherwise securely fastened to the ceilings, and, 
when necessary, shall be stiffened with suitable steel 
uprights securely fastened to floor and ceiling. Partitions 
enclosing hallways or toilet rooms and other permanent 
partitions shall not rest on wood flooring but shall start on 
the fireproof construction of the floor. In the upper story, 
where there is a space between the ceiling of the top floor 
and the roof, partitions need not extend above the ceiling. 

Par. 11. — Tests of Fireproof Partitions. — In testing the 
fireproof quahties of any partition construction, a vertical 
panel not less than fourteen feet long and nine feet high 
shall be subjected to a continuous fire for not less than one 
hour at an average temperature of seventeen hundred 
degrees Fahrenheit, during the latter half hour, followed 
by an appHcation for not less than two and one half min- 
utes of a hose stream from a one and one eighth inch nozzle 
at thirty pounds nozzle pressure, without the passage of 
flame during the test. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 14, Special Act.] 

SECTION 34. 
Timbers in Walls op Second Class Buildings. 
Par. 1. — The ends of all wooden floor or roof 
timbers in second class buildings shall enter the wall 
to a depth of at least four inches ; and the ends of all such 
beams shall be so shaped or arranged that in case of fire 
they may fall without injury to the wall. 

[1918, 0. 179, sect. 15, Special Act.] 



98 City of Boston Building Law. 



SECTION 35. 
Alteeation of Existing Buildings. 

Pae. 1 . — • Any building, except those of third class 
construction within the building limits, having not more 
than five floors above the mean grade of all the sidewalks, 
may be altered, remodelled or enlarged for use as a house 
for habitation using second class construction. 

Pae. 2. — The first story or basement, or both the first 
story and basement, in such buildings may be used for 
mercantile purposes, provided that the walls and ceilings 
surrounding the area so used shall be fire-stopped to the 
satisfaction of the commissioner. 

Height Allowed. 

Pae. 3. — The height of any such building shall not be 

increased unless the walls and foundations conform to the 

provisions of this act. The number of stories of such a 

building shall not exceed five above the cellar or basement. 

Egeess Eequieed. 

Pae. 4. — Every such building, more than thirty-three 
feet in height, so altered, remodelled or enlarged*, shall be 
provided with at least two independent exits satisfactory 
to the commissioner. 

ExposuEE Requieed. 
Pae. 5. — Every such building, so altered, remodelled 
or enlarged, shall have, in addition to the exposure on the 
widest street, an exposure as long as the average width 
of the bmlding, upon a space open from the ground to the 
sky, at least ten feet wide for the first three stories, and 
increasing in width five feet for the next two stories. If 
the proposed building is more than five stories in height, 
said space shall be twenty feet: provided, that if the base- 



City of Boston Building Law. 99 

Sect. 35, Par. 5.] 

ment and first story are adapted or enlarged for use for 
mercantile purposes, the exposure required by this section 
shall not apply to that part of the building; and provided, 
also, that sufficient space be retained on the lot for the 
storage of ashes or garbage. 

Pak. 6. — Such exposure may be either upon private or 
pubhc ways, or upon land which is dedicated for the use of 
the building, and may be divided and placed as approved 
by the building commissioner. 

Par. 7. — These spaces shall remain undiminished so 
long as the building is used for habitation. 

Par. 8. — If the building is situated on the corner of 
streets or private ways not less than ten feet wide the com- 
missioner may approve the omission of the whole or part 
of this additional exposure. 

Alteration — When It Produces New Structure 
Practically. 
Par. 9. — If in the opinion of the commissioner the 
alteration proposed to be made in a building is of such 
extent as, when done, to produce a practically new struc- 
ture or to impair the stability or increase the fire risk of 
the structure as a whole, then the whole structure shall be 
made to conform to the provisions of this act for a new 
structure of the same class. A building damaged by fire or 
other casualty may be repaired or restored so as to conform 
to its original condition, or may be reconstructed in some 
or aU of its parts, so as to conform to the requirements of 
this act for new buildings, as the commissioner may 
specify in his permit. 

Windows in Living Room. 
Par. 10. — Every hving room in a building adapted for 
habitation shall have a window on the open air of an area 
not less than ten square feet and distant in a three story 



100 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 35, Par. 10.] 

building not less than six feet from any opposite wall; 
distant in a four story building not less than eight feet from 
any opposite wall; distant in a five story building not less 
than ten feet from any opposite wall. This shall not apply 
to the construction of third class buildings, except the 
provision for a window on the open air of an area. 

Par. 11. — ■ The exposure required under this section 
shall apply to all buildings hereafter constructed adapted 
for habitation, except as is otherwise provided for tenement 
houses. 

SECTION 36. 

Loads. 
Par. 1. — Dead loads shall consist of the weight of 
walls, floors, roofs, and permanent partitions. The weights 
of various materials shall be assumed as follows: 

Pounds per 
Cubic Foot. 

Beech 42 

Birch 42 

Brickwork 120 

Concrete, cinder, structural 108 

Concrete, cinder, floor filMng 96 

Concrete, stone 144 

Douglas, fir . . . 36 

Granite 168 

GranoHthic surface 144 

Limestone . . . . . . . . . 150 

Maple 42 

Marble 168 

Oak 48 

Pine, southern yellow 42 

Sandstone . . . _ 144 

Spruce 30 

Terra cotta, architectural, voids unfilled ... 72 

Terra cotta, architectural, voids filled . . . 120 



City of Boston Building Law. 



101 



Sect. 36, Par. 1.] 

Gravel or slag and felt roofing ... 
Plastering on metal lath, exclusive of furring . 



Pounds per 

Square Foot. 

6 

8 



Pak. 2. — Live loads shall include all loads except dead 
loads. Every permit shall state the purpose for which 
the building is to be used, and all floors and stairs shall be 
of sufficient strength to bear safely the weight to be 
imposed thereon in addition to the dead load, but shall 
safely support a minimum uniformly distributed Uve 
load per square foot as specified in the following table: 



Class op Btjilding. 



Pounds per 
Square Foot. 



Armories, assembly halls, and gymnasiums 

Fire houses: — 

Apparatus floors , 

Residence and stable floors 

Garages, private, not more than two cars 

Garages, public 

Grandstands 

Hotels, lodging houses, boarding houses, clubs, convents 
hospitals, asylums and detention buildings: — 

Public portions 

Residence portions 

Manufacturing, heavy 

Manufacturing, light 

Office buildings: — 

First floor 

All other floors 

Public buildings: — 

Public portions 

Office portions 

Residence buildings, including porches 

Schools and colleges: — 

Assembly halls 

Class rooms never to be used as assembly halls 

Sidewalks 

(Or eight thousand pounds concentrated, whichever 
gives the larger moment or shear.) 
Stables, public or mercantile: — 

Street entrance floors 

Feed room 

■ Carriage room 

Stall room 



100 

150 

50 

75 

150 

100 



100 

50 

250 

125 

125 
75 

100 
75 
50 

100 

50 

250 



150 

150 

50 

50 



102 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 36, Par. 2.] 



Class of BtriLDiNG. 



Pounds per 
Square Foot. 



Stairs, corridors, and fire escapes from armories, assembly 
halls and gymnasiums 

Stairs, corridors, and fire escapes except from armories, 
assembly halls, and gymnasiums. 

Storage, heavy 

Storage, light 

Stores, retail , 

Stores, wholesale 



100 

75 
250 
125 
125 

250 



Par. 3. — The commissioner may require design for 
heavier loads than the above minimum values if, in his 
judgment, the - purpose of the building or vibrating 
machinery requires it. For buildings or structures not 
included in the above table, the commissiqner shall 
establish allowable live loads. 

Par. 4. — The commissioner may prescribe the maximum 
loads which may be imposed upon the floors of existing 
buildings. 

Par. 5. — No use or occupation of a building or part of 
building for a purpose other than that for which it is 
designed to be used, as set forth in the permit upon which 
it was erected, and no change in the use or occupation of a 
building or part thereof which will increase the floor load 
beyond the capacity prescribed for such use and occupa- 
tion shall be made unless, upon application therefor, the 
commissioner shall issue a permit on condition that the 
proposed use will not endanger the safety of the building 
or the health or the safety of the occupants thereof. 

Par. 6. — Before any building hereafter erected is 
occupied, in whole or in part, as a business building, and 
before any building already erected but not previously 
occupied as a business building, is occupied or used, in 
whole or in part, for that purpose, and whenever, for any 



City OF Boston Building Law. 103 

Sect. 36, Par. 6.] 

reason, the commissioner shall prescribe the load for an 
existing building or part thereof, the safe live load for each 
floor, or portion of each floor as approved by the com- 
missioner, shall be marked on metal plates, of character 
approved by him, which shall be supplied and securely 
affixed by the owner of the building in a conspicuous place 
in the story to which they relate. It shall be the duty of 
the occupants of the building to maintain such plates 
during their occupancy, and the owner of the building or 
his agent shall cause the same to be properly affixed with 
each change of occupancy. No person shall place or 
cause or permit to be placed on any floor of any building 
any greater load than the approved safe load. 

Par. 7. — Every plank, slab and arch, and every floor 
beam carrying one hundred square feet of floor or less, 
shall be of sufficient strength to bear safely the combined 
dead and live load supported by it, but the floor live loads 
may be reduced for other parts of the structure as f oUows : — 

Par. 8. — In all buildings except armories, garages, 
gymnasiums, storage buildings, wholesale stores, and 
assembly halls, for all flat slabs of over one hundred square 
feet area, reinforced in two or more directions and for all 
floor beams, girders, or trusses carrying over one hundred 
square feet of floor, ten per cent reduction. 

Par. 9. — For the same, but carrying over two hundred 
square feet of floor, fifteen per cent reduction. 

Par. 10. — For the same, but carrying over three 
hundred square feet of floor, twenty-five per cent reduction. 

Par. 11. — These reductions shall not be made if the 
member carries more than one floor and therefore has its 
live load reduced according to the table below. 

Par. 12. — In public garages, for all flat slabs of over 
three hundred square feet area reinforced in more than one 
direction, and for all floor beams, girders and trusses 
carrying over three hundred square feet of floor, and for 



104 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 36, Par. 12.] 

all coiumns, walls, piers, and foundations, twenty-j&ve 
per cent reduction. 

Par. 13. — In all buildings except storage buildings, 
wholesale , stores, and public garages, for all columns, 
girders, trusses, walls, piers, and foundations. 

Carrying one floor, . . No reduction. 

Carrying two floors, . . Twenty-five per cent reduc- 
tion. 

Carrying three floors, . Forty per cent reduction. 

Carrying four floors, . . Fifty per cent reduction. 

Carrying five floors, . . Fifty-five per cent reduction. 

Carrying six floors or more. Sixty per cent reduction. 

Par. 14. — Roofs shall be designed to support safely 
minimum live loads as follows : — 

Par. 1.5. — Roofs with pitch of four inches or less per 
foot, a vertical load of forty pounds per square foot of 
horizontal projection applied either to half or to the whole 
of the roof. 

Par. 16. — Roofs with pitch of more than four inches and 
not more than eight inches per foot, a vertical load of 
fifteen pounds per square foot of horizontal projection and 
a wind load of ten pounds per square foot of surface acting 
at right angles to one slope, these two loads being assumed 
to act either together or separately. 

Par. 17. — Roofs with pitch of more than eight inches 
and not more than twelve inches per foot, a vertical load 
of ten pounds per square foot of horizontal projection and 
a wind load of fifteen pounds per square foot of surface 
acting at right angles to one slope, these two loads being 
assumed to act either together or separately. 

Par. 18. — Roofs with pitch of more than twelve inches 
per foot, a vertical load of five pounds per square foot of 
horizontal projection and a wind load of twenty pounds 
per square foot of surface acting at right angles to one slope, 



City of Boston Building Law. 105 

Sect. 36, Par. 18.] 

these two loads being assumed to act either together or 

separately. 

Par. 19. — All buildings and structures shall be cal- 
culated to resist a pressure per square foot on any vertical 
surface as follows: — 

For forty feet in height, . - . . . Ten pounds. 

Portions more than eighty feet above 

ground, Fifteen pounds. 

Portions from forty to eighty feet above 

ground, Twenty poimds. 

Par. 20. — But the commissioner may require a building 
or structure to be designed for larger pressure than the 
pressures given in the . table, if, in his judgment, the 
exposure requires it. 

Par. 21. — If the resisting moments of the materials of 
construction are not sufficient to resist the moment of 
distortion due to wind pressure without exceeding the 
stresses allowed in this act, additional bracing shall be 
introduced to supply the deficiency in the moment. 
[1918, c. 197, sect. 16, Special Act.] 
[1914, c. 595.] 

SECTION 37. 

Shutters. 
Par. 1. — In all first or second class mercantile or 
manufacturing buildings over thirty feet in height, out- 
side openings in party walls, or in any rear or side wall 
within twenty feet of an opposite wall or building, shall 
have metal frames and sashes and shall be glazed with 
wire glass or shall be protected by shutters. Such shutters 
shall be covered on both sides with tin or shall be made of 
other substantial fireproof material, and hung on the out- 
side, either upon independent metal frames or upon 
metal hinges attached to the masonry, and shall be made 



106 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 37, Par. 1.] 

to be handled from the outside, and one such shutter in 
each room shall have a protected hand-hole eight inches 
in diameter. 

SECTION 38. 
Elevators. 

Shafts. 
Par. 1. — Elevators and hoists for freight which do 
not run above the first story may be constructed without 
fireproof enclosures. Freight and passenger elevators may 
be placed in areas or hallways where the same are con- 
tinuous and unbroken, such elevators to be protected by 
metal grille. Except as above provided, all shafts for 
elevators, hoists, dumb-waiters, lifts, light and ventilating 
shafts or other air ducts shall be constructed of fireproof 
material. The tops of all such shafts shall be covered 
with fireproof material unless the shaft, extends above the 
upper floor of the building, and in that case the shaft shall 
be carried at least three feet above the roof and shall be 
covered with a skyHght. Such shafts, if for freight or 
passenger elevators, shall be of brick at least eight inches 
thick, or of metal covered on both sides with at least one 
inch of plaster applied immediately to the metal, or with 
some other equally substantial fireproof material. 

Gates, Rails, Trap Doors. 
Par. 2. — Every opening into a shaft or hoistway shall 
be protected by self-closing gates, rails, trap-doors, or 
other equivalent devices. 

Safety Device. 

Par. 3. — Every elevator«hall be provided with a safety 
attachment to prevent the falling of the car. The 
machinery over the elevator shall have underneath it a 
grille sufficient to protect the car from falling material. 



City of Boston Building Law. 107 

Sect. 38.] 

Par. 4. — Every opening into an elevator shaft or 
hoistway and every opening through a floor, other than a 
stairway, shall be closed when not in use. 

Outside Windows on Shafts. 

Par. 5. — All elevator shaft openings, other than open- 
ings into passenger elevator shafts, shall be furnished 
with metal covered or incombustible doors, hung in a 
manner satisfactory to the commissioner, and shall be 
provided with iron thresholds. Wire glass panels may 
be used in such doors. Outside windows or openings of 
every elevator shaft shall have three vertical iron rods, 
painted red, equally spaced off in such window or opening. 

Danger Signal. 

Par. 6. — Freight elevators shall be equipped with a 
suitable danger signal to warn people of the approach of 
the elevator. 

Par. 7. — The space between the car and door of each 
landing shall be not more than two inches. 

Par. 8. — No elevator shall be used in any building until 
the same is approved in writing by the commissioner. 

Prohibition of Use. 

Par. 9. — In case any freight or passenger elevator is 
not constructed or furnished in compUance with this act, 
or has become unsafe, the commissioner shall post a 
conspicuous warning and prohibition at each entrance to 
such elevator. It shall thereafter, until a new written 
permit is given by the commissioner, be a penal offence 
hereunder to operate the said elevator, or to remove or 
deface the said notice. 

Recess in Wall Prohibited — • Platforms — Outside Openings. 

Par. 10. — Freight elevator wells hereafter built on the 

line of the external wall of a building shall be so constructed 



108 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 38, Par. 10.] 

that there shall be no recess in the outer wall along the 
whole line of the same, and that no more than four inches 
space shall be allowed between the platform of the car and 
the outer wall. The side of the platform and the line of 
the door-way shall be flush with the well-way, and the door 
openings from the said elevator well into the building shall 
be placed at least six inches back from the face of the well, 
so as to allow space enough for self-closing gates to operate 
between the door and the well opening. Outside openings 
to freight elevators shall be protected by seK-closing slatted 
gates, "vertical," with spaces not wider than two inches 
between the slats. 

Speed Limit. 
Par. 11. — All elevators running at a speed of more than 
one hundred feet a minute, shall be operated by competent 
persons not less than eighteen years of age, and no other 
person shall operate or have the care or charge of such an 
elevator. 

Age of Operator. 

Par. 12. — No elevator shall be operated by or placed in 
charge of any person under sixteen years of age. 



Plans and Permit Required. 

Par. 13. — No elevator shall hereafter be installed in 
any building without a permit having been granted there- 
for, and the applicant shall submit a plan showing the 
proposed location of the shaftway, the area and situation of 
the machine room, and the said plan shall be filed as part 
of the records of the department. AH elevators hereafter 
installed shall be located so as to give easy and safe access 
to all the principal parts of the machinery for inspection 
and repairs. 



City of Boston Building Law. 109 

Sect. 38.] 

Over speed Governor. 
Par. 14. — • All passenger elevators hereafter built, 
operated by drum and cables, shall have an overspeed 
governor to prevent the car from descending at overspeed, 
and aU passenger and freight elevators shaU have a slack 
cable device to stop the machinery in case the car is held 
up or the cables part. 

Accident to he Reported. 

Par. 15. — If any accident shall occur to any elevator 
affecting hf e or Hmb or damaging any part of the machinery 
or running parts of the elevator, it shall be the duty of the 
engineer or superintendent in charge immediately, before 
any repairs are made, or any broken pieces are removed, 
to notify the commissioner of the accident, before the 
elevator is operated again, so that the cause of the accident 
may be determined, any faulty construction remedied, 
and satisfactory repairs made. 

Par. 16. — All elevator cables hereafter installed that 
pass through bevelled sockets, the ends returning and refit- 
ting into the same, shaU have in addition lead or babbitt 
metal poured into the ends of the socket, to prevent the 
possibility of the cable's slipping. 

Manufacturers to Test Safety Devices. 
Par. 17. — • AU manufacturers of elevators shall be 
required to test, in the presence of an inspector, the safety 
devices of every elevator installed before the same is turned 
over to the owners for use, and the commissioner shall be 
notified by the manufacturer at least twenty-four hours 
before such test is made. An inspector may require a test 
of the safety device of any elevator if in his judgment the 
same is required. 



110 . City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 38.] 

Additional Safeguards. 

Pab. 18. — The commissioner may require additional 
safeguards on elevators, if in his judgment the condition, 
use or surroundings of the elevator demand them. 

Par. 19. — The commissioner may, with the approval of 
the mayor, appoint competent elevator inspectors in 
addition to those already detailed, one for every one 
thousand elevators and hoistways in the city of Boston. 

[See 1914, c. 782, sect. 6.] 

SECTION 39. 

Wooden Buildings. 

Par. 1. — Foundations. — Every wooden building here- 
after erected or enlarged, outside of the building limits, 
shall have a foundation of rubble, block granite or brick 
or concrete, carried up to the surface of the ground, 
and no round or boulder stone shall be used. Every 
such foundation, if of brick or concrete, shall be at 
least twelve inches thick, and if of granite shall be at least 
eighteen inches thick, and if of rubble shaU be at least 
twenty inches thick, and shall be laid at least four feet 
below any surface exposed to frost and upon the solid 
ground or upon piles properly spaced. 

Par. 2. — Underpinning. — Every such wooden building 
hereafter erected or enlarged, the sills of which do not rest 
directly upon a foundation as above described but on an 
underpinning, shaU have such underpinning made of 
brick, stone or concrete, and the underpinning, if of brick 
or concrete, shall be at least twelve inches thick, and if of 
stone shall be at least sixteen inches thick. 

Par. 3. — Framing. — ^ Every wooden building hereafter 
erected or enlarged shall have all its parts of sufficient 
strength for their purposes; shall be built with wall-girts 
not smaller than four by six spruce or fir, or four by four 



City of Boston Building Law. Ill 

Sect. 39, Par. 3.] 

hard pine, or mth ledger boards; shall have no studs more 
than twenty inches on centres for buildings more than one 
story high, with all angles between partitions, or between 
partitions and waUs, blocked strongly, giving what is 
known as "sohd corners"; shall have every post securely 
braced; shall have wall spaces back of aU ledger boards 
tightly filled with at least two inch furring cut in between 
studs; and shall have all framing securely nailed or framed 
or ironed together. 

Par. 4. — Where no exterior wall boarding is used 
ledger boards shall not be used, and wall girts shall be 
framed to posts and pinned. Braces shall repeat in each 
story and shall not be smaller than three inch studding. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 17, Special Act. 1914, c. 782, sect. 7.] 

SECTION 40. 
Habitations — Height — Distance from Lot Line. 
Par. 1. — No wooden building hereafter erected, to be 
used as a habitation, shall be more than three stories nor 
more than forty feet in height above the first floor line; 
nor shall any part of such a 'building, eaves and cornices 
excepted, which is to be occupied by three or more families, 
be placed nearer than five feet from any adjoining lot 
lines, and if built on land of the same owner it shall not 
be nearer than ten feet from any other building ; nor shall 
any part of such wooden building, which is to be occupied 
by less than three families and is less than three stories 
in height, be nearer than five feet from the line of any 
adjoining lot; nor shall any lot line be moved nearer than 
five feet from any wooden building, or, if built on land of 
the same owner, nearer than ten feet from any other build- 
ing, eaves and cornices excepted, unless in either case 
the wall on the side toward such lot or adjoining build- 
ing is constructed as a brick or concrete wall not less than 
eight inches thick and carried twelve inches above the 



112 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 40, Par. 1.] 

roof, all openings therein to be protected by wire glass 
set in metal frames and sash. Wooden buildings hereafter 
constructed to form a block of two or more houses shall 
have brick or concrete party walls between adjoining 
houses, which shall be not less than eight inches thick, 
shall be carried twelve inches above the roof and shall be 
capped with a metallic covering. 

Area. 
Par. 2. — No wooden building hereafter erected to be 
used in whole or in part as a habitation shall exceed 
twenty-two hundred square feet in area, and no such 
existing building shall be enlarged to exceed twenty-two 
hundred square feet in area. No wooden building hereafter 
erected to be used for purposes other than habitation shall 
exceed forty feet in height above the first floor line, and 
no such building, except buildings erected for the purpose 
of storing ice, which shall not be erected within five 
hundred feet of any other building, shall exceed twenty- 
two himdred feet in area unless the external parts are 
covered with incombustible material approved by the 
commissioner, and no such building shall exceed five 
thousand square feet in area in any event: provided, how- 
ever, that nothing in this section shall be construed to 
affect the provisions of section nine of this act; and no 
such existing building shall be altered or enlarged to exceed 
forty feet in height above the first floor line or twenty- 
two hundred square feet in area, unless the external parts 
of the whole building are covered with incombustible 
material approved by the commissioner, or to exceed five 
thousand square feet in area in any event. 

Other Than Habitation. 
Par. 3. — Wooden buildings erected for purposes other 
than habitation shall not be situated within five feet of 



City of Boston Building Law. 113 

Sect. 40, Par. 3.] 

the line of the lot unless the side wall on such line or lines 
be of brick or concrete, carried above the roof at least 
twelve inches and capped with a metallic covering. All 
openings in such outer walls shall be protected by wire 
glass set in metal frames and sash. 

[1913, c, 704, sect. 2; 1914, c. 248, sect. 1; 1914, c. 782, sect 8.] 

SECTION 41. 
Flooring During Construction. 

[Sects. 17, 18 and 19, c. 655, Acts of 1913. See Appendix.] 

SECTION 42. 
Additional Requirements for Tenement Houses. 

Definitions. 

Certain words are defined as follows : — 

Par. 1. — (1.) A tenement house is any house, building, 
structure or portion thereof, occupied, or adapted for 
occupation, as a dwelling by more than three families 
living independently of one another and doing their 
cooking upon the premises, or by more than two families 
above the first story so living and cooking. A family 
living in a tenement house may consist of one or more 
persons. 

Par. 2. — An existing tenement house is any building 
erected as such or converted to such use or as altered for 
such use or so used before the passage of this act, and any 
building adapted for such use, provided that a permit was 
issued for the erection of said building before the passage 
of this act. 

Par. 3. — A tenement house hereafter erected is any tene- 
ment house other than an existing tenement house as above 
defined. 

Par. 4. — (2.) A corner lot is a lot situated at the junc- 
tion of two or more streets, or of two or more streets and 



114 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 42, Par. 4.] 

alleys or open passageways not less than fifteen feet in 
width. 

Par. 5. — (3.) A yard is an open unoccupied space on 
the same lot with a building and between the extreme rear 
line of said building and the rear line of the lot. 

Pab. 6. — (4.) A court is an open unoccupied space other 
than a yard on the same lot with a building. An inner 
court is a court not extending to a street, or alley, or open 
passageway, or yard. An outer court is a court extending 
to a street, or alley, or open passageway, or yard. A 
vent court is an inner court for the lighting and ventilation 
of water-closets, bathrooms, public halls, and stair halls 
only. An intake is a passageway connecting an inner 
court with a street, or alley, or open passageway, or 
yard. 

Par. 7. — (5.) A shaft, whether for air, light, elevator, 
dumbwaiter, or any other purpose, is an enclosed space 
within a building, extending to the roof, and covered 
either by a skylight or by the roof. A vent shaft is a 
shaft used solely to ventilate or light water-closet com- 
partments or bathroom. 

Par. 8. — ^ (6.) A public hall is a hall, corridor, or passage- 
way not within an apartment. 

Par. 9. — (7.) A stair hall includes the stairs, stair 
landings, and those parts of the public hall through which 
it is necessary to pass in going from the entrance floor to 
the roof. 

Par. 10. — (8.) An apartment is a room, or suite of 
two or more rooms, occupied or suitable for occupation, 
as a residence for one family. 

Par. 11. — (9.) Repairs means any renewal of any 
existing part of a building, or of its fixtures or appurte- 
nances, which does not lessen the strength of the building. 



City of Boston Building Law. 115 

SECTION 43. 

FiKE Escapes. 
Tenement Houses. 
Par. 1. — In all tenement houses hereafter erected 
more than three stories in height, and in every building 
hereafter enlarged and occupied or to be occupied as a 
tenement house, more than three stories in height, there 
shaU be provided one of the following means of egress in 
addition to the main and rear staircases; but if the first 
named means of egress is provided it may be considered 
as a rear staircase and no means of egress other than this 
and the main staircase need be provided : 

Par. 2. — (1.) An enclosed stairway consisting of iron 
or reinforced concrete stairs, and stair landings, each not 
less than three feet in width in the clear, surmounted by a 
pent house not less than eight feet high. The stairway 
shall extend from the roof to the level of the ground, and 
shaU open into either a street or passageway leading to 
a street; the said stairway shall be lighted to the satis- 
faction of the building commissioner and enclosed in walls 
of brick, stone, terra-cotta or concrete, and said waUs 
may be within or without the line of the main wall of 
the building, but access to said stairway shall be only by 
doors through an external wall to balconies leading to the 
same, except at the roof where access to said stairway 
may be directly from the roof. 

Par. 3. — (2.) Iron balconies connecting with adjoin- 
ing buildings or with adjoining parts of the same house 
separated from each other by a brick, terra-cotta or con- 
crete partition wall in which there are no openings except 
such as are protected with fireproof self-closing doors, and 
every suite above the first floor, shall have direct access 
to at least two means of egress, one of which shall be an 
enclosed stairway. The said balconies shall be not less 



116 City OP Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 43, Par. 3.] 

than thirty inches wide and .capable of sustaining a load of 
seventy pounds per square foot; railings shall be of iron, 
stone, terra-cotta or concrete, and three feet high; or 
higher if in the opinion of the commissioner a greater 
height is required for safety. 

Par. 4. — (3.) Exterior fire escapes of iron with iron 
grated floors, and capable of bearing a load of seventy 
pounds per square foot The stair treads shall be of iron, 
and the pitch of the stairs shall not exceed sixty degrees. 

Par. 5. — Balconies shall be at least three feet four^inches 
wide, and the stairs at least twenty inches wide. There 
shall be a landing at the foot of each flight, and at the 
level of the second floor there shall be cantilever ladders. 
The rails on all horizontal balconies and on the stairs 
shall be at least two feet ten inches high at all points. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 9.] 

SECTION 44. 

Bulkheads and Scuttles. 

Tenement Houses Hereafter Erected. 

Par. 1 . — Every tenement house of the first or second 
class hereafter erected shall have in the roof a fireproof 
bulkhead with a fireproof door to the same, and shall 
have fireproof stairs with a guide or hand rail leading to 
the roof, except that in such tenement houses which do 
not exceed sixty-five feet in height, such bulkheads may 
be of wood covered with metal on the outside and plastered 
on metal lathing on the inside; provided that the door 
shall be covered with metal on both sides. 

Existing Tenement Houses. 
Par. 2. — Every other tenement house shall have in the 
roof a bulkhead or scuttle. No scuttle shall be less in size 
than two feet by three feet, and all scuttles shall be covered 



City of Boston Building Law. 117 

Sect. 44, Par. 2.] 

on the outside with metal, and shall be provided with stairs 
or stationary ladders leading thereto and easily accessi- 
ble to all tenants of the building, and kept free from encum- 
brance, and all scuttles, and ladders shall be kept so as to 
be ready for use at all times. No scuttle shall be situated 
in a closet or room, but all scuttles shall be in the ceiling 
of the pubUc hall on the top floor, and access through the 
scuttle to the roof shall be direct and uninterrupted. 
Scuttles shall be hinged so as to readily open. Every 
bulkhead hereafter constructed in a tenement house shall 
be constructed as provided for tenement houses hereafter 
erected and shall have stairs with a guide or hand rail 
leading to the roof, and such stairs shall be kept free from 
encumbrance at all times. No lock shall be placed on 
any scuttle or bulkhead door, but either may be fastened 
on the inside by movable bolts or hooks. All key-locks 
on scuttles and on bulkhead doors shall be removed. No 
stairway leading to the roof in a tenement house shall be 
removed. 

SECTION ^45. 
Tenement House — Main Staircase. 
Par. 1. — Every tenement house hereafter erected shall 
have a main staircase of fireproof material, extending 
from the entrance floor to the roof, and with a, pent house 
constructed of incombustible material. The said stair- 
case shall not extend below' the entrance floor level and 
shall be enclosed in brick, terra-cotta or concrete walls, or 
by two-inch solid metal and plaster partitions. All door 
openings into suites shall have metal-covered self-closing 
doors and metal-covered frames. Public halls therein 
shall each be at least three feet wide in the clear, and 
stairs shall be at least three feet wide between the wall 
and the stair rail. 



118 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 45.] 

Staikway Entrances — Risers — Treads — Windows. 
Par. 2. — Each stairway shall have an entrance on the 
entrance floor from a street or alley or open passageway or 
from an outer court, or from an inner court which con- 
nects directly with a street or alley or open passageway. 
All stairs shall be constructed with a rise of not more than 
eight inches, and with treads not less than nine inches 
wide and not less than three feet long in the clear. Where 
winders are used all treads at a point eighteen inches 
from the strings on the wall side shall be at least ten inches 
wide. 

Balusters. Rails. 

Par. 3. — In every tenement house all stairways shall 
be provided with proper balusters and railings kept in 
good repair. No public hall or stairs in a tenement house 
shall be reduced in width so as to be less than the minimum 
width prescribed in this section. 

Tenement House Sprinklers. 

Par. 4. — Public halls, stairs, elevator, light and venti- 
lating shafts in all tenement houses hereafter erected 
more than three stories in height and having more than 
ten suites, and all such existing tenement houses shall be 
provided with a system of automatic sprinklers approved 
as to location, arrangement and efiiciency by the building 
commissioner. The building commissioner may order the 
basement of any such tenement house more than three 
stories in height and having more than ten suits to be 
provided with a system of automatic sprinklers approved 
by him as to location, arrangement and ejfficiency. 

Halls and Stairs to be Lighted. 

Par. 5. — Public halls and stairs in all tenement houses 
now existing or hereafter erected more than three stories 



City of Boston Building Law. 119 

Sect. 45, Par. 5.] 

in height, and having more than eight suites, shall be 
provided with proper and sufficient light to be kept 
lighted during the night. 

Shafts to be Inclosed. 
Par. 6. — In every existing tenement house which is 
more than three stories in height, and having more than 
eight suites, and in every such tenement house hereafter 
erected all elevators, vent and dumb-waiter shafts, shall 
be inclosed in the basement in masonry walls not less than 
eight inches thick, or with two-inch solid metal and 
plaster partitions, with a fireproofing self-closing door; and 
if in any such building a stairway leads from the first 
floor to the basement, such stairway shall be inclosed in 
masonry walls not less than eight inches thick, or with 
two-inch solid metal and plaster partitions, and shall lead 
directly into a passageway constructed in such manner 
and with such exits and fire doors as the building com- 
missioner shall deem necessary for the preservation of 
public safety. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 10; 1915, c. 352, sect. 4, Special Act.] 

SECTION 46. 

Stair Halls, Construction of. 

Par. 1. — In tenement houses hereafter erected which 
do not exceed five stories above the cellar or basement or 
sixty-five feet in height the stair^ halls shall either be con- 
structed with iron beams and fireproof filling or shall be 
filled in between the floor beams with at least five inches 
of cement deafening. In such houses the stairs may be of 
wood, provided that the soffits are covered with metal 
laths and plastered with two coats of mortar, or with 
good quality plaster-boards not less than one half inch 
in thickness made of plaster and strong fibre, and all 
joints made true and well pointed, and provided that such 
stairs are furnished with firestops. 



120 City of Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 47. 
Stair Halls, How Inclosed. 
Par. 1 . — In . second class and third class tenement 
houses hereafter erected, the stair halls may be inclosed 
with wooden stud partitions, if such partitions are covered 
on both sides with metal laths or with good quality 
plasterboards not less than one half inch in thickness, 
made of plaster and strong fibre, and all joints made true 
and well pointed, and provided that the space between 
the studs is filled in with brick and mortar or other incom- 
bustible material to the height of the floor beams. 

SECTION 48. 
Entrance Halls. 
Par. 1. — Every entrance hall in every tenement house 
hereafter erected shall be at least three feet six inches 
wide in the clear, from the entrance up to and including 
the stair inclosure, and beyond this point at least three 
feet wide in the clear, and skall comply with all the con- 
ditions of the preceding sections of this act as to the 
construction of stair halls, except that in a fireproof 
tenement house hereafter erected the entrance hall may 
be inclosed with terra-cotta blocks not less than four 
inches thick and angle-iron construction, instead of brick 
walls. If such entrance hall is the only entrance to more 
than one stairway, that portion of said hall between the 
entrance and the stairway shall be increased at least 
eighteen inches in width in every part for each additional 
stairway. 

SECTION 49. 

Cellar Ceilings. 
Par. 1. — In aU tenement houses of the second or third 
class hereafter erected, the cellar and basement ceihngs 
shall be lathed with metal laths and plastered. 



City of Boston Building Law. 121 



SECTION 50. 

Partitions, Construction of. 

Par. 1. — In all tenement houses of the second or third 
class hereafter erected all stud partitions which rest 
directly over each other shall run through the wooden 
floor beams and rest upon the cap of the partition below, 
and shaU have the studding fiUed in sohd between the 
uprights to the depth of the floor beams with suitable 
materials. 

SECTION 51. 

Wooden Tenement Houses. 

Par. 1. — Outside of the building limits, tenement 
houses not exceeding three stories in height above the 
basement, nor eighteen hundred square feet in area, may 
be erected of wood. No wooden tenement house shall be 
increased in height so as to exceed three stories above the 
basement or cellar. 

SECTION 52. 
Shafts. 

Par. 1. — AU elevator or dumb waiter shafts hereafter 
constructed in any tenement house shall be fireproof 
throughout, with self-closing doors at all openings at each 
story. But nothing in this section shall be so construed 
as to require inclosures about elevators or dumb waiters 
in the weU-hole of stairs where the stairs themselves are 
inclosed in waUs of incombustible materials, and are 
entirely constructed of fireproof materials as hereinbefore 
provided. Every vent shaft hereafter constructed in any 
tenement house shall have an intake of at least the dimen- 
sions provided for vent courts in section sixty-one, and 
shaU be of the same minimum dimensions; and the sky- 
Hght covering such vent shaft shall be raised at all points 
at least one foot above the top of the walls of such vent 



122 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 52, Par. 1.] 

shaft, and the space between the top of said walls and the 
skylight shall remain at all points open and unobstructed 
except for such supports essential to the stabiUty of the 
skylight, as may be approved by the commissioner. 

SECTION 53. 

Bakeries and Fat Boiling. 

Par. 1. — No bakery and no place of business in which 
fat is boiled shall be maintained in any tenement house 
which is not fireproof throughout, unless the ceiUng and 
side walls of said bakery or of the said place where fat 
boiling is done are made safe by fireproof materials around 
the same, and there shall be no openings either by door 
or window, dumb-waiter shafts or otherwise, between said 
bakery or said place where fat is boiled in any tenement 
house and the other parts of the building. 

SECTION 54. 

Other Dangerous Businesses. 

Par. 1. — All transoms and windows opening into halls 
from any part of a tenement house where paint, oil, spirit- 
uous liquors or drugs are stored for the purpose of sale or 
otherwise shall be glazed with wire-glass, or they shall be 
removed and closed up as soUdly as the rest of the wall. 
There shall be between any such haU and such part of 
said tenement house a fireproof self-closing door. 

SECTION 55. 

Light and Ventilation. 

Yards. 
tenement houses hereafter erected. 
Par. 1. — The requirements for yards hereinafter pro- 
vided shall be deemed sufficient for all tenement houses. 

Par. 2. — Except in those cases hereinafter provided for, 
there shall be, behind every tenement house hereafter 



City of Boston Building Law, 123 

Sect. 55, Par. 2.] 

erected, a yard extending across the entire width of the lot, 
and at every point open from the ground to the sky unob- 
structed, except by fire-escapes or unenclosed outside 
stairs. 

Par. 3. — The depth of said yard shall be measured from 
the extreme rear wall of the house to the rear line of the 
lot, and at right angles to said fine, except that where there 
is an alley or open passageway in the rear of the lot the 
depth of the yard may be measured to the middle of said 
alley or open passageway. On an irregular lot of several 
depths, where there is more than one rear hne to the lot, 
such yard may extend across the entire width of the lot 
in sections, provided that each section of the yard is in 
every part and at every point of the minimum depth here- 
inafter prescribed. Where the side lines of a lot converge 
toward the rear, the depth of the yard shall be such as to 
give it an area equal to the greatest width of the yard 
multiplied by the depth hereinafter prescribed. 

CORNER LOTS. 

Par. 4. — Except on a corner lot, the depth of the yard 
behind every tenement house hereafter erected fifty feet in 
height or less shall be not less than twelve feet in every 
part. All yards without exception shall be increased 
in depth at least one foot for every additional ten feet 
of height of the building, or fraction thereof, above 
fifty feet. 

Par. 5. — Except as hereinafter otherwise provided, the 
depth of the yard behind every tenement house hereafter 
erected upon a corner lot shall not be less than six feet in 
every part. But where such corner lot is more than 
twenty-five feet in width, the depth of the yard for that 
portion in excess of twenty-five feet shall be not less than 
twelve feet in every part, and shall increase in depth as 
above provided. 



124 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 55.] 

THROUGH LOTS. 

Par. 6. — Whenever a tenement house is hereafter erected 
upon a lot which runs through from street to street, or from 
a street to an alley or open passageway, and said lot is one 
hundred and fifty feet or more in depth, said yard space 
shall be left midway between the two streets, and shall 
extend across the entire width of the lot, and shall be not 
less than twenty-fout feet in depth from wall to wall, 
and shall be increased in depth at least two feet for every 
additional ten feet in height of the building, or fraction 
thereof, above fifty feet. 

YARDS NOT FRONTING ON STREET, ETC, 

Par. 7. — When a tenement house hereafter erected 
does not front upon a street, a public alley, or a passage- 
way, not less than fifteen feet wide, the requirements in 
this section as to yards shall apply to the front of such 
tenement house as weU as to the rear. Neither the yard 
behind one tenement house nor any part thereof shall be 
deemed to satisfy in whole or in part the requirement of a 
yard in front of another tenement house. 

SECTION 56. 

Cases in which no Yard shall be Required. 

Tenement Houses Hereafter Erected. 

Par. 1. — No yard shall be required behind a tenement 

house hereafter erected upon a lot which abuts at the rear 

upon a railroad right of way, a cemetery or a public park. 

Par. 2. — No yard shall be required behind a tenement 

house hereafter erected upon a lot entirely surrounded by 

streets or by streets, alleys or open passageways, not less 

than fifteen feet in width, or by such streets, alleys, and 



City of Boston Building Law. 125 

Sect. 56, Par. 2.] 

passageways and a railroad right of way, a cemetery or a 

public park. 

Par. 8. — No yard shall be required behind a tenement 
house hereafter erected upon a lot less than one hundred 
and fifty feet deep and running through from street to 
street or from a street to an alley or open passageway not 
less than fifteen feet in width, or upon a corner lot adjoining 
a lot less than one hundred and fifty feet deep and running 
through from street to street, or from a street to such an 
alley or open passageway. 

Par. 4, — No yard shall be required behind a tenement 
house hereafter erected upon a corner lot adjoining a lot 
more than one hundred and fifty feet deep and nmning 
through from street to street or from a street to an alley or 
open passageway not less than fifteen feet in width; but if 
there be no yard, an outer court upon such corner lot 
shall extend from the street along the line of such adjoin- 
ing lot to a point in line with the middle line of the block; 
the width of said court to be not less than the width of 
court prescribed in the ensuing paragraph. 

Par. 5. — No yard shall be required behind a tenement 
house hereafter erected upon a corner lot adjoining two or 
more lots any one of which bounds upon a single street, or 
alley, or open passageway not less than fifteen feet in 
width; but if there be no yard an outer court upon such 
corner lot shall extend from the street, or from such alley 
or open passageway along a lot line either to the extreme 
rear of an adjoining lot or to the extreme rear of said 
corner lot; provided, that the width of said court measured 
from the lot line to the opposite wall of the building, for 
tenement houses fifty feet or less in height, shall be not 
less than six feet in every part, and for every additional 
ten feet of height of the tenement house shall be increased 
one foot throughout the whole length of said court. 



126 City of Boston Building Law. 



SECTION 57. 
Courts. 

Tenement Houses hereafter Erected — not to he Roofed Over. 
Par. 1. — No court of a tenement house hereafter 
erected shall be covered by a roof or skylight, but every 
such court shall be at every point open to the sky unob- 
structed. Except such courts as are provided for in 
section fifty-six, all courts, except for fire-escapes, may 
start at the second tier of beams. 

SECTION 58. 

Outer Courts. 

Tenement Houses Hereafter Erected on Lot Line. 

Par. 1 . — The provisions of this section shall apply 

only to tenement houses hereafter erected. Where one 

side of an outer court is located on the lot line, the width 

of the said court, measured from the lot line to the opposite 

wall of the building, for tenement houses fifty feet or less 

in height shall not be less than six feet in every part and 

for every ten feet of increase or fraction thereof in height 

of such tenement houses, such width shall be increased , 

one foot throughout the whole length of the coui-t, and 

except where the court runs through from the yard to 

the street, said width shall never be less than one eighth 

of the length of the court. 

Between Wings or Ells. 

Par. 2. — Where an outer court is located between wings 
or parts of the same building, or between different buildings 
on the same lot, the width of the court, measured from wall 
to wall, for tenement houses fifty feet or less in height shall 
be not less than twelve feet in every part, and for every 
ten feet of increase or fraction thereof in the height of 



City op Boston Building Law. 127 

Sect. 58, Par. 2.] 

the said building, such width shall be increased two feet 
throughout the whole length of the court. The depth of 
such courts shall never exceed four times their width. 

Windows Opening On. 

Par. 3. — Wherever an outer court changes its initial 
horizontal direction, or wherever any part of such court 
extends in a direction so as not to receive direct Hght from 
the street or yard, or from an alley, or open passageway 
not less than fifteen feet in width, the length of that part of 
the court shall never exceed its width, such length to be 
measured from the point at which the change of direction 
begins. Wherever an outer court between parts of the 
same building is twelve feet or less in depth, its width may 
be one half its depth, provided that such width is never 
less than four feet in the clear. This exception shall also 
apply to every offset or recess in outer courts. And no 
window except windows of water-closet compartments, 
bathrooms, or halls shall open upon any offset or recess less 
than four feet in width. 

SECTION 59. 
Inner Courts. 

Tenement Houses Hereafter Erected — Width — Area. 

Par. 1. — The provisions of this section shall apply 
only to tenement houses hereafter erected. Where one 
side of an inner court is located on the lot line and the 
building does not exceed fifty feet in height, the least 
width of the court shall be not less than eight feet, and 
the area of the court shall be not less than one hundred 
and twenty-eight square feet. For every ten feet, or 
fraction thereof, of increase in the height of the building 
above fifty feet the minimum width of such inner courts 
shall be increased by one foot, and the area thereof shall 
never be less than twice the square of such minimum 



128 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 59, Par. 1.] 

width. Where an inner court is not located on -the lot 
line but is inclosed on all four sides, and the building does 
not exceed fifty feet in height, the least width of said court 
shall be not less than sixteen feet and the area not less 
than two hundred and fifty-six square feet. For every 
ten feet, or fraction thereof, of increase in the height of 
said building above fifty feet, the minimum width of such 
inner courts shall be increased by two feet, and the area 
of the court shall never be less than the square of such 
minimum dimension. 

SECTION 60. 
Vent Couets. 
Area — Least Dimension. 
Pah. 1. — Inner courts used solely for the lighting 
and ventilation of water-closets, bathrooms, public halls, 
or stair halls, or for interior fire escapes, may be con- 
structed in any tenement house, and shall be not less 
than fifteen square feet in area, nor less than three feet 
in the least horizontal dimension for buildiags fifty feet 
or less in height. For every increase of ten feet or fraction 
thereof in the height of such buildings the least dimension 
shall be increased by one foot, and the area by not less 
than eight square feet. 

SECTION 61. 
Intakes. 
Par. 1. — Every inner court in a tenement house here- 
after erected shall be provided with one or more horizontal 
intakes at the bottom. Such intakes in vent courts 
shall be not less than four square feet in area, so arranged 
as to be easily cleaned; in other inner courts they shall be 
not less than three feet wide and seven feet high, and there 
shall be at least two open grille doors, containiag not less 
than fifteen square feet of unobstructed openings, one at 



City of Boston Building Law. 129 

Sect. 61, Par. 1.] 

the inner court and the other at the street or yard as the 

case may be. 

Par. 2. — Nothing contained in the foregoiag sections 
concerning outer and inner courts shall be construed as 
prohibiting windows in walls that cut off the angles of 
such courts, provided that the running length of the walls 
containing such windows does not exceed six feet. 

SECTION 62. 
Buildings on the Same Lot With Tenement Houses. 
Par. 1. — No tenement house shall hereafter be so 
enlarged or its lot so diminished, and no building of any 
kind shall be hereafter so placed upon the same lot with a 
tenement house, as to decrease the minimum depth of 
yards or the minimum size of courts or yards prescribed 
in this act for tenement houses hereafter erected. 

SECTION 63. 
Rooms, Lighting and Ventilation of. 
Par. 1, — In every tenement house hereafter erected 
there shall be in each room, except water-closet compart- 
ments and bathrooms, windows of a total area of at least 
one eighth of the floor area of the room, opening directly 
on a street or public alley or open passageway not less 
than fifteen feet wide or upon a yard or court of the dimen- 
sions hereinbefore s.pecified, or upon a railroad right of 
way, cemetery or public park; and such windows shall be 
located so as properly to light all parts of the room. 
The top of at least one window shall be not less than eight 
feet above the floor, and the upper half of it shall be made 
so as to open the full width . 

Alcoves. 
Par. 2. — Every alcove in every tenement house here- 
after erected shall be provided with an opening into a 



130 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 63, Par. 2.] 

room, such opening to be equal in area to eighty per cent 
of that side of the alcove in which the opening is located; 
and the alcove shall have at least one window of not less 
than fifteen square feet of-glazed surface opening as pro- 
vided in this section. 

SECTION 64. 
Rooms, Size Of. 
Par. 1. — In every tenement house hereafter erected 
all rooms, except water-closet compartments and bath- 
rooms, shall be of the following minunum sizes: In each 
apartment there shall be at least one room containing 
not less than one hundred and twenty square feet of 
floor area and provided with a chimney flue and thimble, 
except where said room is furnished with heat from a 
central heating apparatus, and every other room shall 
contain at least ninety square feet of floor area. Each 
room shall be in every part not less than eight and one 
half feet high from the finished floor to the finished ceil- 
ing; provided that only one half of an attic room need 
be eight and one half feet high. 

Alcove Not Allowed. 
Par. 2. — ■ No portion of a room in any such tenement 
house shall be partitioned off so as to form a room not 
conforming to the provisions of sections sixty-three and 
sixty-four, or so as to form an alcove not conforming to 
sections sixty-three and seventy. 

Sl^CTION 65. 

Public Halls. 

Lighting Of. 
Par. 1. — Except as otherwise provided in section 
sixty-six, in every tenement house hereafter erected 



City of Boston Building Law. 131 

Sect. 65, Par. 1.] 

every public hall shall have at least one window opening 
directly upon a street, a pubHc alley or open passageway 
not less than ten feet in width, a railroad right of way, a 
cemetery or a public park, or upon a yard or court or a 
vent court as provided in section sixty. Either such 
window shaU be at the end of said hall, with the plane 
of the window substantially at right angles to the axis of 
the hall, or there shall be at least one window opening 
as above prescribed in every twenty feet in length or 
fraction thereof of the hall; but this provision for one win- 
dow in every twenty feet of hall-way shall not apply to 
that part of the entrance hall between the entrance and 
the first flight of stairs, provided that the entrance door 
contains not less than five square feet of glazed surface. 
At least one of the windows provided to light each public 
haU shall be at least two feet six inches wide and five 
feet high, measured between the stop beads. 

Par. 2. — Any part of a hall which is shut off from any 
other part of said hall by a door or doors shall be deemed a 
separate hall within the meaning of this section. 

SECTION 66. 
Windows for Stair Halls, Size Of. 
Par. 1. — In every tenement house hereafter erected 
the aggregate area of windows to light or ventilate stair 
halls on each floor shall be at least fifteen square feet: 
provided, however, that when there shall be, within the 
space enclosed by the stairway and its landings, from the 
second story upward, an open area for light and ventilation 
whose least horizontal dimension shaU be equal to the 
width of the stairs, but in no case less than three feet, 
then the windows required in sections sixty-five and 
sixty-six may be omitted. 



132 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 66.] 

Skylight over Stair Well. 
Par. 2. — • There shall be in the roof, directly over each 
stair weU, in aU tenement houses hereafter erected, without 
windows as above provided, a ventilating skylight provided 
w4th ridge ventilators, having a minimum opening of forty 
square inches, or else such skylights shall be provided with 
fixed or movable louvres. The glazed roof of the skyhght 
shall not be less than twenty square feet in area. 

SECTION 67. 
Privacy. 

Water-closets. 

Par. 1. — ■ In every apartment of four or more rooms in 
a tenement house hereafter erected, at least one water- 
closet compartment shaU be accessible without passing 
through any bedroom. 

SECTION 68. 

Basements and Cellars in Tenement Houses and 

Other Buildings. 

Living Rooms. 

Par. 1. — In tenement houses hereafter erected no 

room in the basement or ceUar shaU be occupied for living 

purposes, unless all of the f oUomng conditions are comphed 

with: — 

Height Of. 

Par. 2. — (1.) Such room shall be at least eight and one 
half feet high in every part from the floor to the ceiling. 

Water-closets. 
Par. 3. — (2.) There shall be appurtenant to such room 
the use of a separate water-closet, constructed and 
arranged as required by section sixty-nine. 



City of Boston Building Law. 133 

Sect. 68.] 

Window Openings. 

Pak, 4. — (3.) Such room shall have a window or 
windows opening upon the street, an alley or open passage- 
way not less than fifteen feet in width, a railroad right of 
way, cemetery or public park or upon a yard or court. 
The total area of windows in such room shall be at least one 
eighth of the floor area of the room, and one half of the sash 
shall be made to open full width, and the top of each 
window shall be within six inches of the ceiling. 

Damp-proof Walls and Floors. 

Par. 5. — (4.) The floor of such room shall be damp- 
proof and waterproof, and all walls surrounding such room 
shall be damp-proof. 

Sleeping Rooms. 
Par. 6. — No room on any floor of any house or building 
now existing or hereafter erected, which floor is in whole or 
in part below the highest point of the curb of a public 
street or way in front and within twenty-five feet of the 
outside wall, and no room on any floor thereof, which 
floor is in whole or in part below the highest point of the 
ground adjacent to such building and within fifteen feet 
thereof, shall be occupied for sleeping purposes unless 
all of the f oUowing conditions are complied with : — 

' To Ahut on Outside Wall. 
Par. 7. — {a.) Such room shall on at least one side abut 
on an outside wall of said building for a space of at least 
seven feet. 

Windows, Area and Exposure. 

Par. 8. — (6.) Such room shaU have a window or 
windows opening directly upon an open space not less than 
fifteen feet square, and open from the ground to the sky 



134 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 68, Par. 8.] 

without obstruction; such window or windows shall have a 
total area of not less than ten square feet and not less than 
one eighth of the floor area of said room, and both halves of 
the sash of each window shall be made to open to their 
full width, and the top of each window shall be within six 
inches of the ceiling. 

Par. 9. — (c.) At least sixty per cent of the area of any 
such room shall be above the level of the highest point of 
the ground within fifteen feet of the outside wall or walls of 
said room and in which the windows above required are 
situated. 

Floors and Walls to be Waterproof. 
Par. 10. — {d.) The floor of such room and all walls sur- 
rounding such room shall be damp-proof and waterproof. 

Height Of. 
Par. 11. — (e.) Such room shall be at least eight feet 
six inches in height in every part, from floor to ceiling: pro- 
vided, that in tenement houses erected prior to the first day 
of August, nineteen hundred and seven, and in other houses 
and buildings erected prior to the first day of June, nine- 
teen hundred and fourteen, it shall be sufficient if said 
room is seven feet in height over at least four fifths of 
its area. 

Water-closets — Construction, Arrangement. 
Par. 12. — (/.) There shall be appurtenant to such 
room a water-closet, constructed and arranged as required 
by section sixty-nine, and used solely by the occupants of 
said room or by the household of which said occupants are 
members. 

Sleeping Rooms. 
Par. 13. — (g.) No such room shall be occupied for 
sleeping purposes without a permit from the board of 



City of Boston Building Law. 135 

Sect. 68, Par. 13.] 

health, such permit to be posted in a conspicuous place 
in the main room of the apartment. A record of all such 
permits shall be kept in the office of the board of health. 

Requirements when Exem'pted. 
Par. 14. — {h.) Whenever basement rooms which do 
not comply with all the technical requirements of this act 
are, in the opinion of the board of health, supplied with 
sufficient light and ventilation and are suitable rooms for 
living and sleeping purposes, the board, after an inspection 
of the premises and a report in writing as to the area, 
capacity and other conditions, may issue a certificate to 
the owner of the building stating that, in the opinion of 
the board, such rooms are fit 1;o be occupied for living and 
sleeping purposes. The issue of the said certificate shall 
operate as an exemption from the technical requirem^ents 
of this section in all the particulars set forth in said cer- 
tificate: provided, that said certificate is kept at all times 
posted in a conspicuous place in such room. A file and 
record of all such reports and certificates shall be kept in 
the office of the board of health. Baid board may revoke 
the certificate if such room, in its opinion, ceases to be 
suitable for the purposes named in the certificate, 

[1914, c. 628, sect. 1; 1915, c. 346, Special Act.] 

SECTION 69. 

Water-closets in Tenement Houses Hereafter 
Erected. 

Par. 1. — In every tenement house hereafter erected 
there shall be a separate water-closet in a separate com- 
partment within each apartment of four or more rooms. 
Where apartments consist of less than four rooms there 
shall be at least one water-closet for every three rooms, 
and on the same floor with said rooms. Every such 
water-closet shall be placed in a compartment completely 



136 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 69, Par. 1.] 

separated from every other water-closet, and such com- 
partment shall be not less than two feet and four inches 
wide, and shall be inclosed with plastered partitions, or 
some equally substantial material, which shall extend to 
the ceiUng. Such compartment shall have a window, 
opening directly, or through a straight horizontal shaft of 
the same dimensions as the window and not more than 
four feet long, upon a street, a raikoad right of way, 
cemetery or pubhc park or a yard or alley or open passage- 
way not less than four feet wide, or upon a court vent or 
upon a covered passageway not more than twenty feet 
long and at least twenty feet wide, and twenty feet high. 
Every such window shall be at least one foot by three 
feet between stop beads; and the whole window shall be 
made so as to open readily. When, however, such water- 
closet compartment is located on the top floor and is 
lighted and ventilated by a skyhght over it, no window 
shall be necessary, provided that the roof of such skyhght 
contains at least three square feet of glazed siuface and 
is arranged so as to open readily. Nothing in this section 
in regard to the separation of water-closet compartments 
from each other shall apply to a general toilet room 
containing several water-closets, hereafter placed in a tene- 
ment house, provided that such water-closets are supple- 
mental to the water-closet accommodations required by 
law for the use of the tenants of the said house. Nothing 
in this section in regard to the ventilation of water-closet 
compartments shall apply to a water-closet hereafter 
placed in an existing tenement house, to replace a defective 
fixture in the same position and location. No water-closet 
shall be maintained in the cellar of any tenement house 
without a permit in writing from the board of health; 
and said board shall have power to make rules and regula- 
tions governing the maintenance of such closets. Every 
water-closet compartment in any tenement house shall be 



City of Boston Building Law. 137 

Sect. 69, Par. 1.] 

provided with proper means of lighting the same at night. 
If fixtures for gas or electricity are not provided in such 
compartment, then the door of such compartment shall 
be provided with translucent glass panels, or with a 
translucent glass transom, not less in area than four 
square feet. The floor of every such water-closet com- 
partment shall be made waterproof with asphalt, tile, 
stone or some other waterproof material; and such water- 
proofing shall extend at least six inches above the floor 
on all sides of the compartment except at the door opening, 
so that the floor can be washed or flushed without leaking. 
No drip trays shall be permitted. No water-closet fix- 
tures shall be inclosed with any woodwork. 

SECTION 70. 
Lighting and Ventilation of Existing Tenement 

Houses. 

Par. 1. — Excepting water-closet compartments and 
bathrooms, wherever a room in any tenement house has 
a window or windows of less than nine square feet of 
glazed surface opening on a street, a railroad right of 
way, cemetery, pubHc park, alley or open passageway not 
less than ten feet in width, such window or windows shall 
be enlarged and provided with the above mentioned 
glazed surface, and wherever such room does not open as 
above provided, or opens upon an alley or open passageway 
less than ten feet in width or upon a shaft or upon a court 
less than six feet in its least dimension, then such room 
shall be provided with a sash window communicating 
with another room in the same apartment, having win- 
dows of at least the superficial area prescribed for the 
windows of rooms in tenement houses hereafter erected 
and opening on a street, a railroad right of way, cemetery, 
pubhc park or alley or open passageway at least ten feet 
in width, or on a court or courts at least equivalent to the 



138 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 70, Par. 1.] 

courts reqiiired in sections fifty-eight and fifty-nine; and 
such new sash window shall contain not less than fifteen 
square feet of glazed surface and shall be made so as to 
open readily. One wall of every alcove in an existing 
tenement house shall be provided with an opening equal 
in area to eighty pefr cent of the wall. No tenement 
house shall be so altered as to reduce the provisions for 
the Hght and ventilation of any room or alcove or pubhc 
hall or stair hall below the requirements of this act. 

SECTION 71. 

Skylights. 

Existing Tenement Houses. 

Par. 1. — In every existing tenement house there shall 
be in the roof, directly over each stair well, a ventUating 
skylight, provided with ridge ventilators and also with 
fixed or movable louvres or movable sashes. But this 
section shall not apply to any tenement house now having 
windows as provided in section sixty-five or a bulkhead in 
the roof over the main stairs, which bulkhead is provided 
with windows made so as to open readily, and with not 
less than twelve square feet of glass in the top of the bulk- 
head. All skyHghts hereafter placed in any tenement 
house shall conform to the provisions of section sixty-six. 
All the existing dome lights or other obstructions to sky- 
light ventilation shall be removed. 

Public Hall — Lighting Of. 

Par. 2. — Where the pubhc hall in an existing tenement 
house is not provided with windows opening as provided 
in section sixty-five, and where there is not a stair well as 
provided in section sixty-six, all doors leading from such 
public hall into apartments shall be provided with trans- 
lucent glass panels of an area of not less than four square 
feet for each door; or such pubUc hall may be lighted by 



City op Boston Building Law. 139 

Sect. 71, Par. 2.] 

a window or windows at the end thereof with the plane of 
the window at right angles to the axis of the hall, said 
window opening upon the street, a railroad right of way, 
cemetery, pubUc park, or an alley or open passageway at 
least ten feet in width, or upon a yard or court of the 
dimensions hereinbefore provided. 

SECTION 72. 

Water-closets in Existing Tenement Houses. 

Par. 1. — In existing tenement houses the woodwork 
inclosing the space underneath the seat of aU water-closets 
used in common by two or more families shall be removed 
and such space shall be left open. The floor or other sur- 
face beneath and around such closet shall be maintained 
in good order and repair, and the floors made waterproof 
to the satisfaction of the board of health. 

Water-closets, Number Required. 
Par. 2. — Every such water-closet shall be located in 
a compartment completely sep^ated from every other 
water-closet, and such compartment shall be ventilated to 
the satisfaction of the board of health. There shall be 
provided at least one water-closet for every three families 
or for every nine rooms in every existing tenement house. 

SECTION 73. 

Water Supply. 

Tenement House Hereafter Erected. 

Par. 1. — Irr every tenement house hereafter erected 

there shall be in each apartment a proper sink with 

running water. 

Existing Tenement House. 
Par. 2. — Every existing tenement house shall have 
water furnished in sufiicient quantity at one or more 



140 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 73, Par. 2.] 

places on each floor occupied by or suitable to be occupied 
by one or more families. The owner shall provide proper 
and suitable tanks, pumps or other appliances to receive 
and to distribute a sufficient supply of water at each floor 
in the said house at all times of the year, during all hours 
of the day and night. 

Sinks in Public Halls. 
Par. 3. — The woodwork inclosing sinks located in the 
public halls or stairs shall be removed, and the space 
underneath the sinks shall be left open. The floors and 
wall surfaces beneath and around the sink shall be main- 
tained in good order and repair. 

BECTION 74. 

Drainage of Courts and Yards. 

Tenement Houses. 

Par. 1. — In every tenement house all courts, areas, 

intakes and yards shall jpe properly graded, drained and 

paved or otherwise surfaced to the satisfaction of the 

board of health, 

SECTION 75. 

Receptacles for Garbage and Ashes. 

Tenement House. 

Par. 1 . — The owner of every tenement house shall 

provide therefor suitable covered, water-tight receptacles 

satisfactory to the board of health, for ashes, rubbish, 

garbage, refuse and other matter. No person shall place 

ashes, rubbish, garbage, refuse or other matter in the 

yards, open areas or alleys connected with, or appurtenant 

to, any tenement house except in suitable receptacles 

provided for the same. 

[Repealed so far as inconsistent with 1907, c. 559, sect. 128; as 
amended by 1913, c. 586, sect. 1.] 



City of Boston Building Law. 141 

SECTION 76. 
Powers of the Building Commissioner. 

Par. 1. — ^ The commissioner shall not dispense with 
any of the requirements of sections forty- two to seventy- 
five, inclusive. 

SECTION 77. 

Theatres. 

Definition. 
Par. 1. — Every building hereafter erected so as to 
contain an audience hall and a stage, with curtain, mov- 
able or shifting scenery, and machinery, adapted for the 
giving of play, operas, spectacles or similar forms of 
entertainment, and of a size to provide seats for more 
than five hundred spectators shall be a theatre within 
the meaning of this act. No existing building not now 
used a a theatre shall be altered and used as a theatre, 
imless it conforms to the provisions of this act for a new 
theatre. 

SECTION 78. 

Construction. 

Par. 1. — Every theatre hereafter built shall be of 
fireproof construction throughout, except that the floor 
boards may be of wood, and the steel work of the stage, 
of the fly galleries, and of the rigging loft need not be 
fireproof ed. 

SECTION 79. 
Open Courts. 

Par. 1. — Every theatre built in a block not on a corner 
shall have an open court or passageway on both sides 
extending from the proscenium line to the line of the 
street on the front, or, in case the building abuts on a 
street both in front and rear, these passages may extend 
from the line of the front of the auditorium to the line of 



142 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 79, Par. 1.] 

the rear street. These passages shall be at least six feet 
wide throughout their length, and shall not be closed by 
any locked gate or doorway. They shall inimediately 
adjoin the auditorium, or a side passage or lobby directly 
connected therewith. These passages shall be open to the 
sky opposite the whole depth of the auditorium, but may 
be carried out to the street front or rear through passages 
enclosed by brick walls or other fireproof material equally 
efficient, and covered by a solid brick vault at least eight 
inches thick, each passage to be not less than eight feet 
wide and ten feet high throughout. 

SECTION 80. 

Inner Court. 
Par. 1. — Every theatre built upon the corner of two 
streets shall have one inner court on the side of the building 
away from the side street, such court to be of the same 
description as the courts provided for in the preceding 
paragraph. 

SECTION 81. 

Stores, Etc. 
Par. 1. — Nothing in this act shall be construed to 
prohibit the use of any part of a theatre building for 
stores, offices, or for habitation, provided that the parts 
so used shall be built with exits to the street entirely 
distinct from the rest of the building and shall be sepa- 
rated from the rest of the building by solid partitions or 
walls, without any openings in the same. 

SECTION 82. 

Floor Levels. 

Par. 1. — In all theatres, the entrances shall be not 

more than one step above the level of the sidewalk of the 

main street, and the stage shall be not more than five 

feet above the said level. 



City of Boston Building Law. 143 



SECTION 83. 
Proscenium Wall. 
Par. 1.— The stage of every theatre shall be separated 
from the auditorium by a wall of fireproof construction, 
which wall shall extend the whole width of the aucJitorium 
and the whole height to the roof of the portion occupied by 
the stage. There shall be no openings through this wall 
except the curtain opening, one doorway each side behind 
the boxes, and one doorway which shall be located at or 
below the level of the stage. The doorways shall not 
exceed twenty-one superficial feet each, and shall have 
standard fire-doors hung in a manner satisfactory to the 
commissioner. The finish or decorative features around 
the curtain opening of every theatre shall be of fireproof 
material. 

SECTION 84. 
Curtain. 
Par. 1. — The proscenium or curtain opening of every 
theatre shall have a fire resisting curtain reinforced by 
wire netting or otherwise strengthened. If of iron, or 
similar heavy material, and made to lower from the top, 
it shall be so arranged as to be stopped securely at a 
height of seven feet above the stage floor, the remaining 
opening being closed by a curtain or valance of fire- 
resisting fabric. 

SECTION 85. 
Stage Floor. 

Par. 1. — The part of the stage floor, usually equal to 
the width of the proscenium opening, used in working 
scenery, traps or other mechanical apparatus, may be of 
wood, and no flooring used thereon shall be less than one 
and one eighth inches in thiclaiess. 



144 City of Boston Building Law. 



SECTION 86. 
Ventilators. 
Par. 1. — -There shall be one or more ventilators near 
the centre, and above the highest part of the stage of 
every theatre, of a combined area of opening satisfactory 
to the commissioner, and not less than one tenth of the 
area of the undivided floor space behind the curtain at 
the stage floor level. The openings in every such venti- 
lator shall be closed by valves or louvres so counter- 
balanced as to open automatically, which shall be kept 
closed, when not in use, by a fusible link and cord reach- 
ing to the prompter's desk, and readily operated therefrom. 
Such cord shall be of combustible material, and so arranged 
that if it is severed the ventilator will open automatically. 

Skylight Coverings for Ventilator. 
Par. 2. — Skylight coverings for ventilators shall have 
sheet metal frames set with double-thick glass, each pane 
thereof measuring not less than three hundred square 
inches, or shall be protected with wire glass. If wire glass 
is not used, a suitable wire netting shall be placed immedi- 
ately beneath the glass, but above the ventilator openings 
Illuminating fixtures over the auditorium shall be sus- 
pended and secured in a manner approved by the com- 
missioner. 

Illuminating Fixtures over Auditorium. 
Par. 3. — Glass on illuminating fixtures over the audi- 
torium shall be secured from danger of falling as the com- 
missioner shall require, but in no case shall any glass more 
than six inches in diameter or length be hung over the 
auditorium unless protected from falling by a wire netting 
or similar device sati^actory to the commissioner. 



City of Boston Building Law. 145 



SECTION 87. 
Seats in Auditorium. 
Par. 1.— All seats in the auditorium excepting those 
contained in boxes shall be spaced not less than thirty 
inches from back to back, measured in a horizontal 
direction, and shall be firmly secured to the floor. No 
seat in the auditorium shall have more than six seats 
intervening between it and an aisle, on either side. 

Balcony and Gallery Platforms. 
Par. 2. — The platforms for seats in balconies and 
galleries shall nowhere have a greater rise than twenty-one 
inches, nor be less than thirty inches from back to back. 

SECTION 88. 
Aisles. 

Par. 1. — All aisles on the respective floors in the 
auditorium, having seats on both sides of the same, shall 
be not less than thirty inches wide where they begin 
and shall be increased in width toward the exit in the 
ratio of one inch to five running feet. Aisles having 
seats on one side only shall be not less than two feet wide 
at their beginning and shall increase in width, the same 
as aisles having seats on both sides. 

SECTION 89. 
Changes in Level. 
Par. 1. — All changes in the levels of the floors of such 
buildings, except under stairways, from story to story, 
and except the necessary steps in galleries and balconies 
rising toward the exits, shall be made by inclines of no 
steeper gradient than two in ten within the auditorium, 
and rising toward the exits, and one in ten for all others. 



146 City of Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 90. 
Lobbies. 
Par. 1. — Preceding each division of the theatre there 
shall be foyers, lobbies, corridors, or passages, the aggre- 
gate capacity of which on each floor or gallery shall be 
sufficient to contain the whole number to be accommo- 
dated on such floor or gallery in the ratio of one square 
foot of floor room for each person. 

SECTION 9L 

Stage Doors. 

Par. 1, — There shall be not less than two exit doors 

each not less than three feet in width, located on opposite 

sides of the stage, and opening directly upon a street, 

alley, court, or court way leading to a public thoroughfare. 

SECTION 92. 
Room Exits. 
Par. 1. — All rooms in theatres for the use of persons 
employed therein shall have passages to at least two 
independent means of exit. 

SECTION 93. 

Doors to Open Outward. 

Par. 1. — All doors of exit or entrance shall open out- 
ward, and shall be hung so as to swing in such a manner 
as not to become an obstruction in a passage or corridor, 
and no such doors shall be fastened so as to be inoperative 
when the building is occupied by an audience. 

SECTION 94. 
False Doors. 

Par. 1. — No mirrors shall be so placed as to give the 
appearance of a doorway or exit, hallway, or corridor 
nor shall there be any false doors or wiudows. 



City of Boston Building Law. 147 



SECTION 95. 
Main Floor and First Gallery Exits. 
Par. 1. — A common exit may serve for the main floor 
of the auditorium and the first gallery, provided that its 
capacity be equal to the aggregate capacity of the outlets 
from the main floor and the said gallery; and provided 
that the lowermost run of any exit leading from a gallery 
shall not open directly at right angles with the central 
axis of a common exit unless there is a clear space or 
landing of at least one and one quarter times the width 
of the exit between the foot of such exit and such centre 
line or nearest exit doorway. 

SECTION 96. 
Exits. 

Balcony and Gallery. 

Par. 1. — Two distinct and separate exits shall be 
provided for each gallery and balcony above the main 
floor; and the same shall be located on opposite sides of 
the galleries. 

Par. 2. — AU gaUery or balcony exits shall start with a 
width of not less than four feet at the uppermost gallery. 

Par. 3. — Exits from balconies and galleries shall not 
commimicate with the basement or cellar. 

SECTION 97. 
Aggregate Width of Exits. 
Par. 1. — The aggregate width of all the exits pre- 
viously described shall be estimated on a basis of not less 
than twenty inches for every one hundred persons for 
whom seats are provided in the sections of the auditorium 
served by the respective exits. 



148 City of Boston Building Law. 



SECTION 98. 
Emergency Exits. 

Par. 1. — In addition to the exits previously described 
there shall be one exit from each side of each gallery, 
balcony, and main floor of auditorium, at least five feet 
wide, leading to exterior balconies not less than four feet 
wide and twenty feet long on each side of the auditorium. 
From such balconies there shall be staircases extending 
to the ground level, which may be counterweighted, with 
risers of not over eight and one haK inches and treads of 
not less than nine and one half inches, inclusive of nosing. 
The aggregate width of these emergency stairs shall be 
not less than ten inches for every one hundred people 
served thereby, no single stairs being less than thirty 
inches wide. If counterweighted, these stairs shall be 
lowered during all performances. 

Par. 2. — Where aU such stairs are in an interior court, 
each run shall be covered by a light awning of iron. 

Par. 3. — Nothing herein shall prohibit the building of 
emergency stairs and exits inside the walls of the building, 
provided that they are surrounded by a fireproof partition 
not less than four inches thick separating the exits and 
staii'ways from the audience room or auditorium. 

SECTION 99. 
Additional Requirements. 
Par. 1. — The commissioner shall have power to require 
a greater number or capacity of exits than is herein pre- 
scribed. 

Illuminated Exit Signs. 
Par. 2. — In every theatre there shall be over every exit, 
on the inside, and over every opening to a fire-escape, on 
the inside, an illuminated sign, bearing the word "exit" or 



City of Boston Building Law. 149 

Sect. 99, Par. 2.] 

"fire-escape," respectively, in letters not less than four 
inches high. The lights for the exit signs, passages, stairs, 
lobbies, auditoriums, rear of auditoriums, balconies, 
galleries, and for the bajconies and stairs outside the build- 
ing, shall be so arranged that they can be turned on or off 
independently of the means provided on the stage or in 
any part of the building in the rear of the proscenium wall. 
Every exit sign shall be kept illuminated, and every outside 
balcony and fire-escape shall be kept well lighted during 
the performance, except outside exits during a performance 
before sunset. 

Exit Plan on Program. 

Par. 3. — Plans showing the exits and stairways shall be 
legibly printed so as to occupy a full page of every pro- 
gramme or play-bill. 

Gas Pipe Outlets and Burners. 

Par. 4. — In said buildings there shall be such number of 
gas pipe outlets as the commissioner may require, fitted 
with no less than two gas burners. Such burners shall be 
inspected and tried at least once in every three months by 
inspectors of the department, to ascertain if they are in 
proper working order. The inspector shall make a report 
of each visit, stating the condition of the burners and the 
action of the inspector in regard to them. 

Defective Burners. 

Par. 5. — The commissioner shall have authority to 
order any defect in the working of such burners as are 
necessary for public safety to be remedied. 

Existing Theatre Burners. 

Par. 6. — So much of this section as applies to the 
inspection of gas burners shall apply to buildings now used 
as theatres. 



150 City of Boston Building Law. 



SECTION 100. 

Stairs. 

Par. 1. — The cut of the stair stringers shall not 
exceed seven and one-haK inches rise, nor be less than ten 
and one half inches tread. There shall be no flights of 
stairs of more than fifteen or less than three steps between 
landings. 

SECTION 101. 
Landings of Stairs. 
Par. 1. — Every landing shall be at least four feet 
wide. When straight stairs return directly on themselves, 
a landing of the full width of both flights, without any 
steps, shall be provided. The outer line of landings shall 
be curved to a radius of not less than two feet to avoid 
square angles. Stairs turning at an angle shall have a 
proper landing without winders introduced at the turn. 
No door shall open immediately upon a flight of stairs, 
but a landing at least two feet wider than the width of 
the door opening shall be provided between such stairs 
and such door. When two side flights connect with one 
main flight, no winders shall be introduced, and the width 
of the main flight shall be at least equal to the aggregate 
width of the side flights. 

SECTION 102. 
■ Hand Rails. 
Par. 1. — All enclosed stairways shall have, on both 
sides, strong hand-rails, firmly secured to the wall, about 
three inches distant therefrom and about three feet high 
above the stairs. 

Par. 2. — All stairways eight feet and over in width shall 
be provided with a central rail of metal or hard wood, not 
less than two inches in diameter, placed at a height of 



City op Boston Building Law. 151 

Sect. 102, Par. 2[] 

about three feet above the centre of the treads, supported 
on wrought metal or brass standards of sufficient strength, 
securely bolted to the treads or risers of the stairs; and 
at the head of each flight of stairs, and on each side of 
the landing, the post or standard shall be at least six 
feet in height, and the rail shall be secured to the post. 

SECTION 103. 
Measurements for Width of Stairs. 

Par. 1. — The width of all stairs shall be measured in 
the clear between the hand-rails. 

Par. 2. — No winding or circular stairs shall be per- 
mitted. 

SECTION 104. 

Radiators Forbidden in Passageways. 

Par. 1. — No coil or radiator or floor register shall be 

placed in any aisle or passageway used as an exit; but 

all such coils and radiators may be placed in recesses 

formed in the waU or partition to receive the same. 

Heating Apparatus Location. 
Par. 2. — No boiler, furnace, engine or heating appara- 
tus, except steam, hot water or hot air pipes or radiators, 
shall be located under the auditorium or under any passage 
or stairway or exit of any theatre. 

Sprinklers and Standpipes. 

Par. 3. — ■ There shall be at least two two-inch high- 
service standpipes on the stage of every theatre, with 
ample provision of hose nozzles at each level of the stage on 
each side, and the water shall be kept turned on during the 
occupation of the building by an audience. The said pipes 
shall in no case be sealed, and shall have two gates, one 
above the other, with a proper test or waste valve; the 



152 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 104, Par. 3.] 

lower gate to be kept open at all times. The proscenium 
opening of every theatre shall be provided with a two and 
one half inch perforated iron pipe, or equivalent equipment 
of automatic or open sprinklers, so constructed as to form, 
when in operation, a complete water curtain for the whole 
proscenium opening, and there shall be for the rest of the 
stage a complete system of fire apparatus and perforated 
iron pipes, automatic or open sprinklers. Such pipes or 
sprinklers shall be suppUed with water by high pressure 
service, and shall be at all times ready for use. 

SECTION 105. 

Places of Public Assembly. 

Hereafter Erected. 

Par. 1. — Every building hereafter erected with a 
haU or assembly-room to contain a pubHc audience of 
more than eight hundred persons, or with more than one 
superimposed gallery or balcony, shall be of fireproof con- 
struction throughout; except that halls or assembly- 
rooms, the mean level of the main floor of which is not 
more than five feet above the grade of the adjacent street, 
may have roofs of second class construction. 

Par. 2. — Every building hereafter erected with a hall or 
assembly-room to contain an audience of more than six 
hundred persons, the main floor of which is raised more 
than fifteen feet above the level of the principal street upon 
which it faces, shall be of fireproof construction throughout. 

Capacity. 

Par. 3. — The capacity of a hall or assembly-room shall 
be estimated on the basis of six square feet for each person. 

Par. 4. — If several haUs or assembly-rooms are provided 
in one building, their aggregate capacity shall be considered 
as determining whether or not the building shall be of fire- 



City of Boston Building Law. 153 

Sect. 105, Par. 4.] 

proof construction, unless the several halls are enclosed 
by or separated from each other by fireproof walls, with 
fireproof doors in the same, in which case the building 
may be of second class construction. 

Alterations to Conform to Act. 
Par. 5. — No existing building shall be altered to 
contain a hall or assembly-room exceeding the foregoing 
dimensions, unless the whole building as altered shall 
conform to the provisions of this act. 

Seats. — Obstructions. 

Par. 6. — All seats in places of pubhc assemblage shall be 
spaced as hereinbefore provided, and, while such places of 
pubUc assemblage are occupied by an audience, shall be 
seciired in such manner as will be satisfactory to the build- 
ing commissioner of the city of Boston. No temporary 
seats or other obstructions shall be allowed in any aisle, 
passageway or stairway of a place of pubfic assemblage, and 
no person shall remain in any aisle, passageway or stairway 
of any building during any performance. 

[1912, c. 370, sect. 1.] 

Existing Halls. Ways of Egress, Lighting Of. 
Par. 7. — -Every existing building containing a hall or 
assembly-room to which admission is not free, and to which 
the provisions of chapter four hundred and ninety-four of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and eight, relative to 
the Ucensing of public entertainments apply, shall have 
all the ways of egress from such building sufficiently 
lighted, and lighted in a manner satisfactory to the building 
commissioner, while the hall or assembly-room is occupied 
by an audience. 

[1913, c. 50, sect. 1.] 



154 City of Boston Building Law. 



SECTION 106. 

Moving Picture Shows, 

Par. 1. — All moving picture shows shall be subject 
to the provisions of chapter one hundred and seventy-six 
and of chapter four hundred and thirty-seven of the acts 
of the year nineteen hundred and five, and of any amend- 
ments thereof or additions thereto now or hereafter made. 

SECTION 107. 

Exits, Etc. 

Halls — Hereafter Erected. 

Par. 1. — Every building hereafter erected contain- 
ing a hall or assembly-room shall conform to all the afore- 
said requirements as to exits, stairways, exit Ughts, aisles, 
and seats, which apply to theatres; provided, that the 
same are necessary for tiie preservation of pubhc safety 
and are specially ordered by the building commissioner. 
All orders of the building commissioner under the pro- 
visions of this section shall be subject to the authority of 
a majority of the Board of Appeal, which may annul or 
modify such orders. 

[1915, c. 352, sect. 5. Special Act.] 

SECTION 108. 

Roof Gardens. 

Par. 1. — Nothing herein contained shall prevent the 
placing of a roof garden, art gallery, or rooms for similar 
purposes above a theatre, provided the floor of the same 
forming the roof over such theatre shall be constructed 
of fireproof materials, and shaU have no covering boards 
or sleepers of wood. Every roof over such garden or other 
rooms shaU have all supports and rafters of steel, and, if 
covered, shaU be covered with glass or fireproof material, 
or both. 



City of Boston Building Law. 155 



SECTION 109. 

Exits feom Roof Gardens. 

Par. 1. — Exits from roof gardens may commmiicate 
with stairs leading from the auditorimn of the theatre, 
but they shall be at least fom- in nmnber, not less than 
fom- feet six inches wide, and distinct and separate from 
each other from roof to street. 

SECTION 110. 

Summer Theatres. 

Par. 1. — Summer theatres, if built v/ithout the building 
limits, and located thirty feet distant from any other 
building or structure or adjoining lot lines, and of no 
greater seating capacity than seven hundred and fifty 
persons, and not more than one story high, without bal- 
conies, or galleries, may be constructed as follows : — 

Par. 2. — The auditorium, without a cellar or basement, 
with open sides of double the number of exits as herein- 
before provided, opening directly into the surrounding 
courts or gardens at the grade level, and the adjoining 
dressing rooms, may be of wooden construction, but the 
stage shall be enclosed in brick walls not less than twelve 
inches thick, or shall be plastered on metal lathing through- 
out: provided, that the openings leading to the dressing- 
rooms shall be provided with fire doors. 

Par. 3. — Otherwise, all protective features and arrange- 
ments shall comply with all previous sections of this title. 

SECTION 111. 

Existing Theatres. 
Stairs — Stairways. 
Par. 1 . — All stairs of theatres shall have throughout 
proper hand-rails on both sides firmly secured to walls or 



156 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. Ill, Par. 1.] 

to strong posts and balusters. Stairways twelve feet or 
more wide shall have one or more intermediate rails not 
more than eight feet apart and properly supported. 

Heating Apparatus — Location. 

Par. 2. — 'No boiler, furnace, engine or heating appa- 
ratus, except steam, hot water or hot air pipes or radiators, 
shall be located under the auditorium nor under any pas- 
sage or stairway or exit of any theatre. 

Illuminated Exit Signs — Emergency Lights. 

Par. 3. — In every theatre there shall be over every 
exit, on the inside, and over every opening to a fire-escape, 
on the inside, an illuminated sign, bearing the word 
"exit" or "fire-escape," respectively, in letters not less 
than four inches high. An emergency arc fight or its 
equivalent shall be installed in the auditorium, which 
fight or fights, exit fights, and all lights in halls, corridors, 
or any part of the building used by the audience, except 
the general auditorium fighting, shaU be fed independently 
of the stage fighting, and shall be controUed only from the 
lobby or other convenient place in the front of the house. 
Every exit sign shaU be kept iUuminated and every outside 
balcony and fire-escape shaU be kept well fighted during 
the performance, except outside exits during a performance 
in the daytime and before sunset. 

[1909, c. 313, sect. 1.] 

Exits to Open Outward — Plans of Exits on Programs. 

Par. 4. — The exits and openings to fire-escapes of all 
theatres shaU open outward and have fastenings on the 
inside only. They shaU be unfastened during every per- 
formance and shaU be so arranged that they can easily be 



City of Boston BuiliDing Law. 157 

Sect. Ill, Par. 4.] 

opened from within. Plans showing the exits and stair- 
ways shall be legibly printed so as to occupy a fuU page of 
every programme or play-biU. 

Temporary Seats. 

Par^ 5. — No temporary seats or other obstructions 
shall be allowed in any aisle, or stairway of a theatre, and 
no person shall remain in any aisle, or stairway of any such 
building during any performance. 

[1908, c. 336, sect. 1.] 

Fire Curtain. 

Par. 6. — The proscenium or curtain opening of every 
theatre shall have a fire-resisting curtain of incombustible 
material, reinforced by wire netting, or otherwise strength- 
ened. If of iron, or similar heavy material, and made to 
lower from the top, it shall be so arranged as to be stopped 
securely at a height of seven feet above the stage floor, 
the remaining opening being closed by a curtain or valance 
of fire-resisting fabric. The curtain shall be raised at 
the beginning and lowered at the end of every perform- 
ance, and shall be of proper material, construction and 
mecha.nism. 

Stage Ventilators. 

Par. 7. — There shall be one or more ventilators near 
the centre and above the highest part of the stage of every 
theatre, of a combined area of opening satisfactory to the 
building commissioner, and not less than one tenth of the 
area of the proscenium opening. Every such ventilator 
shall have a valve or louvre so counterbalanced as to open 
automatically, and shall be kept closed, when not in use, 
by a fusible link and cord reaching to the prompter's 
desk, or any other place easily reached from the stage 
level and readily operated therefrom. Such cord shall 



158 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. Ill, Par. 7.] 

be of combustible material, and so arranged that if it is 
severed the ventilator will open automatically. 

[1908, c. 336, sect. 1.] 

Standpipes — Sprinklers. 
Par. 8. — There shaU be at least two two-inch high- 
service standpipes on the stage of every theatre, with 
ample provision of hose nozzles at each level of the stage 
on each side, and the water shall be kept turned on during 
the occupation of the building by an audience. The said 
pipes shall in no case be sealed and shall have a gate and 
check valve and shall have a test valve placed between 
the gate valve and check valve. The proscenium open- 
ing of every theatre shall be provided with a two and 
one half inch perforated iron pipe or equivalent equip- 
ment of automatic or open sprinklers, as the commis- 
sioner may direct, so constructed as to form when in 
operation a complete water curtain for the whole pro- 
scenium opening and there shall be for the rest of the 
stage a complete system of fire apparatus and perforated 
iron pipes, automatic or open sprinklers. Such pipes or 
sprinklers shall be supplied with water by high pressure 
service, and shall be ready for use at all times. 
[1908, c. 336, sect. 1.] 

SECTION 112. 
Plumbing. 

Definition of Ter7ns. 

Par. 1. — The following terms shall have the meanings 
respectively assigned to them: — 

Par. 2. — "Repair of leaks" shall mean such repairs as 
are necessary to protect property, but do not involve any 
extensive change in construction. 

Par. 3. — "Y-hranches" shall mean a branch at suffi- 
cient angle to direct the flow and prevent backing up. 



City of Boston Building Law. 159 

Sect. 112.] 

Par. 4. — ^'Air pipes'' or "back air pipes" shall mean 
air pipes from traps that extend toward the main soil pipe 
of the outer air and connect with not more than three 
traps. 

Par. 5. — "Vent pipes" shall mean general lines of 
back air pipes connecting with more than three fixtures. 

Par. 6. — "Di-ain" shall mean that part of the drainage 
system of a building extending through basement or cellar 
to sewer. 

Par. 7. — "Soil pipe" shall mean that part of the drain- 
age system of a building, of four inches or more internal 
diameter, between basement or cellar and the highest 
fixture in the building. 

Par. 8. — "Ventilation pipe" shall mean the extension 
of the soil pipe from the highest fixture to and through the 
roof. 

Par. 9. — "Surface drain" shall mean a connection with 
drain in the basement to allow egress of surface water or 
overflow. 

Par. 10. — "Fixture" shall mean any receptacle or 
outlet placed for the purpose of disposing of waste water 
or other matter, and connecting with the waste, soil or 
drain pipe of a building. 

SECTION 113. 
Registration. 

Par. 1. — No pliimber shall engage in or work at the 
business of plumbing unless he shall first have registered 
his name and place of business in the office of the commis- 
sioner, and no person shall by display of sign or plumbing 
material, or otherwise, advertise as a plumber unless he 
shall have been registered or licensed as such. Every 
master plumber shall conspicuously display his certificate 
or license within his place of business. Notice of any 



160 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 113, Par. 1.] 

change in the place of business of a registered or licensed 
master plumber shall immediately be given by him to 
the commissioner. 

[Chap. 103, Revised Laws.] 
[Chap. 287, Acts of 1914.1 
[Chap. 536, Acts of 1919.] 

SECTION 114. 

Notices. 
Par. 1. — Every plumber, before doing any worli in a 
building, shall, except in the case of repair of leaks, file in 
the officer of the commissioner a plan or slietch of the 
work to be performed; and no such work shall be done 
in any building without a written permit from the com- 
missioner. 

SECTION 115. 
Connection With Sewer or Drain. 
Par. 1. — • The plumbing of every building shall be 
separately and independently connected outside the 
building with the public sewer, if such sewer is provided, 
or with a proper and sufficient private drain or sewer laid 
outside of the building, and if a sewer is not accessible, 
with a proper cesspool. Several buildings may have a 
common sewer connection if such connection is approved 
by the commissioner and the superintendent of sewers. 

SECTION 116. 

Inspection and Tests. 
Par. 1 . — Pipes or other fixtures shall not be covered 
or concealed from view until approved by the commis- 
sioner, who shall examine or test the same within two 
working days after notice that they are ready for inspec- 
tion. Plumbing shall not be used unless, when roughed 



City of Boston Building Law. 161 

Sect. 116, Par. 1.] 

in, the wastes, vents and back air pipes and traps are first 
tested by water or sufficient air pressure in the presence 
of an inspector, when such testing is practicable. 



SECTION 117. 
Soil and Waste Pipes and Traps. 

Par. 1. — The waste pipe of every independent sink 
basin, bath-tub, water-closet, slop-hopper, urinal or other 
fixture shall be furnished with a separate trap which shall 
be placed a 3 near as practicable to the fixture which 
it serves. A sink and set of three wash-trays may be 
connected to the house di*ain through one five inch round 
trap, when the outlet of the sink is not over three feet 
six inches from the nearest outlet from the wash-trays; 
and in such case the trap shall be above the floor. The 
outlet from each fixture shall enter the trap separately. 
Not more than four wash-bowls or sinks in a continuous 
line may be connected to the house drain through one 
five inch round trap. Two or more fixtures on the sam.e 
level with not more than two feet of waste pipe and con- 
necting into the soil or waste pipe not more than eighteen 
inches below the top water line of the trap, shall not 
require other vent than the continuation of the soil or 
waste pipe full size for its whole length. Lateral branches 
of soil or v/aste pipe, if more than twenty feet in length, 
shall be extended through the roof undiminished in size. 
All connections on lead waste and back air pipes and of 
lead pipes to brass ferrule and soldering nipples shall be 
full size wiped soldered branch, round or flange joints. 
Soil and waste pipes shall have proper T-Y or Y branches 
for all fixture connections. No connection to lead bends 
for water-closets or slop sinks shall l)e permitted, except 
the required back air pipe where a continuous vent is not 
practicable. 



162 City of Boston Bthlding Law. 

Sect. 117.] 

Par. 2. — Earthenware traps shall have heavy brass 
floor plates soldered to the lead bends and bolted to the 
trap flange, and the joint made gas tight with red or white 
lead. Rubber washers for floor connections shall not be 
used. 

Back Am Pipes, Vents, Etc. 
Par. 3. — Traps shall be protected from siphonage or air 
pressure by special iron or brass air pipes of a size not less 
than the waste pipes they serve ; back air pipes shall not be 
connected to the trap or branched into the waste pipe 
except where a continuous vent is not practicable, but a 
suitable non-siphon trap may be used without a back air 
pipe upon the approval of the commissioner. Back air 
pipes shall enter the waste pipe within eighteen inches from 
the trap and shall be a continuation of the waste pipe. 
Lead air pipes may be used only for short connections 
where they are exposed to view. Air pipes for water- 
closet traps shall be connected to the highest point of 
bend or trap, and may be of two inch bore if for not more 
than three fixtures and less than thirty feet in length; if 
for more than three fixtures or more than thirty feet in 
length they shall be of three inch bore. Air pipes shall 
be run as direct as practicable and if one and one half 
inches or less in diameter shall not exceed thirty feet in 
length. Two or more air pipes may be connected to- 
gether or with a vent pipe; but in every such case the 
connection shall be above the top of the fixture. The 
trap for the upper fixture on a line of soil or waste pipe, 
within five feet of the stack in a horizontal line, shall not 
require a special air pipe, unless the outlet is branched 
into a stack more than eighteen inches below the top 
water line of the trap. Diameters of vent pipes shall be 
not less than two inches for main vents through less than 
seven stories; three inches for water-closets on more than 



City of Boston Building Law. 163 

Sect. 117, Par. 3.] 

three floors, and for other fixtures in more than seven 
stories. All vent pipes shall be increased one inch in 
diameter before passing through the roof. Vent lines 
shall be connected at the bottom with a soil or vv^aste 
pipe or with the drain, in such a manner as to prevent 
accumulation of rust scale and properly to drip the water 
of condensation. Offsets shall be made at an angle of not 
less than forty-five degrees. Soil pipes or iron waste 
pipes, vents and back air pipes, shall be supported by 
clamps to the woodwork, iron drive hooks to brick walls, 
or bolted clamps to iron girders. 

NoN-SiPHON Traps — Round Traps. 
Par. 4. — All traps, except for water-closets, not pro- 
vided with special air pipes shall be suitable non-siphon 
traps and shall have at least a four-inch water seal. 
Round traps shall be not less than four inches in diameter 
and eight inches long, and made of eight-pound lead. All 
trap screws shall be water sealed. 

Chemical Laboratories. 

Par. 5. — Fixtures and waste pipes in chemical labora- 
tories shall be installed in accordance with plans approved 
by the commissioner. 

Stables. 

Par. 6. — The drainage of stable fixtures shall be con- 
structed according to plans approved b3/ the commissioner. 

SECTION 118. 
Back Air Pipe. 

Par. 1. — In buildings where a series of bathrooms 
or kitchens are located directly over each other and have 
a common soil or waste pipe, the back air pipe required 
shall be a vent line connecting with each outlet branch 
close to the water-closet connection or outlet from the 



164 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 118, Par. 1.] 

sink trap, each branch vent to connect to vent line above 
the top of the highest fixture on each floor, the vent line 
to connect to main vent Hne above the top of the highest 
fixture in the buildmg. 

Batteries of Water-Closets. 

Par. 2. — In the case of batteries of water-closets or 
other fixtures the special air pipe from each trap may be 
omitted, provided that the soil or waste pipe, undimin- 
ished in size, is continued to a point above the roof or 
revented into the main soil pipe system above the top 
of the uppermost fixture. 

Par. 3. — The commissioner shall prepare explanatory 
sketches showing the method of construction described in 
this section. 

SECTION 119. 
Refrigerator Wastes and Drip Pipes. 

Par. 1. — All drip or overflow pipes shall be extended 
to some place in open sight, and in no case shall any such 
pipe be connected directly with the drain pipe. No waste 
pipe from a refrigerator or other receptacle in which 
provisions are stored shall be connected directly with 
a drain or other waste pipe. The waste pipes from all 
other fixtures shall be connected directly with a drain pipe. 
Refrigerator wastes connecting with two or more stories 
shall be supplied with a trap on the branch for each floor 
and extended through the roof. 

SECTION 120. 

Water-Closets, Etc. 

Par. 1. — Every water-closet or line of water-closets 

shall be supplied with water from a tank or cistern, and 

shall have a flushing pipe of not less than one and one 

quarter inches in diameter. Privy vaults shall be of brick 



City of Boston Building Law. 165 

Sect. 120, Par. 1.] 

and cement of a capacity of not less than fifty cubic feet, 
of easy access, convenient to open, and clean, and water 
tight. The inside shall be not less than two feet from the 
next lot and from any public or private way. 

SECTION 121. 

Soil and Waste Pipes Dimensions. 
Par. 1 . — The diameters of soil and waste pipes shall 
be not l6ss than those given in the following table : — 

Inches. 

Soil pipes .4 

Main waste pipes 2 

Main waste pipes for kitchen sinks on five or more 

floors 3 

Branch waste pipes for laundry tubs 1| 

Branch waste for kitchen sinks . . . , . 1| 

Branch waste for urinals IJ 

No branch waste for other fixtures shall be less than, li 

Exceptions. 
Par. 2. — Except that, with the approval of the com- 
missioner, a three-inch soil pipe may be used for one water- 
closet where it is not practicable to use a four-inch pipe. 

Ferrules, Clean-Outs, Etc. 
Brass ferrules shall be of the best quality, bell-shaped, 
extra heavy cast brass, not less than four inches long 
and two and one quarter inches, three and one half inches, 
and four and one half inches in diameter, and of not less 
than the following weights : — 

Diameters. Weights. 

2i inches 1 poimd ounces. 

3^ inches 1 pound 12 ounces. 

4| inches 2 pounds 8 ounces. 

One and one half inch ferrules shall not be used. 



166 

Sect. 121.] 



City of Boston Building Law. 



Soldering Nipples, 
Par. 3. — Soldering nipples shall be of heavy cast brass 
or of brass pipe, iron pipe size. If cast, they shall be of 
not less than the following weights : 



1| inches 


pounds 8 ounces 


2 inches 


pounds 14 ounces 


2| inches 


1 pound 6 ounces 


3 inches 


2 pounds ounces 


4 inches 


3 pounds 8 ounces 



Clean-Outs — Screw Caps. 

Par. 4. — Where clean-outs are used, the screw cap 
shall be of brass, extra heavy, and not less than one eighth 
of an inch thick. The engaging parts shall have not less 
than six threads of iron pipe size, and shall be tapered. 
Clean-outs shall be full size of trap up to four inches in 
diameter, and not less than four inches for larger traps. 

Par. 5. — The screw caps shall have a solid square or 
hexagonal nut, not less than one half inch high, with a least 
diameter of one and one half inches. The bodies of brass 
clean-out ferrules shall be at least equal in weight and 
thickness to the calking ferrule for the same size of pipe. 

Lead Pipes, Use Restricted. 
Par. 6.— The use of lead pipes is restricted to short 
branches of the soil and waste pipes, bends and traps, 
and roof connections of inside leaders. "Short branches" 
of lead pipe shall mean not more than : — 

5 feet of 1| inch pipe. 
5 feet of 1| inch pipe. 
4 feet of 2 inch pipe. 
2 feet of 3 inch pipe. 
2 feet of 4 inch pipe. 



City of Boston Building Law. 



167 



Sect. 121.] 

Lead Pipe — Weight — Thickness. 

Par. 7. — • The pipe shall be not less than the following 
average thickness and weight per linear foot : 

Weights per 
Diameters. Thicknesses. Linear Foot. 

1 J inches 2.50 pounds. 

1| inches .14 inch 2.68 pounds. 

2 inches .15 inch 3.61 pounds. 
2| inches .20 inch 5.74 pounds. 

3 inches .21 inch 7.54 pounds. 
3 1 inches .22 inch 9.00 pounds. 

4 inches .23 inch 10.66 pounds. 
4| inches .24 inch 12.34 pounds. 

5 inches .25 inch 14.50 pounds. 

6 inches .28 inch 18.76 pounds. 

7 inches .30 inch 23.27 pounds. 

8 inches .32 inch 28.18 pounds. 

9 inches .34 inch 33.70 pounds. 

10 inches .36 inch 40.06 pounds. 

11 inches .37 inch 45.02 pounds. 

12 inches .37 inch 48.98 pounds. 

Brass Pipe. 

Par. 8. — Brass pipe for soil, waste, vent and back air 
pipes shall be thoroughly annealed, seamless, drawn brass 
tubing, of not less than number thirteen Stubbs gauge. 

Lead and Iron Pipe Unions — Connections. 
Par. 9. — No shp joint or unions shall be used on traps, 
waste, vents or back air pipes. Threaded connections on 
brass traps shall be of the same size as pipe threads for 
the same size of pipe, and shall be tapered. Connections 
between lead and iron shall be made by brass sleeves or 
screw nipples wiped to the lead and calked or screwed 
into the iron. 



1G8 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 121.] 

Brass Pipe. 
Par. 10. — The following average thicknesses and weights 
per linear foot shall be used : — 







Weights per 


Diameters. 


Thicknesses. 


Linear Foot. 


1| inches 


. 14 inch 


2.84 pounds. 


2 inches 


.15 inch 


3.82 pounds. 


2 5 inches 


.20 inch 


6.08 pounds. 


3 inches 


.21 inch 


7.92 pounds. 


3| inches 


.22 inch 


9.54 pounds. 


4 inches 


.23 inch 


11.29 pounds. 


4^ inches 


.24 inch 


13.08 pounds. 


5 inches 


.25 inch 


15.37 pounds. 


6 inches 


.28 inch 


19.88 pounds. 



Cast Iron Pipes, Etc. 

Par. 11. — Cast iron pipes shall be uncoated, sound, 
cylindrical and smooth, free from cracks and other defects, 
of uniform thickness and of the grade known to Qommerce 
as '"'extra heavy." If buried under ground they shall be 
coated with asphaltum or red lead. 

Par. 12. — Pipe, including the hub, shall weigh not less 
than the following average weights per linear foot: — 



Diameters. 


Weights 

per Linear 

Foot. 


Diameters. 


Weights 

per Linear 

Foot. 


2 inches 


5| pounds. 

91 pounds. 
13 pounds. 
17 pounds. 
20 pounds. 


7 inches (not stock size), 

8 inches 


27 pounds. 
33 § pounds. 




10 inches 


45 pounds. 




12 inches 


54 pounds. 


6 inches 







Par. 13. — All joints shall be made with picked oakum 
and molten lead run full, and be made gas tight. No 



City of Boston Building Law. 



169 



Sect. 121, Par. 13.] 

cement joints nor connections between iron and cement 
or tile pipe or brick drains shall be made within any 
building. 

Wrought Iron Pipe. 

Par, 14. — Galvanized wrought iron pipe shall be of not 
less than the following thickness and weight per Hnear 
foot : — 







Weights per 


Diameters. 


Thicknesses. 


Linear Foot. 


1| inches 


,14 inch 


2.68 pounds. 


2 inches 


,15 inch 


3.61 pounds. 


2^ inches 


.20 inch 


5.74 pounds. 


3 inches 


.21 inch 


7.54 pounds. 


3^ inches 


.22 inch 


9.00 pounds. 


4 inches 


.23 inch 


10.66 pounds. 


4| inches 


,24 inch 


12.34 pounds. 


5 inches 


,25 inch 


14.50 pounds. 


6 inches 


,28 inch 


18.76 pounds. 


7 inches 


.30 inch 


23.27 pounds. 


8 inches 


.32 inch 


28.18 pounds. 


9 inches 


.34 inch 


33.70 pounds. 


10 inches 


.36 inch 


40.06 pounds. 


11 inches 


.37 inch 


45.02 pounds. 


12 inches 


.37 inch 


48.98 pounds. 



Extra Heavy. 
Par. 15. — The threaded part of the pipe if less than 
one and one half inches long shall be of the thickness and 
weight known as "extra heavy" or "extra strong." 

Fittings. 

Par. 16. — Fittings on wrought iron vent or back air 
pipes shall be galvanized, recessed, cast iron threaded 
fittings. Fittings for "Plumber's tubing" shall be heavy 
weight, with sharp threads. 



170 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 121.] 

Par. 17. — Fittings for waste or soil or refrigerator waste 
pipes of wrought iron or brass pipe shall be galvanized 
cast iron, or brass, recessed, and threaded drainage fit- 
tings, with smooth interior waterway and threads tapped 
so as to give a uniform grade to branches of not less than 
one quarter of an inch per foot. 

Joints. 
Par. 18. — All joints on wrought iron or brass pipe shall 
be screwed joints made up with red lead, and any burr 
formed in cutting shall carefully be reamed out. 

SECTION 122. 
Drain Pipes, Etc. 

Par. 1. — Drain and connecting ventilation pipes, 
vents and back air pipes shall be of sufficient size, and 
made of extra heavy cast iron pipe if under ground, and 
if above ground shall be made of extra heavy cast iron, 
galvanized wrought iron of standard weight, or of not 
less than number thirteen Stubbs gauge brass pipe within 
the building, except that lead pipes may be used for short 
connections exposed to view. Cast iron drains shall 
extend not less than ten feet from the inside face of the 
wall, beyond and away from the building. 

Par. 2. — ■ Drain pipes above ground shall be secured by 
irons to walls, suspended from floor timbers by strong 
iron hangers, or supported on brick piers. Proper man- 
holes shall be supplied to reach clean-outs and traps. 
Every drain pipe shall have a fall of not less than one 
quarter inch per foot, and shall be extended from a point 
ten feet outside the inside face of the wall, unobstructed, to 
and through the roof, undiminished in size, and to a height 
not less than two feet above the roof, and not less than 
one foot above the top of any window within fifteen feet 
and not less than eight feet above the roof if the roof is 



City of Boston Building Law. 171 

Sect. 122, Par. 2.] 

used for drying clothes or as a roof garden. The drain 
pipe shall be supplied with a Y branch fitted with a brass 
clean-out or with an iron stopper, if required, on the 
direct run, at or near the point where the drain leaves the 
building. Changes in direction shall be made with 
curved pipes, and all connections with horizontal or verti- 
cal pipes shall be made with Y branches. Saddle hubs 
shall not be used. All drain pipes shall be exposed to 
sight within the building, if such exposure is practicable, 
and shall not be exposed to pressure where they pass 
through the wall. 

Steam Exhausts, Etc. 

Par. 3. — No steam, or vapor, or water of a temperature 
over one hundred and thirty degrees Fahrenheit shall be 
discharged from any premises into any sewer, drain or 
catch-basin, nor shall any matter or thing be discharged 
into any sewer which may tend to cause an obstruction 
of the public sev/er or a nuisance or a deposit therein or 
any injury thereto. 

Blow-Off Tanks. 
Par. 4. — All high pressure steam boilers shall be con- 
nected with a blow-off tank of a capacity not less than 
thirty per cent of the largest boiler connected with such 
tank. The location of and the connections to said blow- 
off tank shall be subject to the approval of the superin- 
tendent of sewers. 

Steam Exhausts. 
Par. 5. — No steam exhaust or steam drip, unless it be 
provided with a coohng tank of a capacity approved by the 
superintendent of sewers, or unless it be connected with 
the blow-off tank, shall connect with any drain leading 
to the sewer. Every blow-off tank shall be supplied with 



172 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 122, Par. 5.] 

a vapor pipe not less than two inches in diamete^-, which 
shall be carried above the roof and above the highest 
windows of the building. , 

Blow-Off Tanks — Additional Requirements. 
Pae. 6. — The superintendent of sewers may require 
such additional means for cooling the blow-off tanks by the 
injection of cold water or otherwise as may be necessary 
to reduce the temperature of the water passing from the 
blow-off tank so that it shall not exceed one hundred and 
thirty degrees Fahrenheit. 

SECTION 123. 

Special Traps, Etc. 

Grease — Gasolene. 

Par. 1. — Every building from which, in the opinion 
of the superintendent of sewers, grease may be discharged 
in such quantity as to clog or injure the sewer, shall have 
a special grease trap satisfactory to the superintendent 
of sewers. Every building in which gasolene, naphtha or 
other inflammable compounds are used for business pur- 
poses shall be provided with a special trap, satisfactory 
to the superintendent of sewers, so designed as to prevent 
the passage of such material into the sewer, and ventilated 
with a separate pipe rising to a point four feet above the 
roof. All non-siphon traps shall be of a type approved 
by the commissioner The waste pipe of every wash 
stand for vehicles shall be provided with a sand box of 
sufficient capacity. 

Par. 2. — The waste pipe from the sink of every hotel, 
eating house, restaurant or other public cooking estabUsh- 
ment, shall be connected to a grease trap of sufficient size, 
easily accessible to open and clean, placed as near as 
practicable to the fixtures that it serves. 



City of Boston Building Law. 173 



SECTION 124. 
Roof Leaders a'nd Surface Drains. 
Par. 1. — Rain water leaders when connected with 
house drains shall be suitably trapped and, within the 
proposed surface drainage area, shall not be connected at 
the top of the stack, nor extended down through the 
interior of the building, except by special permit from the 
commissioner. Wherever a surface drain is installed in 
a cellar or basement, it shall be provided with a deep seal 
trap and back water valve. Drain pipes from fixtures in 
cellars and basements liable to back flow from a sewer 
shall be supplied with back water valves. 

SECTION 125. 

Hazardous Building and Appliances for Power and 

Heat. 

Permits — Publications. 
Par. 1. — *(No building shall be used for a grain eleva- 
tor or for storage or manufacture of high combustibles or 
explosives, or for chemical or rendering works, without a 
permit from the commissioner, and) no engine, dynamo, 
boiler or furnace shall be placed in any building without 
a permit from the commissioner. Every application for 
such permit shall be in writing, shall be filed with the 
commissioner, and shall set forth the character of the 
building, th^ size, power and purpose of the apparatus, 
and such other information as the commissioner may 
require. The commissioner may, after an examination 
of the premises described in the application, and after 
hearing the apphcant and any objectors, issue a permit 
for placing a boiler or furnace on such premises, upon such 

* Portion in parenthesis superseded by c. 795, sects. 3, 6, 7 and 29 of 
Acts of 1914, Fire Prevention Act.] 



174 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 125, Par. 1.] 

conditions as he shall prescribe, or he may refuse such per- 
mit. If the application is for an5rthing other than a boiler 
or furnace the applicant shall publish in at least two daily 
newspapers published in the city of Boston, and on at least 
three days in each, and, if so directed by the commissioner, 
shall also post conspicuously on the premises, a copy of 
the apphcation, and shall deliver copies thereof to such 
persons as the commissioner may designate. 

Par. 2. — If no objection is filed with the commissioner 
before the expiration of ten days after the time of the first 
publication of notice, or within ten daj^s of the dehvery and 
first posting of the notice, if such deUvery or posting is 
required, the commissioner shall, if the arrangement, 
location, and construction of the proposed apparatus is 
proper, and in accordance with the provisions of this act, 
issue a permit for the same. If objection is filed, the 
application shall be referred to the board of appeal, which 
may, in its discretion, require the deposit by the objector 
of a reasonable sum as security for the payment of the 
costs. 

Par. 3. — After such notice as the board shaU order it 
shall hear the same, and shall direct the commissioner to 
issue a permit, under such conditions as it may prescribe, 
or to v/ithhold the same. If the permit is refused, the 
apphcant, and if it is granted, the objectors shall pay such 
costs as the board may order. 

Par. 4. — The commissioner may, from time to time, 
after pubUc notice and hearing, prescribe conditions on 
which any or all boilers or furnaces may be maintained in 
buildings, and, if any person interested objects to such 
conditions and appeals from his decision establishing the 
same, the appeal shall be referred to the board of appeal, 
and thereupon said board shall prescribe the conditions. 



City of Boston Building Law. 175 



SECTION 126. 
Combustible Materials. 

Storage Prohibited. 
Par. 1 . — Xo building adapted for habitation, nor 
any part thereof, nor the lot upon which it is located, shall 
be used as a place for the storage, keeping or handhng of 
any combustible article, except under such conditions as 
may be prescribed by the fire commissioner. No such 
building nor any part thereof, nor of the lot upon which it 
is located, shall be used as a place for the storage, keeping 
or handling of any article dangerous or detrimental to life 
or health, nor for the storage, keeping or handhng of 
feed, hay, straw, excelsior, cotton, paper stock, feathers 
or rags. 

[Superseded by 1914, c. 795, sects. 6, 7, Fire Prevention Act.] 

SECTION 127. 

Enforcement of Act. 

Safety of Building — Owner Responsible. 
Par. 1. — Every structure and part thereof and appur- 
tenant thereto shaU be maintained in such repair as not 
to be dangerous. The owner shaU be responsible for 
the maintenance of all buildings and structures. The 
lessee under a recorded lease shall be deemed the owner ■ 
under the provisions of this act. 

SECTION 128. 

Powers of the Board of Health. 

Limitation of Number of Occupants in Habitation. 
Par. 1. — The board of health may by vote hmit the 
number of occupants who shall be permitted to dwell in 
any building or in any part or parts thereof. They shall 
cause a copy of any such vote to be served upon the owner 
of the building, his agents, tenant or other persons having 



176 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 128, Par. 1.] 

the charge thereof. If the owner, agent, tenant, or other 
persons having charge of said building allow or permit 
more people than are permitted by said vote to occupy 
the building or any part or parts thereof, said board may 
order the premises to be vacated, and they shall not again 
be occupied without the permission of the board, and the 
owner, agent, tenant or other persons having charge of 
said building shall forfeit not more than twenty dollars 
for every day during which he violates such order. The 
board may make such further regulations as to over- 
crowding, ventilation, the construction of water-closets, 
the hghting of hallways, and the occupation of buildings 
or parts thereof, not inconsistent with other laws, as they 
may deem proper. Said board may permit rooms in 
private stables to be occupied for sleeping purposes by 
grooms and coachmen. 

Par. 2. — No person shall place ashes, rubbish, garbage, 
refuse or other matter in the yards, open areas or alleys 
connected with or appurtenant to any such building except 
in suitable receptacles provided for the same. 

Par. 3. — Every building used for habitation by more 
than two families and every lodging house shall be carefully 
inspected at least twice a year under the direction of the 
board of health, and whenever said board has made 
an order concerning such a building a reinspection shall be 
made v/ithin ten days after the board has been informed 
that the order has been complied with. 

[1913, c. 586, sect. 1.] 

SECTION 129. 

Enforcement — Jurisdiction in Equity. 

On Application of City Attorney. 

Par. 1. — Any court having jurisdiction in equity or 

any justice thereof, shall upon the appUcation of the city 

by its attorney, have jurisdiction in equity: — 



City of Boston Building Law. 177 

Sect. 129.] 

Injunction Restraining Use. 
Pah. 2. — To restrain the construction, alteration, repair, 
maintenance, use or occupation of a building, structure or 
other thing constructed or used in violation of the provi- 
sions of this act, and to order its removal or abatement as a 
nuisance; 

Restraining Construction, Use, Etc. 

Pae. 3. — To restrain the further construction, altera- 
tion, repair, maintenance, use or occupation of a building, 
structure or other thing, which is unsafe or dangerous; 

Par. 4. — To restrain the unlawful construction, altera- 
tion, repair, maintenance, use or occupation of any build- 
ing, structure or other thing; 

Par. 5. — To compel comphance with the provisions of 
this act; 

Par. 6. — To order the removal by the owner of a build- 
ing, structure or other thing unlawfully existing, and to 
authorize the commissioner, with the written approval of 
the mayor, in default of such removal by the owner, to 
remove it at the owner's expense. 

Board of Appeal Decisions, Court May Remeiv. 

Par. 7. — Any person, the value of whose property may 
be affected by any decision of the board of appeal, may 
have the action of said board reviewed by the court by any 
appropriate process, provided that proceedings are insti- 
tuted within tliirty days after the date of such decision. 

Par. 8. — The person applying for the review shall file a 
bond with sufficient surety, to be approved by the court, 
for such sum as shall be fixed by the court, to indemnify 
and save harmless the person or persons in whose favor the 
decision was rendered from all damages and costs which 
they may sustain in case the decision of said board is 
affirmed . 



178 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 129.] 

Pae. 9. — In case the decision of the board is affirmed 
i^G court, on motion, shall assess damages, and execution 
shall issue therefor. 

Right To Enter Any Building. 
Par. 10. — Any person having any duty to perform 
under the provisions of this act may, so far as may be 
necessary for the performance of his duties, enter any build- 
ing or premises in the city of Boston. 

SECTION 130. 
Jurisdiction at Law. 
Par. 1. — The municipal court of the city of Boston, 
concurrently^ with the superior court, shall have jurisdic- 
tion throughout the city of prosecutions and proceedings 
at law under the provisions of this act, and also of all 
provisions of law relative to plumbing and gas-fitting. 

SECTION 131. 

Procedure. 

Par. 1. — Under the entry of any case brought under 

the provisions of this act the court shall, at the request 

of either party, advance the case, so that it may be heard 

and determined -with as little delay as possible. 

SECTION 132. 

Nuisance. 

Any Building Erected or Maintained in Violation of this 

Act. 

Par. 1. — A building or structure which is erected or 
maintained in violation of the provisions of this act shall 
be deemed a common nuisance without other proof thereof 
than proof of its unlawful construction, and the commis- 
sioner may abate and remove it in the same manner in 



City of Boston Building Law. 179 

Sect. 132, Par. 1.] 

which boards of health may remove nuisances under the 
provisions of section sixty-seven, sixty-eight and sixty- 
nine of chapter seventy-five of the Revised Laws. 

Par. 2. — Whoever violates any provision of this act, or 
whoever builds, alters, or maintains any structure or any 
part thereof in violation of any provision of this act, 
shall be punished by a fine not exceeding five himdred 
dollars, except as hereinbefore provided. 

[1913, c. 586, sect. 2. See R. L., c. 104.] 

SECTION 133. 

Repeals. 

Par. 1. — So much of chapter four hundred and nine- 
teen of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety- 
two and of all acts in amendment thereof as is unrepealed 
is hereby repealed. So much of any other act as is incon- 
sistent herewith is hereby repealed. 

SECTION 134. 
Par. 1. — This act shall take effect upon the first day 
of August in the year nineteen hundred and seven. 

[Approved June 22, 1907. 



INDEX TO BUILDING LAW AND 
AMENDMENTS THEEETO. 



INDEX. 



References in this Index are to Pages, Sections and Paragraphs of 
the Law as amended and in force. 

Note. — When an asterisk (*) is placed before a figure, see, also, 
regulations of 1914 for escalators and elevators for the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts. 

When a dagger (t) is placed before a figure, see sect. 4, chap. 806, 
Acts of 1913. 

Where comma (,) is added it refers to distinct Pages, Sections, 
Paragraphs. 

Where dash and parentheses (-) are used they refer to inclusive 
Pages, Sections, Paragraphs. 

A. * 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
ACCESS TO ROOFS. 

permanent means of, required 16, 117 12, 45 6, 1 

ACCIDENTS, ELEVATOR. 

to be reported to Building Commissioner 109 *38 15 

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS. 

necessary for safety of occupants, 

commissioner may order 10 8 4 

necessary for strength or stability of any 

structure, commissioner may order. .. . 10 8 ■* 

ADJOINING PROPERTY. 

commissioner may enter to secure unsafe 

building 6 5 1 

to be supported 15 12 2 

AGGREGATES, CONCRETE. 

cinders or slag may be used for, when .. . 25 14 11 

course, to consist of 25 14 11 

fine, to consist of 25 14 11 

AIR DUCTS. 

of fireproof material 106 38 1 

"AIR PIPES"— PLUMBING. 

definition of 159 112 4 

requirements of 162,(163-164), 117, 118 3, (1-2) 

181 



182 Index. 

• Page. Section. Paragraph. 

AIR SPACES, 
in walls 87 26 1 

AISLES. ASSEMBLY ROOMS. 

must conform to law for theatres, when 

ordered by Bmlding Commissioner 154 107 1 

AISLES, PUBLIC BUILDING. 

must conform to requirements for 

theatres 154 107 1 

no obstructions or temporary seats in . . 153 105 6 

persons not to remain in 153 105 6 

AISLES, THEATRE. 

persons not to remain in 157 111 5 

regulations for 145 88 1 

ALCOVES IN TENEMENT HOUSES, 
light and ventilation; opening into 129 63 2 

ALTERATION. 

construction, inspection and maintenance 

of buildings, chap. 284, 1910 315 

ALTERATION OF EXISTING BUILD- 
INGS, 
general regulations for (98-100) 35 (1-11) 

ALTERATIONS. 

afifecting stability for fire risk 99 35 9 

building to be examined when application 

is made 5 3 1 

limit of cost of wooden building, in limits, 19 13 '1 

permit required for 4, 15 1, 12 6, 1 

prohibitions relating to 19 13 1 

what constitutes 99 35 9 

ALTERATIONS AND REPAIRS. 

permits required for 19 13 1 

ALTERED, 
what buildings may be, for second-class 

habitation 98 35 1 

ALTERED BUILDINGS. 

height not increased 98 35 3 

maximum nimiber of stories 98 35 3 

ANCHORS. 

for floors 17 12 13 

for walls 86 24 1 

provision for ,86 24 1 

"APARTMENT." 
in tenement houses defined 114 42 10 



Index. 



183 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
APPEAL, BOARD OF. {See Board op 
Appeal.) 
appointment; terms; vacancies; quah- ^ 

fications; decisions; reports, etc.. .(7-8), (8-9) 6, 7 (1-3), (1-3) 
APPEAL FROM BOARD OF APPEAL... 177 129 7 

APPEALS. 

mode of procedure 8 7 1 

time limit 8 7 1 

APPLL4NCE3 FOR POWER AND HEAT. 

hazardous buildings, regulations for. . . (173-174) 125 (1-4) 

APPLICATION FOR PERMIT. 

form of 4 1 7 

sworn to 5 1 9 

to bear name and address of ov.-ner 5 1 ,9 

ARC LIGHT. 

for emergency in existing theatres 156 111 3 

ARCHITECT. 

to submit calculation sheets 9 S 1 

AREA OF WOODEN BUILDINGS, 
not to be increased, in alteration, in some 

eases 19 13 1 

AREAS, RESTRICTION OF. 
First-Class Bttildings. 
mercantile or storage above first floor, 
vertical openings to be enclosed with 

fireproof enclosures 69 17 3 

to be divided by brick walls to limit area 

to 10,000 square feet 69 17 4 

10,000 square feet may be exceeded, 

when 69 17 4 

Sec nd-Class Buildings. 
mercantile or storage above first floor to 
be divided by brick walls to limit area 

to 10,000 square feet 69 17 5 

ART GALLERIES. 

may be placed above theatres 154 108 1 

ASHES. 

receptacle, tenement house 140 75 

space to be provided 98 35 5 

ASHES AND GARBAGE. 

tenement house, receptacles for 140 75 1 

ASHLAR. 

when reckoned in thickness of wall 85 23 10 



184 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 

ASPHALT SHINGLES 22 13 21 

ASSEMBLY, PLACES OF PUBLIC. 
capacity; must be fireproof; general re- 
quirements (152-153) 105 (1-7) 

ASSEMBLY ROOMS. 

capacity, dimensions, etc 152 105 3, 4 

to conform to lav/ requirements of thea- 
tres as to exits, stairways, exit lights, 
aisles and seats, when ordered by Build- 
ing Commissioner 154 107 1 

ASSISTANTS, BUILDING DEPART- 
MENT. 

appointed by commissioner 3 1 3 

AUDITORIUMS, THEATRE. 

heating apparatus under 151 104 2 

seating regulations for 145 87 1 

AUTOMATIC DOORS. 

in air shafts 69. 70 17 3, 6 

AWNINGS. 

projection allowed 21 13 19 

AXIAL COMPRESSION. 

concentric compression on columns with 

longitudinal reinforcement only 49 15 60 

concentric compression on columns 
when their length does not exceed ten 
diameters of the core 49 15 61 

B. 

BAKERIES AND FAT-BOILING. 

prohibited in tenement houses; excep- 
tions 122 

BAKERIES IN TENEMENT HOUSES. 

fireproofed 122 

BALCONIES. 

tenement house, requirements of (115-116) 

"BASEMENT." 

definition of 15 

BASEMENTS. 

tenement house, requirements for, 

(132-133), (133-135) 
tenement house, leads to outer air, in, to 
be constructed of fireproof material, as 
Building Commissioner shall direct .. . 119 45 



53 


1 


53 


1 


43 


(3-4) 


11 


13 


68(1-4),(A-H) 



Index. ^ 186 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BASEMENTS. 

tenement house, rooms in, when exempt 

from strict compliance of this act . 135 68 li H 

BASE PLATES. 

how to be figured 38 14 63 

BASES — CAST IRON. 

regulations for use of 28 14 33 

BASIS OF DESIGN. 

calculations to be for working stresses and 

safe loads 40 15 18 

See Assumptions A, B, C, D, E 40 15 (19-23) 

BAY WINDOWS. 

projection allowed 21 13 19 

who determines projection 21 13 19 

BAYS. 

to be treated as wall bays, when dis- 
continuous 56 15 92 

flat slab, supported by beam or wall, 

may be reinforced, when and how 56 15 93 

bending in exterior concrete columns sup- 
porting flat slab floors, formula 56 15 94 

for floors, half acts below and half acts 

above slab 56 15 95 

for roof, whole bending acts below slab ... 56 15 95 

BEACON STREET. 

height of buildings on, chap. 543, 1902, ... 294 
BEAMS. 

bending moment, positive when subject 

to other than uniform loads 44 15 34 

continuous or restrained, span length .... 40 15 24 

method for computation for span of 37 14 59 

parallel to main reinforcement, shall be 

designed for bending moments, how ... 44 15 35 

simply supported, span length 40 15 24 

steel, tied lengthwise 88 27 1 

supporting rectangular slabs, when rein- 
forced in both directions, — • proportion 
of load how determined 45 15 39 

to be considered restrained at ends, when, 44 15 33 

wood, in walls of second-class buildings, 97 34 1 

BEAMS — EXTREME FIBER STRESS. 

shall be reduced, when and how 33 14 45 



186 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BEAMS — RECTANGULAR. 

(a) formulas 60 15 (111-115) 

(6) T — formulas (61-63) 15 (116-127) 

(c) reinforced for compression — formu- 
las (63-64) 15 (128-135) 

BEAMS AND CHANNELS. 

acting as skewbacks for arches 

used in pairs 66 16 5 

BEAMS AND GIRDERS. 

steel, relating to 66 16 (3-5), 7 

to be anchored 66 16 3 

to have bearing plates 66 16 3 

BEARING. 

when compression is applied to a portion 

of concrete surface, etc 49 15 59 

BEARING PLATES. 

how to be figured 38 14 63 

BEARING V/ALL, BRICK. 

height of, allowable 32 14 41 

concrete, plain, height of, allowable 32 14 41 

BENDING. 

compression on extreme fibre 50 15 62 

slab floors, how determined 46 15 45 

A — ■ strips, mean 53 15 78 

B — • strips, mean 53 15 78 

strips — - span, length of 53 15 78 

strips — A and B — bending moment, 

table 54 15 79 

BENDING IN SUPPORTING MEMBERS, 
beams or floor slabs when fixed or re- 
strained at a support, the restraining 
structure (column, wall, etc,) must be 

proportioned to resist stresses 46 15 45 

BENDING MOMENT — FOOTINGS. 

bond stress, in steel, not to exceed 52 15 73 

effective area of concrete and steel to 

resist 52 15 73 

in rectangular isolated columns 52 15 73 

supporting a round column or pier 52 15 73 

BENDING MOMENT — SLABS. 

supported on four sides, distribution of 

load 49 15 57 



41 


15 


25 


i2) 


15 


(26-32) 


57 


15 


99 


57 


15 


99 


57 


15 


99 


57 


15 


99 


57 


15 


99 


57 


15 


99 



Index. 187 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BENDING MOMENTS, 
uniformly distributed load, in beam and 
slab, reinforced in one direction only. . 

See Assumptions A, B, C. D, E, F, G (41-42) 

BENT BARS. 

negative reinforcement in A strips 

negative reinforcement in B strips 

positive reinforcement in A strips 

reinforcing for positive bending, not to be 

bent up 

relative to reinforcement in A strips 

relative to reinforcement in B strips 

stress in concrete due to bending in each 

strip, how determined 57 15 100 

exception — negative bending in A 

strips when dropped panel is used ... 57 15 100 

BLOCKS — BUILDING. 

absorption allowable per cent of 25 14 10 

concrete, how made, compression 

strength 24 14 7 

meaning of 24 14 6 

terra cotta, crushing strength 25 14 8 

terra cotta, working stress of 25 14 9 

BLOW-OFF PIPES. 

how connected 171 122 4 

BOARD OF APPEAL. 

annual report 

appointed by Mayor, on nominations. . . . 
appeals from, to be heard in equity courts, 

composition, etc 

decision of, to be in v/riting 

to specify variations allowed 

applicants to have copy of 

summary of, in annual report 

hearings on appealed cases 

may vary provisions of building law .... 
members of, how appointed , 

terms of 

compensation of 

not to act when interested 

to be Boston men 

report, annual, to mayor 

to contain summary of decisions 

to be printed separately 



10 


8 


3 


7 


6 


1 


177 


129 


7 


7 


6 


1 


8 


6 


3 


8 


7 


1,2 


8 


7 


2 


10 


8 


3 


8 


7 




8 


7 




7 


6 




7 


6 




7 


6 




7 


6 




8 


6 


2 


10 


8 


3 


10 


8 


3 


10 


8 


3 



125 


2,3 


17 


4 


6 


1 


7 


1 



128 


1 


10 


2 


128 


1,3 



188 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BOARD OF APPEAL, 
to hear appeals on setting engines and 

dynamos 174 

to approve egress for large areas 69 

vacancies in, how filled 7 

who may appeal to 8 

BOARD OF EXAMINERS OF GAS 
FITTERS. 

not affected by this act 13 10 

BOARD OF HEALTH. 

may limit number of occupants in any 

building 175 

not affected by this act 13 

powers of, defined. 175, 176 

BOARD OF PARK COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this act 13 10 

BOARD OF STREET COMMIS- 
SIONERS. 

not affected by this act 13 10 

BOARDS, CITY, CERTAIN. 

authority of, not curtailed by this act .... 13 10 

BOILER. 

ceiling over, to be wire lathed and plas- 
tered 94 

permit required for placing 173 

smoke pipe to be 12 inches below ceiling . . 94 

BOILER — RANGE, 
marking, sale and installation of, chap. 

154, 1916, General Acts 347 

BOILERS AND FURNACES. 

hazardous buildings, hearing on 174 

not to be placed on wooden floors 20 

or under public ways 21 

or under certain parts of theatres. . . . 151, 156 
BOND. 
stress between concrete and steel bars ... . 51 15 67 

stress between concrete and approved 

deformed steel bars 51 15 67 

stress between concrete and drawn wire . . 51 15 67 

BONDING. 

of walls at corners 86 24 1 

BONDING BRICKWORK, 
provisions for 87 25 1 



32 


25 


125 


1 


32 


25 



125 


3 


13 


12 


13 


18 


, 111 


2,2 



Index. 189 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BOOTHS, VOTING. 

not affected by this act 12 10 1 

BORING OF SOIL. 

may be required 74 20 j 19 

BORINGS. 

required, when, how, number, location, 74 20 19 

BOULEVARDS. 

building lines on, sect. 16, chap. 28, R. L., 355 
BOWDOIN STREET. 

height of buildings on, chap. 543, 1902, 294 
BRACING, WIND. 

provisions for 37 14 56 

BRACKETS. 

onexterior columns, to be provided, when, 56 15 96 

on reinforced concrete buildings to 

transmit load from floor to columns.. 47 15 49 

such columns to be computed 47 15 50 

under steel beams, fireproof ed (90-91) 32 (1-3) 

when used, span length 40 15 24 

BRICK. 

quality and constituents of 23 14 2 

absorption test, requirements of 24 14 4 

hard, ultimate compressive strength 23 14 3 

wet, compressive strength of 23 14 3 

BRICK BEARING WALLS. 

height of unsupported, not to exceed 

twelve times its least dimension 32 14 41 

BRICK PIERS. 

height of, not to exceed twelve times its 

least dimension 32 14 41 

BRICK WALLS. 

flat slab supported by thickness of wall . . 58 15 104 

BRICKWORK. 

stresses of . . 30 14 39 

BRICKWORK, BONDING. 

brick facing in skeleton frame building 
when not more than 4 inches in 
thickness 87 25 2 

brick walls, to be bonded every eighth 

course 87 25 1 

or a full heading every eighth course.. . . 87 25 1 

may be bonded by metal ties 87 25 2 

provision for 87 25 1 



190 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BRICKWORK, BONDING. 

such ties to be of galvanized wire 87 25 2 

when faced with brick face, in every 
eighth course, every other brick shall be 

afuUheader 87 25 1 

BRIDGES, QUAYS, ETC. 

not affected by this act 12 10 1 

BUILDERS. 

licensed, to control building operations, 

chap. 9, Ord. 1912 . . 360 

BUILDING BLOCKS. 

absorption, allowable per cent of 25 14 10 

relative to and meaning of (24-25) 14 (6-9) 

BUILDING COMMISSIONER. 

appointment of 3 1 1 

authority and powers of (.3-5), (5-6), 6 1, 4, 5 (1-9), (1-2), 1 

may appoint deputy; powers of 3 1 4 

may enter any building or premises 178 129 10 

may require duplicate plans to be kept at 

building 4 1 5 

may require plans and specifications .... 4 1 5 

may stop work for violation of permits. . . 4 1 8 

maj^ order unsafe buildings vacated 6 4 2 

may take measures for public safety. ... 6, 15 5, 12 1, 3 
not to dispense -with tenement house re- 
strictions 141 76 1 

qualifications required of 3 1 1 

salary of, fixed by City Council 3 1 1 

term of office 3 1 1 

to approve plumbing of chemical labora- 
tories 163 117 5 

to approve elevators 107 38 8 

to approve stable drainage 163 117 6 

to examine all buildings in course of con- 
struction 5 2 1 

to examine buildings dangerous, damaged 

or unsafe 5, 5 3, 4 1, 1 

to keep records of violations 5 2 1 

to have charge of Building Department . . 3 1 1 

to post notice of unsafe elevators 107 38 9 

to submit annual report to Mayor 4 1 5 



Index. 191 

Page. Section. Paragraph, 
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION. (See 
sepai'ate subjects.) 

height, excavation, cellars, walls, etc., / 

regulations for (70-71), 71 18,19 (1-2), 1 

BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

commissioner to be in charge of 3 1 1 

how appointed 3 1 1 

term of oflBce 3 1 1 

qualifications required 3 1 1 

salary of, fixed by City Council 3 1 1 

may appoint inspectors, employee^ and 

assistants 3 1 3 

clerk to keep records, open to public. .. . 4 1 5 
employees to retain positions until re- 
moval or discharge 3 1 2 

inspectors, qualifications required of . . . . 3 1 3 

commissioner, salary, term, etc 3 1 1 

may enter buildings and premises 178 129 10 

not to engage in other business 3 1 4 

not to furnish material 3 1 4 

not to be financially interested 3 1 4 

present, to hold office until removal or 

discharge 3 1 2 

records to be open to public inspection ... 4 1 5 

under charge of commissioner 3 1 1 

BUILDING EGRESS. 

to be satisfactory before occupancy 16 12 7 

BUILDING FOUNDATION. 

when resting only in part on solid ledge, 74 20 18 
BUILDING INSPECTION. 

commissioner, or inspector, to examine 

all buildings in course of construction, 5 2 1 
BUILDING LAW, 1907. 

approved June 22 179 134 1 

in effect August 1 179 134 1 

exceptions and exemptions from pro- 
visions of 12,13 10 1,2 

equity courts given power to enforce. . (176-177) 129 (1-6) 

law courts given jurisdiction in law cases, 178 130 1 
not to deprive certain city boards and 

ofiicers of power 13 10 2 

not to deprive other departments, etc., 

of authoritj- already held . 13 10 2 



192 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BUILDING LAW, 1907. 

officials may enter building and premises, 178 129 10 

violators of, may be fined $500 179 132 2 

BUILDING LAWS. 

amendments thereto, chap. 782, 1914. . . .330 
BUILDING LIMITS. 

City Council may change, extend and de- 
fine 11 9 1 

dwelling in, may be of third class, when, 11-9 1 

dwelling in, may be composite, when 11 9-1 

dwelling in, third class, not to exceed two 

families H ^ 1 

further restrictions relative to 11 9 1 

outUne of chap. 4, Ord. 1913 

present, to continue until changed. ...... 11 9 1 

BUILDING LINE. 

chap. 33, R. L 356 

in public ways, sect. 103, chap. 48, R. L., 356 

chap. 462, 1893 287 

BUILDING LINES. 

on parkways, boulevards, etc., chap. 28, 

sect. 16, R.L 355 

BUILDING LINES ESTABLISHED. . . . 
BUILDING MATERIALS. (See sepa- 
rate subjects.) 
combustible, not to be kept in habitable 

buildings 175 126 1 

commissioner has power to reject 23 14 1 

quality of mortar, cement and concrete, . . 23 14 1 

BUILDING, OCCUPATION OF. 

not unless m.eans of egress are provided,. 16 12 7 

BUILDING OPERATIONS. 

control of, chap. 9, Ord. 1912 360 

BUILDING PERMITS. (See, also, Per- 
mits.) 

application for 5 1 9 

how and by whom granted 4 1 7 

if terms of, are violated commissioner 

may stop work • 4 1 8 

must be on approved printed forms 4 1 7 

requirements for ^ 1 " 

BUILDING PROHIBITIONS, 
list of general (19-23) . 13 (1-22) 



Index. 193 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
"BUILDING, STORY OF." 

definition of 13 11 12 

BUILDINGS. (See Hazardous Btjild- 

INGS.) 

classes of, defined (13-14) 11 (1-4) 

heiglit of. defined 14 11 8 

height of, special commission appointed 
to determine and revise boundaries of 
districts A and B, Special Act 1915, 
chap. 333 340 

inspection during construction 5 2 1 

outside finish of 17 12 11 

not covered by law 12 10 1 

not affected by fire limits 11 9 1 

for manufacturing purposes outside lim- 
its, maximum height 70 17 8 

on same lot with tenement house 129 62 1 

in public parks, chap. 129, 1889 286 

height of, in Boston, chap. 333, 1904, and 

chap. 383, 1905 300, 307 

height of, on Copley square, chap. 452, 

1898 291 

height of, on Rutherford avenue, chap. 

416, 1907 313 

construction, alteration, inspection and 

maintenance of, chap. 284, 1910 315 

burned, dilapidated, dangerous, nui- 
sances, chap. 101, R. L 357 

occupation or use of, not to be changed 

without permit from commissioner. . . . 102 36 3 

prohibitions relating to alterations of 

wooden buildings 19 13 2 

use or occupation of 102 36 5 

wooden, within building limits, may be 

altered or enlarged when and how 12 9 2 

wooden, within building limits, com- 
missioner may grant permit to in- 
crease height or ground area when 
at intersection of two streets 19 13 1 

moving, wooden buildings 19 13 2 

repairs, wooden buildings 19 13 1 

requirements for all (15-18) 12 (1-15) 

commissioner may enforce 15 12 3 



194 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BUILDINGS. 

restriction of area 69 17 4, 5 

record of violations to be kept 5 2 1 

erected since August 1, 1907, shall be 
considered as erected in conformity to 
law, when and how, Special Act 1915, 

chap. 254 338 

appliance for heat and power in (173-174) 125 (1-4) 

hearings on 173 125 1 

must have permits 173 125 1 

BUILDINGS, ALTERATION OF EX- 
ISTING, 
general regulations for (98-100) 35 (1-11) 

BUILDINGS, CERTAIN, OUTSIDE 
LIMITS, 
commissioner to prescribe conditions for, 70 17 8 

BUILDINGS, CLASSIFICATION OF. 

first and second classes 67 17 1 

BUILDINGS, COMPOSITE. 

definition of 14 11 4 

BUILDINGS, DANGEROUS OR DAM- 
AGED. 

commissioner to examine and make 

record 5, 5 3, 4 1,1 

BUILDINGS, EXPOSURES. 

regulations for, when remodelled, etc., (98-99), 100 35 (-5-8), 11 
BUILDINGS, FEDERAL. 

not affected by this act 12 10 1 

BUILDINGS, FIRST-CLASS. 

definition of 13 11 1 

BUILDINGS, OCCUPANTS OF. 

board of health may limit number of 175 128 1 

BUILDINGS, PUBLIC. (See Public 
Buildings.) 

must conform to regulations for theatres, 154 107 1 

BUILDINGS, REINFORCED CON- 
CRETE. 

may be of supported structural steel or 

of cast-iron columns 47 15 49 

said supports to be fireproofed 47 15 49 

BUILDINGS, SECOND-CLASS. 

definition of 14 11 2 



40 


1,2 


13 


2 


40 


1,2 


127 


1 


127 


1 



Index. 195 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BUILDINGS, STATE. 

not affected by this act 12 10 1 

BUILDINGS, THIRD-CLASS. 

definition of U 11 3 

BUILDINGS UNLAWFULLY CON- 
STRUCTED. 

deemed nmsances 178 132 1 

abatement and removal of 178 132 1 

BUILDINGS, WOODEN. 

general regulations for construction 

of .' (110-111), (111-112) 39,40(1-4), (1-3) 

height of Ill, 112 

not to be moved within building limits ... 19 

proximity to other buildings Ill, 112 

BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES. 

owner responsible for maintenance of . . . 175 

responsibility of lessees 175 

BULKHEADS AND SCUTTLES. 

tenement house, requirements for 116 44 1,2 

BURNED BUILDINGS. 

chap. 101, R. L 357 

C. 

CAISSON. 

may be used to carry foundation down 

to ledge 76 20 27 

CALCULATION OF STRAINS. 

to be submitted 9 8 1 

CALCULATION SHEETS. 

must be signed by architect, engineer, 

contractor or responsible person 9 8 1 

CAPITALS. 

enlarged columns may bte provided with, 52 

horizontal width of 52 

width in any direction 52 

CAST IRON. 

strength 28 

to conform to standard specifications 28 

CAST IRON BARS. 

regulations for use of 28 14 33 

CAST IRON COLUMNS. 

use of, when permitted 28 14 31 

to be faced at ends, etc 28 14 31 



15 


75 


15 


75 


15 


75 


14 


30 


14 


30 



196 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 

CAST IRON COLUMNS. 

when hollow, regtilations for use of 28 14 32 

in garages, etc., prohibited 35 14 49 

vise of, prohibited when 28, 35 14 31, 49 

to be faced at ends, etc .-. . . . 28 14 31 

when hollow, regulations for use of 28 14 32 

CAST IRON COMPRESSION. 

members, value of 34 14 48 

centrally loaded, safe load 34 14 48 

CAST IRON LINTELS. 

regulations for use of 28 14 33 

to be not less than J inch in thickness . . 29 14 34 

not to be used for spans over six feet 29 14 34 

CEILING, 
flush, fireproofing same as for slabs .... 48 15 55 
suspended, fireproofing same as for slabs, 48 15 55 
metal lath and plaster, suspended, fire- 
proofing same as for slabs 48 15 55 

CEILINGS. 

in tenement house cellars, metal lathed 

and plastered 120 49 1 

ceilings, tenement house, construction of, 120 49 1 
over furnaces, boilers, etc., to be pro- 
tected 94 32 25 

CEILINGS, CELLAR. 

tenement house, construction of 120 49 1 

"CELLAR." 

definition of 15 11 14 

CELLARS. 

rat proofing 82 22 1 

to be protected from water and dampness, 82 22 1 

how protected 82 22 1 

cellar floors not to be constructed below 

Gradel2 82 22 1 

exceptions, when made waterproof 82 22 1 

metal foundations to be protected from 

dampness 82 22 1 

structural metal work underground, 

to be protected from dampness 82 22 1 

protection from dampness, method of . . . . 82 22 1 

lowest, without waterproofing 82 22 1 

CEMENT, LIME MORTAR, 
required mixture, etc 26 14 19 



14 


45 


16 


4 


22 


1 



Index. W7 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
CHANNELS, 
extreme fiber stress, may be reduced, 

when and how 33 

acting as skewbacks for arches 66 

reqmrements for 82 

CHASE. 

reqiiired thickness outside 19 13 

CHEMICAL LAFORATORIES. 

plumbing of, to be approved by com- 
missioner 163 117 

CHEMICAL WORKS. 

require permit 173 125 

CHIMNEY FLUES. 

height of 16 

lining required 17 

CHIMNEYS. 

floor timber not to be within 2 inches of, 20 

restrictions relating to 20, 20, 20 

thickness of walls 16 

how much to be corbelled 20 

hung from 12-inch wall 20 

CHURCHES. 

use of cinematograph in, regulation for, 

chap. 437, 1905 313 

moving picture exhibition in. Mayor to 

grant permit for, chap. 280, 1913 318 

CINDER CONCRETE. 

composed of 26 14 15 

CINDERS, 
may be used for concrete aggregate, 

when 25 14 11 

composition of 26 14 15 

CINEMATOGRAPH, 
regulation for use of: 

chap. 437, 1905 313 

chap. 791, 1914 331 

chap. 169, Gen. Acts, 1915 ^. . . . 336 

CIRCULAR HOLLOW STEEL COLUMNS. 

filled with concrete, load allowance 47 15 53 

CIRCULAR WROUGHT-IRON 
COLUMNS, 
filled with concrete, load allowance 47 15 53 



12 


5 


12 


. 9 


13 


10 


13 


7, 8, 10 


12 


8 


13 


- 7 


13 


8 



198 



Index. 



Page. 

CITY COUNCIL. 

to fix salary of Building Commissioner 3 

CITY OFFICERS, CERTAIN. 

authority of, not curtailed by this act .... 13 

CLASSES OF BUILDINGS. 

definition of 15 

CLASSIFICATION. 

of buildings (67-70) 

CLAY, 
soft, maximum allowable bearing value 

in foundations 73 

mediimi stiff, maximvma allowable bear- 
ing value in foundations 73 

hard, definition of 74 

soft definition of -. 74 

medium, definition of 74 

CLEAN-OUTS, FERRULES, ETC. 

required diameter and weight of (165-166) 

CLERK, BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

duties of, defined 4 

CLOSETS. 

under staircases, restrictions 21 

COLUMNS. 

cast iron, restrictions 28 

cast iron, parts bolted 88 

cast iron, strength 28 

exterior, isolated, fireproofing , 90 

reinforced concrete, rules for 46, 47 

to be fireproof ed and how (90-91) 

reduction of floor loads (103-104) 

wheel guards on 93 

steel, parts riveted 88 

steel, strength, formulas (33-34) 

wood, strength (36-37) 

to be of masonry or metal, when 18 

loaded eccentrically 35 

main reinforcement to be protected 39,40 

maximum effective area of 46 

longitudinal reinforcement of 46 

exterior, reinforcement how proportioned, 47 
strength of, how computed, when case of, 

shifted 35 

hollow, steel circular, filled with concrete, 

load allowance 47 



Section. Paragraph. 
1 1 

10 2 

11 15 
17 (1-8) 

20 4 



20 


4 


20 


13 


20 


16 


20 


15 


121 


(2-5) 


1 


5 


13 


17 


14 


31,32 


27 


4 


14 


30 


32 


7 


15 


47,48 


32 


(1-6) 


36 


(7-13) 


32 


18 


27 


1 


14 


(44-47) 


14 


(52-54) 


12 


15 


14 


49 


15 


14,15 


15 


47 


15 


47 


15 


48 


14 


50 


15 


53 



Index. 199 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
COI.UMNS. 

wrought iron, circular filled with concrete, 

load allowance 47 15 53 

with longitudinal reinforcement onlj', 

steel area of 47 15 53 

longitudinal reinforcement bars, secured 

against displacement, how 47 15 53 

with longitudinal reinforcement, when 

allowed stresses given in this act 48 15 54 

hoop or spirals to be united so as to pro- 
duce full strength 48 15 54 

footings symmetrical, concentric, to be 

designed, how. 51 15 70 

exterior bracket to be provided, when. ... 56 15 96 

carrying masonry, thickness of fire pro- 
tection 91 32 6 

carrying floors, thickness of fire pro- 
tection 91 

carr5dng roof, thickness of fire protection, 91 

COLUMNS, CAST IRON. 

use of, v/hen not permitted 28 

to be faced at ends, etc 28 

when hollow, regulations for use of 28 

use of, prohibited in garages 35 

COLUMNS, CONCRETE. 

to be reinforced, when 46 

unsupported height of 46 

COLUMNS, STEEL. 

ends to be machine faced 66 

or full riveted connections provided. ... 66 

COLUMNS AND WALLS. 

how poiu-ed, v/hen to be poured 39 15 (8-10) 

COMBINATION FLOORS. 

concrete floors, with permanent blocks, 

to conform to this act 48 15 55 

not to be figured as taking stress 48 15 55 

slab, cast monolithic, considered T sec- 
tion, when 48 15 55 

flush ceiling, fireproofing, same as for 

slabs 48 15 55 

suspended metal lath and plaster ceiling, 

fireproofing, same as for slabs 48 15 55 



32 


6 


32 


6 


14 


31 


14 


31 


14 


32 


14 


49 


15 


47 


15 


47 


16 


6 


16 


6 



200 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 175 126 

storage of 175 126 

COMBUSTIBLE ROOFING. 

not permitted 22 13 

COMMISSIONER. 

experience required, appointment, etc 3 1 

salary, how fixed 3 1 

appoints inspectors, employees, etc 3 1 

power to reject materials 23 14 

in charge of department 3 1 

may abate as a nuisance a building in 

violation of law 178 132 

may placard buildings: 

(o) not provided with sufficient egress, 5 4 

(6) where violations of building law 

exist 5 4 

(c) unsafe or dangerous buildings 5 4 

may allow " eqxxivalent" methods 9 8 2 

may appoint elevator inspectors, one for 

each 1,000 elevators 110 38 19 

may sec\ire unsafe buildings 6 5 

may support at dangerous excavations . . 71 19 

may order unsafe building vacated 6 4 2 

may require additional safeguards on 

elevators 110 38 18 

may require alterations to conform to 

rules for new buildings 99 

may require borings for foundations 74 

may require fire damage repairs to con- 
form to rules for new buildings 99 

may require inspector of piling 78 

may require more exits in theatres 148 

may require oath to application 6 

may require plans and specifications 4 

may require tests 10 

may require tests of cast-iron columns .... 23 

may require tests of materials 23 

may require inspector on concrete work.. . 27 

to determine necessary egress 16 

to determine necessity for temporary 

floors 113 

to determine quality of materials 23 



35 


9 


20 


19 


35 


9 


21 


9 


99 


1 


1 


9 


1 


5 


8 


5 


14 


. 1 


14 


1 


14 


27 


12 


7 


41 


1 


14 


1 



8 


2 


36 


3 


99 


4 


1 


6 


8 


3 


4 


1 


13 


1 


125 


1 


125 


1 


114 


1 


7 


2 


2 


1 


4 


1 


76 


1 



Index. 201 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
COMMISSIONER, 
to determine requirements not covered 

by this act 9 

to fix floor loads not specified 102 

to fix number gas outlets in theatres. . . . 149 

to grant permits 4 

to print Board of Appeal report 10 

to inspect unsafe and dangerous buildings, 5 

to issue permits for alteration and repair 

of wooden buildings 19 

to issue permits for hazardous buildings, 173 
to issue permits for engines, boilers, etc., 173 

to issue permits for plumbing 160 

to issue permits in accordance with 

decisions of Board of Appeal 8 

to make record of violation 5 

to notify owners or agents of unsafe and 

dangerous buildings 5 

not to waive tenement requirements 141 

or inspector to examine all buildings being 

constructed or altered, dangerous or 

damaged, or when permit has been 

requested 5 

powers in case of violation 4 

to pass on exits in altered habitations .... 98 

to pass on exposure in altered habitations, 98 
to pass on securing oi seats in halls, 

etc 153 

to post notice of dangerous elevators. . . . 107 
to prepare sketch of typical plumbing. . . . 164 
4 to prescribe conditions for maintaining 

boilers and furnaces 173 125 1 

to prescribe conditions for certain build- 
ings outside fire limits 70 17 8 

to prescribe conditions for temporary 

structures 11 9 1 

to prescribe conditions for curtain walls 

in steel frame buildings 88 27 2, 3 

to prescribe fireproofing of steel in altet- 

ations 93 32 17 

to prescribe maximum floor loads, existing 

buildings 102 36 4 

to submit annual report 4 1 5 



2,3 


1,1 


1 


8 


35 


4 


35 


5 


105 


6 


*38 


9 


118 


3 



12 


3 


12 


1 


12 


7 


*38 


8 


17 


4 


117 


5 


117 


6 


31 


1 


52 


1 


21 


17 


20 


19 



202 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
COMMISSIONER. 

to take measures for public safety 15 

to approve drawings for all work 15 

to approve drawings for egress 16 

to approve elevators before used 107 

to approve egress for extra large areas .... 69 

to approve plumbing, chemical labora- 
tories 163 

to approve plumbing, stables 163 

to approve small openings in walls, etc ... 90 

to approve supports for vent shaft sky- 
light 121 

to fix grade for cutting piles 79 

to decide if piling is necessary. 74 

to determine cause and remedy for 

elevator accidents 109 * 38 15 

to record examinations to raise, enlarge, 

alter or repair '. 5 3 1 

COMMISSIONER, BUILDING. (See 
Building Commissioner.) 

appointment, qualifications, term, salary, 

etc 3 1 1 

COMMISSIONER, FIRE. 

not affected by this act 13 10 2 

COMMISSIONER OF WIRES. 

not affected by this act 13 

provisions of sect. 7 apply to 9 

governed by decisions of Board of Appeal, 9 

COMPOSITE BUILDINGS. 

fire protection and exterior finish of 14 

definition of 14 

COMPRESSION. • 

on extreme fiber, bending 50 15 62 

COMPRESSION, AXIAL. 

concentric compression on columns, 

with longitudinal reinforcement only .. . 49 15 60 

when their length does not exceed ten 

diameters of curve 49 15 61 

COMPRESSION FLANGE. 

riveted plate girders 33 14 45 

COMPRESSION, MEMBERS. 

cast iron, centrally loaded, safe load 35 

timber, regulation for 36 

timber, centrally loaded safe load 37 



10 


2 


7 


3 


7 


3 


11 


4 


11 


4 



14 


51 


14 


53 


14 


54 



Index. 



203 



Page. 
COMPRESSION STRENGTH. 

workina stresses, basis for design 48 

COMPUTATIONS. 

for span of beams, girders, trusses 37 

of materials, method of (37-38) 

steel construction, method of 65 

CONCRETE. 

reinforced concrete piling (80-82) 

capping for wood piles 76, 77 

composition and strength 26 

inspector to make daily reports 27 

reinforced, composition 23 

specifications to be submitted 9 

meaning of 26 

reinforced, meaning of 38 

use of, immediately after mixing 27 

forms, to remain until safe to remove. ... 27 
inspection of, by inspectors approved by 

commissioner 27 

work to stop at point of low shear 39 

rules for pouring 39 

stresses of 31 

working stresses, one year old, com- 
pressive strength of 48 

CONCRETE AGGREGATE. 

composition of 25 

cinders or slag may be us^d for, when 25 

CONCRETE BEARING PIERS PLAIN, 
unsupported laterally not to exceed in 

height, six times its least dimension ... 32 

CONCRETE BEARING WALL, PLAIN, 
unless properly braced not to exceed in 

height six times its least dimension 32 

CONCRETE BLOCKS. 

how made, compressive strength 24 

CONCRETE BUILDINGS. 

reinforced, may bo of supported struc- 

tm*al steel or of cast-iron columns 47 

said support to be fireproof ed 47 

CONCRETE CINDER SLABS. 

thickness of, span of 45 

CONCRETE COLUMNS. 

to be reinforced, when 47 



Section. Paragraph. 



15 



56 



14 


59 


14 


(58-63) 


16 


1 


21 


(19-27) 


21 


2,3 


14 


21 


14 


27 


14 


1 


8 


1 


14 


21 


15 


1 


14 


26 


14 


26 


14 


27 


15 


11 


15 


(8-10) 


14 


40 



15 

14 
14 



14 



56 

11 
11 



41 



14 


41 


14 


7 


15 


49 


15 


49 


15 


43 


15 


47 



204 



Index. 



CONCRETE COLUMNS. 

maximum effective area of 46 

longitudinal reinforcement of 46 

unsupported height of 46 

CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION. 

live and dead load 10 

CONCRETE FLOORS. 

with hollow blocks, to conform to this act, 48 

not to be figured in taking stress 48 

CONCRETE FOOTINGS. 

not to be less than 12 inches in thickness, 75 

may be stepped or battered, how 75 

CONCRETE PIERS. 

to be reinforced, when 46 

CONCRETE PILES. 

pre-cast, shall be properly designed and 

reinforced 80 

longitudinal reinforcing, amount em- 
ployed 80 

to be thoroughly cured before driving. ... 80 

diameter or lateral dimension of 80 

length of 80 

allowable load on, when driven to ledge 

or hard pan 80 

pre-cast, to be protected against damage 

in driving 81 

metal shoe to be provided, when driven 

to ledge 81 

cast in place, how made, placed and 

spaced 81 

average diameter of such pile 81 

length of such pile 81 

allowable load on such pile, when driven, 

to ledge or ha,rd pan 81 

general provisions, metal tubes, shall not 

be considered as reinforcement 81 

when considered as reinforcement 81 

safe load, when not driven to ledge, shall 

be determined by commissioner 81 

tests, at expense of owner, may be re- 
quired by commissioner 81 

load test to be made in accordance with 

regulations of commissioner 82 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 



15 


47 


15 


47 


15 _ 


47 



15 


55 


15 


55 


20 


24 


20 


24 



15 



21 



21 



47 



19,20 



21 


19,20 


21 


19,20 


21 


19, 20 


21 


19,20 


21 


19,20 


21 


21 


21 


21 


21 


22 


21 


22 


21 


22 



22 



21 


23 


21 


23 


21 


24 


21 


24 


21 


25 



Index. 205 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
CONCRETE PILES. 

load in excess of one half test load not 
allowed 81 21 24 

tests to be made under supervision of 

commissioner 82 21 25 

test results to be filed with commissioner, 82 21 25 

load on concrete pile not to exceed thirty- 
tons.. 81 21 24 

load, increments of, not to exceed 10,000 

pounds each 82 21 25 

successive increments, time between 82 21 25 

test loads, to be applied at capping grade, 82 21 25 

concrete piles, capping of, with masonry 

only allowable 82 21 27 

CONCRETE, REINFORCED. 

formulas 58, 63 15 105, 143 

CONSTRUCTION. 

alteration, inspection and maintenance of 

buildings, chap. 284, 1910 315 

general. 70, 71 18 1,2 

permit for 4 1 6 

to be supported 15 12 2 

CONSTRUCTION, BUILDING. (See 
separate subjects.) 
certain first and second class buildings . . 67, 68 17 1,2 
equivalents may be allowed by commis- 
sioner 9 8 2 

CONSTRUCTION. FIREPROOF PAR- 
TITIONS, 
to be independently supported at each 

floor 97 33 10 

to be securely fastened to ceilings 97 33 10 

to be stiffened with steel uprights, etc. ... 97 33 10 

not to rest on wood flooring 97 33 10 

need not extend above ceiling of top 

story, when 97 33 10 

CONTINUOUS BEAMS. 

subject to other than uniform loads, 

positive bending moment of 44 15 34 

CONTRACTOR. 

to submit calculation sheet 9 8 1 

to sign calculation sheets 9 8 1 



206 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 

CONTROL. 

building operations, by licensed buUders, 

chap. 9, Ord. 1912 360 

of exits, etc., lights in theatres (148-149) 99, 111 (1-6), (1-5) 

of ventilators in theatres 144, 157 86, 111 (1-2), 7 

COPLEY SQUARE. 

height of buildings on, chap. 452, 1898 ... 291 

CORBELLING. 

of walls for joists (8-inch walls) 97 34 1 

CORBELS, CHIMNEY. 

restrictions relating to 20 13 7 

"CORNER LOT." 

definition of 113 42 4 

CORNICE. 

of second-class buildings, material and 

construction 89 29 1 

CORNICE STONE. 

to balance 89 29 1 

projection allowed 21 13 19 

CORRECTION, HOUSE OF. 

not affected by this act 1\2 10 1 

COTTON, PAPER STOCK, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 175 126 1 

COURT, MUNICIPAL. 

given jurisdiction in law proceedings 178 130 1 

COURTHOUSE, SUFFOLK COUNTY. 

not affected by this act 12 10 1 

COURTS, AREA. 

theatres must have open 141, 142 79, 80 1, 1 

COURTS, EQUITY. 

given jurisdiction to enforce provisions 

of this act (176-177), 178 (129-131) (1-6), 1 

"COURTS," TENEMENT HOUSE. 

drained 140 74 1 

definition of 114 42 6 

general regulations for 126 57 1 

inner, provision for. . . 127 59 1 

not to have roof or skylight 126 67 1 

outer, provisions for (126-127) 58 (1-3) 

vent, regulations for 128 60 1 

CUBICLES. 

public lodging houses, prohibited. {See 

chap. 242, of 1904, as amended) 297 



Index. 



207 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 



CURTAIN WALLS. 

in steel frame bviildings, thickness 88 

single family dwelling, thickness of 86 

in all other buildings, thickness of 86 

not to exceed in height thirty times its 
thickness, when more than 20 feet 

in length 86 

may be less thickness, when 86 

CURTAINS. 

theatres must have fireproof 143 

CUTTING. 

for any purpose, not to reduce strength 
of part of structure below standard 

reqmred by law 37 

CUTTING FOR PIPING. 

restrictions concerning 37 



27 


2 


23 


12 


23 


12 


23 


12 


23 


12 



84 



14 



14 



57 



57 



D. 

DAMAGED BUILDINGS. 

commissioner to examine, and make 

record. 5 

may be restored to original condition or 

conform to rules for new buildings .... 99 
DAMPPROOFING. 

cellar bottom 82 

DANGEROUS BUILDING. 

to be placarded „ 5 

DANGEROUS BUILDINGS. 

commissioner to examine, and make 

record 5 

chap. 101, R. L 357 

DANGEROUS BUSINESS. 

in tenements 122 

DANGEROUS OR UNSAFE BUILDINGS, 
to be inspected and owner notified, notice 

posted; owner to secure or remove.. . . (5-6) 

power of commissioner 6 

DECISIONS, BOARD OF APPEAL. 

applicants to have copy 8 

must be in writing 8 

specify variations, etc 8 

DEFECTS. 

timber to be free from 29 



35 

22 

4 



54 



4,5 
5 

7 
6 

7 

14 



1,1 
9 
1 

1 



1. 1 
1 

2 
3 
2 

35 



208 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
DEFINITIONS. 

certain words relating to tenement 

houses (113-114) 

composite building 

masonry 

piers 

(a) solid ledge 

(b) shale 

(c) hardpan 

(cJ) gravel 

(e) sand, compact . .' 

(/) sand, loose 

(g) sand, medium grained 

(h) sand, fine grained 

(i) hard clay 

0') disintegrated ledge rock 

(k) m.edium clay 

il) soft clay 

DEMOLITION. 

permit for 

DENSE. 

definition of — classes of timber 

DEPARTMENT, BUILDING. 

organization of 

DEPTH. 

roof slabs 

DEPUTY BUILDING COMMISSIONER. 

appointment of 

powers of 

DESCRIPTION. 

to be filed with drawings, showing entire 
construction, ass\imptions, calcula- 
tion of stresses, etc 

DESIGN. 

basis of, calculations, to be for working 
stresses and safe loads. (See Assump- 
tions A, B, C, D, E) 

DETAILS, STRUCTURAL. 

to be submitted 

DIAGONAL AND SHEAR TENSION, 
for beams, with horizontal bars only, 
with and without web reinforcement. . . 



4) 


42 


(1-11) 


14 


11 


4 


14 


11 


5 


29 


14 


37 


73 


20 


5 


73 


20 


6 


73 


20 


7 


73 


20 


8 


73 


20 


9 


73 


20 


10 


74 


20 


11 


74 


20 


12 


74 


20 


13 


74 


20 


14 


74 


20 


15 


74 


20 


16 


4 


1 


6 


29 


14 


36 


3 


1 


(1-4; 


45 


15 


41 


3 


1 


4 


3 


1 


4 



40 



52 



lo (18-23) 
8 1 

15 72 



Index. 



209 



Page. 

DIAGONAL TENSION IN FOOTINGS. 
shearing stresses, how measured 52 

DILAPIDATED BUILDINGS. 

chap. 101, R. L 357 

DISINTEGRATED LEDGE ROCK. 

definition of 74 

DISTANCE FROM LOT LINE. 

tenement house 123 

(See, also, yards, inner and outer court) . . . 114 
wooden buildings (111-112) 

DIVISION OF FLOOR AREAS. 

by walls 69 

DOORS. 

stage, in theatres, provision for 146 

in operative buildings, not to be locked, 

chap. 566, 1914 329 

DOORS IN PARTY WALLS. 

size, etc 90 

"DRAIN." 

for cellar floor to have trap, etc 173 

plimibing, definition of 159 

DRAIN PIPES, 
lay out, support, details 170 

DRAINS, SURFACE, 
must have seal trap and back-water 

valve 173 

DRAINAGE OF COURTS AND YARDS, 
tenement house, to satisfaction of board 

of health 140 

DRAINAGE FITTINGS. 

certain, must be galvanized, etc 169 

DRAINAGE, STABLE. 

commissioner to approve fixtures for. . . . 163 

DRAWINGS. 

to be filed before permit is granted 9 

DROPPED PANEL. 

compression in bending allowable 53 

definition of 53 

depth cf, below bottom of slab 53 

unit shear allowable 53 

width of, in any direction 53 

DRY HOUSES. 

regvilation for, chap. 729, 1913 173 



Section. Paragraph. 
15 72 



20 



31 

124 
112 

122 



124 

71 
121 

117 



14 



55 


4 


42 


5,6 


40 


(1-3) 


17 


4.5 


91 


1 



1 

6 
1,2 



1 
16 



15, 


76 


15 


76 


15 


76 


15 


76 


15 


76 



210 Indjjx. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
DRYING. 

concrete mixture, prematiirely, from high 

temperature, must be avoided 39 15 12 

DUMB WAITER SHAFTS, 
in tenement houses to be fireproof ed ... . 121 52 1 

to be of fireproof material 106 * 38 1 

DWELLING, 
private, entertainment in, sect. 173, chap. 
102, R. L., as amended by chap. 254 of 

1909 35S 

DWELLINGS, 
in building limits, may be of third class, 

when 11 9 1 

in building limits, may be of composite, 

when 11 9 1 

in building limits, to be of not more than 

two families 11 9 . 1 

in building limits, restriction of 11 9 1 

DYNAMO. 

application to be published 173 125 1 

permit required 173 125 . 1 

E. 

EGRESS. 

means of, in case of fire 16 12 7 

from tenement houses, provision for. . (115-116) 43 (1-5) 

stores and storage buildings. , 70 17 7 

outside, window openings to be pro- 
tected when and how 18 12 15 

buildings, not provided with suflBcient, 

may be placarded 5 4 1 

commissioner to approve before occu- 
pancy 16 12 7 

for large areas to be approved 69 17 4 

outside, projection of 21 13 19 

for second-class factories and workshops, 16 12 7 

two means, mercantile buildings 70 17 7 

two means, for aKiered buildings over 33 

feet high. 98 35 4 

ELEVATOR CABLES. 

how attached 109 * 38 16 

operators, minimum age 108 * 38 12 

safet3- attachment required 106 * 38 3 



Index. 211 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
ELEVATOR CABLES. 

shaft openings, how protected and to be 

kept closed 106 

shaft, grille under machinery 1Q6 

shaft, space between car and walls 107 

shaft windows to have bars 107 

shaft, fireproof construction 106 

shaft, height above roof 106 

shaft in tenement houses to be fireproofed, 121 
ELEVATOR SHAFTS. 

tenement house, regulations for 121 

no recess in outer wall 107 

not more than 4 inches between car and 

walls 107 

to be of fireproof material 106 

to have skjdights 106 

ELEVATORS. 

accidents to be reported '. . . . 109 

inspectors may be appointed 110 

manufacturers required to test 109 

permits for, how obtained 108 

to be approved by commissioner before 

being used * 107 

unsafe, commissioner to post notice * 107 

who may operate them 108 

for coal or grain, not restricted by build- 
ing limits 11 

freight, construction of shaft and doors . . 107 

freight gates in outside doors 107 

freight not above first story without fire- 
proof enclosure 106 

freight, to have danger signals 107 

governor and slack cable device required, 109 

in areas and hallways to have grille 106 

in case of accident, commissioner to be . 

notified 109 * 38 15 

not to be used until approved by com- 
missioner 107 

permit required and plans to be approved, 108 

located to give easy access to machinery, 108 

to be tested by manufacturer in presence 

of inspector 109 

unsafe, penalty for use 107 



*38 


2 


*38 


3 


*38 


10 


*38 


5 


*38 


1 


*38 


1 


52 


1 


52 


1 


*38 


10 


*38 


10 


*38 


1 


-38 


1 


*38 


15 


*38 


19 


*38 


17 


*38 


13 


*38 


8 


*38 


9 


*38 


12 


9 


1 


*38 


5 


*38 


10 


*38 . 


1 


*38 


6 


*38 


14 


*38 


1 



*38 


8 


*38 


13 


*38 


13 


*38 


17 


38 


9 



212 Index. 

Page, Section. Paragraph. 
ELEVATORS AND HOISTS. 

exceptions 106 * 38 1 

fireproof enclosures for 106 * 38 1 

general regulations for (106-110) * 38 (1-19) 

EMPLOYEES, BUILDING DEPART- 
MENT. 

to be appointed by commissioner 3 1 3 

to retain positions until removal or dis- 
cbarge 3 1 2 

ENCLOSURES. 

fireproof for elevators and boists 106 * 38 1 

ENFORCEMENT OF BUILDING LAW. 

equity and law courts given jiirisdic- 

tion (176-177), 178 129, 130 (1-6), 1 

ENGINE. 

application to be published 173 125 1 

permit required for placing 173 125 1 

ENGINEER. 

to submit calculation sheets 9 8 1 

ENGINES. 

not to be placed under certain parts of 

theatres 151,156 104,111 2,2 

ENLARGED. 

what buildings may be 98 35 1 

ENLARGED BUILDINGS. 

application for 7 1 6 

to be examined 5 3 1 

ENTERTAINMENT. 

in private dwelling, sect. 173, chap. 102, 
R. L., as amended by chap. 254, of 

1909. 358 

ENTRANCE HALLS. 

tenement house, construction of. 120 48 1 

EQUITY COURTS. 

given jurisdiction under this act (176-177) 129 (1-6) 

ESCALATOR SHAFTS. (See Elevator 

Regulations.) 
EXAMINATION OF BUILDINGS. 

dangerous or damaged 5 3 1 

under application to alter, etc 5 3 I 

under construction, when made 5 2 1 

EXAMINERS OF GAS FITTERS. 

not affected by this act , 13 10 2 



19 


1 


19 


1 


19 


1 


19 


1 



Index. 213 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
EXCAVATIONS. 

general regulations for 71 

how and by whom protected 71 

responsibility for cost of supporting 71 

retaining walls for 71 

EXCELSIOR, COTTON, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 175 126 1 

EXEMPTION. 

special, from restriction of height of 

buildings, chap. 786, 1914 331 

EXEMPTIONS. 

from provisions of this act 12 10 1 

EXHAUST PIPES. 

steam, how connected 171 122 5 

EXHAUSTS, STEAM. 

regulations pertaining to (171-172) 122 (3-6) 

EXHIBITION. 

moving pictures, special. Mayor to grant 

permit, chap. 280, 1913 318 

EXISTING TENEMENT HOUSES. 

defined 113 42. 2 

requirements for lighting and ventila- 
tion 137,138 70,71 1,1,2 

EXISTING THEATRES. 

general regulations for (155-158) 111 (1-8) 

EXIT LIGHTS. 

assembly rooms, to conform to law of 
theatres when ordered by Building 

Commissioner , 154 107 1 

EXITS. 

in altered habitations, two required 98 35 4 

EXITS, ETC., LIGHTS. 

in theatres, control and supply of 148, 156 99, 111 2, 3 

EXITS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

must conform to regulations for theatres, 154 107 1 

EXITS, ROOF GARDENS. 

requirements for 155 109 1 

EXITS, SIGNS. 

~ in existing theatres 156 111 3 

EXITS, THEATRE. 

general regulations for 146, (148-149) 91, 99 1, (1-3) 

EXPLOSIVES AND COMBUSTIBLES. 

buildings for manufacturing, require per- 
mit (173-174) 125 (1-3) 



214 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
EXPOSURE. 

for altered habitations, amount 98 35 5 

for altered habitations, if on corner, may- 
be omitted 99 35 8 

in altered habitations, not to apply in 

mercantile stores 98 35 5 

in altered habitations, not to be dimin- 
ished 99 35 7 

required for existing buildings altered . . (98-100) 35 (5-1 1) 

to apply to new buildings (except tene- 
ments) 100 35 11 

EXTERIOR COLUMNS. 

reinforcement, how proportioned 47 15 48 

F. 

FAMILY. 

definition, for tenement houses 113 42 1 

FAT-BOILING. 

place must be fireproofed 122 53 1 

prohibited in tenement houses 122 53 1 

exceptions 122 53 1 

FEATHERS, RAGS, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 175 126 1 

FEDERAL BUILDINGS. 

not affected by this act 12 10 1 

FEED, HAY, STRAW, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 175 126 1 

FEES. 

for permits and licenses, authorized, chap. 

571, 1910 316 

FENCE. 

erected to annoy, etc., prohibited, chap. 

33, R. L 356 

FERRULES, CLEAN-OUTS, ETC. 

required diameter and weights of 165 121 2 

FIBER STRESS, EXTREJNTE. 

steel plate girder, beam or channel may 

be reduced, when and how 33 14 45 

FIRE. 

means of egress in case of 16 12 7 

FIRE COMMISSIONER. 

not affected by this act 13 10 2 

FIRE DAMAGE. 

how restored 99 35 9 



Index. 



21i 



Page 
FIRE DOORS. 

in party walls, size, etc 90 

shafts, stores, warehouses 69, 70, 70 

FIRE-ESCAPES. 

in mercantile buildings 70 

interior and exterior in tenement 

houses (115-116) 

minimum load 103 

obstruction of, to be removed by Fire 
Hazard Commissioner. {See sect. 

13 D, chap. 795, 1914) 

stores and storage buildings 70 

in what they shall consist (115-116) 

theatres, outside to be lighted 148, 156 

FIRE PREVENTION LAW. 

chap. 795, of 1914 333 

FIRE PROTECTION. 

general requirements for (90-93) 

of main reinforcement in floor slabs, 39 

in beams, girders, columns and walls. ... 39 

all structural metal to be fire protected, 90 
to consist of: 

(a) concrete 90 

(b) terra cotta 91 

(c) brickwork 91 

(d) other materials 91 

thickness of: 

on columns carrying masonry 91 

on columns carrying floor 91 

on colvmins carrying roof 91 

on beams carrying masonry 91 

on girders carrying masonry 91 

on trusses carrying masonry 91 

on beams carrying roof or floors 91 

on girders carrying roof or floors 91 

on trusses carryingrcof or floors 91 

on beams deeper than 15 inches 91 

on beams having a flange width of 

more than 7 inches 91 

on lugs, brackets, braces, etc 91 

about isolated columns, exterior 92 

plaster on metal lath not a fire protection, 92 
metal lath and plaster, when used as 

suspended ceilings 9 2 



Section. Paragraph. 



31 

17 

17 

43 
36 



17 

43 

99,111 



1 

3, 6, 7 



(1-4) 
9 



7 

(1-5) 

2,3 



32 


(1-18) 


15 


14 


15 


14 


32 


1 


32 


2 


32 


3 


32 


4 


32 


5 


32 


6 


32 


6 


32 


6 


32 


6 


32 


6 


32 


6 


32 


6 


32 


6 


32 


6 


32 


6 


32 


6 


32 


6 


32 


7 


32 


8 



32 



216 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FIRE PROTECTION. 

metal lath and plaster, total thickness. ... 92 32 9 

pipes, wires, cables, or other material, 
not to be embedded in fireproofing of 

structural members 92 32 10 

exemptions: 

(a) where wood is permitted for same 

purpose in lieu of metal 92 32 11 

(jb) structur?l metal which faces on 

enclosed spaces, etc 92 32 12 

(c) lintel angles under stone or brick. . 93 32 13 

(d) buildings built of better class than 

required by law 93 32 14 

(e) metal work in non-bearing parti- 

tions 93 32 15 

metal work for furrings 93 32 15 

metal work to support finish 93 32 15 

metal work for stair construction. . 93 32 15 

suspension rods for balconies 93 32 15 

steel work for theatre stages 93 32 15 

steel work for fly galleries 93 32 15 

steel wo: k for rigging lofts 93 32 15 

(/) metal, ether than columns, carry- 
ing only roof loads, ceilings or 
suspended balconies not over 

8 feet wide 93 32 16 

suspended ceiling, construction of 93 32 16 

in alterations, to be made satisfactory 

to commissioner 931'' 32 17 

metal guards or v/ood may be substi- 
tuted for, when liable to injury 93 32 18 

FIRE STOPPING. 

between stair stringers 94 32 21 

in alteration work in first story and base- 
ment, mercantile 9S 35 2 

in studding and furring 93 32 20 

of bearing partitions 93 32 20 

of floors 94 32 24 

to be approved by commissioner 94 32 24 

second-class buildings, to be fire stopped, (93-94) 32 (20-24) 

in second-class buildings (93-94) 32 (20-24) 

to fill all openings where applied 94 32 22 

rat refuge, spaces creating sameprohibited, 94 32 23 



Index. 



217 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FIRE STOPPING. 
third-class buildings to be fire stopped. ... 93, 94 32 19, 21 

in third-class buildings 93,94 32 19,21 

FIRE TEST. 

method of determining 11 8 8 

FIRE WALLS. 

above roof 89 28 1 

FIREPLACE. 

construction 89 30 2 

FIREPROOF ENCLOSURES. 

for shafts in first-class warehouses 69 17 3 

FIREPROOF PARTITIONS. 

how to be constructed 96 33 1,2 

in first-class buildings 98 33 1,2 

to be constructed of following materials: 

(a) brick, cement mortar 96 33 1 

(ft) concrete, 1-3-6, not less than 4 
inches thick, 3 inches when re- 
inforced with steel 96 33 2 

(c) cinder concrete, 1-3-6, not less 

than 5 inches thick and 4 inches 

when reinforced with steel 96 33 3 

(d) hollow terra cotta blocks, 3 inches 

thick 96 33 4 

(e) hollow concrete blocks, 3 inches 

thick 96 33 5 

(/) solid or hollow gypsum blocks, 3 

inches thick . . . r 95 33 6 

(g) metal lath on steel studding, Port- 
land cement mortar, 2 inches 
thick for solid partitions, 3 inches 

for hollow partitions 96 33 7 

(h) material approved by commis- 
sioner when in conformity with 

required fire test 96 33 8 

pressed metal and glass, at discretion of 

commissioner 96 33 8 

temporary partitions of wood and glass 
within rooms inclosed by fireproof 

walls 96 33 8 

partitions in excess of 15 feet in height 
to be increased in thickness 1 inch 

for every additional 8 feet 97 33 9 

tests of , method to be employed 97 33 H 



218 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FIREPROOF STAIRWAYS. 

in mercantile buildings 69, 70 17 3, 6 

FIREPROOF WINDOWS. 

in mercantile and manufacturing build- 
ings 105 37 1 

FIREPROOFING. 

not to be reduced 9 8 2 

regulations for (90-93) 32 (1-13) 

of beams, girders, columns, etc (90-93) 32 (1-13) 

of stair halls in tenements 119 46 1 

of steel and iron in alterations, as ap- 
proved by commissioner 92 32 12 

under self-centering reinforcements 45 15 44 

flush ceiling, same as for slabs 48 15 55 

suspended metal lath plastered ceiling, 

same as for slabs 48 15 55 

FIRST-CLASS BUILDINGS. 

definition of 13 11 1 

warehouse to have fireproof enclosures 

and automatic doors . 69 17 3 

what buildings to be 67 17 1 

area, restriction of, how and when 69 17 4 

division walls required, when 69 17 4 

area, limited to 10,000 square feet 69 17 4 

area, may exceed 10,000 square feet, 

when 69 17 4 

foundations 74 20 20 

FITTINGS, DRAINAGE. 

must be galvanized, etc 169 121 16 

"FIXTURE." 

plumbing, meaning of term 159 112 10 

FLANGE COMPRESSION. 

of riveted plate girders 33 14 45 

FLANGE, TOP. 

steel plate girder, beam or channel, ex- 
treme fiber stress of, may be reduced, 

when and how 33 14 45 

FLAT SLABS. 

floor slabs supported upon columns, etc., 52 15 74 

FLOOR ANCHORS. 

floor anchors 17 12 13 

FLOOR AREAS. 

undivided, maximum 69 17 4,5 



Index. 219 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FLOOR JOISTS. 

distance between ends 20 13 4 

distance from cliimney 20 13 10 

FLOOR LOADS. (See Live Load.) 

for existing buildings, commissioner to fix, 102 36 4 

minimum 101 36 2 

reduction for columns, piers, walls and 

foundations 104 36 13 

FLOOR OPENINGS. 

framing of 45 15 40 

to be kept closed 106 38 1 

FLOOR SLABS. 

main reinforcement to be fire protected. . . 39 15 14 

FLOOR TILES, TERRA COTTA. 

average strength, how computed 24 14 5 

compressive strength of 24 14 5 

to be tight to prevent loss of material in, 

poiu-ing 39 15 6 

FLOOR TIMBER. 

not to be within two inches of chimney ... 20 13 10 

FLOOR AND ROOF JOISTS. 

minimum bearing _ 97 34 1 

on corbels or hangers 97 34 1 

splayed at ends 97 34 1 

FLOORING DURING CONSTRUCTION. 

regulations for 113 41 1 

FLOORS. 

how fire stopped in second and third class 

construction 94 32 24 

security of, requirements for 17 12 13 

small openings in, to be approved by 

commissioner 90 31 1 

theatre, required levels of 142 82 1 

stage, requirements for 143 85 1 

to be constructed to carry proposed loads 

safely 100 36 1 

FLOORS, LOADS. 

least capacity for 101 36 2 

FLOORS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS. 

commissioner to prescribe maximum 

loads for 102 36 4 

FLOORS, WOODEN. 

furnaces and boilers not to be placed on, 20 13 12 



220 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 



FLUES, CHIMNEY. 

height of 16 

lining required for certain 17 

FLUES, VENTILATING. 

must be of incombustible material 17 

FLUSH CEILING. 

fireproofing, same as for slabs 48 

FOOTING LOADS. 

relative to 75 

full dead loads and figured live loads to 
be pi ovided for in determining required 

area for footings 75 

FOOTING STONE. 

requirements for 75 

FOOTINGS. 

bending moment, rectangular, isolated 

columns 52 

punching shear in, columns, effective 

area to resist 51 

diagonal tension in . .' 51 

symmetrical concentric columns, to be 

designed, how. 51 

foundations, relative to 72, 75 

of foundation walls or pieis, to con.sist of, 75 

of wood, when allowable 75 

conciete, to be not less than 12 inches in 

thickness 75 

FOOTINGS. GENERAL. 

symmetrical, concentric column footings, 
to be designed for punching shear, 
diagonal tension and bending moment, 51 
FORMS FOR CONCRETE. 

when and how to be removed 27 

FORMULAS, REINFORCED CON- 
CRETE CONSTRUCTION. 
1. Standard notation: 

(a) rectangular beams 58 

ib) T-beams 59 

(c) beams reinforced for compression, 59 

(d) shear, bond and web reinforce- 

ment 59 

(e) columns 60 



12 


5 


12 


9 


12 


12 


15 


55 


20 


26 


20 


26 


20 


23 



15 



20 

15 
14 



73 



15 


71 


15 


70 


15 


70 


20 


2,22 


20 


22 


20 


22 



24 

70 
26 



15 


106 


15 


107 


15 


108 


15 


109 


15 


110 



Index. 



221 



Page. 
FORMULAS, REINFORCED CON- 
CRETE FOUNDATIONS. 
2. Formulas: 

(a) rectangular beams: 

1, position of neutral axis 60 

2, arm of resisting couple 60 

3, 4, fibre stresses 61 

5, steel ratio, for balance rein- 

forcement 61 

(/-) T-beams: 

Case I. When the neutral axis 
lies in the flange, use the for- 
mulas for rectangular beams ... 61 
Case II. When the neutral axis 

lies in the stem. 
The following formulas neglect 
the compression in the stem: 

6, position of neutral axis 61 

7, position of resultant compres- 

sion 62 

8, arm of resisting couple 62 

9, 10, fibre stresses 62 

For approximate results the for- 
mulas for rectangular beams 

may be used. The following 
formulas take into account the 
compression in the stem; they 
are recommended where the 
flange is small compared with 
the stem: 

11, position of neutral axis 62 

12, position of resultant com- 
pression 62 

13, arm of resisting couple 62 

14, 15, fibre stresses 62 

(c) beams reinforced for compres- 
sion: 

16, position of neutral axis 63 

17, position of resultant compres- 

sion 63 

18, arm of resisting couple 63 

19,20, 21, fiber stresses (63 61) 



Section. Paragraph. 



15 


111 


15 


112 


15 


113, 114 



15 



15 



15 



15 



15 



115 



116 



117 



15 


118 


15 


119 


15 


120 



123 



15 


124 


15 


125 


15 


126, 127 



128 



15 




129 


15 




130 


15 


(131 


-133) 



15 


137 


15 


139 


15 


141 


15 


142, 143 



222 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FORMULAS, REINFORCED CON- 
CRETE CONSTRUCTION. 
2. Formulas: 

(d) shear, bond and web reinforce- 
ment: 

22, 23, for rectangular beams 64 15 (134-135) 

stresses in web reinforcement : 

24, vertical web reinforcement. 64 15 136 

25, bars bent up, horizontal 

and web members inclined . . 64 

26, 27, T-beams 65 

(<?) columns: 

28, total safe load 65 

29, 30, unit stresses 65 

"FOUNDATION." 

definition of 14 11 6 

FOUNDATION PIERS. 

may be used to carry foundation down 

to ledge, etc 76 20 27 

FOUNDATIONS. 

construction or alteration of, requires 

permit 15 12 1 

depths below frost 72, 110 20, 39 2, 1 

for first and second class buildings, mate- 
rials 74 20 20 

for wooden buildings, material and thick- 
ness 110 

metal in, protected with concrete, etc. . . 82 

metal work in, protected from dampness, 82 

not to overload soil 72 

of rubble stone, when used 75 

walls, thickness 85 

rust protection 40 

relative to . .- 72 

footings of 72 

when laid in freezing weather, to be 

adequately protected 72 

satisfactory bearing material, means 72 

maximum allowable bearing value of, as 
follows: 
solid ledge rook, 100 ton per square 

foot 73 20 



39 




22 




22 




20 




20 


21 


23 


8 


15 


16 


20 


1 


20 


2 


20 


2 


20 


3 



Index. 223 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FOUNDATIONS. 

shale and hardpan, 10 tons per square 

foot 73 20 4 

gravel and compact sand, 6 tons per 

square foot 73 20 4 

hard, yellow clay, 6 tons per square foot, 73 20 4 

sand, coarse or medium, dry or wet, 5 

tons per square foot 73 20 4 

hard, blue clay, mixed or unmixed with 

sand, 5 tons per square foot 73 20 4 

disintegrated ledge rock, 5 tons per 

square foot 73 20 4 

medium stiff or plaster clay, mixed or 
unmixed with sand, 4 tons pe r square 

foot ,. 73 20 4 

fine grained dry sand, 4 tons per square 

foot , 73 20 4 

fine grained wet sand (confined), 3 tons 

per square foot 73 20 4 

soft clay protected against lateral dis- 
placement, 2 tonsper square foot 73 ' 20 4 

first and second class buildings (brick, 

stone or concrete), thickness of 85 

when below grade, how figured 74 

stone, to be square split ; 75 

rubble, thickness of ^ 75 

walls, to be properly bonded 75 

piling. {See Pile Foundations, section 2 1 .) 

steel grillage, relative to 75 

wooden buildings (third class) 110 

FRAME OF WOODEN BUILDING. 

described 110,111 39 3,4 

FRAMING. 

wood buildings (third class) 110, 111 

all parts to be of sufficient strength 110 

wall girts to be not less than 4 inches by 4 
inches hard pine or 4 inch by 6 inch 

spruce or fir 110 

ledger boards, not permissible when Ill 

studs not over 20 inches on centres 110 

all angles between partitions and parti- 
tions and walls to be blocked strongly • 
to form solid corners . . 110 39 



23 


8 


20 


20 


20 


21 


20 


21 


20 


21 


20 


25 


39 


1 



39 


3,4 


39 


3 


39 


3 


39 


4 


39 


3 



224 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FRAMING. 

posts to be securely braced 110 39 3 • 

ledger boards, space behind, to-be filled. , . 110 39 3 

braces to repeat in each story Ill 39 4 

braces shall not be smaller than 3-inch 

studding Ill 39 4 

wall girts to be framed to posts and pinned 

when : Ill 39 4 

to be securely nailed, or framed or ironed 

together 110 39 3 

FREEZING, 
precautions to be taken to prevent 39 15 13 

FURNACE. 

distance below ceiling 94 32 25 

permit required for setting 4, 173 1, 125 6, 1 

FURNACE AND SMOKE PIPES. 

furnace, top of, to be 12 inches at least 

below ceiling 94 32 25 

smoke pipes to be 12 inches below ceiling, 94 32 25 

ceilings over, to be protected • 94 32 25 

FURNACES AND BOILERS. 

hazardous buildings, public hearings on. . 173 125 1 

not to be placed on wooden floors 20 13 12 

under certain parts of theatres 151, 156 104, 111 2, 2 

FURRING. 

distance from chimney 20 13 11 

fire stopped, where and how 93, 94 32 20, 21 

not within one inch of chimney 20 13 11 

FURTHER REQUIREMENTS. 

for strength determined by commissioner, 10 8 3 

Q. 

GARAGES, 
erection and maintenance of. 

chap. 259, 1912 318 

chap. 342, 1911 317 

chap. 577, 1913 319 

chap. 115, 1918, Special Act 352 

cast-iron columns, use of, in, prohibited . . 35 14 49 

GARBAGE. 

receptacle in altered habitations 98 35^ ."> 

GARBAGE AND ASHES. 

tenement-house, receptacles for 140 75 I 



130 


1 


1 


6 


99 


4 


99 


4 



Index. 225 

Page. Section Paragraph. 
GARDENS, ROOF. {See Roof Gardens.) 

above theatres, provisions for 154 108 1 

GAS FITTERS, BOARD OF EXAM- 
INERS OF. 

not affected by this act 13 10 2 

"GAS FITTING." 

definition of 15 11 15 

miinicipal court given jurisdiction in lav/ 

cases 178 

permit for 4 

GAS PIPE OUTLETS. 

theatre, two required 149 

inspection of 149 

GATES IN STAGE STANDPIPES. 

of theatres 151,158 104, 111 3,8 

GIRDER PLATES. 

flanges, proportion of 66 

top flanges, stresses of, reduced when .... 66 

stiffeners, to be provided, when 66 

intermediary stiffeners 66 

GIRDERS. 

computation of, for span of 37 

main reinforcement, to be fire protected. . 39 
GIRDERS AND BEAMS. 

relating to 66 

to be anchored .^ 66 

to have bearing plates 66 

GONGS. 

in hotels, lodging houses, etc., when re- 
quired, sect. 29, chap. 104, R. L 359 

GRAIN ELEVATORS. 

not affected by building limits. 11 9 1 

require permit for use 173 125 1 

GRANITE. 

stresses of 25 14 11 

GRAVEL. 

definition of 73 20 8 

maximum allowable bearing value in 

foundation 73 20 4 

rear of bank, use of, when allowed 26 14 14 

GRILLAGE BEAMS. 

how to be figured for each kind of stress . . 38 14 63 

GROUT. 

stresses for 32 14 42 



16 


7 


16 


7 


16 


7 


16 


7 


14 


59 


15 


14 


16 


(3-7) 


16 


3 


16 


3 



226 Index. 

H. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
HABITABLE BUILDINGS. 

combustible materials not to be housed 

in 175 126 1 

HABITATIONS. 

first story or basement may be used for 

mercantile purposes 68 17 2 

when to be first, second or third class. . . 67 17 1 

second-class building, height of and area of, 68 17 2 

basement or first story may be used 

for store 68 17 2 

"HALL, PUBLIC." 

tenement house, defined 114 42 8 

requirements for 117 45 1 

"HALL, STAIR." 

tenement house, defined 114 42 7 

construction of 119 46 1 

HALLS. 

capacity of 152 105 3 

general requirements for (152-153) 105 (1-7) 

must be fireproof when 152 105 1 

moving picture exhibition in, Mayor to 

grant permit for, chap. 280, 1913 318 

HALLS, ENTRANCE. 

tenement house, construction of 120 48 1 

HALLS OR ASSEMBLY ROOMS. 

aisles to be kept clear 153 105 6 

arrangement of seats, passages, etc 153 105 6 

buildings altered, for, conform to law .. . 153 105 5 

construction, requirements (152-153) 105 (1-7) 

exits, same as for theatres 154 107 1 

seating, capacity, how reckoned 152 105 3 

seats secured during performances 153 105 6 

HANDRAILS. 

theatre stairs, requirements for 150 102 (1-2) 

HANGERS OR STIRRUP. 

for joists IS 12 14 

HARD BRICK. 

ultimate compression strength 23 14 3 

HARD CLAY. 

definition of 74 20 13 

HARDPAN. 

definition of 73 20 7 



iNDiEX. 



227 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 



HARDPAN. 

maximum allowable bearing value in 

foundations 73 

HAY, STRAW, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings. . . . 175 
HAZARDOUS BUILDINGS. 

appliances for power and heat (173-174) 

hearings on boilers and furnaces for 173 

must have permits 173 

application, hearings, etc 173 

HEADERS AND TRIMMERS. 

rules for 18 

HEADERS, WOODEN. 

requirements for 18 

HEALTH, BOARD OF. 

may limit number of occupants in any- 
building 175 

not to be affected by this act 13 

powers of, defined (175-176) 

HEARINGS, PUBLIC. 

hazardous buildings and appliances for 

power and heat 173 

HEARTHS. 

size and how supported 89 

HEARTHS AND PIERS. 

regulations for ^ 89 

HEAT AND POWER. 

appliances for, in hazardous buildings, (176-177) 
HEATING APPARATUS. 

theatre, under auditoriums, regulations 

for 151 

HEATING FURNACES. 

ceiling over to be wire lathed and 

plastered 94 

hot air pipes, to be 1 inch from wood- 
work 95 

top of, to be 12 inches below ceiling. ... 94 

(Also see Fuknaces.) 
HEIGHT. 

of altered buildings not to be increased.. 98 

of buildings to width of street 70 

of buildings, special acts governing 71 

maximum, for all buildings 70 



20 


4 


126 


1 


125 
125 
125 
125 


(1-4) 
1 
1 
1 


12 


14 


12 


14 


128 

10 

128 


1 

2 

(1-3) 


125 


1 


30 


2 


30 


(1-2) 


125 


(1-4) 



104 



32 



25 



32 


26 


32 


25 


35 


2 


18 


1 


18 


2 


IS 


1 



228 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
"HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS." 

definition of 14 11 8 

regulations for 70 18 1 

Copley square. 

chap. 452, 1898 291 

vicinity of State House, limited. 

chap. 457, 1899 293 

on Beacon street and Bowdoin street. 

chap. 543, 1902 294 

in Boston. 

chap. 333, 1904 300 

chap. 383, 1905 307 

on Rutherford avenue. 

chap. 416, 1907 313 

special exemption. 

chap. 786, 1914 331 

special commission appointed to deter- 
mine and revise boundaries of districts 

A and B, Special Act, 1915, chap. 333, 340 
on Parkways. 

chap. 28, sect. 16, R. L 355 

HEIGHT OF WOODEN BUILDING, 
if altered not to be increased in some 

cases 19 13 1 

HIGHWAYS. 

construction of, laying out of. 

chap. 323, 1891, amended by chap. 

418, 1892 286 

HOISTS AND ELEVATORS. 

fireproof enclosures for 106 * 38 1 

exceptions 106 * 38 . 1 

HOLLOW STEEL COLUMN. 

circular, filled with concrete, load 

allowance 47 15 52 

HOTELS. 

watchman, lights, gongs, etc., in, sect. 

29, chap. 104, R. L 359 

HOUSE OF CORRECTION. 

not affected by this act 12 10 ] 

HOUSES, TENEMENT. (See Tene- 
ment Ho USES.) 



Index. 229 

I. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
ICEHOUSES 112 40 2 

ILLEGAL STRUCTURES. 

may be ordered removed by Superior or 
Supreme Judicial Court, sect. 52, chap. 

104, R. L 360 

use of, maintenance of, or placing of, may 
be restrained by Superior or Supreme 
JudicialCoiu-t, sect. 52, chap. 104, R.L., 360 

INJUNCTION. 

Superior or Supreme Judicial Com-t may 
issue, to restrain, placing, maintenance 
or use of illegal structures, sect. 52, 
chap. 104, R. L 360 

INNER COURT. 

defined 114 42 6 

for tenement house, size 127 59 1 

INSPECTION. 

of concrete work 39 15 10 

elevators 106 * 38 2 

alteration, construction and maintenance 

of buildings, chap. 284, 1910 315 

theatres and public halls. 

sect. (30-39), chap. 655-1913 320 

chap. 463, 1907 r 314 

(See Requirement under section 14.). .. . 39 15 5 

INSPECTION, BUILDING. 

commissioner, or inspectors, to examine 
all buildings being constructed or 

altered 5 2 1 

INSPECTION OF CONCRETE, 
to be done by inspector approved by 

commissioner 27 14 27 

INSPECTION, PLUMBING. 

work must be approved 160 116 1 

INSPECTOR. 

of concrete to be approved by commis- 
sioner 27 14 27 

to be on work while concrete is being 

mixed and poured 27 14 27 

to make daily report of progress and con- 
dition of work 27 14 ' 27 



230 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
INSPECTORS, BUILDING. 

appointed by commissioner 3 1 3 

may enter any building or premises 178 129 10 

qualifications required of 3 1 3 

to examine all buildings for which permits 

have been requested 5 3 1 

to examine dangerous and damaged build- 
ings 5 3 1 

to examine unsafe or dangerous buildings, 5 4 1 

to make record of violations 5 j; 1 

to post notice on unsafe or dangerous 

buildings 5 4 1 

to post notice of violations 5 4 1 

to post notice of insufficient egress 5 4 1 

INSPECTORS, ELEVATOR. 

commissioner may appoint 110 * 38 19 

INTAKE. 

defined 114 42 6 

for tenement houses, size, etc 128, 129 61 1, 2 

in tenement houses, size and skylight 

over 121 52 1 

tenement houses, provision for 128 61 1 

INTERIOR BAYS. 

formula, panels 54 15 80 

INTERIOR COLUMNS. 

least dimensions, supporting flat slabs. ... 57 15 97 

IRON COLUMNS. 

wrought circular 47 15 .52 

IRON, WROUGHT AND CAST. 

strength of 28 14 29, 30 

J. 

JAIL, SUFFOLK COUNTY. 

not affected by this act 12 10 1 

JOINT BOLTS. 

where required 18 12 14 

JOINTS. 

how formed, between concrete 27 14 25 

.JOISTS. 

floor and roof, in walls of second-class 

buildings 97 34 1 

not to enter 8-inch walls 97 34 1 



Index. 231 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
JURISDICTION. 

given courts of equity (176-177) 129 (1-6) 

law 178 130 1 

K. 

KITCHENETTE. 

least dimension of 18 12 15 

KNOTS. 

timber to be free from 29 14 35 

L. 

LABORATORIES, CHEMICAL. 

plumbing of, to be approved by commis- 
sioner 163 117 5 

LADDERS. 

to roof scuttles 16,116 12,44 6,2 

LANDINGS, STAIR. 

theatre, required dimensions of 150 101 1 

LAW COURTS. 

given jurisdiction under this act 178 130 1 

LAWS. 

certain former acts applicable 71 18 2 

LEAD PIPES. 

size and weight, plumbing 167 121 7 

LEADERS. 

capacity required 16 12 4 

how connected 173 124 1 

where not to discharge 16 12 4 

LEADERS, ROOF. 

projections of 16 12 4 

requirements for 173 1 24 1 

"LEAKS, REPAIR OF." 

plimabing, definition of 158 112 2 

LEDGE ROCK. 

disintegrated, definition of 74 20 14 

disintegrated, maximum allov/able bear- ^ 

ing value in foundation 73 20 4 

solid, maxim.um allowable bearing value 

in foundation 73 20 # 4 

LEDGE, SOLID. 

definition of 73 20 5 

LESSEE UNDER RECORDED LEASE. 

deemedowner of btiilding or structure.. . . 175 127 1 



70 


1 


63 


1 


66 


1,2 


55 


(1-7) 



232 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph . 
LESSEES. 

when responsible for maintenance 175 127 1 

LEVELLERS. 

block granite on wood piles 72 20 2 

LICENSED BUILDERS, 
to control building operations, chap. 9, 

Ord. 1912 360 

LICENSES. 

fees for, authorized, chap. 571, 1910 316 

LICENSING. 

sect. (30-39), chap. 655, 1913 320 

chap. 463, 1907 314 

LIGHT AND VENTILATION. 

of existing tenement houses 137 

of rooms in tenement houses 129 

of stair halls in tenement houses. . . . (131-132) 

tenement house, provision for (122-124) 

LIGHT SHAFTS. 

of fireproof material 106 * 38 1 

LIGHTING, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

board of health may regulate 175 128 1 

LIGHTS, 
in hotels, lodging houses, etc., when 

required, sect. 29, chap. 104, R. L 359 

LIGHTS, EXIT. 

public buildings must conform to theatre 

requirements 154 107 1 

LIME, 

composition of, allowable 26 14 17 

LIME MORTAR. 

composition of, allowable 26 14 18 

LIMESTONE. 

stresses of 32 14 42 

LIMITS. 

building, outline of, chap. 4, Ord. 1913 . . . 364 
LINING, CHIMNEY. 

when required 17 12 9 

LINTELS, CAST-IRON. 

regulations for use of 29 

to be not less than f inch in thickness .... 29 

not to be used for spans over six feet 29 



14 


34 


14 


34 


14 


34 



Ini>ex. 



233 



LIVE LOADS. 

for various buildings 

LOAD TEST. 

to be i of total load, when. , 

commissioner may require 

owner to make at his expense 

how determined, in exceptional cases.. . . 
LOADS. 
slabs, supported on four sides, distribu- 
tion of 

proportion of, of beams, supporting rec- 
tangular slabs 

dead loads: 

to consist of weight of walls, floors, 
roofs and permanent partitions . . . 
weights to be assumed per cubit foot 
pounds: 

beach, 42 pounds 

birch, 42 pounds 

brickwork, 120 pounds 

concrete, cinder, structural, 108 

pounds 

concrete, cinder, floor filling, 96 

pounds 

concrete, stone, 144 pounds 

Douglas fir, 36 pounds 

granite, 168 pounds 

granolithic surface, 144 pounds 

limestone, 150 pounds 

maple, 42 pounds 

marble, 168 pounds 

oak, 48 pounds 

pine, southern yellow, 42 pounds .... 

sandstone, 144 pounds 

spruce, 30 pounds 

terra cotta, architectural voids un- 
filled, 72 pounds 

voids filled, 120 pounds 

gravel, pounds per square foot, 6. . . . 

slag, pounds per square foot, 6 

felt roofing, pounds per square foot, 6, 
plastering on metal laths, exclusive 
of furring, pounds per square 
foot, 8 



■ge. Section. Paragraph. 
101 36 2 



10 


8 


7 


10 


8 


5 


10 


8 


5 


10 


8 


7 


44 


15 


37 


45 


15 


39 



100 



100 



36 



100 


36 


100 


36 


100 


36 



36 



100 


36 


100 


36 


100 


36 


100 


36 


100 


36 


100 


36 


100 


36 


100 


36 


100 


36 


100 


36 


100 


36 


100 


36 


100 


36 


100 


36 


100 


36 


100 


36 


100 


36 



100 



36 



234 iNDtex. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
LOADS. 

live loads: 
includes all loads except dead loads. ... 101 36 2 
permit to state purpose of building .... 101 36 2 
floors to bear safely weight to be im- 
posed and dead load 101 36 2 

stairs to bear safely weights to be im- 
posed and dead load 101 

safe per square foot, uniform 101 

armories, 100 pounds 101 

assembly halls, 100 pounds 101 

gymnasiums, 100 pounds 101 

fire houses, apparatus floor, 150 

pounds ^ 101 

residences, 50 pounds 101 

stables, 50 pounds 101 

garages, private, two cars, 75 pounds, 101 

garages, public, five or more cars, 

150 pounds 101 

grandstands, 100 pounds 101 

hotels, public portion, 100 pounds. . . 101 

hotels, residence portion, 50 pounds, 101 

lodging houses, public portion, 100 

pounds 101 36 

lodging houses, residence portion, 50 

pounds 101 36 

boarding house, public portion, 100 

pounds 101 36 

boarding house, residence portion, 

50 pounds 101 

clubs, public portion, 100 pounds .... 101 

clubs, residence portion, 50 pounds . . 101 

convents, public portion, 100 pounds, 101 

convents, residence portion, 50 

pounds 101 

hospitals, public portion, 100 po;inds, 101 

hospitals, residence portion, 50 

pounds 101 

asylums, public portion, 100 pounds, 101 

asylums, residence portion, 50 

pounds 101 36 

detention buildings, public portion, 

100 pounds 101 36 



36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 



36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


30 


2 


36 


2 



36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 



Index. 235 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
LOADS. 
live loads: 

detention buildings, residence por- 
tion, 50 pounds 101 

manufacturing, heavy, 250 pounds . . 101 

manufacturing, light, 125 pounds . . . 101 

office building, first floor, 125 pounds, 101 

office buildings, all other floors, 75 

pounds 101 36 

public buildings, public portion, 100 

pounds 101 3G 

public buildings, office portion, 75 

pounds 101 36 

residence, including porches, 50 
pounds 

schools, assembly halls, 100 pounds, 101 

schools, class rooms only, 50 pounds, 101 

colleges, assembly halls, 100 pounds, 101 

colleges, class rooms only, 50 pounds, 101 

sidewalks, 250 pounds 101 

stables, public or mercantile, street 

entrance floor, 150 pounds 101 

stables, feed room, 150 pounds 101 

stables, carriage room, 50 pounds. . . . 101 

stables, stall room, 50 pounds 101 

stairs of armories, 100 pounds 101 

corridors of armories, 100 pounds.. . 101 

fire escape of armories, 100 pounds. . 101 

stairs of assembly halls, 100 pounds, 101 

corridors of assembly halls, 100 

pounds 101 36 

fire escape of assembly halls, 100 

pounds 101 

stairs of gymnasiums, 100 pounds . . . 101 

corridors of gymnasiums, 100 pounds, 101 

fire escapes of gymnasiums, 100 

pounds 101 36 

stairs, except armories, halls, gym- 
nasiums, 75 pounds 101 36 

corridors, except .armories, halls, 
gymnasiums, 75 pounds 101 36 

fire escapes, except armories, halls, 

gjTnnasiums, 75 pounds 101 36 



36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 



36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 



236 



Index. 



Page. 
LOADS. 

live loads: 

storage, heavy, 250 pounds 101 

storage, light, 125 pounds 101 

stores, retail, 120 pounds 101 

stores, wholesale, 250 pounds 101 

not set out in law, commissioner may 

establish 102 

in excess of minimum values given per 
square foot, commissioner may 

require heavier design 102 

on existing floors, commissioner may 

prescribe maximum load 102 

occupation or use of building not to be 
changed without permit of com- 
missioner 102 

on existing floors, not to increase, with- 
out permit from commissioner .... 102 
safe, to be posted on each floor, business 
building, on metal plates by 

owner 102 

occupants to maintain metal plates, 
giving safe load, during their occu- 
pancy 102 

owner to aflBx metal plates, giving safe 
floor loads with each change of 

occupancy 102 

no load in excess of approved posted 
load permitted to be placed on any 

floor.. •• •-^- • 102 

every plank, slab, arch and floor beam, 
carrying 100 square feet of floor or 
less, shall have sufficient strength 
to bear afely live and dead load . . 103 
for floors, reduction of, allowed. . . . (103-104) 
roofs, safe minimum: 

with pitch of 4 inches or less per foot, 104 
with pitch of 4 inches to 8 inches per 

foot 104 

with pitch of 8 inches to 12 inches 

per foot 104 

'with pitch more than 12 inches per 

foot 104 



Section. Paragraph. 



36 


- 2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 



36 



3G 


3 


36 


4 


36 


5 


36 


5 



36 



36 



36 



36 



36 


7 


36 


(7-13) 


36 


15 


36 


16 


36 


17 


36 


18 



36 


19 


36 


19 


36 


19 



Index. 237 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
LOADS. 

wind pressure, on vertical surfaces on 
buildings: 

40 feet in height, 10 pounds 105 

40 feet to 80 feet, 15 pounds 105 

more than 80 feet, 20 pounds 105 

commissioner may require design for 

larger pressure 105 36 20 

bracing additional shall be introduced 
when resisting moments are not 
sufficient to resist moment of dis- 
tortion 105 36 21 

LOADS, FLOOR. 

conmaissioner to prescribe maximum for 

existing buildings 102 36 4 

LOBBIES, THEATRE. 

requirements for 146 90 1 

LODGING HOUSES. 

public, regulation for, chap. 242, 1904, 

and chap. 129, 1911 297,317 

watchman, lights, gongs, etc., sect. 29, 
chap. 104, R. L 359 

M. • 
MAIN REINFORCEMENTS, 
in floor slabs, beams, girders, columns 

and walls to be fire protected 39 15 14 

MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS. 

owners and lessees, responsibility of 175 127 1 

MANUFACTURING BUILDINGS, 
outside limits, maximum height and area, 70 17 8 

outside building limits, when third-class 

not to exceed 45 feet in height 70 17 8 

MARBLE, BUILDING. 

stresses of 32 14 42 

MARKET BUILDINGS. 

restrictions of sect. 9 not to apply to 11 9 1 

MARQUEES. 

projecting, to be supported as required by 
Building Commissioner, General Act 

1915, chap. 176 337 1,2 

MASONRY, 
definition of 14 11 5 



238 



Index. 



Page. 
MASONRY, BRICK AND STONE. 

not to rest on wood 20 

exceptions 20 

MATERIALS. 

quality of 38 

commissioner may reject, when unsuit- 
able 2.3 

test of, to be made under direction of 

commissioner by owner 23 

quality of, method of computation of .23, (37-38) 

not covered by this act, when allowed 9 

not mentioned in this act, stresses of to 

be determined by commissioner 37 

steel construction (65-67) 

MATERIALS, BUILDING. (See Build- 
ing Materials.) 

strength of 23 

stresses, tables of 30, 31, 32, 33,36 

MATERIALS, COMBUSTIBLE, 
not to be kept in habitable buildings 175 

MECHANICAL BUILDINGS, 
outside building limits, may be built as 

approved by commissioner 70 

MEDIUM CLAY. 

definition of 74 

MERCANTILE PURPOSES. 

first story and basement of habitations 

may be used for 68 

METAL. 

steel construction, thickness of 65 

window frames and sash 105 

METAL GARAGES. 

limited size allowed, chap. 115, 1918, 

Special Act 352 

METAL WORK, 
in foundations, protected from moisture, 82 

METHODS. 

not covered by this act, when allowed. ... 9 

METHODS OF COMPUTATION. 

strength of building materials 23, (37-38) 



Section. Paragraph. 



13 


9 


13 


9 


15 


1 


14 


1 


14 


1 


14 


1, (58-63) 


8 


2 


14 


55 


16 


(1-9) 


14 


1 


14 


39, 40. 42 




44,52 



126 

17 
20 

17 

16 
37 



8- 
15 



22 1 

8 2 

14 1,(58-63) 



Index. 239 

Page, Section. Paragraph. 
MIXING CONCRETE. 

how done 26 14 22 

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY. 

steel for cinder concrete 51 15 69 

steel for stone concrete 51 15 69 

steel for concrete greater than 2,200 and 

less than 2,900 pounds per square inch, 51 15 69 

MORTAR, LIME. 

how made 26 14 18 

MORTARS. 

required qualifications of 26 14 (17-20) 

MOVING BUILDINGS. 

prohibitions relating to 19 13 2 

MOVING PICTURE SHOWS. 

subject to chapter 437, 1905 313 

MOVING PICTURES. 

exhibition of, chap. 791, 1914 331 

exhibitions, special, mayor to grant per- 
mit for, chap. 280, 1913 318 

MUD SILLS. 

allowed to support masonry 20 13 9 

1 
N. 
NEGATIVE BENDING. 

panel width at interior line of columns, 

formula 56 

panel width at wall 55 

may be increased when 55 

how provided for 56 

reinforcement shall be provided, when. . . 56 
NEIGHBORING STRUCTURES. 

to be supported 15 

powers of commissioner in such cases . ... 15 
NIPPLES, SOLDERING. 

required diameter and weight of 166 121 

NOTICE. 

on dangerous or unsafe buildings not to 

be removed 5 4 

NUISANCES. 
buildings unlawfully constructed declared 

to be 178 132 

abatement and removal of, chap. 101, 

R. L 357 



15 


90 


15 


86 


15 


87 


15 


91 


15 


91 


12 


2 


12 


3 



240 



Index. 



o. 

Page. 
OAK, WHITE. 

stress of 36 

OBSERVATION STANDS. 

commissioner must approve plans of 21 

on roofs prohibited 20 

OBSTRUCTIONS. 

in aisles, etc., of public buildings, of 

theatres. ....'. 153 

OCCUPANTS. 

safety of — commissioner may order 

additional requirements for 10 

OCCUPANTS OF BUILDINGS. 

board of health may limit number of . . . . 175 
OCCUPATION. 

of buildings forbidden until egress is 

provided 16 

OCCUPATIONS OF BUILDINGS. 

not to be changed without permit from 

commissioners 104 

OFFICE FORCE OF DEPARTMENT. 

how appointed 3 

OFFICERS, BUILDING DEPART- 
MENT. 

may enter buildings and premises 178 

not to engage in other business 3 

not to furnish materials 3 

not to be financially interested. . 3 

requirements and restrictions 3 

to serve until removal or discharge 3 

OFFICERS, CITY, CERTAIN, 

powers of not curtailed by this act 13 

OFFICES, STORES, ETC. 

in theatre buildings 142 

OPENINGS. 

of 144 square inches or less in walls and 

floors, approved by commissioner 90 

in floors, framing of 45 

in roof, framing of 45 

OPENINGS IN DIVISION WALLS. 

area and number restricted 69 

OPERATIVE BUILDINGS. 

doors in, not to be locked, chap. 566, 

1914 329 



Section. ' 


Paragraph. 


14 


52 


13 


16 


13 


6 



105 



128 



12 



17 



36 


13 


1 


3 


129 


10 


1 


4 


1 


4 


1 


4 


1 


4 


1 


2 


10 


2 


81 


1 


31 


1 


15 


40 


15 


40 



4,5 



Inixex. 241 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
OUTER COURT. 

defined 114 42 6 

in tenement houses, size, etc (126-127) 58 (1-3) 

OUTSIDE FINISH, 
in first and second class buildings, 

materials 17 12 H 

OVERCROWDING, TENEMENT 
HOUSES, 
board of health may regulate to prevent, 175 128 I 

OVERHANG. 

T-beams — not to exceed, etc 46 15 46 

OWNER. 

to protect against excavation 71 19 i 

OWNERS. 

responsible for maintenance of buildings 

and structures 175 127 1 

P. 

PAPER STOCK, COTTON, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable building 175 126 i 1 

PARK COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this act 13 10 2 

PARKWAYS. 

building lines on, sect. 16, chap. 28, R. L., 355 
PARTITION WALL. 

defined 15 11 10 

PARTITIONS, BEARING. 

to be firestopped 90 32 1 

PARTITIONS, FIREPROOF. 

how to be constructed (95-97) 33 (1-10) 

(See Fireproof Partitions.) 
PARTITIONS, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

construction of 121 50 1 

PARTY WALL. 

doors in, size, etc 90 31 1 

all buildings, thickness (84-85) 23 (3-6) 

in steel frame buildings, thickness 88 27 2 

in wooden buildings, thickness and height 

above roof Ill -lO 1 

small openings in 90 31 1 

definition of 14 11 9 

above roof 89 28 1 

prohibition concerning (19-20) 13 (3-4) 



242 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
PASSAGEWAYS. PUBLIC ASSEM- 
BLAGE, 
no temporary seats or obstructions in ... . 153 ] 05 6 
no persons to stand in, during perform- 
ance 153 105 6 

PASSAGEWAYS, THEATRE, 
radiators, floor registers, etc., not to be 

placed in 151 104 1 

PENALTIES, 
for not pro-\dding watchmen, lights, 
gongs, etc., in hotels and lodging 
houses, sect. 32, chap. 104, R. L 359 

PENDENCY. 

notice of, filed in Registry of Deeds, chap. 

463, 1897 290 

PERMIT. 

to state proposed use of building 100 36 1 

PERMITS. 

fees for, authorized, chap. 571, 1910 316 

what work requires them 4, 19 1, 13 6, 1 

who issues 4 1 6 

PERMITS AND APPLICATIONS. 

in what form 5 1 9 

PERMITS, BUILDING. 

applications for 5 1 9 

requirements of 5 ] 9 

applicants may appeal to board of appeal, 7 1 

action thereon 8 7 1,2 

Building Commissioner shall grant, for 

construction 4 1 

if terms are violated commissioner may 

stop work 4 

to be on approved printed forms 5 

required for all buildings 15 

PERMITS, OTHER THAN BUILDING. 

required for alterations 15 

boilers, steam 4 

elevators 107 

furnaces 4 

gas fitting 4 

plumbing 160 

commissioner to grant, on application. ... 4 



1 


8 


1 


9 


12 


1 


12 


1 


1 


6 


^38 


8,9 


1 


6 


1 


6 


114 


1 


1 


6 



36 


11 


12 


15 


30 


1 


14 


37 


14 


41 


14 


41 


15 


47 


14 


41 



Ikdex. . 243 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
PICTURE SHOWS, MOVING. 

subject to chapter 437, Acts 1905 313 

PIECES. 

under tension and compression at differ- 
ent times 38 14 62 

PIERS. 

reduced floor loads, used for 103 

to be of masonry or metal, when 18 

to have caps and plates 89 

definition of 29 

height of 32 

concrete, bearing, plain, height of, allowed, 32 

concrete to be reinforced, when 46 

brick, height of, allowed 32 

PIERS AND HEARTHS. 

regulations for 89 30 1^2 

PILE FOUNDATION. 

detached column or pier footing to rest 

on not less than three piles 76 

may rest on single pile, Vvhen 76 

light walls, may rest on single row piling, 

provisionally 76 

at least two rows of piling required 76 

may be three feet on centers, when 76 

under masonry buildings, capping to be 

of block granite or concrete 77 21 2A 

when capped with concrete, regulations 

for 77 

rubble concrete for capping, not allowed, 77 

when capped with block granite, regula- 
tion for 77 

may be capped v.ith timber, when 77 

additional piles required, when ordered 

by commissioner 77 21 

sustaining power of piles to be determined 

by commissioner 77 

wooden piles, regulation for (77-79) 

wooden piles, quality of 77 

piles to be butt cut 77 

piles to have uniform taper from butt to 

top 77 

short bends not allowed 78 

all knots to be trimmed close to pile . 78 



21 


2 


21 1 


2 


21 


2 


21 


2 


21 


2 



21 


2A 


21 


2A 


21 


2A 


21 


3 



21 


5 


21 


(6-18) 


.21 


6 


21 


6 


21 


6 


21 


7 


21 


8 



21 


9 


21 


10 


21 


11 


21. 


12 



244 Inpex. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
PILE FOUNDATION. 

all piles to be not less than 6 inches diam- 
eter at top 78 21 8 

piling to be inspected by qualified in- 
spector 78 21 9 

piling inspector to keep accurate record 

of piles driven 78 

square timber may be used, when 78 

pile heads to be cut to sound wood before 

capped 78 

loads on wooden piles 78. 

wooden piles, shall be figured as columns, 

when 78 21 12 

such piles shall be of hardwood, oak, yel- 
low pine, etc 78. 21 12 

safe load on all other wooden piles 78 21 13 

when testing for value, pile head shall 

have sound wood 79 21 14 

when testing for value, fall of hammer 

shall be ten feet 79 21 14 

safe supporting value of wooden piles, 

formula 79 21 15 

wooden piles, distance between to be not 

less than 24 inches on centers 79 21 17 

grade for cutting off piles to be five 79 21 17 

may be cut at higher grade when allowed 
by commissioner but not to exceed 
grade nine 79 21 17 

wooden piles, depth may be driven below 

surface 79 

when followers are used 79 

when driving blocks are used 79 

general requirements for 76 

supporting value of, how obtained 76 

driving, method of not to impair strength, 76 

frictional value, not to be relied on for 

support 76 

not to be loaded eccentrically 76 

PILES. 

allowed for supporting masonry 20 

boring may be required previously 74 

commissioner to determine grade for cut- 
ting 79 

concrete, allowable load 81 



21 


18 


21 


18 


21 


18 


21 


1 


21 


1 


21 


1 


21 


1 


21 


1 


13 


9 


20 


19 


21 


17 


21 


24 



Index. 245 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
PILES. 

concrete, load test 76, 82 21 2, 25 

distance on center 79 21 17 

inspector may be required 78 21 9 

inspector to keep records 78 21 9 

to be capped with granite or concrete .... 76 21 2 

under wooden buildings on marshy land, 110 39 3 

PINE, WHITE AND YELLOW. . 

stress 36 14 52 

PIPES. 

hot air, minimum distance from wood- 
work 95 32 26 

smoke, distance from ceiling 94, 95 32 25, 27 

steam or hot water, distance from wood- 
work 20 13 14 

wires, etc., not to be built into fireproofing 

of steel, etc 92 32 10 

PIPES, BACK AIR. 

plumbing, requirements for 162 117 3 

PIPES, BRASS. 

diameter, thickness and weight required, 168 121 10 

PIPES, CAST-IRON. 

diameter and weight required 168 121 12 

PIPES, DRAIN. 

requirements, relating to 170 122 1, 2 

PIPES, LEAD. 

plumbing, restricted to short branches .. . 166 121 6 

required diameter, thickness and weight, 167 121 7 

PIPES, REFRIGERATOR AND DRIP. 

plumbing, regulations for 164 119 1 

PIPES, SMOKE. 

not to project through walls or windows, 20 13 13 

PIPES, SOIL. 

plumbing, requirements for 161 117 1 

required diameters for 165 121 1 

PIPES, STEAM, ETC. 

not to be within one inch of woodwork. . . 20 13 14 

restrictions concerning 20 13 14 

PIPES, WASTE. 

plumbing, requirements for 161 117 1 

required diameters for 165 121 1 

PIPES, WROUGHT-IRON. 

diameter, thickness and weight required, 169 121 14 



246 



Indtex. 



Page. 
PIPING. 

cutting for, restrictions relative to 27 

distance from v/oodwork 20 

PLACARD. 

(o) unsafe elevators, etc 107 

(6) unsafe buildings, etc 5 

(c) buildings where violation of build- 

ing law exists 5 

(d) buildings where egress is insufl&cient, 5 
PLACING. {See Section 14.) 39 
PLANS. 

including drawings, strain sheets, etc., to 

be filed before permit is granted 9 

PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS. 

building commissioner may require 5 

duplicates to be kept at buildings 4 

observation stands, commissioner must 

approve 21 

open to inspection of inspector 4 

to be filed with application 4 

PLASTER BOARD. 

on stair walls in tenement houses 119, 120 

PLASTERING. 

on fireproof partitions, thickness 96, 97 

PLATE GIRDERS. 

data for figuring 66 

flanges, proportion of 66 

top flange, stresses of, to be reduced, 

when 66 

stiffeners to be provided, when 66 

stiff eners, intermediary, relative to 66 

riveted, compression flange 33 

steel, extreme fiber stress may be reduced, 

when and how 33 

PLUMBERS. 

must be registered or licensed 159 

must get permits 160 

notify commissioner on changing place of 

business 159 

PLUMBING. 

"air pipes," definition of 159 

requirements for 160, 172 

back water valve 173 



Section. Paragraph. 



14 


26 


13 


14 


38 


9 


4 


1 


4 


1 


4 


1 


15 


7 


8 


1 


1 


9 


1 


5 


13 


16 


1 


5 


1 


5 


46,47 


1,1 


33 


8,9 


16 


7 


16 


7 


16 


7 


16 


7 


16 


7 


14 


45 


14 


45 


113 


1 


114 


1 



113 



112 



115, 123 1, (1-2) 
124 1 



Index. 247 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
PLUMBING. 

clean-outs, required diameter and weight 

of 166 121 4 

connection with sewer or drain 160 115 1 

definition of terms used in (158-169) 112 (1-10) 

"drain," meaning of 159 112 6 

drain pipes, details of construction 170 122 1, 2 

drain pipes, requirements for 170 122 1, 2 

drains, surface, must have seal trap and 

back-water valve. 173 124. 1 

exhausts, steam, regulations for (171-172) 122 (3-6) 

ferrules, clean-outs, etc (165-166) 121 (2-5) 

ferrules, required diameter and weight of, 165 121 2 

fittings, drainage, must be galvanised ... . 170 121 17 

"fixture," definition of 159 112 10 

grease and oil traps if required 172 123 1 

inspection and tests of work 160 11(5 1 

laboratory, to be approved by commis- 
sioner 163 117 5 

leaders, roof, requirements for 173 124 1 

"leaks, repair of," meaning of 158 112 2 

municipal covirt given jurisdiction in law 

cases 178 1;10 1 

nipples, soldering, required diameter and 

weight of 166 121 3 

pipes, back air, requirements for 162 117 3 

brass, required diameter, thickness and 

weight 168 121 10 

cast iron, required diameter, thickness 

and weight 168 121 12 

lead, required diameter, thickness and 

weight 167 121 7 

restricted to short branches 166 121 6 

refrigerator and drip, regulations for, 164,170 119,121 1,17 

soil and waste, requirements for 161 117 1 

required diameter of 165 121 1 

vent, definition of 159 112 5 

wrought iron, required diameter, thick- 
ness and weight 169 121 14 

relative to business of, chap. 287, 1914 . . . 329 

roof leaders, requirements for 173 124 1 

soil and waste pipes, sizes required 173 121 1 

sciland waste pipes, traps and fittings.. 161, 162 117 1,2 

"soil pipe," definition of 159 112 7 



248 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
PLUMBING. 

soldering nipples, required diameter and 

weight of 166 121 3 

special traps for gasolene, naphtha, etc. . . 172 123 1 
stable drainage fixtures to be approved 

by commissioner 163 117 6 

"surface drain," meaning of 159 112 9- 

must have seal trap and back-water 

valve 173 124 1 

terms used in, defined (165-168) 121 (1-10) 

tests and inspection of work 160 116 1 

to be inspected and approved 100 116 1 

traps, requirements for 161 117 1 

special, when required 172 123 1 

"vent pipes," definition of 158 112 1 

"ventilation pipe," definition of 158 112 1 

vents, requirements for (161-163) 117 (1-4) 

wash stand for vehicles, sand box for 172 123 1 

wastepipesandtraps, provisionsfor. . . .161, 162 117 1,2 

water-closets, requirements for 164 120 1 

water-closets, water supply for, 164 120 1 

"Y-branches," definition of 158 112 1 

POLICE COMMISSIONER. 

not affected by this act 13 10 2 

PORTABLE SCHOOL BUILDINGS. 

not affected by this act 12 10 1 

PORTLAND CEMENT. 

to conform to standard specifications ... . 24 14 16 

POSITIVE BENDING. 

formula, panel width 55 15 82 

POSITIVE MOMENT. 

of continuous beams, subject to other 
than uniformed loads, may be reduced, 

when and hov,' 44 15 34 

POSTS. 

wood, strength of 23 14. 3 

POWER AND HEAT. 

appliances for, in hazardous buildings. (173-174) 125 (1-4) 

PRIVACY IN ACCESS TO WATER- 
CLOSETS. 

in tenement houses 132 67 1 

PRIVATE BUSINESS. 

prohibited for department employees ... 3 1 4 



Index. 249 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
PRIVATE DWELLING. 
entertainments in, sect. 173, chap. 102, 
R. L., as amended by chap. 254, sect. 

1, of 1909 358 

PRIVY VAULTS. 

construction and size 164 120 1 

PROHIBITIONS, BUILDING. 

complete list of (19-23) 13 (1-22) 

relating to alterations, repairs and moving, 19 13 (1-2) 

PROJECTIONS OVER PUBLIC WAYS. 

restrictions relating to 21 13 19 

PROSCENIUM WALLS. 

theatres must have 143 83 1 

PROTECTION. 

in case of excavation 71 19 1 

PUBILC ASSEMBLY. 

places of, requirements, construction, (152-153) 105 (1-') 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 
aisles, passageways and stairways must 

be clear. ., 153 105 6 

aisles, passageways and stairways, no 

person to stand in during performance, 153 105 6 

aisles of, must conform to requirements 

for theatres 154 107 1 

cinematograph, use in, regulations for, 

chap. 437, 1905 313 

exits of, must conform to requirements 

for theatres 154 107 1 

exit lights must conform to requirements 

for theatres 154 

obstruction in aisles, etc 153 

seats must conform to requirements for 

theatres 154 

seats, temporary, not allowed in aisles, etc., 153 

seats to be secured 153 

stairways must conform to requirements 

for theatres 154 107 

PUBLIC HALL. 

defined 114 42 

PUBLIC HALLS. 

in existing tenement houses, lighting and 

ventilation 138 71 

in tenement houses, lighting and ventila- 
tion 130 65 



107 


1 


105 


6 


107 


1 


105 


6 


105 


6 



250 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
PUBLIC HALLS AND THEATRES. 

chap. 463, 1907 314 

inspection and licensing of, chap. 655, 

1913, sect. 13-39 (321-326) 

PUBLIC HEALTH. 

protection of, chap. 219, 1897 289 

PUBLIC HEARINGS. 

on hazardous buildings and appliances; . . 174 125 3 

PUBLIC LODGING HOUSES. 

chap. 129, 1911, regulation for 317 

cubicles in, prohibited, chap. 242, 1904, 
as amended by chap. 160, General Acts 

of 1915 297 

PUBLIC PARKS. 

buildings in, chap. 129, 1889 286 

PUBLIC SAFETY, 
commissioner may take necessary meas- 
ures 15 12 3 

power of, relating to 5, 6 4 1, 2 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS, 
use of for social circle and other uses, 

chap. 86, 1916, Special Acts 349 

PUBLIC WAYS. 

boilers not to be placed under 21 13 18 

building line on, sect. 103, chap. 48, 

R. L 356 

PUBLIC WAYS AND SQUARES. 

projections over, regulations for. ....... 21 13 19 

PUBLICATION. 

of records of violations, privileged 5 2 1 

PUNCHING. 

punching shear not to exceed six per cent 

of compression strength 50 15 66 

PUNCHING SHEAR IN FOOTINGS, 
area effective to resist in column footings, 51 15 71 

Q. 

QUALITY. 

materials — in general 23 

brick 23 

sand 25 

stone 25 14 13 



14 


1 


14 


2 


14 


12 



Index. 



251 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 

QUALITY. 

gravel 26 14 14 

cinders and slag 26 14 15 

lime 26 14 17 

lime mortar 26 14 18 

Portland cement 26 14 16 

cement lime mortar 26 14 19 

Portland cement mortar 20 14 20 

QUAYS, WHARVES, ETC. 

not affected by this act 12 10 1 

R. 

RADIATORS. 

theatre, forbidden in passageways 151 104 1 

RAGS, FEATHERS, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings ... . 175 126 1 

RAILROAD STATIONS. 

not afifected by this act 12 10 1 

RAISING OF BUILDINGS, 
examination to be n^ade on application to 

raise 5 3 1 

RANGE BOILERS. 

making, sale and installation of, chap. 

154, 1916, General Acts 347 

RAT PROOFING. 

cellars to be made rat proof, when 83 22 2 

method of 83 22 2 

RECESS, OR CHASE. 

requirements relating to 19 13 3 

RECORDS OF DEPARTMENT. 

open to public inspection 4 1 5 

RECTANGULAR BEAMS. 

formulas (60-61) 15 (111-115) 

REGISTER BOXES. 

to be set in soapstone, etc 95 32 26 

construction of 95 32 26 

hot air pipes, to be one inch from wood- 
work 95 32 26 

to be one inch from woodwork 95 32 26 

size of, allowed 95 32 26 

connecting pipes 95 32 26 



32 


26 


32 


26 


32 


26 


113 


1 



16 


2 


16 


(5-8) 


27 


1 


15 


1 



252 Index . 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
REGISTER BOXES OR PIPES. 

distance from woodwork 95 

how made and protected 95 

minimum size 95 

REGISTRATION OF PLUMBERS. . . . 159 

REGISTRY OF DEEDS. 

notice of pendency in, chap. 463, 1S97, 290 

REINFORCED CONCRETE. 

beams, how much of slab included 65 

columns, required (66-67) 

frame for walls 8S 

meaning of 38 

REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILD- 
INGS. 

may be of supported structural steel or 

cast iron columns 47 

said support to be fireproofed 47 

REINFORCEMENT. 

spacing of, slab reinforcement bars, in 

tension 40 

spacing of beams 40 

spacing of girders 40 

self centering, fireproofing vmder 45 

strips, quantity necessary 57 

when lying obliquely to axis of scrip 57 

REINFORCEMENT SLABS. 

supported on four sides, distribution of, 44 15 37 

REINFORCEMENTS, MAIN. 

fire protection of, beams, columns, walls, 

girders 39 15 14 

REINFORCEMENTS, STEEL. 

requirements for 38 15 3 

to be free of mill scale and loose rust 38 15 3 

REINFORCING MATERIALS, SELF- 
CENTRING. 

use of prohibited where span exceeds 

eight feet 45 15 44 

REJECTION OF MATERIAL. 

power of commissioner 38 15 1,2 

REMODELLED. 

what buildings may be ■ 98 35 1 

REMOVAL OF BUILDINGS. 

permit for 4 I " 6 



15 


49 


15 


49 


15 


17 


15 


17 


15 


17 


15 


44 


15 


98 


15 


98 



Index. 253 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
REMOVAL WORK. 

to be supported 15 12 2 

"REPAIR OF LEAKS." 

plumbing, meaning of 15S 112 2 

REPAIR OF WOODEN BUILDINGS. 

within limits, permit required 19 13 1 

REPAIRING OF BUILDINGS. 

examination to be jnade on application, 3 3 1 

REPAIRS. 

defined 114 42 11 

limit of oost, to be called such 19 13 1 

REPAIRS AND ALTERATIONS. 

permits required for 15, 19 12, 13 1,1 

REPEALS. 

chap. 419, 1892, and all acts inconsistent, 

repealed 179 133 1 

REPORT. (Annual.) 

board of appeal to Mayor 9 8 2 

of commissioner 4 1 5 

to be printed separately 9 8 2 

REQUIREMENTS. 

for all buildings (15-18) 12 (1-15) 

RESPONSIBILITY FOR MAINTE- 
NANCE. 

of owners and lessees . ^ 175 127 1 

RESTRICTION. 

of areas 67,68,69 17 1,2,4,5 

RESTRICTIONS. 

tenement-house, commissioner not to dis- 
pense with 141 76 1 

RETAINING WALLS. 

for excavation 71 19 1 

rust protection 40 15 16 

RIVET HOLES. 

steel construction in tension members .... 65 16 2 

RIVETED CONNECTIONS, ETC. 

rules for 67 16 9 

when to be used 88 27 1 

RIVETING. 

of steel columns 88 27 1 

of steel frame 88' 27 1 

to be used when 67 16 9 

RIVETS. 

steel construction 65 16 2 



254 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
ROOF GARDENS. 

above theatres, provisions for 154, 155 108, 109 1, 1 

exits required for 155 109 1 

ROOF LEADERS. 

requirements for 173 ' 124 1 

ROOF LOAD. 

minimum 104 36 (15-18) 

ROOF OPENINGS. 

framing of 45 15 44 

ROOF SLABS. 

depth 45 15 41 

ROOFING. 

to be brick, tile, slate, etc 22 13 21 

of wooden shingles not permitted 22 13 21 

ROOFS. 

not to discharge on street or alley 20 13 5 

observation stands not to be erected on, 21 13 16 

permanent means of access to 16 12 6 

safe minimum live load with pitch of 4 

inches or less per foot 104 36 15 

with pitch of 4 inches to 8 inches per foot, 104 36 16 

with pitch of 8 inches to 12 inches per 

foot 104 36 17 

with pitch more than 12 inches per foot, 104 36 18 

ROOMS, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

lighting and ventilation of 129 63 1 

size of, regulations for 130 64 1 

ROT. 

timbers to be free from 29 14 35 

,RUBBLE CONCRETE. 

meaning of 27 14 23 

not to be used for any projecting footing, 27 14 24 

RUST PROTECTION. 

foundations and retaining walls 40 15 16 

RUTHERFORD AVENUE. 

buildings on, height of, chap. 416, 1907 . . 313 

S. 
SAFETY OF OCCUPANTS. 

commissioner may order additional re- 
quirements for '. . 10 8 4 

SALARIES. 

Building Commissioner 3 1 1 

•members of appeal board 7 6 1 



Index. 255 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
SAND, 
when used for concrete, quality of, 

strength of 25 14 12 

compact, definition of 73 20 9 

loose, definition of 73 20 10 

fine-grained, definition of 74 20 12 

compact, maximum allowable, bearing 

value in foundations 73 20 4 

dry or wet, coarse, maximum allowable 

bearing value in foundations 73 20 4 

fine grained, wet, maximum allowable 

bearing value in foundations 73 20 4 

SANDSTONE. 
stresses of 32 14 42 

SANITARY BUILDINGS. 

of v.ood, chap. 4, 1873 285 

SCHOOL BUILDINGS. 

permit for erection of, to be obtained from 

Building Commissioner 12 10 1 

permanent or portable, exempt from pro- 
visions of this act, except as provided in 

sect. 17 12 10 1 

subject to inspection by Building Depart- 
ment 12 10 1 

SCHOOL BUILDINGS, PORTABLE. 

not affected by this a ct 12 10 1 

SCUTTLES. 

in roof, where required 14, 116 12, 44 6, (1-2) 

SCUTTLES AND BULKHEADS. 

tenement house, requirements for 116 44 (1-2) 

SEALING OF STANDPIPES. 

on stage of theatres forbidden 151, 158 104, 111 3, 8 

SEATS, ASSEMBLY ROOMS. 

must conform to law for theatres when 

ordered by Building Commissioner. .154 107 1 

SEATS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

must conform to requirements for 

theatres 154 107 1 

'SEATS, THEATRE. 

arrangement and space for 145 87 1 

SECOND-CLASS BUILDINGS. 

defined 14 ] 1 2 

what buildings to be 67 17 1 



256 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
SECOND-CLASS BUILDINGS. 

foundations 74 20 20 

to be fire stopped (93-94) 32 (20-24) 

SECOND-CLASS CONSTRUCTION. 

buildings may be of 67 17 1 

7ieio, adapted for habitation: 

height of not to exceed five stories or 

60 feet 68 17 2 

area of such buildings not to exceed 

3,500 square feet 68 17 2 

basements of such buildings, or first 
story, or both, may be used for mer- 
cantile purposes, when 68 17 2 

area, restriction of , when and how 69 17 5 

area not to exceed 10,000 square feet 69 17 5 

SELF-CENTERING, 
reinforcing materials, use of, prohibited, 

when 45 15 44 

reinforcement, fireproofing under 45 15 44 

SETTING OF BOILERS AND 
FURNACES. 

permit for 4 1 6 

"SHAFT." 

definition of 114 42 7 

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. 

fireproof, how supported 70 17 7 

in first and second class warehouses and 

stores to have fireproof enclosures 69, 70 17 3,6 

to be of fireproof material 106 * 38 1 

SHAFTS, ELEVATOR. 

tenement house, regulations for 121 52 1 

SHAKES. 

timber to be free from 29 14 35 

SHALE. 

definition of 73 20 6 

maximum allowable bearing value in 

foundations 73 20 4 

SHEAR AND DIAGONAL TENSION. 50 15 63 

for beams with horizontal bars only, 

with and without reinforcement 50 15 64 

for beams with web reinforcement 50 15 65 

SHEAR PUNCHING, 
not to exceed six per cent of compression 

strength 50 15 66 



Index. 257 

V 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
SHEET PILING, 
where used 71 19 1 

SHINGLE ROOFS. 

not permitted 22 13 21 

SHIRLEY-EUSTIS HOUSE. 

exempt from building law provisions, 
until January 1, 1918, Special Act of 
1915, chap. 306. 339 

SHUTTERS. 

on what buildings, how constructed and 

where placed 105 37 1 

provision and requirement for 105 37 1 

SIGNS, 
projection allowed 21 13 19 

SIGNS AND STRUCTURES, 
encroaching on public ways. 

General Act, 1915, chap. 176 337 

SINKS IN EXISTING TENEMENT 
HOUSES, 
woodwork to be remo ved. .,.. 140 73 3 

SKELETON CONSTRUCTION, 
method 88 27 (1-4) 

SKYLIGHT, 
not allowed over court in tenement 

house 126 

over elevator shafts 106 

over stair hall in existing tenement 

house 138 

over stair hall in tenement house 131 

over vent shafts in tenement houses 121 

tenement house, regulations for 138 

SLAB THICKNESS. 

in flat slab construction 53 15 77 

shear about column, capital, or dropped 

panel 53 15 77 

SLABS. 

to be considered restrained at ends, when, 44 15 33 

supported on four sides, distribution of 

loads 44 15 37 

reinforcement of, bending moment, cal- 
culated moment 45 15 38 



57 


1 


38 


1 


71 


1 


66 


1 


52 


1 


71 


2 



268 Ijsidex. 

/ 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 

SLABS. 

simply supported, span lengtli 40 15 20 

depth below T-beams 45 15 42 

concrete cinder, thickness of , span of ... . 45 15 43 

continuous or restrained, span length. .. . 40 15 24 

considered integral part of beam, when ... 46 15 46 

cast monolithic, a T section, when 48 15 55 

SLAG. 

allowable for aggregate, when 25 14 11 

, composition of, allowable 26 14 15 

SMOKE PIPES. 

at least 1 foot below ceiling 94 32 25 

not to project through wall or window. . . 21 13 17 

regulations for 94 32 25, 23 

relative to 94,95 32 25,27 

not to be placed nearer than one foot to 

woodwork 95 32 26,27 

to have metal collars when passed through 

floors or partitions not fireproof 95 32 27 

entering chimney to have metal collar. . . 95 32 27 

passing through roof or external wall 

prohibited .' 95 32 27 

when within 18 inches of ceiling to have 

wire lath and plaster protection or 

shields 95 32 27 

SOFT CLAY. 

definition of 74 20 16 

SOIL. 

character and depth, to be determined by 

test 74 20 19 

"SOIL PIPE." 

plumbing, definition of 159 112 7 

SOIL AND WASTE PIPES AND TRAPS. 

plumbing requirements for 161, 162 117 1,2 

SOLDERING NIPPLES. 

required diameter and weight of 166 121 3 

SOLID LEDGE. 

definition of ! 73 20 5 

SOUND. 

definition of, classes of timber 29 14 36 

SPACING OF REINFORCEMENT. 

slab reinforcement bars in tension 40 15 17 

beams and girders 40 15 17 



15 


24 


15 


24 


15 


24 



Index. 259 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
SPAN LENGTH, 
for beams and slabs simply supported .... 24 15 24 
for beams and slabs, continuous or re- 
strained 24 

brackets, when used 24 

maximum negative moments 24 

SPAN OF A BEAM. 

defined 65 16 2 

SPANS. 

unusual or unequal length, to be designed 

to carry out intent of act 44 15 36 

SPECIFICATIONS AND PLANS. 

commissioner may require 4 1 5 

duplicate to be kept at building 4 1 5 

observation stands, commissioner must 

approve 19 13 13 

SPRINKLERS. 

automatic, commissioner may order in 
basements of mercantile buildings here- 
after erected 18 12 15 

if installed, larger undivided area allowed, 69 17 4 

SPRINKLERS AND STANDPIPES. 

theatres, regulation for 151 104 3 

SPRUCE. 

stress of 36 14 52 

STABLES. 

distance from adjoining buildings 21 

outside limits, maximum height and area, 70 

public hearings for 21 

restrictions relating to location of 21 

fire protection in, for horses and mules, 349 

chap. 158, 1916, General Acts. 
outside building limits; may be built as 

approved by commissioner 70 17 8 

STABLES, DRAINAGE OF. 

fixtures to be approved by commissioner, 163 117 6 

STAGE DOORS. 

theatre, requirements for 146 91 1 

STAGING OR STANDS FOR _OBSER- 
VATION. 

not to be erected on roofs 21 13 16 

STAIR HALL. 

defined 114 42 9 

in tenement houses, construction 119, 120 46, 47 1, 1 



13 


20 


17 


8 


13 


20 


13 


20 



36 


2 


45 


2 


44 


1 


36 


2 


44 


2 



260 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
STAIR SHAFTS. 

in first-class stores and warehouses, to be 

fireproof, automatic doors 67 17 * 1 

STAIR STRINGERS. 

to be fire stopped 94 32 21 

STAIRS. 

constructed to carry loads safely 101 

in tenement houses, dimensions 118 

fireproof, to roof bulkhead 116 

minimum load for 101 

to roof to be kept clear 116 

STAIRS, THEATRE. 

how to be constructed 150, 151 100, 103 1, 1 

STAIRS AND PUBLIC HALLS. 

tenement houses to have lights, when. . . 118 45 5 

STAIRWAYS. 

in tenement houses. . . . ■. (117-118) 45 (1-5) 

STAIRWAYS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

must conform to requirements for 

theatres 154 107 1 

persons not allowed to stand on, during 

performance 153 105 6 

STANDPIPES AND SPRINKLERS. 

theatre, regulations for 151 104 3 

STANDS, OBSERVATION. 

commissioner must approve plans of . . . . 21 13 16 

not to be erected on roofs » 20 13 

STATE BUILDINGS. 

not affected by this act ■ 12 10 1 

STATE HOUSE. 

vicinity of height of buildings, limit of, 

chap. 457, 1899 293 

STATIONS, RAILROAD. 

not affected by this act 12 10 1 

STEAM EXHAUSTS. 

regulations pertaining to (171-172) 122 (3-6) 

STEEL. 

fireproofing of (93-93) 

in foundations, protected 82 

need not be fireproofed where wood could 

be used 92 

reinforcements, requirements for 38 

tensile and compressive stress 51 



32 


(1-17) 


22 


1 


32 


11 


15 


3 


15 


08 



Index. 261 

Page. Scotinn. Paragraph. 
STEEL. 

exceptions, in slabs of stone concrete. .. . 49 15 bJs 

exceptions in drawn wire, etc 49 15 68 

STEEL -AND IRON. 

in alteration work to be fireproofed as 

required by commissioner 93 32 17 

STEEL COLUMNS. 

parts to be riveted 88 27 1 

hollow, circular, filled with concrete, load 

allowance 47 15 52 

ends to be machined faced or full riveted 

connections provided 66 16 6 

STEEL COMPRESSION MEMBERS. 

' value of ■ 34 14 47 

STEEL CONSTRUCTION. 

materials, stresses and methods of com- 
putation. (.See sect. 14) . 65 

general requirements 65 

thickness of metal, allowable 65 

rivets 65 

rivet holes in tension members 65 

tension members, proportioning 65 

net sections to be used 65 

STEEL FRAME. 

to be riveted 88 27 1 

STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 

methods 88 27 1 

STEEL GRILLAGE. 

in foundations, requirements for 75 20 25 

STEEL, MODULUS OF ELASTICITY. 

for cinder concrete 51 

for stone concrete 51 

for stone concrete over 2,200 pounds 
and less than 2,900 pounds per square 

inch 51 

2,900 pounds or over per square inch 51 

STEEL PLATE GIRDER. 

extreme fibre stress may be reduced 

when and how .33 14 45 

STEEL, STRUCTURAL. 

to conform to standard specifications .... 28 14 28 

STIRRUP IRONS. 

when and where required 18 12 14 



16 


1 


16 


1 


16 


1 


16 


2 


16 


2 


16 


2 


16 


2 



15 


69 


15 


69 


15 


69 


15 


69 



262 Index. 

Page. Section, Paragraph. 

STONF 

when used for concrete, quality of 25 14 13 

when used for reinforced concrete, qual- 
ity of 25 14 13 

STONE MASONRY. 

stresses for 32 14 42 

STOP ORDER. 

how issued 4 1 8 

STOPPING WORK. 

concrete work to stop at point of low 

shear 39 15 11 

STORAGE BUILDINGS. 

outside limits, maximum height and 

areas 70 17 8 

outside building limits may be bmlt as 

approved by commissioner 70 17 8 

STORE FRONTS. 

how protected 17 12 11 

outside finish of 17 12 11 

STORES. 

first class, to have fireproof shafts and 

automatic doors 69 17 3 

STORES, OFFICES, ETC. 

in theatre buildings 142 81 1 

STORES AND STORAGE BUILDINGS. 

fire-escape, requirements for 70 17 7 

"STORY," BUILDING. 

definition of 15 11 12 

STRAIN SHEETS. 

to be filed before permit is granted 9 8 1 

STRAINS. 

calculation of, to be submitted 9 8 1 

STRi\W, HAY, FEED. ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable building 175 126 1 

STREET COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this act 13 10 2 

STREET WIDTH. 

how measured 70 18 1 

STRENGTH. 

of materials 23, (29-37) 14 1, (37-55) 

STRENGTH, STABILITY, SAFETY. 

of a building, commissioner may order 

additional requirements for 10 S 4 



Index, 



263 



Page. 
STRESS. 

tensile or compressive, of steel 51 

exceptions, slabs of stone concrete and 

drawn wire 51 

base plates, how to figure 38 

bearing plates, how to figure 38 

grillage beams, how to figure 38 

STRESSES. 

working, not to be altered 9 

timber compression members due to 

eccentric loading 36 

timber compression members, due to 

transverse loading 36 

of materials, not set out in law, to be de- 
termined by commissioner 37 

of materials used in construction,30, 31, 32, 33, 36 

of brickwork used in construction 30 

of concrete used in construction 31 

of grout and stone masonry 32 

of structural steel and iron 33 

of timber 36 

not prescribed to be fixed by com- 
missioner 37 

STRESSES, BUILDING MATERIALS. 

tables, etc (23-38) 

STRESSES, STEEL CONSTRUCTION, 51 

STRING COURSES. 

projection allowed 21 

STRUCTURAL DETAILS. 

to be submitted 9 

STRUCTURAL :METAL. 

to be fireproofed and how (90-93) 

to be fire protected 90 

method of same (90-92) 

exemptions (92-93) 

STRUCTURAL, SLABS, 

to be poured full thickness 39 

STRUCTURAL STEEL, 

to conform to standard specifications .... 28 

STRUCTURAL STEEL AND IRON. 

stresses for 33 



Secti 



on. Paragraph. 


15 


68 


l"i 


68 


14 


63 


14 


63 


14 


63 


S 


2 


14 


53 



14 



14 



53 



14 


55 


14 


39, 40, 42 




44,52 


14 


39 


14 


40 


14 


42 


14 


44 


14 


52 



14 


(1-63) 


15 


68 


13 


19 


8 


2 


32 


(1-17) 


32 


1 


32 


(1-S) 


32 


(11-16) 


15 


10 


14 


28 


14 


44 



264 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
STRUCTURES, TEMPORARY. 

commissioner may. prescribe conditions 

for 11 9 1 

STUDDING. 

not to be placed nearer than 1 inch to 

chimney 20 13 ~ 11 

to be fire stopped 93 32 19, 20 

SUBSTITUTE MATERIALS 9 8 2 

SUBSTITUTE METHODS, 
plans, formulas, etc., to be -filed with 

commissioner 9 8 2 

SUMMER THEATRES. 

outside building limits, how may be con- 
structed, capacity 155 110 (1-3) 

SUPPORT BY CITY FOR DANGEROUS 
EXCAVATIONS. 

cost may be recovered 71 19 1 

SUPPORT WORK. 

and adjoining property 15 12 2 

SUPPORTING MEMBERS. 

bending in beams or floor slabs propor- 
tioned to resist stresses, when 46 15 45 

SUPPORTING WORK. 

power of commissioner 15 12 3 

SUPPORTS. 

below first floor, to be of masonry or 

metal 18 12 15 

"SURFACE DRAIN." 
must have deep seal trap and back-water 

valve 173 124 1 

plumbing, terms defined (158-159) 112 (1-10) 

SURVEY OF LOT. 

required 5 1 9 

SUSPENDED CEILING. 

of metal lath and plaster, fireproofing of, 

same as for slabs 48 15 55 

SYSTEMS. 

not covered by this act, when allowed. ... 9 8 2 

T. 

TABLES, STRESSES. 

showing strength of building materials, (23-27) 14 (1-26) 

T-BEAMS. 

depth below slab 45 15 42 



15 


46 


15 


46 


15 


46 



Index. 265 

Page. Section. Paragrapli. 
T-BEAMS. 
when slab may be considered an integral 

part of beam 46 

its effective width not to exceed, etc 46 

its overhang not to exceed, etc. 46 

TEARING DOWN. 

permit for 4 1 6 

TEMPERATURE. 

high, premature drying must be avoided, 39 15 12 

low, freezing roust be avoided . 39 15 13 

TEMPORARY FLOORS. 

during construction. 113 41 1 

TEMPORARY SEATS. 

in public buildings prohibited 153 105 6 

in theatres prohibited 157 111 5 

TEMPORARY STRUCTURES. 
commissioner to prescribe conditions 

for 11 9 1 

in connection with other work, commis- 
sioner to fix conditions 11 9 1 

when permitted 11 9 1 

TENEMENT-HOUSE REQUIREMENTS. 

commissioner not to dispense with 141 76 1 

TENEMENT HOUSES. 

"apartment," definition of 114 

ashes, receptacles for 140 

bakeries and fat boiling in, prohibited. . . . 122 
basement leads to outer air in, to be con- 
structed of fireproof material, as 

Building Commissioner shall direct. ... 119 45 
basement rooms, when exempt from 

strict compliance with this act 135 

basements, requirements for (132-135) 

bulkheads, construction of 116 

cellar ceilings, construction of 120 

"corner lot," definition of 113 

"courts," definition of 114 

general regulations for courts 126 

inner, regulations for 127 

outer, regulations for (126-127) 

vent, regulations for 128 

dangerous business in, regulated 122 

defined 113 



42 


10 


75 


1 


53 


1 



687i 


14 


68 


(1-14) 


44 


1 


49 


1 


42 


4 


42 


6 


57 


1 


59 


1 


58 


(1-3) 


60 


1 


54 


1 


42 


1 



266 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
TENEMENT HOUSES. 

definitions of certain words (113-114) 

drainage of courts and yards 140 

egress, provision for, in case of fire 115 

elevator shafts, regulations for 121 

elevators in basement of, if more than 

eight suites and three stories in height 

to be inclosed in fireproof material 119 

entrance halls, construction of 120 

existing, lighting and ventilation of 137 

fire-escapes, construction of (115-116) 

in what they shall consist (115-116) 

general regvdations for (115-llC) 

internal and external. . , (115-116) 

garbage, receptacles for 140 

hallways in, required to be lighted all 

night, if more than eight suites and 

three stories in height 118 

hereafter erected to have fire-escapes 115 

intakes, provision for 131 

light and ventilation, provision for (122-124) 

lighting, board of health may regulate. . . . 175 
lights in hallways, stairways, elevators, 

etc., to be left lighted aU night, if 

more than eight suites and three stories 

in height 118 45 

not to be enlarged to decrease size of 

yard 129 

other bviildings on same lot. 129 

outside limits, restrictions 121 

overcrowding, board of health maj' pre- 
vent 175 

partitions, construction of 121 

"public hall," definition of 114 

"repairs," definition of 114 

rooms of, lighting and ventilation 129 

size of 130 

size of yard, minimum 129 

scuttles, construction of 116 

"shaft," definition of 114 

skylights, regulations for 138 

sprinklers in, required, when more than 

ten suites and three stories in height . . 118 45 



42 


(1-11) 


74 


1 


43 


1 


52 


1 


45 


6 


48 


1 


70 


1 


43 


(1-5) 


43 


(1-5) 


43 


(1-5) 


43 


(1-5) 


75 


1 


45 


5 


43 


1 


66 


1 


55 


(1-7) 


128 


1 



62 


1 


62 


1 


51 


1 


28 


1 


50 


1 


42 


8 


42 


11 


63 


1,2 


64 


1 


62 


1 


44 


2 


42 


7 


71 


1 



114 


42 


9 


119 


46 


1 


L18) 


45 


(1-5) 


119 


45 


6 


116 


44 


1,2 


175 


128 


1 


139 


69,72 


1, (1-2) 


139 


73 


1,2 


130 


65 


1 


131 


66 


1 


121 


51 


1 


114 


42 


5 



Index. 267 

Page. Section. Paragraph . 
TENEMENT HOUSES. 

stair hall, definition of 

stairs halls, construction of 

stairs and public halls (117-118) 

stairwaj'^s in basement of, if more than 

eight suites and three stories in height, 

to be inclosed in fireproof material .... 

to have bulkhead or scuttle 

ventilation, board of health may regu- 
late 

water-closets, requirements for 135, 139 

water supply, regulations for 

windows in public halls of 

for stair halls 

wooden, limit of height and area 

"yard," definition of 

yards, requirements and regidations 

for (122-123), (124-125) 55, 56 (1-7) (1-5) 

where not required (124-125) 56 (1-5) 

TENSION PIECES. 

loaded eccentrally, maximum combined 

fibre stress 37 14 60 

TENSION, SHEAR AND DIAGONAL, 
for beams with horizontal bars only, 

with and without web reinforcement. . . 50 15 64 

TERMS USED IN PLUMBING. 

meaning of, defined (158-159) 112 (1-10) 

TERRA COTTA. 

floor tile, average compression strength of, 

how computed \ 

building blocks, crushing strength 

building blocks, working stress of 

TERRA COTTA PARTITION BLOCKS. 

thickness of blocks and webs 96 33 (1-2) 

TESTS, 
of substitute methods and materials to 

be made satisfactory to commissioner, 9 8 2 

loading, commissioner may order at 

expense of owner 10 8 5 

how determined in exceptional cases 10 8 7 

fire, method of determining 11 8 8 

of materials, commissioner may require 

of owner 23 14 1 



24 


14 


5 


24 


14 


5 


25 


14 


8 


25 


14 


9 



Ill 


3 


108 


1 


104 


2 



268 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
TESTS, ELEVATOR, 
manufacturers must make 109 *3S 1 7 

TESTS, PLUMBING. 

work must be approved 160 li(5 1 

TEST, SOIL. 

to determine cliaracter and depth 74 20 19 

of fireproof partitions, method to be 

employed 97 33 11 

THEATRE EXITS. 

general regulations for 146, (148-149) 91, 99 1, (1-3) 

155,156 111 1,3,4 

THEATRES. 

aisles, regulations for 145 88 1 

aisles, passageways, etc., persons not to 

remain in during performance 157 111 5 

arc light in auditorium in existing thea- 
tres . 156 

art galleries above, regulations for . 154 

auditoriums, heating apparatus under 151 

balcony and gallery platforms for seats, 

size 145 87 

boilers, engines and heating apparatus 

under theatres 151, 156 

control of exits, lights, etc 156 

courts and passages, size, etc 141 

curtains, must have fireproof 143 

doors to open outward 146 

existing, if altered, to conform to new 

law 141 

existing regulations for exits 156 

exit passages 141 

exit plans on program 149 

exit signs 149, 156 

exits, location, width, etc 146 

147, 148 
156 

exits to be marked by signs, etc 148 

false doors and mirrors not allowed 146 

fire-escapes, outside to be lighted 148, 156 

fireproof construction required 141 

floor and stage, levels of 142 

floor levels, changes by inclines 145 



104,111 


2, 2 


111 


3 


79 


1 


84 


1 


93 


1 


77 


1 


111 


4 


79 


1 


99 


3 


99,111 


2,3 


91,92, 


, 95, 96, 99 


1, 1, 


i, (1-3), 1 


111 


3 


99 


2 


94 


1 


99,111 


2,3 


78 


1 


82 


1 


89- 


1 



Index. 269 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
THEATRES, 
foyers, lobbies, corridors, passages, capac- 
ity required 146 90 1 

gas outlets, number, to be inspected and 

tested 149 99 4 

gas pipe outlets required 149 99 4 

gates in stage standpipes 151, 158 104, 111 3, 8 

handrails, stair, requirements for 150 102 (1-2) 

heating apparatus under theatres 151, 156 104, 111 2,2 

inspection, gas pipe outlets, required. . . . 149 99 4 
landings, stair, required dimensions of. . 150 101 1 
lighting fixtures over auditorium, pro- 
tected from falling 144 86 1 

lighting, independently fed or governed 

system in auditorium, halls, etc 148, 156 99, 111 2, 3 

lights for exits, etc 148, 156 99, 111 2, 3 

lobbies, requirements for. 146 90 1 

obstructions or people in aisles or stair- 
ways 157 111 5 

open courts required 141, 142 79, 80 1, 1 

opening outward of doors 146, 156 93, 111 1, 4 

plans on program 149, 156 99, 111 3, 4 

proscenium wall, construction and open- 
ings 143 83 1 

proscenium walls required 143 83 1 

curtains required 143 84 1 

public buildings must conform to require- 
ments for 154 107 1 

radiators forbidden in passagevv ays of ... . 151 104 1 

roof gardens may be above 154 108 1 

room exits for employees 146 92 1 

seats in auditorium, requirements for 145 87 1 

skylight over stage 144 86 1 

sprinklers, automatic, required 151 104 3 

stage doors must be provided 146 91 1 

stage floor, construction 143 85 1 

stairs, construction, dimensions, hand- 
rails, etc .150, 151 100, 103 1, 1 

stairs, how to be constructed 150 100 1 

standpipes required 151 104 3 

stores, ofiicers, etc., under ~ 142 81 1 

temporary seats not allowed 157 111 5 

"theatre," definition of 141 77 1 



270 Index. 

Page. Sectii.n. Pnagraph. 
THEATRES. 
to be fireproof constructiou except certain 

portions 141 78 I 

ventilators, requirements for 144 86 1 

THEATRES AND PUBLIC HALLS, 
inspection and licensing of. 

chap. 665, sect. 30-39, Acts 1913. . . (321-326) 
chap. 463, Acts 1907 314 

THEATRES, CONSTRUCTION OF. 

to be first class 141 77 1 

THEATRES, EXISTING. 

general regulations for (155-158) 111 (1-8) 

THEATRES, SUMMER. 

outside building limits, how may be con- 
structed 155 110 (1-3) 

THICKNESS OF WALLS. 

defined 15 

for all buildings (84-85) 

in steel frame buildings 88 

when ashlar included 85 

THIRD-CLASS BUILDINGS. 

definition of 14 11 3 

in building limits, commissioner may 
grant permit to increase height or 
ground area when at intersection of 

two streets 19 13 1 

may be altered or enlarged, when and 

how 12 9 2 

size and location of window on area 99 35 10 

THIRD-CLASS CONSTRUCTION. 
(See, also, Wooden Buildings.) 

buildings may be third class, when 67 17 1 

TIES. 

steel beams in direction of length 88 27 1 

TIMBER, 
compression numbers, centrally loaded, 

safe load per square inch 37 14 54 

for structural use, to conform to specifi- 
cations promulgated by commissioner, 29 14 35 
to be free from all shakes, knots, rot, 

worm holes and defects 29 

dense, definition of 29 

sound, definition of 29 



11 


11 


23 


(3-7) 


27 


2,3 


23 


10 



14 


35 


14 


36 


14 


36 



Index. 271 

Page. Section. Paragiapli. 
TIMBER. 

stresses of 36 14 52 

compression members, regulation for use 

of 36,37 14 53,54 

compression members, eccentric loading 

of 36 14 53 

compression members, transverse loading 

of 3 6 14 53 

compression members, centrally loaded, 

safe load 37 14 54 

TIMBERS, 
in walls, licw to be treated (second-class 

buildings) 97 34 1 

TIMBERS IX WALLS, SECOND- 
CLASS BUILDINGS. 

to enter wall four inches 97 34 1 

to be splayed, shaped or arranged so as to 
fall out in case of fire without injury to 

wall 97 34 1 

TOP FLANGE. 

steel plate girders, beams or channels, 
extreme fibre stress may be reduced 

when and how 33 14 45 

TRAPS, PLUMBING. 

requirements for (161-163) 117 (1-4) 

TRAPS, SPECIAL. 

grease, inflammable compounds, non- 
siphon 172 123 1 

trim:mer. 

arches 89 30 2 

TRIMMERS, WOODEN. 

hung in stirrup irons, when 18 12 14 

TRUSSES. 

computation, method of, for span of . . . . 37 14 58 

how designed 67 16 8 

to be properly braced 67 16 8 

TRUSSES, RIVETED. 

center of gra\dty line 67 16 8 

need not be fireproof ed, when 92 32 12 

u. 

UNDERPINNING FOR WOODEN 
BUILDINGS, 
materials and thickness 110 39 2 



272 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 

UNSAFE BUILDINGS. 

commissioner may order vacated 6 4 2 

commissioner to post notices on 5 4 1 

commissioner may takedown or shore up, 6 5 1 

owner to take down or secure 6 5 1 

may be placarded 5 4 1 

UNSUITABLE MATERIAL, 

commissioner has power to reject 23 14 1 

USE OF BUILDINGS, 

not to be changed without permit 102 36 5 

V. 

VACANCIES. 

in board of appeal, how filled 7 6 1 

VACATE BUILDINGS. 

commissioner may 

(a) when unsafe or dangerous 6 4 2 

(6) where violation exists 6 4 2 

(c) where egress is insufficient 6 4 2 

VACATED. 

building to be, when ordered by commis- 
sioner with approval of Mayor 6 4 2 

VALVES. 

of stage standpipes in theatres. . 151, 158 104, 111 3, 8 

VAULTED WALLS. 

regulations for 87 26 1 

VENT COURT. 

defined 114 42 6 

VENT COURTS. 

for tenement houses, size, etc 128 60 1 

VENT PIPE. See Smoke Pipe 95 32 27 

"VENT PIPES." 

plumbing, definition of 159 112 5 

regulation for 93 32 18 

VENT SHAFTS. 

defined 114 42 7 

of fireproof material 106 38 1 

in tenement houses to have intakes and 

skylights 121 52 1 

VENTILATING FLUES. . 

must be of incombustible material. ... 17 12 12 

to stoves, broilers or heaters to be of 
brick 18 12 15 



Index. 273 

Page. Section. Paragraph: 
"VENTILATION PIPE." 

plumbing, definition of 159 112 8 

VENTILATION, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

board of health may regulate 175 128 1 

VENTILATORS, THEATRE. 

requirements for 144 86 1 

VENTS. 

plumbing, requirements for 163 117 3 

VIOLATIONS OF BUILDING LAWS. 

to be recorded 5 2 1 

VIOLATIONS OF PERMIT. 

action to be taken 4 1 8 

VIOLATORS OF BUILDING LAWS. 

. may be fined $500 179 132 2' 

VOTING BOOTHS. 

not affected by this act 12 10 1 

W. 

WALL BAYS. 

restraint, when wall is of reinforced con- 
crete. 55 15 83 

no restraint 55 15 88 

WALL BEAMS. 

flatslab construction, in 58 15 101 

when continuous, negative bending at 

columns 58 15 101 

when continuous, positive bending at mid 

span 58 

width of columns, formulas (a) and (b) . . . 58 
WALLS. 

framed with iron or steel 88 

proscenium, theatres mu^t have 143 

to be of masonry or metal, when 18 

8 inches thick to be corbelled for joists 97 

floor loads reduced in figuring 104 

if steel frame, how constructed 88 

in steel frame buildings, thickness 88 

party, above roof, height and finish 89 

not to be removed to enlarge floor areas 

over limit 69 

small openings in 90 

to be bonded at angles 86 

to restrict areas 69, 70 



15 


101, 102 


15 


102, 103 


27 


1-4 


83 


1 


12 


15 


34 


1 


36 


13 


27 


1 


27 


2,3 


28 


1 


17 


5 


31 


• 1 


24 


1 


17 


5,6 



23 


8 


23 


10 


23 


11 


23 


12 


23 


13 


2f3 


13 


25 


1 



274 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
WALLS. 

foundations to be 4 inches thicker than 

walls overhead 85 23 8 

when reinforced, by frame of steel or rein- 
forced concrete 85 

ashlar, when included in the thickness of, 85 

non-bearing thickness of, height of 86 

curtain, thickness of, height of 86 

hollow blpck, not to be used for bearing 

walls 86 

solid, reinforced concrete (see sect. 15) ... 86 

brick, bonding of 87. 

mezzanine floor or balcony more than 10 

feet in span shall be construed as a 

story in fixing thickness of walls sup- 
porting it 85 23 9 

ashlar, not to be considered unless walls 

are 16 inches thick and ashlar 8 inches 

ttick 85 23 10 

also unless alternate courses are 4 inches 

and 8 inches to allow bonding with 

backing 85 23 10 

non-bearing, may be 4 inches less in 

thickness, when 86 23 11 

non-bearing, may be 8 inches less in 

thickness supporting stairs or stair 

landings 86 23 11 

non-bearing, not to be less than 8 inches 

in thickness 86 23 11 

non-bearing, not to exceed a height of 30 

times its thickness 86 

curtain, may be less thickness, when 86 

curtain, in single family dwelling 86 

curtain, in all other buildings 86 

curtain, not to exceed in height, 30 times 

its thickness when more than 20 feet in 

length 86 23 12 

hollow block, not to be used for bearing 

walls, when 86 

hollow block, relative to 86 

basement, what it includes 83 

thickness of, shall be sufficient to keep 

stresses within requirements of workipg 

stresses prescribed by this act 83 23 



23 


11 


23 


12 


23 


12 


23 


12 



23 


13 


23 


13 


23 


1 



Index. 



275 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
WALLS. 

for single family dwellings, not over three 

stories, with wooden floor beams span- 
ning not over 15 feet 84 23 3 

floor timbers in, ends of, not to be nearer 

than 8 inches to each other 84 23 3 

for dwellings, not over three stories, when 

floor spans more than 20 feet 84 23 4 

when any part of such building is adapted 

for other than habitation, surrounding 

waUs of such part to be not less than 

12 inches in thickness 84 23 4 

when one part of building is lower than 

the rest 85 23 7 

foundation, to be 4 inches thicker than 

wall of first story 85 23 8 

main reinforcement to be fire protected. . . 39 15 14 

WALLS ABOVE ROOF, PARTY. 

requirements for ,89 28 1 

WALLS, CONCRETE. 

how poured, when to be poured 39 15 9 

WALLS, CORNICES. 

regulations for 89 29 1 

WALLS, CURTAINS. 

party and outside, must have 88 27 2, 3 

WALLS, PARALLEL. 

to be properly tied 17 12 13 

"WALLS, PARTITIONS." 

definition of 15 11 10 

"WALLS, PARTY." 

definition of 14 11 7 

must have curtain 88 27 2 

openings for doorways in 90 31 1 

wooden buildings to have, when Ill 40 1 

"¥7ALLS, THICKNESS OF." 

m.eaning of, defined 15 11 11 

for basement 84 23 3, 4 

for single dwelling 84 23 3 

for other dwellings 84 23 5 

for hotels 84 23 5 

for lodging houses 84 23 5 

for boarding houses 84 23 5 



84 


23 


5 


84 


23 


5 


84 


23 


5 


84 


23 


5 


84 


23 


5 


85 


23 


6 



276 Index. 

Page. Section, Paragraph. 
"WALLS, THICKNESS OF." 

for club houses 

for convents 

for hospitals 

for asylums 

for detention buildings 

for all other buildings 

WALLS, VAULTED.. 

regulations for 83 26 

WASTE PIPES AND TRAPS. 

plumbing, requirements for 161 117 

WATCHMAN. 

in hotels, etc., when required, sect. 29, 

chap. 104, R. L 359 

WATER-CLOSETS. 

number required 

requirements for 



17 12 


10 


135 69 


(1) 


175 120, 128 


1, 1 


135 67, 69 


1,1 


17 12 


10 



tenement house, provisions for 132, 135 

ventilation of 

in existing tenement houses, number and 

ventilation 139 72 2 

in existing tenement houses, woodwork to 

be removed 139 72 1 

in tenement houses, access to 132 67 1 

in tenement house cellar, permit from 

Health Commissioner 135 69 1 

in tenement houses, floors to be water- 
proofed 135 69 1 

in tenement houses, number, lighting, 

ventilation 135 69 1 

number, in buildings where persons are 

employed 

number, in habitations , 

separate for men and women 

water supply for 

WATER PIPES. 

protection from frost 16 12 8 

WATER SUPPLY. 

tenement house, requirements for 139 73 1, 2 

WATERPROOFING CELLARS. 

when required 82 22 1 



17 


12 


10 


17 


12 


10 


17 


12 


10 


164 


120 


1 



Index. 277 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
WHARVES AND BUILDINGS 
THEREON. 

not restricted by building limits 11 9 1 

not subject to building laws 12 10 1 

WHARVES, MARKET BUILDINGS, 
ETC. 

restrictions of, sect. 9 not to apply to 11 9 1 

WHARVES, QUAYS, ETC. 

not affected by this act 12 10 1 

WHEEL GUARDS. 

on columns 93 32 18 

WIDTH. 

effective, of T-beams, not to exceed, etc., 46 15 46 

WIDTH OF STREET. 

how measured • . 70 18 1 

WIND BRACING. 

provisions for, required ' 37 14 56 

WIND PRESSURE. 

on vertical surfaces, on buildings 40 feet 

in height, 10 pounds 105 

40 feet to 80 feet in height, 15 pounds 105 

more than 80 feet in height, 20 pounds . . . 105 
commissioner may require a design for 
incre sed pressure when i his judg- 
ment the exposure requires it 105 36 20 

bracing, additional, may be required, 

when 105 36 21 

WINDERS ON STAIRS. 

width 118 45 2 

WINDOW CAPS AND SILLS. 

projection allowed 21 13 19 

WINDOWS. 

habitable buildings, regulations for 99 35 10 

in first and second class mercantile and 
manufacturing buildings within 20 feet 
of opposite wall to have metal frames 

and wire glass 105 

in existing tenement houses 137 

in living rooms of habitations, distance 

from opposite wall 99 

size 99 

tenement house, in public halls , . . . , 130 

for stair halls 131 



36 


19 


36 


19 


36 


19 



37 


1 


70 


1 


35 


10 


35 


10 


65 


1 


66 


1 



278 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
WINDOWS. 

third-class bmldings exempt. (Excep- 
tions) 99 35 10 

WINDOWS IN ELEVATOR SHAFTS. 

to have red iron bars 107 * 38 5 

WINDOWS IN TENEMENT HOUSES. 

basement rooms 133 68 4 

courts, exception 129 61 2 

public halls 130 65 1 

size and locations 129 63 1 

of water-closets, bathrooms, halls on 

court, minimum size 127 58 3 

WIRE GLASS. 

in automatic doors, stair shafts 69, 70 17 3, 6 

WIRES, COMMISSIONER OF. 

not affected by tnis act 13 10 2 

provisions of sect. 7 apply to 9 7 3 

WOOD, 
in foimdation of wooden buildings on 

marshy land 110 39 3 

WOOD CONSTRUCTION. 

allowed under masonry, when 20 13 9 

WOODEN BUILDINGS. {See, also, 
Third-Class Buildings.) 
allowed within building limits, for: 

(o) building on wharves not exceeding 

27 feet in height 11 9 1 

(6) market sheds not over 27 feet in 

height 11 9 1 

(c) elevators for grain or coal 11 9 1 

(d) temporary structures to facilitate 

building operations 11 9 1 

(e) dwellings for one and two fami- 
lies under certain restrictions 11 9 1 

construction of, general regulations for, 

(110-111), (111-112) 39, 40 (1-4) , (1-3) 

description of frame Ill 39 4 

for sanitary purposes, chap. 4, 1873 

foundations for 110 39 1 

habitations, distance from lot line and 

next buildings Ill 40 1 

habitations, maximum height, number of 

stories '. Ill 40 1 

height of, requirements Ill, 112 40 1, 2 



iNDtex. 279 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
WOODEN BUILDINGS. 

not habitations, distance from lot line .... 112. 40 2 

proximity to other buildings Ill, 112 40 1, 2 

regulations concerning. . . . (110-111), (111-112) 39, 40 (1-4), (1-3) 
tenement houses, limit of size and area. . 121 51 1 

when to have brick party walls Ill 40 1 

within limits, not to be enlarged 19, 98 13, 35 1,1 

may be altered or enlarged, when and 

how 12 9 2 

inside building limit, comiiussioner may 

grant permit to increase height or 

ground area, when at intersection of 

two streets 19 13 1 

foundation, requirement for 110 39 1 

foundation, to be of brick, stone, granite, 

concrete or rubble 110 39 1 

foundation, to be carried to surface of 

ground 110 39 1 

foundation, of brick or concrete, to be 12 

inches thick 110 39 1 

foundation, of granite to be 18 inches 

thick 110 39 1 

foundation, of rubble, to be 20 inches 

thick 110 39 1 

foundation, to be laid at least 4 feet below 

surface exposed to frost 110 39 1 

foundation, to be laid on solid ground or 

upon piles properly spaced 110 39 1 

foundation, no round or boulder stone 

permitted in 110 39 1 

underpinning, to be of brick or concrete, 

12 inches thick or of stone 16 inches 

thick 110 39 2 

framing, wall girts to be 4 inches by 6 

inches at least of spruce or fir 1 10 39 3 

4-inch by 4-inch if of hard pine 110 39 3 

ledger boards 110 39 3 

studding not over 20 inches on centres, 110 39 3 

solid corners 110 39 3 

posts to be secured, braced 110 39 3 

ledger board, space back of, to be filled, 110 39 3 

to be securely nailed, framed or ironed 

together HO 39 3 

ledger boards, when not allowed Ill 39 4 



280 Index. 



WOODEN HEADERS. 

requirements for 


Page. 
16 

16 

15,19 

9 
48 
48 
49 

49 

29 

28 

28 

47 


Section. Pars 
12 

12 

12,13 

8 
15 
15 

15 

15 
14 

14 

14 

15 


igraph. 
4 


WOODEN TRIMMERS. 

requirements for 


4 


WORK. 

requiring permit 

WORKING STRESSES. 

not to be modified 


1.1 
2 


compressive strength, basis for design . . . 

table for same ." . . . 

concrete shall not be used, when 

concrete, one year old, compressive 
strength of 


56 
56 

57 

58 


WORMHOLES. 

timber to be free from 

WROUGHT IRON. 

strength of 


35 
29 


to conform to standard specifications .... 
WROUGHT-IRON COLUMNS. 

circular, filled with concrete, load allow- 
ance 


29 
52 



Y. 

"Y-BRANCHES." 

plumbing, definition of 159 112 3 

YARD. 

for tenement house, not to be decreased, 

when 129 62 1 

size, etc (122-124) 55 1-7 

to be drained 140 74 1 

•'YARD." 

definition of 114 42 5 

YARDS, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

general regulation for (122-124), (124-125) 55, 56 (1-7), (1-5) 

when not required (124-125) 56 (1-5) 



APPENDICES. 



TITLE OF ACTS IN CHRONOLOGICAL 
OEDER. 



1873, Chap. 4. An Act to Authorize the Erection of 
Wooden Bniildings in the City of .Boston for Sanitary 
Purposes. 

1889, Chap. 129. An Act Relating to Buildings in the 
Public Parks of the City of Boston. 

1891, Chap. 323. An Act Relating to the Location, 
Laying Out, and Construction of Highways in the 
City of Boston. 

1893, Chap. 462. An Act to Authorize the Establishment 
of a Building Line on Public Ways. (Restrictions 
as to Building.) 

1897, Chap. 219. An Act to Provide for the Protection 
of the Public Health in the City of Boston. (Build- 
ings May be Vacated or Torn Down.) 

1897, Chap. 463. An Act Relative to Fihng in the 
Registry of Deeds, Notice of the Pendency of Certain 
Actions. 

1898, Chap. 452. An Act Relative to the Height of 
Buildings on and Near Copley Square, in the City of 
Boston. 

1899, Chap. 457. An Act to Limit the Height of Build- 
ings in the Vicinity of the State House. (Height 
Limit, Seventy Feet.) 

1902, Chap. 543. An Act Relative to the Improvement 
of the State House and to the Height of Buildings on 
Beacon Street and Bowdoin Street in the City of 
Boston . 

281 



282 Acts in Chronological Okder. 

1903, Chap. 383. An Act Relative to Separate Systems 
of Drainage. 

1904, Chap. 242. An Act to Regulate Public Lodging 
Houses in Certain Cities. (Cubicles Prohibited.) 

1904, Chap. 333. An Act Relative to the Height of 
Buildings in the City of Boston. 

1905, Chap. 176. An Act to Regulate the Use of the 
Cinematograph. (See Chap. 437, Acts 1905.) 

1905, Chap. 347. An Act to Prohibit the Obstruction of 
Means of Egress from Buildings. (Fire Escapes, 
PoHce to Enforce Penalty.) See 1914, C. 795, Sect. 
29. (Sect. 13, D.) 

1905, Chap. 383. An Act Relative to the Height of 
Buildings in the City of Boston. 

1905, Chap. 437. An Act to Regulate the Use of the 
Cinematograph in Churches and other Public Build- 
ings. 

1907, Chap. 416. An Act Relative to the Height of 
Buildings on Rutherford Avenue in the City of 
Boston. (Height Limit One Hundred Feet.) . 

1907, Chap. 463. An Act Relative to the Licensing of 
Theatres and PubHc Halls in the City of Boston. 

1910, Chap. 284. An Act Relative to the Construction, 
Alteration, Inspection and Maintenance of Buildings 
in the City of Boston. (Building Department to 
enforce Building Laws in Boston Heretofore Enforced 
by District Police.) 

1910, Chap. 571. An Act to Authorize the Collection of 
Fees for Permits, and Licenses Issued by Department 
of the City of Boston. 

1911, Chap. 129. An Act to Regulate Public Lodging 
Houses in Certain Cities. 

,1911, Chap. 342. An Act to Regulate the Construction 
of Garages in the City of Boston. 



Acts in Chronological Ordek. 288 

1912, Chap. 259. An Act Relative to the Construction 
of Garages in the City of Boston. 

1913, Chap. 280. An Act to Authorize the Mayor of the 
City of Boston to Grant Permits for Special Moving 
Picture Exhibitions in Churches, Halls, or Other 
Buildings. 

1913, Chap. 577. An Act to Regulate the Erection and 
Maintenance of Garages in the City of Bostoi\. 

1913, Chap. 655. An Act to Revise and Codify the Build- 
ing Inspection Laws of the Commonwealth. Part 1. 
Sections 17, 18, 19. In Steel Framed Buildings, 
Protection of open Spaces in Floors, Sections 30-39. 
Inspections of Theatres, Halls, Etc. Section 42. 
Watchmen in Hotels, Etc. Section 51. Penalty. 
Section 60. Equity Jurisdiction. 

1913, Chap. 676. An Act to Require Inspectors of 
Buildings to give Notice to Assessors of the Granting 
of Permits. 

1913, Chap. 729. An Act Relative to Dry Houses in the 
City of Boston. 

1914, Chap. 287. i^n Act Relative to the Business of 
Plumbing. 

1914, Chap. 566. An Act to Prohibit the Locking of 
Doors of Buildings in which Operatives are Employed. 

1914, Chap. 782. An Act to Amend the Building Law of 
the City of Boston. Elevators Hereafter Erected to 
be Enclosed in Shafts, Etc. 

1914, Chap. 786. An Act Exempting a Certain Parcel of 
Land in the City of Boston from Restrictions as to 
the Height of Buildings, Washington Street, corner 
Lovering Place. 

1914, Chap. 791. An Act Relative to the Operation of 
the Cinematograph and to the Exhibition of Motion 
Pictures. Booths, Location of, to be Approved by 
Building Commissioners in Boston. 



284 Acts in Chronological Order. 

1914, Chap. 795. An Act to Provide for the Better Pre- 
vention of Fires Throughout the Metropolitan 
District. 

1915, General Act, Chap. 169. An Act Relative to Cine- 
matographs Usiag only Cellulose Acetate Films. 

1915, General Act, Chap. 176. An Act Relative to Signs, 

Awnings and Other Projections in Pubhc Ways. 
1915, Special Act, Chap. 254. An Act Relative to the 

Erection of Buildings in the City of Boston. Making 

the Use of Certain Buildings Lawful. 
1915, Special Act, Chap. 306. An Act Relative to the 

Shirley-Eustis Mansion on Shirley Street in the City 

of Boston. 

1915, Special Act, Chap. 333. An Act Relative to the 
Height of Buildings in the City of Boston. Revising 
Boundaries of Districts A and B. 

1916, General Act, Chap. 154. An Act Relative to the 
Marking, Sale and Installation of Range Boilers. 

1916, General Act, Chap. 158. An Act to Require Fire 
Protection in Stables for Horses and Mules. 

1916, Special Act, Chap. 86. An Act Relative to the Use 
of PubUc School Property of the City of Boston for 
Social, Civic, and Other Purposes. 

1917, General Act, Chap. 344, Part 2, Section 73. Relative 
to the Establishing of a Building Line on Highways. 
Part 5, Sections 9-11. Relative to Projections into 
or over Public Ways. Part 6, Sections 1 and 4. 
Relative to Boundaries of Highways, etc., Encroach- 
ments Thereon — Barbed Wire Fences. 

1918, Special Act, Chap. 115. An Act to Allow Metal 
Garages of Limited Size in Certain Sections of the 
City of Boston. 

1919, Special Act, Chap. 32. An Act to Require the 
Registration of Hospitals in the City of Boston. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 285 

1919, Special Act, Chap. 163. An Act Relative to the 
Construction, Alteration and Maintenance of Hospi- 
tals in the City of Boston. 

Revised Laws, Chap. 28, Sect. 16. Relative to Height 
of Buildings Allowed on Parkways, Seventy Feet. 

Revised Laws, Chap. 33, Sect. 19. Relative to Fence 
Nuisances Exceeding Six Feet in Height, etc. 

Revised Laws, Chap. 48, Sect. 103. Relative to Building 
Line. 

Revised Laws, Chap. 101, Sections 1-5. Relative to 
Bui'nt, Dilapidated, Dangerous Buildings. 

Revised Laws, Chap. 102, Sect. 173. Relative to Enter- 
tainments given in Private DwelHngs. 

Revised Laws, Chap. 104, Sect. 29. Relative to Watch- 
men in Hotels, Hallway Lights, Gongs, etc. 

Ordinances of 1912, Chap. 9. Concerning Control of 
Building Operations, Person in Charge to be licensed. 

Ordinances of 1913, Chap. 4. Concerning the Building 
Limits. 



CHAPTER 4, ACTS OF 1873. 

An Act to Authorize the Erection of Wooden Build- 
ings IN the City of Boston for Sanitary Purposes. 

Be it enacted, etc.: 

Section 1. The City of Boston is hereby authorized 
to erect, under directions of its board of health and 
inspector of buildings, any wooden buildings within the 
city, for hospital purposes, the same to remain only so 
long as said board deems it necessary : provided, that every 
such hospital shall be constantly guarded outside by a 
competent force of at least three of the poHce of said city. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[January 28, 1873. 



286 Acts in Chronological Order. 

CHAPTER 129, ACTS OF 1889. 

An Act Relating to Buildings in the Public Parks 

OF the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The park commissioners of the city of 
Boston may erect in the parks of said city that now are 
or hereafter may be under their control, except the 
common, pubhc garden and pubhc squares, structures 
for the shelter and refreshment of persons frequenting 
such parks, and for other park purposes, of such materials 
and in such places as in the opinion of the fire commis- 
sioners of said city do not endanger buildings beyond the 
limits of the park. Section sixteen of chapter fifty-four 
of the Public Statutes and chapter three hundred and 
seventy-four of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and 
eighty-five shall not apply to such buildings. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Ajjproved March 18, 1889. 



CHAPTER 323, ACTS OF 1891. 

An Act Relating to the Location, Laying Out, and 
Construction of Highways in the City of Boston. 
Section 9. If any building sha.ll hereafter be placed or 
erected in said city at a grade other than the grade there- 
for, recorded in the office of the city surveyor, and wliich 
the city surveyor shall furnish on the request of the owner 
of the land on which the building is to be placed, or if any 
building shall be placed or erected within the boundaries 
of any way shown on any of the plans hereinbefore pro- 
vided for, after the filing of the plans as aforesaid, and not 
removed at the expense of the owner when required by 
said board of street commissioners, no damage occasioned 
to the estate, of which the land on which the building 
was so placed formed a part at the date of the first adver- 



Acts in Chronological Order. 287 

tisement of the first notice given by said board, relating to 
the plan on which any part of said estate is shown, or to 
any part of said estate, by any subsequent establishment 
of any grade of any highway or by any subsequent change 
of any grade of any highway, shall be recovered by, or be 
paid to, the owner of the whole or of any part of such 
estate. 
Sect. 11. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved June 16, 1892. 
[Acts of 1892, c. 418, sect. 4.] 



CHAPTER 462, ACTS OF 1893. 

An Act to Authorize the Establishment of a 
Building Line on Public Ways. 

Restrictions as to Building. 

Section 1- The board or officers having authority to 
lay out city or town ways may in the manner prescribed 
by law for giving notice of an intention to lay out any such 
way, give notice of an intention to estabhsh a building 
Hne parallel to, and not more than twenty-five feet dis- 
tant from, any exterior fine of a highway or city or town 
way, and after said notice may pass a vote establishing 
such building fine, and in the case of a city, upon the 
recording of said vote in the records of the city, or in a 
town, upon the acceptance of said vote by the inhabitants 
of the town at a town meeting called as provided for by 
law, said building Hne shall be established; and until 
another buikhng line shall thereafter be estabhshed in the 
same manner, no structure shall thereafter be erected, 
placed or maintained between such building Hne and such 
way, except that steps, windows, porticos and other usual 
projections appurtenant to the front wall of a building, 
may be aUowed in such restricted space to the extent 
prescribed in the vote estabHshing such building line. 



288 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Damages. 

Sect. 2. Any person sustaining damage by reason of 
the establishment of such building line shall have the same 
remedies for obtaining payment therefor as may be pre- 
scribed by law for obtaining payment for damages sus- 
tained by the laying out of a highway in such city or town. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect in any city when 
accepted by the city council thereof, and in any town vrhen 
accepted by a majority of the legal voters thereof present 
and voting thereon at a town meeting called for that 
purpose. [Approved June 9, 1893. 

Building Lines Established. 

1. Beacon street, River street to Beaver street, 
Januarys, 1895. 

2. Beacon street (both sides), Arlington street to 
Massachusetts avenue, January 5, 1895. 

3. Beacon street (northerly side), between Somerset 
street and Bowdoin street, November 6, 1900. 

4. Boylston street, Back Bay Fens to Brookline 
avenue, October 4, 1894. 

5. Beech street, West Roxbury (northeast side), 
between Centre street and railroad, February 29, 1916. 

6. Columbia road, Edward Everett square to the rail- 
road. Established by park commissioners. 

7. Columbia road (southeast side), Hamilton street to 
Richfield street, January 28, 1915. 

8. Grove street. West Roxbury (both sides), between 
Washington street and Centre street, March 9, 1916. 

9. Jersey street, July 15, 1898; Landsdowne street, 
November?, 1906. 

10. Peterborough street, February 1, 1901. 

11. Queensberry street, July 15, 1897. 

See Revised Laws, chapter 48, section 103; amendinent, 
1913, chapter 572. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 289 

CHAPTER 219, ACTS OF 1897. 

An Act to Provide for the Protection of the Public 
Health in the City of Roston. 
Buildings may he Vacated or Torn Down. 
Section 1. Whenever the board of health of the city 
of Boston shall be of opinion that any building or any 
part thereof in said city is infected with contagious 
disease, or by reason of want of repair has become dan- 
gerous to life, or is unfit for use because of defects in 
drainage, plumbing, ventilation or in the construction of 
the same, or because of the existence of a nuisance on the 
premises which is likely to cause sickness among its 
occupants, said board may issue an order requiring all 
persons therein to vacate or cease to use such building or 
part thereof stated in the order, for reasons to be stated 
therein as aforesaid. Said board shall cause said order to 
be affixed conspicuously to the building or part thereof; 
and to be personally served on the owner, lessee, agent, 
occupant or any person having the charge or care thereof, 
if the owner, lessee or agent cannot be found in the said 
city, or does not reside therein, or evades or resists service, 
then said order may be served bj'- depositing a copy thereof 
in the postoffice of said city postpaid and properly inclosed 
and addressed to such owner, lessee or agent at his last 
known place of business or residence. Such building or 
part thereof shall be vacated with ten days after said 
order shall have been posted and mailed as aforesaid, or 
within such shorter time, not less than forty-eight hours, 
as in said order may be specified, and said building shall be 
no longer used; but whenever said board shall become 
satisfied that the danger from said building or part thereof 
has ceased to exist, or that said building has been repaired 
so as to be habitable, it may revoke said order. Whenever 
in the opinion of the board of health any building or part 



290 Acts in Chronological Order. 

thereof in said city is because of age, infection with con- 
tagious disease, defects in drainage, plumbing or ventila- 
tion, or because of the existence of a nuisance on the 
premises which is likely to cause sickness among its 
occupants, or among the occupants of other property in 
said city, or because it makes other buildings in said 
vicinit}^ unfit for human habitation or dangerous or inju- 
rious to health, or because it prevents proper measures 
from being carried into effect for remedying any nuisance 
injurious to health, or other sanitary evils in respect of 
such other buildings, so unfit for human habitation that 
the evils in or caused by said building cannot be remedied 
by repairs or in any other way except by the destruction 
of said building or of any portion of the same, said board 
of health may order the same or any part thereof to be 
removed; and if said building is not removed in accord- 
ance with said order said board of health shall remove the 
same at the expense of the city. 

[1899, c. 222, sect. 1.] 



CHAPTER 463, ACTS OF 1897. 

An Act Relative to Filing in the Registry of Deeds 

Notice of the Pendency of Certain Actions. 

Section 13 of chapter 126 of the public statutes is hereby 
amended by inserting after the word "estate," in the 
second Hne, the words; — or the use and occupation thereof 
or the buildings thereon, — so as to read as follows: — 
Section 13. No writ of entry, petition for partition, or 
other proceeding, either at law or in equity, affecting the 
title to real estate, or the use and occupation thereof or the 
buildings thereon, shall have any effect as against persons 
other than the parties thereto, their heirs and devisees, 
and persons having actual notice thereof, unti^ a memo- 
randum containing the names of the parties to such 



Acts in Chronological Order. 291 

proceeding, the court in which it is pending, the date of 
the writ or other commencement thereof, the name of the 
city or town in which the real estate hable to be affected 
thereby is situated, and a description of such real estate 
sufficiently accurate for identification, is recorded in the 
registry of deeds for the county or district in which such 
real estate is situated; but this section shall not apply to 
attachments, levies of execution, or proceedings in the 
probate courts, nor to any case which is pending on the 
fifteenth day of June in the year eighteen hundred and 
seventy-seven. [Approved June 4, 1897. 



CHAPTER 452, ACTS OF 1898. 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings on and 

NEAR Copley Square in the City of Boston. 

Height Limit, Ninety Feet. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Any building now being built, or hereafter 
to be built, rebuilt or altered in the city of Boston, upon 
any land abutting on St. James avenue, between Clarendon 
street and Dartmouth street, or upon land at the corner 
of Dartmouth street and Huntington avenue, now occu- 
pied by the Pierce building, so called, or upon land abutting 
on Dartmouth street, now occupied by the Boston Pubhc 
Library building, or upon land at the corner of Dart- 
mouth street and Boylston street, now occupied by the 
new Old South Church building, may be completed, built, 
rebuilt or altered to the height of ninety feet, and no 
more; and upon any land or lands abutting on Boylston 
street, beyond Darthmouth street and Clarendon street, 
may be completed, built, rebuilt or altered to the height 
of one hundred feet and no more: provided, however, that 
there may be erected on any such building, above the 
limits hereinbefore prescribed, such steeples, towers, 



292 Acts in Chronological Order. 

domes, sculptured ornaments and chimneys as the board 
of park commissioners of said city may approve. 

Sect. 2. The provisions of chapter three hundred and 
thirteen of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and 
ninety-six, and of chapter three hundred and seventy-nine 
of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-seven, 
so far as they Umit the height of buildings, shall not be 
construed to apply to the territory specified and restricted 
in section one of this act. 

Sect. 3. The owner of or any person having an interest 
in any building upon any land described in section one of 
this act, the construction whereof was begun but not 
completed before the fourteenth day of January in the 
current year, who suffers damage under the provisions of 
this act by reason or in consequence of having planned 
and begun such construction, or made contracts therefor, 
for a height exceeding that Umited by section one of this 
act for the locaUty where said construction has been 
begun, may recover damages from the city of Boston for 
material bought or actually contracted for, and the use of 
which is prevented by the provisions of this act, for the 
excess of cost of material bought or actually contracted 
for over that which would be necessary for such building 
if not exceeding in height the limit prescribed for that 
locality by section one of this act, less the value of such 
materials as are not required on account of the limitations, 
resulting from the provisions of this act, and the actual 
cost or expense of any re-arrangement of the design or 
construction of such building made necessary by this 
act, by proceedings begun within two years of the passage 
of this act, and in the manner prescribed by law for obtain- 
ing payment for damages sustained by any person whose 
land is taken in the laying out of a highway in said city. 

Sect 4. Any person sustaining damage or loss in his 
property by reason of the limit of the height of buildings 



Acts in Chronological Order. 293 

provided for in this act, may recover such damage or loss 
from the city of Boston, Ijy proceedings begun within 
three years of the passage of this act, and in the manner 
prescribed by law for obtaining payment for damages 
sustained by any person whose land is taken in the laying 
out of a highway in said city. 

Sect, 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 23, 1898. 



CHAPTER 457, ACTS OF 1899. 

An Act to Limit the Height of Buildings in the 
Vicinity of the State House. 

Height Limit, Seventy Feet. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Any building now being built or hereafter 
to be built, rebuilt or altered in that part of the city of 
Boston which Hes within the following described territory, 
to wit : — Beginning at the corner of Beacon street and 
Hancock avenue, thence continuing westerly on Beacon 
street to Joy street, thence continuing northerly on Joy 
street to Myrtle street, thence continuing easterly on 
Myrtle street to Hancock street, thence continuing 
southerly on Hancock street and Hancock avenue to the 
point of beginning, — may be completed, built, rebuilt or 
altered to the height of seventy feet measured on its 
principal front and no higher, and any part of a building on 
or within ninety-five feet of Beacon street, between the 
Claflin Building, so-called, and Park street, may be com- 
pleted, built, rebuilt or altered to the height of seventy feet 
above the highest grade of said part of Beacon street, and 
no higher: provided: however, that there may be erected on 
any such building such chimneys, pipes, water tanks and 
elevator houses as the Governor and Council may approve. 

[1901, c. 525, sect. 4.] 



294 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Sect 2. If and in so far as this act, or proceedings to 
enforce it, may deprive any person of rights existing under 
the Constitution, any such person now owning land within 
the district above described, sustaining damages in his 
property by reason of the Hmitations of the height pro- 
vided for in this act of any building on or to be placed on 
such land may recover from the Commonwealth such 
damages as determined by a jury of the superior court 
for the county of Suffolk, on his petition therefor filed in 
the office of the clerk of said court within one year after 
the passage of this act, such determination and payment 
of the damages to be made under the same rules of law, 
so far as appHcable, as govern the determination and 
payment of damages for the taking of lands for highways 
in said city. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved June 2, 1899. 



CHAPTER 543, ACTS OF 1902. 

An Act Relative to the Improvement of the State 
House and to the Height of Buildings on Beacon 
Street and Bowdoin Street in the City op 
Boston. 

Height Limit, One Hundred Feet and Seventy Feet. 
Section 1. Any part of any building abutting on or 
within forty-two feet of Bowdoin street between AQston 
street and Beacon street may be completed, built, rebuilt 
or altered to the height of one hundred feet above the 
highest grade of that part of said Bowdoin street on 
which the building abuts as such grade has been changed 
and " established by the governor and council and no 
higher, and any part of any building on or within ninety- 
five feet of Beacon street between the Claflin building, 



Acts in Chronological Order. 295 

so-called, and Park street may be completed, built, rebuilt, 
or altered to the height of seventy feet above the highest 
grade of said Beacon street and no higher: provided, 
however, that there may be erected on any such building, 
such chimneys, pipes, water tanks, elevator houses and 
ornamental features which shall not increase the interior 
capacity of said building as the governor and council may 
approve. 

Sect. 2. Any person owning land on or within forty- 
two feet of Bowdoin street, between Allston street and 
Beacon street, or on or within ninety-five feet of Beacon 
street between the Clafhn building, so-called, and Park 
street, whose property is damaged more than it is benefited 
by the improvement of the State House, consisting of the 
limitation of the height of buildings on said land, the 
laying out and grading of said streets, the removal of 
buildings between Hancock street and Bowdoin street, 
the reconstruction and extension of the State House and 
the construction of the park between Bowdoin street 
and the State House, may, within two years after the pas- 
sage of this act, and not afterward, file in the office of the 
clerk of the superior court for the county of Suffolk, his 
petition for a jury to determine such damage, and a jury 
of said court shall thereupon determine the question, 
under the rules of law, so far as they are appUcable, under 
which damages for the laying out of highways under the 
Revised Laws are determined. If the jury find that the 
petitioner is damaged more than he is benefited by said 
improvement they shall determine the amount of the 
difference, and the Commonwealth shall pay the same; 
and if the jury shall not so find, judgment shall be entered 
for the Commonwealth, costs taxed and execution issued 
therefor against the petitioner as in civil cases. The city 
of Boston shall repay to the Commonwealth all damages 
which the state shall be required to pay for the change of 



296 Acts in Chronological Order. 

grade of Bowdoin street made under authority of the 
governor and council, and for all expenses incurred in 
making such change. 

Sect. 3. Section two of chapter three hundred and 
eighty-two of the acts of the year nineteen hundred, as 
amended by section one of chapter five hundred and 
twenty-five of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and 
one, is hereby further amended by striliing out all of said 
section two after the word "Commonwealth", in the 
seventeenth hne, so as to read as follows: Section 2. The 
governor and council may lay out said land for use as a 
park, with driveways, walks, grass plots, curbing and 
railing; may close Mount Vernon street from Beacon 
street to the state house arch; may construct a new 
approach to the state house from Bowdoin street and from 
Beacon street; may build retaining walls and fences; 
may change the grade of Moimt Vernon street from Joy 
street to the state house as they shall deem to be most 
advantageous for an approach to the state house; may 
change the grade of Bowdoin street from Beacon street 
to Ashburton place so that the street will be substantially 
level in that part, and may widen Bowdoin street at any 
part to a width not exceeding fifty feet; may grade and 
construct said streets and relay the sewers, pipes, tubes, 
conduits and wires therein wherever necessary, and may 
provide for the proper storage of coal for the use of the 
Commonwealth, 

Sect. 4. Section three of said chapter five hundred 
and twenty-five is hereby repealed. 

Sect. 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[A-pproved June 28, 1902. 

CHAPTER 383, ACTS OF 1903. 

An Act Relative to Separate Systems of Drainage. 

Section 1. The owner of every estate abutting on a 
public way in which a drain, namely, a conduit for surface 



Acts in Chronological Order, 297 

or storm water and such waters as shall be specified by the 
state board of health; and a sewer, namely, a conduit for 
all other waters and for sewerage, all such other waters to 
be considered sewerage, shall have been provided by a 
city or town, and the owner of any other estate, using any 
such drain or sewer, shall make or change the plumbing 
of his estate so that the waters shall be kept separate from 
the sewerage; and shall, as directed by the officer having 
charge of the maintenance of sewers in such city or town, 
make connections for, and conduct, the waters into the 
drain and the sewerage into the sewer. 

Sect. 2. The owner of every estate whose sewerage is 
to be taken into any metropolitan sewer shall hereafter, 
in plumbing his estate, so arrange the plumbing as to 
keep the waters separate from the sewerage; and shall, 
as directed by said officer, make connections for, and 
conduct, the waters into the drain and the sewage into the 
sewer; but where only one conduit shall have been pro- 
vided in the street by the city or toT^Ti, such owner shall, 
as directed by said officer, construct said connections into 
the street and connect them with the conduit so provided, 
and the citj'- or town shall provide the other conduit and 
all necessary connections with either conduit. 

This act took effect May 26, 1903. 



CHAPTER 242, ACTS OF 1904. 

An Act to Regulate Public Lodging Houses in 

Certain Cities. 

Cubicles Prohibited. 

Section 1. In cities of over fifty thousand inhabitants 

every building not licensed as an inn, in which ten or 

more persons are lodged for a price of twenty-five cents or 

less for each person for a day of twenty-four hours, or for 

any part thereof, shall be deemed a public lodging house 

within the meaning of this act. No building or part 



298 Acts in Chronological Order. ^ 

thereof hereafter erected, altered or converted to be used 
as such a pubHc lodging house shall have the sleeping 
compartments arranged on the cubicle plan. 

[Stat. 1915, c. 160, General Act. See Stat. 1911, c. 129.] 

Bect. 2. The officer or board having charge of the 
police in any such city may license persons to keep public 
lodging houses therein. No fee shall be charged for such 
license, and it shall expire on the thirtieth day of April 
next after the granting of the same. Every such license 
shall specify the street or other place and the number of 
the building, or give some other particular description 
thereof, where the licensee shall exercise his employment; 
and the license shall not protect a person exercising his 
employment in any other place than that so specified. 

Sufficient Egress Required. 
Sect. 3. No such license shall be granted in any such 
city until the inspector of buildings thereof, or the other 
ojQ&cer or board having authority to administer the laws 
and ordinances in regard to the construction of buildings 
therein, has certified that the building is provided with 
sufficient means of escape in case of fire, and that suitable 
appliances are provided for extinguishing fires and for 
giving alarm to the inmates in case of fire; and such 
officer or board may from time to time require such alter- 
ations to be made or such additional appliances to be 
provided as may in his or their judgment be necessary for 
the protection of life and property in case of fire. 

Water-Closets, Etc., Required. 
Sect. 4. No such license shall be granted in any such 
city until the board of health thereof has certified that 
the building is provided with a sufficient number of water- 
closets and urinals, and with good and sufficient means of 



Acts in Chronological Order. 299 

ventilation; and the said board may from time to time 
require the licensee thoroughly to cleanse and disinfect all 
parts of said building and the furniture therein, to the 
satisfaction of such board. 

Register Required. 
Sect. 5. In every public lodging house a register shall 
be kept in which shall be entered the name and address of 
each lodger, together with the time of his arrival and 
departure, and such register shall at all times be open to 
the inspection of the police. 

Building Inspector — Right to Enter. 

Sect. 6. The keeper of every public lodging house shall 
at all times, when so required by any officer of the building 
department, of the health department, or of the police 
department, give him free access to said house or any part 
thereof. 

Penalty. 

Sect. 7. Whoever keeps or holds himself out as keeping 
a public lodging house without being duly licensed as here- 
inbefore provided, and whoever is concerned or financially 
interested in any public lodging house, the keeper of which 
is not so licensed, shall be punished by a fine not exceed- 
ing one hundred dollars; and every keeper of a public 
lodging house who violates any provision of this act shall 
be punished by a fine of one hundred dollars, and the 
licensing board shall immediately revoke his license. 

Sect. 8. Chapter four hundred and fourteen of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-four is 
hereby repealed. 

Sect. 9. This act shall take effect on the first day of 
June in the year nineteen hundred and four. 

[Approved April 20, 1904. 



300 Acts in Chronological Order. 

CHAPTER 333, ACTS OF 1904. 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings in the 

City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as jollows: 

Section 1. The city of Boston shall be divided into 
districts of two classes, to be designated districts A and B. 
The boundaries of the said districts, established as here- 
inafter provided, shall continue for a period of fifteen years, 
and shall be determined in such manner that those parts 
of the city in which all or the greater part of the buildings 
situate therein are at the time of such determination used 
for business or commercial purposes shall be included in 
the district or districts designated A and those parts of 
the city, in which all or the greater part of the buildings 
situate therein are at the said time used for residential 
purposes or for other purposes not business or commercial 
shall be in the district or districts designated B. 

Sect. 2. Upon the passage of this act the mayor of the 
city shall appoint a commission of three members to be 
called "Commission on Height of Buildings in the City of 
Boston." The commission shall immediately upon its 
appointment give notice and public hearings, and shall 
make an order establishing the boundaries of the districts 
aforesaid, and, within one month after its appointment, 
shall cause the same to be recorded in the registry of deeds 
for the county of Suffolk. The boundaries so estabHshed 
shall continue for a period of fifteen years from the date 
X)i said recording. Any person who is aggrieved by the 
said order may, within thirty days after the recording 
thereof, appeal to the commission for a revision; and the 
commission may, within six months after its appointment, 
revise such order, and the revision shall be recorded in the 
registry of deeds for the county of Suffolk, and shall date 
back to the original date of recording. The members of 



Acts in Chronological Order. 301 

the commission shall serve until the districts have been 
established as aforesaid; and any vacancy in the commis- 
sion caused by resignation, death or inabihty to act shall 
be filled by the mayor, on written application by the 
remaining members of the commission or of ten inhabitants 
of the city. The members of the commission shall receive 
such compensation as the mayor shall determine. 

Height Limit in District A and District B, Exceptions. 

Sect. 3. In the city of Boston no building shall be 
erected to a height of more than one hundred and twenty- 
five feet above the grade of the street in any district desig- 
nated A, and no building shall be erected to a height of 
more than eighty feet above the grade of the street in any 
district designated B. These restrictions shall not apply 
to grain or coal elevators or sugar refineries in any district 
designated A, nor to steeples, domes, towers or cupolas 
erected for strictly ornamental purposes, of fireproof 
material, on buildings of the above height or less in any 
district. The supreme judicial court and the superior 
courts shall each have jurisdiction in equity to enforce the 
provisions of this act, and to restrain the violation thereof. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 13, 1904. 

[Order of December 3, 1904-] 

June 7, 1904, the mayor of the city of Boston, under 
the provisions of chapter 333 of the Acts of 1904, ap- 
pointed the Commission on Height of Buildings in the 
city of Boston, and they on July 5, 1904, m-ade an order 
in accordance with the provisions of said chapter, which 
order is recorded in the Suffolk Registry of Deeds, Book 
2976, page 45. 

Order of July 5, 1904, as amended and revised by order 
of December 3, 1904. 



302 Acts in Chronological Order. 

A. The boundaries of the Districts A, hereby estab- 
Hshed, are as follows, to wit : 

1. Beginning on the northerly side of that part of the 
said city known as East Boston at the Chelsea Street 
Bridge, thence running southeasterly, southerly and 
southwesterly through the centre of Chelsea street to 
Eagle square, thence westerly through said Eagle square 
and the centre of Eagle street to Glendon street, thence 
northerly through the centre of said Glendon street to 
Condor street, thence westerly through the centre of said 
Condor street to Border street, thence southerly and 
southwesterly through the centre of said Border street to 
Sumner street, thence southeasterly through the centre 
of said Sumner street to Orleans street, thence south- 
westerly through the centre of said Orleans street to 
Marginal street, thence southeasterly and easterly through 
the centre of said Marginal street to Jeffries street, thence 
northeasterly through the centre of said Jeffries street to 
Maverick street, thence northwesterly through the centre 
of said Maverick street to the location of the Boston, 
Revere Beach and Lynn Railroad, thence northerly and 
northeasterly along said Railroad to the property of 
the said city known as Wood Island Park, thence south- 
easterly along the line dividing the said property of the 
said city from the property of the East Boston Company 
and the property of the Commonwealth to the harbor, 
thence southwesterly, westerly, northwesterly, northerly, 
northeasterly, and easterly along the said harbor and 
Chelsea Creek, around the said East Boston to the point 
of beginning at said Chelsea Street Bridge; meaning to 
include in the said District A all those portions of wards 
one and two of the said city, as now established by law, 
which are situated within the boundary line hereinbefore 
described, 

2, Beginning on the southerly side of that part of the 



Acts in Chronological Order. 303 

said city known as Charlestown at the Charlestown Bridge, 
thence running northwesterly through the centre of said 
bridge and the approaches thereof to a point on said 
approaches immediately over the centre of the arch con- 
necting Warren avenue with Water street, thence north- 
easterly through the centre of said Water street to the 
property of the United States known as the United States 
Navy Nard, thence northwesterly along the southwesterly 
boundary line of said property of the United States to 
Chelsea street, thence northeasterly through the centre 
of said Chelsea street to Medford street, thence north- 
westerly and westerly through the centre of said Medford 
street to the junction of said Medford street. Bunker 
Hill street and Main street, thence northwesterly through 
the centre of said Main street to the property of the said 
city known as the Charlestown Playground, thence north- 
easterly along the southeasterly boundary of said Play- 
ground to the Mystic river, thence easterly, southeasterly, 
southerly and southwesterly along said Mystic river and 
the harbor around said Charlestown to the point of begin- 
ning at said Charlestown Bridge; meaning to include in 
the said District A all those portions of Wards three, four 
and five of the said city as now estabhshed by law, which 
are situated within the boundary line hereinbefore 
described. 

3. Beginning on the easterly side of that part of the 
said city known as the city proper at the Congress Street 
Bridge, thence running southeasterly across said bridge 
to that part of said city known as South Boston, thence 
northeasterly, easterly, southeasterly, westerly, southerly 
and easterly around the northerly part of said South 
Boston and the Reserved channel, so-called, to the point 
on the southerly boundary of said Reserved channel where 
Q street extended northerly would meet the said channel, 
thence southerly through the centre of said Q street to 



304 Acts in Chronological Order, 

East Fifth street, thence westerly through the centre of 
East First street to I street, thence southerly through the 
centre of said I street to East Second street, thence 
westerly through the centre of said East Second street to 
the junction of said East Second street, Dorchester street 
and West First street, thence northwesterly through the 
centre of said West First street to Dorchester avenue, 
thence southerly through the centre of said Dorchester 
avenue to Dexter street, thence westerly through the 
centre of said Dexter street to EUery street, thence 
southerly through the centre of said EUery street to 
Southampton street, thence westerly through the centre 
of said Southampton street to Massachusetts avenue, 
thence northwesterly through the centre of said Massa- 
chusetts avenue to Albany street, thence northeasterly 
through the centre of said Albany street to East Dedham 
street, thence northwesterly through the centre of said 
East Dedham street to Harrison avenue, thence north- 
easterly through the centre of said Harrison avenue to 
Troy street, thence southeasterly through the centre of 
said Troy street to Albany street, thence northerly through 
the centre of said Albany street to Broadway, thence 
northwesterly through the centre of said Broadway to 
Washington street, thence northwesterly across said 
Washington street and through the centre of Pleasant 
street to Piedmont street, thence westerly through the 
centre of said Piedmont street, to Ferdinand street, thence 
northwesterly through the centre of said Ferdinand street 
to Columbus avenue, thence southwesterly through the 
centre of Columbus avenue to a point where a hne passing 
along the boundary line between the estates now num- 
bered 352 and 356 on Boylston street and extended south- 
easterly would meet said point on Columbus avenue, 
thence from said point northwesterly along said line and 
between said estates above mentioned to a point in the 



Acts in Chronological Order. 305 

centre of Boylston street opposite or nearly opposite the 
westerly boundary of the lot on which the Arlington 
Street Church now stands, thence easterly through the 
centre of said Boylston street to Tremont street, thence 
northerly and northeasterly through the centre of said 
Tremont street to Park street, thence northwesterly 
through the centre of said Park street to Beacon street, 
thence northeasterly through the centre of said Beacon 
street to Bowdoin street, thence northerly through the 
centre of said Bowdoin street to Cambridge street, thence 
westerly through the centre of said Cambridge street to 
Staniford street, thence northerly through the centre of 
said Staniford street to Green street, thence northwesterly 
through the centre of said Green street to Leverett street, 
thence northwesterly through the centre of said Leverett 
street to the Charles river at Craigie Bridge, thence north- 
easterly, easterly, southeasterly, southerly and south- 
westerly by the said Charles river and the said harbor 
around the said city proper to the point of beginning at 
said Congress Street Bridge; meaning to include in said 
District A the whole of ward six and all those portions 
of wards seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, 
fourteen, fifteen and seventeen of the said city, as now 
established by law, which are situated within the boundary 
line hereinbefore described. 

B. The boundaries of the Districts B hereby estab- 
Ushed are as follows, to wit : 

1. All those portions of said wards one and two which 
are situated outside the line beginning and ending- at said 
Chelsea Street Bridge hereinbefore established as the 
boundary of one of said Districts A. 

2. All those portions of said wards three, four and five 
which are situated outside the line beginning and ending 
at said Charlestown Bridge hereinbefore established as the 
boundary of one of said Districts A, 



306 Acts in Chronological Order. 

3. The whole of wards sixteen, eighteen, nineteen, 
twenty, twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty- 
four and twenty-five of the said city, as now estabUshed 
by law, and all those portions of said wards seven, eight, 
nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen and 
seventeen which are situated outside the line beginning 
and ending at said Congress Street Bridge hereinbefore 
established as the boundary of one of said Districts A. 

Meaning to include in the said Districts B all those 
portions of the said city not included in the Districts 
herembefore established as Districts A. 

Wherever in this order the words "harbor," "river," 
"creek" are found, the same are intended to mean the 
furthest line towards deep water on said harbor, river or 
creek respectively on which the erection of wharves or 
other structures is permitted by the State and United 
States authorities. 



CHAPTER 347, ACTS OF 1905. 

An Act to Prohibit the Obstruction of Means of 

Egress from Buildings. 

Fire Escapes — Police to Enforce Penalty. 

Section 1. Any article or thing placed upon a fire 
escape or an outside means of egress of any building is 
hereby declared a common nuisance. Any court authorized 
to issue warrants in criminal cases may, upon complaint 
under oath made by any police ofiicer that any article or 
thing is placed or maintained upon a fire escape or outside 
means of egress of any building, issue a warrant to bring 
such article or thing when found before a court having 
jurisdiction of the same, and all articles or things seized 
under the authority of such a warrant shall be disposed of 
as provided in sections three to eight inclusive of chapter 
two hundred and seventeen of the Revised Laws relative 



Acts in Chronological Order. 30^ 

to articles seized under clause eleven of section one of 
said chapter.* Any owner, lessee, tenant or occupant of 
any building who maintains or permits to remain upon any 
fire escape or outside means of egress of any building any 
article or thing for more than twenty minutes shall be 
punished by a fine of not more than one hundred dollars. 
The existence of any article or thing upon a fire escape or 
outside means of egress of any building shall be prima facie 
evidence that such article or thing was so placed, main- 
tained or permitted to remain by the occupant of the 
premises having access from said building to said fire 
escape or outside means of egress. ' 

Interior Egress Obstructions Prohibited — Penalty. 
Sect, 2. Every stairway of every building shall be kept 
free and unobstructed, and any person who permits any 
article or thing to remain in any stairway of any building 
in such a manner as may impede the egress of any person 
lawfully in said building, or the egress of any person law- 
fully entitled to enter said building shall be punished by 
a fine of not more than five hundred dollars. The existence 
of any article or thing in any such stairway in any building 
shall be prima facie evidence that it was placed or per- 
mitted to remain therein by the owner, lessee, tenant or 
occupant of the building. 

[Approved April 28, 1905. 



CHAPTER 383, STATUTE OF 1905. 
An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings in the 

City of Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Within thirty days after the passage of this 
act the mayor of the city of Boston shall appoint a com- 

* See also chap. 795, sect. 29, 1914; (sect. 13— D). 



308 Acts in Chronological Order. 

mission of three members to determine, in accordance 
with the conditions hereinafter provided, the height of 
buildings within the district designated by the commis- 
sion on height of buildings in the city of Boston as district 
B, in accordance with chapter three hundred and thirty- 
three of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four. 

Sect. 2. Said commission shall immediately upon its 
appointment give notice and public hearings, and shall 
make an order establishing the boundaries of or otherwise 
pointing out such parts, if any, of said district B, as it 
may designate in which buildings may be erected to a 
height exceeding eighty feet but not exceeding one hundred 
feet, and the height between eighty feet and one hundred 
feet to which buildings may so be erected, and the condi- 
tions under which buildings may be erected to said height 
except that such order may provide for the erection of 
buildings as aforesaid to a height not exceeding one 
hundred and twenty-five feet in that portion of said district 
B which lies within fifty feet from the boundary line sepa- 
rating said district B from the district designated by the 
commission on height of buildings in the city of Boston as 
district A in accordance with said chapter three hundred 
and thirty-three, provided said boundary fine divides 
the premises affected by such order from other adjoining 
premises both owned by the same person or persons, and 
within sixty days after its appointment shall cause the 
same to be recorded in the registry of deeds for the county 
of Suffolk. Any person who is aggrieved by such order 
may, within sixty days after the recording thereof, appeal 
to the commission for a revision; and the commission may, 
previous to the first day of January in the year nineteen 
hundred and six, revise such order, and the revision shall 
be recorded in the registry of deeds for the county of Suffolk 
and shall date back to the original date of recording. 
The boundaries so established shall continue for a period 
of fifteen yeaJrs from the date of the recording of the order 



Acts in Chronological Obder. 309 

made by the commission on height of buildings in the city 
of Boston under chapter three hundred and thirty-three 
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four. The 
members of the commission shall receive such compensa- 
tion as the mayor shall determine. 

Sect. 3. Within such parts of district B as may be 
designated by the commisison as aforesaid (which may, 
except as hereinafter provided, include any parts of said 
district B affected by prior acts limiting the height of 
buildings) buildings may be erected to the height fixed by 
the commission as aforesaid, exceeding eighty feet but 
not exceeding one hundred feet, or one hundred and twenty- 
five feet as hereinbefore provided, and subject to such 
conditions as may be fixed as aforesaid by the commis- 
sion; but within the following described territory, to wit : — 
Beginning at the corner of Beacon street and Hancock 
avenue, thence continuing westerly on Beacon street to 
Joy street, thence continuing northerly on Joy street to 
Myrtle street, thence continuing easterly on Myrtle 
street to Hancock street, thence continuing southerly 
on Hancock street and Hancock avenue to the point of 
beginning, no building shall be erected to a height greater 
than seventy feet, measured on its principal front, and 
no building shall be erected on a parkway, boulevard or 
pubUc way on which a building Une has been established 
by the board of park commissioners or by the board of 
street commissioners, acting under any general or special 
statute, to a greater height than that allowed by the order 
of said boards; and no building upon land any owner of 
which has received and retained compensation in damages 
for any limitation of height or who retains any claim for 
such damages shall be erected to a height greater than 
that fixed by the Umitation for which such damages were 
received or claimed. 

Sect. 4. No Umitations of the height of buildings 
in the city of Boston shall apply to churches, steeples, 



310 Acts in Chronological Order. 



towers, domes, cupolas, belfries or statuary not used for 
purposes of habitation, nor to chimneys, gas holders, 
coal or grain elevators, open balustrades, skylights, venti- 
lators, flagstaffs, railings, weather vanes, soil pipes, steam 
exhausts, signs, roof houses not exceeding twelve feet 
square and twelve feet high, nor to other similar construc- 
tions such as are usually erected above the roof line of 
buildings. 

Roof houses, pent houses, bulkheads and skylights above 
the roof Une used to enclose elevator machinery or shafts 
may be more than twelve feet square, but shall not exceed 
in area the size of the shaft served thereby, except in the 
case of elevator shafts, which may be allowed on additional 
space of four feet on all sides. They shall not exceed twelve 
feet in height and shall not be used for any purpose except 
the storage of tools and appliances used for the main- 
tenance of the elevators. 

Roof houses, pent houses and bulkheads in first class 
buildings may be constructed of angle iron and four inch 
blocks, plastered on the inside and outside, or covered 
inside and outside with metal covering or angle iron, and 
two-inch solid metal lath and plaster walls may be used, 
the door to be of metal frame covered with metal. For 
second and third class buildings, roof houses, pent houses, 
and bulkheads may be of wood frame covered with metal 
on the outside and plastered on metal lathing on the inside; 
provided, that the door is covered with metal on both sides. 
[1919, c. 156, Special Act, to take affect April 24, 1919.] 

Sect. 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 8, 1905. 

[Order of July 21, 1905.] 

Height Limit — Street Exceeding Sixty-four Feet in Width. 
Buildings may be erected on streets exceeding sixty- 
four (64) feet in width, to a height equal to one and one 



Acts in Chronological Order. 311 

quarter times the width of the street upon which the 
building stands; and, if situated on more than one street, 
the widest street is to be taken, the height to be measured 
from the mean grade of the curbs of all the streets upon 
which the building is situated, and not exceeding one 
hundred (100) feet in any event. 

Width of Streets. 

If the street is of uneven width, its width will be con- 
sidered as the average width opposite the building to 
be erected. 

The width of a street shall be held to include the width 
of any space on the same side of the street upon which a 
building stands, upon or within which space no building 
can be lawfully erected by virtue of any building line 
estabhshed by the Board of Street Commissioners or the 
Board of Park Commissioners acting under general or 
special laws. 

All streets or portions of streets upon which buildings 
may be erected on one side only shall be considered as of 
a width of eighty (80) feet as to that portion upon which 
buildings may be erected on one side only. 

In the case of irregular or triangular open spaces formed 
by the intersection of streets, the width of the street 
shall be taken as the width of the widest street entering 
said space at the point of entrance. 

Parkway Restrictions. 

No building shall, however, be erected on a parkway, 
boulevard or public way on which a building line has been 
established by either of said Boards acting under general 
or special laws to a height greater than that allowed by 
said general or special laws, nor otherwise in violation of 
Section 3 of said Chap. 383, Acts of 1905. 



312 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Height Limit — Eighty Feet Exceptions. 

No building shall be erected to a height greater than 
eighty (80) feet unless its width on each and every public 
street upon which it stands will be at least one half its 
height. 

Nothing in this order shall be construed as effecting any 
condition or restriction imposed by deed, agreement or 
by operation of law on any property in said Districts B. 

Height Limit — One Hundred Twenty-five Feet — 
District B. 
The said Commissioner further provide that buildings 
may be erected to a height not exceeding one hundred and 
twenty-five (125) feet in that portion of the District B as 
estabUshed by the Commission on Height of Buildings in 
its order dated December 3, 1904, recorded with Suffolk 
Deeds, Book 3008, page 129, which Ues fifty (50) feet 
westerly from the boundary line running from Columbus 
avenue to the centre of Boylston street, separating said 
District B from District A, as estabUshed by said order; 
provided, however, that said portion of District B is owned 
by the same person or persons who own the adjoining 
premises in District A, 

Revised Order of November 20, 1905. 
Mechanic Arts High School. 

1. So long as the property owned by the city of Boston 
on Dalton, Belvidere and Scotia streets, bounded 205.5 
feet on Dalton street, 250 feet on Belvidere street, and 
184 feet on Scotia street, be said measurements more or 
less, shall be used for a Mechanic Arts High School, any 
building or buildings thereon may be erected to a height 
of one hundred (100) feet. 

2. Add at the end of the third paragraph the words: 
"or by the Commonwealth or City," so that the con- 



Acts in Chronological Order. 313 

eluding part of said paragraph shall read, "established by 
the Board of Street Commissioners or the Board of Park 
Commissioners acting under general or special laws or by 
the Commonwealth or City." 

3. After the tenth word in the fourth paragraph insert 
the word "lawfully" so that said paragraph shall read: 
"All streets or portions of streets upon which buildings 
may lawfully be erected, etc." 

Note. — ■ See chapter 333, Acts of 1915, Special Acts and Order 
following. 



CHAPTER 437, ACTS OF 1905. 

An Act to Regulate the use of the Cinematograph 
IN Churches and Other Public Buildings. 
The provisions of chapter one hundred and seventy-six 
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and five, being 
an act entitled "An Act to regulate the use of the cine- 
matograph," shall apply to the use, keeping, exhibition 
and inspection of cinematographs which are to be used, 
kept or exhibited in any church or other public building, 
whether such use, keeping or exhibition is on premises 
licensed or not licensed for entertainments. 

[Approved May 23, 1905. 



CHAPTER 416, ACTS OF 1907. * 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings on 

Rutherford Avenue in the City of Boston. 

Height Limit One Hundred Feet. 

Section 1. The width of Rutherford avenue in the 
Charlestown district of the city of Boston, between Chap- 
man street and the Mystic river tracks of the Boston and 
Maine Railroad crossing the northerly part of said avenue, 
shall be considered as eighty feet in respect to the height 



314 Acts in Chronological Order. 

of buildings that may be erected on the southwesterly and 
westerly side of said avenue, between the points mentioned, 
so as to permit the erection of buildings to the height of 
one hundred feet, as provided for buildings erected on 
streets of the width aforesaid in district B by the com- 
mission appointed on height of buildings in the city of 
Boston, under chapter three hundred and eighty-three of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and five. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 16, 1907. 



CHAPTER 463, ACTS OF 1907. 

An Act Relative to the Licensing of Theatres and 
Public Halls in the City of Boston. 
Section 1 . In Boston the mayor shall be the officer to 
issue licenses for theatres and public halls, and he may 
require such changes in the structural condition of any 
building before issuing a license, as in his opinion, the 
public safety requires, but no changes shall be ordered in 
excess of the statutory requirements then in force for a 
new building of like character. Whoever is aggrieved by 
any order or decision of the mayor in respect to changes 
that he may require in the structural condition of any 
building before issuing a license as aforesaid shall have 
the right of appeal to the board of appeals established 
by chapter four hundred and nineteen of the acts of the 
year eighteen hundred and ninety-two, or to any similar 
or succeeding board of appeals which may hereafter be 
established for the city of Boston. Said board on receipt 
of the appeal shall within five days thereafter examine the 
premises and hear the parties and render a decision in 
writing within ten days after such hearing, and the ma- 
jority of the board shall decide whether the whole or a 
part of the order or requirement made by the mayor in 



Acts in Chronological Order. 315 

respect to structural changes shall be comphed with, or 
whether a license for said building shall be issued; and the 
mayor shall make his order or requirement in respect of 
structural changes and the issuing of said Ucense conform 
to the decision of said board. If the mayor has granted a 
license as aforesaid he shall not revoke or suspend the 
same except by giving five days' written notice to the 
licensee of his intention so to do, and his reasons therefor, 
and if the licensee is aggrieved by said notice of revoca- 
tion and said reasons he may appeal to the board of appeals, 
who shall within five days from date of his appeal examine 
the premises and hear the parties, and render a decision 
in writing within three days after such hearing; and the 
majority of the board shall decide whether the Ucense 
shall be revoked, and the mayor shall make his action 
conform to the decision of the board and shall not revoke 
the same without the approval of the board. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 28, 1907. 



CHAPTER 284, ACTS OF 1910. 

An Act Relative to the Construction, Alteration? 
Inspection and Maintenance of Buildings in 
THE City of Boston. 

Building Department to Enforce Building Laws in Boston 
Heretofore Enforced by District Police. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follovjs: 

Section 1. It shall be the duty of the building com- 
missioner of the city of Boston to enforce all provisions of 
law relative to the construction, alteration, inspection and 
maintenance of buildings which are or may be apphcable 
to said city, heretofore enforced by the district pohce, 
except the provisions of chapter four hundred and sixty- 
five of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and seven, 



316 Acts in Chronological Order. 

relative to the inspection of steam boilers, the provisions 
of chapter three hundred and seventy of the acts of the 
year nineteen hundred and four, as amended by chapter 
two hundred and eighty of the acts of the year nineteen 
hundred and five and by chapter five hundred and two of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and eight, relative to 
the keeping, storage, use, manufacture, sale, handling and 
transportation of explosive or inflammable fluids or com- 
pounds or other explosives, the provisions of chapter 
four hundred and thirty-three of the acts of the year nine- 
teen hundred and four, relative to the powers and duties of 
the detective department of the district pohce in connec- 
tion with the investigation or prevention of fires, and the 
provisions of chapter five hundred and fourteen of the acts 
of the year nineteen hundred and nine, and acts in amend- 
ment thereof or in addition thereto, relative to labor, so 
far as the provisions of said chapter are enforced by the 
district poUce. 

Sect. 2. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved March 25, 1910. 



CHAPTER 571, ACTS OF 1910. 
An Act to Authorize the Collection of Fees for 
Permits and Licenses Issued by Departments of 
THE City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The heads of the various departments of 
the city of Boston may establish, subject to the approval 
of the mayor, reasonable fees or charges for the issuance 
of permits and licenses by said departments: provided, 
however, that the charge for a permit to make excavations 
in any street or sidewalk shall not exceed fifty cents. 

Sect. 2. The authority given in the preceding section 



Acts in Chronological Order. 317 

shall not deprive any of the officials named in section 
twenty-eight of chapter four hundred and eighty-six of the 
acts of the year nineteen hundred and nine of any authority 
given therein to fix the charges for permits and licenses. 
Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 26, 1910. 



CHAPTER 129, ACTS OF 1911. 

An Act to Regulate Public Lodging Houses in 
Certain Cities. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The provisions of chapter two hundred 
and forty-two of the acts of the year ninteeen hundred 
and four, regulating public lodging houses in cities of over 
fifty thousand inhabitants, shall also apply to all buildings 
in said cities maintained for furnishing lodging to transient 
persons, and not licensed as an inn, in which ten or more 
persons are lodged, notwithstanding that no price is 
charged for lodging. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect on the first day of 
June in the year nineteen hundred and eleven. 

[Approved March 11, 1911. 



CHAPTER 342, ACTS OF 1911. 

An Act to Regulate the Construction of Garages 

IN THE City of Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. A garage hereafter erected within the fire 
limits of the city of Boston shall be of first class construc- 
tion. A garage hereafter erected in any other part of 
that city shall be either of first or second class construction. 

Sect. 2. By the term ''garage" is meant a building 
or that part of a building wherein are kept five or more 
automobiles or motor cars charged with or containing a 
volatile inflammable liquid for fuel or power. Wherever 



318 Acts in Chhonological Obder. 

hereafter any part of an existing building is converted 
into a garage, the garage shall be deemed to embrace all 
the building not separated from the garage proper by 
fireproof construction satisfactory to the building com- 
missioners, and such building or part of a building shall 
be of first class construction. 

Sect. 3. By the term "volatile inflammable liquid" 
is meant any liquid that will emit inflammable vapor at a 
temperature below one hundred degrees Fahrenheit, when 
tested in the open air. 

Sect. 4. The penalty for violation of this act shall be 
a fine of not less than ten and not more than fifty dollars 
a day, so long as the violation continues. 

[Approved April 27, 1911. 



CHAPTER 259, ACTS OF 1912. 

An Act Relative to the Construction of Garages 
IN THE City of Boston. 

Existing buildings upon premises numbered 337 on 
Newbury street, in Boston, are exempt from the provisions 
of chapter 342, Acts of 1911, but only while such build- 
ings remain of their present size and in their present loca- 
tion : provided, however, that no part of said buildings shall 
be used as a dwelling. 

[Approved March 18, 1912, and took effect. 



CHAPTER 280, ACTS OF 1913. 
An Act to Authorize the Mayor of the City of 
Boston to Grant Permits for Special Moving 
Picture Exhibitions in Churches, Halls or 
Other Buildings. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The mayor of the city of Boston may 
grant permits in writing for special exhibitions of moving 



Acts in Chkonological Order. 319 

pictures in churches, halls or other buildings in that city 
which, in his opinion, are in safe condition for said 
exhibitions, and he may prescribe regulations for the 
proper conduct of the same: provided, however, that such 
special exhibitions shall be subject to the laws of the 
commonwealth and the regulations of the district police 
relating to the use of the cinematograph or similar 
apparatus. 

Sect. 2. A fee of two dollars shall accompany each 
application for a permit hereunder. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved March 12, 1913. 



CHAPTER 577, ACTS OF 1913. 

An Act to Regulate the Erection and Maintenance 
OF Garages in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. In the city of Boston no building shall 
be erected for, or maintained as a garage for the storage, 
keeping or care of automobiles until the issue of a permit 
therefor by the board of street commissioners of the city 
after notice and a public hearing upon an application 
filed with said board. The application for the permit 
shall be made by the owner of the parcel of land upon 
which such building is to be erected or maintained and 
shaU contain the names and addresses of every owner of 
record of each parcel of land abutting thereon. 

[1914, c. 119, Sect. 1.] 

Sect. 2. The notice required by the preceding section 
shall include a copy of the application and an order of 
said board specifying the time and place of the public 
hearing, and shall be given by publication once in each 
week for three successive weeks in some one newspaper 
regularly published in said city, and by mailing by prepaid 



320 Acts in Chronological Order. 

registered mail a copy to every owner of record o each 
parcel of land abutting on the parcel of land on which the 
building proposed to be erected for, or maintained as a 
garage is to be, or is situated, and the cost of such notice 
and proceedings shall be borne by the applicant. 

Sect. 3. At the time and place specified in the notice 
for the hearing the said board shall hear all parties inter- 
ested, and after giving consideration to the interests of all 
owners of record notified, and the general character of the 
neighborhood in which is situated the land or building 
referred to in the application, shall determine whether or 
not the application shall be granted and a permit issued. 

[1914, c. 119, Sect. 2.] 

Sect. 4. The provisions of this act shall not apply to a 
building maintained as a garage for the storage, keeping 
or care of automobiles at the time of the passage of this 
act, but any enlargement of, or addition to any such 
building shall be subject to the provisions of this act. 
[1914, c. 119, Sect. 3.] 

Sect. 5. Whoever erects or maintains a garage in viola- 
tion of this act shall be subject to a fine of not less than 
ten nor more than fifty dollars for every day during which 
such violation continues. [Approved May 2, 1913. 
[1912, c. 259; 1911, c. 342.] 



CHAPTER 655, ACTS 1913. 

An Act to Revise and Codify the Building Inspection 

Laws of the Commonwealth. 

(Went into effect November 1, 1913.) 
Space between Girders — Steel Frame Buildings. 
Section 17. If, in the erection of an iron or steel frame 
building the spaces between the girders or floor beams of 
any floor are not filled or covered by the permanent con- 
struction of said floors before another story is added to 
the building, a close plank flooring shall be placed and 



Acts in Chronological Order. 321 

maintained over such spaces from the time when the beams 
or girders are placed in position until said permanent con- 
struction is applied; but openings protected by a strong 
handrailing not less than four feet high may be left through 
said floors for the passage of workmen or material: pro- 
vided, however, that when such flooring cannot be used 
without serious interference with the work of construction, 
such provisions shall be made to protect the workmen from 
falling material as the inspector shall direct. 

Sect. 18. In the construction of any iron or steel 
framed building having a clear story of twenty-five feet 
elevation or more, a staging with a close plank flooring 
shall be placed under the whole extent of the beams, 
girders or trusses of such story upon which iron or steel 
workers are working, and not more than ten feet below the 
imder side of such beams, girders or trusses. 

Sect. 19. Whoever violates any provision of the two 

preceding sections shall be punished by a fine of not less 

than fifty nor more than five hundred dollars for each 

offence. 

Definitions. 

Sect. 30. In this act, the term "theatre" shall mean a 
building or part of a building in which it is designed to 
make a business of the presentation of dramatic, operatic 
or other performances or shows for the entertainment of 
spectators, which is capable of seating more than four 
hundred persons, and which has a stage for such perform- 
ances that can be used for scenery and other stage appli- 
ances. The term "special hall" shall mean a building 
or part of a building containing an audience or assembly 
hall capable of seating more than four hundred persons, 
which may be used for the occasional presentation of 
dramatic, operatic or other performances for the enter- 
tainment of spectators, with the use of scenery, under such 
conditions as the licensing officer shall direct, and for public 
gatherings. The term "public hall" shall mean any 



322 Acts in Chronological Order. 

building, or part of a building, excluding theatres, armories 
churches and schools, containing an audience or assembly 
hall capable of seating more than four hundred persons, 
and used for public gatherings, and for such entertainments 
not requiring the use of scenery and other stage appliances, 
as the licensing officer may approve. 

Licensing Officer. 
Sect. 31. Except in the City of Boston, the chief of 
the district police shall be the officer to issue licenses for 
theatres, special halls and public halls. He may require 
such changes in the structural or other condition of any 
building before issuing any license as in his opinion the 
public safety requires; but no change shall be ordered in 
excess of the requirements for a new building of like 
character under the existing law. In buildings existing 
when this act takes effect an equivalent of the conditions 
required by law may be accepted by the licensing officer : 
provided, however, that such equivalents are set forth in 
detail in the license. The licenses provided for herein 
shall be conspicuously posted near the main entrance of 
the theatre, special hall or public hall. Licenses for 
theatres shall expire on the first day of September, for 
special halls on the first day of August, and for public halls 
on the first day of July of each year. 

Licensee Responsible. 

Sect. 32. The licensee shall be responsible, civilly and 

criminally, for non-compliance with the laws applicable to 

the theatre, special hall or public hall covered by his 

license, and for non-compliance with the conditions of the 

license. 

Inspections to he Made Monthly. 

The Ucensing officer shall cause a complete inspection of 
all theatres to be made once in each month, of special halls 
and of public halls every six months, and as much of tener as 
circumstances may require. 



Acts in Cheonological Order. 323 

Inspections to Cover all Details. 
Sect. 33. Every inspection of theatres, special halls or 
public halls shall cover all details relating to the condition 
of the building as regards the safety of life and property, 
and the inspector shall make a signed report as to all such 
details upon a tabulated inspection blank, the form of 
which shall be determined by the licensing officer. The 
forms of such blanks may be adapted to the circumstances 
of the class of buildings included in the provisions of section 
thirty of this act, but they shall be such as to enable the 
inspectors to report a rating on the points and in the form 
hereinafter specified, and shall include a detailed table of 
legal requirements, v/ith a statement as to compliance or 
non-compliance with each. All inspectors inspecting 
theatres, special hall s and public halls shall on the first of 
each week forward to the licensing officer the reports of 
their inspections of the previous week and shall rate each 
theatre, special hall or public, hall on the f oUov/ing points 
in the following form : — 

1. Compliance with existing laws, non-compliance in 
any particular to be specified. 

2. The following ratings of each building as to the 
safety of the audience, in the judgment of the inspectors, 
in the light of improved methods of insurmg safety. 

Condition, whether 
poor, fair, good Remarks, 
or excellent. 

a. Structural condition. 

b. Facility of escape of audience. 

c. Heating apparatus. 

d. Water supply. ** 

e. Lighting apparatus. 

/. Condition of fire apparatus. 

g. Condition of sprinklers. 

/),, Condition of fire-resisting curtain. 

i. Protection against neighborhood 

hazard. 
j. General condition of appliances and 

apparatus. 
k. General condition of stage. 



324 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Rating as a whole. 

With regard to safety of audience. 

And such other points as in the opinion of the Ucensing 
officer may be suitable. These reports and ratings shall 
be signed by the inspectors, and shall give the date of the 
inspection with such remarks upon the condition of each 
theatre, special hall and public hall as may be suitable to 
give notice of danger or to give confidence in the safety of 
such buildings . After each inspection of a theatre, special 
hall or public hall, the inspector shall post a notice in con- 
spicuous type near the main entrance to such theatre, 
special hall or public hall in the following form: — "This 
theatre (or special hall) (or public hall) has been inspected 
by inspector (name of inspector) on (date)." 

Inspection Reports to he Kept on File. 

Sect. 34. The full inspection reports of theatres, 
special halls'and pubhc halls shall be kept on file by the 
Hcensing officer, but, except as hereinafter provided, they 
shall not be open to examination by the pubUc until the 
expiration of one month from the time when they were 
rendered, except with the consent of the licensing officer. 
Every licensee shall be entitled to examine the full reports 
of his own building at any time. The licensing officer shall 
make a full report annually of the condition of all theatres, 
special halls and public halls, and the report shall be a 
public document, open to examination by the public at all 
times. The reports of inspectors shall be public records of 
matters of public interest, and a fair publication of these 
reports, or parts thereof, or comment thereon, by any 
person, in newspapers or otherwise, shall be privileged. 

Sect. 35. A certified copy of all ratings and conclu- 
sions of the inspectors in respect to any licensed theatre, 
special hall or public hall shall be delivered or mailed by 
the licensing officer to the licensee at the building. If any 



Acts in Chronological Order. 325 

inspector shall report that the laws or the conditions of the 
license are not complied with by any licensee, the licensing 
officer may notify the licensee, fixing a time within which 
he shall comply with the law and the conditions of the 
license. If, at the expiration of such time there has not 
been such compUance, the licensing officer shall give a 
hearing to the licensee, and if upon investigation he shall 
find that there is cause, he shall revoke the license. The 
licensing officer shall have power, if, in his opinion, the 
public safety requires it, to order any theatre, special hall 
or public hall to be closed pending a hearing upon the 
revocation of the Hcense, and any person failing to comply 
with such order may be punished by a fine of not less than 
fifty nor more than one thousand dollars. 

Sect. 36. Any licensee may post upon his premises a 
certified copy of the complete table of ratings and conclu- 
sions relating to the theatre, special hall or public hall 
covered by his license, but he shall not post an incomplete 
copy of such table. 

Sect. 37. Any person having any duty to perform 
under the provisions of this act in connection with the 
licensing or inspection of theatres, special halls or public 
halls who wilfully makes any false statement or report or 
any false record of any statement, report or rating as to any 
such theatre, special hall or public hall shall be punished 
by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars or by 
imprisonment for not more than one year. 

Sect. 38. Any officer or person having any duty in any 
way connected with the inspection of theatres, special halls 
or public halls, who requests for himself or another, or 
accepts or uses any ticket or pass or privilege of admission, 
or admission, to any theatre, special hall or public hall, for 
which he is to pay or has paid either nothing or a price less 
than that demanded of the public generally, and any owner, 
proprietor, manager, lessee, agent or employee of any 



326 Acts in Chronological Order. 

theatre, special hall or public hall, or any other person who 
issues, delivers, offers or allows any such ticket, pass, 
privilege or admission to any such officer or person or to any 
other person at the request, solicitation, procurement, or 
with the connivance of any such officer or person, shall be 
punished by a fine of not less than one hundred nor more 
than one thousand dollars. 

Miscellaneous Hall. 
Sect. 39. The term "miscellaneous hall" shall mean a 
building or part of a building containing an audience or 
assembly hall capable of seating not more than four 
hundred persons, a society hall, or a hall in a pubHc or 
private school building. The certificate of the inspector 
shall be conclusive evidence of a compliance with the pro- 
visions of this act for such use of a hall as he shall set forth 
in detail in the certificate, and shall be conspicuously 
posted near the main entrance of the hall. 

Watchmen. 
Sect. 42. The keeper of a hotel, boarding or lodging 
house or family hotel containing one hundred or more 
sleeping rooms, and being four or more stories high, shall 
have therein at least two competent watchmen, each prop- 
erly assigned, and each on duty between the hours of nine 
o'clock at night and six o'clock in the morning. The 
keeper of every hotel, boarding or lodging house or family 
hotel containing fifty or more sleeping rooms but less than 
one hundred, and being three stories high, shall have be- 
tween said hours at least one competent vv^atchman on duty 
therein. In all such hotels, lodging houses or family 
hotels, the halls, corridors and stairways shall be properly 
lighted at night, and a red light shall be kept during the 
night at the top and bottom of each flight of stairs ; and 
one or more proper alarms or gongs, capable of being 
heard throughout the house, shall always remain easy of 



Acts in Chronological Order. 327 

access and ready for use in every such building to give to 
the inmates warnmg of fire. The keeper of every such 
hotel, boarding or lodging house or family hotel shall keep 
a notice descriptive of such means of escape conspicuously 
posted in every sleeping room. 

Penalty. 
Sect. 51. No person shall occupy or use any building 
or part thereof as a theatre, special hall, public hall, mis- 
cellaneous hall, place of assemblage or place of public 
resort until a license therefor has been issued by the chief of 
the district police, or a certificate therefor by an inspector. 
Any person who violates any provision of this section, or 
the conditions of a license issued by the chief of the district 
police or of a certificate issued by an inspector, in accord- 
ance with the provisions of this act, shall be punished by a 
fine of not less than twenty-five nor more than one thou- 
sand dollars, or by hnprisonment for not more than one 
year, and his license or certificate may be revoked. 

Equity Jurisdiction. 

Sect. 60. The supreme judicial court or superior court 
shall have jurisdiction in equity to restrain the illegal 
placing, maintenance or use of any building, structure, or 
other thing. It may, upon the petition of a city or town, 
by its attorney, for such relief, require the removal of any 
such building, structure or other thmg by the owner, and 
may authorize the city or town, in default of such removal 
by the owner, to remove it at his expense. The provisions 
of this section shall apply to such buildings, structures or 
other things so placed which were maintained or used prior 
to, as well as after, the second day of May in the year 
eighteen hundred and ninety-nine. Upon such petition, 
the defendant shall be presumed to have acted without a 
license or authority until he proves the contrary. 



328 Acts in Chronological Order. 

CHAPTER 676, ACTS OF 1913. 

An Act to Require Inspectors of Buildings to Give 
Notice to Assessors of the Granting of Permits. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The inspector of buildings in every city 
and town having such an officer shall give notice to the 
board of assessors of such city or town of the granting by 
the inspector of permits for the construction of any build- 
ing therein, or for any substantial alteration therein or 
addition thereto. Such notice shall be in writing, shall be 
given within seven days after the granting of each permit, 
and shall state the name of the person to whom the permit 
was granted, and the location of the building to be con- 
structed or altered or to which an addition is to be made. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect on the first day of 
October, nineteen hundred and thirteen. 

[Approved May 19, 1913. 



CHAPTER 729, ACTS OF 1913. 

An Act Relative to Dry Houses in the 
City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section. 1. No building or part of a building hereafter 
erected or altered in the city of Boston shall be used for 
kiln drying lumber unless such building or part of a build- 
ing is of fireproof construction approved by the. building 
commissioner. 

Sect. 2. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 3. This act shaU take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 29, 1913. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 329 

CHAPTER 287, ACTS OF 1914. 

An Act Relative to the Business of Plumbing. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Chapter five hundred and thirty-six of the acts of the 
year nineteen hundred and nine is hereby amended by 
striking out section ten and inserting in place thereof the 
following new section: — Section 10. Every person engag- 
ing in the business of plumbing as a master plumber, or 
working at the business of plumbing as a journeyman 
plumber, not having been registered or licensed as herein 
provided; and every person engaging in or working at 
the business of plumbing in a city or town where he has 
been forbidden so to do under the provisions of section 
four of this act; and every person engaged in the business 
of plumbing as a master plumber or employing plumber 
who engages or employs any person to work as a journey- 
man plumber who has not been registered or licensed as 
provided by this act; and every person violating any pro- 
vision of this act or any rule or regulation made hereunder 
shaU be punished by a fine not exceeding fifty dollars for 
each offence. [Approved April 2, 1914- 



CHAPTER 566, ACTS OF 1914. 

An Act to Prohibit the Locking of Doors of Build- 
ings IN Which Operatives are Employed. 

Chapter five himdred and fourteen of the acts of the 
year nineteen hundred and nine is hereby amended by 
striking out section ninety-three and inserting in place 
thereof the following new section : — Section 93. No out- 
side or inside doors of any building in which operatives are 
employed shall be so locked, bolted or otherwise fastened 



330 Acts in Chronological Order. 

during the hours of labor as to prevent free egress. Any 
person having charge of any such building or of any room 
thereof, any exit door of which shall be found to be so 
locked, bolted or otherwise fastened during the hours of 
labor as to prevent free egress, shall be punished by a fine 
of not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than five 
hundred dollars or by imprisonment for not more than 
one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment. 

[Approved May 22, 1914. 



CHAPTER 782, ACTS OF 1914. 

An Act to Amend the Building Law of the 
City of Boston. 

Section. 6. Elevators hereafter installed shall be pro- 
vided with such shaftway enclosures and doors as may be 
required by the regulations of the Massachusetts board 
of elevator regulations. All shafts for light and ventila- 
tion and skylights over such shafts shall be constructed 
of like materials and in a like manner as required for 
elevator shafts, and all window openings in the same, ex- 
cept in exterior walls, shall be protected by metal frames 
and sash and wired glass. 

Sect. 11. The provisions of this act, so far as they 
are the same as those of existing statutes, shall be construed 
as continuations thereof and not as new enactments. 

Sect. 12. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed, but nothing herein contained 
shall be construed to modify the powers and duties con- 
ferred and imposed upon the board of appeals by sections 
six, seven and eight of chapter five hundred and fifty of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and seven. 

Sect. 13. This act shall take effect ninety days after 
its passage. [Approved July 7, 191 i. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 331 

CHAPTER 786, ACTS OF 1914. 

An Act Exempting a Certain Parcel of Land in the 
City of Boston from Restrictions as to the 
Height of Buildings. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The parcel of land situated in the city of 
Boston bounded by Washington street, Lovering place, 
Harrison avenue and Asylum street is hereby exempted 
from the provisions of chapter three hundred and thirty- 
three of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four 
and chapter three hundred and eighty-three of the acts 
of the year nineteen hundred and five, relative to the 
height of buildings, and is relieved from the restrictions as 
to height placed thereon by the commissioners on the 
height of buildings in the city of Boston acting under the 
authority of said statutes: provided, however, that nothing 
herein shall authorize the erection on said parcel of a 
building exceeding one hundred and twenty-five feet in 
height above the grade of the sidewalk on Washington 
street in front of said parcel, nor the erection of any 
building thereon except in accordance with a permit duly 
granted therefor by the building commissioner of the 
city of Boston. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved July 7, 1914- 



CHAPTER 791, ACTS OF 1914. 
An Act Relative to the Operation of the Cine- 
matograph and to the Exhibition of Motion 
Pictures. 

Booths. Location of to he Approved by Building 
Commissioner in Boston. 
Section 1. No cinematograph, or similar apparatus, 
involving the use of a combustible film more than ten 



332 Acts in Chronological Order. 

inches in length, shall be kept or used for the purpose of 
exhibiting such films in or upon the premises of a public 
building, private institution, schoolhouse, church, theatre, 
special hall, public hall, miscellaneous hall, place of assem- 
blage, or place of public resort, until such cinematograph 
or similar apparatus has been inspected and approved by 
an inspector of the building inspection department of the 
district police, who shall have placed thereon a numbered 
metal tag; nor until a booth, or inclosure, which has been 
inspected and approved by such an inspector and his certi- 
ficate issued therefor, has been provided for said apparatus; 
not until such precautions against fire as the chief of the 
district police may specify have been taken by the owner, 
user or exhibitor therefor; provided, however, that no 
such cinematograph or similar apparatus shall be operated 
with oxy hydrogen gas, so-called, or with limelight. In 
addition, in the city of Boston, the location of any booth 
or inclosure surrounding said apparatus, shall be approved 
by the building commissioner, who may order such addi- 
tional precautions against fire as he may deem necessary. 

Sect. 12. Except in the city of Boston, the chief of the 
district police may grant permits for the special exhibition 
of pictures by the use of a cinematograph or similar appa- 
ratus in or upon any of the premises defined in section one 
of this act, which, in his opinion, are in safe condition for 
such exhibitions, and he may prescribe such regulations as 
he may deem necessary for the presentation of the same. 
A fee of two dollars shall accompany the application for 
each permit. 

Exceptions. 

Sect. 13. The provisions of section one to five, in- 
clusive, of this act shall not apply to any cinematograph 
or similar apparatus operated with only cellulose acetate 
films not more than one inch and one fourth in width, and 
requiring not more than five hundred watts of electric 



Acts in Chronological Order. 333 

current to operate the arc; provided, however, that such 
machines shall not be kept or used in or upon any of the 
premises defined in section one of this act except under 
such regulations as the chief of the district police shall 
prescribe. 

Penalty. 

Sect. 15. Any person, firm, corporation or association 
of persons, keeping or using a cinematograph or similar 
apparatus contrary to the provisions hereof, or in viola- 
tion of any rule or regulation made by the chief of the 
district police, or, in the city of Boston, in violation of 
any regulation or requirement made by the building 
commissioner in accordance with the provisions hereof, 
shall be punished by a fine of not less than fifty nor more 
than five hundred dollars. 

Repeals . 

Sect. 16. Chapters five hundred and sixty-five and 
five hundred and sixty-six of the acts of the year nineteen 
hmidred and eight; chapter two hmidred and eighty-one 
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and nine; chapters 
forty-eight and four hundred and forty of the acts of 
the year nineteen hundred and eleven; chapter one 
hundred and eighty-two of the acts of the year nineteen 
hundred and twelve and all acts and parts of acts incon- 
sistent herewith are hereby repealed. 

[Approved July 7, 1914.] 

[See General Act of 1915, c. 169.] 



CHAPTER 795, ACTS OF 1914. 

An Act to Provide for the Better Prevention of 

Fires Throughout the Metropolitan District. 

Combustible Material — Storage. 

Sect. 7. No part of any building used for habitation, 
jior that part of any lot within fifty feet of any building 



334 Acts in Chronological Order. 

so used, shall be used for the storage, keeping or handling 
of any combustible article for other than domestic pur- 
poses, or of any article or material that may be dangerous 
to the public safety as a fire menace, unless a permit 
has been first obtained therefor from the commissioner. 
No part of any such building shall be used as a carpenter's 
shop nor for the storage, keeping or handling of feed, hay, 
straw, excelsior, shavings, sawdust, cotton, paper stock, 
feathers, or rags, except under such terms and conditions 
as the commissioner may prescribe. 

Refuse — Debris. 
Sect. 8. The commissioner, or such person or persons 
as he may designate, may require the removal and destruc- 
tion of any heap or collection of refuse or debris that, in 
his opinion, may become dangerous as a fire menace. 
Neglect on the part of either the owner or occupant, or 
both, to remove the cause of complaint under the pro- 
visions of this or the preceding section, after notice thereof 
has been served, shall be deemed a refusal, and the com- 
missioner or the person or persons whom he may designate, 
may at any time thereafter enter upon the premises and 
remove such material or article and the containers thereof 
as may be covered by or mentioned in the notice issued. 
The material or articles removed, if of no substantial 
value shall be destroyed, otherwise they shall be placed in 
storage, and the total costs attending such action shall 
be collected in the manner provided in section sixty-seven, 
sixty-eight, and sixty-nine of chapter seventy-five of the 
Revised Laws. 

Salamander. 

Sect. 9. No salamander or stove for drying plastering 
shall be used in any building except under such conditions 
as may be prescribed by the commissioner, and no such 
salamander or stove shall be set upon a wooden floor unless^ 
it be raised above the floor at least four inches and set 



Acts in Chronological Order. 335 

upon brick or other incombustible material in a bed of 
sand at least two inches thick, spread upon the floor and 
covering an area of at least two feet in all directions larger 
than the area of the salamander or stove. 

Automatic Sjmnklers. 

Sect. 10. Any building within the metropolitan dis- 
trict used in whole or in part for the business of wood 
working, or for the business of manufacturing or working 
upon wooden, basket, rattan or cane goods or articles, 
or tow, shavings, excelsior, oakum, rope, twine, string, 
thread, bagging, paper, paper stock, cardboard, rags, cotton 
or linen, or cotton or linen garments or goods, or rubber, 
feathers, paint, grease, soap, oil, varnish, petroleum, 
gasoline, kerosene, benzine, naptha, or other inflammable 
fluids, and any building in the metropolitan district used 
in whole or in part for the business of keeping or storing 
any of such goods or articles, except in such small quanti- 
ties as are usual for domestic use, or for use in connection 
with and as incident to some business other than such 
keeping, or storing shall, upon the order of the commis- 
sioner, be equipped with automatic sprinklers: provided, 
however, that no such order shall apply to any building 
unless four or more persons live or are usually employed 
therein above the second floor. 

Dry Piping. 

Sect. 11. The basement of any buildings within the 
limits of the metropolitan district shall, upon notice in 
writing by the commissioner to the owners of the build- 
ings, be equipped with such dry pipes with outside con- 
nections as the commissioner may prescribe. 

Penalty. 

Sect. 12. Owners of buildings in the metropolitan 
district who, within six months after having received 



336 Acts in Chronological Order. 

written notice from the commissioner under sections ten 
or eleven, fail to comply with the requirement of such 
notice, shaU be punished by a fine of not more than one 
thousand doUars. 

To Whom Orders Apply. 

Sect. 22. In any case where buildings or other premises 
are owned by one person and occupied by another under 
lease or otherwise, the orders of the commissioner shall 
apply to the occupant alone, except where such rules or 
orders require the making of additions to or changes in 
the premises themselves, such as would immediately 
become real estate and be the property of the owner of 
the premises. In such cases the rules or orders shall 
affect the owner and not the occupant, and, unless it is 
otherwise agreed between the owner and the occupant, 
the occupant whose use of the premises has caused the 
making of such additions or changes, in addition to his 
rent or other payments shall, after the additions or changes 
are made, pay a reasonable per cent of the cost thereof 
annually to the owner of the premises. No rule or order 
shaU be made or enforced which requires an expenditure 
by the owner or occupant of more than five per cent of 
the last annual assessed valuation of the land and build- 
ings to which such rule or order relates. 



CHAPTER 169, ACTS OF 1915 (GENERAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to Cinematographs Using Only 
Cellulose Acetate Films. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The provisions of chayter seven hundred 
and ninety-one of the acts of the year nineteen hundred 
and fourteen shall not apply to any cinematograph or 
similar apparatus operated with only cellulose acetate 



Acts in Chronological Order. 337 

films not more than one inch and one-fourth in width and 
using only an enclosed incandescent lamp. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage, 

[Approved April 16, 1915. 



CHAPTER 176, ACTS OF 1915 (GENERAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to Signs, Awnings and Other 
Projections in Public Ways. 

Permits — Fees. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The municipal officer, board, commission 
or other municipal authority having charge of the laying 
out of public ways in cities or towns, is hereby authorized 
to grant permits and fix the fees therefor, not exceeding 
one dollar for any one permit, for the placing and maintain- 
ing of signs, advertising devices, clocks, marquees, per- 
manent awnings and other like structures projecting into, 
or placed on or over the public highways, and to make 
rules and regulations relating thereto, and to prescribe 
the penalties for a breach of any such rules and regulations, 
not exceeding five dollars for each day during which any 
sign, advertising device, clock, marquee, permanent awn- 
ing or other structure is placed or maintained contrary to 
the rules and regulations so made, after five days' notice 
to remove the same has been given by the said officer, 
board, commission or other authority, or by a police officer 
of the city or town. 

Construction and Physical Connection Subject to Approval 
of Building Commissioner. 
Sect. 2. All signs, advertising devices, clocks, mar- 
quees, permanent awnings and other like structures for 
which permits shall be granted after the passage of this 
act shall be constructed, and, when attached to a build- 



338 Acts in Chronological Order. 

ing, shall be connected therewith in accordance with the 
requirements of the inspector of buildings, building com- 
missioner or other officer, board or commission having 
like authority in the city or town. 

Exemptions. 

Sect. 3. This act shall not apply to signs or other 
structures projecting into or over the highway a distance 
of less than six inches, nor to poles, wires, conduits, and 
appurtenances of steam railroad, street railway, telegraph 
and telephone, water, gas, electric light, heat and power 
companies. 

Sect. 4. Chapters six hundred and thirty-two and 
six himdred and eighty of the acts of the year nineteen 
hundred and thirteen and all other acts or parts of acts 
inconsistent herevrith are hereby repealed, but such repeal 
shall not affect any permit already granted under the 
provisions of such acts. 

Sect. 5. This act shall take effect three months after 
its passage. [Approved April 19, 1915. 



CHAPTER 254, ACTS OF 1915 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to the Erection of Buildings in 
the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. If any building erected in the city of 
Boston since the first day of August in the year nineteen 
hundred and seven, under a permit granted by the building 
commissioner or issued by direction of the board of appeal, 
appears to have been erected contrary to the law, existing 
at the time of its erection, such building shall be considered 
as having been erected in conformity with law, and the 
building commissioner and the mayor shall issue the 
permits necessary to make lawful the use of said building 



Acts in Chronological Order, 339 

for the purpose for which it was erected: provided, that 
an application for the authorization of such use be filed 
with the building commissioner within six months of the 
passage of this act; and provided, also, that it shall appear 
to said commissioner, or, upon appeal from his ruling, to 
a majority of the board of appeal: — 

First. That said building was erected in accordance 
with the plans approved by the building commissioner or 
the board of appeal. 

Second. That said building was erected in good faith 
with the intention of complying with the law. 

Third. That the use of said building for the purpose 
for which it was erected would not, under all the circum- 
stances of the case, injuriously affect public interests. 

Sect. 2. The provisions of section one of this act, and 
any authority granted thereunder, shall not relieve the 
owner of any building of the duty of complying with the 
provisions of any law passed subsequent to the time of 
the erection of such building, or with the terms of any 
order, rule or regulation made or established under 
authority of such law. ^ 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

(The foregoing was laid before the Governor on the twenty- 
ninth day of March, 1915, and after five days it had "the 
force of a law^\ as prescribed by the Constitution, as it was 
not returned by him vjiih his objections thereto within that 
time.) [Took effect April 3, 1915. 



CHAPTER 306, ACTS OF 1915 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to the Shirley-Eustis Mansion on 
Shirley Street in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The provisions of chapter five hundred and 
fifty of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and seven 



340 Acts in Chronological Order. 

relative to the construction, alteration and maintenance 
of buildings in the city of Boston shall not prior to the 
first day of January in the year nineteen hundred and 
eighteen, apply to the Shirley-Eustis mansion, so-called, 
situated on Shirley street in the city of Boston and formerly 
occupied by a colonial governor and by a governor of the 
commonwealth: provided, that, in the meantime, the 
house shall not be used as a dwelling house or for any 
other purpose except to provide for its preservation and 
restoration as an example of a colonial executive mansion ; 
and provided, that it shall be occupied only by a caretaker 
and his assistants. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved April 27, 1915. 



CUAPTER 333, ACTS OF 1915 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings in the 
City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The chairman of the city planning board, 
the fire commissioner and the building commissioner of 
the city of Boston are hereby created a commissioner to 
determine and revise the boundaries of districts A and B 
as heretofore designated by the commission on height of 
buildings in the city of Boston, in accordance with the 
provisions of chapter three hundred and thirty-three 
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four, in the 
orders of said commission dated, respectively, the fifth 
day of July and the third day of December in the year 
nineteen hundred and four, and recorded, respectively, 
with Suffolk deeds in book twenty-nine hundred and 
seventy-six, page forty-five, and in book three thousand 
and eight, page one hundred and twenty-nine. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 341 

The height to which buildings may be erected in Dis- 
tricts A and B, respectively, as revised and established 
under this act, shall not exceed the height authorized for 
buildings in districts designated as A and B, respectively, 
under the provisions of said chapter three hundred and 
thirty-three and of chapter three hundred and eighty- 
three of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and five, 
and the orders of the commission on height of buildings 
in the city of Boston under authority of said chapter three 
hundred and eighty-three recorded, respectively, within 
Suffolk deeds in book three thousand and fifty-nine, page 
four hundred and seventy-seven, and in book three thou- 
sand and eighty-three, page seventy-four. 

Sect. 2. The commission shall give notice and public 
hearings and shall make an order revising the boundaries 
of the districts aforesaid, and shall cause the same to be 
recorded in the registry of deeds for the county of Suffolk. 
The boundaries so established shall continue for a period 
of ten years from the date of said recording. Any per- 
son who is aggrieved by said order may appeal to the 
commission for revision within sixty days after the record- 
ing thereof; and the commission may revise the order and 
the revision shall be recorded in the registry of deeds for 
the county of Suffolk and shall date back to the original 
date of recording. 

Sect. 3. Upon the recording of the order of revision 
under this act so much of section two of said chapter three 
hundred and thirty-three as continues the boundaries 
for districts A and B for a period of fifteen years from the 
date of the recording of the order of the commission under 
authority of said chapter three hundred and thirty-three 
shall become inoperative. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 11, 1915.] 



342 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Commission on Height op Buildings in the City of 

Boston. 
[Order of November 2, 1916] 

The undersigned having been created under the provi- 
sions of chapter three hundred and thirty-three of the 
special acts of the year 1915 a commission to determine 
and revise the boundaries of Districts A and B as hereto- 
fore designated by the commission on height of buildings 
in the city of Boston, m accordance with the provisions 
of chapter three hundred and thirty-three of the acts of 
the year 1904, in the orders of said commission dated, 
respectively, the fifth day of July and the third day of 
December in the year 1904, and recorded, respectively, 
with Suffolk Deeds in book twenty-nine hundred and 
seventy-six, page forty-five, and in book three thousand 
and eight, page one hundred and twenty-nine, and having 
given notice and public hearings as provided in said act, 
hereby on this second day of November, 1916, make the 
following order establishing the boundaries of the dis- 
tricts in said city, designated in said acts as Districts A 
and B, to wit: 

A. The boundaries of District A, hereby estabHshed, 
are as follows, to wit : 

1. Beginning on the northerly side of that part of the 
city known as East Boston at the intersection of Wauwa- 
tosa street and Chelsea Creek, thence running easterly 
through Wauwatosa street and Boardman street to Sara- 
toga street, thence southwesterly through Saratoga street 
to Addison street, thence westerly through Addison street 
to the Boston and Maine Railroad, thence southwesterly 
along the Boston and Maine Railroad and the Boston and 
Albany Railroad to Saratoga street, thence southwesterly 
through Saratoga street to Neptune road, thence north- 
westerly through Eagle square to Eagle street, thence 
westerly through Eagle street to Glendon street, thence 



Acts in Chronological Order. 343 

northerly through Glendon street to Condor street, thence 
westerly through Condor street to Meridian street, thence 
southerly through Meridian street to Gove street, thence 
southeasterly through Gove street to Orleans street, 
thence southerly through Orleans street to Marginal 
street, thence southeasterly through Marginal street to 
Jeffries street, thence northeasterly through Jeffries street 
to Maverick street, thence northwesterly through Maverick 
street to the Boston, Revere Beach and Lynn Rail- 
road, thence northeasterly along said railroad to the 
centre of Porter street extended, thence northwesterly 
along Porter street to Bremen street, thence northerly 
along Bremen street to Prescott street, thence south- 
easterly along Prescott street to the Boston, Revere 
Beach and Lynn Railroad, thence northerly along said 
railroad to the northerly boundary of the property of the 
city of Boston known as Wood Island Park, thence 
easterly along said boundary to the harbor line, thence 
easterly, southerly, westerly, northerly, easterly, and 
northeasterly along said harbor line of Boston Harbor 
and Chelsea Creek to the point of beginning, meaning to 
include in said District A all those portions of Ward one 
and two of said city as are now established by law which 
are situated within the boundary lines hereinbefore 
described. 

2. Beginning at the northerly side of that part of said 
city known as Charlestown at the Maiden Bridge, thence 
running southerly through Alford street to Sullivan 
square, thence southeasterly through Sullivan square and 
Bunker Hill street to Medford street, thence easterly 
through Medford street to Chelsea street, thence southerly 
through Chelsea street to Henley street, thence westerly 
through Henley street to Harvard square, thence south- 
westerly through Harvard square to Harvard street, 
thence northwesterly across Harvard street to Washing- 



344 Acts in Chkonological Order, 

ton street, thence westerly through Washington street to 
Rutherford avenue, thence northwesterly through Ruther- 
ford avenue to Sullivan square, thence southwesterly 
through Cambridge street to the city line, thence southerly 
and easterly along the city line and the Charles river 
channel to the CharlestowTi Bridge, thence northerly, 
easterly, northerly, and westerly along the harbor line 
of Boston Harbor and the Mystic river to the point of 
beginning; meaning to include in said District A all those 
portions of wards three and four of said city as are now 
established by law which are situated within the boundary 
lines hereinbefore described. 

3. Beginning on the northwesterly side of that part of 
said city known as the City Proper, at the intersection 
of the city line with the Charles river dam, thence east- 
erly and southerly along said Charles river dam and 
Leverett street to Green street, thence easterly along 
Green street to Staniford street, thence southerly along 
Staniford street to Cambridge street, thence easterly 
along Cambridge street to Bowdoin street, thence south- 
erly along Bowdoin street to Beacon street, thence south- 
westerly along Beacon street to Park street, thence 
easterly and southerly along Park and Tremont streets 
to Boylston street, thence westerly and southwesterly 
along Boylston street to Massachusetts avenue, thence 
southeasterly along Massachusetts avenue to the Provi- 
dence Division of the New York, New Haven and Hart- 
ford Railroad, thence southwesterly along said railroad to 
Tremont street at Roxbury Crossing, thence southerly 
through Columbus avenue to Roxbury street, thence 
easterly through Roxbury street to Guild row, thence 
southerly through Guild row to Dudley street, thence 
easterly and southeasterly through Dudley street to 
Columbia road, thence northeasterly through Columbia 
road to Dorchester avenue, thence southerly through 



Acts in Chronological Order, 345 

Dorchester avenue to Park street, thence northeasterly 
through Park street to Adams street, thence southerly- 
through Adams street to Neponset avenue, thence south- 
easterly through Neponset avenue to the Milton Branch 
of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, 
thence southwesterly along said railroad to Granite avenue, 
thence southeasterly along Granite avenue to the Nepon- 
set river, thence easterly and northerly along the shore of 
the Neponset river to the Neponset Bridge, thence north- 
erly and westerly along the harbor lines of the Neponset 
river, Dorchester Bay and Old Harbor to the northwest 
angle of said harbor line of Old Harbor, thence north- 
westerly to the intersection of Old Colony avenue and 
Columbia road, thence northerly along Old Colony avenue 
to E street, thence northeasterly along E street to Broad- 
way, thence southeasterly along Broadway to Dorchester 
street, thence northeasterly through Dorchester street to 
East Second street, thence easterly on East Second street 
to I street, thence northerly through I street to East 
First street, thence easterly through East First street to 
Farragut road, thence northerly through Farragut road 
and Farragut road extended across the Reserved channel, 
thence easterly, northwesterly and southwesterly, along 
the harbor line of said channel and of Boston Harbor to 
the Northern Avenue Bridge, thence westerly along said 
bridge to the Harbor Line, thence northerly and westerly 
along the Harbor Line of Boston Harbor and the Charles 
river to Charlestown Bridge, thence westerly along 
the Charles river channel and the City Line to the point 
of beginning, meaning to include in said District A all of 
ward six and all those portions of wards five, seven, eight, 
nine, eleven, twelve, thirteen, seventeen, eighteen, and 
tweni|^ of the said city as are now established by law 
which are situated within the boundary lines hereinbefore 
described. 



346 Acts in Chronological Order. 

B. The boundaries of District B hereby estabhshed are 
as follows, to wit : 

1. All those portions of said wards one and two 
situated outside the line beginning and ending at the 
intersection of Wauwatosa street and Chelsea creek here- 
inbefore established as the boundary of one of the said 
Districts A. 

2. All those portions of said wards three and four 
situated outside the line beginning and ending at the said 
Maiden Bridge, hereinbefore established as the boundary 
of one of the said Districts A. 

3. The whole of wards ten, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, 
nineteen, twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty- 
four, twenty-five and twenty-six and all those portions 
of said wards five, seven, eight, nine, eleven, twelve, 
thirteen, seventeen, eighteen and twenty situated outside 
the line beginning and ending at said intersection of the 
city line with the Charles river dam, hereinbefore estab- 
lished as the boundary of one of the said Districts A. 

Meaning to include in the said Districts B all those 
portions of the said city not included in the districts 
hereinbefore established as Districts A. 

Wherever in this order the words "harbor," "river," 
"creek," "shore line" or "harbor line," are found, the 
same are intended to mean the lines furthest towards deep 
water on said harbor, river or creek, respectively, on 
which the erection of wharves or other structures is per- 
mitted by the state and United States authorities. 

Wherever the boundary line of District A is described 
as following a certain street, the same is intended to 
inlcude all property on that side of the street which lies 
within the described area and also that portion of all lots 
on the opposite side of the street, abutting on the |^reet, 
but extending to a depth of not more than one hundred 
and fifty feet. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 347 

Wherever the boundary line of District B is determined 
by the enumeration of certain streets delimiting District 
A, the same is intended to include all property on that side 
of the street within the described area, except that portion 
of those lots abutting on the boundary streets of District A 
but extending to a depth of not more than one hundred 
and fifty feet, which are described in the paragraph above 
as intended to form a part of District A. 

In witness whereof, the undersigned hereto set their 
hands this second day of November, 1916. 

Ralph A. Cram, 
John Grady, 
Patrick O'Hearn, 

Commission on Height of Buildings 
in the City of Boston. 

Boston, November 2, 1916. 
Then personally appeared the above named Ralph A. 
Cram, John Grady and Patrick O'Hearn and acknowledged 
the foregoing instrument to be their free act and deed. 
Before me, 

Elisabeth M. Herlihy, 

Special Commissioner. 



CHAPTER 154, ACTS OF 1916 (GENERAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to the Marking, Sale and 
Installation of Range Boilers. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1 . No range boiler shall be sold or offered for 
sale in this commonwealth imless its capacity is plainly 
marked thereon in terms of Massachusetts standard 
liquid measure, together with the maker's business name, 
in such manner that it may easily be identified. 



348 Acts in Cheonological Order. 

Sect. 2. No copper, iron or steel pressure range boiler, 
whether plain or galvanized, or other vessel or tank in 
which water is to be heated under pressure, shall be sold 
or offered for sale in this commonwealth without having 
stamped thereon the maker's guarantee that it has been 
tested to not less than two hundred pounds hydraulic or 
hydrostatic pressure to the square inch together with the 
maximum working pressure at which it may be installed. 
And no such boiler, or other vessel or tank in which water 
is to be heated under pressure, shall be installed if the 
working pressure is greater than forty-two and one half 
per cent of the guaranteed test pressure marked thereon 

by the maker. 

[General Act, 1917, c. 39, sect. 1.] 
Took effect July 1, 1917. 

Sect. 3. Any person who sells or offers or exposes for 
sale any range boiler which is not marked or stamped as 
provided in the preceding sections, or which is falsely 
marked as having a capacity which is greater by seven 
and one half per cent than its true capacity, or who marks 
or causes the same to marked with such false capacity, 
shall be punished by a fine not exceeding fifty dollars for 
each offence. The inspectors of plumbing within their 
respective cities and towns shall cause the provisions of 
this act to be enforced. 

[General Act, 1917, c. 39, sect. 2.] 
Took effect July 1, 1917. 

Sect. 4. This act shall not apply to the sale or offer- 
ing for sale of installed range boilers or to the sale or 
offering for sale of range boilers as junk. 

Sect. 5. This act shall take effect on the first day of 
July, nineteen hundred and sixteen. [Approved April 
24, 1916. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 349 

CHAPTER 158, ACTS OF 1916 (GENERAL ACT). 

An Act to Require Fire Protection in Stables for 

Horses and Mules. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. No horse or mule shall be stabled on the 
second or any higher floor of any building unless there are 
two means of exit therefrom, at opposite ends of the 
building, to the main or street floor. 

Sect. 2. This act shall not apply to stables equipped 
with an automatic sprinkler system. 

Sect. 3. Any violation of this act shaU be punished 
by a fine of not more than two hundred dollars. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect on the first day of 
January, in the year nineteen hundred and seventeen. 

[Approved April 26, 1916. 



CHAPTER 86, ACTS OF 1916 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to the Use of Public School Prop- 
erty OF the City of Boston for Social, Civic 
AND Other PuiiPosES. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section one of chapter one hundred and 
ninety-five of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and 
twelve, is hereby amended by striking out the words 
"that no admission fee is charged and," in the tenth line, 
so as to read as follows: — Section 1. For the purpose 
of promoting the usefulness of the public school property 
of the city of Boston, the school committee of that city may 
conduct such educational and recreative activities in or 
upon school property under its control, and shall allow the 
use thereof by individuals and associations, subject to such 
regulations as the school committee may establish, for 
such educational, recreative, social, civic, philanthropic 



350 Acts in Chronological Order. 

and similar purposes as the committee may deem to be 
for the interest of the community: provided, that such 
use shall not interere or be inconsistent with the use of 
the premises for school purposes. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved February 16, 1916. 



CHAPTER 344, GENERAL ACTS, 1917 (PART 2). 

Building Line. 

Sect. 73. If the city by its city council or other govern- 
ing body or a town accepts the provisions of this section or 
has accepted the corresponding provisions of earlier laws, 
a building line not more than forty feet distant from the 
exterior line of a highway or town way may be established 
in the manner provided for laying out ways, and thereafter 
no structures shrill be erected or maintained between such 
building line and such way, except steps, windows, porticos 
and other usual projections appurtenant to the front wall 
of a building, to the extent prescribed in the vote estab- 
lishing such buUding line, and except that buildings or 
parts of buidings, embankments, steps, walls, fences and 
gates existing at the time of the establishment of the 
building line may be permitted to remain and to be main- 
tained to such extent and under such conditions as may 
be prescribed in the vote establishing such building line. 
Whoever sustains damage thereby shall have the same 
remedies therefor as for damages sustained by the laying 
out of a town way. A building line established under the 
provisions of this section may be discontinued in the 
manner provided for the discontinuance of a highway or 
town way. Whoever sustains damages by the discontinu- 
ance of a building line shall have the same remedies 
therefor as for damages sustained by the discontinuance 
of a town way. 



Acts in Chronological Order, 351 

CHAPTER 344, GENERAL ACTS, 1917 (PART 5). 
Projections. 
Sect. 9. The municipal officer, board, commission or 
other municipal authority having charge of the laying out 
of public ways in cities and towTis, is hereby authorized to 
grant permits and fix the fees therefor, not exceeding one 
dollar for any one permit, for the placing and maintaining 
of signs, advertising devices, clocks, marquees, permanent 
awnings and other like structures projecting into, or placed 
on or over the public highways, and to make rules and 
regulations relating thereto, and to prescribe the penalties 
for a breach of any such rules and regulations not exceeding 
five dollars for each day during which any sign, advertising 
device, clock, marquee, permanent awning or other struct- 
ure is placed or maintained contrary to the rules and 
regulations so made, after five days' notice to remove the 
same has been given by the said officer, board, commission 
or other authority or by a police officer of the city or town. 

Construction oj Signs, etc., to he approved hy Building 
'Commissioner. 

Sect. 10. All signs, advertising devices, clocks, mar- 
quees, permanent awnings and other like structures for 
which permits shall be granted after the passage of this 
act, shall be constructed, and, when attached to a building, 
shall be connected therewith in accordance with the re- 
quirements of the inspector of buildings, building com- 
missioner or other officer, board or commission having 
like authority in the city or town. 

Sect. 11. The two preceding sections shall not apply 
to signs or other structures projecting into or over the 
highway a distance of less than six inches, nor to poles, 
wires, conduits, and appurtenances of steam railroad, 
street railway, telegraph and telephone, water, gas, 
electric light, heat and power companies. 



352 Acts in Chronological Order. 

CHAPTER 344, GENERAL ACTS, 1917 (PART 6.) 

0/ the Boundaries of Highways and Other Public 
Places and Encroachments Thereon. 

Section 1. If buildings or fences have been erected 
and continued for more than twenty years, fronting upon 
or against a highway, town way, private way, training- 
field, burying-place, landing-place, street, lane or alley, or 
other land appropriated for the general use or convenience 
of the inhabitants of the commonwealth, or of a county, 
city, town or parish, and from the length of time or other- 
wise the boundaries thereof are not known and cannot 
be made certain by the records or by monuments, such 
buildings or fences shall be taken to be the true boundaries 
thereof. 

Barbed Wire Fence. 

Sect. 4. Whoever builds or maintains a barbed wire 
fence within six feet above the ground along a sidewalk 
located on a public way shall be punished by a fine of not 
less than twenty nor more than fifty dollars. 



CHAPTER 115, ACTS OF 1918 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act to Allow Metal Garages of Limited Size in 

Certain Sections of the City of Boston. 
Beit enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Metal covered steel frame garages adapted 
for the accommodation of not more than two automobiles, 
constructed with concrete floors, with fireproof doors, 
windows, and trim, and not exceding five hundred square 
feet in area, may built outside the building limits of the 
city of Boston as such limits existed prior to the twenty- 
second day of September in the j'^ear nineteen hundred and 



Acts in Chronological Order. 353 

thirteen, provided that such garages are not built nearer 
than five feet from the lot line, or nearer than twelve feet 
from any other building. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved April 2, 1918. 



CHAPTER 32, ACTS OF 1918 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act to Require the Registration of Hospitals in 

THE City of Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Every person, firm or corporation, using 
or occupying a building in the city of Boston as a hospital, 
shall annually in April register with the building depart- 
ment of the city the name of the person, firm or corporation 
conducting the hospital and the situation of the building, 
and shall state, upon forms prescribed by the building com- 
missioner, the number of occupants, the means of egress, 
the system of automatic sprinklers, the lights, fire stops, 
and other precautions against fire provided in such 
building. 

Sect. 2. Violation of this act shall be punished by a 
fine not exceeding five hundred dollars . 

[Approved February 19,1919. 



CHAPTER 163, ACTS OF 1919 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to the Construction, Alteration 
AND Maintenance of Hospitals in the City of 
Boston. 
Beit enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Every building in the city of Boston 
exceeding three stories or forty feet in height hereafter 
erected, altered or designed for use or occupation as a 
hospital shall be a first class building as defined in chapter 



354 Acts in Chkonological Order. 

five hundred and fifty of the acts of nineteen hundred and 
seven and the amendments thereof. Every such building 
shall be provided with at least two enclosed stairways, 
shall have an additional enclosed stairway if the number 
of occupants, at any time, equals seventy-five, and a further 
additional enclosed stairway for every additional one 
hundred occupants which it may at any time contain. 

Every building in the city of Boston three stories or less 
in height, or less than forty feet in height, hereafter erected, 
altered or designed for use or occupation as a hospital may 
be of second or third class construction, shall have means 
of egress satisfactory to the building commissioner, and no 
story or part of a story above the second shall be used for 
the care, treatment or lodging of patients. 

Sect. 2. The elevator, light and ventilating shafts and 
basements in all hospital buildings specified in section one, 
shall be provided with a system of automatic sprinklers 
approved as to location, arrangement and efficiency by the 
building commissioner. 

Sect. 3. The halls and stairs in all hospital buildings 
specified in section one, shall be provided with proper and 
sufficient lights which shall be kept lighted during the 
night. 

Sect. 4. The elevator, light and ventilating shafts in 
all hospital buildings specified in section one, shall be 
enclosed in the basement with masonry walls not less than 
eight inches thick or with two-inch metal and plaster 
partitions. 

Sect. 5. In case of an existing or impending epidemic 
of a disease, the buildiiig commissioner, upon the recom- 
mendation of the health commissioner and with the 
written approval of the mayor, may temporarily suspend 
the provisions of this act 

Sect. 6. The health commissioner and the building 
commissioner, acting jointly, are hereby authorized to 
promulgate, from time to time, such regulations as in 



Acts in Cheonological Ordee. 355 

their judgment pubKc interests require, to govern the 
estabhshment and maintenance of hospitals whether for 
human beings or for domestic animals, and to regulate the 
issue, suspension and revocation of licenses for the same. 

Sect. 7. Every person, firm or corporation hereafter 
using or occupj^ing a building in the city of Boston as a 
hospital shall forthwith register with the building depart- 
ment in the manner required by chapter thirty-two of the 
Special Acts of nineteen hundred and nineteen, setting 
forth all the facts and data therein specified. 

Sect. 8. Violation of this act shall be punished by a 
fine not exceeding five hundred dollars. 

[Approved April 80, 1919. 



CHAPTER 28, REVISED LAWS. 

Height of Buildings Allowed on Parkways. 

Seventy Feet. 
Section 16. In a city which by vote of its city council 
or in a town which by a vote of a town meeting accepts 
this section, or has accepted the corresponding provisions 
of earlier laws, the board of park commissioners may, in 
accordance with the provisions of section one hundred and 
three of chapter forty-eight, estabhsh a building line 
distant at no point more than twenty-five feet from any 
exterior line of a parkway, boulevard or public way on 
which a park abuts; and the extreme height to which 
buildings upon such parkway, boulevard or public way 
may be erected shall be seventy feet exclusive of such 
steeples, towers, domes, cornices, parapets, balustrades, 
sculptured ornaments, chimneys and roofs as such board 
may approve. Whoever sustains damage by the estabhsh- 
ment of such building line shall have the same remedy 
therefor as if his land were taken for the laying out of a 

highway. 

[1896, c. 313; 1897, c. 379.] 



356 Acts in Chronological Order. 

CHAPTER 33, REVISED LAWS. 

Fence Nuisance. 

Section 19. A fence or other structure in the nature of a 
fence which unnecessarily exceeds six feet in height and is 
maHciously erected or maintained for the purpose of 
annoying the owners or occupants of adjoining property, 
shall be deemed a private nuisance. Any such owner or 
occupant who is injured either in the comfort or enjoyment 
of his estate thereby may have an action of tort for dam- 
ages according to the provisions of chapter one hundred 
and eighty-six. 

[1887, c. 348.] 



CHAPTER 48, REVISED LAWS. 

Building Line. 

Section 103. If the city council of a city or if a town 
accepts the provisions of this section or has accepted the 
corresponding provisions of earlier laws, a building line 
not more than forty feet from the exterior line of a high- 
way or town way may be established in the manner pro- 
vided for laying out ways, and thereafter no structures 
shall be erected or maintained between such building line 
and such way, except steps, windows, porticos and other 
usual projections appurtenant to the front wall of a build- 
ing, to the extent prescribed in the vote establishing such 
building line; and except that buildings or parts of build- 
ings existing at the time of the establishment of the 
building line may be permitted to remain and to be main- 
tained to such extent and under such conditions as may 
be prescribed in the vote establishing such building line. 
Whoever sustains damage thereby shall have the same 
remedies therefor as for damages sustained by the laying 
out of a town way. A building line established under the 
provisions of this section may be discontinued in the 



Acts in Chronological Order. 357 

manner provided for the discontinuance of a highway or 
town way. Whoever sustains damages by the discontin- 
uance of a building hne shall have the same remedies there- 
for as for damages sustained by the discontinuance of a 
town way. 

[Chap. 462 of 1893. Chap. 572 of 1913, sect. 1. Chap. 56 of 1917 
Special Act. See Chap. 344, sect. 73 of 1917, part 2.] 



CHAPTER 101, REVISED LA¥/S. 

Burnt, Dilapidated — Dangerous Buildings. 

Section 1 . In a city or town in which the city council 
or the inhabitants accept the provisions of this and the 
four following sections or have accepted the corresponding 
provisions of earlier laws, the mayor and aldermen or 
selectmen, after notice in writing to the owner of a burnt, 
dilapidated or dangerous building, and a hearing, may 
adjudge it to be a nuisance to the neighborhood, or 
dangerous, and may thereupon make and record an order 
prescribing the disposition, alteration or regulation thereof. 
The city or town clerk shall deliver a copy of the order to 
a constable, who shall forthwith serve an attested copy 
thereof upon such owner, and make return of his doings 
thereon to said clerk. 

Sect. 2. An owner who is aggrieved by such order 
may, within three days after the service thereof upon 
him, apply to the superior court for a jury. The court 
shall issue a warrant for a jury, which shall be impanelled 
by the sheriff within fourteen days after the date of the 
warrant in the m^anner provided in chapter forty-eight; 
or, instead thereof, if the applicant for a jury so elects 
and after such notice as the court shall order to the adverse 
party, it shall order a trial to be had at the bar of the 
superior court, in the same manner as other civil causes 
are there tried by jury. 



358 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Sect. 3. The jury may affirm, annul or alter such 
order; and the sheriff, if the trial is before him, shall 
return the verdict to the next sitting of the court for 
acceptance; and the verdict, whether before the sheriff 
or in the superior court, being accepted, shall take effect 
as an original order. 

Sect. 4. If the order is affirmed, the apphcant shall 
pay the costs; if it is annulled, he shall recover damages 
and costs against the city or town; and if it is altered, 
the court may render such judgment as to costs as justice 
shall require. 

Sect. 5. The mayor and aldermen of a city or select- 
men of a town shall have the same power and authority 
to abate and remove any such nuisance as is given to the 
board of health of a city or town by the provisions of 
sections sixty-seven, sixty-eight and sixty-nine of chapter 
seventy-five. 

[1855, c. 469, sects. 1 to 6; G. S. c. 87, sects. 1 to 4.] 



CHAPTER 102, REVISED LAWS. 

Entertainments Given in Private Dwellings. 
Section 173. Whosoever offers to view, sets up, sets 
on foot, maintains, carries on, pubhshes or otherwise 
assists in or promotes any such exhibition, show or amuse- 
ment, without such license, shall be punished by a fine of 
not more than five hundred dollars for each offence. 
The provisions of this section and of the last preceding 
section, however, shall not apply to public entertainments 
by religious societies in their usual places of worship for a 
religious or charitable purpose, or to entertainments given 
in school buildings by, or for the benefit of, the pupils 
thereof, and under the supervision of the principal or 
teacher in charge of the school classes therein, or to enter- 



Acts in Chronological Order. 359 

tainments given in a private dwelling, except in apartments 
thereof having a seating capacity of four hundred or more, 

[1904, c. 460, sect. 5.] 

[1907, c. 309, sect. 1.] 

[1909, c. 254, sect. 1.] 



CHAPTER 104, REVISED LAWS. 

Hotels — Watchmen — Hallway Lights — Stair- 
ways — Gongs, Etc. 

Section 29. The keeper of a hotel, boarding or lodging 
house or family hotel containing one hundred or more 
rooms, and being four or more stories high, shall have 
therein at least two competent watchmen, each properly 
assigned, and each on duty between the hours of nine 
o'clock at night and six o'clock in the morning. The 
keeper of every hotel, boarding or lodging house or family 
hotel containing fifty or more but less than one hundred 
rooms, and being three stories high, shall have between 
said hours at least one competent watchman on duty 
therein. In all such hotels, lodging houses or family 
hotels, the halls and stairways shall be properly lighted at 
night, and a red light shall be kept during the night at 
the top and bottom of each flight of stairs; and one or 
more proper alarms or gongs, capable of being heard 
throughout the house, shall always remain easy of access 
and ready for use in each of said buildings to give to the 
inmates warning of fire. The keeper of every such hotel, 
boarding or lodging house or family hotel shall keep a 
notice descriptive of such means of escape conspicuously 
posted in every sleeping room. 

[1883, c. 251, sect. 1; 1884, c. 223, sect. 2.] 

Penalty. 

Sect. 32. Whoever neglects or refuses to provide 
watchmen as required by the three preceding sections 



360 Acts in Chronological Order. 

shall be punished by a fine of not more than one thousand 
dollars for each offence, and whoever violates any of the 
other provisions of said sections shall be punished by a 
fine of not less than fifty nor more than five hundred 
dollars. 

Illegal Building Use Restrained — Removal. 

Sect. 52. The supreme judicial court or the superior 
court shall have jurisdiction in equity to restrain the 
illegal placing, maintenance or use of any building, struc- 
ture or other thing. It may, upon the petition of a city or 
town, by its attorney, for such relief, require the removal 
of any such building, structure or other thing by the 
owner, and may authorize the city or town, in default of 
such removal by the owner, to remove it at his expense. 
The provisions of this section shall apply to all such 
structures or other thing so placed which were maintained 
or used prior to, as well as after, the second of May in 
the year eighteen hundred and ninety-nine. Upon such 
petition, the defendant shall be presumed to have acted 
without a license or authority until he proves the 
contrary. 

[1899, c. 326, sect. 52, as amended.] 



CHAPTER 9, ORDINANCES OF 1912. 

Concerning Control of Building Alterations. 

In the Year One Thousand Nine Hundred and Thirteen. 
Be it ordained by the City Council of Boston, as follows: 

Section 1. All persons who shall hereafter take per- 
sonal charge or control of the work of construction , altera- 
tion, removal or tearing down of buildings or structures 
in the City of Boston shall be qualified by education, 
training, or experience for the performance of that duty 



Acts in Chronological Order. 361 

in a manner which shall preserve public safety and con- 
form to the laws, ordinances, rules and regulations relating 
to the construction, alteration, removal or tearing down of 
buildings or structures in the City of Boston. 

Sect. 2. The qualifications of such persons shall be 
determined by a board of examiners as hereinafter pro- 
vided; and no permit for the doing of work described in 
section one of this ordinance shall be issued by the build- 
ing commissioner unless the application for a permit 
therefor contams the name, address and signature of a 
person who is duly licensed, as hereinafter provided, to 
take personal charge or control of such work; ^provided, 
however, that a permit may be granted if no person licensed 
as aforesaid has been named in the application therefor 
whenever the work in question is of minor importance, 
and, in the opinion of the building commissioner, stated 
in writing with his reasons therefor upon the application 
for such permit, the work is of such simple character that 
its execution will not endanger the safety of the public, or 
of any person engaged thereon. 

Sect. 3. There shall be in the building department a 
board to be called the board of examiners. Such board 
shall consist of three members to be appointed by the 
mayor in accordance with the provisions of sections nine 
and ten of chapter four hundred and eighty-six of the acts 
of the year nineteen hundred nine. Each member shall 
receive ten dollars for every day or part thereof of actual 
service but not more than one thousand dollars in any 
year. The first appointments shall be for one, two and 
three year terms, respectively, and succeeding appoint- 
ments shall be for terms of three years. 

Sect. 4. The board shall, as soon as practicable after 
the appointments of the members have become operative, 
meet and organize by the selection of a chairman and a 
secretary; and shall hold examinations, under reasonable 



362 Acts in Cheonological Order. 

rules and regulations adopted by it, of persons desiring 
to be registered as qualified to have charge or control of 
the construction, alteration, removal, or tearing down of 
buildings or structures. The first examination shall be 
held within thirty days after the date of the organization 
of the board, and shall be advertised once a week for 
three successive weeks in the daily papers published in 
the City of Boston, and in the City Record. Due notice 
of subsequent examinations shall be posted in the offices 
of the building department and of the board of examiners 
and published in the City Record. 

The board shall establish various classes of persons to 
be registered, shall determine the quahfications required 
for each class, and after examination shall register in 
each class the persons found to possess the requisite 
qualifications therefor. The name and address of each 
person so found to be qualified, with the designation of 
the class in which he is registered, shall thereupon be 
certified by the board to the building commissioner who 
shall make a record of the same which shall be open to 
public inspection. 

Sect, 5. Any person who shall by affidavit, together 
with such other evidence as may be required by the 
board, show to the board that prior to the passage of this 
ordinance he has had charge or control of the construction, 
alteration, removal or tearing down of buildings or struc- 
tures in the class in which he applies to be registered, and 
shall satisfy the board that he is qualified by education, 
training or experience to have charge or control of such 
work, may, without any other examination, be registered 
in said class and be certified to the building commissioner 
as a person qualified within such class. 

Sect, 6. The building commissioner, upon the pay- 
ment of a fee of two dollars, shall issue a license to each 
person certified by the board, and such license shall not 



Acts in Chronological Order. 363 

be transferred. The fees received by the board and by 
the building commissioner shall be paid over to the city 
collector at least once a week. 

Sect. 7. A person who has been duly licensed as afore- 
said shall be entitled to have charge or control of any 
work described in section one of this ordinance, in the 
class in which he is registered, until his license is revoked 
or suspended by the building commissioner upon the order 
of the board. No license shall be revoked or suspended 
except upon proof of charges, filed with the board by the 
building commissioner or other person, specifying that 
the licensee has been careless or negligent in the perform- 
ance of his duty in connection with work under his charge 
or control, or has caused or permitted a violation of the 
building laws in connection therewith, or that such laws 
have been violated in connection with such work when 
the licensee knew, or, in the exercise of due diligence, 
should have known, that such violation had occurred. 
Upon learning of such carelessness, or neglect of duty, or 
of such violation of lavv^, the building commissioner shall 
file charges with the board and prosecute the same. 
Upon the filing of such charges by the building commis- 
sioner, or other person, the board shall give to the 
licensee notice of a hearing upon the charges, which shall 
be held by the board not less than seven days after the 
date of said notice. The notice shall be by personal 
service or by registered mail and shall state the time and 
place of the hearing and contain a copy of the charges. 
At such hearing the licensee may be represented by 
counsel, and the building commissioner may be assisted 
by a representative of the law department of the city. 

Sect. 8. If, for any cause, a person licensed as herein 
provided, shall cease to have charge or control of any 
work described in section one of this ordinance before 
such work is finished, the work shall stop until another 



364 Acts in Chronological Order. 

person duly licensed for the doing of such work has 
been placed in charge thereof. 

Sect. 9. Whenever the board shall determine that a 
suflScient number of persons has been licensed in the 
various classes, it shall post notice of such determina- 
tion in the offices of the building department and of 
the board and publish the same in the City Record. No 
person shall, by reason of anything contained in this 
ordinance, be denied a permit by the building com- 
missioner or suffer any penalty until after the expiration 
of thirty days from the date of said pubHcation in the 
Cily Record. 

Sect. 10. Whoever violates any provision of this 
ordinance shall be punished by a fine of not more than 
fifty dollars for each offence. 

Sect. 11. This ordinance shall take effect upon its 
passage. 

In City Council, January 27, 1913. 
Passed. James Donovan, City Clerk. 

Approved January 28, 1913. 

John F. Fitzgerald, Mayor. 
A true copy. 

Attest: 

James Donovan, City Clerk. 

Ordained by authority of chapter 713, Acts of 1912. 



CHAPTER 4, ORDINANCES OF 1913. 

Concerning the Building Limits. 

In the Year One Thousand Nine Hundred and Thirteen. 
Be it ordained hy the City Council of Boston, as follows: 

Section 1. Section twenty-seven of chapter forty- 
five of the Revised Ordinances of 1898 is hereby amended 



Acts in Chronological Oeder. 3i55 

by striking out said section and inserting in place thereof 
a new section, as follows : 

Section 27. The building limits referred to in section 
nine of chapter five hundred and fifty of the acts of the 
year 1907 are hereby extended, defined and estabhshed 
as follows: 

All that portion of the city w;hich is included within 
a line beginning at the intersection of the boundary lines 
between the City of Boston and the cities of Somerville 
and Everett; thence by the boundary lines between the 
City of Boston and the cities of Everett and Chelsea to 
the intersection with the centre line of Trumbull street 
extended northerly; thence by said centre line of Trum- 
bull street extended, the centre fine of Trumbull street 
and said centre line extended southerly to the Harbor 
line; thence by said Harbor line to its intersection with 
the easterly fine of Pier No. 5 belonging to the Boston 
and Albany Railroad Company; thence by a straight 
line across Boston Harbor to its intersection with the 
Harbor line at the easterly corner of Pier No. 1 in South 
Boston; thence by the Harbor line in the northerly, 
easterly and southerly portions of South Boston to an 
angle in said Harbor line nearly opposite the intersection 
of the centre Hne of Columbia road with the centre Hne 
of location of the Old Colony Railroad; thence by a 
straight Hne to the said intersection; and by the centre 
lines of Columbia road. Blue Hill avenue, Seaver street, 
Columbus avenue, Atherton and Mozart streets, Chest- 
nut avenue, Sheridan, Centre and Perkins streets. South 
Huntington avenue, Castleton street and the centre 
line of said Castleton street extended to the boundary 
line between the City of Boston and the town of Brook- 
line; thence by said boundary line to a point therein 
one hundred feet southwest of Washington street in the 
Brighton district; thence by a line parallel to and one 



366 Acts in Chronological Order. 

hundred feet southwesterly from the centre hne of Wash- 
mgton street to an angle formed by the intersection 
of said line with the extension of a hne parallel to and 
one hundred feet northwesterly of the centre line of 
Market street; thence by said extension and said line 
parallel to and one hundred feet northwesterly of the 
centre line of Market street to a point one hundred feet 
south of the centre hne of Western avenue; thence by 
a line parallel to and one hundred feet south of the centre 
Hne of Western avenue and said hne extended to a point 
in the boundary line between the City of Boston and 
the town of Watertown south of Watertown Bridge, so 
called; thence by said boundary line and the boundary 
lines between the cities of Cambridge and Somerville to 
the point of beginning. 

Also those portions of Ward 26 upon or within one 
hundred feet of the following named streets and squares: 
Everett square, so called; Fairmount avenue from River 
street to the Neponset river; River street from the loca- 
tion of the Boston & Providence Railroad to Winthrop 
street; Hyde Park avenue on the easterly side from 
the northerly side of Oak street to Everett street; Hyde 
Park avenue on the westerly side from the northerly 
side of Pine street extension, so called, to a point on said 
Hyde Park avenue opposite the southerly line of Everett 
street; Harvard avenue from River street to Winthrop 
street; Maple street from River street to a point one 
hundred and eighty feet southerly therefrom; Central 
avenue from River street to Winthrop street; Davison 
street from Fairmount avenue to a point three hundred 
feet northeasterly therefrom; Grove street; Pierce street 
from Fairmount avenue to a point three hundred feet 
northeasterly therefrom; Knott street from Fairmount 
avenue to a point three hundred feet easterly therefrom; 
Railroad avenue from Fairmount avenue to a point 



Acts in Chronological Order. 367 

three hundred feet northeasterly therefrom; Station 
street from the Neponset river to a point three hundred 
feet northeasterly from Fairmount avenue; Walnut 
street from Fairmount avenue to a point three hundred 
feet southwesterly therefrom; Maple street from Fair- 
mount avenue to a point one hundred and twenty-five 
feet westerly therefrom. 
This ordinance became operative July 1, 1914. 



LAWS RELATING TO GAS 
FITTING. 



GAS FITTING LAWS. 



CHAPTER 265, ACTS OF 1897. 



An Act Relative to the Licensing of Gas Fitters 
AND to the Supervision of the Business of Gas 
Fitting in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

License Required — "Journeyman'^ Means. 
Section 1. No person, firm or corporation shall engage 
in or work at the business of gas fitting in the city of Boston 
after the first day of October in the year eighteen hundred 
and ninety-seven, either as employer or as a journeyman, 
unless such person, firm or corporation has received a 
license therefor in accordance with the provisions of this 
act. The word "journeyman," as used in this act, shall be 'j 

deemed to mean one who personally does any gas fitting or 
any work in connection therewith which would be subject 
to inspection under the provisions of this act. 

Examination Required — As to Qualifications. 

Sect. 2. Every person, firm or corporation desiring to 
engage in the business of gas fitting in the city of Boston 
shall make application therefor to the building commis- 
sioner, and shall at such time and place as may be desig- 
nated by the board of examiners hereinafter provided for, 
to whom such application shall be referred, be examined 
as to his qualifications for such business. 

3G9 



370 Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 

Board of Examiners. 

Sect. 3. The board of examiners shall consist of the 
building commissioner, the chairman of the board of 
health, who shall be ex officiis members of said board and 
serve without compensation, and a third member, to be 
chosen by the board of health, who shall be a practical gas 
fitter of at least five years' continued practical experience 
during the years next preceding the date of appointment. 
Said third member shall be chosen within thirty days after 
the passage of this act, for a term ending on the first day of 
May in the year eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
thereafter annually; and he shall be allowed a sum not 
exceeding five dollars for each day of actual service, to be 
paid from the treasury of the City of Boston. 

Date and Places for Holding Examinations. 

Practical Knowledge Required. 

Licenses — Fees for Same. 

Sect. 4. Said board of examiners shall, as soon as may 
be after the appointment of said third member, meet and 
organize by the selection of a chairman and clerk, and shall 
then designate the times and places for the examination of 
all applicants desiring to engage in or work at the business 
of gas fitting in the city of Boston. Said board shall 
examine said applicants as to their practical knowledge of 
gas fitting, shall submit the applicant to some satisfactory 
form of practical test, and, if satisfied of the competency of 
the applicant, shall so certify to the building commissioner, 
who shall thereupon issue a license to such applicant, 
authorizing him to engage in or work at the business of gas 
fitting, first requiring him to register in the office of the 
said building commissioner his name, place of business or 
residence, license number, date of examination, and in 



Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 371 

what capacity licensed. In case of a firm or corporation, 
the examination of one member of the firm, or of the 
manager of the corporation, shall satisfy the requirements 
of this act. The fee for the Ucense of any employing gas 
fitter shall be two dollars, and for a journeyman, fifty 
cents; and said license shall continue in force until revoked 
or cancelled, but shall not be transferable. 

hispectors of Gas Fitting. 

Duties — Compensation — Cause of Removal. 

Sect. 5. The building commissioner shall appoint, 
after the first day of October in the year eighteen hundred 
and ninety-seven, such a number of inspectors of gas fitting 
as the board of examiners may from time to time determine. 
Said inspectors shall be practical gas fitters of at least five 
years' continued practical experience, and shall, before 
appointment, be subject to an examination before the 
civil service commissioners. The compensation of said 
inspectors shall be determined by the building commis- 
sioner, subject to the approval of the mayor; and such 
inspectors shall hold office until removed by said com- 
missioner, with the approval of the mayor, for malfeasance, 
incapacity or neglect of duty. Said inspectors shall 
inspect all new work relating to gas fitting in new and in 
old Vjuildings, the connections and use of such work, and 
shall report all violations of this act or of any act or ordi- 
nance relating thereto, which now exists or may be hereafter 
enacted or ordained; and they shall also perform such other 
appropriate duties as may be required by the building 
commissioner. 

License Number to he Displayed at Place of Business. 
Sect. 6. Every licensed gas fitter shall display his 
license numVjer conspicuously at his place of business. 



372 Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 

Applicatio7i to he Filed and Permit Required. 
Materials and Workmanship Subject to Regulations. 
Sect. 7. On and after the first day of October in the 
year eighteen hundred and ninety-seven no building shall 
be piped or fitted for gas, nor shall any repairs be made in 
such pipings or fittings, nor fixtures placed, unless a permit 
shall be granted therefor by the building commissioner. 
Every hcensed gas fitter desiring to perform any work 
relating to piping or fitting a building for gas, or to repair 
gas piping or fittings, or to place fixtures therein, shall file 
an application therefor at the office of the building com- 
missioner, giving the correct location, name and address of 
the owner, the intended use and material of the building, 
and a full and complete statement of the work proposed 
and material to be used, and shall, if required by said build- 
ing commissioner, furnish a plan thereof, which shall be 
subject to his approval. All materials used and work 
performed under the provisions of this section shall be 
subject to such regulations as shall be made by the board 
of health and the building commissioner. 

Timbers, Beams or Girders Not to he Cut Into. 
Meter to he Removed Only by Gas Company. 
Sect. 8. No gas pipe which may be introduced into 
any building shall be let into the timbers, beams, or girders 
unless the same is placed within thirty-six inches of the end 
of said timber, beam or girder, and in no building shall the 
said pipes be let into the timbers, beams or girders, more 
than two inches in depth. No person shall disconnect or 
remove any gas meter, except the duly authorized represent- 
ative of the gas company owning such meter. 

Gas Brackets. 
Sect. 9. All gas brackets shall be placed at least three 
feet below any ceiling or woodwork, unless the same is 
properly protected by a shield, in which case the distance 



Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 373 

shall not be less than eighteen inches. Nothing in this act 
shall be construed to affect the operations of any gas com- 
pany upon its own premises or upon its mains and surface 
pipes. 

Board of Health to Inspect Gas Fixtures and Appliances 
in Buildings. 
Sect. 10. The Board of Health of said city by its 
inspectors shall from time to time, as it deems proper, 
inspect the gas fixtures and appliances in any building and 
shall make such requirements relating thereto as it deems 
the public health requires, and the owner of such building 
shall comply with such requirements. 

Penalty for Violation of this Act. 

Sect. 11. Any person violating any of the provisions 
of this act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and 
shall be subject to a fine of not exceeding one hundred 
dollars for each offence, and if such person has received a 
license under this act his license may be revoked by the 
building commissioner. 

Annual Report. 
Sect. 12. The building commissioner shall include in 
his annual report to the city council a report of the pro- 
ceedings of the building department under this act, and 
shall include therein a report of the board of examiners 
appointed under this act, giving their proceedings during 
the year ending on the first day of February. 

Repeals. 

Sect. 13. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 14. This act shall take effect upon its passage, 
except so far as is hereinbefore otherwise provided. 

Approved April 10, 1897. 



374 Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 



REVISED REGULATIONS. 

Pertaining to Gas Fitting and Gas Fitting Materials, 
Adopted July 29, 1S98, by the Board of Health 
AND THE Building Commissioner, to Take Effect 
Oct. 1, 1898. — Amended Aug. 16, 1899. — Amended 
March 12, 1918. 

(Authorized hy Chapter 265, Acts of 1897.) 



Notice of Repair of Leaks. 

Section 1. In all cases of repair of leaks, a notice 
giving the location and extent of all work performed shall 
be filed with the building commissioner immediately upon 
completion of the same. 

No Pipe of Fitting to he Concealed Until Approved. 
Sect. 2. No pipe or fitting shall be covered or con- 
cealed from view until approved by one of the gas fitting 
inspectors of the building department, or for twenty-four 
hours after notice has been given to the building com- 
missioner. 

No Pipe to he Laid Subjected to Strain. 
Sect. 3. Pipes shall be run and laid to avoid any strain 
or weight on the same, except that of the fixtures. 

Outlets. — Numoer of Burners. 
Sect. 4. Outlets for fixtures shall be securely fastened; 
all outlets not covered by fixtures shall be left capped, 
and the number of burners for each outlet shall be marked 
on the builders' plan. 



Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 375 

Pipes to he Properly Protected. 
Sect. 5. Pipes laid in a cold or damp place shall be 
properly dripped, painted with two coats of red lead and 
boiled oil, or covered with felting satisfactory to the 
building commissioner. 

Swing Brackets. 
Sect. 6. Swing brackets shall have a globe or guard 
to prevent its burner from coming in contact with the wall. 
Bracket outlets shall be at least 2 inches from window or 
door casings. 

Stop-Pins. 

Sect. 7. Stop-pins to cocks shall be screwed into place. 

Cement Prohibited. 
Sect. 8. The use of gas fitters' cement is prohibited, 
except in putting fixtures together. 

Inside Service to he Tested. 
Sect. 9. Inside services shall be tested by the fitter 
who receives the permit to connect the service or meter. 

Service Pipe to have Main Cock. 
Sect. 10. There shall be a main cock on the service- 
pipe close to the foundation wall, one cock at the inlet side, 
and one at the outlet side, of each meter. When service- 
pipes are over two inches brass or composition, seated 
valves shall be used. • 

Final Test to he Made hy Gas Fitter in Presence 

of Inspector . 

Sect. 11. There shall be a final test, by a gas fitter, 

of all fixtures and pipes by a column of mercury raised not 

less than two inches, which must stand five minutes; 



Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 



this test to be made in the presence of one of the gas-fitting 
inspectors of the building department; the gauge to be 
made of glass tubing of uniform interior diameter, and so 
constructed that both surfaces of the mercury will be 
exposed. 

Material of Gas-Pipe. 

Sect. 12. All gas-pipes shall be of wrought iron or 
steel, all fittings of malleable iron, and all meter connections 
of lead pipe of the same size as the fit or riser except where 
meters are to be connected with flanges. 

Brass Nipples. 

Sect. 13. Brass solder nipples shall be used on a)l 

meter connections. 

Risers. 

Sect. 14. No riser shall be left more than five feet 
away from the front foundation wall. 

Sect. 15. Gas-pipes shall be run in according to the 
following scale: 

Scale for Piping. 

Iron pipe. 



1 inch. 


26 feet. 


3 burners. 


1 inch. 


30 feet, 


6 burners. 


1 inch. 


50 feet, 


20 burners. 


1 inch. 


70 feet. 


35 burners. 


Iz inches. 


100 feet. 


60 burners. 


li inches. 


150 feet. 


100 burners. 


2 inches. 


200 feet. 


200 burners. 


2| incites. 


300 feet. 


300 burners. 


3 inches, 


450 feet, 


450 burners. 


3i inches. 


500 feet. 


600 burners. 


4 inches. 


600 feet. 


750 burners. 



Outside Piping of Brass. 
When brass piping is used on the outside of plastering 
or woodwork, it shall be classed as fixture. 



Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. ~ 377 

Outlets and Risers. 

Sect. 16. Outlets and risers not provided with fixtures 
shall be properly capped. 

Outlets for Fixtures. 
Sect. 17. Outlets for fixtures shall not be placed under 
tanks, back of doors, or within three feet of any meter. ' 

Shields, When Required. 
Sect. 18. Gas-burners less than two feet from a 
plastered ceiling or less than three feet from overhead 
woodwork shall be protected by a shield satisfactory to 
building commissioner. In first-class buildings no shields 
will be required. 

Brass Tubing. — Threads on Brass Pipe. — Rope or Square 

Tubing. 

Sect. 19. Brass tubing used for arms or fixtures shall 
be at least No. 18 standard gauge with full thread. All 
threads shall screw in at least -f^ of an inch. Rope or 
square tubing shall be brazed or soldered into fittings and 
distributers, or have a nipple brazed into the tubing. 

Cast Fittings. — Plugs of €ocks. — Stems of Fixtures. — 
L-Burner Cocks. 
Sect. 20. Cast fittings such as cocks, swing joints, 
double centres and nozzles shall be standard fittings, 
except for factory use, where extra heavy or mill fittings 
shall be used. The plugs of all cocks must be ground to a 
smooth and true surface for their entire length, be free 
from sandholes, have not less than f-inch bearing on all 
cast fittings and {^ of an inch on all turned fittings, have 
two flat sides on the end for the washer and have two nuts 
instead of a tailscrew. Stems of fixtures of two lights or 
more each shall be not less than | of an inch iron-pipe 



378 Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 

size. L-burner cocks shall not be used at the end of 
chandelier arms, except in stores, churches, theatres, halls 
and places of assembly or public resorts. 

Outlets for Gas-Ranges. 

Sect. 21. Outlets for gas-ranges shall have a diameter 
♦not less than that required for six burners, and all gas- 
ranges and heaters shall have a cock on the service-pipe. 
Ranges and heaters must be connected with right and left 
couplings, except in fireplace Vy^ork where brass unions 
may be used. 

Pipes to he Laid above Timbers . 

Sect. 22. Pipes shall be laid above timbers unless 
otherwise permitted by the building commissioner. 

Second-Hand Gas-Piping not Allowed. 

Sect. 23. No second-hand gas-pipe shall be put into 
use in any building without the written permit of the 
building commissioner. 

Drops or Outlets. 
Sect. 24. Drops or outlets less than f of an inch in 
diameter shall not be left more than f of an inch below 
plastering, centre-piece, or woodwork, and other outlets 
shall not project more than f of an inch beyond plastering 
or woodwork. 

Outlets, How Fastened. 
Sect. 25. Fastening boards shall not be cut away to 
accommodate electric wires. All outlets shall be fastened 
according to the following diagrams : 

Weight of Gas-Pipes in Pounds per Foot. 
Sect. 26. Gas-pipes, all arms and stems of fixtures 
shall be of the kind classed as standard pipe, and shall 
weigh according to the following table : 



Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 



379 



Size of Pipe. 

|-inch pipe 
i-inch pipe 
f-inch pipe 
^-incli pipe 
f-inch pipe 

1 -inch pipe 
1^-inch pipe 
l|-inch pipe 

2 -inch pipe 
2^-inch pipe 

3 -inch pipe 
3i-inch pipe 

4 -inch pipe 



Pounds 
Per Foot. 

.24 
.42 
.56 

.85 
1.12 
1.67 
2.24 
2.68 
3.61 
5.74 
7.54 
9.00 
10.66 



No Gas Pipe to be Laid within Six Inches of Electric Wire. 
Sect. 27. No gas pipe shall be laid within 6 inches 
of an electric wire, except where the electric wire is in an 
insulated conduit. 



Spark or Self-Lighiing Burners to he Tested with Meixury 

Test. 
Sect. 28. Wherever spark-lighting or seK-lighting 
burners are used the mercury test shaU be applied to the 
cocks. 

Gas Engines. 

Sect. 29. (a.) Gas engines must be connected to 
service from which no gas for illuminating purposes is 
used. 

Exhaust Pipes. 

(b.) Exhaust pipes shall be run to roof when possible, 
not come in contact with woodwork, and be properly 
protected. 



380 > Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 

t 
Diaphragms and Bags, 
(c.) Diaphragms and bags must be on the same floor 
with engine and have a valve governing same. 

Size of Pipes Connecting Gas Engines. 

(d.) The sizes of pipes used in connecting gas engines 
will be as follows : 



Horse 


Feet 




Size 


Length 


Power 


Per Hour. 


Burners. 


(in inches) . 


(in feet) 


1 


40 


10 


3 

4 


50 


2 


80 


20 


3 
4 


50 


3 


120 


30 


1 


70 


4 


160 


40 


n 


100 


5 


200 


50 


li 


100 


6 


240 


60 


u 


100 


7 


280 


70 


ii 


150 


8 


320 


80 


H 


150 


9 


360 


90 


n 


150 


10 


400 


100 


n 


150 


11 


440 


110 


2 


200 


12 


480 


120 


2 


200 


13 


520 


130 


2 


200 


14 


560 


140 


2 


200 


15 


600 


150 


2 


200 


16 


640 


160 


2 


200 


17 


680 


170 


2 


200 


18 


720 


180 


2 


200 


19 


760 


190 


2 


200 


20 


800 


200 


2 


200 


21 


840 


210 


2h 


300 


22 


880 


220 


2i 


300 


23 


920 


230 


21 


300 


24 


960 


240 


2h 


300 


25 


1,000 


250 


2\ 


300 


26 


1,040 


260 


2h 


300 


27 


1,080 


270 


2\ 


300 



Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 381 

Gas Not to he Turned on Until Piping and Fixtures 
Approved. 
Sect. 30. Gas shall not be turned on in any building 
until the piping and fixtures have been approved by the 
building commissioner. 

Connections with Gas Appliances. 

Sect. 31. No connection for any gas appliance shall be 
made to any gas fixture on which any part of the piping 
thereon shall be less than three-eighths inch. 

Rubber or Flexible Tubing not Allowed. 
Sect. 32. Any gas appliance having a controlling gas 
cock on the same will not be approved by the Building 
Department if connected with rubber or flexible tubing. 

Hose Cock and Independent Fitting. 
Sect. 33. No hose cock or independent fitting that 
controls the gas supply to any appliance shall be nearer 
than six inches to any other cock. 



CHAPTER 550, ACTS OF 1907. 

Gas fitting — Definition of. 
Section 11. Gas fitting shall mean the work of putting 
together any fittings, pipes, or fixtures or other appliances 
which are to contain gas for heat, light or power purposes 
and will be subject to inspection under existing laws. 



GARAGE REGULATIONS. 



FIEE PREVENTION COMMISSIONER. 

METROPOLITAN DISTRICT. 



Regulations governing the Construction and 
Maintenance of Garages and the Storage, 
Keeping and Use of Class A, Class B and Class 
C Fluids in Connection therewith. 



Definitions 

1. In the regulations of the Fire Prevention Commis- 
sioner the following terms shall have the meanings 
respectively assigned to them. 

2. Class A^ Fluid. — Class A fluid is any fluid that will 
emit an inflammable vapor at a temperature lower than 30° 
Fahrenheit, to be ascertained by a standard closed cup 
tester. 

3. Class B^ Fluid. — Class B fluid is any fluid that will 
emit an inflammable vapor at a temperature not lower than 
30° Fahrenheit nor higher than 100° Fahrenheit, to be 
ascertained by a standard close cup tester. 

1 The following list of fluids represents some of the commercial 
fluids that usually have flash points within the classifications given: — 



Class A. 


Class B. 


Class C. 


Gasoline. 

Benzine. 

Naphtha. 

Benzol. 

Ether. 

Carbon bi-sulphide. 


Alcohol. 

Amyl-acetate. 
Acetone. 


Turpentine substitutes. 
Kerosene. 
Fuel oil. 
Lubricating oil. 



1 See note on page 5. 

383 



384 Garage Regulations. 

4. Class C^ Fluid. — Class C fluid is any fluid that will 
emit an inflammable vapor at a temperature higher than 
100° Fahrenheit, to be ascertained by a standard closed cup 
tester. 

5. Motor Vehicle. — Motor vehicle is any vehicle 
which is propelled by the power obtained from burning or 
exploding the vapor of or burning a Class A, Class B or 
Class C fluid, and which is charged with or contains such 
fl.uid. 

6. Garage. — Garage is any building or structure, or 
part thereof, wherein is stored or kept one or more motor 
vehicles, — not including two-wheeled motor cycles less 
than four in nunber, — or wherein the repairmg, examining 
or replacing of any part of a motor vehicle is performed. 

7. First-class Garage. — First-class garage is one con- 
structed of non-combustible material throughout, except 
that wood may be used within an office for non-bearing 
partitions and for upper and imder flooring and screeds for 
same, and for doors and windows except as hereinafter 
provided. 

8. Second-class Garage. — Second-class garage is one 
constructed with external walls of non-combustible ma- 
terial, and which has any part of the interior or roof con- 
struction of wood. 

9. Third-class Garage. — Third-class garage is one the 
external walls of which are in whole or in part of wood. 

10. Metal Garage. — Metal garage is one constructed 
entirely of metal. 

11. Mill-constructed Roof. — Mill-constructed roof shall" 
mean a roof constructed with wooden beams of sufficient 
strength for the load carried, but in no case less than 6 
inches by 6 inches in cross section, spaced not less than 5 
feet nor more than 10 feet on centers, with roof planking 
not less than 2 inches in thickness. 

12. Fire Wall. — Fire wall is any wall constructed of 



Gakage Regulations. 385 

brick or concrete not less than 8 inches in thiclmess, which 
extends from the foundation to a height of at least 12 
inches above the highest adjoining roof, or between fire- 
proof floors or between a floor and roof in a first-class 
garage, 

13. Party Wall. — Party wall is any wall constructed of 
brick or concrete not less than 12 inches in thickness which 
separates two or more buildings. 

14. Non-comhustihle Partition. — Non-combustible par- 
tition shall mean a partition constructed of brick, concrete, 
terra cotta or approved plaster block or wire lath and 
cement plaster not less than 2 mches in thicloiess properly 
supported by a steel frame entirely embedded within the 
cement plaster. 

15. Fireproof Floor or Roof. — ■ Fireproof floor or roof 
shall mean any floor or roof constructed of and supported 
by non-combustible material. 

16. Fireproof Ceiling. — • Fireproof ceiling shall mean 
the underside of any fireproof floor or roof. 

17. Fire-protected. — • Fire-protected shall mean the pro- 
tection of combustible construction with metal lath 
cement-plastered to a thickness of not less than three- 
quarters of an inch. Cement plaster shall be thoroughly 
mixed and made with 1 part Portland cement to not more 
than 3 parts sand, and not more than 10 per cent, by 
volume of hydrated lime. 

18. Fire Window or Fire Skylight. — Fire window or 
fire skylight shall mean a window or skylight of approved 
metal or wood metal-covered frame and sash, glazed with 
wire glass not less than one fom'th mch in thickness, rein- 
forced with wire fabric having a mesh not larger than 
seven-eighths inch, and wire not smaller than No. 24 B. 
& S. gauge. 

19. Fire Door. — Fire door shall mean any api)roved 
metal or wood metal-covered door. 



386 Garage Regulations. 

20. Self-closing Door. — Self-closing door shall mean 
any door v/hich is closed by an approved device. 

21. Automatic-closing Door or Windoiv. — Automatic- 
closing door or v/indow shall mean a door or window 
arranged to close by means of an approved device when 
subjected to a temperature of 160° Fahrenheit. 

22. Basement. — Basement shall mean that story of a 
building the floor level of which is not more than 8 feet 
nor less than 3 feet below the average grade of the ground 
at the front of the building. 

23. Fii'c Limits. — Fire limits shall mean any section 
or sections of a city or town designated by ordinance or by 
law or by the Fire Prevention Commissioner wherein 
superior building construction is required. 

Licenses and Permits. 

24. Except as provided in sections 26 and 27, no 
building or structure shall be erected, altered for use or 
used as a garage, nor for the keeping, storage, use or sale 
of any Class A, Class B or Class C fluid in connection 
therewith, unless a license has fir^t been obtained therefor 
for one year from the date thereof from the Mayor and 
Board of Aldermen, City Council or Municipal Council 
of the city, except Boston and Cambridge, or from the 
Board of Selectmen of the town. In the city of Boston 
the license shall be obtained from the Mayor and Board 
of Street Commissioners, and in Cambridge from the 
Board of License Commissioners. 

All licenses as herein provided for shall bear the signature 
of the Building Commissioner, the Building Inspector 
or the official designated by the city or town to approve 
the construction of buildings, as evidence that the 
building has been constructed in accordance with these 
regulations. They shall also bear the signature of the 
Head of the Fire Department as evidence that the keeping, 



Garage Regulations. 387 

storage, use or sale of the Class A, Class B and Class C 
fluids and the equipment for the garage comply with 
these regulations. 

No license shall be granted until after a public hearing, 
fourteen days' public notice of which shall have been 
given by mailing a copy of the notice to abutting property 
owners and other persons interested within a reasonable 
radius of the proposed garage. 

Each license shall be issued on a form furnished by the 
Fire Prevention Commissioner, and a copy of each license 
shall be sent to the Fire Prevention Commissioner within 
seven days from the date of issuance thereof by the 
ofl&cial or officials authorized to issue said license. 

25. A licensed garage may be continued in use from 
year to year if the owner or occupant thereof shall, while 
such use continues, annually file for registration a certifi- 
cate, reciting such use and occupancy, with the city or 
town clerk, and with the Head of the Fire Department, 
provided, however, that in the city of Boston such a 
certificate shall be required to be filed only with the Fire 
Commissioner. 

26. If the Building Commissioner or Building Inspec- 
tor, or, in case there be no such official, the Head of the 
Fire Department, shall certify in writing on blanks to be 
furnished by the Fire Prevention Commissioner that a 
building or any part thereof will comply when ready for 
occupancy as a garage, in all respects with the require- 
ments herein set forth for garages with a capacity for not 
more than two motor vehicles, then the occupant may 
keep in said building or part thereof to which said certifi- 
cate applies, for private use, not more than 50 gallons of 
Class A and Class B fluids, as follows: 10 gallons in 
approved safety cans, and the remainder in the tanks of 
two motor vehicles; But if such garage is located within 
50 feet of a dwelling, such certificate will only permit the 



388 Garage Regulations. 

use of the same by the owner thereof, or the occupant of a 
dwelling or commercial building situated on the same 
premises. To be valid said certificate shall bear the 
signature of the Head of the Fire Department. 

A copy of said certificate shall be filed with the Fire 
Prevention Commissioner within seven days after the 
date thereof by the official issuing the same. 

A structure composed of units, even though the units 
be separated from one another by a party wall, and each 
unit has a capacity for not more than two automobiles, 
shall be licensed for the storage, keeping, sale or use 
of a Class A, Class B or Class C fluid as provided in 
section 24. 

27. In any building which was in existence May 26, 
1911, and which is not used for human habitation, as many 
as two motor vehicles may be kept without license or 
permit if such building is not used for holding gatherings 
of, or giving entertainment, instruction or employment to, 
more than 20 persons, provided, however, that if such 
building is situated within 50 feet of a building used for 
habitation, then it may be used as a garage for not exceed- 
ing two motor vehicles only under such terms and 
conditions as the Head of the Fire Department may 
prescribe. 

28. No two-wheel motor cycle charged with or con- 
taining Class A, Class B or Class C fluid shall be stored 
or kept in any building or structure unless a permit has 
first been obtained from the Head of the Fire Department, 

29. A copy of each valid license, permit or certificate 
granted under the provisions of these regulations shall be 
conspicuously ' posted, under glass, on the premises to 
which such license, permit or certificate applies. 

30. Any license, permit or certificate issued under the 
authority of these regulations may be revoked for cause 
at any time after notice and hearing given to the owner 



Garage Regulations. 389 

or occupant of the garage, by the official or officials author- 
ized to grant the same or ])y the Fire Prevention Com- 
missioner. 

Requirements for all Garages. 

31. Any garage hereafter erected shall comply with 
all the requirements as herein provided for. 

32. Except as provided in section 27, any building 
now in existence hereafter to be used as a garage shall he 
made to conform with all the requirements for a new build- 
ing for such use for the same location. 

33. When a portion of a building is used as a garage, 
the garage shall be considered as mcluding all that part of 
the building which is not separated from the garage by 
unpierced fire walls and fireproof ceiling. 

34. A fireproof ceiling may be constructed below and 
independent of a combustible floor or roof, provided same 
is designed to safely carry a live load of not less than 40 
pounds per square foot. 

35. In measuring the capacity of a garage, 250 square 
feet of floor area shall be the unit of measurement for one 
motor vehicle. 

36. Any garage hereafter erected within the fire limits 
of any city or town:, having a capacity for more than two 
motor vehicles, shall be of the first class. 

37. Any garage hereafter erected within the fire limits 
of any city of town, having a capacity for not more than 
two motor vehicles, shall be of either the first or second 
class. 

38. Any garage hereafter erected outside the fire limits 
of any city or town, having a capacity for more than 20 
motor vehicles, shall be of either the first or second class. 

39. Metal garages with a capacity for more than two 
motor vehicles shall conform to all requirements for third- 
class garages. 



390 Garage Regulations. 

40. All roof coverings for garages hereafter erected 
shall be of approved non-combustible or fire-resisting 
material. 

41. All material used in the repairing of a garage roof 
covering shall be approved non-combustible or fire- 
resisting. 

42. Any basement hereafter to be used as a garage 
shall have all its enclosing walls constructed of non- 
combustible material, and shall have a fireproof ceiling. 

43. All garages located ia basements shall have at 
least tv/o door openings not less than 8 feet in width nor 
less than 64 square feet in area, located in opposite external 
walls of the garage, which shall lead du'ectly to the outer 
air, and the bottom of at least one such door opening shall 
be at the level of the basement floor and at or above the 
level of the ground thereabouts. 

44. Any garage more than one story in height shall be 
provided with at least one fireproof enclosed stairway for 
each 5,000 square feet of floor area, located as near to 
opposite corners of the garage as conditions will permit, 
but no garage shall have less than two such stairways. 
Such stairways shall be without window openings into 
the garage, but shall have at least one door opening from 
each floor. There shall be over each stairway permanent 
means of access to the roof in case of fire. 

45. Any building exceeding three stories in height here- 
after erected or used as a garage shall have for each 10,000 
square feet of floor area one 4-inch standpipe connected 
separately to the service main, extending from the lowest 
story up to and through the roof, and located within the 
enclosing walls of a stairway. Each standpipe shall be 
provided with a 2^-inch Fire Department Standard hose 
connection and gate valve for each story, located not over 
5 feet above the level of the floor, and two 2§-inch Fire 
Department Standard hose connections and gate valves 



Garage Regulations, 391 

located on the roof, with a controlKng gate valve under 
the roof arranged to operate from below and above the 
roof, with a three-quarter-inch drain pipe and valve to 
prevent freezing. Each standpipe shall also be provided 
with a Fire Department Standard Siamese steamer con- 
nection, located outside the building not more than 3 feet 
above the street level. 

46. Any building exceeding three stories in height 
hereafter erected or used in whole or in part as a garage 
shall be equipped throughout with an approved system 
of automatic sprinklers and sprinkler alarm. 

47. All stairs, ramps, elevators, lifts, light or venti- 
lating shafts or other ducts shall be enclosed throughout 
their entire height with non-combustible partitions, except " 
that a shaft which is continuous for two stories only shall 
be required to be enclosed only in the lower story. 

48. All doors or windov/ openings in a shaft shall be 
protected by fire doors or fire windows. All doors to stair 
shafts shall be self-closing, and all doors to other shafts 
shall be automatic or self-closing. All windovv^s in shafts 
shall be stationary or automatic-closing. 

49. All openings in fire walls shall be protected by two 
approved self-closing or automatic-closing fire doors 
separated by the thickness of the wall. 

50. All fire windows in interior partitions shall be 
stationary or automatic-closing, and the stool level of 
same shall be located not less than 4 feet above the floor 
level. 

51. Any window in an external v/all, which is wholly 
or in part within 15 feet of a lot line, or building on land 
of the same o\^Tier, shall be a fire window, and shall be 
stationary or automatic closing. 

52. Any skylight located within 20 feet of any lot line, 
or building of a greater height than the garage located on 
land of the same owner, shall be a fire skylight. 



392 Garage Regulations. 

53. Any door in an external wall which is in whole or 
in part within 15 feet of a lot line, or building on land of the 
same owner, shall be metal-covered on the inside, and any 
glass panel in such door shall be of wired glass. 

54. The requirements of sections 51, 52 and 53 shall 
not apply to any opening within the specified distance of a 
street line of a street not less than 50 feet in width, or line 
of a permanent open passageway not less than 15 feet in 
width, railroad right of v/ay, cemetery or public park 
where such line only is involved. 

55. All garages hereafter estabhshed shall be main- 
tained the specified distance from lot lines and buildings 
on the same lot, as herein required for new garages. 

56. A garage which is in whole or in part of a better 
class of construction than is required by these regulations 
need comply only with the requirements of a garage that 
would be allowed in the given case. 

57. All partitions in second or third class garages with 
a capacity for more than two motor vehicles shall be non- 
combustible or fire-protected on both sides. All openings 
in such partitions shall be protected by fire doors or fire 
windows. 

58. Any second or third class garage hereafter estab- 
lished shall have fireproof floors throughout. 

59. A second-class garage with a capacity for not more 
than two motor vehicles shall not be located within 3 feet 
of a lot line, nor within 6 feet of a second or third class 
building. 

60. A second-class garage with a capacity for more 
than two motor vehicles shall not be located within 6 feet 
of a lot line, nor within 12 feet of a second or third class 
building. 

61. All undersides of roofs of second-class garages 
shall be fire-protected, excepted in the case of a mill- 
constructed roof of a garage with a capacity for more than 



Garage Regulations. 393 

two motor vehicles, where there is a clearance of 14 feet 
between the floor and the underside of the roof planking. 

62. A third-class garage with a capacity for not more 
than two motor vehicles shall not be located within 6 feet 
of a lot line, nor withui 12 feet of a second or third class 
buildiQg. 

63. A third-class garage with a capacity greater than 
two but not exceeding four motor vehicles shall not be loca- 
ted within 12 feet of a lot Ime, nor withui 24 feet of a second 
or third class building. 

64. A third-class garage with a capacity for more than 
four motor vehicles shall not be located within 24 feet of a 
lot line, nor withui 50 feet of a second or third class build- 
ing. 

65. Metal garages with a capacity for not more than 
two motor vehicles shall not be located within 5 feet of a 
lot line, nor within 5 feet of a second or third class building. 

66. All walls and ceilings of third-class garages having 
a capacity for more than two motor vehicles shall be fire- 
protected, except that the underside of a mill-constructed 
roof of a garage with a capacity for more than four motor 
vehicles shall not be required to be fire-protected if there 
is a clearance of not less than 14 feet between the floor 
and the underside of the roof planking. 

67. When the repairing or painting of motor vehicles 
is performed in a garage it shall be done in a room separated 
from the garage by non-combustible partitions, and all 
openings therein shall be protected by self-closing fire 
doors or by stationary fire windows. The removing of 
paint from or painting of motor vehicles shall not be per- 
formed in the same room with the repairing of motor 
vehicles. 

68. A garage with a capacity for not exceeding two 
motor vehicles may be located in_a one-story building 
having a floor area not exceeding 1,000 square feet, which 



394 Garage Regulations. 

is otherwise used as a stable or for domestic or farm pur- 
poses only, provided that the portion used for the motor 
vehicles is separated from the remainder of the building 
by unpierced fire-protected ceiling and by fire-protected 
Vv'^alls, — which may have only one opening leading to the 
other portions of the building which shall be protected by a 
self-closing fire door, — has a fireproof floor, and that the 
garage complies with all the requirements of these 
regulations. 

69. A first-class garage for not exceeding four motor 
vehicles may be located in a dwelling not exceeding two 
stories in height, provided that there is no opening between 
the garage and the dwelling; that all windows in the 
garage are fire windows; that the doors in external walls 
are metal-covered on the inside; that the dwelling is 
occupied only by the owner or his family, or persons in 
their immediate employ; and that no Class A, Class B or 
Class C fluid is kept in the building except in the tanks 
of the motor vehicles, or in an approved pump connected 
with an underground tank installed as required by the 
regulations of the Fire Prevention Commissioner. 

70. No garage shall be located in any building occupied 
in any part as a hospital, school, theatre, church, or place 
of public assembly, and no garage shall be located in a 
dwelling house except as provided in section 69. 

71. No garage shall be located within 50 feet of the 
nearest wall of a hospital, school, theatre, church or place 
of public assembly, gasometer, tank above ground con- 
taining inflammable fluid or gas, or dwelling in excess of 
three stories in height, nor within 50 feet of a lumber yard,, 
without a special permit from the Fire Prevention Com- 
missioner. 

72. The height of a first-class garage shall not exceed 
six stories; that of a second-class shall not exceed three 
stories ; and that of a third-class shall not exceed one story. 



Garage Regulations. 395 

73. The floor area of a garage shall not exceed 10,000 
square feet on any one floor unless a special permit has 
been granted therefor by the Fire Prevention Com- 
missioner. 

74. A special permit may be granted for a fii'st or 
second class garage with a floor area in excess of 10,000 
square feet, as follows : — 

(a) For a floor area not to exceed 16,000 square feet, 
divided by a fire wall into two sections neither of which 
shall exceed 10,000 square feet, provided each section has 
an independent exit to the outer air for automobiles under 
their own power. 

(6) For a floor area not to exceed 20,000 square feet, 
provided the entire building is equipped throughout with 
an approved system of automatic sprinklers and sprinkler 
alarm. 

(c) For a floor area not to exceed 60,000 square feet, 
divided by firewalls into sections none of which shall 
exceed 20,000 square feet, provided that each section has 
an independent exit to the outer air for automobiles 
under their own power; that the entire building is of 
first-class construction and equipped throughout with an 
approved system of automatic sprinklers and sprinkler 
alarm. 

75. No pit except a ventilated elevator or turntable 
pit shall be allowed in the floor of any garage. 

76. No building in which a garage is located shall be 
used for any purpose other than that of a garage and the 
business in connection therewith, except as provided in 
section 68, without a special permit from the Fire Pre- 
vention Commissioner. No party wall shall be allowed 
between a garage exceeding two stories in height and any 
building otherwise occupied without a special permit. 

77. No story below a basement shall be used as a 
garage. 



396 Garage Regulations. 

78. No garage with a capacity for more than two 
motor vehicles shall be used as a stable. 

79. No system of heating other than one of steam or 
hot water shall be allowed for a garage unless first approved 
by the Fire Prevention Commissioner, and the steam or 
hot-water heater shall be located in a room, the only 
entrance to which shall be direct from the outer air or 
through an open vestibule, the entire floor level of which 
is not less than 6 inches above the ground level at the 
entrance thereto. Not more than one door opening shall 
be allowed from a vestibule to the garage, which shall be 
protected by a self-closing fire door and a non-combustible 
threshold raised not less than 2 inches above the garage 
floor. 

The enclosing walls, partitions and ceilings of all heater 
rooms for second or third class garages shall be either non- 
combustible or fire-protected. All floors for such rooms 
shall be of concrete. 

No heater nor smoke pipe shall be located nearer than 
18 inches to a fire-protected wall or ceiling. 

80. No system of artificial lighting, other than incan- 
descent electric lights, shall be used in any garage. The 
wiring for lighting, battery charging and electrical equip- 
ment shall be installed in a manner at least equal to that 
required by the ''National Electrical Code," and in 
accordance with the following regulations: — 

(a) All cut-outs, outlet and junction boxes, switches, 
receptacles, connectors, or other live metal parts, motors, 
dynamos, and all apparatus capable of emitting a spark, 
shall be placed at least 4 feet above the floor. This does 
not apply to motors, dynamos and magnetos, which are 
parts of the motor vehicles and properly encased. 

(&) Flexible cords for portable lamps, motors or other 
apparatus must be reinforced for rough usage. The live 
end of the cord must be the projecting part of an approved 



Garage Regulations. 397 

pin plug connector or equivalent, so constructed that it 
will break apart readily at any position of the cord, and 
the opposite end of the cord, if terminating in a connector, 
must be the projecting part and protected against acci- 
dental contact. 

(c) Flexible cables for battery charging must be of 
approved theatre stage type, and have approved con- 
nectors of at least 50 amperes capacity, and constructed 
and arranged as in (6). 

(d) All portable lights must be equipped with approved 
keyless sockets attached to approved portable lamp guards 
with handles and hooks. 

(e) All new wiring in garages with a capacity for more 
than two motor vehicles, except flexible cords and cables, 
as specified above, and those used for pendant lamps, must 
be installed in approved metal conduit or approved ar- 
mored cable, except that approved metal molding may 
be used in offices and show rooms. 

81. By a special permit from the Fire Prevention Com- 
missioner, apparatus for charging storage batteries may be 
maintained in garages under such conditions and restric- 
tions as the Commissioner shall set forth in the permit. 

82. No locker or other equipment of wood shall be 
allowed in any garage with a capacity for more than two 
motor vehicles, unless same is located within a separate 
room in which no Class A, Class B or Class C fluid is kept 
or stored. 

83. Each portable tank used in a garage shall be of a 
capacity not exceeding 65 gallons. It shall be mounted 
on a substantial iron or steel frame with rubber-tired 
wheels, and the fluid shall be discharged from the tank 
through a non-static hose not exceeding 16 feet in length, 
having a shut-off valve close to the outlet or nozzle. Said 
tank shall be of a type approved by the Fire Prevention 
Commissioner. 



398 Garage Regulations. 

84. All garages shall have one metal fire pail filled with 
sand for each 500 square feet of floor area, to be used for 
fire-extinguishing purposes only. 

85. All garages shall have one approved chemical fire 
extinguisher of not less than 2^ gaUons capacity, or an 
approved elxtinguisher of equal efficiency, for each 1,000 
square feet of floor area. 

86. A garage which is equipped with an approved 
system of automatic sprinklers need be provided with 
only one-half the number of sand pails and extinguishers 
required by the two preceding sections. 

Operation and Maintenance of Garages. 

87. A space of not less than 18 inches in width shall be 
maintained between the motor vehicles and the waUs and 
partitions, with communicating passageways of equal 
width leading to the main aisle, which shall be kept clear 
at all times. 

88. No automobile having an exposed flame or spark 
shall be allowed in any garage. 

89. No wagon or other vehicle used for the dehvery of 
any Class A, Class B or Class C fluid shall enter Uvor be 
admitted to any portion of a garage when charged with or 
containing such fluid in the delivery tank or container. 

90. No Class A, Class B or Class C fluid shall be 
stored or sold in a room in which the repairing of motor 
vehicles is permitted. 

91. No torch, forge, fire nor flame, nor any material 
sufficiently hot to ignite vapors which may be present, 
shall be used or maintained in a garage where motor 
vehicles are stored, kept or painted, or in a room which has 
a capacity for more than four motor vehicles and in which 
the repairing of motor vehicles is permitted. 

92. A stationary engine using gas or Class A, Class B 



Garage Regulations. 399 

or Class C fluid for motive power shall not be used in a 
garage unless maintained in a separate room, as required 
in sections 67 and 91. 

93. Class A or Class B fluid shall neither be sold nor 
handled above the first story of a garage without a special 
permit from the Fire Prevention Commissioner. 

94. Not more than 10 gaUons of Class A or Class B 
fluid shaU be kept in a garage at any one tim.e, except such 
as may be in the storage tanks, portable fiUing tanks or 
the tanks of motor vehicles. Such Class A or Class B 
fluid shall be kept in and used from safety cans of an ap- 
proved tjTDe. 

95. No Class A or Class B fluid from a storage tank 
shaU be dehvered to a motor vehicle in any garage except 
by means of a portable tank, approved covered cans, or 
directly through the outlet of the drawing-off pipe of an 
approved pump. 

96. No Class A or Class B fluid shall be put into or 
taken out of a motor vehicle where there is an open flame. 
All lights, except electric lights, of a motor vehicle must 
be extinguished and the engine stopped before filHng the 
tank. If any such fluid be accidentaUy spiUed in a motor 
vehicle, or on the floor or ground during the process of 
filling, it shaU be cleaned up, aUowed to evaporate, or the 
motor vehicle moved by hand to a place of safety before 
rehghting the lamps or starting the engine. 

97. Class C fluid, or compound sincluding lubricating 
oils and greases, shall be kept in a Class A or B fireproof 
room, as provided for in the Paint and Oil Regulations of 
the Fire prevention Commissioner, or in approved tanks 
or structures. 

98. Not more than 120 pounds of calcium carbide in 
the aggregate shaU be stored in a garage at any one time, 
and such calcium carbide shall be kept in water-tight metal 



400 Garage Regulations. 

containers with securely fastened covers which shall be 
elevated not less than 6 inches above the floor level. 

99. Not more than 1,000 cubic feet of compressed 
acetylene gas in detached tanks in the aggregate shall be 
stored in a garage at any one time, nor at a pressure ex- 
ceeding 250 pounds per square inch. 

100. No iClass A or Class B fluid shall be allowed to 
flow upon the floor nor to pass into the sewer or any 
drainage system. 

101. If the Fire Prevention Commissioner has reason 
to believe that Class A or Class B fluids are allowed to flow 
into the sewer from any garage he may order that such 
garage shall be provided with a separator, trap or other 
device approved by him, through which all drainage from 
said garage shall pass, for the purpose of preventing such 
fluids from flowing into said sewer. Said separator, trap 
or other device shall be kept at all times in good working 
condition, and shall be emptied at such intervals of time 
as will keep the said fluids from passing into the sewer. 

102. No person shall smoke nor be allowed to smoke 
in a garage, and notices to that effect in letters of vertical 
type, 2 1 inches or more in height, with a sifcroke of one-half 
inch or more, shall be conspicuously posted at the entrance 
to and within the garage. These notices may bear the 
words "BY ORDER OF FIRE PREVENTION COM- 
MISSIONER" in letters of vertical type, five-eighths of 
an inch in height, with a stroke of one-eighth inch or more. 

Smoking may be allowed in a separate room with all 
openings in the enclosing partitions protected by self- 
closing fire doors or stationary fire windows, provided it 
has a window in an external wall. 

103. All garages shall be kept clean. All oily waste 
and rags shall be kept in self-closing oily waste cans, and 
all other combustible waste material shall be kept in 
covered metal receptacles. 



Garage Regulations, 401 

104. Sawdust shall not be kept or used in a garage for 
any purpose. 

Existing Garages. 

105. All existing building§ or other structures used 
previous to July 22, 1915, as garages shall have the floor 
of the first story covered with cement concrete not less 
than 3 inches in thickness, or with some other suitable 
non- combustible material of thickness satisfactory to the 
Fire Prevention* Commissioner. 

105. All existing buildings or other structures used 
previous to July 22, 1915, as public garages or as business 
garages, or as garages having a capacity for housing four 
or more motor vehicles, shall comply with the preceding 
section and the following requirements: — 

(a) All first-story walls and ceilings of garages that 
are located within 50 feet of any other building, if con- 
structed of combustible material, shall be properly covered 
with sheet metal, or metal lath and cement plaster not 
less than three-quarters of an inch in thickness. In the 
discretion of the Commissioner it may be required that all 
such walls and ceilings in garages so situated shall be 
similarly covered. Such garages, if located more than 
50 feet from any other building, shall be protected in 
accordance with requirements established July 22, 1915, 
for third-class garages of a similar capacity. 

(h) All combustible stairways and elevator wells shall 
be enclosed by walls covered with sheet metal, or metal 
lath and cement plaster not less than three-quarters of 
an inch in thickness, or with, some other satisfactory non- 
combustible material. 

(c) All doorways in said walls shall be fitted v\^ith 
standard automatic-closing fire doors. 

107. Garages established smce July 22, 1915, and 
previous to June 1, 1919, shall comply with the regulations 



402 Garage Regulations. 

of the Fire Prevention Commissioner adopted July 22, 
1915, and amended April 17, 1916, Aug. 30, 1916, and 
Aug. 1, 1917. 

General Provisions. 

108. No motor vehicle shall be loaded or unloaded in 
any building or structure other than a licensed garage 
unless a special permit shall have been obtained therefor 
from the Fire Prevention Commissioner. 

109. In case the statutes of the Commonwealth, the 
ordinances of a city or town, or the legal regulations of any 
city or town official or officials require superior construc- 
tion of garages, said statutes, ordinances or regulations 
shall be followed. 

110. All appeals, provided for by section 18 of chapter 
795 of the Acts of 1914, from the acts and decisions of the 
local officials, under the authority given by these regula- 
tions, shall be filed with the Fire Prevention Commissioner 
within fourteen days after the time action is taken or 
decision made. 

111. The Fire Prevention Commissioner reserves to 
himself the right, by special permit or otherwise, to provide 
for exceptional cases not foreseen in the preparation of 
the foregoing regulations. 

112. Except as provided in the foregoing regulations 
or permitted by law, no Class A, Class B or Class C fluid 
shall be kept, stored, used, sold, handled, transported or 
otherwise disposed of in connection with a motor vehicle 
or garage in the Metropolitan Fire Prevention District of 
Massachusetts. 

113. Until further notice all materials, fittings or 
devices herein required, if formally approved by the Under- 
writers' Laboratories, Inc., of Chicago, will be accepted 
by the Commissioner. Should it, however, be demon- 
strated to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that any 



Garage Regulations. 403 

material, fitting or device complies with the specifications 
of the Underwriters' Laboratories, or is suitable for the 
purpose for which it is to be used, the Commissioner may 
permit the use of the same. 

Note. 

Investigation of certain garage fires has shown that they 
were caused by the ignition of gasoline by a spark of 
frictional electricity. When gasoline is poured through 
a non-conductor, as a chamois strainer or rubber hose, 
frictional electricity may be generated in sufl&cient quan- 
tities to make a dangerous spark. The strainer, funnel, 
nozzle, etc., should be in metallic contact with the fuel 
tank of the car, or some other method should be provided 
to carry away the frictional electricity as fast as it may be 
generatedjSO that a dangerous quantity cannot accumulate. 

These regulations have been established by the Fire 
Prevention Commissioner after due notice and a pubUc 
hearing, to take effect June 1, 1919. 

FRANK LEWIS, 
Fire Prevention Commissioner. 



404 Garage Regulations. 



INDEX. 



A. 

Section 
Acetylene gas, storage of . . . . . . . . .99 

Additional restrictions by city or town ofl&cials, . . . . 109 

Aisles to be maintained, 87 

Appeals, time for filing, 110 

Approved materials, fittings, etc., 113 

Area of garages 73, 74 

Automatic-closing door or window, definition, 21 

When required 48-51, 54 

Automatic sprinklers in garages 46, 74, 86 

B. 

Basement, definition, . . .22 

Restrictions on use of, 43, 77 

To be fireproof, ^42 

Battery charging, '81 

Building, use of, as garage and for other purposes restricted, . 70, 76 

Converted for use as garage 27, 32 

Occupied in part as garage . . . . . . 33, 68, 76 

With certain occupancies, garage to be kept certain distance 

from, 71 

C. 

Calcium carbide, storage of, 98 

Capacity of garages, 35 

Ceiling, fireproof, definition 16 

Constructed below comb IS tible floor or roof, 34 

How protected 61, 66 

Cellars not to be used as garages, 77 

Cement plaster, specifications, . 17 

Changes in existing garages, 105-107 

Cities and towns of Metropolitan Fire Prevention District . page 3 
City or town officials, additional restrictions by, .... 109 
Class A, B and C fluids, definitions 2, 3, 4 



Garage Regulations. 405 

Section 

Class A or B fluids, delivery of, 95, 96 

Handling above first story, 93 

Not to enter sewer or drainage system, ...... 100 

Quantity to be kept in a garage 94 

Class C fluid, storage of, 97 

Classification of garages, . .7,8,9 

Construction, in fire limits, . ... .* . . . . 36, 37 

Of metal 10,39,65 

Outside fire limits, 38 

Superior 56, 109 

D. 

DEFINITIONS, . . 1-23 

Delivery wagons or trucks for inflammable fluids not allowed in 

garages 89 

Door, fire. (See Fire Door.) 

Dwelling located in same building as garage, 69 

E. 

Electrical equipment, 80, 81 

Elevator wells to be enclosed, . 47 

EQUIPMENT 83-86 

Existing buUdings to be used as garages, 27, 32 

EXISTING GARAGES, 105-107 

Exposed flame, 88,91,96 

Extinguishers required, . 84-86 

F. 

Filling motor vehicles, 96 

Fire door, definition, . 19 

Automatic-closing, definition, 21 

In external walls, 53, 54 

In internal walls or partitions, 49, 50, 57 

Self-closing, definition 20 

To shafts 48 

Fire extingxiishers 84, 86 

Fire limit, definition 23 

Construction in 36, 37 

Construction outside 38 

Fu-e-protected, definition 17 

Walls and ceiling required 66 

Fire skylight, definition 18 



406 Garage Regulations. 

Section 

Fire wall, definition 12 

Protection of openings . 49 

Fire window, definition 18 

Automatic-closing, definition 21 

In exterior walls . 51,54 

In interior walls 50, 57 

To shafts . . . * . ,48 

Fireproof ceiling, definition 16 

Constructed below combustible floor or roof .... 34 

Fireproof floor or roof, definition .15 

In second or third class garages 58 

First-class garage, definition 7 

Height of . 72 

Required in fire limits 36, 37 

Flames or dangerous material not allowed in garages . . .91 

Floor, area of 73, 74 

Frictional electricity Note, page 33 

Q. 

Garage definition . 6, 33 

To be located specified distance from certain buildings or 

structures 71 

To be maintained specified distances from lot line, etc. . . 55 

GENERAL PROVISIONS . 108-113 

H. 

Heating of garages 79 

Height of garages 72 

L. 

LICENSES AND PERMITS 24-30 

Certificate only, required for one or two motor vehieles . . 26 

License required fqr unit garages 26 

Permit required for two-wheeled motor cycle .... 28 

Renewal 25 

Required to be posted on premises . . . . . .29 

Revocation of, 30 

Lighting of garages .80 

Loading and unlo.ading motor vehicles in buildings . . . 108 
Location of garages ...... 59, 60, 62-65, 68-71 

Lockers and equipment 82 

Lotlines, garages to be maintained specified distances from . . 65 
Distances from 55, 59, 60, 62-65 



Garage. Regulations. 407 

M. 

Section 

Measurement, unit of 35 

Metal garage, definition 10 

For more than two motor vehicles 39 

For one or two motor vehicles 65 

Metropolitan Fire Prevention District, cities and towns of . page 3 

Motor cycles, license required for 6, 24 

Permit required for 28 

Motor vehicle, definition 5 

N. 

New garages 31, 32 

Non-combustible partition, definition 14 

Notice of public hearing 24 

O. 

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE .... 87-104 

P. 

Painting of motor vehicle 67, 91 

Partitions, non-combustible, definition 14 

In second or third class garages 57 

Party wall, definition 13 

Prohibited for garages exceeding two stories .... 76 

Passage ways to be maintained 87 

Permits. (See Licenses and Permits.) 

Pits prohibited . " . . . 75 

Portable tanks 83 

PROHIBITIONS 70-82 

R. 

Ramps, to be enclosed 47 

Renewal of licenses . . . 25 

Repairing of motor vehicles 6, 67, 90, 91 

REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL GARAGES . . . 31-69 

Revocation of licenses and permits 30 

Roof, access to, required 44 

Fireproof, definition 15 

Mill constructed, definition • . . .11 

Roof coverings .40 

Repairing of 41 



40S Garage Regulations. 

s. 

Section 
Safety cans required for Class A and B fluids .... 94 

Sand pails required 84, 86 

Sawdust prohibited 104 

Second-class garages, definition 8 

Fireproof floors 58 

For more than two motor vehicles 38, CO 

For one or two motor vehicles 37, 59 

Height of 72 

Partitions in 57 

Protection of under sides of roofs . 61 

Self-closing door, definition . , . . . . . .20 

Separators, traps, etc., on drainage system .... 101 

Sewer, Class A or B fluids not to be allowed to enter . . . 100 

Shafts and ducts, doors in 48 

Stairs 44 

To be enclosed 47 

Windows in 48 

Skylight, fire, definition . . .18 

Required 52, 54 

Smoking prohibited 102 

Notices to be posted 102 

Sprinklers, automatic 46, 74, 86 

Stable located in same building as garage .... 68, 78 

Stairways, to be enclosed _ . . . .47 

Required ^ 44 

Standpipes required for garages exceeding three stories . . 45 

Static electricity Note, page 33 

Stationary engines not permitted in garages . . . . .92 

T. 

Tank wagons not allowed in garages 89 

Tanks, filling of 96 

Portable 83 

Third-class garage, definition 9 

Fireproof floors 58 

For more than two motor vehicles .... 38, 39, 63, 64 

For one or two motor vehicles 62 

Height of ..... 72 

Partitions in . . . . , . - 57 

Protection of walls and ceiling 66 

Tire pumps, motor-driven ......... 80a 



Garage Regulations. 409 

u. 

Section 
Unit garages, license required for ,26 

W. 

Wall. (See Fire and Party Walls.) 

Waste cans, required 103 

Windows, fire. (See Fire Windows.) 

Wired glass, specifications 18 

Wiring 80 



410 Garage Regulations. 



COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

THE FIRE PREVENTION COMMISSIONER. 



Delegation of Power to the Building 
Commissioner. 

I, Frank Lewis, duly appointed and qualified Fire 
Preve-ntion Commissioner for the Metropolitan District 
of Massachusetts, by virtue of the authority vested in me 
by Section four of Chapter seven hundred and ninety-five 
of the Acts of the year nineteen hundred and fourteen, 
do hereby delegate to Herbert A. Wilson, Building Com- 
missioner of the City of Boston, and his assistants, the 
following powers conferred on me by said Chapter, to be 
exercised by them in the City of Boston, in accordance 
with the rules and regulations established by said Fire 
Prevention Commissioner in reference severally to said 
pov/ers. This delegation of power shall continue in 
force until a revocation thereof shall be filed with the 
City Clerk of the said City of Boston. 

Right of Entry. 
Section 17, Chapter 795, of 1914. 
1. The authority to enter at any reasonable hour any 
building or other premises, or any ship or vessel, to make 
inspection, or in furtherance of the purpose of any pro- 
vision of any law, ordinance, or by-law, or of any rule or 
order of said Fire Prevention Commissioner, without 
being held or deemed to be guilty of trespass; provided 
that there is reason to suspect the existence of circum- 
stances dangerous to the public safety as a fire menace. 



Garage Regulations. 411 

Dry Pipes in Basement. 
Section 11, Chapter 795, of 1914-, 

2. The authority, after an order has been issued in 
writing by the Fire Prevention Commissioner to the 
owner of any building_, to cause the basement of any such 
building to be equipped with dry pipes with outside 
connections, and to approve such equipment. 

Automatic Sprinklers. 
Section 10, Chapter 795, of 1914. 

3. The authority to enforce the execution of any 
order of the Fire Prevention Commissioner, issued by 
virtue of Sections 10 and 13 "M," of said Chapter 795, 
requiring the installation of automatic sprinklers in any 
building, and to approve such installation. 

Salamanders. 
Section 9, Chapter 795, of 1914. 

4. The authority, in the name of the Fire Prevention 
Commissioner, to enforce the provisions of Section 9 of 
said Chapter 795, relative to the use of salamanders or 
drying stoves. 

Films, etc. 

Section 6, Chapter 795, of 1914. 

5. The authority to enforce the rules and regulations 
estabhshed by said Fire Prevention Commissioner, on the 
construction of buildings or rooms for the storage of 
motion picture films, celluloid or pyroxyhne products. 

Garages. 
Section 6, Chapter 795, of 1914. 

6. The authority to enforce the rules and regulations 
established by said Fire Prevention Commissioner, on the 



412 Garage Regulations. 

construction of garages, dry cleansing establishments, or 
other buildings or structures required for inflammable 
fluids. 

Egress Obstructions. 

Section 13, D, Chapter 795, of 1914. . 

7. The authority to cause any obstacles that may 
interfere with the means of exit to be removed from floors, 
halls, stairways, and fire escapes. 

Refuse and Debris. 
Section 8, Chapter 795, of 1914- 

8. The authority to require the removal and destruc- 
tion of any heap or collection of refuse or debris that in 
his opinion may become dangerous as a fire menace, and 
to remove such refuse or debris in accordance wdth the law. 

In witness whereof, I have signed this delegation of 
authority and affixed my seal hereto this twenty-second 
day of July, A. D. 1918. 

[SEAL.] FRANK LEWIS, 

Fire Prevention Commissioner for the 
Metropolitan District. 



ELEVATOK AND ESCALATOE 
HEGULATIONS 



INCLUDING 



ALTERATIONS AND AMENDMENTS 



FRAMED BY THE 

BOARD OF ELEVATOR REGULATIONS 



f ^e (S^ommnnfaealtl^ of Passat^usetls 



Acts of 1913, Chapteb 806. 

An Act relative to the Installation, Alteration 
AND Inspection of Elevators and to the Ap- 
pointment OF A Board of Elevator Regula- 
tions. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. In cities and towns not having a build- 
ing department or an inspector of buildings, the instal- 
lation and alteration of all elevators shall Installation 
be under the supervision of the inspectors f,^spection 
of the building inspection department of of elevators, 
the district police. In cities and towns having an 
inspector of buildings or a person acting as such, the 
installation and alteration of all elevators shall be 
under the supervision of such inspector. No elevator 
shall hereafter be installed or altered until a copy of the 
plans and specifications of such elevator or of the 
proposed alterations shall have been filed by the owner 
of the premises where the elevator is to be installed or 
altered, or by the manufacturer of the elevator, with 
the inspector having jurisdiction, and a certificate of 
approval or a specification of requirements shall have 
been issued by him. 

Section 2. On completion of the work of installa- 
tion or alteration, the manufacturer of the elevator or 
the person making the alterations shall^ Practical 
make a practical test of the safety devices test of 
of the elevator in the presence of the in- devices to 
spector, and if the test is satisfactory to ^^ made. 

413 



414 Law Relating to Elevatoks. 

the inspector, he shall issue a certificate approving the 
elevator and safety devices thereof. 

Section 3. All elevators shall be thoroughly in- 
spected and a practical test made of the safety devices 
Report of required therefor at intervals of not more 
inspection, than one year, and at such other times as 
may be deemed necessary by the inspector having juris- 
diction thereof. Within ten days after the inspection, 
the inspector shall report the result thereof to the chief 
of the district police, upon forms to be furnished by him. 

This requirement for the making of inspection reports 
shall not apply to the city of Boston. 

Section 4. If, in the judgment of any inspector 
having jurisdiction thereof, an elevator is safe, and if 
Certificate ^^® elevator has been constructed in the 
of safe manner required by law or by regulations 

be posted made by the board of elevator regulations 
m elevator. ^^ hereinafter provided, the insp ector shall 
issue a certificate to that effect to the owner of the ele- 
vator, or to the person in charge thereof, and the owner 
of the elevator or the person in charge thereof shall 
post the certificate in a conspicuous place in or near the 
cab or car of such elevator. If i,n the judgment of the 
Notice of inspector, the elevator is unsafe or danger- 
condition ^^^ *^ ^^^' ^^ ^^® ^^* been constructed in 
etc. the manner required by law or by the reg- 

ulations made by the board of elevator regulations as 
hereinafter provided, the inspector shall immediately 
post conspicuously upon the entrance or door of the 
cab or car of such elevator, or upon the elevator, a 
notice of its dangerous condition, and shall prohibit 
the use of the elevator until it has been made safe to 
the inspector's satisfaction. No person shall remove 
such notice or operate such elevator until the inspector 
ha»s issued his certificate as aforesaid. 



Law Relating to Elevatoes. 415 

Section 5. Any owner, operator or person in charge 
of an elevator, or any person employed by any firm, 
corporation, or individual to inspect an 
elevator shall, if he thinks such elevator is accidents, 
unsafe, report the fact in writing to the ^^^' 
inspector having jurisdiction thereof who shall forth- 
with inspect such elevator. If any accident occurs to 
an elevator, the operator, person in charge or owner 
having knowledge thereof shall immediately report 
such accident to the inspector having jurisdiction who 
shall forthwith inspect such elevator. 

Section 6. Within one month after the passage of 

this act the governor, with the advice and consent of 

the council, shall appoint a board, to be Board of 

eaUed the Board of Elevator Regulations. R^uiaUons 

The said board shall frame regulations appoint= 

1 .. ,, , ,- . ,, . ment,duties, 

relating to the construction, installation, etc. 

alteration and operation of all elevators, now installed 
or to be installed, and relative to the location, design 
and construction of shafts or enclosures for elevators, 
safety devices, gates and other safeguards, protection 
against the elevator or hoisting machinery, and means 
to prevent the spread of fire, and also such regulations 
as will make uniform the work of the inspectors of the 
building inspection department of the district police 
and of inspectors of buildings throughout the common- 
wealth. 

Section 7. The board of elevator regulations shall 
be composed of seven members, one of whom shall be 

a consulting engineer who shall act as 

1 • • , (« , 1 1 -1 T Membership. 

chairman, one an inspector of the building 

inspection department of the district poHce, one the 
building commissioner of the city of Boston, one an 
inspector of buildings of some other city in the common- 
wealth, one a representative of a liabihty insurance 



416 Law Relating to Elevators. 

company licensed to write such insurance in the com- 
monwealth, one a representative of an elevator manu- 
facturer, and one an experienced elevator 
constructor. The said board shall, within 
three months after its members are appointed, draft 
regulations as aforesaid, and submit the same to the 
governor and council for their approval. Within sixty 
days after such regulations have been submitted to the 
governor and council, they shall approve the same with 
such alterations and amendments and after such public 
hearings as they may deem proper, and the regulations, 
so altered and amended, shaU then be referred by the 
governor to the chief of the district poHce, who shall 
furnish upon appUcation a printed copy of the regula- 
tions to aU manufacturers of elevators operating in the 
commonwealth, and to all inspectors of buildings in the 
cities and towns of the commonwealth, and to all others 
who are concerned. It shall be the duty of 
of the inspectors of the building inspection 

regulations, (department of the district police and the 
department of buildings or inspectors of buildings of 
cities and towns to see that the said regulations are 
compHed with. 

Section 8. The board of elevator regulations shall 
Board to be ^erve without compensation and shall be 
dissolved dissolved upon the approval, by the gov- 
approval of ernor and council, of the regulations made 
regulations, ^g ^^^^^ provided. 

Section 9. Any person engaged in the inspection, 

alteration, construction, repair or operation of elevators 

may, from time to time, hereafter by 
Proceedings ..,. . ... . .-, i 

upon petition petition in writing to the governor and 

etc^of njle"'^*^^^*^^^ request that rules and regulations 
and estabUshed under this act be altered or 

regu a ions, q^^q^^q^ The governor may grant public 



Law Relating to Elevators. 417 

hfearings before the governor and council upon such 
petition, and if he deems it advisable may appoint a 
new board of elevator regulations to consist of seven 
members as provided in section seven of this act. 
Such board shall, within three months after its appoint- 
ment, draft such alterations or amendments as they 
deem advisable and submit the same to the governor 
and council for their approval as provided in section 
seven. Upon the approval by the governor and coun- 
cil of such alterations or amendments, they shall become 
part of the rules and regulations pertaining to elevators 
and shall have the same force and effect as the other 
rules and regulations established under section seven. 
The board established under this section shall, upon 
such approval by the governor and council be dissolved. 

Section 10. For the purpose of carrying out the 
provisions of this act, the board of elevator regulations 
may expend such sum, not exceeding fif- 
teen hundred dollars, as shall be approved Expenditure. 
by the governor and council. 

Section 11. Whoever is aggrieved by the order, 

requirement, or direction of an inspector of buildings 

of a city or town except in the city of 

Boston, may, within ten days after the aggrieved 

service thereof, appeal to a judge of the tS%dge^^* 

superior court for the county in which the of superior 

courts ©tc* 
building to which such order, requirement 

or direction relates is situated, for an order forbidding 

its enforcement; and after su.ch notice as said court 

shall order to all parties interested, a hearing may be 

had before said court at such early and convenient time 

and place as shall be fixed by said order; or the court 

may appoint three disinterested persons, skilled in the 

subject-matter of the controversy, to examine the 

matter and hear the parties; and the decision of said 



418 Law Relating to Elevators. 

court, or the decision, in writing and under oath, of 
the majority of said experts, filed in the office of the 
clerk of courts in said county within ten days after such 
hearing, may alter, annul or affirm such order, require- 
ment or direction. Such decision or a certified copy 
thereof shall have the same authority, force and effect 
as the original order, requirement or direction of the 
inspector. If such decision annuls or alters such order, 
requirement or direction of the inspector, the court 
shall also order the said inspector not to enforce his 
order, requirement or direction, and in every such case 
the certificate required by this act to be issued by the 
inspector shall thereupon be issued by said court or by 
said experts. 

Section 12. Any person, firm or corporation viola- 
ting or failing to comply with any provision of this act, 
or of any regulation established hereimder 
shall be punished by a fine of not more than 
five hundred dollars for every such offense, subject, 
however, to the right of appeal as provided in section 
eleven of this act except that in the city of Boston 
the right of appeal shall be the same as that provided 
by section seven of chapter five hundred and fifty of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and seven. 

Section 13. Sections twenty-seven and twenty- 
eight of chapter one hundred and four of the Revised 
Laws, sections seventy-four and ninety- 
six, in so far as such sections relate to 
elevators, of chapter five hundred and fourteen of the 
acts of the year nineteen hundred and nine, chapter 
four hundred and fifty-five of the acts of the year 
nineteen hundred and eleven, and chapter three hun- 
dred and eighteen of the acts of the year nineteen 
hundred and twelve, in so far as such chapter relates 
to elevators, and chapter four hundred and seventy- 



Law Relating to Elevators. 419 

nine of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and 
twelve, and all acts and parts of acts inconsistent 
herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 14. Sections six, seven, eight and ten of 
this act which relate to the appointment, duties and 
expenses of the board of elevator regula- xime of 
tions shall take effect upon its passage, taking effect. 
and the remainder of this act shall take effect thirty 
days after the approval by the governor and council of 
the regulations framed by the board of elevator regula- 
tions. [Approved June 16, 1913. 



CONTENTS. 



Regulation 
Number. 

DIVISION A. DEFINITIONS. . . . . . 1 

Elevator . . . . .... . . . . a 

Passenger elevator b 

Freight elevator c 

Hatchway-type elevator . d 

Carriage-type elevator ........ e 

Sidewalk-type elevator / 

Selective automatic button-control elevator ... g 

Traction-type elevator ........ h 

Steam hydraulic elevator ....... ^ i 

Dumb-waiter j 

Power elevators . k 

Full-automatic gate I 

Semi- or half- automatic gate ... . . . m 

Gravity gate n 

Escalator o 

Existing installation p 

New installation q 

DIVISION B. REGULATIONS APPLYING TO NEW 

ELEVATOR INSTALLATIONS 2-64 

Section 1. Shaftways . 2-22 

Thoroughfare under elevators 2 

Enclosures around elevator shaftways, in general . . 3 
Enclosures around shaftways of elevators serving only 

two adjacent stories 4 

Enclosures around elevator shaftways in stairwells . . 5 
Enclosures around shaftways of carriage-type 

elevators 6 

Enclosures around shaftways of hatchway-type 

elevators 7 

Enclosures around elevator shaftways outside of 

buildings 8 

Opening of standing portions of enclosiires ... 9 

Netting on grille-work enclosures 10 

Enclosures around isolated counterweights ... H 

421 



422 Contents. 

Regulation 
N umber. 
DIVISION B. REGULATIONS APPLYING TO NEW 
ELEVATOR INSTALLATIONS — Continued. 
Section 1. Shaftways — Concluded. 
Openings and set-backs in outside walls of freight 

elevator shaftways 12 

Thresholds and other projections 13 

Landing doors . 14 

Landing gates, in general 15 

Landing gates at openings in outside walls ... 16 
Landing gates at ground openings of elevators outside of 

building 17 

Automatic hatch covers 18 

Bars at exterior windows 19 

Pits 20 

Platform at top of shaftway 21 

Over-travel 22 

Section 2. Cars and car enclosures 23-27 

Cars . . 23 

Car enclosures 24 

Seats in cars 25 

Car gates and doors . . 26 

Clearance between car and shaftway and between car 

and counterweight 27 

Sections. Machines; machine supports; tanks 28-37 

Belt and chain-driven machines 28 

Friction machines 29 

Hj^draulic machines 30 

Support of machines and sheaves . . . . . 31 

Enclosure of gears 32 

Enclosures around machines . . . . . . 33 

Discharge tanks of hydraulic elevators .... 34 

Pressure tanks for hydraulic elevators ..... 35 

Relief valves on hydraulic elevator pumps ... 36 

Elevator pump regulators 37 

Section 4. Cables ..... . . . 38, 39 

Hoisting cables 38 

Shipper ropes 39 

Section 5. Counterweights 40-43 

Counterweight construction . . . . . , 40 

Counterweight runways and enclosures .... 41 

Counterweight shops 42 

Clearance between counterweights and shaftwaiys . . 43 



Contents. 423 

Regulation 
Number. 
DIVISION B. REGULATIONS APPLYING TO NEW 
ELEVATOR INSTALLATIONS— Concluded. 

Section 6. Guide rails 44-47 

Car-guide rails 44 

Counterweight guide rails 45 

Cast-iron guide rails 46 

Automatic-guide lubricators 47 

Section 7. Safety devices , . 48-59 

Cast-iron in safety de\dces 48 

Machine slack cable safety devices ..... 49 

Terminal stops 50 

Automatic electric car switches 51 

Slack cable safeties on coimterweights .... 52 

Speed governors and slack cable safeties .... 53 

Electric brakes 54 

Shipper-rope locks ... . . . . . . 55 

Centering ropes 56 

Warning chains on freight cars ...... 57 

Bumpers 58 

Emergency car switch 59 

Section 8. Capacity and speed; change in use of 

elevator { 60, 61 

Capacity and speed . 60 

Change in use of elevator 61 

Section 9. Lighting; signals; voltage of control 

circuit; fuse substitution ...... 62-64 

Lighting . 62 

Signals . 63 

Voltage of control circuit and fuse substitution ... 64 
DIVISION C. REGULATIONS APPLYING TO EXIST= 

ING ELEVATOR INSTALLATIONS .... 65-114 

Section 1. Shaftways 65-80 

Thoroughfare under elevators 65 

Enclosures or guards around shaftways of carriage-type 

elevators and of hand-power elevators .... 66 
Enclosures around shaftways of hatchway-type eleva- 
tors 67 

Enclosures around shaftways of elevators other than 

carriage-type and hatchway-type ..... 68 

Opening of standing portions of enclosures ... 69 

Netting of grille-work enclosures 70 

Enclosures around isolated counterweights ... 71 



424 Contents. 

Regxilation 
Number. 
DIVISION C. REGULATIONS APPLYING TO EX- 
ISTING ELEVATOR INSTALLATIONS — Con- 

tinued. 

Section 1. Shaftways — -Concluded. 

Openings and set-backs in outside walls of freight 

elevator shaftways 72 

Thresholds and other projections 73 

Landing doors 74 

Landing gates, in general 75 

Landing gates at openings in outside walls ... 76 
Landing gates at ground openings of elevators outside 

of building 77 

Automatic hatch covers 78 

Bars at exterior windows 79 

Platform at top of shaftway 80 

Section 2. Cars and car enclosures .... 81-85 

Cars 81 

Platform attached to existing hoist 82 

Car enclosures 83 

Seats in cars 84 

Car gates and doors 85 

Section 3. Machines: machine supports; tanks. . 86-93 

Belt and chain-driven machines 86 

Traveling sheaves of vertical hydraulic machines and 

piston rods of hydraulic machines 87 

Enclosure of gears 88 

Enclosirres around machines ...... 89 

Discharge tanks of hydraulic elevators .... 90 

Pressure tanl^s for hydraulic elevators .... 91 

Relief valves of hydraulic elevator pumps ... 92 

Elevator pump regulators 93 

Section 4. Cables 94, 95 

Hoisting cables 94 

Shipper ropes 95 

Section 5. Counterweights ...... 96-98 

Counterweight construction 96 

Counterweight rimways and enclosures . ... 97 

Counterweight stops 98 

Section 6. Guide rails 99, 100 

Car-guide rails 99 

Automatic-guide lubricators ...'.. 100 



Contents. 425 

Regulatian 
Number. 
DIVISION C. REGULATIONS APPLYING TO EX= 
ISTINQ ELEVATOR INSTALLATIONS — Concluded. 

Section 7. Safety devices 101-109 

Machine slack cable safety devices 101 

Terminal stops 102 

Automatic electric car switches 103 

Slack cable safeties on counterweights .... 104 

Speed governors and slack cable safeties .... 105 

Shipper-rope locks 106 

Centering ropes 107 

Warning chains on freight cars 108 

Bumpers 109 

Section 8. Capacity and speed; change in use of 

elevator 110, 111 

Capacity and speed 110 

Change in use of elevator . . ... . . . Ill 

Section 9. Lighting; signals; voltage of control 

circuit; fuse substitution 112-114 

Lighting 112 

Signals 113 

Voltage of control crrcxiit and fuse substitution . . 114 

DIVISION D. REGULATIONS APPLYING TO BUILD= 
ERS' ELEVATORS AND TO TEMPORARY USE 

OF PERMANENT ELEVATORS .... 115-121 

Section 1. Builders' elevators 115,116 

Inspection 115 

Slack cable safety and protection of openings . . 116 

Section 2. Temporary use of permanent elevators, 117-121 

Use subject to approval of inspector . . . . 117 

Car enclosures 118 

Slack cable safety 119 

Protection of openings 120 

Operator 121 

DIVISION E. OPERATION OF ELEVATORS . . 122-128 

Licensed operators 122 

Granting of licenses 123 

Revocation and suspension of licenses .... 124 

Display of licenses 125 

Designated operators 126 

Closing of doors and gates 127 

Locking of shipper ropes 128 



426 Contents. 

Regulation 
Number. 
DIVISION F. REGULATIONS APPLYING TO NEW 

ESCALATOR INSTALLATIONS .... 129-137 

Drive 129 

Speed , . . . 130 

Hand rails . . . . ... . . . 131 

Electric brake 132 

Emergency stops 133 

Safety devices . . , 134 

Links and chains 135 

Angle of inclination . . 136 

Sides 137 

DIVISION G. REGULATIONS APPLYING TO EX= 

ISTING ESCALATOR INSTALLATIONS . . 138-141 

Speed 138 

Hand rails . . 139 

Emergency stops 140 

Safety devices 141 



^^-e Commonbjfalt^ of Pn^sat^nsetts. 



ELEVATOR AND ESCALATOR REGULATIONS, 

TAKING EFFECT JUNE 19, 1 9 14. 

INCLUDING 

Alterations and Amendments, 

TAKING EFFECT jmE 29i I9I5. 



[A star (*) placed against a regulation or note 
indicates that such regulation or note has been 
added, altered or amended.] 



DIVISION A. DEFINITIONS. 
1. Definitions. 

In these Regulations the following terms shall have 
the meanings respectively assigned to them. They are 
not intended, however, as a complete glossary of terms 
used in connection with elevator installations : — 

a. An elevator is a hoisting mechanism, equipped 
with a car, which moves in guides in a substantially 
vertical direction, and which is designed to carry pas- 
sengers or freight. 

* (Endless belts, conveyors, chains, buckets, etc., used for the 
purpose of conveying and elevating materials, and tiering or pUing 
machines, operating within one story, are not included by the term 
"elevator.") 

6. A passenger elevator is an elevator used pri- 
marily for carrying passengers. 

c. A freight elevator is an elevator used primarily 
for carrying freight. 

427 



428 Division A. 

d. A hatchway=type elevator is an elevator run- 
ning through floor openings provided with hatch covers, 
each of which is opened automatically as the car ap- 
proaches the landing and is closed automatically as the 
car leaves the landing. 

e. A carriage=type elevator is a freight elevator 
with a platform having no suspension sling frame, but 
which is raised by cables dropping from winding drums 
or sheaves over the wellway and connected to the plat- 
form at four or more points. 

/. A sidewalk=type elevator is an elevator operat- 
ing with no lifting or counterweighting mechanism 
above the upper landing level. 

g. A selective automatic button=control ele= 
vator is an elevator the operation of which is con- 
trolled by push buttons in such a manner that all floor 
stops are automatic. 

. h. A traction=type elevator is an elevator whose 
elevating power is transmitted by means of friction 
between the hfting cables and the drums or sheaves. 

i. A steam hydraulic=type elevator is an elevator 
operated by water from a closed tank, to which steam 
or air pressure is applied to raise the car. 

j. A dumb=waiter is an elevator, equipped with a 
car which has a clear platform area of not exceeding 
nine square feet, which is designed and used for freight 
only, and which has a carrying capacity not exceeding 
500 pounds. 

k. I'he term ** power elevators" excludes elevators 
operated by hand. 

I. A f ull=automatic gate is a gate which is opened 
automatically by the action of the elevator car as it 
approaches the landing, and which closes automati- 
cally by gravity or by direct mechanical action of the 
car as the car leaves the landing. 



Definitions. 429 

m. A semi= or haIf=automatic gate is a gate 
which (1) is opened by the ascending elevator car 
approaching the landing; (2) is not opened by the 
descending elevator car but which may be opened by 
hand; (3) is held open by the elevator car while the 
latter remains stationary at the landing; (4) closes 
automatically by gravity when the elevator car leaves 
the landing. 

n. A gravity gate is a gate which is not opened 
by the motion of the car bat which may be opened by 
hand, and which will be held open by the elevator car 
when the latter is at the landing and which will close 
automatically by gravity when the elevator car leaves 
the landing. 

o. An escalator is a moving continuous stairway 
or inclined runway designed for elevating or lowering 
passengers. 

(Endless belts, conveyors, chains, buckets, etc., used for the 
purpose of conveying and elevating materials alone and upon 
which passengers are at no time carried are not classed as esca- 
lators. 

Stevedores handling freight on wharf ramps, and other workmen 
similarly in charge of freight, riding on similar ramps, are not 
classed as passengers.) 

p. An existing installation is an elevator or 
escalator, the erection of which was begun before the 
establishment of these Regulations and not materially 
altered, nor moved to a different location subsequently 
thereto. 

* (The date of the establishment of these Regulations is June 
19, 1914.) 

q. A new installation is: — 

(1) An elevator or escalator, the erection of which is 
begun subsequently to the establishment of these Regu- 
lations. 



430 Division A. 

(2) An existing elevator or escalator moved to a new 
location subsequently to the establishment of these 
Regulations. 

(3) An existing installation which is materially 
changed subsequently to the establishment of these 
Regulations. 

(Any changes other than ordinary repairs are to be considered 
as material changes.) 

(4) Any complete part of an existing iristallation 
which is replaced. 

* (For instance, when the type of elevator is changed, the ma- 
chine, cables, etc., comprise a complete new part, and must be in- 
stalled in accordance with the Regulations for new installations, 
but the car, shaftway enclosures, gates, doors, etc., do not have 
to be changed in accordance with the Regulations for new instal- 
lations.) 



New Elevator Installations. 431 



DIVISION B. REGULATIONS APPLYING TO 
NEW ELEVATOR INSTALLATIONS. 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

2. Thoroughfare under Elevators. 

a. The bottoms of shaftways of elevators and of 
counterweights shall be kept clear of all materials not 
necessary to the elevator installation, and shall not be 
used as thoroughfares or passages. 

(The bottom of the shaftway of a hand-power carriage-type 
elevator is an exception to this Regulation, and may be used as a 
thoroughfare or passage.) 

*6. If a counterweight does not run to the lowest 
floor of a building, the space under the bottom of the 
shaftway of such counterweight shall not be used for 
any purpose unless (1) the counterweight is equipped 
with a safety device which will stop the counterweight 
if the cables attached to it should break or become slack; 
(2) the construction of the bottom of the shaftway 
under the counterweight is such as to withstand, with- 
out injury, the falling at fuU normal speed of the 
counterweight; and (3) bumpers of spring or equiva- 
lent type are installed under the counterweight when 
its normal speed exceeds 150' 0" per minute. If an 
elevator car does not run to the lowest floor of a build- 
ing, the space under the bottom of the shaftway of such 
elevator shall not be used for any purpose unless 
(1) the construction of the bottom of the shaftway 
under the car is such as to withstand, without injury, 
the falling at full normal speed of the car loaded to its 
capacity, and (2) bumpers of spring or equivalent type 
are installed under the car when its normal speed 



432 Division B. 

Section I. Shaftways. 

exceeds 150' 0" per minute. (See, also, Regulation 
58c. Data on bumper capacity will be found in Regu- 
lation 58d.) 

c. No hatchway cover shall be used as a thorough- 
fare or passage unless the elevator is of the sidewalk 
type. If there is a vertical lifting hatch cover, it shall 
not be used as a thoroughfare or passage unless there is 
a clear space above the cover, when at the top of its 
travel, of not less than 2' 0". 

3. Enclosures around Elevator Shaftways, in 
General. 

a. The shaftways of all elevators shall be enclosed 
throughout their height with walls of brick, or terra 
cotta, or wire lath and plaster, or wired glass set "in 
metal frames or other fire-resisting construction, ex- 
cept (1) elevators serving only two adjacent stories; 

(2) elevators within the wellways of surrounding stairs; 

(3) elevators of carriage type and of hatchway type; 

(4) elevators outside of buildings; and (5) that part 
of a dumb-waiter shaftway located between the floor 
and a counter-top. 

(The details of construction, thickness of walls, thickness, size 
and method of setting wired glass, etc., shall conform to the local 
building requirements, if any, and otherwise to the requirements 
of the inspector having jurisdiction. All sash shall be stationary, 
unless in the outer wall of the building. Frames and sash in the 
outer wall of the building may be of wood and the sash glazed with 
common glass if not conflicting with the local building requirements. 
Two or more elevators may be installed in the same shaftway with- 
out partitions between them.) 

*h. Elevator machine rooms, open to shaftways en- 
closed with fire-resisting construction, shall be simi- 
larly enclosed, except on the shaftway side. 



New Elevator Installations. 433 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

(An elevator machine room shall be considered as open to the 
shaftway unless separated therefrom by a partition or door of \^" 
steel or iron plate, or by a partition or door of fire-resisting con- 
struction, such partition or door being cut out only for cables and 
machinery and fitting closely around such cables and machinery.) 

c. Fire-resisting shaftway enclosures shall be ex- 
tended through and at least 3' 0" above the roof if the 
elevator serves the top story of the building, except in 
the case of a dumb-waiter shaftway terminating under 
a counter-top, and except where a solid platform is 
located under the machinery and sheaves at the top of 
the shaftway entirely blocking it except for the openings 
for cables. 

d. Where the fire-resisting shaftway enclosures are 
not required to continue through the roof, the top of 
the shaftway shall be of the same fire-resisting con- 
struction as required for the walls. (See Regulation 3a.) 

e. If the fire-resisting shaftway enclosures continue 
through the roof, a skylight or skylights shall be located 
in the top of the shaftway, or a window or windows 
shall be located in the side walls of the enclosure, at the 
top, unless there is a solid platform at the top of the 
shaftway entirely blocking it except for openings for 
cables, etc. The total glass area of such skylights or 
windows shall be in each case (1) not less than one- 
half the area of the shaftway; (2) not less than three 
square feet if the area of the shaftway is three square 
feet or more; and (3) the full area of the shaftway if 
the latter is less than three square feet. 

(The object of the skylights and the windows is to provide a 
vent for smoke and hot gases in case of fire; consequently, the 
glass in the skylights and windows must be plain glass, not wired 
glass, or the skylights and windows must be arranged to open 
automatically to the required area by the fusing of fusible links 



434 Division B. 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

inside of the shaf tway near the top, in which case wired glass may 
be used. If plain glass is used in a skylight, the skylight shall be 
protected by a galvanized iron or steel netting of not more than 
1" mesh made of not less than No. 12 gauge wire supported on 
metal supports not less than 6" above the skylight, in order to 
prevent breakage by debris from an adjacent fire.) 

/. If there is a solid platform under the machinery 
and sheaves (see Regulation 21) at the top of the shaft- 
way entirely blocking it except for the openings for 
cables, etc., windows of construction and as nearly as 
possible the area specified in Regulation 3e shaU be in- 
stalled in the shaftway immediately below such solid 
floor, and either in the outside wall of the building or 
above the roof. 

(If there is no outside wall forming the shaftway, and if the solid 
floor in the shaftway is not above the roof, no vent, skylights or 
windows will be required. Vent windows above the roof and below 
the solid floor in the shaftway need not be located so close to the 
roof as to interfere with roof flashing.) 

4. Enclosures around Shaftways of Elevators 
serving only Two Adjacent Stories. 

a. The shaftways of elevators serving only two ad- 
jacent stories shall be enclosed throughout the entire 
height of, at least, one of the two stories with fire- 
resisting construction, such as specified in Regulation 
3a, except shaftways around (1) dumb-waiters; (2) 
elevators within the wellv/ays of surrounding stairs; 
(3) elevators of carriage type and of hatchway type; 
and (4) elevators outside of building. 

5. If the fire-resisting construction is used in the 
lovv'er of the two stories, the shaftway in the upper 
story shall be enclosed to a height of not less than 
7' 0" above the floor with metal., oirille work which will 



New Elevator Installations. 435 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

reject a ball 2" in diameter, or with equivalent non- 
combustible construction. 

c. If the fire-resisting construction is used in the 
upper of the two stories, and if the elevator is a pas- 
senger elevator, the shaftway in the lower story shall 
be enclosed from floor to ceiling on the side where there 
is a landing opening ^nd to a point at least 7' 0" high 
on the other sides with grille work which will reject a 
ball 2" in diameter, or with equivalent non-combustible 
construction. 

d. If the fire-resisting construction is used in the 
upper of the two stories, and the elevator is a freight 
elevator, the shaftway in the lower story shall be 
enclosed with guards not less than 3' 4" above the floor, 
such as grille work, sheathing, wood or metal double- 
rail fences, etc., securely fastened in place. 

. e. The requirements of Regulation 36, 3c, 3c?, 3e 
and 3/ shall be fulfilled v/here they are applicable to the 
shaftway enclosures of elevators serving only tv/o ad- 
jacent stories. 

5. Enclosures around Elevator Shaftways in 
Stairv/ells. 

a. The shaftways of all elevators within the well- 
ways of surrounding stairs shall be enclosed in each 
story with either (1) fire-resisting construction as speci- 
fied under Regulation 3a, or (2) metal grille work of 
such design as will reject a ball 2" in diameter. 

h. All such enclosures shall extend from floor to 
ceiling at the side through wliich there is an entrance 
to the elevator car, except on the top floor, and shall 
extend at least 7' 0" elsewhere above all stair treads 
and landings. 



436 Division B. 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

6. Enclosures around Shaftways of Carriage- 

type Elevators. 

a. The shaftways of carriage-type elevators which 
serve two floors only need not be enclosed except that 
the sides of the floor opening shall be protected by 
guards not less than 3' 4" above the floor, such as grille 
work, sheathing, wood or metal double-rail fences, etc., 
securely fastened in place. 

h. The shaftways of carriage-type elevators which 
serve more than two floors shall be completely enclosed 
from the second stor> floor up with fire-resisting con- 
struction such as specified in Regulation 3a. 

(Carriage-type elevators serving the first and second floors are 
usually kept at the second floor level when not in use, so that the 
first floor may be used as a passage. In this position the car serves 
to obstruct the opening for the passage of smoke or fire. If the 
elevator serves three stories, one floor opening is always left unpro- 
tected, in which case the enclosures required above are necessary 
to prevent the spread of fire.) 

c. The requirements of Regulation 36, 3c, 3d, 3e and 
3/ shall be fulfilled where they are applicable to shaft- 
way enclosures of carriage-type elevators. 

7. Enclosures around Shaftways of Hatchway- 

type Elevators. 

* a. Enclosures or guards, not less than 3' 4" above 
the floor, such as grille work, sheathing, wood or metal 
double-rail fences, etc., securely fastened in place, shall 
be located (except at landing openings) around power 
elevator hatchway openings equipped with automatic 
hatch covers, except around hatchway openings 
equipped with vertical lifting hatch covers above which, 



New Elevator Installations. 437 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

at the upper limit of their travel, there is a clear space 
of 2' 0" or more. 

b. Similar enclosures or guards shall be placed around 
the shaftways of power elevators, at the lowest floor 
which the elevator serves, if the opening in the floor 
above is protected by a hatch cover. 

8. Enclosures around Elevator Shaftways out- 

side of Buildings. 

a. The shaftways of elevators located outside of 
buildings shall be enclosed to a height 7' 0" above the 
ground with a solid enclosure or with grille work or 
lattice work which will reject a ball 2" in diameter. 

9. Opening of Standing Portions of Enclosures. 

a. All standing portions of enclosures arranged to 
open to form larger openings than are obtained at the 
regular landing doors shall be securely fastened at top 
and bottom. 



10. Netting on Qrille=work Enclosures. 

* a. Grille-work shaft way enclosures, having mesh 
larger than |" square, shall be covered to a height not 
less than 6' 6" above the landing level with wire netting 
of not more than |" square mesh, made of wire not 
smaller than No. 20 gauge, securely attached to grille 
work (1) where there is less than 4" clearance between 
the grille work and any portion of the car or of the 
counterweight, and (2) where a landing door slides by 
with a clearance of less than 4". 



438 Division B. 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

11. Enclosures around Isolated Counterweights. 

a. Counterweights running in isolated shaftways shall 
be enclosed throughout their height with fire-resisting 
construction or with sheet steel of not less than No. 16 
gauge, except v/here located outside of buildings, in 
which case solid enclosures not less than 7' 0" high shall 
be installed. 

h. Counterweight enclosures shall be provided with 
removable sections, not less than 2' 0" high and the full 
width of the enclosure, located near the top, for the 
inspection of counterweights and cables. 

(Requirements for enclosing counterweights located in the ele- 
vator shaftways will be found in Regulation 41.) 

12. Openings and Set=backs in Outside Walls 

of Freight Elevator Shaftways. 

* a. Where the enclosing wall of the shaftway of a 
power freight elevator is the outside wall of a building, 
and where the elevator car is open (see Regulation 12e) 
toward this outside wall, the shaftway side of the out- 
side wall shall be filled in, up to the top landing level, 
wherever the clearance between the elevator car and 
,the wall is more than 4". 

h. The fiUing-in may be done with any form of con- 
struction giving a firm, flush surface if there is no con- 
flict with local building regulations; or it may be done 
with wooden slats not less than 3" wide by |" thick 
and set vertically not more than 4" apart; or it may be 
done with metal pipes or bars set vertically not more 
than 4" apart, provided that such slats, pipes or bars 
are strongly secured in place with no projections into 
the shaftway aiid with all cross bars and other supports, 
except close-fitting pipe clips, at the back of such slats, 
pipes or bars. 



New Elevator Installations. 439 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

c. Whatever form of construction is used for filling 
in, the clearance between the face of the filling-in 
material and the car shall be not more than 2". 

d. All window or other openings or recesses in such 
outside wall, except the landing door opening, shall be 
filled in flush or slatted or barred as provided for in 
Regulation 125 and 12c, whatever may be the clear- 
ance between the elevator ckr and the wall. The 
filling-in material shall be made flush with the wall or 
with the filling-in on the wall, as the case may be. (For 
exception, see Regulation 12e.) 

* e. If the elevator car is provided on the side adja- 
cent to the outside wall with a gate which closes auto- 
matically when the ascending car leaves the landing at 
which there is an opening in the outside wall, or if the 
gate is provided with an interlocking device, which pre- 
vents the starting of the car until the gate is closed, and 
if the gate is of construction and dimensions specified in 
Regulation 16a and 166 for landing gates for openings 
in outside wall, then the elevator car shall not be con- 
sidered as open on the side toward the outside wall, 
and the filling-in of set-backs and openings in such wall 
shall not be required above the landing opening in the 
outside wall. (See Regulation 26/ and 26^'.) 

13. Thresholds and Other Projections. 

* a. Strong and substantial bevelled metal or v/ood 
plates shall be located under all thresholds, beams and 
other fixed construction projecting into shaftways 1" 
or more beyond the general line of the shaftways of the 
elevator on sides where there are car openings. Metal 
plates when not backed with vv^ood shall be made of not 
less than No. 12 B & S gauge metal. 

(Dumb-waiters are excepted from this Regulation.) 



440 Division B. 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

h. The bevelled plates shall extend from the edge of 
the projection to the vertical wall, and the bevelled 
surfaces shall make an angle of not less than 60° with 
the horizontal. 

14. Landing Doors. 

* Note. — Landing doors which close automatically when the 
car leaves the landing may be considered as solid gates. (See 
Regulation 15a to 151, inclusive, and Regulation 16a to 16d, 
inclusive, and Regulation 17a.) 

a. All landing openings in solid fire-resisting shaftway 
enclosures shall be provided with fire-resisting landing 
doors and frames without open-grille work or movable 
panels or other openings. Tin-clad doors, rolling steel 
doors, Kalamein doors, hollow metal fire doors, steel 
frame doors glazed with wired glass, or doors of other 
similar construction shall be considered as "fire resist- 
ing." Wired glass panels may be used in doors, but 
shall be subject to the restrictions specified in Regula- 
tion 3a. 

(It is desirable that all such landing doors, which are left open 
when the car is not at the landing, should be provided with self- 
closing devices operated by fusible links.) 

b. All landing openings in grille-work shaftway en- 
closures of passenger elevators shall be provided with 
landing doors, made either of fire resisting construction 
or of grille work, which will reject a ball 2" in diameter. 

c. Landing doors for passenger elevators shall slide 
in a horizontal direction, except that swing doors will 
be permitted when equipped and used with an inter- 
locking device, which prevents the starting of the ele- 
vator when any landing door is open. 



New Elevator Installations. 441 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

d. Landing doors for all passenger elevators and for 
freight elevators without landing gates, except dumb- 
waiters, shall be of such construction and design that 
when locked they cannot be opened from the landing 
side without a key, except when the car is at the landing. 

(Such landing doors need not be arranged so that they can be 
opened from the landing side even when the car is at the landing, 
except in the case of a selective automatic button-control type 
elevator or a similar elevator where there is no operator.) 

e. Landing doors, which cannot be opened from the 
landing side except by key, shall be arranged to be 
opened by key at one landing at least. 

(The object of this Regulation is to make it possible to close aJl 
landing dOors when the elevator is shut down and the attendant is 
absent, thus preventing interference with the elevator by un- 
authorized persons. It is recommended that all such landing doors 
be arranged to be opened by key from the landing side to facilitate 
entrance to the shaf tway above and below the car for inspection 
and repairs and in case of emergency.) 

*/. Landing doors for selective automatic button- 
control elevators, except dumb-waiters, are to be self- 
locking and equipped with interlocking devices such 
that (1) no landing door can be opened unless the car 
is at the landing, and (2) the car cannot be started un- 
less all the landing doors are closed. Means shall be 
provided to prevent the starting of the ear by the clos- 
ing of the doors without operating one of the push 
buttons. (See Regulation 26c.) 

(When car-switch control is used in a selective automatic but- 
ton-control elevator, the interlocking devices shall, nevertheless, 
remain in operation.) 



442 Division B. 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

* g. Landing doors for passenger elevators with 
shipper ropes accessible from the landings when the 
landing doors are closed shall be self-locking and 
equipped with interlocking devices such that (1) no 
landing door can be opened unless the car is at the 
landing, and (2) the car cannot be started unless all 
landing doors are closed. 

h. Landing doors for passenger elevators and for 
freight elevators which have no landing gates shall be 
set not more than 3'^ back from the edges of the thresh- 
olds, and so that no part of the door or its hardware 
shall project into the shaftway be^^ond the edges of the 
thresholds. 

* (For selective automatic button-control elevators the landing 
doors may be set not more than 4" back from the edges of the thresh- 
olds. Where doors or solid gates in two parts are used, in which 
the lower part when open forms the threshold, the door may project 
into the shaftway as may be necessary, provided that the lower 
edge of the lower half of the door is bevelled, in accordance with 
Regulation 13a. Care should be taken in designing landing doors 
and enclosure fronts to allow for the closing and locking mechanism 
of the doors, for door checks, etc. ; 2" is often required for such 
hardware.) 

i. Landing doors for dumb-waiters, where the bottom 
of the opening is not less than 18" above the landing 
floor, may be counterbalanced to stay open, but if the 
shaftway enclosures are of fire-resisting construction, 
fusible links are to be located inside of the shaftway, or 
at the lower edges of the doors, and so connected that 
upon the melting of the links the doors will close. 

j. Landing doors for dumb-waiters, v/here the bottom 
of the opening is less than 18" above the landing floor, 
and the door opening is large enough to be mistaken for 
a doorway to stairs or to an adjacent room, shall be in 



New Elevator Installations. 443 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

two parts, one over the other, the lower of which shall 
extend at least 18" above the landing floor and shall be 
arranged to be opened only after the upper part has been 
opened, or gates which close when the car leaves the 
landings shall be installed in addition to the landing 
doors. 

(The upper part of the two-part doors may be counterbalanced 
to stay open, and if so shall be provided with fusible link as in 
Regulation 14z. The object of making the door in two parts, of 
which the upper part must be opened first, is to prevent a person 
from falling down the shaftway. The gate would serve the same 
purpose.) 

k. Dumb-waiters which are under counter-tops at 
the upper limit of their travel are not required to have 
landing doors. 

15. Landing Gates, in General. 

a. Freight elevators having shaftway enclosures or 
guards, except dumb-waiters and except at the bottom 
landings of sidewalk-type elevators serving only two 
adjacent stories, shall have all landing openings in such 
enclosures and guards protected by gates which shall 
close automatically when the elevator car leaves the 
landing, except that no such gate shall be required at 
(1) a landing opening where there is a landing door, or 
a gate equivalent to a door, which is equipped with an 
interlocking device such that the door or equivalent 
gate can be opened only when the car is at the land- 
ing, and that the car can be started only when the 
door or equivalent gate is closed; or (2) at any landing 
opening of a car operated by a licensed operator and 
having at all landing openings doors, oi; gates equiva- 



444 Division B. 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

lent to doors, so arranged that they can be opened 
only from the shaftway side, except by key, and which 
are always closed before the car leaves the landing. 

* (Gates shall be installed at all landing openings of freight ele- 
vators located outside of building, even though such elevators have 
no shaftway enclosures.) 

b. The landing openings in the enclosures or guards 
around the shaftway at the bottom landing of a side- 
walk-type elevator serving only two adjacent stories 
shall be protected by hand-operated bar, gate or chain 
if an automatic gate is not installed. 

c. The used sides of hatch openings, having hatch 
covers other than vertical lifting hatch covers, shall be 
protected by gates which shall close automatically 
when the car leaves the landing, where necessary to 
prevent the hatch covers from being used as thorough- 
fares or passageways. 

d. The used sides of hatch openings having vertical 
lifting hatch covers, above which, at their highest limit 
of travel, there is less than 2' 0" head room, shall be 
protected by gates which shall close automatically 
when the car leaves the landing. 

* e. Automatically closing landing gates of collap- 
sible type, or those made in parts, where the parts pass 
by each other in such a manner as to cause opportunity 
for injury due to shear, shall not be used. Automati- 
cally closing landing gates in two or more parts which 
meet in closing shall not be used unless they are ar- 
ranged to be opened from the shaftway side only, the 
car is always in charge of an operator, and the gates 
are so retarded in closing as to remove danger of 
injury. 



New Elevator Installations. 445 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

(Doors which close automatically when the car leaves the land- 
ings shall be considered as solid gates, and shall be subject to the 
same restrictions to avoid injury due to shear or to the coming 
together of two or more parts of the door as are open-work gates. 
A gate made in two or more parts, which slide or telescope by 
each other in the same direction, is not prohibited by this Regula- 
tion, if the gate is solid or if the openings are f " souare or smaller, 
and if the edges of adjacent parts of the gate always lap so that 
danger of injury due to shear is eliminated.) 

/. Gates may be "full-automatic" or "semi-auto- 
matic" or "gravit}^" gates, but shall close by gravity 
and not by the direct mechanical action of the car. 

(See Regulation 1^, Im and In. Although gates shall not be 
closed by the direct mechanical action of the car, their speed of 
closing may be retarded by the direct mechanical action of the car.) 

g. Gates are to be made of metal or of hard wood 
of at least as great fiber strength as ash, and are to be 
strong and rigid and so constructed and installed that 
they cannot be sprung from their guides. Bar gates 
hinged at one end shall be of such design and construc- 
tion as to insure their accurate closing and their rigid 
support when closed. 

h. The joints of wood gate frames shall be strongly 
reinforced with metal plates. 

i. Gate shoes and runs on the operating side are to be 
of metal. 

j. No gate, when closed, is to be less than 3' 4" in 
height, measured from the sill to the top of the upper 
horizontal mem.ber of the gate. 

k. The lower edge of the lowest horizontal member of 
any gate, when closed, shall be not more than 3' 4" 
above the sill. 



446 Division B. 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

(Gates extending to the floor are strongly recommended where 
there is sufficient head room, as they prevent objects from rolling 
under the gates and falling on the car and its occupants. Double- 
bar gates are recommended rather than single-bar gates, where 
there is sufficient head room.) 

I. Gate counterweights shall be boxed in or shall run 
in metal guides from which they cannot be dislodged. 
The bottoms of the boxes or of the guides shall be of 
such construction that the counterweights will be 
securel}^ held if the counterweight ropes should break. 

16. Landing Gates at Openings in Outside Walls. 

* Note. — Landing openings in outside walls are apt to be left 
unprotected except by the gates. This is dangerous to the public 
unless the gates are of such construction as to prevent reaching into 
the well and to prevent the gates from being opened except when 
the car is at the landing. Even when such openings are on private 
ways they are accessible to unauthorized persons, especially chil- 
dren, and the special requirements given below for such gates must 
be fulfilled. When the opening in the outside wall is at a bridge 
above the ground, and not open to the public, the provisions of 
Regulation 16a to 16d, inclusive, do not apply. 

a. Gates at landing openings in outside walls shall 
be made (1) solid, without openings, or (2) of such 
design as will reject a ball 2" in diameter. 

h. The top of such a gate, when closed, shall be not 
less than 6' 0" above the sill, and the bottom shall be 
not m.ore than 6" above the sill, except that where the 
landing opening in the outside wall is in the top story 
of the building the top of the gate need be only 3' 4" 
high above the sill. 

(The 6' 0" high gates required are usually possible if there is a 
story above that in which the landing opening in the outside wall is 
located.) 



New Elevator Installations. 447 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

c. All gates at landing openings in outside v/alls shall 
be equipped with interlocking devices which will pre- 
vent the opening of the gates unless the car is at the 
landing, and shall be arranged to close and lock auto- 
matically when the car leaves the landing. The inter- 
locking mechanism shall be so located and installed that 
it cannot be reached by hand from outside of the shaft- 
way when the gate is closed. 

(If the gate is made solid and fills the whole opening it becomes 
a door rather than a gate, but must, nevertheless, be equipped with 
the interlocking and self-closing and self-locking device.) 

d. Where the elevator is set back in a vestibule, with 
the landing opening not actually in the outside wall, 
but with an opening in the outside wall directly oppo- 
site the landing opening and usually left open, thus 
leaving the landing gate accessible to unauthorized 
persons, the gate at the landing opening shall be the 
same as the gates herein specified for openings actually 
in outside walls. 

17. Landing Gates at Ground Openings of Ele= 

vators Outside of Building. 

a. Gates at the ground openings to elevators located 
outside of building shall be like the gates specified in 
Regulation 16 for landing gates at openings in outside 
walls. 

18. Automatic Hatch Covers. 

Note. — For limitation on speed of elevators equipi^ed with 
automatic hatch covers see Regulation QOd. 

a. Automatic hatch covers shall be made of not 
thinner than I" stock, strongly battened, if of wood, 
or of equally strong and stiff metal construction. 



448 Division B. 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

h. Wood automatic hatch covers shall be covered 
on their under sides and on their edges with sheet tin 
or galvanized steel with locked joints, with nail heads 
concealed under the joints. 

c. Hinges on automatic hatch covers shall be either 
heavy T or heavy strap hinges secured to the floor 
with lag-screws, or otherwise equally securely fastened 
and bolted through the hatch covers. 

* d. Hinged hatch covers shall not be used on floor 
openings where the car has a clear platform area of 
more than fifty square feet, 

e. No hook or other means of fastening hatch covers 
open shall be permitted. 

(The hatch covers may have to be held open temporarily for 
repairs or testing, but this can be accomplished readily without 
permanent means for so doing, which might be used habitually, 
thus eliminating the fire cut-offs for which the hatch covers are 
installed.) 

/. If a sidewalk-type elevator lands within the line 
of any sidewalk or passagewaj'' open to the public, the 
opening shall be protected by guards not less than 
IS" high before the elevator is started. 

g. Where enclosures are built around the shaftways 
of hatchway-type elevators, the hatch covers shall 
not, on that account, be omitted. 

19. Bars at Exterior Windows. 

a. All exterior windows in elevator shaftways shall 
be protected by vertical metal bars, not less than f " 
in diameter, located on the outside of the windows. 

* (This Regulation does not apply to windows filled in as required 
by Regulation 12a to 12e, inclusive, nor to windows located above 
the platform in the shaftway under the sheaves or machinery. 
See Regulation 21.) 



New Elevator Installations. 449 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

6. The bars shall be not more than 10" on centers, 
nor shall there be more than 10" between the window 
jamb and the center of the nearest bar. 

c. The bars shall be attached to the masonry where 
there is any, and in all cases firmly secured, and in 
such a manner that they will not readily become 
loosened through the action of the weather. 

d. All such bars, if of iron or steel, shall be kept 
thoroughly painted. 

20. Pits. 

a. The pits at the bottoms of shaftways of all power 
elevators, except dumb-waiters, and except carriage- 
type and one-story sidewalk-type elevators, shall be 
not less than 3' 0" deep. 

(Where new elevators are installed in existing buildings a less 
depth of pit than 3' 0" may be permitted if a depth of 3' 0" is 
structurally impracticable.) 

21. Platform at Top of Shaftway. 

a. There shall be a platform immediately under the 
machinery and sheaves, if any, at the top of the shaft- 
way of every elevator except dumb-waiters, hatchway- 
type elevators and carriage-type elevators. 

(The platform shall be so placed as to give the clearance for car 
and counterweights at their upper limit of travel as required in 
Regulation 22.) 

6. The platform shall fill the shaftway if the latter 
has a cross-sectional area of fifty square feet or less; 
otherwise the platform need extend only 2' 0" outside 
of all sheaves and machinery which should be reached 
for oiling and inspection, 



450 Division B. 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

c. If the platform does not fill the entire shaftway, 
the edge of the platform shall be protected by a solid 
baseboard at least 6" high, and where the space between 
the platform and the wall of the shaft exceeds 12" 
there shall be a hand rail secm^ely fastened in place 
2' 6" above the platform. 

d. The platform shall be built and supported for a 
safe live load of not less than 50 pounds per square foot. 

e. If the platform is made of grating it shall be of 
such design as v/ill reject a ball W in diameter, and 
upon the upper side of the grating wire netting of not 
more than f " square mesh and not smaller than No. 20 
wire shall be fastened. 

/. The platform, if of wood, shall be made solid of 
not less than 3" plank. 

g. Reasonable access to the sheaves and machinery 
shall be provided above the level of the platform inde- 
pendent of the elevator car. 

22. Over= travel. 

a. The minimum over-travel of an elevator car and 
counterweight, except for sidewalk-type elevators and 
dumb-waiters, shall be 1' 0", if the car travel is through 
one story only and does not exceed 15' 0", and if the 
normal car speed does not exceed 60' 0" per minute. 

h. The minimum over-travel of an elevator car and 
counterweight, except for sidewalk-type elevators, 
hand-power dumb-waiters, and dumb-waiters under 
counter-tops, shall be 2' 0" if (1) the car travel is 
through more than one story, whether or not exceeding 
15' 0", and if the car travel does not exceed 50' 0" and 
the car speed does not exceed 100' 0" per minute, or 
if (2) the car travel is through one story only, but 



New Elevator Installations. 451 

Section 2. Cars, etc. 

exceeds 15' 0", and does not exceed 50' 0" and if the- 
cal speed does not exceed 100' 0" per minute. 

c. The minimum over-travel of an elevator car and 
counterweight, except for sidewalk-type elevators, 
hand-power dumb-waiters, and dumb-waiters under 
counter-tops, shall be 3' 0" if (1) the car travel exceeds 
50' 0" and the car speed does not exceed 250' 0" per 
minute, or if (2) the car speed is over 100' 0" per min- 
ute, but does not exceed 250' 0" per minute whatever 
the travel. 

d. The minimum over-travel of an elevator car and 
counterweight shall be 4' 0" if the car speed exceeds 
250' 0" per minute, but does not exceed 350' 0" per 
minute, regardless of the car travel. 

e. The minimum over-travel of an elevator car and 
counterweight shall be 5' 0" if the car speed exceeds 
350' 0" per minute, regardless of the car travel. 

(The over-travel of the car is the distance which the car plat- 
form can rise above the top landing without any part of the car 
construction striking the overhead work. The over-travel of a 
counterweight is the distance which the counterweight can rise 
above its normal position when the car rests on the bumpers, or 
on the bottom of the shaft if there are no bumpers, without the 
counterweight striking the overhead work. 

In general, the greater the over-travel the better, and greater 
over-travel than the minima required above is desirable wherever 
practicable.) 

Section 2. Cars and Car Enclosures. 
23. Cars. 

a. No elevator car, except a dumb-waiter car, shall 
have more than one compartment. 

b. Two cars, balancing each other, and operated by 
the same machine, shall not be used except for (1) 



452 Division B. 

Section 2. Cars, etc. 

dumb-waiters and (2) freight elevators serving two 
floors only, of which all the landing openings are pro- 
tected by gates or doors equipped with interlocking 
devices such that the cars cannot be operated unless 
all the landing gates or doors are closed. 

* (The interlocking device may be omitted on elevators, at the 
discretion of the inspector having jurisdiction, where the nature of 
the car is such that there is no reason for a person to travel on the 
car or to step on the car to load or unload, and where such traveling 
or stepping on is prohibited.) 

c. The car platforms of direct-plunger elevators shall 
be secured to heads of the plungers. If the plungers 
are made in more than three sections the car platforms 
shall be secured to the bottom heads of the plungers by 
safety cables run inside of the plungers. 

d. All power passenger elevator cars shall be con- 
structed with steel suspension frames. 

e. All power freight elevator cars having a lifting 
capacity of 3,000 pounds or over, and a platform area of 
forty square feet or more, shall be constructed with 
steel suspension frames. 

/. The minimum factor of safety in steel suspension 
frames of cars shall be 8, based on the maximum rated 
carrying capacity plus the weight of the unloaded car. 

g. No cast iron shall be used in tension as a suspen- 
sion member of the suspension frame of any car. 

24. Car Enclosures. 

a. Elevator car enclosures or cages shall be secured 
to the car floors and to the suspension slings in such 
manner that they cannot work loose or be readily 
displaced. 

6. All passenger elevator cars shall be enclosed on all 



New Elevator Installations, 453 

Section 2. Cars, etc. 

unused sides and on the top. The enclosures may be 
of wood or of metal, solid or open work, but if of open 
work, the design shall be such as will reject a ball 2" 
in diameter. 

c. No power passenger elevator car shall have more 
than two door openings. 

d. The car dome on a power passenger elevator hav- 
ing no gate or door at the opening to the car, or having 
no interlocking device such that the car cannot be 
started when any landing door is open, shall be cut 
back above the door opening, or a section shall be 
hinged with brass, bronze or composition hinges above 
the door opening, without locking, to provide an un- 
obstructed space 15" deep from edge of threshold and 
extending the entire width of the car door opening. 

e. All power freight elevator cars, except dumb- 
waiters and except carriage-type and sidewalk-type 
elevator cars, shall be enclosed not less than 6' 6" 
high on all unused sides, or to the cross-heads, where 
the cross-heads are less than 6' 6" high. The enclosures 
may be wood or metal, solid or open work, but if open 
work, the design shall be such as will reject a ball 2" 
in diameter. 

/. Where the enclosure of a power freight elevator car 
is cut away at the front of the car to make the shipper 
rope accessible, such opening in the enclosure shall be 
cut low enough to prevent injury to the hand of the 
operator, and the lower edge of such opening shall be 
splayed at an angle of not less than 60° with the hori- 
zontal. 

g. Where the elevator car enclosure is not soUd, and 
the openings are larger than f " square, wire netting of 
not more than |" square mesh and not smaller than 
No. 20 gauge wire shall cover and be securely attached 



454 Division B. 

Section 2. Cars, etc. 

to the car enclosure on the outside where (1) the 
counterweight passes with a clearance of less than 6" 
between the car enclosure and the counterweight, and 
where (2) there is less than 4" clearance between the 
car enclosure and any portion of the well construction, 
except at the front of the enclosure. 

* h. Covers shall be installed on freight elevator cars 
except (1) dumb-waiters, (2) hatchway-type elevators^ 
(3) carriage-t5^pe elevators, (4) sidewalk-type elevators, 
(5) elevators where there are automatically closing 
gates extending down to the floor on all landings above 
the lowest landing, and (6) all elevators with landing 
doors which open only from the wellway side and 
which are kept closed except when the car is at the 
landing. The covers shall be of wire grille work with 
a mesh not larger than 1|" by 3" and wire not smaller 
than No. 9 gauge or of other construction of equivalent 
strength. The covers shall be set back not more than 
6" from the edge of the landing thresholds, and shall be 
hinged on the landing sides at such distance from the 
edge of the covers, not less than 18", as will permit the 
cover to fold back readily should it be obstructed in 
any manner in its descent. 

* (The cover is not required to be hinged at the opening in an 
outside wall, where there is no other landing opening above on the 
same side.) 

i. No material, not a part of the elevator equipment, 
shall be permitted upon the top or cover of any elevator 
car. 

j . There shall be a suitable emergency exit from each 
passenger elevator car, either by means of a trap door 
in the cover of the car, or by means of the opening 



New Elevator Installations. 455 

Section 2. Cars, etc. 

required by Regulation 24d, or, in the case of elevators 
in battery, by doors opposite each other lq the sides of 
two adjacent cars. 

25. Seats in Cars. 

a. Each passenger elevator, for which a licensed 
operator is required, shall be provided with a suitable 
seat for the operator. The seat shall be of folding type, 
attached to the side of the car, except where the seat is 
a fixed seat installed for passengers. 

26. Car Gates and Doors. 

a. Each power passenger elevator car shall be 
equipped v/ith a gate or door at each car door opening 
unless (1) there is only one door opening, and unless 

(2) the door opening is 42" or less in width, and unless 

(3) there is a Ucensed operator in charge of the car, and 
unless (4) the car control is so located that the door 
opening can be protected by the operator when running 
the car. 

(A car door is preferable to a car gate of the folding or collaps- 
ible type, as it gives better protection. See Regulation 267i.) 

6. The car gate or door at each of the door open- 
ings in a power passenger elevator car, having two 
door openings, shall be equipped with an interlocking 
device which shall prevent the operation of the car 
when either car gate or car door is open. 

(The car door at an opening for freight in a passenger elevator 
car need not have the interlocking device applied if the door is 
opened only for the occasional handling of freight and is kept locked 
during the use of the elevator for passenger service.) 



456 Division B. 

Section 2. Cars, etc. 

* c. The gate or door at the door opening of a power 
passenger elevator car, which is used without a hcensed 
operator, shall be equipped with an interlocking ^device 
which shall prevent the operation of the car unless the 
car gate or door is closed. Means shall be provided to 
prevent the starting of the car of an electric elevator 
by the closing of the doors without operating the car 
switch or one of the push buttons . (See Regulation 14/. ) 

d. Freight elevator cars used for carrying more than 
three persons including the operator shall be either 
(1) enclosed on all sides to the same height as on the 
unused sides, leaving a door opening 42" or less in 
width, or (2) equipped vfith car gates or doors at all 
car openings. 

(If a freight elevator is used at stated hours for carrying em- 
ployees, portable car gates or doors and enclosures may be em- 
ployed at the open sides of the car, provided that all such portable 
construction shall be set in place and secured at all times when the 
elevator is used for carrying more than three persons including the 
operator.) 

e. The open side away from the building wall of a 
freight elevator car located outside of a building shall 
be protected by a hand-operated or automatic-closing 
bar or car gate. 

*/. Automatic-closing car gates on freight elevators 
adjacent to the outside walls of buildings, may be sub- 
stituted for the filling-in of set-backs and openings in 
the outside wall. (See Regulation 12a to 12e, inclusive.) 

* g. Car gates and doors shall, when closed, fill the 
openings that they protect, except that on freight 
elevator cars they need be only as high as the car 
enclosures, and except where gates of different con- 
struction are specifically allowed. (See Regulations 
12e, 26e and 26/.) 



New Elevator Installations. 457 

Section 3. Machines, etc. 

h. Car doors may be solid or of open work, and shall 
be of such design as will reject a ball 2" in diameter. 

(Collapsible or folding gates may be used on elevator cars, but 
do not afford the protection of doors as they cannot be made with 
the small openings required for doors.) 

27. Clearance between Car and Shaftway and 
between Car and Counterweight. 

a. There shall be a clearance of not less than f " 
between cars and the shaftway enclosures, and a 
clearance of not less than 1" between cars and their 
counterweights. 

6. The clearance between the sill of car and the 
threshold of landing shall not be less than f " nor more 



(Regulation 27a and 276 does not apply to dumb-waiters, hand- 
power elevators and sidewalk-type elevators. 

For the clearance between counterweights and the shaftways, 
see Regulation 43a.) 



Section 3. Machines, Machine Supports, 
Tanks. 

28. Belt and Chain=driven Machines. 

a. Belt or chain-driven machines shall not be used 
for passenger elevators. 

6. Means shall be provided for throwing the power 
off from a belt or chain-driven machine as by tight 
and loose pulley or clutch, if the machine is not driven 
by a separate motor. 

c. All elevator belts, except within machine en- 
closures, which come within 7' 0" of the floor shall be 
properly guarded. 



458 Division B. 

Section 3. Machines, etc. 

29. Friction Machines. 

a. A friction-gearing or clutch mechanism which is an 
integral part of the machine shall not be used to operate 
the winding drum of any elevator, unless the elevator 
is not designed or used for carrying a person or 
persons. 

30. Hydraulic Machines. 

* a. The piston rod in tension of hydraulic elevators 
of the sheave type shall have a minimum factor of 
safety of 8, figured on the cross-sectional area at bot- 
tom of thread. Such piston rods, 1" in diameter or 
smaller, shall be exposed for inspection at least once 
every five years. Piston rods larger than 1" in diam- 
eter shall be exposed for inspection at least once every 
ten years. 

h. Hydraulic elevator machines, except dumb- 
waiters, shall be equipped with piston travel-limit 
bumpers or stops, and shall be constructed of such 
strength that when the full water pressure is applied 
the piston will be stopped by this means before the 
car can be drawn into the overhead work. 

c. Metal guides shall be provided for the sheave 
suspension yoke of vertical sheave suspension" type 
hydraulic elevators, except dumb-waiters. 

d. The valve chambers and cylinders of hydraulic 
elevator machines shall be provided with means for 
removing air. 

* e. The traveling sheaves of vertical cylinder 
hydraulic elevators shall be attached with two-part 
iron or steel hangers and not with II straps. 



New Elevator Installations . 459 

Section 3. Machines, etc. 

31. Support of Machines and Sheaves. 

a. The load to be supported by the elevator machine 
beams, when the elevator winding machine is directly- 
supported by them and the car-hoisting cables drop 
vertically to the car, shall be calculated as not less than 
the weight of the stationary load, plus the weight of 
the counterweight and twice the weight of the car and 
of its maximum rated load. 

6. The load shall be calculated as stated in Regula- 
tion 31a when the hoisting cables lead in a substantially 
horizontal direction from other supports to leading 
sheaves over the well way. 

c. When the hoisting cables lead from the elevator 
machine below in a substantially vertical direction to 
sheaves over the wellway, the load to be supported by 
these overhead sheave beams shall be calculated as the 
v/eight of the stationary load resting upon thepa plus 
twice the weight of the counterweights plus four times 
the weight of the car and of its maximum rated load. 

d. The worm-gear mechanism and motor of hanger- 
type elevator macliines shall not be located in the shaft- 
vv^ay, except for dumb-waiters. 

32. Enclosure of Gears. 

a. All gears operating winding drums, except those 
of hand-pov/er elevators, shall be enclosed by suitable 
guards. 

Z^. Enclosures around Machines. 

* a. Elevator machine rooms, open to shaftways 
enclosed with fire-resisting construction, shall be simi- 
larly enclosed, except on the shaftway side. (See 
Regulation 36.) 



460 Division B. 

Section 3. Machines, etc. 

b. Elevator machines located on the floor shall be 
enclosed by solid partitions or grille work not less 
than 4' 0" high. The mesh or grille work shall be such 
as to reject a ball 2" in diameter. 

* (If the elevator machine is located in an engine room or pump 
room, etc., used exclusively as such, the enclosures are not required, 
but such protection as is required for fly-wheels, belted apparatus 
and other machinery should be provided.) 

c. Partitions, guards and head room around elevator 
machines shall be so located as to make all parts of the 
machines properly accessible for inspection and care. 

34. Discharge Tanks of Hydraulic Elevators. 

a. The discharge tanks of hj^lraulic elevators shall 
be covered to prevent dirt and material falling into 
them,*and shall be cleaned at least every two years. 

b. Such discharge tanks shall be vented so as to be 
open to atmospheric pressure. 

35. Pressure Tanks for Hydraulic Elevators. 

a. The pressure tanks for hydraulic elevators shall 
be built of either flanged or boiler steel or fire-box steel 
or extra soft steel, or wrought iron, the properties of 
which shall conform to the requirements of the Air 
Tank Regulations prescribed by the Massachusetts 
Board of Boiler Rules. 

b. The maximum pressure to be allowed on pressure 
tanks for hydraulic elevators shall be determined by 
the formula stated in the Air Tank Regulations pre- 
scribed by the Massachusetts Board of Boiler Rules. 
The factor of safety in the above formula is to be the 



New Elevator Installations. 4.61 

Section 3. Machines, etc. 

lowest factor of safety allowed by Regulation 35c. 
The tensile strength used in the above formula shall 
be the tensile strength stamped on the plates by the 
manufacturer, or if not so stamped, shall be taken as 
45,000 pounds for wrought iron and 55,000 pounds for 
steel. 

c. The lowest factor of safety to be used for the 
pressure tanks for hydraulic elevators shall be 4, if the 
longitudinal joints are of butt and double-strap con- 
struction. 

d. The longitudinal joints of the shell of pressure 
tanks for hydraulic elevators shall be of butt double- 
strap construction if the diameter of the shell exceeds 
36". 

e. The longitudinal joints of the shell of pressure 
tanks for hydraulic elevatorsmay be of lap-riveted con- 
struction if the diameter of the shell does not exceed 
56", but in such cases the maximum pressure to be 
allowed on the tank shall be 125 pounds per square 
inch. 

/. The minimum thickness of shell plates shall be as 
follows : — 



Diameter of Shell. 


Minimum 
Thickness of 
Shell Plate. 


36" or less ........ 

Over 36" up to and including 54" 
Over 54" up to and including 72" 
Over72" 


1" 

7 '/ 
16 



462 Division B. 

Section 3. Machines, etc. 

g. Openings for threaded connections 1" and over, 
in pressure tanks for hydraulic elevators, shall be 
reinforced. 

h. The miminum thickness of the bumped heads shall 
be determined in accordance with the formulas for 
bumped heads in the Air Tank Regulations prescribed 
by the Massachusetts Board of Boiler Rules. The 
factor of safety in these formulas shall be 5, and the 
tensile strength shall be the tensile strength stamped 
on the plates by the manufacturer, or if not so stamped, 
shall be taken as 45,000 pounds for wrought iron and 
55,000 pounds for steel. 

i. When a bumped head has a manliole opening, the 
thickness, as found by the formulas referred to in Regu- 
lation 35/i, shall be increased by not less than \", and 
the flange shall be turned inward to a depth not less 
than three times the thickness of the head. 

j. No cast-iron heads or flat-stayed heads shall be 
used. 

k. Pressure tanks for hydraulic elevators, if 30" in 
diameter or less, shall be provided with two 4" by 6" 
handholes located one in each head or in the shell as 
near each head as practicable. 

I. Pressure tanks for hydraulic elevators, if over 
30" in diameter, shall be provided with an 11" by 15" 
manhole. 

m. Pressure tanks for hydrauhc elevators shall be 
cleaned at least every two years. 

n. Every pressure tank for hydraulic elevators shall 
have a pressure gage connected to the tank by a brass 
or other non-corrosive pipe, and in such manner that 
the pressure gage cannot be shut off from the tank, 
except by a cock with a T or lever handle placed on 
the pipe near the pressure gage. The dial of the pres- 



New Elevator Installations. 463 

Section 3. Machines, etc. 

sure gage shall be graduated to not less than one and 
one-half times the maximum pressure allowed on the 
tank. 

o. Every tank for hydraulic elevators shall be pro- 
vided with a \" pipe size connection for attaching 
inspector's test gage when the tank is in service, so that 
the accuracy of the pressure gage can be ascertained. 

p. Pressure tanks for hydraulic elevators shall be 
tested before being put in use with a hydrostatic 
pressure 50% in excess of the maximum working pres- 
sure for which the tank is constructed. 

(The hydrostatic test may be made in the shop of the manu- 
facturer.) 

q. Pressure tanks for hydrauhc elevators shall be 
provided mth water gage glasses, connected wdth brass 
pipe and fittings and indicating the height of the water 
in the tank. 

(The water level in the tank should generally be maintained at 
about two-thirds of the height of the tank.) 

r. All pressure tanks for hydraulic elevators shall be 
so located and supported that they can be inspected on 
all sides and ends. 

36. Relief Valves on Hydraulic Elevator Pumps, 

* a. Every pump connected with the pressure tank 
of an hydraulic elevator shall be equipped with a water- 
relief valve or valves. 

* h. The size of the relief valve shall be not less than 
the following, except that two or more valves may be 
used to give the required area: — 



464 



Division B. 



Section 3. Machines, etc. 



Diameter of Discharge Opening of Pump. 


Size of 
Relief Valve. 


2" or 


less 


1" 


2V' 


■ 


li" 


3" 




li" 


3i" 




2" 


4" 




2" 


41" 




2h" 


5" 


. 


2\" 


6" 




3" 


7" 




3" 


8" 




3" 


9" 




sr' 


10" 




4" 


12" 




4" 


14" 0. 


D 


5" 


15" 0. 


D 


5'' 


16" 0. 


D 


5" 





* c. The valves shall be set to discharge at a pressure 
not greater than the safe working pressure for the tank, 
and shall be installed so that they cannot be shut off 
from the pump. 

* d. The rehef valves may be piped to discharge into 
the discharge tank or into the pump section. 



New Elevator Installations. 465 

Section 4. Cables. 

. 37. Elevator Pump Regulators. 

a. All steam pumps for hydraulic elevators shall be 
provided and operated with pressure-regulating valves 
controlling the steam to the pumps, and all electric- 
driven pumps for hydraulic elevators shall be equipped 
with automatic pressure-regulating valves controlling 
the motor, or with automatic by-passes. 

Section 4. Cables. 
38. Hoisting Cables. 

* a. All car and counterweight hoisting cables, ex- 
cept for dumb-waiters, shall be of iron or steel. Marlin- 
covered iron or steel cables shall not be used for the 
car or counterweight hoisting cables of power passenger 
elevators. 

* b. When steel hoisting cables are used for car or 
counterweight, each steel cable shall be so designated 
by a round metal plate not less than 1" in diameter, 
bearing the words "Steel Cable," and located, by the 
party installing same, on the cable immediately above 
the shackles at the point of connection to the car or 
counterweight. 

c. If doubt exists as to the nature of the cables the 
capacity of the cables shall be limited to capacity of 
iron cables of the same size, 

d. The minimum factor of safety of all car and 
counterweight hoisting cables, except those of dumb- 
waiters, shall be 6, based on the suspended load. The 
ultimate strength of the cables shall be based on the 
cable manufacturer's lists. 

e. All elevator cars and counterweights shall have 
not less than two hoisting cables each, except (1) on 



466 Division B. 



Section 4. Cables. 



dumb-waiters and except (2) on hand-power freight 
elevators having a lifting capacity of 500 pounds or less, 
and except (3) on the counterweights of freight ele- 
vators where the counterweight does not weigh more 
than 1,400 pounds. 

/. No car or counterweight cable, whether new or 
used, shall be extended or repaired by splicing another 
piece of cable to it. 

g. There shall be not less than one full turn of each 
car-hoisting cable on the winding drum when the car 
has reached the lower limit of travel, and not less 
than one full turn of each counterweight-hoisting cable 
on the winding drum when the counterweight has 
reached its lower limit of travel. 

h. The drum ends of the car and counterweight hoist- 
ing cables shall be secured by clamps or by tapered 
sockets. 

* i. The car and counterweight ends of all cables, ex- 
cept that such fastening is not required for the compen- 
sating counterweight cables of plunger elevators, shall be 
fastened by spHced eyes, or by passing through inde- 
pendent tapered and leaded sockets. The length of 
socket shall be not less than four times the diameter of 
the rope. The hole at the small end of the socket shall 
be not more than ^h" larger than the diameter of the 
rope. After passing through the socket the strands 
shall be separated and turned into the center, the length 
of the turned-in portion being not less than two and 
one-half times the diameter of the rope. The knot shall 
be drawn tightly into the socket and poured with zinc 
or babbitt. The socket shall be of drop forging or steel 
casting, not cast iron, and shall be of sufficient strength 
to break the cable before the socket gives any indication 
of distress. 



New Elevator Installations. 467 

Section 5. Counterweights. 

j. Equalizers shall be installed at connections to cars 
of hoisting cables where practicable, except on traction- 
type elevators. 

39. Shipper Ropes. 

a. No elevator traveling at a speed exceeding 150' 0" 
per minute shall be controlled by a hand-operated 
shipping cable, (See, also, Regulation 60e.) 

b. No elevator travehng at a speed exceeding 150' 0" 
per minute, except an hydraulic elevator, shall be con- 
trolled by a shipping cable operated by wheel or lever 
mechanism. (See, also, Regulation 60/.) 

c. The overhead tension weights of shipping cables 
shall be equipped with safety chains of not less than 
No. 7 wire, securely fastened to the weight and to 
anchorage. 

d. Shipper ropes shall be so located as to be inaccessi- 
ble from landing openings in outside walls of buildings. 

e. All shipper ropes on electric elevators shall be 
insulated from the machines if they are the only means 
to an electric "ground." 



Section 5. Counterweights. 
40. Counterweight Construction. 

a. All counterweights shall have their sections se- 
curely bolted or strapped together to keep the individual 
or subweights in position. All rods passing through 
the counterweights shall be provided with double nuts, 
and the ends of the rods, outside of nuts, are to be 
riveted over or provided with cotter-pins. Car counter- 
weights, when, provided, shall be suspended above the 
machine or drum counterweight. 



468 Division B. 

Section 5. Counterweights. 
41. Counterweight Runways and Enclosures. 

Note. — See Regulation 11 for enclosures around isolated 

counterweights. 

*a. The counterweight runs of all elevators, except 
dumb-waiters and except hatchway-type elevators, 
shall be enclosed from a height 6" above the bottom of 
the pit to a height not less than 7' 0" above the bottom 
of the pit, except where compensating chains would 
interfere, and except where the bumpers under the 
counterweights are 5' 0" or more high. (See note 
following Regulation 41c.) 

b. The material used for such enclosures in fireproof 
shafts shall be non-combustible, and in any case, if 
made of open work, shall be of such design as shall 
reject a |" ball. 

c. The counterweight runways of all hatchway-type 
elevators, except dumb-waiters, shall be boxed in from 
bottom of the pit to a point as close to the sheaves as 
practicable. The tops of such enclosures shall be 
covered except for such openings as may be necessary 
for the cables. 

(The counterweight runways of hatchway-type elevators, if 
left open for 6" at the bottom, would form a chimney in case of 
fire in or near the pit. The 6" space at the bottom of counterweight 
enclosures, as required in Regulation 41a, is to facilitate cleaning.) 

* d. Where the entire counterweight runway is boxed 
in there shall be a removable section not less than 2' 0" 
high and the full width of the boxing, located above the 
top landing. If the elevator is of the hatchway type, 
the removable section shall be at such a height as to 
just clear the hatchway door when open. 

(The removable section is necessary in order to make the coun- 
terweight and cables accessible for inspection.) 



New Eleyator Installations. 469 

Section 6. Guide Rails. 

e. In aU cases the lower part of the counterweight 
enclosure shall be made removable from the top of the 
counterweight down. 

(The removable sections are to make the counterweights and 
cables accessible for inspection.) 

42. Counterweight Stops. 

a. There shall be secured at the upper hmit of travel 
of the counterweights of all power elevators an I-beam 
or other obstruction so that the counterweights cannot 
be drawn into the overhead sheaves. 

43. Clearance between Counterweights and 
Shaftways. 

a. There shall be a clearance between all elevator 
counterweights and the shaftways of not less than 
I", except for dumb-waiters and except for hand- 
power elevators. (For clearance between the counter- 
weights and the cars, see Regulation 27.) 

Section 6. Guide Rails. 

44. Car=guide Rails. 

a. All guide rails for elevator cars, the speed of 
which is over 100' 0" per minute, except dumb-waiters, 
shall be of steel, and shall be fastened securely with iron 
or steel brackets in such a manner as to sustain the car 
and its load when the car safeties act. 

b. Steel car-guide rails shall weigh not less than 
14 pounds per Unear foot if the capacity of the elevator 
is over 1,500 pounds, and not less than 11 pounds per 
linear foot if the capacity of the elevator is over 1,000 
pounds, and not over 1,500 pounds, and not less than 



470 Division B. 

Section 6. Guide Rails. 

6.5 pounds per linear foot, if the capacity of the elevator 
is 1,000 pounds or less. 

c. Steel car-guide rails shall be tongued and grooved 
and secured with plates at joints, or the Joints other- 
wise equally secured so as to be free from motion in 
any direction. 

d. Guide strips of wooden car-guide rails shall be 
not less than 2f " across the face and not less than li" 
thick on (1) all power elevators, except dumb-waiters, 
and (2) on hand-power elevators which have a capacity 
exceeding 1,500 pounds. 

(If safeties are used which grip on the sides of the guide strips, 
the guide strips may be made not less than 2j" across the face and 
not less than 21" thick.) 

e. Guide strips of wooden car-guide rails shall be not 
less than If" across the face and not less than ll" 
thick on hand-power elevators having a capacity not 
exceeding 1,500 pounds, except dumb-waiters. 

/. All guide rails for cars and counterweights shall 
extend to the bottom of the pit and to the overhead 
beams, and shall be strongly fastened in place. 

45. Counterweight Guide Rails. 

a. All guide rails for counterweights of elevators, 
the speed of which is over 100' 0" per minute, except 
dumb-waiters, shall be of steel and shall be fastened 
•and jointed as required in Regulation 44a and 44c for 
car-guide rails. 

b. Steel counterweight guide rails shall weigh not 
less than 6.5 pounds per linear foot. 

c. All counterweights of power elevators shall run 
in guide rails. 



New Elevator Installations. 471 

Section 7. Safety Devices. 

(The boxing in of counterweights shall not be construed as 
constituting guide rails within the meaning of this Regulation.) 

d. All guide rails for cars and counterweights shall 
extend to the bottom of the pit and to the overhead 
beams and shall be strongly fastened in place. 

46. Cast=iron Guide Rails. 

a. Cast-iron guide rails shall not be used for elevator 
cars or counterweights. 

47. Automatic Guide Lubricators. 

* a. Car and counterweight guides shall be kept 
thoroughly lubricated. (Automatic guide lubricators 
are recommended.) 



Section 7. Safety Devices. 

48. Cast Iron in Safety Devices. 

a. No cast iron shall be used on a car as an operating 
member of a car saf etj^ device, except the winding drum 
of a clamping safety. 

49. Machine Slack Cable Safety Devices. 

a. Slack cable devices which will stop the elevator 
machines, if the hoisting cables slacken or break, shall 
be provided on all winding drum power elevators 
having a travel of over 15' 0", except dumb-waiters, 
carriage-type elevators and sidewalk-type elevators. 

6. In the case of selective automatic button-control 
elevators, the slack safety device shall break the car 
stop-button circuit. 



472 Division B. 

Section 7. Safety Devices. 

c. Slack cable devices which will stop the elevator 
machines, if the hoisting cables slacken or break, shall 
be provided on all winding drum power dumb-waiters 
having a travel of over 30' 0" and a capacity of over 
100 pounds. 

50. Terminal Stops. 

* a. All power-driven elevators, except traction-type 
elevators, and except direct-plunger hydraulic elevators 
having a travel of 30' 0" or less, or having a speed of 
less than 150' 0" per minute, shall be equipped v/ith 
adjustable, machine automatic terminal stop mechan- 
isms set to stop the machines before the cars or counter- 
weights pass 18" above their upper limits of normal 
travel, or not exceeding one-half the over-travel space 
when this space is less than 3' 0". 

("Choker-valves" on hydratdic machines are included as ma- 
chine automatic terminal stop mechanisms.) 

h. No chain or rope driven machine automatic ter- 
minal stop mechanisms on winding drum type machines 
shall be allowed, except on dumb-waiters. 

* (This Regulation is not to be construed to prevent the use of a 
chain or rope driven elevator machine automatic terminal stop 
mechanism as a secondary safety device, provided that the machine 
automatic terminal stop mechanism, in accordance with the Regula- 
tions, is installed and kept in proper condition and adjustment.) 

c. Direct current traction-type power elevators, run- 
ning at a speed in excess of 200' 0" per minute, except 
dumb-waiters, shall be provided with switches which 
shall slow down the elevator with not less than two 
steps and stop it on the third or last step. 



New Elevator Installations. 473 

Section 7. Safety Devices. 

d. All elevators of the car-switch or button-control 
type, except dumb-waiters, shall be equipped with well- 
limit switches operated respectively by the car and 
counterweight as they pass their upper limit of nor- 
mal travel, and arranged to stop the machines before 
the cars or counterweights pass 18" above the upper 
limits of normal travel, or not exceeding one-half the 
over-travel space, where this space is less than 3' 0". 
A well-limit switch may control, together with the car- 
control switch or car-control button, a single solenoid 
switch in the armature circuit only if the armature and 
brake circuits are positively opened by the machine 
automatic terminal stop mechanism. A well-limit 
switch may control, together with the car-control switch 
or car-control button, two or more solenoid switches, 
two of which must be closed to complete the armature 
circuit in each direction of travel. Where a well-limit 
switch controls the same solenoid switch or solenoid 
switches as the car-control switch or car-control button, 
it shall be connected into the control circuit on the 
opposite side of the magnet windings from the car- 
control switch or car-control button. 

e. All electric elevators operated by two or three 
phase alternating current shall be provided, in addition 
to the machine automatic terminal stop mechanism, 
with means to open automatically the line circuits 
before the cars or counterweights pass 18" above their 
upper limits of normal travel, or not exceeding one-half 
the over-travel space when this space is less than 3' 0". 

/. Elevators having shipper-rope control shall be 
equipped with adjustable ball stops, adjusted to stop 
the cars within 6" of the upper and lower floor landings. 



474 Division B. 

Section 7. Safety Devices. 

51. Automatic Electric Car Switches. 

a. Electric car-control switches shall be so con- 
structed as to return automatically to their off position 
upon the removal of the hand of the operator. 

52. Slack Cable Safeties on Counterweights, 

o. If a counterweight of any elevator does not run 
to the lowest floor of a building, and the space below 
its lowest limit of travel is used for any purpose, the 
counterweight shall be equipped with a safety device 
which will stop the counterweight if the cables attached 
to it should break or become slack. (See Regulation 26, ) 

53. Speed Governors and Slack Cable Safeties. 

a. Speed governors, properly connected by steel 
cables to the safety devices of the cars in such a manner 
that the cars shall be brought to rest with an easy and 
gradual stop if they attain excessive speed of descent, 
shall be applied to all power elevators operating at a 
speed of more than 100' 0" per minute, except direct- 
plunger elevators, sidewalk-type elevators and dumb- 
waiters. 

h. Either (1) speed governors, properly connected 
to the safety devices of the cars in such a manner that 
the cars shall be brought to rest if they attain excessive 
speed of descent, or if the car-hoisting cables become 
slack or break, or (2) instantaneous safety devices 
operated by the slackening or breaking of the car- 
hoisting cables, shall be applied to all power elevators 
operating at a speed of 100' 0" per minute or less, 
except belt or chain-driven elevators, direct-plunger 
elevators, sidewalk-type elevators, carriage-type ele- 



New Elevator Installations. 475 

Section 7. Safety Devices. 

vators, hatchway-type elevators, dumb-waiters and 
sheave suspension vertical cylinder hydraulic elevators. 

c. Speed governors, properly connected to the safety 
devices of the cars in such a manner that the cars shall 
be brought to rest if they attain excessive speed of 
descent, or if the cables become slack or break, shall be 
applied to all power elevators of the belt or chain- 
driven type which operate at a speed of 100' 0" per 
minute or less and have a travel of more than 40' 0", 
except sidewalk-type elevators, carriage-type elevators, 
hatchway-type elevators and durab-waiters. 

d. Speed governors, properly connected to the safety 
devices of the cars in such a manner that the cars shall 
be brought to rest if they attain excessive speed of 
descent, or if the cables become slack or break, shall be 
applied to sheave suspension vertical cylinder hydraulic 
type elevators operating at a speed of 100' 0" per 
minute or less and having a travel of over 15' 0". 

e. All power passenger elevator cars shall have the 
safeties specified in Regulation 53a, 536, 53c and 53d! 
located below the car bottom, so as to insure stopping 
the car platform. 

54. Electric Brakes. 

a. Electric brakes shall be installed on all direct con- 
nected electric elevators, the speed of which exceeds 
100' 0" per minute. 

h. Every direct current elevator controller operating 
a brake magnet shall provide a means for handling the 
shimt winding of the brake magnet in such a way that 
the brake will not be retarded in its action by motor 
field discharge or by any counter voltage. 



476 Division B. 

Section 7. Safety Devices. 

55. Shipper=rope Locks. 

a. Power freight elevators controlled by shipper 
ropes, except sidewalk-type elevators and except dumb- 
waiters, shall be provided with shipper-rope locks, so 
arranged that the cars can be locked at each landing. 

56. Centering Ropes. 

a. Power freight elevators controlled by shipper 
ropes, except sidewalk-type elevators and except dumb- 
waiters, shall be provided, where practicable, with 
centering ropes or bridles, to stop the cars at any part 
of their travel. The centering ropes shall be attached 
to the shipper ropes directly under the upper sheaves. 

57. Warning Chains on Freight Cars. 

a. Warning chains shall be suspended from the car 
sills of power freight elevator cars, except those of 
dumb-waiters, hatchway-type elevators and sidewalk- 
type elevators, and except those with landing doors 
opening only from the shaftway. 

6. The warning chains shall be not less than 30" long, 
shall be made of No. coil. No. 7 wire gauge, and shall 
be set not more than 6" on centers, and secured to wood 
sills or cleats by staples 1" long. 

(The chains are required to be attached with 1" staples to wood 
so that if caught, thej' will pull out before causing serious damage.) 

58. Bumpers. 

a. Car bumpers shall be installed in elevator pits 
so as to leave a clear space of not less than 12" 
between the floor of the pit and the under side of the 



New Elevator Installations. 477 

Section 7. Safety Devices. 

car sling when the elevator car rests on the bumpers, 
"except for dumb-waiters, carriage-type elevators and 
one-story sidewalk-type elevators. (See Regulation 
20a.) 

h . Car bumpers, of the spring type or the equivalent, 
shall be installed in the pits of elevators, the speeds 
of which exceed 150' 0" per minute, except dumb- 
waiters, and shall be arranged to leave a clear space 
of not less than 12" between the floor of the pit and 
the under side of the car sling when the car rests on the 
fully compressed bumpers. 

c. Counterweight bumpers, of the spring type or 
the equivalent, shall be installed to receive elevator 
counterweights which do not run to the lowest floor of a 
building, when the space below their lowest limit of 
travel is used for any purpose. (See, also, Regulation 
26.) 

d. Bumpers under an elevator car, the speed of which 
exceeds 500' 0" per minute, shall be of such design and 
construction as to absorb, within the limits of the mov- 
ing parts of the bumpers, all the energy of the car loaded 
to its full capacity descending at full normal speed. 

(Bumpers will absorb the energy of a car or counterweight 
descending at normal speed, when the force in pounds necessarj' 
to compress the bumpers multipUed by the distance in inches 
through which they can be compressed is equal to the weight in 
pounds of the loaded car multiplied by the height in inches through 
which it would have to fall free in order to attain its normal speed. 
The heights necessary to attain various normal speeds are given in 
the following table: — 



478 



Division B. 



Section 7. Safety Devices. 

Heights from which a Body must fall to attain Certain Velocities. 



Heights of Free Fall, in Inches. 



Velocities 

in Feet per 

Minute. 



.129 
.518 
1.17 
2.07 
3.24 
4.66 
6.35 
8.29 

10.5 . 

12.9 . 

15.7 . 

18.7 . 

21.9 . 

25.4 . 



50 
100 
150 
200 
260 
300 
350 
400 
450 
500 
550 
600 
650 
700 



The following example shows how this table may be used: An 
elevator car, which with its load weighs 4,000 pounds, has a norma] 
speed of 200' 0." per minute. If two bumpers are vised, what must 
be the force of compression and the distance which they can be 
compressed? 

Solution: By the table, the distance through which the car would 
have to fall free in order to attain a velocity of 200' 0" per minute, 
is 2.07". 2.07 X 4,000 = 8,280. The force in pounds required to 
compress both bumpers multiplied by the distance in inches through 
which they can be compressed must equal 8,280. If they can be 
compressed 6" they must together require a force of -"^i^ = 1,380 
pounds to compress them, or 690 pounds each. If they can be 
compressed 10", they must together require a force of -?g^== 828 
pounds to compress them, or 414 pounds each.) 



New Elevator Installations. 479 

Section 8. Capacity and Speed, etc. 

59. Emergency Car Switch. 

* a. An emergency switch or "stop-button" shall be 
installed in every elevator car having car-control switch 
or car-button control. 

* &. Such emergency switch or "stop-button" shall 
operate to open a main line circuit switch independently 
of the car control. 

* c. Such emergency switch or "stop-button" shall 
be connected by a cable independent of the car-control 
switch cable and of opposite polarity. 

Section 8. Capacity and Speed; Change in Use 
of Elevator. 

60. Capacity and Speed. 

a. The minimum carrying capacity of a power 
passenger elevator shall be 75 pounds per square foot 
of car platform area inside of the car enclosure, except 
a hospital elevator arranged to carry a cot or stretcher, 
and except a private residence elevator, in which cases 
the minimum carrying capacity shall be 50 pounds per 
square foot of car platform area inside of the car en- 
closure. 

* (Hospital elevators, of the direct-plunger type, need not have a 
capacity exceeding 1,000 pounds, even if the size of the car is such 
as to require a greater capacity on the basis of 50 pounds or 75 
pounds per square foot.) 

6. There shall be a metal capacity plate located by 
the elevator manufacturer in a conspicuous ijlace in 
each elevator car, except dumb-waiters, on which plate 
shall be the word "Capacity" in letters not less than 
\" high, followed by figures and letters not less than 



480 Division B. 

Section 8. Capacity and Speed, etc. 

I" high, designating the normal rated lifting capacity 
of the elevator in pounds. 

c. The speed of any elevator shall not exceed 500' 0" 
per minute except that express elevators may be run at 
a speed not exceeding 700' 0" per minute for that por- 
tion of the shaft in which no landing stops are made. 
Express elevators shall mean only such elevators as run 
80' 0" or more without a stop. 

d. The speed of carriage-type elevators and of hatch- 
way-type elevators shall not exceed 55' 0" per minute. 

e. No elevator traveling at a speed exceeding 150' 0" 
per minute shall be controlled by a hand-operated 
shipping cable. (See, also, Regulation 39a.) 

/. No elevator traveling at a speed exceeding 150' 0" 
per minute, except an hydraulic elevator, shall be con- 
trolled by a shipping cable operated by wheel or lever 
mechanism. (See, also, Regulation 39?).) 



61. Change in Use of Elevator. 

a. Before a material change in the use of an elevator 
is made, the party making such change shall give 
notice thereof, in writing, to the department having 
jurisdiction. 



(The object of this Regulation is to prevent the improper use 
of elevators between regular inspections. A material change 
includes any change that would require a change in the elevator 
installation, such as the use of a freight elevator for passenger 
service or for carrying help to and from work, in which case addi- 
tional safeguards are reqmred, or the use for hoisting automobiles 
of an elevator originally designed for hoisting carriages, in which 
case the capacity of the elevator might be exceeded.) 



New Elevator Installations. 481 

Section 9. Lighting, Signals, etc. 

Section 9. Lighting; Signals; Voltage of Control 
Circuit; Fuse Substitution. 

62. Lighting. 

a. Every passenger elevator car, when in use, shall 
be properly lighted by an electric or gas light in the car 
at such times as there is insufl&cient natural light. 

(Gas lighting shall be used only when electricity for lighting is 
not available in the building.) 

h. Every freight elevator car, when in use, except 
cars of hatchway-type elevators and of dumb-waiters, 
shall be properly lighted by electricity or gas at such 
times as there is insufficient natural hght. Lights 
may be located in or adjacent to the shaftways if they 
light the car properly throughout its entire travel, or 
the hght may be located in the car. 

(Gas lighting in the cars shall be used only when electricity for 
lighting is not available in the building.) 

c. There shall be electric or gas hghting at each 
story near hatchway-type, sidewalk-type and carriage- 
type elevators, so arranged as to illuminate the car 
and its approaches properly. If there is a tight en- 
closure around the elevator, sufficient hghts shall be 
located inside of the shaftway. 

d. Every elevator machine room shall be provided 
with a suitable electric or gas light which can be lighted 
without passing over or reaching over any part of the 
machinery. 

63. Signals. 

a. An annunciator or other signal system, operated 
from each landing and indicating from which landing 



482 Division B. 

Section 9. Lighting, Signals, etc. 

the call originates, shall be installed in every passenger 
elevator car except in private residence elevator cars 
and except in cars which have no licensed operators. 

* h. There shall be a bell located in every power 
freight elevator or in the shaftway where it may be 
heard on all floors, and arranged to be operated from 
each landing opening. This Regulation does not apply 
to dumb-waiters, to elevators serving only two adjacent 
stories, nor to elevators equipped with an annunciator or 
other signal system such as required in Regulation 63a. 

(This is intended as a signal device to notify the operator on the 
car, or on the floor where the car is stopped, that the elevator is 
wanted on another floor.) 

c. Every hatchway-type elevator car where sliding 
hatch covers are used shall be equipped with a gong 
which shall ring at least twice as the car passes through 
each story . The gong shall be plainly audible above the 
street noises and noises due to machinery or work in the 
building. 

(This Regulation is restricted to the sliding hatch covers because 
they are comparatively noiseless, whereas the hinged type of hatch 
covers usually make sufl&cient noise to give a reasonable warning 
of the approach of the car. The gong shall be installed on any 
type of hatchway elevator if the operation of the hatch covers does 
not make sufficient noise to give warning of the approach of the car.) 

64. Voltage of Control Circuit and Fuse Substi= 
tution. 

a. No difference of potential in excess of 250 volts 
shall be permitted in any car-switch or button-control 
circuit. 

b. The substitution of wire or other current-carrying 
device in place of the proper fuses or circuit breaker is 
prohibited. 



Existing Elevatok Installations. 483 



DIVISION C. REGULATIONS APPLYING TO 
EXISTING ELEVATOR INSTALLATIONS. 

Section I. Shaftways. 

65. Thoroughfare under Elevators. 

a. The bottoms of shaftways of elevators and of 
counterweights shall be kept clear of all materials not 
necessary to the elevator installation, and shall not be 
used as thoroughfares or passages. 

(The bottom of the shaftway of a hand-power carriage-type 
elevator is an exception to this Regulation, and may be used as a 
thoroughfare or passage.) 

* b. If a counterweight does not run to the lowest 
floor of a building, the space under the bottom of the 
shaftway of such counterweight shall not be used for 
any purpose unless (1) the counterweight is equipped 
with a safety device which will stop the counterweight 
if the cables attached to it should break or become 
slack; (2) the construction of the bottom of the shaft- 
way under the counterweight is such as to withstand, 
without injury, the falling at full normal speed of the 
counterweight; and (3) bumpers of spring or equivalent 
type are installed under the counterweight when its 
normal speed exceeds 150' 0" per minute. If an ele- 
vator car does not run to the lowest floor of a building, 
the space under the bottom of the shaftway of such 
elevator shall not be used for any purpose unless (1) 
the construction of the bottom of the shaftway under 
the car is such as to withstand, without injury, the 
falling at full normal speed of the car loaded to its 
capacity, and (2) bumpers of spring or equivalent 



484 Division C. 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

type are installed under the car when its normal speed 
exceeds 150' 0" per minute. (See, also, Regulation 
109e. Data on bumper capacity will be found in 
Regulation 5Sd.) 

c. No hatchway cover shall be used as a thorough- 
fare or passage unless the elevator is of the sidewalk 
type. If there is a vertical lifting hatch cover, it shall 
not be used as a thoroughfare or passage unless there is 
a clear space above the cover, when at the top of its 
travel, of not less than 2' 0". 

* 66. Enclosures or Guards around Shaftways 
of Carriage=type Elevators and of Hand= 
power Elevators. 

* a. The sides of floor openings for carriage-type 
elevators and for hand-power elevators shall be pro- 
tected by guards not less than 2' 10" above the floor, 
such as grille work, sheathing, wood or metal double- 
rail fences, etc., securely fastened in place. 

67. Enclosures around Shaftways of Hatchway* 
type Elevators. 

* a. Enclosures or guards, not less than 3' 4" above 
the floor, such as grille work, sheathing, wood or metal 
double-rail fences, etc., securely fastened in place, shall 
be located (except at landing openings) around power 
elevator hatchway openings equipped with automatic 
hatch covers, except around hatchway openings 
equipped with vertical lifting hatch covers above 
which, at the upper limit of their travel, there is a 
clear space of 2' 0" or more. 

h. Similar enclosures or guards shall be placed around 



Existing Elevator Installations. 485 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

the shaftways of power elevators, at the lov/est floor 
which the elevator serves, if the opening in the floor 
above is protected by a hatch cover. 

* 68. Enclosures around Shaftways of Elevators 
Other than Carriage=type and Hatchway^ 
type. 

a. The shaftways of elevators located outside of 
buildings shall be enclosed to a height 7' 0" above the 
ground with a solid enclosure or with grille work or 
lattice work which will reject a ball 2" in diameter. 

* h. Enclosures or guards shall be located around the 
shaftways, in each story, except at the landing open- 
ings of power elevators located in buildings and which 
are not of carriage-type or of hatchway-type. The 
enclosures shall be not less than 7' 0" high, of solid 
construction, or of open construction which will reject 
a ball 2" in diameter, and shall be securely fastened in 
place. 

69. Opening of Standing Portions of Enclosures. 

a. All standing portions of enclosures arranged to 
open to form larger openings than are obtained at the 
regular landing doors shall be securely fastened at top 
and bottom. 

70. Netting on Grille=work Enclosures. 

* a. Grille-work sh aftway enclosures, having mesh 
larger than f " square, shall be covered to' a height not 
less than 6' 6" above the landing level with wire netting 
of not more than f " square mesh, made of wire not 
smaller than No. 20 gauge, securely attached to grille 



486 Division C. 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

work (1) where there is less than 4" clearance between 
the grille work and any portion of the car or of the 
counterweight, and (2) v/here a landing door sHdes by 
with a clearance of less than 4". 

71. Enclosures around Isolated Counterweights. 

a. Counterweights running in isolated shaftways and 
not already enclosed shall be enclosed throughout 
their height with fire-resisting construction or with 
sheet steel of not less than No. 16 gauge, except where 
located outside of buildings, in which case solid en- 
closures not less than 7' 0" high shall be installed. 

(Where present enclosures around such counterweights are not 

solid they shall be covered vnth. wire netting of not larger than f " 
square mesh, made of wire not smaller than No. 20 gauge.) 

h. Counterweight enclosures shall be provided with 
removable sections, not less than 2' 0" high and the 
full width of the enclosure, located near the top, for the 
inspection of counterweights and cables. 

(Requirements for enclosing counterweights located in the ele- 
vator shaftways will be found in Regulation 97.) 

72. Openings and Set=backs in Outside Walls of 
Freight Elevator Shaftways. 

* a. Where the enclosing wall of the shaftway of a 
power freight elevator is the outside wall of a building, 
and where the elevator car is open (see Regulation 726) 
toward this outside wall, the shaftway side of the out- 
side wall shall be filled in, up to the top landing level, 
wherever the clearance between the elevator car and 
the wall is more than 4". 

h. The filling-in may be done with any form of con- 



Existing Elevator Installations. 487 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

struction giving a firm, flush surface if there is no con- 
flict with local building regulations; or it may be 
done with wooden slats not less than 3" wide by |" 
thick and set vertically not more than 4" apart; or it 
may be done with metal pipes or bars set vertically not 
more than 4" apart, provided that such slats, pipes or 
bars are strongly secured in place with no projections 
into the shaftway and with all cross bars and other sup- 
ports, except close-fitting pipe clips, at the back of such 
slats, pipes or bars. 

c. Whatever form of construction is used for filling 
in, the clearance between the face of the filling-in 
material and the car shall be not more than 2" . 

d. All window or other openings or recesses in such 
outside wail, except the landing door opening, shall be 
filled in flush or slatted or barred as provided for 
in Regulation 72a, 726 and 72c, whatever may be 
the clearance between the elevator car and the wall. 
The filling-in material shall be made flush with the wail 
or with the filling-in on the wall, as the case may be. 
(For exception, see Regulation 72e.) 

* e. If the elevator car is provided on the side adja- 
cent to the outside wall with a gate which closes auto- 
matically when the ascending car leaves the landing 
at which there is an opening in the outside wall, or 
if the gate is provided with an interlocking device, 
which prevents the starting of the car until the gate is 
closed, and if the gate is of construction and dimensions 
specified in Regulation 76a and 766 for landing gates 
for openings in outside wall, then the elevator car shall 
not be considered as open on the side toward the outside 
wall, and the filling-in of set-backs and openings in 
such wall shall not be required above the landing open- 
ing in the outside wall. (See Regulation 85/ and S5g.) 



488 Division C. 

Section I. Shaftways. 

73. Thresholds and Other Projections. 

* a. Strong and substantial bevelled metal or wood 
plates shall be located under all thresholds, beams and 
other fixed construction projecting into shaftways 1" 
or more beyond the general line of the shaftways of the 
elevator on sides where there are car openings. Metal 
plates when not backed with wood shall be made of not 
less than No. 12 B & S gauge metal. 

(Dumb-waiters are excepted from this Regvilation.) 

6. The bevelled plates shall extend from the edge of 
the projection to the vertical wall, and the bevelled 
surfaces shall make an angle of not less than 60° with 
the horizontal. 

74. Landing Doors. 

a. All landing openings in solid fire-resisting shaft way 
enclosures shall be provided with fire-resisting landing 
doors and frames without open-grille work or movable 
panels or other openings. Tin-clad doors, rolling steel 
doors, Kalamein doors, hollow metal fire doors, steel 
frame doors glazed with wired glass, or doors of other 
similar construction shall be considered as "fire re- 
sisting." Wired glass panels may be used in doors, but 
shall be subject to the restrictions specified in Regula- 
tion 3a. 

(It is desirable that all such landing doors, which are left open 
when the car is not at the landing, should be provided with self- 
closing devices operated by fusible links.) 

h. Landing doors for passenger elevators shall slide 
in a horizontal direction, except that swing doors will 
be permitted when equipped and used with an inter- 



Existing Elevator Installations. 489 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

locking device, which prevents the starting of the 
elevator when any landing door is open. 

c. Landing doors for all passenger elevators and for 
freight elevators without landing gates, except dumb- 
waiters, shall be of such construction and design that 
when locked they cannot be opened from the landing 
side without a key, except when the car is at the landing. 

(Such landing doors need not be arranged so that they can be 
opened from the landing side even when the car is at the landing, 
except in the case of a selective automatic button-control type 
elevator or a similar elevator where there is no operator.) 

d. Landing doors, which cannot be opened from the 
landing side except by key, shall be arranged to be 
opened by key at one landing at least. 

(The object of this Regulation is to make it possible to close all 
landing doors when the elevator is shut down and the attendant 
is absent, thus preventing interference with the elevator by unau- 
thorized persons. It is recommended that all such landing doors 
be arranged to be opened by key from the landing side to facilitate 
entrance to the shaftway above and below the car for inspection 
and repairs and in case of emergency.) 

* e. Landing doors for selective automatic button- 
control elevators, except dumb-waiters, are to be self- 
locking and equipped with interlocking devices such 
that (1) no landing door can be opened unless the car 
is at the landing, and (2) the car cannot be started unless 
all the landing doors are closed. Means shall be pro- 
vided to prevent the starting of the car by the closing 
of the doors without operating one of the push buttons. 
(See Regulation 85c.) 

(When car-switch control is used in a selective automatic button- 
control elevator, the interlocking de\'ices shall, nevertheless, remain 
in operation.) , 



490 Division C. 



Section 1. Shaftways. 



*/. Landing doors for passenger elevators with 
shipper ropes accessible from the landings when the 
landing doors are closed shall be self-locking and 
equipped with interlocking devices such that (1) no 
landing door can be opened unless the car is at the 
landing, and (2) the car cannot be started unless all 
landing doors are closed. 

* (The requirement that the car cannot be started unless all 
landing doors are closed does not apply to private residence ele- 
vators.) 

g. Landing doors for dumb-waiters, where the bot- 
tom of the opening is not less than 18" above the land- 
ing floor, may be counterbalanced to stay open, but if 
the shaftway enclosures are of fire-resisting construc- 
tion, fusible links are to be located inside of the shaft- 
way, or at the lower edges of the doors, and so connected 
that upon the melting of the links the doors will close. 

h. Landing doors for dumb-waiters, where the bottom 
of the opening is less than 18" above the landing 
floor, and the door opening is large enough to be mis- 
taken for a doorway to stairs or to an adjacent room, 
shall be in two parts, one over the other, the lower of 
which shall extend at least 18" above the landing floor 
and shall be arranged to be opened only after the upper 
part has been opened, or gates which close when the 
car leaves the landings shall be installed in addition to 
the landing doors. 

(The upper part of the two-part doors may be counterbalanced 
to stay open, and if so shall be provided with fusible link as in 
Regulation 74g. The object of making the door in two parts, of 
which the upper part must be opened first, is to prevent a person 
from falling down the shaftway. The gate would serve the same 
purpose.) 



Existing Elevator Installations. 491 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

i. Dumb-waiters which are under counter- tops at 
the upper limit of their travel are not required to have 
landing doors. 

75. Landing Gates, in General. 

a. Freight elevators having shaftway enclosures or 
guards, except dumb-waiters and except at the bottom 
landings of sidewalk-type elevators serving only two 
adjacent stories, shall have all landing openings in such 
enclosures and guards protected by gates which shall 
close automatically when the elevator car leaves the 
landing, except that no such gate shall be required at 
(1) a landing opening where there is a landing door, or 
a gate equivalent to a door, which is equipped with an 
interlocking device such that the door or equivalent 
gate can be opened only when the car is at the land- 
ing, and that the car can be started only when the 
door or equivalent gate is closed; or (2) at any landing 
opening of a car operated by a licensed operator and 
having at all landing openings doors, or gates equiva- 
lent to doors, so arranged that they can be opened 
only from the shaftway side, except by key, and which 
are always closed before the car leaves the landing, 

* (Gates shall be installed at all landing openings of freight ele- 
vators located outside of building, even though such elevators have 
no shaftway enclosures.) 

6. The landing openings in the enclosures or guards 
around the shaftway at the bottom landing of a side- 
walk-type elevator serving only two adjacent stories 
shall be protected by hand-operated bar, gate or chain 
if an automatic gate is not installed. 

c. The used sides of hatch openings, having hatch 



492 Division C. 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

covers other than vertical lifting hatch covers, shall be 
protected by gates which shall close automatically 
when the car leaves the landing, where necessary to 
prevent the hatch covers from being used as thorough- 
fares or passageways. 

d. The used sides of hatch openings having vertical 
lifting hatch covers, above which, at their highest 
limit of travel; there is less than 2' 0" head room, shall 
be protected by gates which shall close automatically 
when the car leaves the landing. 

e. Gates may be "full-automatic" or "semi-auto- 
matic" or "gravity" gates, but shall close by gravity 
and not by the direct mechanical action of the car. 

(See Regulation 11, Im and In. Although gates shall not be 
closed by the direct mechanical action of the car, their speed of 
closing may be retarded by the direct mechanical action of the car.) 

/. Gates are to be made of metal or of hard wood, 
and are to be strong and rigid and so constructed and 
installed that they cannot be sprung from their guides. 
Bar gates hinged at one end shall be of such design and 
construction as to insure their accurate closing and their 
rigid support when closed. 

g. No gate, when closed, is to be less than 2' 8" in 
height, measured from the sill to the top of the upper 
horizontal member of the gate. 

h. The lower edge of the lowest horizontal member of 
any gate, when closed, shall be not more than 3' 4" 
above the sill. 

(Gates extending to the floor are strongly recommended where 
there is sufficient head room, as they prevent objects from rolHng 
under the gates and falling on the car and its occupants. Double- 
bar gates are recommended rather than single-bar gates, where 
there is sufficient head room.) 



Existing Elevator Installations. 493 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

i. Gate counterweights shall be boxed in or shall run 
in metal guides from which they cannot be dislodged. 
The bottoms of the boxes or of the guides shall be of 
such construction that the counterweights will be 
securely held if the counterweight ropes should break. 

76. Landing Gates at Openings in Outside Walls. 

* Note. — Landing openings in outsi de walls are apt to be left 
unprotected except by the gates. This is dangerous to the public 
unless the gates are of such construction as to prevent reaching 
into the well and to prevent the gates from being opened except 
when the car is at the landing. Even when such openings are on 
private ways they are accessible to unauthorized persons, espe- 
cially children, and the special requirements given below for such 
gates must be fulfill ed. When the opening in the outside wall is at 
a bridge above the ground, and not open to the public, the provi- 
sions of Regulation 76a to 76d, inclusive, do not apply, 

a. Gates at landing openings in outside walls shall 
be made (1) soUd, without openings, or (2) of such 
design as will reject a ball 2" in diameter. 

h. The top of such a gate, when closed, shall be not 
less than 6' 0" above the sill, and the bottom shall be 
not more than 6" above the sill, except that where the 
landing opening in the outside wall is in the top story 
of the building the top of the gate need be only 3' 4" 
high above the sill; and except that an existing gate 
which fulfills Regulation 76a, and is not less than 4' 0" 
high, need not be replaced by a new gate. 

(If it is foun d to be impracticable to install a gate 6' 0" high 
without excessive alterations m construction work, a gate as high 
as practicable may be installed.) 

c. All gates at landing openings in outside walls shall 
be equipped with interlocking devices which will pre- 
vent the opening of the gates unless the car is at the 



494 Division C. 

Section I. Shaftways. 

landing, and shall be arranged to close and lock auto- 
matically when the car leaves the landing. The inter- 
locking mechanism shall be so located and installed, if 
practicable, that it cannot be reached by hand from 
outside of the shaftway when the gate is closed. 

(If the gate is made solid and fills the whole opening it becomes 
a door rather than a gate, but must, nevertheless, be equipped with 
the interlocking and self-closing and self-locking device.) 

d. Where the elevator is set back in a vestibule, with 
the landing opening not actually in the outside wall, 
but with an opening in the outside wall directly oppo- 
site the landing opening and usually left open, thus 
leaving the landing gate accessible to unauthorized 
persons, the gate at the landing opening shall be the 
same as the gates herein specified for openings actually 
in outside walls. 

77. Landing Gates at Ground Openings of Ele= 

vators Outside of Building. 

a. Gates at the ground openings to elevators located 
outside of building shall be like the gates specified in 
Regulation 76 for landing gates at openings in outside 
walls. 

78. Automatic Hatch Covers. 

a. Automatic hatch covers shall be made of not 
thinner than |" stock, strongly battened, if of wood, or 
of equally strong and stiff metal construction. 

h. Wood automatic hatch covers shall be covered 
on their under sides and on their edges with sheet tin 
or galvanized steel with locked joints, with nail heads 
concealed under the joints. 



Existing Elevator Installations. 495 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

(The existing tin covering need not be replaced, even if the joints 
are not locked and the nail heads are not concealed.) 

c. Hinges on automatic hatch covers shall be either 
heavy T or heavy strap hinges secured to the floor 
with lag-screws, or otherwise equally securely fastened 
and bolted through the hatch covers. 

(Existing hinges need not comply with this Regulation unless 
they are loose or insecure, but when new hinges are installed they 
must comply with this Regulation.) 

d. No hook or other means of fastening hatch covers 
open shall be permitted. 

(The hatch covers may have to be held open temporarily for 
repairs or testing, but this can be accomplished readily without 
permanent means for so doing, which, might be used habitually, 
thus eliminating the fire cut-offs for which the hatch covers are 
installed.) 

e. If a sidewalk-type elevator lands within the line 
of any sidewalk or passageway open to the public, the 
opening shall be protected by guards not less than 
18" high before the elevator is started. 

/. Where enclosures are built around the shaftways 
of hatchway-type elevators, the hatch covers shall not, 
on that account, be omitted. 

79. Bars at Exterior Windows. 

0. All exterior windows in elevator shaftways shall be 
protected by vertical metal bars, in accordance with 
Regulation 19a, 195 and 19c, where (1) there are now 
no bars, (2) wherever the majority of the existing bars 
need repairs, and (3) where there are less than three 
bars and they are more than 10" on centers. 



496 Division C. 

Section 1. Shaftways. 

* (This Regulation does not apply to windows filled in as required 
by Regulation 72a to 72e, inclusive, nor to windows located above 
the platform in the shaftway under the sheaves or machinery. See 
Regulation 80.) 

h. All such bars, if of iron or steel, shall be kept 
thoroughly painted. 

80. Platform at Top of Shaftway. 

a. There shall be a platform immediately under the 
machinery and sheaves, if any, at the top of the shaft- 
way of every elevator except dumb-waiters, hatchway- 
type elevators and carriage-type elevators. 

* (The platform at top of shaftway may be omitted if there is a 
cover on the car and the clearance between the cover and the 
platform is so small as to be a source of danger to a man on the car 
cover.) 

h. The platform shall fill the shaftway if the latter 
has a cross-sectional area of fiftj^ square feet or less; 
otherwise the platform need extend only 2' 0" outside 
of all sheaves and machinery which should be reached 
for oiling and inspection. 

c. If the platform does not fill the entire shaftway, 
the edge of the platform shall be protected by a solid 
baseboard at least 6" high, and where the space between 
the platform and the wall of the shaft exceeds 12'' 
there shall be a hand rail securely fastened in place 
2' 6" above the platform. 

d. The platform shall be built and supported for a 
safe live load of not less than 50 pounds per square 
foot. 

e. If the platform is made of grating there shall be 
fastened upon the upper side of the grating wire netting 



Existing Elevator Installations. 497 

Section 2. Cars, etc. 

of not more than |" square mesh and not smaller than 
No. 20 wire. 

/. The platform, if of wood, shall be made solid of not 
less than 3" planlc, except that present wood platforms 
complying with Regulation SOd need not be replaced. 

* g. Reasonable access to the sheaves and m.achinery, 
above the platform, shall be provided independent of 
the elevator car, when the elevator machine is above 
the platform. 

* (When it is impracticaole to reach the platform by an opening 
above the platform level, a ladder, from the top landing to an open- 
ing in the platform itself, will be permitted, but in this case this 
means of access is for emergency use only, the normal means of 
access being from the top of the car.) 

Section 2. Cars and Car Enclosures. 
81. Cars. 

* a. No elevator car, except a dumb-waiter car, shall 
have more than one compartment unless an interlocking 
device is installed such that either (1) the car cannot be 
operated from either compartment unless the car door 
or car gate of the other compartment is closed, or (2) 
the car cannot be opera,ted from either compartment 
unless all of the landing doors are closed. 

b. Two cars, balancing each other, and operated by 
the same machine, shall not be used except for (1) 
dumb-Waiters and (2) freight elevators serving two 
floors only, of which all the landing openings are pro- 
tected by gates or doors equipped with interlocking 
devices such that the cars cannot be operated unless all 
the landing gates or doors are closed. 

* (The interlocking device may be omitted on elevators, at the 
discretion of the inspector having jurisdiction, where the nature of 



498 Division C. 

Section 2. Cars, etc. 

the car is such that there is no reason for a person to travel on the 
car or to step on the car to load or unload, and where such traveling 
or stepping on is prohibited.) 

c. The car platforms of direct-plunger elevators shall 
be secured to heads of the plungers. If the plungers 
are made in more than three sections the car platforms 
shall be secured to the bottom heads of the plungers 
by safety cables run inside of the plungers. 

82. Platform attached to Existing Hoist. 

a. If a platform is attached to an existing hoisting 
mechanism not previously equipped with a platform, 
the entire installation shall be considered as a new 
installation, and shall be subject to all the regulations 
for such installations, (See Division B.) 

83. Car Enclosures. 

a. Elevator car enclosures or cages shall be secured 
to the car floors and to the suspension slings in such 
manner that they cannot work loose or be readily dis- 
placed. 

6. All passenger elevator cars shall be enclosed on all 
unused sides and on the top. The enclosures may be 
of wood or of metal, solid or open work. 

(New enclosures installed under this Regulation shall be of such 
design as wUl reject a ball 2" in diameter, but existing enclosures 
need not be changed on account of having larger openings.) 

c. The car dome on a power passenger elevator 
having no gate or door at the opening to the car, or 
having no interlocking device such that the car cannot 
be started when any landing door is open, shall be 
cut back above the door opening, or a section shall 



Existing Elevator Installations. 499 

Section 2. Cars, etc. 

be hinged with brass, bronze or composition hinges 
above the door opening, without locking, to provide 
an unobstructed space 15" deep from edge of thresh- 
old and extending the entire v/idth of the car door 
opening. 

d. All power freight elevator cars, except dumb- 
waiters and except carriage-type and sidewalk-type 
elevator cars, shall be enclosed not less than 6' 6^' 
high on all unused sides, or to the cross-heads, where 
the cross-heads are less than 6' 6" high. The enclosures 
may be wood or metal, sohd or open work, but if open 
work, the design shall be such as will reject a ball 2" 
in diameter. 

e. Where the enclosure of a power freight elevator 
car is cut away at the front of the car to make the 
shipper rope accessible, such opening in the enclosure 
shall be cut low enough to prevent injury to the hand 
of the operator, and the lower edge of such opening 
shall be splayed at an angle of not less than 60° with 
the horizontal. 

/. Where the elevator car enclosure is not soHd and 
the openings are larger than f'' square, wire netting 
of not more than f " square mesh and not smaller than 
No. 20 gauge wire shall cover and be securely at- 
tached to the car enclosure on the outside where (1) 
the counterweight passes with a clearance of less than 
6" between the car enclosure and the counterweight, 
and where (2) there is less than 4" clearance between 
the car enclosure and any portion of the well construc- 
tion, except at the front of the enclosure. 

* g. Covers shall be installed on freight elevator cars 
except (1) dumb-waiters, (2) hatchway-type elevators, 
(3) carriage-type elevators, (4) sidewalk-type elevators, 
(5) elevators where there are automatically closing gates 



500 Division C. 

Section 2. Cars, etc. 

extending down to the floor on all landings above the 
lowest landing, and (6) all elevators with landing doors 
which open only from the wellway side and which are 
kept closed except when the car is at the landing. 
The covers shall be of wire grille work with a mesh not 
larger than 1|" by 3" and wire not smaller than No. 9 
gauge or of other construction of equivalent strength. 
The covers shall be set back not more than 6" from the 
edge of the landing thresholds, and shall be hinged on 
the landing sides at such distance from the edge of the 
covers, not less than 18", as will permit the cover to 
fold back readily should it be obstructed in any manner 
in its descent. 

* (The cover is not required to be hinged at the opening in an 
outside'^'all, where there is no other landing opening above on the 
same side.) 

h. No material, not a part of the elevator equipment, 
shall be permitted upon the top or cover of any elevator 
car. 

84. Seats in Cars. 

a. Each passenger elevator, for v/hich a licensed 
operator is required, shall be provided with a suitable 
seat for the operator. The seat shall be of folding 
type, attached to the side of the car, except where the 
seat is a fixed seat installed for passengers. 

85. Car Gates and Doors. 

a. Each power passenger elevator car shall be 
equipped with a gate or door at each car door opening 
unless (1) there is only one door opening, and unless 
(2) the door opening is 42" or less in width, and unless 



ExisTiNQ Elevator Installations. 501 

Section 2. Cars, etc. 

(3) there is a licensed operator in charge of the car, 
and unless (4) the car control is so located that the 
door opening can be protected by the operator when 
running the car. 

(A car door is preferable to a car gate of the folding or collapsible 
type, as it gives better protection. See Regulation 85h.) 

* h. If the car gate or door at either of the door 
Openings of a power passenger elevator car, having two 
or more door openings, be so located that the opening 
cannot be properly protected by the operator when 
running the car, such c^r gate or door shall be equipped 
with an interlocking device which shall prevent the 
operation of the car when such car gate or door is open. 

(The car door at an opening for freight in a passenger elevator 
car need not have the interlocking device applied if the door is 
opened only for the occasional handling of freight and is kept 
locked during the use of the elevator for passenger service.) 

* c. The gate or door at the door opening of a power 
passenger elevator car, which is used without a licensed 
operator, shall be equipped with an interlocking device 
which shaU prevent the operation of the car unless the 
car gate or door is closed, except for private residence 
elevators which are not of the selective automatic 
button-control type. Means shall be provided to 
prevent the starting of the car of an electric elevator 
by the closing of the doors without operating the car 
switch or one of the push buttons. (See Regulation 
74e.) 

(In cases of unusual difficulty the enforcement of this Regulation 
for any except selective automatic button-control elevators is left 
to the discretion of the inspector having jurisdiction.) 



502 Division C. 

Section 2. Cars, etc. 

d. Freight-elevator cars used for carrying more than 
three persons including the operator shall be either 
(1) enclosed on all sides to the same height as on the 
unused sides, leaving a door opening 42" or less in 
width, or (2) equipped with car gates or doors at all 
car openings. 

(If a freiglit elevator is used at stated hours for carrying em- 
ployees, portable car gates or doors and enclosures may be em- 
ployed at the open sides of the car, provided that all such portable 
construction shall be set in place and secured at all times when 
the elevator is used for carrying more than three persons including 
the operator.) 

e. The open side away from the building wall of a 
freight-elevator car located outside of a building shall 
be protected by a hand-operated or automatic-closing 
bar or car gate. 

*/. Automatic-closing car gates on freight elevators, 
adjacent to the outside walls of buildings, may be sub- 
stituted for the filling-in of set-backs and openings in 
the outside wall. (See Regulation 72a to 72e, in- 
clusive.) 

* g. Car gates and doors shall, when closed, fill the 
openings that they protect, except that on freight- 
elevator cars they need be only as high as the car en- 
closures, and except where gates of different construc- 
tion are specifically allowed. (See Regulations 72e, 
85e and 85/.) 

h. New car doors installed on existing cars may be 
sohd or of open work, but shall be of such design as 
will reject a ball 2" in diameter. 

(Collapsible or folding gates may be used on elevator cars, but 
do not afford the protection of doors as they cannot be made with 
such small openings.) 



Existing Elevator Installations. 503 

Section 3. Machines, etc. 

Section 3. Machines; Machine Supports; Tanks. 
86. Belt and Chain=driven Machines. 

a. Belt or chain-driven machines shall not be used 
for passenger elevators operating at a speed over 100' 0" 
per minute. 

* (This Regulation does not apply to steam elevator machines, 
i.e., elevator machines operated by reversing steam engine con- 
structed as a unit with the elevator machine and direct-belted 
thereto. Such machines may be used for passenger service at 
speeds not exceeding 250' 0" per minute.) 

6. All elevator belts, except within machine en- 
closures, which come within 7' 0" of the floor shall be 
properly guarded. 

* 87. Traveling Sheaves of Vertical Hydraulic 
Machines and Piston Rods of Hydraulic 
Machines. 

* a. The traveling sheaves of vertical cylinder hy- 
draulic elevators shall be attached with two-part iron 
or steel hangers and not with U straps. 

* h. Hydraulic elevator machine piston rods, 1" 
in diameter or smaller, shall be exposed for inspection 
at least once every five years. Piston rods larger than 
\" in diameter shall be exposed for inspection at least 
once every ten years. 

88. Enclosure of Gears. 

a. All gears operating winding drums, except those 
of hand-power elevators, shall be enclosed by suitable 
guards when they are dangerous in the opinion of the 
inspector having jurisdiction. 



504 Division C. 

Section 3. Machines, etc. 

89. Enclosures around M achines. 

a. Elevator machines located on tihe floor shall be 
enclosed by solid partitions or grille work not less 
than 4' 0" high. The mesh or grillfe work shall be such 
as to reject a ball 2" in diameter. 

* (If the elevator machine is located in an engine room or pump 
room, etc., used exclusively as such, tne enclosures are not required, 
but sucn protection as is required for fly-wheels, belted apparatus 
and other machinery should be provided.) 

90. Discharge Tanks of Hydraulic Elevators. 

a. The discharge tanks of hydraulic elevators shall 
be cleaned at least every two years. 

h. Such discharge tanks shall be vented so as to be 
open to atmospheric pressure. 

91. Pressure Tanks for Hydraulic Elevators. 

a. The maximum pressure to be allowed on pressure 
tanks for hydraulic elevators shall be determined by 
the formula stated in the Air Tank Regulations pre- 
scribed by the Massachusetts Board of Boiler Rules. 
The factor of safety in the above formula is to be the 
lowest factor of safety allowed by Regulation 916. 
The tensile strength used in the above formula shall, 
if unknown, be taken as 45,000 pounds for wrought 
iron and 55,000 pounds for steel. 

h. The lowest factor of safety to be used for the 
pressure tanks for hydrauUc elevators shall be 4 if the 
longitudinal joints are of butt and double-strap con- 
struction, and 5 if the longitudinal joints are of lap 
construction. 

c. Pressure tanks for hydraulic elevators shall be 
cleaned at least every two years. 



Existing Elevator Installations. 505 

Section 3. Machines, etc. 

d. Every pressure tank for hydraulic elevators shall 
have a pressure gage connected to the tank by a brass 
or other non-corrosive pipe, and in such a manner that 
the pressure gage cannot be shut off from the tank, 
except by a cock with a T or lever handle placed on 
the pipe near the pressure gage. The dial of the pres- 
sure gage shall be graduated to not less than one and 
one-half times the maximum pressure allowed on the 
tank. 

e. Every tank for hydraulic elevators shall be pro- 
vided with a \" pipe size connection for attaching in- 
spector's test gage when the tank is in service, so that 
the accuracy of the pressure gage can be ascertained. 

/. Pressure tanks for hydrauHc elevators shall be 
provided with water gage glasses, connected with 
brass pipe and fittings and indicating the height of the 
water in the tank. 

(The water level in the tank should generally be maintained at 
about two-thirds of the height of the tank.) 

92. Relief Valves on Hydraulic Elevator Pumps. 

* a. Every pump connected with the pressure tank 
of an hydrauhc elevator shall be equipped with a water 
relief valve or valves. 

* 6. The valves shall be set to discharge at a pressure 
not greater than the safe working pressure for the tank, 
and shall be installed so that they cannot be shut off 
from the pump. 

93. Elevator Pump Regulators. 

a. All steam pumps for hydraulic elevators shall be 
provided and operated with pressure-regulating valves 
controUing the steam to the pumps, and all electric- 



506 Division C. 

Section 4. Cables. 

driven pumps for hydraulic elevators shall be equipped 
with automatic pressure regulating valves controlling 
the motor, or with automatic by-passes. 

Section 4. Cables. 

94. Hoisting Cables. 

a. All renewals of car and counterweight hoisting 
cables, except for dumb-waiters, shall be made with 
iron or steel cables. All existing car and counterweight 
cables, if not of iron or steel, except for dumb-waiters, 
shall be renewed within one year of the establishment 
of these Regulations. 

* (Regulation 94a does not apply to the hoisting cables of trac- 
tion-type freight elevators where the hoisting power is obtained 
by the friction between the hoisting cables and the sheaves.) 

h. The minimum factor of safety of all car and coun- 
terweight hoisting cables, except those of dumb-waiters, 
shall be 6, based on the suspended load. The ultimate 
strength of the cables shall be based on the cable manu- 
facturer's lists. 

c. All elevator cars and counterweights shall have 
not less than two hoisting cables each, except (1) on 
dumb-waiters and except (2) on hand-power freight 
elevators having a lifting capacity of 500 pounds or 
less; and except (3) on the counterweights of freight 
elevators where the counterweight does not weigh 
more than 1,400 pounds; and except (4) on the counter- 
weights of elevators where there is only one existing 
cable; and except (5) on freight elevator cars where 
there is only one existing cable and the elevator is not 
used for carrying more than two passengers other than 
the operator. 



Existing Elevator Installations. 507 

Section 5. Counterweights. 

d. No car or counterweight cable, whether new or 
used, shall be extended or repaired by splicing another 
piece of cable to it. 

e. There shall be not less than one full turn of each 
car-hoisting cable on the winding drum when the car 
has reached the lower limit of travel, and not less than 
one full turn of each counterweight-hoisting cable on 
the winding drum when the counterweight has reached 
its lower limit of travel. 

/. The drum ends of the car and counterweight hoist- 
ing cables shall be secured by clamps or by tapered 
sockets. 

g. The car and counterweight ends of all cables 
replacing existing cables shall be fastened as required 
for cables in new installations. (See Regulations 38i 
and 38i. 

95. Shipper Ropes. 

a. No elevator traveling at a speed exceeding 150' 0" 
per minute shall be controlled by a hand-operated 
shipping cable. (See, also. Regulation 110c.) 

h. The overhead tension weights of shipping cables 
shall be equipped with safety chains of not less than 
No. 7 wire, securely fastened to the weight and to 
anchorage. 

c. All shipper ropes on electric elevators shall be 
insulated from the machines if they are the only means 
to an electric "ground." 

Section 5. Counterweights. 

96. Counterweight Construction. 

a. All counterweights shall have their sections se- 
curely bolted or strapped together to keep the indi- 



ct 



508 Division C. 

Section 5. Counterweights. 

vidual or subweights in position. All rods passing 
through the counterweights shall be provided with 
double nuts, and the ends of the rods, outside of nuts, 
are to be riveted over or provided with cotter-pins. 
Car counterweights, when provided, shall be suspended 
above the machine or drum counterweight. 

97. Counterweight Runways and Enclosures. 

Note. — See Regulation 71 for enclosures around isolated 
counterweights. 

* a. The counterweight runs of all elevators, except 
dumb-waiters and except hatchway-type elevators, shall 
be enclosed from a height 6" above the bottom of the 
pit to a height not less than 7' 0" above the bottom of 
the pit, where there is sufficient clearance, except where 
compensating chains would interfere, and except where 
the bumpers under the counterweights are 5' 0" or 
more high. (See note following Regulation 97c.) 

b. The material used for such enclosures in (fireproof 
shafts shall be non-combustible, and in any case, if 
made of open work, shall be of such design as shall 
reject a i" ball. 

c. The counterweight runways of all hatchway-type 
elevators, except dumb-waiters, shall be boxed in from 
bottom of the pit to a point as close to the sheaves as 
practicable. The tops of such enclosures shall be 
covered except for such openings as may be necessary 
for the cables. 

(The counterweight runways of hatchway-type elevators, if left 
open for 6" at the bottom, would form a chimney in case of fire in 
or near the pit. The 6" space at the bottom of counterweight en- 
closures, as required in Regulation 97a, is to facilitate cleaning.) 



Existing Elevator Installations. 509 

Section 6. Quide Rails. 

* d. Where the entire counterweight runway is boxed 
in there shall be a removable section not less than 2' 0" 
high and the full width of the boxing, located above the 
top landing. If the elevator is of the hatchway type the 
removable section shall be at such a height as to just 
clear the hatchway door when open. 

(The removable section is necessary m order to make the counter- 
weight and cables accessible for inspection.) 

e. In all cases the lower part of the counterweight 
enclosure shall be made removable from the top of the 
counterweight down. 

(The removable sections are to make the counterweights and 
cables accessible for inspection.) 

98. Counterweight Stops. 

a. There shall be secured at the upper limit of 
travel of the counterweights of all power elevators an 
I-beam or other obstruction so that the counterweights 
cannot be drawn into the overhead sheaves. 



Section 6. Quide Rails. 

99. Car=guide Rails. 

* a. Where wooden car-guide rails are used, the guide 
strips must be at least 2|" across the face and not less 
than 1|" thick, if the elevator is used for more than 
two passengers other than the operator, except in the 
case of a plunger elevator, the guides of which are not 
used in connection with a safety device. 



510 Division C. 

Section 7. Safety Devices. 

100. Automatic Guide Lubricators. 

* a. Car and counterweight guides shall be kept 
thoroughly lubricated. (Automatic guide lubricators 
are recommended.) 

Section 7. Safety Devices. 

101. Machine Slack Cable Safety Devices. 

a. Slack cable devices which will stop the elevator 
machines, if the hoisting cables slacken or break, shall 
be provided on all winding drum power elevators 
having a travel of over 15' 0", except dumb-waiters, 
carriage-type elevators, sidewalk-type elevators, and 
except freight elevators in which the machines are lo- 
cated above the upper landing and which are not 
used for carrying more than two passengers other than 
the operator. 

102. Terminal Stops. 

* a. All power-driven elevators, except traction-type 
elevators, and except direct-plunger hydraulic elevators 
having a travel of 30' 0" or less, or having a speed of 
less than 150' 0" per minute, shall be equipped with 
adjustable, machine automatic terminal stop mechan- 
isms set to stop the machines before the cars or coun- 
terweights pass 18" above their upper limits of normal 
travel, or not exceeding one-half the over-travel space 
when this space* is less than 3' 0". 

* ("Choker- valves" on hydraulic machines are included as ma- 
chine automatic terminal stop mechanisms, as, also, are operating 
valves when automatically closed by the elevator machine at the 
terminals of travel independently of the shipping cable.) 



Existing Elevator Installations. 511 

Section 7. Safety Devices. 

b. No chain or rope driven machine automatic 
terminal stop mechanisms on winding drum type ma- 
chines shall be allowed on passenger elevators. 

* (This Regulation is not to be construed to prevent the use of a 
chain or rope driven elevator machine automatic terminal stop 
mechanism as a secondary safety device, provided that the machine 
automatic terminal stop mechanism, in accordance with the Regula- 
tions, is installed and kept m proper condition and adjustment.) 

c. Direct current traction-type power elevators, run- 
ning at a speed in excess of 200' 0" per minute, except 
dumb-waiters, shall be provided with switches which 
shall slow down the elevator with not less than two 
steps and stop it on the third or last step. 

d. All elevators of the car-switch or button-control 
type, except dumb-waiters, shall be equipped with 
well-hmit switches operated respectively by the car and 
counterweight as they pass their upper limit of normal 
travel, and arranged to stop the machines before the 
cars or counterweights pass 18" above the upper limits 
of normal travel, or not exceeding one-half the over- 
travel space, where this space is less than 3' 0". A 
well-hmit switch may control, together with the car- 
control switch or car-control button, a single solenoid 
switch in the armature circuit only if the armature and 
brake circuits are positively opened by the machine 
automatic terminal stop mechanism. A well-limit 
switch may control, together with the car-control switch 
or car-control button, two or more solenoid switches, 
two of which must be closed to complete the armature 
circuit in each direction of travel. Where a well-limit 
switch controls the same solenoid switch or solenoid 
switches as the car-control smtch or car-control button, 
it shall be connected into the control circuit on the op- 



512 Division C. 

Section 7. Safety Devices. 

posite side of the magnet windings from the car-control 
switch or car-control button. 

e. All electric elevators operated by two or three 
phase alternating current shall be provided, in addition 
to the machine automatic terminal stop mechanism, 
with means to open automatically the line circuits be- 
fore the cars or counterweights pass 18" above their up- 
per limits of normal travel, or not exceeding one-half 
the over-travel space when this space is less than 3' 0". 

/. Elevators having shipper-rope control shall be 
equipped with adjustable ball stops, adjusted to stop 
the cars within 6" of the upper and lower floor landings. 

103. Automatic Electric Car Switches. 

a. Electric car-control switches shall be so con- 
structed as to return automatically to their off position 
upon the removal of the hand of the operator. 

104. Slack Cable Safeties on Counterweights. 

a. If a counterweight of any elevator does not run 
to the lowest floor of a building, and the space below 
its lowest limit of travel is used for any purpose, the 
counterweight shall be equipped with a safety device 
which will stop the counterweight if the cables attached 
to it should break or become slack. (See Regulation 
65b.) 

105. Speed Governors and Slack Cable Safeties. 

a. Speed governors, properly connected to the safety 
devices of the cars in such a manner that the cars shall 
be brought to rest if they attain excessive speed of 
descent, shall be applied to all power elevators operat- 



Existing Elevator Installations. 513 

Section 7. Safety Devices. 

ing at a speed of more than 100' 0" per minute, except 
direct-plunger elevators, sidewalk-type elevators and 
dumb-waiters. 

* (Where the safety is of the instantaneous type operated by the 
slackening or breaking of the hoisting cables, the speed governor 
is to be installed as an additional means of operating the safety, or 
a "compression type" safety is to be installed operated by the 
speed governor. The "compression type" of safety is recommended 
in connection with speed governors, their use being the more desir- 
able the higher the speed of the car.) 



b. Either (1) speed governors, properly connected to 
the safety devices of the cars in such a manner that the 
cars shall be brought to rest if they attain excessive 
speed of descent, or if the car-hoisting cables become 
slack or break, or (2) instantaneous safety devices 
operated by the slackening or breaking of the car- 
hoisting cables, shall be applied to all power elevators 
operating at a speed of 100' 0" per minute or less, except 
belt or chain-driven elevators, direct-plunger elevators, 
sidewalk-type elevators, carriage-type elevators, hatch- 
way-type elevators, dumb-waiters and sheave suspen- 
sion vertical cylinder hydraulic elevators. 

c. Speed governors, properly connected to the safety 
devices of the cars in such a manner that the cars shall 
be brought to rest if they attain excessive speed of 
descent, or if the cables become slack or break, shall be 
applied to all power elevators of the belt or chain- 
driven type which operate at a speed of 60' 0" to 100' 0" 
per minute, inclusive, and have a travel of more than 
40' 0", except sidewalk-type elevators, carriage-type 
elevators, hatchway-type elevators and dumb-waiters. 

d. Speed governors, properly connected to the 
safety devices of the cars in such a manner that the 



514 Division C. 

Section 7. Safety Devices. 

cars shall be brought to rest if they, attain excessive 
speed of descent, or if the cables become slack or break, 
shall be applied to sheave suspension vertical cyUnder 
hydraulic type elevators operating at a speed of 100' 0" 
per minute or less and having a travel of over 15' 0". 

106. Shipper=rope Locks. 

a. Power freight elevators controlled by shipper 
ropes, except sidewalk-type elevators and except dumb- 
waiters, shall be provided with shipper-rope locks, so 
arranged that the cars can be locked at each landing. 

107. Centering Ropes. 

a. Power freight elevators controlled by shipper 
ropes, except sidewalk-type elevators and except dumb- 
waiters, shall be provided, where practicable, with 
centering ropes or bridles, to stop the cars at any part 
of their travel. The centering ropes shall be attached 
to the shipper ropes directly under the upper sheaves. 

108. Warning Chains on Freight Cars. 

a. Warning chains shall be suspended from the car 
sills of power freight elevator cars, except those of 
dumb-waiters, hatchway-type elevators, sidewalk-type 
elevators, and except those with landing doors opening 
only from the shaftway. 

h. The warning chains shall be not less than 30" 
long, shall be made of No. coil. No. 7 wire gauge, 
and shall be set not more than 6" on centers, and 
secured to wood sills or cleats by staples 1" long. 

(The chains are required to be attached with 1" staples to wood 
so that, if caught, they will pull out before causing serious damage.) 



Existing Elevator Installations. 515 

Section 8. Capacity and Speed, etc. 

109. Bumpers. 

a. Where practicable, car bumpers shall be installed 
in elevator pits so as to leave a clear space of not less 
than 12" between the floor of the pit and the under 
side of the car shng when the elevator car rests on the 
bumpers, except for dumb-waiters, carriage-type ele- 
vators, and one-story sidewalk-type elevators. 

6. Counterweight bumpers, of the spring type or the 
equivalent, shall be installed to receive elevator counter- 
weights which do not run to the lowest floor of a build- 
ing, when the space below their lowest limit of travel 
is used for any purpose. (See, also. Regulation 650.) 

Section 8. Capacity and Speed; Change in Use 
of Elevator. 

110. Capacity and Speed. 

a. If the capacity of an existing elevator is increased 
the installation becomes a new installation. 

h. If the speed of an existing elevator is increased 
the installation becomes a new installation. 

c. No elevator traveling at a speed exceeding 150' 0" 
per minute shall be controlled by a hand-operated 
shipping cable. (See, also. Regulation 95a.) 

111. Change in Use of Elevator. 

a. Before a material change in the use of an elevator 
is made, the party making such change shall give 
notice thereof, in writing, to the department having 
jurisdiction. 

(The object of this Regulation is to prevent the improper use 
of elevators between regular inspections. A material change 



516 Division C. 



Section 9. Lighting, Signals, etc. 

includes any change that would require a change in the elevator 
installation, such as the use of a freight elevator for passenger 
service or for carrying help to and from work, in which case addi- 
tional safeguards are required, or the use for hoisting automobiles 
of an elevator originally designed for hoisting carriages, in which 
case the capacity of the elevator might be exceeded.) 



Section 9. Lighting; Signals; Voltage of Control 
Circuit; Fuse Substitution. 

112. Lighting. 

a. Every passenger elevator car, when in use, shall 
be properly lighted by an electric or gas light in the car 
at such times as there is insufficient natural light. 

(Gas lighting shall be used only when electricity for lighting is 
not available in the building.) 

h. Every freight elevator car, when in use, except 
cars of hatchway- type elevators and of dumb-waiters, 
shall be properly lighted by electricity or gas at such 
times as there is insufficient natural light. Lights 
may be located in or adjacent to the shaftways if they 
light the car properly throughout its entire travel, or 
the light may be located in the car. 

(Gas lighting in the cars shall be used only when electricity for 
lighting is not available in the biiilding.) 

c. There shall be electric or gas lighting at each story 
near hatchway-type, sidewalk-type and carriage-type 
elevators, so arranged as to illuminate the car and 
its approaches properly. If there is a tight enclosure 
around the elevator, sufficient lights shall be located 
inside of the shaftway. 

d. Every elevator machine room shall be provided 



Existing Elet^ator Installations. 517 

Section 9. Lighting, Signals, etc. 

with a suitable electric or gas light which can be lighted 
without passing over or reaching over any part of the 
machinery. 

113. Signals. 

a. An annunciator or other signal system, operated 
from each landing and indicating from which landing 
the call originates, shall be installed in every passenger 
elevator car except in private residence elevator cars 
and except in cars which have no hcensed operators. 

* h. There shall be a bell located in every power 
freight elevator or in the shaftway where it may be 
heard on all floors, and arranged to be operated from 
each landing opening. This Regulation does not apply 
to dumb-waiters, to elevators serving only two adjacent 
stories, nor to elevators equipped with an annunciator 
or other signal system such as required in Regulation 
113a. 

(This is intended as a signal device to notify the operator on the 
car, or on the floor where the car is stopped, that the elevator is 
wanted on another floor.) 

c. Every hatchway-type elevator car where sliding 
hatch covers are used shall be equipped with a gong 
which shall ring at least twice as the car passes through 
each story. The gong shall be plainly audible above the 
street noises and noises due to machinery or work in 
the building. 

(This Regulation is restricted to the sliding hatch covers because 
they are comparatively noiseless whereas the hinged type of hatch, 
covers \isually make sufficient noise to give a reasonable warning of 
the approach of the car. The gong shall be installed on any type 
of hatchway elevator if the operation of the hatch covers does not 
make sufficient noise to give warning of the approach of the car.) 



518 Division C. 

Section 9. Lighting, Signals, etc. 

114. Voltage of Control Circuit and Fuse Substi= 
tution. 

a. No difference of potential in excess o7 250 volts 
shall be permitted in any car-switch or button-control 
circuit. 

h. The substitution of wire or other current-carrying 
device in place of the proper fuses or circuit breaker is 
prohibited. 



Use of Permanent Elevators. 519 



DIVISION D. REGULATIONS APPLYING TO 
BUILDERS' ELEVATORS AND TO TEMPO= 
RARY USE OF PERMANENT ELEVATORS. 

Section 1. Builders' Elevators. 

Note. — Regulations other than Regulations 115 and 116 do not 
apply to builders' elevators. 

115. Inspection. 

a. No builder's elevator shall be put in use until 
notice has been given to the department or inspector 
having jurisdiction, after which its use shall be subject 
to the approval of such department or inspector. 

116. Slack Cable Safety and Protection of Open= 

ings. 

a. Builders' elevators used during the construction 
of buildings or other structures shall be equipped with 
safety devices which shall bring the cars to rest if the 
hoisting cables should become slack or should break. 

6. Each landing opening of all such elevators shall 
be protected by movable bar or bars about 3' 4" high, 
or the equivalent. 

c. Each floor opening of all such elevators shall be 
protected by a fixed enclosure, fence or guard on the 
unused sides, at least 5' 0" high. 

Section 2. Temporary Use of Permanent Ele= 

vators. 

Note. — See Regvilation 126d regarding operation. 

117. Use Subject to Approval of Inspector. 

a. An elevator installed for permanent use may 
be used temporarily before completion during the con- 



520 Division D. 

Section 2. Temporary Use, etc. 

struction of the building for carrying workmen and 
materials, subject to the approval of the inspector 
having jurisdiction. 

118. Car Enclosures. 

a. Temporary cars on permanent installations, and 
permanent cars when put into temporary use, shall be 
enclosed on all sides, except the landing sides, at least 
5' 0'' high, and shall be provided with suitable covers 
to protect persons on the car from falling materials. 

119. Slack Cable Safety. 

a. All permanent elevators so temporarily used 
shall be equipped with safety devices which shall bring 
the cars to rest if the hoisting cables should become 
slack or should break. 

120. Protection of Openings. 

a. Each landing opening of all such elevators shall 
be protected by a hinged bar or by a gate about 3' 4" 
in height, unless the permanent gates or landing doors 
are installed. 

h. The unused sides of the shaftway shall be pro- 
tected by suitable enclosures not less than 5' 0" high. 

121. Operator. 

a. No such elevator car shall be used temporarily 
unless in charge of a competent operator. 



Operation of Elevators. 521 



DIVISION E. REGULATIONS APPLYING TO 

OPERATION OF ELEVATORS. 
122. Licensed Operators. 

a. No person shall operate and no owner, lessee, 
employer or his agent shall cause or permit to be 
operated the elevators specified in b, c and d of this 
Regulation to be operated by licensed operators, unless 
the person operating the same is duly licensed: vro- 
vided, however, that in case of emergency such operation 
by a competent unlicensed person may be permitted 
for a period not exceeding seven consecutive days. 

h. Power passenger elevators shall be operated by 
licensed operators, except (1) the selective automatic 
push-button type when equipped with the required 
safeguards (see Regulations 14/, 26e, 74e and 85c) ; and 
except (2) elevators with shipper ropes accessible from 
the landings, when equipped with the required safe- 
guards (see Regulations 14g, 26c, 74/ and 85c); and 
except (3) a passenger elevator in a private residence 
occupied by one family; and except (4) a passenger 
elevator serving two landings only when such elevator 
is equipped with the door interlocking devices required 
on a selective automatic button-control elevator. 

c. Power freight elevators shall be operated by 
Ucensed operators if the elevators run at a speed exceed- 
ing 100' 0" per minute. 

d. Power freight elevators, except hatchway-type, 
carriage-type, sidewalk-type and dumb-waiters, and 
except elevators serving only two landings, shall be 
operated by hcensed operators whenever (1) they are 
used for carrying more than three persons, including the 
operator, or whenever (2) they are not provided with 
landing gates. (See Regulations 15a and 75«.) 



522 Division E. 

e. Licensed operators are not required for elevators 
used in uncompleted buildings for hoisting workmen and 
materials. 

/. A license shall not be required of an elevator con- 
tractor or of a mechanic engaged in the construction 
and repair of elevators, or of an inspector having 
authority to inspect elevators. 

123. Granting of Licenses. 

a. Whoever desires to act as an operator of elevators 
herein required to be operated by a licensed person 
shall make application to the department having juris- 
diction of elevators in the city or town, on blanks to 
be furnished by the said department. An appHcation 
shall be properly filled in and shall be accompanied by 
a written recommendation from the owner, occupant 
or lessee of the building in which the elevator or ele- 
vators to be operated are located, or by two citizens 
acceptable to the department. A license shall not be 
granted to a person less than eighteen years of age. 

h. The applicant shall be given a practical examina- 
tion as to his knowledge of the operation of elevators, 
particularly as to the safeguarding of passengers, by an 
inspector having jurisdiction, and if found competent 
shall be granted a license by the executive head of the 
department. Such executive head may, however, dele- 
gate the power to grant licenses to any inspector of 
the department having jurisdiction. 

c. All licenses shall be for the term of one year from 
the date thereof, but may be renewed yearly by the 
department having jurisdiction. Licenses in force when 
these regulations become effective shall remain vaUd 
until the term for which they were issued has expired. 

d. It shall be optional with any department granting 



Operation of Elevators. 523 

licenses, whether or not a license granted by another 
department shall be accepted without an examination 
of the licensee. Such acceptance shall be indicated by 
the indorsement, across the face of the license, of the 
inspector having jurisdiction. If the inspector having 
jurisdiction will not accept by indorsement a license 
from another department, he may grant a new license 
with or without examination. 

e. Should an operator lose his license, he shall be 
granted a duplicate thereof upon apphcation to the 
department granting the original license. Such appli- 
cation shall state fully all particulars relative to the 
granting and loss of the license, and the apphcant shall 
make oath to the statements contained in his appHca- 
tion. 

/. The fee for a new license shall be one dollar; the 
fee for a duplicate license shall be fifty cents; the fee 
for a transfer or issuance of a license by one depart- 
ment upon the presentation of a license from another 
department shall be fifty cents; and the fee for the 
renewal of a license shall be fifty cents. 

g. All fees shall be payable upon the granting of the 
respective licenses, and shall accrue to the appropriation 
of the department granting the licenses, except as 
otherwise provided by law or ordinance. 

h. The applications and a record of the licenses 
issued by each department shall be kept by such depart- 
ment. 

124. Revocation and Suspension of Licenses. 

a. A wilful falsification in the matter of a statement 
in an application shall be deemed sufficient cause for 
the revocation at any time of a license granted on said 
application. 



524 Division E. 

6. A license may be revoked by an inspector having 
jurisdiction if the holder is incompetent or untrust- 
worthy, or may be suspended for a period not exceeding 
fourteen days for negligence. 

125. Display of Licenses. 

a. A licensed operator shall at all times when opera- 
ting an elevator have in his possession his license card, 
and shall display the same on demand of the owner 
or occupant of the building, or of any person authorized 
to inspect the elevator, or of any police oflEicer. 

126. Designated Operators. 

a. If it appears to an inspector having jurisdiction 
that an elevator not required by these Regulations to 
be operated by a licensed operator is being operated 
without due regard to safety, he may require the 
owner, occupant, occupants or lessee to designate one 
or more reliable persons to operate the said elevator, 
subject to the approval, in writing, of the head of the 
department having jurisdiction. 

b. The names of such person or persons so designated 
shall be made a matter of record by the inspector having 
jurisdiction, and shall be posted in proper form on the 
elevator or elevators in question. After being so posted 
the said elevator or elevators shall not be operated by 
a person who has not been designated as provided 
herein, until such time as the reqmrement for such 
designated operator has been removed by the depart- 
ment or inspector which made it. 

c. No person, except by authority of the inspector 
having jurisdiction, shall alter, deface or remove, or 
cause to be altered, defaced or removed, a designating 
card. 



Opeeation of Elevators, 525 

d. Permanent elevators used temporarily, before 
the completion of a building, for carrying workmen 
and materials shall be operated by "designated op- 
erators." 

e. A licensed operator shall be permitted to operate 
any elevator requiring a "designated operator." 

127. Closing of Doors and Gates. 

a. All operators shall close the landing door, if there 
is no automatic landing gate, before starting the ele- 
vator. 

h. All operators shall keep passengers far enough 
from the car opening to protect them and shall keep the 
car door or car gate closed, if there is one, while the 
car is in motion. 

128. Locking of Shipper Ropes. 

a. All shipper ropes shall be locked by the operator 
when the cars are being loaded or unloaded. 



526 Division R 



DIVISION F. REGULATIONS APPLYING TO 
NEW ESCALATOR INSTALLATIONS. 

129. Drive. 

a. Each ascending escalator shall be driven by an 
independent electric motor. 

130. Speed. 

a. Escalators of the "stair-tread" type shall operate 
at a speed not exceeding 95' 0" per minute. 

b. Escalators of the "cleat" type shall operate at a 
speed not exceeding 120' 0" per minute. 

131. Hand Rails. 

a. All escalators shall be equipped on both sides 
with moving hand rails operating at the speed of the 
escalator and in the same direction of travel. 

132. Electric Brake. 

a. Every escalator shall have on the driving mech- 
anism an electric brake whicL shall automatically and 
immediately stop the escalator when the motor circuit 
is opened. 

133. Emergency Stops. 

a. There shall be a button or other type switch 
located in a conspicuous position at the top and at 
the bottom of each escalator. The operation of the 
button or switch shall cause the opening of the line 
circuit, stopping the motor and applying the brake. 
Each button or switch shall be plainly marked "Es- 
calator Stop Button" or "Escalator Stop Switch" 



New Escalator Installations. 527 

as the case may be. If a glass front is placed over the 
button or switch, the operation of such button or 
switch shall be caused automatically by the breaking 
of the glass, and suitable means for breaking the glass, 
such as a hammer, shall be chained or otherwise se- 
curely fastened conveniently near by. 

134. Safety Devices. 

a. All ascending escalators the mo^dng treads of 
which are operated by chains, shall be equipped with 
safety dogs or pawls, applied to the ascending portion 
of the escalator, which shall prevent the descending 
travel of this portion of the escalator, should the 
driving mechanism or any portion of the escalator plat- 
form breaks. There shall be one dog or pawl near the 
top of the ascending portion of the escalator platform 
exposed for carrying passengers and one near the 
bottom of this platform, and there shall be dogs or 
pawls located in intermediate positions such that the 
maximum distance between pawls measured along the 
escalator inchne shall not exceed 30' 0". 

h. Ascending escalators operated by rack type links 
shall be provided with safety dogs as above specified, 
or with safety mechanisms at or near the lowest pas- 
senger level and operating on the ascending links, which 
will prevent reverse travel of the escalator. 

c. The framework forming the support for the 
escalator mechanism at its lower end shall be of suffi- 
cient strength to safely retain the escalator platform 
should it break at any portion of its length. 

d. The guides and the top and bottom framing sup- 
ports of the escalator shall be so constructed that should 
the escalator platform break at any portion of its 
length it shall not be displaced from its guides. 



528 Division F. 

135. Links and Chains. 

a. Rack type links, when used to drive the escalator 
treads, shall be of annealed steel castings of not less 
than 80,000 pounds per square inch tensile strength, 
and shall be provided with friction-bearing surface on 
the back not less than 1" wide extending the full length 
of the links. The factor of safety shall not be less than 
20. 

6. Where chains are used to operate the treads they 
shall be constructed of metal of tensile strength of not 
less than 60,000 pounds per square inch, and the factor 
of safety shall be not less than 10. 

136. Angle of Inclination. 

a. The angle of inclination of an escalator shall not 
exceed 30° above the horizontal. 

137. Sides. 

a. Each escalator shall be enclosed on each side 
from the hand rail to the escalator treads or skirt 
guard rail. These enclosures shall, on the escalator 
side, be smooth, without depressed or raised panelling 
or moulding. There shall be no jogs or abrupt changes 
in width between the enclosing sides. Should any 
change in width be necessary the enclosing sides shall 
be moulded to such change in width at an angle not 
greater than 15° from the line of escalator travel. 



Existing Escalator Installations. 529 



DIVISION Q. REGULATIONS APPLYING TO 
EXISTING ESCALATOR INSTALLATIONS. 

138. Speed. 

a. The speed of escalators of the "stair-tread" type 
shall not be increased to ex:ceed 95' 0" per minute, but 
the escalators of this type now operating at a higher 
speed need not be reduced in speed. 

h. Escalators of the "cleat tjrpe" shall operate at a 
speed not exceeding 120' 0" per minute. 

139. Hand Rails. 

a. All escalators shall be equipped on both sides with 
moving hand rails operating at the speed of the escalator 
and in the same direction of travel. 

140. Emergency Stops. 

a. There shall be a button or other type switch 
located in a conspicuous position at the top and at the 
bottom of each escalator. The operation of the button 
or switch shall cause the opening of the line circuit, 
stopping the motor. Each button or switch shall be 
plainly marked "Escalator Shop Button" or "Escalator 
Stop Switch," as the case may be. If a glass front is 
placed over the button or switch the operation of such 
button or switch shall be caused automatically by the 
breaking of the glass, and suitable means for breaking 
the glass, such as a hammer, shall be chained or other- 
wise securely fastened conveniently near by. 

141. Safety Devices. 

a. All ascending escalators, the moving treads of 
which are operated by chains, shall be equipped with 
safety dogs or pawls, applied to the ascending portion 



530 Division G. 

of the escalator, which shall prevent the descending 
travel of this portion of the escalator, should the driving 
mechanism or any portion of the escalator platform 
break. There shall be one dog or pawl near the top 
of the ascending portion of the escalator platform ex- 
posed for carrying passengers and one near the bottom 
of this platform, and there shall be dogs or pawls located 
in intermediate positions such that the maximum dis- 
tance between pawls measured along the escalator 
incline shall not exceed 30' 0". 

b. The frame work forming the support for the 
escalator mechanism at its lower end shall be of suffi- 
cient strength to safely retain the escalator platform 
should it break at any portion of its length. 

GiFFORD Le Clear, Chairman, 
Angus H. McDonald, 
Patrick O'Hearn, 
Robert H. Mitchell, 
Clifford J. Stoddard, 
Martin B. McLaughlin, 
John C. MacDonald, 

Board of Elevator Regulations. 

Approved in Council, June 29, 1915. 

(Signed) E. F. HAMLIN, 

Executive Secretary. 



INDEX. 



INDEX TO LAW. 



Page Sect. 

Accidents, to be reported, 415 5 

AiiTERATiON AND INSTALLATION, Under supepvision of, • . 413 1 

Alterations or amendments to Regulations: — 

Governor may grant public hearings upon, . . .416 9 

Governor and Council may grant public hearings upon, 415 7 

Petitions for, to be made in writing, 416 9 

To be approved by Governor and Council, . . .416 9 

Appeal from order of inspector 417 11 

Appointment of Board of Elevator Regulations by Governor 

and Council, 415 6 

Board of Elevator Regulations: — • 

Appointment of, 415 6 

Duties of, 415 6, 7 

Expenditures by, 417 10 

Membership of, 415 7 

New, may be appointed by Governor, 416 9 

New, to be dissolved upon approval of Regulations, . 416 9 

To be dissolved upon approval of Regulations, . . . 416 8 

To serve -nithout compensation, 416 8 

To submit Regulations for approval, 415 7 

Building Inspectors, District Police: — 

To enforce regulations in certain cities and towns, . . ■ 415 7 

To have supervision in certain cities and towns, . .413 1 

Certificate of approval, to be issued by inspector having 

jurisdiction, 413 1, 2 

Certificate of safe condition, to be issued and posted, 414 4 

Chief of District Police: — 

Regulations, when approved, to be referred to, . . .415 7 

Reports of inspections, to be made to, .... 414 3 

To furnish forms for reports of inspections, . . . 414 3 

Cities and towns: — 

Building inspectors of District Police, to have jurisdiction in 

certain, 413 1 

Inspectors of buildings, to have supervision, . . . 413 1 

Inspectors of buildings, to enforce regulations, . . . 415 7 

533 



534 Index to Law. 

Page Sect. 

Court jurisdiction: — 

Appeal to, by whoever is aggrieved 417 11 

May employ experts , 417 11 

May hold hearings, . 417 11 

District Police: — 

Building inspectors, to enforce regulations in certain cities 

and towns, 415 7 

Building inspectors, to have super^^sion in certain cities 

and towns 413 1 

Chief of, to furnish forms for reports of inspections, . 414 3 

Regulations, when approved, to be referred by Governor 

to Chief of . 415 7 

Reports of inspections, to be made to Chief of, . . . 414 3 

Duties of Board of Elevator Regulations, . . . 415 6 

Expenditures, by Board of Elevator Regulations, . . 417 10 

Experts, may be employed by court, 417 11 

General penalty, 418 12 

Governor: — 

May grant public hearings upon petitions, .... 416 9 

New Board may be appointed by, 416 9 

To refer approved Regulations to Chief of District 
Police, . . 415 7 

Governor and Council: — 
Alterations and amendments, to be approved by, . . 416 9 
Board of Elevator Regulations, to be appointed by, ,415 6 

Board of Elevator Regulations, to be dissolved by, . .416 9 

Expenditures, to be approved by, 417 10 

New Board, may be dissolved by, 
PubUc hearings, may be granted by, 
Public hearings, to be held before, 
Shall approve Regulations, 

Inspections: — - 

Forms for reports of, to be furnished by Chief of District 

Police, . 414 3 

Reports of, not required from city of Boston, . . . 414 3 
Reports of, to be made to Chief of District Police, . .414 3 
To be made by inspectors having jurisdiction, . .414,415 3,5 

Inspector of buildings of cities and towns: — • 

To have supervision, 413 1 

To enforce regulations, . . . ... . .415 7 

Inspectors ha\ing jurisdiction: — 

Accidents, to be reported to, 415 5 

Appeal from order of, 417 11 



. 416 9 

. 415 7 

415,416 7,9 

415,416 7,9 



Index to Law. 535 

Inspectoes having jurisdiction — Concluded, Page Sect, 

Copy of plans and specifications, to be filed with, . . 413 1 

Practical test of safety devices, to be made in presence of , . 413 2 

To issue certificate of approval, 413 1, 2 

To issue certificate of safe condition, 414 3 

To issue specifications of requirements, .... 413 1 

To make inspection, 414 3 

To make practical test of safety devices, .... 414 3 

To post notice of unsafe condition, 414 4 

To prohibit use of, 414 4 

Installation and alteration, under supervision of, . . 413 1 
Manufacturer, to make practical test of safety devices, . 413 2 
Manufacturer or owner, to file copy of plans and speci- 
fications, 413 1 

Membership of Board of Elevator Regulations, . . . 415 7 

Notice op unsafe condition: — 

To be posted, . . . . 414 4 

Removal of, prohibited, 414 4 

Order of inspector, appeal from, 417 11 

Owner or manufacturer, to file copy of plans and speci- 
fications, 413 1 

Owner or person in charge, to post certificate of safe 

condition, 414 4 

Penalty, general, 418 12 

Petitions for alterations or amendments: — 

Governor may grant public hearings upon, . . . 416 9 

To be made in writing, 416 9 

Plans and specifications: — 

By whom to be filed 413 1 

Copy of, to be filed, 413 1 

Practical test of safety devices, to be made, . . 413, 414 2, 3 

Printed copy of Regulations, to be furnished, . . .415 7 

Public hearings: — 

May be granted by Governor, 416 9 

May be granted by Governor and Council, . . . 415 7 
Regulations: — 

Alterations or amendments to, to be approved by Governor 

and Council 415,416 7,9 

Governor to refer to Chief of District Police, when 

approved 415 7 

Printed copy of, to be furnished, 415 7 

To be approved by Governor and Council, . .415, 416 7, 9 



536 Index to Law. 

Regulations — Concluded, Page Sect. 

To be enforced by, ......... 415 7 

To be submitted to Governor and Council for approval, 415, 416 7, 9 

Repeal ; .... 418 13 

Reports of accidents to be made, 415 5 

Repoets of inspections: — 

Forms for, to be furnished by Chief of the District Police, . 414 3 

Not required from city of Boston, 414 3 

To be made to Chief of District Police .... 414 3 

Safett devices, practical test of, to be made, . . 413, 414 2, 3 

Specifications and plans: — 

By whom to oe filed, 413 1 

Copy of, to be filed 413 1 

Specification of requirements, to be issued by, . . 413 1 

Time of taking effect, . 419 14 

Unsafe condition: — ■ 

Notice of, to be posted, 414 4 

To be reported, . . . . . . . . • 415 5 

Use of elevator prohibited, when, ..... 414 4 



INDEX TO REGULATIONS. 



[References are to Regulation Numbers.] 

New 
Installa- 

^ tions. 

Adjustable ball stops, 50 / 

Angle of inclination of escalators, . . 136 a 
Automatic : — 

Electric car switches, 51 a 

Guide lubricators, 47 o 

Hatch covers, , . ..... 18 a-g 

Baes at exterior windows, .... 19 a-d 

Belt and chain-driven machines, . . 28 a-c 

Boxing in op gate counterweights, . . 15 Z 
Brakes, electric, on: — 

Elevators, 54 a, 6 

Escalators 132 a 

Builders' elevators and temporary use 
OF permanent elevators, regula- 
tions APPLYING TO, ..... 115-121 

Builders' elevators (Section 1), . . . 115, 116 

Inspection, 115 a 

Slack cable safety and protection of open- 
ings, " . . . 116 a-c 

Bumpers, .58 a-d 

Car 58 a, &, 

Counterweight 58 c 

Piston travel-limit, 30 6 

Button-control elevator. {See selective 
automatic button-control elevator.) 

Cables (Section 4), 38,39 

Capacity of, 38 c 

Hoisting, 38 a-j 

Shipper ropes, . 39 a-e 

Capacity and speed; Change in use of 

elevator (section 8), . . . . 60, 61 

Capacity and speed, 60 a-f 

Capacity plates, 60 6 

Change in use of elevator, , . . . 61 o 

537 



Existing 
Installa- 
tions. 
102/ 



103 a 
100 a 

78 o-/ 

79 a, & 
86 a, 6 

75 i 



115-121 
115, 116 

115 a 

116 a-c 
109 a, h 

d 109 a 
109 6 



94,95 

94a-ff 
95 a-c 

110, 111 

110 a-c 

111 a 



)38 



Index to Regulations. 



New Existing 
Installa- Installa- 
tions, tions. 
Carbiage-type elevator: — 

All elevator regvilations apply to this type 
of elevator in common with other types, 
except those regulations in which this 
type is specifically excepted. 

Definition, 1 e 1 e 

Enclosures or guards around shaftways, . . 6 a-c 66 a 

Lighting, . . . 62 c 112 c 

Speed, 60 d 

Car: — 

Control switch, emergency, .... 59 a-c - 

Domes, 24 d 83 c 

Enclosures, . .24 a-j 83 a-h 

Ends of hoisting cable, fastening of, . . 38 i - 

Gates a;nd doors 26 a-h 85 a-h 

Guide rails, 44 a-f 99 a 

Hoisting cables, 38 a-j 94 a-g 

Platforms of direct-plunger elevators, . . 23 c 81 c 

Seats, . . . . . . . . • 25 a 84 o 

Switches, automatic electric, . . . . 51 a 103 a 

Cars and car enclosures (Section 2), . 23-27 81-85 

Car enclosures, 24 a-j 83 a-h 

Car gates and doors, 26 a-h 85 a-h 

Cars, . 23 a-g 81 a-c 

Clearance between car and shaftway and 

between car and counterweight, . . . 27 a, b - 

Platform attached to existing hoist, . . - 82 o 

Seats in cars, 25 o 84 a 

Car enclosures op permanent elevators 

USED TEMPORARILY 118a 118a 

Cast iron not to be used in: — 

Guide rails, 46 a - 

Heads, 35 i 

Safety devices, ....... 48 a - 

Suspension frames, 23 ^ - 

Centering ropes, . . . . . . 56 a 107 o 

Chains: — 

On escalators, . . . . . . . 135 a - 

Warning, on freight cars, 57 a, b 108 o, b 

Change in use of elevator 61 a 111 a 



Index to Regulations. 



539 



New Existing 
Installa- Installa- 
tions, tions. 
Cleaning: — 

Discharge tanks of hydraulic elevators, . 34 o 90 a 

Pressure tanks of hydraulic elevators, . . 35 m 91 c 
Clearance between: — 

Car and shaftway and between car and 

counterweight, . . . . . . 27 a, h - 

Counterweights and shaftways, ... 43 a - 
Face of fiUing-in material of freight ele- 
vator shaftways and car, . . . . 12 c 72 c 

Closing of doors and gates by operator, 127 c, h 127 a, h 

Construction, counterweight, . . . 40 a 96 a 

Control circuit, voltage of, . . . 64 a 114 a 

Counterweight: — 

Ends of hoisting cables, fastening of, . . 38 i - 

Gate, 15 Z 75 i 

Guide rails, . . . . . . . . 44 /, 45 a-d - 

Hoisting cables, .38 a-j 94 a-g 

Counterweights (Section 5), . . . 40-43 96-98 

Clearance between counterweights and 

shaftways, 43 a - 

Counterweight, construction of, ... 40 a 96 a 

Counterweight runways and enclosures, . 41 a-e 97 a-e 

Counterweight stops, 42 a 98 a 

Covering discharge tanks of hydraulic 

ELEVATORS, 34 a - 

Covers on freight elevators, . . . 24 /i 83 s^ 

Danger chains, . 57 a, b 108 a, b 

Definitions, . 1 1 

Carriage-type elevator, 1 e 1 e 

Dumb-waiter, ....... 1 j 1 j 

Elevator, la la 

Escalator 1 o 1 o 

Existing installation, . . . . . 1 p 1 p 

Freight elevator, 1 c 1 c 

Full-automatic gate 11 It 

Gravity gate, In In 

Hatchway-type elevator Id Id 

New installation, 1 g 1 q 

Passenger elevator '. 1 & 1 & 

Power elevators, Ik Ik 



540 Index to Regulations. 

New- 
Installa- 
tions. 
Definitions — Concluded. 

Selective automatic button-control eleva- 
tor, Iff 

Semi- or half-automatic gate, .... 1 m 

Sidewalk-type elevator, . . . . . 1 / 
Steam hydraulic-type elevator, . . . 1 i 

Traction-type elevator, 1 ^ 

Designated operatoks, 126 a-e 

Direct-plunger elevators, car platforms 

OF 23 c 

Discharge tanks of hydraulic elevators, 34 a, h 

Display of licenses, 125 a 

Division: — 

A. Definitions, 1 

B. Regulations applying to new elevator 

installations 2-64 

C. Regulations applying to existing ele- 

vator installations, . . . . - 

D. Regulations applying to builders' ele- 

vators and temporary use of perma- 
nent elevators, " 115-121 

E. Regulations applying to operation of 

elevators, 122-128 

F. Regulations applying to new escalator 

installations, 129-137 

G. Regulations applying to existing es- 

calator installations, . . . . - 

Domes of Cars 24 d 

Doors: — 

Car gates, and, 26 a-h 

Closing of, by operator, 127 a, b 

Landing, ........ 14 a-k 

Number, in power passenger elevators, . . 24 c 

Drive of escalators, 129 a 

Dumb-waiters. 

All elevator regulations apply to this type 
of elevator in common with other types, 
except those regulations in which this 
type is specifically excepted. 
Definition, ........ 1 j 

Landing doors 14 i-k 

Machine slack-cable safety devices, . . 49 c 



Existing 
Installa- 
tions. 



Iff 
1 m 
1/ 
1 i 
Ih 
126 a-e 

81 c 
90 a, h 
125 a 



65-114 

115-121 
122-128 



138-141 
83 c 

85 a-h 

127 o, b 

74 a-i 



74 g-i 



Index to Regulations. 



541 



New Existing 
Installa- Installa- 
tions, tions. 
Electbic bkakes on: — 

Elevators, 54: a, b - 

Escalators, 132 a - 

Elevator, definition, la 1 o 

Emergency: — • 

Car-control switch, ...... 59 a-c - 

Exit, ■ . . 24i 

Stops on escalators, 133 a 140 a 

Enclosure of gears, ...... 32 a 88 a 

Enclosures: — • 

Car, 24 a-j 83 a-h 

Car of permanent elevators used tempo- 
rarily, . . 118 o 118 a 

Counterweight runways and, . . . . 41 a-e 97 a-e 
Netting on grille-work, ..... 10 a 70 a 
Opening of standing portions, .... 9 a 69 a 
Or guards around shaftways of carriage- 
type elevators and of hand-power ele- 
vators, - 66 a 

Enclosures around: — 

Elevator shaftways in general, ... 3 a-f - 

Elevator shaftways in stairwells, . . . 5 a, b - 

Elevator shaftways outside of buildings, .8a - 

Isolated counterweights, 11 a, 6 71 a, 6 

Machines, 33 a-e 89 a 

Shaftways of carriage-type elevators, . . 6 a-c 66 a 
Shaftways of elevators other than carriage- 
type and hatchway-type, .... - 08 a, b 
Shaftways of elevators serving only two 

adjacent stories, 4 a-e - 

Shaftways of hand-power elevators, . . - 66 a 

Shaftways of hatchway-type elevators, . . 7 a, b 67 a, b 

Equalizers to be installed, .... 38 i - 
Escalator: — ■ 

Angle of inclination, 136 a - 

Definition, lo lo 

Drive, 129 a 

Electric brake, . . . . . . . 132 a - 

Emergency stops, 133 a 140 a 

Existing installations, regulations applying 

to, - 138-141 

Hand rails, . 131 a 139 a 



542 



Index to Regulations. 



New 
Installa- 
tions. 
EscALATOB — Concluded. 

Links and chains, 135 a, h 

New installations, regiilations applying to, 129-137 

Safety devices, 134 a-d 

Sides, 137 a 

Speed 130 a. 6 

Existing elevator installations, regu- 
lations APPLTING TO, - 

Existing escalator installations, regu- 
lations APPLYING TO, - 

Existing hoist, platform attached to, . - 

Existing installation, definition, . . — 

Factor of safety: — 

Car and counterweight hoisting cables 

(minimum), 38 d 

Chain on escalators, 135 & 

Piston rod in tension of hydraulic elevators 

of sheave type (minimum) , . . . . 30 a 

Pressure tanks for hydraulic elevators, . , 35 &, c 

Rack type links on escalators, . . . 135 a 

Steel suspension frames of cars (minimum) , 23 / 

Fastening of car-guide rails, ... 44 a-c 

Filling-in: — 

Outside walls of freight elevators, ... 12 a-e 

f 12 e 

Substitution of gates or doors for, . . • I ofi f 

FiRE-RESISTINQ ENCLOSURES AROUND: — 

Elevator machines, 33 a 

Elevator shaftways in general, ... 3 a-f 

Elevator shaftways in stairwells, . . . 5 a,b 

Isolated counterweights, 11 a, 6 

Shaftways of carriage-type elevators, . . 6 a-c 
Shaftways of elevators serving only two 

adjacent stories, 4 a-e 

FiRE-BESISTING LANDING DOORS, . . . 14 a, & 

Flat-stayed heads, not to be used, . . 35 j 

Freight cars, warning chains on, . . 57 a, b 
Freight elevator: — 

Covers on , 24: h 

Definition . 1 c 

Lighting, . . *. ... . . 62 & 



Existing 
Installa- 
tions. 



141 a, b 
138 a, b 

65-114 

138-141 
82 o 
Ip 

' 94 6 
91 a, 6 



72 a-e 
72 e 
85 f,g 



71 a, b 



74 a 




108 a, 


6 


83 g 




1 c 




112 6 





Index to Regulations. 



543 



Friction machines, 

Full-automatic gate, definition. 
Fuse substitution prohibited, 
Gate: — 

Counterweights, boxing in 

Full-automatic, definition, .... 

Gravity, definition, 

Semi- or half-automatic, definition. 

Shoes and runs 

Gates: — 

Car, 

Closing of, by operator, 

Landing, at ground openings of elevators out- 
side of building 

Landing, at openings in outside walls, . 

Landing, in general, 

Gears, enclosure of, 

Governors, speed, and slack-cable safe- 
ties, 

Granting of licenses, 

Gratings. {See Platform.) 

Gravity gate, definition, .... 

Guards: — 

Around shaftways of carriage-type ele- 
vators 

Around shaftways of hand-power eleva- 
tors, 

Around sidewalk-type elevators. 
Guide rails (Section 6), . 

Automatic guide lubricators, . 

Car-guide raUs, 

Cast-iron guide rails, not to be used, 

Counterweight guide rails. 
Guide strips < 

RAILS, 

HaLI^ AUTOMATIC GATE, DEFINITION, 

Handholes 

Hand-power elevators, enclosures 

guards around, . 
Hand rails of escalators. 
Hatch covers, automatic, 



New 


Existing 


nstalla- 


Installa- 


tions. 


tions. 


29 a 


* _ 


1 I 


1 I 


64 6 


114 & 


15 1 


75 t 


1 I 


1 I 


In 


1 n 


1 m 


1 m 


15 i 


- 


2Qa-h 


85 a-h 


127 o, h 


127 o, h 


n a 


77 a 


16a-d 


76 a-d 


Iba-l 


75 a-i 


32 o 


88 a 


53 a-e 


105 a-d 


123 a-h 


123 a-h 



6 a 



WOODEN CAR-GUIDE 



1 n 



66 a 



- 


66 a 


18/ 


78 e 


44-47 


99, 100 


47 a 


100 a 


44 a-/ 


99 a 


46 a 


- 


44 /, 45 


a-d 99 a 


44d, e 


99 a 


1 m 


1 m 


35 fc 


- 


_ 


66 a 


131a 


139 a 


18 a-g 


78 a-/ 



544 



Index to Regulations. 



New 


Existing 


Installa- 


Installa- 


tions. 


tions. 



Hatchway-type elevatok: — 

All elevator regulations apply to this type 
of elevator in common with other types, 
except those regulations in which this 
type is specifically excepted. 

Definition, 

Enclosures around shaftways, .... 

Hatch covers, 

Lighting, 

Signals, 

Speed, 

Height of gates when closed (minimum), . 

Hinged hatch covees, 

Hinges, 

Hoist existing, platfoem attached to, 

Hoisting cables, 

Hydeaulic elevatoes: — 

Discharge tanks, 

Pressure tanks, . . . . 

Pumps, relief valves, 

Hydeaulic machines: — 

Metal guides for sheave suspension yokes, . 

Piston rods of, 

Travehng sheaves of vertical, . 

Valve chambers of, 

Inspection of buildees' elevatoes, 
Insulation of shippee eopes, 



Inteelocking devices, 



Isolated counteeweights, enclosuees 

ABOUND, 11 a, b 

Joints of wood gate feames, . . . 15 h 

Landing: — 

Doors, 14 a-k 

Gates, at ground openings of elevators out- 
side of building, 17 a 

Gates, at openings in outside walls, . . 16 a-d 

Gates, in general 15 a-l 



1 d 


Id 


7 a,b 


67 a, & 


18 g 


78/ 


62 c 


112 c 


63 c 


113 c 


60 d 


- 


15 i 


75 g 


18 d 


- 


18 c 


78 c 


- 


82 a 


38 a-j 


94 a-flr 


34 a, 6 


90 o, b 


35 a-r 


91a-/ 


36 a-d 


92 a, & 


30 c 


_ 


30 a, b 


87 b 


30 e 


87 a 


30 d 


- 


115 a 


115 a 


39 e 


95 c 


14 c, f, g 


74 b, e, f 


15 a 


75 a 


16 c 


76 c 


23 6 


81 o, b 


26 b, c 


85 6, c 



71 a, b 



74 a~-i 

77 a 
76 a-d 

75 a-i 



Index to Regulations. 



545 



New 
Installa- 
tions. 

Licensed opekators 122 a-f 

Licenses: — 

Display of, • 125 a 

Duplicate, how obtained, 123 e 

Fees 123/ 

Granting, 123 a-h 

May be renewed yearly, 123 c 

Not granted to persons less than eighteen 

years of age, 123 a 

Practical examination shall be given, . . 123 b 

Revocation and suspension, .... 124 a, b 

Written application to be made, . . . 123 a 
Lighting; Signals; Voltage of control 
circuit; Fuse substitution (Sec- 
tion 9), ....... . 62-64 

Lighting, . . . . . . . . 62 a-d 

Signals, -63 a-c 

Voltage of control circuit and fuse substi- 
tution, 64 a, & 

Links and chains on escalators, . . . 135 o, 6 

Loads, calculation of, 31 a-c 

Locking of shipper ropes by operator, . 128 a 

Locks, shipper-rope, 55 o 

Lubricators, automatic guide, . . . 47 a 
Machine rooms: — 

Enclosures 3 6 

Lighting 62 d 

Machine slack-cable safety devices, . 49 a-c 
Machines: — 

Belt and chain-driven, 28 a-c 

Enclosures around 33 a-c 

Friction, 29 o 

Hydraulic, 30 a-e 

Support, 31 a-d 

Machines; Machine supports; Tanks 

(Section 3), 28-37 

Belt and chain-driven machines, ... 28 a-c 

Discharge tanks of hydraulic elevators, . 34 a, 6 

Elevator pump regulators, . . . . 37 a 

Enclosure of gears, 32 a 

Enclosures around machines, , , . , 33 a-c 



Existing 


Installa- 


tions. 


122 a-f 


125 a 


123 e 


123/ 


123 a-h 


123 c 


123 a 


123 b 


124 o, b 


123 a 


112-114 


112 a-d 


113 a-c 



114 a, b 



128 o 




106 a 




100 o 




112 d 




101 a 




86 a, 


b 


89 a 





86-93 
86 a, b 
90 a, b 
93 a 

88 a 

89 a 



546 



Index to Regulations. 



New Existing 
Installa- Installa- 
tions, tions. 
Machines, etc. — Concluded. 

Friction macliines, 29 a - 

Hydraulic macliines, . . . . . 30 a-e - 

Piston rods of hydraulic macliines, . . . 30 a, 5 87 b 

Pressure tanks for hydraulic elevators, . . 35 a-r 91 a-f 

Relief valves on hydraulic elevator pumps, . 36 a-d 92 o, b 

Support of machines and sheaves, ... 31 a-d - 

Traveling sheaves of vertical hydraulic 

machines, 30 e 87 a 

Manholes, 35 Z - 

Maelin-covered cables 38 a — 

Metal guides for sheave strsPENsiON yoke, 30 c - 

Netting on geille-woek enclosxjees, . . 10 a 70 a 

New elevatoe installations, eegulations 

applying to 2-64 - 

New escalatoe installations, eegulations 

applying to, 129-137 - 

New INSTALLATION, DEFINITION OF, ... 1 Q — 

numbee of doors in caes, .... 24 c - 
Opening of: — 

Landing doors, 14 a-k 74 a-i 

Standing portions of enclosures, ... 9 o 69 o 
Openings: — 

And set-backs in outside walls of freight ele- 
vator shaftways, 12 a-e 72 a-e 

Protection of, on builders' elevators, . . 116 6, c 116 fe, c 

Protection of, on permanent elevators used 

temporarily, 120 a, b 120 a, 6 

Operation of elevators, regulations ap- 
plying TO, 122-128 122-128 

Operation of elevatoes: — 

Closing of doors and gates, .... 127 a, b 127 a, b 

Designated operators, 126 a-e 126 a-e 

Display of licenses, ...... 125 a 125 a 

Granting of licenses, 123 a-h 123 a-h 

Licensed operators, 122 a-f 122 a-f 

Locking of shipper ropes, .... 128 a 128 a 

Revocation and suspension of licenses, . . 124 o, b 124 a, b 

OpEEATOR on permanent elevator USED 

temporarily 121 a 121 a 



Index to Regulations. 



547 



■ Operatobs: — 

Designated, 

Licensed, 

Over-travel, • 

Passage under elevator, . . . . 

Passenger elevator: — 

Definition, 

Lighting, 

Pawls on escalators, 

Permanent elevators, temporary use of, , 
Piston rods of hydraulic machines, . 
Piston travel limit bumpers or stops. 

Pits, 

Platform: — 

Attached to existing hoist, . . . . 

At top of shaftway 

Platforms, direct-plunger elevator, 
Power elevators, definition, 
Pressure tanks for hydraulic elevators, . 
Projections into shaftways, . . . . 
Protection of: — 

Gates accessible to unauthorized persons. 

Hatchway openings, 

Openings of permanent elevators used tem- 
porarily, 

Openings on builders ' elevators. 
Pump regulators, . . . . . . 

Rails: — 

Car-guide, 

Cast-iron guide, not to be used, 
Counterweight-guide, . . . , . 
Hand, of escalators, 



Regulations applying to: — 

Builders' elevators and temporary use of 

permanent elevators. 
Existing elevator installations, 
Existing escalator installations, 
New elevator installations. 
New escalator installations. 
Operation of elevators, 



New 


Existing 


Installa- 


Installa- 


tions. 


tions. 


126 a-e 


126 a-e 


122 a-f 


122 a-f 


22 a-e 


- 


2 a-c 


65 a-c 


lb 


1 b 


62 a 


112 a 


134 a 


141 a 


117-121 


117-121 


30 a, b 


87 b 


30 6 


- 


20 a 


- 


_ 


82 a 


21 a-g 


80 a-g 


23 c 


81 c 


1 A: 


1 k 


35 a-r 


91 a-f 


13 a, b 


73 a,b 


16 d 


76 d 


15 c, d 


75 c, d 


120 a, b 


120 a, b 


116 b, c 


116 b, c 


37 a 


93 a 


\ . 




Ua-f 


99 a 


46 a 


- 


45 a-d 


- 


131 a 


139 a 


115-121 


115-121 


- 


65-114 


- 


138-141 


2-64 


- 


129-137 


- 


122-128 


122-128 



548 



Index to Regulations. 



New 
Installa- 
tions. 

Regulatoks, elevatok pump, . . . . 37 o 
Relief valves on hydeatjlic elevator 

PUMPS, 36 a-d 

Revocation and suspension of licenses, . 124 a, b 

Ropes: — 

Centering, 56 a 

Shipper, 39 a-e 

Runways and enclosures, counterweight, 41 a-e 

Safety devices (Section 7) 48-59 

Automatic electric car-switches, . . . 51 a ■ 

Bumpers, 58 a-d 

Cast iron in safety devices, not to be used, . 48 a 

Centering ropes, 56 a 

Electric brakes, 54 o, 5 

Emergency car-control switch, ... 59 a-c 

Machine slack cable safety devices, . . 49 a-c 

Shipper-rops locks, 55 o 

Slack cable safeties on counterweights, . . 52 a 

Speed governors and slack cable safeties, . 53 a-e 

Terminal stops, 50 a-f 

"Warning chains on freight cars, . . . 57 a, b 

Safety devices on escalators, . . . 134 a-d 

Seats in cars, 25 o 

Selective automatic button-control el- 
evator: — 
All elevator regulations apply to this type of 
elevator in common with other types, except 
those regulations in which this type is 
specifically excepted. 

Definition . 1 fif 

Landing doors, 14 /, A 

Slack cable safety devices 49 & 

Semi-automatic gate, definition, ... Irn 
Set-backs and openings in outside walls 

of freight elevator shaftways, . . 12 o-e 

Shaftways (Section 1), 2-22 

Automatic hatch covers, 18 a-g 

Bars at exterior windows, .... 19 a-d 

Construction of walls • 3 a 

Enclosures around elevator shaftways, in 

general, 3 a-f 



Existing 
Installa- 
tions. 
93 a 

92 a, b 
124 a, b 

107 a 
95 a-c 
97 a-e 
101-109 
103 a 
109 a, b 

107 a 



101 a 
106 o 

104 a 

105 a-d 

102 a-f 
108 a, b 
141 a, b 

84 a 



Iff 
74 e 

Im 

72 a-e 
65-80 

78 a-f 

79 a, b 



Index to Regulations. 



549 



New 
Installa- 
tions. 
Shaftways (Section 1) — Concluded. 

Enclosures around elevator shaftways in 

stairwells, 5 a,b 

Enclosures around elevator shaftways out- 
side of biiildings, 8 a 

Enclosures around isolated counterweights, . 11 a, & 
Enclosures around shaftways of carriage- 
type elevators, 6 a-c 

Enclosures around shaftways of elevators 
other than carriage-type aiui hatchway- 
type, 

Enclosures around shaftways of elevators 

serving only two adjacent stories, . . 4 a-e 
Enclosxirea around shaftways of hand- 
power elevators, — 

Enclosures around shaftways of hatchway- 
type elevators 7 a,b 

Enclosures or guards around shaftways of 
carriage-type elevators and of hand- 
power elevators 6 a 

Landing doors, 14 a-k 

Landing gates at around openings of ele- 
vators outside of buUding, . . . . 17 a 
Landing gates at openings in outside wal s, 16 a-d 
Landing gates, in general, .... 15 a-e 
Netting on grille-work enclosures, . . . 9 a 
Netting on grille- work enclosures, . . . 10 a 
Opening of standing portions of enclosures, 9 a 
Openings and set-backs in outside walls of 

freight elevator shaftways, .... 12 a-e 

Over-travel, 22 a-e 

Pits, . 20 a 

Platform at top of shaftway, . . . . 21 a-g 
Thoroughfare under elevators, ... 2 a-c 

Thresholds and other projections, . . . 13 a, 6 

Sheaves, support of, 31 a-d 

Shipper ropes: — 

Accessible from landings, . . . . ( 1 90 ?> 

Insulation, 39 e 

Locking of, by operator, 128 a 

Locks, 55 o 



Existing 
Installa- 
tions. 



71 c, 6 
66 a 

68 a, b 



66 a 




67 a, 


b 


66 a 




74: a- 


-i 


77 a 




76 a- 


-d 


76 a- 


i 


69 




70 a 




69 a 





72 a-e 



80 a- 


-g 


65 a- 


-c 


73 a, 


h 


74/ 




122 6 




95 c 




128 a 




106 a 





550 



Index to Regulations. 



Sides of escalatoes, 

Sidewalk-type elevatoe: — 

All elevator regulations apply to this type 
of elevator in common with other types, 
except those regulations in which this 
type is specifically excepted. 

Definition 

Guards, 

Landing gates on elevators serving only 

two adjacent stories, 

Lighting, 

Signals, 

Skylights at top op shaptways. 
Slack cable safety: — 

And protection of openings on builders' 

elevators, 

Counterweights 

Permanent elevators used temporarily, , 

Speed and capacity, 

Speed goveenoes and slack cable safe- 
ties, 

Speed of escalatoes 

Steam hydeaulic-type elevatoe: — 

All elevator regulations apply to this type 
of elevator in commoh with other types, 
except those regulations in which this 
type is specifically excepted. 
Definition, . . . . . 
Stops: — 

Counterweight, .... 
Emergency, on escalators. 

Terminal, 

Suppoet op machines and sheaves, 
Suspension op licenses. 
Switch, emeegency cae-conteol. 
Switches: — 

Automatic electric car. 

On traction-type power elevators. 

Well-limit, 

Tanks: — 

Discharge, of hydraulic elevators. 
Pressure, for hydraulic elevators. 



New 


Existing 


Installa- 


Installa- 


tions. 


tions. 


137 a 


- •' 



1/ 


1/ 


18/ 


78 e 


15 b 


75 6 


62 c 


112 c 


63 a-c 


113 a-c 


3 e,/ 


•~ 


116 a 


116 a 


52 a 


104 a 


119 a 


119 a 


60 a-/ 


110 a-c 


53 a-e 


105 a-d 


130 a, b 


138 a, b 



It 



ll 



42 a 


98 a 


133 a 


140 a 


50 a-/ 


102 a-f 


31 a-d 


- 


124 6 


124 b 


59 a-c 


- 


51 a 


103 a 


50 c 


102 c 


50 d 


102 d 


34 a, b 


90 a, b 


35 a-r 


91a-/ 



Index to Regulations. 



551 



New 
Installa- 
tions. 
Temporary use of permanent elevators 

(Section 2), 117-121 

Car enclosures, 118 a 

Operator, 121 a 

Protection of openings, 120 a, b 

Slack cable safety, . " 119 o 

Use subject to approval of inspector, . . 117 a 

Terminal stops, 50 a-f 

Thoroughfare under elevators, ... 2 a-c 

Thresholds and other projections, . . ■ 13 a, 6 
Traction-type elevator: — 

All elevator regulations apply to this type 
of elevator in common with other types, 
except those regulations in which this 
type is specifically excepted. 

Definition 1 h 

Switches, . . 50 c 

Traveling sheaves of vertical ma- 
chines and piston rods op hydraulic 

machines, - 

Traveling sheaves: — 

Vertical cylinder hydraulic elevators, . . 30 e 

Vertical hydraulic machines, . . . . - 

Use of elevator, change in, , . . , 61 a 
Valves, relief, on hydraulic elevator 

pumps, 36 a-d 

Venting, discharge tanks op hydraulic 

elevators, 34 6 

Vertical hydraulic machines, traveling 

sheaves op, - 

Voltage op control circuit, . . . . 64 a 

Walls op shaptways, construction of, . 3 a-f 

Warning chains on freight cars, . . . 57 a, b 

Well-limit switches, 50 d 

Windows: — 

Bars at exterior, 19 a-d 

In outside walls of freight elevator shaft- 
ways 12 d 

Of shaftways, 3 e, / 

Wood automatic hatch covers, . .' . 18 6 



Existing 
Installa- 
tions. 

117-121 

118 a 
121 a 
120 a, b 

119 a 
117 a 
102 a-f 

65 a-c 
73 a, & 



1 h 
102 c 



87 a, 6 



87 a 




111 a 




92 a, 


b 


90 b 




87 a 




114 a 




108 a, 


b 


102 d 




79 a. 


b 


72 d 




78 6 





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