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Full text of "The building law of the City of Boston. Being Acts of 1907, chapter 550, as amended, also general and special acts relating to buildings and their maintenance, use and occupancy"

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ERRATA. 



Page 168, section 114, should read as follows: 

Notices. 

(No Plumbing to be done without a Permit from the 
Commissioner.) 

Sect. 114. Every plumber, before doing any work in a 
building, shall, except in the case of repair of leaks, file in 
the office of the commissioner, upon blanks for that purpose, 
an application for a permit, and if required by the com- 
missioner a plan or sketch of the work to be performed; 
and no such work shall be done in any building without a 
written permit from the commissioner. 



ERRATA. 

Page 111, section 38, eleventh line: 

Add after word "wood" the following — "studding, the 
space between the studs filled solid the full height with 
brick," 

Change word "of" to "with" before the word "wood" 
in the eleventh line. 

Page 86, section 23, paragraph 2, line 3. — 'Word "help" 
should be "keep." 

Page 63, section 15, paragraph 114. — Formula should be 

, 2M 2yfs. 
■ jkbd 2 ~ k 



THE BUILDING LAW OF THE 
CITY OF BOSTON. 



being acts of 1907, chapter 550, as amended, 

also General and Special acts relating 

to buildings and their maintenance, 

Use and Occupancy. 




City of Boston 

BUILDING DEPARTMENT 

Room 901, City Hall Annex 

1 9 2 1 




Compiled, Codified and Indexed by 

Charles S. Damrell, 
Clerk of Building Department, City of Boston. 



Approved. 



Herbert A. Wilson, 

Building Commissioner , 






V "| CA*. I ! ) 1 



THE BUILDING LAW OF THE 
CITY OF BOSTON. 



CHAPTER 550, ACTS OF 1907 — AS AMENDED. 
An Act Relative to the Construction, Alteration 

and Maintenance of Buildings in the City 

or Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

SECTION 1. 

Par. 1. — There shall be in the city of Boston a depart- 
ment to be called the building department, which shall 
be under the charge of the building commissioner. The 
commissioner, who shall have had at least five years' 
experience as an architect, a builder, or a civil engineer, 
shall be appointed by the mayor, for a term of five years. 
He shall receive such salary as shall be fixed by the city 
council, with the approval of the mayor. 

Par. 2. — The present officers and employees of the 
building department, except the board of appeal, shall 
hold their several offices and positions until removed or 
discharged according to law. 

Par. 3.— The commissioner may, with the approval of 
the mayor, appoint such number of inspectors, employees, 
and assistants as the city council shall, from time to time, 
determine. No person shall be appointed as inspector of 
construction who has not had at least five years' experience 
as a builder, civil engineer, or architect, or as a superin- 
tendent or foreman or a competent mechanic in charge of 
construction. 

Par. 4. — The commissioner may appoint as his deputy 
an inspector in the department who shall, during the 



4 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 1, Par. 4.] 

absence or disability of the commissioner, exercise all the 
powers of the commissioner. No officer or employee 
connected with the department shall be interested in the 
doing of work or the furnishing of material or appliances 
for the construction, alteration, or maintenance of any 
building, or in the making of plans or of specifications 
therefor, unless he is the owner thereof or a member of a 
board within the building department. No such officer 
or employee shall be engaged in any work which is incon- 
sistent with his duties or with the interests of the depart- 
ment. 

[1913, e. 704, sect. 1.] 

Pab. 5. — The clerk of the department shall, under the 
direction of the commissioner, keep a record of the business 
of the department, and the commissioner shall submit to 
the mayor a yearly report of such business. The records 
of the department shall be open to public inspection. The 
commissioner may require plans and specifications of any 
proposed structure or for the alteration of any structure 
or building to be filed with him, duplicates of which, when 
approved by the commissioner, shall be kept at the build- 
ing during the progress of the work. Such duplicates 
shall be open to the inspection of any inspector in said 
department. 

Permits. 

Par. 6. — The commissioner shall grant permits for the 
construction, alteration, removal or tearing down of build- 
ings or structures, and for plumbing, gas fitting, and the 
setting and maintenance of steam boilers and furnaces 
when applications for the same are made and filed in 
conformity with law. 

Par. 7. — All permits issued by the commissioner shall 
be on printed forms approved by him. 

Work May be Stopped. 
Par. 8. — If the commissioner finds that the terms of a 
permit are being violated, he may, after notice mailed to 



City op Boston Building Law. 5 

Sect. 1, Par. 8.] 

the person to whom the permit was issued, order the whole 
or any part of the work, which is being done under the 
permit, to be stopped, and such work shall not be resumed 
until the terms of the permit have been complied with. 

Forms for Applications. 
Par. 9. — All applications for permits under the pro- 
visions of this act shall be in writing, on forms furnished 
by the department. The commissioner may require the 
material facts set forth in the same to be verified by the 
oath of the applicant; he may also require, in his discre- 
tion, a survey of a lot on which any proposed building is to 
be erected to be filed with the application. Every appli- 
cation shall state the name and address of the owner. 

SECTION 2. 
Record of Violations. 
Par. 1. — The commissioner, or one of his inspectors, 
shall examine as often as is practicable every building 
in the course of construction or alteration, and shall 
make a record of all violations of this act and of all other 
matters relative thereto. The publication of such records 
with the consent of the commissioner shall be privileged. 

SECTION 3. 

Record of Unsafe Buildings. 
Par. 1. — The commissioner, or one of his inspectors, 
shall examine any building reported as dangerous or 
damaged, and shall make a record of such examination, 
stating the nature and estimated amount of the damage, 
and the purpose for which the building was used, and in 
case of fire the probable origin thereof; and shall examine 
all buildings in respect to which applications have been 
made for permits to raise, enlarge, alter, or repair, and 
shall make a record of every such examination. 



6 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 4, Par. 1.] 

SECTION 4. 

Placards. 
Par. 1. — -The commissioner, or one of his inspectors, 
shall inspect every building or other structure or anything 
attached to or connected therewith which he has reason 
to believe is not provided with sufficient means of egress 
in case of fire satisfactory to the commissioner, exists 
in violation of any provision of this act or is unsafe or 
dangerous to life, limb, or adjoining buildings, and if he 
finds it not provided with sufficient means of egress in 
case of fire satisfactory to the commissioner, or to exist 
in violation of any' provision of this act, or unsafe or dan- 
gerous, he shall forthwith in writing notify the owner, 
agent, or any person having an interest therein, to secure 
the same, to provide sufficient means of egress in case of 
fire or to comply with the provisions of this act which is 
being violated, and may affix in a conspicuous place upon 
its external walls a notice of its dangerous condition or 
of its condition as a fire-trap or of its being a common 
nuisance within the provisions of this act. The notice 
shall not be removed or defaced without his consent. 

[1914, c. 205, sect. 1.] 
[1919, c. 155, sect. 1, Special Act.] 

Buildings Vacated. 
Par. 2. — The commissioner may with the written 
approval of the mayor order any building which in his 
opinion is unsafe, not provided with sufficient means of 
egress in case of fire or exists in violation of any provision 
of this act, to be vacated forthwith. 

[1914, c. 205, sect. 1.] 

SECTION 5. 

Commissioner May Secure Buildings. 
Par. 1. — The person notified as provided in the preceding 
section shall provide sufficient means of egress in case of 



City of Boston Building Law. 7 

Sect. 5, Par. 1.] 

fire satisfactory to the building commissioner, or shall 
comply with the provisions of this act which is being 
violated, or shall secure or remove said building, structure, 
attachment or connection forthwith. If the public 
safety so requires, the commissioner, with the approval 
of the mayor, may at once enter the building or other 
structure which he finds unsafe or dangerous, the land on 
which it stands or the abutting land or buildings, with 
such assistance as he may require, and secure or remove the 
same and may erect such protection for the public bj r 
proper fence or otherwise as may be necessary, and for this 
purpose may close a public highway. Before beginning 
the removal of any building or other structure, the building 
commissioner shall give notice by mail to the owner of his 
right to the material upon request. If the owner claims 
the material, he shall remove the same within ten days 
after the building or structure is taken down, and if he fails 
to do so, the building commissioner may dispose of the 
material. 

[1914, c. 205, sect. 2.] 
[1919, c. 155, sect. 2, Special Act.] 

[1920, c. 91, sect. 1.] 

SECTION 6. 
Board of Appeal. 

Par. 1. — There shall be in said department a board to 
be called the board of appeal. Said board shall consist 
of five members appointed by the mayor in the following 
manner: One member from two candidates, one to be 
nominated by the Real Estate Exchange and Auction 
Board and one by the Massachusetts Real Estate Ex- 
change; one member from two candidates, one to be 
nominated by the Boston Society of Architects and one 
fry the Boston Society of Civil Engineers; one member 
from two candidates, one to be nominated by the Master 



8 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 6, Par. 1.] 

Builders Association and one by the Contractors and 
Builders Association; one member from two candidates 
to be nominated by the Building Trades Council of the 
Boston Central Labor Union; and one member selected 
by the mayor. These appointments shall be subject to 
confirmation by the board of aldermen. The appoint- 
ments first made shall be for the terms of one, two, three, 
four, and five years, respectively, so that the term of one 
member shall expire each year. All subsequent appoint- 
ments shall be for the term of five years. Vacancies shall 
be filled in the same manner in which original appoint- 
ments are made. Each member of said board shall be 
paid ten dollars per day for actual service but not more 
than one thousand dollars in any one year. No member 
shall act in any case in which he is interested, and in case 
any member is so disqualified, or is absent from illness or 
other cause, the remaining members shall designate a 
substitute. 

[1910, c. 631, sect. 1.] 

Par. 2. — All the members of said board shall be resi- 
dents of or engaged in business in Boston. 

Par. 3. — Every decision of the board shall be in writ- 
ing and shall require the assent of at least three members. 

SECTION 7. 

Appeals. 
Par. 1. — An applicant for a permit whose application 
has been refused may appeal therefrom within ninety 
days. A person who has been ordered by the commis- 
sioner to incur any expense may within thirty days after 
being notified of such order appeal therefrom by giving 
to the commissioner notice in writing of his appeal. Such 
notice or a certified copy thereof shall at once be trans- 
mitted by the commissioner to the board of appeal. 
After notice given to such parties as the board shall order, 



City of Boston Building Law. 9 

Sect. 7, Par. 1.] 

a hearing shall be had, and the board shall affirm, annul, 
or modify said refusal or order. The board may vary the 
provisions of this act in specific cases which appear to 
them not to have been contemplated by this act although 
covered by it, or in cases where manifest injustice is done, 
provided that the decision of the board in such a case 
shall be unanimous and shall not conflict with the spirit 
of any provision of this act. 

Par. 2.— The decision shall specify the variations al- 
lowed and the reasons therefor, and shall be filed in the 
office of the commissioner within ten days after the hearing. 
A certified copy shall be sent by mail or otherwise to the 
applicant and a copy kept publicly posted in the office 
of the commissioner for two weeks thereafter. If the 
order or refusal of the commissioner is affirmed, such 
order or refusal shall have full force and effect. If the 
order or refusal is modified or annulled, the commissioner 
shall issue a permit in accordance with such decision. 

Par. 3. — •The provisions of this section shall also 
apply to any similar action or order of the commissioner 
of wires, under the provisions of chapter two hundred 
and sixtj'-eight of the acts of the year eighteen hundred 
and ninety-eight, or of any amendment thereof or addi- 
tion thereto, except that in respect thereto the words 
" commissioner of wires" shall be substituted for the 
word "commissioner." 

[1920, c. 440, sect. 3.] 

SECTION 8. 

Permits — Tests. 
Par. 1. — Permits. — Before a permit is granted to erect 
any building except temporary buildings or buildings of 
minor importance, the commissioner may demand such 
further drawings, strain sheets, and description as will 
clearly show the entire construction, assumptions, calcu- 



10 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 8, Par. 1.] 

lations of stresses and all other structural details. Such 
details shall be in the form required by the commissioner, 
and calculation sheets shall be signed by the architect, 
engineer, contractor or other person responsible for them. 

Par. 1. a. — The commissioner shall not delay the 
issuance of a building permit if the plans submitted 
conform to the laws as to egress, class of construction and 
general arrangements, provided that the plans are accom- 
panied by drawings showing the structural design and by 
a statement that the plans and designs conform to all the 
requirements of the law as to strength, stresses, strains, 
loads and stability and are signed and sworn to by the 
architect or engineer who made the calculations. The 
commissioner may examine, or cause to be examined, the 
structural design submitted, and may require such changes 
in size or material as may be necessary to comply fully 
with the requirements of this act. 

Par. 1. b. — Permits for general repairs, for minor 
alterations not involving extensive structural changes, 
and for small buildings of the second or third class, may 
be issued upon presentation of the application on a special 
blank for the purpose. 

Par. 2. — Systems not Covered by this Act. — If an appli- 
cant for a permit to build desires to use as a substitute 
for the materials or methods covered by this act materials 
or methods of construction or maintenance not covered by 
it, he shall present to the commissioner plans, formulas, 
and such other information, and shall make such tests or 
present satisfactory evidence of such tests, as the commis- 
sioner may require. Such systems shall not be used until 
after the commissioner has issued general regulations 
fixing the methods to be followed, but no such regulation 
shall have the effect of altering the working stresses for any 
material herein mentioned or of reducing the fireproofing 
requirements of this act. 



City of Boston Building Law. 11 

Sect. 8.J 

Par. 3. — It shall be the duty of the board of appeal to 
submit to the mayor on or before the first day of February 
in each year a report giving a summary of all decisions of 
the board, together with such recommendations for 
revision of the law as the board may deem advisable. The 
commissioner shall cause the report to be printed as a 
separate document for public distribution. 

Par. 4. — Any requirement necessary for the strength 
or stability of any proposed structure or for the safety of 
the occupants thereof, not specifically covered by this act, 
shall be determined by the commissioner, subject to 
appeal. 

Par. 5. — Testing. — ■ The commissioner may order load- 
ing tests to be made, at the expense of the owner, on any 
structure or part thereof, at such time and in such manner 
as will satisfactorily demonstrate to him that the unit 
stresses in any materials do not exceed those permitted 
under this act. Concrete construction shall be capable of 
bearing a live and dead load equivalent to twice that 
for which it was designed without causing permanent 
deformation. 

Par. 6. — No such test on the structure shall be required, 
however, until notice thereof in writing has been given by 
the commissioner to the person to whom the building 
permit was issued. 

Par. 7. — Load Test. — When the strength of any floor 
construction cannot be determined by the methods pre- 
scribed in this section or by the application of accepted 
engineering formulas, the safe uniformly distributed carry- 
ing capacity shall be taken as one sixth of the total load 
causing failure to a full-sized construction with the load 
applied at two points, each at one third of the span from 
the ends of the span. 

Par. 8. — Fire Tests. — In testing the fireproof quali- 
ties of any floor construction, at least one panel of the 



12 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 8, Par. 8.] 

proposed maximum span, carrying a live load of at least 
one hundred and fifty pounds per square foot, shall be 
subjected to a fire continuously for four hours at an average 
temperature of seventeen hundred degrees Fahrenheit, 
followed by an application for at least ten minutes of a 
hose stream from a one and one eighth inch nozzle at sixty 
pounds nozzle pressure, without appreciable deterioration 
or the passage of flame through the floor during the test. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 1, Special Act.] 
[1920, c. 266, sect. 1.] 

SECTION 9. 
Buildings Allowed in Building Limits. 

Par. 1. — The building limits of the city of Boston 
as they now exist shall continue until changed by ordi- 
nance, and the city council may by ordinance from time 
to time extend and define them, and may establish other 
limits in any part of the city within which every build- 
ing built after the establishment thereof shall be of the first 
or second class. This restriction shall not apply to 
wharves, nor to buildings not exceeding twenty-seven feet 
in height on wharves, nor to market sheds or market build- 
ings not exceeding the said height, nor to elevators for the 
storage of coal or grain, if the external parts of such build- 
ings, elevators or other structures are covered with slate, 
tile, metal, or other equally fireproof material, and the 
mode of construction and the location thereof are approved 
by the commissioner. Temporary structures to facilitate 
the prosecution of any authorized work may be erected 
under such conditions as the commissioner may prescribe. 
Single and two-family dwellings not to be occupied and 
not intended, arranged, or designed to be occupied, by 
more than two families, may be built of third-class con- 
struction or of composite construction in all parts of the 



City of Boston Building Law. 13 

Sect. 9, Par. 1.] 

city of Boston not included in the building limits of the city 
as they existed prior to the twenty-second day of Septem- 
ber in the year nineteen hundred and thirteen; but no such 
building shall occupy more than sixty per cent of the area 
of the lot upon which it is situated, and all such buildings 
shall be constructed with pitched roofs not less than thirty 
degrees with the horizontal. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 1.] 

Third Class Buildings. 

Par. 2. — Buildings of the third class in the city of 
Boston may be reconstructed, altered, enlarged, repaired 
and extended so as to cover a greater area of land: pro- 
vided, that the reconstruction, alteration, enlargement, or 
extension conforms to the requirements of the law in 
respect to new buildings of like character; and, provided, 
also, that not more than sixty per cent of the lot is covered. 

[1915, c. 352, sect. 1, Special Act.] 
[1917, c. 221, Special Act.] 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 2, Special Act.] 

SECTION 10. 

Exemptions from Act. 
Par. 1. — The provisions of this act shall not apply 
to public highway and railway bridges, quays, or wharves 
nor to buildings on land ceded to the United States or 
owned and occupied by the Commonwealth, nor to the 
Suffolk County court house, jail, or house of correction, 
nor to railroad stations, nor to portable or permanent 
school buildings erected and maintained by the school- 
house department except as provided in section seventeen 
of this act and amendments thereof or additions thereto 
nor to voting booths erected and maintained by the board 
of election commissioners; and also provided that per- 
mits from the building commissioner for the erection of 



14 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 10, Par. 1.] 

school buildings shall be required and that such buildings 
shall be subject to the inspection of the building depart- 
ment. 

[1915, c. 352, sect. 2, Special Act.] 
[1921, c. 60, sect. 1] 

Pak. 2. — ■ Except as otherwise provided by law, the 
provisions of this act shall not be held to deprive the board 
of health, the police commissioner, the board of street com- 
missioners, the board of park commissioners, the board of 
examiners of gas fitters, the commissioner of wires, or the 
fire commissioner of the city of Boston of any power or 
authority which they have at the date of the passage of 
this act, or of the remedies for the enforcement of the 
orders of said boards or officers; unless such powers, 
authorities, or remedies are inconsistent with the pro- 
visions of this act; nor to repeal any existing law, not 
herein expressly repealed, except so far as it may be 
inconsistent with the provisions of this act. 



SECTION 11. 
Definitions. 

In this act the following terms shall have the meanings 
respectively assigned to them as follows: 

Par. 1. — First Class Building. — A first class building 
shall consist of fireproof material throughout, with floors 
constructed of iron, steel or reinforced concrete beams, 
filled in between with terra cotta or other masonry arches 
or with concrete or reinforced concrete slabs; wood may 
be used only for under and upper floors, windows and 
door frames, sashes, doors, interior finish, hand rails for 
stairs, necessary sleepers bedded in the cement, and for 
isolated furrings bedded in mortar. There shall be no air 
space between the top of any floor arches and the floor 
boarding. 



City op Boston Building Law. 15 

Sect. 11.] 

Par. 2. — Second Class Building. — All buildings not 
of the first class, the external and party walls of which are 
of brick, stone, iron, steel, concrete, reinforced concrete, 
concrete bloeks, or other equally substantial and fireproof 
material. 

Par. 3. — Third Class Building. — A wooden frame 
building. 

Par. 4. — Composite Building. — A building partly of 
second class and partly of third class construction. Com- 
posite buildings may be built under the same restrictions 
as, and need comply only with the requirements for, third 
class buildings as to fire protection and exterior finish. 

Par. 5. — Masonry. — Masonry shall include such parts 
of a structure as are constructed with stone, bricks of 
burnt clay, cement, or sand lime, hollow blocks of burnt 
clay or concrete, and stone or cinder concrete, both plain 
and reinforced work. 

Par. 6. — Foundation. — That part of a wall below the 
level of the street curb, or, if a wall is not on the street, 
that part of the wall below the level of the highest ground 
next to the wall, or, in the discretion of the commissioner, 
that part of a party or partition wall below the cellar floor. 

Par. 7. — Underpinning. — In third class buildings the 
wall reaching from the foundation proper to the under 
side of the sills. 

Par. 8. — Height of a Building. — The vertical distance 
of the highest point of the roof above the mean grade of 
the curbs of all the streets upon which it abuts, and if it 
does not abut on a street, above the mean grade of the 
ground adjoining the building. 

Par. 9. — Party Wall. — A wall that separates two or 
more buildings, and is used or adapted for the use of more 
than one building. 

Par. 10. — Partition Wall. — An interior wall of masonry 
in a building. 



16 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 11.] 

Par. 11. — Thickness of Wall. — The minimum thickness 
of such wall. 

Par. 12. — Story of a Building. — That part of a build- 
ing between the top of any floor beams and the top of the 
floor or roof beams next above. 

Par. 13. — Basement. — That story of a building not 
more than forty per cent of which is below the grade of 
the street. 

Par. 14. — Cellar. — That part of a building more than 
forty per cent of which is below the grade of the street, 
and in third class buildings that part of the building which 
is below the sills. 

Par. 15. — Gas Fitting. — The work of putting together 
any fittings, pipes or fixtures or other appliances which 
are to contain gas for heat, light or power purposes and 
will be subject to inspection under existing laws. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 3, Special Act.] 

SECTION 12. 

Requirements for All Buildings. 

Permits. 

Par. 1. — No building, structure or foundation shall be 

constructed or altered without a permit, and such work 

shall be done in accordance with drawings bearing the 

approval of the commissioner. 

Excavations to be Supported. 

Par. 2. — Every structure in process of construction, 
alteration, repair or removal, and every neighboring 
structure or portion thereof affected by such process or 
by any excavation, shall be sufficiently supported during 
such process. 

Par. 3. — The commissioner may take such measures 
as the public safety requires to carry these provisions into 
effect. 



City of Boston Building Law. 17 

Sect. 12.] 

Leaders. 

Par. 4. — All buildings shall have leaders sufficient to 
discharge the roof water in such a manner as not to flow 
upon any public way or any neighboring property. Such 
leaders may project into a public way not over seven inches. 

Chimneys — Height Above Roof. 

Par. 5 . — Every chimney flue shall be carried to a height 
sufficient to protect adjoining buildings from fire and 
smoke, and, unless the roof is covered with incombustible 
material, shall extend at least four feet above the highest 
point of contact with the roof. 

Egress to Roof. 
Par. 6. — Every permanent building more than twenty 
feet high having a flat roof shall have permanent means 
of access to the roof from the inside by an opening not less 
than two feet by three feet, with a fixed stepladder. 

Egress Required. 
Par. 7. — Every building shall have, with reference to 
its height, condition, construction, surroundings, char- 
acter of occupation and number of occupants, reasonable 
means of egress in case of fire, satisfactory to the com- 
missioner, except that in all factories or workshops here- 
after built or altered, of second class construction, where 
ten or more persons are employed above the second floor, 
one exit shall consist of a fireproof stairway enclosed in 
incombustible material. No building hereafter erected 
shall be occupied or permitted to be occupied until said 
means of egress have been provided in accordance with 
plans and drawings approved by the building commissioner. 

[1912, c. 369, sect. 1.] 
Far. 8. — Water pipes in every building shall be 
properly protected from frost. 



18 City op Boston Building Law. 

Seot. 12.] 

Chimney, Walls and Lining of. 

Par. 9. — All chimneys of masonry construction shall 
have walls at least eight inches thick, or be constructed 
of four-inch brick walls with a suitable flue lining. 

Water-Closets. 

Par. 10. — Every building used for habitation shall 
have such number of water-closets as the board of health 
may require; every building where persons are employed 
shall have at least one water-closet for every twenty 
persons therein employed, and in any building where both 
sexes are employed, separate accommodations shall be 
furnished for men arid women. Every enclosure con- 
taining one or more water-closets shall be provided with 
adequate ventilation to the outer air either by window 
or by suitable light shaft. 

Outside Finish. 

Par. 11. — In every first and second class building all 
of the outside finish shall be of incombustible material, 
except window and door frames, and except finish about 
show windows in the first story. Where store fronts are 
carried up more than one story the columns and lintels 
shall be of, or finish with, incombustible material; but 
in no case shall store fronts be carried more than two 
stories, unless the same are constructed and finished 
throughout with fireproof material, except window and 
door frames. 

Par. 12. — Every ventilating flue shall be constructed 
of, or lined with, incombustible material. 

Floor Ties. 

Par. 13. — Every floor in second class buildings shall 
have its beams tied to the walls and to each other with 
wrought-iron straps or anchors at least three eighths of 



City of Boston Building Law. 19 

Sect. 12, Par. 13.] 

an inch thick by one and one half inches wide and not 
less than eighteen inches long, so as to form continuous 
ties across the building not more than ten feet apart. 
Walls running parallel, or nearly parallel, with floor beams 
shall be properly tied once in ten feet to the floor beams by 
iron straps or anchors of the size above specified. 

Wooden Headers and Trimmers. 
Far. 14. — Every wooden header or trimmer more than 
four feet long, carrying a floor load of over seventy 
pounds per square foot, shall, at connections with other 
beams, be framed or hung in stirrup irons, and joint- 
bolted. All tail beams and similar beams of wood shall 
be framed or hung in stirrup irons. 

Windows on Fire Escapes, Kitchenettes. Sprinklers. 
Par. 15. — All walls, piers and columns acting as sup- 
ports below the first floor of all buildings hereafter built 
shall be of masonry or metal. In all buildings hereafter 
erected, where outside means of egress are to be con- 
structed, the building commissioner may order, when he 
deems it necessary, all the window openings in the same 
to be protected by metal frames and sash and wire glass, 
and all doors leading to such outside means of egress and 
the frames of the same to be of metal or metal covered. 
If doors are glazed, they shall be glazed with wire glass. 
Every kitchen, kitchenette or room used or adapted to be 
used for cooking purposes, either by coal, electric, gas or 
oil stoves, in every building hereafter erected, remodelled 
or enlarged, shall be not less than six feet in the least 
dimension, and have a floor area of not less than forty- 
eight square feet. Every such kitchen, kitchenette or 
room to be used or adapted to be used for cooking pur- 
poses shall be lighted and ventilated by window openings 
in an external wall direct to the open air, or if such kitchen, 



20 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 12, Par. 15.] 

kitchenette or room is of not more than seventy square 
feet in area upon a vent shaft, as defined in section forty- 
two and any acts amending or affecting the same, with 
no opening from any toilet room into said vent shaft, 
and such window openings shall equal in size in the 
aggregate at least one eighth of the area of the floor of 
such room. When gas, coal or oil stove ovens, broilers or 
water heaters are connected to a ventilating flue, the flue 
shall be constructed of brick walls not less than eight 
inches thick, or with walls four inches thick lined with 
terra-cotta flue lining at least one inch thick. The build- 
ing commissioner may order the basements of any mer- 
cantile building hereafter erected to be provided with a 
system of automatic sprinklers, approved by him as to 
location, arrangement and efficiency. Any alteration 
shall conform to the requirements of this act for new 
buildings only to the extent of the alteration made. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 2.] 
[1921, c. 289, sect. I.J 

SECTION 13. 

Prohibitions. 
Wooden Buildings in Building Limits. 
Par. 1. — No alteration or repair of a wooden building 
within the building limits shall be made without a permit 
from the commissioner, and no permit to increase the 
height or ground area of such a building shall be granted, 
unless such building is on the corner of two intersecting 
ways, in which case the building commissioner shall have 
authority to grant a permit, nor shall a permit for altera- 
tions or repairs be granted if the estimated cost of the 
proposed alterations or repairs exceeds one half of the 
cost of a like new building. 

[1915, o. 352, sect. 3, Special Act.] 



City of Boston Building Law. 21 

Sect. 13.] 

Par. 2. — No wooden building, outside the building 
limits, shall be moved to any position within the building 
limits. 

Recess in Wall. 
Par. 3. — No recess or chase shall be made in any exter- 
nal or party wall so as to leave the thickness at the back 
less than eight inches. 

Timbers in Party Wall. 

Par. 4. — No roof or floor timber entering a party wall 
shall have less than four inches of solid brickwork between 
it and the end of any other timber. 

Par. 5. — No part of any roof shall be constructed in 
such a manner as to discharge snow, ice, or other material 
upon a public street or alley. 

Observation Stands. 

Par. 6. — No elevated staging or stand for observation 
purposes shall be constructed or occupied upon the roof of 
any building. 

Chimneys. 

Par. 7. — No chimney shall be corbelled from a wall 
more than the thickness of the wall. 

Par. 8. — No chimney shall be hung from a wall which 
is less than twelve inches thick. 

Par. 9. — No masonry shall rest upon wood, except piles 
and mud sills. 

Par. 10. — No part of any floor timber shall be within 
two inches of any chimney. 

Par. 11. — No studding or furring shall be within one 
inch of any chimney. 

Boilers — Furnaces. 

Par. 12. — No furnace or boiler for heating shall be 
placed upon a wooden floor. 



22 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 13.] 

Pae. 13. — No smoke pipe shall project through any 
external wall or window. 

Par. 14. — No steam, furnace, or other hot air pipes shall 
be carried within one inch of any wood work unless such 
pipes are double or otherwise protected by incombustible 
material. 

Par. 15. — No combustible partition shall be within four 
feet of the sides and back or within six feet of the front of 
any boiler, carrying a pressure of over ten pounds, unless 
the partition is covered with incombustible material which 
extends to the full height of the partition from the end or 
back of the boiler to at least five feet in front of it. In 
such case the distance shall be not less than two feet from 
all the sides and five feet from the front of the boiler, and 
all lath and plaster and wooden ceiling beams over the 
boiler and to a distance of not less than four feet in front 
of all such boilers shall be covered with incombustible 
material. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 3.] 

Observation Stand. 
Par. 16. — No observation stand shall be constructed or 
maintained except in accordance with plans approved by 
the commissioner. 

Closet Under Stairs. 
Par. 17. — No closet of any kind shall be constructed 
under any staircase leading from the cellar or basement 
to the first story. 

Boiler Under Public Way. 
Par. 18. — No boiler shall be placed or maintained 
under any public way. 

Projections. 
Par. 19. — No part of any structure, except cornices, 
permanent awnings, string courses, window caps and sills, 



City of Boston Building Law. 23 

Sect. 13, Par. 19.] 

bay windows, under such terms, conditions, regulations 
and restrictions as may be required by the mayor and 
board of aldermen, and outside means of egress, as other- 
wise provided, and signs as provided in chapter three 
hundred and fifty-two of the acts of the year eighteen 
hundred and ninety-five, shall project over any public 
way or square. No cornice or bay window shall so project 
more than three feet; nor more than twelve inches over a 
way of a width of thirty feet or less. 

Stables. 

Par. 20. — No building within forty feet of the property 
of any adjoining owner shall be erected for or converted 
to use as a stable, unless such use is authorized by the 
board of health after a public hearing. Written notice of 
such hearing shall be given to the adjoining owners, and 
published at least three times in at least two newspapers 
published in Boston, ten days at least before the hearing. 

Roofing Materials. 

Par. 21. — No material other than brick, tile, slate, 
metal, asbestos shingles, or slag, shall hereafter be used to 
cover or roof any building, or the tops, sides and outsides 
of the frames of any dormer window, or any other pro- 
jection of the roof of any building, except wooden cornices 
on wooden frame buildings; but on flat roofs composition 
of asbestos and asphalt or tar and gravel may be used, 
or such other composition of fire-resisting roofing as the 
commissioner may authorize. Asphalt shingles may also 
be used: provided, that each package of shingles is in- 
spected and labelled and that the shingles are made and 
laid in conformity with the specifications promulgated by 
the National Board of Fire Underwriters as modified from 
time to time by said board; and provided, further, that 
within the lines at present constituting the building 



24 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 13, Par. 21.] 

limits of the city of Boston such asphalt shingles may be 
used only on buildings of third class construction, and 
that they shall not be used within the building limits of 
said city as they existed prior to September twenty- 
second, nineteen hundred and thirteen. Nothing in this 
section shall be construed to prohibit the use of materials 
approved by the commissioner for repairing any roof now 
covered with wooden shingles or to prohibit covering with 
such approved materials the roofs of buildings less than 
sixteen feet in height: provided, that the building is not 
altered in height or otherwise generally reconstructed. 

(1914, c. 782, sect. 3.] 
[1915, c. 352, Special Act, sect. 3.] 
[1916, c. 277, Special Act.] 
[1918, c. 104, Special Act.] 

Lot Line — Distance from First and Second Class Buildings 

to be Kept. 

Par. 22. — No part of any first or second class building 
hereafter erected, except the eaves and cornices, shall be 
nearer than five feet to the line of any adjoining lot on any 
side on which such building has any opening in the outer 
wall thereof unless all such openings are protected by wire 
glass set in metal frames and sash. 



SECTION 14. 

Quality and Strength of Materials. Methods of 
Computation. 
Par. 1. — ■ All materials shall be of such quality for the 
purposes for which they are to be used as to insure, in the 
judgment of the commissioner, ample safety and security 
to life, limb and neighboring property. The commissioner 
shall have power to reject all materials which in his 



City of Boston Building Law. 25 

Sect. 14, Par. 1.] 

judgment axe unsuitable, and msiy require tests to be 
made by the architect, engineer, builder, owner or other 
interested persons. Any test thus required shall be made 
under the supervision or direction of the commissioner, 
and at the expense of the owner. 

Par. 2. — Brick. — Brick may be of hard-burned clay, 
sand lime or cement and, except for nogging, fire-stopping 
and nonbearing or curtain walls not exposed to the 
weather, shall be hard and strong, of quality approved as 
satisfactory by the commissioner. Second-hand bricks 
shall be thoroughly cleaned before being used. 

Par. 3. — Hard brick tested for approval shall develop 
an average ultimate compressive strength of three thou- 
sand pounds per square inch. Brick shall be tested flat- 
wise (half bricks permitted) and the average shall be 
taken on at least five samples, none of which must fall 
below twenty-five hundred pounds per square inch. The 
compressive strength of wet brick after forty-eight hours 
in water must be at least two thirds that of dry brick, 
except that, when the lower strength is above three thou- 
sand pounds per square inch, the loss in strength may be 
ignored. 

Par. 4. — Before brick or other masonry materials are 
submitted to absorption tests, they shall be dried to 
practically constant weight at a temperature between two 
hundred and twenty-five and two hundred and fifty 
degrees Fahrenheit and shall not be fully immersed when 
placed in water. 

Par. 5. — Terra Cotta Floor Tile. — Terra cotta floor 
tile, when tested on end and faced with Portland cement, 
shall give an average compressive strength of not less than 
twenty-five hundred pounds per square inch of net area. 
The average strength shall be computed from the results 
of tests of ten average tiles. 



26 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 14.] 

Par. 6. — Building Blocks. — The term "block" as used 
in this section shall mean any shape of brick or tile which 
forms a hollow or cellular wall. 

Par. 7. — Concrete, hollow and two-piece building 
blocks shall be made of Portland cement and suitable 
aggregates in such proportion as to develop the following 
ultimate compressive strength at twenty-eight days, 
shall average one thousand pounds per square inch of 
gross sectional area of the block as used in the wall and 
shall not fall below seven hundred pounds per square inch 
in any test, when testing at least six ordinary samples. In 
case of hollow building blocks, the gross cross sectional 
area shall be considered as the product of the length by 
the width of the block. No allowance shall be made for 
air spaces of the block. The allowable working stress for 
such block shall not exceed one hundred pounds per gross 
square inch. 

Par. 8. — Terra cotta building blocks shall be whole, 
sound and hard burned and shall develop an ultimate 
crushing strength per square inch of gross area of not less 
than twelve hundred pounds when tested with the cells 
placed vertically, and three hundred pounds with the cells 
placed horizontally. 

Par. 9. — ■ The allowable working stress for such blocks 
shall not exceed one hundred pounds and fifty pounds per 
gross square inch respectively. 

Par. 10. — The absorption of building blocks to be used 
for bearing or enclosing walls shall not exceed twelve per 
cent in forty-eight hours as an average, or more than 
fifteen per cent in any case. 

Par. 11. — Concrete Aggregates. — The fine aggregates 
shall be sand or crushed screenings passing a one fourth 
inch screen. The coarse aggregate shall consist of gravel, 
crushed stone, slag or cinders retained on a one fourth 



City op Boston Building Law. 27 

Seot. 14, Par. 11.] 

inch screen. Cinders or slag may be used for aggregate 
only for walls of one story buildings, for floor slabs, roof 
slabs, partitions, fireproofing, fire stopping and filling. 

Par. 12. — Sand. — Sand or other fine aggregate for 
concrete shall be of such quality that mortar of one part 
Portland cement and three parts sand by weight shall show 
a tensile strength of not less than seventy per cent of the 
strength of mortar made on the same proportions with 
the same cement and standard Ottawa sand. If the 
tensile strength of such mortar is less than eighty per cent 
of that made with Ottawa sand, additional cement shall 
be used in such amount as may be required by the com- 
missioner. The commissioner may require such tests 
when, in his judgment, they are necessary. 

Par. 13. — Stone. — ■ Stone for concrete shall be clean, 
hard and durable. For reinforced concrete it shall be 
of suitable size for the work and shall be small enough to 
allow the concrete to pass readily between and easily 
surround the reinforcement, and fill all parts of the forms. 

Par. 14. — Gravel. — Run-of-bank gravel shall be used 
only when and as approved by the commissioner. 

Par. 15. — Cinders and Slag. — Cinders shall be com- 
posed of hard, clean, vitreous clinkers, reasonably free 
from sulphides, unburned or partly burned coal and ashes. 
Slag shall be clean and hard. Cinders and slag shall be 
of suitable size for the work. 

Par. 16. — Portland Cement. — Portland cement shall 
conform to the Standard Specifications of the American 
Society for Testing Materials as from time to time revised. 

Par. 17. — Lime. — Lime shall be free from ashes, 
clinker and other foreign material and shall not be air 
slaked. 

Par. 18. — Lime Mortar. — Lime mortar shall be made 
of slaked lime or hydrated lime with proper proportion 
of sand. 



28 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 14.] 

Par. 19. — Cement-Lime Mortar. — Cement-lime mortar 
shall be thoroughly mixed and made of one part Portland 
cement, not more than two parts slaked lime or hydrated 
lime and not more than eight parts of sand by volume, 
but mixtures with larger proportion of cement shall be 
allowed higher stress as hereinafter provided. 

Par. 20. — Portland Cement Mortar. — Portland cement 
mortar shall be thoroughly mixed and made of one part 
Portland cement and not more than three parts of sand 
by volume. Lime putty, or hydrated lime, may be added 
to an amount equal to fifteen per cent of the volume of 
the cement. 

Par. 21. — Concrete. — Concrete shall mean an approved 
mixture of Portland cement, water and fine and coarse 
aggregate. 

Par. 22. — Mixing. — The ingredients shall be thor- 
oughly mixed and the mixing shall continue until the 
cement is thoroughly distributed and the mass is uniform 
in color. For reinforced concrete the consistency shall 
be such that the concrete will entirely enclose the rein- 
forcement, but shall not be so wet as to cause separation 
of the ingredients. 

Par. 23. — Rubble Concrete. — Rubble concrete shall 
mean an approved mixture of Portland cement, water, 
fine and coarse aggregate to which stones are added after 
depositing. When one-man stones are used to form 
rubble concrete, there shall be not less than three inches 
between the stones and the forms, and between edges of 
adjacent stones. When stones larger than one-man size 
are used to form rubble concrete there shall be not less 
than six inches between the stones and forms, and between 
edges of adjacent stones. Stones shall be clean and wet 
and shall be deposited in concrete already in place, before 
the latter has begun to set. 



City op Boston Building Law. 29 

Sect. 14.J 

Par. 24. — In piers no stone shall be larger than one 
quarter of the horizontal cross section of the pier. Rubble 
concrete shall not be used for any projecting footing. 

Par. 25. — Joints. — Joints formed between portions 
of concrete placed at different times shall be made in such 
a manner as not to weaken the completed structure. 
Whenever fresh concrete join3 concrete which is set, or 
partly set, the surface of the old concrete shall be rough, 
clean and thoroughly wet. 

Par. 26. — Use of Concrete. — Concrete shall be used 
immediately after mixing, it shall not be placed in the 
work after it has begun to harden, and it shall be deposited 
in such manner and under such regulations as to secure a 
compact mass of the best quality for the proportions used. 
Forms shall remain until the concrete has hardened suffi- 
ciently to carry its load safely, and shall be removed 
without damage to the concrete. 

Par. 27. — Inspection of Concrete. — The commissioner 
may require an applicant for a permit for the structural 
use of concrete to have a competent inspector, satisfactory 
to the commissioner, at all times on the work while con- 
crete is being mixed, or deposited and such inspector 
shall make daily reports to the commissioner on the 
progress of the work. 

Par. 28. — Steel. — Steel for all structural work in 
buildings, except reinforced concrete work, shall conform 
to the requirements of the Standard Specifications for 
Structural Steel for Buildings of the American Society for 
Testing Materials, as from time to time revised. 

Par. 29. — Wrought Iron. — Wrought iron for struc- 
tural work in buildings shall conform to the requirements 
of the Standard Specifications for Wrought Iron Plates, 
Class B of the said society as from time to time revised. 



30 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 14.] 

Par. 30. — Cast Iron. — Cast iron for all structural work 
in buildings shall conform to the requirements of the 
Standard Specifications for Medium Gray Iron Castings 
of the said society as from time to time revised. 

Par. 31. — Cast Iron Columns. — Cast iron columns 
shall not be used in the structural frames of buildings 
whose height exceeds two times the least width of base, 
nor in any building over one hundred feet high. Cast 
iron columns shall be faced at ends to a true surface per- 
pendicular to the axis to give full bearing for the cross 
section of the column. 

Par. 32. — All hollow cast iron columns, except when 
open at both ends and without flanges, shall have two 
three eighths of an inch holes drilled on the top or bottom 
side of the column as cast, if the columns are cast on side 
one hole about twelve inches each side of the center of 
the length of the column, to exhibit thickness of the shell. 
Columns cast on end shall have two three eighths of an 
inch holes drilled, at an angle of ninety degrees to each 
other at the middle of the column, to exhibit thickness of 
shell. Additional holes shall be drilled when required by 
the commissioner. 

Par. 33. — Cast Iron Bases and Lintels. — Cast iron 
bases or shoes shall be planed on top. Bases which rest 
on structural steel members shall be planed top and bot- 
tom. The thickness of metal shall be not less than one 
inch. The inclination of the outer edge of the ribs with 
the horizontal shall be not less than forty-five degrees. 
Whenever a side of the bed plate exceeds three feet in 
length a reinforcing flange at least three inches high shall 
be provided along such edge of the plate. 

Par. 34. — Cast iron lintels shall be not less than three 
fourths of an inch in thickness and shall not be used for 
spans exceeding six feet. 



City of Boston Building Law. 31 

Sect. 14.J 

Par. 35. — Timber. — All timber for structural pur- 
poses shall conform to such specifications as may be 
promulgated by the commissioner but shall be free from 
defects such as injurious ring or round shakes, and through 
shakes that extend to the surface, from unsound and loose 
knots, and knots in groups that will materially impair 
the strength, rot, worm holes and defects caused by 
manufacture. 

Par. 36.— Classes of Timber. — "Dense" and "sound" 
classes of timber shall be as defined by the American 
•Society for Testing Materials in their Standard Definitions 
of Terms relating to Structural Timbers, section three, 
as revised in nineteen hundred and fifteen. 

Strength of Materials. 

Par. 37. — Piers. — Any body of masonry less than 
four feet long in its greatest horizontal dimension shall be 
called a pier. The height of a pier between openings 
having a continuous wall above or below them shall be 
assumed equal to the height of the opening. The height 
of a pier or wall supporting floors or roofs shall be assumed 
as the distance from top of footing or floor to under side 
of floor or roof beams. 

Par. 38. — Stresses. — The stresses in materials used 
in the construction of all buildings, produced by their 
own weight and the loads hereinafter specified, shall not 
exceed the limits assigned in this section. 



32 

Sect. 14.] 



City of Boston Building Law. 



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34 



City op Boston Building Law. 



Sect. 14.] 

Par. 41. — No plain concrete bearing pier shall have a 
greater height unsupported laterally than six times, and no 
brick pier greater than twelve times, its least dimension. 
No brick or plain concrete bearing wall, unless it is properly 
braced by cross walls, piers or other means, shall have a 
greater height unsupported than twelve times its least 
dimension. When compression is applied to a portion of 
a surface of concrete of which the area is at least twice that 
to which the load is applied, a stress of fifty per cent in 
excess of those allowed by the above table may be used in 
bearing. 

Par. 42. — Stresses for Grout and Stone Masonry. 



Cement to be Portland. 
(Parts Measured by Volume.) 



Tons 

per 

Square 

Foot. 



Grout, 1 part cement, 1 part sand, when not less than two feet 

in least lateral dimension, not more than one half inch joints. 
Granite masonry, with mortar of 1 part cement, 2 parts sand, 

not more than one half inch joints. 
Granite masonry, cement mortar, not more than one half inch 

joints. 
Limestone and marble masonry, cement mortar, not more than 

one half inch joints. 
Sandstone masonry, cement mortar, not more than one half 

inch joints. 



72 
72 
60 
40 
30 



Par. 43. — Provided, however, that in stone masonry 
columns or in piers of excessive height, the loads may be 
modified by the commissioner. 



City of Boston Building Law. 



35 



Sect. 14.] 

Pak. 44. — Stresses for Structural Steel and Iron. 



Kind of Stkess. 



Working Stresses 
per Square Inch. 



Steel. Cast Iron. 



Bearing, direct (including bearing of stiffeners) 

Bearing, pins and shop rivets 

Bearing, field rivets 

Bearing, bolts 

Bending (where top flange is stayed laterally 

at distance not greater than 20 times the 

width of flange). 

Bending, pins and rivets 

Shearing (including gross section of plate 

girder webs). 

Shearing, pins and rivets 

Shearing, bolts 

Direct tension 



20,000 
24,000 
20,000 
16,000 
16,000 



24,000 

10,000 

10,000 

8,000 

16,000 



16,000 

10,000 i 
4,000 2 

2,000 



1 Compression. 



2 Tension. 



Compression Flange oj a Riveted Plate Girder. 
Par. 45. — The compression flange of a riveted plate 
girder shall not be of a smaller gross section than the 
tension flange. When the top flange of the steel plate 
girder, beam or channel is not stayed laterally at distances 
of twenty times its breadth the above stress on extreme 
fibre shall be reduced as follows : — 



l/b 


20. 


25. 


30. 


35. 


40. 




16,000 


15,200 


14,400 


13,600 


12,800 


l/b 


45. 


50. 


55. 


60. 


65. 


70. 


Stress per square 
inch. 


12,000 


11,200 


10,400 


9,600 


8,800 


8,000 



Where I is length of flange in inches. 
b is breadth of flange in inches. 



36 



City of Boston Building Law. 



Sect. 14.] 

Steel Compression Members. 
Par. 46. — Steel compression members shall not have a 
greater value of 1-r than one hundred and sixty, nor have 
metal (except for filling) less than one fourth of an inch for 
interior columns, nor with metal less than five sixteenths 
of an inch for exterior columns, nor with metal less than 
five sixteenths of an inch for exterior columns enclosed in 
masonry. The stress due to eccentric or transverse com- 
bined with direct loading shall not exceed sixteen thousand 
pounds per square inch. For centrally loaded steel com- 
pression members the safe load in pounds per square inch 
shall be as follows: — 

Par. 47. — Steel Compression Members. 



l/r 


80 or 

less. 


90. 


100. 


no. 




12,000 


11,000 


10,000 


9,000 


l/r 


120. 


130. 


140. 


150. 


160. 


> 


8,000 


7,000 


6,000 


5,000 


4,000 



Where I is the length of the column in inches 

r is the radius of gyration in inches taken around 
the axis about which the column will bend. 



Par. 48. — Cast Iron Compression Members .— - Cast 
iron compression members shall not have a greater value 
of ]-r than seventy nor a smaller outside diameter or side 
than six inches, nor a greater unsupported length than 
twenty-four times their least dimension or diameter: pro- 
vided, however, that columns supporting roof loads only 



City of Boston Building Law. 



37 



Sect. 14, Par. 48.] 

may have a value of 1-r not greater than ninety-six and an 
unsupported length of no*t more than thirty times the least 
lateral dimension or diameter. They shall not have metal 
less than three fourths of an inch, nor thinner than one 
twelfth of the greatest lateral dimension or side. The 
stresses due to eccentric or transverse loading, combined 
with those due to central loading, shall not exceed nine 
thousand pounds per square inch. 

Par. 49.— Cast iron columns shall not be used where 
the loading is so eccentric as to cause tension, nor in gar- 
ages, nor in places where they are likely to receive impact 
from vehicles. 

Par. 50. — Wherever the core of a column has shifted 
more than one quarter of the thickness of the shell, the 
strength shall be computed assuming the thickness of metal 
all around to be equal to the thinnest part. 

Par. 51. — For centrally loaded cast iron compression 
members the safe load in pounds per square inch shall be 
as follows: 





Working 


Stress. 








IfT 


10. 


20. 


30. 


40. 


50. 




8,600 


8,200 


7,800 


7,400 


7,000 


l/r 


60. 


70. 


80. 


90. 


96. 




6,600 


6,200 


5,800 


5,400 


5,160 



38 

Sect. 14.] 



City op Boston Building Law. 



Par. 52. — Stresses of Timber. 



Stress per Square Inch for Timbers 
used in Dry Places. 



S3 
gffio 

qq 



St 








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Bearing across grain 
Bearing with grain . , 

Bending , 

Shear with grain. . . , 



350 


250 


200 


200 


200 


1,200 


900 


1,000 


750 


700 


1,600 


1,200 


1,100 


1,000 


1,000 


150 


100 


100 


100 


80 



500 

900 

1,400 

200 



Par. 53. — Timber Compression Members. — Timber 
compression members shall not be used of a greater 
unstayed length than thirty times their least dimension for 
isolated columns or forty times their least dimension for 
columns in partitions or truss members. The stresses due 
to eccentric or transverse loading combined with those due 
to central loading shall not exceed the maximum stress 
allowed in the table below. 

For centrally loaded timber compression members the 
safe load per square inch shall be as follows: — 



City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 14.] 

Par. 45.— 



39 



Length Divided by 
Least Dimensions. 



ss 


is 








So 










Southern Ye] 
Pine, Dens 
Grade. 


Southern Yel 
Pine, Soun 
Grade. 


.fa *-< 

in V 

US 
Q 


o 
o 

s 

M 
Pi 
SQ 


g 



c 



10 or less 

15 

20 

25 

30 

35 

40 



1,000 


750 


840 


620 


585 


900 


675 


750 


560 


525 


800 


600 


660 


500 


465 


700 


525 


580 


440 


405 


600 


450 


500 


380 


350 


500 


375 


420 


320 


290 


400 


300 


330 


250 


230 



750 
675 
600 
525 
450 
375 
300 



Par. 55. — Other Materials. — Stresses for materials 
and forms of material, not herein mentioned, shall be 
determined by the commissioner. 

Par. 56. — Wind Bracing. — Provisions for wind brac- 
ing shall be made where it is necessary in good practice or 
as determined by the commissioner. 

Par. 57. — Cutting. — No cutting for piping or any 
other purpose shall be done which would reduce the 
strength of any part of the structure below what is required 
by the provisions of this act. 

Par. 58. — Methods of Computation. — -Methods for 
reinforced concrete are given in section fifteen. For all 
other materials, the following methods shall be used: — 

Par. 59. — ■ The span of beams, girders, or trusses shall 
be taken as the distance from centre to centre of the bear- 
ings. If connected to the side of a column, the span shall 
be taken to the centre of the column. 

Par. 60. — If a tension piece is loaded eccentrically or 
transversely the maximum combined fiber stress shall not 
exceed the allowed stress in tension. 



40 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 14.] 

Par. 61. — An eccentric load upon a column shall be 
taken as affecting eccentrically only the length of column 
extending to the next point below at which the column is 
stayed securely in the direction of the eccentricity. 

Par. 62. — If a piece is exposed to tension and com- 
pression at different times it shall be proportioned and 
connected to resist the maximum of each kind of stress. 

Par. 63. — Base-plates, bearing plates, and grillage 
beams shall be figured on the assumption that the maxi- 
mum bending moments are under the centre of bearing. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 4, Special Act.] 

SECTION 15. 
Reinforced Concrete. 

Par. 1. — Definition. — Reinforced concrete shall mean 
an approved mixture of Portland cement, water and fine 
and coarse aggregate, reinforced by steel. 

Par. 2. — Portland Cement and Aggregate. — The Port- 
land cement and fine and coarse aggregate for reinforced 
concrete work shall conform to the quality of materials 
as defined in section fourteen of this act. 

Par. 3. — Reinforcements. — Steel for reinforcement 
shall conform to the Standard Specifications for Steel 
Reinforcement Bars of the American Society for Testing 
Materials, as from time to time revised. It shall be free 
from mill scale and loose rust and shall not be coated in 
such manner as to weaken the bond. 

Par. 4. — Mixing. — The ingredients shall be thor- 
oughly mixed, and the mixing shall continue until the 
cement is thoroughly distributed and the mass is uniform 
in color. The consistency shall be such that the concrete 
will flow freely about and entirely enclose the reinforce- 
ment, but shall not be so wet as to cause separation of the 
ingredients in handling. 



City of Boston Building Law. 41 

Sect. 15.] 

Par. 5. — Inspection. — Such portions of section four- 
teen as apply to inspection shall be taken to apply to this 
section also. 

Par. 6. — Forms. — Forms shall be sufficiently tight to 
prevent any considerable loss of material in the pouring. 

Par. 7. — Placing. — Such portions of section fourteen 
as apply to the placing of concrete shall be taken to apply 
to this section also. Concrete shall not be deposited in 
forms until the reinforcement has been put in place and 
secured against displacement. 

Par. 8. — Columns shall be poured without any inter- 
ruption to the bottom side of beams or girders which they 
support, or to the bottom of the flare in flat slab construc- 
tion. Special care shall be taken in their pouring that no 
void may result. 

Par. 9. — Columns and walls shall be poured not less 
than three hours in advance of the beams, girders, or 
slabs, which they support. All columns of the same type 
in a story shall be of concrete mixed in the same pro- 
portions. 

Par. 10. — Structural slabs shall be poured the full 
thickness at the time of pouring floor. 

Par. 11. — Stopping Work. — Proper precautions shall 
be taken in stopping concrete work to stop it at the points 
of low shear. 

Par. 12. — High and Low Temperature. — When fresh 
concrete is exposed to a hot or dry atmosphere or wind 
special precautions to prevent premature drying shall be 
taken. 

Par. 13. — Concrete shall not be deposited when the 
temperature is below thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit, unless 
adequate precautions are taken to prevent freezing. 

Par. 14. — Fire Protection. — Main reinforcement in 
floor slabs shall be protected by a minimum of three 
fourths of an inch of concrete; in beams, girders, columns 



42 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15, Par. 14.] 

and walls by one and one half inches from the surface of the 
concrete to the surface of the main reinforcement. 

Par. 15. — In columns the outer one and one half inches 
of concrete shall be regarded as fireproofing which shall be 
assumed to carry no stress. 

Par. 16. — Rust Protection. — ■ In foundations and retain- 
ing walls the steel shall be protected and on the side 
toward the earth or water by a minimum of three inches of 
concrete. 

Par. 17.— Spacing of Reinforcement. — Slab reinforce- 
ment bars in tension shall be not farther apart horizontally 
than two and one half times the total thickness of the 
slab. In beams and girders the lateral spacing of parallel 
bars shall be not less than three diameters from centre to 
centre, and the clear space between two layers of bars 
shall not be less than one inch. 

Par. 18. — Basis for Design. — Calculations shall be 
made with reference to working stresses and safe loads 
rather than with reference to ultimate strength and ulti- 
mate loads, and shall be based on the following assump- 
tions : — 

Par. 19. — (a) A plane section before bending remains 
plane after bending. 

Par. 20. — (b) The modulus of elasticity of concrete 
in compression, within the usual limits of working stresses, 
is constant. The distribution of compressive stress in 
beams, therefore, is rectilinear. 

Par. 21. — (c) The tensile strength of the concrete in 
direct resistance to bending is ignored. 

Par. 22. — (d) Under compressive stress the two 
materials are stressed in proportion to their moduli of 
elasticity. 

Par. 23. — (e) Initial stress in the reinforcement due 
to contraction or expansion in the concrete is neglected. 

Par. 24. — Span Length. — The span length for beams 
and slabs simply supported shall be taken as the distance 



City op Boston Building Law. 43 

Sect. 15, Par. 24.] 

from centre to centre of supports, but need not be taken to 
exceed the clear span plus the depth of beam or slab. For 
continuous or restrained beams or slabs, built monolithi- 
cally into supports, the span length may be taken as the 
clear distance between faces of supports. Brackets shall 
not be considered as reducing the clear span in the sense 
here intended, except that when brackets which make an 
angle of forty-five degrees or more with the axis of a 
restrained beam or the plane of a slab are built monolithi- 
cally therewith, the span may be measured from the 
section where the total depth is at least one third more 
than the depth at the edge of the bracket. Maximum 
negative moments are to be considered as existing at the 
end of the span as here defined. 

Par. 25. — Bending. — Bending moments for uniformly 
distributed dead and live loads, in beams and slabs rein- 
forced in one direction only shall be computed upon the 
following assumptions, where "w" is the total dead and 
live load per linear foot and "1" is the span length: — 

Par. 26. — (a) for a single span freely supported the 
bending at mid-span is 

wP 
8 

Par. 27. — (6) for a single span restrained at the ends, 
the bending at mid-span is 

wP 
12 

Par. 28. — (c) for two equal continuous spans freely 
supported, the bending at mid-span is 

wP 
10 

and at central support it is 

wP 
8 



44 Citt op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.1 

Par . 29. — (d) for two equal continuous spans re- 
strained at supports, the bending at mid-span is 

12 

and at central support it is 

wP 

10 
Par. 30. — (e) for three or more equal continuous spans 
freely supported, the bending at mid-span of the end span 
and at the first interior support is 

wP 

10 
and the bending at mid-span of interior spans and at other 

interior supports is 

wP 

12 

Par. 31. — (/) for three or more equal continuous spans 
restrained at supports, the bending at the first interior sup- 
port for beams is 

wP 

10 

and for slabs is 

wP 

12 

and the bending at all other interior supports and at mid- 
span of all spans is 

wP 

12 
Par. 32. — (g) at the restrained ends of continuous 
beams a negative bending of 

wP 

16 
shall generally be assumed, but this shall be increased to 
not more than wP_ for small beams running into large 
columns. 12 



City of Boston Building Law. 
Seot. 15, Par. 32.J 



45 



(a) 



x 

8 



\ 



i 



I 2 IG 













12 


1 






t ! 




12 


(& 



(c) 



X 

IO 



IT 
X 
8 



X 
10 



id) 



X 

12° 16 



X 
12 



JL 
10 



X 
52 



X.X 
12 16 



M 



10 



■X 

10 12 



i 
(2 



i 

12 



(f) 

















12 


1 
12 






i 
12 


I 


X 
12 


I 
16 




1 

to 


bms 




x 

12 





i2 Slabs 



46 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

Beams and Slabs. 

Par. 33. — Beams and slabs shall be considered as 
restrained at the ends when they frame monolithically into 
a structure sufficiently stiff and strong to introduce a 
negative bending moment into the beam at the end in 

amount not less than — . 
16 

Continuous Beams. 

Par. 34. — For continuous beams subject to other than 
uniformly distributed loads, the positive bending moment 
shall first be computed as though the beam were freely 
supported. The positive moment may then be reduced in 
the same proportion as specified above for beams loaded 
uniformly, and provision shall be made at the restrained 
ends for negative moments having the same ratio to the 
positive moment first computed that the negative moments 

specified above bear to ^-. 

8 

Par. 35. — Beams parallel to the main reinforcement 
of a one-way slab into which no other beams frame, and 
which are restrained at the ends by being built monolithi- 
cally into supporting columns, shall be designed for bend- 

wl 2 
ing moments at the ends equal to -— , and at mid-span as 

\.Ji 

follows: When the width of columns parallel to the axis of 

the beam is not less than fifteen per cent of the distance, 

centre to centre of columns, or twice the depth of the beam, 

wl 2 ,i . wl 2 

m = — — ; otherwise m = — -. 

Spans op Unusual or Unequal Length. 

Par. 36. — For spans of unusual or unequal length and 
other special cases the design shall be such as to carry out 
the intent of this act to the satisfaction of the commissioner. 



City op Boston Building Law. 47 

Sect. 15.] 

Par. 37. — Slabs Supported on Four Sides. — For 
slabs, supported on four sides and reinforced in both 
directions the distribution of loads shall be determined by 

the formula 

I 

r= 0.5 

b 
where 

b is the breadth of slab. 
I is the length of slab. 

r is the proportion of load carried by the transverse 
reinforcement. 

Reinforcement in Slabs. 

Par. 38. — In placing reinforcement in such slabs 
account shall be taken of the fact that the bending moment 
is greater near the centre of the slab than near the edges, 
and two thirds of the calculated moments shall be assumed 
as carried by the centre half of the slab and one third by the 
outside quarters. 

Par. 39. — Beams supporting rectangular slabs rein- 
forced in both directions shall be assumed to take the 
proportions of load as determined by the formula in this 
section, the distribution of the load being assumed to vary 
in accordance with the ordinates of a parabola having its 
vertex at mid-span. 

Par. 40. — Floor and Roof Openings. — Openings in 
floors and roofs shall be so framed as not to exceed the 
allowable stresses. 

Par. 41. — Depth. — In roof slabs the total depth shall 
not be less than three inches and in floor slabs four inches. 

Par. 42.— In "T" beams the depth below the slab 
shall not exceed eight times the thickness of the slab 
adjacent to the stem. 

Par. 43. — Cinder concrete slabs shall not be less than 
four inches thick; they shall not exceed eight feet in span. 



48 City op Boston Building Law. 

Seot. 15.] 

Par. 44. — Self-Centring. — Reinforcing materials which 
are self-centring shall not be used in spans exceeding 
eight feet. Fireproofing under self -centring reinforcement 
may be of Portland cement plaster. 

Par. 45. — Bending in Supporting Members. — If a 
beam or floor slab is assumed as fixed or partially restrained 
at a support, the column, wall, or other structure furnishing 
such restraint shall be proportioned to resist the stresses 
thereby induced. 

Par. 46. — "T" Beams. — Where adequate bond and 
shearing resistance between slab and web of beam is pro- 
vided, the slab may be considered an integral part of the 
beam, but its effective width shall not exceed one fourth 
part of the span length of the beam, nor shall its over- 
hanging width on either side of the web exceed six times 
the thickness of the slab. 

Par. 47. — Columns. — Columns or piers of concrete 
shall be reinforced when the unsupported height exceeds 
six times the least gross dimension, and no reinforced con- 
crete column shall have an unsupported height of more 
than twelve times its least gross dimension, except with 
stresses reduced from those allowed by this act in accord- 

24— 4 
ance with the ratio where h is unsupported height 

i.£i 

and d is least dimension, and - shall not in any case exceed 

a 

eighteen. The maximum effective area of columns shall 
be taken as the area within the outer one and one half 
inches of concrete covering, or, in the case of hooped col- 
umns or columns reinforced with structural shapes, it 
shall be taken as the area within the circle enclosing the 
spiral or the polygon enclosing the structural shapes. 
Longitudinal reinforcement shall be assumed to carry 
stress in proportion to the respective moduli of elasticity 
as given in this act. 



City op Boston Building Law. 49 

Sect. 15.] 

Exterior Columns and their Reinforcement. 
Par. 48. — Exterior columns and their reinforcement 
shall be so proportioned as to withstand bending in addi- 
tion to the direct load without exceeding the fiber stresses 
specified for beams elsewhere in this act. 

Reinforced Concrete Buildings. 
Par. 49. — Reinforced concrete buildings may be sup- 
ported by structural steel or cast iron columns, fireproofed 
in first class construction as provided elsewhere in this act. 
Brackets shall be provided to transmit the load from the 
floors to the columns. Such columns shall be computed 
as follows: — 

Brackets. 

Par. 50. — (a) If the brackets are placed immediately 
below the floor the structural steel or cast iron columns 
shall be assumed to carry the load of all the floors above. 

Par. 51. — (b) If the brackets are placed immediately 
above a floor the structural steel or cast iron columns shall 
be assumed to carry all the load above the brackets, and 
the floor or floors below the brackets shall be carried on 
reinforced concrete encasing the metal, designed in accord- 
ance with the requirements of this act, to the next bracket 
below or to the foundation. In this case, however, the 
surrounding concrete shall be so separated from the steel 
or cast iron as to permit the separate action of both. 

Circular Hollow Columns. 

Par. 52. — Circular hollow steel or wrought iron col- 
umns filled with concrete shall be allowed to carry a load 
equal to the capacity of the metal casing plus the capacity 
of the concrete filling. The average unit stress in the 
casing shall be that specified elsewhere in this act for 
columns, and that in the concrete filling shall be in the 



50 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15, Par. 52.] 

same ratio to the unit stress in the casing which the modu- 
lus of elasticity of the concrete bears to that of the casing. 
Par. 53. — Columns with longitudinal reinforcement 
only shall have a steel area of not less than one per cent 
and not more than four per cent of the required effective 
area, and shall be allowed the stresses given in this act. 
Longitudinal reinforcement bars shall be straight and 
shall be secured against lateral displacement by steel ties 
not less than one fourth of an inch in diameter and placed 
not farther apart than sixteen diameters of the bars, nor 
more than twelve inches. 

Columns Which Have Longitudinal Reinforcement. 

Par. 54. — Columns which have longitudinal reinforce- 
ment to an amount not less than one per cent and not 
more than four per cent of the effective area, and which 
also have hoops or spirals to an amount not less than one 
per cent of the volume of the enclosed core, spaced not 
farther apart in the clear than one sixth of the diameter 
of the enclosed core, and in no case more than two and 
one half inches, shall be allowed the stresses given in this 
act: provided, however, that no such column shall have a 
height greater than ten diameters of the enclosed core. 
The ends of hoops or spirals shall be united in such a way 
as to develop their full strength. The hoops or spirals 
shall be securely fastened to the longitudinal reinforce- 
ment or to approved spacers. 

Par. 55.— Combination Floors. — Concrete floors with 
permanent blocks or forms of incombustible material 
with ribs of reinforced concrete between shall conform to 
the requirements of this act so far as they are applicable, 
but the blocks or forms shall not be assumed as taking 
stress. If a slab not less than two inches thick above the 
blocks or forms is cast monolithic with the rib, the rib 
and slab may be considered as a T section. If such con- 



City of Boston Building Law. 



51 



Sect. 15, Par. 55.] 

struction forms a flush ceiling, or if a plastered ceiling on 
metal lath is suspended below the ribs, the fireproofing for 
such construction shall be that required for slabs. 

Par. 56.— Working Stresses. — The following table 
gives the compressive strength in pounds per square inch 
which shall be assumed as the basis for design, a bag of 
cement weighing ninety-four pounds being assumed to 
measure one cubic foot in proportioning material, and the 
values given for aggregate to be the combined volume of 
fine and coarse aggregate measured separately. 



MlXTUKE. 


1:3. 


1:4*. 


1:6. 


1:7. 


1:7§. 


1:9. 


Stone concrete 


3,300 
1,000 


2,800 
875 


2,200 
750 


675 


1,800 
625 


1,400 


Cinders or slag concrete . . 





Allowable Stresses. 

Par. 57. — In all computations allowable stresses 
shall be used, based as, hereinafter specified, upon as- 
sumed ultimate strengths as given above, and no concrete 
shall be used which, when made under laboratory condi- 
tions into test cylinders eight inches diameter and sixteen 
inches long and tested in compression at an age of twenty- 
eight days, does not show a strength at least equal to that 
given in the table. 

Par. 58. — Concrete one year old shall be considered to 
have a compressive strength twenty-five per cent greater 
than that given in the table for concrete of the same grade 
and proportions. 

Par. 59. — Bearing. — When compression is applied to 
a portion of a concrete surface of which the area is at 
least twice that to which the load is applied, a stress of 
thirty-five per cent of the compressive strength fixed by 
this act shall be allowed. 



52 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

Par. 60.— Axial Compression. — For concentric com- 
pression on columns with longitudinal reinforcement 
only, twenty-two and five tenths per cent of the compres- 
sive strength fixed by this act shall be allowed. 

Par. 61. — For concentric compression on columns the 
length of which does not exceed ten diameters of the core, 
with longitudinal reinforcement combined with hoops or 
spirals, thirty-five per cent of the compressive strength 
fixed by this act shall be allowed. 

Par. 62. — Bending. — Compression on extreme fiber 
in bending shall not exceed thirty-two and five tenths per 
cent of the compressive strength fixed by this act: pro- 
vided, however, that adjacent to the supports of continuous 
beams or slabs thirty-seven and five tenths per cent may 
be used. 

Par. 63. — Shear and Diagonal Tension. — In the 
calculation of beams in which the maximum shearing stress 
in a section is used as the means of measuring the resistance 
to diagonal tension stress, the vertical shearing unit stress 

as computed by the formula v — — — , where v is the shearing 

ojd 

unit stress, V is the total sheer, b is the breadth of the beam, 

and jd is the arm of the resisting couple, shall not exceed 

the following percentages of the respective compressive 

strengths fixed by this act. 

Beams With Horizontal Bars Only. 

Par. 64. — For beams with horizontal bars only and 
without web reinforcement, two per cent. 

Beams With Web Reinforcement. 

Par. 65. — For beams with web reinforcement consist- 
ing of vertical stirrups looped about the longitudinal 
reinforcing bars in the tension side of the beam, suitably 
anchored in the compression side and spaced horizontally 



City of Boston Building Law. 53 

Seot. 15, Par. 65.] 

not more than one half the depth of the beam, or for beams 
in which longitudinal bars are bent up at an angle of not 
more than forty-five degrees nor less than twenty degrees 
with the axis of the beam and the points of bending are 
spaced horizontally not more than three fourths of the 
depth of the beam apart, or both, the web reinforcement 
being designed* in each case, to carry two thirds of the 
total shear, six per cent. 

Par. 66. — Punching. — Punching shear shall not exceed 
six per cent of the compressive strength fixed by this act. 

Par. 67. — Bond. — The bond stress between concrete 
and steel bars shall not exceed four per cent, except that 
the bond between concrete and approved deformed steel 
bars shall not exceed five per cent, and between concrete 
and drawn wire shall not exceed three per cent of the com- 
pressive strength fixed by this act. 

Par. 6S. — Steel. — -The tensile or compressive stress 
in steel shall not exceed sixteen thousand pounds per square 
inch in rods and twenty thousand pounds per square inch 
in drawn wire and other approved cold stretched fabric, 
except that in slabs of stone concrete the tensile stress in 
rods shall not exceed eighteen thousand pounds per square 
inch, and in drawn wire and other approved cold stretched 
fabric it shall not exceed twenty-two thousand five hundred 
pounds per square inch. 

Par. 69. — Modulus of Elasticity. — The modulus of 
elasticity of concrete shall be taken as — ■ 

■jV that of steel for cinder concrete with a compressive 
strength of 1,000 pounds per square inch or less. 

T V that of steel for stone concrete with a compressive 
strength of 2,200 pounds per square inch or less. 

3*2 that of steel for concrete with a compressive strength 
greater than 2,200 pounds per square inch, but less than 
2,900 pounds per square inch. 

T ^ that of steel for concrete with a compressive strength 



54 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15, Par. 69.] 

of 2,900 pounds per square inch or more, the compressive 
strength referred to in all these cases being that fixed by 
this act. 

Pae. 70. — Footing General. — Symmetrical, concentric 
column footings shall be designed for punching shear, 
diagonal tension and bending moment. 

Par. 71. — Punching Shear in Footings. — The area 
effective to resist punching shear in column footings shall 
be considered as the area having a width equal to the 
perimeter of the column or pier and a depth equal to 
seven-eighths the depth of footing from top to centre of 
reinforcing steel. 

Par. 72. — Diagonal Tension in Footings. — Shearing 
stresses as indicative of diagonal tension shall be measured 
in footings on vertical sections distant from the face of 
the pier or column equal to the depth of the footing from 
top to centre of reinforcing steel. 

Par. 73. — Bending Moment in Footings. — The bending 
moment in rectangular isolated column footings at a 
section taken at the edge of pier or columns shall be 
determined by multiplying the load on the cantilever pro- 
jection by three eighths the distance from the edge of 
pier or column to the edge of footing. The section of 
maximum moment in a footing supporting a round column 
or pier shall be taken one eighth the radius from the tangent 
toward the centre. The effective area of concrete and steel 
to resist bending moment shall be considered as that within 
a width extending both sides of pier or column a distance 
equal to depth of footing plus one half the remaining 
distance to edge of footing, except that reinforcing steel 
crossing the section other than at right angles shall be con- 
sidered to have an effective area determined by multiplying 
the sectional area by the sine of the angle between the bar 
and the plane of the section. The bond stress in the steel 
shall not exceed that allowed by this act. 



City op Boston Building Law. 55 

Sect. 15.] 

Par. 74. — -Flat Slabs. — Floor slabs supported upon 
columns without beams or girders and extending two or 
more bays in each direction shall conform to the following 
requirements. 

Par. 75. — Capital. — Columns may be provided with 
enlarged capitals. The horizontal width of capitals shall 
be taken where the vertical thickness is at least one and 
one half inches, and the contour of capitals shall not fall 
within that of an inverted cone or pyramid whose apex is on 
the centre line of the column, whose sides incline at forty- 
five degrees with the vertical, and whose base lies in a plane 
one and one half inches below the underside of the dropped 
panel and, if no dropped panel is used, below the underside 
of the slab, and has the same size and shape in plan as the 
capital. The width of capital in any direction shall not be 
less than one fifth the distance, centre to centre, of columns 
in that direction, and shall be such that the allowable unit 
stresses elsewhere specified in this act shall not be exceeded. 

Par. 76. — Dropped Panel. — A thickening of the slab 
on the underside in the vicinity of the columns is termed a 
dropped panel. The width of the dropped panel in any 
direction shall be not less than f that of the column 
capital. The depth of the dropped panel below the bottom 
of the slab shall be not more than half the slab thickness, 
but shall be such that the allowable unit stresses shall not 
be exceeded either in shear about the column capital or in 
bending. The allowable unit shear to be used shall be that 
specified for punching shear elsewhere in this act. The 
allowable compression in bending shall be that specified for 
extreme fibers adjacent to support in continuous beams. 

Par. 77. — Slab Thickness. — In flat slab construction, 
the minimum thickness of slab shall be not less than ^V 
in the case of roofs or ^ in the case of floors, of the dis- 
tance from centre to centre of the columns in the longer 
direction. The thickness shall be such as to withstand the 



56 



City of Boston Building Law. 



Sect. 15, Par. 77.] 

shear about the column capital or dropped panel without 

exceeding the allowable stress herein specified for punching 

shear. 

Par. 78. — ■ Bending. — For the purpose of determining 
the bending in flat slab floors, the slab shall be considered 
as divided by lines parallel to the lines of columns into 
strips whose width is one half the distance, L, centre to 
centre, of columns measured at right angles to the span of 
strips. The centre line of alternate strips shall coincide 
with the centre line of the columns. These shall be known 
as A-strips. The other strips located midway between 
columns shall be known as B-strips. The span length of 
the strips shall be taken as the distance, centre to centre, 
of columns less two thirds the width of the column capital 
measured in the direction of the span. 

A and B Strips Comprising Ant Panel Width. 

Par. 79. — Provision shall be made in the A and B strips 
comprising any panel width for the whole bending moment 
specified, and the proportion of the whole provided for 
within each strip shall be not less than that given in the 
following table: — 





Pee Cent. 




A-Strip. 


B-Strip. 


Either 
Strip. 


Positive moment, no dropped panel 

Negative moment, no dropped panel. . . . 


60 
55 
80 
65 


25 
25 
15 
20 


15 

20 

5 

15 



Par. 80. — Interior Bays. — If 

Z=span as given above =L — fc 
where c = diameter of column capital 
w = total load per square foot 



City of Boston Building Law. 57 

Sect. 15, Par. 80.] 

whether the panels be square or oblong and in whichever 
direction the span be taken, the bending moments at the 
critical portions of interior bays shall be assumed as 
follows: — 

Pab. 81. — Positive Bending. — The positive bending 
moment for a whole panel width shall be taken as 

25 

Par. 82. — Negative Bending. — The negative bending 
moment for a panel width shall be taken as 

15 

Par. 83. — Wall Bays; Restraint. — For wall bays when 
the wall is of reinforced concrete (I is the distance from the 
inside face of the exterior column to the centre of the 
interior column less one third the width of the interior 
column capital) the bending moment for strips running 
perpendicular to the wall shall be as follows : — 

Par. 84. — Positive Bending. — The positive bending 
moment for a panel width shall be taken as 

20 
Par. 85. — Negative Bending. — The negative bending 
moment for a panel width at the interior line of columns 
shall be taken as : — 

12.5 
Par. 86. — The negative bending moment for a panel 
at the wall shall in general be taken as: — 

30 
Par. 87. — This may be increased, according to degree of 

T 72 

restraint, up to — — - for complete restraint: provided, 
15 

however, that in case the coefficient for negative bending at 



58 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15, Par. 87.] 

the wall is increased, the other two bending moment coeffi- 
cients may be correspondingly decreased. 

Par. 88. — Wall Bays; No Restraint. — For wall bays 
supported on one edge upon brick walls or other con- 
struction incapable of providing adequate restraint in 
negative bending, I is the distance from the inner face of 
the wall to the centre of the interior column less one third 
the width of the interior column capital. 

Par. 89. — Positive Bending. — The positive bending 
moment for a panel width shall be taken as : — 

16 
Par. 90. — Negative Bending. — The negative bending 
moment for a panel width at the interior column line shall 
be taken as : — 

10 

Par. 91. — Negative bending along such walls shall be 
provided for by reinforcement in the top of the slab at 
right angles with the wall equal to four tenths per cent in 
floors and to two tenths per cent in roofs of the area of 
cross-section of the slab. 

Par. 92. — Bays discontinuous upon one or two adjacent 
sides shall be treated as wall bays . 

Par. 93. — When a flat slab is supported by a beam or 
wall on one or two sides, the half strip parallel with and 
adjacent to the beam or wall may be reinforced as half a 
B-strip. 

Par. 94. — The bending in exterior concrete columns 
supporting flat slab floors shall in general be taken as: — 

^plus^, 
30 F 4 ' 

or more up to 

h» piu S m 

15 v 4 



City op Boston Building Law. 59 

Sect. 15, Par. 94.] 

in case of complete restraint, where W is the total load on 

the wall panel and k is the thickness of the exterior column. 

Par. 95. — For floors, half this bending shall be assumed 
as acting below and half above the slab; for roofs the whole 
bending acts below the slab. 

Par. 96. — Brackets. — Brackets or haunches shall be 
provided on exterior columns when necessary to transmit 
the shear and bending from the slab to the column. 

Par. 97.— Interior Columns. — The least dimension of 
interior concrete columns supporting flat slabs shall be not 
less than one fifteenth the span, centre to centre, of columns 
in the longer direction. 

Par. 98. — Reinforcement. — Reinforcement shall be pro- 
vided at the critical sections of all strips in sufficient quan- 
tity to withstand the bending herein specified without 
exceeding the allowable unit stresses elsewhere specified 
in this act. Reinforcement lying obliquely to the axis of 
any strip shall be counted as having an area effective for 
that strip equal to its actual area of cross-section multiplied 
by the cosine of the angle which it makes with the axis of 
the strip. 

Par. 99. — Bent Bars. — No reinforcing for positive 
bending shall be bent up to the top of the slab further from 
the centre line of the column than one fourth L where L is 
the distance, centre to centre of columns in the direction 
of the reinforcing. Positive reinforcement in A-strips 
shall be provided to within 0.15 L of the centre line of 
interior columns and extending to the inside face of wall 
columns; in B-strips shall be provided extending to within 
0.10 L of the interior column fine and to the inside face of 
wall support. Negative reinforcement in A-strips shall 
extend beyond the centre line of the columns half the 
width of the column capital plus enough to develop the 
strength of the rods; at least one quarter of the negative 
reinforcement shall extend six inches beyond the quarter 



60 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15, Par. 99.] 

point of the panel or the fifth point of the span length. 
Negative reinforcement in B-strips shall extend forty- 
diameters beyond the centre line of columns, and at least 
half thereof shall extend to the quarter point of the panel. 

Stress in Concrete. 

Par. 100. For determining the stress in concrete due 
to the bending in each strip the width shall be taken as the 
width of the strip, except that for negative bending in 
A-strips when a dropped panel is used the width shall be 
that of the dropped panel. 

Par. 101. — Wall Beams. — Wall beams in flat slab 
construction shall be assumed to carry a width of floor 
equal to one quarter the clear span of the beam in addition 
to the weight of beam and wall. Such beams, when con- 
tinuous, shall be designed for a negative bending at col- 
umns equal to — and the positive bending at mid-span 

rn.fi 

shall be assumed as follows : — 

Par. 102. — (a) When the width of the columns (paral- 
lel to the beam) is not less than fifteen per cent of the dis- 
tance, centre to centre, of columns or twice the depth of 
the beam, 

20 
Par. 103.— (6) Otherwise, 

16 
Par. 104. — Brick Walls. — In case a flat slab is sup- 
ported by a brick wall, the wall shall in general be four 
inches thicker than the minimum thickness otherwise 
required by this act, or have equivalent pilasters. 

Formulas for Reinforced Concrete Construction. 
Par. 105. — These formulas are based on the assump- 
tions and principles given in section fifteen. 



Citt op Boston Building Law. 61 

Seot. 15.] 

1. Standard Notation. 

Par. 106. — (a) Rectangular Beams. 
The following notation is recommended : 
fs == tensile unit stress in steel ; 
fc — compressive unit stress in concrete; 
Es = modulus of elasticity of steel ; 
Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete; 

., Es - 
nsa Ec' 

M= moment of resistance, or bending moment in 

general; 
As = steel area; , 
b — breadth of beam; 
d = depth of beam to centre of steel; 
fc = ratio of depth of neutral axis to depth, d; 
2= depth below top to resultant of the compressive 

stresses; 
j = ratio of lever arms of resisting couple to depth, d. 
jd=d — z — arm of resisting couple; 

p = steel ratio = -r4* 
od 

Par. 107.— (6) T-Beams. 
b = width of flange; 
6'= width of stem; 
t — thickness of flange. 

Par. 108. — (c) Beams Reinforced for Compression. 
A' = area of compressive steel; 

p' = steel ratio for compressive steel ; 
fs'= compressive unit stress in steel; 

C= total compressive stress in concrete; 

C" = total compressive stress in steel; 

d'= depth to centre of compressive steel; 
2= depth to resultant of C and C". 

Par. 109. — (d) Shear, Bond and Web Reinforcement. 
V= total shear; 

V — total shear producing stress in reinforcement; 
y= shearing unit stress; 
u =bond stress per unit area of bar; 



62 



City of Boston Building Law. 



Sect. 15, Par. 109.] 

o = circumference of perimeter of bar; 
]£o = sum of the perimeters of all bars; 
T— total stress in single reinforcing members; 
s = horizontal spacing of reinforcing members. 

Par. 110. — (e) Columns. 

A = total net area; 
As = area of longitudinal steel; 
Ac = area of concrete; 

P = total safe load. 



Par. 111.- 
Par. 112.- 



2. Formulas. 
(a) Rectangular Beams. 
Position of neutral axis, 



k = <j2pn+(pn) 2 -pn (1) 

Arm of resisting couple, 
1 

i=i — fc (2) 

3 
[For /s = 15000 to 16000 and fc= 600 to 650, j maybe 
taken at £.] 



K-fe H 



kd 



/ 
/ 
/ 

/ 

/ 







z 



J* 



3 t 



3-* 



T 



kf s ^rv>k 



-•>* 



Fig. 1. 



City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 
Par. 113. — Fiber stresses, 

M M 



/«- 



Par. 114 — 



Asjd pjbd 2 



63 



(3) 



fc= ML = §rti (4) 

jkbdi k 



Par. 115. — Steel ratio, for balanced reinforcement, 

1 



P=i 



■ fc\nfc / 
{b) T-Beams. 



(5) 







b 


> 




\ 









._— . 


:-—— *-"" — * — 






• •• 


I 
1 



k- b' ->i 



kHW-%| 




Fig. 2. 



Par. 116. — Case I. When the neutral axis lies in the 
flange, use the formulas for rectangular beams. 

Case II. When the neutral axis lies in the stem. 

The following formulas neglect the compression in the 
stem. 

Par 117. — Position of neutral axis, 

M= SndAs+bP 



64 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 
Par. 118. — Position of resultant compression, 

2kd—t'3 K) 

Par. 119. — Arm of resisting couple, 

jd=d—z (8) 

Par. 120. — Fiber stresses, 

#$ (9 > 

Par. 121 — 

r _ Mkd _(s k ,-qv 

Jc bt(kd—it)jd n'l-k l ; 

(For approximate results the formulas for rectangular 
beams may be used.) 

Par. 122. — The following formulas take into account 
the compression in the stem; they are recommended 
where the flange is small compared with the stem: 

Par. 123. — Position of neutral axis, 

,_ J 2ndA s -\-(b — b')t i , / nA 8 + (& — b')t y 



(11) 



kd: 

X b' 

nA s + (b — b')t 

V 
Par. 124. — Position of resultant compression, 

(kdt* — |<»)b+ [ (kd -ty (t+Ukd-t) ) W (12) 

t(2kd — t)b+(kd — tyb' V J 

Par. 125. — Arm of resisting couple, 

jd=d — z (13) 

Par. 126. — Fiber stresses, 

/.--£j a*) 

Asjd 



Par. 127.— 



, _ 2Mkd / 15 n 

Jc [ (2kd—t)bt+(kd — t) 2 b'}jd 



City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15, Par. 127.] 

(c) Beams Reinforced for Compression. 

yM 

I — * — rrj — 



65 



kd 



jz_. 







>f s *nf< 

Fig. 3. 
Par. 128. — Position of neutral axis, 

k = ^*n(p+Pj' ) +tf(p+P f ) 2 — nip+p*) . . • (16) 

Par. 129. — Position of resultant compression, 

%m+$p'nd'Ck— I') 



2 = 



&+2p'n(k—j\ 



Par. 130. — Arm of resisting couple, 

jd = d—z. . . 

Par. 131. — Fiber stresses, 

6M 



fc = 



w [*_, + ^(*-f)(i-£)] 



(17) 

(18) 
(19) 



66 City of Boston Building Law. 



Sect. 15.] 

Par. 132.- 



fs^-^J^nfc 1 -^ (20) 

pjbd 2 k 

Par. 133 — 

d' 
k 

/ s '=n/ c -^ (21) 

(d) Shear, Bond, and Web Reinforcement. 
Par. 134. — For rectangular beams, 

k=% (22) 

bjd 

Par. 135 — 

w = r r ^- (23) 

[For approximate results j may be taken at f.] 

Par. 136. — The stresses in web reinforcement may be 
estimated by means of the following formulas: 
Vertical web reinforcement, 

T = ^ (24) 

jd 

Par. 137. — Bars bent up at angles between 20 and 45 
deg. with the horizontal and web members inclined at 
45 deg. 

T = i^ (25) 

jd 

Par. 138. — In the text of the report* it is recommended 
that two thirds of the external vertical shear (total shear) 
at any section be taken as the amount of total shear pro- 
ducing stress in the web reinforcement. V therefore 
equals two thirds of V. 

♦Should read "law." 



City of Boston Building Law. 67 

Sect. 15.] 

Par. 139. — The same formulas apply to beams 
reinforced for compression as regards shear and bond 
stress for tensile steel. 

For T-Beams, 

**m (26) 

Par. 140.— 

«#^% (27) 

[For approximate results./ may be taken at |.] 

(e) Columns. 
Par. 141. — Total safe load, 

P=fc(Ac+nA s ) =fcA(l + (n-l) V ) (28) 

Par. 142. — Unit stresses, 

/c= 777zf-7V^ < 2 °) 

A(l + (n— l)p) 

Par. 143 — 

fs=nf c (30) 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 5, Special Act.] 

SECTION 16. 
Steel Construction. 

Materials and Stresses. — Materials, stresses and methods 
of computation shall be as provided in section fourteen. 

Par. 1. — General Requirements. — No metal thinner 
than one fourth of an inch shall be used except for fillers or 
beams and channel webs: provided, however, that sheet 
metal may be used in such buildings and under such 
restrictions as the commissioner may allow. Connections 
shall be designed to develop the full strength of the member 
under the conditions of loading even though the computed 
stress is less. 



68 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 16.J 

Rivets. 

Par. 2. — Rivets shall be placed in accordance with 
good engineering practice. The diameter of rivet holes 
in tension members shall be assumed as one eighth of an 
inch larger than the rivet. Net sections shall be used in 
proportioning tension members. 

Par. 3. — Beams and Girders. — Every beam, channel, 
lintel or girder supported by a wall shall be properly 
anchored thereto, and shall have bearing plates if neces- 
sary to distribute the load properly at the stresses required 
by this act. 

Beams and Channels. 

Par. 4. — Beams and channels acting as skew-backs for 
arches shall be designed to resist the lateral thrusts in 
addition to their vertical loads, and the tie rods, not less 
than three fourths of an inch in diameter, shall be placed 
as near the line of thrust as practicable, and in any event 
shall be spaced not more than eight times the depth of the 
beams, and not more than eight feet. 

Par. 5. — Where beams or channels are used in pairs 
they shall be connected with steel or iron separators near 
each end and at each concentrated load and not more than 
five feet apart elsewhere, and beams twelve inches or more 
in depth, if connected by bolted separators, shall have 
two bolts for each separator. 

Par. 6. — Steel Columns. — Steel column ends shall 
either be machine faced and brought into actual contact 
or full riveted connections shall be provided to develop 
the strength of columns. Latticing and tie plates shall be 
provided in accordance with good engineering practice. 

Par. 7. — Plate Girders. — In proportioning the flanges 
of plate girders one eighth of the web may be considered as 
available in each flange. When the top flange is not 
stayed laterally at distances of twenty times its breadth 



City op Boston Building Law. 69 

Sect. 16, Par. 7.] 

the stresses shall be reduced as required in section fourteen. 
Stiffeners, properly fitted at ends, shall be provided over 
supports and under concentrated loads with sufficient 
area in the outstanding legs to transmit the stresses in 
bearing at twenty thousand pounds per square inch, and 
with sufficient rivets to transmit the stresses to the web. 
Intermediate stiffeners shall be so spaced that the clear 
distance between the stiffeners, or the clear distance be- 
tween flange angles, shall not exceed that given by for- 
mula 

• d=— (12,000— s) 
40 

where d is the clear distance between stiffeners or flange 

angles 

t is the thickness of web 

s is the shear per square inch. 

Par. 8. — Trusses. — Trusses shall be designed so that 
the stresses in each member can be calculated with 
reasonable accuracy by statical methods. The centre of 
gravity lines of members meeting at a joint shall, if 
possible, intersect at a point. Eccentricity due to a non- 
fulfillment of this rule shall be allowed for in the com- 
putations. The centre of gravity of a group of rivets con- 
necting one member to another shall, in general, lie as 
nearly as practicable in the centre of gravity line of the 
member. Trusses shall be properly braced. 

Par. 9. — Riveting. — In skeleton construction, all 
splices in columns, all connections of girders or beams to 
columns, and all connections subject to a reversal of stress 
shall be made by means of rivets. In all types of construc- 
tion, splices in girders and chords of trusses and con- 
nections carrying heavy stresses shall be riveted. Minor 
connections such as floor stringers to girders, carrying 
moderate stresses, may be either riveted or bolted. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 6, Special Act.] 



70 City op Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 17. 

Classification. 
First and Second Class Buildings. 

Par. 1. — Every building hereafter erected more 
than seventy-five feet in height, or hereafter increased 
in height to more than seventy-five feet, shall be a first 
class building. Every second class building hereafter 
erected more than four stories in height, and any second 
class building now in existence and increased in height to 
more than four stories shall have the first floor and the 
basement and cellar stories of first class construction 
except as hereinafter otherwise mentioned for buildings 
for habitation. Every building for habitation hereafter 
erected covering more than five thousand square feet, or 
more than five stories in height, shall be a first class build- 
ing. Every building altered or enlarged and occupied or 
to be occupied as a habitation, to be in excess of sixty- 
five feet in height, or in excess of five thousand square 
feet in superficial area, or in excess of five stories in height, 
shall be a first class building. Every building hereafter 
erected within the building limits to be occupied as a 
permanent schoolhouse shall be a first class building. 
Every building hereafter erected as a theatre, and every 
building hereafter altered to be occupied as a theatre, 
shall be a first class building. Every building hereafter 
erected for, altered to or converted to use as a moving 
picture house shall be a first class building. All other 
buildings may be of second or third class construction. 

Par. 2. — Except as is otherwise provided herein, 
buildings adapted for habitations, and not more than five 
stories in height, may be erected, remodelled or enlarged 
of second class construction, but no such building shall 
exceed five thousand square feet in superficial area or 
sixty-five feet in height. Every such building exceeding 



City ofJBoston Building Law. 71 

Sect. 17, Par. 2.] 

thirty-five hundred square feet of superficial area, and 
every such building exceeding seventeen hundred and 
fifty square feet in superficial area, and more than four 
stories or fifty-five feet in height, shall have the first floor 
and basement and cellar stories of first class construction, 
with no openings through the first floor, except for piping; 
provided that stairways from the first story to the outside 
may penetrate the floor construction. Said stairs herein 
referred to are to be fireproof, separated from the base- 
ment or cellar by walls of solid masonry at least eight 
inches thick, with no opening to cellar or basement. The 
first story, or basement, or both the first story and base- 
ment, in such building more than seventeen hundred and 
fifty square feet in superficial area so constructed, re- 
modelled or enlarged, may be used for mercantile pur- 
poses; provided that the floors and walls separating the 
portion of the building used for mercantile purposes and 
the portion used for habitation be of first class construc- 
tion with no openings, except for piping, but that stair- 
waj^s from the portion used for habitation to the outside 
may penetrate the mercantile portion. In such event, the 
stairs herein referred to are to be constructed of incom- 
bustible material and separated from the latter by solid 
masonry walls at least eight inches thick with no opening 
to the portion used for habitation. In such buildings 
where the second floor is of first class construction the 
requirement providing for the first floor, basement and 
cellar stories to be of first class construction may be 
omitted. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 2.] 

Restriction of Areas. 
Par. 3. — Any first class building used above the first 
floor as a warehouse or store for the storage or sale of 
merchandise shall have all vertical openings protected 



72 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 17. Par. 3.] 

by fireproof enclosures. Such enclosures shall, if enclosing 
stairs or escalators, have automatic doors, and all glass in 
the enclosure shall be wire glass. 

Par. 4. — Such a building shall be so divided by brick 
walls built like party walls with the same openings allowed, 
that no space inside the buildings shall exceed in area ten 
thousand square feet, except that when any such building 
has a frontage of not less than fifty feet on each of two 
streets, such space may exceed ten thousand square feet 
in area, provided that buildings in which such extension 
of area beyond ten thousand square feet is permitted shall 
have automatic fire sprinklers installed and means of 
ingress and egress satisfactory to the commissioner and 
the board of appeal. 

Par. 5. — Second class buildings used above the first 
floor as warehouses or stores for the storage or sale of 
merchandise shall be so divided by brick walls, built like 
party walls with the same openings allowed, that no 
space inside such buildings shall exceed in area ten thou- 
sand square feet, and no existing wall in any second class 
building shall be removed so as to leave an area of more 
than ten thousand square feet, nor shall any existing wall 
separating areas which combined would exceed ten 
thousand square feet in area, have openings cut in it 
greater in area or number than is allowed in this act for 
party walls. 

Par. 6. — Every second class building more than three 
stories high and used above the first floor as a warehouse 
or store for the storage or sale of merchandise, shall have 
all vertical openings for elevators and stairways, air or 
light shafts, through its floors protected by fireproof 
enclosures. Such enclosures shall be supported by 
fireproof supports and framing, and shall, if enclosing 
stairs or escalators, have automatic doors, and all glass in 
the enclosure shall be wire glass. 



City of Boston Building Law. 73 

Sect. 17.] 

Par. 7. — No building used above the first floor for 
the storage or sale of merchandise shall have less than 
two means of egress from every story, one of which means 
may be either an outside fire escape or through a brick 
wall closed by automatic doors into a building of the same 
class; except that an independent monumental stairway 
extending from the basement to the second floor may be 
constructed. 

Buildings for Manufacturing Purposes. 
Par. 8. — Buildings outside the building limits and 
adapted exclusively for manufacturing, storage, mechani- 
cal or stable purposes, may be built under such conditions 
as the commissioner shall prescribe. If of wood such 
buildings shall not exceed forty-five feet in height. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 4.] 

[1916, c. 248, Special Act.] 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 7, Special Act.] 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 2.] 

SECTION 18. 
Construction. 

Height. 
Par. 1.: — No building, structure or part thereof shall 
be of a height exceeding two and one half times the 
width of the widest street on which the building or struc- 
ture stands, whether such street is a public street or place 
or a private way, nor exceeding one hundred and twenty- 
five feet in any case. The width of such street, place or 
private way shall be measured from the face of the build- 
ing or structure to the line of the street on the other side. 
If the street is of uneven width, the width shall be the 
average width of the part of the street opposite the build- 
ing or structure; if the effective width of the street is 
increased by an area or setback, the space between the 



74 City of BostonIBtjilding Law. 

Sect. 18, Par. 1.] 

face of the main building and the lawfully established line 
of the street may be built upon to the height of two and 
one half times the width of the street. 

Par. 2. — All buildings or structures hereafter erected 
in any part of the city shall be subject to the restrictions 
imposed by chapter 452 of the acts of the year 1898, 
by chapter 543 of the acts of the year 1902, by chapter 
383 of the acts of the year 1905, and by chapter 416 of 
the acts of the year 1907, so far as the restrictions imposed 
by said acts relate to the districts described therein; 
and shall also be subject to any restrictions lawfully 
imposed by the park commissioners of said city. 

SECTION 19. 
Excavations. 

Par. 1. — All excavations shall so be protected, by 
sheet piling if necessary, by the persons causing the same 
to be made, that the adjoining soil shall not cave in by 
reason of its own weight. It shall be the duty of the owner 
of every building to furnish, or cause to be furnished, such 
support that his building shall not be endangered by any 
excavation; 'provided, that the owner of any building 
which is endangered by an excavation carried by an 
adjoining owner more than ten feet below the grade of 
the street may recover the expense so caused of supporting 
such building from the persons causing such excavation 
to be made. All permanent excavations shall be pro- 
tected be retaining walls. In case of any failure to 
comply with the provisions of this section the commis- 
sioner may enter upon the premises and may furnish such 
support as the circumstances may require. Any expense 
so incurred may be recovered by the city from the persons 
required by law to furnish the support. 



City of Boston Building Law. 75 

SECTION 20. 
Foundations of Buildings. 

Par . 1 . — The foundation loads of every building, except 
temporary structure, shall be carried down to a satisfactory 
bearing material by means of properly designed walls, piers, 
grillages or piling which shall be so designed, located or 
otherwise disposed as to permit the entire loads which they 
transmit to be distributed over the bearing area with a 
unit intensity which shall not exceed the allowable value 
given in this section. The bearing area of any pile is the 
area over which it distributes its load. 

Par. 2. — The footing of every foundation shall be 
carried down at least four feet below any adjoining surface 
exposed to freezing and no footing shall be started on soil 
which is in a frozen condition. Foundations shall not be 
laid in freezing weather unless adequate precautions are 
taken against frost action. 

Par. 3. — ■ For the purposes of this section "satisfactory 
bearing material" shall mean only ledge rock in its natural 
bed, natural deposits of sand, gravel or clay, and any 
combination of the foregoing materials which does not 
contain or does not overlie an appreciable amount of 
organic material. 

Par. 4. — In the absence of satisfactory tests of their 
sustaining power, the maximum allowable bearing values 
of the above materials shall be limited by the following 

unit pressures : — 

Tons per 
Square Foot. 

Solid ledge rock 100 

Shale and hardpan . 10 

Gravel, compact sand and hard yellow clay . . 6 
Dry or wet sand of coarse or medum sized grains, 
hard blue clay mixed or unmixed with sand, dis- 
integrated ledge rock 5 



76 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 20, Par. 4.] Ton per 

Square Foot. 

Medium stiff or plastic clay mixed or unmixed with 

sand, or fine grained dry sand 4 

Fine grained wet sand (confined) .... 3 

Soft clay protected against lateral displacement . 2 

Par. 5. — Definitions. — (a) Solid ledge: Naturally 
formed rock, such as the granites and others of similar 
hardness and soundness, normally requiring blasting for 
their removal. 

Par. 6. — (6) Shale: Laminated slate or clay rocks 
removable with more or less difficulty by picking. 

Par. 7. — (c) Hardpan: A thoroughly cemented mixture 
of sand and pebbles or of sand, pebbles and clay, with or 
without a mixture of boulders and difficult to remove by 
picking. 

Par. 8. — (d) Gravel: A natural uncemented mixture of 
coarse or medium grained sand with a substantial amount 
of pebbles measuring one fourth of an inch or more in 
diameter. 

Par. 9. — (e) Sand (compact) : Requiring picking for its 
removal. 

Par. 10. — (J) Sand (loose): Requiring shovelling only. 

Par. 11. — (g) Sand (medium grain): Individual grains 
readily distinguishable by eye though not of pronounced 
size. 

Par. 12. — (h) Sand (fine grained): Individual grains 
distinguished by eye only with difficulty. 

Par. 13. — (i) Hard clay: Requiring picking for its 
removal. 

Par. 14. — (J) Disintegrated ledge rock: Residual 
deposits of decomposed ledge. 

Par. 15. — (k) Medium clay: Stiff and plastic but 
capable of being spaded. 

Par. 16. — (I) Soft clay: Putty-like in consistency and 
changing shape readily under relatively slight pressure. 



City op Boston Building Law. 77 

Sect. 20.] 

Par. 17. — Note.— The materials described in items 
c, d, e, /, g, i, j, k, shall be in relatively thick beds, if full 
loading value is used. Otherwise, if underlaid by a softer 
material, the value assigned to that material shall be used. 

When a Building Bests on a Ledge. 

Par. 18. Wherever a building or structure is to rest in 
part only upon solid ledge, the unit intensity of load upon 
the balance of the bearing area shall be not more than one 
half of the value given above for the several classes of soil. 

Par. 19. — Prior to the issuance of a permit for any 
permanent building or structure, the owner shall, by means 
of open pits or by test borings carried at least ten feet into 
a satisfactory bearing material other than ledge rock, 
determine the character and depth of the soil underlying 
the proposed site, and a certified copy of the reports of all 
borings and tests pit so taken, together with samples, 
taken dry, of the material selected for a foundation bearing 
shall be filed with the commissioner for his approval and 
classification. The number and location of borings taken, 
together with the method used in making and reporting 
them shall be as directed by the commissioner. 

Par. 20. — Foundations for first and second class 
buildings may be of brick, stone or concrete. The thick- 
ness shall be as stated in section twenty-three with 
the further provision that all foundation walls below 
grade shall be figured as retaining walls when they act 
as such. 

Par. 21. — Foundations of stone shall be of square split 
stone except that rubble stone shall be allowed under 
buildings outside of the building limits as they existed 
prior to September twenty-third, nineteen hundred and 
thirteen, but only when such buildings do not exceed 
forty-five feet in height and the foundation wall is less 
than ten feet in depth. No rubble foundation shall be 



78 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 20, Par. 21.] 

less than twenty inches in thickness. All walls shall be 
properly bonded by through courses. 

Par. 22. — Footings. — The footings of foundation walls 
or piers shall consist of footing stones, concrete, reinforced 
concrete construction or steel grillages. Footings of wood 
construction may be used provided that they are to be 
entirely below the permanent ground water level. 

Par. 23. — Footing Stones. — Footing stones shall be at 
least ten inches in thickness. They shall be fully bedded 
upon the bearing soil. 

Par. 24. — Concrete Footings. — Concrete footings shall 
be not less than twelve inches in thickness. They may be 
either stepped or battered to meet the wall or pier which 
they support. The offset of each step or the angle of 
batter shall be such as not to exceed the allowable stresses 
in the concrete. If battered footings are used there shall 
be a square shoulder at the base which shall be not less 
than four inches in height. 

Steel Grillage. 

Par. 25. — Steel grillage foundations shall have at least 
six inches of concrete below and shall be entirely embedded 
in and surrounded by concrete at least four inches thick 
between steel and earth, and the concrete shall be no 
poorer than one part Portland cement and seven and one 
half parts aggregate, measured before mixing. 

Par. 26. — Footing Loads. — Provision shall be made 
in determining the required area of footings for safely 
supporting the full dead loads and the figured live loads 
on the lowest tier of columns, piers or walls, plus the 
weight of the footings themselves and such backfilling 
and overlying basement floor loads as may come vertically 
over the projecting spread of the footing. 

Par. 27. — Foundation Piers and Caissons. — The foun- 
dation of any building or structure may be carried down to 
ledge or other satisfactory bearing material by isolated 



City of Boston Building Law. 79 

Sect. 20, Par. 21 J 

piers of approved masonry or by open or pneumatic 
caissons, so designed that the working stresses in the 
materials and on the soil do not exceed those established 
by this act. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 8, Special Act.] 
[1920, c. 91, sect. 2.] 

SECTION 21. 

Pile Foundations. 

Par. 1. — General Requirements. — The supporting value 
of piles shall be obtained from embedment in or bearing 
on material as firm as can practicably be obtained, 
and the method of driving shall be such as not to 
impair their strength. The frictional value observed in 
driving for that part of piles embedded in or passing 
through such materials as peat, silt, or fill overlying such 
material, shall not be relied upon for support. No pile or 
group of piles shall be loaded eccentrically, except in cases 
where it is impracticable to avoid it. In such cases the 
imit stress allowable for piles shall not be exceeded. Any 
type of pile construction not provided for in this section 
shall meet such requirements as may be prescribed by the 
commissioner. 

Par. 2. — A detached column or pier footing supported 
by piling shall rest upon not less than three piles, but col- 
umn or pier footings supported by proper and permanent 
masonry or steel construction which provides lateral sup- 
port in all directions may each rest upon a single pile if the 
allowable load per pile is not exceeded. Light wall founda- 
tions may be supported by a single row of piles : provided, 
that the length of wall unsupported laterally by proper 
masonry or steel construction does not exceed ten feet. All 
other foundation walls requiring piling shall rest upon at 
least two rows of piles, the rows to be at least two feet on 
centres for buildings up to thirty feet in height. For 
buildings exceeding thirty feet in height, if not more than 



80 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 21, Par. 2.] 

two rows of piles are used, the rows shall be spread not 
less than three feet on centres. 

Par. 2A. — Piles under masonry buildings shall be 
capped with concrete or with block granite. If capped 
with plain concrete the proportion shall be one part Port- 
land cement to not more than seven and one half parts 
aggregate, and the capping shall be not less than sixteen 
inches high above the pile heads. All concrete capping 
shall fill the space between and around them for a depth of 
six inches and shall extend for not less than six inches 
beyond the outer edge of the pile cluster. No rubble con- 
crete shall be used for pile capping. If capped with block 
granite, each block shall have a firm bearing on not less 
than three piles, shall be not less than twelve inches thick, 
and shall project sufficiently to cover fully all pile heads. 

Par. 3. — Piles supporting steel or wooden buildings 
without masonry walls or floors may be capped with timber 
not less than six inches thick, securely joined together and 
to the piles. 

Par. 4. — The commissioner shall require additional 
piles to be driven for all piles which are broken, broomed 
or injured in any way, and for piles having a lower sus- 
taining power than that required for the work. 

Par. 5. — The sustaining power of piles driven by jet- 
ting shall be determined by test loads as directed by the 
commissioner. 

$*ar. 6. — Wooden Piles. — Wooden piles shall be single 
sticks except as prescribed elsewhere, cut from sound live 
trees, shall be close grained and solid, free from defects, 
such as injurious ring shakes, unsound or loose knots, or 
decay, which may materially impair their strength or dura- 
bility. Piles must be butt- cut above the ground swell and 
have a uniform taper from butt to tip. 

Par. 7. — Short Bends not Allowed. — ■ A line drawn from 
the centre of the butt to the centre of the tip shall be 
within the body of the pile. 



City of Boston Building Law. 81 

Seot. 21.] 

Par. 8. — All knots shall be trimmed close to the body 
of the pile. All piles shall be at least six inches in average 
diameter at tip under the bark. 

Par. 9. — Inspection of All Piles. — The commissioner 
shall require a competent inspector qualified by experience 
and training and satisfactory to him, to be on the work at 
all times while piles are being driven, and the inspector 
shall keep an accurate record of the length, size of tip and 
butt of each pile, the weight and fall of the hammer and 
the penetration of each pile for each of the last three 
blows. 

Par. 10. — Square timber of approved quality may be 
used as piling, in which case the average cross-section shall 
be not less than ten inches by ten inches, and the tip not 
less than six inches by six inches. 

Par. 11. — Pile heads shall be cut to sound wood before 
capping is placed. 

Par. 12. — Loads on Wooden Piles. — Wooden piles 
driven through fill, silt, peat or other soil incapable of 
adequately resisting lateral bending, to hardpan or ledge, 
or deriving their value from embedments of less than one 
twelfth their length in approved soil, shall be figured as 
columns, using the table for timber compression members, 
and using an area equal to the middle cross-section of the 
pile. All such piles shall be of hard wood such as oak, 
southern yellow pine or similar woods, if the commissioner 
shall so decide. 

Par. 13. — The safe load on all other wooden piles driven 
by drop hammer shall not exceed twelve tons each for 
spruce, Norway pine or other soft woods, nor fifteen tons 
each for southern yellow pine, oak or woods of similar 
strength, and shall be limited by the following formula: — 

2WH 



L = 



P* ? plus 1 



82 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 21.] 

Par. 14. — When testing for their value the pile head 
shall have sound wood and the fall of the hammer shall be 
ten feet. 

Par. 15. — The safe supporting value of wooden piles 
when driven by single acting power hammer shall be limited 
by the following formula:— 

L _ 2WH 
P plus 0.1 

Par. 16. — In these formulas: — 

L is the allowable load in pounds. 

W is the weight of the hammer or striking parts in pounds. 

H is the fall of the hammer in feet. 

P is the average penetration in inches under the last three 
blows after the pile has been driven to a point where 
successive blows produce approximately equal or 
uniformly decreasing penetration. 

Par. 17. — The distance between wooden piles shall be 
not less than twenty-four inches on centres. The tops of 
all wooden piles shall be cut at an elevation not higher than 
grade 5.00, except that the commissioner may in his dis- 
cretion permit a higher point of cut off, but not exceeding 
grade 9.00 in localities where the level of the ground water 
fluctuates with the tidal variations. 

Par. 18. — Wooden piles may be driven to a depth not 
exceeding ten feet below the ground surface by means of 
properly designed followers: provided, that such followers 
are constructed of steel or iron, and are equipped with a 
suitable cast iron or steel socket which encases the pile 
head sufficiently to avoid injury to them during the driving 
process. Before using such a follower the pile head shall 
be cut or trimmed so as to expose a sound section of timber 
on which the follower shall rest. If wooden driving blocks 
are inserted between the follower and pile hammer they 



City of Boston Building Law. 83 

Sect. 21, Par. 18.] 

shall be not more than twelve inches in height, of hard 
wood, and shall be replaced as often as their fibers become 
ruptured. In case followers are used, the sustaining value 
of the pile as determined by the driving formula shall be 
reduced twenty-five per cent unless test loads are applied, 
in which case the commissioner may allow a higher unit 
loading not exceeding the maximum prescribed by this 
section. 

Concrete Piles. 

Par. 19. — P re-cast Concrete Piles. — Pre-cast concrete 
piles shall be properly designed and reinforced to permit 
handling and driving without injury. The amount of 
longitudinal reinforcing employed shall be not less than 
two per cent nor more than four per cent, with bands or 
hoops not less than one fourth of an inch in diameter and 
spaced not further than ten inches. They shall be 
thoroughly cured before driving. The diameter or lateral 
dimension of such a pile shall be not less than eight inches 
at the point, and shall average not less than eleven inches. 
The length shall not exceed thirty times the average 
diameter when the pile is driven through fill, silt, peat or 
other material having relatively little lateral stiffness, 
to ledge or hardpan, or when it derives its value from 
embedment of less than one twelfth its length in approved 
soil, nor forty times the average diameter in any case. 

Par. 20. — When driven to ledge or hardpan the allowable 
load on any such pile shall not exceed four hundred pounds 
per square inch on the concrete at the average cross section, 
and six thousand pounds per square inch on the longitudinal 
reinforcement. 

Par. 21. — ■ All pre-cast concrete piles shall be protected 
against damage in driving by the use of a suitable cushion 
cap of approved design, and when driven to ledge shall be 
provided with a metal shoe having ample bearing surface. 



84 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect, 22.] 

Par. 22. — Cast in Place Concrete Piles. — Concrete piles 
cast in place shall be so made and placed as to insure the 
exclusion of any foreign matter, and to secure a perfect 
full sized shape, and shall be spaced at least three feet, 
centre to centre, and more if the commissioner so decides. 
The average diameter of any such pile in place shall be not 
less than eleven inches, and the diameter of the tip shall 
be not less than eight inches. The length shall not exceed 
thirty times the average diameter when the pile is driven 
through fill, silt, peat or other material having relatively 
little lateral stiffness, to ledge or hardpan, or when it 
derives its value from embedment of less than one twelfth 
its length in approved soil, nor forty times the average 
diameter in any case. When driven to ledge or hardpan 
the allowable load on any such pile shall not exceed four 
hundred pounds per square inch on the concrete at the 
average section. 

Par. 23. — General Provisions. — Metal tubes five six- 
teenths of an inch thick or less, remaining in the ground, 
shall not be considered as reinforcement. To be con- 
sidered as reinforcement, all steel rods shall be embedded 
in and covered by three inches of concrete. 

Par. 24. — The safe load for all concrete piles not driven 
to ledge shall be determined by the commissioner, who 
may, if he deems it necessary, require one or more tests 
of the same to be made at the expense of the owner of the 
proposed building or structure, or of the party causing the 
piles to be driven, but the commissioner shall not allow a 
greater load than one half of the test load giving three 
eighths inch total settlement, such total settlement to 
remain constant for a period of twenty-four hours, nor 
shall the prescribed unit stresses be exceeded. Such tests 
shall be made under the supervision of the commissioner, 
and the results shall be filed in his office. No concrete 
pile shall be allowed a greater load than thirty tons in any 
case. 



City of Boston Building Law. 85 

Sect. 21.] 

Par. 25. — All load tests shall be conducted in accordance 
with regulations promulgated by the commissioner and 
to his satisfaction (but in the absence of such regulations 
all load tests shall be in accordance with regulations 
formulated by the commissioner, and to his satisfaction),* 
but in the absence of such regulations, they shall be 
continued until at least twice the working load allowed has 
been put upon the pile, and an accurate record shall be 
kept, to the nearest one sixteenth inch of settlement for 
and after each increment of load has been added. Incre- 
ments of load shall not exceed ten thousand pounds each, 
and at least eight hours shall elapse between the addition 
of successive increments. Test loads shall be applied at 
capping grade. 

Par. 26. — All concrete for concrete piles shall be mixed 
in the proportion of one part Portland cement to not 
more than six parts of aggregate, and with a sufficient 
amount of water to produce a plastic or viscous consistency. 

Par. 27. — Concrete piles shall be capped with concrete 
masonry only. 

(1918, c. 179, sect. 9, Special Act.] 

SECTION 22. 
Cellars — Rat-proofing. 

Par. 1. — Cellars. — The cellar of every building, 
where the grade or nature of the ground so requires, 
shall be sufficiently protected from water and damp 
by a bed at least two inches thick over the whole, of 
concrete, cement and gravel, tar and gravel, or asphalt, 
or by bricks laid in cement. No cellar or basement 
floor of any building shall be constructed below the 
grade of twelve feet above mean low water, unless such 
cellar is made waterproof. All metal foundations and 

* Words in parentheses above should be stricken out, being a 
repetition. 



86 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 22, Par. 1.] 

all structural metal work underground shall be pro- 
tected from dampness by concrete, waterproofed where 
necessary, or by other material approved by the com- 
missioner. 

Pak. 2. — Rat-proofing. — The cellar of every building 
hereafter erected within the building limits shall be made 
rat-proof by the use of inasomy or metal. All openings 
in foundations, cellars and basements in such buildings, 
except for doors and hatchways, and except also for such 
windows wholly above ground as may be exempted by the 
commissioner in his discretion, shall be completely covered 
with screens of metal having meshes of not more than 
one half of an inch in least dimension and constructed of 
rods or wire of not less than twenty gauge. 
[1918, c. 179, sect. 10, Special Act.] 



SECTION 23. 
Thickness of Walls. 
Basement Wall. 
Par. 1. — 'For the purposes of this section a base- 
ment wall shall be construed to include any exterior 
wall between the ground and the first floor, and any 
party, fire and bearing walls from the top of foundations 
to the first floor. 

Par. 2. — The thickness of masonry walls shall be in all 
cases, irrespective of the requirements of this section, 
sufficient to help the stresses .in the masonry within the 
working stresses prescribed by this act. 

Single Family Dwellings. 
Par. 3. — For single family dwellings not over three 
stories high with wooden floor beams spanning not more 
than fifteen feet, all exterior, party, bearing or fire walls 



City op Boston Building Law. 



87 



Sect. 23, Par. 3.J 

shall be not less than twelve inches thick for basement 
walls and eight inches thick above the basement: provided, 
however, that the ends of floor timbers on opposite sides 
of a wall in such buildings shall not be nearer than eight 
inches to each other. 

Dwellings Not More Than Three Stories and Twenty Feet 

Wide. 

Par. 4. — For dwellings not over three stories high 
with floors spanning not more than twenty feet, all 
exterior walls shall be not less than twelve inches thick 
for basement walls and eight inches thick above the 
basement, and all party, fire, and bearing walls shall be 
not less than twelve inches thick. In case any part of 
such a building is adapted for any use other than habita- 
tion all walls surrounding that part of the building shall 
be not less than twelve inches thick. 

All Other Dwellings, etc. 

Par. 5. — For all other residences and for hotels, 
lodging houses, boarding houses, clubs, convents, hospitals, 
asylums and detention buildings, all exterior, party, fire 
and bearing walls above foundations shall have the 
following minimum thickness in inches: 



Stories. 



Base- 


1 


2 


3 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


ment. 
















12 


12 














12 


12 


12 












12 


12 


12 


12 










12 


12 


12 


12 


12 








16 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 






16 


16 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 




16 


16 


16 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


20 


16 


16 


16 


12 


12 


12 


12 



8. 



1 story 

2 story 

3 story 

4 story 

5 story 

6 story 

7 story 

8 story 



building 
building 
building 
building 
building 
building 
building 
building 



12 



88 " 

Sect. 23. 



City of Boston Building Law. 



Other Than Dwellings. 

Par. 6. — For all other buildings, exterior, party, fire 
and bearing walls above foundations shall have the 
following minimum thickness in inches: 



Stories. 


Base- 
ment. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 


8. 




12 
12 
16 
16 
16 
20 
20 
20 


12i 

12 

12 

16 

16 

16 

20 

20 


12 
12 
12 
16 
16 
16 
20 


12 
12 
12 
16 
16 
16 


12 
12 
12 
16 
16 


12 
12 
12 
16 


12 
12 
12 


12 
12 


12 



1 In case the floor area is less than 500 square feet, the wall thickness 
may be 8 inches. 

Par. 7. — Provided, however, that if any part of any 
building is lower than the rest, the lower part may have 
walls of thicknesses required for a building of height equal 
to that of the lower part. 

Foundation Walls. 

Par. 8. — The foundation walls shall be at least four 
inches thicker than the required thickness of the walls of 
the first story. The thickness herein given shall apply to 
all masonry walls unless they are reinforced by a frame 
or skeleton of steel or reinforced concrete. 



Mezzanine Floor or Balcony. 

Par. 9. — For the purposes of this section any balcony 
or mezzanine floor of more than ten feet span shall be 
considered as forming a story in fixing the thickness of 
the walls which support it. 



City of Boston Building Law. 89 

Sect. 23.] 

Ashlar. 

Par. 10. — In reckoning the thickness of walls, ashlar 
shall not be considered unless the walls are at least sixteen 
inches thick and the ashlar is at least eight inches thick, 
or unless alternate courses are at least four and eight 
inches to allow bonding with the backing. Ashlar shall 
be held by metal clamps to the backing or be properly 
bonded to the same. 

Non-bearing Walls — Thickness. 

Par. 11. — Non-bearing walls not used for fire or party 
walls may be four inches less in thickness than is required 
by the preceding tables; and such walls supporting stairs 
or stair landings may be eight inches less: provided, 
however, that no such non-bearing or stair wall shall be 
less than eight inches thick nor have a greater height 
unstayed laterally than thirty times itis thickness, except 
with the approval of the commissioner. 

Curtain Walls. 
Par. 12. — Curtain walls between columns, buttresses 
or projecting piers may be thinner than is required by 
the preceding tables: provided, however, that in single 
family houses not over three stories high such curtain 
walls shall be not less than four inches thick, and in all 
other buildings such curtain walls shall be not less than 
twelve inches thick for fire or party walls nor less than 
eight inches thick for exterior walls, except that the parts 
between the top of one window opening and the bottom 
of the window opening above, if faced with metal, shall 
be backed by at least four inches of incombustible material. 
No curtain wall exceeding twenty feet in length shall have 
a greater height unstayed laterally than thirty times its 
thickness. 



90 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 23.] 

Hollow Block Walls. 
Par. 13. — Hollow block walls shall have the same 
minimum thickness as is required for brick walls, but 
shall not be used for bearing walls in buildings over four 
stories high. Solid unreinforced concrete walls shall have 
the same minimum thickness as required for brick walls. 
Reinforced concrete walls shall be of the thickness and 
construction required by the commissioner, subject to 
the requirements of section fifteen. 

[1918, Special Acts, c. 179, sect. ll.J 

SECTION 24. 
Anchors. 
Par. 1. — All walls of a first or second class building 
meeting at an angle shall be securely bonded, or shall be 
united every five feet of their height by anchors made of 
at least two inches by half an inch of steel or wrought 
iron, well painted, and securely built into the side or 
partition walls not less than thirty-six inches, and into 
the front and rear walls at least one half the thickness 
of such walls. 

SECTION 25. 
Brickwork — Bonding. 

Par. 1. — Every eighth course, at least, of a brick wall 
shall be a full heading or bonding course, except where 
walls are faced with face brick, in which case in every 
eighth course at least every other brick shall be a full 
header. No diagonal header ties shall be used. 

Par. 2. — In a skeleton frame building brick facing of 
not more than four inches in thickness may be bonded to 
the frame by metal ties if other suitable precautions sat- 
isfactory to the commissioner are taken. Such ties shall 
be of galvanized wire or other suitable material satisfactory 

to him. 

[1918, Special Acts, c. 179, sect. 12.] 



City op Boston Building Law. 91 

SECTION 26. 
Vaulted Walls. 
Par. 1. — If the air spaces are headed over and the 
walls are built solid for at least three courses below 
the floor and roof beams, walls, if of brick, may be 
built hollow. They shall contain, exclusive of withes, 
the same amount of material as is required for solid 
walls, and the masonry on the inside of the air space in 
walls over two stories in height shall be not less than 
eight inches thick, and the parts on either side shall be 
securely tied together with ties not more than two feet 
apart in each direction. 

SECTION 27. 
Walls Framed with Iron or Steel. 
Par. 1. — Walls may be built in part of iron or steel or 
with a reinforced concrete or metal framework. In such 
metal framework the beams and girders shall be riveted to 
each other at their respective junction points. If columns 
made of rolled iron or steel are used, their different parts 
shall be riveted to each other, and the beams and girders 
resting upon them shall, if possible, have riveted connec- 
tions to unite them with the columns . If cast iron columns 
are used, each successive column shall be bolted to the 
one below it by at least four bolts not less than three 
fourths of an inch in diameter, and the beams and girders 
shall be bolted to the columns. At each line of floor or 
roof beams, lateral connections between the ends of the 
beams and girders shall be made in such manner as rigidly 
to connect the beams and girders with each other in the 
direction of their length. 

Skeleton Party Walls. 
Par. 2. — All party walls of skeleton construction shall 
have curtain walls of brick, not less than twelve inches 
thick. 



92 Oity of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 27.] 

Par. 3. — All outside walls of skeleton construction shall 
have curtain walls which may be of masonry, terra-cotta, 
concrete, or reinforced concrete, constructed and supported 
under such conditions as the commissioner shall prescribe. 

Par. 4. — If the metal or other framework is so designed 
that the enclosing walls do not carry the weight of floors 
or roof, then the walls shall be of masonry or concrete 
construction and shall be thoroughly anchored to the iron 
skeleton, and whenever the weight of such walls rests 
upon beams or columns, such beams or columns shall be 
made strong enough in each story to carry the weight of 
wall resting upon them without reliance upon the walls 
below them. 

SECTION 28. 
Party Walls Above Roof. 
Par. 1. — In buildings less than forty-five feet in height 
all party walls shall be built to a height at least twelve 
inches above the roof covering, and shall be capped with 
stone, cement or metal securely fastened to the masonry. 
In all other buildings such walls shall be carried thirty 
inches above the roof. 

SECTION 29. 

Walls — Cornices. 

Par. 1. — Where a wall is finished with a stone cornice, 
the greatest weight of material of such cornice shall be 
on the inside of the face of the wall. All cornices of second 
class buildings shall be of brick or covered with fireproof 
material, and the walls shall be carried up to the boarding 
of the roof; and where the cornice projects above the roof 
the masonry shall be carried up to the top of the cornice 
and covered with metal, like parapet walls. 



City of Boston Building Law. 93 

SECTION 30. 
Piers and Hearths. 

Par. 1. — Piers and walls shall have caps or plates, 
where they are needed, sufficient properly to distribute 
the load. 

Par. 2. — Hearths shall be supported by trimmer arches 
of brick or stone; or shall be of single stones at least six 
inches thick, built into the chimney and supported by iron 
beams, one end of which shall be securely built into the 
masonry of a chimney or of an adjoining wall, or which 
shall otherwise rest upon an incombustible support. 
Brick jambs of every fireplace, range or grate opening 
shall be at least eight inches wide each, and the backs of 
such openings shall be at least eight inches thick. Hearths 
and trimmer arches shall be at least twelve inches longer 
on either side than the width of such openings, and at 
least eighteen inches wide in front of the chimney breast. 
Brickwork over fireplaces and grate openings shall be 
supported by proper iron bars, or brick or stone arches. 

SECTION 31. 
Walls — Doorways in Party Walls. 

Par. 1. — Openings for doorways in party walls shall 
not exceed one hundred square feet each in area, and each 
opening shall have two sets of fire doors separated by the 
thickness of the wall, hung in a manner satisfactory to 
the commissioner, except that the aggregate width of all 
openings in any story shall not exceed fifty per cent of the 
length of the wall in which such openings occur. Openings, 
not exceeding one hundred and forty-four square inches, 
constructed and protected as shall be approved by a 
writing signed by the fire commissioner, and filed with the 
commissioner, may be permitted in any wall or floor. 



94 City of Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 32. 

Fire Protection. 

Par. 1. — All structural metal supporting or forming 
part of the frame, floors, roof or columns of any building, 
except as otherwise exempted in this act, shall be protected 
against the effect of heat. 

Protection shall consist of: — 

Par. 2. — (a) Concrete. — Cast in forms around and in 
direct contact with the structural members and reinforced 
with iron or clamps or hangers or with wires in such a 
manner as to form a thorough bond. Concrete filling 
may be deemed protection for the upper flanges where 
arch construction is used; 

Par. 3. — (6) Terra Cotta. — Clamped in place with steel 
clamps or wrapped securely with number twelve galvanized 
iron wire or metal lath in such manner as to hold each block 
in place, set in mortar no poorer than one part natural 
cement and two parts sand and (except where arches 
abut) plastered with the same mortar at least one half 
inch thick, and at least thick enough to make the entire 
protection as thick as required in paragraph three. Terra 
cotta blocks may be hollow but each face shall be solid, 
and no shell or web shall be less than three quarter inches 
thick; 

Par. 4. — (c) Brickwork. — Set in cement mortar; 

Par. 5. — (d) Any material or form of construction that 
will resist the action of flames and a heat of seventeen 
hundred degrees Fahrenheit for at least two hours without 
raising the temperature of the material to be protected 
above five hundred and fifty degrees Fahrenheit, through 
a thickness of two inches, as determined by fire and water 
tests for fireproofing construction adopted by the American 
Society for Testing Materials. 

Par. 6. — This protection shall be, unless it is otherwise 



City of Boston Building Law. 95 

Sect. 32, Par. 6.] 

provided herein, at least three quarter inches thick and at 

least of the thickness named in the following table: — 

On columns carrying masonry walls : — 

One and one half inches against the edges of flanges; 

Four inches elsewhere. 
On columns carrying floors or roofs or both : — 

One and one half inches against the edges of flanges; 

Three inches elsewhere. 
On beams, girders or trusses carrying masonry walls: — 

One inch on top: 

Two inches elsewhere. 
On beams, girders, or trusses carrying floors or roofs or 
both:— 

One inch on top; 

One and one half inches elsewhere. 
On beams deeper than fifteen inches or having a flange 
width of more than seven and one half inches: — - 

One inch on top; 

Two inches elsewhere. 
On lugs, brackets, braces and similar minor construction 
members and beyond the tips of rivets: — 

Three quarters of an inch. 

Exterior Isolated Columns. 
Par. 7. — About isolated columns on the exterior of 
buildings, the thickness of protection may be reduced to 
one inch, when the same is covered with an outer shell of 
cast iron or steel. 

Plaster on Metal Lath Not Fire Protection for Steel or Iron. 
Par. 8. — Plaster on metal lath shall not be considered 
as a fire protection for steel or iron structural members, 
except that where suspended ceilings of metal lath and 
plaster leave not less than one inch of air space against the 



96 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 32, Par. 8.] 

protective covering of such structural member, the pro- 
tective covering may be one inch in thickness. 

Par. 9. — Metal lath and plaster used for the require- 
ments of this section shall have a total thickness, not 
counting clinches, of not less than three quarters of an 
inch. 

Pipes, etc.. Not to be Embedded. 

Par. 10. — No pipes, wires, cables or other material 
shall be embedded in the required fireproofing of columns 
or other structural members. 

The above requirements as to fire protection shall not 
apply in the following cases : — 

Par. 11. — (a) Structural metal in second or third class 
buildings in any case in which wood without fire protection 
would be permissible under this act. 

Par. 12. — (6) Structural metal which faces on enclosed 
spaces that are strutted up or hung down from floors or 
roofs where the tops, bottoms and walls or partitions of 
such spaces are protected against fire on the outer side, as 
required elsewhere in this act. 

Par. 13. — (c) Lintel angles under stone or brick 
unless over ten feet span. 

Par. 14. — (d) Buildings built in whole or in part of a 
better class of construction than is required by this act 
shall be required to have only such protection for structural 
metal as would be required in a building of the type that 
would be allowed in the given case. 

Par. 15.— (e) Metal work in a non-bearing partition, 
and for furrings and metal used only to support finish or 
equipment, and for metal of stair construction, suspension 
rods for balconies, steel work of theatre stages, fly galleries 
and rigging lofts. 

Par. 16. — (f) Metal, other than columns, carrying no 
other loads than ceilings, or suspended balconies not over 



City of Boston Building Law. 97 

Sect. 32, Par. 16.] 

eight feet wide. When a suspended ceiling is used it shall 
be of metal lath and plaster with hanging rods, ties, 
stiffening, and the like, of metal. 

Alterations — Fireproofing to be Satisfactory to Com- 
missioner. 

Par. 17. — In work in connection with alterations of 
existing buildings, the character and amount of protec- 
tion for steel and iron wor^. shall be made satisfactory to 
the commissioner. 

Par. 18. — Whenever any protective material or struc- 
tural metal is, in the opinion of the commissioner, liable 
to injury by trucks or merchandise, wood or metal guards 
shall be applied as he may require. 

Fir estopping — Third Class Buildings. 

Par. 19. — In buildings of third class construction the 
exterior walls at each floor level, and all spaces between 
joists over girders and bearing partitions, and from plate to 
roof boarding, shall be firestopped with masonry or metal. 

Fir estopping in Second Class Buildings. 
Par. 20. — In buildings of second class construction 
spaces between strap furring on brick walls shall be rilled 
for a distance of five inches below and five inches above the 
floor beams with mortar, and all spaces betv^een joists over 
girders and bearing partitions, and from plate to roof 
boarding shall be firestopped with masonry not less than 
four inches thick. 

Roof, Stairway and Chimney Firestopping. 
Par. 21. — In buildings of second or third class con- 
struction spaces between rafters, over furring enclosing 
spaces under the roof, shall be firestopped with wood or 
metal, and spaces between stringers of stairs and joists of 



98 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 32, Par. 21.] 

landings, unless stairs are unceiled or of incombustible 
materials, shall be firestopped with masonry or metal or 
not less than seven eighths of an inch of wood, at least 
twice in each flight of stairs. All spaces around chimneys 
shall be thoroughly firestopped with sheet metal, metal 
lath and plaster, or masonry. 

Firestopping — How Applied. 

Pab. 22. — Firestopping shall completely fill all openings 
where it is applied; all chases or enclosures for pipes shall 
be firestopped adjacent to other required firestopping and 
by the same materials, except that metal lath and plaster" 
may be used. 

Rat-proofing. 

Par. 23. — No building operations shall be permitted 
which will create unnecessary permanent spaces where 
rats will find refuge from their enemies and breed. 

Firestopping Floors. 

Par. 24. — In every building of second or third class 
construction each floor shall be thoroughly stopped 
by a continuous layer of asbestos fabric, magneso- 
calcite or other fire-resisting material approved by the 
commissioner. 

Par. 25. — Furnaces and Smoke Pipes. — The tops of all 
heating furnaces and smoke pipes shall be at least one foot 
below the nearest wooden beams or ceilings. All ceilings 
immediately over a furnace or boiler, and for six feet on 
each side thereof, and all ceilings over indirect radiators 
shall, except under fireproof floors, be metal-lathed and 
plastered. 

Par. 26. — Register Boxes. — All hot-air register boxes in 
the floors or partitions of buildings shall be set in soapstone 
or equally fireproof borders and not less than two inches 
in width, shall be made of tin plate, and shall have double 
pipes and boxes properly fitted to the soapstone. Hot-air 



City of Boston Building Law. 99 

Sect. 32, Par. 26.] 

pipes and register boxes shall be at least one inch from any 
woodwork, and register boxes shall be fifteen inches by 
twenty-five inches or larger, and their connecting pipes 
shall be two inches from any woodwork. If indirect hot 
water or indirect steam heat is used, the commissioner 
may modify or dispense with the foregoing requirements. 
Par. 27. — ■ Vent and Smoke Pipes. — All vent or smoke 
pipes for stoves, furnaces or heaters, not including gas 
stoves, hereafter installed shall be placed not nearer than 
twelve inches to any lath, plaster or board partition, ceiling 
or woodwork. Where such pipes pass through a lath and 
plaster or board partition, they shall be protected by 
ventilated metal collars at least six inches larger in diameter 
than the pipe. Where such pipes enter the chimney, 
the opening into the same shall be protected by a metal 
collar built at least four inches into the brickwork of the 
cliimney. No such pipe shall pass through the roof or 
exterior wall of any building. Such pipes when within 
eighteen inches of a ceiling shall be protected by having the 
ceiling over them, and at least two feet wide, wire-lathed 
and plastered, or by having a shield of metal of the same 
width hung from the floor timbers, and at least six inches 
distant therefrom. Vent pipes to gas stoves, if placed 
nearer than three inches to any woodwork or lath and 
plaster partition, shall be protected with incombustible 
material. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 13, Special Act.] 
[1921, c. 60, sect. 2.] 

SECTION 33. 
Fireproof Partitions. 

Except as is otherwise provided in this section, 
partitions in buildings of first, class construction shall 
be constructed of the materials and in the manner herein 
specified: — 

Par. 1.— (a) Brick in cement mortar; 



100 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 33.] 

Par. 2. — (6) Concrete, consisting of one part Portland 
cement and not more than three parts of sand and six parts 
of stone or gravel, not less than three inches thick if prop- 
erly reinforced with steel, nor less than four inches thick 
otherwise; 

Par. 3. — (c) Cinder concrete, consisting of one part 
Portland cement and not more than three parts of sand 
and six parts of cinders, not less than four inches thick if 
properly reinforced with steel, nor less than five inches 
thick otherwise; 

Par. 4. — (d) Hollow terra cotta blocks, laid in cement 
mortar, not less than three inches thick; 

Par. 5. — (e) Hollow concrete blocks, of either stone 
or cinder concrete laid in cement mortar, not less than 
three inches thick; 

Par. 6. — (/) Solid or hollow blocks consisting of 
gypsum containing not more than twenty-five per cent 
by weight of cinders, asbestos fiber, wood chips or vegetable 
fiber, laid in gypsum plaster or cement mortar tempered 
with lime, not less than three inches thick; 

Par. 7. — (g) Metal lath on a steel studding covered 
with Portland cement mortar or gypsum plaster, of a 
finished thickness of not less than two inches in the case 
of solid partitions, nor less than three inches in the case of 
hollow partitions; or 

Par. 8. — ■ (h) Any material or form of construction 
that may be approved by the commissioner if conforming 
to the requirements of the fire test hereinafter prescribed. 
But nothing in this section shall prevent the erection, in 
the discretion of the commissioner, of partitions of pressed 
metal and glass or of temporary partitions of wood and 
glass within rooms or spaces enclosed by fireproof par- 
titions or walls. 

Par. 9. — The thicknesses as above described are for 
partitions up to fifteen feet in height, and they shall be 
increased in thickness one inch for every additional eight 



City of Boston Building Law. 101 

Sect. 33, Par. 9.] 

feet or fraction thereof. If partitions are not plastered on 
both sides, the thicknesses shall be one inch greater than 
those above specified. 

Fireproof Partition Support. 

Par. 10. — Construction. — Unless built as approved 
masonry walls, partitions in fireproof buildings shall be 
independently supported at each floor. They shall be 
keyed, or otherwise securely fastened to the ceilings, and, 
when necessary, shall be stiffened with suitable steel 
uprights securely fastened to floor and ceiling. Partitions 
enclosing hallways or toilet rooms and other permanent 
partitions shall not rest on wood flooring but shall start on 
the fireproof construction of the floor. In the upper story, 
where there is a space between the ceiling of the top floor 
and the roof, partitions need not extend above the ceiling. 

Par. 11. — Tests of Fireproof Partitions. — In testing the 
fireproof qualities of any partition construction, a vertical 
panel not less than fourteen feet long and nine feet high 
shall be subjected to a continuous fire for not less than one 
hour ' j an average temperature of seventeen hundred 
degrees Fahrenheit, during the latter half hour, followed 
by an application for not less than two and one half min- 
utes of a hose stream from a one and one eighth inch nozzle 
at thirty pounds nozzle pressure, without the passage of 
flame during the test. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 14, Special Act.] 

SECTION 34. 
Timbers in Walls of Second Class Buildings. 
Par. 1. — The ends of all wooden floor or roof 
timbers in second class buildings shall enter the wall 
to a depth of at least four inches; and the ends of all such 
beams shall be so shaped or arranged that in case of fire 
they may fall without injury to the wall. 

[1918, o. 179, sect. 15, Special Aot.l 



102 City of Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 35. 

Alteration of Existing Buildings. 

Par. 1. — Any building, except those of third class 
construction within the building limits, having not more 
than five floors above the mean grade of all the sidewalks, 
and covering an area of not more than seventeen hundred 
and fifty square feet, may be altered, remodeled or enlarged 
for use as a house for habitation or tenements using second 
class construction. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 3.] 

Par. 2. — The first story or basement, or both the first 
story and basement, in such buildings may be used for 
mercantile purposes; provided that the walls surrounding 
the mercantile portion are firestopped with brick, terra 
cotta or gypsum tile laid in cement filled in solidly to full 
height between the studs, and the latter covered on both 
sides with metal lath and cement plaster, the soffits of 
stairs and the ceilings of the mercantile portion to be 
covered with three coat work cement plaster on metal lath. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 3.] 

Height Allowed. 

Par. 3. — • The height of any such building shall not be 
increased unless the walls and foundations conform to the 
provisions of this act. The number of stories of such a 
building shall not exceed five above the cellar or basement. 

Egress Required. 

Par. 4. — Every such building, except a single family 
dwelling, more than three stories in height so altered, 
remodeled or enlarged, shall be provided with at least two 
independent means of egress, at least one of which shall 
consist of an inside stairway, enclosed with partitions of 
wood studding, the spaces between the studs filled solid to 
full height with bricks, terra cotta or gypsum blocks, laid 



City op Boston Build *q Law. 103 

Sect. 35, Par. 4.] 

in mortar, and both sides of partitions and soffits of stairs 
plastered with three coats of cement plaster on metal 
lath, or any enclosure of superior fire-resisting construction, 
satisfactory to the commissioner, all openings into said 
enclosure to have self-closing fireproof doors and fireproof 
frames. The other means of egress may be outside iron 
fire escape with stairs to the ground, or connecting iron 
balconies to an adjoining building, and each tenement 
above the first story shall have direct access to at least 
two separate means of egress. 

Exposure Required. 

Par. 5. — Every such building, so altered, remodelled 
or enlarged, shall have, in addition to the exposure on the 
widest street, an exposure as long as the average width 
of the building, upon a space open from the ground to the 
sky, at least ten feet wide for the first three stories, and 
increasing in width five feet for the next two stories. If 
the proposed building is more than five stories in height, 
said space shall be twenty feet : provided, that if the base- 
ment and first story are adapted or enlarged for use for 
mercantile purposes, the exposure required by this section 
shall not apply to that part of the building; and provided, 
also, that sufficient space be retained on the lot for the 
storage of ashes or garbage. 

Par. 6. — Such exposure may be either upon private or 
public ways, or upon land which is dedicated for the use of 
the building, and may be divided and placed as approved 
by the building commissioner. 

Par. 7. — These spaces shall remain undiminished so 
long as the building is used for habitation. 

Par. 8. — If the building is situated on the corner of 
streets or private ways not less than ten feet wide the com- 
missioner may approve the omission of the whole or part 
of this additional exposure. 



104 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 35.] 

Alteration — When It Produces New Structure 
Practically. 
Par. 9. — If in the opinion of the commissioner the 
alteration proposed to be made in a building is of such 
extent as, when done, to produce a practically new struc- 
ture or to impair the stability or increase the fire risk of 
the structure as a whole, then the whole structure shall be 
made to conform to the provisions of this act for a new 
structure of the same class. A building damaged by fire or 
other casualty may be repaired or restored so as to conform 
to its original condition, or may be reconstructed in some 
or all of its parts, so as to conform to the requirements of 
this act for new buildings, as the commissioner may 
specify in his permit. 

Windows in Living Room. 
Par. 10. — Every living room in a building adapted for 
habitation shall have a window on the open air of an area 
not less than ten square feet and distant in a three story 
building not less than six feet from any opposite wall; 
distant in a four story building not less than eight feet from 
any opposite wall; distant in a five story building not less 
than ten feet from any opposite wall. This shall not apply 
to the construction of third class buildings, except the 
provision for a window on the open air of an area. 

Exposure Required. 

Par. 11. — New buildings for habitation or tenement 
purposes of not more than seventeen hundred and fifty 
square feet area, may be built of second class construc- 
tion with the same restrictions as required by the preced- 
ing paragraphs of this section referring to the alteration, 
remodelling and enlarging of second class buildings. The ex- 



City of Boston Building Law. 



105 



Sect. 35.1 

posure required under this section shall apply to all other 

buildings hereafter constructed and adapted for habitation. 



SECTION 36. 

Loads. 
Par. 1. — Dead loads shall consist of the weight of 
walls, floors, roofs, and permanent partitions. The weights 
of various materials shall be assumed as follows: 

Pounds per 
Cubic Foot. 

Beech . 42 

Birch ..... 
Brickwork .... 

Concrete, cinder, structural 
Concrete, cinder, floor filling 
Concrete, stone 
Douglas, fir . 



Granite . 

Granolithic surface 

Limestone 

Maple . 

Marble . 

Oak . . 

Pine, southern yellow 

Sandstone 

Spruce . 

Terra cotta, architectural, voids unfilled 

Terra cotta, architectural, voids filled 



42 
120 
108 

96 
144 

36 
168 
144 
150 

42 
168 

48 

42 
144 

30 

72 
120 



Pounds per 
Square Foot. 

Gravel or slag and felt roofing 6 

Plastering on metal lath, exclusive of furring . . 8 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 3.1 



106 
Seot. 36.] 



City op Boston Building Law. 



Live Loads. 

Par. 2. — Live loads shall include all loads except dead 
loads. Every permit shall state the purpose for which 
the building is to be used, and all floors and stairs shall 
be of sufficient strength to bear safely the weight to be 
imposed thereon in addition to the dead load, but shall 
safely support a minimum uniformly distributed live 
load per square foot as specified in the following table: 



Class op Building. 



Pounds per 
Square Foot. 



Armories, assembly halls, and gymnasiums 

Fire houses: — 

Apparatus floors 

Residence and stable floors 

Garages, private, not more than two cars 

Garages, public 

Grandstands 

Hotels, lodging houses, boarding houses, clubs, convents, 
hospitals, asylums and detention buildings: — 

Public portions 

Residence portions 

Manufacturing, heavy 

Manufacturing, light 

Office buildings: — 

First floor 

All other floors 

Public buildings: — 

Public portions 

Office portions. 

Residence buildings, including porches 

Schools and colleges: — 

Assembly halls 

Class rooms never to be used as assembly halls 

Sidewalks 

(Or eight thousand pounds concentrated, whichever 
gives the larger moment or shear.) 
Stables, public or mercantile: — 

Street entrance floors 

Feed room 

Carriage room 

Stall room 

Stairs, eorrjdors, and fire escapes from armories, assembly 

halls and gymnasiums 

Stairs, corridors, and fire escapes except from armories, 

assembly halls, and gymnasiums 

Storage, heavy 

Storage, light 

Stores, retail .' 

Stores, wholesale 



100 

150 

50 

75 

150 

100 



100 

50 

250 

125 

125 
75 

100 
75 
50 

100 

50 

250 



150 

150 

50 

50 

100 

75 

250 
125 
125 
250 



City of Boston Building Law. 107 

Sect. 36.] 

Par. 3. — The commissioner may require design for 
heavier loads than the above minimum values if, in his 
judgment, the purpose of the building or vibrating 
machinery requires it. For buildings or structures not 
included in the above table, the commissioner shall 
establish allowable live loads. 

Allowable — Maximum Loads Imposed. 
Par. 4. — The commissioner may prescribe the maxi- 
mum loads which may be imposed upon the floors of 
existing buildings. 

Change of Occupation — Permit Required. 

Par. 5. — No use or occupation of a building or part of 
building for a purpose other than that for which it is 
designed to be used, as set forth in the permit upon which 
it was erected, and no change in the use or occupation of a 
building or part thereof which will increase the floor load 
beyond the capacity prescribed for such use and occupa- 
tion shall be made unless, upon application therefor, the 
commissioner shall issue a permit on condition that the 
proposed use will not endanger the safety of the building 
or the health or the safety of the occupants thereof. 

Floor Loads to be Posted. 
Par. 6. — Before any building hereafter erected is 
occupied, in whole or in part, as a business building, and 
before any building already erected but not previously 
occupied as a business building, is occupied or used, in 
whole or in part, for that purpose, and whenever, for any 
reason, the commissioner shall prescribe the load for an 
existing building or part thereof, the safe live load for each 
floor, or portion of each floor as approved by the com- 
missioner, shall be marked on metal plates, of character 



108 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 36, Par. 6.] 

approved by him, which shall be supplied and securely 
affixed by the owner of the building in a conspicuous place 
in the story to which they relate. It shall be the duty of 
the occupants of the building to maintain such plates 
during their occupancy, and the owner of the building or 
his agent shall cause the same to be properly affixed with 
each change of occupancy. No person shall place or 
cause or permit to be placed on any floor of any building 
any greater load than the approved safe load. 

Slab, Arch and Beam to Have Sufficient Strength to Bear 
Live and Dead Load. 

•Par. 7. — Every plank, slab and arch, and every floor 
beam carrying one hundred square feet of floor or less, 
shall be of sufficient strength to bear safely the combined 
dead and live load supported by it, but the floor live loads 
may be reduced for other parts of the structure as follows: 

Live Load Reductions. 

Par. 8. — In all buildings except armories, garages, 
gymnasiums, storage buildings, wholesale stores, and 
assembly halls, for all flat slabs of over one hundred square 
feet area, reinforced in two or more directions and for all 
floor beams, girders, or trusses carrying over one hundred 
square feet of floor, ten per cent reduction. 

Par. 9. — For the same, but carrying over two hundred 
square feet of floor, fifteen per cent reduction. 

Par. 10. — For the same, but carrying over three 
hundred square feet of floor, twenty-five per cent reduction. 

Par. 11. — These reductions shall not be made if the 
member carries more than one floor and therefore has its 
live load reduced according to the table below. 

Par. 12. — In public garages, for all flat slabs of over 
three hundred square feet area reinforced in more than one 
direction, and for all floor beams, girders and trusses 



City of Boston Building Law. 109 

Sect. 36, Par. 12.] 

carrying over three hundred square feet of floor, and for 
all columns, walls, piers, and foundations, twenty-five 
per cent reduction. 

Par. 13. — In all buildings except storage buildings, 
wholesale stores, and public garages, for all columns, 
girders, trusses, walls, piers, and foundations. 

Carrying one floor, . . No reduction. 

Carrying two floors, . . Twenty-five per cent reduc- 
tion. 

Carrying three floors, . Forty per cent reduction. 

Carrying four floors, . . Fifty per cent reduction. 

Carrying five floors, . . Fifty-five per cent reduction. 

Carrying six floors or more, Sixty per cent reduction. 

Roof Loads. 

Par. 14. — Roofs shall be designed to support safely 
minimum live loads as follows : — 

Par. 15. — Roofs with pitch of four inches or less per 
foot, a vertical load of forty pounds per square foot of 
horizontal projection applied either to half or to the whole 
of the roof. 

Par. 16. — Roofs with pitch of more than four inches and 
not more than eight inches per foot, a vertical load of 
fifteen pounds per square foot of horizontal projection and 
a wind load of ten pounds per square foot of surface acting 
at right angles to one slope, these two loads being assumed 
to act either together or separately. 

Par. 17. — Roofs with pitch of more than eight inches 
and not more than twelve inches per foot, a vertical load 
of ten pounds per square foot of horizontal projection and 
a wind load of fifteen pounds per square foot of surface 
acting at right angles to one slope, these two loads being 
assumed to act either together or separately. 

Par. 18. — Roofs with pitch of more than twelve inches 



110 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 36, Par. 18.] 

per foot, a vertical load of five pounds per square foot of 

horizontal projection and a wind load of twenty pounds 

per square foot of surface acting at right angles to one slope, 

these two loads being assumed to act either together or 

separately. 

Par. 19. — All buildings and structures shall be cal- 
culated to resist a pressure per square foot on any vertical 
surface as follows: — 

For forty feet in height, . . . Ten pounds. 

Portions from forty to eighty feet above 

ground, Fifteen pounds. 

Portions more than eighty feet above 

ground, Twenty pounds. 

Wind Pressure. 

Par. 20. — But the commissioner may require a building 
or structure to be designed for larger pressure than the 
pressures given in the table, if, in his judgment, the 
exposure requires it. 

Par. 21. — If the resisting moments of the materials of 
construction are not sufficient to resist the moment of 
distortion due to wind pressure without exceeding the 
stresses allowed in this act, additional bracing shall be 
introduced to supply the deficiency in the moment. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 16, Special Act.] 
[1914, c. 595.] 

SECTION 37. 

Shutters. 

Par. 1. — In all first or second class mercantile or 
manufacturing buildings over thirty feet in height, out- 
side openings in party walls, or in any rear or side wall 
within twenty feet of an opposite wall or building, shall 
have metal frames and sashes and shall be glazed with 



City of Boston Building Law. Ill 

Sect. 37, Par. 1.] 

wire glass or shall be protected by shutters . Such shutters 
shall be covered on both sides with tin or shall be made of 
other substantial fireproof material, and .hung on the out- 
side, either upon independent metal frames or upon 
metal hinges attached to the masonry, and shall be made 
to be handled from the outside, and one such shutter in 
each room shall have a protected hand-hole eight inches 
in diameter. 

SECTION 38. 
Elevators. 

Shafts. 
Par. 1. — Elevators and hoists for freight which do 
not run above the first story may be constructed without 
fireproof enclosures. Freight and passenger elevators may 
be placed in areas or hallways where the same are con- 
tinuous and unbroken, such elevators to be protected by 
metal grille. Except as above provided, all shafts for 
elevators, hoists, dumb-waiters, lifts and shafts used for 
lighting and ventilating or other air ducts shall be con- 
structed of incombustible materials; provided that in 
second and third class buildings not over four stories high, 
the shafts may be constructed of wood, terra cotta or 
gypsum blocks laid in mortar and plastered on both sides 
with at least three coats of cement plaster on metal lath. 
The bottom of all shafts shall be fire protected. All 
windows, or ceiling lights opening into such shafts shall 
have metal or metal covered fireproof frames and sash 
glazed with wire glass and arranged to close automatically 
in case of fire. Such shafts shall be carried at least three 
feet above the adjoining roof and there covered with a 
skylight, providing opening of a total area equal to the 
area of the shaft and glazed with hammered or ribbed 
glass, protected by wire screens on metal supports. 

[1921, c. 389, sect. 4.] 



112 Citt of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 38.] 

Gates, Rails, Trap Doors. 

Par. 2. — ■ Every opening into a shaft or hoistway shall 
be protected by self-closing gates, rails, trap-doors, or 
other equivalent devices. 

Safety Device. 

Par. 3. — Every elevator shall be provided with a safety 
attachment to prevent the falling of the car. The 
machinery over the elevator shall have underneath it a 
grille sufficient to protect the car from falling material. 

Par. 4. — Every opening into an elevator shaft or 
hoistway and every opening through a floor, other than a 
stairway, shall be closed when not in use. 

Outside Windows on Shafts. 
Par. 5. — All elevator shaft openings, other than open- 
ings into passenger elevator shafts, shall be furnished 
with metal covered or incombustible doors, hung in a 
manner satisfactory to the commissioner, and shall be 
provided with iron, thresholds. Wire glass panels may 
be used in such doors. Outside windows or openings of 
every elevator shaft shall have three vertical iron rods, 
painted red, equally spaced off in such window or opening. 

Danger Signal. 

Par. 6. — Freight elevators shall be equipped with a 
suitable danger signal to warn people of the approach of 
the elevator. 

Par. 7. — The space between the car and door of each 
landing shall be not more than two inches. 

Par. 8. — No elevator shall be used in any building until 
the same is approved in writing by the commissioner. 

Prohibition of Use. 
Par. 9. — In case any freight or passenger elevator is 
not constructed or furnished in compliance with this act, 



City op Boston Building Law. 113 

Sect. 38, Par. 9.] 

or has become unsafe, the commissioner shall post a 
conspicuous warning and prohibition at each entrance to 
such elevator. It shall thereafter, until a new written 
permit is given by the commissioner, be a penal offence 
hereunder to operate the said elevator, or to remove or 
deface the said notice. 

Recess in Wall Prohibited — Platforms — Outside Openings. 

Par. 10. — Freight elevator wells hereafter built on the 
line of the external wall of a building shall be so constructed 
that there shall be no recess in the outer wall along the 
whole line of the same, and that no more than four inches 
space shall be allowed between the platform of the car and 
the outer wall. The side of the platform and the line of 
the door-way shall be flush with the well-way, and the door 
openings from the said elevator well into the building shall 
be placed at least six inches back from the face of the well, 
so as to allow space enough for self-closing gates to operate 
between the door and the well opening. Outside openings 
to freight elevators shall be protected by self-closing slatted 
gates, "vertical/' with spaces not wider than two inches 
between the slats. 

Speed Limit. 

Par. 11. — All elevators running at a speed of more than 
one hundred feet a minute, shall be operated by competent 
persons not less than eighteen years of age, and no other 
person shall operate or have the care or charge of such an 
elevator. 

Age of Operator. 

Par. 12. — No elevator shall be operated by or placed in 
charge of any person under sixteen years of age. 

Plans and Permit Required. 
Par. 13. — No elevator shall hereafter be installed in 
any building without a permit having been granted there- 



114 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 38, Par. 13.] 

for, and the applicant shall submit a plan showing the 
proposed location of the shaf tway, the area and situation of 
the machine room, and the said plan shall be filed as part 
of the records of the department. All elevators hereafter 
installed shall be located so as to give easy and safe access 
to all the principal parts of the machinery for inspection 
and repairs. 

Over speed Governor. 
Par. 14. — All passenger elevators hereafter built, 
operated by drum and cables, shall have an overspeed 
governor to prevent the car from descending at overspeed, 
and all passenger and freight elevators shall have a slack 
cable device to stop the machinery in case the car is held 
up or the cables part. 

Accident to be Reported. 

Par. 15. — If any accident shall occur to any elevator 
affecting life or limb or damaging any part of the machinery 
or running parts of the elevator, it shall be the duty of the 
engineer or superintendent in charge immediately, before 
any repairs are made, or any broken pieces are removed, 
to notify the commissioner of the accident, before the 
elevator is operated again, so that the cause of the accident 
may be determined, any faulty construction remedied, 
and satisfactory repairs made. 

Par. 16. — All elevator cables hereafter installed that 
pass through bevelled sockets, the ends returning and refit- 
ting into the same, shall have in addition lead or babbitt 
metal poured into the ends of the socket, to prevent the 
possibility of the cable's slipping. 

Manufacturers to Test Safety Devices. 

Par. 17. — All manufacturers of elevators shall be 
required to test, in the presence of an inspector, the safety 



City of Boston Building Law. 115 

Sect. 38, Par. 17.] 

devices of every elevator installed before the same is turned 
over to the owners for use, and the commissioner shall be 
notified by the manufacturer at least twenty-four hours 
before such test is made. An inspector may require a test 
of the safety device of any elevator if in his judgment the 
same is required. 

Additional Safeguards. 

Par. 18. — The commissioner may require additional 
safeguards on elevators, if in his judgment the condition, 
use or surroundings of the elevator demand them. 

Par. 19. — The commissioner may, with the approval of 
the mayor, appoint competent elevator inspectors in 
addition to those already detailed, one for every one 
thousand elevators and hoistways in the city of Boston. 
[See 1914, c. 782, sect. 6.] 

SECTION 39. 

Wooden Buildings. 

Par. 1. — Foundations. — Every wooden building here- 
after erected or enlarged, outside of the building limits, 
shall have a foundation of rubble, block granite or brick 
or concrete, carried up to the surface of the ground, 
and no round or boulder stone shall be used. Every 
such foundation, if of brick or concrete, shall be at 
least twelve inches thick, and if of granite shall be at least 
eighteen inches thick, and if of rubble shall be at least 
twenty inches thick, and shall be laid at least four feet 
below any surface exposed to frost and upon the solid 
ground or upon piles properly spaced. 

Par. 2. — Underpinning. — Every such wooden building 
hereafter erected or enlarged, the sills of which do not rest 
directly upon a foundation as above described but on an 
underpinning, shall have such underpinning made of 



116 City op Boston Building Law. 

Stct. 39, Far. 2.] 

brick, stone or concrete, and the underpinning, if of brick 
or concrete, shall be at least twelve inches thick, and if of 
stone shall be at least sixteen inches thick. 

Par. 3. — Framing. — Every wooden building hereafter 
erected or enlarged shall have all its parts of sufficient 
strength for their purposes; shall be built with wall-girts 
not smaller than four by six spruce or fir, or four by four 
hard pine, or with ledger boards; shall have no studs more 
than twenty inches on centres for buildings more than one 
story high, with all angles between partitions, or between 
partitions and walls, blocked strongly, giving what is 
known as " solid corners"; shall have every post securely 
braced; shall have wall spaces back of all ledger boards 
tightly filled with at least two inch furring cut in between 
studs; and shall have all framing securely nailed or framed 
or ironed together. 

Ledger Boards Prohibited. 

Par. 4. — Where no exterior wall boarding is used 

ledger boards shall not be used, and wall-girts shall be 

framed to posts and pinned. Braces shall repeat in each 

story and shall not be smaller than three inch studding. 

(1918, c. 179, sect. 17, Special Aot. 1914, o. 782, sect. 7.J 

SECTION 40. 

Habitations — Height — Distance from Lot Line. 
Par 1. — No wooden building hereafter erected, to be 
used as a habitation, shall be more than three stories nor 
more than forty feet in height above the first floor line; 
nor shall any part of such a building, eaves and cornices 
excepted, which is to be occupied by three or more families, 
be placed nearer than five feet from any adjoining lot 
lines, and if built on land of the same owner it shall not 
be nearer than ten feet from any other building; nor shall 



City of Boston Building Law. 117 

Sept. 40, Par. 1.] 

any part of such wooden building, which is to be occupied 
by less than three families and is less than three stories 
in height, be nearer than five feet from the line of any 
adjoining lot; nor shall any lot line be moved nearer than 
five feet from any wooden building, or, if built on land of 
the same owner, nearer than ten feet from any other build- 
ing, eaves and cornices excepted, unless in either case 
the wail on the side toward such lot or adjoining build- 
ing is constructed as a brick or concrete wall not less than 
eight inches thick and carried twelve inches above the 
, roof, all openings therein to be protected by wire glass 
set in metal frames and sash. Wooden buildings hereafter 
constructed to form a block of two or more houses shall 
have brick or concrete party walls between adjoining 
houses, which shall be not less than eight inches thick, 
shall be carried twelve inches above the roof and shall be 
capped with a metallic covering. 

Akea. 
Par. 2. — No wooden building hereafter erected to be 
used in whole or in part as a habitation shall exceed 
twenty-two hundred square feet in area, and no such 
existing building shall be enlarged to exceed twenty-two 
hundred square feet in area. 

Other Than Habitation. 
Par. 3. — No wooden building hereafter erected to be 
used for purposes other than habitation shall exceed forty 
feet in height above the first floor line, and no such build- 
ing, except buildings erected for the purpose of storing 
ice, which shall not be erected within five hundred feet of 
any other building, shall exceed twenty-two hundred 
feet in area unless the external parts are covered with 
incombustible material approved by the commissioner, 
and no such building shall exceed five thousand square feet 



118 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 40, Par. 3.] 

in area in any event: 'provided, however, that nothing in thia 
section shall be construed to affect the provisions of sec- 
tion nine of this act; and no such existing building shall be 
altered or enlarged to exceed forty feet in height above the 
first floor line or twenty-two hundred square feet in area, 
unless the external parts of the whole building are covered 
with incombustible material approved by the commis- 
sioner, or to exceed five thousand square feet in area in 
any event. 

Par. 3A. — Wooden buildings erected for purposes 
other than habitation shall not be situated within five 
feet of the line of the lot unless the side wall on such line 
or lines be of brick or concrete, carried above the roof 
at least twelve inches and capped with a metallic covering. 
All openings in such outer walls shall be protected by 
wire glass set in metal frames and sash. 

[1913, c. 704, sect. 2; 1914, c. 248, sect. 1; 1914, c. 782, seot. 8.] 

SECTION 41. 
Flooring During Construction. 

[General Laws, c. 143, Sects. 17, 18 and 19. See Appendix.] 

SECTION 42. 

Additional Requirements for Tenement Houses. 

Definitions. 

Certain words are defined as follows: — 

Par. 1. — (1.) A tenement house is any house, building, 
structure or portion thereof, occupied, or adapted for 
occupation, as a dwelling by more than three families 
living independently of one another and doing their 
cooking upon the premises, or by more than two families 
above the first story so living and cooking. A family 
living in a tenement house may consist of one or more 
persons. 



City op Boston Building Law. 119 

Sect. 42.] 

Par. 2. — An existing tenement house is any building 
erected as such or converted to such use or as altered for 
such use or so used before the passage of this act, and any 
building adapted for such use, provided that a permit was 
issued for the erection of said building before the passage 
of this act. 

Par. 3. — A tenement house hereafter erected is any tene- 
ment house other than an existing tenement house as 
above denned. 

Par. 4. — (2.) A corner lot is a lot situated at the 
junction of two or more streets, or of two or more streets 
and alleys or open passageways not less than fifteen feet in 
width. 

Par. 5. — (3.) A yard is an open unoccupied space on 
the same lot with a building and between the extreme 
rear line of said building and the rear line of the lot. 

Par. 6. — (4.) A court is an open unoccupied space other 
than a yard on the same lot with a building. An inner 
court is a court not extending to a street, or alley, or open 
passageway, or yard. An outer court is a court extend- 
ing to a street, or alley, or open passageway, or yard. A 
vent court is an inner court for the lighting and ventila- 
tion of water-closets, bathrooms, public halls, and stair 
halls only. An intake is a passageway connecting an 
inner court with a street, or alley, or open passageway, or 
yard. 

Par. 7. — (5.) A shaft, whether for air, light, elevator, 
dumbwaiter, or any other purpose, is an enclosed space 
within a building, extending to the roof, and covered 
either by a skylight or by the roof. A vent shaft is a 
shaft used solely to ventilate or light water-closet com- 
partments or bathrooms or kitchenettes. 

Par. 8. — (6.) A public hall is a hall, corridor, or 
passageway not within an apartment. 

Par. 9. — (7.) A stair hall includes the stairs, stair 



120 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 42, Par. 9.] 

landings, and those parts of the public hall through 
which it is necessary to pass in going from the entrance 
floor to the roof. 

Par. 10. — (8.) An apartment is a room, or suite of 
two or more rooms, occupied or suitable for occupation, 
as a residence for one family. 

Par. 11. — (9.) Repairs means any renewal of any 
existing part of a building, or of its fixtures or appurte- 
nances, which does not lessen the strength of the building. 

[1921, c. 289, Sect. 5.] 

SECTION 43. 

Fire Escapes. 

Tenement Houses. 

Par. 1. — Except as provided in section thirty-five, in 
all tenement houses hereafter erected of the first or second 
class more than three stories in height and in every build- 
ing hereafter enlarged and occupied or to be occupied as a 
tenement house more than three stories in height, there 
shall be provided at least one of the following means of 
egress in addition to the staircases, but if the first named 
means of egress is provided no means of egress other than 
this and one other staircase need be provided, and every 
suite shall have direct access to both such means of egress. 
[1921, c. 289, Sect. 6.] 

Par. 2. — (1.) An enclosed stairway consisting of iron 
or reinforced concrete stairs, and stair landings, each not 
less than three feet in width in the clear, surmounted by a 
pent house not less than eight feet high. The stairway 
shall extend from the roof to the level of the ground, and 
shall open into either a street or passageway leading to 
a street; the said stairway shall be lighted to the satis- 
faction of the building commissioner and enclosed in walls 
of brick, stone, terra-cotta or concrete, and said walls 
may be within or without the line of the main wall of 



City of Boston Building Law. 121 

Seot. 43, Par. 2.] 

the building, but access to said stairway shall be only by 
doors through an external wall to balconies leading to the 
same, except at the roof where access to said stairway 
may be directly from the roof. 

Par. 3. — (2.) Iron balconies connecting with adjoin- 
ing buildings or with adjoining parts of the same house 
separated from each other by a brick, terra-cotta or con- 
crete partition wall in which there are no openings except 
such as are protected with fireproof self-closing doors, and 
every suite above the first floor, shall have direct access 
to at least two means of egress, one of which shall be an 
enclosed stairway. The said balconies shall be not less 
than thirty inches wide and capable of sustaining a load of 
seventy pounds per square foot; railings shall be of iron, 
stone, terra-cotta or concrete, and three feet high, or 
higher if in the opinion of the commissioner a greater 
height is required for safety. 

Par. 4. — (3.) Exterior fire escapes of iron with iron 
grated floors, and capable of bearing a load of seventy 
pounds per square foot. The stair treads shall be of iron, 
and the pitch of the stairs shall not exceed sixty degrees. 

Par. 5. — Balconies shall be at least three feet four inches 
wide, and the stairs at least twenty inches wide. There 
shall be a landing at the foot of each flight, and at the 
level of the second floor there shall be cantilever ladders. 
The rails on all horizontal balconies and on the stairs 
shall be at least two feet ten inches high at all points. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 9.] 

SECTION 44. 

Bulkheads and Scuttles, 

Tenement Houses Hereafter Erected. 

Par. 1. — Every tenement house of the first or second 

class hereafter erected shall have in the roof a fireproof 

bulkhead with a fireproof door to the same, and shall 



122 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 44, Par. 1.] 

have fireproof stairs with a guide or hand rail leading to 
the roof, except that in such tenement houses which do 
not exceed sixty-five feet in height, such bulkheads may 
be of wood covered with metal on the outside and plastered 
on metal lathing on the inside; provided that the door 
shall be covered with metal on both sides. 

Existing Tenement Houses. 

Par. 2. — Every other tenement house shall have in the 
roof a bulkhead or scuttle. No scuttle shall be less in size 
than two feet by three feet, and all scuttles shall be covered 
on the outside with metal, and shall be provided with stairs 
or stationary ladders leading thereto and easily accessi- 
ble to all tenants of the building, and kept free from encum- 
brance, and all scuttles and ladders shall be kept so as to 
be ready for use at all times. No scuttle shall be situated 
in a closet or room, but all scuttles shall be in the ceiling 
of the public hall on the top floor, and access through the 
scuttle to the roof shall be direct and uninterrupted. 
Scuttles shall be hinged so as to readily open. Every 
bulkhead hereafter constructed in a tenement house shall 
be constructed as provided for tenement houses hereafter 
erected and shall have stairs with a guide or hand rail 
leading to the roof, and such stairs shall be kept free from 
encumbrance at all times. No lock shall be placed on 
any scuttle or bulkhead door, but either may be fastened 
on the inside by movable bolts or hooks. All key-locks 
on scuttles and on txulkhead doors shall be removed. No 
stairway leading to the roof in a tenement house shall be 
removed. 

SECTION 45. 

Houses for Habitation — Main Staircase. 
Par. 1. — Every house for habitation, except a single 
family dwelling, hereafter erected more than three stories 



City of Boston Building Law. 123 

Sect. 45, Par. 1.] 

in height or covering an area of more than thirty-five 
hundred square feet shall have a staircase, designated by 
the commissioner, of incombustible material extending 
from the entrance to the roof and with a pent house con- 
structed of incombustible material. And the said stair- 
case shall not extend t J.ow the entrance floor level, except 
as an exit to the outside and shall have no opening into 
basement or cellar and shall be enclosed in walls con- 
structed of incombustible material. In addition to the 
above staircase, all such buildings shall have a staircase 
enclosed as described in section forty-seven. All door 
openings from all stair enclosures shall have metal or metal 
covered self-closing doors and metal or metal covered 
frames. Public halls therein shall be at least three feet 
wide in the clear and stairs shall be at least three feet wide 
between the wall and the stair rail. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 7.] 

Stairway Entrances — Risers — Treads — Windows. 
Par. 2. — Each stairway shall have an entrance on the 
entrance floor from a street or alley or open passageway or 
from an outer court, or from an inner court which con- 
nects directly with a street or alley or open passageway. 
All stairs shall be constructed with a rise of not more than 
eight inches, and with treads not less than nine inches 
wide and not less than three feet long in the clear. Where 
winders are used all treads at a point eighteen inches 
from the strings on the wall side shall be at least ten inches 
wide. 

Balusters. Rails. 

Par. 3. — In every tenement house all stairways shall 
be provided with proper balusters and railings kept in 
good repair. No public hall or stairs in a tenement house 
shall be reduced in width so as to be less than the minimum 
width prescribed in this section. 



124 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 45.] 

Tenement House Sprinklers. 

Par. 4. — In all tenement houses of second and third 
class construction, hereafter erected, being more than 
three stories high and containing more than ten suites, the 
basements or cellars, kitchenettes, stairway enclosures 
and elevator, light ventilating and dumb-waiter shafts 
shall be provided with a system of automatic sprinklers 
approved as to situation, arrangement and efficiency by 
the building commissioner. 

Par. 4a. The building commissioner may require the 
basement or cellar of a tenement house of first class con- 
struction, more than three stories high and containing 
more than ten suites, where in his opinion a fire hazard 
exists, to be equipped with a system of automatic sprink- 
lers approved by him as to situation, arrangement and 
efficiency. 

Par. 4b. Basements or cellars in existing tenement 
houses of second and third class construction, being more 
than three stories high and containing more than ten 
suites, shall be provided with a system of automatic 
sprinklers approved as to situation, arrangement and effi- 
ciency by the building commissioner. 

Par. 4c. The building commissioner may in his discre- 
tion also require that all doors leading from rear stairway 
enclosures on each floor of such tenement houses shall be 
suitably protected by fire proofing material. 

Par. 4d. In existing tenement houses of first, second 
and third class construction more than three stories high 
and containing more than ten suites, where the first floor 
is of first class construction and in any such tenement 
house in which any stairway, enclosure, elevator, light, 
ventilating or dumb-waiter shaft is fireproof, as defined 
in section thirty-three, as amended by section fourteen of 
chapter one hundred and seventy-nine of the Special Acts 

Note — Sect. 45, pars. 4, 5 and 6, operation of to be suspended if 
accepted by Mayor, until March 1, 1921. Chap. 645, acts of 1920, 
Mayor did not accept. 



City op Boston Building Law. 125 

Sect. 45, Par. 4.] 

of nineteen hundred and eighteen, the commissioner may 
waive the provisions of this section in respect to automatic 
sprinklers, except in cases, where, in his opinion, a fire 
hazard exists. 

[1921, c. 476, sect. 1.] 

Halls and Stairs to be Lighted. 

Par. 5. — Public halls and stairs in all tenement houses 
now existing or hereafter erected more than three stories 
in height, and having more than eight suites, shall be 
provided with proper and sufficient light to be kept 
lighted during the night. 

Shafts to be Inclosed. 
Par. 6. — In every tenement house now or hereafter 
existing which is more than three stories high and has 
more than eight suites, all elevator, vent and dumb- 
waiter shafts and stairways shall be enclosed in the base- 
ment or cellar by masonry walls not less than eight inches 
thick, or by two-inch solid metal and plaster partitions, 
with fireproof self-closing doors. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 10; 1915 c. 352, sect. 4, Special Act.] 
[1920, c. 440, sects. 1 and 2.] 

SECTION 46. 
Stair Halls, Construction of. 
Par. 1. — In tenement houses hereafter erected cover- 
ing more than seventeen hundred and fifty square feet, 
but not more than thirty-five hundred square feet in 
superficial area, which do not exceed three stories above 
the cellar or basement, there shall be at least two stair- 
ways. The stairs may be made of wood, provided that 
the soffits are covered with metal lath and plastered with 
three coats of cement plaster and provided that such stairs 
are properly fire-stopped at top center and bottom of each 

See note on preceding page. 



126 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 46, Par. 1.] 

flight with brick, terra cotta or gypsum block nogging. 
Public halls therein shall be at least three feet wide in the 
clear and stairs shall be at least three feet wide between 
the wall and the stair rail. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 8.] 

SECTION 47. 
Stair Halls, How Inclosed. 

Par. 1. — In second and third class tenement houses 
hereafter erected and existing tenement houses hereafter 
altered, stair halls other than those required to be of first 
class construction may be enclosed with wooden stud 
partitions; provided that such partitions are filled in solid 
the full height between the studs with brick, terra cotta, 
gypsum blocks or other filling material approved by the 
commissioner, all to be laid in mortar and both sides of 
partition and soffit of stairs plastered with three coats of 
cement plaster on metal lathing. All openings in these 
partitions are to be protected as mentioned in section 
thirty-five of said chapter five hundred and fifty. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 9.] 

SECTION 48. 

Entrance Halls. 
Par. 1. — Every entrance hall in every tenement house 
hereafter erected shall be at least three feet six inches 
wide in the clear, from the entrance up to and including 
the stair inclosure, and beyond this point at least three 
feet wide in the clear, and shall comply with all the con- 
ditions of the preceding sections of this act as to the 
construction of stair halls, except that in a fireproof 
tenement house hereafter erected the entrance hall may 
be inclosed with terra-cotta blocks not less than fou r 



City of Boston Building Law. 127 

Sect. 48, Par. ij 

inches thick and angle-iron construction, instead of brick 

walls. If such entrance hall is the only entrance to more 

than one stairway, that portion of said hall between the 

entrance and the stairway shall be increased at least 

eighteen inches in width in every part for each additional 

stairway. 

SECTION 49. 

Cellar Ceilings. 

Par. 1. — In all tenement houses of the second or third 
class hereafter erected, except where the floor next above 
is first class construction, the cellar and basement ceiling 
shall be lathed with metal laths and plastered three coats 
of cement plaster. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 10.J 

SECTION 50. 

Partitions, Construction of. 
Par. 1 . — In all tenement houses of the second or third 
class hereafter erected all stud partitions which rest 
directly over eaeh other shall run through the wooden 
floor beams and rest upon the cap of the partition below, 
and shall have the studding filled in solid between the 
uprights to the depth of the floor beams with suitable 
materials. All such buildings having a superficial area of 
over thirty-five hundred square feet and all buildings more 
than seventeen hundred and fifty square feet in superficial 
area and more than four stories or fifty-five feet in height, 
shall have all stud partitions between suites fireproofed 
by filling in full height between studs with brick, terra 
cotta or gypsum blocks or other filling material approved 
by the commissioner and covering both sides of the separa- 
ting partitions with metal laths and three coats of cement 

plaster. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 11.] 



128 Citt op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 51.] 

SECTION 51. 
Wooden Tenement Houses. 

Par. 1. — Outside of the building limits, tenement 
houses not exceeding three stories in height above the 
basement, nor eighteen hundred square feet in area, may- 
be erected of wood. No wooden tenement house shall be 
increased in height so as to exceed three stories above the 
basement or cellar. 

SECTION 52. 
Shafts. 
Par. 1. — All elevator or dumb waiter shafts hereafter 
constructed in any tenement house shall be fireproof 
throughout, with self-closing doors at all openings at each 
story. But nothing in this section shall be so construed 
as to require inclosures about elevators or dumb waiters 
in the well-hole of stairs where the stairs themselves are 
inclosed in walls of incombustible materials, and are 
entirely constructed of fireproof materials as hereinbefore 
provided. Every vent shaft hereafter constructed in any 
tenement house shall have an intake of at least the dimen- 
sions provided for vent courts in section sixty-one, and 
shall be of the same minimum dimensions; and the sky- 
light covering such vent shaft shall be raised at all points 
at least one foot above the top of the walls of such vent 
shaft, and the space between the top of said walls and the 
skylight shall remain at all points open and unobstructed 
except for such supports essential to the stability of the 
skylight, as may be approved by the commissioner. 

SECTION 53. 
Bakeries and Fat Boiling. 
Par. 1. — No bakery and no place of business in which 
fat is boiled shall be maintained in any tenement house 



City of Boston Building Law. 129 

Sect. 53, Par. 1.] 

which is not fireproof throughout, unless the ceiling and 
side walls of said bakery or of the said place where fat 
boiling is done are made safe by fireproof materials around 
the same, and there shall be no openings either by door 
or window, dumb-waiter shafts or otherwise, between said 
bakery or said place where fat is boiled in any tenement 
house and the other parts of the building. 



SECTION 54. 

Other Dangerous Businesses. 

Par. 1. — All transoms and windows opening into halls 
from any part of a tenement house where paint, oil, spirit- 
uous liquors or drugs are stored for the purpose of sale or 
otherwise shall be glazed with wire-glass, or they shall be 
removed and closed up as solidly as the rest of the wall. 
There shall be between any such hall and such part of 
said tenement house a fireproof self-closing door. 

SECTION 55. 

Light and Ventilation. 

Yards. 

TENEMENT HOUSES HEREAFTER ERECTED. 

Par. 1. — The requirements for yards hereinafter pro- 
vided shall be deemed sufficient for all tenement houses. 

WIDTH OF YARD. 

Par. 2. — Except in those cases hereinafter provided for, 
there shall be, behind every tenement house hereafter 
erected, a yard extending across the entire width of the lot, 
and at every point open from the ground to the sky unob- 
structed, except by fire escapes or unenclosed outside 
stairs. 



130 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 55.] 

DEPTH OF YARD. 

Par. 3. — The depth of said yard shall be measured from 
the extreme rear wall of the house to the rear line of the 
lot, and at right angles to said line, except that where there 
is an alley or open passageway in the rear of the lot the 
depth of the yard may be measured to the middle of said 
alley or open passageway. On an irregular lot of several 
depths, where there is more than one rear line to the lot, 
such yard may extend across the entire width of the lot 
in sections, provided that each section of the yard is in 
every part and at every point of the minimum depth here- 
inafter prescribed. Where the side lines of a lot converge 
toward the rear, the depth of the yard shall be such as to 
give it an area equal to the greatest width of the yard 
multiplied by the depth hereinafter prescribed. 

CORNER LOTS. 

Par. 4. — Except on a corner lot, the depth of the yard 
behind every tenement house hereafter erected fifty feet in 
height or less shall be not less than twelve feet in every 
part. All yards without exception shall be increased 
in depth at least one foot for every additional ten feet 
of height of the building, or fraction thereof, above 
fifty feet. 

Par. 5. — Except as hereinafter otherwise provided, the 
depth of the yard behind every tenement house hereafter 
erected upon a corner lot shall not be less than six feet in 
every part. But where such corner lot is more than 
twenty-five feet in width, the depth of the yard for that 
portion in excess of twenty-five feet shall be not less than 
twelve feet in every part, and shall increase in depth as 
above provided. 

THROUGH LOTS. 

Par. 6. — Whenever a tenement house is hereafter erected 
upon a lot which runs through from street to street, or from 



City of Boston Building Law. 131 

Sect. 55, Par. 6.] 

a street to an alley or open passageway, and said lot is one 
hundred and fifty feet or more in depth, said yard space 
shall be left midway between the two streets, and shall 
extend across the entire width of the lot, and shall be not 
less than twenty-four feet in depth from wall to wall, 
and shall be increased in depth at least two feet for every 

i additional ten feet in height of the building, or fraction 

j thereof, above fifty feet. 

YARDS NOT FRONTING ON STREET, ETC. 

Par. 7. — 'When a tenement house hereafter erected 
does not front upon a street, a public alley, or a passage- 
way, not less than fifteen feet wide, the requirements in 
this section as to yards shall apply to the front of such 
"tenement house as well as to the rear. Neither the yard 
* behind one tenement house nor any part thereof shall be 
deemed to satisfy in whole or in part the requirement of a 
yard in front of another tenement house. 

SECTION 56. 
Cases in Which no Yard shall be Required. 

Tenement Houses Hereafter Erected. 

Par 1. — No yard shall be required behind a tenement 

housf nereafter erected upon a lot which abuts at the rear 

upor a railroad right of way, a cemetery or a public park. 

P r. 2. — No yard shall be required behind a tenement 

house hereafter erected upon a lot entirely surrounded by 

streets or by streets, alleys or open passageways, not less 

j than fifteen feet in width, or by such streets, alleys, and 

passageways and a railroad right of way, a cemetery or a 

"public park. 

Par. 3. — No yard shall be required behind a tenement 

I house hereafter erected upon a lot less than one hundred 

and fifty feet deep and running through from street to 



132 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 56, Par. 3.] 

street or from a street to an alley or open passageway not 
less than fifteen feet in width, or upon a corner lot adjoin- 
ing a lot less than one hundred and fifty feet deep and run- 
ning through from street to street, or from a street to such 
an alley or open passageway. 

Par. 4. — No yard shall be required behind a tenement 
house hereafter erected upon a corner lot adjoining a lot 
more than one hundred and fifty feet deep and running 
through from street to street or from a street to an alley or 
open passageway not less than fifteen feet in width; but 
if there be no yard, an outer court upon such corner lot 
shall extend from the street along the line of such adjoin- 
ing lot to a point in line with the middle line of the block ; 
the width of said court to be not less than the width of 
court prescribed in the ensuing paragraph. 

Par. 5. — No yard shall be required behind a tenement 
house hereafter erected upon a corner lot adjoining two 
or more lots any one of which bounds upon a single street, 
or alley, or open passageway, not less than fifteen feet in 
width; but if there be no yard an outer court upon such 
corner lot shall extend from the street, or from such alley 
or open passageway along a lot line either to the extreme j 
rear of an adjoining lot or to the extreme rear of said J 
corner lot; provided, that the width of said court measured 
from the lot fine to the opposite wall of the building, for 
tenement houses fifty feet or less in height, shall be not , 
less than six feet in every part, and for every additional 1 
ten feet of height of the tenement house shall be increased 
one foot throughout the whole length of said court. 

SECTION 57. 

Courts. 
Tenement Houses Hereafter Erected — not to be Roofed Over. 
Par. 1. No court of a tenement house hereafter 
erected shall be covered by a roof or skylight, but every 



City op Boston Building Law. 133 

Sect. 57, Par. 1.1 

such court shall be at every point open to the sky unob- 
structed. Except such courts as are provided for in 
section fifty-six, all courts, except for fire escapes, may 
start at the second tier of beams. 

SECTION 58. 

Outer Courts. 
Tenement Houses Hereafter Erected on Lot Line. 
Par. 1. — The provisions of this section shall apply 
only to tenement houses hereafter erected. Where one 
side of an outer court is located on the lot line, the width 
of the said court, measured from the lot line to the opposite 
will of the building, for tenement houses fifty feet or less 
in height shall not be less than six feet in every part and 
for every ten feet of increase or fraction thereof in height 
of such tenement houses, such width shall be increased 
one foot throughout the whole length of the court, and 
except where the court runs through from the yard to 
the street, said width shall never be less than one eighth 
of the length of the court. 

Between Wings or Ells. 

Par. 2. — Where an outer court is located between wings 
or parts of the same building, or between different build- 
ings on the same lot, the width of the court, measured from 
wall to wall, for tenement houses fifty feet or less in height 
shall be not less than twelve feet in every part, and for 
every ten feet of increase or fraction thereof in the height 
of the said building, such width shall be increased two feet 
throughout the whole length of the court. The depth of 
uch courts shall never exceed four times their width. 

Windows Opening On. 
Par. 3. — Wherever an outer court changes its initial 
horizontal direction, or wherever any part of such court 



134 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 58, Par. 3.] 

extends in a direction so as not to receive direct light from 
the street or yard, or from an alley, or open passageway 
not less than fifteen feet in width, the length of that part of 
the court shall, never exceed its width, such length to be 
measured from the point at which the change of direction 
begins. Wherever an outer court between parts of the 
same building is twelve feet or less in depth, its width may 
be one half its depth, provided that such width is never 
less than four feet in the clear. This exception shall also 
apply to every offset or recess in outer courts. And no 
window except windows of water-closet compartments, 
bathrooms, or halls shall open upon any offset or recess 
less than four feet in width. 

SECTION 59. 

Inner Courts. 

Tenement Houses Hereafter Erected — Width — Area. 

Par. 1. — The provisions of this section shall apply 
only to tenement houses hereafter erected. Where one 
side of an inner court is located on the lot line and the 
building does not exceed fifty feet in height, the least 
width of the court shall be not less than eight feet, and 
the area of the court shall be not less than one hundred 
and twenty-eight square feet. For every ten feet, or 
fraction thereof, of increase in the height of the building ■ 
above fifty feet the minimum width of such inner courts !| 
shall be increased by one foot, and the area thereof shall j i 
never be less than twice the square of such minimum j 
width. Where an inner court is not located on the lot J 
line but is inclosed on all four sides, and the building does 
not exceed fifty feet in height, the least width of said court 
shall be not less than sixteen feet and the area not les£ ! 
than two hundred and fifty-six square feet. For every) 
ten feet, or fraction thereof, of increase in the height o 



City of Boston Building Law. 135 

Sect. 59, Par. 1.] 

said building above fifty feet, the minimum width of such 
inner courts shall be increased by two feet, and the area 
of the court shall never be less than the square of such 
minimum dimension. 

an* 

■\ f SECTION 60. 

c Vent Courts. 

Area — Least Dimension. 
Par. 1. — Inner courts used solely for the lighting and 
ventilation of water-closets, bath rooms, kitchenettes, 
public halls, or stair halls, or for interior fire escapes, may 
be constructed in any- tenement house, and shall be not 
| less than fifteen square feet in area, nor less than 
| three feet in the least horizontal dimension for buildings 
, a fifty feet or less in height. For every increase of ten feet 
or fraction thereof in the height of such buildings, the 
least dimension shall be increased by one foot, and the 
area by not less than eight square feet. Vents for kitch- 
enettes must be entirely separate from those used for 
water-closets and bath rooms. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 12.] 

SECTION 61. 

Intakes. 

Par. 1. — Every inner court in a tenement house here- 
after erected shall be provided with one or more horizontal 

j intakes at the bottom. Such intakes in vent courts 
shall be not less than four square feet in area, so arranged 
as to be easily cleaned; in other inner courts they shall be 
not less than three feet wide and seven feet high, and there 
shall be at least two open grille doors, containing not less 
than fifteen square feet of unobstructed openings, one at 

i the inner court and the other at the street or yard as the 
case may be. 



3S 



136 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 61.1 

Par. 2. — Nothing contained in the foregoing sections 

concerning outer and inner courts shall be construed as 

prohibiting windows in walls that cut off the angles of 

such courts, provided that the running length of the walls 

containing such windows does not exceed six feet. 

& ;iod 

the 
SECTION 62. iay 

Buildings on the Same Lot With Tenement HousEsver 
Par. 1. — No tenement house shall hereafter be sr so 
enlarged or its lot so diminished, and no building of any 110 
kind shall be hereafter so placed upon the same lot with a ts > 
tenement house, as to decrease the minimum depth of 
yards or the mimimum size of courts or yards prescribed 
in this act for tenement houses hereafter erected. 

SECTION 63. 

Rooms, Lighting and Ventilation of. 
Par. 1. — In every tenement house hereafter erected 
there shall be in each room, except water-closet compart- 
ments and bath rooms, windows of a total area of at least 
one eighth the floor area of the room and not less than 
eleven square feet in area, opening directly on a street or 
public alley or open passageway not less than fifteen feet 
wide or upon a yard or court of the dimensions herein- 
before specified, or upon a railroad right of way, cemetery or 
public park; and such windows shall be located so as prop- 
erly to light all parts of the room. The top of at least one 
window shall be not less than seven feet six inches above 
the floor, and the upper half of it shall be made so as to 
open the full width. 

Alcoves. 
Par. 2. — Every alcove in every tenement house here- 
after erected shall be provided with an opening into a 



City of Boston Building Law. 137 

Seot. 63, Par. 2.] 

room, such opening to be equal in area to eighty per cent 
of that side of the alcove in which the opening is located; 
and the alcove shall have at least one window of not less 
J han fifteen square feet of glazed surface opening as pro- 
dded in this section. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 13.] 

SECTION 64. 

Rooms, Size of. 
Par. 1. — In every tenement house hereafter erected 
,11 rooms, except water-closet compartments and bath 
•ooms, shall be of the following minimum sizes: In each 
apartment there shall be at least one room containing not 
^ss than one hundred and twenty square feet of floor 
/area and provided with a chimney flue and thimble, 
except where said room is furnished with heat from a 
central heating apparatus, and every other room shall 
contain at least seventy square feet of floor area. Each 
room shall be in every part not less than eight feet high 
from the finished floor to the finished ceiling; provided 
that only one half of an attic room need be eight feet high. 
No portion of a room in any such tenement house shall 
be partitioned off so as to form a room not conforming to 
the provisions of sections sixty-three and sixty-four, or 
so as to form an alcove not conforming to sections sixty- 
three and seventy. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 14.] 

SECTION 65. 
Public Halls. 
Lighting of. 
Par. 1. — Except as otherwise provided in section 
+ y-six, in every tenement house hereafter erected 
ha>ring a superficial area of more than seventeen hundred 



138 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 65, Par. 1.] 

and fifty square feet, every public hall shall have at least 
one window opening directly upon a street, a public alley 
or open passageway not less than ten feet in width, a 
railroad right of way, a cemetery or a public park, or upon 
a yard or court or a vent court as provided in section 
sixty. Either such window shall be at the end of said 
hall, with the plane of the window substantially at right 
angles to the axis of the hall, or there shall be at least 
one window opening as above prescribed in every twenty 
feet in length or fraction thereof of the hall; but this 
provision for one window in every twenty feet of hall- 
way shall not apply to that part of the entrance hall 
between the entrance and the first flight of stairs, pro- 
vided that the entrance door contains not less than fiv 
square feet of. glazed surface. At least one of the window.-, 
provided to light each public hall shall be at least two 
feet six inches wide and five feet high, measured between 
the stop beads. 

Separate Hall. 

Par. 2. — Any part of a hall which is shut off from any 
other part of said hall by a door or doors shall be deemed a 
separate hall within the meaning of this section. 
[1921, c. 289, sect. 15.] 

SECTION 66. 
Windows for Stair Halls, Size Of. 
Par. 1. — In every tenement house hereafter erected 
covering a superficial area of more than seventeen hundred 
and fifty square feet, the aggregate area of windows to 
light or ventilate stair halls on each floor shall be at least 
fifteen square feet: provided, however, that when ther 
shall be, within the space enclosed by the stairway ?re- 
its landings, from the second story upward, an open a> a 
for light and ventilation whose least horizontal dimej 



City op Boston Building Law. 139 

Sect. G6, Par. 1.] 

shall be equal to the width of the stairs, but in no case less 
than three feet, then the windows required in sections 
sixty-five and sixty-six may be omitted. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 16.] 

Skylight over Stair Well. 
Par. 2. — There shall be in the roof, directly over each 
stair well, in all tenement houses hereafter erected, without 
windows as above provided, a ventilating skylight provided 
with ridge ventilators, having a minimum opening of forty 
square inches, or else such skylights shall be provided with 
fixed or movable louvres. The glazed roof of the skylight 
shall not be less than twenty square feet in area. 

SECTION 67. 

Privacy. 

Water-closets. 

Par. 1. — In every apartment of four or more rooms in 
a tenement house hereafter erected, at least one water- 
closet compartment shall be accessible without passing 
through any bedroom. 

SECTION 68. 

Basements and Cellars in Tenement Houses and 

Other Buildings. 

Living Rooms. 

Par. 1. — In tenement houses hereafter erected no 

room in the basement or cellar shall be occupied for living 

purposes, unless all of the following conditions are complied 

with: — 

Height Of. 

Par. 2. — (1.) Such room shall be at least eight and one 
half feet high in every part from the floor to the ceiling. 



140 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 73, Par. 2.] 

Water-closets. 

Par. 3. — (2.) There shall be appurtenant to such room 
the use of a separate water-closet, constructed and 
arranged as required by section sixty-nine. 

Window Openings. 

Par. 4. — (3.) Such room shall have a window or 
windows opening upon the street, an alley or open passage- 
way not less than fifteen feet in width, a railroad right of 
way, cemetery or public park or upon a yard or court. 
The total area of windows in such room shall be at least one 
eighth of the floor area of the room, and one half of the sash 
shall be made to open full width, and the top of each 
window shall be within six inches of the ceiling. 

Damp-proof Walls and Floors. 

Par. 5. — (4.) The floor of such room shall be damp- 
proof and waterproof, and all walls surrounding such room 
shall be damp-proof. 

Sleeping Rooms. 

Par. 6. — No room on any floor of any house or building 
now existing or hereafter erected, which floor is in whole or 
in part below the highest point of the curb of a public 
street or way in front and within twenty-five feet of the 
outside wall, and no room on any floor thereof, which 
floor is in whole or in part below the highest point of the 
ground adjacent to such building and within fifteen feet 
thereof, shall be occupied for sleeping purposes unless 
all of the following conditions are complied with: — 

To Abut on Outside Wall. 
Par. 7.— (a.) Such room shall on at least one side abut 
on an outside wall of said building for a space of at least 
seven feet. 



CrfY of Boston Building Law. 141 

Sect. 68.] 

Windows, Area and Exposure. 

Par. 8. — (b.) Such room shall have a window or 
windows opening directly upon an open space not less than 
fifteen feet square, and open from the ground to the sky 
without obstruction; such window or windows shall have a 
total area of not less than ten square feet and not less than 
one eighth of the floor area of said room, and both halves of 
the sash of each window shall be made to open to their 
full width, and the top of each window shall be within six 
inches of the ceiling. ' 

Par. 9. — (c.) At least sixty per cent of the area of any 
such room shall be above the level of the highest point of 
the ground within fifteen feet of the outside wall or walls of 
said room and in which the windows above required are 
situated. 

Floors and Walls to be Waterproof. 
Par. 10. — (d.) The floor of such room and all walls sur- 
rounding such room shall be damp-proof and waterproof. 

Height Of. 
Par. 11. — (e.) Such room shall be at least eight feet 
six inches in height in every part, from floor to ceiling: pro- 
vided, that in tenement houses erected prior to the first day 
of August, nineteen hundred and seven, and in other houses 
and buildings erected prior to the first day of June, nine- 
teen hundred and fourteen, it shall be sufficient if said 
room is seven feet in height over at least four fifths of 
its area. 

Water-closets — Construction, Arrangement. 
Par. 12. — (/.) There shall be appurtenant to such 
room a water-closet constructed and arranged as required 
by section sixty-nine, and used solely by the occupants of 
said room or by the household of which said occupants are 
members. 



142 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 68.] 

Sleeping Rooms. 

Par. 13. — (g.) No such room shall be occupied for 
sleeping purposes without a permit from the board of 
health, such permit to be posted in a conspicuous place 
in the main room of the apartment. A record of all such 
permits shall be kept in the office of the board of health. 

Requirements when Exempted. 

Par. 14. — (h.) Whenever basement rooms which do 
not comply with all the technical requirements of this act 
are, in the opinion of the board of health, supplied with 
sufficient light and ventilation and are suitable rooms for 
living and sleeping purposes, the board, after an inspection 
of the premises and a report in writing as to the area, 
capacity and other conditions, may issue a certificate to 
the owner of the building stating that, in the opinion of 
the board, such rooms are fit to be occupied for living and 
sleeping purposes. The issue of the said certificate shall 
operate as an exemption from the technical requirements 
of this section in all the particulars set forth in said cer- 
tificate: provided, that said certificate is kept at all times 
posted in a conspicuous place in such room. A file and 
record of all such reports and certificates shall be kept in 
the office of the board of health. Said board may revoke 
the certificate if such room, in its opinion, ceases to be 
suitable for the purposes named in the certificate. 
[1914, c. 628, sect. 1; 1915, c. 346, Special Act.] 

SECTION 69. 

Water-closets in Tenement Houses Hereafter 
Erected. 

Par. 1. — In every tenement house hereafter erected 
there shall be a separate water-closet in a separate com- 
partment within each apartment of four or more rooms. 



City of Boston Building Law. 143 

Sect. 69, Par. l.J 

Where apartments consist of less than four rooms there 
shall be at least one water-closet for every three rooms, 
and on the same floor with said rooms. Every such 
water-closet shall be placed in a compartment completely 
separated from every other water-closet, and such com- 
partment shall be not less than two feet and four inches 
wide, and shall be inclosed with plastered partitions, or 
some equally substantial material, which shall extend to 
the ceiling. Such compartment shall have a window, 
opening directly, or through a straight horizontal shaft of 
the same dimensions as the window and not more than 
four feet long, upon a street, a railroad right of way, 
cemetery or public park or a yard or alley or open passage- 
way not less than four feet wide, or upon a court vent or 
upon a covered passageway not more than twenty feet 
long and at least twenty feet wide, and twenty feet high. 
Every such window shall be at least one foot by three 
feet between stop beads; and the whole window shall be 
made so as to open readily. When, however, such water- 
closet compartment is located on the top floor and is 
lighted and ventilated by a skylight over it, no window 
shall be necessary, provided that the roof of such skylight 
contains at least three square feet of glazed surface and 
is arranged so as to open readily. Nothing in this section 
in regard to the separation of water-closet compartments 
from each other shall apply to a general toilet room 
containing several water-closets, hereafter placed in a tene- 
ment house, provided that such water-closets are supple- 
mental to the water-closet accommodations required by 
law for the use of the tenants of the said house. Nothing 
in this section in regard to the ventilation of water-closet 
compartments shall apply to a water-closet hereafter 
placed in an existing tenement house, to replace a defective 
fixture in the same position and location. No water-closet 
shall be maintained in the cellar of any tenement house 



144 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 69, Par. 1.] 

without a permit in writing from the board of health; 
and said board shall have power to make rules and regula- 
tions governing the maintenance of such closets. Every 
water-closet compartment in any tenement house shall be 
provided with proper means of lighting the same at night. 
If fixtures for gas or electricity are not provided in such 
compartment, then the door of such compartment shall 
be provided with translucent glass panels, or with a 
translucent glass transom, not less in area than four 
square feet. The floor of every such water-closet com- 
partment shall be made waterproof with asphalt, tile, 
stone or some other waterproof material; and such water- 
proofing shall extend at least six inches above the floor 
on all sides of the compartment except at the door opening 
so that the floor can be washed or flushed without leaking. 
No drip trays shall be permitted. No water-closet fix- 
tures shall be inclosed with any woodwork. 

SECTION 70. 
Lighting and Ventilation of Existing Tenement 

Houses. 
Par. 1 . — Excepting water-closet compartments and 
bathrooms, wherever a room in any tenement house has 
a window or windows of less than nine square feet of 
glazed surface opening on a street, a railroad right of 
way, cemetery, public park, alley or open passageway not 
less than ten feet in width, such window or windows shall 
be enlarged and provided with the above mentioned 
glazed surface, and wherever such room does not open as 
above provided or opens upon an alley or open passageway 
less than ten feet in width or upon a shaft or upon a court 
less than six feet in its least dimension, then such room 
shall be provided with a sash window communicating 
with another room in the same apartment, having win- 
dows of at least the superficial area prescribed for the 



City of Boston Building Law. 145 

Sect. 70, Par. 1.] 

windows of rooms in tenement houses hereafter erected 
and opening on a street, a railroad right of way, cemetery, 
public park or alley or open passageway at least ten feet 
in width, or on a court or courts at least equivalent to the 
courts required in sections fifty-eight and fifty-nine; and 
such new sash window shall contain not less than fifteen 
square feet of glazed surface and shall be made so as to 
open readily. One wall of every alcove in an existing 
tenement house shall be provided with an opening equal 
in area to eighty per cent of the wall. No tenement 
house shall be so altered as to reduce the provisions for 
the light and ventilation of any room or alcove or public 
hall or stair hall below the requirements of this act. 

SECTION 71. 

Skylights. 
Existing Tenement Houses. 
Par. 1. — In every existing tenement house there shall 
be in the roof, directly over each stair well, a ventilating 
skylight, provided with ridge ventilators and also with 
fixed or movable louvres or movable sashes. But this 
section shall not apply to any tenement house now having 
windows as provided in section sixty-five or a bulkhead in 
the roof over the main stairs, which bulkhead is provided 
with windows made so as to open readily and with not 
less than twelve square feet of glass in the top of the bulk- 
head. All skylights hereafter placed in any tenement 
house shall conform to the provisions of section sixty-six. 
All the existing dome lights or other obstructions to sky- 
light ventilation shall be removed. 

Public Hall — Lighting Of. 
Par. 2. — Where the public hall in an existing tenement 
house is not provided with windows opening as provided 
in section sixty-five, and where there is not a stair well as 



146 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 71, Par. 2.] 

provided in section sixty-six, all doors leading from such 
public hall into apartments shall be provided with trans- 
lucent glass panels of an area of not less than four square 
feet for each door; or such public hall may be lighted by 
a window or windows at the end thereof with the plane of 
the window at right angles to the axis of the hall, said 
window opening upon the street, a railroad right of way, 
cemetery, public park, or an alley or open passageway at 
least ten feet in width, or upon a yard or court of the 
dimensions hereinbefore provided. 

SECTION 72. 

Water-closets in Existing Tenement Houses. 

Par. 1. — In existing tenement houses the woodwork 
inclosing the space underneath the seat of all water-closets - 
used in common by two or more families shall be removed 
and such space shall be left open. The floor or other sur- 
face beneath and around such closet shall be maintained 
in good order and repair, and the floors made waterproof 
to the satisfaction of the board of health. 

Water-closets, Number Required. 

Par. 2. — Every such water-closet shall be located in 
a compartment completely separated from every other 
water-closet, and such compartment shall be ventilated to 
the satisfaction of the board of health. There shall be 
provided at least one water-closet for every three families 
or for every nine rooms in every existing tenement house. 

SECTION 73. 

Water Supply. 

Tenement House Hereafter Erected. 

Par. 1. — In every tenement house hereafter erected 
there shall be in each apartment a proper sink with 
running water. 



City op Boston Building Law. 147 

Sec?. 73.] 

Existing Tenement House. 

Par. 2. — Every existing tenement house shall have 
water furnished in sufficient quantity at one or more 
places on each floor occupied by or suitable to be occupied 
by one or more families. The owner shall provide proper 
and suitable tanks, pumps or other appliances to receive 
and to distribute a sufficient supply of water at each floor 
in the said house at all times of the year, during all hours 
of the day and night. 

Sinks in Public Halls. 

Par. 3. — The woodwork inclosing sinks located in the 
public halls or stairs shall be removed and the space 
underneath the sinks shall be left open. The floors and 
wall surfaces beneath and around the sink shall be main- 
tained in good order and repair. 

SECTION 74. 

Drainage of Courts and Yards. 
Tenement Houses. 
Par. 1. — In every tenement house all courts, areas, 
intakes and yards shall be properly graded, drained and 
paved or otherwise surfaced to the satisfaction of the 
board of health. 

SECTION 75. 

Receptacles for Garbage and Ashes. 

Tenement House. 
Par. 1. — The owner of every tenement house shall 
provide therefor suitable covered, water-tight receptacles 
satisfactory to the board of health, for ashes, rubbish, 
garbage, refuse and other matter. No person shall place 
ashes, rubbish, garbage, refuse or other matter in the 



148 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 75, Par. 1.] 

yards, open areas or alleys connected with, or appurtenant 
to, any tenement house except in suitable receptacles 
provided for the same. 

[Repealed so far as inconsistent with 1907, c. 550, sect. 128; as 
amended by 1913, o. 586, sect. 1.] 



SECTION 76. 
Powers of the Building Commissioner. 
Par. 1. — -The commissioner shall not dispense with 
any of the requirements of sections forty-two to seventy- 
five, inclusive. 

SECTION 77. 
Theatres. 
Definition. 

Par. 1. — Every building hereafter erected so as to 
contain an audience hall and a stage, with curtain, mov- 
able or shifting scenery, and machinery, adapted for the 
giving of plays, operas, spectacles or similar forms of 
entertainment, shall be a theatre within the meaning of 
this act. No existing building not now used as a theatre 
shall be altered and used as a theatre, unless it conforms 
to the provisions of this act for a new theatre. 

[1921, c. 60, sect. 3.] 

SECTION 78. 

Construction. 
Par. 1. — Every theatre hereafter built shall be of 
first class construction, and the steel work of the stage, 
of the fly galleries, and of the rigging loft need not be 
fireproof ed. 

[1921 Zc 60, sect. 4.] 



City op Boston Building Law. 149 

SECTION 79. 
Open Courts. 
Par. 1. — Every theatre built in a block not on a corner 
shall have an open court or passageway on both sides 
extending from the proscenium line to the line of the 
street on the front, or, in case the building abuts on a 
street both in front and rear, these passages may extend 
from the line of the front of the auditorium to the line of 
the rear street. These passages shall be at least six feet 
wide throughout their length, and shall not be closed by 
any locked gate or doorway. They shall immediately 
adjoin the auditorium, or a side passage or lobby directly 
connected therewith. These passages shall be open to the 
sky opposite the whole depth of the auditorium, but may 
be carried out to the street front or rear through passages 
enclosed by brick walls or other fireproof material equally 
efficient, and covered by a solid brick vault at least eight 
inches thick, each passage to be not less than eight feet 
wide and ten feet high throughout. 

SECTION 80. 
Inner Court. 
Par. 1. — -Every theatre built upon the corner of two 
streets shall have one inner court on the side of the building 
away from the side street, such court to be of the same 
description as the courts provided for in the preceding 
paragraph. 

SECTION 81. 

Stores, Etc. 

Par. 1. — Nothing in this act shall be construed to 
prohibit the use of any part of a theatre building for 
stores, offices, or for habitation, provided that the parts 
so used shall be built with exits to the street entirely 



150 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 81, Par. l.J 

distinct from the rest of the building and shall be sepa- 
rated from the rest of the building by solid partitions or 
walls, without any openings in the same. 

SECTION 82. 

Floor Levels. 

Par. 1. — In all theatres, the entrances shall be not 
more than one step above the level of the sidewalk of the 
main street, and the stage shall be not more than five 
feet above the said level. 

SECTION 83. 
Proscenium Wall. 

Par. 1. — The stage of every theatre shall be separated 
from the auditorium by a wall of fireproof construction, 
which wall shall extend the whole width of the auditorium 
and the whole height to the roof of the portion occupied by 
the stage. There shall be no openings through this wall 
except the curtain opening, one doorway each side behind 
the boxes, and one doorway which shall be located at or 
below the level of the stage, and plumbing, ventilating 
and such other pipe openings as may be approved by the 
building commissioner, such openings to be fire-stopped. 
The doorways shall not exceed twenty-one superficial feet 
each, and shall have standard fire-doors hung in a manner 
satisfactory to the commissioner. The finish or decorative 
features around the curtain opening of every theatre shall 
be of fire proof material. 

[1921, c. 60, sect. 5.] 

SECTION 84. 
Curtain. 
Par. 1. — The proscenium or curtain opening of every 
theatre shall have a fire-resisting curtain reinforced by 



City op Boston Building Law. 151 

Sect. 84, Par. 1J 

wire netting or otherwise strengthened. If of iron, or 
similar heavy material, and made to lower from the top, 
it shall be so arranged as to be stopped securely at a 
height of seven feet above the stage floor, the remaining 
opening being closed by a curtain or valance of fire- 
resisting fabric. 

SECTION 85. 
Stage Floor. 

Par. 1. — The part of the stage floor, usually equal to 
the width of the proscenium opening, used in working 
scenery, traps or other mechanical apparatus, may be of 
wood, and no flooring used thereon shall be less than one 
and one eighth inches in thickness. 

SECTION 86. 

Ventilators. 
Par. 1. — There shall be one or more ventilators near 
the center, and above the highest part of the stage of 
every theatre, of a combined area of opening satisfactory 
to the commissioner, and not less than one tenth of the 
area of the undivided floor space behind the curtain at 
the stage floor level. The openings in every such venti- 
lator shall be closed by valves or louvres so counter- 
balanced as to open automatically, which shall be kept 
closed, when not in use, by a fusible link and cord reach- 
ing to the prompter's desk, and readily operated therefrom. 
Such cord shall be of combustible material, and so arranged 
that if it is severed the ventilator will open automatically. 

Skylight Coverings for Ventilator. 
Par. 2.— Skylight coverings for ventilators shall have 
sheet metal frames set with double-thick glass, each pane 
thereof measuring not less than three hundred square 



152 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 86, Par. 2.] 

inches, or shall be protected with wire glass. If wire glass 
is not used, a suitable wire netting shall be placed immedi- 
ately beneath the glass, but above the ventilator openings. 
Illuminating fixtures over the auditorium shall be sus- 
pended and secured in a manner approved by the com- 
missioner. 

Illuminating Fixtures over Auditorium. 

Par. 3. — Glass on illuminating fixtures over the audi- 
torium shall be secured from danger of falling as the com- 
missioner shall require, but in no case shall any glass more 
than six inches in diameter or length be hung over the 
auditorium unless protected from falling by a wire netting 
or similar device satisfactory to the commissioner. 

SECTION 87. 
Seats in Auditorium. 

Par. 1, — All seats in the auditorium excepting those 
contained in boxes shall be spaced not less than thirty 
inches from back to back, measured in a horizontal 
direction, and shall be firmly secured to the floor. No 
rows of esats in the auditorium shall contain more than 
fourteen seats between aisles and where there is but one 
aisle no row shall contain more than seven seats. 

Balcony and Gallery Platforms. 
Par. 2. — The platforms for seats in balconies and 
galleries shall nowhere have a greater rise than twenty-one 
inches, nor be less than thirty inches from back to back. 

[1921, c. 60, sect. 6.] 

SECTION 88. 
Aisles. 
Par. 1. — All aisles on the respective floors in the 
auditorium, having seats on both sides of the same, shall 



City op Boston Building Law. 153 

Sect. 88, Par. 1.] 

be not less than thirty inches wide where they begin 
and shall be increased in width toward the exit in the 
ratio of one inch to five running feet. Aisles having 
seats on one side only shall be not less than two feet 
wide at their beginning and shall increase in width, the 
same as aisles having seats on both sides. 

SECTION 89. 
Changes in Level. 

Par. 1. — All changes in the levels of the floors of such 
buildings, except under stairways, from story to story, 
and except the necessary steps in galleries and balconies 
rising or declining toward the exits, shall be made by 
inclines or declines of no steeper gradient than two in ten 
within the auditorium, and rising toward the exits, and 
one in ten for all others. 

[1921, c. 60, sect. 7.] 

SECTION 90. 
Lobbies. 
Par. 1. — Preceding each division of the theatre there 
shall be foyers, lobbies, corridors, or passages, the aggre- 
gate capacity of which on each floor or gallery shall be 
sufficient to contain the whole number to be accommo- 
dated on such floor or gallery in the ratio of one square 
foot of floor room for each person. 

SECTION 91. 
Stage Doors. 

Par. 1. — There shall be not less than two exit doors 
each not less than three feet in width, located on opposite 
sides of the stage, and opening directly upon a street, 
alley, court, or courtway leading to a public thoroughfare. 



154 City op Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 92. 
Room Exits. 

Par. 1. — All rooms in theatres for the use of persons 
employed therein shall have passages to at least two 
independent means of exit. 

SECTION 93. 
Doors to Open Outward. 

Par. 1. — All doors of exit or entrance shall open out- 
ward, and shall be hung so as to swing in such a manner 
as not to become an obstruction in a passage or corridor, 
and no such doors shall be fastened so as to be inoperative 
when the building is occupied by an audience. 

SECTION 94. 

False Doors. 

Par. 1. — No mirrors shall be so placed as to give the 
appearance of a doorway or exit, hallway, or corridor, 
nor shall there be any false doors or windows. 

SECTION 95. 
Main Floor and First Gallery Exits. 
Par. 1. — A common exit may serve for the main floor 
of the auditorium and the first gallery, provided that its 
capacity be equal to the aggregate capacity of the outlets 
from the main floor and the said gallery; and provided 
that the lowermost run of any exit leading from a gallery 
shall not open directly at right angles with the central 
axis of a common exit unless there is a clear space or 
landing of at least one and one quarter times the width 
of the exit between the foot of such exit and such centre 
line or nearest exit doorway. 



City op Boston Building Law. 155 

SECTION 96. 
Exits. 

Balcony and Gallery. 

Par. 1. — Two distinct and separate exits shall be 
provided for each gallery and balcony above the main 
floor; and the same shall be located on opposite sides of 
the galleries. 

Par. 2. — All gallery or balcony exits shall start with a 
width of not less than four feet at the uppermost gallery. 

Par. 3. — Exits from balconies and galleries shall not 
communicate with the basement or cellar. 

SECTION 97. 
Aggregate Width op Exits. 
Par. 1. — The aggregate width of all the exits pre- 
viously described shall be estimated on a basis of not less 
than twenty inches for every one hundred persons for 
whom seats are provided in the sections of the auditorium 
served by the respective exits. 

SECTION 98. 
Emergency Exits. 
Par. 1. — In addition to the exits previously described 
there shall be one exit from each side of each gallery, 
balcony, and main floor of auditorium, at least five feet 
wide, leading to exterior balconies not less than four feet 
wide and twenty feet long on each side of the auditorium. 
From such balconies there shall be staircases extending 
to the ground level, which may be counterweighted, with 
risers of not over eight and one half inches and treads of 
not less than nine and one half inches, inclusive of nosing. 



156 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 98, Par. 1.] 

The aggregate width of these emergency stairs shall be 
not less than ten inches for every one hundred people 
served thereby, no single stairs being less than thirty 
inches wide. 

Par. 2. — Where all such stairs are in an interior court, 
each run shall be covered by a light awning of iron. 

Par. 3. — Nothing herein shall prohibit the building of 
emergency stairs and exits inside the walls of the building, 
provided that they are surrounded by a fireproof partition 
not less than four inches thick separating the exits and 
stairways from the audience room or auditorium. 

[1921, c. 60, sect. 8.] 



SECTION 99. 

Additional Requirements. 
Par. 1. — The commissioner shall have power to require 
a greater number or capacity of exits than is herein pre- 
scribed. 

Illuminated Exit Signs. 
Par. 2. — In every theatre there shall be over every exit, 
on the inside, and over every opening to a fire-escape, on 
the inside, an illuminated sign, bearing the word "exit" or 
"fire-escape," respectively, in letters not less than four 
inches high. The lights for the exit signs, passages, stairs, 
lobbies, auditoriums, rear of auditoriums, balconies, 
galleries, and for the balconies and stairs outside the build- 
ing, stttall be so arranged that they can be turned on or off 
independently of the means provided on the stage or in 
any part of the building in the rear of the proscenium wall, 
Every exit sign shall be kept illuminated, and every 
outside balcony and fire-escape shall be kept well lighted 
during the performance, except outside exits during a per- 
formance before sunset. 



City of Boston Building "Law. 157 

Sect. 99.] 

Exit Plan on Program. 

Par. 3. — Plans showing the exits and stairways shall be 
legibly printed so as to occupy a full page of every pro- 
gramme or play-bill or shall be shown by stereopticon 
upon a moving picture screen at least once during the 
afternoon and evening for a period of not less than two 
minutes. 

Gas Pipe Outlets and Burners. 
Par. 4. — In said buildings there shall be such number of 
gas pipe outlets as the commissioner may require, fitted 
with no less than two gas burners. Such burners shall be 
inspected and tried at least once in every three months by 
inspectors of the department, to ascertain if they are in 
proper working order. The inspector shall make a report 
of each visit, stating the condition of the burners and the 
action of the inspector in regard to them . 

Defective Burners. 

Par. 5. — The commissioner shall have authority to 
order any defect in the working of such burners as are 
necessary for public safety to be remedied. 

Existing Theatre Burners. 
Par. 6. — So much of this section as applies to the 
inspection of gas burners shall apply to buildings now used 
as theatres. 

[1921, c. 60, sect. 9.] 

SECTION 100. 
Stairs. 
Par. 1. — • The cut of the stair stringers shall not 
exceed seven and one-half inches rise, nor be less than ten 



158 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 100, Par. 1.] 

and one half inches tread. There shall be no flights of 

stairs of more than fifteen or less than three steps between 

landings. 

SECTION 101. 

Landings op Stairs. 
Par. 1. — Every landing shall be at least four feet 
wide. When straight stairs return directly on themselves, 
a landing of the full width of both flights, without any 
steps, shall be provided. The outer line of landings shall 
be curved to a radius of not less than two feet to avoid 
square angles. Stairs turning at an angle shall have a 
proper landing without winders introduced at the turn 
except stairways leading to private boxes. No door 
shall open immediately upon a flight of stairs, but a 
landing at least two feet wider than the width of the 
door opening shall be provided between such stairs 
and such door. When two side flights connect with one 
main flight, no winders shall be introduced, and the width 
of the main flight shall be at least equal to the aggregate 
width of the side flights. 

[1921, c. 60, sect. 10.] 

SECTION 102. 
Hand Rails. 

Par. 1. — All enclosed stairways shall have, on both 
sides, strong hand-rails, firmly secured to the wall, about 
three inches distant therefrom and about three feet high 
above the stairs. 

Par. 2. — All stairways eight feet and over in width shall 
be provided with a central rail of metal or hard wood, not 
less than two inches in diameter, placed at a height of 
about three feet above the centre of the treads, supported 



City of Boston Building Law. 159 

Sect. 102, Par. 2.] 

on wrought metal or brass standards of sufficient strength, 
securely bolted to the treads or risers of the stairs; and 
at the head of each flight of stairs, and on each side of 
the landing, the post or standard shall be at least six 
feet in height, and the rail shall be secured to the post. 



SECTION 103. 

Measurements for Width of Stairs. 

Par. 1. — The width of all stairs shall be measured in 
the clear between the hand-rails. 

Par. 2. — No winding or circular stairs shall be per- 
mitted. 

SECTION 104. 

Radiators Forbidden in Passageways. 
Par. 1. — No coil or radiator or floor register shall be 
placed in any aisle or passageway used as an exit; but 
all such coils and radiators may be placed in recesses 
formed in the wall or partition to receive the same. 

Heating Apparatus Location. 
Par. 2. — No boiler, furnace, engine or heating appara- 
tus, except steam, hot water or hot air pipes or radiators 
shall be located under the auditorium or under any passage 
or stairway or exit of any theatre. 

Sprinklers and Stand pipes. 

Par. 3. — There shall be at least two two-inch high- 
service standpipes on the stage of every theatre, with 
ample provision of hose nozzles at each level of the stage on 
each side, and the water shall be kept turned on during the 
occupation of the building by an audience. The said pipes 
shall in no case be sealed, and shall have two gates, one 



160 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 104, Par. 3.] 

above the other, with a proper test or waste valve; the 
lower gate to be kept open at all times. The proscenium 
opening of every theatre shall be provided with a two and 
one half inch perforated iron pipe, or equivalent equipment 
of automatic or open sprinklers, so constructed as to form, 
when in operation, a complete water curtain for the whole 
proscenium opening, and there shall be for the rest of the 
stage a complete system of fire apparatus and perforated 
iron pipes, automatic or open sprinklers. Such pipes or 
sprinklers shall be supplied with water by high pressure 
service, and shall be at all times ready for use. 

SECTION 105. 

Places of Public Assembly. 
Hereafter Erected. 

Par. 1. — Every building hereafter erected with a 
hall or assembly-room to contain a public audience of 
more than eight hundred persons, or with more than one 
superimposed gallery or balcony, shall be of fireproof con- 
struction throughout; except that halls or assembly- 
rooms, the mean level of the main floor of which is not 
more than five feet above the grade of the adjacent street, 
may have roofs of second class construction. 

Par. 2.— Every building hereafter erected with a hall or 
assembly-room to contain an audience of more than six 
hundred persons, the main floor of which is raised more 
than fifteen feet above the level of the principal street upon 
which it faces, shall be of fireproof construction throughout. 

Capacity. 

Par. 3. — The capacity of a hall or assembly-room shall 
be estimated on the basis of six square feet for each person . 

Par. 4. — If several halls or assembly-rooms are provided 
in one building, their aggregate capacity shall be considered 



City op Boston Building Law. 161 

Sect. 105, Par. 4.] 

as determining whether or not the building shall be of fire- 
proof construction, unless the several halls are enclosed 
by or separated from each other by fireproof walls, or 
floors, with fireproof doors in the same, in which case the 
building may be of second class construction. 

Alterations to Conform to Act. 

Par. 5. — No existing building shall be altered to 
contain a hall or assembly-room exceeding the foregoing 
dimensions, unless the whole building as altered shall 
conform to the provisions of this act. 

Seats. — Obstructions. 

Par. 6. — All seats in places of public assemblage shall be 
spaced as hereinbefore provided, and, while such places of 
public assemblage are occupied by an audience, shall be 
secured in such manner as will be satisfactory to the build- 
ing commissioner of the city of Boston. No temporary 
seats or other obstructions shall be allowed in any aisle, 
passageway or stairway of a place of public assemblage, an d 
no person shall remain in any aisle, passageway or stairway 
of any building during any performance. 
[1912, c. 370, sect. 1.] 

Existing Hall. Ways of Egress, Lighting Of. 

Par. 7. — -Every existing building containing a hall or 
assembly-room to which admission is not free, and to which 
the provisions of chapter four hundred and ninety-four of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and eight, relative to 
the licensing of public entertainments apply, shall have 
all the ways of egress from such building sufficiently 
lighted, and lighted in a manner satisfactory to the building 
commissioner, while the hall or assembly-room is occupied 
by an audience. 

[1913, c. 50, sect. 1.] 
[1921, c. 60, sect. 11.] 



162 City op Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 106. 

Moving Picture Shows. 

Par. 1. — All moving picture shows shall be subject 
to the provisions of chapter one hundred and seventy-six 
and of chapter four hundred and thirty-seven of the acts 
of the year nineteen hundred and five, and of any amend- 
ments thereof or additions thereto now or hereafter made. 

SECTION 107. 
Exits, Etc. 
Halls — Hereafter Erected. 
Par. 1. — Every building hereafter erected contain- 
ing a hall or assembly-room shall conform to all the afore- 
said requirements as to exits, stairways, exit lights, aisles, 
and seats, which apply to theatres; provided, that the 
same are necessary for the preservation of public safety 
and are specially ordered by the building commissioner. 
All orders of the building commissioner under the pro- 
visions of this section shall be subject to the authority of 
a majority of the Board of Appeal, which may annul or 
modify such orders. 

[1915, c. 352, sect. 5. Special Act.] 

SECTION 108. 
Roof Gardens. 

Par. 1. — Nothing herein contained shall prevent the 
placing of a roof garden, art gallery, or rooms for similar 
purposes above a theatre, provided the floor of the same 
forming the roof over such theatre shall be constructed 
of fireproof materials, and shall have no covering boards 
or sleepers of wood. Every roof over such garden or other 
rooms shall have all supports and rafters of steel, and, if 
covered, shall be covered with glass or fireproof material, 
or both. 



City op Boston Building Law. 163 

SECTION 109. 

Exits from Roof Gardens. 

Par. 1. — Exits from roof gardens may communicate 
with stairs leading from the auditorium of the theatre, 
but they shall be at least four in number, not less than 
four feet six inches wide, and distinct and separate from 
each other from roof to street. 

SECTION 110. 

Summer Theatres. 

Par. 1. — Summer theatres, if built without the building 
limits, and located thirty feet distant from any other 
building or structure or adjoining lot lines, and of no 
greater seating capacity than seven hundred and fifty 
persons, and not more than one story high, without bal- 
conies, or galleries, may be constructed as follows:— 

Par. 2. — The auditorium, without a cellar or basement, 
with open sides of double the number of exits as herein- 
before provided, opening directly into the surrounding 
courts or gardens at the grade level, and the adjoining 
dressing rooms, may be of wooden construction, but the 
stage shall be enclosed in brick walls not less than twelve 
inches thick, or shall be plastered on metal lathing through- 
out: 'provided, that the openings leading to the dressing 
rooms shall be provided with fire doors. 

Par. 3. — Otherwise, all protective features and arrange- 
ments shall comply with all previous sections of this title. 

SECTION 111. 

Existing Theatres. 

Stairs — Stairways. 

Par. 1. — 'All~stairs^of theatres shall have throughout 
proper hand-rails on both sides firmly secured to walls or 



164 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. Ill, Par. l.[ 

to strong posts and balusters. Stairways twelve feet or 
more wide shall have one or more intermediate rails not 
more than eight feet apart and properly supported. 

Heating Apparatus — Location. 
Par. 2. — No boiler, furnace, engine or heating appa- 
ratus, except steam, hot water or hot air pipes or radiators, 
shall be* located under the auditorium nor under any pas- 
sage or stairway or exit of any theatre. 

Illuminated Exit Signs — Emergency Lights. 
Par. 3. — In every theatre there shall be over every 
exit, on the inside, and over every opening to a fire-escape, 
on the inside, an illuminated sign, bearing the word 
"exit" or "fire-escape," respectively, in letters not less 
than four inches high. An emergency arc light or its 
equivalent shall be installed in the auditorium, which 
light or lights, exit lights, and all lights in halls, corridors, 
or any part of the building used by the audience, except 
the general auditorium lighting, shall be fed independently 
of the stage lighting, and shall be controlled only from the 
lobby or other convenient place in the front of the house. 
Every exit sign shall be kept illuminated and every outside 
balcony and fire-escape shall be kept well lighted during 
the performance, except outside exits during a performance 
in the daytime and before sunset. 

[1909, c. 313, sect. 1.] 

Exits to Open Outward — Plans of Exits on Programs. 
Par. 4. — The exits and openings to fire-escapes of all 
theatres shall open outward and have fastenings on the 
inside only. They shall be unfastened during every per- 
formance and shall be so arranged that they can easily be 
opened from within. Plans showing the exits and stair- 
ways shall be legibly printed so as to occupy a full page of 
every programme or play-bill. 



City of Boston Building Law. 165 

Sect. 111.] 

Temporary Seats. 
Par. 5. — No temporary seats or other obstructions 
shall be allowed in any aisle, or stairway of a theatre, and 
no person shall remain in any aisle, or stairway of any such 
building during any performance. 

[1908, c. 336, sect. l.J 

Fire Curtain. 
Par. 6. — The proscenium or curtain opening of every 
theatre shall have a fire-resisting curtain of incombustible 
material, reinforced by wire netting, or otherwise strength- 
ened. If of iron, or similar heavy material, and made to 
lower from the top, it shall be so arranged as to be stopped 
securely at a height of seven feet above the stage floor, 
the remaining opening being closed by a curtain or valance 
of fire-resisting fabric. The curtain shall be raised at 
the beginning and lowered at the end of every perform- 
ance, and shall be of proper material, construction and 
mechanism. 

Stage Ventilators. 
Par. 7. — There shall be one or more ventilators near 
the centre and above the highest part of the stage of every 
theatre, of a combined area of opening satisfactory to the 
building commissioner, and not less than one tenth of the 
area of the proscenium opening. Every such ventilator 
shall have a valve or louvre so counterbalanced as to open 
automatically, and shall be kept closed, when not in use, 
by a fusible link and cord reaching to the prompter's 
desk, or any other place easily reached from the stage 
level and readily operated therefrom. Such cord shall 
be of combustible material, and so arranged that if it is 
severed the ventilator will open automatically. 

[1908, c. 336, sect. 1.1 



166 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 111.] 

Standpipes — Sprinklers. 

Par. 8. — There shall be at least two two-inch high- 
service standpipes on the stage of every theatre, with 
ample provision of hose nozzles at each level of the stage 
on each side, and the water shall be kept turned on during 
the occupation of the building by an audience. The said 
pipes shall in no case be sealed and shall have a gate and 
check valve and shall have a test valve placed between 
the gate valve and check valve. The proscenium open- 
ing of every theatre shall be provided with a two and 
one half inch perforated iron pipe or equivalent equip- 
ment of automatic or open sprinklers, as the commis- 
sioner may direct, so sonstructed as to form when in 
operation a complete water curtain for the whole pro- 
scenium opening and there shall be for the rest of the 
stage a complete system of fire apparatus and perforated 
iron pipes, automatic or open sprinklers. Such pipes or 
sprinklers shall be supplied with water by high pressure 
service, and shall be ready for use at all times. 
[1908, o. 336, sect. 1.J 

SECTION 112. 
Plumbing. 

Definition of Terms. 

Par. 1. — The following terms shall have the meanings 
respectively assigned to them: — 

Par. 2. — "Repair of leaks" shall mean such repairs as 
are necessary to protect property, but do not involve any 
extensive change in construction. 

Par. 3.— "Y-branches" shall mean a branch at suffi- 
cient angle to direct the flow and prevent backing up. 

Par. 4. — "Air pipes" or "back air pipes" shall mean 
air pipes from traps that extend toward the main soil pipe 
of the outer air and connect with not more than three 
traps. 



City op Boston Building Law. 167 

Sect. 112.] 

Par. 5. — "Vent pipes" shall mean general lines of 
back air pipes connecting with more than three fixtures. 

Par. 6. — "Drain" shall mean that part of the drainage 
system of a building extending through basement or cellar 
to sewer. 

Par. 7. — "Soil pipe" shall mean that part of the drain- 
age system of a building, of four inches or more internal 
diameter, between basement or cellar and the highest 
fixture in the building. 

Par. 8. — "Ventilation pipe" shall mean the extension 
of the soil pipe from the highest fixture to and through the 
roof. 

Par. 9. — "Surface drain" shall mean a connection with 
drain in the basement to allow egress of surface water or 
overflow. 

Par. 10. — "Fixture" shall mean any receptacle or 
outlet placed for the purpose of disposing of waste water 
or other matter, and connecting with the waste, soil or 
drain pipe of a building. 

SECTION 113. 
Registration. 
Par. 1. — ■ No plumber shall engage in or work at the 
business of plumbing unless he shall first have registered 
his name and place of business in the office of the commis- 
sioner, and no person shall by display of sign or plumbing 
material, or otherwise, advertise as a plumber unless he 
shall have been registered or licensed as such. Every 
master plumber shall conspicuously display his certificate 
or license within his place of business. Notice of any 
change in the place of business of a registered or licensed 
master plumber shall immediately be given by him to 

the commissioner. 

[Chap. 103, Revised Laws.] 
[Chap. 287, Acts of 1914.] 
[Chap. 536, Acts of 1919.] 



168 City op Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 114. 

Notices. 

Par. 1.— Every plumber, before doing any work in a 
building, shall, except in the case of repair of leaks, file in 
the office of the commissioner a plan or sketch of the 
work to be performed; and no such work shall be done 
in any building without a written permit from the com- 
missioner. 

SECTION 115. 
Connection With Sewer or Drain. 
Par. 1. — The plumbing of every building shall be 
separately and independently connected outside the 
building with the public sewer, if such sewer is provided, 
or with a proper and sufficient private drain or sewer laid 1 
outside of the building, and if a sewer is not accessible, 
with a proper cesspool. Several buildings may have a 
common sewer connection if such connection is approved 
by the commissioner and the superintendent of sewers. 

SECTION 116. 

Inspection and Tests. 
Par. 1. — Pipes or other fixtures shall not be covered 
or concealed from view until approved by the commis- 
sioner, who shall examine or test the same within two 
working days after notice that they are ready for inspec- 
tion. Plumbing shall not be used unless, when roughed 
in, the wastes, vents and back air pipes and traps are first 
tested by water or sufficient air pressure in the presence 
of an inspector, when such testing is practicable. 

SECTION 117. 
Soil and Waste Pipes and Traps. 
Par. 1. — The waste pipe of every independent sink, 
basin, bath-tub, water-closet, slop-hopper, urinal or other 



City op Boston Building Law. 169 

Sect. 117, Par. I.J 

fixture shall be furnished with a separate trap which shall 
be placed as near as practicable to the fixture which 
it serves. A sink and set of three wash-trays may be 
connected to the house drain through one five inch round 
trap, when the outlet of the sink is not over three feet 
six inches from the nearest outlet from the wash-trays; 
and in such case the trap shall be above the floor. The 
outlet from each fixture shall enter the trap separately. 
Not more than four \*ash-bowls or sinks in a continuous 
line may be connected to the house drain through one 
five inch round trap. Two or more fixtures on the same 
level with not more than two feet of waste pipe and con- 
necting into the soil or waste pipe not more than eighteen 
inches below the top water line of the trap, shall not 
require other vent than the continuation of the soil or 
waste pipe full size for its whole length. Lateral branches 
of soil or waste pipe, if more than twenty feet in length, 
shall be extended through the roof undiminished in size. 
All connections on lead waste and back air pipes and of 
lead pipes to brass ferrule and soldering nipples shall be 
full size wiped soldered branch, round or flange joints. 
Soil and waste pipes shall have proper T-Y or Y branches 
for all fixture connections. No connection to lead bends 
for water-closets or slop sinks shall be permitted, except 
the required back air pipe where a continuous vent is not 
practicable. 

Earthenware Traps. 

Par. 2. — Earthenware traps shall have heavy brass 
floor plates soldered to the lead bends and bolted to the 
trap flange, and the joint made gas tight with red or white 
lead. Rubber washers for floor connections shall not be 
used. 

Back Air Pipes, Vents, Etc. 

Par. 3. — Traps shall be protected from siphonage or air 
pressure by special iron or brass air pipes of a size not less 



170 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 117, Par. 3.] 

than the waste pipes they serve; back air pipes shall not be 
connected to the trap or branched into the waste pipe 
except where a continuous vent is not practicable, but a 
suitable non-siphon trap may be used without a back air 
pipe upon the approval of the commissioner. Back air 
pipes shall enter the waste pipe within eighteen inches from 
the trap and shall be a continuation of the waste pipe. 
Lead air pipes may be used only for short connections 
where they are exposed to vie#. Air pipes for water- 
closet traps shall be connected to the highest point of 
bend or trap, and may be of two inch bore if for not more 
than three fixtures and less than thirty feet in length; if 
for more than three fixtures or more than thirty feet in 
length they shall be of three inch bore. Air pipes shall 
be run as direct as practicable and if one and one half 
inches or less in diameter shall not exceed thirty feet in 
length. Two or more air pipes may be connected to- 
gether or with a vent pipe; but in every such case the 
connection shall be above the top of the fixture. The 
trap for the upper fixture on a line of soil or waste pipe, 
within five feet of the stack in a horizontal line, shall not 
require a special air pipe, unless the outlet is branched 
into a stack more than eighteen inches below the top 
water line of the trap. Diameters of vent pipe shall be 
not less than two inches for main vents through less than 
seven stories; three inches for water-closets on more than 
three floors, and for other fixtures in more than seven 
stories. All vent pipes shall be increased one inch in 
diameter before passing through the roof. Vent lines 
shall be connected at the bottom with a soil or waste 
pipe or with the drain, in such a manner as to prevent 
accumulation of rust scale and properly to drip the water 
of condensation. Offsets shall be made at an angle of not 
less than forty-five degrees. Soil pipes or iron waste 



City of Boston Building Law. 171 

Sect. 117, Par. 3.] 

pipes, vents and back air pipes, shall be supported by 
clamps to the woodwork, iron drive hooks to brick walls, 
or bolted clamps to iron girders. 

Non-Siphon Traps — Round Traps. 

Par. 4. — All traps, except for water-closets, not pro- 
vided with special air pipes shall be suitable non-siphon 
traps and shall have at least a four-inch water seal. 
Round traps shall be not less than four inches in diameter 
and eight inches long, and made of eight-pound lead. All 
traps screws shall be water sealed. 

Chemical Laboratories. 

Par. 1. — Fixtures and waste pipes in chemical labora- 
tories shall be installed in accordance with plans approved 
by the commissioner. 

Stables. 

Par. 6. — The drainage of stable fixtures shall be con- 
structed according to plans approved by the commissioner. 

SECTION 118. 
Back Air Pipe. 

Par. 1. — In buildings where a series of bathrooms 
or kitchens are located directly over each other and have 
a common soil or waste pipe, the back air pipe required 
shall be a vent line connecting with each outlet branch 
close to the water-closet connection or outlet from the 
sink trap, each branch bent to connect to vent line above 
the top of the highest fixture on each floor, the vent line 
to connect to main bent fine above the top of the highest 
fixture in the building. 



172 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 118.] 

Batteries of Water-Closets. 

Par. 2. — In the case of batteries of water-closets or 
other fixtures the special air pipe from each trap may be 
omitted, provided that the soil or waste pipe, undimin- 
ished in size, is continued to a point above the roof or 
revented into the main soil pipe system above the top 
of the uppermost fixture. 

Par. 3. — The commissioner shall prepare explanatory 
sketches showing the method of construction described in 
this section. 

SECTION 119. 
Refrigerator Wastes and Drip Pipes. 
Par. 1. — All drip or overflow pipes shall be extended 
to some place in open sight, and in no case shall any such 
pipe be connected directly with the drain pipe. No waste 
pipe from a refrigerator or other receptacle in which 
provisions are stored shall be connected directly with 
a drain or other waste pipe. The waste pipes from all 
other fixtures shall be connected directly with a drain pipe. 
Refrigerator wastes connecting with two or more stories 
shall be supplied with a trap on the branch for each floor 
and extended through the roof. 

SECTION 120. 

Water-Closets, Etc. 

Par. 1. — Every water-closet or fine of water-closets 
shall be supplied with water from a tank or cistern, and 
shall have a flushing pipe of not less than one and one 
quarter inches in diameter. Privy vaults shall be of brick 
and cement of a capacity of not less than fifty cubic feet, 
of easy access, convenient to open, and clean, and water- 
tight. The inside shall be not less than two feet from the 
next lot and from any public or private way. 



City op Boston Building Law. 173 

Sect. 121.] 

SECTION 121. 
Soil and Waste Pipes Dimensions. 

Par. 1. — The diameters of soil and waste pipes shall 
be not less than those given in the following table: — 

Inehes. 

Soil pipes ... » 4 

Main waste pipes 2 

Main waste pipes for kitchen sinks on five or more 

floors 3 

Branch waste pipes for laundry tubs '. . . . 1| 

Branch waste for kitchen sinks 1| 

Branch waste for urinals 1| 

No branch waste for other fixtures shall be less than, 1 \ 

Exceptions. 
Par. 2. — Except that, with the approval of the com- 
missioner, a three-inch soil pipe may be used for one water- 
closet where it is not practicable to use a four-inch pipe. 

Ferrules, Clean-Outs, Etc. 

Brass ferrules shall be of the best quality, bell-shaped, 
extra heavy cast brass, not less than four inches long 
and two and one quarter inches, three and one half inches, 
and four and one half inches in diameter, and of not less 
than the following weights: — 

Diameters. Weights. 

2\ inches 1 pound ounces. 

Z\ inches 1 pound 12 ounces. 

4^ inches 2 pounds 8 ounces 

One and one-half inch ferrules shall not be used. 



174 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 121.1 

Soldering Nipples. 
Par. 3. — Soldering nipples shall be of heavy cast brass 
or of brass pipe, iron pipe size. If cast, they shall be of 
not less than the following weights: 

1£ inches pounds 8 ounces. 

2 inches pounds 14 ounces. 

2| inches . . . . . .1 pound 6 ounces. 

3 inches . . . ... 2 pounds ounces. 

4 inches 3 pounds 8 ounces. 

Clean-Outs — Screw Caps. 

Par. 4. — Where clean-outs are used, the screw cap 
shall be of brass, extra heavy, and not less than one eighth 
of an inch thick. The engaging parts shall have not less 
than six threads of iron pipe size, and shall be tapered. 
Clean-outs shall be full size of trap up to four inches in 
diameter, and not less than four inches for larger traps. 

Par. 5. — The screw caps shall have a solid square or 
hexagonal nut, not less than one half inch high, with a least 
diameter of one and one half inches. The bodies of brass 
clean-out ferrules shall be at least equal in weight and 
thickness to the calking ferrule for the same size of pipe. 

Lead Pipes, Use Restricted. 

Par. 6. — The use of lead pipes is restricted to short 
branches of the soil and waste pipes, bends and traps, 
and roof connections of inside leaders. "Short branches" 
of lead pipe shall mean not more than: 

5 feet of 1 1 inch pipe. 
5 feet of 1| inch pipe. 
4 feet of 2 inch pipe. 
2 feet of 3 inch pipe. 
2 feet of 4 inch pipe. 



City op Boston Building Law. 175 

Seot. 121.J 

Lead Pipe — Weight — Thickness. 

Pab. 7. — The pipe shall be not less than the following 
average thickness and weight per linear foot: 







Weights per 


Diameters. 


Thicknesses. 


Linear Foot. 


1\ inches 





2.50 pounds 


1| inches 


, 14 inch 


2.68 pounds 


2 inches 


. 15 inch 


3.61 pounds 


2£ inches 


.20 inch 


5 . 74 pounds 


3 inches 


.20 inch 


5.74 pounds 


3 inches 


.21 inch 


7.54 pounds 


3£ inches 


.22 inch 


9.00 pounds 


4 inches 


.23 inch 


10.66 pounds, 


4| inches 


.24 inch 


12.34 pounds. 


5 inches 


. 25 inch 


14 . 50 pounds, 


6 inches 


.28 inch 


18.76 pounds, 


7 inches 


.30 inch 


23.27 pounds, 


8 inches 


.32 inch 


28. 18 pounds, 


9 inches 


.34 inch 


33.70 pounds, 


10 inches 


.36 inch 


40.06 pounds. 


11 inches 


.37 inch 


45.02 pounds. 


12 inches 


.37 inch 


48.98 pounds. 



Brass Pipe. 
Par. 8. — Brass pipe for soil, waste, vent and back air 
pipes shall be thoroughly annealed, seamless, drawn brass 
tubing, of not less than number thirteen Stubbs gauge. 



Lead and Iron Pipe Unions — Connections. 

Par. 9. — No slip joint or unions shall be used on traps, 
waste, vents or back air pipes. Threaded connections on 
brass traps shall be of the same size as pipe threads for 
the same size of pipe, and shall be tapered. Connections 



176 



City of Boston Building Law. 



Sect. 121. Par. 9.] 

between lead and iron shall be made by brass sleeves or 
screw nipples wiped to the lead and calked or screwed 
into the iron. 

Brass Pipe. 

Par. 10. — The following average thicknesses and weights 
per linear foot shall be used: — 



Diameters. 
1| inches 

2 inches 
2\ inches 

3 inches 
3 1 inches 

4 inches 

4 \ inches 

5 inches 

6 inches 



Thicknesses. 
. 14 inch 
. 15 inch 
.20 inch 
.21 inch 
.22 inch 
.23 inch 
.24 inch 
. 25 inch 
.28 inch 



Weights per 
Linear Foot. 

2 . 84 pounds. 

3 . 82 pounds. 
6.08 pounds. 
7.92 pounds. 
9 . 54 pounds. 

11.29 pounds. 
13.08 pounds. 
15.37 pounds. 
19.88 pounds. 



Cast Iron Pipes, Etc. 

Par. 11. — Cast iron pipes shall be uncoated, sound, 
cylindrical and smooth, free from cracks and other defects, 
of uniform thickness and of the grade known to commerce 
as "extra heavy." If buried under ground they shall be 
coated with asphaltum or red lead. 

Par. 12. — Pipe, including the hub, shall weigh not less 
than the following average weights per linear foot: — 



Diameters. 


Weights 

per Linear 

Foot. 


Diameters. 


Weights 

per Linear 

Foot. 




5J pounds. 

9j pounds. 
13 pounds. 
17 pounds. 
20 pounds. 


7 inches (not stock size), 

8 inches 


27 pounds. 
33| pounds. 






45 pounds. 






54 pounds. 









City of Boston Building Law. 



177 



Sect. 121.] 

Par. 13. — All joints shall be made with picked oakum 
and molten lead run full, and be made gas tight. No 
cement joints nor connections between iron and cement 
or tile pipe or brick drains shall be made within any 
building. 

Wrought Iron Pipe. 



Par. 14. — Galvanized wrought 
less than the following thickness 
foot: — 



iron pipe shall be of not 
and weight per linear 







Weights per 


Diameters. 


- Thicknesses. 


Linear Foot. 


1| inches 


. 14 inch 


2 . 68 pounds. 


2 inches 


. 15 inch 


3.61 pounds. 


2\ inches 


.20 inch 


5 . 74 pounds. 


3 inches 


.21 inch 


7.54 pounds. 


3§ inches 


.22 inch 


9.00 pounds. 


4 inches 


.23 inch 


10.66 pounds. 


4£ inches 


.24 inch 


12.34 pounds. 


5 inches 


. 25 inch 


14 . 50 pounds. 


6 inches 


. 28 inch 


18.76 pounds. 


7 inches 


. 30 inch 


23 . 27 pounds. 


8 inches 


.32 inch 


28. 18 pounds. 


9 inches 


.34 inch 


33.70 pounds. 


10 inches 


.36 inch 


40.06 pounds. 


11 inches 


.37 inch 


45.02 pounds. 


12 inches 


.37 inch 


48.98 pounds. 



Extra Heavy. 
Par. 15. — The threaded part of the pipe if less than 
one and one half inches long shall be of the thickness and 
weight known as "extra heavy" or "extra strong." 

Fittings. 
Par. 16. — Fittings on wrought iron vent or back air 
pipes shall be galvanized, recessed, cast iron threaded 



178 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 121, Par. 16.] 

fittings. Fittings for "Plumber's tubing" shall be heavy 

weight, with sharp threads. 

Par. 17. — Fittings for waste or soil or refrigerator waste 
pipes of wrought iron or brass pipe shall be galvanized 
cast iron, or brass, recessed, and threaded drainage fit- 
tings, with smooth interior waterway and threads tapped 
so as to give a uniform grade to branches of not less than 
one quarter of an inch per foot. 

Joints. 
Par. 18. — All joints on wrought iron or brass pipe shall 
be screwed joints made up with red lead, and any burr 
formed in cutting shall carefully be reamed out. 

SECTION 122. 

Drain Pipes, Etc. 

Par. 1. — Drain and connecting ventilation pipes, 
vents and back air pipes shall be of sufficient size, and 
made of extra heavy cast iron pipe if under ground, and 
if above ground shall be made of extra heavy cast iron, 
galvanized wrought iron of standard weight, or of not 
less than number thirteen Stubbs gauge brass pipe within 
the building, except that lead pipes may be used for short 
connections exposed to view. Cast iron drains shall 
extend not less than ten feet from the inside face of the 
wall, beyond and away from the building. 

Par. 2. — Drain pipes above ground shall be secured by 
iron to walls, suspended from floor timbers by strong 
iron hanger's, or supported on brick piers. Proper man- 
holes shall be supplied to reach clean-outs and traps. 
Every drain pipe shall have a fall of not less than one 
quarter inch per foot, and shall be extended from a point 
ten feet outside the inside face of the wall, unobstructed, to 
and through the roof, undiminished in size, and to a height 



City of Boston Building Law. 179 

Sect. 122, Par. 2.] 

not less than two feet above the roof, and not less than 
one foot above the top of any window within fifteen feet 
and not less than eight feet above the roof if the roof is 
used for drying clothes or as a roof garden. The drain 
pipe shall be supplied with a Y branch fitted with a brass 
clean-out or with an iron stopper, if required, on the 
direct run, at or near the point where the drain leaves the 
building. Changes in direction shall be made with 
curved pipes, and all connections with horizontal or verti- 
cal pipes shall be made with Y branches. Saddle hubs 
shall not be used. ' All drain pipes shall be exposed to 
sight within the building, if such exposure is practicable, 
and shall not be exposed to pressure where they pass 
through the wall. 

Steam Exhausts, Etc. 
Par. 3. — No steam, or vapor, or water of a temperature 
over one hundred and thirty degrees Fahrenheit shall be 
discharged from any premises into any sewer, drain or 
catch-basin, nor shall any matter or thing be discharged 
into any sewer which may tend to cause an obstruction 
of the public sewer or a nuisance or a deposit therein or 
any injury thereto. 

Blow-Off Tanks. 
Par. 4. — All high pressure steam boilers shall be con- 
nected with a blow-off tank of a capacity not less than 
thirty per cent of the largest boiler connected with such 
tank. The location of and the connections to said blow- 
off tank shall be subject to the approval of the superin- 
tendent of sewers. 

Steam Exhausts. 
Par. 5. — No steam exhaust or steam drip, unless it be 
provided with a cooling tank of a capacity approved by the 



180 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 122, Par 5.] 

superintendent of sewers, or unless it be connected with 
the blow-off tank, shall connect with any drain leading 
to the sewer. Every bio w-off tank shall be supplied with 
a vapor pipe not less than two inches in diameter, which 
shall be carried above the roof and above the highest 
windows of the building. 

Blow-Off Tanks. — Additional Requirements. 

Par. 6. — The superintendent of sewers may require 
such additional means for cooling the blow-off tanks by the 
injection of cold water or otherwise as may be necessary 
to reduce the temperature of the water passing from the 
blow-off tank so that it shall not exceed one hundred and 
thirty degrees Fahrenheit. 

SECTION 123. 

Special Traps, Etc. 
Grease — Gasolene. 

Par. 1. — Every building from which, in the opinion 
of the superintendent of sewers, grease may be discharged 
in such quantity as to clog or injure the sewer, shall have 
a special grease trap satisfactory to the superintendent 
of sewers. Every building in which gasolene, naphtha or 
other inflammable compounds are used for business pur- 
poses shall be provided with a special trap, satisfactory 
to the superintendent of sewers, so designed as to prevent 
the passage of such material into the sewer, and ventilated 
with a separate pipe rising to a point four feet above the 
roof. All non-siphon traps shall be of a type approved 
by the commissioner. The waste pipe of every wash 
stand for vehicles shall be provided with a sand box of 
sufficient capacity. 

Par. 2. — The waste pipe from the sink of every hotel, 
eating house, restaurant or other public cooking establish- 



City op Boston Building Law. 181 

Sect. 123, Par. 2. J 

ment, shall be connected to a grease trap of sufficient size, 
easily accessible to open and clean, placed as near as 
practicable to the fixtures that it serves. 

SECTION 124. 
Roof Leaders and Surface Drains. 

Par. 1. — Rain water leaders when connected with 
house drains shall be suitably trapped and, within the 
proposed surface drainage area, shall not be connected at 
the top of the stack, nor extended down through the 
interior of the building, except by special permit from the 
commissioner. Wherever a surface drain is installed in 
a cellar or basement, it shall be provided with a deep seal 
trap and back water valve. Drain pipes from fixtures in 
cellars and basements liable to back flow from a sewer 
shall be supplied with back water valves. 

SECTION 125. 

Hazardous Buildings and Appliances for Power and 

Heat. 

Permits — Publications. 
Par. 1. — *(No building shall be used for a grain eleva- 
tor or for storage or manufacture of high combustibles or 
explosives, or for chemical or rendering works, without a 
permit from the commissioner, and) no engine, dynamo, 
boiler or furnace shall be placed in any building without 
a permit from the commissioner. Every application for 
such permit shall be in writing, shall be filed with the 
commissioner, and shall set forth the character of the 
building, the size, power and purpose of the apparatus, 
and such other information as the commissioner may 
require. The commissioner may, after an examination 

* Portion in parenthesis superseded oy c. 795, sects. 3, 6, 7 and 29 of 

Acts of 1914, Fire Prevention Act.] 

Chapter 795, superseded by General Laws, chapter 148. 



182 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 125, Par. 1.] 

of the premises described in the application, and after 
hearing the applicant and any objectors, issue a permit 
for placing a boiler or furnace on such premises, upon such 
conditions as he shall prescribe, or he may refuse such per- 
mit. If the application is for anything other than a boiler 
or furnace the applicant shall publish in at least two daily 
newspapers published in the city of Boston, and on at least 
three days in each, and, if so directed by the commissioner, 
shall also post conspicuously on the premises, a copy of 
the application, and shall deliver copies thereof to such 
persons as the commissioner may designate. 

Par. 2. — If no objection is filed with the commissioner 
before the expiration of ten days after the time of the first 
publication of notice, or within ten days of the delivery and 
first posting of the notice, if such delivery or posting is 
required, the commissioner shall, if the arrangement, 
location, and construction of the proposed apparatus is 
proper, and in accordance with the provisions of this act, 
issue a permit for the same. If objection is filed, the 
application shall be referred to the board of appeal, which 
may, in its discretion, require the deposit by the objector 
of a reasonable sum as security for the payment of the costs. 

Par. 3. — After such notice as the board shall order it 
shall hear the same, and shall direct the commissioner to 
issue a permit, under such conditions as it may prescribe, 
or to withhold the same. If the permit is refused, the 
applicant, and if it is granted, the objectors shall pay such 
costs as the board may order. 

Par. 4. — The commissioner may, from time to time, 
after public notice and hearing, prescribe conditions on 
which any or all boilers or furnaces may be maintained in 
buildings, and, if any person interested objects to such 
conditions and appeals from his decision establishing the 
same, the appeal shall be referred to the board of appeal, 
and thereupon said board shall prescribe the conditions. 



City of Boston Building Law. 183 

SECTION 126. 

Combustible Materials. 

Storage Prohibited. 

Par. 1. — No building adapted for habitation, nor 
any part thereof, nor the lot upon which it is located, shall 
be used as a place for the storage, keeping or handling of 
any combustible article, except under such conditions as 
may be prescribed by the fire commissioner. No .such 
building nor any part thereof, nor of the lot upon which it 
is located, shall be used as a place for the storage, keeping 
or handling of any article dangerous or detrimental to life 
or health, nor for the storage, keeping or handling of 
feed, hay, straw, excelsior, cotton, paper stock, feathers 
or rags. 

[Superseded by 1914, c. 795, sects. 6, 7, Fire Prevention Act.] 
Chapter 795, superseded by General Laws, Chapter 148. 

SECTION 127. 

Enforcement of Act. 

Safety of Building — Owner Responsible. 
Par. 1. — Every structure and part thereof and appur- 
tenant thereto shall be maintained in such repair as not 
to be dangerous. The owner shall be responsible for 
the maintenance of all buildings and structures. The 
lessee under a recorded lease shall be deemed the owner 
under the provisions of this act. 

SECTION 128. 

Powers of the Board of Health. 

Limitation of Number of Occupants in Habitation. 

Par. 1. — The board of health may by vote limit the 

number of occupants who shall be permitted to dwell in 



184 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 128, Par. 1.] 

any building or in any part or parts thereof. They shall 
cause a copy of any such vote to be served upon the owner 
of the building, his agents, tenant or other persons having 
the charge thereof. If the owner, agent, tenant, or other 
persons having charge of said building allow or permit 
more people than are permitted by said vote to occupy 
the building or any part or parts thereof, said board may 
order the premises to be vacated, and they shall not again 
be occupied without the permission of the board, and the 
owner, agent, tenant or other persons having charge of 
said building shall forfeit not more than twenty dollars 
for every day during which he violates such order. The 
board may make such further regulations as to over- 
crowding, ventilation, the construction of water-closets, 
the lighting of hallways, and the occupation of buildings 
or parts thereof, not inconsistent with other laws, as they 
may deem proper. Said board may permit rooms in 
private stables to be occupied for sleeping purposes by 
grooms and coachmen. 

Ashes — Garbage. 

Par. 2. — No person shall place ashes, rubbish, garbage, 
refuse or other matter in the yards, open areas or alleys 
connected with or appurtenant to any such building except 
in suitable receptacles provided for the same. 

Par. 3. — Every building used for habitation by more 
than two families and every lodging house shall be carefully 
inspected at least twice a year under the direction of the 
board of health, and whenever said board has made 
an order concerning such a building a reinspection shall be 
made within ten days after the board has been informed 
that the order has been complied with. 
[1913, c. 586, sect. 1.] 



City op Boston Building Law. 185 

SECTION 129. 

Enforcement — Jurisdiction in Equity. 
On Application of City Attorney. 

Par. 1. — Any court having jurisdiction in equity or 
any justice thereof, shall upon the application of the city 
by its attorney, have jurisdiction in equity: — 

Injunction Restraining Use. 
Par. 2. — To restrain the construction, alteration, repair, 
maintenance, use or occupation of a building, structure or 
other thing constructed or used in violation of the provi- 
sions of this act, and to order its removal or abatement as a 
nuisance; 

Restraining Construction, Use, Etc. 

Par. 3. — To restrain the further construction, altera- 
tion, repair, maintenance, use or occupation of a building, 
structure or other thing, which is unsafe or dangerous; 

Par. 4. — To restrain the unlawful construction, altera- 
tion, repair, maintenance, use or occupation of any build- 
ing, structure or other thing; 

Par. 5. — To compel compliance with the provisions of 
this act; 

Par. 6. — To order the removal by the owner of a build- 
ing, structure or other thing unlawfully existing, and to 
authorize the commissioner, with the written approval of 
the mayor, in default of such removal by the owner, to 
remove it at the owner's expense. 

Board of Appeal Decisions, Court May Review. 

Par. 7. — Any person, the value of whose property may 
be affected by any decision of the board of appeal, may 
have the action of said board reviewed by the court by any 
•appropriate process, provided that proceedings are insti- 
tuted within thirty days after the date of such decision. 



186 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 129.J 

Par. 8. — The person applying for the review shall file a 
bond with sufficient surety, to be approved by the court, 
for such sum .as shall be fixed by the court, to indemnify 
and save harmless the person or persons in whose favor the 
decision was rendered from all damages and costs which 
they may sustain in case the decision of said board is 
affirmed. 

Par. 9. — In case the decision of the board is affirmed 
the court, on motion, shall assess damages, and execution 
shall issue therefor. 

Right To Enter Any Building. 

Par. 10. — Any person having any duty to perform 
under the provisions of this act may, so far as may be 
necessary for the performance of his duties, enter any build- 
ing or premises in the city of Boston. 



SECTION 130. 
Jurisdiction at Law. 

Par. 1. — The municipal court of the city of Boston, 
concurrently with the superior court, shall have jurisdic- 
tion throughout the city of prosecutions and proceedings 
at law under the provisions of this act, and also of all 
provisions of law relative to plumbing and gas-fitting. 

SECTION 131. 

Procedure. 

Par. 1. — Under the entry of any case brought under 

the provisions of this act the court shall, at the request 

of either party, advance the case, so that it may be heard 

and determined with as little delay as possible. 



City op Boston Building Law. 187 

SECTION 132. 

Nuisance. 

Any Building Erected or Maintained in Violation of this 

Act. 

Par. 1. — A building or structure which is erected or 
maintained in violation of the provisions of this act shall 
be deemed a common nuisance without other proof thereof 
than proof of its unlawful construction, and the commis- 
sioner may abate and remove it in the same manner in 
which boards of health may remove nuisances under the 
provisions of sections sixty-seven, sixty-eight and sixty- 
nine of chapter seventy-five of the Revised Laws. 

Par. 2. — Whoever violates any provision of this act, or 
whoever builds, alters, or maintains any structure or any 
part thereof in violation of any provision of this act, 
shall be punished by a fine not exceeding five hundred 
dollars, except as hereinbefore provided. 

[1913, c. 586, sect. 2. See R. L., c. 104.[ 
* Note. — The provisions of sections 67, 68 and 69 of chapter 75, 
R. L., have been superseded by General Laws, chapter 111, sections 
123, 124, 125. 

SECTION 133. 
Repeals. 
Par. 1. — So much of chapter four hundred and nine- 
teen of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety- 
two and of all acts in amendment thereof as is unrepealed 
is hereby repealed. So much of any other act as is incon- 
sistent herewith is hereby repealed. 

SECTION 134. 

Par. 1. — This act shall take effect upon the first day 
of August in the year nineteen hundred and seven. 

[Approved June 22, 1907. 



APPENDICES. 



TITLE OF ACTS IN CHRONOLOGICAL 
ORDER. 



1873, Chap. 4. An Act to Authorize the Erection of 
Wooden Buildings in the City of Boston for Sanitary- 
Purposes. 

1889, Chap. 129. An Act Relating to Buildings in the 
Public Parks of the City of Boston. 

1893, Chap. 462. An Act to Authorize the Establish- 
ment of a Building Line on Public Ways. (Restric- 
tions as to Building.) 

1897, Chap. 219. An Act to Provide for the Protection 
of the Public Health in the City of Boston. (Build- 
ings May be Vacated or Torn Down.) 

1898, Chap. 452. An Act Relative to the Height of 
Buildings on and near Copley Square, in the City of 
Boston. 

1899, Chap. 457. An Act to Limit the Height of Build- 
ings in the Vicinity of the State House. (Height 
Limit, Seventy Feet.) 

1902, Chap. 543. An Act Relative to the Improvement 
of the State House and to the Height of Buildings 
on Beacon Street and Bowdoin Street in the City of 
Boston. 

1904, Chap. 333. An Act Relative to the Height of 
Buildings in the City of Boston. 

1905, Chap. 383. An Act Relative to the Height of 
Buildings in the City of Boston. 

1907, Chap. 416. An Act Relative to the Height of 
Buildings on Rutherford Avenue in the City of Bos- 
ton. (Height Limit One Hundred Feet.) 
191 



192 Acts in Chronological Order. 

1907, Chap. 463. An Act Relative to the Licensing of 
Theatres and Public Halls in the City of Boston. 

1910, Chap. 284. An Act Relative to the Construction, 
Alteration, Inspection and Maintenance of Buildings 
in the City of Boston. (Building Department to 
enforce Building Laws in Boston Heretofore Enforced 
by District Police.) 

1910, Chap. 571. An Act to Authorize the Collection 
of Fees for Permits, and Licenses Issued by Depart- 
ments of the City of Boston. 

1911, Chap. 342. An Act to Regulate the Construction 

of Garages in the City of Boston. 

1912, Chap. 259. An Act Relative to the Construction 
of Garages in the City of Boston. 

1913, Chap. 280. An Act to Authorize the Mayor of the 
City of Boston to Grant Permits for Special Moving 
Picture Exhibitions in Churches, Halls, or Other 
Buildings. 

1913, Chap. 577. An Act to Regulate the Erection and 
Maintenance of Garages in the City of Boston. 

1913, Chap. 729. An Act Relative to Dry Houses in the 
City of Boston. 

1914, Chap. 782. An Act to Amend the Building Law 
of the City of Boston. Elevators Hereafter Erected 
to be Enclosed in Shafts, Etc. 

1914, Chap. 786. An Act Exempting a Certain Parcel 
of Land in the City of Boston from Restrictions as to 
Height of Buildings, Washington Street, corner Lov- 
ering Place. 

1915, Special Act, Chap. 254. An Act Relative to the 
Erection of Buildings in the City of Boston. Making 
the Use of Certain Buildings Lawful, 

1915, Special Act, Chap. 306. An Act Relative to the 
Shirley-Eustis Mansion on Shirley Street in the City 
of Boston. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 193 

1915, Special Act, Chap. 333. An Act Relative to the 
Height of Buildings in the City of Boston. Revising 
Boundaries of Districts A and B. 

1916, Special Act, Chap. 86. An Act Relative to the Use 
of Public School Property of the City of Boston for 
Social, Civic and Other Purposes. 

1918, Special Act, Chap. 115. An Act to Allow Metal 
Garages of Limited Size in Certain Sections of the 
City of Boston. 

1919, Special Act, Chap. 32. An Act to Require the 
Registration of Hospitals in the City of Boston. 

1919, Special Act, Chap. 163. An Act Relative to the 
Construction, Alteration and Maintenance of Hos- 
pitals in the City of Boston. 

1920, Chap. 298. An Act Relative to the Operation of 
Elevators by Minors. 

1920, Chap. 455. An Act Relative to the Limitation in 
Height of Buildings on Land, between Dartmouth 
Street and Trinity Place, in the City of Boston. 

1920, Chap. 645. An Act Relative to Automatic Sprink- 
lers in Tenement Houses in the City of Boston. 

1921, Chap. 109. An Act Exempting Certain Buildings 
in the City of Boston from the Laws Relative to Fire 
Protection in Stables for Horses and Mules. 

1921, Chap. 137. An Act to Establish Harbor Lines in 
South Bay in the City of Boston. 

1921, Chap. 298. An Act Relative to the Operation of 
Elevators by Minors. 

General Laws, Chap. 4, Sect. 7. Definition — Statutes. 
Meaning of Certain Words in Constructing Same. 

General Laws, Chap. 49, Sect. 21. Spite Fences in Excess 
of 6 Feet in Height. 

General Laws, Chap. 82, Sect. 37. Building Lines. 

General Laws, Chap. 83, Sect. 5. Storm Water. Sep- 
arate Systems of Plumbing. 



194 Acts in Chronological Order. 

General Laws, Chap. 85, Sects. 8 and 9. Signs and Other 
Structures Projecting into Ways. 

General Laws, Chap. 139, Sects. 1 and 3. Common 
Nuisances. Burnt or Dangerous Buildings. 

General Laws, Chap. 140, Sects. 33, 35, 38, 40. Licenses. 
Public Lodging Houses. 

General Laws, Chap. 142. Supervision of Plumbing. 

General Laws, Chap. 143. Inspection, Regulation and 
Licenses for Buildings, Elevators and Cinemato- 
graphs. 

General Laws, Chap. 148. ' Fire Prevention. 

General Laws, Chap. 149, Sect. 126. Doors not to be 
Locked During Working Hours in Operative Build- 
ings. 

General Laws, Chap. 184, Sect. 15. General Provisions 
Relating to Real Property Proceedings Affecting 
Title to Realty Binding on Third Parties. 

General Laws, Chap. 272, Sect. 86. Stables. Exits. 
Sprinklers. 

Revised Ordinances of 1911, Chap. 41. Concerning the 
Building Limits. 

Revised Ordinances of 1914, Chap. 8. Concerning Con- 
trol of Building Operations, Person in Charge to be 
Licensed. 



CHAPTER 4, ACTS OF 1873. 

An Act to Authorize the Erection of Wooden 
Buildings in the City of Boston for Sanitary 
Purposes. 

Be it enacted, etc.: 

Section 1. The City of Boston is hereby authorized 
to erect, under directions of its board of health and 
inspector of buildings, any wooden buildings within the 
city, for hospital purposes, the same to remain only so 



Acts in Chronological Order. 195 

long as said board deems it necessary : provided, that every 

such hospital shall be constantly guarded outside by a 

competent force of at least three of the police of said city. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

.January 28, 1873. 



CHAPTER 129, ACTS OF 1889. 

An Act Relating to Buildings in the Public Parks 
op the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The park commissioners of the city of 
Boston may erect in the parks of said city that now are 
or hereafter may be under their control, except the 
common, public garden and public squares, structures 
for the shelter and refreshment of persons frequenting 
such parks, and for other park purposes, of such materials 
and in such places as in the opinion of the fire commis- 
sioners of said city do not endanger buildings beyond the 
limits of the park. Section sixteen of chapter fifty-four 
of the Public Statutes and chapter three hundred and 
seventy-four of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and 
eighty-five shall not apply to such buildings. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

.Approved March 18, 1889. 



CHAPTER 462, ACTS OF 1893. 

An Act to Authorize the Establishment of a 
Building Line on Public Ways. 

Restrictions as to Building. 

Section 1. The board or officers having authority to 
lay out city or town ways may in the manner prescribed 



196 Acts in Chronological Order. 

by law for giving notice of an intention to lay out any such 
way, give notice of an intention to establish a building 
line parallel to, and not more than twenty-five feet dis- 
tant from, any exterior line of a highway or city or town 
way, and after said notice may pass a vote establishing 
such building line, and in the case of a city, upon the 
recording of said vote in the records of the city, or in a 
town, upon the acceptance of said vote by the inhabitants 
of the town at a town meeting called as provided for by 
law, said building line shall be established; and until 
another building line shall thereafter be established in the 
same manner, no structure shall thereafter be erected, 
placed or maintained between such building line and such 
way, except that steps, windows, porticos and other usual 
projections appurtenant to the front wall of a building, 
may be allowed in such restricted space to the extent 
prescribed in the vote establishing such building line. 

Damages. 

Sect. 2. Any person sustaining damage by reason of 
the establishment of such building line shall have the same 
remedies for obtaining payment therefor as may be pre- 
scribed by law for obtaining payment for damages sus- 
tained by the laying out of a highway in such city or town. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect in any city when 
accepted by the city council thereof, and in any town when 
accepted by a majority of the legal voters thereof present 
and voting thereon at a town meeting called for that 
purpose. [Approved June 9, 1893. 

Building Lines Established. 

1. Beacon street, River street to Beaver street 
January 5, 1895. 

2. Beacon street (both sides), Arlington street to 
Massachusetts avenue, January 5, 1895. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 197 

3. Beacon street (northerly side), between Somerset 
street and Bowdoin street, November 6, 1900. 

4. Boyl^ton street, Back Bay Fens to Brookline, 
avenue, October 4, 1894. 

5 Beech street, West Roxbury (northeast side), 
between Centre street and railroad, February 29, 1916. 

6. Columbia road, Edward Everett square to the rail- 
road. Established by park commissioners. 

7. Columbia road (southeast side), Hamilton street to 
Richfield street, January 28, 1915. 

8. Grove street, West Roxbury (both sides), between 
Washington street and Centre street, March 9, 1916. 

9. Jersey street, July 15, 1898; Landsdowne street, 
November 7, 1906. 

10. Peterborough street, February 1, 1901. 

11. Queensberry street, July 15, 1897. 

ISee General JLaws, chapter 82, section 37, which seems to super- 
sede the above act.] 

Parkways, 

There is a twenty-five foot building line on the following 
locations (established by the Park Commissioners) : 

Riverway, from Longwood avenue to Huntington 
avenue. 

Jamaicaway, from Huntington avenue to Prince street. 
Arborway, from Prince street to Forest Hills street, with 
the exception of two lots on Weld park. 

Northwesterly boundary of Olmsted park, from Chest- 
nut street to line of land of Henrietta S. Sargent- 
West Roxbury Parkway on southerly boundary, from 
Walter street to Weld street; on westerly and a part of 
northerly boundary. See Suffolk Registry, Lib. 2384, 
Fol. 153 and Lib. 2730, Fol. 359. 



198 Acts in Chronological Order. 

CHAPTER 219, ACTS OF 1897. 

An Act to Provide for the Protection of the Public 
Health in the City of Boston. 

Buildings may be Vacated or Torn Down. 

Section 1. Whenever the board of health of the city 
of Boston shall be of the opinion that any building or any 
part thereof in said city is infected with contagious 
disease, or by reason of want of repair has become dan- 
gerous to life, or is unfit for use because of defects in 
drainage, plumbing, ventilation or in the construction of 
the same, or because of the existence of a nuisance on the 
premises which is likely to cause sickness among its 
occupants, said board may issue an order requiring all 
persons therein to vacate or cease to use such building or 
part thereof stated in the order, for reasons to be stated 
therein as aforesaid. Said board shall cause said order to 
be affixed conspicuously to the building or part thereof; 
and to be personally served on the owner, lessee, agent, 
occupant or any person having the charge or care thereof, 
if the owner, lessee or agent cannot be found in the said 
city, or does not reside therein, or evades or resists service, 
then said order may be served by depositing a copy thereof 
in the postoffice of said city postpaid and properly inclosed 
and addressed to such owner, lessee or agent at his last 
known place of business or residence. Such building or 
part thereof shall be vacated within ten days after said 
order shall have been posted and mailed as aforesaid, or 
within such shorter time, not less than forty-eight hours, 
as in said order may be specified, and said building shall be 
no longer used; but whenever said board shall become 
satisfied that the danger from said building or part thereof 
has ceased to exist, or that said building has been repaired 
so as to be habitable, it may revoke said order. Whenever 
in the opinion of the board of health any building or part 



Acts in Chronological -Order. 199 

thereof in said city is because of age, infected with con- 
tagious disease, defects in drainage, plumbing or ventila- 
tion, or because of the existence of a nuisance on the 
premises which is likely to cause sickness among its 
occupants, or among the occupants of other property in 
said city, or because it makes other buildings in said 
vicinity unfit for human habitation or dangerous or inju- 
rious to health, or because it prevents proper measures 
from being carried into effect for remedying any nuisance 
injurious to health, or other sanitary evils in respect of 
such other buildings, so unfit for human habitation that 
the evils in or caused by said building cannot be remedied 
by repairs or in any other way except by the destruction 
of said building or of any portion of the same, said board 
of health may order the same or any part thereof to be 
removed; and if said building is not removed in accord- 
ance with said order said board of health shall remove the 
same at the expense of the city. 

[1899, c. 222, sect. 1.] 



CHAPTER 452, ACTS OF 1898. 
An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings on and 
near Copley Square, in the City of Boston. 
Height Limit, Ninety Feet. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Any building now being built, or hereafter 
to be built, rebuilt or altered in the city of Boston, upon 
any land abutting on St. James avenue, between Clarendon 
street and Dartmouth street, or upon land at the corner 
of Dartmouth street and Huntington avenue, now occu- 
pied by the Pierce building, so called, or upon land abutting 
on Dartmouth street, now occupied by the Boston Public 
Library building, or upon land at the corner of Dart- 



200 Acts in Chronological Order. 

mouth street and Boylston street, now occupied by the 
new Old South Church building, may be completed, built, 
rebuilt or altered to the height of ninety feet, and no 
more; and upon any land or lands abutting on Boylston 
street, between Dartmouth street and Clarendon street, 
may be completed, built, rebuilt or altered to the height 
of one hundred feet and no more: provided, however, that 
there may be erected on any such building, above the 
limits hereinbefore prescribed, such steeples, towers, 
domes, sculptured ornaments and chimneys as the board 
of park commissioners of said city may approve 

Sect. 2. The provisions of chapter three hundred and 
thirteen of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety- 
six, and of chapter three hundred and seventy-nine of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-seven, so 
far as they limit the height of buildings, shall not be 
construed to apply to the territory specified and restricted 
in section one of this act. 

Sect. 3. The owner of or any person having an interest 
in any building upon any land described in section one 
of this act the construction whereof was begun but not 
completed before the fourteenth day of January in the 
current year, who suffers damage under the provisions of 
this act by reason or in consequence of having planned 
and begun such construction, or made contracts therefor, 
for a height exceeding that limited by section one of this 
act for the locality where such construction has been 
begun, may recover damages from the city of Boston for 
material bought or actually contracted for, and the use 
of which is prevented by the provisions of this act, for 
the excess of cost of material bought or actually con- 
tracted for over that which would be necessary for such 
building if, not exceeding in height the limit prescribed 
for that locality by section one of this act, less the value 
of such materials as are not required on account of the 
limitations resulting from the provisions of this act, and 



Acts in Chronological Order. 201 

the actual cost or expense of any rearrangement of the 
design or construction of such building made necessary 
by this act, by proceedings begun within two years of the 
passage of this act, and in the manner prescribed by law 
for obtaining payment for damages sustained by any 
person whose land is taken in the laying out of a highway 
in said city. 

Sect. 4, Any person sustaining damage or loss in 
his property by reason of the limit of the height of build- 
ings provided for in this act, may recover such damage or 
loss from the city of. Boston, by proceedings begun within 
three years of the passage of this act, and in the manner 
prescribed by law for obtaining payment for damages 
sustained by any person whose land is taken in the laying 
out of a highway in said city. 

Sect. 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 23, 1898. 



CHAPTER 457, ACTS OF 1899. 

An Act to Limit the Height of Buildings in the 
Vicinity of the State House. 

Height Limit, Seventy Feet. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Any building now being built or hereafter 
to be built, rebuilt or altered in that part of the city of 
Boston which lies within the following described territory, 
to wit: — Beginning at the corner of Beacon street and 
Hancock avenue, thence continuing westerly on Beacon 
street to Joy street, thence continuing northerly on Joy 
street to Myrtle street, thence continuing easterly on 
Myrtle street to Hancock street, thence continuing 
southerly on Hancock street and Hancock avenue to the 
point of beginning, — may be completed, built, rebuilt or 
altered to the height of seventy feet measured on its 
principal front and no higher, and any part of a building on 



202 Acts in Chronological Order. 

or within ninety-five feet of Beacon street, between the 
Claflin Building, so-called, and Park street, may be com- 
pleted, built, rebuilt or altered to the height of seventy feet 
above the highest grade of said part of Beacon street, and 
no higher: provided, however, that there may be erected on 
any such building such chimneys, pipes, water tanks and 
elevator houses as the Governor and Council may approve. 

[1901, c. 525, sect. 4.] 

Sect. 2. If and in so far as this act, or proceedings to 
enforce it, may deprive any person of rights existing under 
the Constitution, any such person now owning land within 
the district above described, sustaining damages in his 
property by reason of the limitations of the height pro- 
vided for in this act of any building on or to be placed on 
such land may recover from the Commonwealth such 
damages as determined by a jury of the superior court 
for the county of Suffolk, on his petition therefor filed in 
the office of the clerk of said court within one year after 
the passage of this act, such determination and payment 
of the damages to be made under the same rules of law, 
so far as applicable, as govern the determination and 
payment of damages for the taking of lands for highways 
in said city. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved June 2, 1899. 



CHAPTER 543, ACTS OF 1902. 

An Act Relative to the Improvement op the State 
House and to the Height op Buildings on Beacon 
Street and Bowdoin Street in the City op 
Boston. 

Height Limit, One Hundred Feet, and Seventy Feet 
Section 1. Any part of any building abutting on or 

within forty-two feet of Bowdoin street between Allston 



. Acts in Chronological "Order. 203 

street and Beacon street may be completed, built, rebuilt 
or altered to the height of one hundred feet above the 
highest grade of that part of said Bowdoin street on 
which the building abuts as such grade has been changed 
and established by the governor and council and no 
higher, and any part of any building on or within ninety- 
five feet of Beacon street between the Claflin building, 
so-called, and Park street may be completed, built, rebuilt, 
or altered to the height of seventy feet above the highest 
grade of said Beacon street and no higher: provided, 
however, that there may be erected on any such building, 
such chimneys, pipes, water tanks, elevator houses and 
ornamental features which shall not increase the interior 
capacity of said building as the governor and council may 
approve. 

Sect. 2. Any person owning land on or within forty- 
two feet of Bowdoin street, between Allston street and 
Beacon street, or on or within ninety-five feet of Beacon 
street between the Claflin building, so-called, and Park 
street, whose property is damaged more than it is benefited 
by the improvement of the State House, consisting of the 
limitation of the height of buildings on said land, the 
laying out and grading of said streets, the removal of 
buildings between Hancock street and Bowdoin street, 
the reconstruction and extension of the State House and 
the construction of the park between Bowdoin street 
and the State House, may, within two years after the pas- 
sage of this act, and not afterward, file in the office of the 
clerk of the superior court for the count}' of Suffolk, his 
petition for a jury to determine such damage, and a jury 
of said court shall thereupon determine the question, 
under the rules of law, so far as they are applicable, under 
which damages for the laying out of highways under the 
Revised Laws are determined. If the jury find that the 
petitioner is damaged more than he is benefited by said 



204 Acts in Chkonological Okdeb. 

improvement they shall determine the amount of the 
difference, and the Commonwealth shall pay the same; 
and if the jury shall not so find, judgment shall be entered 
for the Commonwealth, costs taxed and execution issued 
therefor against the petitioner as in civil cases. The city 
of Boston shall repay to the Commonwealth all damages 
which the state shall be required to pay for the change of 
grade of Bowdoin street made under authority of the 
governor and council, and for all expenses incurred in 
making such change. 

Sect. 3. Section two of chapter three hundred and 
eighty-two of the acts of the year nineteen hundred, as 
amended by section one of chapter five hundred and 
twenty-five of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and 
one, is hereby further amended by striking out all of said 
section two after the word "Commonwealth," in the 
seventeenth line, so as to read as follows: Section 2. The 
governor and council may lay out said land for use as a 
park, with driveways, walks, grass plots, curbing and 
railing; may close Mount Vernon street from Beacon 
street to the state house arch; may construct a new 
approach to the state house from Bowdoin street and from 
Beacon street; may build retaining walls and fences; 
may change the grade of Mount Vernon street from Joy 
street to the state house as they shall deem to be most 
advantageous for an approach to the state house; may 
change the grade of Bowdoin street from Beacon street 
to Ashburton place so that the street will be substantially 
level in that part, and may widen Bowdoin street at any 
part to a width not exceeding fifty feet; may grade and 
construct said streets and relay the sewers, pipes, tubes, 
conduits and wires therein wherever necessary, and may 
provide for the proper storage of coal for the use of the 
Commonwealth. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 205 

Sect. 4. Section three of said chapter five hundred 
and twenty-five is hereby repealed. 

Sect. 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved June 28, 1902. 



CHAPTER 333, ACTS OF 1904. 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings in the 
City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The city of Boston shall be divided into 
districts of two classes, to be designated districts A and B. 
The boundaries of the said districts, established as here- 
inafter provided, shall continue for a period of fifteen years, 
and shall be determined in such manner that those parts 
of the city in which all or the greater part of the buildings 
situate therein are at the time of such determination used 
for business or commercial purposes shall be included in 
the district or districts designated A and those parts of 
the city in which all or the greater part of the buildings 
situate therein are at the said time used for residential 
purposes or for other purposes not business or commercial 
shall be in the district of districts designated B. 

Sect. 2. Upon the passage of this act the mayor of the 
city shall appoint a commission of three members to be 
called "Commission on Height of Buildings in the City of 
Boston." The commission shall immediately upon its 
appointment give notice and public hearings, and shall 
make an order establishing the boundaries of the districts 
aforesaid, and, within one month after its appointment, 
shall cause the same to be recorded in the registry of deeds 
for the county of Suffolk. The boundaries so established 
shall continue for a period of fifteen years from the date 
of said recording. Any person who is aggrieved by the 



206 Acts in Chronological Order. 

said order may, within thirty days after the recording 
thereof, appeal to the commission for a revision; and the 
commission may, within six months after its appointment, 
revise such order, and the revision shall be recorded in the 
registry of deeds for the county of Suffolk, and shall date 
back to the original date of recording. The members of 
the commission shall serve until the districts have been 
established as aforesaid; and any vacancy in the commis- 
sion caused by resignation, death or inability to act shall 
be filled by the mayor, on written application by the 
remaining members of the commission or of ten inhabitants 
of the city. The members of the commission shall receive 
such compensation as the mayor shall determine. 

Height Limit in District A and District B, Exceptions. 

Sect. 3. In the city of Boston do building shall be 
erected to a height of more than one hundred and twenty- 
five feet above the grade of the street in any district desig- 
nated A, and no building shall be erected to a height of 
more than eighty feet above the grade of the street in any 
district designated B. These restrictions shall not apply 
to grain or coal elevators or sugar refineries in any district 
designated A, nor to steeples, domes, towers or cupolas 
erected for strictly ornamental purposes, of fireproof 
material, on buildings ol the above height or less in any 
district. The supreme judicial court and the superior 
courts shall each have jurisdiction in equity to enforce the 
provisions of this act, and to restrain the violation thereof. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 13, 1904. 

[Order op December 3, 1904.] 
June 7, 1904, the mayor of the city of Boston, under 
the provisions of chapter 333 of the Acts of 1904, ap- 



Acts in Chronological Order. 207 

pointed the Commission on Height of Buildings in the 
city of Boston, and they on July 5, 1904, made an order 
in accordance with the provisions of said chapter, which 
order is recorded in the Suffolk Registry of Deeds, Book 
2976, page 45. 

Order of July 5, 1904, as. Amended and Revised by 
Order of December 3, 1904. 

Boundaries q} District A. 

A. The boundaries oi the Districts A, hereby estab- 
lished, are as follows, to wit: 

1. Beginning on the northerly side of that part of the 
said city known as East Boston at the Chelsea Street 
Bridge, thence running southeasterly, southerly and 
southwesterly through the centre of Chelsea street to 
Eagle square, thence westerly through said Eagle square 
and the centre of Eagle street to Glendon street, thence 
northerly through the centre of said Glendon street to 
Condor street, thence westerly through the centre of said 
Condor street to Border street, thence southerly and 
southwesterly through the centre of said Border street to 
Sumner street, thence southeasterly through the centre 
of said Sumner street to Orleans street, thence south- 
westerly through the centre of said Orleans street to 
Marginal street, thence southeasterly and easterly through 
the centre of said Marginal street to Jeffries street, thence 
northeasterly through the centre or said Jefferies street to 
Maverick street, thence northwesterly through the centre 
of said Maverick street to the location of the Boston, 
Revere Beach and Lynn Railroad, thence northerly and 
northeasterly along said Railroad to the property of 
the said city known as Wood Island Park, thence south- 
easterly along the line dividing the said property of the 
said city from the property of the East Boston Company 
and the property of the Commonwealth to the harbor, 



208 Acts in Chronological Order. 

thence southwesterly, westerly, northwesterly, northerly, 
northeasterly, and easterly along the said harbor and 
Chelsea Creek, around the said East Boston to the point 
of beginning at said Chelsea Street Bridge; meaning to 
include in the said District A all those portions of wards 
one and two of the said city, as now established by law, 
which are situated within the boundary line hereinbefore 
described. 

2. Beginning on the southerly side of that part of the 
said city known as Charlestown at the Charlestown Bridge, 
thence running northwesterly through the centre of said 
bridge and the approaches thereof to a point on said 
approaches immediately over the centre of the arch con- 
necting Warren avenue with Water street, thence north- 
easterly through the centre of said Water street to the 
property of the United States known as the United States 
Navy Yard, thence northwesterly along the southwesterly 
boundary line of said property of the United States to 
Chelsea street, thence northeasterly through the centre 
of said Chelsea street to Medford street, thence north- 
westerly and westerly through the centre of said Medford 
street to the junction of said Medford street, Bunker 
Hill street and Main street, thence northwesterly through 
the centre of said Main street to the property of the said 
city known as the Charlestown Playground, thence north- 
easterly along the southeasterly boundary of said Play- 
ground to the Mystic river, thence easterly, southeasterly, 
southerly and southwesterly along said Mystic river and 
the harbor around said Charlestown to the point of begin- 
ning at said Charlestown Bridge; meaning to include in 
the said District A all those portions of Wards three, four 
and five of the said city as now established by law, which 
are situated within the boundary line hereinbefore 
described. 

3. Beginning on the easterly side of that part of the 



Acts in Chronological Order. 209 

said city known as the city proper at the Congress Street 
Bridge, thence running southeasterly across said bridge 
to that part of said city known as South Boston, thence 
northeasterly, easterly, southeasterly, westerly, southerly 
and easterly around the northerly part of said South 
Boston and the Reserved channel, so-called, to the point 
on the southerly boundary of said Reserved channel where 
Q street extended northerly would meet the said channel, 
thence southerly through the centre of said Q street to 
East First street, thence westerly through the centre of 
East First street to I street, thence southerly through the 
centre of said I street to East Second street, thence 
westerly through the centre of said East Second street to 
the junction of said East Second street, Dorchester street 
and West First street, thence northwesterly through the 
centre of said West First street to Dorchester avenue, 
thence southerly through the centre of said Dorchester 
avenue to Dexter street, thence westerly through the 
centre of said Dexter street to Ellery street, thence 
southerly through the centre of said Ellery street to 
Southampton street, thence westerly through the centre 
of said Southampton street to Massachusetts avenue, 
thence northwesterly through the centre of said Massa- 
chusetts avenue to Albany street, thence northeasterly 
through the centre of said Albany street to East Dedham 
street, thence northwesterly through the centre of said 
East Dedham street to Harrison avenue, thence north- 
easterly through the centre of said Harrison avenue to 
Troy street, thence southeasterly through the centre of 
said Troy street to Albany street, thence northerly through 
the centre of said Albany street to Broadway, thence 
northwesterly through the centre of said Broadway to 
Washington street, thence northwesterly across said 
Washington street and through the centre of Pleasant 
street to Piedmont street, thence westerly through the 



210 Acts in Chronological Order. 

centre of said Piedmont street, to Ferdinand street,* thence 
northwesterly through the centre of said Ferdinand street 
to Columbus avenue, thence southwesterly through the 
centre of Columbus avenue to a point where a line passing 
along the boundary line between the estates now num- 
bered 352 and 356 on Boylston street and extended south- 
easterly would meet said point on Columbus avenue, 
thence from said point northwesterly along said line and 
between said estates above mentioned to a point in the 
centre of Boylston street opposite or nearly opposite the 
westerly boundary of the lot on which the Arlington 
Street Church now stands, thence easterly through the 
centre of said Boylston street to Tremont street, thence 
northerly and northeasterly through the centre of said 
Tremont street to Park street, thence northwesterly 
through the centre of said Park street to Beacon street, 
thence northeasterly through the centre of said Beacon 
street to Bowdoin street, thence northerly through the 
centre of said Bowdoin street to Cambridge street, thence 
westerly through the centre of said Cambridge street to 
Stamford street, thence northerly through the centre of 
said Stamford street to Green street, thence northwesterly 
through the centre of said Green street to Leverett street, 
thence northwesterly through the centre of said Leverett 
street to the Charles river at Craigie Bridge, thence north- 
easterly, easterly, southeasterly, southerly and south- 
westerly by the said Charles river and the said harbor 
around the said city proper to the point of beginning at 
said Congress Street Bridge; meaning to include in said 
District A the whole of ward six and all those portions 
of wards seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, 
fourteen, fifteen and seventeen of the said city, as now 
established by law, which are situated within the boundary 
line hereinbefore described. 

* Ferdinand street is now Arlington street. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 211 

Boundaries of District B. 
B. The boundaries of the Districts B hereby estab- 
lished are as follows, to wit: 

1. All those portions of said wards one and two which 
are situated outside the line beginning and ending at said 
Chelsea Street Bridge hereinbefore established as the 
boundary of one of said Districts A. 

2. All those portions of said wards three, four and five 
which are situated outside the line beginning and ending 
at said Charlestown Bridge hereinbefore established as the 
boundary of one of said Districts A. 

3. The whole of wards sixteen, eighteen, nineteen, 
twenty, twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty- 
four and twenty-five of the said city, as now established 
by law, and all those portions of said wards seven, eight, 
nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen and 
seventeen which are situated outside the line beginning 
and ending at said Congress Street Bridge hereinbefore 
established as the boundary of one of said Districts A. 

Meaning to include in the said Districts B all those 
portions of the said city not included in the Districts 
hereinbefore established as Districts A. 

Wherever in this order the words "harbor," "river," 
"creek" are found, the same are intended to mean the 
furthest line towards deep water on said harbor, river or 
creek respectively on which the erection of wharves or 
other structures is permitted by the State and United 
States authorities. 

CHAPTER 383, STATUTE OF 1905. 
An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings in the 

City op Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Within thirty days after the passage of this 
act the mayor of the city of Boston shall appoint a com- 



212 Acts in Chronological Order. 

mission of three members to determine, in accordance 
with the conditions hereinafter provided, the height of 
buildings within the district designated by the commis- 
sion on height of buildings in the city of Boston as district 
B, in accordance with chapter three hundred and thirty- 
three of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four. 

Sect. 2. Said commission shall immediately upon its 
appointment give notice and public hearings, and shall 
make an order establishing the boundaries of or otherwise 
pointing out such parts, if any, of said district B, as it 
may designate in which buildings may be erected to a 
height exceeding eighty feet but not exceeding one hundred 
feet, and the height between eighty feet and one hundred 
feet to which buildings may so be erected, and the condi- 
tions under which buildings may be erected to said height 
except that such order may provide for the erection of 
buildings as aforesaid to a height not exceeding one 
hundred and twenty-five feet in that portion of said district 
B which lies within fifty feet from the boundary line sepa- 
rating said district B from the district designated by the 
commission on height of buildings in the city of Boston as 
district A in accordance with said chapter three hundred 
and thirty-three, provided said boundary line divides 
the premises affected by such order from other adjoining 
premises both owned by the same person or persons, and 
within sixty days after its appointment shall cause the 
same to be recorded in the registry of deeds for the county 
of Suffolk. Any person who is aggrieved by such order 
may, within sixty days after the recording thereof, appeal 
to the commission for a revision; and the commission may, 
pievious to the first day of January in the year nineteen 
hundred and six, revise such order, and the revision shall 
be recorded in the registry of deeds for the county of Suffolk 
and shall date back to the original date of recording. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 213 

The boundaries so established shall continue for a period 
of fifteen years from the date of the recording of the order 
made by the commission on height of buildings in the city 
of Boston under chapter three hundred and thirty-three 
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four. The 
members of the commission shall receive such compensa- 
tion as the mayor shall determine* 

Heights Limited to 125 Feet — 100 Feet — 70 Feet. 

Sect. 3. Within such parts of district B as may be 
designated by the commission as aforesaid (which may, 
except as hereinafter provided, include any parts of said 
district B affected by prior acts limiting the height of 
buildings) buildings may be erected to the height fixed by 
the commission as aforesaid, exceeding eighty feet but 
not exceeding one hundred feet, or one hundred and twenty- 
five feet as hereinbefore provided, and subject to such 
conditions as may be fixed as aforesaid by the commis- 
sion; but within the following described territory, to wit: — 
Beginning at the corner of Beacon street and Hancock 
avenue, thence continuing westerly on Beacon street to 
Joy street, thence continuing northerly on Joy street to 
Myrtle street, thence continuing easterly on Myrtle 
street to Hancock street, thence continuing southerly 
on Hancock street and Hancock avenue to the point of 
beginning, no building shall be erected to a height greater 
than seventy feet, measured on its principal front, and 
no building shall be erected on a parkway, boulevard or 
public way on which a building line has been established 
by the board of park commissioners or by the board of 
street commissioners, acting under any general or special 
statute, to a greater height than that allowed by the order 
of said boards; and no building upon land any owner of 
which has received and retained compensation in damages 



214 Acts in Chronological Order. 

for any limitation of height or who retains any claim for 
such damages shall be erected to a height greater than 
that fixed by the limitation for which such damages were 
received or claimed. 

Height Unlimited. 

Sect. 4. No limitations of the height of buildings 
in the city of Boston shall apply to churches, steeples, 
towers, domes, cupolas, belfries or statuary not used for 
purposes of habitation, nor to chimneys, gas holders, 
coal or grain elevators, open balustrades, skylights, venti- 
lators, flagstaffs, railings, weather vanes, soil pipes, steam 
exhausts, signs, roof houses not exceeding twelve feet 
square and twelve feet high, nor to other similar construc- 
tions such as are usually erected above the roof line of 
buildings. 

Roof Houses, Pent Houses and Bulkheads. 

Roof houses, pent houses, bulkheads and skylights above 
the roof line used to enclose elevator machinery or shafts 
may be more than twelve feet square, but shall not exceed 
in area the size of the shaft served thereby, except in the 
case of elevator shafts, which may be allowed an additional 
space of four feet on all sides. They shall not exceed 
twelve feet in height and shall not be used for any purpose 
except the storage of tools and appliances used for the 
maintenance of the elevators. 

Roof houses, pent houses and bulkheads in first class 
buildings may be constructed of angle iron and four-inch 
blocks, plastered on the inside and outside, or covered 
inside and outside with metal covering or angle iron, and 
two-inch solid metal lath and plaster walls may be used, 
the door to be of metal frame covered with metal. For 
second and third class buildings, roof houses, pent houses, 
and bulkheads may be of wood frame covered with metal 



Acts in Chronological Order. 215 

on the outside and plastered on metal lathing on the inside; 
provided, that the door is covered with metal on both sides. 

[1919, c. 156, Special Act, to take effect April 24, 1919.] 

Sect. 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 8, 1905. 

[Order op July 21, 1905.] 
Height Limit. — Street Exceeding Sixty-four Feet in Width. 
Buildings may be erected on streets exceeding sixty- 
four (64) feet in width, to a height equal to one and one 
quarter times the width of the street upon which the 
building stands; and, if situated on more than one street, 
the widest street is to be taken, the height to be measured 
from the mean grade of the curbs of all the streets upon 
which the building is situated, and not exceeding one 
hundred (100) feet in any event. 

Width of Streets. 

If the street is of uneven width, its width will be con- 
sidered as the average width opposite the building to 
be erected. 

The width of a street shall be held to include the width 
of any space on the same side of the street upon which a 
building stands, upon or within which space no building 
can be lawfully erected by virtue of any building line 
established by the Board of Street Commissioners or the 
Board of Park Commissioners acting under general or 
special laws. 

All streets or portions of streets upon which buildings 
may be erected on one side only shall be considered as of 
a width of eighty (80) feet as to that poition upon which 
buildings may be erected on one side only. 

In the case of irregular or triangular open spaces formed 
by the intersection of streets, the width of the street 



216 Acts in Chronological Order. 

shall be taken as the width of the widest street entering 
said space at the point of entrance. 

Parkway Restrictions. 
No building shall, however, be erected on a parkway, 
boulevard or public way on which a building line has been 
established by either of said Boards acting under general 
or special laws to a height greater than that allowed by 
said general or special laws, nor otherwise in violation of 
Section 3 of said Chap. 383, Acts of 1905. 

Height Limit — Eighty Feet Exceptions. 

No building shall be erected to a height greater than 
eighty (80) feet unless its width on each and every public 
street upon which it stands will be at least one half its 
height. 

Nothing in this order shall be construed as affecting any 
condition or restriction imposed by deed, agreement or 
by operation of law on any property in said Districts B. 

Height Limit — One Hundred Twenty-five Feet — 
District B. 
The said Commissioner further provide that buildings 
may be erected to a height not exceeding one hundred and 
twenty-five (125) feet in that portion of the District B as 
established by the Commission on Height of Buildings in 
its order dated December 3, 1904, recorded with Suffolk 
Deeds, Book 3008, page 129, which lies fifty (50) feet 
westerly from the boundary line running from Columbus 
avenue to the centre of Boylston street, separating said 
District B from District A, as established by said order; 
provided, however, that said portion of District B is owned 
by the same person or persons who own the adjoining 
premises in District A. 



Acts in Chronological "Order. 217 

[Revised Order of November 20, 1905.] 
Mechanic Arts High School. 

1. So long as the property owned by ihe city of Boston 
on Dalton, Belvidere and Scotia streets, bounded 205.5 
feet on Dalton street, 250 feet on Belvidere street, and 
184 feet on Scotia street, be said measurements more or 
less, shall be used for a Mechanic Arts High School, any 
building or buildings thereon may be erected to a height 
of one hundred (100) feet. 

2. Add at the end of the third paragraph the words: 
"or by the Commonwealth or City," so that the con- 
cluding part of said paragraph shall read, "established by 
the Board of Street Commissioners or the Board of Park 
Commissioners acting under general or special laws or by 
the Commonwealth or City." 

3. After the tenth word in the fourth paragraph insert 
the word "lawfully" so that said paragraph shall read: 
"All streets or portions of streets upon which buildings 
may lawfully be erected, etc." 

Note. — See chapter 333, Acts of 1915, Special Acts and Order 
following. 



CHAPTER 416, ACTS OF 1907. 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings on 

Rutherford Avenue in the City of Boston. 

Height Limit One Hundred Feet. 

Section 1. The width of Rutherford avenue in the 
Charlestown district of the city of Boston, between Chap- 
man street and the Mystic river tracks of the Boston and 
Maine Railroad crossing the northerly part of said avenue, 
shall be considered as eighty feet in respect to the height 
of buildings that may be erected on the southwesterly and 
westerly side of said avenue, between the points mentioned, 



218 Acts in Chronological Order. 

so as to permit the erection of buildings to the height of 
one hundred feet, as provided for buildings erected on 
streets of the width aforesaid in district B by the com- 
mission appointed on height of buildings in the city of 
Boston, under chapter three hundred and eighty-three of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and five. 

Sect 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 16, 1907. 



CHAPTER 463, ACTS OF 1907. 

An Act Relative to the Licensing op Theatres and 
Public Halls in the City of Boston. 

Section 1. In Boston the mayor shall be the officer to 
issue licenses for theatres and public halls, and he may 
require such changes in the structural condition of any 
building before issuing a license, as in his opinion, the 
public safety requires, but no changes shall be ordered in 
excess of the statutory requirements then in force for a 
new building of like character. Whoever is aggrieved by 
any order or decision of the mayor in respect to changes 
that he may require in the structural condition of any 
building before issuing a license as aforesaid shall have 
the right of appeal to the board of appeals established 
by chapter four hundred and nineteen of the acts of the 
year eighteen hundred and ninety-two, or to any similar 
or succeeding board of appeals which may hereafter be 
established for the city of Boston. Said board on receipt 
of the appeal shall within five days thereafter examine the 
premises and hear the parties and render a decision in 
writing within ten days after such hearing, and the ma- 
jority of the board shall decide whether the whole or a 
part of the order or requirement made by the mayor in 
respect to structural changes shall be complied with, or 



Acts in Chronological Order. 219 

whether a license for said building shall be issued; and the 
mayor shall make his order or requirement in respect of 
structural changes and the issuing of said license conform 
to the decision of said board. If the mayor has granted a 
license as aforesaid he shall not revoke or suspend the 
same except by giving five days' written notice to the 
licensee of his intention so to do, and his reasons therefor, 
and if the licensee is aggrieved by said notice of revoca- 
tion and said reasons he may appeal to the board of appeals, 
who shall within five days from date of his appeal examine 
the premises and hear the parties, and render a decision 
in writing within three days after such hearing; and the 
majority of the board shall decide whether the license 
shall be revoked, and the mayor shall make his action 
conform to the decision of the board and shall not revoke 
the same without the approval of the board. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 28, 1907. 



CHAPTER 284, ACTS OF 1910. 

An Act Relative to the Construction, Alteration, 
Inspection and Maintenance of Buildings in 
the City of Boston. 

Building Department to Enforce Building Laws in Boston 
Heretofore Enforced by District Police. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. It shall be the duty of the building com- 
missioner of the city of Boston to enforce all provisions of 
law relative to the construction, alteration, inspection and 
maintenance of buildings which are or may be applicable 
to said city, heretofore enforced by the district police, 
except the provisions of chapter four hundred and sixty- 
five of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and seven, 



220 Acts^in Chronological Order. 

relative to the inspection of steam boilers, the provisions 
of chapter three hundred and seventy of the acts of the 
year nineteen hundred and four, as amended by chapter 
two hundred and eighty of the acts of the year nineteen 
hundred and five and by chapter five hundred and two of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and eight, relative to 
the keeping, storage, use, manufacture, sale, handling and 
transportation of explosive or inflammable fluids or com- 
pounds or other explosives, the provisions of chapter 
four hundred and thirty-three of the acts of the year nine- 
teen hundred and four, relative to the powers and duties of 
the detective department of the district police in connec- 
tion with the investigation or prevention of fires, and the 
provisions of chapter five hundred and fourteen of the acts 
of the year nineteen hundred and nine, and acts in amend- 
ment thereof or in addition thereto, relative to labor, so 
far as the provisions of said chapter are enforced by the 
district police. 

Sect. 2. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved March 25, 1910. 



CHAPTER 571, ACTS OF 1910. 

An Act to Authorize the Collection of Fees for 
Permits and Licenses Issued by Departments of 
the City of Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The heads of the various departments of 
the city of Boston may establish, subject to the approval 
of the mayor, reasonable fees or charges for the issuance 
of permits and licenses by 'said departments: provided, 
however, that the charge for a permit to make excavations 
in any street or sidewalk shall not exceed fifty cents. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 221 

Sect. 2, The authority given in the preceding section 
shall not deprive any of the officials named in section 
twenty-eight of chapter four hundred and eighty-six of the 
acts of the year nineteen hundred and nine of any authority 
given therein to fix the charges for permits and licenses. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 26, 1910. 



CHAPTER 342, ACTS OF 1911. 

An Act to Regulate the Construction oe Garages 

in the City of Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. A garage hereafter erected within the fire 
limits of the city of Boston shall be of first class construc- 
tion. A garage hereafter erected in any other part of 
that city shall be either of first or second class construction. 

Sect. 2. By the term "garage" is meant a building 
or that part of a building wherein are kept five or more 
automobiles or motor cars charged with or containing a 
volatile inflammable liquid for fuel or power. Wherever 
hereafter any part of an existing building is converted 
into a garage, the garage shall be deemed to embrace all 
the building not separated from the garage proper by 
fireproof construction satisfactory to the building com- 
missioners, and such building or part of a building shall 
be of first class construction. 

Sect. 3. By the term "volatile inflammable liquid" 
is meant any liquid that will emit inflammable vapor at a 
temperature below one hundred degrees Fahrenheit, when 
tested in the open air. 

Sect. 4. The penalty for violation of this act shall be 
a fine of not less than ten and not more than fifty dollars 
a day, so long as the violation continues. 

[Approved April 27, 1911. 



222 Acts est Chronological Order. 

CHAPTER 259, ACTS OF 1912. 

An Act Relative to the Construction of Garages 
in the City of Boston. 

Existing buildings upon premises numbered 337 on 
Newbury street, in Boston, are exempt from the provisions 
of chapter 342, Acts of 1911, but only while such build- 
ings remain of their present size and in their present loca- 
tion : provided, however, that no part of said buildings shall 
be used as a dwelling. 

[Approved March 18, 1912, and took effect upon its 
passage. 



CHAPTER 280, ACTS OF 1913. 

An Act to Authorize the Mayor of the City of 
Boston to Grant Permits for Special Moving 
Picture Exhibitions in Churches, Halls or 
Other Buildings. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

, Section 1. The mayor of the city of Boston may 
grant permits in writing for special exhibitions of moving 
pictures in churches, halls or other buildings in that city 
which, in his opinion, are in safe condition for said 
exhibitions, and he may prescribe regulations for the 
proper conduct of the same: provided, however, that such 
special exhibitions shall be subject to the laws of the 
commonwealth and the regulations of the district police 
relating to the use of the cinematograph or similar 
apparatus. 

Sect. 2. A fee of two dollars shall accompany each 
application for a permit hereunder. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved March 12, 1913. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 223 

CHAPTER 577, ACTS OF 1913. 

An Act to Regulate the Erection and Maintenance 
of Garages in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. In the city of Boston no building shall 
be erected for, or maintained as a garage for the storage, 
keeping or care of automobiles until the issue of a permit 
therefor by the board of street commissioners of the city 
after notice and a public hearing upon an application 
filed with said board. The application for the permit 
shall be made by the owner of the parcel of land upon 
which such building is to be erected or maintained and 
shall contain the names and addresses of every owner of 
record of such parcel of land abutting thereon. 

[1914, c. 119, Sect. 1.] 

Sect. 2. The notice required by the preceding section 
shall include a copy of the application and an order ol 
said board specifying the time and place of the public 
hearing, and shall be given by publication once in each 
week for three successive weeks in some one newspaper 
regularly published in said city, and by mailing by prepaid 
registered mail a copy to every owner of record of each 
parcel of land abutting on the parcel of land on which the 
building proposed to be erected for, or maintained as a 
garage is to be, or is situated, and the cost of such notice 
and proceedings shall be borne by the applicant. 

Sect. 3. At the time and place specified in the notice 
for the hearing the said board shall hear all parties inter- 
ested, and after giving consideration to the interests of all 
owners of record notified, and the general character of the 
neighborhood in which is situated the land or building 
referred to in the application, shall determine whether or 
not the application shall be granted and a permit issued. 

[1914, o. 119, Sect. 2.] 



224 Acts in Chkonological Order. 

Sect. 4. The provisions of this act shall not apply to a 
building maintained as a garage for the storage, keeping 
or care of automobiles at the time of the passage of this 
act, but any enlargement of, or addition to any such 
building shall be subject to the provisions of this act. 

[1914, c. 119, Sect. 3.] 

Sect. 5. Whoever erects or maintains a garage in viola- 
tion of this act shall be subject to a fine of not less than 
ten nor more than fifty dollars for every day during which 
such violation continues. Approved May 2, 1918. 

[1912, c. 259; 1914, c. 119.] 



CHAPTER 729, ACTS OF 1913. 

An Act Relative to Dry Houses in the 

City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. No building or part of a building hereafter 
erected or altered in the city of Boston shall be used for 
kiln drying timber unless such building or part of a build- 
ing is of fireproof construction approved by the building 
commissioner. 

Sect. 2. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 29, 1913. 



CHAPTER 782, ACTS OF 1914. 

An Act to Amend the Building Law of the 

City of Boston. 

Elevators and Shafts. 

Section 6. Elevators hereafter installed shall be pro- 
vided with such shaftway enclosures and doors as may be 
required by the regulations of the Massachusetts board 



Acts in Chronological Order. 225 

of elevator regulations. All shafts for light and ventila- 
tion and skylights over such shafts shall be constructed 
of like materials and in a like manner as required for 
elevator shafts, and all window openings in the same, ex- 
cept in exterior walls, shall be protected by metal frames 
and sash and wired glass. 

Sect. 11. The provisions of this act, so far as they 
are the same as those of existing statutes, shall be construed 
as continuations thereof and not as new enactments. 

Sect. 12. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed, but nothing herein contained 
shall be construed to modify the powers and duties con- 
ferred and imposed upon the board of appeals by sections 
six, seven and eight of chapter five hundred and fifty of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and seven. 

Sect. 13. This act shall take effect ninety days after 
its passage. [Approved July 7, 191 4- 



CHAPTER 786, ACTS OF 1914. 

An Act Exempting a Certain Parcel of Land in the 
City of Boston from Restrictions as to the 
Height of Buildings. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The parcel of land situated in the city of 
Boston bounded by Washington street, Lovering place, 
Harrison avenue and Asylum street is hereby exempted 
from the provisions of chapter three hundred and thirty- 
three of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four 
and chapter three hundred and eighty-three of the acts 
of the year nineteen hundred and five, relative to the 
height of buildings, and is relieved from the restrictions as 
to height placed thereon by the commissioners on the 
height of buildings in the city of Boston acting under the 



226 Acts in Chronological Order. 

authority of said statutes : -provided, however, that nothing 
herein shall authorize the erection on said parcel of a 
building exceeding one hundred and twenty-five feet in 
height above the grade of the sidewalk on Washington 
street in front of said parcel, nor the erection of any 
building thereon except in accordance with a permit duly 
granted therefor by the building commissioner of the 
city of Boston. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved July 7, 1914. 



CHAPTER 254, ACTS OF 1915 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to the Erection of Buildings in 
the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. If any building erected in the city of 
Boston since the first day of August in the year nineteen 
hundred and seven, under a permit granted by the building 
commissioner or issued by direction of the board of appeal, 
appears to have been erected contrary to the law, existing 
at the time of its erection, such building shall be considered 
as having been erected in conformity with law, and the 
building commissioner and the mayor shall issue the 
permits necessary to make lawful the use of said building 
for the purpose for which it was erected; provided, that 
an application for the authorization of such use be filed 
with the building commissioner within six months of the 
passage of this act; and provided, also, that it shall appear 
to said commissioner, or, upon appeal from his ruling, to 
a majority of the board of appeal : — 

First. That said building was erected in accordance 
with the plans approved by the building commissioner or 
the board of appeal. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 227 

Second. That said building was erected in good faith 
with the intention of complying with the law. 

Third. That the use of said building for the purpose 
for which it was erected would not, under all the circum- 
stances of the case, injuriously affect public interests. 

Sect. 2. The provisions of section one of this act, and 
any authority granted thereunder, shall not relieve the 
owner of any building of the duty of complying with the 
provisions of any law passed subsequent to the time of 
the erection of such building, or with the terms of any 
order, rule or regulation made or established under 
authority of such law. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

{The foregoing was laid before the Governor on the twenty- 
ninth day of March, 1915, and after five days it had "the 
force of a law," as 'prescribed by the Constitution, as it was 
not returned by him with his objections thereto within that 
time.) [Took effect April 8, 1915. 



CHAPTER 306, ACTS OF 1915 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to the Shirley-Eustis Mansion on 

Shirley Street in the City op Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The provisions of chapter five hundred and 
fifty of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and seven 
relative to the construction, alteration and maintenance 
of buildings in the city of Boston shall not, prior to the 
first day of January in the year nineteen hundred and 
eighteen, apply to the Shirley-Eustis mansion, so-called, 
situated on Shirley street in the city of Boston and formerly 
occupied by a colonial governor and by a governor of the 
commonwealth: provided, that, in the meantime, the 
house shall not be used as a dwelling house or for any 



223 Acts in Chronological Order. 

other purpose except to provide for its preservation and 
restoration as an example of a colonial executive mansion; 
and provided , that it shall be occupied only by a caretaker 
and his assistants. 

Sect 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved April 27, 1916. 



CHAPTER 333, ACTS OF 1915 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings in the 
City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The chairman of the city planning board, 
the fire commissioner and the building commissioner of 
the city of Boston are hereby created a commissioner to 
determine and revise the boundaries of districts A and B 
as heretofore designated by the commission on height of 
buildings in the city of Boston, in accordance with the 
provisions of chapter three hundred and thirty-three 
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four, in the 
orders of said commission dated, respectively, the fifth 
day of July and the third day of December in the year 
nineteen hundred and four, and recorded, respectively, 
with Suffolk deeds in book twenty-nine hundred and 
seventy-six, page forty-five, and in book three thousand 
and eight, page one hundred and twenty-nine. 

The height to which buildings may be erected in Dis- 
tricts A and B, respectively, as revised and established 
under this act, shall not exceed the height authorized for 
buildings in districts designated as A and B, respectively, 
under the provisions of said chapter three hundred and 
thirty-three and of chapter three hundred and eighty- 
three of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and five, 
and the orders of the commission on height of buildings 



Acts in Chronological Order. 229 

in the city of Boston under authority of said chapter three 
hundred and eighty-three recorded, respectively, within 
Suffolk deeds in book three thousand and fifty-nine, page 
four hundred and seventy-seven, and in book three thou- 
sand and eighty-three, page seventy-four. 

Sect. 2. The commission shall give notice and public 
hearings and shall make an order revising the boundaries 
of the districts aforesaid, and shall cause the same to be 
recorded in the registry of deeds for the county of Suffolk. 
The boundaries so established shall continue for a period 
of ten years from the date of said recording. Any per- 
son who is aggrieved by said order may appeal to the 
commission for revision within sixty days after the record- 
ing thereof; and the commission ma}* revise the order and 
the revision shall be recorded in the registry of deeds for 
the county of Suffolk and shall date back to the original 
date of recording. 

Sect. 3. Upon the recording of the order of revision 
under this act so much of section two of said chapter three 
hundred and thirty-three as continues the boundaries 
for districts A and B for a period of fifteen years from the 
date of the recording of the order of the commission under 
authority of said chapter three hundred and thirty-three 
shall become inoperative. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 11, 1915. 



Commission on Height of Buildings in the Citt of 

Boston. 
[Order of November 2, 1916.] 
The undersigned having been created under the provi- 
sions of chapter three hundred and thirt3'-three of the 
special acts of the year 1915 a commission to determine 
and revise the boundaries of Districts A and B as hereto- 



230 Acts in Chronological Order. 

fore designated by the commission on height of buildings 
in the city of Boston, in accordance with the provisions 
of chapter three hundred and thirty-three of the acts of 
the year 1904, in the orders of said commission dated, 
respectively, the fifth day of July and the third day of 
December in the year 1904, and recorded, respectively, 
with Suffolk Deeds in book twenty-nine hundred and 
seventy-six, page forty-five, and in book three thousand 
and eight, page one hundred and twenty-nine, and having 
given notice and public hearings as provided in said act, 
hereby on this second day of November, 1916, make the 
following order establishing the boundaries of the dis- 
tricts in said city, designated in said acts as Districts A 
and B, to wit: 

A. The boundaries of District A, hereby established, 
are as follows, to wit : 

Boundaries of District A. East Boston. 

1. Beginning on the northerly side of that part of the 
city known as East Boston at the intersection of Wauwa- 
tosa street and Chelsea Creek, thence running easterly 
through Wauwatosa street and Boardman street to Sara- 
toga street, thence southwesterly through Saratoga street 
to Addison street, thence westerly through Addison street 
to the Boston and Maine Railroad, thence southwesterly 
along the Boston and Maine Railroad and the Boston and 
Albany Railroad to Saratoga street, thence southwesterly 
through Saratoga street to Neptune road, thence north- 
westerly through Eagle square to Eagle street, thence 
westerly through Eagle street to Glendon street, thence 
northerly through Glendon street to Condor street, thence 
westerly through Condor street to Meridian street, thence 
southerly through Meridian street to Gove street, thence 
southeasterly through Gove street to Orleans street, 
thence southerly through Orleans street to Marginal 



Acts in Chronological Order. 231 

street, thence southeasterly through Marginal street to 
Jeffries street, thence northeasterly through Jeffries street 
to Maverick street, thence northwesterly through Maverick 
street to the Boston, Revere Beach and Lynn Rail- 
road, thence northeasterly along said railroad to the 
centre of Porter street extended, thence northwesterly 
along Porter street to Bremen street, thence northerly 
along Bremen street to Prescott street, thence south- 
easterly along Prescott street to the Boston, Revere 
Beach and Lynn Railroad, thence northerly along said 
railroad to the northerly boundary of the property of the 
city of Boston known as Wood Island Park, thence 
easterly along said boundary to the harbor line, thence 
easterly, southerly, westerly, northerly, easterly, and 
northeasterly along said harbor line of Boston Harbor 
and Chelsea Creek to the point of beginning, meaning to 
include in said District A all those portions of Ward one 
and two of said city as are now established by law which 
are situated within the boundary lines hereinbefore 
described. 

Charlestown. 
2. Beginning at the northerly side of that part of said 
city known as Charlestown at the Maiden Bridge, thence 
running southerly through Alford street to Sullivan 
square, thence southeasterly through Sullivan square and 
Bunker Hill street to Medford street, thence easterly 
through Medford street to Chelsea street, thence southerly 
through Chelsea street to Henley street, thence westerly 
through Henley street to Harvard square, thence south- 
westerly through Harvard square to Harvard street, 
thence northwesterly across Harvard street to Washing- 
ton street, thence westerly through Washington street to 
Rutherford avenue, thence northwesterly through Ruther- 
ford avenue to Sullivan square, thence southwesterly 
through Cambridge street to the city line, thence southerly 



232 Acts in Chronological Order. 

and easterly along the city line and the Charles river 
channel to the Charlestown Bridge, thence northerly, 
easterly, northerly, and westerly along the harbor line 
of Boston Harbor and the Mystic river to the point of 
beginning; meaning to include in said District A all those 
portions of wards three and four of said city as are now 
established by law which are situated within the boundary 
lines hereinbefore described. 

Boston Proper. Roxbury. Dorchester. South Boston. 

3. Beginning on the northwesterly side of that part of 
said city known as the City Proper, at the intersection 
of the city line with the Charles river dam, thence east- 
erly and southerly along said Charles river dam and 
Leverett street to Green street, thence easterly along 
Green street to Staniford street, thence southerly along 
Staniford street to Cambridge street, thence easterly 
along Cambridge street to Bowdoin street, thence south- 
erly along Bowdoin street to Beacon street, thence south- 
westerly along Beacon street to Park street, thence 
easterly and southerly along Park and Tremont streets 
to Boylston street, thence westerly and southwesterly 
along Boylston street to Massachusetts avenue, thence 
southeasterly along Massachusetts avenue to the Provi- 
dence Division of the New York, New Haven and Hart- 
ford Railroad, thence southwesterly along said railroad to 
Tremont street at Roxbury Crossing, thence southerly 
through Columbus avenue to Roxbury street, thence 
easterly through Roxbury street to Guild row, thence 
southerly through Guild row to Dudley street, thence 
easterly and southeasterly through Dudley street to 
Columbia road, thence northeasterly through Columbia 
road to Dorchester avenue, thence southerly through 
Dorchester avenue to Park street, thence northeasterly 



Acts in Chronological Order. 233 

through Park street to Adams street, thence southerly 
through Adams street to Neponset avenue, thence south- 
easterly through Neponset avenue to the Milton Branch 
of the New York, New Haver and Hartford Railroad, 
thence southwesterly along said railroad to Granite avenue, 
thence southeasterly along Granite avenue to the Nepon- 
set river, thence easterly and northerly along the shore of 
the Neponset river to the Neponset Bridge, thence north- 
erly and westerly along the harbor lines of the Neponset 
river, Dorchester Bay and Old Harbor to the northwest 
aDgle of said harbor line of Old Harbor, thence north- 
westerly to the intersection of Old Colony avenue and 
Columbia road, thence northerly along Old Colony avenue 
to E street, thence northeasterly along E street to Broad- 
way, thence southeasterly along Broadway to Dorchester 
street, thence northeasterly through Dorchester street to 
East Second street, thence easterly on East Second street 
to I street, thence northerly through I street to East 
First street, thence easterly through East First street to 
Farragut road, thence northerly through Farragut road 
and Farragut road extended across the Reserved channel, 
thence easterly, northwesterly and southwesterly, along 
the harbor line of said channel and of Boston Harbor to 
the Northern Avenue Bridge, thence westerly along said 
bridge to the Harbor Line, thence northerly and westerly 
along the Harbor Line of Boston Harbor and the Charles 
river to Charlestown Bridge, thence westerly along 
the Charles river channel and the City Line to the point 
of beginning, meaning to include in said District A all of 
ward six and all those portions of wards five, seven, eight, 
nine, eleven, twelve, thirteen, seventeen, eighteen, and 
twenty of the said city as are now established by law 
which are situated within the boundary lines hereinbefore 
described. 



234 Acts in Chronological Order. 

B. The boundaries of District B hereby established are 
as follows, to wit: 

Boundaries of District B. 

1. All those portions of said wards one and two 
situated outside the line beginning and ending at the 
intersection of Wauwatosa street and Chelsea creek here- 
inbefore established as the boundary of one of the said 
Districts A. 

2. All those portions of said wards three and four 
situated outside the line beginning and ending at the said 
Maiden Bridge, hereinbefore established as the boundary 
of one of the said Districts A. 

3. The whole of wards ten, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, 
nineteen, twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty- 
four, twenty-five and twenty-six and all those portions 
of said wards five, seven, eight, nine, eleven, twelve, 
thirteen, seventeen, eighteen and twenty situated outside 
the line beginning and ending at said intersection of the 
city line with the Charles river dam, hereinbefore estab- 
lished as the boundary of one of the said Districts A. 

Meaning to include in the said Districts B all those 
portions of the said city not included in the districts 
hereinbefore established as Districts A. 

Wherever in this order the words "harbor," "river," 
"creek," "shore line" or "harbor line," are found, the 
same are intended to mean the lines furthest towards deep 
water on said harbor, river or creek, respectively, on 
which the erection of wharves or other structures is per- 
mitted by the state and United States authorities. 

Wherever the boundary line of District A is described 
as following a certain street, the same is intended to 
include all property on that side of the street which lies 
within the described area and also that portion of all 
lots on the opposite side of the street, abutting on the 



Acts in Chronological Order. 235 

street, but extending to a depth of not more than 
one hundred and fifty feet. 

Wherever the boundary line of District B is determined 
by the enumeration of certain streets delimiting District 
A, the same is intended to include all property on that side 
of the street within the described area, except that portion 
of those lots abutting on the boundary streets of District A 
but extending to a depth of not more than one hundred 
and fifty feet, which are described in the paragraph above 
as intended to form a part of District A. 

In witness whereof, the undersigned hereto set their 
hands this second day of November, 1916. 

Ralph A. Cram, 
John Grady, 
Patrick O'Hearn, 
Commission on Height of Buildings 
in the City of Boston. 

Boston, November 2, 1916. 

Then personally appeared the above named Ralph A. 

Cram, John Grady and Patrick O'Hearn and acknowledged 

the foregoing instrument to be their free act and deed. 

Before me, 

Elisabeth M. Herlihy, 

Special Commissioner. 



Order of Commission on Height of Buildings in the 
City of Boston Amending Boundaries Estab- 
lished November 2, 1916. 

[Order of January 12, 1917.] 
Whereas, The undersigned, the Commission on Height 
of Buildings in the City of Boston, created by chapter 
333 of the Special Acts of the year 1915, a commission 
to determine and revise the boundaries of Districts A 
and B in said city, which were established in pursuance 



236 Acts in Chronological Order. 

of the provisions of chapter 333 of the Acts of the year 
1904, did on November 2, 1916, make an order in accord- 
ance with the provisions of said chapter 333 of the Special 
Acts of the year 1915, which order is recorded with Suffolk 
Deeds, Book 3993, page 81; and 

Whereas, Certain parties are aggrieved by said order of 
November 2, 1916, and have in pursuance of the provisions 
of said chapter 333 of the Special Acts of the year 1915 
duly filed petitions for the revision of said order; 

Now, therefore, We the undersigned, having considered 
the matters set forth in said petitions, do hereby revise 
said order of November 2, 1916, in the manner following: 

By excluding from District A as described in clause 
three of said order of November 2, 1916, and including 
in District B as described therein, the tract of land de- 
scribed as follows: 

Beginning at a point on Boylston street at the division 
line between the Hotel Brunswick and the estate num- 
bered 504 Boylston street; thence running southerly 
by said dividing line to Providence street; thence run- 
ning westerly along Providence street to the dividing 
line between the estates now numbered 91 and 93 St. 
James avenue extended northerly; thence running south- 
erly by said dividing line to St. James avenue; thence 
running westerly along St. James avenue crossing Dart- 
mouth street and Huntington avenue and continuing 
westerly along Blagden street to the easterly line of the 
property of the Boston Athletic Association; thence run- 
ning northerly by said last mentioned line and by said 
line extended parallel with Exeter street northerly to 
Boylston street; thence running easterly along Boylston 
street to the point of beginning. 

The above described area shall be included wholly 
within District B and no part of said area shall be included 
in District A by reason of the following provision in said 
order of November 2, 1916: 



Acts in Chronological Order. 237 

"Wherever the boundary line of District A is described 
as following a certain street, the same is intended to 
include all property on that side of the street which lies 
within the described area, and also that portion of all lots 
on the opposite side of the street, abutting on the street, 
but extending to a depth of not more than one hundred 
and fifty feet. 

"Wherever the boundary line of District B is deter- 
mined by the enumeration of certain streets delimiting 
District A, the same is intended to include all property 
on that side of the street within the described area, except 
that portion of those lots abutting on the boundary streets 
of District A, but extending to a depth of not more than 
one hundred and fifty feet, which are described in the 
paragraph above as intended to form a part of District 
A." 

This revision shall not be construed or applied so as to 
prevent owners of land on the northerly side of Boylston 
street along the area excluded from District A as above 
described from erecting buildings to a height permitted 
under the original order of November 2, 1916. 

In witness thereof, the undersigned hereto set their 
hands this twelfth day of January, 1917. 

Ralph A. Cram, 
John Grady, 
Patrick O'Hearn, 
Commission on Height of Buildings 
in the City of Boston. 

Boston, January 12, 1917. 

Then personally appeared the above named Ralph A. 
Cram, John Grady and Patrick O'Hearn, and acknowl- 
edged the foregoing' instrument to be their free act and 

deed. 

Elisabeth M. Herlihy, 

Special Commissioner. 



238 Acts in Chronological Order. 

CHAPTER 86, ACTS OF 1916 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to the Use of Public School Prop- 
erty of the City of Boston for Social, Civic 
and Other Purposes. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section one of chapter one hundred and 
ninety-five of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and 
twelve, is hereby amended by striking out the words 
"that no admission fee is charged and," in the tenth line 
so as to read as follows: — Section 1. For the purpose 
of promoting the usefulness of the public school property 
of the city of Boston, the school committee of that city may 
conduct such educational and recreative activities in or 
upon school property under its control, and shall allow the 
use thereof by individuals and associations, subject to such 
regulations as the school committee may establish, for 
such educational, recreative, social, civic, philanthropic 
and similar purposes as the committee may deem to be 
for the interest of the community: provided, that such 
use shall not interfere or be inconsistent with the use of 
the premises for school purposes. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved February 16, 1916. 



CHAPTER 115, ACTS OF 1918 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act to Allow Metal Garages of Limited Size in 
Certain Sections of the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Metal covered steel frame garages adapted 
for the accommodation of not more than two automobiles, 
constructed with concrete floors, with fireproof doors, 
windows, and trim, and not exceeding five hundred square 
feet in area, may be built outside the building limits of the 
city of Boston as such limits existed prior to the twenty- 



Acts in Chronological Order. 239 

second day of September in the year nineteen hundred and 
thirteen, provided that such garages are not built nearer 
than five feet from the lot line, or nearer than twelve feet 
from any other building. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved April 2, 1918. 



CHAPTER 32, ACTS OF 1919 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act to Require the Registration of Hospitals in 
the. City op Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Every person, firm or corporation, using 
or occupying a building in the city of Boston as a hospital, 
shall annually in April register with the building depart- 
ment of the city the name of the person, firm or corporation 
conducting the hospital and the situation of the building, 
and shall state, upon forms prescribed by the building com- 
missioner, the number of occupants, the means of egress, 
the system of automatic sprinklers, the lights, fire stops 
and other precautions against fire provided in such 
building. 

Sect. 2. Violation of this act shall be punished by a 
fine not exceeding five hundred dollars. 

[Approved February 19, 1919. 



CHAPTER 163, ACTS OF 1919 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Ac Relative to the Construction, Alteration 
and Maintenance of Hospitals in the City of 
Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

First Class. 
Section 1. Every building iD the city of Boston 
exceeding three stories or forty feet in height hereafter 



240 Acts in Chronological Order. 

erected, altered or designed for use or occupation as a 
hospital shall be a first class building as defined in chapter 
five hundred and fifty of the acts of nineteen hundred and 
seven and the amendments thereof. Every such building 
shall be provided with at least two enclosed stairways, 
shall have an additional enclosed stairway if the number 
of occupants, at any time, equals seventy-five, and a 
further additional enclosed stairway for every additional 
one hundred occupants which it may at any time contain. 

Second or Third Class. 

Every building in the city of Boston three stories or less 
in height, or less than forty feet in height, hereafter erected, 
altered or designed for use or occupation as a hospital may 
be of second or third class construction, shall have means 
of egress satisfactory to the building commissioner, and no 
story or part of a story above the second shall be used for 
the care, treatment or lodging of patients. 

Shafts, in be Sprinklered. 
Sect. 2. The elevator, light and ventilating shafts and 
basements in all hospital buildings specified in section one, 
shall be provided with a system of automatic sprinklers 
approved as to location, arrangement and efficiency by the 
building commissioner. 

Halls and Stairs to be Kept Lighted. 
Sect. 3. The halls and stairs in all hospital buildings 
specified in section one, shall be provided with proper and 
sufficient lights which shall be kept lighted during the 
night. 

Shafts to be Enclosed in Basement. 

Sect. 4. The elevator, light and ventilating shafts in 
all hospital buildings specified in section one, shall be 



Acts in Chkonological Order. 241 

enclosed in the basement with masonry walls not less than 
eight inches thick or with two-inch metal and plaster 
partitions. 

Sect. 5. In case of an existing or impending epidemic 
of a disease, the building commissioner, upon the recom- 
mendation of the health commissioner and with the 
written approval of the mayor, may temporarily suspend 
the provisions of this act. 

Sect. 6. The health commissioner and the building 
commissioner, acting jointly, are hereby authorized to 
promulgate, from time to time, such regulations as in 
their judgment, public interests require, to govern the 
establishment and maintenance of hospitals whether for 
human beings or for domestic animals, and to regulate the 
issue, suspension and revocation of licenses for the same. 

Registration Required. 

Sect. 7. Every person, firm or corporation hereafter 
using or occupying a building in the city of Boston as a 
hospital shall forthwith register with the building depart- 
ment in the manner required by chapter thirty-two of the 
Special Acts of nineteen hundred and nineteen, setting 
forth all the facts and data therein specified. 

Sect. 8. Violation of this act shall be punished by a 
fine not exceeding five hundred dollars. 

[Approved April SO, 1919. 



CHAPTER 455, ACTS OF 1920. 
An Act Relative to the Limitation in Height op 
Buildings on Land Between Dartmouth Street 
and Trinity Place in the City of Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The limitation of the height of buildings 
contained in chapter four hundred and fifty-two of the 



242 Acts in Chronological Order. 

acts of eighteen hundred and ninety-eight shall not apply 
to a parcel of land now owned by the trustees of the Copley 
Square Trust, containing about twenty-one thousand, two 
hundred and forty square feet, and bounded southerly on 
Stuart street two hundred and thirty-six feet, westerly on 
Dartmouth street ninety feet, northerly on other land of 
said trustees on which now stands the Copley Plaza Hotel 
two hundred and thirty-six feet, and easterly on Trinity 
place ninety feet. If, within two years from the passage 
of this act, said parcel of land or any part or parts thereof 
are taken by public authority for any public use, the owner 
or owners of the land so taken shall, with respect to the 
land taken and apart from improvements thereon, only be 
entitled to recover damages to the extent that they would 
have been entitled to recover if this act had not been 
passed. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 14, 1920. 



CHAPTER 645, ACTS OF 1920. 

An Act Relative to Automatic Sprinklers in Tene- 
ment Houses in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The provisions of the fourth, fifth and 
sixth paragraphs of section forty-five of chapter five hun- 
dred and fifty of the acts of nineteen hundred and seven, 
as amended by section ten of chapter seven hundred a'nd 
eighty-two of the acts of nineteen hundred and fourteen, 
and by section four of chapter three hundred and fifty-two 
of the Special Acts of nineteen hundred and fifteen, and 
by section one of chapter four hundred and forty of the 
acts of nineteen hundred and twenty, are hereby suspended 
and rendered inoperative as to tenement houses now exist- 



J 



Acts in Cheonological Order. 243 

ing until the first day of March in the year nineteen hun- 
dred and twenty-one. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its acceptance 
by the mayor of the city of Boston; but for the purposes 
of such acceptance it shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved December 22, 1920. 



CHAPTER 109, ACTS OF 1921. 
An Act Exempting Certain Buildings in the City of 
Boston from the Laws Relative to Fire Pro- 
tection in Stables for Horses and Mules. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

The existing buildings upon premises numbered forty- 
nine on North Margin street, in Boston, shall be exempt 
from the provisions of section eighty-six of chapter two 
hundred and seventy-two of the General Laws; provided 
that such buildings continue to be equipped with a line of 
fire hose on each floor above the first, to be used for fire 
purposes only, sufficient to reach all parts of said floor and 
connected with a fire supply pipe on each such floor, and 
provided that at least one man shall be on duty at such 
buildings at all times during the day and night. 

[Approved March 12, 1921. 



CHAPTER 137, ACTS OF 1921. 
An Act to Establish Harbor Lines in South Bay in 

the City of Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., oa follows: 

Harbor Lines. 
Section 1. The harbor lines in South bay in the city of 
Boston are hereby changed and established as follows: 



244 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Beginning at a point A on the southerly side of Dover 
street bridge, which point is distant one hundred and 
eighty-three feet southeasterly from the southeasterly 
side line of Albany street; thence running southwesterly, 
parallel with said side line, nine hundred feet, to point B; 
thence running southwesterly, a little more westerly, 
about five hundred and fifty-five feet to a point C which 
is distant three hundred and seventy feet southeasterly 
from the northwesterly side line of Albany street, measur- 
ing at right angles to said side line from a point therein six 
hundred and twenty-seven feet northeasterly from the 
northeasterly side line of Wareham street; thence running 
southwesterly still more westerly, about sixteen hundred 
and fifteen feet, to a point D which is distant three hundred 
and fifty-three feet southeasterly from said northwesterly 
side line of Albany street, measuring at right angles to said 
side line from the point of its intersection with the south- 
westerly sideline of East Brookline street; thence running 
southwesterly, still more westerly, five hundred feet, to a 
point E which is distant three hundred and forty feet south- 
easterly from said northwesterly side line of Albany street, 
measuring at right angles thereto; thence running south- 
easterly one hundred feet at right angles to the harbor 
line last described to a point F; thence running north- 
easterly, about four hundred and thirty-five feet, to a 
point G which is distant four hundred and fifty-five feet 
southeasterly from said northwesterly side line of Albany 
street, measuring at right angles to said side line from a 
point therein sixty-five feet southwesterly from the south- 
westerly side line of East Brookline street; thence running 
southeasterly, parallel with the northerly side line of 
Southampton street, six hundred and eighty feet to a point 
H; thence deflecting to the left one hundred degrees, six 
minutes and running northwesterly about seven hundred 
and five feet to a point J which is distant two hundred 



Acts in Chronological Order. 245 

and ten feet southeasterly from the line C-D, measuring 
at right angles thereto; thence running northeasterly- 
parallel to said line C-D, eight hundred and twenty-nine 
feet to a point K; thence running northeasterly more 
northerly parallel to and two hundred and ten feet distant 
southeasterly from the line B-C about one thousand 
and ten feet to point L which is situated at the inter- 
section of said line K-L, and a line perpendicular to the 
southerly side line of Dover street bridge and forty feet 
northwesterly from the center of pier number four of said 
Dover street bridge, said line also being about eighty-five 
feet southeasterly from the southeasterly side of the 
draw opening in said bridge; thence northeasterly more 
northerly in said line forty feet northwesterly of said pier 
number four about nine hundred and twenty-seven feet 
to its intersection with the harbor line on the easterly side 
of Fort Point channel and northerly of Dover street bridge 
established by chapter thirty-five of the acts of eighteen 
hundred and forty. 

No Wharf or Structure to be Built or Extended Beyond 
Harbor Lines. 

Sect. 2. No wharf, pier, wall, filling or other structure 
of work, shall hereafter be built or extended in said South 
bay beyond the harbor lines aforesaid; nor shall any 
structure be built or filling done inside said harbor lines 
and below the present high water mark in said bay, 
without authority or license therefor first duly obtained 
under and subject to the provisions of chapter ninety-one 
of the General Laws. 

No Work Allowed Below High Water Mark. 

Sect. 3. No structure shall be built or filling or other 
work done in any portion of said South bay below the 
present high water mark thereof, whereby the existing 



246 Acts in Chronological Order. 

flow or drainage of surface or other waters in or into and 
through said bay towards the sea is cut off or obstructed, 
without first making such other provision for such flow or 
drainage as shall be approved by the department of public 
works of both tho commonwealth and the city of Boston. 
Sect. 4. All harbor lines heretofore established in 
South bay, so far as they differ from those established by 
this act, are hereby annulled. 

[Approved March 23, 1921. 



CHAPTER 298, ACTS OF 1921. 

An Act Relative to the Operation op Elevators by 

Minors. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. No minor under sixteen years of age shall 
be employed or permitted to operate, clean or repair a 
freight elevator. 

Sect. 2. Violations of the provisions of this act shall 
be punished by a fine of not more than one hundred dollars. 

[Approved April 9, 1921. 



DEFINITION. 

Statutes. Meaning of Certain Words in 
Construing Same. 

[General Laws, Chapter 4, Section 7.] 
Thirty-fourth, "Town," when applied to towns or 
officers or employees thereof, shall include city. 

[G. S. 3, Sect. 7, cl. 17; 140 Mass. 381; 187 Mass. 150; P. S. 3, Sect. 3, 
cl. 23; 148 Mass. 148; 191 Mass. 78; R. L. 8, Sect. 5, cl. 23; 153 
Mass. 40; R. S. 2, Sect. 6, cl. 17.] 



Acts in Chronological Order. 247 

SPITE FENCES. 

Fence a Nuisance. 
[General Laws, Chapter 49, Section 21.] 
Section 21 . A fence or other structure in the nature of 
a fence which unnecessarily exceeds six feet in height and is 
maliciously erected or maintained for the purpose of annoy- 
ing the owners or occupants of adjoining property shall be 
deemed a private nuisance. Any such owner or occupant 
injured in the comfort or enjoyment of his estate thereby 
may have an action of .tort for damages under chapter two 
hundred and forty-three. 

[1887, c. 348; R. L. 33, Sect. 19; 148 Mass. 368, 407; 150 Mass. 482; 
162 Mass. 543.] 



BUILDING LINES. 

[General Laws, Chapter 82, Section 37.] 

Section 37. If a city by its city council or a town 
accepts this section or has accepted corresponding pro- 
visions of earlier laws, a building line not more than forty 
feet distant from the exterior line of a highway or town way 
may be established in the manner provided for laying out 
ways, and thereafter no structure shall be erected or main- 
tained between such building line and such way, except 
steps, windows, porticos and other usual projections 
appurtenant to the front wall of a building, to the extent 
prescribed in the vote establishing such building line, and 
except that buildings or parts of buildings, embankments, 
steps, walls, fences and gates existing at the time of the 
establishment of the building line may be permitted to 
remain and to be maintained to such extent and under such 
conditions as may be prescribed in the vote establishing 
such building line. Whoever sustains damage thereby 
may recover the same under chapter seventy-nine. A 



248 Acts in Chronological Order. 

building line established under this section may be dis- 
continued in the manner provided for the discontinuance 
of a highway or town way. Whoever sustains damages by 
the discontinuance of a building line may recover the same 
under chapter seventy-nine. 

[1893, c. 462; R. L. 48, Sect. 103; 1913, 572, Sect. 1; 1917, o. 56; 
344, c. 11, Sect. 73.1 



STORM WATER. 

Separate System of Plumbing. 
[General Laws, Chapter 83, Section 5.] 
Section 5. In this section surface or storm water 
and such other waters as shall be specified by the depart- 
ment of public health shall be designated as waters and 
all other waters and sewage shall be designated as sewage. 
When a town has provided both a drain for waters and 
a sewer for sewage in a public way, the owner of every 
parcel of land abutting on such way or connected with 
such drain or sewer shall arrange his plumbing so that the 
waters shall be kept separate from the sewage; and shall 
make such connections with the drain and sewer re- 
spectively that the waters shall pass into the drain and 
the sewage into the sewer in accordance with the direc- 
tions of the board or officer having charge of the repair 
and maintenance of sewers in such town. 

[1903, c. 383, Sect. 1.] 



SIGNS AND OTHER STRUCTURES PROJECTING 
INTO WAYS. 

Permits for Signs and Other Structures Projecting into Ways. 
[General Laws, Chapter 85, Sections 8 and 9.] 
Section 8. The municipal board or officer having 
charge of the laying out of public ways may grant oer- 



Acts in Chronological Order. 249 

mits for the placing and maintaining of signs, advertising 
devices, clocks, marquees, permanent awnings and other 
like structures projecting into or placed on or over public 
ways in its town, and may fix the fees therefor, not exceed- 
ing one dollar for any one permit, and may make rules 
and regulations relating thereto, and prescribe the penal- 
ties for a breach of any such rules and regulations, not 
exceeding five dollars for each day during which any 
such structure is placed or maintained contrary to the 
rules and regulations so made, after five days' notice to 
remove the same has been given by such board or officer, 
or by a police officer of the town. All such structures 
shall be constructed, and, when attached to a building, 
shall be connected therewith, in accordance with the 
requirements of the inspector of buildings, building com- 
missioner or other board or officer having like authority 
in the town. 

[1915, c. 176, Sects. 1, 2; 1917, c. 344, V, Sects. 9, 10.] 

Not Applicable to Certain Structures. 

Section 9. The preceding section shall not apply to 
signs or other structures projecting into or over the way a 
distance of less than six inches, nor to poles, wires, con- 
duits, and appurtenances of railroad, railway, telegraph 
and telephone, water, gas, electric light, heat and power 
companies. 

[1915, c. 176, Sect. 3; 1917, c. 344, V, Sect. 11.] 



COMMON NUISANCES. 

Burnt or Dangerous Buildings. 

[General Laws, Chapter 139, Sections 1 and 3.] 

Section 1. In a city or town in which the city coun- 
cil or the inhabitants of the town accept this and the two 
following sections or have accepted corresponding pro- 



250 Acts in Chronological Order. 

visions of earlier laws, the aldermen or selectmen, after 
written notice to the owner of a burnt, dilapidated or 
dangerous building, or his authorized agent, and after a 
hearing, may make and record an order adjudging it to be 
a nuisance to the neighborhood, or dangerous, and pre- 
scribing its disposition, alteration or regulation. The 
town clerk shall deliver a copy of the order to an officer 
qualified to serve civil process, who shall forthwith serve 
an attested copy thereof in the manner prescribed in 
section one hundred and twenty-four of chapter one 
hundred and eleven, and make return to said clerk of his 
doings thereon. 

[1855, c. 469, Sects. 1, 6; G. S. 87, Sect. 1; P. S. 101, Sect. 1; R. L. 101, 
Sect. 1; 1919, 333, Sect. 7; 1920, c. 5.] 

Owner Aggrieved May Appeal to Superior Court. 

Sect. 2. A person aggrieved by such order may appeal 
to the superior court for the county where such building 
is situated, if, within three days after the service of such 
attested copy upon him, he presents to such court a 
petition stating his grievance and the order of the board. 
After such notice to the board as the court shall order, 
trial by jury shall be had as in other civil causes. The 
jury may affirm, annul or alter such order, and the court 
shall render judgment in conformity with said verdict, 
which shall take effect as an original order. If the order 
is affirmed, the petitioner shall pay the costs; if it is 
annulled, he shall recover from the town his damages, 
if any, and costs; and if it is altered, the court may 
render such judgment as to costs as justice shall require. 

[1855, c. 469, Sects. 3-5; G. S. 87, Sects. 2-4; 1873, c. 261; P. S. 101, 
Sects. 2-4; R. L. 101, Sects. 2-4; 1919, c. 333, Sect. 7; 1920, c. 5.] 

Nuisances May be Abated, etc. 
Sect. 3. The aldermen or selectmen shall have the 
same power to abate and remove any such nuisance as is 



Acts in Chronological Order. 251 

given to the board of health of a town under sections 
one hundred and twenty-three to one hundred and twenty- 
five, inclusive, of chapter one hundred and eleven. 
[1855, c. 469, Sect. 2; G. S. 87, Sect. 5; P. S. 101, Sect. 5; R. L. 101, 

Sect. 5.] 



LICENSES. 
Public Lodging Houses. 
Definition. 
[General Laws, Chapter 140, sections 33, 35, 38, 40.] 
Section 33. In cities of over fifty thousand inhabitants 
every building not licensed as an inn, in which ten or more 
persons are lodged free or for a charge of twenty-five cents 
or less for each person for a day of twenty-four hours, or 
for any part thereof, shall be deemed a public lodging house 
within the meaning of sections thirty-four to forty, inclu- 
sive. No building or part thereof erected, altered or 
converted to be used as such a public lodging house shall 
have the sleeping compartments arranged on the cubicle 
plan. 

[1894, c. 414, Sect. 1; 1904, c. 242, Sects. 1, 8; 1911, c. 129; 1915, 
c. 160, Sect. 1.] 

Inspection of Means of Escape from Fire. 

Sect. 35. No such license shall be granted in any such 
city until the inspector of buildings thereof, or the other 
officer or board having authority to administer the laws 
and ordinances in regard to the construction of buildings 
therein, has certified that the building, if it has eight or 
more rooms or ten or more persons are accommodated 
above the second story, complies with the requirements of 
chapter one hundred and forty-three, and in other cases is 
provided with sufficient means of escape in case of fire, and 
that suitable appliances are provided for extinguishing 



252 Acts in Chronological Order. 

fires and for giving alarm to the inmates in case of fire; 
and such officer or board may from time to time require 
such alterations to be made or such additional appliances 
to be provided as may in his or its judgment be necessary 
for the protection of life and property in case of fire. 

[1894, o. 414, Sect. 3; 1904, c. 242, Sects. 3, 8; 1913, 655, Sect. 20. 
[For penalty see Sect. 40.] 

Access for Purposes of Inspection. 

Sect. 38. The keeper of every public lodging house 
shall at all times, when so required by an officer of the 
building department, of the health department, or of 
the police departmeng, give him free access to said house 
or any part thereof. 

[1894, c. 414, Sect. 6; 1904, c. 242, Sects. 6, 8.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 40.] 

Penalty. 
Sect. 40. Any keeper of a public lodging house who 
violates any provision of sections thirty-five to thirty- 
eight, inclusive, shall be punished by a fine of one hundred 

dollars. 

[1894, c. 414, Sect. 7; 1904, c. 242, Sects. 7, 8.] 



SUPERVISION OF PLUMBING. 
[General Laws, Chapter 142.] 
Definitions. 
Section 1. In this chapter the following words shall 
have the following meanings: 

"Certificate," certificates of registration issued in 
accordance with section three of chapter five hundred and 
thirty-six of the acts of nineteen hundred and nine, section 
two of chapter five hundred and ninety-seven of the acts of 
nineteen hundred and ten or chapter five hundred and 
eighteen of the acts of nineteen hundred and twelve. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 253 

"Examiners," state examiners of plumbers appointed 
under section ten of chapter seventeen. 

"Journeyman, " a person who himself does any work in 
plumbing subject to inspection under any law, ordinance, 
by-law, rule or regulation. 

"Master plumber," a plumber having a regular place 
of business and who, by himself or journeymen plumbers 
in his employ, performs plumbing work. 

"Practical plumber, " a person who has learned the busi- 
ness of plumbing by working for at least two years as an 
apprentice or under a verbal agreement for instruction and 
who has then worked for at least one year as a journeyman 
plumber. 

"Registered," registered in accordance with section 
three of chapter five hundred and thirty-six of the acts of 
nineteen hundred and nine, section two of chapter five 
hundred and ninety-seven of the acts of nineteen hundred 
and ten or chapter five hundred and eighteen of the acts of 
nineteen hundred and twelve. 

[1894, c. 455, Sect. 1; R. L. 103, Sect. 1; 1909, c. 536, Sect. 9; 219 
Mass. 33; 225 Mass. 192.] 

Amplication of Chapter. 

Sect. 2. Sections one to seven, inclusive, sections eleven 
and twelve and sections fourteen to sixteen, inclusive, shall 
apply to all cities and section thirteen shall apply to all 
cities except Boston; provided, that any such city except 
Boston may by vote of its city council exempt from the 
provisions of said sections any or all of its territory lying 
outside of the limits of the water supply of such city, or 
unconnected with a common sewer. Sections one, three, 
six and seven and sections eleven to sixteen, inclusive, 
shall apply to all towns which by vote of their inhabitants 
accept said sections or have accepted corresponding pro- 
visions of earlier laws, and said sections, except section 



254 Acts in Chronological Order. 

thirteen, shall apply to all towns which accept rules formu- 
lated by the examiners under sections eight and nine or 
have accepted them under corresponding provisions of 
earlier laws. 

[1895, c. 453; R. L. 103, Sect. 12; 1909, c. 536, Sect. 8; 1910, o. 349, 
Sect. 4; 1911, c. 262.] 

Master Plumbers and Journeymen Must be Licensed. 

Sect. 3. No person shall engage in the business of a 
master plumber or work as a journeyman unless he is 
lawfully registered, or has been licensed by the examiners 
as provided in this chapter. The license or certificate of a 
journeyman shall be exhibited whenever required by an 
inspector of plumbing. Every master plumber's license or 
certificate shall at all times be displayed conspicuously 
within his place of business. 

[1893, c. 477, Sect. 1; 1894, c. 455, Sect. 1; R. L. 103, Sect. 1; 1909, 
c. 536, Sect. 4; 213 Mass. 138; 217 Mass. 134.] 

Rules for Examinations of Plumbers. 

Sect. 4. The examiners may make such rules as 
they deem necessary for the proper performance of their 
duties, which shall take effect when approved by the 
department of public health. They shall examine each 
applicant desiring to engage in the business of a master 
plumber or to work as a journeyman, as to his practical 
knowledge of plumbing, house drainage and plumbing 
ventilation, and subject him to a practical test satis- 
factory to the examiners, who if satisfied of his competence 
shall issue to him a license as applied for. They shall hold 
frequent examinations in Boston and, twice in each year, 
hold examinations at five other convenient places within 
the commonwealth. Public notice shall be given of all 
examinations. Every application for examination shall 
be in the handwriting of the applicant' who shall be noti- 
fied by the examiners of the time and place of examination. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 255 

The examiners may, without payment of any fee, issue a 
probationary license in force for six months to a person 
who, having worked as an apprentice, or under a verbal 
agreement for instruction, for not less than three years, 
presents an application therefor with the signed endorse- 
ment of his employer agreeing to be responsible for all 
work done under the license and to have the licensee, at 
the expiration of the license, present himself for examina- 
tion as a journeyman. 

[1893, c. 477, Sects. 2, 4; 1894, c. 455, Sects. 2, 4; R. L. 103, Sects. 2, 4; 
1909, c. 536, Sect. 2; 225 Mass. 192.] 

Fees for Licenses, Examinations and Renewals. 
Sect. 5. The fee for the license of a master plumber 
shall be two dollars; for examination and for renewals 
fifty cents each; for the license of a journeyman fifty 
cents each. 

[R. L. 103, Sect. 4; 1909, c. 536, Sect. 3; 1893, c. 477, Sect. 4; 1894, 
c. 455, Sect. 4.] 

Licenses, Validity of — Registration and Revocation of. 

Sect. 6. Licenses and certificates issued by the 
examiners shall be valid throughout the commonwealth. 
The examiners shall forward to the board of health of 
each town, or to the inspector of buildings having control 
of the enforcement of regulations relative to plumbing 
in such town, the names and addresses of all persons in 
such town to whom such licenses have been granted. 
Licenses shall be issued for one year and may be renewed 
annually on or before May first upon payment of the 
required fee. Each holder of a master plumber's certificate 
or license shall register his name and business address with 
said inspector of buildings if he has such control, other- 
wise, with the board of health, in the towm wherein he 
desires to engage in business as a master plumber. The 
examiners may, after notice and hearing, revoke the 



258 Acts in Chronological Order. 

under this chapter as is necessary to properly perform 
the duties imposed thereby, and they shall annually, 
before June first, make a detailed report to their respective 
cities or towns of all their proceedings under sections one 
to sixteen, inclusive, during the preceding year. 

[1894, c. 455, Sect. 11; R. L. 103, Sect. 11.] 

Penalty for Certain Violations. 

Sect. 16. Every person engaged in the business of a 

master plumber or working as a journeyman not lawfully 

registered or licensed, if required by this chapter; and 

every person engaging in or working at the business of 

plumbing in a city or town when forbidden so to do under 

section seven; and every master plumber who engages or 

employs any person to work as a journeyman who has 

not been so registered or licensed; and every person 

violating any provision of sections one to fifteen, inclusive, 

of this chapter or any ordinance, by-law, rule or regulation 

made thereunder shall be punished by fine not exceeding 

fifty dollars. Any city or town subject to the preceding 

sections of this chapter neglecting to comply with any of 

its provisions shall forfeit fifty dollars to the use of the 

commonwealth for each month during which such neglect 

continues. 

[1888, c. 105, Sect. 2; 1893, c. 477, Sect. 7; 1894, c. 455, Sect. 8; 
R. L. 103, Sect. 8; 1909, c. 536, Sect. 10; 1914, o. 287; 219, 
Mass. 219; 225 Mass. 192.] 

Marking, etc., of Range Boilers. 

Sect. 17. No range boiler shall be sold or offered for 
sale unless its capacity is plainly marked thereon in terms 
of Massachusetts standard liquid measure, and with the 
maker's business name, in such manner as to be easily 
identified. 

[1916, c. 154, Sect. 1.] 



Acts in Chronological Order. 259 

Same Subject. * 

Sect. 18. No copper, iron or steel pressure range 
boiler, plain or galvanized, or other vessel or tank in 
which water is to be heated under pressure, shall be sold 
or offered for sale without having stamped thereon the 
maker's guarantee that it has been tested to not less than 
two hundred pounds hydraulic or hydrostatic pressure 
to the square inch, together with the maximum working 
pressure at which it may be installed. And no such boiler, 
or other vessel or tank in which water is to be heated 
under pressure, shall be installed if the working pressure 
is greater than forty-two and one half per cent of the 
guaranteed test pressure marked thereon by the maker. 
[1916, c. 154, Sect. 2; 1917, c. 39, Sect. 1.] 

Penalty for Violation of Sections 17 and 18. 
Sect. 19. Whoever sells or offers or exposes for sale 
any range boiler not marked or stamped as provided in the 
two preceding sections, or which is falsely marked as 
having a capacity which is greater by seven and one half 
per cent than its true capacity, or who marks or causes 
the same to be marked with such false capacity, shall 
be punished by a fine not exceeding fifty dollars. The 
inspectors of plumbing within their respective cities and 
towns shall cause this and the two preceding sections to be 
enforced. 

[1916, c. 154, Sect. 3; 1917, c. 39, Sect. 2.] 

Exceptions. 

Sect. 20. The three preceding sections shall not 
apply to the sale or offering for sale of installed range 
boilers or to the sale or offering for sale of range boilers 
as junk. 

[1916, c. 154, Sect. 4.] 



260 Acts in Chronological Order. 

GENERAL LAWS, CHAPTER 143. 

Inspection, Regulation and Licenses for Buildings, 
Elevators and Cinematographs. 

general provisions. 
Sect. 
1. Definitions. 

INSPECTION OF BUILDINGS. 

17. Temporary flooring during construction. 

18. Same subject. 

19. Penalty. 

22. Fire escapes to be kept clear. 

23. Stairways to be kept clear. 

35. Liability of licensee. 

36. Inspection of theatres, etc. 

37. Reports to be kept on file. 

38. Copies of ratings, etc., to be sent to licensee. Pen- 

alty for noncompliance with order. 

39. Copy of ratings, etc., may be posted. 

40. Penalty for false statement, etc. 

41. Penalty for giving or receiving free pass. 
44. Watchmen in hotels, etc. 

50. Penalty for hindering inspector, etc. 

51. Owner must see that law is obeyed. 

52. Penalty for unlicensed use as theatre, etc. 

53. General penalty. 

54. Enforcement. 

55. Appeal. 

56. Fees for experts. 

57. Restraining illegal erection, etc. 

58. Concurrent jurisdiction of inferior courts. 

59. Enforcement of inspectors' orders. 

60. Restraining illegal use, etc., of buildings. 

61. Notice to assessors of permits for building. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 261 

elevators. 

Sect. 

62. Installation and inspection. 

63. Test of safety devices. 

64. Report of inspection. 

65. Certificate of inspection to be posted in elevator. 

66. Report of accidents and of defective elevators. 

67. Petition for changes in regulations. 

68. Board to amend regulations. 

69. Establishment of regulations. 

70. Appeal. 

71. Penalty. 

CINEMATOGRAPHS. 

72. Regulation. 

83. Application of certain sections. 

84. Penalty. 

85. Special licenses for operators in churches, schools, 

etc. 

GENERAL PROVISIONS. 

Definitions. 

Section 1. In this chapter the following terms, unless 
a contrary meaning is required by the context or is spe- 
cifically prescribed, shall have the following meanings : 

"Alteration," changes in or addition to a building. 

"Department," department of public safety. 

"Inspector/' an inspector of the division of inspection 
of the department of public safety, except that in sections 
thirty-four to thirty-eight, inclusive, "inspector" shall 
include the inspectors of the building department of 
Boston and in sections sixty-three to sixty-six, inclusive, 
"inspector" shall include a building inspector of a city 
or town. 



262 Acts in Chronological Order. 

"Inspector of buildings," a building inspector of a city 
or town. 

"Miscellaneous hall/' a building or part thereof con- 
taining an assembly hall with a seating capacity of not 
more than four hundred, a society hall, or a hall in a public 
or private school building. 

"Public building," any building or part thereof used as 
a public or private institution, schoolhouse, church, 
theatre, special hall, public hall, miscellaneous hall, place 
of assemblage or place of public resort. 

"Public hall," any building or part thereof, except 
theatres, armories, churches and schools, containing an 
assembly hall with a seating capacity of more than four 
hundred and used for public gatherings and for such enter- 
tainments, not requiring the use of scenery and other stage 
appliances, as the licensing officer may approve. 

"Repair," the reconstruction or renewal of a building 
or part thereof damaged by fire or other cause. 

"Special hall," a building or part thereof containing an 
assembly hall with a seating capacity of more than four 
hundred which may be used for occasional performances 
for the entertainment of spectators, with the use of scenery 
under such conditions as the licensing officer shall direct 
and for public gatherings. 

"Story," any horizontal portion through a building 
between floor and ceiling of which the ceiling is six feet 
or more above the average grade of the sidewalk or ground 
adjoining. 

"Supervisor of plans," an inspector of the division of 
inspection of the department of public safety designated 
by the commissioner of public safety to receive the plans 
and specifications of all buildings subject to this chapter, 
to be erected or in which alterations are to be made, and 
to act officially upon them under the direction of the chief 
of inspections of the department of public safety. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 263 

"Theatre," a building or part thereof in which it is 
intended to make a business of the presentation of per- 
formances for the entertainment of spectators, which has 
a seating capacity of more than four hundred, with a stage 
which can be used for scenery and other stage appliances. 

[R.L. 104, Sect. 14; 1904, c. 450, Sect. 1; 1913, c. 610, Sect. 2; c. 655, 
Sects. 14, 30, 39, 41; c. 806, Sect. l.J 

INSPECTION OP BUILDINGS. 

Temporary. Flooring During Construction. 
Sect. 17. If, in the erection of an iron or steel framed 
building, the spaces between the girders or floor beams 
of any floor are not filled or covered by the permanent 
construction of said floors before another story is added 
to the building, a close plank flooring shall be placed and 
maintained over such spaces from the time when the 
beams or girders are placed in position until said perma- 
nent construction is applied; but openings protected by a 
strong hand railing not less than four feet high may be 
left through said floors for the passage of workmen or 
material: provided, that when such flooring cannot be 
used without serious interference with the work of con- 
struction, such provision shall be made to protect the 
workmen from falling material as the inspector shall 
direct. 

[1901, c. 166, Sect. 1; R. L. 104, Sect. 44; 1909, c. 514, Sect. 97; 1913, 

c. 655, Sect. 17; 194 Mass. 431; 213 Mass. 229.[ 

[For penalty, see Sect. 19.] 

Same Subject. 

Sect 18. In the construction of any iron or steel 
framed building having a clear story of twenty-five feet 
elevation or more, a staging with a close plank flooring 
shall be placed under and not more than ten feet below 



264 Acts in Chronological Order. 

the under side of the whole extent of the beams, girders 
or trusses of such story upon which iron or steel workers 
are working. 

[1901, c. 166, Sect. 2; R. L. 104, Sect. 45; 1909, c. 514, Sect. 98; 1913, 

c. 655, Sect. 18.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 19.] 

Penalty. 

Sect 19. Violations of any provision of the two pre- 
ceding sections shall be punished by a fine of not less than 
fifty nor more than five hundred dollars. 

[1901, c. 166, Sect. 4; R. L. 104, Sect. 46; 1909, c. 514, Sect. 99; 1913, 
c. 655, Sect. 19.] 

Fire Escapes to be Kept Clear. 

Sect. 22. Any article placed upon a fire escape or an 
outside means of egress of any building is hereby declared a 
common nuisance. Any court authorized to issue warrants 
in criminal cases may, upon complaint under oath made by 
any police officer that any article is placed or maintained 
upon a fire escape or outside means of egress of any build- 
ing, issue a warrant to bring such article when found before 
a court having jurisdiction of the same, and all articles 
seized under the authority of such a warrant shall be dis- 
posed of in like manner as gaming implements seized under 
chapter two hundred and seventy-six. Any owner, lessee, 
tenant or occupant of any building who maintains or per- 
mits to remain upon any fire escape or outside means of 
egress of any building any article for more than twenty 
minutes shall be punished by a fine of not more than one 
hundred dollars. The existence of any article upon a fire 
escape or outside means of egress of any building shall be 
prima facie evidence that such article was so placed, main- 
tained or permitted to remain by the occupant of the 



Acts in Chronological Order. 265 

premises having access from said building to said fire 
escape or outside means of egress. 

[1905, c. 347, Sect. 1.] 

Stairways to be Kept Clear. 

Sect. 23. Every stairway of every building shall be 
kept free arjd unobstructed, and any person who permits 
any article to remain in any stairway of any building in 
such a manner as may impede the egress of any person 
lawfully in said building or the ingress of any person law- 
fully entitled to enter said building shall be punished by a 
fine of not more than five hundred dollars. The existence 
of any article in any such stairway in any building shall be 
prima facie evidence that it was placed or permitted to 
remain therein by the owner, lessee, tenant or occupant 
of the building. 

[1905, c. 347, Sect. 2.] 

Licenses for Theatres, Etc. 

Sect. 34. In sections thirty-four to thirty-eight inclu- 
sive, the term "licensing officer" shall mean the mayor 
of Boston and the commissioner of public safety. In 
Boston the mayor and elsewhere the commissioner of 
public safety shall issue licenses for theatres, special halls 
and public halls. He may require such changes in the 
structural or other condition of any building before issuing 
any license as in his opinion the public safety requires, but 
no change shall be ordered in excess of the requirements 
for a new building of like character. In buildings existing 
on November first, nineteen hundred and thirteen, an 
equivalent of the conditions required by law may be 
accepted by the licensing officer; provided that such 
equivalents are set forth in detail in the license. The 
licenses provided for herein shall be conspicuously posted 



266 Acts in Chronological Order. 

near the main entrance of the theatre, special hall or public 
hall. Licenses for theatres except in Boston shall expire 
on the first day of September, for special halls on the first 
day of August, and for public halls on the first day of July 
of each year. 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 2; 1905, c. 342, Sects. 1, 2; 1908, c. 335, Sect. 1; 
1910, c. 284, Sect. 1; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 31.] 

Liability of Licensee. 

Sect. 35. The licensee shall be responsible, civilly and 
criminally, for non-compliance with the laws applicable to 
the theatre, special hall or public hall covered by his 
license, and for non-compliance with the conditions thereof. 
The licensing officer shall cause a complete inspection of all 
theatres to be made once in each month, of special halls and 
public halls once in every six months, and as much oftener 
as circumstances may require. 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 3; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 32.] 

Inspection of Theatres, Etc. 

Sect. 36. Every inspection of theatres, special halls or 
public halls shall cover all details relating to the condition 
of the building as regards the safety of life and property. 
The inspector shall make a signed report as to all such 
details upon a tabulated inspection blank, the form of 
which shall be determined by the licensing officer. The 
forms of such blanks may be adapted to the circumstances 
of the different classes of buildings, but shall be such as to 
enable the inspectors to report a rating on the points and 
in the form hereinafter specified, and shall include a 
detailed table of legal requirements, with a statement as to 
compliance or non-compliance with each. All inspectors 
inspecting theatres, special halls and public halls shall on 
the first of each week forward to the licensing officer the 
reports of their inspections of the previous week, and shall 



Acts in Chronological Order. 267 

rate each theatre, special hall or public hall on the following 
points in the following form: 

1. Compliance with existing laws, non-compliance in 
any particular to be specified. 

2 . The following ratings of each buildin g as to the safety 
of the audience, in the judgment of the inspectors, in the 
light of improved methods of insuring safety: 

Condition, whether poor, fair, good or excellent. Remarks, 

(a.) Structural condition. 
(6.) Facility of escape of audience, 
(c.) Heating apparatus, 
(d.) Water supply. 
(«.) Lighting apparatus. 
( /.) Condition of fire apparatus. 
(g.) Condition of sprinklers. 
(h.) Condition of fire resisting curtain. 
( i.) Protection against neighborhood hazard. 
(/.) General condition of appliances and apparatus. 
(k.) General condition of stage. 
Rating as a whole. 
With regard to safety of audience. 

And such other points as in the opinion of the licensing 
officer may be suitable. These reports and ratings shall 
be signed by the inspectors, and shall give the date of the 
inspection, with such remarks upon the condition of each 
theatre, special hall and public hall as may be suitable to 
give notice of danger or to give confidence in the safety 
of such buildings. After each inspection of a theatre, 
special hall or public hall, the inspector shall post a notice 
in conspicuous type, near the main entrance thereof, in 
the following form : 

This theatre (or special hall) (or public hall) has been 
inspected by inspector (name of inspector) on (date) 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 4; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 33.] 

Reports to be Kept on File. 
Sect. 37. The full inspection reports of theatres, 
special halls and public halls shall be kept on file by the 



268 Acts in Chronological Order. 

licensing officer, but, except as hereinafter provided, 
shall not be open to examination by the public until the 
expiration of one month from the time when they were 
rendered, except with the consent of the licensing officer. 
Every licensee shall be entitled to examine the full reports 
of his own building at any time. The licensing officer 
shall make a full report annually of the condition of all 
theatres, special halls and public halls, which shall be 
open to examination by the public at all times. The 
reports of inspectors shall be public records of matters of 
public interest; and a fair publication of these reports 
or parts thereof, or comment thereon, by any person, in 
newspapers or otherwise, shall be privileged. 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 6; 1913, o. 655, Sect. 34.] 

Copies of Ratings, etc., to be Sent to Licensee. Penalty for 
Non-compliance with Order. 

Sect. 38. A certified copy of all ratings and con- 
clusions of the inspectors in respect to any licensed theatre, 
special hall or public hall shall be delivered or mailed by 
the licensing officer to the licensee at the building. If 
any inspector shall report that the laws or the conditions of 
the license are not complied with by any licensee, the 
licensing officer may notify the licensee, fixing a time 
within which he shall comply with the law and the con- 
ditions of the license. If at the expiration of such time 
there has not been such compliance, the licensing officer 
shall give a hearing to the licensee; and if upon investiga- 
tion he shall find that there is a cause, he shall revoke the 
license. The licensing officer may, if in his opinion the 
public safety requires it, order any theatre, special hall or 
public hall to be closed pending a hearing upon the revo- 
cation of the license, and any person failing to comply 
with such order shall be punished by a fine of not less than 
fifty nor more than one thousand dollars. 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 8; 1906, c. 105, Sect. 2; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 35.] 



Acts in Chronological Order. 269 

Copy of Ratings, etc., May be Posted. 
Sect. 39. Any licensee may post upon his premises a 
certified copy of the complete table of ratings and con- 
clusions relating to the theatre, special hall or public hall 
covered by his license, but he shall not post an incomplete 
copy of such table. 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 9; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 36.] 

Penalty for False Statement, etc. 
Sect. 40. Any person having any duty to perform 
under this chapter in connection with the licensing or 
inspection of theatres, special halls or public halls who 
wilfully makes any false statement or report or any false 
record of any statement, report or rating as to any such 
theatre, special hall or public hall shall be punished by a 
fine of not more than one thousand dollars or by imprison- 
ment for not more than one year. 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 13; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 37.] 

Penalty for Giving or Receiving Free Pass. 

Sect. 41. Any officer or person having any duty in 
any way connected with the inspection of theatres, special 
halls or public halls, who requests for himself or another, 
or accepts or uses any ticket or pass or privilege of admis- 
sion, or admission, to any theatre, special hall or public 
hall for which he is to pay or has paid either nothing or a 
price less than that demanded of the public generally, and 
any owner, proprietor, manager, lessee, agent or employee 
of any theatre, special hall or public hall, or any other 
person who issues, delivers, offers or allows any such 
ticket, pass, privilege or admission to any such officer or 
person, or to any other person, at the request, solicitation, 
procurement or with the connivance of any such officer or 
person, shall be punished by a fine of not less than one 
hundred nor more than one thousand dollars. 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 14; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 38.] 



270 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Watchmen in Hotels, etc. 

Sect. 44. The keeper of a hotel, boarding or lodging 
house or family hotel containing one hundred or more 
sleeping rooms, and being four or more stories high, shall 
have therein at least two competent watchmen, each 
properly assigned, and each on duty between the hours 
of nine o'clock at night and six o'clock in the morning. 
The keeper of every hotel, boarding or lodging house or 
family hotel containing fifty or more sleeping rooms, 
but less than one hundred, and being three stories high, 
shall have between said hours at least one competent 
watchman on duty therein. In all such hotels, lodging 
houses or family hotels, the halls, corridors and stairways 
shall be properly lighted at night, and a red light shall be 
kept during the night at the top and bottom of each flight 
of stairs; and one or more proper alarms or gongs, capable 
of being heard throughout the house, shall always remain 
easy of access and ready for use in every such building 
to give to the inmates warning of fire. The keeper of 
every such hotel, boarding or lodging house or family 
hotel shall keep a notice descriptive of such means of 
escape conspicuously posted in every sleeping room. 
[1883, c. 251, Sect. 1; 1884, c. 223, Sect. 2; R. L. 104, Sect. 29; 1913, 
c. 655, Sect. 42.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 46.] 

Penalty for Hindering Inspector, etc. 

Sect. 50. Any person who hinders or prevents or 
attempts to prevent the commissioner of public safety, 
the chief of inspections of the department or any inspector 
from entering any building, structure or enclosure or 
part thereof in the performance of his duty in the enforce- 
ment of the laws of the commonwealth relating thereto 
shall be punished by a fine of not less than fifty nor more 
than one hundred dollars. 
[1904, c. 450, Sect. 12; 1908, c. 389, Sect. 2; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 49.] 



Acts in Chronological Order. 271 

Penalty for Unlicensed Use as Theatre, Etc. 
Sect. 52. No person shall occupy or use any building or 
part thereof as a theatre, special hall, public hall, miscel- 
laneous hall, place of assemblage or place of public resort 
until a license therefor has been issued by the commissioner 
of public safety or the mayor of Boston, or a certificate 
therefor by an inspector or an inspector of the building 
department of Boston. The certificate of the inspector 
shall be conclusive evidence of a compliance with sections 
fifteen to sixty, inclusive, for such use of a hall as he shall 
set forth in detail in the certificate, and shall be conspicu- 
ously posted near the main entrance of the hall. Violations 
of this section or of the conditions of a license or certificate 
shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty-five nor 
more than one thousand dollars or by imprisonment for 
not more than one year, and the license or certificate may 
be revoked. 

[1096, c. 105, Sect. 1; 1908, c. 335, Sects. 1, 2; 1910, c. 143; c. 284, 
Sect. 1; 1913, c. 655, Sects. 39, 51.] 

General Penalty. 

Sect. 53. Whoever, being the owner, lessee or occupant 
of any building described in section twenty-one or part 
thereof, violates any provision of sections fifteen to fifty- 
two, inclusive, for which no other penalty is specifically 
prescribed shall be punished by a fine of not less than fifty 
nor more than five hundred dollars. 

[1882, c. 266, Sect. 3; 1885, c. 326, Sect. 2; 1888, c. 426, Sect. 12; 1894, 
c. 382, Sect. 2; c. 481, Sects. 60, 62; R. L. 104, Sects. 55, 56; 1913, 
c. 655, Sect. 53; 230 Mass. 306.] 

Enforcement. 

Sect. 54. Sections fifteen to fifty-two inclusive, shall, 
except when otherwise specifically provided, be enforced 
by the commissioner of public safety, the chief of inspec- 
tions of the department and inspectors of the division of 



272 Acts in Chronological Order. 

inspection of the department. The commissioner of 
public safety shall issue regulations necessary for their 
uniform enforcement. All sections of this chapter which 
apply to Boston shall be enforced by the building com- 
missioner. 

[1901, c. 166, Sect. 3; R. L. 104, Sect. 46; 1909, c. 514, Sect. 99; 1913, 
c. 610, Sect. 2; c. 655, Sect. 54.] 

Appeal. 

Sect. 55. Any person aggrieved by an order, require- 
ment or direction of an inspector under any of the preced- 
ing sections may, within thirty days after the service 
thereof, appeal to a judge of the superior court for the 
county in which the building to which such order, require- 
ment or direction relates is situated for an order forbidding 
its enforcement; and after such notice as said court shall 
direct to all parties interested, a hearing may be had before 
the court at an early and convenient time and place fixed 
by it ; or the court may appoint three disinterested persons, 
skilled in the subject matter of the controversy, to examine 
the matter and hear the parties; and the decision of said 
court, or the written decision under oath of a majority of 
said experts, filed in the office of the clerk of courts in said 
county within ten days after such hearing, may alter, 
annul or affirm such order, requirement or direction . Such 
decision or a certified copy thereof shall have the same 
authority, force and effect as the original order, require- 
ment or direction of the inspector. If such decision 
annuls or alters the order, requirement or direction of the 
inspector, the court shall order the inspector not to enforce 
his order, requirement or direction, and in every case the 
certificate required by law shall thereupon be issued by 
said court or by said experts. 

[1890, c. 438, Sect. 1; 1894, c. 481, Sect. 5; R. L. 104, Sect. 19; 1908, 
c. 487, Sect. 1; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 55; 1917, c. 156, Sect. 2; 228 
Mass. 368.] 



Acts in Chkonological Order. 273 

Fees for Experts. 

Sect. 56. The court may award reasonable compensa- 
tion to such experts, to be paid by the county in which the 
application for an order of the court was made, if the order, 
requirement or direction of the inspector is altered or 
annulled, otherwise by the applicant. If the order, require- 
meDt or direction of the inspector is affirmed by the court 
or the experts, costs shall be taxed against the applicant as 
in civil cases, and shall be paid into the treasury of the said 
county. 

[1890, c. 438, Sects. 2, 3; 1894, c. 481, Sects. 6, 7; R. L. 104, Sects. 20, 
21; 1908, c. 487, Sect. 2; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 56.] 

Restraining Illegal Erection. 
Sect. 57. The supreme judicial or superior court may, 
upon the petition of an inspector, or in Boston the building 
commissioner, temporarily or permanently restrain the 
erection, construction, alteration, use or occupation of a 
building, in violation of any provision of sections fifteen to 
fifty-two, inclusive. 

[1888, c. 316, Sect. 2; c. 426, Sect. 12; 1893, c. 199, Sect. 2; 1894, 
c. 382, Sect. 2; c. 481, Sects. 26, 38; R. L. 104, Sects. 51, 53; 1913, 
c. 655, Sects. 52, 57.] 

Concurrent Jurisdiction of Inferior Courts. 
Sect. 58. District courts shall have jurisdiction con- 
currently with the superior court of prosecutions and pro- 
ceedings at law under sections three to fifty-two, inclusive. 

[1906, o. 105, Sect. 6; 1908, c. 335, Sect. 3; c. 388, Sect. 3; 
1913, c. 655, Sect. 58.] 

Enforcement of Inspectors' Orders. 

Sect. 59. The supreme judicial or superior court may, 

upon the application of the commissioner of public safety, 

the chief of inspections of the department or any inspector, 

or in Boston of the building commissioner, enforce, by any 



274 Acts in Chronological Order. 

suitable process or decree, any provision of sections fifteen 
to fifty-two, inclusive, and any order or requirement of any 
person made under authority thereof. 

[1094, c. 450, Sect. 11; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 59.] 

Restraining Illegal Use, Etc., of Buildings. 
Sect. 60. The supreme judicial or superior court may 
restrain the illegal placing, maintenance or use of any build- 
ing, structure, or other thing. It may, upon the petition 
of a city or town for such relief, require the removal of any 
such building, structure or other thing by the owner, and 
may authorize the city or town, in default of such removal 
by the owner, to remove it at his expense. Upon such 
petition, the defendant shall be presumed to have acted 
without a license or authority until he proves the contrary. 

[1899," c. 326; It. L. 104, Sect. 52; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 60.] 

Notice to Assessors of Permits for Buildings. 
Sect. 61. The inspector of buildings in every city and 
town having such an officer shall give written notice to the 
assessors thereof of the granting by him of permits for the 
construction of any building therein or for any substantial 
alteration therein or addition thereto. Such notice shall 
be given within seven days after the granting of each 
permit and shall state the name of the person to whom the 
permit was granted and the location of the building to be 
constructed or altered or to which an addition is to be 
made. 

[1913, c. 676, Sect. 1.] 
ELEVATORS. 

Installation and Inspection. 

Sect. 62. In cities and towns not having a building 
department or an inspector of buildings, the installation 
and alteration of all elevators shall be under the super- 
vision of the inspectors of the division of inspections of 



Acts in Chronological Order. 275 

the department. In cities and towns having an inspector 
of buildings or a person acting as such, the installation 
and alteration of all elevators shall be under his super- 
vision. No elevator shall be installed or altered until a 
copy of the plans and specifications of such elevator or 
of the proposed alterations shall have been filed by the 
owner of the premises where the elevator is to be installed 
or altered, or by the manufacturer of the elevator, with 
the inspector or building inspector having jurisdiction 
and a certificate of approval or a specification of require- 
ments shall have been issued by him. The inspector 
and inspectors of buildings or departments of buildings 
of cities and towns shall enforce the regulations made by 
the board of elevator regulations as hereafter provided. 

[1901, c. 439; R. L. 104, Sect. 27; 1913, c. 806, Sects. 1, 7.j 
[For penalty, see Sect. 71.] 

Test of Safety Devices. 
Sect. 63. On completion of the work of installation 
or alteration, the manufacturer of the elevator or the 
persons making the alterations shall make a practical test 
of the safety devices of the elevator in the presence of the 
inspector having jurisdiction thereof; and if the test is 
satisfactory to him, he shrll issue a certificate approving 
the elevator and safety devices thereof. 

[1913, c. 806, Sect. 2.] 

Report of Inspection. 
Sect. 64. All elevators shall be thoroughly inspected 
and a practical test made of the safety devices required 
therefor at intervals of not more than one year, and at 
such other times as may be deemed necessary by the 
inspector having jurisdiction thereof. Within ten days 
after the inspection, he shall report the result thereof to 
the commissioner of public safety, upon forms to be 



276 Acts in Chronological Order. 

furnished by him. This requirement for the making of 
inspection reports shall not apply to the city of Boston. 

[1913, c. 806, Sect. 3.] 

Certificate of Inspection to be Posted in Elevator, 

Sect. 65. If in the judgment of any inspector having 
jurisdiction thereof an elevator is safe, and if the elevator 
has been constructed in the manner required by law or 
by the regulations of the board of elevator regulations, 
the inspector shall issue a certificate to that effect to 
the owner of the elevator or to the person in charge 
thereof, who shall post the certificate in a conspicuous 
place in or near the cab or car of such elevator. Other- 
wise, the inspector shall immediately post conspicuously 
upon the entrance or door of the cab or car of such elevator, 
or upon the elevator, a notice of its dangerous condition, 
and shall prohibit the use of the elevator until it has been 
made safe to his satisfaction. No person shall remove 
such notice or operate such elevator until the inspector 
has issued his certificate as aforesaid. 

[1883, c. 173; 1894, c. 481, Sect. 43; R. L. 104, Sect. 28; 1911, c. 

455; 1913, c. 806, Sect. 4; 227 Mass. 415.] 

[For penalty, see Sect. 71.1 

Report of Accidents and Defective Elevators. 

Sect. 66. Any owner, operator or person in charge 
of an elevator or any person employed to inspect an 
elevator shall, if he thinks such elevator is unsafe, make 
a written report thereof to the inspector having juris- 
diction thereof, who shall forthwith inspect such elevator. 
If any accident occurs to an elevator, the operator, person 
in charge or owner having knowledge thereof shall imme- 
diately report such accident to the inspector having 
jurisdiction, who shall forthwith inspect such elevator. 
[1913, c. 806, Sect. 5.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 71.] 



Acts in Cheonological Order. 277 

Petition for Changes in Regulations. 

Sect. 67. Any person engaged in the inspection, 
alteration, construction, repair or operation of elevators 
may from time to time, by written petition to the com- 
missioner of public safety, request that rules and regula- 
tions established by a board of elevator regulations 
heretofore or hereafter appointed be altered or amended. 
The commissioner may grant public hearings upon such 
petition, and if he deems it advisable may appoint a 
new board of elevator regulations as provided in section 
ten of chapter twenty-two. 

[1913, c. 806, Sect. 9; 1919, o. 350, Sect. 106.] 

Board to Amend Regulations. 

Sect. 68. The board of elevator regulations shall 
frame amendments to the regulations relating to the 
construction, installation, alteration and operation of all 
elevators, and relative to the location, design and con- 
struction of shafts or enclosures for elevators, safety 
devices, gates and other safeguards, protection against 
the elevator or hoisting machinery, and means to prevent 
the spread of fire, and also amendments to the regulations 
designed to make uniform the work of the inspectors of 
the division of inspections of the department and of 
inspectors of buildings throughout the commonwealth. 

[1913,0. 806, Sect. 6.] 

Establishment of Regulations. 

Sect. 69. The board of elevator regulations shall, 
within three months after its members are appointed, 
draft amendments to the regulations and submit the 
same to the governor and council for their approval. 
Within sixty days after such submission they shall approve 
the same, with such alterations and amendments and 
after such public hearings as they may deem proper; 



278 Acts in Chronological Order. 

and the regulations so altered and amended shall become 
part of the rules and regulations pertaining to elevators. 
The commissioner of public safety shall furnish upon 
application a printed copy of the regulations to all manu- 
facturers of elevators operating in the commonwealth, 
to all inspectors of buildings in the cities and towns of 
the commonwealth, and to all others who are concerned. 
The board shall be dissolved upon the approval of the 
regulations by the governor and council. 

[1913, c. 806, Sects. 7, 8; 1919, o. 350, Sects. 99, 106.) 

Appeal. 
Sect. 70. Whoever, except in Boston, is aggrieved by 
the order, requirement or direction of an inspector of 
buildings of a city or town in reference to the installation 
or alteration of elevators may, within ten days after the 
service thereof, appeal as provided in section fifty-five; 
and all the provisions of said section, except as otherwise 
provided herein, shall apply to the procedure on such 
appeal. In Boston the right of appeal shall be the same, 
as provided by section seven of chapter five hundred 
and fifty of the Acts of nineteen hundred and seven. 

[1913, c. 806, Sect. 11.] 

Penalty. 

Sect. 71. Any person violating or failing to comply 

with any provision of sections sixty-two to seventy, 

inclusive, or of any regulation established thereunder 

shall be punished by a fine of not more than five hundred 

dollars. 

[1913, c. 806, Sect. 12.] 

CINEM ATO GRAPHS . 

Regulation. 
Sect. 72. No cinematograph or similar apparatus 
involving the use of a combustible film more than ten 
inches in length, except one using only an enclosed incan- 



AcrsfiN Chronological Order. 279 

descent lamp and cellulose acetate films not more than 
one and one quarter inches in width, shall, except as 
provided by section eighty-five, be kept or used for the 
purpose of exhibiting such films in or upon the premises 
of a public building until such cinematograph or similar 
apparatus has been inspected and approved by an inspec- 
tor, who shall have placed thereon a numbered metal tag; 
nor until a booth or enclosure, which has been inspected 
and approved by such an inspector and his certificate 
issued therefor, has been provided for said apparatus; 
nor until such precautions against fire as the commissioner 
of public safety may specify have been taken by the 
owner, user or exhibitor: provided, that no such apparatus 
shall be operated with oxyhydrogen gas, so-called, or 
with limelight. In addition, in Boston the location of 
any booth or enclosure surrounding such apparatus shall 
be approved by the building commissioner, who may 
order such additional precautions against fire as he may 
deem necessary. 

[1905, c. 176, Sect. 1; 1908, c. 566, Sect. 1; 1914, c. 791, Sect. 1; 
1915, c. 169, Sect. 1.] 

Permits for Special Exhibitions. 
Sect. 82. Except in Boston, the commissioner of pub- 
lic safety may grant permits for the special exhibition of 
pictures by the use of a cinematograph or similar appara- 
tus in a public building which in his opinion is in safe 
condition for such exhibitions, and he may prescribe such 
regulations as he may deem necessary for the presentation 
of the same. Two dollars shall accompany the applica- 
tion for each permit. 

[1911, c. 440; 1914, c. 791, Sect. 12.] 

Application of Certain Sections. 
Sect. 83. Sections seventy-two to seventy-six, inclu- 
sive, shall not apply to any motion picture machine oper- 
ated with only cellulose acetate films not more than one 



280 Acts in Chronological Order. 

inch and one fourth in width and requiring not more than 
five hundred watts of electric current to operate the arc: 
provided, that such machines shall not be kept or used in 
a public building except under such regulations as the 
commissioner of public safety shall prescribe. 

[1914, c. 791, Sect. 13.] 

Penalty. 
Sect. 84. Any person keeping or using a cinemato- 
graph or similar apparatus contrary to any provision of 
sections seventy-two to eighty-four, inclusive, or in vio- 
lation of any rule or regulation made by the commissioner 
of public safety, or, in Boston, in violation of any regula- 
tion or requirement made by the building commissioner 
in accordance with said sections, shall be punished by. a 
fine of not less than fifty nor more than five hundred 
dollars. 

[1905, c. 176, Sect. 3; 1908, c. 566, Sect. 3; 1914, c. 791, Sect. 15.] 

Special Incenses for Operators in Churches, Schools, Etc. 
Sect. 85. Notwithstanding any provision of sections 
seventy-two to eighty-four, inclusive, the commissioner 
of public safety may grant special licenses for operators 
of motion picture machines in churches, schoolhouses or 
public institutions in cities and towns, except Boston, 
which in his opinion are in safe condition for said exhibi- 
tions, and he may prescribe regulations for the proper 
conduct of the same. Two dollars shall accompany each 
application for such special license. 

[1911, c. 440, Sects. 1, 2, 3; 1914, c. 791, Sect. 17.] 



GENERAL LAWS, CHAPTER 148. 
Fire Prevention. 
Application of Certain Sections. 
Section 2. Sections six, ten and thirteen to twenty- 
three, inclusive, shall not apply to the metropolitan dis- 



Acts in Chronological Order. 281 

trict. Sections twenty-eight to fifty-one, inclusive, shall 
apply only to the said district. 

[1914, c. 795, Sect. 28; 1920, c. 436, Sect. 2.] 

Delegation of .Powers. 

Sect. 31. The marshal may delegate the granting 
and issuing of any licenses or permits authorized by sec- 
tions thirty to fifty-one, inclusive, or the carrying out of 
any lawful rule, order or regulation of the department, or 
any inspection required under said sections, to the head 
of the fire department or to any other designated officer 
in any city or town in- the metropolitan district. 

[1914, c. 795, Sect. 4.] 

Paint or Inflammable Fluids. 

Sect. 32. No paint, oil, benzine, naphtha or other 
inflammable fluid shall be kept or stored in bulk or barrel 
otherwise than in the tank of an automobile, motor boat 
or stationary engine, in total quantity exceeding ten 
gallons, in any part of any building used for habitation, 
or within fifty feet of any building used for dwelling pur- 
poses, unless such paint, oil or other inflammable fluid 
is inclosed within a fireproof room or structure, constructed 
and arranged to the satisfaction of the marshal; and no 
paint, oil, benzine, naphtha or other inflammable fluid, 
except for domestic purposes, shall be kept, used, stored 
or sold in any part of any building used for habitation 
unless a permit therefor has first been obtained from the 
marshal under such terms and conditions as he may pre- 

scribe 

[1914, c. 795, Sect. 6; 4 Op. A. G. 397.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 51.] 

Combustible Materials. 

Sect. 33. No part of any building used for habitation, 
nor that part of any lot within fifty feet of any building 
so used, shall be used for the storage, keeping or handling 



282 Acts in Chbonological Ordee. 

of any combustible article for other than domestic pur- 
poses, or of any article or material that may be dangerous 
to the public safety as a fire menace, unless a permit has 
first been obtained therefor from the marshal. No part 
of any such building shall be used as a carpenter's shop, 
nor for the storage, keeping or handling of feed, hay, 
straw, excelsior, shavings, sawdust, cotton, paper stock, 
feathers or rags, except under such terms and conditions 
as the marshal may prescribe. . 

[1914, c. 795, Sect. 7.]. 
[For penalty, see Sect. 51.] 

Removal of Combustible Refuse. 

Sect. 34. The marshal or such person as he may desig- 
nate may require the removal and destruction of any heap 
or collection of refuse or debris that in his opinion may 
become dangerous as a fire menace. 

Neglect on the part of either the owner or occupant, or 
both, to remove the cause of complaint under this or the 
preceding section, after notice thereof has been served, 
shall be deemed a refusal; and the marshal or the person 
whom he may designate may enter upon the premises and 
remove such material or article and the containers thereof 
as may be covered by or mentioned in the notice issued. 
The material or articles removed, if of no substantial value, 
shall be destroyed; otherwise they shall be placed in 
storage, and the total costs attending such action shall be 
paid by the owner or occupant. 

[1914, c. 795, Sect. 8.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 51.] 

Use of Salamanders. 

Sect. 35. No salamander or stove for drying plaster 
shall be used in any building except under such conditions 
as may be prescribed by the marshal; and no such sala- 
mander or stove shall be set upon a wooden floor unless it is 



Acts in Chronological Order. 283 

raised above the floor at least four inches and set upon brick 
or other incombustible material in a bed of sand at least 
two inches thick, spread upon the floor and covering an 
area of at least two feet in all directions larger than the 
area of the salamander or stove. 

[1914, c. 795, Sect. 9.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 51.] 

Automatic Sprinklers. 

Sect. 36. Any building used in whole or in part for the 
business of woodworking, or for the business of manu- 
facturing or working upon wooden, basket, rattan or cane 
goods or articles, or tow, shavings, excelsior, oakum, rope, 
twine, string, thread, bagging, paper, paper stock, card- 
board, rags, cotton or linen, or cotton or linen garments or 
goods, or rubber, feathers, paint, grease, soap, oil, varnish, 
petroleum, gasoline, kerosene, benzine, naphtha or other 
inflammable fluids, and any building used in whole or in 
part for the business of keeping or storing any such goods or 
articles, except in such small quantities as are usual for 
domestic use or for use in connection with and as incident 
to some business other than such keeping or storing, shall, 
upon the order of the marshal, be equipped with automatic 
sprinklers; provided, that no such order shall apply to 
any building unless four or more persons live or are usually 
employed therein above the second floor. 

[1914, o. 795, Sect. 10; 4 Op. A. G. 585. 
[For penalty, see Sect. 51.] 

Dry Pipes in Basements. 
Sect. 37. The basements of any buildings shall, upon 
written notice by the marshal to the owners of the build- 
ings, be equipped with such dry pipes with outside con- 
nections as he may prescribe. 

[1914, c. 795, Sect. 11.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 51.] 



284 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Penalty. 

Sect. 38. Owners of buildings who, within six months 
after having received written notice from the marshal under 
section thirty-six or thirty-seven, fail to comply with the 
requirement of such notice shall be punished by a fine of 
not more than one thousand dollars. 

[1914, c. 795, Sect. 12.] 

Rules as to Fires and Fire Protection. 

Sect. 39. In addition to the powers given by sections 
thirty to thirty-eight, inclusive, the marshal may make 
orders and rules relating to fires, fire protection and fire 
hazard binding throughout the metropolitan district, or 
part thereof, or binding upon any person or class of persons 
within said district, limited, however, to the following 
subjects: 

A. Requiring the keeping of portable fire extinguishers, 
buckets of water or other portable fire extinguishing de- 
vices on any premises by the occupant thereof, and pre- 
scribing the number and situation of such devices. 

B. Prohibiting or regulating the accumulation and 
requiring the removal of combustible rubbish, including 
waste paper, cardboard, string, packing material, sawdust, 
shavings, sticks, rags, waste leather and rubber, boxes, 
barrels, broken furniture and other similar light or com- 
bustible refuse. 

D. Causing obstacles that may interfere with the means 
of exit to be removed from floors, halls, stairways and fire 
escapes. 

E. Ordering the remedying of any condition found to 
exist in or about any building or other premises or any ship 
or vessel in violation of any law, ordinance, by-law, rule 
or order in respect to fires and the prevention of fire. 

H. Requiring the cleaning of chimney flues and vent 
pipes. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 285 

I. Requiring proper safeguards to be placed and 
maintained about or over roof skylights. 

K. Requiring that all signs and advertising devices 
erected on buildings shall be approved by said marshal. 

M. Denning the classes of buildings to be equipped 
with sprinkler protection as provided by section thirty-six. 
[1914, c. 795, Sect. 13; Op. A. G. 580.] 

Orders to Occupant or Owner. 
Sect. 41. If buildings or other premises are owned by 
one person and occupied by another under lease or other- 
wise, the orders of the marshal shall apply to the occupant 
alone, except where the rules or orders require the making 
of additions to or changes in the premises themselves, such 
as would immediately become real estate and be the prop- 
erty of the owner of the premises. In such cases the rules 
or orders shall affect the owner and not the occupant; and 
unless it is otherwise agreed between the owner and the 
occupant, the occupant whose use of the premises has 
caused the making of such additions or changes, in addition 
to his rent or other payments, shall, after the additions or 
changes are made, pay a reasonable per cent of the cost 
thereof annually to the owner of the premises. No rule 
or order shall be made or enforced which requires an 
expenditure by the owner or occupant of more than five 
per cent of the last annual assessed valuation of the land 
and buildings to which such rule or order relates. 

[1914, c. 795, Sect. 22; 4 Op. A. G. 572.] 

Appeals. 
Sect. 45. The marshal shall hear and determine all 
appeals from the acts and decisions of the heads of fire 
departments and other persons acting or purporting to act 
under his authority, done or made or purporting to be done 
or made under the provisions of sections thirty to fifty-one, 
inclusive, and shall make all necessary and proper orders 



285 Acts in Chronological Order. 

thereon. Any person aggrieved by any such action of the 
head of a fire department or other person may appeal to 
the marshal. 

[1914, o. 795, Sect. 18.] 

Tanks for Storage of Fluid. 

Sect. 54. No person shall construct, maintain or use 

any tank or container of more than ten thousand gallons 

capacity, unless constructed principally of wood, for the 

storage of any fluid other than water, unless the same ie 

underground, without first securing a permit therefor 

from the marshal. Whoever violates this section or a rule 

or regulation made under the following section shall be 

punished by a fine of not less than fifty nor more than one 

thousand dollars. 

[1919, c. 303, Sects. 1, 3.] 

Rules and Regulations. 
Sect. 55. The department shall make rules and regula- 
tions governing the construction, use and maintenance of 
tanks to which the preceding section applies. Such rules 
and regulations shall not take effect until approved by the 
governor and council, and filed in the office of the state 
secretary. 

[1919, c. 303, Sect. 2.] 

Department of Public Safety may make rules for keeping, storage or 
use of crude petroleum or any of its products. [See Sect. 10-11, 
Chapter 148, General Laws.] 



GENERAL LAWS, CHAPTER 149, SECTION 126. 

Doors not to be Locked During Working Hours in 
Operative Buildings. 

Section 126. No outside or inside doors of any build- 
ing where operatives are employed shall be so locked 
bolted or otherwise fastened during the hours of labor 
as to prevent free egress. Any person having charge of a 
building or room therein any exit door of which shall be 



Acts in Chronological Order. 287 

found locked, bolted or otherwise fastened contrary to 
this section shall be punished by a fine of not less than 
twenty-five nor more than five hundred dollars or by 
imprisonment for not more than one year, or both. 

[1884, c. 52, Sects. 1, 2; 1894, c. 481, Sects. 53, 54; R. L. 104, Sect. 40; 
1909, c. 514, Sects. 93, 145; 1914, c. 566.] 



GENERAL LAWS, CHAPTER 184. 

General Provisions Relative to Real Property. 

Proceedings Affecting Title to Realty Binding on Third 
Parties, When. 

Section 15. A writ of entry or other proceeding, 
either at law or in equity, which affects the title to real 
property or the use and occupation thereof or the build- 
ings thereon, shall not have any effect except against the 
parties thereto, their heirs and devisees and persons hav- 
ing actual notice thereof, until a memorandum containing 
the names of the parties to such proceeding, the court in 
which it is pending, the date of the writ or other com- 
mencement thereof, the name of the town where the real 
property liable to be affected thereby lies and a description 
of such real property sufficiently accurate for identification 
is recorded in the registry of deeds for the county or dis- 
trict where such real property lies; but this section shall 
not apply to attachments, levies of execution or proceed- 
ings in the probate courts. 

[1877, c. 229, Sects. 1,3; P. S. c. 126, Sect. 13; 1897, c. 463; R. L. 134, 

Sect. 12.] 



GENERAL LAWS, CHAPTER 272. 

Stables — Exits. 

Section 86. Whoever stables a horse or mule on the 
second or any higher floor of any building, unless there 






288 Acts in Chronological Order. 

are two means of exit therefrom, at opposite ends of the 
building, to the main or street floor, unless such building 
is equipped with an automatic sprinkler system, shall be 
punished by a fine of not more than two hundred dollars. 
[1916, c. 158, Sects. 1-3.] 



REVISED ORDINANCES 1914, CHAPTER 8. 

Building Department. 

Section 1. The building department shall be under 
the charge of the building commissioner, who shall exer- 
cise the powers and perform the duties provided by 
statute, and may appoint not exceeding thirty building 
inspectors for duty in his department. 

[St. 1907, c. 550; St. 1914, c. 782 and c. 795.] 

Board of Appeal. 
Sect. 2. There shall be in the building department a 
board of appeal consisting of five members, who shall 
exercise the powers and perform the duties provided by 
statute. 

[St. 1907, c. 550, Sects. 6 and 7.] 

Board of Examiners. 

Sect. 3. There shall be in the building department a 
board of examiners, consisting of three members, who 
shall exercise the powers and perform the duties herein- 
after provided. Each member shall receive ten dollars 
for every day or part thereof of actual service but not 
more than one thousand dollars in any year. 

Examinations. 

Sect. 4. The board shall hold examinations, under 

reasonable rules and regulations adopted by it, of persons 

desiring to be registered as qualified to have charge or 

control of the construction, alteration, removal, or tearing 



Acts in Chronological Order. 289 

down of buildings or structures. Due notice of such 
examinations shall be posted in the offices of the building 
department and of the board of examiners and published 
in the City Record. 

Registration. 

The board shall establish various classes of persons to 
be registered, shall determine the qualifications required 
for each class, and after examination shall register iri 1 each 
class the persons found to possess the requisite qualifica- 
tions therefor. The name and address of each person so 
found to be qualified, with the designation of the class in 
which he is registered, shall thereupon be certified by the 
board to the building commissioner who shall make a 
record of the same which shall be open to public inspection. 

Qualifications of Persons in Control of Building Operations. 

Sect. 5. All work of construction, alteration, removal 
or tearing down of buildings or structures in the city of 
Boston shall, hereafter, be under the charge, control and 
personal supervision of a licensed mechanic, qualified by 
education, training or experience for the performance of 
that duty in a manner which shall preserve public safety 
and conform to the laws, ordinances, rules and regulations 
relating to the construction, alteration, removal or tearing 
down of buildings and structures in the city of Boston. 

[R. O. 1914, c. 8; Ord. 1920, c. 10; Ord. 1921.] 

Permits to Persons Licensed. 
Sect. 6. The qualifications of such persons shall be 
determined by the board of examiners, and no permit for 
the doing of work described in section five of this chapter 
shall be issued by the building commissioner unless the 
application for a permit therefor contains the name, 
address and signature of a person who is duly licensed, 
as herein provided, to take personal charge or control of 



290 Acts in Chronological Order. 

such work; provided, however, that a permit may be 
granted if no person licensed as aforesaid has been named 
in the application therefor whenever the work in question 
is of minor importance, and, in the opinion of the building 
commissioner, stated in writing with his reasons therefor 
upon the application for such permit, the work is of such 
simple character that its execution will not endanger the 
safety of the public, or of any person engaged thereon. 

Exemption from Examination. 

Sect. 7. Any person who shall by affidavit, together 
with such other evidence as may be required by the board, 
show to the board that he has had charge or control 
of the construction, alteration, removal or tearing down 
of buildings or structures in the class in which he applies 
to be registered, and shall satisfy the board that he is 
qualified by education, training or experience to have 
charge or control of such work, may, without any other 
examination, be registered in such class and be certified 
to the building commissioner as a person qualified within 
such class. 

Fees for Building Licenses. 

Sect. 8. The board shall issue a license to each person 
so certified by the board to the building commissioner. 
All licenses hereafter issued, or issued less than one year 
prior to the passage of this ordinance shall expire in one 
year from the date of issuance; and all licenses issued 
more than one year prior to the passage of this ordinance 
shall expire on the date in the year 1921 corresponding 
to the date in the year of issuance. The board may renew 
a license upon any expiration thereof, for the further period 
of one year from the date of renewal, with or without 
re-examination, as the board may determine. The fees 
to be paid to the board for such licenses and renewals shall 
be as follows: new license — five (5) dollars; and each 



Acts in Chronological "Order. 291 

yearly renewal thereof two (2) dollars. The first renewal 
of a license heretofore granted — five dollars and each 
yearly renewal thereof two (2) dollars. Special license — 
one (1) dollar. The fees received by the board shall be 
paid to the city collector at least once a week. 

Revocation of License. 
Sect. 9. A person who has been duly licensed as 
aforesaid shall be entitled to have charge or control of any 
work described in section five of this chapter, in the class 
in which he is registered, until his license is revoked or 
suspended by the building commissioner upon the order 
of the board. No license shall be revoked or suspended 
except upon proof of charges, filed with the board by the 
building commissioner or other person, specifying that 
the licensee has been careless or negligent in the per- 
formance of his duty in connection with work under his 
charge or control, or has caused or permitted a violation 
of the building laws in connection therewith, or that such 
laws have been violated in connection with such work 
when the licensee knew, or, in the exercise of due diligence, 
should have known, that such violation had occurred. 
Upon learning of such carelessness, or neglect of duty, or 
of such violation of law, the building commissioner shall 
file charges with the board and prosecute the same. Upon 
the filing of such charges by the building commissioner or 
other person, the board shall give to the licensee notice of a 
hearing upon the charges which shall be held by the board 
not less than seven days after the date of said notice. 
The notice shall be by personal service or by registered 
mail, and shall state the time and place of the hearing and 
contain a copy of the charges. At such hearing the licensee 
may be represented by counsel, and the building com- 
missioner may be assisted by a representative of the law 
department of the city. 



292 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Slopping Work. 

Sect. 10. If, for any cause, a person licensed as herein 
provided shall cease to have charge or control of any- 
work described in section five of this chapter before such 
work is finished, the work shall stop until another person 
duly licensed for the doing of such work has been placed in 
charge thereof. 

Penalty. 

Sect. 11. Whoever violates any provision of sections 
five, eight or ten of this chapter shall be punished by a 
fine of not more than fifty dollars for each offence. 

[1920 Ord. amending Sect. 8. Ordained by authority of c. 713, 
Acts of 1912.] 



CHAPTER 41, REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1914. 

Building Limits. 

In the Year One Thousand Nine Hundred and Thirteen. 
Be it ordained by the City Council of Boston, as follows: 

Section 1. The building limits referred to in section 
nine of chapter five hundred and fifty of the acts of the 
year 1907 are hereby extended, defined and established 
as follows: 

All that portion of the city which is included within 
a line beginning at the intersection of the boundary lines 
between the City of Boston and the cities of Somerville 
and Everett; thence by the boundary lines between the 
City of Boston and the cities of Everett and Chelsea to 
the intersection with the centre line of Trumbull street 
extended northerly; thence by said centre line of Trum- 
bull street extended, the centre line of Trumbull street 
and said centre line extended southerly to the Harbor 
line; thence by said Harbor line to its intersection with 
the easterly line of Pier No. 5 belonging to the Boston 



Acts in Chronological Order. 293 

and Albany Railroad Company; thence by a straight 
line across Boston Harbor to its intersection with the 
Harbor line at the easterly corner of Pier No. 1 in South 
Boston; thence by the Harbor line in the northerly, 
easterly and southerly portions of South Boston to an 
angle in said Harbor line nearly opposite the intersection 
of the centre line of Columbia road with the centre line 
of location of the Old Colony Railroad; thence by a 
straight line to the said intersection; and by the centre 
lines of Columbia road, Blue Hil] avenue, Seaver street, 
Columbus avenue,' Atherton and Mozart streets, Chest- 
nut avenue, Sheridan, Centre and Perkins streets, South 
Huntington avenue, Castleton street and the centre 
line of said Castleton street extended to the boundary 
line between the City of Boston and the town of Brook- 
line; thence by said boundary line to a point therein 
one hundred feet southwest of Washington street in the 
Brighton district; thence by a line parallel to and one 
hundred feet southwesterly from the centre line of Wash- 
ington street to an angle formed by the intersection 
of said line with the extension of a line parallel to and 
one hundred feet northwesterly of the centre line of 
Market street; thence by said extension and said line 
parallel to and one hundred feet northwesterly of the 
centre line of Market street to a point one hundred feet 
south of the centre line of Western avenue; thence by 
a line parallel to and one hundred feet south of the centre 
line of Western avenue and said line extended to a point 
in the boundary line between the City of Boston and 
the town of Watertown south of Watertown Bridge, so 
called; thence by said boundary line and the boundary 
lines between the cities of Cambridge and Somerville to 
the point of beginning. 

Also those portions of Ward 26 upon or within one 
hundred feet of the following named streets and squares: 



294 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Everett square, so called; Fairmount avenue from River 
street to the Neponset river; River street from the loca- 
tion of the Boston & Providence Railroad to Winthrop 
street; Hyde Park aveDue on the easterly side from 
the northerly side of Oak street to Everett street; Hyde 
Park avenue on the westerly side from the northerly 
side of Pine street extension, so called, to a point on said 
Hyde Park avenue opposite the southerly line of Everett 
street; Harvard avenue from River street to Winthrop 
street; Maple street from River street to a point one 
hundred and eighty feet southerly therefrom; Central 
avenue from River street to Winthrop street; Davison 
street from Fairmount avenue to a point three hundred 
feet northeasterly therefrom; Grove street; Pierce street 
from Fairmount avenue to a point three hundred feet 
northeasterly therefrom; Knott street from Fairmount 
avenue to a point three hundred feet easterly therefrom; 
Railroad avenue from Fairmount avenue to a point 
three hundred feet northeasterly therefrom; Station 
street from the Neponset river to a point three hundred 
feet northeasterly from Fairmount avenue; Walnut 
street from Fairmount avenue to a point three hundred 
feet southwesterly therefrom; Maple street from Fair- 
mount avenue to a point one hundred and twenty-five 
feet westerly therefrom. 

This ordinance became operative July 1, 1914" 

1907, c. 550, Sect. 9; 1914, c. 782, Sect. 1; Ord. 1914, c. 4. Sect. l.J 



LAWS RELATING TO GAS 
FITTING. 



GAS FITTING LAWS. 



CHAPTER 265, ACTS OF 1897. 



An Act Relative to the Licensing of Gas Fitters 
and to the supervision of the business of gas 
Fitting in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

License Required — "Journeyman" Means. 

Section 1 . No person, firm or corporation shall engage 
in or work at the business of gas fitting in the city of Boston 
after the first day of October in the year eighteen hundred 
and ninety-seven, either as employer or as a journeyman, 
unless such person, firm or corporation has received a 
license therefor in accordance with the provisions of this 
act. The word "journeyman," as used in this act, shall be 
deemed to mean one who personally does any gas fitting or 
any work in connection therewith which would be subject 
to inspection under the provisions of this act. 

.Examination Required — As to Qualifications. 
Sect. 2. Every person, firm or corporation desiring to 
engage in the business of gas fitting in the city of Boston 
shall make application therefor to the building commis- 
sioner, and shall at such time and place as may be desig- 
nated by the board of examiners hereinafter provided for, 
to whom such application shall be referred, be examined 
as to his qualifications for such business. 

297 



298 Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 

Board of Examiners. 
Sect. 3. The board of examiners shall consist of the 
building commissioner, the chairman of the board of 
health, who shall be ex officiis members of said board and 
serve without compensation, and a third member, to be 
chosen by the board of health, who shall be a practical gas 
fitter of at least five years' continued practical experience 
during the years next preceding the date of appointment. 
Said third member shall be chosen within thirty days after 
the passage of this act, for a term ending on the first day of 
May in the year eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, and 
thereafter annually; and he shall be allowed a sum not 
exceeding five dollars for each day of actual service, to be 
paid from the treasury of the City of Boston. 

Date and Places for Holding Examinations. 

Practical Knowledge Required. 

Licenses — Fees for Same. 

Sect. 4. Said board of examiners shall, as soon as may 
be after the appointment of said third member, meet and 
organize by the selection of a chairman and clerk, and shall 
then designate the times and places for the examination of 
all applicants desiring to engage in or work at the business 
of gas fitting in the city of Boston. Said board shall 
examine said applicants as to their practical knowledge of 
gas fitting, shall submit the applicant to some satisfactory 
form of practical test, and, if satisfied of the competency of 
the applicant, shall so certify to the building commissioner, 
who shall thereupon issue a license to such applicant, 
authorizing him to engage in or work at the business of gas 
fitting, first requiring him to register in the office of the 
said building commissioner his name, place of business or 
residence, license number, date of examination, and in 



Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 299 

what capacity licensed. In case of a firm or corporation, 
the examination of one member of the firm, or of the 
manager of the corporation, shall satisfy the requirements 
of this act. The fee for the license of any employing gas 
fitter shall be two dollars, and for a journeyman, fifty 
cents ; and said license shall continue in force until revoked 
or cancelled, but shall not be transferable. 

Inspectors of Gas Fitting. 

Duties — Compensation — Cause of Removal. 

Sect. 5. The building commissioner shall appoint, 
after the first day of October in the year eighteen hundred 
and ninety-seven, such a number of inspectors of gas fitting 
as the board of examiners may from time to time determine. 
Said inspectors shall be practical gas fitters of at least five 
years' continued practical experience, and shall, before 
appointment, be subject to an examination before the 
civil service commissioners. The compensation of said 
inspectors shall be determined by the building commis- 
sioner, subject to the approval of the mayor; and such 
inspectors shall hold office until removed by said com- 
missioner, with the approval of the mayor, for malfeasance, 
incapacity or neglect of duty. Said inspectors shall 
inspect all new work relating to gas fitting in new and in 
old buildings, the connections and use of such work, and 
shall report all violations of this act or of any act or ordi- 
nance relating thereto, which now exists or may be here- 
after enacted or ordained; and they shall also perform such 
other appropriate duties as may be required by the 
building commissioner. 

License Number to be Displayed at Place of Business. 
Sect. 6. Every licensed gas fitter shall display his 
license number conspicuously at his place of business. 



300 Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 

Application to be Filed and Permit Required. 
Materials and Workmanship Subject to Regulations. 
Sect. 7. On and after the first day of October in the 
year eighteen hundred and ninety-seven no building shall 
be piped or fitted for gas, nor shall any repairs be made in 
such pipings or fittings, nor fixtures placed, unless a permit 
shall be granted therefor by the building commissioner. 
Every licensed gas fitter desiring to perform any work 
relating to piping or fitting a building for gas, or to repair 
gas piping or fittings, or to place fixtures therein, shall file 
an application therefor at the office of the building com- 
missioner, giving the correct location, name and address of 
the owner, the intended use and material of the building 
and a full and complete statement of the work proposed 
and material to be used, and shall, if required by said build- 
ing commissioner, furnish a plan thereof, which shall be 
subject to his approval. All materials used and work 
performed under the provisions of this section shall be 
subject to such regulations as shall be made by the board 
of health and the building commissioner. 

Timbers, Beams or Girders Not to be Cut Into. 
Meter to be Removed Only by Gas Company. 

Sect. 8. No gas pipe which may be introduced into 
any building shall be let into the timbers, beams or girders, 
unless the same is placed within thirty-six inches of the end 
of said timber, beam or girder, and in no building shall the 
said pipes be let into the timbers, beams or girders more 
than two inches in depth. No person shall disconnect or 
remove any gas meter, except the duly authorized repre- 
sentative of the gas company owning such meter. 

Gas Brackets. 
Sect. 9. All gas brackets shall be placed at least three 
feet below any ceiling or woodwork, unless the same is 



Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 301 

properly protected by a shield, in which case the distance 
shall not be less than eighteen inches. Nothing in this act 
shall be construed to affect the operations of any gas com- 
pany upon its own premises or upon its mains and surface 
pipes. 

Board of Health to Inspect Gas Fixtures and Appliances 
in Buildings. 
Sect. 10. The Board of Health of said city by its 
inspectors shall from time to time, as it deems proper, 
inspect the gas fixtures and appliances in any building and 
shall make such requirements relating thereto as it deems 
the public health requires, and the owner of such building 
shall comply with such requirements. 

Penalty for Violation of this Act. 
Sect. 11. Any person violating any of the provisions 
of this act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and 
shall be subject to a fine of not exceeding one hundred 
dollars for each offence, and if such person has received a 
license under this act his license may be revoked by the 
building commissioner. 

Annual Report 
Sect. 12. The building commissioner shall include in 
his annual report to the city council a report of the pro- 
ceedings of the building department under this act, and 
shall include therein a report of the board of examiners 
appointed under this act, giving their proceedings during 
the year ending on the first day of February. 

Repeals. 
Sect. 13. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 14. This act shall take effect upon its passage, 
except so far as is hereinbefore otherwise provided. 

[Approved April 10, 1897. 



302 Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 

REVISED REGULATIONS. 

Pertaining to Gas Fitting and Gas Fitting Materials, 
Adopted July 29, 1898, by the Board of Health 
and the Building Commissioner, to Take Effect 
Oct. 1, 1898. — Amended Aug. 16, 1899. — Amended 
March 12, 1918. 

(Authorized by Chapter 265, Acts of 1897.) 



Notice of Repair of Leaks. 

Section 1. In all cases of repair of leaks, a notice 
giving the location and extent of all work performed shall 
be filed with the building commissioner immediately upon 
completion of the same. 

No Pipe or Fitting to be Concealed Until Approved. 

Sect. 2. No pipe or fitting shall be covered or con- 
cealed from view until approved by one of the gas fitting 
inspectors of the building department, or for twenty-four 
hours after notice has been given to the building com- 
missioner. 

No Pipe to be Laid Subjected to Strain. 
Sect. 3. Pipes shall be run and laid to avoid any strain 
or weight on the same, except that of the fixtures. 

Outlets. — Number of Burners. 

Sect. 4. Outlets for fixtures shall be securely fastened; 
all outlets not covered by fixtures shall be left capped, 
and the number of burners for each outlet shall be marked 
on the builders' plan. 

Pipes to be Properly Protected. 
Sect. 5. Pipes laid in a cold or damp place shall be 
properly dripped, painted with two coats of red lead and 



Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 303 

boiled oil, or covered with felting satisfactory to the 
building commissioner. 

Swing Brackets. 

Sect. 6. Swing brackets shall have a globe or guard 
to prevent its burner from coming in contact with the wall. 
Bracket outlets shall be at least 2 inches from window or 
door casings. 

Stop-Pins. 

Sect. 7. Stop-pins to cocks shall be screwed into place. 

Cement Prohibited. 
Sect. 8. The use of gas fitters' cement is prohibited, 
except in putting fixtures together. 

Inside Service to be Tested. 
Sect. 9. Inside services shall be tested by the fitter 
who receives the permit to connect the service or meter, 

Service Pipe to have Main Cock. 

Sect. 10. There shall be a main cock on the service- 
pipe close to the foundation wall, one cock at the inlet side 
and one at the outlet side, of each meter. When service 
pipes are over two inches brass or composition, seated 
valves shall be used. 

Final Test to be Made by Gas Filler in Presence of Inspector. 

Sect. 11. There shall be a final test, by a gas fitter, 
of all fixtures and pipes by a column of mercury raised not 
less than two inches, which must stand five minutes; 
this test to be made in the presence of one of the gas-fitting 
inspectors of the building department; the gauge to be 
made of glass tubing of uniform interior diameter, and so 
constructed that both surfaces of the mercury will be 
exposed. 



304 



Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 



Material of Gas-Pipe. 
Sect. 12. All gas-pipes shall be of wrought iron or 
steel, all fittings of malleable iron, and all meter connec- 
tions of lead pipe of the same size as the fit or riser except 
where meters are to be connected with flanges. 

Brass Nipples. 

Sect. 13. Brass solder nipples shall be used on all 
meter connections. 

Risers. 

Sect. 14. No riser shall be left more than five feet 
away from the front foundation wall. 

Sect. 15. Gas-pipes shall be run in according to the 
following scale : 







Scale for Piping. 




Iron pipe 


, f inch, 


26 feet, 


3 burners 


« 


£ inch, 


30 feet, 


6 burners 


a 


f inch, 


50 feet, 


20 burners, 


a 


1 inch, 


70 feet, 


35 burners, 


a 


1 j inches, 


100 feet, 


60 burners 


a 


1^ inches, 


150 feet, 


100 burners 


a 


2 inches, 


200 feet. 


200 burners 


u 


2\ inches, 


'300 feet, 


300 burners 


a 


3 inches, 


450 feet, 


450 burners 


a 


3^ inches, 


500 feet, 


600 burners 


u 


4 inches, 


600 feet, 


750 burners 



Outside Piping of Brass a Fixture. 

When brass piping is used on the outside of plastering 
or woodwork, it shall be classed as fixture. 

Outlets and Risers. 
Sect. 16. Outlets and risers not provided with fixtures 
shall be properly capped. 



Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 305 

Outlets for Fixtures. 

Sect, 17. Outlets for fixtures shall not be placed under 
tanks, back of doors, or within three feet of any meter. 

Shields, When Required. 

Sect. 18. Gas-burners less than two feet from a 
plastered ceiling or less than three feet from overhead 
woodwork shall be protected by a shield satisfactory to 
building commissioner. In first-class buildings no shields 
will be required. 

Brass Tubing. — Threads on Brass Pipe. — Rope or Square 

Tubing. 

Sect. 19. Brass tubing used for arms or fixtures shall 
be at least No. 18 standard gauge with full thread. All 
threads shall screw in at least T 5 ff of an inch. Rope or 
square tubing shall be brazed or soldered into fittings and 
distributers, or have a nipple brazed into the tubing. 

Cast Fittings. — Plugs of Cocks. — Stems of Fixtures. — 
L-Burner Cocks. 

Sect. 20. Cast fittings such as cocks, swing joints, 
double centres and nozzles shall be standard fittings, 
except for factory use, where extra heavy or mill fittings 
shall be used. The plugs of all cocks must be ground to a 
smooth and true surface for their entire length, be free 
from sandholes, have not less than f-inch bearing on all 
cast fittings and y£ of an inch on all turned fittings, have 
two flat sides on the end for the washer and have two nuts 
instead of a tailscrew. Stems of fixtures of two lights or 
more each shall be not less than \ of an inch iron-pipe 
size. L-burner cocks shall not be used at the end of 
chandelier arms, except in stores, churches, theatres, halls, 
and places of assembly or public resorts. 



306 Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 

Outlets for Gas-Ranges. 

Sect. 21. Outlets for gas-ranges shall have a diameter 
not less than that required for six burners, and all gas- 
ranges and heaters shall have a cock on the service-pipe. 
Ranges and heaters must be connected with right and left 
couplings, except in fireplace work where brass unions 
may be used. 

Pipes to be Laid above Timbers. 

Sect. 22. Pipes shall be laid above timbers unless 
otherwise permitted by the building commissioner. 

Second-Hand Gas-Piping not Allowed. 

Sect. 23. No second-hand gas-pipe shall be put into 
use in any building without the written permit of the 
building commissioner. 

Drops or Outlets. 

Sect. 24. Drops or outlets less than f of an inch in 
diameter shall not be left more than f of an inch below 
plastering, centre-piece, or woodwork, and other outlets 
shall not project more than f of an inch beyond plastering 
or woodwork. 

Outlets, How Fastened. 
Sect. 25. Fastening boards shall not be cut away to 
accommodate electric wires. All outlets shall be fastened 
according to the following diagrams: 

Weight of Gas-Pipes in Pounds per Foot. 
Sect. 26. Gas- pipes, all arms and stems of fixtures 
shall be of the kind classed as standard pipe, and shall 
weigh according to the following table: 



Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 



307 



Suse 
of Pipe, 
f-ineh pipe 
j-inch pipe 
f-inch pipe 
|-inch pipe 
f-inch pipe 
1-inch pipe 

1 J-inch pipe 
1 1-inch pipe 

2 -inch pipe 
2^-inch pipe 

3 -inch pipe 
3|-inch pipe 

4 -inch pipe 



Pounds 

Per Foot 

.24 

.42 

.56 

.85 

1.12 

1.67 

2.24 

2.68 

3.61 

5.74 

7.54 

9.00 

10.66 



No Gas Pipe to be Laid within Six Inches of Electric Wire. 
Sect. 27. No gas pipe shall be laid within 6 inches 
of an electric wire, except where the electric wire is in an 
insulated conduit. 

Spark or Self-Lighting Burners to be Tested with Mercury 

Test. 
Sect. 28. Wherever spark-lighting or self-lighting 
burners are used the mercury test shall be applied to the 
cocks. 

Gas Engines. 
Sect. 29. (a.) Gas engines must be connected to 
service from which no gas for illuminating purposes is 
used. 

Exhaust Pipes, 
(b.) Exhaust pipes shall be run to roof when possible, 
not come in contact with woodwork, and be properly- 
protected. 



308 Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 

Diaphragms and Bags. 
(c.) Diaphragms and bags must be on the same floor 
with engine and have a valve governing same. 

Size of Pipes Connecting Gas Engines, 
(d.) The sizes of pipes used in connecting gas engines 
will be as follows : 



lorse 


Feet 


Burners. 


Size 


Length 


Power. 


Per Hour. 




(in inches). 


(in feet) 


1 


40 


10 


3 

4 


50 


2 


80 


20 


3 

4 


50 


3 


120 


30 


1 


70 


4 


160 


40 


u 


100 


5 


200 


50 


11 


100 


6 


240 


60 


u 


100 


7 


280 


70 


1* 


150 


8 


320 


80 


1* 


150 


9 


360 


90 


If 


150 


10 


400 


100 


11 


150 


11 


440 


110 


2 


200 


12 


480 


120 


2 


200 


13 


520 


130 


2 


200 


14 


560 


140 


2 


200 


15 


600 


150 


2 


200 


16 


640 


160 


2 


200 


17 


680 


170 


2 


200 


18 


720 


180 


2 


200 


19 


760 


190 


2 


200 


20 


800 


200 


2 


200 


21 


840 


210 


2§ 


300 


22 


880 


220 


2| 


300 


23 


920 


230 


2* 


300 


24 


960 


240 


2| 


300 


25 


1,000 


250 


21 


300 


26 


1,040 


260 


2* 


300 


27 


1,080 


270 


2h 


300 



Laws Relating to Gas Fitting. 309 

Gas Not to be Turned on Until Piping and Fixtures 
Approved. 
Sect. 30. Gas shall not be turned on in any building 
until the piping and fixtures have been approved by the 
building commissioner. 

Connections with Gas Appliances. 
Sect. 31. No connection for any gas appliance shall be 
made to any gas fixture on which any part of the piping 
thereon shall be less than three-eighths inch. 

Rubber or Flexible Tubing not Allowed. 
Sect. 32. Any gas appliance having a controlling gas 
cock on the same will not be approved by the Building 
Department if connected with rubber or flexible tubing. 

Hose Cock and Independent Fitting. 
Sect. 33. No hose cock or independent fitting that 
controls the gas supply to any appliance shall be nearer 
than six inches to any other cock. 



CHAPTER 550, ACTS OF 1907. 
Gas Fitting — Definition of. 

Section 1 1 . Gas fitting shall mean the work of putting 
together any fittings, pipes, or fixtures or other appliances 
which are to contain gas for heat, light or power purposes 
and will be subject to inspection under existing laws. 



INDEX. 



INDEX. 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550, and Amendments thereto and General 
Laws, General and Special Acts relating to the erection, maintenance, 
inspection and occupation of buildings. 

References in this Index are to Pages, Sections and Paragraphs of 
the Law as amended and in force. 

Note. — When an asterisk (*) is placed before a figure, see, also, 
regulations of 1914 as amended in 1915 for escalators and elevators 
for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

When a dagger (f) is placed before a figure, see sects. 62 to 71, 
inclusive, chap. 143, General Laws. 

Where comma (,) is added it refers to distinct Pages, Sections, 
Paragraphs. 

Where dash (-) is used it refers to inclusive Pages, Sections, 
Paragraphs. 

A. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
ACCESS TO ROOFS. 

permanent means of, required 17, 123 12, 45 (6), (1) 

ACCIDENTS, ELEVATOR. 

to be reported to Building Commissioner, 114 * 38 15 

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS, 
necessary for safety of occupants, 

commissioner may order 11 8 4 

necessary for strength or stability of any 

structure, commissioner may order ... 11 8 4 

ADJOINING PROPERTY. 

commissioner may enter to secure unsafe 

building 7 5 1 

to be supported 16 12 2 

AGGREGATES, CONCRETE. 

cinders or slag may be used for, when. . . 26 14 11 

coarse, to consist of 26 14 11 

fine, to consist of 26 14 11 

311 



312 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
AIR DUCTS. 

of|fireproof material Ill 38 1 

"AIR PIPES" — PLUMBING. 

definition of 166 112 4 

requirements of . J 169, 171, 117, 118 (3), (1-2) 

AIR SPACES. 

in walls 91 26 1 

AISLES, ASSEMBLY ROOMS. 

must conform to law for theatres, when 

ordered by Building Commissioner .. . 162 107 1 

AISLES, PUBLIC BUILDING. 

must conform to requirements for 

theatres 162 107 1 

no obstructions or temporary geats in .. . 161 105 6 

persons not to remain in 161 105 6 

AISLES, THEATRE. 

persons not to remain in 165 111 5 

regulations for 152 88 1 

ALCOVES IN TENEMENT HOUSES. 

light and ventilation; opening into 136 63 2 

ALTERATION. 

construction, inspection and maintenance 

of buildings, chap. 284, 1910 219 

ALTERATION OF EXISTING BUILD- 
INGS. 

general regulations for 102-105 35 1-11 

ALTERATIONS. 

affecting stability for fire risk 104 35 9 

building to be examined when application 

is made 5 3 1 

fire protection for 97 32 17 

limit of cost of wooden building, in limits, 20 13 1 

permit required for 4, 16 1, 12 (6), (1) 

prohibitions relating to 20 13 1 

third-class buildings 13 9 2 

to conform to law for new buildings, to 

extent of alteration 20 12 15 

when practically produces a new building, 124 35 9 

ALTERATIONS AND REPAIRS. 

permits required for 16 12 1 

ALTERED. 

what buildings may be, for second-class 

habitation 102 35 1 



Index. - 313 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
ALTERED BUILDINGS. 

height not increased 102 35 3 

maximum number of stories 102 35 3 

ANCHORS. 

for floors 18 12 13 

for walls 90 24 1 

provision for 90 24 j 

"APARTMENT." 

in tenement houses defined 120 42 10 

APPEAL, BOARD OF. (See Board op 
Appeal.) 
appointment; terms; vacancies; quali- 
fications; decisions; reports, etc 7, 8 6,7 (1-3), (1-3) 

APPEAL FROM BOARD OF APPEAL, 185 129 7 
APPEALS. 

mode of procedure 8 7 1 

time limit 8 7 1 

APPLIANCES FOR POWER AND HEAT. 

hazardous buildings, regulations for 181 125 1-4 

APPLICATION FOR PERMIT. 

form of 4 1 7 

sworn to 5 1 9 

to bear name and address of owner 5 1 9 

ARC LIGHT. 

for emergency in existing theatres 164 111 3 

ARCHITECT. 

to submit calculation sheets 9 8 1 

AREA OF WOODEN BUILDINGS, 
not to be increased, in alteration, in some 

cases 20 13 1 

AREAS, RESTRICTION OF. 
First-Class Buildings. 
mercantile or storage above first floor, 
vertical openings to be enclosed with 

fireproof enclosures 71 17 3 

to be divided by brick walls to limit area 

to 10,000 square feet 72 17 4 

10,000 square feet may be exceeded, 

when 72 17 4 

Second-Class Buildings. 
mercantile or storage above first floor to 
be divided by brick walls to limit area 
to 10,000 square feet 72 17 5 



3i4 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
ART GALLERIES. 

may be placed above theatres 162 108 1 

ASHES 184 128 2 

receptacle, tenement house ■ 147 75 1 

receptacle to be provided in all buildings, 184 128 2 

ASHES AND GARBAGE. 

tenement house, receptacles for 147 . 75 1 

ASHLAR. 

when reckoned in thickness of wall 89 23 10 

ASPHALT SHINGLES 23 13 21 

ASSEMBLY, PLACES OF PUBLIC, 
capacity; must be fireproof; general re- 
quirements 160 105 1-7 

ASSEMBLY ROOMS. 

capacity, dimensions, etc 160 105 3, 4 

to conform to law requirements of thea- 
tres as to exists, stairways, exit lights, 
aisles and s eats , wh en ordered by Build- 
ing Commissioner 162 107 1 

ASSISTANTS, BUILDING DEPART- 
MENT. 

appointed by commissioner 3 1 3 

AUDITORIUMS, THEATRE. 

heating apparatus under 159 104 2 

seating regulations for 152 87 1 

AUTOMATIC DOORS. 

in air shafts 71,72 17 (3), (6) 

AWNINGS. 

projection, allowed 22 13 19 

AXIAL COMPRESSION. 

concentric compression on columns with 

longitudinal reinforcement only 52 15 60 

concentric compression on columns 
when their length does nor exceed ten 
diameters of the core 52 15 61 

B. 

BAKERIES AND FAT-BOILING. 

prohibited in tenement houses; excep- 
tions 128 53 1 

BAKERIES IN TENEMENT HOUSES. 

fireproof ed 128 

BALCONIES 88 

tenement house, requirements of 121 



53 


1 


23 


9 


43 


3-4 



Index. 315 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
"BASEMENT." 

definition of 16 11 13 

BASEMENTS. 

in tenement houses to be sprinkler ed, 

when and how 124 45 4 

in tenement houses to be sprinklered, 

when and how 124 45 4A 

in tenement houses to be sprinklered, 

when and how 124 45 4B 

tenement house, requirements for,. . . .139-142 68 1-6, A-H 

tenement house, rooms in, when exempt 

from strict compliance of this act 142 68 14H 

BASE PLATES. 

how to be figured . 40 14 63 

BASES — CAST IRON. 

regulations for use of 30 14 33 

BASIS OF DESIGN. , 

calculations to be for working stresses and 

safe loads 42 15 18 

See Assumptions A, B, C, D, E 42 15 19-23 

BAY WINDOWS. 

projection allowed 22 13 19 

who determines projection 22 13 19 

BAYS. 

to be treated as wall bays, when dis- 
continuous 58 15 92 

flat slab, supported by beam or wall, 

may be reinforced, when and how .... 58 15 93 
bending in exterior concrete columns sup- 
porting flat slab floors, formula 58 15 94 

for floors, half acts below and half acts 

above slab 59 15 95 

for roof, whole bending acts below slab. . 59 15 95 

BEACON STREET. 

height of buildings on, chap. 543, 1902. . 202 
BEAMS. 

bending moment, positive when subject 

to other than uniform loads 46 15 34 

continuous or restrained, span length ... 42 15 24 

method for computation for span of ... . 39 14 59 

parallel to main reinforcement, shall be 

designed for bending moments, how . . 46 15 35 

simply supported, span length 42 15 24 

steel, tied lengthwise 91 27 1 



316 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BEAMS, 
supporting rectangular slabs, when rein- 
forced in both directions, — proportion 

of load how determined 47 15 39 

to be considered restrained at ends, when, 46 15 33 

wooden timbers in walls of second-class 

buildings 101 34 1 

BEAMS — EXTREME FIBER STRESS, 

shall be reduced, when and how 35 14 45 

BEAMS — RECTANGULAR. 

(a) formulas 62-63 15 111-115 

(6) T — formulas 63-64 15 116-127 

(c) reinforced for compression — formu- 
las 65-66 15 128-135 

BEAMS AND CHANNELS. 

acting as skewbacks for arches used 

in pairs a 68 16 5 

BEAMS AND GIRDERS. 

steel, relating to 68 16 3-5, 7 

to be anchored 68 16 3 

to have bearing plates 68 16 3 

BEARING. 

when compression is applied to a portion 

of concrete surface, etc 51 15 59 

BEARING PLATES. 

how to be figured 40 14 63 

BEARING WALL, BRICK. 

height of, allowable 34 14 41 

concrete, plain, height of, allowable 34 14 41 

BENDING. 

compression on extreme fibre 52 15 62 

slab floors, how determined 48 15 45 

A — strips, mean 56 15 78 

B — strips, mean 58 15 78 

strips — span, length of 56 15 78 

strips — A and B — bending moment, 

table 56 15 79 

BENDING IN SUPPORTING 
MEMBERS, 
beams or floor slabs when fixed or re- ?■ 
strained at a support, the restraining 
structure (column, wall, etc.) must be 
proportioned to resist stresses 48 15 45 



Index. 317 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BENDING MOMENT — FOOTINGS. 

bond stress, in steel, not to exceed 54 15 73 

effective area of concrete and steel to 

resist 54 15 73 

in rectangular isolated columns 54 15 73 

supporting a round column or pier 54 15 73 

BENDING MOMENT — SLABS. 

supported on four sides, distribution of 

load 51 15 57 

BENDING MOMENTS. 

uniformly distributed load, in beam and 

slab, reinforced in one direction only. .43 15 25 

See Assumptions A, B^ C, D, E, F, G . . . 43-44 15 26-32 

BENT BARS. 

negative reinforcement in A strips 59 15 99 

negative reinforcement in B strips 59 15 99 

positive reinforcement in A strips 59 15 99 

reinforcing for positive bending, not to 

be bent up 59 15 99 

relative to reinforcement in A strips .... 59 15 99 

relative to reinforcement in B strips. ... 59 15 99 

stress in concrete due to bending in each 

strip, how determined 60 15 100 

exception — ■ negative bending in A strips 

when dropped panels used 60 15 100 

BLOCKS — BUILDING. 

absorption allowable per cent of 26 14 10 

concrete, how made, compression 

strength 26 14 7 

meaning of 26 14 6 

terra cotta, crushing strength 26 14 8 

terra cotta, working stress of 26 14 9 

BLOW-OFF PIPES. 

how connected 179 122 4 

BOARD OF APPEAL. 

annual report 11 8 3 

appointed by Mayor, on nominations. . . 7 6 1 

appeals from, to be heard in equity 

courts 185 129 7 

Building Department, Revised Ordi- 
nances 1914, chap. 8 288 1 

composition, etc 7 6 1 



318 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BOARD OF APPEAL. 

decision of, to be in writing 8 6 3 

to specify variations allowed 8,9 7 1,2 

applicants to have copy of 9 7 2 

summary of, in annual report 11 8 3 

hearings on appealed cases 8 7 

may vary provisions of building law .... 8 7 

members of, how appointed 7 6 

terms of 7 6 

compensation of 7 6 

not to act when interested 7 6 

to be Boston men 8 6 2 

report, annual, to mayor 11 8 3 

to contain summary of decisions 11 8 3 

to be printed separately 11 8 3 

to hear appeals on setting engines and 

dynamos 182 125 2,3 

to approve egress for large areas 72 17 4 

vacancies in, how filled 7 6 1 

who may appeal to 8 7 1 

BOARD OF EXAMINERS. 

board to determine qualifications, Re- 
vised Ordinances 1914, chap. 8 289 6 

board to establish classes, Revised Ordi- 
nances 1914, chap. 8 288 4 

board to issue licenses, Revised Ordi- 
nances 1914, chap. 8 290 8 

Building Department, Revised Ordi- 
nances 1914, chap. 8 288 3 

examinations, Revised Ordinances 1914, 

chap. 8 288 4 

license may be revoked or suspended, 

Revised Ordinances 1914, chap. 8 291 9 

no permit to build or alter to issue 
unless licensed builder signs application, 
Revised Ordinances 1914, chap. 8 289 6 

penalty, Revised Ordinances 1914, 

chap. 8.... 292 11 

qualifications requisite to take charge of 
work, Revised Ordinances 1914, chap. 
8 289 5 

work to stop unless licensed builder is 
in charge, Revised Ordinances 1914, 
chap. 8 292 10 



Index. 319 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BOARD OF EXAMINERS OF GAS 
FITTERS. 

not affected by this act 14 10 2 

BOARD OF HEALTH. 

may limit number of occupants in any 

building 183 128 1 

not affected by this act 14 10 2 

powers of, defined 183, 184 128 1, 3 

BOARD OF PARK COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this act . 14 10 2 

BOARD OF STREET COMMIS- 
SIONERS. 

not affected by this act 14 10 2 

BOARDS, CITY, CERTAIN. 

authority of, not curtailed by this act. 14 10 2 

BOILER. 

ceiling over, to be wire lathed and plas- 
tered 98 32 25 

permit required for placing 181 125 1 

smoke pipe to be 12 inches below ceiling, 98 32 25 

BOILER — RANGE. 

marking, sale and installation of, chap. 

142, General Laws 258, 259 17, 18 

BOILERS AND FURNACES. 

hazardous buildings, hearing on 182 125 3 

not to be placed on wooden floors 21 13 12 

or under public ways 22 13 18 

or under certain parts of theatres 159, 164 104, 111 (2), (2) 

BOND. 

stress between concrete and steel bars . . 53 15 67 

stress between concrete and approved 

deformed steel bars 53 15 67 

stress between concrete and drawn wire, 53 15 67 

BONDING. 

of walls at corners 90 24 1 

BONDING BRICKWORK. 

provision for 90 25 1 

BOOTHS, VOTING. 

not affected by this act 13 10 1 

BORING OF SOIL. 

may be required 77 20 19 

BORINGS. 

required, when, how, number, location, 77 20 19 



320 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BOULEVARDS. 

building lines on, chap. 82, General Laws, 247 37 

BOWDOIN STREET. 

height of buildings on, chap. 543, 1902, 202 
BRACING, WIND. 

provision for 39 14 56 

BRACKETS. 

on exterior columns, to be provided, 

when 59 15 96 

on reinforced concrete buildings to 

transmit load from floor to columns . . 49 15 49 

such columns to be computed 49 15 50 

under steel beams, fireproof ed 94 32 1 

when used, span length 42 15 24 

BRICK. 

quality and constituents of 25 14 2 

absorption test, requirements of 25 • 14 4 

hard, ultimate compressive strength .... 25 14 3 

wet, compressive strength of 25 14 3 

BRICK BEARING WALLS. 

height of unsupported, not to exceed 

twelve times its least dimension 34 14 41 

BRICK PIERS. 

height of, not to exceed twelve times its 

least dimension 34 14 41 

BRICK WALLS. 

flat slab supported by thickness of wall . 60 15 104 

BRICKWORK. 

stresses of . 32 14 39 

BRICKWORK — BONDING. 

brick facing in skeleton frame building 
when not more than 4 inches in 

thickness 90 25 2 

brick walls, to be bonded every eighth 

course 90 25 1 

or a full heading every eighth course. ... 90 25 1 

may be bonded by metal ties 90 25 2 

provision for 90 25 1 

BRICKWORK, BONDING. 

such ties to be of galvanized wire 90 25 2 

when faced with brick face, in every 
eighth course, every other brick shall 
be a full header 90 25 



Index. 321 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BRIDGES, PUBLIC HIGHWAY AND 
RAILWAY, QUAYS, ETC. 

not affected by this act 13 10 1 

BUILDERS. 

licensed, to control building operations, 

chap. 8, R. O, 1914 

BUILDINGS. 

allowed within building limits 12 9 1 

may be vacated or torn down, by Health 

Commissioner, 1897, chap. 219 198 1 

public parks, 1889, chap. 129 195 1 

vacated, may be, when." 6 4 2 

BUILDING BLOCKS. 

absorption, allowable per cent of 26 14 10 

relative to and meaning of 26 14 6-9 

BUILDING COMMISSIONER. 

appointment of . ." 3 1 1 

authority and powers of 3-5, 6 1, 4, (1-9), (1, 2) 

may appoint deputy; powers of 3 1 4 

may enter any building or premises 186 129 10 

may require duplicate plans to be kept 

at building 4 1 5 

may require plans and specifications .... 4 1 5 

may stop work for violation of permits. .41 8 

may order unsafe buildings vacated 6 4 2 

may take measures for public safety. ... 6, 16 5, 12 (1), (3) 
not to dispense with tenement house re- 
strictions 148 76 1 

qualifications required of 3 1 1 

salary of, fixed by City Council 3 1 1 

term of office 3 1 1 

to approve plumbing of chemical labora- 
tories 171 117 5 

to approve elevators 112 38 8 

to approve stable drainage. 171 117 6 

to examine all buildings in course of con- 
struction 5 2 1 

to examine buildings dangerous, damaged 

or unsafe 5,6 3,4 (1), (1) 

to keep records of violations 5 2 1 

to have charge of Building Department .31 1 

to post notice of unsafe elevators 112 38 9 

to submit annual report to Mayor 4 1 5 



322 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 



BUILDING CONSTRUCTION. (See 
Separate Subjects.) 

height, excavation, cellars, walls, etc., 

regulations for 73-74, 74 

BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

commissioner to be in charge of 

how appointed 

term of office 

qualifications required 

salary of, fixed by City Council 

may appoint inspectors, employees and 
assistants 

clerk to keep records, open to public. . . . 

employees to retain positions until re- 
moval or discharge 

inspectors, qualifications required of ... . 

commissioner, salary, term, etc 

may enter buildings and premises. . . . 

not to engage in other business 

not to furnish material 

not to be financially interested 

present, to hold office until removal or 
discharge 

records to be open to public inspection. . 

Revised Ordinances 1914, chap. 8 

to enforce building laws in Boston here- 
tofore enforced by District Police, 1910, 
chap. 284 

under charge of commissioner 

BUILDING EGRESS. 

to be satisfactory before occupancy 

BUILDING FOUNDATION. 

when resting only in part on solid ledge, 
BUILDING INSPECTION. 

commissioner, or inspector, to examine 
all buildings in course of construction, 
BUILDING LAW, 1907. 

approved June 22 

in effect August 1 

exceptions and exemptions from pro- 
visions of 

equity courts given power to enforce 

law courts given jurisdiction in law cases, 



3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

3 
4 

3 
3 
3 
186 
3 
3 
3 

3 

4 

288 



219 
3 

17 

77 



18, 19 U-2), (1) 



129 



12 



20 



3 
5 

2 
3 

1 
10 
4 
4 
4 

2 
5 



18 



187 


134 


1 


187 


134 


1 


13 


10 


1 


185 


129 


1-6 


186 


130 


1 



Index. 323 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BUILDING LAW, 1907. 

not to deprive certain city boards and 

officers of power 14 10 2 

not to deprive other departments, etc., 

of authority already held 14 10 2 

officials may enter building and premises, 186 129 10 

■violators of, may be fined $500 187 132 2 

BUILDING LAWS. 

Boston, to be enforced by Building De- 
partment heretofore enforced by Dis- 
trict Police, 1910, chap. 284 219 1 

BUILDING LIMITS. • 

City Council may change, extend and 

define 12 9 1 

dwelling in, may be of third class, when, 12 9 1 

dwelling in, may be composite, when ... 12 9 1 

dwelling in, third-class, not to exceed two 

families 12 9 1 

further restrictions relative to 12 9 1 

outline of chap. 41, R. O. 1914 292 

present, to continue until changed 12 9 1 

Revised Ordinances of 1914, chap. 41 . . . 242 1 

BUILDING LINE. 

in public ways, General Laws, chap. 82. 247 37 

BUILDING LINE ON HIGHWAYS. 

restriction as to buildings, 1893, chap. 462, 195 1 

BUILDING LINES. 

established by Park Commission 197 

may be established, General Laws, chap. 

82 247 37 

on parkways, boulevards, etc 247 37 

prohibitive relative to building when 
same are established, General Laws, 

chap. 82 247 37 

BUILDING, LINES ESTABLISHED. 196 

BUILDING MATERIALS. {See Sepa- 
rate Subjects.) 
combustible, not to be kept in habitable 

buildings 183 126 1 

commissioner has power to reject 21 14 1 

quality of mortar, cement and concrete . 24 14 1 

BUILDING, OCCUPATION OF. 

not unless means of egress are provided, 17 12 7 



324 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BUILDING, OPERATIONS. 

control of, chap. 8, R. O. 1914 

BUILDING PERMITS. {See, also, Per- 288 

MITS.) 

application for 5 1 9 

how and by whom granted 4 1 7 

if terms of, are violated commissioner 

may stop work 4 1 8 

must be on approved printed forms 4 1 7 

requirements for 5 1 9 

BUILDING PROHIBITIONS, 
list of general 20-24 13 1-22 

"BUILDING, STORY OF." 

definition of 16 11 12 

BUILDINGS. (See Hazardous Build- 
ings.) 

classes of, defined 14-15 11 1-4 

height of , defined 15 11 8 

height of, special commission appointed 
to determine and revise boundaries of 
districts A and B, Special Act 1915, 
chap. 333 228 

inspection during construction 5 2 1 

outside finish of 18 12 11 

not covered by law 13 10 1 

not affected by fire limits 12 9 1 

for manufacturing purposes outside lim- 
its, maximum height 73 17 8 

on same lot with tenement house 136 62 1 

in public parks, chap. 129, 1889 195 

height of, in Boston, chap. 333, 1904, 

and chap. 383, 1905 205, 211 

height of, on Copley square, chap. 452, 

1898 199 

height of, on Rutherford avenue, chap. 

416, 1907 218 

construction, alteration, inspection and 

maintenance of, chap. 284, 1910 219 

burned, dilapidated, dangerous, nui- 
sances, General Laws, chap. 139 249, 250 1, 3 

occupation or use of, not to be changed 

without permit from commissioner. ... 107 36 5 



Index. 329 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
CHIMNEYS. 

floor timber not to be within 2 inches of, 21 13 10 

restrictions relating to 21 13 7, 8, 10 

thickness of walls 18 12 9 

how much to be corbelled 21 13 7 

hung from 12-inch wall 21 13 8 

studding, distance from 21 13 11 

firestopping of 97 32 21 

CHURCHES. 

use of cinematograph in, regulation for, 
moving picture exhibition in, Mayor to 

grant permit for, chap. 280, 1913 222 1 

CINDER CONCRETE. 

composed of 27 14 15 

CINDERS, 
may be used for concrete aggregate, 

when 26 14 11 

composition of 27 14 15 

CINEMATOGRAPH, 
regulation for use of General Laws, chap. 

143 278 72 

operation of General Laws, chap. 143, 278 72 

CIRCULAR HOLLOW STEEL COLUMNS. 

filled with concrete, load allowance 50 15 53 

CIRCULAR WROUGHT-IRON 
COLUMNS. 

filled with concrete, load allowance 50 15 53 

CITY COUNCIL. 

to fix salary of Building Commissioner. .31 1 

CITY OFFICERS, CERTAIN. 

authority of, not curtailed by this act. 14 10 2 

CLASSES OF BUILDINGS. 

definition of 14-15 11 1-4 

CLASSIFICATION. 

of buildings 70-73 17 1-8 

CLAY. 

soft, maximum allowable bearing value 

in foundations 75 20 4 

medium stiff, maximum allowable bear- 
ing value in foundations 75 20 4 

hard, definition of 76 20 13 



330 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
CLAY. 

soft, definition of 76 20 16 

medium, definition of 76 20 15 

CLEAN-OUTS, FERRULES, ETC. 

required diameter and weight of 173-174 121 2-5 

CLERK, BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

duties of, defined 4 1 5 

CLOCKS, 
projecting into ways, permit for, General 

Laws, chap. 85 248 8 

CLOSETS. 

under staircases, restrictions 22 13 17 

COLUMNS. 

cast-iron, restrictions 30 14 31, 32 

cast-iron, parts bolted 92 27 4 

cast-iron, strength 30 14 30 

exterior, isolated, fireproofing 95 32 7 

reinforced concrete, rules for 48-49 15 47, 48 

to be fireproof ed and how 94 32 1-6 

reduction of floor loads 108, 109 36 7-13 

wheel guards on 97 32 18 

steel, parts riveted 91 27 1 

steel, strength, formulas 35-36 14 44-47 

wood, strength 38-39 14 52-54 

to be of masonry or metal, when 19 12 15 

loaded eccentrically 37 14 49 

main reinforcement to be protected 41, 42 15 14, 15 

maximum effective area of 48 15 47 

longitudinal reinforcement of 48 15 47 

exterior, reinforcement how propor- 
tioned 49 15 48 

strength of, how computed, when case of, 

shifted 37 14 50 

hollow, steel circular, filled with con- 
crete, load allowance 50 15 53 

wrought-iron, circular filled with con- 
crete, load allowance 50 15 53 

with longitudinal reinforcement only, 

steel area of 50 15 53 

longitudinal reinforcement bars, secured 

against displacement, how 50 15 53 

with longitudinal reinforcement, when 

allowed stresses given in this act 50 15 54 



Index. 331 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
COLUMNS, 
hoop or spirals to be united so as to pro- 
duce full strength 50 15 54 

footings symmetrical, concentric, to be 

designed, how 54 15 70 

exterior bracket to be provided, when. . . 59 15 95 
carrying masonry, thickness of fire pro- 
tection 94 32 6 

carrying floors, thickness of fire pro- 
tection 94 32 6 

carrying roof, thickness of fire protec- 
tion 94 32 6 

COLUMNS, CAST-IRON. 

use of, when not permitted 30 14 31 

to be faced at ends, etc 30 14 31 

when hollow, regulations for use of 30 14 32 

use of, prohibited in garages 37 14 49 

COLUMNS, CONCRETE. 

to be reinforced, when 48 15 47 

unsupported height of 48 15 47 

COLUMNS, STEEL. 

ends to be machined faced 68 16 6 

or full riveted connections provided 68 16 6 

COLUMNS AND WALLS. 

how poured, when to be poured 41 15 8-10 

COMBINATION FLOORS. 

concrete floors, with permanent blocks, 

to conform to this act 50 15 55 

not to be figured as taking stress 50 15 55 

slab, cast monolithic, considered T sec- 
tion, when 50 15 55 

flush ceiling, fireproofing, same as for 

slabs 50 15 55 

suspended metal lath and plaster ceiling, 

fireproofing, same as for slabs 50 15 55 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERLA.LS. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 183 126 1 

storage of 183 126 1 

COMBUSTIBLE ROOFING. 

not permitted 24 13 21 

COMMISSIONER, 
experience required, appointment, etc. . . 3 1 1 

salary, how fixed 3 1 1 



332 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
COMMISSIONER. 

appoints inspectors, employees, etc 3 1 3 

power to reject materials 24 14 1 

in charge of department 3 1 1 

may abate as a nuisance a building in 

violation of law 187 132 1 

may placard buildings: 

(a) not provided with sufficient egress, 6 4 1 
(6) where violations of building law 

exist 6 4 1 

(c) unsafe or dangerous buildings .... 6 4 1 

may allow "equivalent" methods 10 8 2 

may appoint elevator inspectors, one 

for each 1,000 elevators 115 38 19 

may secure unsafe buildings 6 5 1 

may support at dangerous excavations 74 19 1 

may order unsafe building vacated 6 4 2 

may require additional safeguards on 

elevators 115 38 18 

may require alterations to conform to 

rules for new buildings 104 35 9 

may require borings for foundations 77 20 19 

may require fire damage repairs to con- 
form to rules for new buildings 104 35 9 

may require inspector of piling 81 21 6 

may require more exits in theatres 156 99 1 

may require oath to application 5 1 9 

may require plans and specifications .... 4 1 5 

may require tests 11 8 5 

may require tests of cast-iron columns 24 14 1 

may require tests of materials 24 14 1 

may require inspector on concrete work. 29 14 27 

to determine necessary egress 17 12 7 

to determine necessity for temporary 

floors 118 41 1 

to determine quality of materials 24 14 1 

to determine requirements not covered 

by this act 10 8 2 

to fix floor loads not specified. 107 36 3 

to fix number gas outlets in theatres. .. . 157 99 4 

to grant permits 4 1 6 

to print Board of Appeal report 11 8 3 

to inspect unsafe and dangerous build- 
ings 6 4 1 



5 


2,3 


(1), (1^ 


4 


1 


8 


102 


35 


4 



Index. 333 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
COMMISSIONER. 

to issue permits for alteration and repair 

of wooden buildings 20 13 1 

to issue permits for hazardous buildings, 181 125 1 

to issue permits for engines, boilers, etc., 181 125 1 

to issue permits for plumbing 168 114 1 

to issue permits in accordance with 

decisions of Board of Appeal 9 7 2 

to make record of violation 5 2 1 

to notify owners or agents of unsafe and 

dangerous buildings 6 4 1 

not to waive tenement requirements. . . . 148 76 1 

or inspector to examine all buildings be- 
ing constructed or altered, dangerous 
or damaged, or when permit has been 
requested 

powers in case of violation. . . 

to pass on exits in altered habitations. 

to pass on exposure in altered habita- 
tions 103 35 

to pass on securing of seats in halls, 
etc 

to post notice of dangerous elevators . . . 

to prepare sketch of typical plumbing. . 

to prescribe conditions for maintaining 

boilers and furnaces . 181 125 1 

to prescribe conditions for certain build- 
ings outside fire limits 73 17 8 

to prescribe conditions for temporary 

structures 12 9 1 

to prescribe conditions for certain walls 

in steel frame buildings 91, 92 27 2, 3 

to prescribe fireproofing of steel in alter- 
ations 97 32 17 

to prescribe maximum floor loads, exist- 
ing buildings 107 36 4 

to submit annual report 4 1 5 

to take measures for public safety 16 12 3 

to approve drawings for all work 16 12 1 

to approve drawings for egress 17 12 7 

to approve elevators before used 112 * 38 8 

to approve egress for extra large areas 72 17 4 

to approve plumbing, chemical labora- 
tories 171 117 5 



161 


105 





112 


*38 


9 


172 


118 


3 



334 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
COMMISSIONER. 

to approve plumbing, stables 171 117 6 

to approve small openings in walls, etc.. 93 31 1 
to approve supports for vent shaft sky- 
light 128 52 1 

to fix grade for cutting piles 82 21 17 

to decide if piling is necessary 77 20 19 

to determine cause and remedy for 

elevator accidents 114 * 38 • 15 

to record examinations to raise, enlarge, 

alter or repair 5 3 1 

COMMISSIONER, BUILDING. (See 
Building Commissioner.) 
appointment, qualifications, term, salary, 

etc 3 1 1 

COMMISSIONER, FIRE. 

not affected by this act 14 10 2 

COMMISSIONER OF WIRES. 

not affected by this act 14 10 2 

provisions of sect. 7 apply to 9 7 3 

governed by decisions of Board of Ap- 
peal 9 7 3 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

buildings of, exempt 13 10 1 

COMMON NUISANCE. 

General Laws, chap. 139 249-250 1-3 

COMPOSITE BUILDINGS. 

fire protection and exterior finish of 15 11 4 

definition of 15 11 4 

COMPRESSION. 

on extreme fiber, bending 52 15 62 

COMPRESSION AXIAL, 
concentric compression on columns, 

with longitudinal reinforcement only. . 52 15 60 

when their length does not exceed ten 

diameters of curve 52 15 61 

COMPRESSION FLANGE. 

riveted plate girders 35 14 45 

COMPRESSION, MEMBERS. 

cast iron, centrally loaded, safe load ... . 37 14 51 

timber, regulation for 38 14 53 

timber, centrally loaded safe load 39 14 54 



Index. - 335 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 

COMPRESSION STRENGTH. 

working stresses, basis for design 51 15 56 

COMPUTATIONS. 

for span of beams, girders, trusses 39 14 59 

of materials, method of v 39-40 14 58-63 

steel construction, method of 67 16 1 

COMPUTATIONS. 

methods of 24-40 14 1-63 

CONCRETE. 

reinforced concrete piling 79-85 21 19-27 

capping for wood piles 79, 80 21 2,3 

composition and strength 28 14 21 

inspector to make daily- reports 29 14 27 

reinforced, composition 24 14 1 

specifications to be submitted 9 8 1 

meaning of 28 14 21 

reinforced, meaning of 40 15 1 

use of, immediately after mixing 29 14 26 

forms, to remain until safe to remove. . . 29 14 26 
inspection of, by inspectors approved by 

commissioner 29 14 27 

work to stop at point of low shear 41 15 11 

rules for pouring 41 15 8-10 

stresses of 33 14 40 

working stresses, one year old, com- 
pressive strength of 51 15 56 

CONCRETE AGGREGATE. 

composition of 26 14 11 

cinders or slag may be used for, when. . . 26 14 11 

CONCRETE BEARING PIERS, PLAIN, 
unsupported laterally not to exceed in 

height six times its least dimension 34 14 41 

CONCRETE BEARING WALL, PLAIN, 
unless properly braced not to exceed in 

height six times its least dimension .. . 34 14 41 

CONCRETE BLOCKS. 

how made, compressive strength 26 14 7 

CONCRETE BUILDINGS. 

reinforced, may be of supported struc- 
tural steel or of cast-iron columns. ... 49 15 49 
said support to be fireproof ed 49 15 49 

CONCRETE CINDER SLABS. 

thickness of, span of 47 15 43 



336 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
CONCRETE COLUMNS. 

to be reinforced, when 48 15 47 

maximum effective area of 48 15 47 

longitudinal reinforcement of 48 15 47 

unsupported height of 48 15 47 

CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION. 

live and dead load 11 8 

CONCRETE FLOORS. 

with hollow blocks, to conform to this 

act 50 15 55 

not to be figured in taking stress 50 15 55 

CONCRETE FOOTINGS. 

not to be less than 12 inches in thickness, 75 20 24 

may be stepped or battered, how 75 20 24 

CONCRETE PIERS, 
to be reinforced, when 48 15 47 

CONCRETE PILES. 

pre-cast, shall be properly designed and 

reinforced 83 21 19, 20 

longitudinal reinforcing, amount em- 
ployed 83 21 19,20 

to be thoroughly cured before driving. . . 83 21 19, 20 

diameter or lateral dimension of 83 21 19,20 

length of 83 21 19,20 

allowable load on, when driven to ledge 

or hard pan 83 21 19, 20 

pre-cast, to be protected against damage 

in driving 79 21 21 

metal shoe to be provided, when driven 

to ledge 79 21 21 

cast in place, how made, placed and 

spaced 84 21 22 

average diameter of such pile 84 21 22 

length of such pile 84 21 22 

allowable load on such pile, when driven, 

to ledge or hard pan 84 21 22 

general provisions, metal tubes, shall not 

be considered as reinforcement 84 21 23 

when considered as reinforcement 84 21 23 

safe load, when not driven to ledge, shall 

be determined by commissioner 84 21 24 

tests, at expense of owner, may be re- 
quired by commissioner 84 21 24 



Index. 337 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
CONCRETE PILES. 

load test to be made in accordance with 

regulations of commissioner 85 21 25 

load in excess of one half test load not 

allowed 84 21 24 

tests to be made under supervision of 

commissioner 85 21 25 

test results to be filed with commissioner, 85 21 25 

load on concrete pile not to exceed thirty 

tons 84 21 24 

load, increments of, not to exceed 10,000 

pounds each . . . .' 85 21 25 

successive increments, time between. ... 85 21 25 

test loads, to be applied at capping grade, 85 21 25 

concrete piles, capping of, with masonry- 
only allowable 85 21 27 

CONCRETE, REINFORCED. 

formulas 60, 67 15 105, 143 

CONSTRUCTION. 

alteration, inspection and maintenance 
of buildings, chap. 284, 1910, building 
department to enforce building laws 
in Boston heretofore enforced by dis- 
trict police. 219 

general 73,74 18 1,2 

permit for .- . 4 1 6 

to be supported 16 12 2 

CONSTRUCTION, BUILDING. (See 
Separate Subjects.) 

certain first and second class buildings . . 70 17 1,2 

equivalents may be allowed by commis- 
sioner 10 8 2 

CONSTRUCTION, FIREPROOF PAR- 
TITIONS. 

to be independently supported at each 

floor 101 33 10 

to be securely fastened to ceilings 101 33 10 

to be stiffened with steel uprights, etc. . . 101 33 10 

not to rest on wood flooring 101 33 10 

need not extend above ceiling of top 

story, when 101 33 10 

CONTINUOUS BEAMS. 

subject to other than uniform loads, 

positive bending moment of 46 15 34 



338 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
CONTRACTOR. 

to submit calculation sheet 9 8 1 

to sign calculation sheets 9 8 1 

CONTROL, 
building operations, by licensed builders, 

chap. 8, R. O. 1914 288 

of exits, etc., lightsin theatres, 156-157, 163-165 99,111 (1-6), (1-5 

of ventilators in theatres 151, 165 86, 111 (1-2), (7) 

COPLEY SQUARE, 
height of buildings on and near (90 feet) 

1898, chap. 452 199 1 

CORBELLING. 

of walls for joists (8-inch walls) 101 34 1 

CORBELS, CHIMNEY. 

restrictions relating to 21 13 7 

"CORNER LOT." 

definition of 119 42 4 

CORNICE. 

of second-class buildings, material and 

construction 92 29 1 

CORNICE STONE. 

to balance 92 29 

projection allowed 22 13 19 

CORRECTION, HOUSE OF. 

not affected by this act 13 10 

COTTON, PAPER STOCK, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings . . . 183 126 

COURT, MUNICIPAL. 

given jurisdiction in law proceedings. .. . 186 130 

COURTHOUSE, SUFFOLK COUNTY. 

not affected by this act 13 10 

COURTS, AREA. 

theatres must have open 149 79, 80 1, 

COURTS, EQUITY. 

given jurisdiction to enforce provisions 

of this act 185, 186 129, 131 (1-6), (1 

"COURTS," TENEMENT HOUSE. 

drained 147 74 

definition of 119 42 

general regulations for 132 57 

inner, provision for 134 59 

not to have roof or skylight 132 57 



Index. 339 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
" COURTS." TENEMENT HOUSES. 

outer, provision for 133 58 1-3 

vent, regulations for 135 60 1 

CUBICLES, 
public lodging houses, prohibited, General 

Laws, chap. 140, 251 33 

CURTAIN WALLS. 

in steel frame buildings, thickness 91 27 2 

single family dwelling, thickness of 89 23 12 

in all other buildings, thickness of 89 23 12 

not to exceed in height thirty times its 
thickness, when more than 20 feet 

in length ' 89 23 12 

may be less thickness, when 89 23 12 

CURTAINS. 

theatres must have fireproof 150 84 1 

CUTTING. 

for any purpose, not to reduce strength 
of part of structure below standard 

required by law 39 14 57 

CUTTING FOR PIPING, 
restrictions concerning 39 14 57 

D. 

DAMAGED BUILDINGS. 

commissioner to examine, and make 

record 5,6 3,4 (1), (1) 

may be restored to original condition or 

conform to rules for new buildings. . . . 104 35 9 

DAMPPROOFING. 

cellar bottom 85 22 1 

DANGEROUS BUILDING. 

to be placarded 6 4 1 

DANGEROUS BUILDINGS, 
commissioner to examine, and make 

record 5 3 1 

Gen. Laws, chap. 139 249-250 1-3 

DANGEROUS BUSINESS. 

in tenements 129 54 1 

DANGEROUS OR UNSAFE BUILDINGS, 
to be inspected and owner notified, no- 
tice posted; owner to secure or remove, 6 4,5 (1), (1 
power of commissioner 6 5 1 



340 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
DEAD LOADS. 

weights to be assumed 105 36 1 

DECISIONS, BOARD OF APPEAL. 

applicants to have copy 9 7 2 

must be in writing 8 6 3 

specify variations, etc , 9 7 2 

DEFECTS. 

timber to be free from 31 14 35 

DEFINITIONS. 

certain words relating to tenement 

houses 118-120 42 1-11 

composite building 15 11 4 

masonry 15 11 5 

piers 31 14 37 

(a) solid ledge 76 20 5 

(6) shale 76 20 6 

(c) hardpan 76 20 7 

(d) gravel 76 20 8 

(e) sand, compact 76 20 9 

(/) sand, loose 76 20 10 

(g) sand, medium grained 76 20 11 

(h) sand, fine grained 76 20 12 

(i) hard clay 76 20 13 

0') disintegrated ledge rock 76 20 14 

(k) medium clay 76 20 15 

(I) soft clay 76 20 16 

town, shall include city, General Laws, 

chap. 4 246 7 

city included in town, General Laws, 

chap. 4 246 7 

DEMOLITION. 

permit for 4 1 6 

DENSE. 

definition of — classes of timber 31 14 36 

DEPARTMENT, BUILDING. 

organization of 3 1 1-4 

DEPTH. 

roof slabs 47 15 41 

DEPUTY BUILDING COMMISSIONER. 

appointment of 3 1 4 

powers of 3 1 4 



Index. 325 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BUILDINGS. (See Hazakdous Build- 
ings.) 
prohibitions relating to alterations of 

wooden buildings 21 13 2 

use or occupation of 107 36 5 

wooden, within building limits, may be 

altered or enlarged when and how ... . 13 9 2 

wooden, within building limits, com- 
missioner may grant permit to in- 
crease height or ground area when 

at intersection of two streets 20 13 1 

moving, wooden buildings 21 13 2 

repairs, wooden buildings 20 13 1 

requirements for all 16-19 12 1-15 

commissioner may enforce 16 12 3 

restriction of area 72 17 4, 5 

record of violations to be kept 5 2 1 

erected since August 1, 1907, shall be 
considered as erected in conformity to 
law, when and how, Special Act 1915, 

chap. 254 226 

appliance for heat and power in 1S1-182 125 1-4 

hearings on 181 125 1 

must have permits 181 125 1 

BUILDINGS, ALTERATION OF EX- 
ISTING. 

general regulations for 102-105 35 1-11 

BUILDINGS, CERTAIN, OUTSIDE 
LIMITS, 
commissioner, to prescribe conditions for, 73 17 8 

BUILDINGS, CLASSIFICATION OF. 

first and second classes 70 17 1 

BUILDINGS, COMPOSITE. 

definition of 15 11 4 

BUILDINGS, DANGEROUS OR DAM- 
AGED, 
commissioner to examine and make 

record 5,6 3,4 1,1 

BUILDINGS, EXPOSURES. 

regulations for, when remodelled, etc. 

102-104, 105 35 5-8, 11 

BUILDINGS, FEDERAL. 

not affected by this act 13 10 1 



326 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
BUILDINGS, FIRST-CLASS. 

definition of 14 11 1 

BUILDINGS, OCCUPANTS OF. 

board of health may limit number of. . 183 128 1 

BUILDINGS, PUBLIC. (See Public 
Buildings.) 
must conform to regulations for theatres, 162 107 1 

BUILDINGS, REINFORCED CON- 
CRETE, 
may be of supported structural steel or 

of cast-iron columns 49 15 49 

said supports to be fire-proofed 49 15 49 

BUILDINGS, SECOND-CLASS. 

definition of 15 11 2 

BUILDINGS, STATE. 

not affected by this act 13 10 1 

BUILDINGS, THIRD-CLASS. 

definition of 15 11 3 

BUILDINGS UNLAWFULLY CON- 
STRUCTED. 

deemed nuisances 187 132 1 

abatement and removal of 187 132 1 

BUILDINGS, WOODEN. 

general regulations for construction of 

115-116, 116-118 39, 40 (1-4), (1-3) 

height of 116,117 40 1,2 

not to be moved within building limits . . 21 13 2 

proximity to other buildings 116, 117 40 1,2 

BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES. 

owner responsible for maintenance of . . . 1 83 127 1 

responsibility of lessees 183 127 1 

BULKHEADS. 

on roofs, 1905, chap. 383 214 4 

BULKHEADS AND SCUTTLES. 

tenement house, requirements for 121, 122 44 1,2 

BURNT OR DANGEROUS BUILDINGS. 

how disposed of, General Laws, chap. 139, 249 1 

nuisance may be abated, General Laws, 

chap. 139 250 3 

owner may appeal to Superior Court, 

General Laws, chap. 139 250 2 



Index. 327 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
C. 
CAISSON, 
may be used to carry foundation down 

to ledge 78 20 27 

CALCULATION OF STRAINS. 

to be submitted 9 8 1 

CALCULATION SHEETS, 
must be signed by architect, engineer, 

contractor or responsible person 9 8 1 

CAPITALS. 

enlarged columns may be provided with, 55 15 75 

horizontal width of , 55 15 75 

width in any direction 55 15 75 

CAST IRON. 

strength 30 14 30 

to conform to standard specifications — 30 14 30 

CAST-IRON BARS. 

regulations for use of 30 14 33 

CAST-IRON COLUMNS. 

use of, when permitted 30 14 31 

to be faced at ends, etc 30 14 31 

when hollow, regulations for use of 30 14 32 

in garages, etc., prohibited 37 14 49 

use of, prohibited when 30,37 14 31,49 

to be faced at ends, etc 30 14 31 

when hollow, regulations for use of 30 14 32 

CAST-IRON COMPRESSION. 

members, value of 36 14 48 

centrally loaded, safe load 36 14 48 

CAST-IRON LINTELS. 

regulations for use of 30 14 33 

to be not less than f inch in thickness.. . 30 14 34 

not to be used for spans over six feet ... 30 14 34 

CEILING. 

flush, fireproofing same as for slabs 50 15 55 

suspended, fireproofing same as for slabs, 50 15 55 
metal lath and plaster, suspended, fire- 
proofing same as for slabs 50 15 55 

CEILINGS, 
in tenement house cellars, metal-lathed 

and plastered 127 49 1 



328 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
CEILINGS. 

ceilings, tenement house, construction of, 127 49 1 
over furnaces, boilers, etc., to be pro- 
tected 98 32 25 

CEILINGS, CELLAR. 

tenement house, construction of 127 49 1 

"CELLAR." 

definition of 16 11 14 

CELLARS. 

rat proofing 85 22 1 

to be protected from water and damp- 
ness 85 22 1 

how protected 85 22 1 

cellar floors not to be constructed below 

Grade 12 85 22 1 

exceptions, when made waterproof 85 22 1 

metal foundations to be protected from 

dampness 85 22 1 

structural metal work underground, 

to be protected from dampness 85 22 1 

protection from dampness, method of . . . 85 22 1 

lowest, without waterproofing 85 22 1 

CEMENT, LIME MORTAR. 

required mixture, etc 28 14 19 

CHANGE. 

in use or occupation of buildings, permit 

for required 107 36 5 

CHANNELS. 

extreme fiber stress, may be reduced, 

when and how 35 14 45 

acting as skewbaoks for arches 68 16 4 

requirements for 85 22 1 

CHASE. 

required thickness outside 21 13 3 

CHEMICAL LABORATORIES. 

plumbing of, to be approved by com- 
missioner 171 117 5 

CHEMICAL WORKS. 

require permit 181 125 "j 

CHIMNEY FLUES. 

height of, above roof 17 12 

lining required 18 12 



Index. 341 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
DESCRIPTION, 
to be filed with drawings, showing entire 
construction, assumptions, calcula- 
tion of stresses, etc 9 8 1 

DESIGN. 

basis of, calculations, to be for working 
stresses and safe loads. (See Assump- 
tions A, B, C, D, E) 12 15 18-23 

DETAILS, STRUCTURAL. 

to be submitted 9 8 1 

DIAGONAL AND SHEAR TENSION, 
for beams, with horizontal bars only, 

with and without web reinforcement. . 54 15 72 

DIAGONAL TENSION IN FOOTINGS. 

shearing stresses, how measured 54 15 72 

DILAPIDATED BUILDINGS^ 

General Laws, chap. 139, 249 1-3 

DISINTEGRATED LEDGE ROCK. 

definition of 76 20 14 

DISTANCE FROM LOT LINE. 

tenement house 130 55 4 

(See, also, yards, inner and outer court) . . 119 42 5,6 

wooden buildings 116-117 40 1-3 

DISTRICT A. 
height of buildings in, defined, Special 
Act 1915, chap. 333, order of Nov. 2, 

1916 239-233 

DISTRICT B. 
height of buildings in, defined, Special 
Act 1915, chap. 333, order of Nov. 2, 

1916 234-235 

DISTRICT POLICE. 

not to enforce building laws in Boston, 

1910, chap. 284 219 1 

DIVISION OF FLOOR AREAS. 

by walls 72 17 4,5 

DOORS. 

stage, in theatres, provision for 153 91 1 

in operative buildings, not to be locked, 

General Laws, chap. 149, 286 126 

in tenement houses, existing, rear stair- 
way, to be fireproof ed, when 124 45 4C 



342 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
DOORS IN PARTY WALLS. 

size, etc 93 31 1 

"DRAIN." 

for cellar floor to have trap, etc 181 124 1 

plumbing, definition of 167 112 6 

DRAIN PIPES. 

lay out, support, details 178 122 1, 2 

DRAINS, SURFACE. 

must have seal trap and back-water 

valve 181 124 1 

DRAINAGE OF COURTS AND YARDS. 

tenement house, to satisfaction of board 

of health 147 74 1 

DRAINAGE FITTINGS. 

certain, must be galvanized, etc 177 121 16 

DRAINAGE, STABLE. 

commissioner to approve fixtures for ... . 171 117 6 

DRAWINGS. 

to be filed before permit is granted 12 8 1 

DROPPED PANEL. 

compression in bending allowable 55 15 

definition of 55 15 

depth of, below bottom of slab 55 15 

unit shear allowable 55 15 

width of, in any direction 55 15 

DRY HOUSES. 

regulation for, 1913, chap. 729 224 1 

DRYING. 

concrete mixture, prematurely, from high 

temperature, must be avoided 41 15 

DUMB WAITER SHAFTS. 

in tenement houses to be fireproof ed. .. . 128 52 1 

to be of fireproof material Ill * 38 1 

DUMB-WAITERS. 

in tenement houses to be sprinklered, 

when and how 124 45 4 

DWELLING. 

private, entertainment in. (See General 
Laws, chap. 140, sect. 182.) 
DWELLINGS. 

in building limits, may be of third-class, 

when 12 9 1 



76 
76 
76 
76 
76 



12 



Index. - 343 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
DWELLINGS. 

in building limits, may' be of composite, 

when 12 9 1 

in building limits, to be of not more than 

two families 12 9 1 

in building limits, restriction of 12 9 1 

DYNAMO. 

application to be published 181 125 1 

permit required 181 125 1 

E. 

EARTHENWARE TRAP 169 117 2 

EGRESS. 

means of, in case of fire 17 12 7 

from tenement houses, provision for . . . 120-121 43 1-5 

stores and storage buildings 73 17 7 

outside, window openings to be pro- 
tected when and how 19 12 15 

buildings, not provided with sufficient, 

may be placarded 6 4 1 

commissioner to approve before occu- 
pancy 17 12 7 

for large areas to be approved 72 17 4 

outside, projection of 22 13 19 

for second-class factories and workshops, 17 12 7 

two means, mercantile buildings 73 17 7 

two means, for altered buildings over 33 

feet high 102 35 4 

existing buildings 102 35 4 

ELEVATOR CABLES. 

how attached 114 * 38 16 

operators, minimum age 113 * 38 12 

safety attachment required 112 * 38 3 

shaft openings, how protected and to be 

kept closed 112 * 38 2 

shaft, grille under machinery 112 * 38 3 

shaft, space between car and walls 113 * 38 10 

shaft windows to have bars 112 * 38 5 

shaft, fireproof construction Ill *38 1 

shaft, height above roof Ill * 38 1 

shaft in tenement houses to be fireproof ed, 128 52 1 



344 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
ELEVATOR SHAFTS. 

tenement house, regulations for 128 52 1 

no recess in outer wall 113 * 38 10 

not more than 4 inches between car and 

walls 113 *38 10 

to be of fireproof material Ill * 38 1 

to have skylights Ill * 38 1 

in tenement houses to be sprinklered, 

when and how 124 45 4 

ELEVATORS. 

accidents to be reported 114 * 38 15 

inspectors may be appointed 115 * 38 19 

manufacturers required to test 114 * 38 17 

permits for, how obtained 113 * 38 13 

to be approved by commissioner before 

being used 112 * 38 8 

unsafe, commissioner to post notice 112 * 38 9 

who may operate them 113 * 38 12 

for coal or grain, not restricted by build- 
ing limits 12 9 1 

freight, construction of shafts and doors, 112 * 38 5 

freight gates in outside doors 113 * 38 10 

freight not above first story without fire- 
proof enclosure Ill * 38 1 

freight, to have danger signals 112 * 38 6 

governor and slack cable device re- 
quired 114 *38 14 

in areas and hallways to have grille Ill * 38 

in case of accident, commissioner to be 

notified 114 * 38 15 

not to be used until approved by com- 
missioner 112 *38 8 

permit required and plans to be ap- 
proved 113 *38 13 

located to give easy access to machinery, 113 * 38 13 

to be tested by manufacturer in presence 

of inspector 114 * 38 17 

unsafe, penalty for use 112 38 9 

to be enclosed, etc., 1914, chap. 782 224 6 

minors under sixteen not allowed to 
operate, clean or repair, 1921, chap. 

298 246 1 



Index, - 345 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
ELEVATORS AND HOISTS. 

exceptions Ill * 38 1 

fireproof enclosures for . . Ill * 38 1 

general regulations for 111-115 * 38 1-19 

EMPLOYEES, BUILDING DEPART- 
MENT. 

to be appointed by commissioner 3 1 3 

to retain positions until removal or dis- 
charge 3 1 2 

ENCLOSURES. 

fireproof for elevators and hoists Ill * 38 1 

ENFORCEMENT OF BUILDING LAW. 
equity and law courts given jurisdic- 
tion 185, 186 129, 130 (1-6), (1) 

ENGINE. 

application to be published 181 125 1 

permit required for placing 181 125 1 

ENGINEER. 

to submit calculation sheets 9 8 1 

ENGINES, 
not to be placed under certain parts of 

theatres. 159, 164 104, 111 (2), (2) 

ENLARGED. 

what buildings may be 102 35 1 

ENLARGED BUILDINGS. 

application for 4 1 6 

to be examined 5 3 1 

ENTERTAINMENT, 
in private dwelling. (See General Laws, 
chap. 140, sect. 182.) 
ENTRANCE HALLS. 

tenement house, construction of 126 48 1 

EQUITY COURTS. 

given jurisdiction under this act 185 129 1-6 

ESCALATOR SHAFTS. (See Elevator 

Regulations.) 
EXAMINATION OF BUILDINGS. 

dangerous or damaged 5 3 1 

under application to alter, etc 5 3 1 

under construction, when made 5 2 1 

EXAMINERS OF GAS FITTERS. 

not affected by this act 14 10 2 



346 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
EXCAVATIONS. 

general regulations for 74 19 1 

how and by whom protected 74 19 1 

responsibility for cost of supporting 74 19 1 

retaining walls for 74 19 1 

EXCELSIOR, COTTON, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings.. . . 183 126 1 

EXEMPTION. 

special, from restriction of height of 

buildings, chap. 786, 1914 225 

EXEMPTIONS. 

from provision of this act 13 10 1 

EXHAUST PIPES. 

steam, how connected 179 122 5 

EXHAUSTS, STEAM. 

regulations pertaining to 179-180 122 3-6 

EXHIBITION. 

moving pictures, special, Mayor to grant 

permit, chap. 280, 1913 222 

EXISTING BUILDINGS. 

alterations of 102 35 1-2 

height allowed 102 35 3 

egress from 102 35 4 

habitation, windows, living rooms 104 35 10 

habitation, exposure required 105 35 11 

EXISTING TENEMENT HOUSES. 

defined 119 42 2 

requirements for lighting and ventila- 
tion 144,145 70,71 (1),(1,2) 

EXISTING THEATRES. 

general regulations for 163-166 111 1-8 

EXIT LIGHTS. 

assembly rooms, to conform to law of 
theatres when ordered by Building 

Commissioner 162 107 1 

EXITS. 

in altered habitations, two required 102 35 4 

EXITS, ETC., LIGHTS. 

in theatres, control and supply of 156, 164 99, 111 (2), (3) 

EXITS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

must conform to regulations for theatres, 162 107 1 

EXITS, ROOF GARDENS. 

requirements for 163 109 1 



Index. * 347 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
EXITS, SIGNS. 

in existing theatres 164 111 3 

EXITS, THEATRE. 

general regulations for 153, 156-159 91, 99 (1) , (1-3) 

EXPLOSIVES AND COMBUSTIBLES, 
buildings for manufacturing, require per- 
mit - 181-182 125 (1-3) 

EXPOSURE. 

for altered habitations, amount 103 35 5 

for altered habitations, if on corner, may 

be omitted.. j 104 35 8 

in altered habitations, not to apply in 

mercantile stores . . » 103 35 5 

in altered habitations, not to be dimin- 
ished 104 35 7 

required for existing buildings altered, . 103-105 35 5-11 
to apply to new buildings (except tene- 
ments) 105 35 11 

required, existing buildings, habitation. . 105 35 11 

EXTERIOR COLUMNS. 

reinforcement, how proportioned 49 15 48 

EXTERIOR ISOLATED COLUMNS, 
fire protection of 95 32 7 

F. 

FAMILY. 

definition, for tenement houses 118 42 1 

FAT-BOILING. 

place must be fireproofed 128 53 1 

prohibited in tenement houses 128 53 1 

exceptions 128 53 1 

FEATHERS, RAGS, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 183 126 1 

FEDERAL BUILDINGS. 

not affected by this act 13 10 1 

FEED, HAY, STRAW, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings. .. . 183 126 1 

FEES. 

for permits and licenses, authorized, chap. 

571,1910 220 1 

collection of, authorized by 1910, chap. 

571 220 1 



348 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 

FENCE. 

erected to annoy, etc., prohibited, Gen- 
eral Laws, chap. 49, 247 21 

FENCE (SPITE). 

height of allowable, General Laws, chap. 

49 247 21 

a nuisance when, General Laws, chap. 49 247 21 

FERRULES, CLEAN-OUTS, ETC. 
required diameter and weights of 173 121 2 

FIBER STRESS, EXTREME, 
steel plate girder, beam or channel may 

be reduced, when and how 35 14 45 

FIRE. 

means of egress in case of 17 12 7 

FIRE COMMISSIONER. 

not affected by this act 14 10 2 

FIRE DAMAGE, 
how restored 104 35 9 

FIRE DOORS. 

in party walls, size, etc 93 31 1 

shafts, stores, warehouses 71, 72, 73 17 3, 6, 7 

FIRE-ESCAPES. 

in mercantile buildings 73 17 7 

interior and exterior in tenement houses, 120-121 43 1-4 

minimum load 108 36 9 

obstruction of, to be removed by, Gen- 
eral Laws, chap. 148 284 39D 

stores and storage buildings 73 17 7 

in what they shall consist 120- 121 43 1-5 

theatres, outside to be lighted 156, 164 99, 111 (2), (3) 

windows opening on 19 12 15 

FIRE PREVENTION LAW. 

General Laws, Chap. 148 280 

FIREPROOF PARTITIONS. 

support of 101 33 10 

FIRE PROTECTION. 

general requirements for 94-97 32 1-18 

of main reinforcement in floor slabs 41 15 14 

in beams, girders, columns and walls 41 15 14 

all structural metal to be fire protected 94 32 1 

to consist of: 

(a) concrete 94 32 2 

(6) terracotta 94 32 3 



Index. 



349 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FIRE PROTECTION, 
to consist of: 

(c) brickwork 94 32 

(d) other materials 94 32 

thickness of: 

on columns carrying masonry 94 32 

on columns carrying floor 94 32 

on columns carrying roof 94 32 

on beams carrying masonry 94 32 

on girders carrying masonry 94 32 

on trusses carrying masonry 94 32 

on beams carrying roof or floors 94 32 

on girders carrying roof or floors 94 32 

on trusses carrying roof or floors 94 32 

on beams deeper than 15 inches 94 32 

on beams having a flange width of 

more than 7 inches 94 32 

on lugs, brackets, braces, etc 94 32 

about isolated columns, exterior 95 32 

plaster on metal lath not a fire protection, 95 32 

metal lath and plaster, when used as 

suspended ceilings 95 32 

metal lath and plaster, total thickness . . 96 32 

pipes, wires, cables, or other material, 
not to be embedded in fireproofing of 

structural members 96 32 

exemptions: 

(a) where wood is permitted for same 

purpose in lieu of metal 96 32 

(&) structural metal which faces on 

enclosed spaces, etc 96 32 

(c) lintel angles under stone or brick. . 96 32 

(d) buildings built of better class than 

required by law 96 32 

(e) metal work in non-bearing parti- 

tions 96 32 

metal work for furrings 96 32 

metal work to support finish 96 32 

metal work for stair construction . . 96 32 

suspension rods for balconies 96 32 

steel work for theatre stages 96 32 

steel work for fly galleries 96 32 

steel work for rigging lofts 96 32 



10 



11 

12 
13 

14 

15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 



350 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FIRE PROTECTION, 
exemptions: 

(/) metal other than columns, carry- 
ing only roof loads, ceilings or 
suspended balconies not over 

8 feet wide 96 32 16 

suspended ceiling, construction of 96 32 16 

in alterations, to be made satisfactory 

to commissioner 97 32 17 

metal guards or wood may be substi- 
tuted for, when liable to injury 97 32 18 

FIRE PREVENTION. 

orders of Fire Marshal, to apply to occu- 
pant, General Laws, chap. 148 285 41 

exceptions to above, when alterations be- 
come real estate, they apply to owner, 

General Laws, chap. 148 285 41 

appeals, Fire Marshal to hear, General 

Laws, chap. 148 285 45 

tanks for storage of fluids, General Laws, 

chap. 148 286 54 

tanks, Department of Public Safety to 
make rules relative to their construc- 
tion, use and maintenance, General 

Laws, chap. 148 286 55 

application of certain sections, General 

Laws, chap. 148 280 2 

delegation of powers, General Laws, 

chap. 148 281 31 

paints or inflammable fluids, General 

Laws, chap. 148 281 32 

combustible materials, General Laws, 

chap. 148 281 33 

combustible refuse, removal of, General 

Laws, chap. 148 282 34 

salamanders, use of, General Laws, chap. 

148 282 35 

automatic sprinklers, General Laws, 

chap. 148 283 36 

dry pipes in basements, General Laws, 

chap. 148 283 37 

penalty, General Laws, chap. 148 284 38 



Index. - 351 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FIRE PREVENTION. 

additional powers given Fire Marshal, 

General Laws, chap. 148 284 39 

(a) relative to portable fire extin- 

guishers 284 39 

(b) relative to accumulation of rubbish 

etc 284 39 

(d) egress, obstacles to 284 39 

(e) relative to prevention of fires 284 39 

(k) chimney flues and vent pipes, 

cleaning of 284 39 

(i) roof skylights, safe guards over. . . 284 39 

(k) signs etc., on roofs 284 39 

(to) defining classes of buildings to be 

spriuklered 284 39 

FIRE STOPPING. 

between stair stringers 97 32 21 

in alteration work in first story and base- 
ment, mercantile 102 35 2 

in studding and furring 97 32 20 

of bearing partitions 97 32 20 

of floors 98 32 24 

to be approved by commissioner 98 32 24 

second-class buildings, to be fire stopped, 97, 98 32 20, 24 

in second-class buildings 97, 98 32 20-24 

to fill all openings where applied 98 32 22 

rat refuge, spaces creating same pro- 
hibited .'.. 98 32 23 

third-class buildings to be fire stopped. . 97 32 19, 21 

in third-class buildings 97 32 19,21 

roof, stairway, chimneys 97 32 21 

how applied 98 32 22 

FIRE TEST. 

method of determining 11 8 8 

FIRE WALLS. 

above roof 92 28 1 

FIREPLACE. 

construction 93 30 2 

FIREPROOF ENCLOSURES. 

for shafts in first-class warehouses 71 17 3 

FIREPROOF PARTITIONS. 

how to be constructed 99, 100 33 1, 2 



352 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FIREPROOF PARTITIONS. 

in first-class buildings 99, 100 33 1, 2 

to be constructed of following materials: 

(a) brick, cement mortar 99 33 1 

(6) concrete, 1-3-6, not less than 4 
inches thick, 3 inches when re- 
inforced with steel 100 33 2 

(c) cinder concrete, 1-3-6, not less 

than 5 inches thick and 4 inches 

when reinforced with steel 100 33 3 

(d) hollow terra cotta blocks, 3 inches 

thick 100 33 4 

(e) hollow concrete blocks, 3 inches 

thick 100 33 5 

(/) solid or hollow gypsum blocks, 3 

inches thick 100 33 6 

(g) metal lath on steel studding, Port- 
land cement mortar, 2 inches 
thick for solid partitions, 3 inches 

for hollow partitions 100 33 7 

(h) material approved by commis- 
sioner when in conformity with 

required fire test 100 33 8 

pressed metal and glass, at discretion 

of commissioner 100 33 8 

temporary partitions of wood and glass 
within rooms inclosed by fireproof 

walls 100 33 8 

partitions in excess of 15 feet in height 
to be increased in thickness 1 inch 

for every additional 8 feet 100 33 9 

support of 101 33 10 

tests of, method to be employed 101 33 11 

FIREPROOF STAIRWAYS. 

in mercantile buildings 71, 72 17 3, 6 

FIREPROOF WINDOWS. 

in mercantile and manufacturing build- 
ings 110 37 1 

FIREPROOFING. 

not to be reduced 10 8 2 

regulations for 94-97 32 1-18 

of beams, girders, columns, etc 94-96 32 1-9 

of stair halls in tenements 125 46 1 



32 


12 


15 


44 


15 


55 



17 


3 


17 


1 


17 


4 


17 


4 


17 


4 


17 


4 


20 


20 



Index. * 353 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FIREPROOFING. 

of steel and iron in alterations, as ap- 
proved by commissioner 96 

under self-centering reinforcements 48 

flush ceiling, same as for slabs 50 

suspended metal lath plastered ceiling, 

same as for slabs 50 15 55 

FIRST-CLASS BUILDINGS. 

definition of 14 11 1 

warehouse to have fireproof enclosures 

and automatic doors 71 

what buildings to be 70 

area, restriction of, how and when 72 

division walls required, when 72 

area, limited to 10,000 square feet 72 

area, may exceed 10,000 square feet, 

when 72 

foundations 77 

tenement houses, basement to be sprink- 

lered, when 124 45 4A 

FITTINGS. 

must be galvanized, etc 177 121 16 

"FIXTURE." 

plumbing, meaning of term 167 112 10 

FLANGE COMPRESSION. 

of riveted plate girders 35 14 45 

FLANGE, TOP. 

steel plate girder, beam or channel, ex- 
treme fiber stress of, may be reduced, 

when and how 35 14 45 

FLAT SLABS. 

floor slabs supported upon columns, etc., 55 15 74 

FLOOR ANCHORS. 

floor anchors or ties 18 12 13 

FLOOR AREAS. 

undivided, maximum 72 17 4,5 

FLOOR JOISTS. 

distance between ends 21 

distance from chimney 21 

FLOOR LOADS. (See Live Loads.) 
for existing buildings, commissioner to 

fix 107 

minimum 106 



13 


4 


13 


10 


36 


4 


36 


2 



34 


1 


34 


1 


34 


1 



354 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FLOOR LOADS. (See Live Loads.) 

reduction for columns, piers, walls and 

foundations 109 36 13 

to be posted 107 36 6 

FLOOR OPENINGS. 

framing of 47 15 40 

to be kept closed 112 38 4 

FLOOR SLABS. 

main reinforcement to be fire protected, 41 15 14 

FLOOR TILES, TERRA COTTA. 

average strength, how computed 25 14 5 

compressive strength of 25 14 5 

to be tight to prevent loss of material in 

pouring 41 15 6 

FLOOR TIMBER. 

not to be within 2 inches of chimney ... . 21 13 10 

FLOOR AND ROOF JOISTS. 

minimum bearing 101 

on corbels or hangers 101 

splayed at ends 101 

FLOORING DURING CONSTRUCTION. 

regulations for 118 41 

FLOORS. 

how fire stopped in second and third-class 

construction 98 

security of, requirements for 18 

small openings in, to be approved by 

commissioner 93 

theatre, required levels of 150 

stage, requirements for 151 

to be constructed to carry loads proposed 

safely 105 36 1 

FLOORS, LOADS. 

least capacity for 106 36 2 

FLOORS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS. 

commissioner to prescribe maximum 

loads for 107 36 4 

FLOORS, WOODEN. 

furnaces and boilers not to be placed on, 21 13 12 

FLUES, CHIMNEY. 

height of 17 12 5 

lining required for certain 18 12 9 

FLUES, VENTILATING. 

must be of incombustible material 18 12 12 



32 


24 


12 


13 


31 


1 


82 


1 


85 


1 



Index. '* 355 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FLUSH CEILING. 

fireproofing, same as for slabs 50 15 55 

FOOTING LOADS. 

relative to 78 20 26 

full dead loads and figured live loads to 
be provided for in determining required 

area for footings 78 20 25 

FOOTING STONE. 

requirements for 78 20 23 

FOOTINGS. 

bending moment, rectangular, isolated 

columns 54 15 73 

punching shear in, olumns, effective 

area to resist 54 15 71 

diagonal tension in 54 15 70 

symmetrical concentric columns, to be 

designed, how 54 15 70 

foundations, relative to 75, 78 20 2, 22 

of foundation walls or piers, to consist of, 78 20 22 

of wood, when allowable 78 20 22 

concrete, to be not less than 12 inches in 

thickness 78 20 24 

FOOTINGS, GENERAL. 

symmetrical, concentric column footings, 
to be designed for punching shear, 

diagonal tension and bending moment, 54 15 70 

FORMS FOR CONCRETE. 

when and how to be removed 29 14 26 

FORMULAS, REINFORCED CON- 
CRETE CONSTRUCTION. 

1. Standard notation: 

(a) rectangular beams 61 15 106 

(b) T-beams 61 15 107 

(c) beams reinforced for compression, 61 15 108 

(d) shear, bond and web reinforce- 

ment 61 15 109 

(e) columns 62 15 110 

2. Formulas: 

(a) rectangular beams: 

1, position of neutral axis 62 15 111 

2, arm of resisting couple 62 15 112 

3, 4, fiber stresses 63 15 113,114 

5, steel ratio, for balance rein- 
forcement 63 15 115 



15 


118 


15 


119 


15 


120 



356 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FORMULAS, REINFORCED CON- 
CRETE CONSTRUCTION. 
2. Formulas: 

(b) T-b earns: 

Case I. When the neutral axis 
lies in the flange, use the for- 
mulas for rectangular beams. . 63 15 116 

Case II. When the neutral axis 
lies in the stem. 

The following formulas neglect 
the compression in the stem: 

6, position of neutral axis 63 15 117 

7, position of resultant compres- 

sion 64 

8, arm of resisting couple 64 

9, 10, fiber stresses 64 

For approximate results the for- 
mulas for rectangular beams 

may be used. The following 
formulas take into account the 
compression in the stem; they 
are recommended where the 
flange is small compared with 
the stem: 

11, position of neutral axis 64 15 123 

12, position of resultant com- 

pression 64 

13, arm of resisting coupje 64 

14, 15, fiber stresses 64 

(c) beams reinforced for compression: 

16, position of neutral axis 65 15 128 

17, position of resultant compres- 

sion 65 

18, arm of resisting couple 65 

19, 20, 21, fiber stresses 65-66 

(d) shear, bond and web reinforce- 

ment: 
22, 23, for rectangular beams .. . 66 15 134-135 

stresses in web reinforcement: 

24, vertical web reinforcement 66 15 136 

25, bars bent up, horizontal 

and web members in- 
clined 66 15 137 

26, 27, T-b earns 67 15 139 



15 


124 


15 


125 


15 


126,127 



15 


129 


15 


130 


15 


131-133 



Index. 357 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FORMULAS. REINFORCED CON- 
CRETE CONSTRUCTION. 
2. Formulas, 
(e) columns : 

28, total safe load 67 15 141 

29, 30, unit stresses 67 15 142, 143 

' 'FOUNDATION." 

definition of . 15 11 6 

FOUNDATION PIERS. 

may be used to carry foundation down 

to ledge, etc 78 20 27 

FOUNDATIONS. 

construction or alteration of, requires 

permit 16 12 1 

depths below frost 115 20,39 (2) ,(1) 

for first and second class buildings, mate- 
rials 77 20 20 

for wooden buildings, material and thick- 
ness 115 39 1 

metal in, protected with concrete, etc ... 85 22 1 

metal work in, protected from dampness, 85 22 1 

not to overload soil 75 20 1 

of rubble stone, when used 77 20 21 

walls, thickness 88 23 8 

rust protection 42 15 16 

relative to 75 20 1 

footings of 75 20 2 

when laid in freezing weather, to be 

adequately protected 75 20 2 

satisfactory bearing material, means. .. . 75 20 3 

maximum allowable bearing value of, as 
follows: 
solid ledge rock, 100 ton per square 

foot 75 20 4 

shale and hardpan, 10 tons per square 

foot 75 20 4 

gravel and compact sand, 6 tons per 

square foot 75 20 4 

hard, yellow clay, 6 tons per square 

foot 75 20 4 

sand, coarse or medium, dry or wet, 5 

tons per square foot 75 20 4 

hard, blue clay, mixed or unmixed with 

sand, 5 tons per square foot 75 20 4 



358 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
FOUNDATIONS. 

maximum allowable bearing value of, as 
follows: 
disintegrated ledge rock, 5 tons per 

square foot 75 20 4 

medium, stiff or plaster clay, mixed or 
unmixed with sand, 4 tons per 

square foot 75 20 4 

fine grained dry sand, 4 tons per 

square foot 75 20 4 

fine grained wet sand (confined) , 3 tons 

per square foot 75 20 4 

soft clay protected against lateral dis- 
placement, 2 tons per square foot . . 75 20 4 
first and second class buildings (brick, 

stone or concrete), thickness of 88 

when below grade, how figured 77 

stone, to be square split 77 

rubble, thickness of 77 

walls, to be properly bonded 77 

piling. (See Pile Foundations, section 21) ,- 

steel grillage, relative to 78 

wooden buildings (third-class) 115 

FRAME OF WOODEN BUILDING. 

described 116 39 3,4 

FRAMING. 

wood buildings (third-class) 116 

all parts to be of sufficient strength 116 

wall girts to be not less than 4 inches by 
4 inches hard pine or 4 inch by 6 inch 

spruce or fir 116 

ledger boards, not permissible when. ... 116 

studs not over 20 inches on centers 116 

all angles between partitions and parti- 
tions and walls to be blocked strongly 

to form solid corners , . . . 116 

posts to be securely braced 116 

ledger boards, space behind, to be filled, 116 

braces to repeat in each story 116 

braces shall not be smaller than 3-inch 

studding 116 39 

wall girts to be framed to posts and 

pinned when 116 39 



23 


8 


20 


20 


20 


21 


20 


21 


20 


21 


20 


25 


39 


1 



39 


3, 4 


39 


3 


39 


3 


39 


4 


39 


3 


39 


3 


39 


3 


39 


3 


39 


4 



Index. 359 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 

FRAMING. 

to be securely nailed, or framed or 

ironed together , 118 39 3 

FREEZING. 

precautions to be taken to prevent 41 15 13 

FURNACE. 

distance below ceiling 98 32 25 

permit required for setting 4, 181 1, 125 (6), (1) 

FURNACE AND SMOKE PIPES, 
furnace, top of, to be 12 inches at least 

below ceiling 98 32 25 

smoke pipes to be 12 inches below ceiling, 9S 32 25 

ceilings over, to be protected 98 32 25 

FURNACES AND BOILERS. 

hazardous buildings, public hearings on, 181 125 1 

not to be placed on wooden floors 21 13 12 

under certain parts of theatres 159, 164 104, 111 (2), (2) 

FURNACE PIPES. 

to be kept 1 inch from woodwork 22 13 14 

FURRING. 

distance from chimney 21 13 11 

fire stopped, where and how 97 32 20, 21 

not within 1 inch of chimney 21 13 11 

FURTHER REQUIREMENTS. 

for strength determined by commissioner, 11 8 4 

Q. 

GARAGES. 

erection and maintenance of. 

chap. 342, 1911 221 1-4 

chap. 259, 1912 222 1 

chap. 577, 1913 223, 224 1-5 

chap. 115, 1918, Special Act 238 1 

cast-iron columns, use of, in, prohibited, 37 14 49 

to be first class construction, 1911, chap. 

342 221 1 

meaning of (contains five or more cars), 

1911, chap. 342 221 2 , 

exempt, Newbury street 337, chap. 259 

of 1912 222 1 

license for, Street Commissioners, 1913, 

chap. 577 223 1 

metal, regulations for, 1918 Special Act, 

chap. 115 238 1 



360 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
GARBAGE. 

receptacle in altered habitations 103 35 5 

GARBAGE AND ASHES. 

tenement-house, receptacles for 147 75 1 

garbage 184 128 2 

GARDENS, ROOF. (See Roof Gabdens.) 

above theatres, provision for 162 108 1 

GAS FITTERS, BOARD OF EXAM- 
INERS OF. 

not affected by this act 14 10 2 

"GAS FITTING." 

definition of 16 11 15 

municipal court given jurisdiction in law 

cases 186 130 1 

permit for 4 1 6 

1897, chap. 265 297-301 1-14 

license required 297 1 

journeyman means 297 1 

examination required 297 2 

qualifications required 297 2 

Board of Examiners of 298 3 

examinations, times and places for hold- 
ing same 298 4 

examinations, practical knowledge re- 
quired 298 4 

license, board to issue ' 298 4 

license, fees for same 298 4 

inspectors, duties, compensation, re- 
moval 299 5 

license number, to be displayed at place 

of business 299 6 

application for, to be filed 300 7 

permit for, required ■ 300 7 

timbers, beams, girders, not to be cut 

into 300 8 

meter to be removed only by Gas Com- 
pany 300 8 

gas brackets 300 9 

gas fixtures, etc., Board of Health to 

inspect 301 10 

penalty 301 11 

annual report on 301 12 

repeals 301 13 



Index. - 361 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
'GAS FITTING." 
Revised Regulations: 

authorized by 1897, chap. 265 302 

took effect October 1, 1898 302 

amended August 16, 1899 302 

leaks, repair of, notice . 302 1 

pipes or fitting not to be concealed 

until approved 302 2 

pipe not to be subjected to strain.. . 302 3 

outlets, burners, number of 302 4 

pipes to be properly protected 302 5 

swing brackets 303 6 

stop-pins 303 7 

gas fitters, cement prohibited 303 8 

inside service to be tested 303 9 

service pipe (inside) to be tested 303 9 

service pipe to have main cock 303 10 

main cock required on service pipes. . . 303 10 

final test to be made by gas fitter. . . . 303 11 
final test to be made in presence of 

inspector 303 11 

gas fitter to make final test in presence 

of inspector 303 11 

material of gas pipes 304 12 

gas pipes, material of 304 12 

brass nipples 304 13 

risers 304 14 

scale for piping 304 15 

piping, scale for 304 15 

brass piping used outside finish is a 

fixture 304 15 

outlets and risers, to be capped, when., 304 16 

outlets for fixtures 305 17 

shields, when required 305 18 

brass tubing, when used for arms or 

fixtures 305 19 

threads on brass pipe 305 19 

rope or square tubing 305 19 

cast fittings 305 20 

plugs of all cocks 305 20 

stems of fixtures . 305 20 

L-burner cocks when not allowed 305 20 

outlets for gas ranges 306 21 



362 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph 
"GAS FITTING." 
Revised Regulations: 

gas ranges, outlets for. „ 306 2i 

pipes to be laid above timbers 306 22 

second-hand gas pipe not allowed 306 23 

drops or outlets 306 24 

outlets, how fastened 306 25 

weight of gas pipes, pounds per foot. . 306 26 

gas pipe, weight of, pounds per foot . . 306 26 

gas pipe not to be laid within 6 inches 

of electric wire 307 27 

spark or self-lighting burners to be 

tested with mercury test 307 

gas engines 307 

exhaust pipes 307 

diaphragms and bags 308 

pipes connecting gas engines, size of . . 308 
gas not to be turned on until piping 

and fixtures approved 309 

connections with gas appliances 309 

rubber or flexible tubing not allowed. . 309 

hose cock and independent fitting .... 309 

definition of, 1907, chap. 550 309 

GAS PIPE OUTLETS. 

theatre, two required 157 

inspection of 157 

GATES IN STAGE STANDPIPES. 

of theatres 159, 166 104, 111 (3), (8) 

GIRDER PLATES. 

flanges, proportion of 68 

top flanges, stresses of, reduced when ... 68 

stiff eners, to be provided, when 68 

intermediary stiff eners 68 

GIRDERS. 

computation of, for span of 39 

main reinforcement, to be fire-protected, 41 
GIRDERS AND BEAMS. 

relating to 68 

to be anchored 68 

to have bearing plates 68 

GONGS. 

in hotels, lodging houses, etc., when re- 
quired, General Laws. chap. 143 270 44 



28 




29 




29 




29 




29 




30 




31 




32 




33 




11 




99 


4 


99 


4 



16 


7 


16 


7 


16 


7 


16 


7 


14 


59 


15 


14 


16 


3-7 


16 


3 


18 


3 



Index. 363 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 

Grain elevators. 

not affected by building limits ..-..- 12 9 1 

require permit for use. . .• 181 125 1 

GRANITE. 

stresses of 34 14 42 

GRAVEL. 

definition of 76 20 8 

maximum allowable bearing value in 

foundation 75 20 4 

rear of bank, use of, when allowed 27 14 14 

GRILLAGE BEAMS. 

how to b e figured for each kind of stress. . 40 14 63 

GROUT. 

stresses for , 34 14 42 

H. 

HABITABLE BUILDINGS. 

combustible materials not to be housed 

in 183 126 1 

HABITATION. 

main staircase 122 45 1 

HABITATIONS. 

first story or basement may be used for 

mercantile purposes 70 17 2 

when to be first, second or third class .... 70 17 1 

second-class building, height of and area 

of 70 17 2 

basement or first story may be used for 

store 70 17 2 

"HALL, PUBLIC." 

tenement house, defined 119 42 8 

requirements for 122 45 1 

"HALL, STAIR." 

tenement house, defined 119 42 9 

construction of 125 46 1 

HALLS. 

capacity of 160 105 3 

general requirements for 160-161 105 1-7 

must be fireproof, when 160 105 1 

moving picture exhibition in, Mayor to 

grant permit for, chap. 280, 1913 222 1 

HALLS, ENTRANCE. 

tenement house, construction of 126 48 1 



364 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 

HALLS OR ASSEMBLY ROOMS. 

aisles to be kept clear 161 105 6 

arrangement of seats, passages, etc 161 105 6 

buildings altered, for, conform to law ... 161 105 5 

construction, requirements 160-161 105 1-7 

exits, same as for theatres 162 107 1 

seating capacity, how reckoned 160 105 3 

seats secured during performances 161 105 6 

HANDRAILS. 

theatre stairs, requirements for 158 102 1-2 

HANGERS OR STIRRUP. 

for joists 19 12 14 

HARBOR LINES. 

south bay, 1921, chap. 137 243 1 

HARD BRICK. 

ultimate compression strength 25 14 3 

HARD CLAY. 

definition of 76 20 13 

HARDPAN. 

definition of 76 20 7 

maximum allowable bearing value in 

foundations 75 20 4 

HAY, STRAW, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings ... 183 126 1 

HAZARDOUS BUILDINGS. 

appliances for power and heat 181-182 125 1-4 

hearings on boilers and furnaces for ... . 181 125 1 

must have permits 181 125 1 

application, hearings, etc 181 125 1 

HEADERS AND TRIMMERS. 

rules for 19 12 14 

HEADERS, WOODEN. 

requirements for 19 12 14 

HEALTH, BOARD OF. 

may limit number of occupants in any 

building 183 128 1 

not to be affected by this act 14 10 2 

powers of, denned 183-184 128 1-3 

HEARINGS, PUBLIC. 

hazardous buildings and appliances for 

power and heat 181 125 1 

HEARTHS. 

size and how supported 93 30 2 



Index. 



365 



159 



199 

201 

202 

205 
211 

217 

225 



30 



125 



104 



228 




216 




206 


3 


206 


3 


206 


3 



1-2 



1-4 



Page. Section. Paragraph 
HEARTHS AND PIERS. 

regulations for 93 

HEAT AND POWER. 

appliances for, in hazardous buildings. .181-182 

HEATING APPARATUS. 

theatre, under auditoriums, regulations 

for 

HEATING FURNACES. 

ceiling over to be wire lathed and plas- 
tered 

hot air pipes, to be 1 inch from woodwork, 

top of, to be 12 inches below ceiling .... 

(Also see Furnaces.) 
HEIGHT. 

of altered buildings not to be increased. . 

of buildings to width of street 

of buildings, special acts governing 

maximum, for all buildings 

existing buildings 

"HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS." 

definition of 

regulations for 

Copley square. 

chap. 452, 1898 

vicinity of State House, limited. 

chap. 457, 1899 

on Beacon street and Bowdoin street. 
chap. 543, 1902 

in Boston. 

chap. 333, 1904 

chap. 383, 1905 

on Rutherford avenue. 

chap. 416, 1907 

special exemption. 

chap. 783, 1914 

special commission appointed to deter- 
mine and revise boundaries of districts 
A and B, Special Act, 1915, chap. 333, 
on Parkways, order of July 21, 1905. . 

height limit, district A, 1901, chap. 333. 

height limit, district B, 1904, chap. 333. 

exceptions, 1904, chap. 333 



98 


32 


25 


98 


32 


26 


98 


32 


25 


102 


35 


3 


73 


18 


1 


74 


18 


2 


73 


18 


1 


102 


35 


3 


15 


11 


8 


73 


18 


1 



366 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
HEIGHT OF BUILDING. 

height limit (70 feet) special exemp- 
tions, 1905, chap. 383 213 3 

height limit, no limitation of, 1905, chap. 

383 214 4 

on street exceeding 64 feet in width, 

1905, chap. 383, order of July 21, 1905 215 
parkway restriction, 1905, chap. 383, 

order of July 21, 1905 216 

eighty-foot exception, 1905, chap. 383, 

order of July 21, 1905 216 

district B may be 125 feet, when, 1905, 

chap. 383, order of July 21, 1905 216 

Mechanics Art High School, 1905, chap. 

383, order of November 30, 1905 217 

Rutherford avenue (100 feet), 1907, 

chap. 416 217 1 

Washington street, corner Lovering place, 

1914, chap. 786 225 1 

district A, extension of, 1915 Special Act, 

chap. 333 228-229 1-3 

district A, order November 2, 1916, East 

Boston (1) 230 

district A, order November 2, 1916, 

Charlestown (2) 231 

district A, order November 2, 1916, 

Boston proper (3) 232 

district A, order November 2, 1916, Rox- 

bury (3) 232 

district A, order November 2, 1916, 

Dorchester (3) 232 

district A, order November 2, 1916, 

South Boston (3) 232 

district B, order of November 2, 1916 234 

limitation of, Dartmouth street, Trinity 

place, Stuart street, 1920, chap. 455 241 1 

HEIGHT OF WOODEN BUILDING, 
if altered not to be increased in some 

cases 20 13 1 

HOISTS AND ELEVATORS. 

fireproof enclosures for Ill * 38 1 

exceptions Ill * 38 1 

HOLLOW BLOCK WALLS 90 23 13 



Index. - 367 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
HOLLOW STEEL COLUMN. 

circular, filled with concrete, load allow- 
ance 49 15 52 

HOSPITALS, 
registration of, 1919, Special Act, chap. 32, 239 1 

construction, alteration and maintenance 

of, 1919, Special Act, chap. 163 239 

first-class 239 1 

second-class 239 1 

third-class 239 1 

shafts in to be sprinldered 240 2 

stairs and halls to be kept lighted 240 3 

shafts to be enclosed in basement 240 4 

registration required 241 7 

HOT AIR PIPES. 

to be not less than 1 inch from woodwork, 22 13 14 

HOTELS. 

watchman, lights, gongs, etc., in, General 

Laws, chap. 143 270 44 

HOUSE OF CORRECTION. 

not affected by this act 13 10 1 

HOUSES. Tenement. (See Tenement 
Houses.) 

I. 

ILLEGAL STRUCTURES. 

may be ordered removed by Superior 

Court 185 129 6 

use of, maintenance of, may be restrained 

by Superior Court 185 129 4 

INJUNCTION. 

Superior Court may issue, to restrain, 

maintenance or use of illegal structures, 185 129 2 

INNER COURT. 

defined 119 42 6 

for tenement house, size 134 59 1 

INSPECTION. 

of concrete work 29 14 27 

alteration, construction and maintenance 

of buildings, chap. 284, 1910 219 

theatres and public halls, General Laws, 

chap. 143, sect. 36 266 

(See Requirement under section 14.) .... 41 15 5 



368 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
INSPECTION, BUILDING. 

commissioner, or inspectors, to examine 
all buildings being constructed or 
altered 5 2 1 

INSPECTION OF CONCRETE. 

to be done by inspector approved by 

commissioner 29 14 

INSPECTION, PLUMBING. 

work must be approved 168 116 

INSPECTOR, 
of concrete to be approved by commis- 
sioner 29 14 

to be on work while concrete is being 

mixed and poured 29 14 

to make daily report of progress and con- 
dition of work 29 14 

INSPECTORS, BUILDING. 

appointed by commissioner 3 1 

may enter any building or premises 186 129 

qualifications required of 3 1 

to examine all buildings for which per- 
mits have been requested 5 3 

to examine dangerous and damaged 

buildings 5 3 

to examine unsafe or dangerous buildings, 6 4 

to make record of violations 5 2 

to post notice on unsafe or dangerous 

buildings 6 4 

to post notice of violations 6 4 

to post notice of insufficient egress 6 4 

INSPECTORS, ELEVATOR. 

commissioner may appoint 115 * 38 

INTAKE. 

defined... 119 42 

for tenement houses, size, etc 135, 136 61 

in tenement houses, size and skylight 

over 128 52 

tenement houses, provision for 135 61 

INTERIOR BAYS. 

formula, panels 56 15 

INTERIOR COLUMNS. 

least dimensions, supporting flat slabs ... 59 15 



27 



27 
27 
27 

3 

10 

3 



1 

1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

19 

6 
1,2 

1 

1 

80 
97 



Index. 369 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
IRON COLUMNS. 

wrought circular 49 15 52 

IRON, WROUGHT AND CAST. 

strength of 29, 30 14 29, 30 

J. 

JAIL, SUFFOLK COUNTY. 

not affected by this act 13 10 1 

JOINT BOLTS. 

where required 19 12 14 

JOINTS. 

how formed, between concrete 29 14 25 

JOISTS. 

floor and roof, in walls of second-class 

buildings 101 34 1 

not to enter 8-inch walls 101 34 1 

JURISDICTION. 

given courts of equity 185 129 1-6 

law 186 130 1 

K. 

KITCHENETTE. 

least dimension of 19 12 15 

in tenement houses to be sprinklered, 

when and how 124 45 4 

KNOTS. 

timber to be free from 31 14 35 

L. 

LABORATORIES, CHEMICAL. 

plumbing of, to be approved by commis- 
sioner 171 117 5 

LADDERS. 

to roof scuttles 17, 122 12, 44 (6), (2) 

LANDINGS, STAIR. 

theatre, required dimensions of 158 101 1 

LAW COURTS. 

given jurisdiction under this act 186 130 1 

LAWS. 

certain former acts applicable 74 18 2 

LEAD PIPES. 

size and weight, plumbing 175 121 7 



370 Index, 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 

Headers. 

capacity required 17 12 4 

how connected 181 124 1 

where not to discharge 17 12 4 

LEADERS, ROOF. 

projections of 17 12 4 

requirements for 181 124 1 

"LEAKS, REPAIR OF." 
plumbing, definition of 166 112 2 

LEDGE ROCK. 

disintegrated, definition of 76 20 14 

disintegrated, maximum allowable bear- 
ing value in foundation 75 20 4 

solid, maximum allowable bearing value 

in foundation 75 20 4 

LEDGE, SOLID. 

definition of 76 20 5 

LEDGER, BOARDS. 

prohibited when 116 39 4 

LESSEE UNDER RECORDED LEASE. 

deemed owner of building or structure. . . 183 127 1 

LESSEES. 

when responsible for maintenance 183 127 1 

LEVELLERS. 

block granite on piles 80 21 2A 

LICENSED BUILDERS. 

to control building operations, chap. 8, 

R. O., 1914, as amended 288 

LICENSES. 

fees for, authorized, chap. 571, 1910. . . . 220 
LICENSING. 

theatres and public halls, 1907, chap. 463, 218 
LIGHT AND VENTILATION. 

of existing tenement houses 144 70 1 

of rooms in tenement houses 136 63 1 

of stair halls in tenement houses 138, 139 66 1, 2 

tenement house, provision for 129-131 55 1-7 

LIGHT SHAFT. 

in tenement houses to be sprinklered, 

when and how 124 45 4 

LIGHT SHAFTS. 

of fireproof material Ill * 38 1 



Index. 371 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
LIGHTING, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

board of health may regulate 183 128 1 

LIGHTS. 

in hotels, lodging houses, etc., when 

required, General Laws, chap. 143 .... 270 44 

LIGHTS, EXIT. 

public buildings must conform to theatre 

requirements, 162 107 1 

LIME. 

composition of, allowable. 27 14 17 

LIME MORTAR. 

composition of, allowable 27 14 18 

LIMESTONE. 

stresses of 34 14 42 

LIMITS. 

building, outline of, chap. 41, R. O. 1914, 292 
LINING, CHIMNEY. 

when required 18 12 9 

LINTELS, CAST-IRON. 

regulations for use of 30 14 34 

to be not less than f inch in thickness. . . 30 14 34 

not to be used for spans over 6 feet 30 14 34 

LIVE LOADS. 

for various buildings 106 36 2 

LOAD TEST. 

to be £ of total load, when 11 8 7 

commissioner may require 11 8 5 

owner to make at his expense 11 8 5 

how determined, in exceptional cases. .. . 11 8 7 

LOADS. 

slabs, supported on four sides, distribu- 
tion of 47 15 37 

proportion of, of beams, supporting rec- 
tangular slabs 47 15 39 

dead loads: 

to consist of weight of walls, floors, 

roofs and permanent partitions. . . 105 36 1 

weights to be assumed per cubit foot 
pounds: 

beach, 42 pounds... 105 36 1 

birch, 42 pounds 105 36 1 

brickwork, 120 pounds 105 36 1 



372 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
LOADS. 

dead loads. 

weights to be assumed per cubit foot 
pounds: 
concrete, cinder, structural, 108 

pounds 105 36 1 

concrete, cinder, floor filling, 96 

pounds 105 36 

concrete, stone, 144 pounds 105 36 

Douglas fir, 36 pounds 105 36 

granite, 168 pounds 105 36 

granolithic surface, 144 pounds 105 36 

limestone, 150 pounds 105 36 

maple, 42 pounds 105 36 

marble, 168 pounds 105 36 

oak, 48 pounds 105 36 

pine, southern yellow, 42 pounds . . . 105 36 

sandstone, 144 pounds 105 38 

spruce, 30 pounds 105 36 

terra cotta, architectural voids un- 
filled, 72 pounds 105 36 

voids filled, 120 pounds . 105 36 

gravel, pounds per square foot, 6 . . . 105 36 

slag, pounds per square foot, 6 105 36 

felt roofing, pounds per square foot, 6, 105 36 

plastering on metal laths, exclusive 

of furring, pounds per square 

. foot, 8 105 36 1 

LOADS. 
live loads' 
includes all loads except dead loads. . . 106 36 2 
permit to state purpose of building. . . 106 36 2 
floors to bear safely weight to be im- 
posed and dead load 106 36 2 

stairs to bear safely weights to be im- 
posed and dead load 106 

safe per square foot, uniform 106 

armories, 100 pounds 106 

assembly halls, 100 pounds 106 

gymnasiums, 100 pounds 106 

fire houses, apparatus floor, 150 

pounds 106 

residences, 50 pounds 106 

stables, 50 pounds 106 



36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 


36 


2 



Index. 373 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
LOADS. 
live loads; 

safe per square foot: 

garages, private, two cars, 75 pounds, 106 36 2 

garages, public, five or more cars, 

150 pounds ; 106 36 2 

grandstands, 100 pounds 106 36 2 

hotels, public portion, 100 pounds. . 106 36 2 

hotels, residence portion, 50 pounds, 106 36 2 

lodging houses, public portion, 100 

pounds 106 36 2 

lodging houses, residence portion, 50 

pounds 106 36 2 

boarding houses, public portion, 100 

pounds 106 36 2 

boarding houses, residence portion, 

50 pounds... 106 36 2 

clubs, public portion, 100 pounds. . . 106 36 2 

clubs, residence portion, 50 pounds . 106 36 2 

convents, public portion, 100 

pounds 106 36 2 

convents, residence portion, 50 

pounds 106 36 2 

hospitals, public portion, 100 pounds, 106 36 2 

hospitals, residence portion, 50 

pounds 106 36 2 

asylums, public portion, 100 pounds, 106 36 2 

asylums, residence portion, 50 

pounds 106 36 2 

detention buildings, public portion, 

100 pounds 106 36 2 

detention buildings, residence por- 
tion, 50 pounds 106 36 2 

manufacturing, heavy, 250 pounds. . 106 36 2 

manufacturing, light, 125 pounds . . . 106 36 2 

office buildings, first floor, 125 

pounds 106 36 2 

office buildings, all other floors, 75 

pounds 106 36 2 

public buildings, public portion, 100 

pounds 106 36 2 

public buildings, office portion, 75 

pounds 106 36 2 



374 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
LOADS. 
live loads: 

safe per square foot: 

residences, including porches, 50 

pounds 106 36 2 

schools, assembly halls, 100 pounds, 106 36 2 

schools, class rooms only, 50 pounds, 106 36 2 

colleges, assembly halls, 100 pounds, 106 38 2 

colleges, class rooms only, 50 pounds, 106 36 2 

sidewalks, 250 pounds 106 36 2 

stables, public or mercantile, street 

entrance floor, 150 pounds 106 36 2 

stables, feed room, 150 pounds 106 36 2 

stables, carriage room, 50 pounds. . . 106 36 2 

stables, stall room, 50 pounds 106 36 2 

stairs of armories, 100 pounds 106 36 2 

corridors of armories , 100 pounds . . . 106 36 2 

fire escapes of armories, 100 pounds, 106 36 2 

stairs of assembly halls, 100 pounds, 106 36 2 

corridors of assembly halls, 100 

pounds 106 36 2 

fire escapes of assembly halls, 100 

pounds 106 36 2 

stairs of gymnasiums, 100 pounds... 106 36 2 

corridors of gymnasiums, 100 pounds, 106 36 2 

fire escapes of gymnasiums, 100 

pounds 106 36 2 

stairs, except armories, halls, gym- 
nasiums, 75 pounds 106 36 2 

corridors, except armories, halls, 

gymnasiums, 75 pounds 106 36 2 

fire escapes, except armories, halls, 

gymnasiums, 175 pounds 106 36 

storage, heavy, 250 pounds 106 35 2 

storage, light, 125 pounds 106 36 2 

stores, retail, 120 pounds 106 36 2 

stores, wholesale, 250 pounds 106 36 

not set out in law, commissioner may 

establish 107 36 3 

in excess of minimum values given per 

square foot, commissioner may 

requir heavier design 107 36 3 

on existing floors, commissioner may 

prescribe maximum load 107 36 4 



Index. - 375 

LOADS. 

live loads: 

occupation or use of building not to be 
changed without permit of com- 
missioner 107 36 5 

on existing floors, not to increase, with- 
out permit from commissioner ... . 107 36 5 

safe, to be posted on each floor, business 
building, on metal plates by 
owner 107 36 6 

occupants to maintain metal plates, 
giving safe load, during their occu- 
pancy. 107 36 6 

owner to affix metal plates, giving safe 
floor loads with each change of 
occupancy 107 36 6 

no load in excess of approved posted 
load permitted to be placed on any 

floor 107 36 6 

every plank, slab, arch and floor beam, 
carrying 100 square feet of floor or 
less, shall have sufficient strength 
to bear safely live and dead load 108 36 7 

for floors, reduction of, allowed 108-109 36 7-13 

roofs, safe minimum: 

with pitch of 4 inches or less per foot, 109 36 15 

with pitch of 4 inches to 8 inches per 

foot 109 36 16 

with pitch of 8 inches to 12 inches 

per foot 109 36 17 

with pitch more than 12 inches per 

foot.. 109 36 18 

wind pressure, on vertical surfaces on 
buildings: 

40 feet in height, 10 pounds 110 

40 feet to 80 feet, 15 pounds 110 

more than 80 feet, 20 pounds 110 

commissioner may require design for 

larger pressure 110 36 20 

bracing additional shall be introduced 
when resisting moments are not 
sufficient to resist moment of dis- 
tortion 110 36 21 



36 


19 


36 


19 


36 


19 



376 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
LOADS, FLOOR. 

commissioner to prescribe maximum for 

existing buildings 107 36 4 

LOBBIES, THEATRE. 

requirements for 153 90 1 

LODGING HOUSES. 

public, regulation for, General Laws, 

chap. 140 251 33, 35 

watchman, lights, gongs, etc 251 35 

LOT LINE. 

first and second class buildings to be 5 

feet from, if there is opening in outer 

wall 24 13 22 

wooden buildings, used for habitation, 

to be not nearer than 5 feet from 116 40 1 

wooden buildings, used for other than 

habitation to be not nearer than 5 feet 

from 117 40 3 

not to be moved nearer than 5 feet from 

any wooden building 116 40 1 

exception to above, when allowed in 

habitation 116 40 1 

exception to above when allowed in other 

than habitations 117 40 3 

brick or concrete walls on 116, 117 40 1, 3 

brick walls, openings in, to have metal 

frames and sash and wire glass 117 40 3 

M. 

MAIN REINFORCEMENTS. 

in floor slabs, beams, girders columns 

and walls to be fire protected 41 15 14 

MAIN STAIRCASE. 

habitations 122 45 1 

MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS. 

owners and lessees, responsibility of 183 127 1 

MANUFACTURING BUILDINGS. 

outside limits, maximum height and area, 73 17 8 

outside building limits, when third-class, 

not to exceed 45 feet in height 73 17 8 

MARBLE, BUILDING. 

stresses of 34 14 42 



Index. 377 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
MARKET BUILDINGS. 

restrictions of sect. 9 not to apply to. . . . 12 9 1 

MARQUEES. 

projecting, to be supported as required by- 
Building Commissioner, General Laws, 

chap. 85. 248,249 8,9 

permit, construction of, General Laws, 

chap. 85 248, 249 8, 9 

projecting into public way, permit for, 

General Laws, chap. 85 248 8 

MASONRY. 

definition of ,. 15 11 5 

MASONRY, BRICK AND STONE. 

not to rest on wood 21 13 9 

exceptions 21 13 9 

MASSACHUSETTS, COMMONWEALTH 
OF. 

buildings of, exempt from act 13 10 1 

MATERIALS. 

quality of 24 14 1 

commissioner may reject, when unsuit- 
able 24 14 1 

test of, to be made under direction of 

commissioner by owner 24 14 1 

quality of, method of computation of .24, 39-40 14 1, 58-63 

not covered by this act, when allowed. .. 10 8 2 

not mentioned in this act, stresses of, to 

be determined by commissioner 39 14 55 

steel construction (67-69) 16 (1-9) 

MATERIALS, BUILDING. {See Build- 
ing Materials.) 

strength of 24 14 1 

stresses, tables of 32,33,34 14 39,40,42 

35, 38 44, 52 

MATERIALS, COMBUSTIBLE. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings. . . . 183 126 1 

MAXIMUM LOAD APPROVED. 

allowable 107 36 . 4 

MECHANICAL BUILDINGS. 

outside building limits, may be built as 

approved by commissioner 73 17 8 

MECHANICS ART HIGH SCHOOL. 

height of, 1905, chap. 383 211 5 



378 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
MEDIUM CLAY. 

definition of 76 20 15 

MERCANTILE BUILDINGS. 

basement, sprinklers in 19 12 15 

MERCANTILE PURPOSES. 

first story and basement of habitations 

may be used for 70 17 2 

METAL. 

steel construction, thickness of 67 16 1 

window frames and sash 110 37 1 

METAL GARAGES. 

limited size allowed, chap. 115, 1918, 

Special Act 238 1 

regulations for, 1918 Special Act, chap. 

115 238 1 

METAL LATH AND PLASTER. 

not fire protection on steel and iron 95 32 8 

METAL WORK. 

in foundations, protected from moisture, 85 22 1 

METHODS. 

not covered by this act, when allowed. 10 8 2 

METHODS OF COMPUTATION. 

strength of building materials 24, (39-40) 14 1, 58-63 

MEZZANINE FLOORS. 

form a story, when 88 23 9 

MINORS. 

under 16, not allowed to operate, clean 

or repair elevators, 1921, chap. 298. . . 246 1 

MIXING CONCRETE. 

how done 28 14 22 

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY. 

steel for cinder concrete 53 15 69 

steel for stone concrete 53 15 69 

steel for concrete greater than 2,200 and 

less than 2,900 pounds per square inch, 53 15 69 

MORTAR, LIME. 

how made 27 14 18 

MORTARS. 

required qualifications of (27-28) 14 (17-20) 

MOVING BUILDINGS. 

prohibitions relating to 21 13 2 

MOVING PICTURE HOUSES. 

special permit for, 1913, chap. 280 222 1 



Index. * 379 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
MOVING PICTURE SHOWS, 
subject to chap. 463 of 1907 and chap. 

280 of 1913 218,222 106 1 

MOVING PICTURES. 

exhibition of 222 

exhibitions, special, mayor to grant per- 
mit for, chap. 280, 1913 222 

MUD SILLS, 
allowed to support masonry 21 13 9 

N. 
NEGATIVE BENDING. 

panel width at interior line of columns, 

formula 58 15 90 

panel width at wall ." 57 15 86 

may be increased, when 57 15 87 

how provided for 58 15 91 

reinforcement shall be provided, when . . 58 15 91 

NEIGHBORING STRUCTURES. 

to be supported 16 12 2 

powers of commissioner in such cases ... 16 12 3 

NIPPLES, SOLDERING. 

required diameter and weight of 174 121 3 

NOTICE. 

on dangerous or unsafe buildings not to 

be removed 6 4 1 

NUISANCE. 

a fence, when, General Laws, chap. 49 . . 247 21 

NUISANCES. 

buildings unlawfully constructed declared 

to be 187 132 1 

abatement and removal of, General Laws, 

chap. 130, sect. 3 250 3 

NON-BEARING WALLS. 

thickness of 89 23 11 

O. 

OAK, WHITE. 

stress of 38 14 52 

OBSERVATION STANDS. 

commissioner must approve plans of . . . . 22 13 16 

on roofs prohibited 21 13 6 



380 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
OBSTRUCTIONS. 

in aisles, etc., of public buildings, of 

theatres 161 105 6 

OCCUPANTS. 

safety of — commissioner may order 

additional requirements for 11 8 4 

OCCUPANTS OF BUILDINGS. 

board of health may limit number of ... . 183 128 1 

OCCUPATION. 

of buildings forbidden until egress is 

provided 17 12 7 

OCCUPATIONS OF BUILDINGS. 

not to be changed without permit from 

commissioners 107 36 5 

OFFICE FORCE OF DEPARTMENT. 

how appointed 3 1 3 

OFFICERS, BUILDING DEPART- 
MENT. 

may enter buildings and premises 186 129 10 

not to engage in other business 3 1 4 

not to furnish materials 3 1 4 

not to be financially interested 3 1 4 

requirements and restrictions 3 1 4 

to serve until removal or discharge 3 1 2 

OFFICERS, CITY, CERTAIN. 

powers of not curtailed by this act 14 10 2 

OFFICES, STORES, ETC. 

in theatre buildings 149 81 1 

OPENINGS. 

of 144 square inches or less in walls and 

floors, approved by commissioner .... 93 31 1 

in floors, framing of 47 15 40 

in roof, framing of 47 15 40 

OPENINGS IN DIVISION WALLS. 

area and number restricted 72 17 4, 5 

OPERATIVE BUILDINGS. 

doors, not to be locked during working 

hours, General Laws, chap. 149 286 126 

OUTER COURT. 

defined 119 42 6 

in tenement houses, sizes, etc 133 58 1-3 

OUTSIDE FINISH. 

in first and second class buildings, 

materials 18 12 11 



Index. 381 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
OVERCROWDING, TENEMENT 
HOUSES, 
board of health may regulate to prevent, 1S3 128 1 

OVERHANG. 

T-beams — not to exceed, etc 48 15 46 

OWNER. 

to protect against excavation 74 19 1 

OWNERS. 

responsible for maintenance of buildings 

and structures 183 127 1 

P. 

PAPER STOCK, COTTON, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable building. .. . 183 126 1 

PARK COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this act 14 10 2 

PARKWAYS. 

building lines on 197 

height of buildings, restriction of, 1905, 

chap. 383, Order of July 21, 1905 216 

PARTITION WALL. 

denned 15 11 10 

PARTITIONS, BEARING. 

to be firestopped 97 32 (19-20) 

PARTITIONS, COMBUSTIBLE. 

to be 4 feet from side and 6 feet from 

back of boiler 22 13 5 

PARTITIONS, FIREPROOF. 

how to be constructed (99-101) 33 (1-10) 

(<S«e Fireproof Partitions.) 

PARTITIONS, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

construction of 127 50 1 

PARTY WALLS. 

doors in, size, etc 93 31 1 

all buildings, thickness (86-88) 23 (3-6) 

in steel frame buildings, thickness 91 27 2 

in wooden buildings, thickness and height 

above roof 116 40 1 

small openings in 93 31 1 

definition of 15 11 9 

above roof 92 28 1 

prohibition concerning 21 13 4 

skeleton 91, 92 27 2-4 

timbers in 21 13 4 



382 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
PASSAGEWAYS, PUBLIC ASSEM- 
BLAGE, 
no temporary seats or obstructions in. . . 161 105 6 
no persons to stand in, during perform- 
ance 161 105 6 

PASSAGEWAYS, THEATRE. 

radiators, floor registers, etc., not to be 

placed in 159 104 1 

PENALTIES. 

for not providing watchmen, lights, 
gongs, etc., in hotels and lodging 
houses, General Laws, chap. 143, See 

sect. 46 271 46,53 

PENDENCY. 

notice of, filed in Registry of Deeds, 

General Laws, chap. 184, sect. 15 . . 287 15 

PENT HOUSE. 

1905, chap. 383 214 4 

PERMIT. 

to state proposed use of building 105 36 1 

PERMITS. 

feesfor, authorized, chap. 571, 1910 220 

what work requires them 4. 20 1, 13 6, 1 

who issues 4 1 6 

PERMITS AND APPLICATIONS. 

in what form 5 1 9 

PERMITS, BUILDING. 

applications for 5 1 9 

requirements of 5 x 1 9 

applicants may appeal to board of appeal, 8 7 1 

action thereon 8, 9 7 1,2 

Building Commissioner shall grant, for 

construction 4 1 6 

if terms are violated commissioner may 

stop work 4 1 8 

to be on approved printed forms 5 1 9 

required for all buildings 16 12 1 

PERMITS, OTHER THAN BUILDING. 

required for alterations 16 12 1 

boilers, steam 4 1 6 

elevators 112 * 38 8,9 

furnaces 4 1 6 

gas fitting 4 1 6 



Index. 383 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
PERMITS, OTHER THAN BUILDING, 
required for: 

plumbing 168 114 1 

commissioner to grant, on application ... 4 1 6 

PICTURE SHOWS, MOVING. 

subject to chap. 463 of 1907, chap. 280 

of 1913 218, 222 

PIECES. 

under tension and compression at differ- 
ent times 40 14 62 

PIERS. 

reduced floor loads, used for 108, 109 36 12, 13 

to be of masonry or metal, when 19 12 15 

to have caps and plates 93 30 1 

definition of 31 14 37 

height of 34 14 41 

concrete, bearing, plain, height of, allowed, 34 14 41 

concrete to be reinforced, when 48 15 47 

brick, height of, allowed 34 14 41 

PIERS AND HEARTHS. 

regulations for 93 30 1,2 

PILE FOUNDATION. 

detached column or pier footing to rest 

on not less than three piles 79 21 2 

may rest on single pile, when 79 21 2 

light walls, may rest on single row piling, 

provisionally 79 21 2 

at least two rows of piling required 79 21 

may be 3 feet on centers, when 79 21 2 

under masonry buildings, capping to be 

of block granite or concrete 80 21 2A 

when capped with concrete, regulations 

for 80 .21 2A 

rubble concrete for capping, not allowed, 80 21 2A 
when capped with block granite, regula- 
tion for 80 21 2A 

may be capped with timber, when 80 21 3 

additional piles required, when ordered 

by commissioner 80 21 4 

sustaining power of piles to be determined 

by commissioner 80 21 5 

wooden piles, regulation for 80, 82 5-18 

wooden piles, quality of 80 1 6 



384 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 



PILE FOUNDATION. 

piles to be butt cut 

piles to have uniform taper from butt to 
top 

short bends not allowed 

all knots to be trimmed close to pile 

all piles to be not less than 6 inches diam- 
eter at top 

piling to be inspected by qualified in- 
spector 

piling inspector to keep accurate record 
of piles driven 

square timber may be used, when 

pile heads to be cut to sound wood before 
capped 

loads on wooden piles 

wooden piles, shall be figured as columns, 
when 

such piles shall be of hardwood, oak, yel- 
low pine, etc 

safe load on all other wooden piles 

when testing for value, pile head shall 
have sound wood 

when testing for value, fall of hammer 
shall be 10 feet 

safe supporting value of wooden piles, 
formula 

wooden piles, distance between to be not 
less than 24 inches on centers 

grade for cutting off piles to be five 

may be cut at higher grade when allowed 
by commissioner but not to exceed 
grade nine 

wooden piles, depth may be driven below 
surface 

when followers are used 

when driving blocks are used 

general requirements for 

supporting value of, how obtained 

driving method of not to impair strength, 

frictional value, not be to relied on for 
support 

not to be loaded eccentrically 



80 

80 
80 
8 



82 
82 
82 

82 

82 



82 



21 

21 
21 
21 

21 

21 

21 
21 

21 
21 

21 

21 
21 

21 

21 

21 

21 
21 



21 



82 


21 


82 


21 


82 


21 


79 


21 


79 


21 


79 


21 


79 


21 


79 


21 



9 
10 

11 
12 

12 

12 
13 

14 

14 

15 

17 
17 



17 

18 

18 

18 

1 

1 

1 

1 
1 



Index. - 385 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
PILES. 

allowed for supporting masonry 21 13 9 

boring may be required previously 77 20 19 

commissioner to determine grade for cut- 
ting 82 21 17 

concrete, allowable load 84 21 24 

concrete, load test. 85 21 25 

distance on center 82 21 17 

inspector may be required 81 21 9 

inspector to keep records 81 21 9 

to be capped with granite or concrete. 80 21 2 

under wooden buildings on marshy land, 115 39 1 

PINE, WHITE AND YELLOW. 

stress 38 14 52 

PIPES. 

hot air, minimum distance from wood- 
work 98 32 26 

smoke, distance from ceiling 98, 99 32 25, 27 

steam or hot water, distance from wood- 
work. 22 13 14 

wires, etc., not to be built into fireproof- 

ing of steel, etc 96 32 10 

PIPES, BACK AIR. 

plumbing, requirements for 169 117" 3 

PIPES, BRASS. 

diameter, thickness and weight required, 176 121 10 

PIPES, CAST-IRON. 

diameter and weight required 176 121 12 

PIPES, DRAIN. 

requirements, relating to 178 122 1, 2 

PIPES, LEAD. 

plumbing, restricted to short branches. . . 174 121 6 

required diameter, thickness and weight, 175 121 7 

PIPES, REFRIGERATOR AND DRIP. 

plumbing, regulations for 172 119 1 

PIPES, SMOKE. 

not to project through walls or windows, 22 13 13 

PIPES, SOIL. 

plumbing, requirements for 168 117 1 

required diameters for 173 121 1 

PIPES, STEAM, ETC. 

not to be within 1 inch of woodwork 22 13 14 

restrictions concerning 22 13 14 



386 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 

PIPES, WASTE. 

plumbing, requirements for 168 117° 1 

required diameters for : 173 121 1 

PIPES, WIRES, ETC. 

not to be imbedded 96 32 10 

PIPES, WROUGHT-IRON. 

diameter, thickness and weight required, 177 121 14 

PIPING. 

cutting for, restrictions relative to 22 13 14 

distance from woodwork 22 13 14 

PLACARD. 

(a) unsafe elevators, etc 112 38 9 

(b) unsafe buildings, etc 6 4 1 

(c) buildings where violation of build- 

ing law exists 6 4 1 

(d) buildings where egress is insufficient, 6 4 1 
PLACING. (See Section 14.) 41 15 7 
PLANS. 

including drawings, strain sheets, etc., to 

be filed before permit is granted 9 8 1 

PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS. 

building commissioner may require 5 1 9 

duplicates to be kept at buildings 4 1 5 

observation stands, commissioner must 

approve 22 13 16 

open to inspection of inspector 4 1 5 

to be filed with application 4 1 5 

PLASTERING. 

on fireproof partitions, thickness 100 33 8, 9 

PLATE GIRDERS. 

data for figuring 68 16 12,13 

flanges, proportion of . 68 16 7 

top flange, stresses of, to be reduced, 

when 68 16 7 

stiff eners to be provided, when 68 16 7 

stiff eners, intermediary, relative to 68 16 7 

riveted, compression flange 35 14 45 

steel, extreme fiber stress may be reduced, 

when and how 35 14 45 

PLUMBERS. 

must be registered or licensed 167 113 1 

must get permits 168 114 1 

notify commissioner on changing place of 

business 167 113 1 



Index. " 387 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
PLUMBING. 

"air pipes," definition of 166 112 4 

requirements for (168), (180) 115, 123 (1), (1, 2) 

back-water valve 181 124 1 

clean-outs required diameter and weight 

of 174 121 4 

connection with sewer or drain 168 115 1 

definition of terms used in (166-167) 112 1-10 

"drain," meaning of 167 112 6 

drain pipes, details of construction 178 122 1, 2 

drain pipes, requirements for 178 122 1, 2 

drains, surface, must have seal trap and 

back-water valve. 181 124 1 

exhausts, steam, regulations for (179-180) 122 3-6 

ferrules, clean-outs, etc (173-174) 121 2-5 

ferrules, required diameter and weight of, 173 121 2 

fittings, drainage, must be galvanized. . . 178 121 17 

"fixture," definition of 167 112 10 

grease and oil traps if required 180 123 1 

inspection and tests of work 168 116 1 

laboratory, to be approved by commis- 
sioner 171 117 5 

leaders, roof, requirements for 181 124 1 

"leaks, repair of," meaning of 166 112 2 

municipal court given jurisdiction in law 

cases 186 130 1 

nipples, soldering, required diameter and 

weight of 174 121 3 

pipes, back air, requirements for 169 117 3 

brass, required diameter, thickness and 

weight 176 121 10 

cast-iron, required diameter, thickness 

and weight 176 121 12 

lead, required diameter, thickness and 
weight 

restricted to short branches 

refrigerator and drip, regulations for . 

soil and waste, requirements for 

required diameter of 

vent, definition of , 

wrought-iron, required diameter, thick- 
ness and weight 177 121 14 



175 121 


7 


174 121 


6 


178 119, 121 


1, 17 


168 117 


1 


173 121 


1 


167 112 


5 



388 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
PLUMBING, 
relative to business of, General Laws, 

chap. 142 252 

roof leaders, requirements for 181 124 1 

separate system, required for storm 

water, General Laws, chap. 83 248 5 1 

soil and waste pipes, sizes required 173 121 1 

soil and waste pipes, traps and fittings, 168, 169 117 1, 2 

"soil pipe," definition of 167 112 7 

soldering nipples, required diameter and 

weight of... 174 121 3 

special traps for gasolene, naphtha, etc., ISO 123 1 
stable drainage fixtures to be approved 

by commissioner 171 117 6 

"surface drain," meaning of 167 112 9 

must have seal trap and back-water 

valve... 181 124 1 

terms used in, defined (173-176) 121 1-10 

tests and inspection of work 168 116 1 

to be inspected and approved 168 116 1 

traps, requirements for 168 117 1 

special, when required 180 123 1 

"vent pipes," definition of 167 112 5 

"ventilation pipe," definition of 167 112 8 

vents, requirements for (16S-171) 117 1-4 

wash stand for vehicles, sand box for. . . 180 123 1 

waste pipes and traps, provisions for. . 168, 169 117 1, 2 

water-closets, requirements for 172 120 1 

water-closets, water supply for 172 120 1 

"Y-branches," definition of 166 112 3 

PLUMBING, SUPERVISION OF 
definitions: 

certificate means — (General Laws, 

chap. 142) 252 1 

examiners, means — (General Laws, 

chap. 142) 253 1 

journeyman means — (General Laws, 

chap. 142) 253 1 

Master plumber means — (General 

Laws, chap. 142) 253 1 

practical plumber means — (General 

Laws, chap. 142) 253 1 



Index. * 389 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
PLUMBING, SUPERVISION OF. 
definitions: 

registered means — (General Laws, 

chap. 142) 253 1 

all plumbers must be licensed, General 

Laws, chap. 142 254 3 

master's license to be displayed at 
place of business. General Laws, 

chap. 142 254 3 

examination, rules for, General Laws, 

chap. 142 254 4 

licenses, registration and revocation of, 

General Laws, chap. 142 255 6 

fees, for licenses, examination, re- 
renewals, General Laws, chap. 142. . 255 5 
licenses, temporary suspension of, 

General Laws, chap. 142 256 7 

inspectors, appointment and duties of, 

General Laws, chap. 142 256 11 

inspectors, additional appointment of, 

General Laws, chap. 142 257 12 

persons learning business of plumbing, 

General Laws, chap. 142 257 14 

fees, expenditures of, General Laws, 

chap. 142 257 15 

penalties, General Laws, chap. 142. . 258 16 

POLICE COMMISSIONER. 

not affected by this act 14 10 2 

PORTABLE SCHOOL BUILDINGS. 

not affected by this act 13 10 1 

PORTLAND CEMENT. 

to conform to standard specifications ... 27 14 16 

POSITIVE BENDING, 
formula, panel width 57 15 81 

POSITIVE MOMENT. 

of continuous beams, subject to other 
than uniformed loads, may be reduced, 

when and how 46 15 34 

POSTS. 

wood, strength of 25 14 3 

POWER AND HEAT. 

appliances for, in hazardous buildings. . . 182 125 1-4 



390 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
PRIVACY IN ACCESS TO WATER- 
CLOSETS. 

in tenement houses 139 67 1 

PRIVATE BUSINESS. 

prohibited for department employees. . . 3 1 4 

PRIVATE DWELLING. 

entertainments in. (See General Laws, 
chap. 140, Section 182.) 
PRIVY VAULTS. 

construction and size 172 120 1 

PROHIBITIONS, BUILDING. 

complete list of (20-24) 13 1-22 

relating to alterations, repairs and mov- 
ing (20-21) 13 1-2 

PROJECTIONS. 

permits, supporting of, General Laws, 

chap. 85 248 8 

into public ways, General Laws, chap. 85, 248 8 

PROJECTIONS OVER PUBLIC WAYS. 

restrictions relating to 22 13 19 

PROSCENIUM WALLS. 

theatre must have 150 83 1 

PROTECTION. 

in case of excavation 74 19 1 

PUBLIC ASSEMBLY. 

places of, requirements, construction, (160-181) 105 1-7 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

aisles, passageways and stairways must 

be clear 161 105 6 

aisles, passageways and stairways, no 

person to stand in during performance, 161 105 6 

aisles of, must conform to requirements 

for theatres 162 107 1 

cinematograph, use in, regulations for, 

General Laws, chap. 143 278-280 72, 83 

84,85 
exits of, must conform to requirements 

fortheatres 162 107 1 

exit lights must conform to requirements 

for theatres 162 107 1 

obstruction in aisles, etc 161 105 6 

seats must conform to requirements for 

theatres 162 107 1 

seats, temporary, not allowed in aisles, etc., 161 105 6 



Index. . 391 

Page. Section. Paragraph 
PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

seats to be secured 161 105 6 

stairways must conform to requirements 

for theatres '. 162 107 1 

PUBLIC HALL. 

denned 119 42 8 

PUBLIC HALLS, 
in existing tenement houses, lighting and 

ventilation 145 71 2 

in tenement houses, lighting and ventila- 
tion 137 65 1 

PUBLIC HALLS AND THEATRES, 
inspection and licensing of, 1907, chap. 

463 218 1 

PUBLIC HEALTH. 

protection of, chap. 219, 1897 198 1 

PUBLIC HEARINGS. 

on hazardous buildings and appliances . . 182 125 S 

PUBLIC HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 

exempt from act 13 10 1 

PUBLIC HIGHWAYS. 

buildings lines, 1893, chap. 462 195 1 

PUBLIC LODGING HOUSES. 

regulation for, General Laws, chap. 140, 

251, 252 33, 35 
38,40 
definition of, General Laws, chap. 140.. . 251 33 

cubicles prohibited, General Laws, chap. 

140 251 33 

licenses for, General Laws, chap. 140. . . . 251 35 

egress to be sufficient, General Laws, 

chap. 140 251 35 

fire extinguishing appliances required, 

General Laws, chap. 140 251 35 

fire alarm applicances required, General 

Laws, chap. 140 251 35 

free access to, for inspector, required, 

General Laws, chap. 140 252 38 

penalty, General Laws, chap. 140 252 40 

PUBLIC PARKS. 

buildings in, chap. 129, 1889 195 1 

PUBLIC PARK BUILDINGS. 

1889, chap. 129 195 1 



392 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
PUBLIC SAFETY. 

commissioner may take necessary meas- 
ures 16 12 3 

power of, relating to 6 4 1, 2 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

use of, for social circle and other uses, 

chap. 86, 1916, Special Acts 238 1 

use of, for social, civic and other purposes, 

1916, Special Act, chap. 86 238 1 

PUBLIC WAYS. 

boilers not to be placed under 22 13 18 

building line on, 1893, chap. 162 195 

General Laws, chap. 82, Section 37, 247 1 

signs and structures encroaching on, 

General Laws, chap. 85 248, 249 8, 9 

PUBLIC WAYS AND SQUARES. 

projection over, regulations for 22 13 19 

PUBLICATION. 

of records of violations, privileged 5 2 1 

PUNCHING, 
punching shear not to exceed six per cent 

of compression strength 50 15 66 

PUNCHING SHEAR IN FOOTINGS. 

area effective to resist in column footings, 54 15 71 

Q. 

QUALITY. 

materials — in general 24 14 1 

brick 25 14 2 

sand 27 14 12 

stone 27 14 13 

gravel 27 14 14 

cinders and slag 27 14 15 

lime 27 14 17 

lime mortar 27 14 18 

Portland cement 27 14 16 

cement lime mortar 28 14 19 

Portland cement mortar 28 14 20 

QUAYS, WHARVES, ETC. 

not affected by this act 13 10 1 

R. 

RADIATORS. 

theatre, forbidden in passageways 159 104 1 



Index. " 393 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
RAGS, FEATHERS, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings.. . . 183 126 1 

RAILROAD STATIONS. 

not affected by this act 13 10 1 

RAILWAY BRIDGES. 

exempt from act 13 10 1 

RAISING OF BUILDINGS. 

examination to be made on application to 

raise 5 3 1 

RANGE BOILER. 

to have capacity mark thereon before 

sold, General Laws, chap. 142 258 17 

makers' guaranteed test to be stamped 

on, General Laws, chap. 142 259 18 

penalty of violations of Sections 17 and 

18, General Laws, chap. 142 259 19 

exceptions to Sections 17, 18, 19, General 

Laws, chap. 142 259 20 

making, sale and installation of, General 

Laws, chap. 142 258 17 

RAT PROOFING 98 32 23 

cellars to be made rat proof, when 86 22 2 

method of 86 22 2 

REAL PROPERTY, 
writs affecting title, filing of, General 

Laws, chap. 184 287 15 

RECESS, OR CHASE. 

requirements relating to 21 13 3 

RECORDS OF DEPARTMENT. 

open to public inspection 4 1 5 

RECORD OF VIOLATIONS 5 2 1 

RECORD OF UNSAFE BUILDINGS, 5 3 1 

RECTANGULAR BEAMS. 

formulas (62-63) 15 111-115 

REGISTER BOXES. 

to be set in soapstone, etc 

construction of 

hot-air pipes, to be 1 inch from wood- 
work 

to be 1 inch from woodwork 

size of, allowed 

connecting pipes 



98 


32 


26 


98 


32 


26 


98 


32 


26 


98 


32 


26 


98 


32 


26 


98 


32 


26 



394 



Index. 



Page 

REGISTER BOXES OR PIPES. 

distance from woodwork 98 

how made and protected 98 

minimum size 98 

REGISTRATION OF PLUMBERS .... 167 

REGISTRY OF DEEDS. 

notice of pendency in, General Laws, 

chap. 184 287 

REINFORCED CONCRETE. 

frame for walls 91 

meaning of 40 

REINFORCED CONCRETE (40-67) 

REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILD- 
INGS, 
may be of supported structural steel or 

cast-iron columns 49 

said support to be fireproofed 49 

REINFORCEMENT. 

spacing of, slab reinforcement bars, in 

tension 42 

spacing of beams 42 

spacing of girders 42 

self-centering, fireproofing under 48 

strips, quantity necessary 59 

when lying obliquely to axis of strip. ... 59 

REINFORCEMENT SLABS. 

supported on four sides, distribution of 47 

REINFORCEMENTS, MAIN. 

fire protection of, beams, columns, walls, 

girders 41 

REINFORCEMENTS, STEEL. 

requirements for 40 

to be free of mill scale and loose rust. ... 40 

REINFORCING MATERIALS, SELF- 
CENTERING, 
use of, prohibited where span exceeds 8 

feet 48 

REJECTION OF MATERIAL. 

power of commissioner 40 

REMODELLED. 

what buildings may be 102 

REMOVAL OF BUILDINGS. 

permit for 4 



Section. Paragraph. 



32 


26 


32 


26 


32 


26 


113 


1 



15 



27 


1 


15 


1 


15 


1-143 



15 


49 


15 


49 


15 


17 


15 


17 


15 


17 


15 


44 


15 


98 


15 


98 



15 



15 

15 
15 



15 



15 



35 



37 



14 

3 
3 



44 



1,2 



Index. " 395 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
REMOVAL WORK. 

to be supported 16 12 2 

"REPAIR OF LEAKS." 

plumbing, meaning of 166 112 2 

REPAIR OF WOODEN BUILDINGS. 

within limits, permit required 20 13 1 

REPAIRING OF BUILDINGS. 

examination to be made on application, 5 3 1 

REPAIRS. 

defined '. 120 42 11 

limit of cost, to be called such 20 13 1 

REPAIRS AND ALTERATIONS. 

permits required for (16, 20) 12, 13 (1), (1) 

REPEALS. 

chap. 419, 1S92, and all acts inconsistent, 

repealed 187 133 1 

REPORT. (Annual.) 

board of appeal to Mayor 11 8 3 

to be printed separately 11 8 3 

of commissioner 4 1 5 

REQUIREMENTS. 

for all buildings (16-19) 12 1-15 

RESPONSIBILITY FOR MAINTE- 
NANCE. 

of owners and lessees 183 127 1 

RESTRICTION. 

of areas 70, 72 17 1, 2,4, 5 

RESTRICTIONS. 

tenement-house, commissioner not to dis- 
pense with 148 76 1 

RETAINING WALLS. 

for excavation 74 19 1 

rust protection 42 15 16 

RIVET HOLES. 

steel construction in tension members ... 68 16 2 

RIVETED JOINTS. 

rules for 69 

when to be used 91 

RIVETING. 

of steel columns 91 

of steel frame 91 

to be used, when 69 



16 


9 


27 


1 


27 


I 


27 


1 


16 


9 



396 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph . 
RIVETS, 
steel construction 68 16 2 

ROOF GARDENS. 

above theatres, provisions for (162), (163) 108, 109 (1), (1) 

exits required for 163 109 1 

ROOF LEADERS, 
requirements for 181 124 1 

ROOF LOAD, 
minimum 109 36 14-18 

ROOF OPENINGS, 
framing of 48 15 44 

ROOF SLABS. 

depth 47 15 41 

ROOFING. 

to be brick, tile, slate, etc 23 13 21 

of wooden shingles not permitted 23 13 21 

ROOF. 

fireproofing of 23 32 21 

ROOFS. 

not to discharge on street or alley 21 13 5 

observation stands, not be erected on, 22 13 16 

permanent means of access to 17 12 6 

safe minimum live load with pitch of 4 

inches or less per foot 109 36 15 

with pitch of 4 inches to 8 inches per 

foot 109 36 16 

with pitch of 8 inches to 12 inches per 

foot 109 36 17 

with pitch more than 12 inches per foot, 109 36 18 

egress to 17 12 6 

discharge of snow, etc., from 21 13 5 

observation stands on, prohibited 21 13 6 

ROOF HOUSES. 

1905, chap. 383 214 4 

ROOMS, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

lighting and ventilation of 136 63 1 

size of, regulations for 137 64 1 

ROT. 
timbers to be free from 31 14 35 

RUBBLE CONCRETE. 

meaning of 28 14 23 

not to be used for any projecting footing, 29 14 24 



1 


1 


6 


1 


14 


12 


20 


9 


20 


10 


20 


12 



Index. " 397 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
RUST PROTECTION. 

foundations and retaining walls 42 15 16 

RUTHERFORD AVENUE. 

buildings on, height of, chap. 416, 1907. . 217 1 

S. 

SAFETY OF OCCUPANTS. 

commissioner may order additional re- 
quirements for 11 8 4 

SALARIES. 

Building Commissioner 3 

members of appeal board 7 

SAND, 
when used for concrete, quality of, 

strength of 27 

compact, definition of 76 

loose, definition of 76 

fine-grained, definition of 76 

compact, maximum allowable, bearing 

value in foundations 75 20 4 

dry or wet, coarse, maximum allowable 

bearing value in foundations 75 20 4 

fine-grained, wet, maximum allowable 

bearing value in foundations 75 20 4 

SANDSTONE. 

stresses of 34 14 42 

SANITARY BUILDINGS. 

of wood, chap. 4, 1873 194 1 

SCHOOL BUILDINGS. 

permit for erection of, to be obtained from 

Building Commissioner 13 10 1 

permanent or portable, exempt from pro- 
visions of this act, except as provided 

insect. 17 13 10 1 

subject to inspection by Building Depart- 
ment 13 10 1 

SCHOOL BUILDINGS, PORTABLE. 

not affected by this act 13 10 1 

SCHOOLS. 

public, use for social purposes, etc., 1916, 

Special Act, chap. 86 238 1 

SCUTTLES. 

in roof, where required. (17), (121-122) 12, 44 (6), (1, 2) 



398 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
SCUTTLES AND BULKHEADS. 

tenement house, requirements for. . . (121-122) 44 (1, 2) 

SEALING OF STANDPIPES. 

on stage of theatres forbidden (159), (166) 104, 111 (3), (8) 

SEATS, ASSEMBLY ROOMS. 

must conform to law for theatres when 

ordered by Building Commissioner 162 107 1 

SEATS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

must conform to requirements for 

theatres. 162 107 1 

SEATS, THEATRE. 

arrangement and space for 152 87 1 

SECOND-CLASS BUILDINGS (70-73) 17 1-8 

defined 15 11 2 

what buildings to be 70 17 1 

foundations 77 20 20 

to be fire stopped 97-98 32 20-24 

tenement houses to be sprinklered, when, 

and how 124 45 4 

SECOND-CLASS CONSTRUCTION. 

buildings may be of 70 17 1 

new, adapted for habitation: 

height of not to exceed five stories or 

60 feet 70 17 2 

area of such buildings not to exceed 

3,500 square feet 70 17 2 

basements of such buildings, or first 
story, or both, may be used for mer- 
cantile purposes, when 70 17 

area, restriction of, when and how 72 17 5 

area not to exceed 10,000 square feet. 72 17 5 

SELF-CENTERING. 

reinforcing materials, use of, prohibited, 

when 48 15 44 

reinforcement, fireproofing under 48 15 44 

SEPARATE HALL. 

in tenement houses 138 65 2 

SETTING OF BOILERS AND FUR- 
NACES. 

permit for 4 1 6 

"SHAFT." 

definition of 119 42 7 



Index. 399 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
SHAFT ENCLOSURE. 

fireproof, how supported 73 17 7 

in first and second class warehouses and 

stores to have fireproof enclosures. . . . 71, 72 17 3, 6 

to be of fireproof material Ill * 38 1 

SHAFTS, ELEVATOR. 

tenement house, regulations for. ....... 128 52 1 

SHAFTWAYS. 

elevator, to be enclosed, 1914, chap. 782 . . 284 6 

light to be enclosed, 1914, chap. 782 284 6 

ventilators to be enclosed, 1914, chap. 782 284 6 

SHAKES. 

timber to be free from-. 31 14 35 

SHALE. 

definition of 76 20 6 

maximum allowable bearing value in 

foundations 75 20 4 

SHEAR AND DIAGONAL TENSION, 
for beams with horizontal bars only, 

with and without reinforcement 52 15 64 

for beams with web reinforcement 52 15 65 

SHEAR PUNCHING. 

not to exceed six per cent of compression 

strength 53 15 66 

SHEET PILING. 

where used 74 19 1 

SHINGLE ROOFS. 

not permitted 23 13 21 

SHIRLEY-EUSTIS MANSION. 

exempt from building law provisions, 
until January 1, 1918, Special Act of 

1915, chap. 306 227 1 

SHUTTERS. 

on what buildings, how constructed and 

where placed 110 37 1 

provision and requirement for 110 37 1 

SIGNS. 

projection allowed 22 13 19 

permits, etc., General Laws, chap. 85, 

sect. 8 248 8 

projecting into public ways, permit for, 

etc., General Laws, chap. 85 248 8 



400 Index. 

Page, Section. Paragraph, 

SIGNS AND STRUCTURES. 

encroaching on public ways, General 

Laws, chap. 85, sect. 8 248 8 

SINKS IN EXISTING TENEMENT 
HOUSES, 
woodwork to be removed 147 73 3 

SKELETON CONSTRUCTION, 
method 91-92 27 1-4 

SKYLIGHT, 
not allowed over court in tenement 

house 132 57 1 

over elevator shafts Ill * 38 1 

over stair hall in existing tenement 

house 145 71 1 

over stair hall in tenement house 138 66 1 

over vent shafts in tenement houses .... 128 52 1 

tenement house, regulations for 145 71 2 

SLAB THICKNESS. 

in flat slab construction 55 15 77 

shear about column, capital, or dropped 

panel 55 15 77 

SLABS. 

to be considered restrained at ends, when, 46 15 33 

supported on four sides, distribution of 

loads 47 15 37 

reinforcement of, bending movement, cal- 
culated movement 47 15 38 

SLABS. 

simply supported, span length 42 15 20 

depth below T-beams 47 15 42 

concrete cinder, thickness of , span of 47 15 43 

continuous or restrained, span length ... 42 15 24 

considered integral part of beam, when. . 48 15 46 

cast monolithic, a T section, when 50 15 55 

SLAG. 

allowable for aggregate, when 26 14 11 

composition of, allowable 27 14 15 

SMOKE PIPES. 

at least 1 foot below ceiling 98 32 25 

not to proj ect through wall or window . . 22 13 13 

regulations for 98, 99 32 25, 27 

relative to 98, 99 32 25, 27 



Index. " 401 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
SMOKE PIPES, 
not to be placed nearer than 1 foot to 

woodwork 98, 99 32 26, 27 

to have metal collars when passed through 

floors or partitions not fireproof 99 32 27 

entering chimney to have metal collar ... 99 32 27 

passing through roof or external wall 

prohibited 99 32 27 

when within 18 inches of ceiling to have 
wire lath and plaster protection or 

shields ,.. 99 32 27 

SNOW ON ROOFS. 

discharge of 21 13 5 

SOFT CLAY. 

definition of 76 20 16 

SOIL. 

character and depth, to be determined by 

test 77 20 19 

"SOIL PIPE." 

plumbing, definition of 167 112 7 

SOIL AND WASTE PIPES AND 
TRAPS. 

plumbing requirements for. 168, 169 117 1, 2 

SOLDERING NIPPLES. 

required diameter and weight of 174 121 3 

SOLID LEDGE. 

definition of 76 20 5 

SOUND. 

definition of, classes of timber 31 14 36 

SOUTH BAY. 

harbor lines, 1921, chap. 137 243 1 

no wharf, pier, wall, filiing or other struc- 
ture to extend beyond harbor line, 1921, 

chap. 137 ." 245 2 

no structure, filling or other work allowed 
below present high water mark, 1921, 

chap. 137 245 3 

all previous harbor lines annulled, 1921, 

chap. 137 246 4 

SPACING OF REINFORCEMENT. 

slab reinforcement bars in tension 42 15 17 

beams and girders 42 15 17 



402 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
SPAN LENGTH. 

f or beams and slabs simply support ed. .. . 42 15 24 
for beams and slabs, continuous or re- 
strained 42 15 24 

brackets, when used 42 15 24 

maximum negative moments 42 15 24 

SPAN OF A BEAM. 

defined 42 15 24 

SPANS. 

unusual or unequal length, to be designed 

to carry out intent of act 46 15 36 

SPECIFICATIONS AND PLANS 

commissioner may require 4 1 5 

duplicate to be kept at building 4 1 5 

observation stands, commissioner must 

approve 22 13 16 

SPITE FENCE. 

not to exceed 6 feet in height, General 

Laws, chap. 49 247 21 

SPRINKLERS. 

automatic, commissioner may order in 
basements of mercantile buildings here- 
after erected 19 12 15 

if installed, larger undivided area al- 
lowed 72 17 4 

SPRINKLERS AND STANDPIPES. 

theatres, regulation for 159 104 3 

SPRINKLERS IN TENEMENT 
HOUSES, 
hereafter erected, second and third class, 124 45 4 

first-class buildings 124 45 4A 

existing, basements 124 45 4B 

may be waived, when 124 45 4D 

SPRUCE. 

stress of 38 14 52 

STABLES. 

distance from adjoining buildings 23 13 20 

outside limits, maximum height and area, 73 17 8 

public hearings for 23 13 20 

restrictions relating to location of 23 13 20 

fire protection in, for horses and mules, 

General Laws, chap. 272, 287 86 



Index. 



403 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
STABLES. 

outside building limits, may be built as 

approved by commissioner 73 17 8 

exits, runaways, sprinklers, occupancy 
above first floor prohibited, when, 

General Laws, chap. 272 . . 287 86 

STABLES, DRAINAGE OF. 

fixtures to be approved by commissioner, 171 117 6 

STAGE DOORS. 

theatre, requirements for 153 91 1 

STAGING OR STANDS FOR OBSER- 
VATION. 

not to be erected on roofs 21 13 16 

STAIR HALL. 

defined 119 42 9 

in tenement houses, construction 125,126 46,47 (1), (1) 

STAIR SHAFTS. 

in first-class stores and warehouses, to be 

fireproof, automatic doors 70 17 1 

STAIR STRINGERS. 

to be fire stopped 97 32 21 

STAIRS. 

constructed to carry loads safely 106 36 2 

in tenement houses, dimensions 123 45 2 

fireproof, to roof bulkhead 121 44 1 

minimum load for 106 36 2 

to roof to be kept clear 122 44 2 

STAIRS, THEATRE. 

how to be constructed 157, 159 100, 103 (1), (1) 

STAIRS AND PUBLIC HALLS. 

tenement houses to have lights, when. . . 125 45 5 

STAIRWAYS. 

in tenement houses 122-125 45 (1-5) 

STAIRWAY ENCLOSURES. 

in tenement houses to be sprinklered, 

when and how 124 45 4 

STAIRWAYS, PUBLIC BUILDIISGS. 

must conform to requirements for theatres 162 107 1 

persons not allowed to stand on, during 

performance. . . .• 161 105 6 

STANDPIPES AND SPRINKLERS. 

theatre, regulations for 159 104 3 



404 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
STANDS, OBSERVATION. 

commissioner must approve plans of ... . 22 13 16 

not to be erected on roofs 21 13 6 

STATE BUILDINGS. 

not affected by this act '. 13 10 1 

STATE HOUSE VICINITY OF. 

height of building (70 feet), 1899, chap. 

457 201 1 

height of buildings (100 feet-70 feet), 

1902, chap. 543 202 1 

STATIONS, RAILROAD. 

not affected by this act 13 10 1 

STEAM EXHAUSTS. 

regulations pertaining to 179-180 122 3-6 

STEAM PIPES. 

to be not less than 1 inch from woodwork, 22 13 14 

STEEL. 

fireproofing of 94-97 32 1-17 

in foundations, protected 85 22 1 

need not be fireproof ed where wood could 

be used 96 32 11 

reinforcements, requirements for 40 15 3 

tensile and compressive stress 53 15 68 

exceptions, in slabs of stone concrete. ... 53 15 68 

exceptions in drawn wire, etc 53 15 68 

STEEL AND IRON. 

in alteration work to be fireproofed as 

required by commissioner. . 97 32 17 

STEEL COLUMNS. 

parts to be riveted 91 27 1 

hollow, circular, filled with concrete, load 

allowance 49 15 52 

ends to be machined faced or full riveted 

connections provided 68 16 6 

STEEL COMPRESSION MEMBERS. 

value of 36 14 47 

STEEL CONSTRUCTION 67-69 16 1-9 

materials, stresses and methods of com- 
putation. (See sect. 14) 67 16 1 

general requirements 67 16 1 

thickness of metal, allowable 67 16 1 

rivets 68 16 2 

rivet holes in tension members 68 16 2 



Index. 



405 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
STEEL CONSTRUCTION. 

tension members, proportioning 68 16 2 

net sections to be used. 68 16 2 

STEEL FRAME. 

to be riveted 91 27 * 

STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 

methods 91 27 1 

STEEL GRILLAGE. 

in foundations, requirements for 78 20 25 

STEEL, MODULUS OF ELASTICITY. 

for cinder concrete 53 15 69 

for stone concrete 53 15 69 

for stone concrete over- 2,200 pounds and 

less than 2,900 pounds per square inch, 53 15 69 

2,900 pounds or over per square inch. . . 53 15 69 

STEEL PLATE GIRDER. 

extreme fibre stress may be reduced 

when and how 35 14 45 

STEEL, STRUCTURAL. 

to conform to standard specifications ... 29 14 28 

STIRRUP IRONS. 

when and where required 19 12 14 

STONE. 

when used for concrete, quality of 27 14 13 

when used for reinforced concrete, qual- 
ity of 27 14 13 

STONE MASONRY. 

stresses for 34 14 42 

STOP ORDER. 

how issued 4 1 8 

STOPPING WORK. 

concrete work to stop at point of low 

shear 41 15 11 

STORAGE BUILDINGS. 

outside limits, maximum height and areas, 73 17 8 

outside building limits may be built as 

approved by commissioner 73 17 8 

STORE FRONTS. 

how protected ■ 18 12 11 

outside finish of 18 12 11 

STORES. 

first-class, to have fireproof shafts and 

automatic doors. . . , 71 17 3 



406 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
STORES, OFFICES, ETC. 

in theatre buildings 149 81 1 

STORES AND STORAGE BUILDINGS. 

fire escape, requirements for 73 17 7 

STORM WATER. 

separate system of plumbing required for, 

General Laws, chap. 83 248 5 

"STORY," BUILDING. 

definition of 16 11 12 

STRAIN SHEETS. 

to be filed before permit is granted 9 8 1 

STRAINS. 

calculation of, to be submitted 9 8 1 

STRAW, HAY, FEED, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable building .... 183 126 1 

STREET COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this act 14 10 2 

STREET, PUBLIC. 

boilers under, prohibited 22 13 18 

STREET WIDTH. 

how measured 73 18 1 

STRENGTH. 

of materials 24, 31-39 14 1, 37-55 

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 24-40 14 1-63 

STRENGTH, STABILITY, SAFETY. 

of a building, commissioner may order 

additional requirements for 11 8 4 

STRESS. 

tensile or compressive, of steel 53 15 68 

exceptions, slabs of stone concrete and 

drawn wire 53 15 68 

base plates, how to figure 40 14 63 

bearing plates, how to figure 40 14 63 

grillage beams, how to figure 40 14 63 

STRESSES. 

working, not to be altered 10 8 2 

timber compression members due to 

eccentric loading 38 14 53 

timber compression members, due to 

tranverse loading 38 14 53 

of materials, not set out in law, to be de- 
termined by commissioner 39 14 55 

of materials used in construction 32, 33, 34 14 39, 40, 42 

35t38 44. 52 



Index. 



407 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
STRESSES. 

of brickwork used in construction 32 14 39 

of concrete used in construction 33 14 40 

of grout and stone masonry 34 14 42 

of structural steel and iron 35 14 44 

of timber.... 38 14 52 

not prescribed to be fixed by com- 
missioner 39 14 55 

STRESSES, BUILDING MATERIALS. 

tables, etc.. (24-40) 14 1-63 

STRESSES, STEEL CONSTRUCTION, (40-67) 15 (1-143) 

STRING COURSES. 

projection allowed.. .* 22 13 19 

STRUCTURAL DETAILS. 

to be submitted 10 8 2 

STRUCTURAL METAL. 

to be fireproofed and how 94, 97 32 1-17 

to be fire protected 94 32 1 

method of same 94, 95 32 1-8 

exemptions 96 32 11-16 

STRUCTURAL SLABS. 

to be poured full thickness 41 15 10 

STRUCTURAL STEEL. 

to conform to standard specifications ... 29 14 28 

STRUCTURAL STEEL AND IRON. 

stresses for 35 14 44 

STRUCTURES, TEMPORARY. 

commissioner may prescribe conditions 

for 12 9 1 

STUDDING. 

not to be placed nearer than 1 inch to 

chimney 21 13 11 

to be fire stopped 97 32 19, 20 

SUBSTITUTE MATERIALS 10 8 2 

SUBSTITUTE METHODS. 

plans, formulas, etc., to be filed with 

commissioner 10 8 2 

SUMMER THEATRES. 

outside building limits, how may be con- 
structed, capacity 163 110 1-3 

SUPPORT BY CITY FOR DANGEROUS 
EXCAVATIONS. 

cost may be recovered 74 19 1 



408 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
SUPPORT WORK. 

and adjoining property 16 12 2 

SUPPORTING MEMBERS. 

bending in beams or floor slabs propor- 
tioned to resist stresses, when 48 15 45 

SUPPORTING WORK. 

power of commissioner 1G 12 3 

SUPPORTS. 

below first floor, to be of masonry or 

metal 19 12 15 

"SURFACE DRAIN." 
must have deep seal trap and back-water 

valve 181 124 1 

plumbing, terms defined (166, 167) 112 1-10 

SURVEY OF LOT. 

required 5 1 9 

SUSPENDED CEILING. 

of metal lath and plaster, fireproofing of, 

same as for slabs 50 15 55 

SYSTEMS. 

not covered by this act, when allowed. 10 8 2 

T. 

TABLES, STRESSES. 

showing strength of building materials, (31-39) 14 (3S-55) 

T-BEAMS. 

depth below slab 47 15 42 

when slab may be considered an integral 

part of beam 48 15 46 

its effective width not to exceed, etc. ... 48 15 46 

its overhang not to exceed, etc 48 15 46 

TEARING DOWN. 

permit for 4 1 6 

TEMPERATURE. 

high, premature drying must be avoided, 41 15 12 

low, freezing must be avoided 41 15 13 

TEMPORARY FLOORS. 

during construction 118 41 1 

TEMPORARY SEATS. 

in public buildings prohibited 161 105 6 

in theatres prohibited 165 111 5 

TEMPORARY STRUCTURES. 

commissioner to prescribe conditions for, 12 9 1 



Index. 



409 



Page. 
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES. 

in connection with other work, commis- 
sioner to fix conditions 12 

when permitted 12 

TENEMENT-HOUSE REQUIREMENTS, 
commissioner not to dispense with 148 

TENEMENT HOUSE. 

yard, width of 129 

yard, depth of , 130 

separate hall. 138 

TENEMENT HOUSES. 

"apartment," definition of 120 

ashes, receptacles for 147 

bakeries and fat boiling in, prohibited. . . 128 

basements' shafts to be inelosed 125 

basement rooms, when exempt from 

strict compliance with this act 142 

basements, requirements for (139-142) 

bulkheads, construction of 121 

cellar ceilings, construction of 127 

"corner lot," definition of 119 

"courts," definition of 119 

general regulations for courts 132 

inner, regulations for 134 

outer, regulations for 133 

vent, regulations for 135 

dangerous business in, regulated 129 

defined 118 

definition of certain words (118-120) 

drainage of courts and yards 147 

egress, provision for, in case of fire 120 

elevator shafts, regulations for 128 

elevators in basement of, if more than 
eight suites and three stories in height 
to be inclosed in fireproof material. . . . 125 

entrance halls, construction of 126 

existing, lighting and ventilation of .... . 144 

fire escapes, construction of (120-121) 

in what they shall consist (120-121) 

general regulations for (120-121) 

internal and external (120-121) 

garbage, receptacles for 147 



Section. Paragraph. 



76 



55 


2 


55 


3 


65 


2 


42 


10 


75 


1 


53 


1 


45 


6 


68 


Uh 


68 


1-14 


44 


1 


49 


1 


42 


4 


42 


6 


57 


1 


59 


1 


58 


1-3 


60 


1 


54 


1 


42 


1 


42 


1-11 


74 


1 


43 


1 


52 


1 


45 


6 


48 


1 


70 


1 


43 


1-5 


43 


1-5 


43 


1-5 


43 


1-5 


75 


1 



>n. Paragraph. 


45 


5 


43 


1 


61 


1 


55 


1-7 


128 


1 



410 Index. 

tenement houses. 

hallways in, required to be lighted all 

night, if more than eight suites and 

three stories in height 125 

hereafter erected to have fire escapes . . . 120 

intakes, provision for 131 

light and ventilation, provisions for. . (129-131) 

lighting, board of health may regulate. . 183 
lights in hallways, stairways, elevators, 

etc., to be left lighted all night, if more 

than eight suites and three stories in 

height 125 45 

not to be enlarged to decrease size of yard, 136 62 

other buildings, on same lot 136 62 

outside Limits, restrictions 128 51 

overcrowding, board of health may pre- 
vent 183 128 

partitions, construction of 127 50 

' 'public hall, " definition of 119 42 

"repairs," definition of 120 42 1 

rooms of, lighting and ventilation 136 63 1, 

size of 137 64 

size of yard, minimum 136 62 

scuttles, construction of 122 44 

"shaft," definition of 119 42 

skylights, regulations for 145 71 

sprinklers in, required, when more than 

ten suites and three stories in height. . 124 45 4 

stair hall, definition of 119 42 9 

stairway, halls, construction of 125 46 1 

stairs and public halls 122-125 45 1-5 

stairways in basement of, if more than 

eight suites and three stories in height, 

to be inclosed in fireproof material 125 45 6 

to have bulkhead or scuttle 121, 122 44 1,2 

ventilation, board of health may regulate 183 128 1 

water-closets, requirements for 142, 146 69, 72 (1), (1, 2) 

water supply, regulations for 146, 147 73 1,2 

windows in public halls of 137 65 1 

for stair halls 138 66 1 

wooden, limit of height and area 128 51 1 

"yard," definition of 119 42 5 

yards, requirements and regulations 

for 129-131, 131-132 55, 56 (1-7) , (1-5) 



Index. * 411 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
TENEMENT HOUSES. 

where not required 131-132 56 1-5 

hereafter erected, sprinklers required 

when and how 124 45 4 

sprinklers required in, when and how . . . 124 45 4 

existing, sprinklers required, when 124 45 4B 

existing, sprinklers waived, when 124 45 4D 

basements, to be sprinklered in first-class 

buildings 124 45 4A 

basements m second and third class, here- 
after erected to be sprinklered 124 45 4 

basements in second and third class, ex- 
isting, to be sprinklered 124 45 4B 

kitchenettes to be sprinklered, when. . . 124 45 4 

elevator shafts to be sprinklered, when, 124 45 4 

stairway enclosures to be sprinklered 

when 124 45 4 

light shafts to be sprinklered, when 124 45 4 

dumb-waiter shafts, to be sprinklered, 

when 124 45 4 

rear stairway doors in, to be fireproof ed, 

when 124 45 4C 

TENSION PIECES. 

loaded eccentrally, maximum combined 

fibre stress 39 14 60 

TENSION, SHEAR AND DIAGONAL. 

for beams with horizontal bars only, with 

and without web reinforcement 52 15 64 

TERMS USED IN PLUMBING. 

meaning of, defined 166-167 112 1-10 

TERRA COTTA. 

floor tile, average compression strength of 25 14 5 

how computed 25 14 5 

building blocks, crushing strength 26 14 8 

building blocks, working stress of 26 14 9 

TERRA COTTA PARTITION BLOCKS. 

thickness of blocks 100 33 4 

TESTS. 

of substitute methods and materials to be 

made satisfactory to commissioner. .. . 10 8 2 

loading, commissioner may order at ex- 

penseof owner 11 8 5 

how determined in exceptional cases. ... 11 8 7 

fire, method of determining 11 8 8 



412 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
TESTS. 

of materials, commissioner may require 

of owner 24 14 1 

TESTS, ELEVATOR. 

maufacturers must make Ill * 38 17 

TESTS, PLUMBING. 

work must be approved 168 116 1 

TEST, SOIL. 

to determine character and depth 77 20 19 

of fireproof partitions, method to be 

employed ] 01 33 11 

THEATRE EXITS. 

general regulations for 153, 156-157 91, 99 (1) , (1-3) 

163,164 111 (1),3,4 
THEATRES. 

aisles, regulations for 152 88 1 

aisles, passageways, etc., persons not to 

remain in during performance 165 111 5 

arc light in auditorium in existing thea- 
tres 164 111 3 

art galleries above, regulations for 162 10S 1 

auditoriums, heating apparatus under. . . 159 104 2 
balcony and gallery platforms for seats, 

size 152 87 2 

boilers, engines and heating apparatus 

under theatres : 159, 164 104, 111 (2), (2) 

control of exits, lights, etc 156,164 99,111 (1,2), (3) 

courts and passages, size, etc 149 79 1 

curtains, must have fireproof 150 84 1 

doors to open outward 154 93 1 

existing, if altered, to conform to new 

law 148 77 1 

existing regulations for exits 164 111 4 

exit passages 149 79 1 

exit plans on program 1 57 99 3 

exit signs 156, 164 99, 111 (2), (3) 

exits, location, width, etc 153, 154, 155, 156 91, 92, 95, 98, 99 

(1) (1) (1) (1-3) (1) 

164 111 3 

exits to be marked by signs, etc 156 99 2 

false doors and mirrors not allowed 154 94 1 

fire escapes, outside to be lighted 156,164 99,111 (2), (3) 

fireproof construction required 148 78 1 



Index. - 413 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
THEATRES. 

floor and stage, levels of 150 82 1 

floor levels, changes by inclines 153 89 1 

foyers, lobbies, corridors, passages, capac- 
ity required 153 90 1 

gas outlets, number, to be inspected and 

tested 157 99 4 

gas pipe outlets required 157 99 4 

gates in stage standpipes 159, 166 104, 111 (3), (8) 

handrails, stair, requirements for 158 102 1-2 

heating apparatus under theatres 159, 164 104, 111 (2), (2) 

inspection, gas pipe outlets, required 157 99 4 

landings, stair, required dimensions of. . 158 101 1 
lighting fixtures over auditorium, pro- 
tected from falling 151 86 1 

lighting, independently fed or governed 

system in auditorium, halls, etc 156, 164 99, 111 (2), (3) 

lights for exits, etc 156, 164 99, 111 (2), (3) 

lobbies, requirements for 153 90 1 

obstructions or people in aisles or stair- 
ways 165 111 5 

open courts required 149 79,80 (1), (1) 

opening outward of doors 154,164 93,111 (1), (4) 

plans on program 157, 164 99, 111 (3), (4) 

proscenium wall, construction and open- 
ings 150 83 1 

proscenium walls required '. 150 83 1 

curtains required 150 84 1 

public buildings must conform to require- 
ments for 162 107 1 

radiators forbidden in passageways of .. . 159 104 1 

roof gardens may be above 162 108 1 

room exits for employees 154 92 1 

seats in auditorium, requirements for. . . . 152 87 1 

skylight over stage 151 86 1 

sprinklers, automatic, required 159 104 3 

stage doors must be provided 153 91 1 

stage floor, construction .- 151 85 1 

stairs, construction dimensions, hand- 
rails, etc 157, 162 100-108 (1), (1) 

stairs, how to be constructed 157 100 1 

standpipes required 159 104 3 

stores, offices, etc., under 149 81 1 



414 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
THEATRES. 

temporary seats not allowed 165 111 5 

"theatre," defiition of 148 77 1 

to be fireproof construction except certain 

portions 148 78 1 

ventilators, requirements for 151 86 1 

licensing of, 1907, chap. 463 218 1 

THEATRES AND PUBLIC HALLS, 
inspection and licensing of, 1907, chap. 

463, sect 1 218 1 

THEATRES, CONSTRUCTION OF. 

to be first-class 148 78 1 

THEATRES, EXISTING. 

general regulations for 163-166 111 1-8 

THEATRES, SUMMER. 

outside building limits, how may be con- 
structed 163 110 1-3 

THICKNESS OF WALLS. 

defined 16 11 11 

for all buildings 86-88 23 3-7 

in steel frame buildings 91,92 27 2,3 

when ashlar included 89 23 10 

THIRD-CLASS BUILDINGS. 

definition of 15 11 3 

in building limits, commissioner may 
grant permit to increase height or 
ground area when at intersection of 

two streets 20 13 1 

may be altered or enlarged, when and 

how 13 9 2 

size and location of window on area 104 35 10 

tenement houses to be sprinklered, when 

and how 124 45 4 

fire-stopping 97 32 19 

THIRD-CLASS CONSTRUCTION. 
(See, also, Wooden Buildings.) 

buildings may be third-class, when 70 17 1 

TIES. 

steel beams in direction of length 91 27 1 

TIMBER. 

compression numbers, centrally loaded, 

safe load per square inch 39 14 54 



Index. * 415 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
TIMBER. 

for structural use, to conform to specifi- 
cations promulgated by commissioner, 31 14 35 
to be free from all shakes, knots, rot, 

worm holes and defects 31 14 35 

dense, definition of 31 14 36 

sound, definition of. .... , 31 14 36 

stresses of.. 38 14 52 

compression members, regulation for use 

of 38,39 14 53,54 

compression members, eccentric loading 

of 38 14 53 

compression members, transverse loading 

of 38 14 53 

compression members, centrally loaded, 

safe load 39 14 54 

TIMBERS, 
in walls, how to be treated (second-class 

buildings) 101 34 1 

in party wall 21 13 4 

TIMBERS IN WALLS, SECOND- 
CLASS BUILDINGS. 

to enter wall 4 inches 101 34 1 

to be splayed, shaped or arranged so as to 
fall out in case of fire without injury to 

wall 101 34 1 

TOP FLANGE. 

steel plate girders, beams or channels, 
extreme fibre stress may be reduced, 

when and how 35 14 45 

TORN DOWN. 

buildings may be, by Health Commis- 
sioner, when, 1897, chap. 219 198 1 

TOWN. 

includes city, General Laws, chap. 4 . . . 246 7 7 

TRAPS, EARTHENWARE.... 169 117 2 

TRAPS, PLUMBING. 

requirements for 168-171 ' 117 1-4 

TRAPS, SPECIAL. 

grease, inflammable compounds, non- 
siphon 180 123 1 

TRIMMER. 

arches 93 30 



416 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 



TRIMMERS, WOODEN. 

hung in stirrup irons, when 

TRUSSES. 

computation, method of, for span of . 

how designed 

to be properly braced 

TRUSSES, RIVETED. 

center of gravity line 

need not be fireproof ed, when 



19 



12 



14 



39 


14 


58 


69 


16 


8 


69 


16 


8 


69 


16 


8 


96 


32 


12 



u. 

UNDERPINNING FOR WOODEN 
BUILDINGS, 
materials and thickness 115 39 

UNSAFE BUILDING, 
record of 5 3 

UNSAFE BUILDINGS. 

commissioner may order vacated 6 4 

commissioner to post notices on 6 4 

commissioner may take down or shore up, 6 5 

owner to take down or secure 6 5 

may be placarded '. 6 4 

UNSUITABLE MATERIAL, 
commissioner has power to reject 24 14 

USE OF BUILDINGS. 

not to be changed without permit 107 36 

U. S. GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS. 

exempt from act 13 10 

V. 

VACANCIES. 

in board of appeal, how filled 7 6 

VACATE BUILDINGS. 

commissioner may 

(a) when unsafe or dangerous 6 4 

(b) where violation exists 6 4 

(c) where egress is insufficient 6 4 

VACATED. 

building to be, when ordered by commis- 
sioner with approval of Mayor 6 4 

buildings may be, by Health Commis- 
sioner when, 1897, chap. 219 198 1 



Index. - 417 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
VALVES. 

of stage standpipes in theatres . 159, 166 104, 111 (3), (8) 

VAULTED WALLS. 

regulations for 91 26 1 

VENT COURT. 

denned 119 42 6 

VENT COURTS. 

for tenement houses, size, etc 135 60 1 

VENT PIPE. (See Smoke Pipe) 99 32 27 

"VENT PIPES." 

plumbing, definition of 167 112 5 

regulation for 99 32 27 

VENT SHAFTS. 

defined 119 42 7 

of fireproof material Ill 38 1 

in tenement houses to have intakes and 

skylights 128 52 1 

VENTILATING FLUES. 

must be of incombustible material 18 12 12 

to stoves, broilers or heaters to be of 

brick 19 12 15 

"VENTILATION PIPE." 

plumbing, definition of 167 112 8 

VENTILATION, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

board of health may regulate 183 128 1 

VENTILATORS, THEATRE. 

requirements for 151 86 1 

VENTS. 

plumbing, requirements for 169 117 3 

VIOLATIONS OF BUILDING LAWS. 

to be recorded 5 2 1 

VIOLATIONS OF PERMIT. 

action to be taken 4 1 8 

VIOLATORS OF BUILDING LAWS. 

may be fined $500 187 132 2 

VOTING BOOTHS. 

not affected by this act 13 10 1 



w. 








ALL BAYS. 








restraint, when wall is of reinforced con- 










57 


15 


83 




58 


15 


88 



418 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
WALL BEAMS. 

flat slab construction, in 60 15 101 

when continuous, negative bending at 

columns 60 15 101 

when continuous, positive bending at mid 

span 60 15 101, 102 

width of columns, formulas (a) and (fc).. 60 15 102, 103 

WALLS. 

framed wi.th iron or steel 91-92 27 1-4 

proscenium, theatres must have 150 83 1 

to be of masonry or metal, when 19 12 15 

8 inches thick to be corbelled for joists. . 101 34 1 

floor loads reduced in figuring 109 36 13 

if steel frame, how constructed 91 27 1 

in steel frame buildings, thickness 91-92 27 2, 3 

party, above roof, height and finish 92 28 1 

not to be removed to enlarge floor areas 

over limit 72 17 5 

small openings in 93 31 1 

to be bonded at angles 90 24 1 

to restrict areas 72 17 5, 6 

foundations to be 4 inches thicker than 

walls overhead 88 23 8 

when reinforced, by frame of steel or rein- 
forced concrete 88 23 8 

ashlar, when included in the thickness of, 89 23 10 

non-bearing thickness of, height of 89 23 11 

curtain, thickness of, height of 89 23 12 

hollow block, not to be used for bearing 

walls 90 23 13 

solid, reinforced concrete (see sect. 15) . . 90 23 13 

brick, bonding of 90 25 1 

mezzanine floor or balcony more than 10 

feet in span shall be considered as a 

story in fixing thickness of walls sup- 
porting it 88 23 9 

ashlar, not to be considered unless walls 

are 16 inches thick and ashlar 8 inches 

thick 89 23 10 

also unless alternate courses are 4 inches 

and 8 inches to allow bonding with 

backing 89 23 10 

non-bearing, may be 4 inches less in 

thickness, when 89 23 11 



Index. 419 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
WALLS. 

non-bearing, may be 8 inches less in 

thickness supporting stairs or stair 

landings 89 23 11 

non-bearing, not to be less than 8 inches 

in thickness 89 23 11 

non-bearing, not to exceed a height of 30 

times its thickness 89 23 11 

curtain, may be less thickness, when. .. . 89 23 12 

curtain, in single family dwelling 89 23 12 

curtain, in all other buildings 89 23 12 

curtain, not to exceed in height, 30 times 

its thickness when more than 20 feet in 

length 89 23 12 

hollow block, not to be used for bearing 

walls, when 90 23 13 

hollow block, relative to 90 23 13 

basement, what it includes 86 23 1 

thickness of, shall be sufficient to keep 

stresses within requirements of working 

stresses prescribed by this act 86 23 2 

for single family dwellings, not over three 

stories, with wooden floor beams span- 
ning not over 15 feet 86 23 3 

floor timbers in, ends of, not to be nearer 

than 8 inches to each other 86 23 3 

for dwellings, not over three stories, when 

floor spans more than 20 feet 87 23 4 

when any part of such building is adapted 

for other than habitation, surrounding 

walls of such part to be not less than 

12 inches in thickness 87 23 4 

when one part of building is lower than 

the rest 87 23 7 

foundation, to be 4 inches thicker than 

wall of first story 88 23 8 

main reinforcement to be fire protected . . 41 15 14 

WALLS ABOVE ROOF, PARTY. 

requirements for 92 28 1 

WALLS, CONCRETE. 

how poured, when to be poured 41 15 9 

WALLS, CORNICES, 
regulations for ,.....,,, 92. 39 I 



420 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 

WALLS, CURTAINS. 

party and outside, must have 91, 92 27 2, 3 

WALLS, PARALLEL. 

to be properly tied 18 12 13 

"WALLS, PARTITIONS." 

definition of 15 11 10 

"WALLS, PARTY." 

definition of 15 11 9 

must have curtain 91 27 2 

openings for doorways in 93 31 1 

wooden buildings to have, when 116 40 1 

"WALLS, THICKNESS OF." 

meaning of, defined 16 11 11 

for basement 86,87 23 3,4 

for single dwelling 86 23 3 

for other dwellings 87 23 5 

for hotels 87 23 5 

for lodging houses 87 23 5 

for boarding houses 87 23 5 

for club houses 87 23 5 

for convents 87 23 5 

for hospitals 87 23 5 

for asylums 87 23 5 

for detention buildings 87 23 5 

for all other buildings 88 23 6 

WALLS, VAULTED. 

regulations for 91 26 1 

WASHINGTON STREET. 

corner Lovering place, exempt from 
height of buildings, act. 1914, chap. 

786 225 1 

WASTE PIPES AND TRAPS. 

plumbing, requirements for 168 117 1 

WATCHMAN. 

in hotels, etc., when required, General 

Laws, chap. 143 270 44 

WATER-CLOSETS. 

number required 18 12 10 

requirements for 142 69 (1) 

172,185 120,128 (1), (1) 

tenement house, provisions for 139, 142 67, 69 (1), (1) 

ventilation of 18 12 10 

in existing tenement houses, number and 

ventilation ,.,. 146 72. 2 



Index. - 421 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
WATER-CLOSETS. 

in existing tenement houses, woodwork to 

be removed 146 72 1 

in tenement houses, access to 139 67 1 

in tenement house cellar, permit from 

Health Commissioner 142 69 1 

in tenement houses, floors to be water- 
proofed 142 69 1 

in tenement houses, number, lighting, 

ventilation 142 .69 1 

number, in buildings where persons are 

employed • • 18 12 10 

numDer, in habitations 18 12 10 

separate for men and women 18 12 10 

water supply for 172 120 1 

WATER PIPES. 

protection from frost 17 12 8 

WATER SUPPLY. 

tenement house, requirements for. . . . 146, 147 73 1, 2 

WATERPROOFING CELLARS. 

when required 85 22 1 

WHARVES AND BUILDINGS 
THEREON. 

not restricted by building limits 12 9 1 

not subject to building laws 13 10 1 

WHARVES, MARKET BUILDINGS, 
ETC. 
restrictions of, sect. 9 not to apply to.. 12 9 1 

WHARVES, QUAYS, ETC. 

not affected by this at 13 10 1 

WHEEL GUARDS. 

on columns 97 32 18 

WIDTH. 

effective, of T-beams, not to exceed, etc., 48 15 46 

WIDTH OF STREET. 

how measured 73 18 1 

when uneven, 1905, chap. 383 order of 

July 21, 1905 215 

meaning of, 1905, chap. 383, order of 

July 21, 1905 215 

when buildings on one side of street only, 

1905, chap. 383, order of July 21, 1905, 215 
WIND BRACING. 

provisions for, required 39 14 56 



422 Index. 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
WIND PRESSURE. 

on vertical surfaces, on buildings 40 feet 

in height, 10 pounds 110 36 19 

40 feet to 80 feet in height, 15 pounds. .. 110 36 19 
more than 80 feet in height, 20 pounds... 110 36 19 
commissioner may require a design for 
increased pressure when in his judg- 
ment the exposure requires it 110 36 20 

bracing, additional, may be required, 

when 110 36 21 

WINDERS ON STAIRS. 

width 123 45 2 

WINDOW CAPS AND SILLS. 

projection allowed 22 13 19 

WINDOWS. 

habitable buildings, regulations for 104 35 10 

in first and second class mercantile and 
manufacturing buildings within 20 feet 
of opposite wall to have metal frames 

and wire glass 110 37 1 

in existing tenement houses 144 70 1 

in living rooms of habitations, distance 

from opposite wall 104 35 10 

size 104 35 10 

tenement house, in public halls 137 65 1 

for stair halls 138 66 1 

third-class buildings exempt. (Excep- 
tions) 104 35 10 

opening on fire escape 19 12 15 

WINDOWS IN ELEVATOR SHAFTS. 

to have red iron bars 112 * 38 5 

WINDOWS IN TENEMENT HOUSES. 

basement rooms 140 68 4 

courts, exception 136 61 2 

public halls 137 65 1 

size and locations 136 63 1 

of water-closets, bathrooms, halls on 

court, minimum size 133 58 3 

WIRE GLASS. 

in automatic doors, stair shafts 71, 72 17 3, 6 

WIRES, COMMISSIONER OF. 

not affected by this act 14 10 

provisions of Beet. 7 apply to 9 7 3 



Index. 423 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
WOOD, 
in foundation of wooden buildings on 

marshy land 21 13 9 

WOOD CONSTRUCTION. 

allowed under masonry, when 21 13 9 

WOODEN BUILDINGS. (See, also, 
Third-Class Buildings.) 
allowed within building limits, for: 

(a) building on wharves not exceeding 

27 feet in height 12 9 1 

(6) market sheds not over 27 feet in 

height 12 9 1 

(c) elevators for grain or coal 12 9 1 

(d) temporary structures to facilitate 

building operations 12 9 1 

(e) dwellings for one and two fami- 
lies under certain restrictions 12 9 1 

construction of, general regulations for, 

(115-116) (116-117) 39, 40 (1-4) (1-3A) 

description of frame 115 39 4 

for sanitary purposes, chap. 4, 1873 194 1 

foundations for 115 39 1 

habitations, distance from lot line and 

next buildings 116 40 1 

habitations, maximum height, number of 

stories 116 

height of, requirements 116, 117 

WOODEN BUILDINGS. 

not habitations, distance from lot line. . . 117 

proximity to other buildings 116, 117 

regulations concerning (115-116) (116-117) 

tenement houses, limit of size and area . . . 128 

when to have brick party walls 116 

within limits, not to be enlarged 20, 102 

may be altered or enlarged, when and 

how 13 9 2 

inside building limit, commissioner may 

grant permit to increase height or 

ground area, when at intersection of 

two streets 20 13 1 

foundation requirement for 115 39 1 

foundation, to be of brick, stone, granite, 

concrete or rubble 115 39 1 



40 


1 


40 


1.2 


40 


2 


40 


1,2 


\ 40 (1-4) (1-3A) 


51 


1 


40 


1 


3,35 


(1). (1) 



424 



Index. 



Page. Section. Paragraph. 
WOODEN BUILDINGS. 

foundation, to be carried to surface of 

ground 115 39 1 

foundation, of brick or concrete, to be 12 

inches thick 115 39 1 

foundation, of granite to be 18 inches 

thick 115 39 1 

foundation, of rubble, to be 20 inches 

thick 115 39 1 

foundation, to be laid at least 4 feet below 

surface exposed to frost 115 39 1 

foundation, to be laid on solid ground or 

upon piles properly spaced 115 39 1 

foundation, no round or boulder stone 

permitted in 115 39 1 

underpinning, to be of brick or concrete, 
12 inches thick or of stone 1G inches 
thick 115 39 2 

framing, wall girts to be 4 inches by 6 

inches at least of spruce or fir 115 39 3 

4-inch by 4-inch if of hard pine 116 39 3 

ledger boards 116 39 3 

studding not over 20 inches on centers, 116 39 3 

solid corners 116 39 3 

posts to be secured, braced 116 39 3 

ledgerboard, space back of, to be filled, 116 39 3 

to be securely nailed, framed or ironed 

together .... . 116 39 3 

ledger boards, when not allowed 116 39 4 

in limits, prohibited 20 13 1 

fireproofing 97 32 19 

sanitary purposes, 1873, chap. 4 194 1 

WOODEN HEADERS. 

requirements for 17 12 4 

WOODEN TRIMMERS. 

requirements for 17 12 4 

WORK. 

requiring permit 16, 20 12, 13 (1), (1) 

WORKING STRESSES. 

not to be modified 10 8 2 

compressive strength, basis for design. . . 51 15 56 

table for same 51 15 56 

concrete shall not be used, when 51 15 57 



Index. . 425 

Page. Section. Paragraph. 
WORKING STRESSES. 

concrete, one year old, compressive 

strength of 51 15 58 

WORMHOLES. 

timber to be free from 51 14 35 

WROUGHT IRON. 

strength of 31 14 29 

to conform to standand specifications ... 29 14 29 
WROUGHT-IRON COLUMNS, 
circular, filled with concrete, load allow- 
ance 49 15 52 

Y. 

"Y-BRANCHES." ' 

plumbing, definition of 1G6 112 3 

YARD. 

for tenement house, not to be decreased, 

when 136 62 1 

size, etc 129,131 55 1-7 

to be drained 147 74 1 

"YARD." 

definition of 119 42 5 

YARDS, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

general regulation for (129-131) (131-132) 55, 56 (1-7), (1-5) 

when not required 131, 132 56 1-5 



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