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Full text of "The building law of the city of Boston : being acts of 1907, chapter 550, as amended also general and special acts relating to buildings and their maintenance, use and occupancy"

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Council Gets 
Building Code 

First Four Portions 
Of New Setup Ready 

The first four parts of a 30-part 
new building code being drafted for 
Boston by an unpaid commission 
appointed three years ago were 
submitted by Mayor Tobin yesterday 
to the city council. 

The commission, headed by Build- 
ing Commr. James H. MOoney and 
including leading architects, build 
ing contractors, engineers and real 
estate men, submitted the first four 
sections of trie proposed new code 
to the mayor late last week, and is 
expected to transmit the rest of its 
voluminous draft within the next 
few weeks. The council's special 
committee on building code soon 
will ket a date for hearings on the 
measure, which, en adoption, will 
supersede existing Boston building 
laws passed by the Legislature. 
• The present laws, enacted in 1910 
and given subsequent piecemeal, 
additions by the Legislature, were 
termed grossly inadequate frojn the! 
fire protection standpoint following! 
the Cocoanut Grove fire. 

"The proposed code," said the 
commission, "applies primarily to 
new construction. It applies to 
existing structures only as they are 
substantially altered, or as their: 
type of occupancy changes, or as| 
they are structurally unsound. 

"The proposed code does not 
apply to fixtures, such as counters 












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THE BUILDING LAW OF THE 
CITY OF BOSTON. 



BEING ACTS OF 1907, CHAPTER 550, AS AMENDED, 

ALSO GENERAL AND SPECIAL ACTS RELATING 

TO BUILDINGS AND THEIR MAINTENANCE, 

USE AND OCCUPANCY. 








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City of Boston 

BUILDING DEPARTMENT 

Room 901, City Hall Annex 

1929 



CITY OF BOSTON. 
BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 



[Revised to January 1, 1930.] 



THE BUILDING LAW OF THE 
CITY OF BOSTON. 



CHAPTER 550, ACTS OF 1907 — AS AMENDED 
An Act Relative to the Construction, Alteration 

and Maintenance of Buildings in the City 

op Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

SECTION 1. 

There shall be in the city of Boston a department to be 
called the building department, which shall be under the 
charge of the building commissioner. The commissioner, 
who shall have had at least five years' experience as an 
architect, a builder, or a civil engineer, shall be appointed 
by the mayor, for a term of five years. He shall receive 
such salary as shall be fixed by the city council, with the 
approval of the mayor. 

The present officers and employees of the building 
department, except the board of appeal, shall hold their 
several offices and positions until removed or discharged 
according to law. 

The commissioner may, with the approval of the mayor, 
appoint such number of inspectors, employees, and assist- 
ants as the city council shall, from time to time, determine. 
No person shall be appointed as inspector of construction 
who has not had at least five years' experience as a builder, 
civil engineer, or architect, or as a superintendent or fore- 
man or a competent mechanic in charge of construction. 



4 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 1.] 

The commissioner may appoint as his deputy an inspec- 
tor in the department who shall, during the absence or 
disability of the commissioner, exercise all the powers of 
the commissioner. No officer or employee connected with 
the department shall be interested in the doing of work or 
the furnishing of material or appliances for the construc- 
tion, alteration, or maintenance of any building, or in the 
making of plans or of specifications therefor, unless he is 
the owner thereof or a member of a board within the build- 
ing department. No such officer or employee shall be 
engaged in any work which is inconsistent with his duties 
or with the interests of the department. 

The clerk of the department shall, under the direction 
of the commissioner, keep a record of the business of the 
department, and the commissioner shall submit to the 
mayor a yearly report of such business. The records of 
the department shall be open to public inspection. The 
commissioner may require plans and specifications of any 
proposed structure or for the alteration of any structure 
or building to be filed with him, duplicates of which, when 
approved by the commissioner, shall be kept at the build- 
ing during the progress of the work. Such duplicates 
shall be open to the inspection of any inspector in said 
department. 

Permits. 

The commissioner shall grant permits for the construc- 
tion, alteration, removal or tearing down of buildings or 
structures, and for plumbing, gas fitting, and the setting 
and maintenance of steam boilers and furnaces when 
applications for the same are made and filed in conformity 
with law. All permits issued by the commissioner shall 
be on printed forms approved by him. The commissioner 
shall issue rules and regulations governing the tearing 
down of buildings. Permits granted for building opera- 
tions may be revoked by the commissioner if work is not 



City of Boston Building Law. 5 

Sect. 1.] 

commenced thereunder within six months from the date 
of the permit. Applications for permits for building 
operations upon which permits have not been granted 
within a period of six months from the date of the filing of 
the same shall become void. 

Work May Be Stopped. 
If the commissioner finds that work is being done with- 
out a permit or that the terms of a permit already granted 
are being violated he may, after notice mailed to the owner 
doing or causing the work to be done, order the whole or 
any part of such work stopped, and such work shall not 
be resumed until the commissioner has issued a permit or 
given his written * approval for the continuance of such 
work. 

Forms for Applications. 
All applications for permits under the provisions of this 
act shall be in writing, on forms furnished by the depart- 
ment. The commissioner may require the material facts 
set forth in the same to be verified by the oath of the 
applicant; he may also require, in his discretion, a survey 
of a lot on which any proposed building is to be erected to 
be filed with the application. Every application shall 
state the name and address of the owner. 

[1913, c. 704, sect. 1.] 
[1923, c. 462, sect. 1.] 

SECTION 2. 
Record of Violations. 
The commissioner, or one of his inspectors, shall examine 
as often as is practicable every building in the course of 
construction or alteration, and shall make a record of all 
violations of this act and of all other matters relative 
thereto. The publication of such records with the con- 
sent of the commissioner shall be privileged. 



6 City of Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 3. 

Recokd op Unsafe. Buildings. 
The commissioner, or one his inspectors, shall examine 
any building reported as dangerous or damaged, and shall 
make a record of such examination, stating the nature and 
estimated amount of the damage, and the purpose for 
which the building was used, and in case of fire the probable 
origin thereof; and shall examine all buildings in respect 
to which applications have been made for permits to raise, 
enlarge, alter, or repair, and shall make a record of every 
such examination. 

SECTION 4. 

Placards. 
The commissioner, or one of his inspectors, shall inspect 
every building or other structure or anything attached to 
or connected therewith which he has reason to believe is 
not provided with sufficient means of egress in case of fire 
satisfactory to the commissioner, exists in violation of any 
provision of this act or is unsafe or dangerous to life*? limb, 
or adjoining buildings, and if he finds it not provided with 
sufficient means of egress in case of fire satisfactory to the 
commissioner, or to exist in violation of any provision of 
this act or unsafe or dangerous, he shall forthwith order 
sufficient means of egress to be provided or that the pro- 
visions of this act be complied with. Such order shall be 
served on the owner or agent or any person having an 
interest in such building, or on the administrator, executor 
or trustee of such owner, by leaving an attested copy 
thereof in hand or at his last and usual place of abode, if 
known, otherwise by posting an attested copy of such 
order in a conspicuous place upon the external walls of 
such building. The commissioner may affix to any such 
building by posting in a conspicuous place upon its external 



City of Boston Building Law. 7 

Sect. 4.] 

walls a notice of its dangerous condition or of its condition 
as a fire-trap or of its being a common nuisance within the 
provisions of this act. The notice shall not be removed or 
defaced without his consent. 

Buildings Vacated. 

The commissioner may with the written approval of the 
mayor order any building which in his opinion is unsafe, 
not provided with sufficient means of egress in case of fire 
or exists in violation of any provision of this act, to be 
vacated forthwith. 

[1914, c. 205, sect. 1.] 

[1919, c. 155, sect. 1, Special Act.] 

[1923, c. 462, sect. 2.] 

SECTION 5. 

Commissioner May Secure Buildings. 

The person notified as provided in the preceding section 
shall provide sufficient means of egress in case of fire 
satisfactory to the building commissioner, or shall comply 
with the provision of this act which is being violated, or 
shall secure or remove said building, structure, attachment 
or connection forthwith. If the public safety so requires, 
the commissioner, with the approval of the mayor, may at 
once enter the building or other structure which he finds 
unsafe or dangerous, the land on which it stands or the 
abutting land or buildings, with such assistance as he may 
require, and secure or remove the same, and may erect 
such protection for the public by proper fence or other- 
wise as may be necessary, and for this purpose may close 
a public highway. The expense incurred thereby may be 
recovered of the owner thereof in an action in contract. 

Before beginning the removal of any building or other 
structure, the building commissioner shall give notice 
by mail to the owner of his right to the material upon 



8 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 5.] 

request. If the owner claims the material, he shall at 
once so notify the commissioner in writing and shall 
remove the same within ten days after the building or 
structure is taken down, and if he fails to do so the build- 
ing commissioner may dispose of the material. 

[1914, c. 205, sect. 2.] 
[1919, c. 155, sect. 2, Special Act.] 

[1920, c. 91, sect. 1.] 

[1923, c. 462, sect. 3.] 

SECTION 6. 

Board of Appeal. 

There shall be in said department a board to be called 
the board of appeal. Said board shall consist of five 
members appointed by the mayor in the following manner : 
One member from two candidates, one to be nominated 
by the Real Estate Exchange and Auction Board and one 
by the Massachusetts Real Estate Exchange; one mem- 
ber from two candidates, one to be nominated by the 
Boston Society of Architects and one by the Boston Society 
of Civil Engineers; one member from two candidates, one 
to be nominated by the Master Builders Association and 
one by the Contractors and Builders Association; one 
member from two candidates to be nominated by the 
Building Trades Council of the Boston Central Labor 
Union; and one member selected by the mayor. These 
appointments shall be subject to confirmation by the board 
of aldermen. The appointments first made shall be for 
the terms of one, two, three, four, and five years, re- 
spectively, so that the term of one member shall expire 
each year. All subsequent appointments shall be for the 
term of five years. Vacancies shall be filled in the same 
manner in which original appointments are made. Each 
member of said board shall be paid ten dollars per day for 
actual service but not more than one thousand dollars in 



City op Boston Building Law. 9 

Sect, b.] 

any one year. No member shall act in any case in which 
he is interested, and in case any member is so disqualified, 
or is absent from illness or other cause, the remaining 
members shall designate a substitute. 

[1910, c. 631, sect. 1.] 

All the members of said board shall be residents of or 
engaged in business in Boston. 

Every decision of the board shall be in writing and 
shall require the assent of at least three members. 

SECTION 7. 

Appeals. 

An applicant for a permit whose application has been 
refused may appeal therefrom within ninety days. A 
person who has been ordered by the commissioner to in- 
cur any expense may within thirty days after being noti- 
fied of such order appeal therefrom by giving to the 
commissioner notice in writing of his appeal. Such 
notice or a certified copy thereof shall at once be trans- 
mitted by the commissioner to the board of appeal. 
After notice given to such parties as the board shall order, 
a hearing shall be had, and the board shall affirm, annul, 
or modify said refusal or order. The board may vary the 
provisions of this act in specific cases which appear to 
them not to have been contemplated by this act although 
covered by it, or in cases where manifest injustice is done, 
provided that the decision of the board in such a case 
shall be unanimous and shall not conflict with the spirit 
of any provision of this act. 

The decision shall specify the variations allowed and 
the reasons therefor, and shall be filed in the office of the 
commissioner within ten days after the hearing. A certi- 
fied copy shall be sent by mail or otherwise to the appli- 
cant and a copy kept publicly posted in the office of the 



10 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 7.] 

commissioner for two weeks thereafter. If the order or 
refusal of the commissioner is affirmed, such order or 
refusal shall have full force and effect. If the order or 
refusal is modified or annulled, the commissioner shall 
issue a permit in accordance with such decision. 

The provisions of this section shall also apply to any 
similar action or order of the commissioner of wires, 
under the provisions of chapter two hundred and sixty- 
eight of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety- 
eight, or of any amendment thereof or addition thereto, 
except that in respect thereto the words "commissioner 
of wires" shall be substituted for the word "commis- 
sioner." 

Any applicant to the building commissioner for a per- 
mit who appeals to the said board shall pay to him a fee 
of ten dollars before such permit shall be considered by 
the board. Such fees shall be deposited by the building 
commissioner with the city collector at least once in each 
week. The building commissioner may in his discretion 
refer without fee to the said board for its decision such 
cases as in his opinion justice requires. 

[1920, c. 440, gect. 3.] 
[1923, c. 108.] 

SECTION 8. 

Permits — Tests. 
Permits. — Before a permit is granted to erect any 
building except temporary buildings or buildings of minor 
importance, the commissioner may demand such further 
drawings, strain sheets, and description as will clearly 
show the entire construction, assumptions, calculations 
of stresses and all other structural details. Such details 
shall be in the form required by the commissioner, and 
calculation sheets shall be signed by the architect, en- 
gineer, contractor or other person responsible for them. 



City of Boston Building Law. 11 

Sect. 8.] 

a. — The commissioner shall not delay the issuance of 
a building permit if the plans submitted conform to the 
laws as to egress, class of construction and general ar- 
rangements, provided that the plans are accompanied by 
drawings showing the structural design and by a state- 
ment that the plans and designs conform to all the re- 
quirements of the law as to strength, stresses, strains, 
loads and stability and are signed and sworn to by the 
architect or engineer who made the calculations. The 
commissioner may examine, or cause to be examined, the 
structural design submitted, and may require such changes 
in size or material as may be necessary to comply fully 
with the requirements of this act. 

b. — Permits for general repairs, for minor alterations 
not involving extensive structural changes, and for small 
buildings of the second or third class, may be issued upon 
presentation of the application on a special blank for the 
purpose. 

Systems not Covered by this Act. — If an applicant for a 
permit to build desires to use as a substitute for the 
materials or methods covered by this act materials or 
methods of construction Or maintenance not covered by 
it, he shall present to the commissioner plans, formulas, 
and such other information, and shall make such tests or 
present satisfactory evidence of such tests, as the com- 
missioner may require. Such systems shall not be used 
until after the commissioner has issued general regulations 
fixing the methods to be followed, but no such regulation 
shall have the effect of altering the working stresses for 
any material herein mentioned or of reducing the fire- 
proofing requirements of this act. 

It shall be the duty of the board of appeal to submit 
to the mayor on or before the first day of February in 
each year a report giving a summary of all decisions of the 
board, together with such recommendations for revision 



12 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 8] 

of the law as the board, may deem advisable. The com- 
missioner shall cause the report to be printed as a separate 
document for public distribution. 

Any requirement necessary for the strength or sta- 
bility of any existing or proposed structure or for the 
safety of the occupants thereof, not specifically covered 
by this act, shall be determined by the commissioner, 
subject to appeal. 

Testing. — The commissioner may order loading tests to 
be made, at the expense of the owner, on any structure or 
part thereof, at such time and in such manner as will 
satisfactorily demonstrate to him that the unit stresses 
in any materials do not exceed those permitted under this 
act. Concrete construction shall be capable of bearing a 
live and dead load equivalent to twice that for which it 
was designed without causing permanent deformation. 

No such test on the structure shall be required, however, 
until notice thereof in writing has been given by the com- 
missioner to the person to whom the building permit was 
issued. 

Load Test. — When the strength of any floor construc- 
tion cannot be determined by the methods prescribed in 
this section or by the application of accepted engineering 
formulas, the safe uniformly distributed carrying capacity 
shall be taken as one sixth of the total load causing failure 
to a full-sized construction with the load applied at two 
points, each at one third of the span from the ends of the 
span. 

Fire Tests. — In testing the fireproof qualities of any 
floor construction, at least one panel of the proposed 
maximum span, carrying a live load of at least one hun- 
dred and fifty pounds per square foot, shall be subjected 
to a fire continuously for four hours at an average tempera- 
ture of seventeen hundred degrees Fahrenheit, followed by 
an application for at least ten minutes of a hose stream 
from a one and one eighth inch nozzle at sixty pound nozzle 



City of Boston Building Law. 13 

Sect. 8.] 

pressure, without appreciable deterioration or the passage 
of flame through the floor during the test. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 1, Special Act.] 
[1920, c. 266, sect. 1.] 
[1923, c. 462, sect. 4.] 

SECTION 9. 

Buildings Allowed in Building Limits. 
The building limits of the city of Boston as they now 
exist shall continue until changed by ordinance, and the 
city council may bj r ordinance from time to time extend 
and define them, and may establish other limits in any 
part of the city within which every building built after 
the establishment thereof shall be of the first or second 
class. This restriction shall not apply to wharves, nor to 
buildings not exceeding twenty-seven feet in height on 
wharves, nor to elevators for the storage of coal or grain, if 
the external parts of such buildings, elevators, or other 
structures are covered with slate, tile, metal, or other 
equally fireproof material, and the mode of construction 
and the location thereof are approved by the commissioner. 
Temporary structure to facilitate the prosecution of any 
authorized work may be erected under such conditions as 
the commissioner may prescribe and only such structures 
are allowed. All temporary buildings shall be immediately 
removed on the completion of this authorized work. 
Single and two-family dwellings not to be occupied and 
not intended, arranged, or designed to be occupied, by 
more than two families, may be built of third-class con- 
struction or of composite construction in all parts of the 
city of Boston not included in the building limits of the 
city as they existed prior to the twenty-second day of 
September in the year nineteen hundred and thirteen; 
but no such building shall occupy more than sixty per 
cent of the area of the lot upon which it is situated, and 
all such buildings shall be constructed with pitched roofs 
not less than thirty degrees from the horizontal. 



14 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 9.] 

Third Class Buildings. 

Buildings of the third class in the city of Boston may be 
reconstructed, altered, enlarged, repaired and extended so 
as to cover a greater area of land: provided, that the re- 
construction, alteration, enlargement, or extension con- 
forms to the requirements of the law in respect to new 
buildings of like character; and, provided, also, that not 
more than sixty per cent of the lot is covered. 

For a period of three years after April first, nineteen 
hundred and twenty-two, any single or two-family dwelling 
of third-class construction situated in any part of said 
city not included within the building limits of said city, as 
they existed prior to said twenty-second day of September, 
may be converted by such changes, alterations or additions 
as may be necessary, into dwellings for the occupation of 
not more than three families; provided, that such changes, 
alterations or additions are otherwise in conformity with 
the building laws of said city at the time thereof. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 1.] 

[1915, c. 352, sect. 1, Special Act.] 

[1917, c. 221, Special Act.] 

[1918, o. 179, sect. 2, Special Act.] 

[1922, c. 126.] 

[1924, c. 335, sect. 1.] 

SECTION 10. 

Exemptions from Act. 
The provisions of this act shall not apply to public 
highway and railway bridges, quays, or wharves, nor to 
buildings belonging to and occupied by the United States, 
the commonwealth, Suffolk county, nor to railroad 
stations, nor to portable or permanent school buildings 
erected and maintained by the schoolhouse department 
except as provided in section seventeen of this act and 



City of Boston Building Law. 15 

Sect. 10.] 

amendments thereof or additions thereto nor to voting 

booths erected and maintained by the board of election 

commissioners. 

Except as otherwise provided by law, the provisions of 
this act shall not be held to deprive the board of health, 
the police commissioner, the board of street commis- 
sioners, the board of park commissioners, the board of 
examiners of gas fitters, the commissioner of wires, or the 
fire commissioner of the city of Boston of any power or 
authority which they have at the date of the passage of 
this act, or of the remedies for the enforcement of the 
orders of said boards or officers; unless such powers, 
authorities, or remedies are inconsistent with the pro- 
visions of this act; nor to repeal any existing law, not 
herein expressly repealed, except so far as it may be in- 
consistent with the provisions of this act. 
[1915, c. 352, sect. 2, Special Act.] 
[1921, c. 60, sect. 1.1 
[1923, c. 462, sect. 5.] 

SECTION 11. 

Definitions. 

In this act the following terms shall have the meanings 
respectively assigned to them as follows: 

First Class Building. — • A first class building shall eon- 
sist of fireproof material throughout, with floors and roofs 
constructed of iron, steel or reinforced concrete beams, 
filled in between with terra cotta or other masonry arches 
or with concrete or reinforced concrete slabs ; wood may be 
used only for under and upper floors, windows and door 
frames, sashes, doors, interior finish, hand rails for stairs, 
necessary sleepers bedded in concrete, and for isolated 
furrings bedded in mortar. There shall be no air space 
between the top of any floor arches and the^floor boarding. 



16 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 11.] 

Second Class Building. — All buildings not of the first 
class, the external and party walls of which are of brick, 
stone, iron, steel, concrete, reinforced concrete, concrete 
blocks, or other equally substantial and fireproof material. 

Third Class Building. — A wooden frame building. 

Composite Building. — A building partly of second class 
and partly of third class construction. Composite build- 
ings may be built under the same restrictions as, and 
need comply only with the requirements for, third class 
buildings as to fire protection and exterior finish. 

Masonry. — Masonry shall include such parts of a 
structure as are constructed with stone, bricks of burnt 
clay, cement, or sand lime, hollow blocks of burnt clay 
or concrete, and stone or cinder concrete, both plain 
and reinforced work. 

Foundation. — That part of a wall below the level of 
the street curb, or, if a wall is not on the street, that part 
of the wall below the level of the highest ground next to 
the wall, or, in the discretion of the commissioner, that 
part of a party or partition wall below the cellar floor. 

Underpinning. — In third class buildings the wall 
reaching from the foundation proper to the under side of 
the sills. 

Height of a Building. — The vertical distance of the 
highest point of the roof above the mean grade of the 
curbs of all the streets upon which it abuts, and if it does 
not abut on a street, above the mean grade of the ground 
adjoining the building. 

Party Wall. — A wall that separates two or more build- 
ings, and is used or adapted for the use of more than one 
building. 

Partition Wall. — An interior wall of masonry in a 
building. 

Thickness of Wall. — The minimum thickness of such 
wall. 



City of Boston Building Law. 17 

Sect. 11. J 

Story of a Building. — That part of a building between 
the top of any floor level and the top of the floor or roof 
level next above. 

Basement. — That part of a building not more than forty 
per cent nor less than thirty-five per cent of which is below 
the mean grade of the curb of the principal street upon 
which the building abuts, or if it does not abut upon a 
street, then below the mean grade of the land adjoining 
the building. When the building abuts on two or more 
streets the commissioner shall determine which is the 
principal street. 

Cellar. — When there is a basement, that part or parts 
of a building below the basement. When there is no base- 
ment, that part of a building more than forty per cent of 
which is below the mean grade of the curb of the principal 
street upon which the building abuts, or if it does not abut 
upon a street then more than forty per cent below the 
mean grade of the land adjoining the building. When the 
building abuts on two or more streets the commissioner 
shall determine which is the principal street. 

Gas Fitting. — The work of putting together any fittings, 
pipes or fixtures or other appliances which are to contain 
gas for heat, light or power purposes and will be subject 
to inspection under existing laws. 

The Number of Stories of a Building. — The number of 
stories of a building shall be the greatest number of 
stories which a building is in height above the curb of 
the street of lowest grade upon which the building abuts 
or if it does not abut on a street, above the lowest grade 
of ground adjoining the building. 

First Story of a Building. — The first story of a building 
is the first story more than sixty-five per cent of the height 
of which is above the mean grade of the curb of the prin- 
cipal street upon which the building abuts or if it does not 
abut upon a street, the first story of a building, more than 



18 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 11.] 

sixty-five per cent of the height of which is above the 
mean grade of the land adjoining the building. Where 
there is a basement, that story next above the basement 
shall be the first story of a building. Where there is a 
cellar and no basement that story next above the cellar 
shall be the first story of a building. When the building 
abuts on two or more streets the commissioner shall 
determine which is the principal street. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 3, Special Act.] 
[1923, c. 462, sect. 6.] 

SECTION 12. 

Requirements for All Buildings. 

Permits. 

No building, structure or foundation shall be constructed 
or altered without a permit, and such work shall be done 
in accordance with drawings bearing the approval of the 
commissioner. 

Excavations to be Supported. 

Every structure in process of construction, alteration, 
repair or removal, and every neighboring structure or 
portion thereof affected by such process or by any exca- 
vation, shall be sufficiently supported during such process. 

The commissioner may take such measures as the pub- 
lic safety requires to carry these provisions into effect. 

Chimneys - — Height Above Roof. 

Every chimney flue shall be carried to a height sufficient 
to protect adjoining buildings from fire and smoke, and 
unless the roof is covered With incombustible material 
shall extend at least four feet above the highest point of 
contact with the roof. 

Egress to Roof. 

Every permanent building more than twenty feet high 
having a flat roof shall have permanent means of access 



City op Boston Building Law. 19 

Sect. 12.] 

to the roof from the inside by an opening not less than 
two feet by three feet, with a fixed stepladder. 

Egress Required. 

Every building shall have, with reference to its height, 
condition, construction, surroundings, character of occu- 
pation and number of occupants, reasonable means of 
egress in case of fire, satisfactory to the commissioner 
except that in all factories or workshops hereafter built or 
altered, of second class construction, where ten or more 
persons are employed above the second floor, one exit shall 
consist of a fireproof stairway enclosed in incombustible 
material. No building hereafter erected shall be occupied 
or permitted to be occupied until said means of egress have 
been provided in accordance with plans and drawings 
approved by the building commissioner. 

Water pipes in every building shall be properly protected 
from frost. 

CMmney, Walls and Lining of. 

All chimneys of masonry construction shall have walls 
at least eight inches thick, or be constructed of four-inch 
brick walls with a suitable flue lining. Steel stacks shall 
be permissible under such conditions as the commissioner 
shall prescribe. 

Water-Closets. 
Every building used for habitation shall have such 
number of water-closets as the board of health may re- 
quire; every building where persons are employed shall 
have at least one water-closet for every twenty persons 
therein employed, and in any building where both sexes 
are employed, separate accommodations shall be furnished 
for men and women. Every enclosure containing one or 
more water-closets shall be provided with adequate 
ventilation to the outer air either by window or by suitable 
light shaft. 



20 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 12.] 

Outside Finish. 

In every first and second class building or when the 
entire building could be built of third class construction, 
all of the outside finish shall be of incombustible materials, 
except window and door frames, and finish about show 
windows. Where store fronts are carried up more than 
one story the columns and lintels shall be of, or finished 
with, incombustible materials; but in no case shall store 
fronts be carried more than two stories, unless the same 
are constructed and finished throughout with fireproof 
material, except window and door frames. 

Every ventilating flue shall be constructed of, or lined 
with, incombustible material. 

Floor Ties. 
Every floor in second class buildings shall have its 
beams tied to the walls and to each other with wrought- 
iron straps or anchors at least three eighths of an inch thick 
by one and one half inches wide and not less than eighteen 
inches long, so as to form continuous ties across the building 
not more than ten feet apart. Walls running parallel, or 
nearly parallel, with floor beams shall be properly tied 
once in ten feet to the floor beams by iron straps or anchors 
of the size above specified. 

Wooden Headers arid Trimmers. 
Every wooden header or trimmer more than four feet 
long, carrying a floor load of over seventy pounds per 
square foot, shall, at connections with other beams, be 
framed or hung in stirrup irons, and joint-bolted. All tail 
beams and similar beams of wood shall be framed or hung 
in stirrup irons. 

Windows on Fire Escapes. Kitchenettes. Sprinklers. 
All walls, piers and columns acting as supports below 
the first floor of all buildings hereafter built shall be of 



City of Boston Building Laws. 21 

Sect. 12.] 

masonry or metal, except that in one or two family frame 
dwellings the exterior walls of basement or cellar stories 
may be constructed of wood providing the sills are not 
more than two feet above the surrounding ground. In all 
buildings hereafter erected, where outside means of egress 
are to be constructed, the building commissioner may 
order, when he deems it necessary, all the window openings 
in the same to be protected by metal frames and sash and 
wire glass, and all doors leading to such outside means of 
egress and the frames of the same to be of metal or metal 
covered. If doors are glazed, they shall be glazed with 
wire glass. Every kitchen, kitchenette or room used or 
adapted to be used for cooking purposes, either by coal, 
electric, gas or oil stoves, in every building hereafter 
erected, remodelled or enlarged, shall be not less than six 
feet in the least dimension, and have a floor area of not 
less than forty-eight square feet. Every such kitchen, 
kitchenette or room to be used or adapted to be used for 
cooking purposes shall be lighted and ventilated by window 
openings in an external wall direct to the open air, or if 
such kitchen, kitchenette or room is of not more than 
seventy square feet in area upon a vent shaft, as defined in 
section forty-two, with no opening from any toilet room 
into said vent shaft, and such window openings shall 
equal in size in the aggregate at least one eighth of the 
area of the floor of such room. When gas, coal or oil 
stove ovens, broilers or water heaters are connected to a 
ventilating flue, the flue shall be constructed of brick walls 
not less than eight inches thick, or with walls four inches 
thick lined with terra-cotta flue lining at least one inch 
thick. The building commissioner may order the base- 
ments of any mercantile building hereafter erected to be 
provided with a system of automatic sprinklers, approved 
by him as to location, arrangement and efficiency, when 
not otherwise so required by law. Any alteration shall 



22 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 12.] 

conform to the requirements of this act for new buildings 
only to the extent of the alteration made. Whenever any 
building is subdivided into stores in the first story and 
storage space is provided for such stores in the basement, 
then such storage space shall be enclosed with partitions 
made of incombustible material satisfactory to the com- 
missioner. 

•■ [1912, c. 369, sect. 1.] 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 2.] 
[1921, c. 289, sect. 1J 
[1923, c. 462, sect. 7.] 
[1924, c 335, sect. 2.] 

SECTION 13. 

Prohibitions. 
Wooden Buildings in Building Limits. 

No alteration or repair of a wooden building within 
the building limits shall be made without a permit from 
the commissioner, and no permit to increase the height or 
ground area of such a building shall be granted, nor shall 
a permit for alterations or repairs be granted if the es- 
timated cost of the proposed alterations or repairs exceeds 
one half of the fair value of the building at the time of the 
proposed alteration or repair, nor shall the total cost of 
all alterations or repairs hereafter made exceed one half 
the fair valuation of the building at the time of the pro- 
posed alteration or repair. 

No wooden building, within or without the building 
limits, shall be moved to any position within the building 
limits. Nothing in this section shall be deemed to pro- 
hibit the moving of wooden buildings within the building 
limits if the permits for moving have been granted by the 
building commissioner prior to June first, nineteen hundred 
and twenty-three. 



City op Boston Building Law. 23 

Sect. 13. 

Recess in Wall. 
No recess or chase shall be made in any external or 
party wall so as to leave the thickness at the back less 
than eight inches. 

Timbers in Party Wall. 

No roof or floor timber entering a party wall shall 
have less than four inches of solid brickwork between it 
and the end of any other timber. 

No part of any roof shall be constructed in such a 
manner as to discharge snow, ice, or other material upon 
a public street or alley, 

Observation Stands. 

No elevated staging or stand for observation purposes 
shall be constructed or occupied upon the roof of any 
building. 

Chimneys. 

No chimney shall be corbelled from a wall more than 
the thickness of the wall. 

No chimney shall be hung from a wall which is less than 
twelve inches thick. 

No masonry shall rest upon wood, except wooden piles 
and mud sills and wooden floors carrying tile or concrete 
for finish or bricknogging in wood stud partitions. 

No part of any floor timber shall be within two inches 
of any chimney. 

No studding or furring shall be within one inch of any 
chimney. 

Boilers — Furnaces. 

No furnace or boiler for heating shall be placed upon a 
wooden floor unless the floor is made safe with fire resist- 
ing material satisfactory to the building commissioner. 



24 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 13.] 

No smoke pipe shall project through any external wall 
or window. 

No steam, furnace, or other hot air pipes shall be 
carried within one inch of any wood work unless such 
pipes are double or otherwise protected by incombustible 
material. No combustible partition shall be within four 
feet of the sides and back or within six feet of the front of 
any boiler, carrying a pressure of over ten pounds, unless 
the partition is covered with incombustible material 
which extends to the full height of the partition from the 
end or back of the boiler to at least five feet in front of 
it. In such case the distance shall be not less than two 
feet from all the sides and five feet from the front of the 
boiler, and all lath and plaster and wooden ceiling beams 
over the boiler and to a distance of not less than four 
feet in front of all such boilers shall be covered with in- 
combustible material. 

Observation Stand. 
No observation stand shall be constructed or main- 
tained except in accordance with plans approved by the 
commissioner. 

Closet Under Stairs. 
No closet of any kind shall be constructed or maintained 
under any staircase leading from the cellar or basement 
to the first story. 

Boiler Under Public Way. 
No boiler shall be placed or maintained under any 
public way. 

Projections. 
No part of any structure, except cornices, permanent 
awnings, string courses, window caps and sills, bay win- 
dows, under such terms, conditions, regulations and re- 



City of Boston Building Law. 25 

Sect. 13.] 

strictions as may be required by the mayor and board of 
aldermen, and outside means of egress, as otherwise pro- 
vided, and signs as provided in chapter three hundred 
and fifty-two of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and 
ninety-five, shall project over any public way or square. 
No cornice or bay window shall so project more than 
three feet; nor more than twelve inches over a way of a 
width of thirty feet or less. 

Stables. 
No building within forty feet of the property of any 
adjoining owner shall be erected for or converted to use 
as a stable, unless such use is authorized by the board of 
health after a public hearing. Written notice of such 
hearing shall be given to the adjoining owners, and pub- 
lished at least three times in at least two newspapers 
published in Boston, ten days at least before the hearing. 

Roofing Materials. 

No material other than brick, tile, slate, metal, asbestos 
shingles, or slag, shall hereafter be used to cover or roof 
any building, or the tops, sides and outsides of the frames 
of any dormer window or any other projection of the roof 
of any building, except wooden cornices on wooden frame 
buildings, provided, that if a dormer window is in excess 
of fifty per cent of the length of the roof on the side of the 
roof where the dormer window is to be located, the same 
covering as used on the external walls of the building may 
be used on the sides and outsides of the frames of the 
dormer window; but on flat roofs composition of asbestos 
and asphalt or tar and gravel may be used, or such other 
composition of fire-resisting roofing as the commissioner 
may authorize. Asphalt shingles may also be used: 
provided, that each package of shingles is inspected and 
labelled and that the shingles are made and laid in con- 



26 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 13.] 

formity with the specifications promulgated by -the 
Underwriters' Laboratories as modified from time to time 
by said Laboratories; and 'provided, further, that within 
the lines at present constituting the building limits of the 
city of Boston such asphalt shingles may be used only on 
buildings of third class construction, and that they shall 
not be used within the building limits of said city as they 
existed prior to September twenty-second, nineteen hun- 
dred and thirteen. Nothing in this section shall be con- 
strued to prohibit the use of materials approved by the 
commissioner for repairing any roof now covered with 
wooden shingles or to prohibit covering with such approved 
materials the roofs of buildings less than sixteen feet in 
height: provided, that the building is not altered in height 
or otherwise generally reconstructed. 

Lot Line — Distance from First and Second Class Buildings 

to be Kept. 
No part of any first or second class building hereafter 
erected, except the eaves and cornices, shall be nearer than 
five feet to the line of any adjoining lot on any side on 
which such building has any opening in the outer wall 
thereof unless all such openings are protected by wire 
glass set in metal frames and sash or approved metal 
covered frames and sash. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 3.] 

[1915, c. 352, Special Act, sect. 3.] 

[1916, c. 277, Special Act.] 

[1918, c. 104, Special Act.] 

[1923, c. 462, sect. 8.] 

[1924, c. 335, sect. 3.] 

SECTION 14. 

Quality and Strength of Materials. Methods of 
Computation. 
All materials shall be of such quality for the purposes 
for which they are to be used as to insure, in the judg- 



City of Boston Building Law. 27 

Sect. 14.] 

ment of the commissioner, ample safety and security to 
life, limb and neighboring property. The commissioner 
shall have power to reject all materials which in his judg- 
ment are unsuitable, and may require tests to be made by 
the architect, engineer, builder, owner or other interested 
persons. Any test thus required shall be made under the 
supervision or direction of the commissioner, and at the 
expense of the owner. 

Brick. — Brick may be of hard-burned clay, sand lime 
or cement and, except for nogging, fire-stopping and 
nonbearing or curtain walls not exposed to the weather, 
shall be hard and strong, of quality approved as satisfac- 
tory by the commissioner. Second-hand bricks shall be 
thoroughly cleaned before being used. 

Hard brick tested for approval shall develop an average 
ultimate compressive strength of three thousand pounds 
per square inch. Brick shall be tested flatwise (half bricks 
permitted) and the average shall be taken on at least five 
samples, none of which must fall below twenty-five hun- 
dred pounds per square inch. The compressive strength 
of wet brick after forty-eight hours in water must be at 
least two thirds that of dry brick, except that, when the 
lower strength is above three thousand pounds per square 
inch, the loss in strength may be ignored. 

Before brick or other masonry materials are submitted 
to absorption tests, they shall be dried to practically con- 
stant weight at a temperature between two hundred and 
twenty-five and two hundred and fifty degrees Fahrenheit 
and shall not be fully immersed when placed in water. 

Terra Cotta Floor Tile. — ■ Terra cotta floor tile, when 
tested on end and faced with Portland cement, shall give 
an average compressive strength of not less than twenty- 
five hundred pounds per square inch of net area. The 
average strength shall be computed from the result of 
tests of ten average tiles. 



28 City of Boston Building I<aw. 

Sect. 14.] 

Building Blocks. — The term "block" as used in this 
section shall mean any shape of brick or tile which forms 
a hollow or cellular wall. 

Concrete, hollow and two-piece building blocks shall be 
made of Portland cement and suitable aggregates in such 
proportion as to develop the following ultimate compressive 
strength at twenty-eight days, shall average one thousand 
pounds per square inch of gross sectional area of the block 
as used in the wall and shall not fall below seven hundred 
pounds per square inch in any test, when testing at least six 
ordinary samples. In case of hollow building blocks, the 
gross cross sectional area shall be considered as the product 
of the length by the width of the block. No allowance shall 
be made for air spaces of the block. The allowable work- 
ing stress for such block shall not exceed one hundred 
pounds per gross square inch. 

Terra cotta building blocks shall be whole, sound and 
hard burned and shall develop an ultimate crushing 
strength per square inch of gross area of not less than 
twelve hundred pounds when tested with the cells placed 
vertically, and three hundred pounds with the cells placed 
horizontally. 

The allowable working stress for such blocks shall not 
exceed one hundred pounds and fifty pounds per gross 
square inch respectively. 

The absorption of building blocks to be *sed for bearing 
or enclosing walls shall not exceed twelve per cent in forty- 
eight hours as an average, or more than fifteen per cent in 
any case. 

Concrete Aggregates. — The fine aggregates shall be sand 
or crushed screenings passing a one fourth inch screen. 
The coarse aggregate shall consist of gravel, crushed stone, 
slag or cinders retained on a one fourth inch screen. 
Cinders or slag may be used for aggregate only for walls 
of one story buildings, for floor slabs, roof slabs, partitions, 
fireproofing, fire stopping and filling. 



City of Boston Building Law. 29 

Sect. 14.] 

Sand. — Sand or other fine aggregate for concrete shall 
be of such quality that mortar of one part Portland cement 
and three parts sand by weight shall show a tensile strength 
of not less than seventy per cent of the strength of mortar 
made on the same proportions with the same cement and 
standard Ottawa sand. If the tensile strength of such 
mortar is less than eighty per cent of that made with 
Ottawa sand, additional cement shall be used in such 
amount as may be required by the commissioner. The 
commissioner may require such tests when, in his judgment 
they are necessary. 

Stone. — Stone for concrete shall be clean, hard and 
durable. For reinforced concrete it shall be of suitable 
size for the work and shall be small enough to allow the 
concrete to pass readily between and easily surround the 
reinforcement, and fill all parts of the forms. 

Gravel. — Run-of-bank gravel shall be used only when 
and as approved by the commissioner. 

Cinders and Slag. — Cinders shall be composed of hard, 
clean, vitreous clinkers, reasonably free from sulphides, 
unburned or partly burned coal and ashes. Slag shall be 
clean and hard. Cinders and slag shall be of suitable size 
for the work. 

Portland Cement. — Portland cement shall conform to 
the Standard Specifications of the American Society for 
Testing Materials as from time to time revised. 

Lime. — Lime shall be free from ashes, clinker and other 
foreign material and shall not be air slaked. 

Lime Mortar. — Lime mortar shall be made of slaked 
lime or hydrated lime with proper proportion of sand. 

Cement-Lime Mortar. — Cement-lime mortar shall be 
thoroughly mixed and made of one part Portland cement, 
not more than two parts slaked lime or hydrated lime and 
not more than eight parts of sand by volume, but mixtures 
with larger proportion of cement shall be allowed higher 
stress as hereinafter provided. 



30 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 14.] 

Portland Cement Mortar. — Portland cement mortar 
shall be thoroughly mixed and made of one part Portland 
cement and not more than three parts of sand by volume. 
Lime putty, or hydrated lime, may be added to an amount 
equal to fifteen per cent of the volume of the cement. 

Concrete. — Concrete shall mean an approved mixture 
of Portland cement, water and fine and coarse aggregate. 

Mixing. — The ingredients shall be thoroughly mixed 
and the mixing shall continue until the cement is thor- 
oughly distributed and the mass is uniform in color. For 
reinforced concrete the consistency shall be such that the 
concrete will entirely enclose the reinforcement, but shall 
not be so wet as to cause separation of the ingredients. 

Rubble Concrete. — Rubble concrete shall mean an ap- 
proved mixture of Portland cement, water, fine and coarse 
aggregate to which stones are added after depositing. 
When one-man stones are used to form rubble concrete, 
there shall be not less than three inches between the stones 
and the forms, and between edges of adjacent stones. 
When stones larger than one-man size are used to form 
rubble concrete there shall be not less than six inches 
between the stones and forms, and between edges of adja- 
cent stones. Stones shall be clean and wet and shall be 
deposited in concrete already in place, before the latter 
has begun to set. 

In piers no stone shall be larger than one quarter of the 
horizontal cross section of the pier. Rubble concrete 
shall not be used for any projecting footing. 

Joints. — ! Joints formed between portions of concrete 
placed at different times shall be made in such a manner 
as not to weaken the completed structure. Whenever 
fresh concrete joins concrete which is set, or partly 
set, the surface of the old concrete shall be rough, clean 
and thoroughly wet. 

Use of Concrete. — ■ Concrete shall be used immediately 
after mixing, it shall not be placed in the work after it has 



City of Boston Building Law. 31 

Sect. 14.1 

begun to harden, and it shall be deposited in such manner 
and under such regulations as to secure a compact mass of 
the best quality for the proportions used. Forms shall 
remain until the concrete has hardened sufficiently to 
carry its load safely, and shall be removed without damage 
to the concrete. 

Inspection of Concrete. — The commissioner may require 
an applicant for a permit for the structural use of concrete 
or other similar aggregate materials to have a competent 
inspector, satisfactory to the commissioner, at all times on 
the work while such materials are being mixed or deposited 
and such materials shall be mixed and deposited in a man- 
ner approved by the commissioner. The inspector shall 
make daily reports to the commissioner on the progress 
of the work. 

Steel. — Steel for all structural work in buildings, except 
reinforced concrete work, shall conform to the requirements 
of the Standard Specifications for the composition of 
structural steel for bridges of the American Society for 
Testing Materials, as from time to time revised. 

Wrought Iron. — Wrought iron for structural work in 
buildings shall conform to the requirements of the Stan- 
dard Specifications for Wrought Iron Plates, Class B of 
the said society as from time to time revised. 

Cast Iron. — Cast iron for all structural work in buildings 
shall conform to the requirements of the Standard Speci- 
fications for Medium Gray Iron Castings of the said society 
as from time to time revised. 

Cast Iron Columns. — Cast iron columns shall not be 
used in the structural frames of buildings whose height 
exceeds two times the least width of base, nor in any 
building over one hundred feet high. Cast iron columns 
shall be faced at ends to a true surface perpendicular to 
the axis to give full bearing for the cross section of the 
column. 

All hollow cast iron columns, except when open at both 



32 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 14.1 

ends and without flanges, shall have two three eighths of 
an inch holes drilled on the top or bottom side of the column 
as cast, if the columns are cast on side one hole about 
twelve inches each side of the center of the length of the 
column, to exhibit thickness of the shell. Columns cast 
on end shall have two three eighths of an inch holes drilled, 
at an angle of ninety degrees to each other at the middle 
of the column, to exhibit thickness of shell. Additional 
holes shall be drilled when required by the commissioner. 

Cast Iron Bases and Lintels. — Cast iron bases or shoes 
shall be planed on top. Bases which rest on structural 
steel members shall be planed top and bottom. The 
thickness of metal shall be not less than one inch. The 
inclination of the outer edge of the ribs with the horizontal 
shall be not less than forty-five degrees. Whenever a 
side of the bed plate exceeds three feet in length a rein- 
forcing flange at least three inches high shall be provided 
along such edge of the plate. 

Cast iron lintels shall be not less than three fourths of 
an inch in thickness and shall not be used for spans 
exceeding six feet. 

Timber. — All timber for structural purposes shall con- 
form to such specifications as may be promulgated by 
the commissioner but shall be free from defects such as 
injurious ring or round shakes, and through shakes that 
extend to the surface, from unsound and loose knots, 
and knots in groups that will materially impair the 
strength, rot, worm holes and defects caused by manu- 
facture. 

Classes of Timber. — ■" Dense" and "sound" classes of 
timber shall be as defined by the American Society for 
Testing Materials in their Standard Definitions of Terms 
relating to Structural Timbers, section three, as revised 
in nineteen hundred and fifteen. 



City of Boston Building Law. 33 

Sect. 14.] 

Strength of Materials. 

Piers. — Any body of masonry less than four feet long 
in its greatest horizontal dimension shall be called a pier. 
The height of a pier between openings having a con- 
tinuous wall above or below them shall be assumed equal 
to the height of the opening. The height of a pier or 
wall supporting floors or roofs shall be assumed as the 
distance from top of footing or floor to under side of floor 
or roof beams. 

Stresses. — The stresses in materials used in the con- 
struction of all buildings, produced by their own weight 
and the loads hereinafter specified, shall not exceed the 
limits assigned in this section. 



34 

Sect. 14.] 



City of Boston Building Law. 



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City of Boston Building Law. 



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36 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 14.] 

No plain concrete bearing pier shall have a greater 
height unsupported laterally than six times, and no brick 
pier greater than twelve times, its least dimension. No 
brick or plain concrete bearing wall, unless it is properly 
braced by cross walls, piers or other means, shall have a 
greater height unsupported than twelve times its least 
dimension. When compression is applied to a portion of 
a surface of concrete of which the area is at least twice 
that to which the load is applied, a stress of fifty per cent 
in excess of those allowed by the above table may be 
used in bearing. 

Stresses for Grout and Stone Masonry. 



Cement to be Portland. 
(Parts Measured bt Volume.) 



Tons 

per 

Square 

Foot. 



Grout, 1 part cement, 1 part sand, when not less than two feet 

in least lateral dimension, not more than one half inch joints. 
Granite masonry, with mortar of 1 part cement, 2 parts sand, 

not more than one half inch joints. 
Granite masonry, cement mortar, not more than one half inch 

joints. 
Limestone and marble masonry, cement mortar, not more than 
" one half inch joints. 
Sandstone masonry, cement mortar, not more than one half 

inch joints. 



72 
72 
60 
40 
30 



Provided, however, that in stone masonry columns or in 
piers of excessive height, the loads may be modified by 
the commissioner. 

Stresses for Cast Iron. 

Bearing 16,000 lbs. per sq. inch. 

Bending compression . . 10,000 lbs. per sq. inch. 

Bending tension .... 4,000 lbs. per sq. inch. 

Shearing 2,000 lbs. per sq. inch. 



City of Boston Building Law. 37 

Sect. 14.] 

Cast Iron Compression Members. — Cast iron compres- 
sion members shall not have a greater value of 1-r than 
seventy nor a smaller outside diameter or side than six 
inches, nor a greater unsupported length than twenty- 
four times their least dimension or diameter: provided, 
however, that columns supporting roof loads only may 
have a value of 1-r not greater than ninety-six and an 
unsupported length of not more than thirty times the 
least lateral dimension or diameter. They shall not have 
metal less than three fourths of an inch, nor thinner than 
one twelfth of the greatest lateral dimension or side. The 
stresses due to eccentric or transverse loading, combined 
with those due to central loading, shall not exceed nin e 
thousand pounds per square inch. 

Cast iron columns shall not be used where the loading 
is so eccentric as to cause tension, nor in garages, nor in 
places where they are likely to receive impact from vehicles. 

Wherever the core of a column has shifted more than 
one quarter of the thickness of the shell, the strength 
shall be computed assuming the thickness of metal all 
around to be equal to the thinnest part. 

For centrally loaded cast iron compression members 
the safe load in pounds per square inch shall be as follows: 



Working Stress. 



llr 


10. 


20. 


30. 


40. 


50. 




8,600 


8,200 


7,800 


7,400 


7,000 


llr 


60. 


70. 


80. 


90. 


96. 




6,600 


6,200 


5,800 


5,400 


5,160 



38 
Sect. 14.] 



City of Boston Building Law. 
Stresses of Timber. 





Stkess pek 


Squaee Inch 


FOR TIMBERS 






used in Dby Places. 






& 


£ 












ern Yello 
e, Dense 
de. 


ern Yello 
e, Sound 
de. 


T3 

u u 

SO 

eo r O 

c3 a 


oJ 


a 


-t-> 

1 




South 
Pin 
Gra 


South 
Pin 
Gra 


p 


o 

U 

& 

GO 


13 


03 
O 




350 


250 


200 


200 


200 


500 




1,200 


900 


1,000 


750 


700 


900 


Bending 


1,600 


1,200 


1,100 


1,000 


1,000 


1,400 




150 


100 


100 


100 


80 


200 



Timber Compression Members. — Timber compression 
members shall not be used of a greater unstayed length 
than thirty times their least dimension for isolated columns 
or forty times their least dimension for columns in parti- 
tions or truss members. The stresses due to eccentric or 
tran verse loading combined with those due to central 
loading shall not exceed the maximum stress allowed in 
the table below. 

For centrally loaded timber compression members the 
safe load per square inch shall be as follows: — 



Length Divided bt 
Least Dimensions. 


Southern Yellow 
Pine, Dense 
Grade. 


Southern Yellow 
Pine, Sound 
Grade. 


0) 

-03 

(0 CD 

03 J? 

tc a) 


o 

o 

u 

p. 

0Q 


a 

s 


'a? 

03 
O 


10 or less 


1,000 
900 
800 
700 
600 
500 
400 


750 
675 
600 
525 
450 
375 
300 


840 
750 
660 
580 
500 
420 
330 


620 
560 
500 
440 
380 
320 
250 


585 
525 
465 
405 
350 
290 
230 


750 


15 


675 


20 


600 


25 


525 


30 


450 


35 


375 


40 


300 







City of Boston Building Law. 39 

Sect. 14.] 

Other Materials. — Stresses for materials and forms of 
material, not herein mentioned, shall be determined by the 
commissioner. 

Wind Bracing. — Provisions for wind bracing shall be 
made where it is necessary in good practice or as determined 
by the commissioner. 

Cutting. — No cutting for piping or any other purpose 
shall be done which would reduce the strength of any part 
of the structure below what is required by the provisions 
of this act. 

Methods of Computation. — Methods for reinforced 
concrete are given in section fifteen. For all other ma- 
terials, the following methods shall be used: — 

The span of beams, girders, or trusses shall be taken as 
the distance from centre to centre of the bearings. If 
connected to the side of a column, the span shall be taken 
to the centre of the column. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 4, Special Act.] 
[1923, c. 462, sect. 9.] 
[1924, c. 412, sect. 1.] 

SECTION 15. 

Reinfokced Concrete. 

Definition. — ■ Reinforced concrete shall mean an ap- 
proved mixture of Portland cement, water and fine and 
coarse aggregate, reinforced by steel. 

Portland Cement and Aggregate. — The Portland cement 
and fine and coarse aggregate for reinforced concrete work 
shall conform to the quality of materials as defined in 
section fourteen of this act. 

Reinforcements. — Steel for reinforcement shall conform 
to the Standard Specifications for Steel Reinforcement 
Bars of the American Society for Testing Materials, as 
from time to time revised. It shall be free from mill 
scale and loose rust and shall not be coated in such manner 
as to weaken the bond. 



40 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

Mixing. — ■ The ingredients shall be thoroughly mixed, 
and the mixing shall continue until the cement is thor- 
oughly distributed and the mass is uniform in color. The 
consistency shall be such that the concrete will flow freely 
about and entirely enclose the reinforcement, but shall 
not be so wet as to cause separation of the ingredients in 
handling. 

Inspection. — Such portions of section fourteen as apply 
to inspection shall be taken to apply to this section also. 

Forms. — Forms shall be sufficiently tight to prevent 
any considerable loss of material in the pouring. 

Placing. — Such portions of section fourteen as apply 
to the placing of concrete shall be taken to apply to this 
section also. Concrete shall not be deposited in forms 
until the reinforcement has been put in place and secured 
against displacement. 

Columns shall be poured without any interruption to 
the bottom side of beams or girders which they support, 
or to the bottom of the flare in flat slab construction. 
Special care shall be taken in their pouring that no void 
may result. 

Columns and walls shall be poured not less than three 
hours in advance of the beams, girders, or slabs, which they 
support. All columns of the same type in a story shall be 
of concrete mixed in the same proportions. 

Structural slabs shall be poured the full thickness at 
the time of pouring floor. 

Stopping Work. — Proper precautions shall be taken in 
stopping concrete work to stop it at the points of low shear. 

High and Low Temperature. — When fresh concrete is 
exposed to a hot or dry atmosphere or wind special pre- 
cautions to prevent premature drying shall be taken. 

Concrete shall not be deposited when the temperature 
is below thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit, unless adequate 
precautions are taken to prevent freezing. 



City of Boston Building Law. 41 

Sect. 15.] 

Fire Protection. — Main reinforcement in floor slabs 
shall be protected by a minimum of three fourths of an 
inch of concrete; in beams, girders, columns and walls by 
one and one half inches from the surface of the concrete to 
the surface of the main reinforcement. 

In columns the outer one and one half inches of concrete 
shall be regarded as fireproofing which shall be assumed to 
carry no stress. 

Rust Protection. — In foundations and retaining walls 
the steel shall be protected and on the side toward the 
earth or water by a minimum of three inches of concrete. 

Spacing of Reinforcement. — Slab reinforcement bars in 
tension shall be not farther apart horizontally than two 
and one half times the total thickness of the slab. In 
beams and girders the lateral spacing of parallel bars shall 
be not less than three diameters from centre to centre, and 
the clear space between two layers of bars shall not be 
less than one inch. 

Basis for Design. — Calculations shall be made with 
reference to working stresses and safe loads rather than 
with reference to ultimate strength and ultimate loads, and 
shall be based on the following assumptions: — 

(a) A plane section before bending remains plane 
after bending. 

(b) The modulus of elasticity of concrete in compres- 
sion, within the usual limits of working stresses is constant. 
The distribution of compressive stress in beams, therefore, 
is rectilinear. 

(c) The tensile strength of the concrete in direct resis- 
tance to bending is ignored. 

(d) Under compressive stress the two materials are 
stressed in proportion to their moduli of elasticity. 

(e) Initial stress in the reinforcement due to contrac- 
tion or expansion in the concrete is neglected. 

Span Length. — The span length for beams and slobs 



42 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

simply supported shall be taken as the distance from centre 
to centre of supports, but need not be taken to exceed the 
clear span plus the depth of beam or slab. For continuous 
or restrained beams or slabs, built monolithically into 
supports, the span length may be taken as the clear dis- 
tance between faces of supports. Brackets shall not be 
considered as reducing the clear span in the sense here 
intended, except that when brackets which make an angle 
of forty-five degrees or more with the axis of a restrained 
beam or the plane of a slab are built monolithically there- 
with, the span may be measured from the section where 
the total depth is at least one third more than the depth 
at the edge of the bracket. Maximum negative moments 
are to be considered as existing at the end of the span as 
here defined. 

Bending. — Bending moments for uniformly distributed 
dead and live loads, in beams and slabs reinforced in one 
direction only shall be computed upon the following as- 
sumptions, where "w" is the total dead and five load per 
linear foot and "1" is the span length: — 

(a) for a single span freely supported the bending at 
mid-span is 

wP 
8 

(6) for a single span restrained at the ends, the bending 
at mid-span is 

12 

(c) for two equal continuous spans freely supported, 
the bending at mid-span is 

10 



and at central support it is 



Wf 



.72 



City of Boston Building Law. 43 

Sect. 15.J 

(d) for two equal continuous spans restrained at sup- 
ports, the bending at mid-span is 

wP 

12 

and at central support it is 

wP 
10 

(e) for three or more equal continuous spans freely 
supported, the bending at mid-span of the end span and 
at the first interior support is 

wP 
10 

and the bending at mid-span of interior spans and at other 
interior supports is 

wP 

12 

(/) for three or more equal continuous spans restrained 

at supports, the bending at the first interior support for 

beams is 

wP 

10 

and for slabs is 

wP 
12 

and the bending at all other interior supports and at mid- 
span of all spans is 

wP 

12 

(g) at the restrained ends of continuous beams a nega- 
tive bending of 

wP 

16 

shall generally be assumed, but this shall be increased to 

oyi/2 

not more than — — for small beams running into large 
columns. 



44 

Sect. 15.] 



City of Boston Building Law. 



(a) 





I 



1 2 16 



(c) 



JO 



S 



X 
to 



(d) 




12" 16 



(e) 



7T 



10 



10 



i 

12 



i 
12 



12 



(f) 






J. 

12 



jq bins 
i2 Slabs 



12 



12 



City of Boston Building Law. 45 

Sect. 15.] 

Beams and Slabs. 

Beams and slabs shall be considered as restrained at 
the ends when they frame monolithically into a structure 
sufficiently stiff and strong to introduce a negative bending 
moment into the beam at the end in amount not less 

than^-l 
16 

Continuous Beams. 

For continuous beams subject to other than uniformly 
distributed loads, the positive bending moment shall first 
be computed as though the beam were freely supported. 
The positive moment may then be reduced in the same 
proportion as specified above for beams loaded uniformly, 
and provision shall be made at the restrained ends for 
negative moments having the same ratio to the positive 
moment first computed that the negative moments 

specified above bear to — . 

Beams parallel to the main reinforcement of a one-way 
slab into which no other beams frame, and which are re- 
strained at the ends by being built monolithically into 
supporting columns, shall be designed for bending moments 

at the ends equal to — , and at mid-span as follows: When 

the width of columns parallel to the axis of the beam is 
not less than fifteen per cent of the distance, centre to 

centre of columns, or twice the depth of the beam, m=— : 

otherwise m= — . 
16 

Spans of Unusual or Unequal Length. 
For spans of unusual or unequal length and other 
special cases the design shall be such as to carry out the 
intent of this act to the satisfaction of the commissioner. 



46 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

Slabs Supported on Four Sides. — For slabs, supported on 
four sides and reinforced in both directions the distri- 
butions of loads shall be determined by the formula 

I 

r=> 0.5 

b 

where 

b is the breadth of slab. 
I is the length of slab. 

r is the proportion of load carried by the transverse 
reinforcement. 

Reinfoecement in Slabs. 

In placing reinforcement in such slabs account shall 
be taken of the fact that the bending moment is greater 
near the centre of the slab than near the edges, and two 
thirds of the calculated moments shall be assumed as 
carried by the centre half of the slab and one third by the 
outside quarters. 

Beams supporting rectangular slabs reinforced in both 
directions shall be assumed to take the proportions of load 
as determined by the formula in this section, the dis- 
tribution of the load being assumed to vary in accordance 
with the ordinates of a parabola having its vertex at mid- 
span. 

Floor and Roof Openings. — Openings in floors and 
roofs shall be so framed as not to exceed the allowable 
stresses. 

Depth. — In roof slabs the total depth shall not be less 
than three inches and in floor slabs four inches. 

In "T" beams the depth below the slab shall not 
exceed eight times the thickness of the slab adjacent to 
the stem. 

Cinder concrete slabs shall not be less than four inches 
thick; they shall not exceed eight feet in span. 



City of Boston Building Law. 47 

Sect. 15.] 

Self-Centring. — Reinforcing materials which are self- 
centring shall not be used in spans exceeding eight feet. 
Fireproofing under self-centring reinforcement may be of 
Portland cement plaster. 

Bending in Supporting Members. — If a beam or floor 
slab is assumed as fixed or partially restrained at a sup- 
port, the column, wall, or other structure furnishing such 
restraint shall be proportioned to resist the stresses 
thereby induced. 

"T" Beams. — Where adequate bond and shearing re- 
sistance between slab and web of beam is provided, the 
slab may be considered an integral part of the beam, but 
its effective width shall not exceed one fourth part of the 
span length of the beam, nor shall its overhanging width 
on either side of the web exceed six times the thickness of 
the slab. 

Columns. — Columns or piers of concrete shall be rein- 
forced when the unsupported height exceeds six times 
the least gross dimension, and no reinforced concrete 
column shall have an unsupported height of more than 
twelve times its least gross dimension, except with stresses 
reduced from those allowed by this act in accordance 

24— A 

with the ratio — where h is unsupported height and 

d is least dimension, and - shall not in any case exceed 

d 

eighteen. The maximum effective area of columns shall 
be taken as the area within the outer one and one half 
inches of concrete covering, or, in the case of hooped col- 
umns or columns reinforced with structural shapes, it 
shall be taken as the area within the circle enclosing the 
spiral or the polygon enclosing the structural shapes. 
Longitudinal reinforcement shall be assumed to carry 



48 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

stress in proportion to the respective moduli of elasticity 
as given in this act. 

Extebior Columns and their Reinforcement. 

Exterior columns and their reinforcement shall be so 
proportioned as to withstand bending in addition to the 
direct load without exceeding the fiber stresses specified 
for beams elsewhere in this act. 

Reinforced Concrete Buildings. 

Reinforced concrete buildings may be supported by 
structural steel or cast iron columns, fireproofed in first 
class construction as provided elsewhere in this act. 
Brackets shall be provided to transmit the load from the 
floors to the columns. Such columns shall be computed 
as follows: — 

Brackets. 

(a) If the brackets are placed immediately below the 
floor the structural steel or cast iron columns shall be 
assumed to carry the load of all the floors above. 

(6) If the brackets are placed immediately above a 
floor the structural steel or cast iron columns shall be 
assumed to carry all the load above the brackets, and the 
floor or floors below the brackets shall be carried on re- 
inforced concrete encasing the metal, designed in accord- 
ance with the requirements of this act, to the next bracket 
below or to the foundation. In this case, however, the 
surrounding concrete shall be' so separated from the steel 
or cast iron as to permit the separate action of both. 

Circular Hollow Columns. 

Circular hollow steel or wrought iron columns filled 
with concrete shall be allowed to carry a load equal to 
the capacity of the metal casing plus the capacity of the 



City of Boston Building Law. 49 

Sect. 15.] 

concrete filling. The average unit stress in the casing 
shall be that specified elsewhere in this act for columns, 
and that in the concrete filling shall be in the same ratio 
to the unit stress in the casing which the modulus of 
elasticity of the concrete bears to that of the casing. 

Columns with longitudinal reinforcement only shall 
have a steel area of not less than one per cent and not more 
than four per cent of the required effective area, and shall 
be allowed the stresses given in this act. Longitudinal 
reinforcement bars shall be straight and shall be secured 
against lateral displacement by steel ties not less than one 
fourth of an inch in diameter and placed not farther apart 
than sixteen diameters of the bars, not more than twelve 
inches. 

Columns Which Have Longitudinal Reinforcement. 

Columns which have longitudinal reinforcement to an 
amount not less than one per cent and not more than four 
per cent of the effective area, and which also have hoops or 
spirals to an amount not less than one per cent of the 
volume af the enclosed core, spaced not farther apart in 
the clear than one sixth of the diameter of the enclosed 
core, and in no case more than two and one half inches, 
shall be allowed the stresses given in this act; provided, 
however, that no such column shall have a height greater 
than ten diameters of the enclosed core. The ends of 
hoops or spirals shall be united in such a way as to develop 
their full strength. The hoops or spirals shall be securely 
fastened to the longitudinal reinforcement or to approved 
spacers. 

Combination Floors. — Concrete floors with permanent 
blocks or forms of incombustible material with ribs of 
reinforced concrete between shall conform to the require- 
ments of this act so far as they are applicable, but the 
blocks or forms shall not be assumed as taking stress. If 



50 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

a slab not less than two inches thick above the blocks or 
forms is cast monolithic with the rib, the rib and slab may 
be considered as a T section. If such construction forms 
a flush ceiling, or if a plastered ceiling on metal lath is 
suspended below the ribs, the fireproofing for such con- 
struction shall be that required for slabs. 

Working Stresses. — The following table gives the com- 
pressive strength in pounds per square inch which shall be 
assumed as the basis for design, a bag of cement weighing 
ninety-four pounds being assumed to measure one cubic 
foot in proportioning material, and the values given for 
aggregate to be the combined volume of fine and coarse 
aggregate measured separately. 



Mixture. 


1:3. 


l:4f. 


1:6. 


1:7. 


1:7|. 


1:9. 


Stone concrete 


3,300 
1,000 


2,800 

875 


2,200 
750 


675 


1,800 
625 


1,400 


Cinders or slag concrete.. 





Allowable Stresses. 

In all computations allowable stresses shall be used, 
based, as hereinafter specified, upon assumed ultimate 
strengths as given above, and no concrete shall be used 
which, when made under laboratory conditions into test 
cylinders eight inches diameter and sixteen inches long 
and tested in compression at an age of twenty-eight days, 
does not show a strength at least equal to that given in 
the table. 

Concrete one year old shall be considered to have a 
compressive strength twenty-five per cent greater than 
that given in the table for concrete of the same grade and 
proportions. 

Bearing. — When compression is applied to a portion 
of a concrete surface of which the area is at least twice 



City op Boston Building Law, 51 

Sect. 15.] 

that to which the load is applied, a stress of thirty-five per 
cent of the compressive strength fixed by this act shall be 
allowed. 

Axial Compression. — For concentric compression on 
columns with longitudinal reinforcement only, twenty- 
two and five tenths per cent of the compressive strength 
fixed by this act shall be allowed. 

For concentric compression on columns the length of 
which does not exceed ten diameters of the core, with 
longitudinal reinforcement combined with hoops or spirals, 
thirty-five per cent of the compressive strength fixed by 
this act shall be allowed. 

Bending. — Compression on extreme fiber in bending 
shall not exceed thirty-two and five tenths per cent of the 
compressive strength fixed by this act: 'provided, however , 
that adjacent to the supports of continuous beams or 
slabs thirty-seven and five tenths per cent may be used. 

Shear and Diagonal Tension. — In the calculation of 
beams in which the maximum shearing stress in a section 
is used as the means of measuring the resistance to diagonal 
tension stress, the vertical shearing unit stress as com- 
puted by the formula v = —— % where v is the shearing unit 

bjd' 

stress, V is the total sheer, b is the breadth of the beam, 
and jd is the arm of the resisting couple, shall not exceed 
the following percentages of the respective compressive 
strengths fixed by this act. 

Beams With Horizontal Bars Only. 

For beams with horizontal bars only and without web 
reinforcement, two per cent. 

Beams With Web Reinforcement. 
For beams with web reinforcement consisting of vertical 
stirrups looped about the longitudinal reinforcing bars in 



52 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

the tension side of the beam, suitably anchored in the 
compression side and spaced horizontally not more than 
one half the depth of the beam, or for beams in which 
longitudinal bars are bent up at an angle of not more than 
forty-five degrees nor less than twenty degrees with the 
axis of the beam and the points of bending are spaced 
horizontally not more than three fourths of the depth of 
the beam apart, or both, the web reinforcement being 
designed, in each case, to carry two thirds of the total 
shear, six per cent. 

Punching. — Punching shear shall not exceed six per 
cent of the compressive strength fixed by this act. 

Bond. — The bond stress between concrete and steel 
bars shall not exceed four per cent, except that the bond 
between concrete and approved deformed steel bars shall 
not exceed five per cent, and between concrete and drawn 
wire shall not exceed three per cent of the compressive 
strength fixed by this act. 

Steel. — -The tensile or compressive stress in steel shall 
not exceed sixteen thousand pounds per square inch in 
rods and twenty thousand pounds per square inch in 
drawn wire and other approved cold stretched fabric, 
except that in slabs of stone concrete the tensile stress in 
rods shall not exceed eighteen thousand pounds per square 
inch, and in drawn wire and other approved cold stretched 
fabric it shall not exceed twenty-two thousand five hun- 
dred pounds per square inch. 

Modulus of Elasticity. — The modulus of elasticity of 
concrete shall be taken as — 

l-30th that of steel for cinder concrete with a com- 
pressive strength of 1,000 pounds per square inch or less. 

1-1 5th that of steel for stone concrete with a com- 
pressive strength of 2,200 pounds per square inch or less. 

1-1 2th that of steel for concrete with a compressive 
strength greater than 2,200 pounds per square inch, but 
less than 2,900 pounds per square inch. 



City of Boston Building Law. 53 

Sect. 15.] 

l-10th that of steel for concrete with a compressive 
strength of 2,900 pounds per square inch or more, the 
compressive strength referred to in all these cases being 
that fixed by this act. 

Footing General. — Symmetrical, concentric column 
footings shall be designed for punching shear, diagonal 
tension and bending moment. 

Punching Shear in Footings. — The area effective to re- 
sist punching shear in column footings shall be considered 
as the area having a width equal to the perimeter of the 
column or pier and a depth equal to seven eighths the 
depth of footing from top to centre of reinforcing steel. 
Diagonal Tension in Footings. — Shearing stresses as in- 
dicative of diagonal tension shall be measured in footings 
on vertical sections distant from the face of the pier or 
column equal to the depth of the footing from top to 
centre of reinforcing steel. 

Bending Moment in Footings. — The bending moment in 
rectangular isolated column footings at a section taken 
at the edge of pier or columns shall be determined by 
multiplying the load on the cantilever projection by 
three eighths the distance from the edge of pier or column 
to the edge of footing. The section of maximum moment 
in a footing supporting a round column or pier shall be 
taken one eighth the radius from the tangent toward the 
centre. The effective area of concrete and steel to resist 
bending moment shall be considered as that within a 
width extending both sides of pier or column a distance 
equal to depth of footing plus one half the remaining dis- 
tance to edge of footing, except that reinforcing steel 
crossing the section other than at right angles shall be 
considered to have an effective area determined by mul- 
tiplying the sectional area by the sine of the angle between 
the bar and the plane of the section. The bond stress in 
the steel shall not exceed that allowed by this act. ■ 

Flat Slabs. — ■ Floor slabs supported upon columns with- 



54 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

out beams or girders and extending two or more bays in 

each direction shall conform to the following requirement. 

Capital. — Columns may be provided with enlarged 
capitals. The horizontal width of capitals shall be taken 
where the vertical thickness is at least one and one half 
inches, and the contour of capitals shall not fall within 
that of an inverted cone or pyramid whose apex is on the 
centre line of the column, whose sides incline at forty- 
five degrees with the vertical, and whose base lies in a 
plane one and one half inches below the underside of the 
dropped panel and, if no dropped panel is used, below 
the underside of the slab, and has the same size and 
shape in plan as the capital. The width of capital in any 
direction shall not be less than one fifth the distance, 
centre to centre, of columns in that direction, and shall 
be such that the allowable unit stresses elsewhere speci- 
fied in this act shall not be exceeded. 

Dropped Panel. — A thickening of the slab on the 
underside in the vicinity of the columns is termed a 
dropped panel. The width of the dropped panel in any 
direction shall be not less than f that of the column 
capital. The depth of the dropped panel below the 
bottom of the slab shall be not more than half the slab 
thickness, but shall be such that the allowable unit 
stresses shall not be exceeded either in shear about the 
column capital or in bending. The allowable unit shear 
to be used shall be that specified for punching shear 
elsewhere in this act. The allowable compression in 
bending shall be that specified for extreme fibers adjacent 
to support in continuous beams. 

Slab Thickness. — In flat slab construction, the mini- 
mum thickness of slab shall be not less than & in the 
case of roofs or $£ in the case of floors, of the distance 
from centre to centre of the columns in the longer direc- 
tion. The thickness shall be such as to withstand the 



City of Boston Building Law. 



55 



Sect. 15.] 

shear about the column capital or dropped panel without 
exceeding the allowable stress herein specified for punch- 
ing shear. 

Bending. — For the purpose of determining the bending 
in fiat slab floors, the slab shall be considered as divided by 
lines parallel to the lines of columns into strips whose 
width is one half the distance, L, centre to centre, of col- 
umns measured at right angles to the span of strips. The 
centre line of alternate strips shall coincide with the centre 
line of the columns. These shall be known as A-strips. 
The other strips located midway between columns shall 
be known as B-strips. The span length of the strips shall 
be taken as the distance, centre to centre, of columns less 
two thirds the width of the column capital measured in 
the direction of the span. 



A and B Strips Comprising Any Panel Width. 

Provision shall be made in the A and B strips comprising 
any panel width for the whole bending moment specified, 
and the proportion of the Whole provided for within each 
strip shall be not less than that given in the following 
table : — 





Per Cent. 




A-Strip. 


B-Strip. 


Either 
Strip. 


Negative moment, no dropped panel. . . . 


60 
55 
80 
65 


25 
25 
15 
20 


15 

20 

5 

15 



Interior Bays. — If 

Z = span as given above — L — \c 
where c = diameter of column capital 
w= total load per square foot 



56 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

whether the panels be square or oblong and in whichever 
direction the span be taken, the bending moments at the 
critical portions of interior bays shall be assumed as 
follows: — 

Positive Bending. — The positive bending moment for a 
whole panel width shall be taken as 

25 

Negative Bending. — The negative bending moment for a 
panel width shall be taken as 

15 

Wall Bays, Restraint. — For wall bays when the wall 
is of reinforced concrete (J is the distance from the inside 
face of the exterior column to the centre of the interior 
column less one third the width of the interior column 
capital) the bending moment for strips running perpendic- 
ular to the wall shall be as follows: — 

Positive Bending. — The positive bending moment for a 
panel width shall be taken as 

20 

Negative Bending. — The negative bending moment for 
a panel width at the interior line of columns shall be 
taken as: — 

The negative bending moment for a panel at the wall 
shall in general be taken as: — 

30 
This may be increased, according to degree of restraint, 

up to ^=- for complete restraint: provided, however, that 
15 



City of Boston Building Law. 57 

Sect. 15.J 

in case the coefficient for negative bending at the wall is 
increased, the other two bending moment coefficients 
may be correspondingly decreased. 

Wall Bays, No Restraint. — ■ For wall bays supported on 
one edge upon brick walls or other construction incapable 
of providing adequate restraint in negative bending, I is 
the distance from the inner face of the wall to the centre of 
the interior column less one third the width of the interior 
column capital. 

Positive Bending. — The positive bending moment for a 
panel width shall be taken as: — 

16 

Negative Bending, — The negative bending moment for a 
panel width at the interior column line shall be taken as: — 

10 

Negative bending along such walls shall be provided 
for by reinforcement in the top of the slab at right angles 
with the wall equal to four tenths per cent in floors and 
to two tenths per cent in roofs of the area of cross-section 
of the slab. 

Bays discontinuous upon one or two adjacent sides shall 
be treated as wall bays. 

When a flat slab is supported by a beam or wall on one 
or two sides, the half strip parallel with and adjacent to 
the beam or wall may be reinforced as half a B-strip. 

The bending in exterior concrete columns supporting 
flat slab floors shall in general be taken as: — 

^plus^, 
30 * 4 ' 

or more up to 

15 4 



58 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

in case of complete restraint, where W is the total load on 

the wall panel and h is the thickness of the exterior column. 

For floors, half this bending shall be assumed as acting 
below and half above the slab; for roofs the whole bending 
acts below the slab. 

Brackets. — Brackets or haunches shall be provided on 
exterior columns when necessary to transmit the shear 
and bending from the slab to the column. 

Interior Columns. — ■ The least dimension of interior 
concrete columns supporting flat slabs shall be not less 
than one fifteenth the span, centre to centre, of columns 
in the longer direction. 

Reinforcement. — -Reinforcement shall be provided at 
the critical sections of all strips in sufficient quantity to 
withstand the bending herein specified without exceeding 
the allowable unit stresses elsewhere specified in this act. 
Reinforcement lying obliquely to the axis of any strip 
shall be counted as having an area effective for that strip 
equal to its actual area of cross-section multiplied by the 
cosine of the angle which it makes with the axis of the 
strip. 

Bent Bars. — No reinforcing for positive bending shall 
be bent up to the top of the slab further from the centre 
line of the column than one fourth L where L is the 
distance, centre to centre of columns in the direction of the 
reinforcing. Positive reinforcement in A-strips shall be 
provided to within 0.15 L of the centre line of interior 
columns and extending to the inside face of wall columns; 
in B-strips shall be provided extending to within 0.10 
L of the interior column line and to the inside face of wall 
support. Negative reinforcement in A-strips shall extend 
beyond the centre line of the columns half the width of 
the column capital plus enough to develop the strength 
of the rods; at least one quarter of the negative reinforce- 
ment shall extend six inches beyond the quarter point of 



City of Boston Building Law. 59 

Sect. 15.1 

the panel or the fifth point of the span length. Negative 
reinforcement in B-strips shall extend forty diameters 
beyond the centre line of columns, and at least half thereof 
shall extend to the quarter point of the panel. 

Stress in Concrete. 

For determining the stress in concrete due to the bend- 
ing in each strip the width shall be taken as the width of 
the strip, except that for negative bending in A-strips 
when a dropped panel is used the width shall be that of 
the dropped panel. 

Wall Beams. — Wall beams in flat slab construction shall 
be assumed to carry a width of floor equal to one quarter 
the clear span of the beam in addition to the weight of 
beam and wall. Such beams, when continuous, shall be 

72 

designed for a negative bending at columns equal to — 

and the positive bending at mid-span shall be assumed as 
follows: — 

(a) When the width of the columns (parallel to the 
beam) is not less than fifteen per cent of the distance, 
centre to centre, of columns or twice the depth of the 
beam, 

wl 2 



(&) Otherwise, 



20 



"-E 



Brick Walls. — In case a flat slab is supported by a brick 
wall, the wall shall in general be four inches thicker than 
the minimum thickness otherwise required by this act, 
or have equivalent pilasters. 

Formulas for Reinforced Concrete Construction. 

These formulas are based on the assumptions and prin- 
ciples given in section fifteen. 



60 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 

1. Standard Notation. 
(a) Rectangular Beams. 
The following notation is recommended : 
fs = tensile unit stress in steel ; 
fc = compressive unit stress in concrete; 
Es = modulus of elasticity of steel ; 
Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete; 

n = — • 
Ec 

M= moment of resistance, or bending moment in 

general; 

As = steel area; 

b — breadth of beam; 

d = depth of beam to centre of steel; 

k = ratio of depth of neutral axis to depth, d; 

z = depth below top to resultant of the compressive 
stresses; 

j = ratio of lever arms of resisting couple to depth, d. 
jd =d— 2 = arm of resisting couple; 

p = steel ratio = — • 
bd 

(6) T-Beams. 
6= width of flange; 
6'= width of stem; 
t = thickness of flange. 

(c) Beams Reinforced for Compression. 
A' = area of compressive steel; 
% p' = steel ratio for compressive steel; 
fs' = compressive unit stress in steel; 

C= total compressive stress in concrete; 
C = total compressive stress in steel; 
d' = depth to centre of compressive steel; 

2 = depth to resultant of C and C". 

(d) Shear, Bond and Web Reinforcement. 
V = total shear; 

V'= total shear producing stress in reinforcement; 
v = shearing unit stress; 
u =bond stress per unit area of bar; 



City of Boston Building Law, 



61 



Sect. 15.] 

o = circumference of perimeter of bar; 
^o =sum of the perimeters of all bars; 
T — total stress in single reinforcing members; 
s = horizontal spacing of reinforcing members. 

(e) Columns. 

A = total net area; 
As = area of longitudinal steel; 
i!c = area of concrete; 

P= total safe load. 

2. Formulas. 
(a) Rectangular Beams. 
Position of neutral axis, 

k = ^2pn-\-(pn) 2 -pn (1) 

Arm of resisting couple, 

1 

3 = 1 * (2) 

3 
[For fs = 15000 to 16000 and fc = 600 to 650, j maybe 
taken at |.] 




kf-n->f< - fc 



Fig. 1. 



62 



City of Boston Building Law. 



Sect. 15.] 
Fiber stresses, 



fs 



M M 



Asjd pjbd 2 



(3) 



f c= lK=®vk (4) 

J jkbd* k 



Steel ratio, for balanced reinforcement, 

1 



(5) 




k- b' >1 



Fig. 2. 



■ Case I. When the neutral axis lies in the flange, use 
the formulas for rectangular beams. 

Case II. When the neutral axis lies in the stem. 
The following formulas neglect the compression in the 
stem. 

Position of neutral axis, 

M= !8ndAs+bt> (6) 

?,nAs+2bt 



City of Boston Building Law. 63 

Sect. 15.] 

Position of resultant compression, 

= 8kd—2t t_ ,~ 

2 2kd—t's 

Arm of resisting couple, 

jd = d—z (8) 

Fiber stresses, 

U = fr, (9) 

Asjd 

, _ Mkd _fs k qqx 

Jc bt(kd—it)jd n'l-k 

(For approximate results the formulas for rectangular 
beams may be used.) 

The following formulas take into account the compres- 
sion in the stem; they are recommended where the flange 
is small compared with the stem: 

Position of neutral axis, 



kd 



ISndAs + (b — b')t* , fnA s + (b— b')t \ 2 
= V b' + l V ) ' 



nAs + (b — b')t qjn 

6' 

Position of resultant compression, 

(kdt* — fg)b+[ (fed -t)* (t+Hkd-t) ) ]b f (12) 

t(2kd — t)b+(kd — tyb' 

Arm of resisting couple, 

jd = d — z (13) 

Fiber stresses, 

/.--£: (W) 

Asjd 

/c = 2MM (15) 

[($kd— t)M+Qcd— WW 



64 City of Boston Building Law. 

Seot. 15.] 

(c) Beams Reinforced for Compression, 




Position of neutral axis, 



k = JgnU+p'^+tfip+py — n(p+p'). • .(16) 

Position of resultant compression, 

%m+2p'nd'(k — ^j\ 



z = 



Arm of resisting couple, 



Fiber stresses, 



jd = d—z. 
6M 



"[*-"^(*-£)0-f)] 



(17) 

(18) 
(19) 



City of Boston Building Law. 65 

Sect. 15.] 

^^f (20 > 

d' 

k 

Ss ' =nU ~ir (21) 

(d) Shear, Bond, and Web Reinforcement. 
For rectangular beams, 

v=^ (22) 

bjd 

u = ^j~T (23). 

[For approximate results j may be taken at f .] 

The stresses in web reinforcement may be estimated by 
means of the following formulas: 
Vertical web reinforcement, 

T = ^ (24) 

3d 

Bars bent up at angles between 20 and 45 deg. with the 
horizontal and web members inclined at 45 deg. 

T=f^j (25) 

In the text of the report it is recommended that two 
thirds of the external vertical shear (total shear) at any 
section be taken as the amount of total shear producing 
stress in the web reinforcement. V therefore equals two 
thirds of V. 

The same formulas apply to beams reinforced for com- 
pression as regards shear and bond stress for tensile steel. 



66 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 15.] 
For T-Beams, 

^tS (26) 

-*7^ (27) 

[For approximate results j may be taken at |.] 

(e) Columns. 
Total safe load, 

P=fc(Ac+nA s ) =fcA(l + (n-l)p) (28) 

Unit stresses, 

^ = T77xf— rr^ < 29 > 

A(l + (n-l)p) 

fs=nf c (30) 

(1918, o. 179, sect. 5, Special Act.] 

SECTION 16. 

Structubal Steel. 

The design, fabrication and erection of structural steel 
shall be in accordance with the following specifications: 

1. Allowable Stresses. 

All parts of the structure shall be so proportioned that 
the sum of the maximum static stresses in pounds per 
square inch shall not exceed the following: 

(a) Tension: Rolled Steel, on net section . 18,000 

(b) Compression: Rolled Steel, on short lengths 

or where lateral deflection is prevented, 18,000 
On gross section of columns, 

18,000 

7 2 

1 -\ 

18,000r 2 

with a maximum of 13,500 



City of Boston Building Law. 67 

Sect. 16.J 

In which I is the unsupported length of the col- 
umn, and r is the corresponding least radius of 
gyration of the section, both in inches. 

For main compression members, the ratio l/r 
shall not exceed 160, and for bracing and other 
secondary members, 200. 

(c) Bending: On extreme fibres of rolled 
shapes, and built up sections, net section, if lateral 
deflection is prevented 18,000 

When the unsupported length I exceeds 15 
times by the width of the compression flange, the 
stress in pounds per square inch in the latter shall 
not exceed 

20,000 

72 

1 H ■ 

2,0006 2 

The laterally unsupported length of beams and 
girders shall not exceed 40 times b, the width of 
the compression flange. 

On extreme fibres of pins, when the forces are 
assumed as acting at the center of gravity of the 
pieces 27,000 

(d) Shearing: 

On pins 13,500 

On power-driven rivets . . . . 13,500 
On turned bolts in reamed holes with a 
clearance of not more than 1/50 of 

an inch . 13,500 

On hand-driven rivets . . . . 10,000 
On unfinished bolts . . . . 10,000 
On the gross area of the webs of beams 
and girders, where h, the height be- 
tween flanges in inches, is not more 
than 60 times t, the thickness of the 
web in inches 12,000 



68 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 16.] 

On the gross area of the webs of beams 
and girders if the web is not stiffened 
where h, the height between flanges in 
inches, is more than 60 times t, the 
thickness of the web, the maximum 
shear per square inch, S/A shall not 
exceed 

18,000 

7,200« 2 

In which S is the total shear, and A, is 
gross area of web in square inches. 

, x '« • Double Single 

(e) Bearing: Shear. Shear. 

On pins . . . . . 30,000 24,000 
On power-driven rivets . . 30,000 24,000 
On turned bolts in reamed 

holes . . . . . 30,000 24,000 
On hand-driven rivets . . 20,000 16,000 
On unfinished bolts . . 20,000 16,000 
On expansion rollers per lineal 
inch 600 times the diameter 
of the roller in inches. 
(/) Combined Stresses: For combined stresses due to 
wind and other loads, the permissible working stress may 
be increased 20%, provided the section thus found is not 
less than that required by the dead and live loads alone. 

(g) Members Carrying Wind Only: For members 
carrying wind stresses only, the permissible working 
stresses may be increased 20%. 

2. Symmetrical Members. 
Sections shall preferably be symmetrical. 



City op Boston Building Law. 69 

Sect. 16.] 

S. Beams and Girders. 

(a) Rolled beams shall be proportioned by the moment 
of inertia of their net section. Plate girders with webs 
fully spliced for bending shall be so proportioned that the 
unit stress on the net section does not exceed the stresses 
specified in paragraph 1 of this section as determined by 
the moment of inertia of the net section. 

(6) Plate girder webs shall have a thickness of not less 
than 1-160 of the unsupported distance between the 
flanges. 

(c) Web splices shall consist of a plate on each side of 
the web capable of transmitting the full stress through 
the splice rivets. 

(d) Stiff eners: Stiff eners shall be required on the webs of 
rolled beams and plate girders at the ends and at points of 
concentrated loads, and at other points wh ere h the clear dis- 
tance between flanges is greater than 85* Vl 8,000 (A/S)— 1, 
in which t is the thickness of the web. When stiff eners are 
required, the dista nce in inches be tween them shall not be 
greater than 85*^18,000 (A/S) -1, or not greater than 6 
feet. Stiffeners under or over concentrated loads shall be 
proportioned to distribute such loads into the web. 

Plate girder stiffeners shall generally be in pairs, one on 
each side of the web, and shall have a close bearing against 
the flange angles at points of concentrated loading. 
The pitch of rivet in stiffeners shall not exceed 6". 

(e) Flange plates of all girders shall be limited in width 
so as not to extend more than 6" or more than 12 times the 
thickness of thinnest plate beyond the outer row of rivets 
connecting them to the angles. 

(/) Crane runway girders and the supporting frame- 
work shall be proportioned to resist the greatest horizontal 
stresses caused by the operation of the cranes. 

(g) Rivets connecting the flanges to the web at points 



70 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 16.] 

of direct load on the flange between stiff eners shall be pro- 
portioned to carry the resultant of the longitudinal and 
transverse shears. 

(h) Rivets connecting the flanges to the webs of plate 
girders and of columns subjected to bending shall be so 
spaced as to carry the increment of the flange stress be- 
tween rivets. 

4. Column Bases. 

(a) Proper provision shall be made to distribute the 
column loads on the footings and foundations. 

(b) The top surface of all column bases shall be planed 
for the column bearing. 

(c) Column bases shall be set true and level, with full 
bearing on the masonry, and be properly secured to the 
footings. 

5. Eccentric Loading. 
Full provision shall be made for stresses caused by 
eccentric loads. 

6. Combined Stresses. 

(a) Members subject to both direct and bending 
stresses shall be so proportioned that the greatest combined 
stresses shall not exceed the allowed limits. 

(6) All members and their connections which are sub- 
ject to stresses of both tension and compression due to 
the action of live loads shall be designed to sustain stress 
giving the largest section, with 50% of the smaller stress 
added to it. If the reversal of stress is due to the action 
of wind, the member shall be designed for the stress giving 
the largest section and the connections proportioned for 
the largest stress. 

7. Abutting Joints. 
Compression members when faced for bearings shall be 
spliced sufficiently to hold the connecting members 



City op Boston Building Law. 71 

Sect, 16.] 

accurately in place. Other joints in riveted work, whether 
in tension or compression, shall be full spliced. 

8. Net Sections. 

(a) In calculating tension members, the net section 
shall be used, and in deducting the rivet holes they shall 
be taken | inch greater in diameter than the nominal di- 
ameter of the rivets. 

(6) Pin-connected tension members shall have the 
section through the pin hole 25% in excess of the net sec- 
tion of the member, and a net section back of the pin 
hole equal to 75% of that required through the pin hole. 

9. Rivets and Bolts. 

(a) In proportioning rivets, the nominal diameter of 
the rivet shall be used. 

(6) Rivets carrying calculated stresses, and whose grip 
exceeds five diameters, shall have their number increased 
1% for each additional 1-10 inch in the rivet grip. 

(c) Rivets shall be used for the splices and connections 
of main members, and for connections subject to reversal 
of stresses. 

(d) Finished bolts in reamed holes may be used in shop 
or field work where it is impracticable to obtain satisfac- 
tory power-driven rivets. The finished shank shall be 
long enough to provide full bearing, and washers used 
under the nuts to give full grip when turned tight. 

Unfinished bolts may be used in field work for connec- 
tions in minor structures, and for secondary members of 
all structures such as purlins, girts, door and window 
framing, alignment bracing and secondary beams in floor. 

10. Rivet Spacing. 

Rivets shall be spaced in accordance with good engineer- 
ing practice. 



72 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 16.] 

11. Connections. 

(a) Connections carrying calculated stresses except for 
lacing, sag bars, or angles, hand rails or beam connections, 
shall not have less than 2 rivets; or for field connections 
not less than 3 rivets. 

(6) Members meeting at a joint shall have their lines of 
center of gravity meet at a point if practicable; if not, 
provision shall be made for any eccentricity. 

(c) The rivets at the ends of any member transmitting 
the stresses into that member should have their centers of 
gravity in the line of the center of gravity of the member; 
if not, provision shall be made for the effect of the resulting 
eccentricity. Pins may be so placed as to counteract the 
effect of bending due to dead load. 

(d) When a beam or grinder " A " is connected to another 
member in such a manner that "A" acts as a continuous 
or fixed end beam, proper provision shall be made for the 
bending moments at such a connection. 

(e) Where stress is transmitted from one piece to 
another, through a loose filler, the number of rivets shall 
be properly increased. 

12. Expansion. 

Proper provision shall be made for expansion and 
contraction. 

13. Minimum Thickness. 

No steel less than tV inch thick shall be used for ex- 
terior construction, nor less than \ inch for interior con- 
struction, except for linings or fillers and the webs of rolled 
structural shapes. 

Structural steel and sheet metal thinner than \ inch 
forming a part of the construction of stairs, skylights, roof 
houses, fire escapes, light one-story buildings, or light- 
miscellaneous steel work may be used under such restric- 
tions as the commissioner may prescribe. 



City of Boston Building Law. 73 

Sect. 16.] 

14- Workmanship. 

(a) All workmanship shall be equal to the best practice 
in modern structural shops. 

(6) Compression joints depending upon contact bearing 
shall have the bearing surfaces truly faced after the 
members are riveted. 

(c) The use of a burning torch is permissible if the 
burned metal is not carrying stresses during the burning. 
Stresses shall not be transmitted into the metal through 
a burned surface. 

15. Erection. 

(a) The frame of all steel skeleton buildings shall be 
carried up true and plumb, and temporary bracing shall 
be introduced wherever necessary to take care of all loads 
to which the structure may be subjected, including erec- 
tion equipment, and the operation of same. Such bracing 
shall be left in place as long as may be required for safety. 

(6) As erection progresses the work shall be securely 
bolted up to take care of all dead load, wind and erection 
stresses. 

(c) Wherever piles of material, erection equipment, or 
other loads are carried during erection, proper provisions 
shall be made to take care of stresses resulting from the 
same. 

(d) No riveting shall be done until the structure has 
been properly aligned. 

(e) Rivets driven in the field shall be heated and driven 
with the same care as those driven in the shop. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 6, Special Act.] 
[1923, c. 462, sect. 10.] 
[1924, c. 412, sect. 2.] 



74 City of Boston Building Law. 



SECTION 17. 

Classification. 

First and Second Class Buildings. 

Every building hereafter erected more than seventy- 
five feet in height, or hereafter increased in height to 
more than seventy-five feet, shall be a first class building. 
Every second class building hereafter erected more than 
four stories in height, and any second class building now 
in existence and increased in height to more than four 
stories shall have the first floor and the basement and 
cellar stories of first class construction except as herein- 
after otherwise mentioned for buildings for habitation. 
Every building for habitation hereafter erected covering 
more than five thousand square feet, or more than five 
stories in height, shall be a first class building. Every 
building altered or enlarged and occupied or to be occu- 
pied as a habitation, to be in excess of sixty-five feet in 
height, or in excess of five thousand square feet in super- 
ficial area, or in excess of five stories in height, shall be a 
first class building. Every building hereafter erected 
within the building limits to be occupied as a permanent 
schoolhouse shall be a first class building. Every build- 
ing hereafter erected as a theatre, and every building 
hereafter altered to be occupied as a theatre, shall be a 
first class building. Every building hereafter erected for, 
altered to or converted to use as a moving picture house 
shall be a first class building. All other buildings may be 
of second or third class construction. 

Except as is otherwise provided herein, buildings 
adapted for habitations, and not more than five stories in 
height, may be erected, remodelled or enlarged of second 
class construction, but no such building shall exceed five 
thousand square feet in superficial area or sixty-five feet 



City of Boston Building Law. 75 

Sect. 17.] 

in height. Every such building exceeding thirty-five 
hundred square feet of superficial area, and every such 
building exceeding seventeen hundred and fifty square 
feet in superficial area, and more than four stories or 
fifty-five feet in height, shall have the first floor and 
basement and cellar stories of first class construction, 
with no openings through the first floor, except for piping; 
provided that stairways from the first story to the out- 
side may penetrate the floor construction. Said stairs 
herein referred to are to be fireproof, separated from the 
basement or cellar by walls of solid masonry at least eight 
inches thick, with no opening to cellar or basement. The 
first story, or basement, or both the first story and base- 
ment, in such building more than seventeen hundred and 
fifty square feet in superficial area so constructed, re- 
modelled or enlarged, may be used for mercantile pur- 
poses; provided that the floors and walls separating the 
portion of the building used for mercantile purposes and 
the portion used for habitation be of first class construc- 
tion with no openings, except for piping, but that stair- 
ways from the portion used for habitation to the outside 
may penetrate the mercantile portion. In such event, the 
stairs herein referred to are to be constructed of incom- 
bustible material and separated from the latter by solid 
masonry walls at least eight inches thick with no openings 
to the portion used for habitation. In such buildings 
where the second floor is of first class construction the 
requirement providing for the first floor, basement and 
cellar stories to be of first class construction may be 
omitted. 

Restriction of Areas. 
Any first class building used above the first floor as a 
warehouse or store for the storage or sale of merchandise 
shall have all vertical openings protected by fireproof en- 
closures. Such enclosures shall, if enclosing stairs or 



76 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 17.] 

escalators, have automatic doors, and all glass in the 

enclosure shall be wire glass. 

Such a building shall be so divided by brick walls built 
like party walls with the same openings allowed, that no 
space inside the buildings shall exceed in area ten thousand 
square feet, except that when any such building has a 
frontage of not less than fifty feet on each of two streets, 
such space may exceed ten thousand square feet in area, 
provided that buildings in which such extension of area 
beyond ten thousand square feet is permitted shall have 
automatic fire sprinklers installed and means of ingress and 
egress satisfactory to the commissioner and the board of 
appeal. 

Second class buildings used above the first floor as 
warehouses or stores for the storage or sale of merchan- 
dise shall be so divided by brick walls, built like party walls 
with the same openings allowed, that no space inside 
such buildings shall exceed in area ten thousand square 
feet, and no existing wall in any second class building shall 
be removed so as to leave an area of more than ten thou- 
sand square feet, nor shall any existing wall separating 
areas which combined would exceed ten thousand square 
feet in area, have openings cut in it greater in area or 
number than is allowed in this act for party walls. 

Every second class building more than three stories high 
and used above the first floor as a warehouse or store for 
the storage or sale of merchandise, shall have all vertical 
openings for elevators and stairways, air or. light shafts, 
through its floors protected by fireproof enclosures. Such 
enclosures shall be supported by fireproof supports and 
framing, and shall, if enclosing stairs or escalators, have 
automatic doors, and all glass in the enclosure shall be 
wire glass. 

No building used above the first floor for the storage 
or sale of merchandise shall have less than two means of 



City of Boston Building Law. 77 

Sect. 17.] 

egress from every story, one of which means may be either 
an outside fire escape or through a brick wall closed by 
automatic doors into a building of the same class; except 
than an independent monumental stairway extending from 
the basement to the second floor may be constructed. 

Buildings for Manufacturing Purposes. 
Buildings outside the building limits and adapted ex- 
clusively for manufacturing, storage, mechanical or stable 
purposes, may be built under such conditions as the com- 
missioner shall prescribe. If of wood such buildings shall 
not exceed forty-five feet in height. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 4.] 

[1916, c. 24S, Special Acts.] 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 7, Special Act.] 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 2.] 

SECTION 18. 
Construction. 

Height. 

No building, structure or part thereof shall be erected 
or altered to a greater height than two and one half times 
the effective width of the street or streets upon which the 
building or structure stands, and not exceeding one hun- 
dred and fifty-five feet in height in any case. 

The effective width of such street or streets shall be 
measured from the face of the proposed building or 
structure to the lawfully established line of the street on 
the opposite side. If the street is of uneven width the 
width shall be the average width between the proposed 
building or structure and the lawfully established line of 
the street on the opposite side. The measurements shall 
be taken from the extreme ends of the face of the building 
and a point at the center, said measurements to be made 
at street level. 



78 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 18.] 

Whenever an effective width of a street is increased by 
an area or setback from the street, the building so set 
back may be increased in height to two and one half times 
the effective width of the street, not exceeding one hundred 
and fifty-five feet in height in any case. 

Along a narrower street near its intersection with a 
wider street any building or any part of a building front- 
ing on the narrower street, within one hundred feet from 
the side of the wider street, shall be governed by the 
height and roof setback regulations provided for the wider 
street. A corner building on such intersecting street 
shall be governed by the height and roof setback regula- 
tions provided for the wider street for one hundred and 
fifty feet from the side of such wider street measured along 
such narrower street. Beyond such points such corner 
building shall be governed by the height and roof setback 
regulations provided for the narrower street. On streets 
less than forty feet in width the same height regulations 
shall be applied as on streets forty feet in width. 

Nothing in this section however shall prohibit the erec- 
tion or alteration of any building, structure or part thereof 
to a height greater than (two and one half times the width 
of the street or streets upon which the building or struc- 
ture stands but not exceeding one hundred and fifty-five 
feet in any case) if the external wall of a height greater 
than two and one half times the width of such street shall 
be set back from the vertical face of the building in the 
ratio of one foot horizontally for each two and one half 
feet vertically. 

Nothing in this act shall authorize the erection or altera- 
tion of a building to a height greater than that authorized 
by existing law, or by existing ordinances, rules, regula- 
tions or orders, within the district or districts designated 
"B" by the commission on height of buildings in the city 
of Boston, under authority of chapter three hundred and 



City of Boston Building Law. 79 

Sect. IS.] 

thirty-three of the acts of nineteen hundred and four, 
chapter three hundred and eighty-three of the acts of 
nineteen hundred and five and chapter three hundred and 
thirty-three of the Special Acts of nineteen hundred and 
fifteen, and any acts in amendment thereof or in addition 
thereto, or within the territory as to which special limita- 
tions were imposed by chapter four hundred and fifty-two, 
of the acts of eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, as 
limited by chapter four hundred and fifty-five of the acts 
of nineteen hundred and twenty, chapter five hundred 
and forty-three of the acts of nineteen hundred and two, 
chapter four hundred and fifty-seven of the acts of eighteen 
hundred and ninety-nine or chapter four hundred and 
sixteen of the acts of nineteen hundred and seven or to a 
height greater than that limited in any restriction law- 
fully imposed by the park commissioners of said city. 

[1923, c. 462, sect. 11.] 

SECTION 19. 

Excavations. 
All excavations shall so be protected, by sheet piling if 
necessary, by the persons causing the same to be made, 
that the adjoining soil shall not cave in by reason of its 
own weight. It shall be the duty of the owner of every 
building to furnish, or cause to be furnished, such support 
that his building shall not be endangered by any excava- 
tion; 'provided, that the owner of any building which is 
endangered by an excavation carried by an adjoining 
owner more than ten feet below the grade of the street 
may recover the expense so caused of supporting such 
building from the persons causing such excavation to be 
made. All permanent excavations shall be protected by 
retaining walls. In case of any failure to comply with the 
provisions of this section the commissioner may enter 
upon the premises and may furnish such support as the 



80 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 19.] 

circumstances may require. Any expense so incurred 
may be recovered by the city from the persons required by 
law to furnish the support. 

SECTION 20. 

Foundations of Buildings. 

The foundation loads of every building, except tem- 
porary structure, shall be carried down to a satisfactory 
bearing material by means of properly designed walls, 
piers, grillages or piling which shall be so designed, located 
or otherwise disposed as to permit the entire loads which 
they transmit to be distributed over the bearing area with 
a unit intensity which shall not exceed the allowable 
value given in this sectiqn. The bearing area of any pile 
is the area over which it distributes its load. 

The footing of every foundation shall be carried down 
at least four feet below any adjoining surface exposed to 
freezing and no footing shall be started on soil which is 
in a frozen condition. Foundations shall not be laid in 
freezing weather unless adequate precautions are taken 
against frost action. 

For the purposes of this section " satisfactory bearing 
material" shall mean only ledge rock in its natural bed, 
natural deposits of sand, gravel or clay, and any com- 
bination of the foregoing materials which does not con- 
tain or does not overlie an appreciable amount of organic 
material. 

In the absence of satisfactory tests of their sustaining 
power, the maximum allowable bearing values of the 
above materials shall be limited by the following unit 
pressures: — , 

Tons per 
Square Foot. 

Solid ledge rock 100 

Shale and hardpan 10 

Gravel, compact sand and hard yellow clay . . 6 



City of Boston Building Law. 81 

Sect. 20.] 

Tons per 
Square Foot. 

Dry or wet sand of coarse or medium sized grains, 
hard blue clay mixed or unmixed with sand, dis- 
integrated ledge rock 5 

Medium stiff or plastic clay mixed or unmixed with 

sand, or fine grained dry sand .... 4 

Fine grained wet sand (confined) .... 3 

Soft clay protected against lateral displacement . 2 

Fine grained wet sand (confined) .... 3 

Soft clay protected against lateral displacement . 2 

Definitions. — (a) Solid ledge: Naturally formed rock, 
such as the granites and others of similar hardness and 
soundness, normally requiring blasting for their removal. 
(6) Shale: Laminated slate or clay rocks removable 
with more or less difficulty by picking. 

(c) Hardpan: A thoroughly cemented mixture of sand 
and pebbles or of sand, pebbles and clay, with or without 
a mixture of boulders and difficult to remove by picking. 

(d) Gravel: A natural uncemented mixture of coarse 
or medium grained sand with a substantial amount of 
pebbles measuring one fourth of an inch or more in 
diameter. 

(e) Sand (compact) : Requiring picking for its removal. 
(/) Sand (loose) : Requiring shovelling only. 

(g) Sand (medium grain): Individual grains readily 
distinguishable by eye though not of pronounced size. 

(h) Sand (fine grained) : Individual grains distinguished 
by eye only with difficulty. 

(i) Hard clay: Requiring picking for its removal. 

(J) Disintegrated ledge rock: Residual deposits of de- 
composed ledge. 

(k) Medium clay: Stiff and plastic but capable of being 
spaded. 

(I) Soft clay: Putty-like in consistency and changing 
shape readily under relatively slight pressure. 



82 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 20.] 

Note. — The materials described in items c, d, e, f, g, i, 
j, k, shall be in relatively thick beds, if full loading value 
is used. Otherwise, if underlaid by a softer material, the 
value assigned to that material shall be used. 

When a Building Rests on a Ledge. 

Wherever a building or structure is to rest in part only 
upon solid ledge, the unit intensity of load upon the 
balance of the bearing area shall be not more than one 
half of the value given above for the several classes of 
soil. 

Prior to the issuance of a permit for any permanent 
building or structure, the owner shall, by means of open 
pits or by test borings carried at least ten feet into a 
satisfactory bearing material other than ledge rock, de- 
termine the character and depth of the soil underlying 
the proposed site, and a certified copy of the report of all 
borings and test pits so taken, together with samples, 
taken dry, of the material selected for a foundation bear- 
ing shall be filed with the commissioner for his approval 
and classification. The number and location of borings 
taken, together with the method used in making and 
reporting them shall be as directed by the commissioner. 

Foundations for first and second class buildings may be 
of brick, stone or concrete. The thickness shall be as 
stated in section twenty-three with the further provision 
that all foundation walls below grade shall be figured as 
retaining walls when they act as such. 

Foundations of stone shall be of square split stone 
except that rubble stone shall be allowed under build- 
ings outside of the building limits as they existed prior to 
September twenty- third, nineteen hundred and thirteen, 
but only when such buildings do not exceed forty-five 
feet in height and the foundation wall is less than ten 
feet in depth. No rubble foundation shall be less than 



City of Boston Building Law. 83 

Sect. 20.] 

twenty inches in thickness. All walls shall be properly 
bonded by through courses. 

Footings. — The footings of foundation walls or piers 
shall consist of footing stones, concrete, reinforced con- 
crete construction or steel grillages. Footings of wood 
construction may be used provided that they are to be 
entirely below the permanent ground water level. 

Footing Stones. — Footing stones shall be at least ten 
inches in thickness. They shall be fully bedded upon the 
bearing soil. 

Concrete Footings. — Concrete footings shall be not less 
than twelve inches in thickness. They may be either 
stepped or battered to meet the wall or pier which they 
support. The offset of each step or the angle of batter 
shall be such as not to exceed the allowable stresses in the 
concrete. If battered footings are used there shall be a 
squareshoulder at the base which shall be not less than 
four inches in height. 

Steel Grillage. 

Steel grillage foundations shall have at least six inches 
of concrete below and shall be entirely embedded in and 
surrounded by concrete at least four inches thick between 
steel and earth, and the concrete shall be no poorer than 
one part Portland cement and seven and one half parts 
aggregate, measured before mixing. 

Footing Loads. — ■ Provision shall be made in determining 
the required area of footings for safely supporting the full 
dead loads and the figured live loads on the lowest tier of 
columns, piers or walls, plus the weight of the footings 
themselves and such backfilling and overlying basement 
floor loads as may come vertically over the projecting 
spread of the footing. 

Foundation Piers and Caissons. — ■ The foundation of any 
building or structure may be carried down to ledge or 
other satisfactory bearing material by isolated piers of 



84 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 20 ] 

approved masonry or by open or pneumatic caissons, so 
designed that the working stresses in the materials and 
on the soil do not exceed those established by this act. 

[1918, c. 179, Sect. 8, Special Act:] 
11920, c. 91, Sect. 2.] 

SECTION 21. 

Pile Foundations. 

General Requirements. — The supporting value of piles 
shall be obtained from embedment in or bearing on material 
as firm as can practicably be obtained, and the method 
of driving shall be such as not to impair their strength. 
The frictional value observed in driving for that part of 
piles embedded in or passing through such materials as 
peat, silt, or fill overlying such materials, shall not be 
relied upon for support. No pile or group of piles shall be 
loaded eccentrically, except in cases where it is imprac- 
ticable to avoid it. In such cases the unit stress allowable 
for piles shall not be exceeded. Any type of pile con- 
struction not provided for in this section shall meet such 
requirements as may be prescribed by the commissioner. 

A detached column or pier footing supported by piling 
shall rest upon not less than three piles, but column or 
pier footings supported by proper and permanent masonry 
or steel construction which provides lateral support in all 
directions may each rest upon a single pile if the allowable 
load per pile is not exceeded. Light wall foundations may 
be supported by a single row of piles; provided, that the 
length of wall unsupported laterally by proper masonry 
or steel construction does not exceed ten feet. A light 
wall shall be known as that wall or walls of a building not 
in excess of one story and not exceeding twenty feet in 
height. All other foundation walls requiring piling shall 
rest upon at least two rows of piles, the rows to be at least 
two feet on centres for buildings up to thirty feet in height. 



City of Boston Building Law. 85 

Sect. 21.] 

For buildings exceeding thirty feet in height, if not more 
than two rows of piles are used, the rows shall be spread 
not less than three feet on centres. 

Piles under masonry buildings shall be capped with 
concrete or with block granite. If capped with plain 
concrete the proportion shall be one part Portland cement 
to not more than seven and one half parts aggregate, and 
the capping shall be not less than sixteen inches high above 
the pile heads. All concrete capping shall fill the space 
between and around them for a depth of six inches and 
shall extend for not less than six inches beyond the outer 
edge of the pile cluster. No rubble concrete shall be used 
for pile capping. If capped with block granite, each block 
shall have a firm bearing on not less than three piles, 
shall be not less than twelve inches thick, and shall pro- 
ject sufficiently to cover fully all pile heads. 

Piles supporting steel or wooden buildings without 
masonry walls or floors may be capped with timber not 
less than six inches thick, securely jointed together and to 
the piles. 

The commissioner shall require additional piles to be 
driven for all piles which are broken, broomed or injured 
in any way, and for piles having a lower sustaining power 
than that required for the work. 

The sustaining power of piles driven by jetting shall be 
determined by test loads as directed by the commissioner. 
Wooden Piles. — Wooden piles shall be single sticks 
except as prescribed elsewhere, cut from sound five trees, 
shall be close grained and solid, free from defects, such as 
injurious ring shakes, unsound or loose knots, or decay, 
which may materially impair their strength or durability. 
Piles must be butt-cut above the ground swell and have a 
uniform taper from butt to tip. 

Short Bends not Allowed. — A line drawn from the centre 
of the butt to the centre of the tip shall be within the body 
of the pile. 



86 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 21.] 

All knots shall be trimmed close to the body of the pile. 
All piles shall be at least six inches in average diameter at 
tip under the bark. 

Inspection of All Piles. — The commissioner shall require 
a competent inspector qualified by experience and training 
and satisfactory to him, to be on the work at all times 
while piles are being driven, and the inspector shall keep 
an accurate record of the length, size of tip and butt of 
each pile, the weight and fall of the hammer and the 
penetration of each pile for each of the last three blows. 

Square timber of approved quality may be used as 
piling, in which case the average cross-section shall be not 
less than ten inches by ten inches, and the tip not less than 
six inches by six inches. 

Pile heads shall be cut to sound wood before capping is 
placed. 

Loads on Wooden Piles. — Wooden piles driven through 
fill, silt, peat or other soil incapable of adequately resisting 
lateral bending, to hardpan or ledge, or deriving their 
value from embedments of less than one twelfth their 
length in approved soil, shall be figured as columns, using 
the table for timber compression members, and using an 
area equal to the middle cross-section of the pile. All 
such piles shall be of hard wood such as oak, southern 
yellow pine or similar woods, if the commissioner shall so 
decide. 

The safe load on all other wooden piles driven by drop 
hammer shall not exceed twelve tons each for spruce, 
Norway pine or other soft woods, nor fifteen tons each for 
southern yellow pine, oak or woods of similar strength, 
and shall be limited by the following formula: — 
L JWH 
P plus 1 

When testing for their value the pile head shall have 
sound wood and the fall of the hammer shall be ten feet. 



City of Boston Building Law. 87 

Sect. 21.] 

The safe supporting value of wooden piles when driven 
by single acting power hammer shall be limited by the 
following formula: — 

P plus 0.1 
In these formulas: — 
L is the allowable load in pounds. 

W is the weight of the hammer or striking parts in pounds. 

H is the fall of the hammer in feet. 

P is the average penetration in inches under the last three 

blows after the pile has been driven to a point where 

successive blows produce approximately equal or 

uniformly decreasing penetration. 

The distance between wooden piles shall be not less than 
twenty-four inches on centres. The tops of all wooden 
piles shall be cut at an elevation not higher than grade 
5.00, except that the commissioner may in his discretion 
permit a higher point of cut off, but not exceeding grade 
9.00 in localities where the level of the ground water 
fluctuates with the tidal variations. 

Wooden piles may be driven to a depth not exceeding 
ten feet below the ground surface by means of properly 
designed followers: provided, that such followers are con- 
structed of steel or iron, and are equipped with a suitable 
cast iron or steel socket which encases the pile head suffi- 
ciently to avoid injury to them during the driving process. 
Before using such a follower the pile head shall be cut or 
trimmed so as to expose a sound section of timber on which 
the follower shall rest. If wooden driving blocks are in- 
serted between the follower and pile hammer they shall 
be not more than twelve inches in height, of hard wood, 
and shall be replaced as often as their fibers become rup- 
tured. In case followers are used, the sustaining value of 
the pile as determined by the driving formula shall be 
reduced twenty five per cent unless test loads are applied, 



88 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 21.] 

in which case the commissioner may allow a higher unit 

loading not exceeding the maximum prescribed by this 

section. 

Concrete Piles. 

Pre-cast Concrete Piles. — Pre-cast concrete piles shall 
be properly designed and reinforced to permit handling 
and driving without injury. The amount of longitudinal 
reinforcing employed shall be not less than two per cent 
nor more than four per cent, with bands or hoops not less 
than one fourth of an inch in diameter and spaced not 
further than ten inches. They shall be thoroughly cured 
before driving. The diameter or lateral dimension of such 
a pile shall be not less than eight inches at the point, and 
shall average not less than eleven inches. The length 
shall not exceed thirty times the average diameter when 
the pile is driven through fill, silt, peat or other material 
having relatively little lateral stiffness, to ledge or hardpan, 
or when it derives its value from embedment of less than 
one twelfth its length in approved soil, not forty times 
the average diameter in any case. 

When driven to ledge or hardpan the allowable load on 
any such pile shall not exceed four hundred pounds per 
square inch on the concrete at the average cross section, 
and six thousand pounds per square inch on the longi- 
tudinal reinforcement. 

All pre-cast concrete piles shall be protected against 
damage in driving by the use of a suitable cushion cap of 
approved design, and when driven to ledge shall be pro- 
vided with a metal shoe having ample bearing surface. 

Cast in Place Concrete Piles. — ■ Concrete piles cast in 
place shall be so made and placed as to insure the exclusion 
of any foreign matter, and to secure a perfect full sized 
shape, and shall be spaced at least tTaree feet, centre to 
centre, and more if the commissioner so decides. The 
average diameter of any such pile in place shall be not less 



City op Boston Building Law. 89 

Sect. 21.] 

than eleven inches, and the diameter of the tip shall be 
not less than eight inches. The length shall not exceed 
thirty times the average diameter when the pile is driven 
through fill, silt, peat or other material having relatively 
little lateral stiffness, to ledge or hardpan, or when it 
derives its value from embedment of less than one twelfth 
its length in approved soil, nor forty times the average 
diameter in any case. When driven to ledge or hardpan 
the allowable load on any such pile shall not exceed four 
hundred pounds per square inch on the concrete at the 
average section. 

General Provisions. — ■ Metal tubes five sixteenths of an 
inch thick or less, remaining in the ground, shall not be 
considered as reinforcement. To be considered as rein- 
forcement, all steel rods shall be embedded in and covered 
by three inches of concrete. 

The safe load for all concrete piles not driven to ledge 
shall be determined by the commissioner, who may, if he 
deems it necessary, require one or more tests of the same 
to be made at the expense of the owner of the proposed 
building or structure, or of the party causing the piles to 
be driven, but the commissioner shall not allow a greater 
load than one-half of the test load giving three eighths inch 
total settlement, such total settlement to remain constant 
for a period of twenty-four hours, nor shall the prescribed 
unit stresses be exceeded. Such tests shall be made under 
the supervision of the commissioner, and the results shall 
be filed in his office. No concrete pile shall be allowed a 
greater load than thirty tons in any case. 

All load tests shall be conducted in accordance with 
regulations promulgated by the commissioner and to his 
satisfaction but in the absence of such regulations all 
load tests shall be in accordance with regulations form- 
ulated by the commissioner, and to his satisfaction, 
but in the absence of such regulations, they shall be con- 
tinued until at least twice the working load allowed has 



90 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 21.] 

been put upon the pile, and an accurate record shall be 
kept, to the nearest one sixteenth inch of settlement for 
and after each increment of load has been added. Incre- 
ments of load shall not exceed ten thousand pounds each, 
and at least eight hours shall elapse between the addition 
of successive increments. Test loads shall be applied at 
capping grade. 

All concrete for concrete piles shall be mixed in the pro- 
portion of one part Portland cement to not more than 
six parts of aggregate, and with a sufficient amount of 
water to produce a plastic or viscous consistency. 

Concrete piles shall be capped with concrete masonry 
only. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 9, Special Act.] 
[1923, c. 462, sect. 12.] 

SECTION 22. 

Cellars — Rat-proofing. 

Cellars. — The cellar of every building, where the grade 
or nature of the ground so requires, shall be sufficiently 
protected from water and dam by a bed at least two inches 
thick over the whole, of concrete, cement and gravel, tar 
and gravel, or asphalt, or by bricks laid in cement. No 
cellar or basement floor of any building shall be con- 
structed below the grade of twelve feet above mean low 
water, unless such cellar is made waterproof. All metal 
foundations and all structural metal work underground 
shall be protected from dampness by concrete, water- 
proofed where necessary, or by other material approved 
by the commissioner. 

Rat-proofing. — The cellar of every building hereafter 
erected within the building limits shall be made rat-proof 
by the use of masonry or metal. All openings in founda- 
tions, cellars and basements in such buildings, except for 
doors and hatchways, and except also for such windows 



City of Boston Building Law. 91 

Sect. 22.] 

wholly above ground as may be exempted by the com- 
missioner in his discretion, shall be completely covered 
with screens of metal having meshes of not more than one 
half of an inch in least dimension and constructed of rods or 
wire of not less than twenty gauge. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 10, Special Act.] 

SECTION 23. 

Thickness of Walls. 
Basement Wall. 

For the purposes of this section a basement wall shall 
be construed to include any exterior wall between the 
ground and the first floor, and any party, fire and bearing 
walls from the top of foundations to the first floor. 

The thickness of masonry walls shall be in all cases, 
irrespective of the requirements of this section, sufficient 
to keep the stresses in the masonry within the working 
stresses prescribed by this act. 

Single Family Dwellings. 
For single family dwellings not over three stories high 
with wooden floor beams spanning not more than fifteen 
feet, all exterior, party, bearing or fire walls shall be not 
less than twelve inches thick for basement walls and eight 
inches thick above the basement: 'provided, however , that 
the ends of floor timbers on opposite sides of wall in such 
buildings shall not be nearer than eight inches to each 
other. 

Dvjellings Not More Than Three Stories and Twenty Feet 

Wide. 

For dwellings not over three stories high with floors 
spanning not more than twenty feet, all exterior walls 
shall be not less than twelve inches thick for basement 
walls and eight inches thick above the basement, and all 



92 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 23.] 

party, fire and bearing walls shall be not less than twelve 
inches thick. In case any part of such a building is 
adapted for any use other than habitation all walls sur- 
rounding that part of the building shall be not less than 
twelve inches thick. 

All Other Dwellings, etc. 
For all other residences and for hotels, lodging houses, 
boarding houses, clubs, convents, hospitals, asylums and 
detention buildings, all exterior, party, fire and bearing 
walls above foundations shall have the following minimum 
thickness in inches: 



Stokies. 



Base- 
ment. 



1. 



2. 



4. 



5. 



6. 



7. 



1 story 

2 story 

3 story 

4 story 

5 story 

6 story 

7 story 

8 story 



building 
building 
building 
building 
building 
building 
building 
building 



12 
12 
12 
12 
16 
16 
16 
20 



12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
16 
16 
16 



12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
16 
16 



12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
16 



12 
12 
12 
12 
12 



12 
12 
12 
12 



12 
12 
12 



12 
12 



12 



Other Than Dwellings. 
For all other buildings, exterior, party, fire and bearing 
walls above foundations shall have the following minimum 
thickness in inches: 



Stories. 



Base- 
ment. 



I. 



2. 



3. 



4. 



5. 



6. 



7. 



8. 



1 story 

2 story 

3 story 

4 story 

5 story 

6 story 

7 story 

8 story 





12 




12 




16 




16 




16 




20 




20 




20 



12i 

12 

12 

16 

16 

16 

20 

20 



12 
12 
12 
16 
16 
16 
20 



12 
12 
12 
16 
16 
16 



12 
12 
12 
16 
16 



12 
12 
12 
16 



12 
12 
12 



12 
12 



12 



i In case the floor area is less than 500 square feet, the wall thickness 
may be 8 inches. 



City of Boston Building Law. 93 

Sect, 23.] 

Provided, however, that if any part of any building is 
lower than the rest, the lower part may have walls of 
thicknesses required for a building of height equal to that 
of the lower part. 

Foundation Walls. 

The foundation walls shall be at least four inches thicker 
than the required thickness of the walls of the first story. 
The thickness herein given shall apply to all masonry 
walls unless they are reinforced by a frame or skeleton of 
steel or reinforced concrete. 

Mezzanine Floor or Balcony. 
For the purposes of this section any balcony or mezza- 
nine floor of more than ten feet span shall be considered 
as forming a story in fixing the thickness of the walls 
which support it. 

Ashlar. 

In reckoning the thickness of walls, ashlar shall not be 
considered unless the walls are at least sixteen inches 
thick and the ashlar is at least eight inches thick, or unless 
alternate courses are at least four and eight inches to 
allow bonding with the backing. Ashlar shall be held by 
metal clamps to the backing or be properly bonded to the 
same. 

Non-bearing Walls — Thickness. 

Non-bearing walls not used for fire or party walls may 
be four inches less in thickness than is required by the 
preceding tables; and such walls supporting stairs or stair 
landings may be eight inches less: provided, however, that 
no such non-bearing or stair wall shall be less than eight 
inches thick nor have a greater height unstayed laterally 
than thirty times its thickness, except with the approval 
of the commissioner. 



94 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 23.] 

Curtain Walls. 

Curtain walls between columns, buttresses or projecting 
piers may be thinner than is required by the preceding 
tables: provided, however, that in single family houses not 
over three stories high such curtain walls shall be not less 
than four inches thick, and in all other buildings such 
curtain walls shall be not less than twelve inches thick 
for fire or party walls nor less than eight inches thick for 
exterior walls, except that the parts between the top of 
one window opening and the bottom of the window open- 
ing above, if faced with metal, shall be backed by at 
least four inches of incombustible material. No curtain 
wall exceeding twenty feet in length shall have a greater 
height unstayed laterally than thirty times its thickness. 

Hollow Block Walls. 
Hollow block walls shall have the same minimum thick- 
ness as is required for brick walls, but shalr not be used 
for exterior walls in buildings over three stories high, nor 
in party walls over two stories high. Solid unreinforced 
concrete walls shall have the same minimum thickness as 
required for brick walls. Reinforced concrete walls shall 
be of the thickness and construction required by the com- 
missioner, subject to the requirements of section fifteen 
and all acts in amendment thereof and in addition thereto. 
Hollow terra-cotta building blocks may be used in ex- 
ternal and bearing walls other than party walls for build- 
ings not over four stories high. 

[1918, Special Act, c. 179, sect. 11. 1 
[1923, c. 462, sect. 13.] 

SECTION 24. 

Anchoes. 
All walls of a first or second class building meeting at 
an angle shall be securely bonded, or shall be united every 



City of Boston Building Law. 95 

Sect. 24.] 

five feet of their height by anchors made of at least two 
inches by half an inch of steel or wrought iron, well 
painted, and securely built into the side or partition walls 
not less than thirty-six inches, and into the front and 
rear walls at least one half the thickness of such walls. 



SECTION 25. 
Brickwork — Bonding. 

Every eighth course, at least, of a brick wall shall be a 
full heading or bonding course, except where walls are 
faced with face brick, in which case in every eighth 
course at least every other brick shall be a full header. 
No diagonal header ties shall be used. 

In a skeleton frame building brick facing of not more 
than four inches in thickness may be bonded to the frame 
by metal ties if other suitable precautions satisfactory to 
the commissioner are taken. Such ties shall be of gal- 
vanized wire or other suitable material satisfactory to 
him. 

[1918, Special Act, c. 179, sect. 12.] 

SECTION 26. 

Vaulted Walls. 

If the air spaces are headed over and the walls are 
built solid for at least three courses below the floor and 
roof beams, walls, if of brick, may be built hollow. They 
shall contain, exclusive of withes, the same amount of 
material as is required for solid walls, and the masonry 
on the inside of the air space in walls over two stories in 
height shall be not less than eight inches thick, and the 
parts on either side shall be securely tied together with 
ties not more than two feet apart in each direction. 



96 City of Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 27. 
Walls Framed with Iron or Steel. 

Walls may be built in part of iron or steel or with a 
reinforced concrete or metal framework. In such metal 
framework the beams and girders shall be riveted to each 
other at their respective junction points. If columns 
made of rolled iron or steel are used, their different parts 
shall be riveted to each other, and the beams and girders 
resting upon them shall, if possible, have riveted connec- 
tions to unite them with the columns. If cast iron col- 
umns are used, each successive column shall be bolted to 
the one below it by at least four bolts not less than three 
fourths of an inch in diameter, and the beams and girders 
shall be bolted to the columns. At each line of floor or 
roof beams, lateral connections between the ends of the 
beams and girders shall be made in such manner as 
rigidly to connect the beams and girders with each other 
in the direction of their length. 

Skeleton Party Walls. 

All party walls of skeleton construction shall have cur- 
tain walls of solid brick, not less than twelve inches thick 
in buildings over two stories high. 

All outside walls of skeleton construction shall have 
curtain walls which may be of masonry terra-cotta, con- 
crete, or reinforced concrete, constructed and supported 
under such conditions as the commissioner shall prescribe. 

If the metal or other frame work is so designed that the 
enclosing walls do not carry the weight of floors or roof, 
then the walls shall be of masonry or concrete construc- 
tion and shall be thoroughly anchored to the iron skele- 
ton, and whenever the weight of such walls rests upon 
beams or columns, such beams or columns shall be made 



City of Boston Building Law. 97 

Sect. 27.] 

strong enough in each story to carry the weight of wall 
resting upon them without reliance upon the walls below 
them. 

[1923, c. 462, sect. 14.] 

SECTION 28. 

Party Walls Above Roof. 

In buildings less than forty-five feet in height all party 
walls shall be built to a height at least twelve inches 
above the roof covering and shall be capped with stone, 
cement or metal securely fastened to the masonry. In 
all other buildings such walls shall be carried thirty inches 
above the roof. 

SECTION 29. 

Walls — Cornices. 

Where a wall is finished with a stone cornice, the 
greatest weight of material of such cornice shall be on 
the inside of the face of the wall. All cornices of second 
class buildings shall be of brick or covered with fireproof 
material and the walls shall be carried up to the boarding 
of the roof; and where the cornice projects above the roof 
the masonry shall be carried up to the top of the cornice 
and covered with metal, like parapet walls. 

SECTION 30. 

Piers and Hearths. 

Piers and walls shall have caps or plates, where they are 
needed, sufficient properly to distribute the load. 

Hearths shall be supported by trimmer arches of brick 
or stone; or shall be of single stones at least six inches 
thick, built into the chimney and supported by iron beams, 
one end of which shall be securely built into the masonry 
of a chimney or of an adjoining wall, or which shall other- 



98 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 30.] 

wise rest upon an incombustible support. Brick jambs 
of every fireplace, range or grate opening shall be at least 
eight inches wide each, and the backs of such openings 
shall be at least eight inches thick. Hearths and trimmer 
arches shall be at least twelve inches longer on either side 
than the width of such openings, and at least eighteen 
inches wide in front of the chimney breast. Brickwork 
over fireplaces and grate openings shall be supported by 
proper iron bars, or brick or stone arches. 

SECTION 31. 
Walls — Doorways in Party Walls. 
Openings for doorways in party walls shall not exceed 
one hundred square feet each in area, and each opening 
shall have two sets of fire doors separated by the thickness 
of the wall, hung in a manner satisfactory to the commis- 
sioner, except that the aggregate width of all openings in 
any story shall not exceed fifty per cent of the length of 
the wall in which such openings occur. Openings, not 
exceeding one hundred and forty-four square inches, 
constructed and protected as shall be approved by the 
commissioner, may be permitted in any wall or floor. 

[1923, c. 462, sect. 15.] 

SECTION 32. 
Fire Protection. 

All structural metal supporting or forming part of the 
frame, floors, roof or columns of any building, except as 
otherwise exempted in this act, shall be protected against 
the effect of heat. The commissioner may in respect to 
radio towers waive the provisions of this section. 

Protection shall consist of: — ■ 

(a) Concrete.— Cast in forms around and in direct 
contact with the structural members and reinforced with 



City of Boston Building Law. 99 

Sect. 32.] 

iron or clamps or hangers or with wires in such a manner 
as to form a thorough bond. Concrete filling may be 
deemed protection for the upper flanges where arch con- 
struction is used; 

(6) Terra Cotta. — ■ Clamped in place with steel clamps 
or wrapped securely with number twelve galvanized iron 
wire or metal lath in such manner as to hold each block 
in place, set in mortar no poorer than one part natural 
cement and two parts sand and (except where arches 
abut) plastered with the same mortar at least one half 
inch thick, and at least thick enough to make the entire 
protection as thick as required in paragraph three. Terra 
cotta blocks may be hollow but each face shall be solid, 
and no shell or web shall be less than three quarters inch 
thick; 

(c) Brickwork. — Set in cement mortar; 

(d) Any material or form of construction that will 
resist the action of flames and a heat of seventeen hundred 
degrees Fahrenheit for at least two hours without raising 
the temperature of the material to be protected above five 
hundred and fifty degrees Fahrenheit, through a thickness 
of two inches, as determined by fire and water tests for 
fireproofing construction adopted by the American 
Society for Testing Materials. 

This protection shall be, unless it is otherwise provided 
herein, at least three quarter inch thick and at least of 
the thickness named in the following table : — 

On columns carrying masonry walls : — ■ 

One and one half inches against the edges of flanges; 
Four inches elsewhere. 

On columns carrying floors or roofs or both: — 

One and one half inches against the edges of flanges; 
Three inches elsewhere. 



100 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 32.] 

On beams, girders or trusses carrying masonry walls: — 

One inch on top; 

Two inches elsewhere. 
On beams, girders, or trusses carrying floors or roofs or 

both:— 

One inch on top; 

One and one half inches elsewhere. 
On beams deeper than fifteen inches or having a flange 

width of more than seven and one half inches: — 

One inch on top; 

Two inches elsewhere. 
On lugs, brackets, braces and similar minor construction 

members and beyond the tips of rivets : — 

Three quarters of an inch. 

Exterior Isolated Columns. 
About isolated columns on the exterior of buildings, the 
thickness of protection may be reduced to one inch, when 
the same is covered with an outer shell of cast iron or steel, 
except that for isolated columns on the exterior of one 
story buildings fire protection may be omitted. 

Plaster on Metal Lath Not Fire Protection for Steel or Iron. 

Plaster on metal lath shall not be considered as a fire 
protection for steel or iron structural members, except 
that where suspended ceilings of metal lath and plaster 
leave not less than one inch of air space against the 
protective covering of such structural member, the pro- 
tective covering may be one inch in thickness. 

Metal lath and plaster used for the requirements of this 
section shall have a total thickness, not counting clinches, 
of not less than three quarters of an inch. 

Pipes, etc., Not to be Embedded. 
No pipes, wires, cables or other material shall be em- 
bedded in the required fireproofing of columns or other 
structural members. 



City of Boston Building Law. 101 

Sect. 32.] 

The above requirements as to fire protection shall not 
apply in the following cases : — 

(a) Structural metal in second or third class buildings 
in any case in which wood without fire protection would 
be permissible under this act. 

(b) Structural metal which faces on enclosed spaces 
that are strutted up or hung down from floors or roofs 
where the tops, bottoms and walls or partitions of such 
spaces are protected against fire on the outer side, as 
required elsewhere in this act. 

(c) Lintels under stone or brick unless over ten feet 
span. 

(d) Buildings built in whole or in part of a better 
class of construction than is required by this act shall be 
required to have only such protection for structural metal 
as would be required in a building of the type that would 
be allowed in the given case. 

(e) Metal work in a nonbearing partition, and for 
furrings and metal used only to support finish or equip- 
ment, and for metal of stair construction, suspension 
rods for balconies, steel work of theatre stages, fly galleries 
and rigging lofts. 

(/) Metal, other than columns, carrying no other loads 
than ceilings, or suspended balconies not over eight feet 
wide. When a suspended ceiling is used it shall be of 
metal lath and plaster with hanging rods, ties stiffening, 
and the like, of metal. 

Alterations — Fireproofing to be Satisfactory to Com- 
missioner. 
In work in connection with alterations of existing 
buildings, the character and amount of protection for 
steel and iron work shall be made satisfactory to the 
commissioner. 

Whenever any protective material or structural metal 
is, in the opinion of the commissioner, liable to injury by 



102 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 32.] 

trucks or merchandise, wood or metal guards shall be 

applied as he may require. 

Firestopping in Third Class Buildings. 

In buildings of third class construction the exterior 
walls at each floor level, and all spaces between joists 
over girders and bearing partitions, and from plate to 
roof boarding, shall be firestopped- with masonry or metal 
or other material satisfactory to the commissioner. 

Firestopping in Second Class Buildings. 

In buildings of second class construction spaces between 
strap furring on brick walls shall be filled for a distance 
of five inches below and five inches above the floor beams 
with mortar, and all spaces between joists over girders 
and bearing partitions, and from plate to roof boarding 
shall be firestopped with masonry not less than four 
inches thick. 

Roof, Stairway and Chimney Firestopping. 

In buildings of second or third class construction spaces 
between rafters, over furring enclosing spaces under the 
roof, shall be firestopped with wood or metal, and spaces 
between stringers of stairs and joists of landings, unless 
stairs are unceiled or of incombustible materials, shall be 
firestopped with masOnry or metal or not less than seven 
eighths of an inch of wood, at least twice in each flight of 
stairs. All spaces around chimneys shall be thoroughly 
firestopped with sheet metal, metal lath and plaster, or 
masonry. 

Firestopping — How Applied. 

Firestopping shall completely fill all openings where it 
is applied; all chases or enclosures for pipes shall be fire- 



City of Boston Building Law. 103 

Sect. 32] 

stopped adjacent to other required firestopping and by the 
same materials, except that metal lath and plaster may 
be used. 

Rat-proofing. 
No building operations shall be permitted which will 
create unnecessary permanent spaces where rats will 
find refuse from their enemies and breed. 



Firestopping Floors. 

In every building of second or third class construction 
each floor shall be thoroughly stopped by a continuous 
layer of asbestos fabric, magnesocalcite or other fire- 
resisting material approved by the commissioner. 

Furnaces and Smoke Pipes. — The tops of all heating 
furnaces and smoke pipes shall be at least one foot below 
the nearest wooden beams or ceilings. All ceilings im- 
mediately over a furnace or boiler, and for six feet on each 
side thereof, and all ceilings over indirect radiators shall, 
except under fireproof floors, be metal-lathed and plas- 
tered. 

Register Boxes. — All hot-air register boxes in the floors 
or partitions of buildings shall be set in soapstone or 
equally -fireproof borders and not less than two inches in 
width, shall be made of tin plate and shall have double 
pipes and boxes properly fitted to the soapstone. Hot-air 
pipes and register boxes shall be at least one inch from any 
woodwork, and register boxes shall be fifteen inches by 
twenty-five inches or larger, and their connecting pipes 
shall be two inches from any woodwork. If indirect hot 
water or indirect steam heat is used, the commissioner 
may modify or dispense with the foregoing requirements. 

Vent and Smoke Pipes. — All vent or smoke pipes for 
stoves, furnaces or heaters, not including gas stoves, 
hereafter installed shall be placed not nearer than twelve 



104 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 32.] 

inches to any lath, plaster or board partition, ceiling or 
woodwork. Where such pipes pass through a lath and 
plaster or board partition, they shall be protected by ven- 
tilated metal collars at least six inches larger in diameter 
than the pipe. Where such pipes enter the chimney, the 
opening into the same shall be protected by a metal 
collar built at least four inches into the brickwork of the 
chimney. No such pipe shall pass through the roof or 
exterior wall of any building. Such pipes when within 
eighteen inches of a ceiling shall be protected by having 
the ceiling over them, and at least two feet wide, wire- 
lathed and plastered, or by having a shield of metal of 
the same width hung from the floor timbers, and at least 
six inches distant therefrom. Vent pipes to gas stoves, 
if placed nearer than three inches to any woodwork or 
lath and plaster partition, shall be protected with incom- 
bustible material. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 5.] 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 13, Special Act.] 

[1921, c. 60, sect. 2.] 

[1923, c. 462, sect. 16.] 

[1924, c. 335, sect, 4.] 

SECTION 33. 

Fireproof Partitions. 

Except as is otherwise provided in this section, parti- 
tions in buildings of first class construction shall be con- 
structed of the materials and in the manner herein speci- 
fied:— 

(a) Brick in cement mortar; 

(b) Concrete, consisting of one part Portland cement, 
and not more than three parts of sand and six parts of 
stone or gravel, not less than three inches thick if prop- 
erly reinforced with steel, nor less than four inches thick 
otherwise; 



City of Boston Building Law. 105 

Sect, 33.] 

(c) Cinder concrete, consisting of one part Portland 
cement and not more than three parts of sand and six 
parts of cinders, not less than four inches thick if prop- 
erly reinforced with steel, nor less than five inches thick 
otherwise; 

(d) Hollow terra cotta blocks, laid in cement mortar, 
not less than three inches thick; 

(e) Hollow concrete blocks, of either stone or cinder 
concrete laid in cement mortar, not less than three inches 
thick; 

(/) Solid or hollow blocks consisting of gypsum con- 
taining not more than twenty-five per cent by weight of 
cinders, asbestos fiber, wood chips or vegetable fiber, laid 
in gypsum plaster or cement mortar tempered with lime, 
not less than three inches thick; 

(g) Metal lath on a steel studding covered with Port- 
land cement mortar or gypsum plaster, of a finished 
thickness of not less than two inches in the case of solid 
partitions, nor less than three inches in the case of hollow 
partitions; or 

(h) Any material or form of construction that may be 
approved by the commissioner if conforming to the re- 
quirements of the fire test hereinafter prescribed. But 
nothing in this section shall prevent the erection, in the 
discretion of the commissioner, of partitions of pressed 
metal and glass or of temporary partitions of wood and 
glass within rooms or spaces enclosed by fireproof parti- 
tions or walls. 

The thicknesses as above described are for partitions up 
to fifteen feet in height, and they shall be increased in 
thickness one inch for every additional eight feet or frac- 
tion thereof. If partitions are not plastered on both 
sides, the thicknesses shall be one inch greater than those 
above specified. 



106 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 33.] 

Fireproof Partition Support. 

Construction. — Unless built as approved masonry walls, 
partitions in fireproof buildings shall be independently 
supported at each floor. They shall be keyed, or other- 
wise securely fastened to the ceilings, and, when neces- 
sary, shall be stiffened with suitable steel uprights securely 
fastened to floor and ceiling. Partitions enclosing hall- 
ways or toilet rooms and other permanent partitions shall 
not rest on wood flooring but shall start on the fireproof 
construction of the floor. In the upper story, where 
there is a space between the ceiling of the top floor and 
the roof, partitions need not extend above the ceiling. 

Tests of Fireproof Partitions. — In testing the fireproof 
qualities of any partition construction, a vertical panel 
not less than fourteen feet long and nine feet high shall 
be subjected to a continuous fire for not less than one 
hour at an average temperature of seventeen hundred 
degrees Fahrenheit, during the latter half hour, followed 
by an application for not less than two and one half 
minutes of a hose stream from a one and one eighth inch 
nozzle at thirty pounds nozzle pressure, without the 
passage of flame during the test. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 14, Special Act.] 

SECTION 34. 

Timbers in Walls of Second Class Buildings. 

The ends of all wooden floor or roof timbers in second 
class buildings shall enter the wall to a depth of at least 
four inches; and the ends of all such beams shall be so 
shaped or arranged that in case of fire they may fall with- 
out injury to the wall. 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 15, Special Act.] 



City op Boston Building Law. 107 

SECTION 35. 

Alteration of Existing Buildings. 

Any building, except those of third class construction 
within the building limits, having not more than five 
floors above the mean grade of all the sidewalks, and cover- 
ing an area of not more than seventeen hundred and fifty 
square feet, may be altered, remodelled or enlarged for 
use as a house for habitation or tenements using second 
class construction. 

The first story or basement, or both the first story and 
basement of second and third class buildings may be used 
for mercantile purposes; provided, that the walls and 
ceiling surrounding the mercantile portion are firestopped 
as follows: The ceilings and exterior or party walls are 
to be wire lathed and cement plastered with three coats 
of cement plaster. The partitions surrounding the mer- 
cantile portion are to be firestopped full height between 
the studs with brick, terra cotta, or gypsum laid in cement 
and covered on both sides with metal lath and cement 
plaster three coat work. Any openings in these sur- 
rounding partitions are to be protected by metal covered 
self-closing doors. 

Height Allowed. 

The height of any such building shall not be increased 
unless the walls and foundations conform to the pro- 
visions of this act. The number of stories of such a build- 
ing shall not exceed five above the cellar or basement. 

Egress Required. 

Every such building, except a single family dwelling, 
more than three stories in height so altered, remodelled 
or enlarged, shall be provided with at least two indepen- 



108 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 35.] 

dent means of egress, at least one of which shall consist 
of an inside stairway, enclosed with partitions of wood 
studding, the spaces between the studs filled solid to full 
height with bricks, terra cotta or gypsum blocks, laid in 
mortar, and both sides of partitions and soffits of stairs 
plastered with three coats of cement plaster on metal 
lath, or any enclosure of superior fire-resisting construc- 
tion, satisfactory to the commissioner, all openings into 
said enclosure to have self-closing fireproof doors and fire- 
proof frames. The other means of egress may be outside 
iron fire escape with stairs to the ground, or connecting 
iron balconies to an adjoining building, and each tenement 
above the first story shall have direct access to at least 
two separate means of egress. 

Exposure Required. 

Every such building, so altered, remodelled or enlarged, 
shall have, in addition to the exposure on the widest 
street, an exposure as long as the average width of the 
building, upon a space open from the ground to the sky, 
at least ten feet wide for the first three stories, and in- 
creasing in width five feet for the next two stories. If the 
proposed building is more than five stories in height, said 
space shall be twenty feet; provided, that if the basement 
and first story are adapted or enlarged for use for mercan- 
tile purposes the exposure required by this section shall 
not apply to that part of the building; and provided, also, 
that sufficient space be retained on the lot for the storage 
of ashes or garbage. 

Such exposure may be either upon private or public 
ways, or upon land which is dedicated for the use of the 
building, and may be divided and placed as approved by 
the building commissioner. 

These spaces shall remain undiminished so long as the 
building is used for habitation. 

If the building is situated on the corner of streets or 



City of Boston Building Law. 109 

Sect. 35.] 

private ways not less than ten feet wide the commissioner 
may approve the omission of the whole or part of this 
additional exposure. 

Alteration — When It Produces New Structure 
Practically. 

If in the opinion of the commissioner the alteration 
proposed to be made in a building is of such extent as, 
when done, to produce a practically new structure or to 
impair the stability or increase the fire risk of the structure 
as a whole, then the whole structure shall be made to 
conform to the provisions of this act for a new structure 
of the same class. A building damaged by fire or other 
casualty may be repaired or restored so as to conform to its 
original condition, or may be reconstructed in some or all 
of its parts, so as to conform to the requirements of this 
act for new buildings, as the commissioner may specify 
in his permit. 

Windows in Living Room. 

Every living room in a building adapted for habitation 
shall have a window on the open air of an area not less 
than ten square feet and distant in a three story building 
not less than six feet from any opposite wall or lot line; 
distant in a four story building not less than eight feet from 
any opposite wall or lot line; distant in a five story build- 
ing not less than ten feet from any opposite wall or lot 
line. This shall not apply to the construction of third 
class buildings, except the provision for a window on the 
open air of an area as above provided. 

Exposure Required. 

New buildings for habitation or tenement purposes of 
not more than seventeen hundred and fifty square feet 
area, may be built of second class construction with the 
same restrictions as required by the preceding paragraphs 



110 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 35.] 

of this section referring to the alteration, remodelling and 
enlarging of second class buildings. The exposure re- 
quired under this section shall apply to all such buildings 
hereafter constructed and adapted for habitation. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 3.] 
[1923, c. 462, sect. 17.] 
[1924, c. 335, sect. 5.] 

SECTION 36. 

Loads. 
Dead loads shall consist of the weight of walls, floors, 
roofs, and permanent partitions. The weights of various 
materials shall be assumed as follows : 

Pounds per 

Cubic Foot. 

42 

42 

120 

108 

96 

144 

36 

168 

144 

150 

42 

168 

48 

42 

144 

30 

72 

120 

Pounds per 

Square Foot. 

Gravel or slag and felt roofing 6 

Plastering on metal lath, exclusive of furring . . 8 

[1921, c. 289, sect, 3,] 



Beech 

Birch 

Brickwork .... 

Concrete, cinder, structural 

Concrete, cinder, floor filling 

Concrete, stone 

Douglas, fir . 

Granite . 

Granolithic surface 

Limestone 

Maple . 

Marble . 

Oak 

Pine, southern yellow 

Sandstone 

Spruce . 

Terra cotta, architectural, voids unfilled 

Terra cotta, architectural, voids filled 



City of Boston Building Law. Ill 

Sect. 36.] 

Live Loads. 
Live loads shall include all loads except dead loads.* 
Every permit shall state the purpose for which the build- 
ing is to be used, and all floors and stairs shall be of suffi- 
cient strength to bear safely the weight to be imposed 
thereon in addition to the dead load, but shall safely sup- 
port a minimum uniformly distributed live load per 
square foot as specified in the following table : 



Class of Building. 



Pounds per 
Square Foot. 



Armories, assembly halls, and gymnasiums 

Fire houses: — 

Apparatus floors 

Residence and stable floors 

Garages, private, not more than two cars 

Garages, public 

Grandstands 

Hotels, lodging houses, boarding houses, clubs, convents, 
hospitals, asylums and detention buildings: — 

Public portions > 

Residence portions 

Manufacturing, heavy 

Manufacturing, light 

Office buildings: — 

First floor 

All other floors 

Public buildings: — 

Public portions 

Office portions 

Residence buildings, including porches 

Schools and colleges : — 

Assembly halls 

Class rooms never to be used as assembly halls 

Sidewalks 

(Or eight thousand pounds concentrated, whichever 
gives the larger moment or shear.) 
Stables, public or mercantile: — 

Street entrance floors 

Feed room 

Carriage room 

Stall room ; 

Stairs, corridors, and fire escapes from armories, as- 
sembly halls and gymnasiums 

Stairs, corridors, and fire escapes except from armories, 

assembly halls, and gymnasiums 

Storage, heavy ' 

Storage, light 

Stores, retail 

Stores, wholesale 



100 

150 

50 

75 

150 

100 



100 

50 

250 

125 

125 
60 

100 
75 
50 

100 

50 

250 



150 

150 

50 

50 

100 

75 
250 
125 
125 
250 



112 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 36.] 

The commissioner may require design for heavier loads 
than the above minimum values, if, in his judgment, the 
purpose of the building or vibrating machinery requires 
it. For buildings or structures not included in the above 
table, the commissioner shall establish allowable live 
loads. 

Allowable — Maximum Loads Imposed. 
The commissioner may prescribe the maximum loads 
which may be imposed upon the floors of existing buildings . 

Change of Occupation — Permit Required. 
No use or occupation of a building or part of building 
for a purpose other than that for which it was originally 
built and designed to be used, and no change in the use 
or occupation of a building or part thereof which will 
increase the floor load beyond the capacity prescribed for 
such use and occupation shall be made unless, upon appli- 
cation therefor, the commissioner shall issue a permit on 
condition that the proposed use will not endanger the 
safety of the building or the health or the safety of the 
occupants thereof. 

Floor Loads to be Posted. 
Before any building hereafter erected is occupied, in 
whole or in part, as a business building, and before any 
building already erected but not previously occupied as 
a business building, is occupied or used, in whole or in 
part, for that purpose, and whenever, for any reason, the 
commissioner shall prescribe the load for an existing 
building or part thereof, the safe live load for each floor, 
or portion of each floor as approved by the commissioner, 
shall be marked on metal plates, of character approved 
by him, which shall be supplied and securely affixed by 
the owner of the building in a conspicuous place in the 



City of Boston Building Law. 113 

i which they relate. It shall be the duty of the 
is of the building to maintain such plates during 
;cupancy, and the owner. of the building or his 
agent shall cause the same to be properly affixed with each 
change of occupancy. No person shall place or cause or 
permit to be placed on any floor of any building any 
greater load than the approved safe load. 

Slab, Arch and Beam to Have Sufficient Strength to Bear 
Live and Dead Load. 

Every plank, slab and arch, and every floor beam 
carrying one hundred square feet of floor or less, shall be 
of sufficient strength to bear safely the combined dead 
and live load supported by it, but the floor live loads may 
be reduced for other parts of the structure as follows : 

Live Load Reductions. 

In all buildings except armories, garages, gymnasiums, 
storage buildings, wholesale stores, and assembly halls, 
for all flat slabs of over one hundred square feet area, 
reinforced in two or more directions and for all floor beams, 
girders, or trusses carrying over one hundred square feet 
of floor, ten per cent reduction. 

For the same, but carrying over two hundred square 
feet of floor, fifteen per cent reduction. 

For the same, but carrying over three hundred square 
feet of floor, twenty-five per cent reduction. 

These reductions shall not be made if the member 
carries more than one floor and therefore has its live load 
reduced according to the table below. 

In public garages, for all flat slabs of over three hundred 
square feet area reinforced in more than one direction, 
and for all floor beams, girders and trusses carrying over 



114 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 3b.] 

three hundred square feet of floor, and for all columns, 
walls, piers, and foundations, twenty-five per cent reduc- 
tion. 

In all buildings except storage buildings, wholesale 
stores, public garages and office buildings, for all columns, 
girders, trusses, walls, piers, and foundations. 

Carrying one floor . . No reduction. 

Carrying two floors . . Twenty-five per cent reduc- 
tion. 

Carrying three floors . Forty per cent reduction. 

Carrying four floors . . Fifty per cent reduction. 

Carrying five floors . . Fifty-five per cent reduction. 

Carrying six floors or more, Sixty per cent reduction. 



For office buildings only: 

Carrying one floor . 
Carrying two floors 
Carrying three floors 
Carrying four floors . 
Carrying five floors . 



No reduction. 
Ten per cent reduction. 
Twenty per cent reduction. 
Thirty per cent reduction. 
Forty per cent reduction. 



Carrying six floors or more, Fifty per cent reduction. 

Roof Loads. 

Roofs shall be designed to support safely minimum live 
loads as follows: — 

Roofs with pitch of four inches or less per foot, .a vertical 
load of forty pounds per square foot of horizontal projec- 
tion applied either to half or to the whole of the roof. 

Roofs with pitch of more than four inches and not more 
than eight inches per foot, a vertical load of fifteen pounds 
per square foot or horizontal projection and a wind load 
of ten pounds per square foot of surface acting at right 
angles to one slope, these two loads being assumed to act 
either together or separately. 



City op Boston Building Law. 115 

Sect. 36.] 

Roofs with pitch of more than eight inches and not 
more than twelve inches per foot, a vertical load of ten 
pounds per square foot of horizontal projection and a wind 
load of fifteen pounds per square foot of surface acting at 
right angles to one slope, these two loads being assumed 
to act either together or separately. 

Roofs with pitch of more than twelve inches per foot, 
a vertical load of five pounds per square foot of horizontal 
projection and a wind load of twenty pounds per square 
foot of surface acting at right angles to one slope, these 
two loads being assumed to act either together or 
separately. 

All buildings and structures shall be calculated to 
resist a pressure per square foot on any vertical surface as 
follows :— 

For forty feet in height .... Ten pounds. 
Portions from forty to eighty feet above 

ground Fifteen pounds. 

Portions more than eighty feet above 

ground Twenty pounds. 

Wind Pressure. 

But the commissioner may require a building or struc- 
ture to be designed for larger pressure than the pressures 
given in the table, if, in his judgment, the exposure 
requires it. 

If the resisting moments of the materials of construc- 
tion are not sufficient to resist the moment of distortion 
due to wind pressure without exceeding the stresses allowed 
in this act, additional bracing shall be introduced to supply 
the deficiency in the moment. 

[1914, c. 595.] 

[1918, c. 179, sect. 16, Special Act.] 

11923, c. 462, sect. 18.] 

[1924, c. 414.] 



116 City of Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 37. 

Shutters. 
In all first or second class mercantile or manufacturing 
buildings over thirty feet in height outside openings in 
party walls, or in any rear or side wall within twenty feet 
of an opposite wall or buildings, shall have metal frames 
and sashes glazed with wire glass or shall be protected by 
shutters. Such shutters shall be covered on both sides 
with tin or shall be made of other substantial fireproof 
material, and hung on the outside, either upon independent 
metal frame or upon metal hinges attached to the masonry, 
and shall be made to be handled from the outside, and one 
such shutter in each room shall have a protected hand-hole 
eight inches in diameter. 

[1923, c. 462, sect. 19.] 

SECTION 38. 

[See also Elevator and Escalator Regulations Issued by Dept. of 
Public Safety, State House.] 

Elevators. 
Shafts. 
Elevators and hoists for freight which do not run above 
the first story may be constructed without fireproof en- 
closures. Freight and passenger elevators may be placed 
in areas or hallways where the same are continuous and 
unbroken, such elevators to be protected by metal grille. 
Except as above provided, all shafts for elevators, hoists, 
dumb-waiters, lifts and shafts used for lighting and ven- 
tilating or other air ducts shall be constructed of incom- 
bustible materials; provided that in second and third 
class buildings not over four stories high the shafts may 
be constructed with wood studding, the space between the 
studs filled solid the full height with brick, terra cotta or 
gypsum block laid in mortar and plastered on both sides 
with at least three coats of cement plaster on metal lath. 
The bottom of all shafts shall be fire protected. All 

[See c. 782 of 1914 on page 245.] 



City of Boston Building Law. 117 

Sect. 38.] 

windows, or ceiling lights opening into such shafts shall 
have metal or metal covered fireproof frames and sash 
glazed with wire glass and arranged to close automatically 
in case of fire. Such shafts shall be carried at least three 
feet above the adjoining. roof and there covered with a 
skylight, providing opening of a total area equal to the 
area of the shaft and glazed with hammered or ribbed 
glass, protected by wire screens on metal supports. 

Gates, Rails, Trap Doors. 

Every opening into a shaft or hoistway shall be protected 
by self-closing gates, rails, trap-doors, or other equivalent 
devices. 

Safety Device. 

Every elevator shall be provided with a safety attach- 
ment to prevent the falling of the car. The machinery 
over the elevator shall have underneath it a grille sufficient 
to preotct the car from falling material. 

Every opening into an elevator shaft or hoistway and 
every opening through a floor, other than a stairway, 
shall be closed when not in use. 

Outside Windows on Shafts. 

All elevator shaft openings, other than openings into 
passenger elevator shafts, shall be furnished with metal 
covered or incombustible doors, hung in a manner satis- 
factory to the commissioner, and shall be provided with 
iron threshold. Wire glass panels may be used in such 
*doors. Outside windows or openings of every elevator 
shaft shall have three vertical iron rods, painted red, 
equally spaced off in such window or opening. 

Danger Signal. 

Freight elevators shall be equipped with a suitable 
danger signal to warn people of the approach of the 
elevator. 



118 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 38.] 

The space between the car and door of each landing 
shall be not more than two inches. 

No elevator shall be used in any building until the same 
is approved in writing by the commissioner. 

Prohibition of Use. 

In case any freight or passenger elevator is not con- 
structed or furnished in compliance with this act, or has 
become unsafe, the commissioner shall post a conspicuous 
warning and prohibition at each entrance to such elevator. 
It shall thereafter, until a new written permit is given by 
the commissioner, be a penal offence hereunder to operate 
the said elevator, or to remove or deface the said notice. 

Recess in Wall Prohibited. — Platforms — Outside Openings. 

Freight elevator wells hereafter built on the line of the 
external wall of a building shall be so constructed that 
there shall be no recess in the outer wall along the whole 
line of the same, and that no more than four inches space 
shall be allowed between the platform of the car and the 
outer wall. The side of the platform and the line of the 
door-way shall be flush with the well-way, and the door 
openings from the said elevator well into the building shall 
be placed at least six inches back from the face of the well, 
so as to allow space enough for self-closing gates to operate 
between the door and the well opening. Outside openings 
to freight elevators shall be protected by self-closing slatted 
gates, "vertical," with spaces not wider than two inches 
between the slats. 

Speed Limit. 

All elevators running at a speed of more than one 
hundred feet a minute, shall be operated by competent 
persons not less than eighteen years of age, and no other 
person shall operate or have the care or charge of such an 
elevator. 



City of Boston Building Law. 119 

Sect. 38.] 

Age of Operator. 

No elevator shall be operated by or placed in charge of 
any person under sixteen years of age. 

Plans and Permit Required. 

No elevator shall hereafter be installed in any building 
without a permit having been granted therefor, and the 
applicant shall submit a plan showing the proposed loca- 
tion of the shaftway, the area and situation of the machine 
room, and the said plan shall be filed as part of the records 
of the department. All elevators hereafter installed shall 
be located so as to give easy and safe access to all the 
principal parts of the machinery for inspection and repairs. 

Overspeed Governor. 
All passenger elevators hereafter built, operated by 
drum and cables, shall have an overspeed governor to 
prevent the car from descending at overspeed, and all 
passenger and freight elevators shall have a slack cable 
device to stop the machinery in case the car is held up or 
the cables part. 

Accident to be Reported. 

If any accident shall occur to any elevator affecting 
life or limb or damaging any part of the machinery or 
running parts of the elevator, it shall be the duty of the 
engineer or superintendent in charge immediately, before 
any repairs are made, or any broken pieces are removed, 
to notify the commissioner of the accident, before the 
elevator is operated again, so that the cause of the acci- 
dent may be determined, any faulty construction remedied, 
and satisfactory repairs made. 

All elevator cables hereafter installed that pass through 
bevelled sockets, the ends returning and refitting into the 



120 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 3S.] 

same, shall have in addition lead or babbitt metal poured 

into the ends of the socket, to prevent the possibility of 

the cable's slipping. 

Manufacturers to Test Safety Devices. 

All manufacturers of elevators shall be required to test, 
in the presence of an inspector, the safety devices of 
every elevator installed before the same is turned over 
to the owners for use, and the commissioner shall be 
notified by the manufacturer at least twenty-four hours 
before such test is made. An inspector may require a 
test of safety device of any elevator if in his judgment 
the same is required. 

Additional Safeguards. 

The commissioner may require additional safeguards 
on elevators, if in his judgment the condition, use or sur- 
roundings of the elevator demand them. 

The commissioner may, with the approval of the 
mayor, appoint competent elevator inspectors in addition 
to those already detailed, one for every one thousand 
elevators and hoistways in the city of Boston. 

[See 1914, e. 782, sect. 6.] 
[1921, c. 289, sect. 4.] 

SECTION 39. 

Wooden Buildings. 
Foundations. — Every wooden building hereafter erected 
or enlarged outside of the building limits, shall have a 
foundation of rubble, block granite or brick or concrete, 
carried up to the surface of the ground, and no round or 
boulder stone shall be used. Every such foundation, if 
of brick or concrete, shall be at least twelve inches thick, 
and if of granite shall be at least eighteen inches thick, 



City of Boston Building Law. 121 

Sect. 39.] 

and if of rubble shall be at least twenty inches thick, and 

shall be laid at least four feet below any surface exposed 

to frost and upon the solid ground or upon piles properly 

spaced. 

Underpinning. — Every such wooden building hereafter 
erected or enlarged, the sills of which do not rest directly 
upon a foundation as above described but on an under- 
pinning, shall have such underpinning made of brick, 
stone or concrete, concrete or terra-cotta blocks, and the 
underpinning, if of brick concrete, concrete or terra-cotta 
block, shall be at least eight inches thick, and if of stone 
shall be at least sixteen inches thick. 

Framing. — Every wooden building hereafter erected 
or enlarged shall have all its parts of sufficient strength 
for their purposes; shall be built with posts, sills and girts 
not smaller than four by six inches or with ledger boards; 
shall have no studs more than twenty inches on centers 
for buildings more than one story high, with all angles 
between partitions, or between partitions and walls, 
blocked strongly, giving what is known as "solid corners"; 
shall have every post securely braced; shall have wall 
spaces back of all ledger boards tightly filled with at 
least two inch furring cut in between studs; and shall 
have all posts and girts properly mortised, tenoned and 
pinned in each story, and if ledger boards are used they 
shall be at least one inch by six inches gained full size 
into posts and studs, all other parts of frame to be nailed 
or pinned together. 

Ledger Boards Prohibited. 
Where no exterior wall boarding is used ledger boards 
shall not be used, and wall-girts shall be framed to posts 
and pinned. Braces shall repeat in each story and shall 
not be smaller than three inch studding. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 7; 1918, c. 179, sect. 17, Special Act.] 
[1923, c. 462, sect. 20.] 



122 City op Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 40. 

[See also Zoning Act issued as a separate document.] 

Habitations — Height — Distance from Lot Line. 

No wooden building hereafter erected, to be used as a 
habitation, shall be more than three stories nor more 
than forty feet in height above the first floor line; nor 
shall any part of such a building, eaves and cornices 
excepted, which is to be occupied by three or more fami- 
lies, be placed nearer than five feet from any adjoining lot 
lines, and if built on land of the same owner it shall not 
be nearer than ten feet from any other building ; nor shall 
any part of such wooden building, which is to be occupied 
by less than three families and is less than three stories 
in height, be nearer than five feet from the line of any 
adjoining lot; nor shall any lot line be moved nearer than 
five feet from any wooden building, or, if built on land of 
the same owner, nearer than ten feet from any other 
building, eaves and cornices excepted, unless in either 
case the wall on the side toward such lot or adjoining 
building is constructed as a brick or concrete wall not 
less than eight inches thick and carried twelve inches 
above the roof, all openings therein to be protected by 
wire glass set in metal frames and sash. Wooden build- 
ings hereafter constructed to form a block of two or more 
houses shall have brick or concrete party walls between 
adjoining houses, which shall be not less than eight inches 
thick, shall be carried twelve inches above the roof and 
shall be capped with a metallic covering. 

Area. 

No wooden building hereafter erected to be used in 
whole or in part as a habitation shall exceed twenty-two 
hundred square feet in area, and no such existing building 



City of Boston Building Law. 123 

Sect. 40.] 

shall be enlarged to exceed twenty-two hundred square 
feet in area. 

Other Than Habitation. 

No wooden building hereafter erected to be used for 
purposes other than habitation shall exceed forty feet 
in height above the first floor line, and no such building 
except buildings erected for the purposes of storing ice, 
which shall not be erected within five hundred feet of 
any other building, shall exceed twenty-two hundred feet 
in area unless the external parts are covered with in- 
combustible material approved by the Commissioner and 
no such building shall exceed five thousand square feet 
in area in any event: 'provided, however, that nothing in 
this section shall be construed to affect the provisions of 
section nine of this act; and no such existing building shall 
be altered or enlarged to exceed forty feet in height 
above the first floor line or twenty-two hundred square 
feet in area, unless the external parts of the whole building 
are covered with incombustible material approved by the 
Commissioner or to exceed five thousand square feet in 
area in any event. 

Wooden buildings erected for purposes other than 
habitation shall not be situated within five feet of the lot 
lines unless the side wall on such lines be of brick or con- 
crete carried above the roof at least twelve inches and 
capped with a metallic covering, all openings in such outer 
walls shall be protected by wire glass set in metal frames 
and sash. If built on land of the same owner the build- 
ings shall be not nearer than ten feet to any other building, 
eaves and cornices excepted, unless wall on side toward 
the lot line or adjoining building is constructed as a brick 
or concrete wall not less than eight inches thick and carried 
twelve inches above the roof with all openings therein 
protected by wire glass set in metal frames and sash. 



124 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 40.] 

No wooden building shall be moved, increased in area or 
altered to be nearer than five feet to the lot lines or ten 
feet to any other wooden building on land of the same 
owner. 

[1913, c. 704, sect. 2; 1914, c. 248, sect. 1; 1914, c. 782, sect. 8.] 
[1923, c. 462, sect. 21.] 

SECTION 41. 
Flooring During Construction. 

[General Laws, c. 143, Sects. 17, 18 and 19. See Appendix.] 

SECTION 42. 
Additional Requirements for Tenement Houses. 

Definitions. . 

Certain words are defined as follows: — 

(1.) A tenement house is any house, building, structure 
or portion thereof, occupied, or adapted for occupation, as 
a dwelling by more than three families living independently 
of one another and doing their cooking upon the premises, 
or by more than two families above the first story so living 
and cooking. A family living in a tenement house may 
consist of one or more persons. 

An existing tenement house is any building erected as 
such or converted to such use or as altered for such use or 
so used before the passage of this act, and any building 
adapted for such use, 'provided that a permit was issued for 
the erection of said building before the passage of this act. 

A tenement house hereafter erected is any tenement house 
other than an existing tenement house as above defined. 

(2.) A corner lot is a lot situated at the junction of 
two or more streets, or of two or more streets and alleys 
or open passageways not less than fifteen feet in width. 

(3.) A yard is an open unoccupied space on the same lot 



City of Boston Building Law. 125 

Sect, 42.] 

with a building and between the extreme rear line of said 
building and the rear line of the lot. 

(4.) A court is an open unoccupied space other than a 
yard on the same lot with a building. An inner court is a 
court not extending to a street, or alley, or open passage- 
way, or yard. An outer court is a court extending to a 
street, or alley, or open passageway, or yard. A vent 
court is an inner court for the lighting and ventilation of 
water-closets, bathrooms, public halls, and stair halls 
only. An intake is a passageway connecting an inner 
court with a street, or alley, or open passageway, or yard. 

(5.) A shaft, whether for air, light, elevator, dumb- 
waiter, or any other purpose, is an enclosed space within a 
building, extending to the roof, and covered either by a sky- 
light or by the roof. A vent shaft is a shaft used solely 
to ventilate or light water-closet compartments or bath- 
rooms or kitchenettes. 

(6.) A public hall is a hall, corridor, or passageway not 
within an apartment. 

(7.) A stair hall includes the stairs, stair landings, and 
those parts of the public hall through which it is necessary 
to pass in going from the entrance floor to the roof . 

(8.) An apartment is a room, or suite of two or more 
rooms, occupied or suitable for occupation, as a residence 
for one family. 

(9.) Repairs means any renewal of any existing part 
of a building, or of its fixtures or appurtenances, which 
does not lessen the strength of the building. 

[1921, c. 289, Sect. 5.] 

SECTION 43. 
Fire Escapes. 
Tenement Houses. 
Except as provided in section thirty-five, in all tene- 
ment houses hereafter erected of the first or second class 



126 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 43.] 

more than three stories in height and in every building 
hereafter enlarged and occupied or to be occupied as a 
tenement house more than three stories in height, there 
shall be provided at least one of the following means of 
egress in addition to the staircases, but if the first named 
means of egress is provided no means of egress other than 
this and one other staircase need be provided, and every 
suite shall have direct access to both such means of egress. 

(1.) An enclosed stairway consisting of iron or rein- 
forced concrete stairs, and stair landings, each not less 
than three feet in width in the clear, surmounted by a 
pent house not less than eight feet high. The stairway 
shall extend from the roof to the level of the ground, and 
shall open into either a street or passageway leading to 
a street; the said stairway shall be lighted to the satis- 
faction of the building commissioner and enclosed in walls 
of brick, stone, terra-cotta or concrete, and said walls 
may be within or without the line of the main wall of the 
building, but access to said stairway shall be only by 
doors through an external wall to balconies leading to the 
same, except at the roof where access to said stairway 
may be directly from the roof. 

(2.) Iron balconies connecting w th adjoining buildings 
or with adjoining parts of the same house separated from 
each other by a brick, terra-cotta or concrete partition 
wall in which there are no openings except such as are 
protected with fireproof self-closing doors, and every 
suite above the first floor, shall have direct access to at 
least two means of egress, one of which shall be an en- 
closed stairway. The said balconies shall be not less 
than thirty inches wide and capable of sustaining a load 
of seventy pounds per square foot; railings shall be of 
iron, stone, terra-cotta or concrete, and three feet high, or 
higher if in the opinion of the commissioner a greater 
height is required for safety. 



City of Boston Building Law. 127 

Sect. 43.] 

(3.) Exterior fire escapes of iron with iron grated floors, 
and capable of bearing a load of seventy pounds per 
square foot. The stair treads shall be of iron, and the 
pitch of the stairs shall not exceed sixty degrees. 

Balconies shall be at least three feet four inches wide, 
and the stairs at least twenty inches wide. There shall 
be a landing at the foot of each flight, and at the level of 
the second floor there shall be cantilever ladders. The 
rails on all horizontal balconies and on the stairs shall be 
at least two feet ten inches high at all points. 

[1914, c. 7S2, sect. 9.] 
[1921, c. 289, sect. 6.] 

SECTION 44. 

Bulkheads and Scuttles. 

Tenement Houses Hereafter Erected. 

Every tenement house of the first or second class here- 
after erected shall have in the roof a fireproof bulkhead 
with a fireproof door to the same, and shall have fireproof 
stairs with a guide or hand rail leading to the roof, except 
that in such tenement houses which do not exceed sixty- 
five feet in height, such bulkheads may be of wood cov- 
ered with metal on the outside and plastered on metal 
lathing on the inside; provided that the door shall be 
covered with metal on both sides. 

Existing Tenement Houses. 

Every other tenement house shall have in the roof a 
bulkhead or scuttle. No scuttle shall be less in size than 
two feet by three feet, and all scuttles shall be covered 
on the outside with metal, and shall be provided with 
stairs or stationary ladders leading thereto and easily 
accessible to all tenants of the building, and kept free 
from encumbrance, and all scuttles and ladders shall be 



128 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 44.] 

kept so as to be ready for use at all times. No scuttle 
shall be situated in a closet or room, but all scuttles shall 
be in the ceiling of the public hall on the top floor, and 
access through the scuttle to the roof shall be direct and 
uninterrupted. Scuttles shall be hinged so as to readily 
open. Every bulkhead hereafter constructed in a tene- 
ment house shall be constructed as provided for tenement 
houses hereafter erected and shall have stairs with a guide 
or hand rail leading to the roof, and such stairs shall be 
kept free from encumbrance at all times. No lock shall 
be placed on any scuttle or bulkhead door, but either 
may be fastened on the inside by movable bolts or hooks. 
All key-locks on scuttles and on bulkhead doors shall be 
removed. No stairway leading to the roof in a tenement 
house shall be removed. 

SECTION 45. 

Houses for Habitation — Main Staircase. 
Every house for habitation, except a single family 
dwelling, hereafter erected more than three stories in 
height or covering an area or more than thirty-five hun- 
dred square feet shall have a staircase, designated by the 
commissioner, of incombustible material extending from 
the entrance to the roof and with a pent house constructed 
of incombustible material. And the said staircase shall 
Dot extend below the entrance floor level, except as an 
exit to the outside and shall have no opening into base- 
ment or cellar and shall be enclosed in walls constructed 
of incombustible material except as hereinafter provided. 
In addition to the above staircase, all such buildings shall 
have a staircase enclosed as described in section forty- 
seven. All door openings from all stair enclosures shall 
have metal or metal covered self-closing doors and metal 
or metal covered frames. Public halls therein shall be 
at least three feet wide in the clear and stairs shall be at 
least three feet wide between the wall and the stair rail. 



City of Boston Building Law. 129 

Sect. 45.] 

Stairway Entrances — Risers — Treads — Windows. 
Each stairway shall have an entrance on the entrance 
floor from a street or alley or open passageway or from an 
outer court, or from an inner court which connects directly 
with a street or alley or open passageway. All stairs 
shall be constructed with a rise of not more than eight 
inches, and with treads not less than nine inches wide and 
not less than three feet long in the clear. Where winders 
are used all treads at a point eighteen inches from the 
strings on the wall side shall be at least ten inches wide. 

Balusters. Rails. 
In every tenement house all stairways shall be pro- 
vided with proper balusters and railings kept in good 
repair. No public hall or stairs in a tenement house shall 
be reduced in width so as to be less than the minimum 
width prescribed in this section. 

Tenement House Sprinklers. 

In all tenement houses of second and third class con- 
struction, hereafter erected, being more than three stories 
high and containing more than ten suites, the basements 
or cellars, kitchenettes, stairway enclosures and elevator, 
light ventilating and dumb-waiter shafts shall be pro- 
vided with a system of automatic sprinklers approved as 
to situation, arrangements and efficiency by the building 
commissioner. 

The building commissioner may require the basement or 
cellar of a tenement house of first class construction, more 
than three stories high and containing more than ten 
suites, where in his opinion a fire hazard exists, to be 
equipped with a system of automatic sprinklers approved 
by him as to situation, arrangement and efficiency. 

Note. — Sect. 45, pars. 4, 5 and 6, operation of to be suspended if 
accepted by Mayor, until March 1, 1921. Chap. 645, acts of 1920, 
Mayor did not accept. 



130 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 45.J 

Basements or cellars in existing tenement houses of 
second and third class construction, being more than 
three stories high and containing more than ten suites, 
shall be provided with a system of automatic sprinklers 
approved as to situation, arrangement and efficiency by 
the building commissioner. 

The building commissioner may in his discretion also 
require that all doors leading from rear stairway enclosures 
on each floor of such tenement houses shall- be suitably 
protected by fire proofing material. 

In existing tenement houses of first, second and third 
class, construction more than three stories high and con- 
taining more than ten suites, where the first floor is of first 
class construction and in any such tenement house in which 
any stairway, enclosure, elevator, light, ventilating or 
dumb-waiter shaft is fireproof, as defined in section thirty- 
three, as amended by section fourteen of chapter one 
hundred and seventy-nine of the Special Acts of nineteen 
hundred and eighteen, the commissioner may waive the 
provisions of this section in respect to automatic sprinklers, 
except in cases, where, in his opinion, a fire hazard exists. 

Halls and Stairs to be Lighted. 
Public halls and main stairways in all tenement houses 
now existing or hereafter erected three stories or more in 
height, and accommodating four or more families who are 
served by a common main stairway and hall, shall be 
provided with proper and sufficient lights to be kept lighted 
during the night. The words "main stairway" as used in 
this section shall mean the staircase so designated by 
the building commissioner. 

Shafts to be Enclosed. 
In every tenement house now or hereafter existing 
which is more than three stories high and has more than 
See note on preceding page. 



City op Boston Building Law. 131 

Sect. 45.] 

eight suites, all elevator, vent and dumbwaiter shafts 
and stairways shall be enclosed in the basement or cellar 
by masonry walls not less than eight inches thick, or by 
two-inch solid metal and plaster partitions, with fire- 
proof self-closing doors. 

[1914, c. 782, sect. 10; 1915, c. 352, sect. 4, Special Act.] 

[1920, c. 440, sects. 1 and 2.] 

[1924, c. 136.] 

(1921, c. 289, sect. 7.] 

[1921, c. 476.] 
[1924, o. 335, sect. 6.] 

SECTION 46. 
Stair Halls, Construction of. 

In tenement houses hereafter erected covering more 
than seventeen hundred and fifty square feet, but not more 
than thirty-five hundred square feet in superficial area, 
which do not exceed three stories above the cellar or base- 
ment, there shall be at least two stairways. The stairs 
may be made of wood, provided that the soffits are cov- 
ered with metal lath and plastered with three coats of 
cement plaster and provided that such stairs are properly 
fire-stopped at top, center and bottom of each flight with 
brick, terra cotta or gypsum block nogging. Public halls 
therein shall be at least three feet wide in the clear and 
stairs shall be at least three feet wide between the wall 
and the stair rail. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 8.] 

SECTION 47. 
Stair Halls, How Enclosed. 

In second and third class tenement houses hereafter 
erected and existing tenement houses hereafter altered, 
stair halls other than those required to be of first class 
construction may be enclosed with wooden stud parti- 
tions; provided that such partitions are filled in solid the 



132 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 47.] 

full height between the studs with brick, terra cotta, 
gypsum blocks or other filling material approved by the 
commissioner, all to be laid in mortar and both sides of 
partition and soffit of stairs plastered with three coats of 
cement plaster on metal lathing. All openings in these 
partitions are to be protected as mentioned in section 
thirty-five of said chapter five hundred and fifty. 
[1921, c. 289, sect. 9.] 

SECTION 48. 
Entrance Halls. 

Every entrance hall in every tenement house hereafter 
erected shall be at least three feet six inches wide in the 
clear, from the entrance up to and including the stair 
inclosure, and beyond this point at least three feet wide 
in the clear, and shall comply with all the conditions of 
the preceding sections of this act as to the construction 
of stair halls, except that in a fireproof tenement house 
hereafter erected the entrance hall may be enclosed with 
terra-cotta blocks not less than four inches thick and 
angle-iron construction, instead of brick walls. If such 
entrance hall is the only entrance to more than one stair- 
way, that portion of said hall between the entrance and 
the stairway shall be, in creased at least eighteen inches in 
width in every part for each additional stairway. 

SECTION 49. 
Cellar Ceilings. 

In all tenement houses of the second or third class here- 
after erected, except where the floor next above is first 
class construction, the cellar and basement ceiling shall 
be lathed with metal laths and plastered three coats of 
cement plaster. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 10 .J 



City of Boston Building Law. 133 

SECTION 50. 

Partitions, Construction of. 

In all tenement houses of the second or third class 
hereafter erected all stud partitions which rest directly- 
over each other shall run through the wooden floor beams 
and rest upon the cap of the partition below, and shall 
have the studding filled in solid between the uprights to 
the depth of the floor beams with suitable materials. All 
such buildings having a superficial area of over thirty-five 
hundred square feet and all buildings more than seventeen 
hundred and fifty square feet in superficial area and more 
than four stories or fifty-five feet in height, shall have all 
stud partitions between suites fireproofed by filling in full 
height between studs with brick, terra cotta or gypsum 
blocks or other filling material approved by the commis- 
sioner and covering both sides of the separating partitions 
with metal laths and three coats of cement plaster. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 11.] 

SECTION 51. 

Wooden Tenement Houses. 
Outside of the building limits, tenement houses not ex- 
ceeding three stories in height above the basement, nor 
eighteen hundred square feet in area, may be erected of 
wood. No wooden tenement house shall be increased in 
height so as to exceed three stories above the basement or 
cellar. 

SECTION 52. 

Shafts. 

All elevator or dumb-waiter shafts hereafter constructed 

in any tenement house shall be fireproof throughout, with 

self-closing doors at all openings at each story. But 

nothing in this section shall be so construed as to require 



134 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 52.] 

enclosures about elevators or dumb waiters in the well-hole 
of stairs where the stairs themselves are enclosed in walls 
of incombustible materials, and are entirely constructed 
of fireproof materials as hereinbefore provided. Every 
vent shaft hereafter constructed in any tenement house 
shall have an intake of at least the dimensions provided for 
vent courts in section sixty-one, and shall be of the same 
minimum dimensions; and the sky-light covering such 
vent shaft shall be raised at all points at least one foot 
above the top of the walls of such vent shaft, and the 
space between the top of said walls and the skylight shall 
remain at all points open and unobstructed except for 
such supports essential to the stability of the skylight, as 
may be approved by the commissioner. 

SECTION 53. 

Bakeries and Fat Boiling. 

No bakery and no place of business in which fat is 
boiled shall be maintained in any tenement house which 
is not fireproof throughout, unless the ceiling and side 
walls of said bakery or of the said place where fat boiling 
is done are made safe by fireproof materials around the 
same, and there shall be no openings either by door or 
window, dumb-waiter shafts or otherwise, between said 
bakery or said place where fat is boiled in any tenement 
house and the other parts of the building. 

SECTION 54. 

Other Dangerous Businesses. 

All transoms and windows opening into halls from any 
part of a tenement house where paint, oil, spirituous 
liquors or drugs are stored for the purpose of sale or 
otherwise shall be glazed with wire-glass, or they shall be 
removed and closed up as solidly as the rest of the wall. 



City op Boston Building Law. 135 

Sect. 54.J 

There shall be between any such hall and such part of 

said tenement house a fireproof self-closing door. 



SECTION 55. 

[See also Zoning Act, issued as a separate document.] 

Light and Ventilation. 
Yards. 

TENEMENT HOUSES HEREAFTER ERECTED. 

The requirements for yards hereinafter provided shall 
be deemed sufficient for all tenement houses. 

WIDTH OF YARD., 

Except in those cases hereinafter provided for, there 
shall be, behind every tenement house hereafter erected, 
a yard extending across the entire width of the lot, and 
at every point open from the ground to the sky unob- 
structed, except by fire escapes or unenclosed outside 
stairs. 

DEPTH OF YARD. 

The depth of said yard shall be measured from the 
extreme rear wall of the house to the rear line of the lot, 
and at right angles to said line, except that where there is 
an alley or open passageway in the rear of the lot the 
depth of the yard may be measured to the middle of said 
alley or open passageway. On an irregular lot of several 
depths, where there is more than one rear line to the lot, 
such yard may extend across the entire width of the lot 
in sections, provided that each section of the yard is in 
every part and at every point of the minimum depth here- 
inafter prescribed. Where the side lines of a lot con- 
verge toward the rear, the depth of the yard shall be 
such as to. give it an area equal to the greatest width of 
the yard multiplied by the depth hereinafter prescribed. 



136 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 55..] 

CORNER LOTS. 

Except on a corner lot, the depth of the yard behind 
every tenement house hereafter erected fifty feet in 
height or less shall be not less than twelve feet in every 
part. All yards without exception shall be increased in 
depth at least one foot for every additional ten feet of 
height of the building, or fraction thereof, above fifty feet. 

Except as hereinafter otherwise provided, the depth of 
the yard behind every tenement house hereafter erected 
upon a corner lot shall not be less than six feet in every 
part. But where such corner lot is more than twenty- 
five feet in width, the depth of the yard for that portion 
in excess of twenty-five feet shall be not less than twelve 
feet in every part, and shall increase in depth as above 
provided. 

THROUGH LOTS. 

Whenever a tenement house is hereafter erected upon 
a lot which runs through from street to street, or from 
a street to an alley or open passageway, and said lot is 
one hundred and fifty feet or more in depth, said yard 
space shall be left midway between the two streets, and 
shall extend across the entire width of the lot, and shall 
be not less than twenty-four feet in depth from wall to 
wall, and shall be increased in depth at least two feet for 
every additional ten feet in height of the building, or 
fraction thereof, above fifty feet. 

YARD NOT FRONTING ON STREETS, ETC. 

When a tenement house hereafter erected does not 
front upon a street, a public alley, or a passageway, not 
less than fifteen feet wide, the requirements in this sec- 
tion as to yards shall apply to the front of such tenement 
house as well as to the rear. Neither the yard behind one 



City op Boston Building Law. 137 

Sect. 55.] 

tenement house nor any part thereof shall be deemed to 
satisfy in whole or in part the requirement of a yard iD 
front of another tenement house. 



SECTION 56. 

Cases in Which no Yard shall be Required. 
Tenement Houses Hereafter Erected. 

No yard shall be required behind a tenement house 
hereafter erected upon a lot which abuts at the rear upon 
a railroad right of way, a cemetery or a public park. 

No yard shall be required behind a tenement house 
hereafter erected upon a lot entirely surrounded by 
streets or by streets, alleys or open passageways, not less 
than fifteen feet in width, or by such streets, alleys, and 
passageways and a railroad right of way, a cemetery or a 
public park. 

No yard shall be required behind a tenement house 
hereafter erected upon a lot less than one hundred and 
fifty feet deep and running through from street to street 
or from a street to an alley or open passageway not less 
than fifteen feet in width, or upon a corner lot adjoining 
a lot less than one hundred and fifty feet deep and run- 
ning through from street to street, or from a street to 
such an alley or open passageway. 

No yard shall be required behind a tenement house 
hereafter erected upon a corner lot adjoining a lot more 
than one hundred and fifty feet deep and running through 
from street to street or from a street to an alley or open 
passageway not less than fifteen feet in width; but if there 
be no yard, an outer court upon such corner lot shall 
extend from the street along the line of such adjoining lot 
to a point in line with the middle line of the block; the 
width of said court to be not less than the width of court 
prescribed in the ensuing paragraph. 



138 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 56.] 

No yard shall be required behind a tenement house 
hereafter erected upon a corner lot adjoining two or more 
lots any one of which bounds upon a single street, or alley 
or open passageway, not less than fifteen feet in width; 
but if there be no yard an outer court upon such corner 
lot shall extend from the street, or from such alley or open 
passageway along a lot line either to the extreme rear of 
an adjoining lot or to the extreme rear of said corner lot; 
'provided, that the width of said court measured from the 
lot line to the opposite wall of the building, for tenement 
houses fifty feet or less in height, shall be not less than six 
feet in every part, and for every additional ten feet of 
height of the tenement house shall be increased one foot 
throughout the whole length of said court. 

SECTION 57. 

Courts. 
Tenement Houses Hereafter Erected — Not to be Roofed Over. 
No court of a tenement house hereafter erected shall be 
covered by a roof or skylight, but every such court shall 
be at every point open to the sky unobstructed. Except 
such courts as are provided for in section fifty-six, all 
courts, except for fire escapes, may start at the second tier 
of beams. 

SECTION 58. 

Outer Courts. 

Tenement Houses Hereafter Erected on Lot Line. 

The provisions of this section shall apply only to tene- 
ment houses hereafter erected. Where one side of an 
outer court is located on the lot line, the width of the said 
court, measured from the lot line to the opposite wall of 
the building, for tenement houses fifty feet or less in 
height shall not be less than six feet in every part and for 



City op Boston Building Law. 139 

Sect. 58.] 

every ten feet of increase or fraction thereof in height of 
such tenement houses, such width shall be increased one 
foot throughout the whole length of the court, and except 
where the court runs through from the yard to the street, 
said width shall never be less than one eighth of the length 
of the court. 

Between Wings or Ells. 
Where an outer court is located between wings or parts 
of the same building, or between different buildings on the 
same lot, the width of the court, measured from wall to 
wall, for tenement houses fifty feet or less in height shall 
be not less than twelve feet in every part, and for every 
ten feet of increase or fraction thereof in the height of the 
said building, such width shall be increased two feet 
throughout the whole length of the court. The depth of 
such courts shall never exceed four times their width. 

Windows Opening On. 

Wherever an outer court changes its initial horizontal 
direction, or wherever any part of such court extends in 
a direction so as not to receive direct light from the street 
or yard, or from an alley, or open passageway not less than 
fifteen feet in width, the length of that part of the court 
shall never exceed its width, such length to be measured 
from the point at which the change of direction begins. 
Wherever an outer court between parts of the same build- 
ing is twelve feet or less in depth, its width may be one 
half its depth, provided that such width is never less than 
four feet in the clear. This exception shall also apply to 
every offset or recess in outer courts. And no window 
except windows of water-closet compartments, bath- 
rooms, or halls shall open upon any offset or recess less 
than four feet in width. 



140 City of Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 59. 
Inner Courts. 

Tenement Houses Hereafter Erected — Width — Area. 

The provisions of this section shall apply only to tene- 
ment houses hereafter erected. Where one side of an 
inner court is located on the lot line and the building does 
not exceed fifty feet in height, the least width of the court 
shall be not less than eight feet, and the area of the court 
shall be not less than one hundred and twenty-eight square 
feet. For every ten feet, or fraction thereof, of increase 
in the height of the building above fifty feet the minimum 
width of such inner courts shall be increased by one foot, 
and the area thereof shall never be less than twice the 
square of such minimum width. Where an inner court is 
not located on the lot line but is enclosed on all four sides, 
and the building does not exceed fifty feet in height, the 
least width of said court shall be not less than sixteen feet 
and the area not less than two hundred and fifty-six square 
feet. For every ten feet, or fraction thereof, of increase 
in the height of said building above fifty feet, the minimum 
width of such inner courts shall be increased by two feet, 
and the area of the court shall never be less than the square 
of such minimum dimension. 

SECTION 60. 

Vent Courts. 

Area — Least Dimension. 

Inner courts used solely for the lighting and ventilation 
of water-closets, bath rooms, kitchenettes, public halls, or 
stair halls, or for interior fire escapes, may be constructed 
in any tenement house, and shall be not less than fifteen 
square feet in area, nor less than three feet in the least 
horizontal dimension for buildings fifty feet or less in 
height. For every increase of ten feet or fraction thereof 



City of Boston Building Law. 141 

Sect. 60.J 

in the height of such buildings the least dimension shall 
be increased by one foot, and the area by not less than 
eight square feet. Vents for kitchenettes must be entirely 
separate from those used for water-closets and bath rooms. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 12.] 

SECTION 61. 

Intakes. 

Every inner court in a tenement house hereafter erected 
shall be provided with one or more horizontal intakes at 
the bottom. Such intakes in vent courts shall be not less 
than four square feet in area, so arranged as to be easily 
cleaned; in other inner courts they shall be not less than 
three feet wide and seven feet high, and there shall be at 
least two open grille doors, containing not less than fifteen 
square feet of unobstructed openings, one at the inner 
court and the other at the street or yard as the case may be. 

Nothing contained in the foregoing sections concerning 
outer and inner courts shall be construed as prohibiting 
windows in walls that cut off the angles of such courts, 
provided that the running length of the walls containing 
such windows does not exceed six feet. 

SECTION 62. 

Buildings on the Same Lot With Tenement Houses. 
No tenement house shall hereafter be so enlarged or its 
lot so diminished, and no building of any kind shall be 
hereafter so placed upon the same lot with a tenement 
house, as to decrease the minimum depth of yards, or the 
minimum size of courts or yards prescribed in this act for 
tenement houses hereafter erected. 

SECTION 63. 

Rooms, Lighting and Ventilation of. 
In every tenement house hereafter erected there shall 
be in each room, except water-closet compartments and 



142 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 63.] 

bath rooms, windows of a total area of at least one eighth 
the floor area of the room and not less than eleven square 
feet in area, opening directly on a street or public alley or 
open passageway not less than fifteen feet wide or upon a 
yard or court of the dimensions hereinbefore specified, or 
upon a railroad right of way, cemetery or public park; 
and such windows shall be located so as properly to light 
all parts of the room. The top of at least one window shall 
be not less than seven feet six inches above the floor, and 
the upper half of it shall be made so as to open the full 
width. 

Alcoves. 
Every alcove in every tenement house hereafter erected 
shall be provided with an opening into a room, such open- 
ing to be equal in area to eighty per cent of that side 
of the alcove in which the opening is located; and the 
alcove shall have at least one window of not less than 
fifteen square feet of glazed surface opening as provided 
in this section. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 13.] 

SECTION 64. 

Rooms, Size of. 
In every tenement house hereafter erected all rooms, 
except water-closet compartments and bath rooms, shall 
be of the following minimum sizes: In each apartment 
there shall be at least one room containing not less than 
one hundred and twenty square feet of floor area and 
provided with a chimney flue and thimble, except where 
said room is furnished with heat from a central heating 
apparatus, and every other room shall contain at least 
seventy square feet of floor area. Each room shall be in 
every part not less than eight feet high from the finished 



City of Boston Building Law. 143 

Sect. 64.] 

floor to the finished ceiling; provided that only one half 
of an attic room need be eight feet high. No portion of a 
room in any such tenement house shall be partitioned off 
so as to form a room not conforming to the provisions of 
sections sixty-three and sixty-four, or so as to form an 
alcove not conforming to sections sixty-three and seventy. 
[1921, c. 289, sect. 14.] 



SECTION 65. 

Public Halls. 

Lighting of. 

Except as otherwise provided in section sixty-six, in 
every tenement house hereafter erected covering a super- 
ficial area of more than seventeen hundred and fifty square 
feet, every public hall shall have at least one window 
opening directly upon a street, a public alley or open pas- 
sageway not less than ten feet in width, a railroad right of 
way, a cemetery or a public park, or upon a yard or court 
or a vent court as provided in section sixty, or be lighted 
by other means which in the opinion of the commissioner 
will provide a sufficient amount of light. Either such 
window shall be at the end of said hall, with the plane of 
the window substantially at right angles to the axis of 
the hall, or there shall be at least one window opening as 
above prescribed in every twenty feet in length or fraction 
thereof of the hall; but this provision for one window in 
every twenty feet of hallway shall not apply to that part 
of the entrance hall between the entrance and the first 
flight of stairs, provided that the entrance door contains 
not less than five square feet of glazed surface. At least 
one of the windows provided to light each public hall 
shall be at least two feet six inches wide and five feet high, 
measured between the stop beads. 



144 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 65.] 

Separate Hall. 

Any part of a hall which is shut off from any other part 
of said hall by a door or doors shall be deemed a separate 
hall within the meaning of this section. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 15.] 
[1924, c. 335, sect. 7.] 

SECTION 66. 

Windows for Stair Halls, Size Of. 

In every tenement house hereafter erected covering a 
superficial area of more than seventeen hundred and 
fifty square feet, the aggregate area of windows to light or 
ventilate stair halls on each floor shall be at least fifteen 
square feet: provided, however, that when there shall be, 
within the space enclosed by the stairway and its landings, 
from the second story upward, an open area for light and 
ventilation whose least horizontal dimension shall be 
equal to the width of the stairs, but in no case less than 
three feet, then the windows required in sections sixty-five 
and sixty-six may be omitted. 

Skylight over Stair Well. 

There shall be in the roof, directly over each stair well, 
in all tenement houses hereafter erected, without windows 
as above provided, a ventilating skylight provided with 
ridge ventilators, having a minimum opening of forty 
square inches, or else such skylights shall be provided with 
fixed or movable louvres. The glazed roof of the skylight 
shall not be less than twenty square feet in area. 

[1921, c. 289, sect. 16.] 



City of Boston Building Law. 145 

SECTION 67. 
Privacy. 

Water-closets. 

In every apartment of four or more rooms in a tenement 
house hereafter erected, at least one water-closet compart- 
ment shall be accessible without passing through any bed- 
room. 

SECTION 68. 

Basements and Cellars in Tenement Houses and 
Other Buildings. 

Living Rooms. 

In tenement houses hereafter erected no room in the 
basement or cellar shall be occupied for living purposes, 
unless all of the following conditions are complied with: — 

Height Of. 
(1.) Such room shall be at least eight and one half 
feet high in every part from the floor to the ceiling. > 

Water-closets. 

(2.) There shall be appurtenant to such room the use of 
a separate water-closet, constructed and arranged as re- 
quired by section sixty-nine. 

Window Openings. 
(3.) Such room shall have a window or windows open- 
ing upon the street, an alley or open passageway not less 
than fifteen feet in width, a railroad right of way, cemetery 
or public park or upon a yard or court. The total area 



146 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 68.] 

of windows in such room shall be at least one eighth of 
the floor area of the room, and one half of the sash shall be 
made to open full width, and the top of each window shall 
be within six inches of the ceiling. 

Damp-proof Walls and Floors. 
(4.) The floor of such room shall be damp-proof and 
waterproof, and all walls surrounding such room shall be 
damp-proof. 

Sleeping Rooms. 

No room on any floor of any house or building now exist- 
ing or hereafter erected, which floor is in whole or in part 
below the highest point of the curb of a public street or 
way in front and within twenty-five feet of the outside 
wall, and no room on any floor thereof, which floor is in 
whole or in part below the highest point of the ground 
adjacent to such building and within fifteen feet thereof, 
shall be occupied for sleeping purposes unless all of the 
following conditions are complied with: — 

To Abut on Outside Wall. 

(a.) Such room shall on at least one side abut on an 
outside wall of said building for a space of at least seven 
feet. 

Windows, Area and Exposure. 

(b.) Such room shall have a window or windows 
opening directly upon an open space not less than fifteen 
feet square, and open from the ground to the sky without 
obstruction; such window or windows shall have a total 
area of not less than ten square feet and not less, than one 
eighth of the floor area of said room, and both halves of the 
sash of each window shall be made to open to their full 
width, and the top of each window shall be within six 
inches of the ceiling. 



City of Boston Building Law. 147 

Sect. 68.] 

(c.) At least sixty per cent of the area of any such 
room shall be above the level of the highest point of the 
ground within fifteen feet of the outside wall or walls of 
said room and in which the windows above required are 
situated. 

Floors and Walls to be Waterproof. 

(d.) The floor of such room and all walls surrounding 
such room shall be damp-proof and waterproof. 

Height Of. 

(e.) Such room shall be at least eight feet six inches 
in height in every part, from floor to ceiling: provided, 
that in tenement houses erected prior to the first day of 
August, nineteen hundred and seven, and in other houses 
and buildings erected prior to the first day of June, nine- 
teen hundred and fourteen, it shall be sufficient if said 
room is seven feet in height over at least four fifths of its 
area. 

Water-closets — Construction, Arrangement. 

(J.) There shall be appurtenant to such room a water- 
closet constructed and arranged as required by section 
sixty-nine, and used solely by the occupants of said room 
or by the household of which said occupants are members. 

Sleeping Rooms. 

(g.) No such room shall be occupied for sleeping pur- 
poses without a permit from the board of health, such 
permit to be posted in a conspicuous place in the main 
room of the apartment. A record of all such permits shall 
be kept in the office of the board of health. 

Requirements when Exempted, 
(h.) Whenever basement rooms which do not comply 
with all the technical requirements of this act are, in 



148 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 68.] 

the opinion of the board of health, supplied with sufficient 
light and ventilation and are suitable rooms for living and 
sleeping purposes, the board, after an inspection of the 
premises and a report in writing as to the area, capacity 
and other conditions, may issue a certificate to the owner 
of the building stating that, in the opinion of the board, 
such rooms are fit to be occupied for living and sleeping 
purposes. The issue of the said certificate shall operate 
as an exemption from the technical requirements of this 
section in all the particulars set forth in said certificate: 
provided, that said certificate is kept at all times posted in 
a conspicuous place in such room. A file and record of 
all such reports and certificates shall be kept in the office 
of the board of health. Said board may revoke the certifi- 
cate if such room, in its opinion, ceases to be suitable 
for the purposes named in the certificate. 

[1914, c. 628, sect. 1; 1915, c. 346, Special Act.] 

SECTION 69. 

Water-closets in Tenement Houses Hereafter 
Erected. 

In every tenement house hereafter erected there shall 
be a separate water-closet in a separate compartment 
within each apartment. Every such water-closet shall be 
placed in a compartment completely separated from every 
other water-closet, and such compartment shall be not 
less than two feet and nine inches wide, and shall be 
enclosed with plastered partitions, or some equally sub- 
stantial material, which shall extend to the ceiling. Such 
compartment shall have a window, opening directly, or 
through a straight horizontal shaft of the same dimensions 
as the window and not more than four feet long, upon a 
street, a railroad right of way, cemetery or public park or 
a yard or alley or open passageway not less than four feet 



City of Boston Building Law. 149 

Sect. 69.] 

wide, or upon a court vent or upon a covered passageway 
not more than twenty feet long and at least twenty feet 
wide, and twenty feet high. Every such window shall be 
at least one foot by three feet between stop beads; and 
the whole window shall be made so as to open readily. 
When, however, such water-closet compartment is located 
on the top floor and is lighted and ventilated by a skylight 
over it, no window shall be necessary, provided that the 
roof of such skylight contains at least three square feet 
of glazed surface and is arranged so as to open readily. 
Nothing in this section in regard to the separation of water- 
closet compartments from each other shall apply to a 
general toilet room containing several water-closets, 
hereafter placed in a tenement house, provided that such 
water-closets are supplemental to the water-closet ac- 
commodations required by law for the use of the tenants 
of the said house. Nothing in this section in regard to 
the ventilation of water-closet compartments shall apply 
to a water-closet hereafter placed in an existing tenement 
house, to replace a defective fixture in the same position 
and location. No water-closet shall be maintained in 
the cellar of any tenement house without a permit in 
writing from the board of health; and said board shall have 
power to make rules and regulations governing the main- 
tenance of such closets. Every water-closet compart- 
ment in any tenement house shall be provided with proper 
means of lighting the same at night. If fixtures for gas 
or electricity are not provided in such compartment, then 
the door of such compartment shall be provided with trans- 
lucent glass panels, or with a translucent glass transom, not 
less in area than four square feet. The floor of every such 
water-closet compartment shall be made waterproof with 
asphalt, tile, stone or some other waterproof material; 
and such waterproofing shall extend at least six inches 
above the floor on all sides of the compartment except at 



150 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 69.] 

the door opening so that the floor can be washed or flushed 
without leaking. No drip trays shall be permitted. No 
water-closet fixtures shall be inclosed with any woodwork. 

[1922, chap. 61.] 

SECTION 70. 

Lighting and Ventilation of Existing Tenement 

Houses. 

Excepting water-closet compartments and bathrooms, 
wherever a room in any tenement house has a window 
or windows of less than nine square feet of glazed sur- 
face opening on a street, a railroad right of way, cemetery, 
public park, alley or open passageway not less than ten 
feet in width, such window or windows shall be enlarged 
and provided with the above mentioned glazed surface, 
and wherever such room does not open as above provided 
or opens upon an alley or open passageway less than ten 
feet in width or upon a shaft or upon a court less than six 
feet in its least dimension, then such room shall be pro- 
vided with a sash window communicating with another 
room in the same apartment, having windows of at least 
the superficial area prescribed for the windows of rooms in 
tenement houses hereafter erected and opening on a street, 
a railroad right of way, cemetery, public park or alley or 
open passageway at least ten feet in width, or on a court or 
courts at least equivalent to the courts required in sec- 
tions fifty-eight and fifty-nine; and such new sash window 
shall contain not less than fifteen square feet of glazed 
surface and shall be made so as to open readily. One 
wall of every alcove in an existing tenement house shall 
be provided with an opening equal in area to eighty per 
cent of the wall. No tenement house shall be so altered 
as to reduce the provisions for the light and ventilation 
of any room or alcove or public hall or stair hall below 
the requirements of this act. 



City of Boston Building Law. 151 



SECTION 71. 

Skylights. 

Existing Tenement Houses. 

In every existing tenement house there shall be in the 
roof, directly over each stair well, a ventilating skylight, 
provided with ridge ventilators and also with fixed or 
movable louvres or movable sashes. But this section 
shall not apply to any tenement house now having windows 
as provided in section sixty-five or a bulkhead in the roof 
over the main stairs, which bulkhead is provided with 
windows made so as to open readily and with not less than 
twelve square feet of glass in the top of the bulkhead. 
All skylights hereafter placed in any tenement house 
shall conform to the provisions of section sixty-six. All the 
existing dome lights or other obstructions to skylight 
ventilation shall be removed. 



Public Hall — Lighting Of. 
Where the public hall in an existing tenement house is 
not provided with windows opening as provided in sec- 
tion sixty-five, and where there is not a stair well as 
provided in section sixty-six, all doors leading from such 
public hall into apartments shall be provided with trans- 
lucent glass panels of an area of not less than four square 
feet for each door; or such public hall may be lighted by 
a window or windows at the end thereof with the plane of 
the window at right angles to the axis of the hall, said 
window opening upon the street, a railroad right of way, 
cemetery, public park, or an alley or open passageway at 
least ten feet in width, or upon a yard or court of the 
dimensions hereinbefore provided. 



152 City of Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 72. 

Water-closets in Existing Tenement Houses.' 

In existing tenement houses the woodwork enclosing 
the space underneath the seat of all water-closets used in 
common by two or more families shall be removed and 
such space shall be left open. The floor or other surface 
beneath and around such closet shall be maintained in 
good order and repair, and the floors made waterproof to 
the satisfaction of the board of health. 

Water-closets, Number Required. 

Every such water-closet shall be located in a com- 
partment completely separated from every other water- 
closet, and such compartment shall be ventilated to the 
satisfaction of the board of health. There shall be pro- 
vided at least one water-closet for every three families, 
or for every nine rooms in every existing tenement house. 

SECTION 73. 

Water Supply. 

Tenement Houses Hereafter Erected. 

In every tenement house hereafter erected there shall 
be in each apartment a proper sink with running water. 

Existing Tenement House. 

Every existing tenement house shall have water fur- 
nished in sufficient quantity at one or more places on each 
floor occupied by or suitable to be occupied by one or 
more families. The owner shall provide proper and suit- 
able tanks, pumps or other appliances to receive and to 
distribute a sufficient supply of water at each floor in the 
said house at all times of the year, during all hours of the 
day and night. 



City of Boston Building Law. 153 

Sect. 73.] 

Sinks in Public Halls. 

The woodwork enclosing sinks located in the public 
halls or stairs shall be removed and the space underneath 
the sinks shall be left open. The floors and wall surfaces 
beneath and around the sink shall be maintained in good 
order and repair. 

SECTION 74. 

Drainage of Courts and Yards. 

Tenement Houses. 

In every tenement house all courts, areas, intakes and 

yards shall be properly graded, drained and paved or 

otherwise surfaced to the satisfaction of the board of 

health. 

SECTION 75. 

Receptacles for Garbage and Ashes. 
Tenement House. 
The owner of every tenement house shall provide there- 
for suitable covered, water-tight receptacles satisfactory 
to the board of health, for ashes, rubbish, garbage, refuse 
and other matter. No person shall place ashes, rubbish, 
garbage, refuse or other matter in the yards, open areas or 
alleys connected with, or appurtenant to, any tenement 
house except in suitable receptacles provided for the same. 

[Repealed so far as inconsistent with 1907, c. 550, sect. 128; as 
amended by 1913, c 58b, sect. 1.] 

SECTION 76. 

Powers of the Building Commissioner. 

The commisioner shall not dispense with any of the 
requirements of sections forty-two to seventy-five, in- 
clusive. 



154 City of Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 77. 

Theatres. 
Definition. 

Every building hereafter erected so as to contain an 
audience hall and a stage, with curtain, movable or shifting 
scenery, and machinery, adapted for the giving of plays, 
operas, spectacles or similar forms of entertainment, shall 
be a theatre within the meaning of this act. No existing 
building not now used as a theatre shall be altered and 
used as a theatre, unless it conforms to the provisions of 
this act for a new theatre. 

[1921, c, 60, sect. 3.]] 

SECTION 78. 
Construction. 

Every theatre hereafter built shall be of first-class 
construction, and the steel work of the stage, of the fly 
galleries, and of the rigging loft need not be fireproofed. 

[1921, c. 60, sect. 4.] 

SECTION 79. 

Open Courts. 
Every theatre built in a block not on a corner shall 
have an open court or passageway on both sides extend- 
ing from the proscenium line to the line of the street on 
the front, or, in case the building abuts on a street both 
in front and rear, these passages may extend from the 
line of the front of the auditorium to the line of the rear 
street. These passages shall be at least six feet wide 
throughout their length, and shall not be closed by any 
locked gate or doorway. They shall immediately adjoin 
the auditorium, or a side passage or lobby directly con- 



City of Boston Building Law. 155 

Sect. 79.] 

nected therewith. These passages shall be open to the sky 
opposite the whole depth of the auditorium, but may be 
carried out to the street front or rear through passages 
enclosed by brick walls or other fireproof material equally 
efficient, and covered by a solid brick vault at least eight 
enches thick, each passage to be not less than eight feet 
wide and ten feet high throughout. 

SECTION 80. 

Inner Court. 

Every theatre built upon the corner of two streets shall 
have one inner court on the side of the building away from 
the side street, such court to be of the same description 
as the courts provided for in the preceding paragraph. 

SECTION 81. 

Stores, etc. 
Nothing in this act shall be construed to prohibit the 
use of any part of a theatre building for stores, offices, or 
for habitation, provided that the parts so used for a 
theatre shall be built with exits to the street entirely dis- 
tinct from the rest of the building and shall be separated 
from the rest of the building by solid partition walls and 
floors, walls not to be less than twelve inches in thickness, 
without any openings in the same. 

[1923, c. 467, sect. 22.] 

SECTION 82. 

Floor Levels. 

In all theatres, the entrances shall be not more than one 
step above the level of the sidewalk of the main street, 
and the stage shall be not more than five feet above the 
said level. 



156 City of Boston Building Law. 

SECTION 83. 

Proscenium Wall. 
The stage of every theatre shall be separated from the 
auditorium by a wall of fireproof construction, which 
wall shall extend the whole width of the auditorium and 
the whole height to the roof of the portion occupied by the 
stage. There shall be no openings through this wall except 
the curtain opening, one doorway each side behind the 
boxes, and one doorway which shall be located at or below 
the level of the stage, and plumbing, ventilating and such 
other pipe openings as may be approved by the building 
commissioner, such openings to be fire-stopped. The 
doorways shall not exceed twenty-one superficial feet 
each, and shall have standard fire-doors hung in a manner 
satisfactory to the commissioner. The finish or decora- 
tive features around the curtain opening of every theatre 
shall be of fireproof material. 

[1921, c. 60, sect. 5.] 

SECTION 84. 
Curtain. 
The proscenium or curtain opening of every theatre 
shall have a fire-resisting curtain reinforced by wire netting 
or otherwise strengthened. If of iron, or similar heavy 
material, and made to lower from the top, it shall be 
so arranged as to be stopped securely at a height of seven 
feet above the stage floor, the remaining opening being 
closed by a curtain or valance of fire-resisting fabric. 

SECTION 85. 
Stage Floor. 
The part of the stage floor, usually equal to the width 
of the proscenium opening, used in working scenery, 



City of Boston Building Law. 157 

Sect. 85.] 

traps or other mechanical apparatus, may be of wood, 
and no flooring used thereon shall be less than one and 
one eighth inches in thickness. 

SECTION 86. 

Ventilators. 

There shall be one or more ventilators near the centre, 
and above the highest part of the stage of every theatre, 
of a combined area of opening satisfactory to the com- 
missioner, and not less than one tenth of the area of the 
undivided floor space behind the curtain at the stage 
floor level. The openings in every such ventilator shall 
be closed by valves or louvres so counter-balanced as to 
open automatically, which shall be kept closed, when not 
in use, by a fusible link and cord reaching to the prompter's 
desk, and readily operated therefrom. Such cord shall 
be of combustible material, and so arranged that if it is 
severed the ventilator will open automatically. 

Skylight Coverings for Ventilators. 

Skylight coverings for ventilators shall have sheet 
metal frame set with double-thick glass, each pane thereof 
measuring not less than three hundred square inches, or 
shall be protected with wire glass. If wire glass is not used, 
a suitable wire netting shall be placed immediately be- 
neath the glass, but above the ventilator openings. 
Illuminating fixtures and glass on illuminating fixture 
over the auditorium shall be suspended and secured in a 
manner approved by the fire commissioner. 

Illuminating Fixtures over Auditorium. 

Glass on illuminating fixtures over the auditorium shall 
be secured from danger of falling as the commissioner shall 
require, but in no case shall any glass more than six inches 



158 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 86.J 

in diameter or length be hung over the auditorium unless 
protected from falling by a wire netting or similar device 
satisfactory to the commissioner. 

[1923, c. 462, sect. 23.] 

SECTION 87. 
Seats in Auditorium. 
All seats in the auditorium excepting those contained in 
boxes shall be spaced not less than thirty inches from 
back to back, measured in a horizontal direction, and 
shall be firmly secured to the floor. No rows of seats in 
the auditorium shall contain more than fourteen seats 
between aisles and where there is but one aisle no row shall 
contain more than seven seats. 

Balcony and Gallery Platforms. 
The platforms for seats in balconies and galleries shall 
nowhere have a greater rise than twenty-one inches, 
nor be less than thirty inches from back to back. 

SECTION 88. 

Aisles. 
All aisles on the respective floors in the auditorium, 
having seats on both sides of the same, shall be not less 
than thirty inches wide where they begin and shall be 
increased in width toward the exit in the ratio of one inch 
to five running feet. Aisles having seats on one side only 
shall be not less than two feet wide at their beginning and 
shall increase in width, the same as aisles having seats on 
both sides. 

SECTION 89. 

Changes in Level. 
All changes in the levels of the floors of such buildings, 
except under stairways, from story to story, and except 



City of Boston Building Law. 159 

Sect. 89.] 

the necessary steps in galleries and balconies rising or 
declining toward the exits, shall be made by inclines or 
declines of no steeper gradient than two in ten within the 
auditorium, and rising toward the exits, and one in ten 
for all others. 

]1921, c. 60, sect. 7.] 

SECTION 90. 

Lobbies. 

Preceding each division of the theatre there shall be 
foyers, lobbies, corridors, or passages, the aggregate 
capacity of which on each floor or gallery shall be sufficient 
to contain the whole number to be accommodated on such 
floor or gallery in the ratio of one square foot of floor room 
for each person. 

SECTION 91. 

Stage Doors. 

There shall be not less than two exit doors each not less 
than three feet in width, located on opposite sides of the 
stage, and opening directly upon a street, alley, court, or 
courtway leading to a public thoroughfare. 

SECTION 92. 

Room Exits. 

All rooms in theatres for the use of persons employed 
therein shall have passages to at least two independent 
means of exit. 

SECTION 93. 

Doors to Open Outward. 

All doors of exit or entrance shall open outward, and 
shall be hung so as to swing in such a manner as not to 
become an obstruction in a passage or corridor, and no 



160 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 93.] 

such doors shall be fastened so as to be inoperative when 
the building is occupied by an audience. 

SECTION 94. 

False Doors. 

No mirrors shall be so placed as to give the appearance 
of a doorway or exit, hallway, or corridor, nor shall there 
be any false doors or windows. 

SECTION 95. 
Main Floor and First Gallery Exits. 
A common exit may serve for the main floor of the 
auditorium and the fy*st gallery, provided that its capacity 
be equal to the aggregate capacity of the outlets from the 
main floor and the said gallery; and provided that the 
lowermost run of any exit leading from a gallery shall not 
open directly at right angles with the central axis of a 
common exit unless there is a clear space or landing of at 
least one and one quarter times the width of the exit 
between the foot of such exit and such centre line or 
nearest exit doorway. 

SECTION 96. 
Exits. 

Balcony and Gallery. 

Two distinct and separate exits shall be provided for 
each gallery and balcony above the main floor; and the 
same shall be located on opposite sides of the galleries. 

All gallery or balcony exits shall start with a width of 
not less than four feet at the uppermost gallery. 

Exits from balconies and galleries shall not communicate 
with the basement or cellar. 



City of Boston Building Law. 161 

SECTION 97. 
Aggregate Width of Exits. 

The aggregate width of all the exits previously de- 
scribed shall be estimated on a basis of not less than twenty 
inches for every one hundred persons for whom seats are 
provided in the sections of the auditorium served by the 
respective exits. 

SECTION 98. 

Emergency Exits. 

In addition to the exits previously described there shall 
be one exit from each side of each gallery, balcony, and 
main floor of auditorium, at least five feet wide, leading 
to exterior balconies not less than four feet wide and 
twenty feet long on each side of the auditorium. From 
such balconies there shall be staircases extending to the 
ground level, which may be counterweighted, with risers 
of not over eight and one half inches and treads of not less 
than nine and one half inches, inclusive of nosing. The 
aggregate width of these emergency stairs shall be not 
less than ten inches for every one hundred people served 
thereby, no single stairs being less than thirty inches wide. 

Where all such stairs are in an interior court, each run 
shall be covered by a light awning of iron. 

Nothing herein shall prohibit the building of emergency 
stairs and exits inside the walls of the building, provided 
that they are surrounded by a fireproof partition not less 
than four inches thick separating the exits and stairways 
from the audience room or auditorium. 

[1921, c. 60, sect. 8.] 

SECTION 99. 

Additional Requirements. 

The commissioner shall have power to require a greater 
number or capacity of exits than is herein prescribed. 



162 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect 99.] 

Illuminated Exit Signs. 

In every theatre there shall be over every exit, on the 
inside, and over every opening to a fire-escape, on the 
iDside, an illuminated sign, bearing the word "exit" or 
" fire-escape," respectively, in letters not less than four 
inches high. The lights for the exit signs, passages, stairs, 
lobbies, auditoriums, rear of auditoriums, balconies, gal- 
leries, and for the balconies and stairs outside the building, 
shall be so arranged that they can be turned on or off in- 
dependently of the means provided on the stage or in any 
part of the building in the rear of the proscenium wall. 
Every exit sign shall be kept illuminated, and every out- 
side balcony and fire-escape shall be kept well lighted 
during the performance, except outside exits during a 
performance before sunset. 



Exit Plan on Program. 
Plans showing the exits and stairways shall be legibly 
printed so as to occupy a full page of every programme or 
play-bills or shall be shown by stereopticon upon a moving 
picture screen at least once during the afternoon and 
evening for a period of not less than two minutes. 



Gas Pipe Outlets and Burners. 
In said buildings there shall be such number of gas 
pipe outlets as the commissioner may require, fitted with 
no less than two gas burners. Such burners shall be in- 
spected and tried at least once in every three months by 
inspectors of the department, to ascertain if they are in 
proper working order. The inspector shall make a report 
of each visit, stating the condition of the burners and 
the action of the inspector in regard to them. 



City op Boston Building Law. 163 

Sect. 99.] 

Defective Burners. 

The commissioner shall have authority to order any 
defect in the working of such burners as are necessary for 
public safety to be remedied. 

Existing Theatre Burners. 

So much of this section as applies to the inspection of 
gas burners shall apply to buildings now used as theatres. 
[1921, c. 60 sect. 9.] 

SECTION 100. 

Stairs. 
The cut of the stair stringers shall not exceed seven 
and one-half inches rise, nor be less than ten and one-half 
inches tread. There shall be no flights of stairs of more 
than fifteen or less than three steps between landings. 

SECTION 101. 

Landings of Stairs. 

Every landing shall be at least four feet wide. When 
straight stairs return directly on themselves, a landing of 
the full width of both flights, without any steps, shall be 
provided. The outer line of landings shall be curved to 
a radius of not less than two feet to avoid square angles. 
Stairs turning at an angle shall have a proper landing 
without winders introduced at the turn except stairway 
leading to private boxes. No door shall open immediately 
upon a flight of stairs, but a landing at least two feet 
wider than the width of the door openings shall be pro- 
vided between such stairs and such door. When two 
side flights connect with one main flight, no windows shall 



164 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 101.] 

be introduced, and the width of the main flight shall be 
at least equal to the aggregate width of the side flights. 

[1921, c. 60, sect. 10.] 

SECTION 102. 
Hand Rails. 

All enclosed stairways shall have, on both sides, strong 
hand-rails, firmly secured to the wall, about three inches 
distant therefrom and about three feet high above the 
stairs. 

All stairways eight feet and over in width shall be pro- 
vided with a central rail of metal or hard wood, not less 
than two inches in diameter, placed at a height of about 
three feet above the centre of the treads, supported on 
wrought metal or brass standards of sufficient strength, 
securely bolted to the treads or risers of the stairs; and 
at the head of each flight of stairs, and on each side of the 
landing, the post or standard shall be at least six feet in 
height, and the rail shall be secured to the post. 

SECTION 103. 

Measurements for Width of Stairs. 

The width of all stairs shall be measured in the clear 
between the hand-rails. 

No winding or circular stairs shall be permitted. 

SECTION 104. 

Radiators Forbidden in Passageways. 

No coil or radiator or floor register shall be placed in 
any aisle or passageway used as an exit; but all such coils 
and radiators may be placed in recesses formed in the wall 
or partition to receive the same. 



City op Boston Building Law. 165 

Sect. 104.] 

Heating Apparatus Location. 

No boiler, furnace, engine or heating apparatus, except 
steam, hot water or hot air pipes or radiators shall be 
located under the auditorium or under any passage or 
stairway or exit of any theatre. 

Sprinklers and Standpipes. 

There shall be at least two two-inch high-service stand- 
pipes on the stage of every theatre, with ample provision 
of hose nozzles at each level of the stage on each side, and 
the water shall be kept turned on during the occupation 
of the building by an audience. The said pipes shall in 
no case be sealed, and shall have two gates, one above the 
other, with a proper test or waste valve; the lower gate 
to be kept open at all times. The proscenium opening of 
every theater shall be provided with a two and one half 
inch perforated iron pipe, or equivalent equipment of 
automatic or open sprinklers, so constructed as to form, 
when in operation, a complete water curtain for the whole 
proscenium opening, and there shall be for the rest of the 
stage a complete system of fire apparatus and perforated 
iron pipes, automatic or open sprinklers. Such pipes or 
sprinklers shall be supplied with water by high pressure 
service, and shall be at all times ready for use. 

SECTION 105. 

Places of Public Assembly. 

Hereafter Erected. 

Every building hereafter erected with a hall or assembly 

room to contain a public audience of more than eight 

hundred persons, or with more than one superimposed 

gallery or balcony, shall be of first class construction; 



166 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 105.] 

except that halls or assembly-rooms, the mean level of 
the main floor of which is not more than five feet above 
the grade of the principal street, upon which it abuts or of 
the adjoining land may have roofs of second class con- 
struction. 

Every building hereafter erected with a hall or assembly- 
room to contain an audience of more than six hundred 
persons, the main floor of which is raised more than 
fifteen feet above the level of the curb of the principal 
street upon which it abuts or of the adjoining land, shall 
be of first-class construction throughout. 

Capacity. 

The capacity of a hall or assembly-room shall be es- 
timated on the basis of six square feet for each person. 

If several halls or assembly-rooms are provided in one 
building, their aggregate capacity shall be considered as 
determining whether or not the building shall be of fireproof 
construction, unless the several halls are enclosed by or 
separated from each other by fireproof walls, or floors, 
with fireproof doors in the same, in which case the build- 
ing may be of second-class construction. 

Alterations to Conform, to Act. 
No existing building shall be altered to contain a hall 
or assembly-room exceeding the foregoing dimensions, 
unless the whole building as altered shall conform to the 
provisions of this act. 

Seats. — Obstructions. 

All seats in places of public assemblage shall be spaced 

as hereinbefore provided, and, while such places of public 

assemblage are occupied by an audience, shall be secured 

in such manner as will be satisfactory to the building com- 



City of Boston Building Law. 167 

Sect. 105.] 

missioner of the city of Boston. No temporary seats or 
other obstructions shall be allowed in any aisle, passage- 
way or stairway of a place of public assemblage, and no 
person shall remain in any aisle, passageway or stair- 
way of any building during any performance. 

Existing Hall. Ways of Egress, Lighting Of. 
Every existing building containing a hall or assembly- 
room to which admission is not free, and to which the pro- 
visions of chapter four hundred and ninety-four of the 
acts of the year nineteen hundred and eight, relative to the 
licensing of public entertainments apply, shall have all 
the ways of egress from such building sufficiently lighted, 
and lighted in a manner satisfactory to the building com- 
missioner, while the hall or assembly-room is occupied by 
an audience. 

[1912, c. 370, sect. 1.] 

[1913, c. 50, sect. 1.] 

[1921, c. 60, sect. 11.] 

[1923, c. 462, sect. 24.] 

SECTION 106. 

Moving Picture Shows. 

All moving picture shows shall be subject to the pro- 
visions of chapter one hundred and seventy-six and of 
chapter four hundred and thirty-seven of the acts of the 
year nineteen hundred and five, and of any amendments 
thereof or additions thereto now or hereafter made. 

SECTION 107. 

Exits, Etc. 
Halls — Hereafter Erected. 
Every building hereafter erected containing a hall or 
assembly-room shall conform to all the aforesaid require- 



168 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 107.] 

ments as to exits, stairways, exit lights, aisles, and seats, 
which apply to theatres; provided, that the same are 
necessary for the preservation of public safety and are 
specially ordered by the building commissioner. All 
orders of the building commissioner under the provisions 
of this section shall be subject to the authority of a 
majority of the Board of Appeal, which may annul or 
modify such orders. 

[1915, c. 352, sect. 5. Special Act.] 

SECTION 108. 
Roof Gardens. 

Nothing herein contained shall prevent the placing of 
a roof garden, art gallery, or rooms for similar purposes 
above a theatre, provided the floor of the same forming 
the roof over such theatre shall be constructed of fire- 
proof materials, and shall have no covering boards or 
sleepers of wood. Every roof over such garden or other 
rooms shall have all supports and rafters of steel, and, if 
covered, shall be covered with glass or fireproof material, 
or both. 

SECTION 109. 

Exits from Roof Gardens. 
Exits from roof gardens may communicate with stairs 
leading from the auditorium of the theatre, but they 
shall be at least four in number, not less than four feet 
six inches wide, and distinct and separate from each other 
from roof to street. 

SECTION 110. 

Summer Theatres. 
Summer theatres, if built without the building limits, 
and located thirty feet distant from any other building 
or structure or adjoining lot lines, and of no greater seat- 



City of Boston Building Law. 169 

Sect, no.] 

ing capacity than seven hundred and fifty persons, and 
not more than one story high, without balconies, or 
galleries, may be constructed as follows: — 

The auditorium, without a cellar or basement, with 
open sides of double the number of exits as hereinbefore 
provided, opening directly into the surrounding courts or 
gardens at the grade level, and the adjoining dressing 
rooms, may be of wooden construction, but the stage 
shall be enclosed in brick walls not less than twelve inches 
thick, or shall be plastered on metal lathing throughout: 
-provided, that the openings leading to the dressing rooms 
shall be provided with fire doors. 

Otherwise, all protective features and arrangements 
shall comply with all previous sections of this title. 

SECTION 111. 

Existing Theatres. 

Stairs — Stairways. 

All stairs of theatres shall have throughout proper 
hand-rails on both sides firmly secured to walls or to 
strong posts and balusters. Stairways twelve feet or 
more wide shall have one or more intermediate rails not 
more than eight feet apart and properly supported. 

Heating Apparatus — Location. 

No boiler, furnace, engine or heating apparatus, except 
steam, hot water or hot air pipes or radiators, shall be 
located under the auditorium nor under any passage or 
stairway or exit of any theatre. 

Illuminated Exit Signs — Emergency Lights. 

In every theatre there shall be over every exit, on the 
inside, and over every opening to a fire-escape, on the 



170 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 111.] 

inside, an illuminated sign, bearing the word "exit" or 
"fire-escape," respectively, in letters not less than four 
inches high. An emergency arc light or its equivalent 
shall be installed in the auditorium, which light or lights, 
exit lights, and all lights in halls, corridors, or any part 
of the building used by the audience, except the general 
auditorium lighting, shall be fed independently of the 
stage lighting, and shall be controlled only from the lobby 
or other convenient place in the front of the house. Every 
exit sign shall be kept illuminated and every outside bal- 
cony and fire-escape shall be kept well lighted during the 
performance, except outside exists during a performance 
in the daytime and before sunset. 

Exits to Open Outward — Plans of Exits on Programs. 

The exits and openings to fire-escapes of all theatres 
shall open outward and have fastenings on the inside 
only. They shall be unfastened during every perform- 
ance and shall be so arranged that they can easily be 
opened from within. Plans showing the exits and stair- 
ways shall be legibly printed so as to occupy a full page of 
every program or play bill. 

Temporary Seats. 
No temporary seats or other obstructions shall be 
allowed in any aisle or stairway of a theatre and no 
person shall remain in any aisle or stairway of any such 
building during any performance. 

Fire Curtain. 

The proscenium or curtain opening of every theatre 

shall have a fire resisting curtain of incombustible material 

reinforced by wire netting or otherwise strengthened. 

If of iron, or similar heavy material, and made to lower 



City of Boston Building Law. 171 

Sect. Ill J 

from the top, it shall be so arranged as to be stopped 
securely at a height of seven feet above the stage floor, 
the remaining opening being closed by a curtain or valance 
of fire-resisting fabric. The curtain shall be raised at the. 
beginning and lowered at the end of every performance, 
and shall be of proper material, construction and 
mechanism. 

Stage Ventilators. 

There shall be one or more ventilators near the centre 
and above the highest part of the stage of every theatre, 
of a combined area of opening satisfactory to the building 
commissioner, and not less than one tenth of the area of 
the proscenium opening. Every such ventilator shall 
have a valve or louvre so counterbalanced as to open 
automatically, and shall be kept closed, when not in use, 
by a fusible link and cord reaching to the prompter's 
desk, or any other place easily reached from the stage level 
and readily operated therefrom. Such cord shall be of 
combustible material, and so arranged that if it is severed 
the ventilator will open automatically. 



Standpipes — Sprinklers. 
There shall be at least two two-inch high-service stand- 
pipes on the stage of every theatre, with ample provision 
of hose nozzle at each level of the stage on each side and 
the water shall be kept turned on during the occupation of 
the building by an audience. The said pipes shall in no 
case be sealed and shall have a gate and check valve and 
shall have a test valve placed between the gate valve and 
check valve. The proscenium opening of every theatre 
shall be provided with a two and one half inch perforated 
iron pipe or equivalent equipment of automatic or open 
sprinklers, as the commissioner may direct, so constructed 
as to form when in operation a complete water curtain for 



172 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 111.] 

the whole proscenium opening and there shall be for the 
rest of the stage a complete system of fire apparatus and 
perforated iron pipes, automatic or open sprinklers. Such 
pipes or sprinklers shall be supplied with water by high 
pressure service, and shall be ready for use at all times. 

[1908, c. 336, sect. 1.] 
[1909, c. 313, sect. 1.] 

SECTION 112. 
Plumbing. 

[See separate document issued under this title.] 

Definition of Terms. 

The following terms shall have the meanings respectively 
assigned to them: — 

"Repair of Leaks" shall mean such repairs as are neces- 
sary to protect property, but do not involve any extensive 
change in construction. 

"Y-branches" shall mean a branch at sufficient angle 
to direct the flow and prevent backing up. 

"Air pipes" or "back air pipes" shall mean air pipes 
from traps that extend toward the main soil pipe of the 
outer air and connect with not more than three traps. 

"Vent pipes" shall mean general lines of back air pipes 
connecting with more than three fixtures. 

"Drain" shall mean that part of the drainage system 
of a building extending through basement or cellar to 
sewer. 

"Soil pipe" shall mean that part of the drainage sys- 
tem of a building, of four inches or more internal diameter, 
between basement or cellar and the highest fixture in the 
building. 

"Ventilation pipe" shall mean the extension of the soil 
pipe from the highest fixture to and through the roof. 

"Surface drain" shall mean a connection with drain in 
the basement to allow egress of surface water or overflow. 



City of Boston Building Law. 173 

Sect. 112.] 

"Fixture" shall mean any receptacle or outlet placed 
for the purpose of disposing of waste water or other matter, 
and connecting with the waste, soil or drain pipe of a 
building. 

SECTION 113. 

Registration. 

No plumber shall engage in or work at the business of 
plumbing unless he shall first have registered his name and 
place of business in the office of the commissioner, and no 
person shall by display of sign or plumbing material, or 
otherwise, advertise as a plumber unless he shall have been 
registered or licensed as such. Every master plumber shall 
conspicuously display his certificate or license within his 
place of business. Notice of any change in the place of 
business of a registered or licensed master plumber shall 
immediately be given by him to the commissioner. 

[Chap. 103, Revised Laws.] 
[Chap. 287, Acts of 1914.] 
[Chap. 536, Acts of 1919.] 

SECTION 114. 

Notices. 
Every plumber, before any work in a building, shall, 
except in the case of repair of leaks, file in the office of 
the commissioner upon blanks for that purpose, an appli- 
cation for a permit, and if required by the commissioner a 
plan or sketch of the work to be performed; and no such 
work shall be done in any building without a written 
permit from the commissioner. 

SECTION 115. 
Connection With Sewer or Drain. 
The plumbing of every building shall be separately and 
independently connected outside the building with the 



174 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 115.] 

public sewer, if such sewer is provided, or with a proper 
and sufficient private drain or sewer laid outside of the 
building, and if a sewer is not accessible, with a proper 
cesspool. Several buildings may have a common sewer 
connection if such connection is approved by the commis- 
sioner and the superintendent of sewers. 

SECTION 116. 

Inspection and Tests. 

Pipes or other fixtures shall not be covered or con- 
cealed from view until approved by the commissioDer, who 
shall examine or test the same within two working days 
after notice that they are ready for inspection. Plumbing 
shall not be used unless, when roughed in, the wastes, vents 
and back air pipes and traps are first tested by water or 
sufficient air pressure in the presence of an inspector, 
when such testing is practicable. 

SECTION 117. 

Soil and Waste Pipes and Traps. 
The waste pipe of every independent sink, basin, 
bath-tub, water closet, slop-hopper, urinal or other fix- 
ture shall be furnished with a separate trap which shall 
be placed as near as practicable to the fixture which i t 
serves. A sink and set of three wash-trays may be con- 
nected to the house drain through one five-inch round trap, 
when the outlet of the sink is not over three feet six inches 
from the nearest outlet from the wash-trays; and in such 
case the trap shall be above the floor. The outlet from 
each fixture shall enter the trap separately. Not more 
than four wash-bowls or sinks in a continuous line may be 
connected to the house drain through one five-inch round 
trap. Two or more fixtures on the same level with not 
more than two feet of waste pipe and connecting into the 



City of Boston Building Law. 175 

Sect. 117.] 

soil or waste pipe not more than eighteen inches below 
the top water line of the trap, shall not require other 
vent than the continuation of the soil or waste pipe full 
size for its whole length. Lateral branches of soil or waste 
pipe, if more than twenty feet in length, shall be extended 
through the roof undiminished in size. All connections 
on lead waste and back air pipes and of lead pipes to brass 
ferule and soldering nipples shall be full size wiped soldered 
branch, round or flange joints. Soil and waste pipes shall 
have proper T-Y or Y branches for all fixture connections. 
No connection to lead bends for water-closets or slop 
sinks shall be permitted, except the required back air 
pipe where a continuous vent is not practicable. 

Earthenware Traps. 
Earthenware traps shall have heavy brass floor plates 
soldered to the lead bends and bolted to the trap flange, 
and the joint made gas tight with red or white lead. Rub- 
ber washers for floor connections shall not be used. 

Back Air Pipes, Vents, etc. 

Traps shall be protected from siphonage or air pressure 
by special iron or brass air pipes of a size not less than the 
waste pipes they serve; back air pipes shall not be con- 
nected to the trap or branched into the waste pipe except 
where a continuous vent is not practicable, but a suitable 
non-siphon trap may be used without a back air pipe upon 
the approval of the commissioner. Back air pipes shall 
enter the waste pipe within eighteen inches from the trap 
and shall be a continuation of the waste pipe. Lead air 
pipes may be used only for short connections where they 
are exposed to view. Air pipes for water-closet traps shall 
be connected to the highest point of bend or trap, and 
may be of two inch bore if for not more than three fixtures 
and less than thirty feet in length; if for more than three 



176 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 117.] 

fixtures or more than thirty feet in length they shall be 
of three inch bore. Air pipes shall be run as direct as 
practicable and if one and one half inches or less in dia- 
meter shall not exceed thirty feet in length. Two or more 
air pipes may be connected together or with a vent pipe; 
but in every such case the connection shall be above the 
top of the fixture. The trap for the upper fixture on a 
line of soil or waste pipe, within five feet of the stack in a 
horizontal line, shall not require a special air pipe, unless 
the outlet is branched into a stack more than eighteen 
inches below the top water fine of the trap. Diameters 
of vent pipe shall be not less than two inches for main 
vents through less than seven stories; three inches for 
water-closets on more than three floors, and for other 
fixtures in more than seven stories. All vent pipes shall 
be increased one inch in diameter before passing through 
the roof. Vent lines shall be connected at the bottom 
with a soil or waste pipe or with the drain, in such a manner 
as to prevent accumulation of rust scale and properly to 
drip the water of condensation. Offsets shall be made at 
an angle of not less than forty-five degrees. Soil pipes or 
iron waste pipes, vents and back air pipes, shall be sup- 
ported by clamps to the woodwork, iron drive hooks to 
brick walls, or bolted clamps to iron girders. 

Non-Siphon Traps — Round Traps. 
All traps, except for water-closets, not provided with 
special air pipes shall be suitable non-siphon traps and 
shall have at least a four inch water seal. Round traps 
shall be not less than four inches in diameter and eight 
inches long, and made of eight pound lead. All traps 
screws shall be water sealed. 

Chemical Laboratories. 
Fixtures and waste pipes in chemical laboratories shall 
be installed in accordance with plans approved by the 
commissioner. 



City of Boston Building Law. 177 

Sect. 117.] 

Stables. 

The drainage of stable fixtures shall be constructed 
according to plans approved by the commissioner. 

SECTION 118. 

Back Air Pipe. 

In buildings where a series of bathrooms or kitchens are 
located directly over each other and have a common soil 
or waste pipe, the back air pipe required shall be a vent 
line connecting with each outlet branch close to the water- 
closet connection or outlet from the sink trap, each 
branch vent to connect to vent line above the top of the 
highest fixture on each floor, the vent line to connect to 
main vent line above the top of the highest fixture in the 
building. 

Batteries of Water-Closets. 

In the case of batteries of water-closets or other fixtures 
the special air pipe from each trap may be omitted, pro- 
vided that the soil or waste pipe, undiminished in size, is 
continued to a point above the roof or revented into the 
main soil pipe system above the top of the uppermost 
fixture. 

The commissioner shall prepare explanatory sketches 
showing the method of construction described in this 
section. 

SECTION 119. 

Refrigerator Wastes and Drip Pipes. 
All drip or overflow pipes shall be extended to some place 
in open sight, and in no case shall any such pipe be con- 
nected directly with the drain pipe. No waste pipe from a 
refrigerator or other receptacle in which provisions are 
stored shall be connected directly with a drain or other 
waste pipe. The waste pipes from all other fixtures shall 
be connected directly with a drain pipe. Refrigerator 



178 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 119.J 

wastes connecting with two or more stories shall be 
supplied with a trap on the branch for each floor and 
extended through the roof. 

SECTION 120. 

Water-Closets, etc. 

Every Avater-closet or line of water-closets shall be 
supplied with water from a tank or cistern, and shall 
have a flushing pipe of not less than one and one quarter 
inches in diameter. Privy vaults shall be of brick and 
cement of a capacity of not less than fifty cubic feet, of 
easy access, convenient to open, and clean, and water- 
tight. The inside shall be not less than two feet from the 
next lot and from any public or private way. 

SECTION 121. 
Soil and Waste Pipes Dimensions. 
The diameters of soil and waste pipes shall be not less 
than those given in the following table: — 

Inches. 

Soil pipes ,-•""'.. . 4 

Main waste pipes 2 

Main waste pipes for kitchen sinks on five or more 

floors 3 

Branch waste pipes for laundry tubs . . . If 

Branch waste for kitchen sinks .... If 

Branch waste for urinals If 

No branch waste for other fixtures shall be less than, If 

Exceptions 
Except that, with the approval of the commissioner, a 
three-inch soil pipe may be used for one water-closet 
where it is not practicable to use a four-inch pipe. 



City of Boston Building Law. 179 

Sect. 121J 

Ferrules, Clean-Outs, etc. 
Brass ferrules shall be of the best quality, bell-shaped, 
extra heavy cast brass, not less than four inches long 
and two and one quarter inches, three and one half inches, 
and four and one half inches in diameter, and of not less 
than the following weights: — 
Diameters. Weights. 

2\ inches 1 pound ounces. 

Z\ inches 1 pound 12 ounces. 

4 1 inches 2 pounds 8 ounces. 

One and one-half inch ferrules shall not be used. 

Soldering Nipples. 
Soldering nipples shall be of heavy cast brass or of brass 
pipe, iron pipe size. If cast, they shall be of not less than 
the following weights: — 

Diameter. Weights. 

1 \ inches pounds 8 ounces. 

2 inches pounds 14 ounces. 

2\ inches 1 pound 6 ounces. 

3 inches 2 pounds ounces. 

4 inches . . . . . .3 pounds 8 ounces. 

Clean-Outs — Screw Caps. 

Where clean-outs are used the screw cap shall be of 
brass, extra heavy and not less than one eighth of an inch 
thick. The engaging parts shall have not less than six 
threads of iron pipe size and shall be tapered. Clean-outs 
shall be full size of trap up to four inches in diameter and 
not less than four inches for larger traps. 

The screw caps shall have a solid square or hexagonal 
nut not less than one half inch high, with a least diameter 
of one and one half inches. The bodies of brass clean-out 
ferrules shall be at least equal in weight and thickness to 
the calking ferrule for the same size of pipe. 



180 

Sect. 121.J 



City of Boston Building Law. 



Lead Pipes. Use Restricted. 

The use of lead pipes is restricted to short branches of 
the soil and waste pipes, bends and traps, and roof con- 
nections of inside leaders. "Short branches" of lead pipe 
shall mean not more than: — 



5 feet of lj inch pipe. 
5 feet of If inch pipe. 
4 feet of 2 inch pipe. 
2 feet of 3 inch pipe. 
2 feet of 4 inch pipe. 



Lead Pipe — Weight — Thickness. 

The pipe shall be not less than the following average 
thickness and weight per linear foot: — 







Weights per 


Diameters. 


Thicknesses. 


Linear Foot. 


If inches 





2.50 pounds. 


If inches 


. 14 inch 


2.68 pounds. 


2 inches 


. 15 inch 


3.61 pounds. 


2\ inches 


. 20 inch 


5.74 pounds. 


3 inches 


. 20 inch 


5.74 pounds. 


3 inches 


.21 inch 


7.54 pounds. 


3| inches 


. 22 inch 


9.00 pounds. 


4 inches 


. 23 inch 


10.66 pounds. 


4| inches 


.24 inch 


12.34 pounds. 


5 inches 


. 25 inch 


14.50 pounds. 


6 inches 


. 28 inch 


18.76 pounds. 


7 inches 


. 30 inch 


23.27 pounds. 


8 inches 


. 32 inch 


28. 18 pounds. 


9 inches 


.34 inch 


33.70 pounds. 


10 inches 


. 36 inch 


40.06 pounds. 


11 inches 


. 37 inch 


45.02 pounds. 


12 inches 


. 37 inch 


48.98 pounds. 



City op Boston Building Law. 



181 



Sect. 121.] 



Brass Pipe. 

Brass pipe for soil, waste, vent and back air pipes shall 
be thoroughly annealed, seamless, drawn brass tubing, of 
not less than number thirteen Stubbs gauge. 

Lead and Iron Pipe Unions — Connections. 
No slip joint or unions shall be used on traps, waste 
vents or back air pipes. Threaded connections on brass 
traps shall be of the same size as pipe threads for the same 
size of pipe, and shall be tapered. Connections between 
lead and iron shall be made by brass sleeves or screw 
nipples wiped to the lead and calked or screwed into the 
iron. 

Brass Pipe. 

The following average thicknesses and weights per linear 
foot shall be used: — 



Diameters. 
1| inches 
2 inches 



3 inches 
3 1 inches 

4 inches 



5 inches 

6 inches 



Thicknesses. 
. 14 inch 
. 15 inch 
. 20 inch 
. 21 inch 
. 22 inch 
. 23 inch 
. 24 inch 
. 25 inch 
. 28 inch 



Weights per 
Linear Foot. 

2 . 84 pounds. 

3.82 pounds. 

6. 08 pounds. 

7. 92 pounds. 

9.54 pounds. 
11.29 pounds. 
13.08 pounds. 
15. 37 pounds. 
19. 88 pounds. 



Cast Iron Pipes, etc. 
Cast iron pipes shall be uncoated, sound, cylindrical and 
smooth, free from cracks and other defects, of uniform 
thickness and of the grade known to commerce as "extra 
heavy." If buried under ground they shall be coated 
with asphaltum or red lead. 



182 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 121.] 

Pipe, including the hub, shall weigh not less than the 
following average weights per linear foot: — 



Diameters. 



Weights 

per Linear 

Foot. 



Diameters. 



Weights 

per Linear 

Foot. 



2 inches 

3 inches 

4 inches 

5 inches 

6 inches 



5 § pounds. 

9 1 pounds. 
13 pounds. 
17 pounds. 
20 pounds. 



7 inches (not stock size), 

8 inches , 

10 inches 

12 inches 



27 pounds. 
33! pounds. 
45 pounds. 
54 pounds. 



All joints shall be made with picked oakum and molten 
lead run full and be made gas tight. No cement joints 
nor connections between iron and cement or tile pipe or 
brick drains shall be made within any building. 





Wrought Iron Pipe. 


Galvanised wrought iron pipe shall be of not less than 


the following thickness and weight 


per linear foot: — 






Weights per 


Diameters. 


Thicknesses. 


Linear Foot. 


1£ inches 


. 14 inch 


2.68 pounds. 


2 inches 


. 15 inch 


3.61 pounds. 


2| inches 


. 20 inch 


5.74 pounds. 


3 inches 


. 21 inch 


7.54 pounds 


3£ inches 


. 22 inch 


9.00 pounds. 


4 inches 


. 23 inch 


10.66 pounds. 


4§ inches 


.24 inch 


12.34 pounds. 


5 inches 


. 25 inch 


14.50 pounds. 


6 inches 


. 28 inch 


18. 76 pounds. 


7 inches 


.30 inch 


23. 27 pounds. 


8 inches 


. 32 inch 


28. 18 pounds. 


9 inches 


. 34 inch 


33.70 pounds. 


10 inches 


. 36 inch 


40.06 pounds. 


11 inches 


.37 inch 


45.02 pounds. 


12 inches 


.37 inch 


48.98 pounds. 



City op Boston Building Law. 183 

Sect. 121.] 

Extra Heavy. 

The threaded part of the pipe if less than one and one 
half inches long shall be of the thickness and weight 
known as "extra heavy" or "extra strong." 

Fittings. 

Fittings on wrought iron vent or back air pipes shall be 
galvanized recessed cast iron threaded fittings. Fittings 
for "Plumber's tubing" shall be heavy weight with sharp 
threads. 

Fittings for waste or soil or refrigerator waste pipes of 
wrought iron or brass pipe shall be galvanized cast iron, 
or brass, recessed, and threaded drainage fittings, with 
smooth interior waterway and threads tapped so as to 
give a uniform grade to branches of not less than one 
quarter of an inch per foot. 

Joints. 

All joints on wrought iron or brass pipe shall be screwed 
joints made up with red lead, and any burr formed in 
cutting shall carefully be reamed out. 

SECTION 122. 

Drain Pipes, etc. 

Drain and connecting ventilation pipes, vents and back 
air pipes shall be of sufficient size, and made of extra 
heavy cast iron pipe if under ground, and if above ground 
shall be made of extra heavy cast iron galvanized wrought 
iron of standard weight, or of not less than number thir- 
teen Stubbs gauge brass pipe within the building, except 
that lead pipes may be used for short connections exposed 
to view. Cast iron drains shall extend not less than ten 
feet from the inside face of the wall beyond and away 
from the building. 



184 City op Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 122 .j 

Drain pipes above ground shall be secured by iron to 
walls suspended from floor timbers by strong iron hangers 
or supported on brick piers. Proper manholes shall be 
supplied to reach clean-outs and traps. Every drain 
pipe shall have a fall of not less than one quarter inch 
per foot and shall be extended from a point ten feet out- 
side the inside face of the wall unobstructed to and 
through the roof undiminished in size and to a height 
not less than two feet above the roof and not less than 
one foot above the top of any window within fifteeen feet 
and not less than eight feet above the roof if the roof is 
used for drying clothes or as a roof garden. The drain 
pipe shall be supplied with a Y branch fitted with a brass 
clean-out or with an iron stopper if required on the 
direct run at or near the point where the drain leaves the 
building. Changes in direction shall be made with 
curved pipes and all connections with horizontal or verti- 
cal pipes shall be made with Y branches. Saddle hubs 
shall not be used. All drain pipes shall be exposed to 
sight within the building if such exposure is practicable, 
and shall not be exposed to pressure where they pass 
through the wall. 

Steam Exhausts, etc. 

No steam or vapor or water of a temperature over one 
hundred and thirty degrees Fahrenheit shall be dis- 
charged from any premises into any sewer, drain or 
catch-basin, nor shall any matter or thing be discharged 
into any sewer which may tend to cause an obstruction 
of the public sewer or a nuisance or a deposit therein or 
any injury thereto. 

Blow-off Tanks. 

All high pressure steam boilers shall be connected with 
a blow-off tank of a capacity not less than thirty per cent 



City of Boston Building Law. 185 

Sect. 122.] 

of the largest boiler connected with such tank. The loca- 
tion of and the connections to said blow-off tank shall be 
subject to the approval of the superintendent of sewers. 

Steam Exhausts. 

No steam exhaust or steam drip, unless it be provided 
with a cooling tank of a capacity approved by the super- 
intendent of sewers, or unless it be connected with the 
blow-off tank, shall connect with any drain leading to 
the sewer. Every blow-off tank shall be supplied with a 
vapor pipe not less than two inches in diameter which 
shall be carried above the roof and above the highest 
windows of the building. 

Blow-off Tanks. — Additional Requirements. — Rain Water 

Leaders. 

The superintendent of sewers may require such addi- 
tional means for cooling the blow-off tanks by the injec- 
tion of cold water or otherwise as may be necessary to 
reduce the temperature of the water passing from the 
blow-off tank so that it shall not exceed one hundred and 
thirty degrees Fahrenheit. All buildings shall have 
leaders sufficient to discharge the roof water in such a 
manner as not to flow upon public way or any neighboring 
property. Such leaders may project into a public way 
not over seven inches. 

[1923, c. 462, sect. 25.] 

SECTION 123. 
Special Traps, etc. 
Grease. — Gasolene 
Every building from which, in the opinion of the super- 
intendent of sewers, grease may be discharged in such 
quantity as to clog or injure the sewer, shall have a special 



186 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 123.] 

grease trap satisfactory to the superintendent of sewers. 
Every building in which gasolene, naphtha or other in- 
flammable compounds are used for business purposes 
shall be provided with a special trap, satisfactory to the 
superintendent of sewers, so designed as to prevent the 
passage of such material into the sewer, and ventilated 
with a separate pipe rising to a point four feet above the 
roof. All non-siphon traps shall be of a type approved 
by the commissioner. The waste pipe of every wash 
stand for vehicles shall be provided with a sand box of 
sufficient capacity. 

The waste pipe from the sink of every hotel, eating 
house, restaurant or other public cooking establishment, 
shall be connected to a grease trap of sufficient size, easily 
accessible to open and clean, placed as near as practicable 
to the fixtures that it serves. 



SECTION 124. 
Roof Leaders and Surface Drains. 

Rain water leaders when connected with house drains 
shall be suitably trapped and, within the proposed surface 
drainage area, shall not be connected at the top of the 
stack, nor extended down through the interior of the build- 
ing, except by special permit from the commissioner. 
Wherever a surface drain is installed in a cellar or base- 
ment, it shall be provided with a deep seal trap and back 
water valve. Drain pipes from fixtures in cellars and 
basements liable to back flow from a sewer shall be supplied 
with back water valves. 



City op Boston Building Law. 187 



SECTION 125. 

Hazardous Buildings and Appliances for Power and 

Heat. 

Permits — Publications. 
* (No building shall be used for a grain elevator or for 
storage or manufacture of high combustibles or explosives 
or for chemical or rendering works, without a permit from 
the commissioner, and) no engine, dynamo, boiler or 
furnace shall be placed in any building without a permit 
from the commissioner. Every application for such per- 
mit shall be in writing, shall be filed with the commissioner 
and shall set forth the character of the building, the size, 
power and purpose of the apparatus, and such other in- 
formation as the commissioner may require. The com- 
missioner may, after an examination of the premises 
described in the application, and after hearing the appli- 
cant and any objectors, issue a permit for placing a boiler 
or furnace on such premises, upon such conditions as he 
shall prescribe, or he may refuse such permit. If the 
application is for anything other than a boiler or furnace 
the applicant shall publish in at least two daily newspapers 
published in the city of Boston, and on at least three days 
in each, and, if so directed by the commissioner, shall also 
post conspicuously on the premises a copy of the appli- 
cation, and shall deliver copies thereof to such persons 
as the commissioner may designate. 

If no objection is filed with the commissioner before 
the expiration of ten days after the time of the first pub- 
lication of notice, or within ten days of the delivery and 

* Portion in parenthesis superseded by c. 795, sects. 3, 6, 7 and 29 of 

Acts of 1914, Fire Prevention Act. 

Chapter 795 superseded by General Lawe, Chapter 148. 



188 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 125.] 

first posting of the notice, if such delivery or posting is 
required the commissioner shall if the arrangement, 
location and construction of the proposed apparatus is 
proper and in accordance with the provisions of this act, 
issue a permit for the same. If objection is filed the 
application shall be referred to the board of appeal which 
may in its discretion require the deposit by the objector 
of a reasonable sum as security for the payment of the 
costs. 

After such notice as the board shall order it shall hear 
the same and shall direct the commissioner to issue a 
permit under such conditions as it may prescribe, or to 
withhold the same. If the permit is refused, the appli- 
cant and if it is granted the objectors shall pay such 
costs as the board may order. 

The commissioner may, from time to time, after public 
notice and hearing, prescribe the conditions on which 
furnaces, boilers, or other steam generators and hot water 
heaters may be maintained in buildings, and, if any per- 
son interested objects to such conditions and appeals from 
his decision establishing the same, the appeal shall be 
referred to the board of appeal, and thereupon said board 
shall prescribe the conditions. 

[See General Laws, Chapter 148.] 
[1923, c. 462, sect. 26.] 

SECTION 126. 
Combustible Materials. 
Storage Prohibited. 
No building adapted for habitation, nor any part 
thereof, nor the lot upon which it is located, shall be used 
as a place for the storage, keeping or handling of any com- 
bustible article, except under such conditions as may be 
prescribed by the fire commissioner. No such building 



City of Boston Building Law. 189 

Sect. 126.] 

nor any part thereof, nor of the lot upon which it is located, 
shall be used as a place for the storage, keeping or handling 
of any article dangerous or detrimental to life or health, 
nor for the storage, keeping or handling of feed, hay, 
straw, excelsior, cotton, paper stock, feathers or rags. 

[Superseded by 1914, c. 795, sects. 6, 7, Fire Prevention Act.] 
Chapter 795, superseded by General Laws, Chapter 148. 

SECTION 127. 

Enforcement of Act. 
Safety of Building — Owner Responsible. 
Every structure and part thereof and appurtenant 
thereto shall be maintained in such repair as not to be 
dangerous. The owner shall be responsible for the main- 
tenance of all buildings and structures. The lessee under 
a recorded lease, also executor, trustee, administrator, 
or agent with power of attorney, shall be deemed the 
owner under the provisions of this act. 

SECTION 128. 

Powers of the Board of Health. 

Limitation of Number of Occupants in Habitation. 

The board of health may by vote limit the number of 
occupants who shall be permitted to dwell in any building 
or in any part or parts thereof. They shall cause a copy 
of any such vote to be served upon the owner of the 
building, his agent, tenant or other persons having the 
charge thereof. If the owner, agent, tenant, or other 
persons having charge of said building allow or permit more 
people than are permitted by said vote to occupy the 
building or any part or parts thereof, said board may order 
the premises to be vacated, and they shall not again be 
occupied without the permission of the board, and the 
owner, agent, tenant or other persons having charge of said 



190 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 128.] 

building shall forfeit not more than twenty dollars for 
every day during which he violates such order. The 
board may make such further regulations as to over- 
crowding, ventilation, the construction of water-closets, 
the lighting of hallways, and the occupation of buildings 
or parts thereof, not inconsistent with other laws, as they 
may deem proper. Said board may permit rooms in 
private stables to be occupied for sleeping purposes by 
grooms and coachmen. 

Ashes — Garbage. 

No person shall place ashes, rubbish, garbage, refuse or 
other matter in the yards, open areas or alleys connected 
with or appurtenant to any such building except in suit- 
able receptacels provided for the same. 

Every building used for habitation by more than two 
families and every lodging house shall be carefullv inspected 
at least twice a year under the direction of the board of 
health, and whenever said board has made an order con- 
cerning such a building a reinspection shall be made within 
ten days after the board has been informed that the 
order has been complied with. 

[1913, c. 586, sect. 1.1 

SECTION 129. 

Enforcement — Jurisdiction in Equity. 

On Application of City Attorney. 

Any court having jurisdiction in equity or any justice 

thereof, shall upon the application of the city by its 

attorney, have jurisdiction in equity: — 

Injunction Restraining Use. 
To restrain the construction, alteration, repair, main- 
tenance, use or occupation of a building, structure or other 



City of Boston Building Law. 191 

Sect. 129.] 

thing constructed or used in violation of the provisions of 
this act, and to order its removal or abatement as a nui- 
sance; 

Restraining Construction, Use, etc. 

To restrain the further construction, alteration, repair, 
maintenance, use or occupation of a building, structure or 
other thing, which is unsafe or dangerous; 

To restrain the unlawful construction, alteration, repair, 
maintenance, use or occupation of any building, structure 
or other thing; 

To compel compliance with the provisions of this act; 

To order the removal by the owner of a building, struc- 
ture or other thing unlawfully existing, and to authorize 
the commissioner, with the written approval of the mayor, 
in default of such removal by the owner, to remove it at 
the owner's expense. 



Board of Appeal Decisions, Court May Review. 

Any person, the value of whose property may be affected 
by any decision of the board of appeal, may have the 
action of said board reviewed by the court by any appro- 
priate process, provided that proceedings are instituted 
within thirty days after the date of such decision. 

The person applying for the review shall file a bond 
with sufficient surety, to be approved by the court, for 
such sum as shall be fixed by the court, to indemnify and 
save harmless the person or persons in whose favor the 
decision was rendered from all damages and costs which 
they may sustain in case the decision of said board is 
affirmed. 

In case the decision of the board is affirmed the court, 
on motion, shall assess damages, and execution shall issue 
therefor. 



192 City of Boston Building Law. 

Sect. 129.] 

Right to Enter Any Building. 
Any person having any duty to perform under the pro- 
visions of this act may, so far as may be necessary for the 
performance of his duties, enter any building or premises 
in the city of Boston. 

SECTION 130. 
Jurisdiction at Law. 

The municipal court of the city of Boston, concurrently 
with the superior court, shall have jurisdiction throughout 
the city of prosecutions and proceedings at law under the 
provisions of this act, and also of all provisions of law 
relative to plumbing and gas-fitting. 

SECTION 131. 
Procedure. 

Under the entry of any case brought under the pro- 
visions of this act the court shall, at the request of either 
party, advance the case, so that it may be heard and 
determined with as little delay as possible. 

SECTION 132. 

Nuisance. 
Any Building Erected or Maintained in Violation of this 

Act. 
A building or structure which is erected or maintained 
in violation of the provisions of this act shall be deemed 
a common nuisance without other proof thereof than proof 
of its unlawful construction, and the commissioner may 
abate and remove it in the same manner in which boards 
of health may remove nuisances under the provisions of 



City of Boston Building Law. 193 

Sect. 132.] 

sections sixty-seven, sixty-eight and sixty-nine of chapter 
seventy-five of the Revised Laws.* 

Whoever violates any provision of this act, or whoever 
Luilds, alters, or maintains any structure or any part 
thereof in violations of any provision of this act, shall be 
punished by a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars, 
except as hereinbefore provided. 

[1913, c. 586, sect. 2. See R. L., c. 104.] 
♦The provisions of sects. 67, 68 and 69 of c. 75, R. L., have been 
superseded by General Laws, c. Ill, sects. 123, 124, 125. 

SECTION 133. 
Repeals. 

So much of chapter four hundred and nineteen of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-two and of all 
acts in amendment thereof as is unrepealed is hereby re- 
pealed. So much of any other act as is inconsistent 
herewith is hereby repealed. 

SECTION 134. 

This act shall take effect upon the first day of August in 
the year nineteen hundred and seven. 

[Approved June 22 1907. 



APPENDICES. 



(195) 



196 Acts in Chronological Order. 



TITLE OF ACTS IN CHRONOLOGICAL 

ORDER. 



1873, Chap. 4. An Act to Authorize the Erection of 
Wooden Buildings in the City of Boston for Sanitary 
Purposes. 

1889, Chap. 129. An Act Relating to Buildings in the 
Public Parks of the City of Boston. 

1893, Chap. 462. An Act to Authorize the Establish- 
ment of a Building Line on Public Ways. (Restric- 
tions as to Building.) 

1897, Chap. 219. An Act to Provide for the Protection 
of the Public Health in the City of Boston. (Build- 
ings May be Vacated or Torn Down.) 

1897, Chap. 265. An Act Relative to the Licensing of 
Gas Fitters and to the Supervision of the Business 
of Gas Fitting in the City of Boston. 

1898, Chap. 452. An Act Relative to the Height of 
Buildings on and near Copley Square, in the City of 
Boston. 

1899, Chap. 457. An Act to Limit the Height of Build- 
ings in the Vicinity of the State House- (Height 
Limit, Seventy Feet.) 

1902, Chap. 543. An Act Relative to the Improvement 
of the State House and to the Height of Buildings 
on Beacon Street and Bowdoin Street in the City of 
Boston. 

1904, Chap. 333. An Act Relative to the Height of 
Buildings in the City of Boston. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 197 

1905, Chap. 383. An Act Relative to the Height of 
Buildings in the City of Boston. 

1907, Chap. 416. An Act Relative to the Height of 
Buildings on Rutherford Avenue in the City of Bos- 
ton. (Height Limit One Hundred Feet.) 

1907, Chap. 463. An Act Relative to the Licensing of 
Theatres and Public Halls in the City of Boston. 

1910, Chap. 284. An Act Relative to the Construction, 
Alteration, Inspection and Maintenance of Buildings 
in the City of Boston. (Building Department to 
Enforce Building Laws in Boston Heretofore Enforced 
by District Police.) 

1910, Chap. 571. An Act to Authorize the Collection 
of fees for Permits and Licenses Issued by Depart- 
ments of the City of Boston. 

1911, Chap. 342. An Act to Regulate the Construction 
of Garages in the City of Boston. 

1912, Chap. 259. An Act Relative to the Construction 
of Garages in the City of Boston. 

1913, Chap. 280. An Act to Authorize the Mayor of the 
City of Boston to Grant Permits for Special Moving 
Picture Exhibitions in Churches, Halls, or Other 
Buildings. 

1913, Chap. 577. An Act to Regulate the Erection and 
Maintenance of Garages in the City of Boston. 

1913, Chap. 729. An Act Relative to Dry Houses in the 
City of Boston. 

1914, Chap. 782. An Act to Amend the Building Law 
of the City of Boston. Elevators Hereafter Erected 
to be Enclosed in Shafts, etc. 

1914, Chap. 786. An Act Exempting a Certain Parcel 
of Land in the City of Boston from Restrictions as 
to Height of Buildings, Washington Street, corner 
Lovering Place. 



198 Acts in Chronological Order. 

1915, Special Act, Chap. 254. An Act Relative to the 

Erection of Buildings in the City of Boston. Making 

the Use of Certain Buildings Lawful. 
1915, Special Act, Chap. 306. An Act Relative to the 

Shirley-Eustis Mansion on Shirley Street in the City 

of Boston. 

1915, Special Act, Chap. 333. An Act Relative to the 
Height of Buildings in the City of Boston. Revising 
Boundaries of Districts A and B. 

1916, Special Act, Chap. 86. An Act Relative to the Use 
of Public School Property of the City of Boston for 
Social, Civic and Other Purposes. 

1918, Special Act, Chap. 115. An Act to Allow Metal 
Garages of Limited Size in Certain Sections of the 
City of Boston. 

1919, Special Act, Chap. 32. An Act to Require the 
Registration of Hospitals in the City of Boston. 

1919, Special Act, Chap. 163. An Act Relative to the 
Construction, Alteration and Maintenance of Hos- 
pitals in the City of Boston. 

1920, Chap. 298. An Act Relative to the. Operation of 
Elevators by Minors. 

1920, Chap. 455. An Act Relative to the Limitation in 
Height of Buildings, on Land, between Dartmouth 
Street and Trinity Place, in the City of Boston. 

1920, Chap. 645. An Act Relative to Automatic Sprink- 
lers in Tenement Houses in the City of Boston. 

1921, Chap. 109. An Act Exempting Certain Buildings 
in, the City of Boston from the Laws Relative to Fire 
Protection in Stables for Horses and Mules. 

1921, Chap. 137. An Act to Establish Harbor Lines in 

South Bay in the City of Boston. 
1921, Chap. 298. An Act Relative to the Operation of 

Elevators by Minors. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 199 

1922, Chap. 61. An Act Relative to Sanitary Arrange- 
ments in Tenement Houses in the City of Boston. 

1922, Chap. 316. An Act Relative to Garages in the City 
of Boston. Approved by Mayor May 1, 1922. 

1923, Chap. 27. An Act Exempting a Certain Parcel of 
Land of the Massachusetts General Hospital, in the 
City of Boston, from Restrictions as to the Height of 
Buildings. 

1923, Chap. 278. An Act Requiring the Installation of 
Standpipes and Other Equipment in Certain Buildings 
in the City of Boston. 

1924, Chap. 332. An Act Providing for the Appointment 
of Special Night Elevator Inspectors and the Inspec- 
tion of Passenger Elevators at Night in the City of 
Boston. 

1924, Chapter 488. An Act Regulating and Restricting 
the Use of Buildings and Premises, the Height and 
Bulk of Buildings, and the Occupancy of Lots in the 
City of Boston and for said Purposes Dividing the 
City into Districts. 

General Laws, Chap. 4, Sect. 7. Definition — Statutes. 
Meaning of Certain Words in Construing Same. 

General Laws, Chap. 45, Sects. 7-11. Public Parks, 
Playgrounds and the Public Domain. Building Line, 
Height of Buildings on Parkway, Buildings on Parks. 

General Laws, Chap. 49, Sect. 21. Spite Fences in Excess 
of 6 Feet in Height. 

General Laws, Chap. 82, Sect. 37. Building Lines. 

General Laws, Chap. 83, Sect. 5. Storm Water. Sep- 
arate Systems of Plumbing. 

General Laws, Chap. 85, Sects. 8 and 9. Signs and Other 
Structures Projecting into Ways. 

General Laws, Chap. 139, Sects. 1 and 3. Common 
Nuisances. Burnt or Dangerous Buildings. 



200 Acts in Chronological Order. 

General Laws, Chap. 140, Sects. 33, 35, 38, 40. Licenses, 
Public Lodging Houses. 

General Laws, Chap. 142. Supervision of Plumbing. 

General Laws, Chap. 143. Inspection, Regulation and 
Licenses for Buildings, Elevators and Cinemato- 
graphs. 

General Laws, Chap. 148. Fire Prevention. 

General Laws, Chap. 149, Sect. 126. Doors not to be 
Locked During Working Hours in Operative Build- 
ings. 

General Laws, Chap. 184, Sect. 15. General Provisions 
Relating to Real Property Proceedings Affecting 
Title to Realty Binding on Third Parties. 

General Laws, Chap. 272, Sect. 86. Stables. Exits. 
Sprinklers. 

Revised Ordinances of 1911, Chap. 41. Concerning the 
Building limits. 

Revised Ordinances of 1914, Chap. 8. Concerning Con- 
trol of Building Operations, Person in Charge to be 
Licensed. 



CHAPTER 4, ACTS OF 1873. 

An Act to Authorize the Erection of Wooden 
Buildings in the City of Boston for Sanitary 
Purposes. 
Be it enacted, etc. 

Section 1. The City of Boston is hereby authorized 
to erect, under directions of its board of health and 
inspector of buildings, any wooden buildings within the 
city, for hospital purposes, the same to remain only so 
long as said board deems it necessary: provided, that every 
such hospital shall be constantly guarded outside by a 
competent force of at least three of the police of said city. 
Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[January 28, 1873. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 201 

CHAPTER 129, ACTS OF 1889. 

An Act Relating to Buildings in the Public Parks 
op the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The park commissioners of the city of 
Boston may erect in the parks of said city that now are 
or hereafter may be under their control, except the 
common, public garden and public squares, structures 
for the she 7 ter and refreshment of persons frequenting 
such parks, and for other park purposes, of such materials 
and in such places as in the opinion of the fire commis- 
sioners of said city do not endanger buildings beyond the 
limits of the park. Section sixteen of chapter fifty-four 
of the Public Statutes and chapter three hundred and 
seventy-four of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and 
eighty-five shall not apply to such buildings. 

Sect 2. This act shall take effect upon jts passage. 

[Approved March 18, 1889. 

Note. — See Gen. Laws, chap. 45, sects, 7 and 11. 



CHAPTER 462, ACTS OF 1893. 

An Act to Authorize the Establdshment of a 
Building Line on Public Ways. 
Restrictions as to Building. 
Section 1. The board or officers having authority to 
lay out city or town ways may in the manner prescribed 
by law for giving notice of an intention to lay out any such 
way, give notice of an intention to establish a building- 
line parallel to, and not more than twenty-five feet dis- 
tant from, any exterior line of a highway or city or town 
way, and after said notice may pass a vote establishing 
such building line, and in the case of a city, upon the 



202 Acts in Chronological Order. 

recording of said vote in the records of the city, or in a 
town, upon the acceptance of said vote by the inhabitants 
of the town at a town meeting called as provided for by 
law, said building line shall be established; and until 
another building line shall thereafter be established in the 
same manner, no structure shall thereafter be erected, 
placed or maintained between such building line and such 
way, except that steps, windows, porticos and other usual 
projections appurtenant to the front wall of a building 
may be allowed in such restricted space to the extent 
prescribed in the vote establishing such building line. 

Damages. 

Sect. 2. Any person sustaining damage by reason of 
the establishment of such building line shall have the same 
remedies for obtaining payment therefor as may be pre- 
scribed by law for obtaining payment for damages sus- 
tained by the laying out of a highway in such city or town. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect in any city when 
accepted by the city council thereof, and in any town when 
accepted by a majority of the legal voters thereof present 
and voting thereon at a town meeting called for that 
purpose. [Approved June 9, 1893. 

Building Lines Established. 

1. Beacon street, River street to Beaver street, 
January 5, 1895. 

2. Beacon street (both sides), Arlington street to 
Massachusetts avenue, January 5, 1895. 

3. Beacon street (northerly side), between Somerset 
street and Bowdoin street, November 6, 1900. 

4. Boylston street, Back Bay Fens to Brookline 
avenue, October 4, 1894. 

5. Beach street, West Roxbury (northeast side), 
between Centre street and railroad, February 29, 1916. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 203 

6. Commonwealth Avenue — Building Line — Establish- 
ment of. 

Date of establishment.— August 3, 1896. 

By whom established. — Board of Park Commissioners. 

Where recorded. — Park Commissioner — Vol, 9. page 
24. 

Where recorded. — Suffolk County Registry of Deeds — 
Lib. 2386, Vol. 11. 

Authorized. — Under chapter 462 of Acts of 1893 and 
chapter 313 of Acts of 1896. 

Portion of avenue where line was established: On each 
side of avenue, from Arlington street to Beacon street. 

Distance. — Parallel to the exterior lines of said avenue, 
and distant 20 feet therefrom. 

Shown on Plan. — ■ In two sections by W. C. Bates, C. E., 
dated July 27, 1896. Plan filed in Park Office — was not 
recorded at Registry of Deeds. 

Height of Buildings. — ■ Fixed by section 16, chapter 28 
of the Revised Laws. Extreme height to which buildings 
may be erected shall be 70 feet exclusive of such steeples, 
towers, domes, cornices, parapets, balustrades, sculptured 
ornaments, chimneys and roofs as such Board may approve. 

Copy of vote of Board of Prak Commissioners: 

Voted, That a building line be and is, under the provision 
of chapter 462 of the Acts of the year 1893, and chapter 
313 of the Acts of the year 1896, hereby established on each 
side of Commonwealth avenue, from Arlington street to 
Beacon street, parallel to the exterior line of said avenue, 
and distant twenty feet therefrom as shown on a plan of 
said avenue in two sections, dated July 27, 1896, signed 
by W. C. Bates, civil engineer, and filed in the office of 
this Board, and this Board does hereby prescribe that 
existing steps, windows, porticos and other usual pro- 
jections appurtenant to the front wall of existing buildings, 
so far as they lie between such building line and said 



204 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Commonwealth avenue, may remain as they are at the 
date of this order, intending hereby to sanction all pro- 
jections over said line including any necessary founda- 
tions and wall supporting said projections; and do hereby 
further prescribe as to future buildings, that no projections 
of any kind (other than doorsteps and balustrades con- 
nected therewith, and cornices at the roof of building) will 
be allowed to extend more than five feet into the space 
between said line and Commonwealth avenue, and that no 
projection in the nature of a bay window, circular front, or 
octagon front with the foundation wall sustaining the same 
(such foundation wall being a projection of front wall) will 
be allowed unless any horizontal section of such projection 
would fall within the external lines of a trapezoid whose 
base upon the rear line of the aforesaid space does mot 
exceed eighteen feet in any case, and whose side lines make 
an angle of forty-five degrees with the base. 



Takings by Park Department. 

7. June 29, 1894, the Board of Park Commissioners 
voted (for the purpose of connecting the Boston Common 
and Public Garden with the Back Bay Fens) to take all 
that part of said Commonwealth avenue which is bounded 
northwesterly by Beacon street, northerly by the northerly 
line of said avenue, easterly by Arlington street and 
southerly by the southerly line of said avenue; this under 
and by virtue of the power conferred on said Board by 
chapter 300 of the Acts of 1893. 

8. On Oct. 14, 1905, the custody, care and improve- 
ment of so much of Commonwealth avenue as lies between 
Brighton and Chestnut Hill avenues, were placed in the 
Park Department by amending Section 1 of Chapter 28 
of Revised Ordinances of 1898. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 205 

9. On Dec. 20, 1905, the portions of Commonwealth 
avenue, between Beacon street and Brighton avenue, 
and between Chestnut Hill avenue and the Newton line, 
were placed in the Park Department by amending Chapter 
two (2) of the City Ordinances of 1905. 

10. Columbia road, Edward Everett square to the rail- 
road. Established by park commissioners. 

11. Columbia road (southeast side), Hamilton street to 
Richfield street, January 28, 1915. 

12. Grove street, West Roxbury (both sides), between 
Washington street and Centre street, March 9, 1916. 

13. Jersey street, July 15, 1898; Landsdowne street, 
November 7, 1908. 

14. Peterborough street, February 1, 1901. 
15- Queensberry street, July 15, 1897. 

[See General Laws, Chapter 82, Section 37, which seems to super- 
sede the above act, viz., chapter 462, Acts of 1893.] 

Parkways. 

There is a twenty-five foot building line on the following 
locations (established by the Park Commissioners) : 

Riverway, from Longwood avenue to Huntington 
avenue. 

Jamaicaway, from Huntington avenue to Prince street. 

Arborway, from Prince street to Forest Hills street, with 
the exception of two lots on Weld park. 

Northwesterly boundary of Olmsted park, from Chest- 
nut street to line of land of Henrietta S. Sargent. 

West Roxbury Parkway on southerly boundary, from 
Walter street to Weld street; on westerly and a part of 
northerly boundary. See Suffolk Registry, Lib. 2384, 
Fol. 153 and Lib. 2730, Fol. 359. 

Note. — - See chapter 5, Ordinance of 1922 as amended by Ordinances 
of 1923, sections 2 and 8. 



206 Acts in Chronological Order. 



CHAPTER 219, ACTS OF 1897. 

An Act to Provide for the Protection of the Public 
Health in the City of Boston. 

Buildings may be Vacated or Torn Down. 

Section 1. Whenever the board of health of the city 
of Boston shall be of the opinion that any building or any 
part thereof in said city is infected with contagious 
disease, or by reason of want of repair has become dan- 
gerous to life, or is unfit for use because of defects in 
drainage, plumbing, ventilation or in the construction of 
the same, or because of the existence of a nuisance on the 
premises which is likely to cause sickness among its 
occupants, said board may issue an order requiring all 
persons therein to vacate or cease to use such building or 
part thereof stated in the order, for reasons to be stated 
therein as aforesaid. Said board shall cause said order to 
be affixed conspicuously to the building or part thereof: 
and to be personally served on the owner, lessee, agent, 
occupant or any person having the charge or care thereof, 
if the owner, lessee or agent cannot be found in the said 
city, or does not reside therein, or evades or resists service, 
then said order may be served by depositing a copy thereof 
in the post office of said city postpaid and properly enclosed 
and addressed to such owner, lessee or agent at his last 
known place of business or residence. Such building or 
part thereof shall be vacated within ten days after said 
order shall have been posted and mailed as aforesaid, or 
within such shorter time, not less than forty-eight hours, 
as in said order may be specified, and said building shall be 
no longer used; but whenever said board shall become 
satisfied that the danger from said building or part thereof 
has ceased to exist, or that said building has been repaired 
so as to be habitable, it may revoke said order. Whenever 



Acts in Chronological Order. 207 

in the opinion of the board of health any building or part 
thereof in said city is because of age, infected with con- 
tagious disease, defects in drainage, plumbing or ventila- 
tion, or because of the existence of a nuisance on the 
premises which is likely to cause sickness among its 
occupants, or among the occupants of other property in 
said city, or because it makes other buildings in said 
vicinity unfit for human habitation or dangerous or inju- 
rious to health, or because it prevents proper measures 
from being carried into effect for remedying any nuisance 
injurious to health, or other sanitary evils in respect of 
such other buildings, so unfit for human habitation that 
the evils in or caused by said building cannot be remedied 
by repairs or in any other way except by the destruction 
of said building or of any portion of the same, said board 
of health may order the same or any part thereof to be 
removed; and if said building is not removed in accord- 
ance with said order said board of health shall remove the 
same at the expense of the city. 

[1899, c. 222, sect. 1.] 



CHAPTER 265, ACTS OF 1897. 

An Act Relative to the Licensing of Gas Fitters 
and to the supervision of the business of gas 
Fitting in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

License Required — "Journeyman" Means. 
Section 1. No person, firm or corporation shall engage 
in or work at the business of gas fitting in the city of Boston 
after the first day of October in the year eighteen hundred 
and ninety-seven, either as employer or as a journeyman, 
unless such person, firm or corporation has received a 
license therefor in accordance with the provisions of this 



208 Acts in Chronological Order. 

act. The word "journeyman," as used in this act, shall be 
deemed to mean one who personally does any gas fitting or 
any work in connection therewith which would be subject 
to inspection under the provisions of this act. 

Examination Required — As to Qualifications. 
Sect. 2. Every person, firm or corporation desiring to 
engage in the business of gas fitting in the city of Boston 
shall make application therefor to the building commis- 
sioner, and shall at such time and place as may be desig- 
nated by the board of examiners hereinafter provided for, 
to whom such application shall be referred, be examined 
as to his qualifications for such business. 

Board of Examiners. 
Sect. 3. The board of examiners shall consist of 
the building commissioner, the health commissioner, 
who shall be ex officiis members of said board and serve 
without compensation, and a third member, who shall 
have been continuously engaged in business as a practical 
gas fitter during the five years next preceding the date 
of appointment. Said third member shall be chosen 
by said health commissioner annually, for a term ending 
on the first day of May of the year next ensuing, and he 
shall be allowed a sum not exceeding ten dollars for each 
day of actual service, to be paid from the treasury of the 
city of Boston. 

Date and Places for Holding Examinations. 

Practical Knowledge Required. 

Licenses — Fees for Same. 

Sect. 4. Said board of examiners shall, as soon as may 
be after the appointment of said third member, meet and 
organize by the selection of a chairman and clerk, and shall 



Acts in Chronological Order. 209 

then designate the times and places for the examination of 
all applicants desiring to engage in or work at the business 
of gas fitting in the city of Boston. Said board shall 
examine said applicants as to their practical knowledge of 
gas fitting, shall submit the applicant to some satisfactory 
form of practical test, and, if satisfied of the competency of 
the applicant, shall so certfy to the building commissioner, 
who shall thereupon issue a license to such applicant, 
authorizing him to engage in or work at the buiness of gas 
fitting, first requiring him to register in the office of the 
said building commissioner his name, place of business or 
residence, license number, date of examination, and in 
what capacity licensed. In case of a firm or corporation, 
the examination of one member of the firm, or of the 
manager of the corporation, shall satisfy the requirements 
of this act. The fee for the license of any employing gas 
fitter shall be two dollars, and for a journeyman, fifty 
cents; and said license shall continue in force until revoked 
or cancelled, but shall not be transferable. 

Inspectors of Gas Fitting. 

Duties — Compensation — Cause of Removal. 
Sect. 5. The building commissioner shall appoint 
after the first day of October in the year eighteen hundred 
and ninety-seven, such a number of inspectors of gas fitting 
as the board of examiners may from time to time determine. 
Said inspectors shall be practical gas fitters of at least five 
years' continued practical experience, and shall, before 
appointment, be subject to an examination before the 
civil service commissioners. The compensation of said 
inspectors shall be determined by the building commis- 
sioner, subject to the approval of the mayor; and such 
inspectors shall hold office until removed by said com- 
missioner, with the approval of the mayor, for malfeasance, 



210 Acts in Chronological Order. 

incapacity or neglect of duty. Said inspectors shall 
inspect all new work relating to gas fitting in new and in 
old buildings, the connections and use of such work, and 
shall report all violations of this act or of any act or ordi- 
nance relating thereto, which now exists or may be here- 
after enacted or ordained; and they shall also perform such 
other appropriate duties as may be required by the 
building commissioner. 

License Number to be Displayed at Place of Business. 

Sect. 6. Every licensed gas fitter shall display his 
license number conspicuously at his place of business. 

Application to be Filed and Permit Required. 
Materials and Workmanship Subject to Regulations. 
Sect. 7. On and after the first day of October in the 
year eighteen hundred and ninety-seven no building shall 
be piped or fitted for gas, nor shall any repairs be made in 
such pipings or fittings, nor fixtures placed, unless a permit 
shall be granted therefor by the building commissioner. 
Every licensed gas fitter desiring to perform any work 
relating to piping or fitting a building for gas, or to repair 
gas piping or fittings, or to place fixtures therein, shall file 
an application therefor at the office of the building com- 
missioner, giving the correct location, name and address of 
the owner, the intended use and material of the building 
and a full and complete statement of the work proposed 
and material to be ussd, and shall, if required by said build- 
ing commissioner, furnish a plan thereof, which shall be 
subject to his approval. All materials used and work 
performed under the provisions of this section shall be 
subject to such regulations as shall be made by the board 
of health and the building commissioner. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 211 

Timbers, Beams or Girders Not to be Cut Into . 
Meter to be Removed Only by Gas Company. 

Sect. 8. No gas pipe which may be introduced into 
any building shall be let into the timbers, beams or girders 
unless the same is placed within thirty-six inches of the end 
of said timber, beam or girder, and in no building shall the 
said pipes be let into the timbers, beams or girders more 
than two inches in depth. No person shall disconnect or 
remove any gas meter, except the duly authorized repre- 
sentative of the gas company owning such meter. 

Gas Brackets. 

Sect. 9. All gas brackets shall be placed at least three 
feet below any ceiling or woodwork, unless the same_ is 
properly protected by a shield, in which case the distance 
shall not be less than eighteen inches. Nothing in this act 
shall be construed to affect the operations of any gas com- 
pany upon its own premises or upon its mains and surface 
pipes. 

Board of Health to Inspect Gas Fixtures and Appliances 
in Buildings. 
Sect. 10. The Board of Health of said city by its 
inspectors shall from time to time, as it deems proper, 
inspect the gas fixtures and appliances in any building and 
shall make such requirements relating thereto as it deems 
the public health requires, and the owner of such building 
shall comply with such requirements. 

Penalty for Violation of this Act. 

Sect. 11. Any person violating any of the provisions 
of this act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and 



212 Acts in Chronological Order. 

shall be subject to a fine of not exceeding one hundred 
dollars for each offence, and if such person has received a 
license under this act his license may be revoked by the 
building commissioner. 

Annual Report. 
Sect. 12. The building commissioner shall include in 
his annual report to the city council a report of the pro- 
ceedings of the building department under this act, and 
shall include therein a report of the board of examiners 
appointed under this act, giving their proceedings during 
the year ending on the first day of February. 

Repeals. 
Sect. 13. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 14. This act shall take effect upon its passage, 
except so far as is hereinbefore otherwise provided. 

[Approved April 10, 1897. 



REVISED REGULATIONS. 

Pertaining to Gas Fitting and Gas Fitting Materials, 
Adopted July 29, 1898, by the Board or Health 
and the Building Commissioner, to Take Effect 
Oct. 1, 1898. — Amended Aug. 16, 1899. — Amended 
March 12, 1918.— Amended July 9, 1923 — 
Amended January 8, 1924. 

(Authorized by Chapter 265, Acts of 1897.) 



Notice of Repair of Leaks. 
Section 1. In all cases of repair of leaks, a notice 
giving the location and extent of all work performed shall 
be filed with the building commissioner immediately upon 
completion of the same. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 213 

No Pipe or Fitting to be Concealed Until Approved. 

Sect. 2. No pipe or fitting shall be covered or con- 
cealed from view until approved by one of the gas fitting 
inspectors of the building department, or for twenty-four 
hours after notice has been given to the building com- 
missioner. 

No Pipe to be Laid Subjected to Strain. 
Sect. 3. Pipes shall be run and laid to avoid any strain 
or weight on the same, except that of the fixtures. 

Outlets. — Number of Burners. 

Sect. 4. Outlets or fixtures shall be securely fastened; 
all outlets not covered by fixtures shall be left capped, 
and the number of burners for each ontlet shall be marked 
on the builders' plan. 

Pipes to bs Properly Protected. 

Sect. 5. Pipes laid in a cold or damp place shall be 
properly dripped, painted with two coats of red lead and 
boiled oil, or covered with felting satisfactory to the 
building commissioner. 

Swing Brackets. 

Sect. 6. Swing brackets shall have a globe or guard 
to prevent its burner from coming in contact with the wall. 
Bracket outlets shall be at least 2 inches from window or 
door casings. 

Stop-Pins. 
Sect. 7. Stop-pins to cocks shall be screwed into place. 

Cement Prohibited. 

Sect. 8. The use of gas fitters' cement is prohibited, 
except in putting fixtures together. 



214 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Inside Service to be Tested. 

Sect. 9. Inside service shall be tested by the fitter 
who receives the permit to connect the service or meter. 

Service Pipe to Have Main Cock. 
Sect. 10. There shall be a main cock on the service 
pipe close to the foundation wall, one cock at the inlet side 
of each meter. When service pipes are over two inches 
brass or composition, seated valves shall be used. 

Final Test to be Made by Gas Fitter in Presence of Inspector. 

Sect. 11. There shall be a final test, by a gas fitter, of 
all fixtures and pipes by a column of mercury raised not 
less than two inches, which must stand five minutes; 
this test to be made in the presence of one of the gas-fitting 
inspectors of the building department; the gauge to be 
made of glass tubing of uniform interior diameter, and so 
constructed that both surfaces of the mercury will be 
exposed. 

Material of Gas-Pipe. 

Sect. 12. All gas-pipes shall be of wrought iron or 
steel, all fittings of malleable iron, except above two inches, 
when cast iron if not concealed will be allowed. All 
meter connections other than side flange type are to be 
made with rigid iron connections of a type approved by 
the board of health and the building commissioner. 

Sect. 13. All fuel gas appliances whose safety depends 
upon a constant burning pilot light must be connected to 
a separate meter, or to a fuel meter, close to the meter. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 



215 



Risers. 

Sect. 14. No riser shall be left more than five feet 
away from the front foundation wall. 

Sect. 15. Gas-pipes shall be run in according to the 
following scale: . 



Iron pipe, 



1 


Scale for Plying. 




f inch, 


26 feet, 


3 burners. 


^ inch, 


30 feet, 


6 burners. 


f inch, 


50 feet, 


20 burners. 


1 inch, 


70 feet, 


35 burners. 


lj inches, 


100 feet, 


60 burners, 


1| inches, 


150 feet, 


100 burners, 


2 inches, 


200 feet, 


200 burners, 


2\ inches, 


300 feet, 


300 burners 


3 inches, 


450 feet, 


450 burners 


3| inches, 


500 feet, 


600 burners 


4 inches, 


600 feet, 


750 burners 



Outside Piping of Brass a Fixture. 
When brass piping is used on the outside of plastering 
or woodwork, it shall be classed as fixture. 

Outlets and Risers. 
Sect. 16. Outlets and risers not provided with fixtures 
shall be properly capped. 

Outlets for Fixtures. 
Sect. 17. Outlets for fixtures shall not be placed under 
tanks, back of doors, or within three feet of any meter. 

Shields, When Required. 
Sect. 18. Gas-burners less than two feet from a 
plastered ceiling or less than three feet from overhead 
woodwork shall be protected by a shield satisfactory to 
building commissioner. In first class buildings no shields 
will be required. 



216 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Brass Tubing. — Threads on Brass Pipe. — Rope or Square 

Tubing. 

Sect. 19. Brass tubing used for arms of fixtures shall 
be at least No. 18 standard gauge with full thread. All 
threads shall screw in at least tV of an inch. Rope or 
square tubing shall be brazed or solldered into fittings and 
distributers, or have a nipple brazed into the tubing. 

Cast Fittings. — Plugs of Cocks. — Stems of Fixtures. — 
L-Burner Cocks. 

Sect. 20. Cast fittings such as cocks, swing joints, 
double centres and nozzles shall be standard fittings, ex- 
cept for factory use, where extra heavy or mill fittings 
shall be used. The plugs of all cocks must be ground to 
a smooth and true surface for their entire length, be free 
from sandholes, have not less than f-inch bearing on all 
cast fittings and is of an inch on all turned fittings, have 
two flat sides on the end for the washer and have two nuts 
instead of a tail screw. Stems of fixtures of two lights or 
more each shall be not less than | of an inch iron-pipe 
size. L-burner cocks shall not be used at the end of 
chandelier arms, except in stores, churches, theatres, halls, 
and places of assembly or public resorts. 

Outlets for Gas-Ranges. 

Sect. 21. Outlets for gas-ranges shall have a diameter 
not less than that required for six burners, and all gas- 
ranges and heaters shall have a cock on the service-pipe. 
Ranges and heaters must be connected with right and left 
couplings, except in fireplace work where brass unions 
may be used. 

Pipes to be Laid above Timbers. 
Sect. 22. Pipes shall be laid above timbers unless 
otherwise permitted by the building commissioner. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 



217 



Second-Hmid Gas Piping Not Allowed. 

Sect. 23. No second-hand gas pipe shall be put into 
use in any building without the written permit of the 
building commissioner. 

Drops or Outlets. 
Sect. 24. Drops or outlets less than f of an inch in 
diameter shall not be left more than f of an inch below 
plastering, centre-piece, or woodwork, and other outlets 
shall not project more than f of an inch bej^ond plastering 
or woodwork. 

Outlets, How Fastened. 
Sect. 25. Fastening boards shall not be cut away to 
accommodate electric wires. All outlets shall be fastened 
according to the following diagrams: 



Weight of Gas Pipes in Pounds per Foot. 
Sect. 26. Gas pipes, all arms and stems of fixtures 
shall be of the kind classed as standard pipe, and shall 
weigh according to the following table: 



Size 
of Pipe. 

| -inch pipe 
1-inch pipe 
f-inch pipe 
nch pipe 
inch pipe 
nch pipe 
nch pipe 
nch pipe 
nch pipe 
nch pipe 
nch pipe 
nch pipe 
nch pipe 



4 

1 

1| 

2 
3 - 



Pounds 
Per Foot. 

.24 

.42 
.56 
.85 

1. 

1. 

2. 

2. 



12 
67 
24 

68 



3.61 
5.74 
7.54 
9.00 
10.66 



218 Acts in Chronological Order. 

No Gas Pipe to be Laid Within Six Inches of Electric Wire. 

Sect. 27. No gas pipe shall be laid within 6 inches 
of an electric wire, except where the electric wire is in an 
insulated conduit. 

Spark or Self-Lighting Burners to be Tested with Mercury 

Test. 

Sect. 28. Wherever spark-lighting or self-lighting 
burners are used the mercury test shall be applied to the 
cocks. 

Gas Engines. 

Sect. 29. (a) Gas engines must be connected to 
service from which no gas for illuminating purposes is 
used. 

Exhaust Pipes. 

(b.) Exhaust pipes shall be run to roof when possible, 
not come in contact with woodwork, and be properly 
protected. 

Diaphragms and Bags. 

(c.) Diaphragms and bags must be on the same floor 
with engine and have a valve governing same. 

Size of Pipes Connecting Gas Engines, 
(d.) The sizes of pipes used in connecting gas engines 
will be as follows: 

Horse Feet. Burners. Size Length 



Power. 


Per Hour. 




(in inches). 


(in feet) 


1 


40 


10 


3 

4 


50 


2 


80 


20 


3 

4 


50 


3 


120 


30 


1 


70 


4 


160 


40 


n 


100 


5 


200 


50 


n 


100 


6 


240 


60 


h 


100 



Acts in Chronological Order. 219 



Horse 


Feet 


Burners. 


Size 


Length 


Power. 


Per Hour. 




(in inches). 


(in feet), 


7 


280 


70 


11 


150 


8 


320 


80 


n 


150 


9 


360 


90 


ii 


150 


10 


400 


100 


ii 


150 


11 


440 


110 


2j 


200 


12 


480 


120 


2 ^ 


200 


13 


520 


130 


2] 


200 


14 


560 


140 


%l 


200 


15 


600 


150 


2j 


200 


16 


640 


160 


2j 


200 


17 


680 


170 


2j 


200 


18 


720 


180 


2! 


200 


19 


760 


190 


21 


200 


20 


800 


200 


2j 


200 


21 


840 


210 


2| 


300 


22 


880 


220 


2| 


300 


23 


920 


230 


2| 


300 


24 


960 


240 


2£ 


300 


25 


1,000 


250 


2| 


300 


26 


1,040 


260 


2| 


300 


27 


1,080 


270 


21 


300 



Gas Not to be Turned on Until Piping and Fixtures 
Approved. 

Sect. 30. Gas shall not be turned on in any building 
until the piping and fixtures have been approved by the 
building commissioner. 

Connections with Gas Appliances. 

Sect. 31. No connection for any gas appliance shall be 
made to any gas fixtures on which any part of the piping 
thereon shall be less than three-eighths inch. 



220 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Rubber or Flexible Tubing not Allowed. 
Sect. 32. Any gas appliance having a controlling gas 
cock on the same will not be approved by the Building 
Department if connected with rubber or flexible tubing. 

Hose Cock and Independent Fitting. 
Sect. 33. No hose cock or independent fitting that 
controls the gas supply to any appliance shall be nearer 
than six inches to any other cock. 



CHAPTER 550, ACTS OF 1907. 

Gas Fitting — Definition of. 
Section 11. Gas fitting shall mean the work of putting 
together any fittings, pipes, or fixtures or other appliances 
which are to contain gas for heat, light or power purposes 
and will be subject to inspection under existing laws. 



CHAPTER 452, ACTS OF 1898. 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings on and 
near Copley Square, in the City of Boston. 

Height Limit, Ninety Feet. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Any building now being built, or hereafter 
to be built, rebuilt or altered in the city of Boston, upon 
any land abutting on St. James avenue, between Clarendon 
street and Dartmouth street, or upon land at the corner 
of Dartmouth street and Huntington avenue, now occu- 
pied by the Pierce building, so called, or upon land abutting 
on Dartmouth street, now occupied by the Boston Public 
Library building, or upon land at the corner of Dart- 
mouth street and Boylston street, now occupied by the 



Acts in Chronological Order. 221 

new Old South Church building, may be completed, built, 
rebuilt or altered to the height of ninety feet, and no 
more; and upon any land or lands abutting on Boylston 
street, between Dartmouth street and Clarendon street, 
may be completed, built, rebuilt or altered to the height 
of one hundred feet and no more: provided, however, that 
there may be erected on any such building, above the 
limits hereinbefore prescribed, such steeples, towers, 
domes, sculptured ornaments and chimneys as the board 
of park commissioners of said city may approve. 

Sect. 2. The provisions of chapter three hundred and 
thirteen of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety- 
six, and of chapter three hundred and seventy-nine of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and ninety-seven, so 
far as they limit the height of buildings, shall not be 
construed to apply to the territory specified and restricted 
in section one of this act. 

Sect. 3. The owner of or any person having an interest 
in any building upon any land described in section one 
of this act the construction whereof was begun but not 
completed before the fourteenth day of January in the 
current year, who suffers damage under the provisions of 
this act by reason or in consequence of having planned 
and begun such construction, or made contracts therefor, 
for a height exceeding that limited by section one of this 
act for the locality where such construction has been 
begun, may recover damages from the city of Boston for 
material bought or actually contracted for, and the use 
of which is prevented by the provisions of this act, for 
the excess of cost of material bought or actually con- 
tracted for over that which would be necessary for such 
building if, not exceeding in height the limit prescribed 
for that locality by section one of this act, less the value 
of such materials as are not required on account of the 
limitations resulting from the provisions of this act, and 



222 Acts in Chronological Order. 

the actual cost or expense of any rearrangement of the 
design or construction of such building made necessary 
by this act, by proceedings begun within two years of the 
passage of this act, and in the manner prescribed by law 
for obtaining payment for damages sustained by any 
person whose land is taken in the laying out of a highway 
in said city. 

Sect. 4. Any person sustaining damage or loss in 
his property by reason of the limit of the height of build- 
ings provided for in this act, may recover such damage or 
loss from the city of Boston, by proceedings begun within 
three years of the passage of this act, and in the manner 
prescribed by law for obtaining payment for damages 
sustained by any person whose land is taken in the laying 
out of a highway in said city. 

Sect. 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 28, 1898. 



CHAPTER 457, ACTS OF 1899. 

An Act to Limit the Heights of Buildings in the 
Vicinity of the State House. 
Height Limit, Seventy Feet. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Any building now being built or hereafter 
to be built, rebuilt or altered in that part of the city of 
Boston which lies within the following described territory, 
to wit: — Beginning at the corner of Beacon street and 
Hancock avenue, thence continuing westerly on Beacon 
street to Joy street, thence continuing northerly on Joy 
street to Myrtle street, thence continuing easterly on 
Myrtle street to Hancock street, thence continuing 
southerly on Hancock street and Hancock avenue to the 
point of beginning, — may be completed, built, rebuilt or 
altered to the height of seventy feet measured on its 



Acts in Chronological Order. 223 

principal front and no higher, and any part of a building on 
or within ninety-five feet of Beacon street, between the 
Claflin building, so called, and Park street, may be com- 
pleted, built, rebuilt or altered to the height of seventy feet 
above the highest grade of said part of Beacon street, and 
no higher: provided, however, that there may be erected on 
any such building such chimneys, pipes, water tanks and 
elevator houses as the Governor and Council may approve. 

[1901, c. 525, sect. 4.] 

Sect. 2. If and in so far as this act, or proceedings to 
enforce it, may deprive any person of rights existing under 
the Constitution, any such person now owning land within 
the district above described, sustaining damages in his 
property by reason of the limitations of the height pro- 
vided for in this act of any building on or to be placed on 
such land may recover from the Commonwealth such 
damages as determined by a jury of the superior court 
for the county of Suffolk, on his petition therefor filed in 
the office of the clerk of said court within one year after 
the passage of this act, such determination and payment 
of the damages to be made under the same rules of law, 
so far as applicable, as govern the determination and 
payment of damages for the taking of lands for highways 
in said city. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved June 2, 1899. 



CHAPTER 543, ACTS OF 1902. 
An Act Relative to the Improvement of the State 
House and to the Height of Buildings on Beacon 
Street and Bowdoin Street in the City of 
Boston. 

Height, Limits, One Hundred Feet — Seventy Feet. 
Section 1. Any part of any building abutting on or 
within forty-two feet of Bowdoin street between Allston 



224 Acts in Chronological Order. 

street and Beacon street may be completed, built, rebuilt 
or altered to the height of one hundred feet above the 
highest grade of that part of said Bowdoin street on 
which the building abuts as such grade has been changed 
and established by the governor and council and no 
higher, and any part of any building on or within ninety- 
five feet of Beacon street between the Claflin building, 
so called, and Park street may be completed, built, rebuilt, 
or altered to the height of seventy-feet above the highest 
grade of said Beacon street and no higher: -provided, 
however, that there may be erected on any such building, 
such chimneys, pipes, water tanks, elevator houses and 
ornamental features which shall not increase the interior 
capacity of said building as the governor and council may 
approve. 

Sect. 2. Any person owning land on or within forty- 
two feet of Bowdoin street, between Allston street and 
Beacon street, or on or within ninety-five feet of Beacon 
street between the Claflin building, so called, and Park 
street, whose property is damaged more than it is benefited 
by the improvement of the State House, consisting of the 
limitation of the height of buildings on said land, the 
laying out and grading of said streets, the removal of 
buildings between Hancock street and Bowdoin street, 
the reconstruction and extension of the State House and 
the construction of the park between Bowdoin street and 
the State House, may, within two years after the pas- 
sage of this act, and not afterward, file in the office of the 
clerk of the superior court for the county of Suffolk, his 
petition for a jury to determine such damage, and a jury 
of said court shall thereupon determine the question, 
under the rules of law, so far as they are applicable, under 
which damages for the laying out of highways under the 



Acts in Chronological Order. 225 

Revised Laws are determined. If the jury find that the 
petitioner is damaged more than he is benefited by said 
improvement they shall determine the amount of the 
difference, and the Commonwealth shall pay the same; 
and if the jury shall not so find, judgment shall be entered 
for the Commonwealth, costs taxed and execution issued 
therefor against the petitioner as in civil cases. The city 
of Boston shall repay to the Commonwealth all damages 
which the state shall be required to pay for the change of 
grade of Bowdoin street made under authority of the 
governor and council, and for all expenses incurred in 
making such change. 

Sect. 3. Section two of chapter three hundred and 
eighty-two of the acts of the year nineteen hundred, as 
amended by section one of chapter five hundred and 
twenty-five of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and 
one, is hereby further amended by striking out all of said 
section two after the word "Commonwealth, " in the 
seventeenth fine, so as to read as follows: Section 2. The 
governor and council may lay out said land for use as a 
park, with driveways, walks, grass plots, curbing and 
railing; may close Mount Vernon street from Beacon 
street to the state house arch; may construct a new 
approach to the state house from Bowdoin street and from 
Beacon street; may build retaining walls and fences; 
may change the grade of Mount Vernon street from Joy 
street to the state house as they shall deem to be most 
advantageous for an approach to the state house; may 
change the grade of Bowdoin street from Beacon street 
to Ashburton place so that the street will be substantially 
level in that part, and may widen Bowdoin street at any 
part to a width not exceeding fifty feet; may grade and 
construct said streets and relay the sewers, pipes, tubes, 



226 Acts in Chronological Order. 

conduits and wires therein whenever necessary, and may 
provide for the proper storage of coal for the use of the 
Commonwealth . 

Sect. 4. Section three of said chapter five hundred 
and twenty-five is hereby repealed. 

Sect. 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved June 28, 1902. 



CHAPTER 333, ACTS OF 1904. 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings in the 
City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The city of Boston shall be divided into 
districts of two classes, to be designated districts A and B. 
The boundaries of the said districts, established as here- 
inafter provided, shall continue for a period of fifteen years, 
and shall be determined in such manner that those parts 
of the city in which all or the greater part of the buildings 
situate therein are at the time of such determination used 
for business or commercial purposes shall be included in 
the district or districts designated A and those parts of 
the city in which all or the greater part of the buildings 
situate therein are at the said time used for residential 
purposes or for other purposes not business or commercial 
shall be in the district or districts designated B. 

Sect. 2. Upon the passage of this act the mayor of the 
city shall appoint a commission of three members to be 
called "Commission on Height of Buildings in the City of 
Boston." The commission shall immediately upon its 
appointment give notice and public hearings, and shall 
make an order establishing the boundaries of the districts 
aforesaid, and, within one month after its appointment, 
shall cause the same to be recorded in the registry of deeds 
for the county of Suffolk. The boundaries so established 



Acts in Chronological Order. 227 

shall continue for a period of fifteen years from the date 
ofjsaid recording. Any person who is aggrieved by the 
said order may, within thirty days after the recording 
thereof, appeal to the commission for a revision; and the 
commission may, within six months after its appointment, 
revise such order, and the revision shall be recorded in the 
registry of deeds for the county of Suffolk, and shall date 
back to the original date of recording. The members of 
the commission shall serve until the districts have been 
established as aforesaid; and any vacancy in the commis- 
sion caused by resignation, death or inability to act shall 
be filled by the mayor, on written application by the 
remaining members of the commission or of ten inhabitants 
of the city. The members of the commission shall receive 
such compensation as the mayor shall determine. 

Height Limit in District A and District B, Exceptions. 

Sect. 3. In the city of Boston no building shall be 
erected to a height of more than one hundred and twenty- 
five feet above the grade of the street in any district desig- 
nated A, and no building shall be erected to a height of 
more than eighty feet above the grade of the street in any 
district designated B. These restrictions shall not apply 
to grain or coal elevators or sugar refineries in any district 
designated A, nor to steeples, domes, towers or cupolas 
erected for strictly ornamental purposes, of fireproof 
material, on buildings of the above height or less in any 
district. The supreme judicial court and the superior 
courts shall each have jurisdiction in equity to enforce the 
provisions of this act, and to restrain the violation thereof. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May IS, 1904. 

Order of December 3, 1904. 

June 7, 1991, the mayor of the city of Boston, under 
the provisions of chapter 333 of the Acts of 1904, ap- 



228 Acts in Chronological Order. 

pointed the Commission on Height of Buildings in the 
city of Boston, and they on July 5, 1904, made an order 
in accordance with the provisions of said chapter, which 
order is recorded in the Suffolk Registry of Deeds, Book 
2976, page 45. 

Order of July 5, 1904, as Amended and Revised by 

Order of December 3, 1904. 

Boundaries of District A. 

A. The boundaries of the Districts A, hereby estab- 
lished, are as follows, to wit: 

1. Beginning on the northerly side of that part of the 
said city known as East Boston at the Chelsea Street 
Bridge, thence running southeasterly, southerly and 
southwesterly through the centre of Chelsea street to 
Eagle square, thence westerly through said Eagle square 
and the centre of Eagle street to Glendon street, thence 
northerly through the centre of said Glendon street to 
Condor street, thence westerly through the centre of said 
Condor street to Border street, thence southerly and 
southwesterly through the centre of said Border street to 
Sumner street, thence southeasterly through the centre 
of said Sumner street to Orleans street, thence south- 
westerly through the centre of said Orleans street to 
Marginal street, thence southeasterly and easterly through 
the centre of said Marginal street to Jeffries street, thenec 
northeasterly through the centre of said Jeffries street to 
Maverick street, thence northwesterly through the centre 
of said Maverick street to the location of the Boston, 
Revere Beach and Lynn Railroad, thence northerly and 
northeasterly along said railroad to the property of the 
said city known as Wood Island Park, thence south- 
easterly along the line dividing the said property of the 
said city from the property of the East Boston Company 
and the property of the Commonwealth to the harbor, 
thence southwesterly, westerly, northwesterly, northerly, 



Acts in Chronological Order. 229 

northeasterly, and easterly along the said harbor and 
Chelsea Creek, around the said East Boston to the point 
of beginning at said Chelsea Street Bridge; meaning to 
include in the said District A all those portions of wards 
one and two of the said city, as now established by law, 
which are situated within the boundary line hereinbefore 
described. 

2. Beginning on the southerly side of that part of the 
said city known as Charlestown at the Charlestown Bridge, 
thence running northwesterly through the centre of said 
bridge and the approaches thereof to a point on said 
approaches immediately over the centre of the arch con- 
necting Warren avenue with Water street, thence north- 
easterly through the centre of said Water street to the 
property of the United States known as the United States 
Navy Yard, thence northwesterly along the southwesterly 
boundary Hue of said property of the United States to 
Chelsea street, thence northeasterly through the centre 
of said Chelsea street to Medford street, thence north- 
westerly and westerly through the centre of said Medford 
street to the junction of said Medford street, Bunker 
Hill street and Main street, thence northwesterly through 
the centre of said Main street to the property of the said 
city known as the Charlestown Playground, thence north- 
easterly along the southeasterly boundary of said Play- 
ground to the Mystic river, thence easterly, southeasterly, 
southerly and southwesterly along said Mystic river and 
the harbor around said Charlestown to the point of begin- 
ning at said Charlestown Bridge; meaning to include in 
the said District A all those portions of Wards three, four 
and five of the said city as now established by law, which 
are situated within the boundary line hereinbefore 
described. 

3. Beginning on the easterly side of that part of the 
said city known as the city proper at the Congress Street 



230 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Bridge, thence running southeasterly across said bridge 
to that part of said city known as South Boston, thence 
northeasterly, easterly, southeasterly, westerly, southerly 
and easterly around the northerly part of said South 
Boston and the Reserved channel, so-called, to the point 
on the southerly boundary of said Reserved channel where 
Q street extended northerly would meet the said channel, 
thence southerly through the centre of said Q street to 
East First street, thence westerly through the centre of 
East First street to I street, thence southerly through the 
centre of said I street to East Second street, thence 
westerly through the centre of said East Second street to 
the junction of said East Second street, Dorchester street 
and West First street, thence northwesterly through the 
centre of said West First street to Dorchester avenue, 
thence southerly through the centre of said Dorchester 
avenue to Dexter street, thence westerly through the 
centre of said Dexter street to Ellery street, thence 
southerly- through the centre of said Ellery street to 
Southampton street, thence westerly through the centre 
of said Southampton street to Massachusetts avenue, 
thence northwesterly through the centre of said Massa- 
chusetts avenue to Albany street, thence northeasterly 
through the centre of said Albany street to East Dedham 
street, thence northwesterly through the centre of said 
East Dedham street to Harrison avenue, thence north- 
easterly through the centre of said Harrison avenue to 
Troy street, thence southeasterly through the centre of 
said Troy street to Albanv street, thence northerly through 
the centre of said Albany street to Broadway, thence 
northwesterly through the centre of said Broadway to 
Washington street, thence northwesterly across said 
Washington street and through the centre of Pleasant 
street to Piedmont street, thence westerly through the 

* Q street is now named Farragut Road. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 231 

centre of said Piedmont street, to Ferdinand street,* thence 
northwesterly through the centre of said Ferdinand street 
to Columbus avenue, thence southwesterly through the 
centre of Columbus avenue to a point where a line passing 
along the boundary line between the estates now num- 
bered 352 and 356 on Boylston street and extended south- 
eeasterly would meet said point on Columbus avenue, 
thence from said point northwesterly along said line and 
between said estates above mentioned to a point in the 
centre of Boylston street opposite or nearly opposite the 
westerly boundary of the lot on which the Arlington 
Street Church now stands, thence easterly through the 
centre of said Boylston street to Tremont street, thence 
northerly and northeasterly through the centre of said 
Tremont street to Park street, thence northwesterly 
through the centre of said Park street to Beacon street, 
thence northeasterly through the centre of said Beacon 
street to Bowdoin street, thence northerly through the 
centre of said Bowdoin street to Cambridge street, thence 
westerly through the centre of said Cambridge street to 
Staniford street, thence northerly through the centre of 
said Staniford street to Green street, thence northwesterly 
through the centre of said Green street to Leverett street, 
thence northwesterly through the centre of said Leverett 
street to the Charles river at Craigie Bridge, thence north- 
easterly, easterly, southeasterly, southerly and south- 
westerly by the said Charles river and the said harbor 
around the said city proper to the point of beginning at 
said Congress Street Bridge; meaning to include in said 
District A the whole of ward six and all those portions 
of wards seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, 
fourteen, fifteen and seventeen of the said city, as now 
established by law, which are situated within the boundary 
line hereinbefore described. 

* Ferdinand street is now Arlington street. 



232 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Boundaries of District B. 

B. The boundaries of the Districts B hereby estab- 
lished are as follows, to wit: 

1 . All those portions of said wards one and two which 
are situated outside the line beginning and ending at said 
Chelsea Street Bridge hereinbefore established as the 
boundary of one of said Districts A. 

2. All those portions of said wards three, four and five 
which are situated outside the line beginning and ending 
at said Charlestown Bridge hereinbefore established as the 
boundary of one of said Districts A. 

3. The whole of wards sixteen, eighteen, nineteen, 
twenty, twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty- 
four and twenty-five of the said city, as now established 
by law, and all those portions of said wards seven, eight, 
nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen and 
seventeen which are situated outside the line beginning 
and ending at said Congress Street Bridge hereinbefore 
established as the boundary of one of said Districts A. 

Meaning to include in the said Districts B all those 
portions of the said city not included in the Districts 
hereinbefore established as Districts A. 

Wherever in this order the words "harbor," "river, " 
"creek" are found, the same are intended to mean the 
furthest line towards deep water on said harbor, river or 
creek respectively on which the erection of wharves or 
other structures is permitted by the State and United 
States authorities. 



CHAPTER 383, STATUTE OF 1905. 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings in the 

City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, as follows: 

Section 1. Within thirty days after the passage of this 
act the mayor of the city of Boston shall appoint a com- 



Acts in Chronological Order. 233 

mission of three members to determine, in accordance 
with the conditions hereinafter provided, the height of 
buildings within the district designated by the commis- 
sion on height of buildings in the city of Boston as district 
B, in accordance with chapter three hundred and thirty- 
three of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four. 

Sect. 2. Said commission shall immediately upon its 
appointment give notice and public hearings, and shall 
make an order establishing the boundaries of or otherwise 
pointing out such parts, if any, of said district B, as it 
may designate in which buildings may be erected to a 
height exceeding eighty feet but not exceeding one hundred 
feet, and the height between eighty feet and one hundred 
feet to which buildings may be so erected, and the condi- 
tions under which buildings may be erected to said height 
except that such order may provide for the erection of 
buildings as aforesaid to a height not exceeding one 
hundred and twenty-five feet in that portion of said district 
B which lies within fifty feet from the boundary line sepa- 
rating said district B from the district designated by the 
commission on height of buildings in the city of Boston as 
district A, in accordance with said chapter three hundred 
and thirty-three, provided said boundary line divides 
the premises affected by such order from other adjoining- 
premises both owned by the same person or persons, and 
within sixty days after its appointment shall cause the 
same to be recorded in the registry of deeds for the county 
of Suffolk. Any person who is aggrieved by such order 
may, within sixty days after the recording thereof, appeal 
to the commission for a revision; and the commission may, 
previous to the first day of January in the year nineteen 
hundred and six, revise such order, and the revision shall 
be recorded in the registry of deeds for the county of Suffolk 
and shall date back to the original date of recording. 
The boundaries so established shall continue for a period 
of fifteen years from the date of the recording of the order 



234 Acts in Chronological Order. 

made by the commission on height of buildings in the city 
of Boston under chapter three hundred and thirty-three 
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four. The 
members of the commission shall receive such compensa- 
tion as the mayor shall determine. 

Heights Limited to 125 Feet— 100 Feet — 70 Feet. 

Sect. 3. Within such parts of district B as may be 
designated by the commission as aforesaid (which may, 
except as hereinafter provided, include any parts of said 
district B affected by prior acts limiting the height of 
buildings) buildings may be erected to the height fixed by 
the commission as aforesaid, exceeding eighty feet but 
not exceeding one hundred feet, or one hundred and 
twenty-five feet as hereinbefore provided, and subject to 
such conditions as may be fixed as aforesaid by the commis- 
sion; but within the following described territory, to wit: — ■ 
Beginning at the corner of Beacon street and Hancock 
avenue, thence continuing westerly on Beacon street to 
Joy street, thence continuing northerly on Joy street to 
Myrtle street, thence continuing easterly on Myrtle 
street to Hancock street, thence continuing southerly 
on Hancock street and Hancock avenue to the point of 
beginning, no building shall be erected to a height greater 
than seventy feet, measured on its principal front, and 
no building shall be erected on a parkway, boulevard or 
public way on which a building line has been established 
by the board of park commissioners or by the board of 
street commissioners, acting under any general or special 
statute, to a greater height than that allowed by the order 
of said boards; and no building upon land any owner of 
which has received and retained compensation in damages 
for any limitation of height or who retains any claim for 
such damages shall be erected to a height greater than 
that fixed by the limitation for which such damages were 
received or claimed. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 235 

Height Unlimited. 
Sect. 4. No limitations of the height of buildings, 
or of the roofs thereof, in the city of Boston shall apply to 
churches, steeples, towers, domes, cupolas, arched or 
vaulted roofs, belfries or statuary, nor shall such portions 
of buildings be occupied, nor to chimneys, gas holders, 
coal or grain elevators, open balustrades, skylights, venti- 
lators, flagstaffs, railings, weather vanes, soil pipes, steam 
exhausts, signs, roof houses, except as otherwise pro- 
hibited by law. 

Roof Houses, Pent Houses and Bulkheads. 

Roof houses, pent houses, bulkheads and skylights above 
the roof line used to inclose elevator machinery or shafts 
may be of such dimensions as approved by the building 
commissioner. The area so inclosed for elevator shafts 
shall not be used for any purpose except the storage of 
tools and appliances used for the maintenance of the 
elevators. 

Roof houses, pent houses and bulkheads in first-class 
buildings may be constructed of angle iron and four-inch 
blocks, plastered on the inside and outside, or covered 
inside and outside with metal covering or angle iron, and 
two-inch solid metal lath and plaster walls may be used, 
the door to be of metal frame covered with metal. For 
second and third class buildings, roof houses, pent houses 
and bulkheads may be of wood frame covered with metal 
on the outside and plastered on metal lathing on the inside : 
provided, that the door is covered with metal on both sides . 

[1919, c. 156, Special Act, to take effect April 24, 1919.] 
[1922, c. 174, sect 1, 1923, c. 462, sect. 27.] 

Sect. 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 8, 1905. 

Order op July 21, 1905. 
Height Limit. — Street Exceeding Sixty-four Feet in Width. 
Buildings may be erected on streets exceeding sixty- 
four (64) feet in width, to a height equal to one and one 



236 Acts in Chronological Order. 

quarter times the width of the street upon which the 
building stands; and, if situated on more than one street, 
the widest street is to be taken, the height to be measured 
from the mean grade of the curbs of all the streets upon 
which the building is situated, and not exceeding one 
hundred (100) feet in any event. 

Width of Streets. 

If the street is of uneven width, its width will be con- 
sidered as the average width opposite the building to 
be erected. 

The width of a street shall be held to include the width 
of any space on the same side of the street upon which a 
building stands, upon or within which space no building 
can be lawfully erected by virtue of any building line 
established by the Board of Street Commissioners or the 
Board of Park Commissioners acting under general or 
special laws. 

All street or portions of streets upon which buildings 
may be erected on one side only shall be considered as of 
a width of eighty (80) feet as to that portion upon which 
buildings may be erected on one side only. 

In the case of irregular or triangular open spaces formed 
by the intersection of streets, the width of the street 
shall be taken as the width of the widest street entering 
said space at the port of entrance. 

Parkway Restrictions. 

No building shall, however, be erected on a parkway, 
boulevard or public way on which a building line has been 
established by either of said Boards acting under general 
or special laws to a height greater than that allowed by 
said general or special laws, nor otherwise in violation of 
Section 3 of said Chap. 383, Act of 1905. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 237 

Height Limit — Eighty Feet Exceptions. 

No building shall be erected to a height greater than 
eighty (80) feet unless its width on each and every public 
street upon which it stands will be at least one half its 
height. 

Nothing in this order shall be construed as affecting any 
condition or restriction imposed by deed, agreement or 
by operation of law on any property in said District B. 

Height Limit — One Hundred Twenty-five Feet — 
District B. 

The said Commissioner further provides that buildings 
may be erected to a height not exceeding one hundred and 
twenty-five (125) feet in that portion of the District B as 
established by the Commission on Height of Buildings in 
its order dated December 3, 1904, recorded with Suffolk 
Deeds, Book 3008, page 129, which lies fifty (50) feet 
westerly from the boundary line running from Columbus 
avenue to the center of Boylston street, separating said 
District B from District A, as established by said order; 
provided, however, that said portion of District B is owned 
by the same person or persons who own the adjoining- 
premises in District A. 

Revised Order of November 20, 1905. 

Mechanic Arts High School. 
1. So long as the property owned by the city of Boston 
on Dalton, Belvidere and Scotia streets, bounded 205.5 
feet on Dalton street, 250 feet on Belvidere street, and 
184 feet on Scotia street, be said measurements more or 
less, shall be used for a Mechanic Arts High School, any 
building or buildings thereon may be erected to a height 
of one hundred (100) feet. 



238 Acts in Chronological Order. 

2. Add at the end of the third paragraph the words: 
"or by the Commonwealth or City," so that the con- 
cluding part of said paragraph shall read, "established by 
the Board of Street Commissioners or the Board of Park 
Commissioners acting under general or special laws or by 
the Commonwealth or City." 

3. After the tenth word in the fourth paragraph insert 
the word 'lawfully" so that said paragraph shall read: 
"All streets or portion of streets upon which buildings 
may lawfully be erected, etc." 

[1922, c. 174.] 
[1923, c. 462, sect. 27.] 
Note. — See chapter 333, Acts of 1915, Special Acts and Order 
following. 



CHAPTER 416, ACTS OF 1907. 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings on 
Rutherford Avenue in the City of Boston. 

Height Limit One Hundred Feet. 

Section 1. The width of Rutherford avenue in the 
Charlestown district of the city of Boston, between Chap- 
man street and the Mystic river tracks of the Boston and 
Maine Railroad crossing the northerly part of said avenue, 
shall be considered as eighty feet in respect to the height 
of buildings that may be erected on the southwesterly and 
westerly side of said avenue, between the points mentioned, 
so as to permit the erection of buildings to the height of 
one hundred feet, as provided for buildings erected on 
streets of the width aforesaid in district B by the com- 
mission appointed on height of buildings in the city of 
Boston, under chapter three hundred and eighty-three of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and five. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 16, 1907. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 239 



CHAPTER 463, ACTS OF 1907. 

An Act Relative to the Licensing of Theatres and 
Public Halls in the City of Boston. 

Section 1. In Boston the mayor shall be the officer to 
issue licenses for theatres and public halls, and he may 
require such changes in the structural condition of any 
building before issuing a license, as in his opinion, the 
public safety requires, but no changes shall be ordered in 
excess of the statutory requirements then in force for a 
new building of like character. Whoever is aggrieved by 
any order or decision of the mayor in respect to changes 
that he may require in the structural condition of any 
building before issuing a license as aforesaid shall have 
the right of appeal to the board of appeals established 
by chapter four hundred and nineteen of the acts of the 
year eighteen hundred and ninety-two, or to any similar 
or succeeding board of appeals which may hereafter be 
established for the city of Boston. Said board on receipt 
of the appeal shall within five days thereafter examine the 
premises and hear the parties and render a decision in 
writing within ten days after such hearing, and the ma- 
jority of the board shall decide whether the whole or a 
part of the order or requirement made by the mayor in 
respect to structural changes shall be complied with, or 
whether a license for said building shall be issued; and the 
mayor shall make his order or requirement in respect of 
structural changes and the issuing of said license conform 
to the decision of said board. If the mayor has granted a 
license as aforesaid he shall not revoke or suspend the 
same except by giving five days' written notice to the 
licensee of his intention so to do, and his reasons therefor, 
and if the licensee is aggrieved by said notice of revoca- 
tion and said reasons he may appeal to the board of appeals, 



240 Acts in Chronological Order. 

who shall within five days from date of his appeal examine 
the premises and hear the parties, and render a decision 
in writing within three days after such hearing; and the 
majority of the board shall decide whether the license 
shall be revoked, and the mayor shall make his action 
conform to the decision of the board and shall not revoke 
the same without the approval of the board. 
Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 28, 1907. 



CHAPTER 284, ACTS OF 1910. 

An Act Relative to the Construction, Alteration, 
Inspection and Maintenance of Buildings in 
the City of Boston. 

Building Department to Enforce Building Laws in Boston 
Heretofore Enforced by District Police. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. It shall be the duty of the building com- 
missioner of the city of Boston to enforce all provisions of 
law relative to the construction, alteration, inspection and 
maintenance of buildings which are or may be applicable 
to said city, heretofore enforced by the district police, 
except the provisions of chapter four hundred and sixty- 
five of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and seven, 
relative to the inspection of steam boilers, the provisions 
of chapter three hundred and seventy of the acts of the 
year nineteen hundred and four, as amended by chapter 
two hundred and eighty of the acts of the year nineteen 
hundred and five and by chapter five hundred and two of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and eight, relative to 
the keeping, storage, use, manufacture, sale, handling and 
transportation of explosive or inflammable fluids or com- 



Acts in Chronological Order. 241 

pounds or other explosives, the provisions of chapter 
four hundred and thirty-three of the acts of the year nine- 
teen hundred and four, relative to the powers and duties of 
the detective department of the district police in connec- 
tion with the investigation or prevention of fires, and the 
provisions of chapter five hundred and fourteen of the acts 
of the year nineteen hundred and nine, and acts in amend- 
ment thereof or in addition thereto, relative to labor, so 
far as the provisions of said chapter are enforced by the 
district police. 

Sect. 2. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

■ [Approved March 25, 1910. 



CHAPTER 571, ACTS OF 1910. 

An Act to Authorize the Collection of Fees for 
Permits and Licenses Issued by Departments of 
the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The heads of the various departments of 
the city of Boston may establish, subject to the approval 
of the mayor, reasonable fees or charges for the issuance 
of permits and licenses by said departments: provided, 
however, that the charge for a permit to make excavations 
in any street or sidewalk shall not exceed fifty cents. 

Sect. 2. The authority given in the preceding section 
shall not deprive any of the officials named in section 
twenty-eight of chapter four hundred and eighty-six of the 
acts of the year nineteen hundred and nine of any authority 
given therein to fix the charges for permits and licenses. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 26, 1.910. 



242 Acts in Chronological Order. 



CHAPTER 342, ACTS OF 1911. 

An Act to Regulate the Construction of Garages 
in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. A garage hereafter erected within the fire 
limits of the city of Boston shall be of first class construc- 
tion. A garage hereafter erected in any other part of the 
city shall be either of first or second class construction. 

Sect. 2. By the term "garage" is meant a building 
or that part of a building wherein are kept five or more 
automobiles or motor cars charged with or containing a 
volatile inflammable liquid for fuel or power. Wherever 
hereafter any part of an existing building is converted 
into a garage, the garage shall be deemed to embrace all 
the building not separated from the garage proper by 
fireproof construction satisfactory to the building com- 
missioners, and such building or part of a building shall 
be of first class construction. 

Sect. 3. By the term "volatile inflammable liquid" 
is meant any liquid that will emit inflammable vapor at a 
temperature below one hundred degrees Fahrenheit, when 
tested in the open air. 

Sect. 4. The penalty for violation of this act shall be 
a fine of not less than ten and not more than fifty dollars 
a day, so long as the violation continues. 

[Approved April 27, 1911. 



CHAPTER 259, ACTS OF 1912. 

An Act Relative to the Construction of Garages 
in the City of Boston. 

Existing buildings upon premises numbered 337 on 
Newbury street, in Boston, are exempt from the provisions 



Acts in Chronological Order. 243 

of chapter 342, Acts of 1911, but only while such build- 
ings remain of their present size and in their present loca- 
tion: provided, however, that no part of said buildings shall 
be used as a dwelling. 

[Approved March 18, 1912, and took effect upon its 
passage. 



CHAPTER 280, ACTS OF 1913. 

An Act to Authorize the Mayor of the City of 
Boston to Grant Permits for Special Moving 
Picture Exhibitions in Churches, Halls or 
Other Buildings. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The mayor of the city of Boston may 
grant permits in writing for special exhibitions of moving 
pictures in churches, halls or other buildings in that city 
which, in his opinion, are in safe condition for said 
exhibitions, and he may prescribe regulations for the 
proper conduct of the same: provided, however, that such 
special exhibitions shall be subject to the laws of the 
commonwealth and the regulations of the district police 
relating to the use of the cinematograph or similar 
apparatus. 

Sect. 2. A fee of two dollars shall accompany each 
application for a permit hereunder. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved March 12, 1913. 

[See also, chapter 82, Acts of 1927, page 382.] 



CHAPTER 577, ACTS OF 1913. 

An Act to Regulate the Erection and Maintenance 
of Garages in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. In the city of Boston no building shall 
be erected for, or maintained as a garage for the storage, 



244 Acts in Chronological Order. 

keeping or care of automobiles until the issue of a permit 
therefor by the board of street commissioners of the city- 
after notice and a public hearing upon an application 
filed with said board. The application for the permit 
shall be made by the owner of the parcel of land upon 
which such building is to be erected or maintained and 
shall contain the names and addresses of every owner of 
record of such parcel of land abutting thereon. 

Sect. 2. The notice required by the preceding section 
shall include a copy of the application and an order of 
said board specifying the time and place of the public 
hearing, and shall be given by publication once in each 
week for three successive weeks in some one newspaper 
regularly published in said city, and by mailing by prepaid 
registered mail a copy to every owner of record of each 
parcel of land abutting on the parcel of land on which the 
building proposed to be erected for, or maintained as a 
garage is to be, or is situated, and the cost of such notice 
and proceedings shall be borne by the applicant. 

Sect. 3. At the time and place specified in the notice 
for the hearing the said board shall hear all parties inter- 
ested, and after giving consideration to the interests of all 
owners of record notified, and the general character of the 
neighborhood in which is situated the land or building 
referred to in the application, shall determine whether or 
not the application shall be granted and a permit issued; 
provided, that no application shall be granted and no per- 
mit issued for the erection, maintenance or use of any 
structure or building as a garage for more than four cars 
on the same street, as and within five hundred feet of any 
building occupied in whole or in part as a public or private 
school having more than fifty pupils or as a public or 
private hospital having more than twenty-five beds, or 
as a church. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 245 

Sect. 4. The provisions of this act shall not apply to a 
building maintained as a garage for the storage, keeping 
or care of automobiles at the time of the passage of this 
act, but any enlargement of or addition to any such 
building shall be subject to the provisions of this act. 

Sect. 5. Whoever erects or maintains a garage in viola- 
'tion of this act shall be subject to a fine of not less than 
ten nor more than fifty dollars for every day during which 
such violation continues. [Approved May 2, 1913. 

[1912, c. 259; 1914, c. 119, sects. 1, 2, 3.] 

[1922, c. 316, sect. 1.] 
Note.— See 1922, c. 316, sects. 2 and 3. 



CHAPTER 729, ACTS OF 1913. 

An Act Relative to Dry Houses in the 
City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1 . No building or a part of a building hereafter 
erected or altered in the city of Boston shall be used for 
kiln drying timber unless such building or part of a build- 
ing is of fireproof construction approved by the building 
commissioner. 

Sect. 2. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 29, 1913. 



CHAPTER 782, ACTS OF 1914. 

An Act to Amend the Building Law op the 
City of Boston. 

Elevators and Shafts* 
Section 6. Elevators hereafter installed shall be pro- 
vided with such shaftway enclosures and doors as may be 



246 Acts in Chronological Order. 

required by the regulations of the Massachusetts board 
of elevator regulations. All shafts for light and ventila- 
tion and skylights over such shafts shall be constructed 
of like materials and in a like manner as required for 
elevator shafts, and all window openings in the same, ex- 
cept in exterior walls, shall be protected by metal frames 
and sash and wired glass. 

Sect. 11. The provisions of this act, so far as they 
are the same as those of existing statutes, shall be construed 
as continuations thereof and not as new enactments. 

Sect. 12. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed, but nothing herein contained 
shall be construed to modify the powers and duties con- 
ferred and imposed upon the board of appeals by sections 
six, seven and eight of chapter five hundred and fifty of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and seven. 

Sect. 13. This act shall take effect ninety days after 
its passage. [Approved July 7, 1914' 



CHAPTER 786, ACTS OF 1914. 

An Act Exempting a Certain Parcel op Land in the 
City of Boston from Restrictions as to the 
Height of Buildings. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The parcel of land situated in the city of 
Boston bounded by Washington street, Lovering place, 
Harrison avenue and Asylum street is hereby exempted 
from the provisions of chapter three hundred and thirty- 
three of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four 
and chapter three hundred and eighty-three of the acts 
of the year nineteen hundred and five, relative to the 
height of buildings, and is relieved from the restrictions as 
to height placed thereon by the commissioners on the 
height of buildings in the city of Boston acting under the 



Acts in Chronological Order. 247 

authority of said statutes: provided, however, that nothing 
herein shall authorize the erection on said parcel of a 
building exceeding one hundred and twenty-five feet in 
height above the grade of the sidewalk on Washington 
street in front of said parcel, nor the erection of any 
building thereon except in accordance with a permit duly 
granted therefor by the building commissioner of the 
city of Boston. 
Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved July 7, 1914- 



CHAPTER 254, ACTS OF 1915 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to the Erection of Buildings in 
the City of Boston. 

Be it evaded, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. If any building erected in the city of 
Boston since the first day of August in the year nineteen 
hundred and seven, under a permit granted by the building 
commissioner or issued by direction of the board of appeal, 
appears to have been erected contrary to the law, existing 
at the time of its erection, such building shall be considered 
as having been erected in conformity with law, and the 
building commissioner and the mayor shall issue the 
permits necessary to make lawful the use of said building 
for the purpose for which it was erected; provided, that 
an application for the authorization of such use be filed 
with the building commissioner within six months of the 
passage of this act; and provided, also, that it shall appear 
to said commissioner, or, upon appeal from his ruling, to 
a majority of the board of appeal: — 

First. That said building was erected in accordance 
with the plans approved by the building commissioner or 
the board of appeal. 



248 Acts tn Chronological Order. 

Second. That said building was erected in good faith 
with the intention of complying with the law. 

Third. That the use of said building for the purpose 
for which it was erected would not, under all the circum- 
stances of the case, injuriously affect public interests. 

Sect. 2. The provisions of section one of this act, and 
any authority granted thereunder, shall not relieve the 
owner of any building of the duty of complying with the 
provisions of any law passed subsequent to the time of 
the erection of such building, or with the terms of any 
order, rule or regulation made or established under 
authority of such law. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

{The foregoing was laid before the Governor on the twenty- 
ninth day of March, 1915, and after five days it had "the 
force of a law," as prescribed by the Constitution, as it was 
not returned by him with his objections thereto within that 
time.) [Took effect April 3, 1925. 



CHAPTER 306, ACTS OF 1915 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to the Shirley-Eustis Mansion on 
Shirley Street in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The provisions of chapter five hundred and 
fifty of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and seven 
relative to the construction, alteration and maintenance 
of buildings in the city of Boston shall not, prior to the 
first day of January in the year nineteen hundred and 
eighteen, apply to the Shirley-Eustis mansion, so called, 
situated on Shirley street in the city of Boston and formerly 
occupied by a colonial governor and by a governor of the 
commonwealth: provided, that, in the meantime, the 
house shall not be used as a dwelling house or for any 



Acts in Chronological Order. 249 

other purpose except to provide for its preservation and 
restoration as an example of a colonial executive mansion; 
and provided, that it shall be occupied only by a caretaker 
and his assistants. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved April 27, 1915. 



CHAPTER 333, ACTS OF 1915 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings in the 
City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The chairman of the city planning board, 
the fire commissioner and the building commissioner of 
the city of Boston are hereby created a commission to 
determine and revise the boundaries of districts A and B 
as heretofore designated by the commission on height of 
buildings in the city of Boston, in accordance with the 
provisions of chapter three hundred and thirty-three 
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four, in the 
orders of said commission dated, respectively, the fifth 
day of July and the third day of December in the year 
nineteen hundred and four, and recorded, respectively, 
with Suffolk deeds in book twenty-nine hundred and 
seventy-six, page forty-five, and in book three thousand 
and eight, page one hundred and twenty-nine. 

The height to which buildings may be erected in Dis- 
tricts A and B, respectively, as revised and established 
under this act, shall not exceed the height authorized for 
buildings in districts designated as A and B, respectively, 
under the provisions of said chapter three hundred and 
thirty-three and of chapter three hundred and eighty- 
three of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and five, 
and the orders of the commission on height of buildings 



250 Acts of Chronological Order. 

in the city of Boston under authority of said chapter three 
hundred and eighty-three recorded, respectively, within 
Suffolk deeds in book three thousand and fifty-nine, page 
four hundred and seventy-seven, and in book three thou- 
sand and eighty-three, page seventy-four. 

Sect. 2. The commission shall give notice and public 
hearings and shall make an order revising the boundaries 
of the districts aforesaid, and shall cause the same to be 
recorded in the registry of deeds for the country of Suffolk. 
The boundaries so established shall continue for a period 
of ten years from the date of said recording. Any per- 
son who is aggrieved by said order may appeal to the 
commission for revision within sixty days after the rcord- 
ing thereof; and the commission may revise the order and 
the revision shall be recorded in the registry of deeds for 
the county of Suffolk and shall date back to the original 
date of recording. 

Sect. 3. Upon the recording of the order of revision 
under this act so much of section two of said chapter three 
hundred and thirty-three as continues the boundaries 
for districts A and B for a period of fifteen years from the 
date of the recording of the order of the commission under 
authority of said chapter three hundred and thirty-three 
shall become inoperative. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 11, 1915. 



Commission on Height of Buildings in the City of 

Boston. 

[Order of November 2, 1916.]* 
The undersigned having been created under the provi- 
sions of chapter three hundred and thirty-three of the 
special acts of the year 1915 a commission to determine 



Acts in Chronological Order. 251 

and revise the boundaries of Districts A and B as hereto- 
fore designated by the commission on height of buildings 
in the city of Boston, in accordance with the provisions 
of chapter three hundred and thirty-three of -the acts of 
the year 1904, in the orders of said commission dated, 
respectively, the fifth day of July and the third day of 
December in the year 1904, and recorded, respectively, 
with Suffolk Deeds in book twenty-nine hundred and 
seventy-six, page forty-five, and in book three thousand 
and eight, page one hundred and twenty-nine, and having 
given notice and public hearings as provided in said act, 
hereby on this second day of November, 1916, make the 
following order establishing the boundaries of the dis- 
tricts in said city, designated in said acts as Districts A 
and B, to wit: 

Note.— See Reg. of Deeds, Suffolk Lib. 3993, Folio 81. 

A. The boundaries of District A, hereby established, 
are as follows, to wit: 

Boundaries of District A. East Boston. 

1. Beginning on the northerly side of that part of the 
city known as East Boston at the intersection of Wau- 
watosa street and Chelsea Creek, thence running easterly 
through Wauwatosa street and Boardman street to Sara- 
toga street, thence southwesterly through Saratoga street 
to Addison street, thence westerly through Addison street 
to the Boston and Maine Railroad, thence southwesterly 
along the Boston and Maine Railroad and the Boston and 
Albany Railroad to Saratoga street, thence southwesterly 
through Saratoga street to Neptune road, thence north- 
westerly through Eagle square to Eagle street, thence 
westerly through Eagle street to Glendon street, 
thence northerly through Glendon street to Condor 
street, thence westerly through Condor street to Meridian 



252 Acts in Chronological Order. 

street, thence southerly through Meridian street to Gove 
street, thence southeasterly through Gove street to Orleans 
street, thence southerly through Orleans street to Marginal 
street, thence southeasterly through Marginal street to 
Jeffries street, thence northeasterly through Jeffries street 
to Maverick street, thence northwesterly through Maverick 
street to the Boston, Revere Beach and Lynn Rail- 
road, thence northeasterly along said railroad to the 
centre of Porter street extended, thence northwesterly 
along Porter street to Bremen street, thence northerly 
along Bremen street to Prescott street, thence south- 
easterly along Prescott street to the Boston, Revere 
Beach and Lynn Railroad, thence northerly along said 
railroad to the northerly boundary of the property of the 
city of Boston known as Wood Island Park, thence 
easterly along said boundary to the harbor line, thence 
easterly, southerly, westerly, northerly, easterly and 
northeasterly along said harbor line of Boston Harbor 
and Chelsea Creek to the point of beginning, meaning to 
include in said District A all those portions of Ward one 
and two of said city as are now established by law which 
are situated within the boundary lines hereinbefore 
described. 

Charlestown. 

2. Beginning at the northerly side of that part of said 
city known as Charlestown at the Maiden Bridge, thence 
running southerly through Alford street to Sullivan 
square, thence southeasterly through Sullivan square and 
Bunker Hill street to .Medford street, thence easterly 
through Medford street to Chelsea street, thence southerly 
through Chelsea street to Henley street, thence westerly 
through Henley street to Harvard square, thence south- 
westerly through Harvard square to Harvard street, 
thence northwesterly across Harvard street to Washing- 



Acts in Chronological Order. 253 

ton street, thence westerly through Washington street to 
Rutherford avenue, thence northwesterly through Ruther- 
ford avenue to Sullivan square, thence southwesterly 
through Cambridge street to the city line, thence southerly 
and easterly along the city line and the Charles river 
channel to the Charlestown Bridge, thence northerly, 
easterly, northerly, and westerly along the harbor line 
of Boston Harbor and the Mystic river to the point of 
beginning; meaning to include in said District A all those 
portions of wards three and four of said city as are now 
established by law which are situated within the boundary 
lines hereinbefore described. 



Boston Proper. Roxbury. Dorchester. South Boston. 

3. Beginning on the northwesterly side of that part of 
said city known as the City Proper, at the intersection 
of the city line with the Charles river dam, thence east- 
erly and southerly along said Charles river dam and 
Leverett street to Green street, thence easterly along 
Green street to Staniford street, thence southerly along 
Staniford street to Cambridge street, thence easterly 
along Cambridge street to Bowdoin street, thence south- 
erly along Bowdoin street to Beacon street, thence south- 
westerly along Beacon street to Park street, thence 
easterly and southerly along Park and Tremont streets 
to Boylston street, thence westerly and southwesterly 
along Boylston street to Massachusetts avenue, thence 
southeasterly along Massachusetts avenue to the Provi- 
dence Division of the New York, New Haven and Hart- 
ford Railroad, thence southwesterly along said railroad to 
Tremont street at Roxbury Crossing, thence southerly 
through Columbus avenue to Roxbury street, thence 
easterly through Roxbury street to Guild row, thence 
southerly through Guild row to Dudley street, thence 



254 Acts in Chronological Order. 

easterly and southeasterly through Dudley street to 
Columbia road, thence northeasterly through Columbia 
road to Dorchester avenue, thence southerly through 
Dorchester avenue to Park street, thence northeasterly 
through Park street to Adams street, thence southerly 
through Adams street to Neponset avenue, thence south- 
easterly through Neponset avenue to the Milton Branch 
of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, 
thence southwesterly along said railroad to Granite avenue, 
thence southeasterly along Granite avenue to the Nepon- 
set river, thence easterly and northerly along the shore of 
the Neponset river to the Neponset Bridge, thence north- 
erly and westerly along the harbor lines of the Neponset 
river, Dorchester Bay and Old Harbor to the northwest 
angle of said harbor line of Old Harbor, thence north- 
westerly to the intersection of Old Colony Avenue and 
Columbia road, thence northerly along Old Colony avenue 
to E street, thence northeasterly along E street to Broad- 
way, thence southeasterly along Broadway to Dorchester 
street, thence northeasterly through Dorchester street to 
East Second street, thence easterly on East Second street 
to I street, thence northerly through I street to East 
First street, thence easterly through East First street to 
Farragut road, thence northerly through Farragut road 
and Farragut road exteDded across the Reserved channel, 
thence easterly, northwesterly and southwesterly, along 
the harbor line of said channel and of Boston Harbor to 
the Northern Avenue Bridge, thence westerly along said 
bridge to the Harbor Line, thence northerly and westerly 
along the Harbor Line of Boston Harbor and the Charles 
river to Charlestown Bridge, thence westerly along 
the Charles river channel and the City Line to the point 
of beginning, meaning to include in said District A all of 
ward six and all those portions of wards five, seven, eight, 
nine, eleven, twelve, thirteen, seventeen, eighteen, and 



Acts in Chronological Order. 255 

twenty of the said city as are now established by law 
which are situated within the boundary lines hereinbefore 
described. 

B. The boundaries of District B hereby established are 
as follows, to wit: 

Boundaries of District B. 

1. All those portions of said wards one and two 
situated outside the line beginning and ending at the 
intersection of Wauwatosa street and Chelsea creek here- 
inbefore established as the boundary of one of the said 
Districts A. 

2. All those portions of said wards three and four 
situated outside the line beginning and ending at the said 
Maiden Bridge, hereinbefore established as the boundary 
of one of the said Districts A. 

3. The whole of wards ten, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, 
nineteen, twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty- 
four, twenty-five and twenty-six and all those portions 
of said wards five, seven, eight, nine, eleven, twelve, 
thirteen, seventeen, eighteen and twenty situated outside 
the line beginning and ending at said intersection of the 
city fine with the Charles river dam, hereinbefore estab- 
lished as the boundary of one of the said Districts A. 

Meaning to include in the said Districts B all those 
portions of the said city not included in the districts 
hereinbefore established as District A. 

Wherever in this order the words "harbor," "river," 
''creek," "shore fine" or "harbor line," are found, the 
same are intended to mean the lines furthest towards deep 
water on said harbor, river or creek, respectively, on 
which the erection of wharves or other structures is per- 
mitted by the state and United States authorities. 

Wherever the boundary line of District A is described 
as following a certain street, the same is intended to 



256 Acts in Chronological Order. 

include all property on that side of street which lies 
within the described area and also that portion of all 
lots on the opposite side of the street, abutting on the 
street, but extending to a depth of not more than one 
hundred and fifty feet. 

Wherever the boundary line of District B is determined 
by the enumeration of certain streets delimiting District 
A, the same is intended to include all property on that side 
of the street within the described area, except that portion 
of those lots abutting on the boundary streets of District A 
but extending to a depth of not more than one hundred 
and fifty feet, which are described in the paragraph above 
as intended to form a part of District A. 

In witness whereof, the undersigned hereto set their 
hands this second day of November, 1916. 

Ralph A. Cram, 
John Grady, 
Patrick O'Hearn, 
Commission on Height of Buildings 
in the City of Boston. 

Boston, November 2, 1916. 
Then personally appeared the above named Ralph A. 
Cram, John Grady and Patrick O'Hearn and acknowledged 
the foregoing instrument to be their free act and deed. 
Before me, 

Elisabeth M. Herlihy, 

Special Commissioner. 



Order on Commission on Height of Buildings in the 
City of Boston Amending Boundaries Estab- 
lished November 2, 1916. 

[Order of January 12, 1917.]* 
Whereas, The undersigned, the Commission on Height 
of Buildings in the City of Boston, created by chapter 



Acts in Cheonological Oeder. 257 

333 of the Special Acts of the year 1915, a commission 
to determine and revise the boundaries of Districts A 
and B in said city, which were established in pursuance 
of the provisions of chapter 333 of the Acts of the year 
1904, did on November 2, 1916, make an order in accord- 
ance with the provisions of said chapter 333 of the Special 
Acts of the year 1915, which order is recorded with Suffolk 
Deeds, * Book 3993, page 81; and 

Whereas, Certain parties are aggrieved by said order of 
November 2, 1916, and have in pursuance of the provisions 
of said chapter 333 of the Special Acts of the year 1915 
duly filed petitions for the revision of said order; 

Now, therefore, We the undersigned, having considered 
the matters set forth in said petitions, do hereby revise 
said order of November 2, 1916, in the manner following: 

By excluding from District A as described in clause 
three of said order of November 2, 1916, and including 
in District B as described therein, the tract of land de- 
scribed as follows: 

Beginning at a point on Boylston street at the division 
line between the Hotel Brunswick and the estate num- 
bered 504 Boylston street; thence running southerly 
by said dividing line to Providence street; thence run- 
ning westerly along Providence street to the dividing 
line between the estates now numbered 91 and 93 St. 
James avenue extended northerly; thence running south- 
erly by said dividing line to St. James avenue; thence 
running westerly along St. James avenue crossing Dart- 
mouth street and Huntington avenue and continuing 
westerly along Blagden street to the easterly line of the 
property of the Boston Athletic Association; thence run- 
ning northerly by said last mentioned line and by said 
line extended parallel with Exeter street northerly to 

* See Reg. of Deeds, Suffolk Lib. 4006. Folio 418. 



258 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Boylston street; thence running easterly along Boylston 
street to the point of beginning. 

The above described area shall be included wholly 
within District B and no part of said area shall be included 
in District A by reason of the following provision in said 
order of November 2, 1916: 

"Wherever the boundary line of District A is described 
as following a certain street, the same is intended to 
include all property on that side of the street, which lies 
within the described area, and also that portion of all lots 
on the opposite side of the street, abutting on the street, 
but extending to a depth of not more than one hundred 
and fifty feet." 

"Wherever the boundary line of District B is deter- 
mined by the enumeration of certain streets delimiting 
District A, the same is intended to include all property 
on that side of the street within the described area, except 
that portion of those lots abutting on the boundary streets 
of District A, but extending to a depth of not more than 
one hundred and fifty feet, which are described in the 
paragraph above as intended to form a part of District 
A." 

This revision shall not be construed or applied so as to 
prevent owners of land on the northerly side of Boylston 
street along the area excluded from District A as above 
described from erecting buildings to a height permitted 
under the original order of November 2, 1916. 

In witness thereof, the undersigned hereto set their 
hands this twelfth day of January, 1917. 

Ralph A. Cram, 
John Grady, 
Patrick O'Hearn, 
Commission on Height of Buildings 
in the City of Boston . 



Acts in Chronological Order. 259 

Boston, January 12, 1917. 
Then personally appeared the above named Ralph A. 
Cram, John Grady and Patrick O'Hearn, and acknowl- 
edged the foregoing instrument to be their free act and 
deed. 

Elisabeth M. Herlihy, 
Special Commissioner. 



CHAPTER 86, ACTS OF 1916 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to the Use of Public School Prop- 
erty of the City of Boston for Social, Civic 
and Other Purposes. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section one of chapter one hundred and 
ninety-five of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and 
twelve, is hereby amended by striking out the words 
"that no admission fee is charged and," in the tenth line 
so as to read as follows: — Section 1. For the purpose 
of promoting the usefulness of the public school property 
of the city of Boston, the school committee of that city may 
conduct such educational and recreative activities in or 
upon school property under its control, and shall allow the 
use thereof by individuals and associations, subject to such 
regulations as the school committee may establish, for 
such educational, recreative, social, civic, philanthropic 
and similar purposes as the committee may deem to be 
for the interest of the community: provided, that such 
use shall not interfere or be inconsistent with the use of 
the premises for school purposes. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved February 16, 1916 . 



260 Acts in Chronological Order. 



CHAPTER 115, ACTS OF 1918 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act to Allow Metal Garages of Limited Size in 
Certain Sections of the City of Boston. 

Superseded by Chapter 1$, Acts of 1927. (See page 380.) 



CHAPTER 32, ACTS OF 1919 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act to Require the Registration of Hospitals in 
the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Every person, firm or corporation, using 
or occupying a building in the city of Boston as a hospital, 
shall annually in April register with the building depart- 
ment of the city the name of the person, firm or corporation 
conducting the hospital and the situation of the building, 
and shall state, upon forms prescribed by the building com- 
missioner, the number of occupants, the means of egress, 
the system of automatic sprinklers, the lights, fire stops 
and other precautions against fire provided in such 
building. 

Sect. 2. Violation of this act shall be punished by a 
fine not exceeding five hundred dollars. 

[Approved February 19, 1919. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 261 

CHAPTER 163, ACTS OF 1919 (SPECIAL ACT). 

An Act Relative to the Construction, Alteration 
and Maintenance of Hospitals in the City of 
Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

First Class. 
Section 1. Every building in the city of Boston 
exceeding three stories or forty feet in height hereafter 
erected, altered or designed for use or occupation as a 
hospital shall be a first class building as defined in chapter 
five hundred and fifty of the acts of nineteen hundred and 
seven and the amendments thereof. Every such building 
shall be provided with at least two enclosed stairways, 
shall have an additional enclosed stairway if the number 
of occupants, at any time, equals seventy-five, and a 
further additional enclosed stairway for every additional 
one hundred occupants which it may at any time contain. 

Second or Third Class. 
Every building in the city of Boston three stories or less 
in height, or less than forty feet in height, hereafter erected, 
altered or designed for use or occupation as a hospital may 
be of second or third class construction, shall have means 
of egress satisfactory to the building commissioner, and no 
story or part of a story above the second shall be used for 
the care, treatment or lodging of patients. 

Shafts, to be Sprinklered. 
Sect. 2. The elevator, fight and ventilating shafts and 
basements in all hospital buildings specified in section one, 



262 Acts in Chronological Order. 

shall be provided with a system of automatic sprinklers 
approved as to location, arrangement and efficiency by the 
building commissioner. 

Halls and Stairs to be Kept Lighted. 

Sect. 3. The halls and stairs in all hospital buildings 
specified in section one, shall be provided with proper and 
sufficient lights which shall be kept lighted during the 
night. 

Shafts to be Enclosed in Basement. 

Sect. 4. The elevator, light and ventilating shafts in 
all hospital buildings specified in section one, shall be 
enclosed in the basement with masonry walls not less than 
eight inches thick or with two-inch metal and plaster 
partitions. 

Sect. 5. In case of an existing or impending epidemic 
of a disease, the building commissioner, upon the recom- 
mendation of the health commissioner and with the 
written approval of the mayor, may temporarily suspend 
the provisions of this act. 

Sect. 6. The health commissioner and the building 
commissioner, acting jointly, are hereby authorized to 
promulgate, from time to time, such regulations as in 
their judgment, public interests require, to govern the 
establishment and maintenance of hospitals whether for 
human beings or for domestic animals, and to regulate the 
issue, suspension and revocation of licenses for the same. 

Registration Required. 

Sect. 7. Every person, firm or corporation hereafter 
using or occupying a building in the city of Boston as a 
hospital shall forthwith register with the building depart- 
ment in the manner required by chapter thirty-two of the 
Special Acts of nineteen hundred and nineteen, setting 
forth all the facts and data therein specified. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 263 

Sect. 8. Violation of this act shall be punished by a 
fine not exceeding five hundred dollars. 

[Approved April 30, 1919. 



CHAPTER 298, ACTS OF 1920. 

An Act Relative to the Operation of Elevators by 1 
Minors. 

Beit enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. No minor under sixteen years of age shall 
be employed or permitted to operate, clean or repair a 
freight elevator. 

Sect. 2. Violations of the provisions of this act shall 
be punished by a fine of not more than one hundred dollars. 

[Approved April 9, 1920. 



CHAPTER 455, ACTS OF 1920. 

An Act Relative to the Limitation in Height of 
Buildings on Land Between Dartmouth Street 
and Trinity Place in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The limitation of the height of buildings 
contained in chapter four hundred and fifty-two of the 
acts of eighteen hundred and ninety-eight shall not apply 
to a parcel of land now owned by the trustees of the Copley 
Square Trust, containing about twenty-one thousand, two 
hundred and forty square feet, and bounded southerly on 
Stuart street two hundred and thirty-six feet, westerly on 
Dartmouth street ninety feet, northerly on other land of 
said trustees on which now stands the Copley Plaza Hotel 
two hundred and thirty-six feet, and easterly on Trinity 
place ninety feet. If, within two years from the passage 
of this act, said parcel of land or any part or parts thereof 
are taken by public authority for any public use, the owner 
or owners of the land so taken shall, with respect to the 
land taken and apart from improvements thereon, only be 



264 Acts in Chronological Order. 

entitled to recover damages to the extent that they would 
have been entitled to recover if this act had not been 
passed. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 14, 1920. 



CHAPTER 645, ACTS OF 1920. 

An Act Relative to Automatic Sprinklers in Tene- 
ment Houses in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The provisions of the fourth, fifth and 
sixth paragraphs of section forty-five of chapter five hun- 
dred and fifty of the acts of nineteen hundred and seven, 
as amended by section ten of chapter seven hundred and 
eighty-two of the acts of nineteen hundred and fourteen, 
and by section four of chapter three hundred and fifty-two 
of the Special Acts of nineteen hundred and fifteen, and 
by section one of chapter four hundred and forty of the 
acts of nineteen hundred and twenty, are hereby suspended 
and rendered inoperative as to tenement houses now exist- 
ing until the first day of March in the year nineteen hun- 
dred and twenty-one. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its acceptance 
by the mayor of the City of Boston; but for the purposes 
of such acceptance it shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved December 22, 1920. 



CHAPTER 109, ACTS OF 1921. 
An Act Exempting Certain Buildings in the City of 
Boston from the Laws Relative to Fire Pro- 
tection in Stables for Horses and Mules. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

The existing buildings upon premises numbered forty- 
nine on North Margin street, in Boston, shall be exempt 



Acts in Chronological Order. 265 

from the provisions of section eighty-six of chapter two 
hundred and seventy-two of the General Laws; provided 
that such buildings continue to be equipped with a line of 
fire hose on each floor above the first, to be used for fire 
purposes only, sufficient to reach all parts of said floor and 
connected with a fire supply pipe on each such floor, and 
provided that at least one man shall be on duty at such 
buildings at all times during the day and night. 

[Approved March 12, 1921. 



CHAPTER 137, ACTS OF 1921. 

An Act to Establish Harbor Lines in South Bay in 

the City op Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Harbor Lines. 

Sect. 1. The harbor lines in South bay in the city of 
Boston are hereby changed and established as follows: 
Beginning at a point A on the southerly side of Dover 
street bridge, which point is distance one hundred and 
eighty- three feet southeasterly from the southeasterly 
side line of Albany street; thence running southwesterly, 
parallel with said side line, nine hundred feet, to point B; 
thence running southwesterly, a little more westerly, 
about five hundred and fifty-five feet to a point C which 
is distant three hundred and seventy feet southeasterly 
from the northwesterly side line of Albany street, measur- 
ing at right angles to said side fine from a point therein six 
hundred and twenty-seven feet northeasterly from the 
northeasterly side line of Wareham street; thence running 
southwesterly still more westerly, about sixteen hundred 
and fifteen feet, to a point D which is distant three hundred 
and fifty-three feet southeasterly from said northwesterly 
side line of Albany street, measuring at right angles to said 
side line from the point of its intersection with the south- 



266 Acts in Chronological Order. 

westerly side line of East Brookline street; thence running 
southwesterly, still more westerly, five hundred feet to a 
point E which is distant three hundred and forty feet south- 
easterly from said northwesterly side line of Albany street, 
measuring at right angles thereto; thence running south- 
easterly one hundred feet at right angles to the harbor 
line last described to a point F; thence running north- 
easterly, about four hundred and thirty-five feet, to a 
point G which is distant four hundred and fifty-five feet 
southeasterly from said northwesterly side line of Albany 
street, measuring at right angles to said side fine from 
point therein sixty-five feet southwesterly from the south- 
westerly side fine of East Brookline street; thence running 
southeasterly, parallel with the northerly side fine of 
Southampton street, six hundred and eighty feet to a point 
H; thence deflecting to the left one hundred degrees, six 
minutes and running northwesterly about seven hundred 
and five feet to a point J which is distant two hundred 
and ten feet southeasterly from fine C-D, measuring 
at right angles thereto; thence running northeasterly 
parallel to said fine C-D, eight hundred and twenty-nine 
feet to a point K; thence running northeasterly more 
northerly parallel to and two hundred and ten feet distant 
southeasterly from the fine B-C about one thousand 
and ten feet to point L which is situated at the inter- 
section of said fine K-L, and a fine perpendicular to the 
southerly side fine of Dover street bridge and forty feet 
northwesterly from the center of pier number four of said 
Dover street bridge, said fine also being about eighty-five 
feet southeasterly from the southeasterly side of the 
draw opening in said bridge; thence northeasterly more 
northerly in said fine forty feet northwesterly of said pier 
number four about nine hundred and twenty-seven feet 
to its intersection with the harbor line on the easterly side 



Acts in Chronological Order. 267 

of Fort Point channel and northerly of Dover street bridge 
established by chapter thirty-five of the acts of eighteen 
hundred and fort}^. 

No Wharf or Structure to be Built or Extended Beyond 
Harbor Lines. 
Sect. 2. No wharf, pier, wall, filling or other structure 
of work, shall hereafter be built or extended in said South 
Bay beyond the harbor fines aforesaid; nor shall any 
structure be built or filling done inside said harbor lines 
and below the present high water mark in said bay, 
without authority or license therefor first duly obtained 
under and subject to the provisions of chapter ninety-one 
of the General Laws. 

No Work Allowed Below High Water Mark. 

Sect. 3. No structure shall be built or filling or other 
work done in any portion of said South Bay below the 
present high water mark thereof, Y\ r hereby the existing 
flow or drainage of surface or other waters in or into and 
through said bay towards the sea is cut off or obstructed 
without first making such other provision for such flow or 
drainage as shall be approved by the department of public 
works of both the commonwealth and the city of Boston. 

Sect. 4. All harbor fines, heretofore established in 
South Bay, so far as they differ from those established by 
this act, are hereby annulled. 

[Approved March 23, 1921. 



CHAPTER 316, ACTS OF 1922. 

An Act Relative to Garages in the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 2. The provisions of this act shall not apply 
to a building maintained as a garage for the storage, 



268 Acts in Chronological Order. 

keeping or care of automobiles at the time of the passage 
of this act, but any enlargement or alteration of, or ad- 
dition to, any such building shall be subject to the pro- 
visions of this act. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect upon its accept- 
ance by vote of the city council of the city of Boston, 
subject to the provisions of its charter; provided, that 
such acceptance occurs prior to December thirty-first in 
the current year. [Approved April 18, 1922. 

Accepted and approved by Mayor, May 17, 1922. 

Note. — Sect. 1 of this act amends section three of chapter five 
hundred and seventy-seven of the acts of nineteen hundred and 
thirteen as amended. 

See chapter 577 of 1913. 



CHAPTER 27, ACTS OF 1923. 

An Act Exempting a Certain Parcel of Land of the 
Massachusetts General Hospital in the City of 
Boston from Restrictions as to the Height of 
Buildings. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The parcel of land of the Massachusetts 
General Hospital, situated in the city of Boston and 
bounded by Charles street, Allen street, a line three 
hundred and fifty feet easterly from the easterly side 
line of and parallel to said Charles street, Fruit street 
and land of the Massachusetts Charitable Eye and Ear 
Infirmary, is hereby exempted from the provisions of 
chapter three hundred and thirty-three of the acts of 
nineteen hundred and four, chapter three hundred and 
eighty-three of the acts of nineteen hundred and five 
and chapter three hundred and thirty-three of the 
Special Acts of nineteen hundred and fifteen relative 
to the height of buildings, and is relieved from the re- 



Acts in Chronological Order. 269 

strictions as to height placed thereon by the commis- 
sion on height of buildings in the city of Boston acting 
under authority of said statutes; provided, however, that 
nothing herein shall authorize the erection on said par- 
cel of a building exceeding one hundred and twenty-five 
feet in height, nor the erection of any building thereon 
except in accordance with a permit duly granted there- 
for by the building commissioner of the city of Boston, 
nor shall this act operate to change existing restrictions 
as to the height of buildings on said parcel unless such 
buildings shall be erected for hospital purposes. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 
[Approved February 20, 1923. 



CHAPTER 278, ACTS OF 1923. 

An Act Requiring the Installation of Standpipes and 
other Equipment in Certain Buildings in the 
City of Boston. 

Definitions. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. In this act the following terms shall have 
the following meanings: 

"Fire department connection," connection near the 
base of a building located not less than ten nor more 
than forty-two inches above the sidewalk or ground, to 
which the fire department hose may be attached. 

"Fire department standard," the standard prescribed 
by the fire commissioner of the city of Boston. 

"Fire department standpipe, " a standpipe of not less 
than five inches internal diameter for buildings not 
exceeding ninety feet in height, and not less than six 
inches internal diameter for buildings of greater height. 

"First aid standpipe," a standpipe of not less than 
two and one half inches internal diameter. 



270 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Installation of Standpipes and Other Equipment 
in Certain Buildings in City of Boston. 
Section 2. All buildings hereafter erected in the city 
of Boston exceeding seventy feet in height and all ex- 
isting buildings in said city . hereafter so altered that 
the height thereof is increased to over seventy feet shall 
be provided with such fire department standpipes, first 
aid standpipes, fire department connections and other 
fire protection equipment as is hereinafter provided. 
Each story of such a building shall be provided with 
not less than one two and one half inch outlet fitted 
with a two and one half inch gate valve with male end, 
all fire department standard, located not higher than 
five feet three inches above the floor; except that unless 
required by the building commissioner of said city of 
Boston no two and one half inch outlet need be installed 
on the ground floor. There shall further be provided on 
each floor not less than one one and one quarter inch 
outlet fitted with a one and one quarter inch gate valve, 
fifty feet of standard one and one quarter inch hose with 
nozzle with one half inch orifice attached ready for use, 
and a standard hose rack or reel. Such valve shall be 
erected not higher than five feet above the floor. When- 
ever required by said fire commissioner a roof hydrant 
or monitor nozzle shall be installed, in which event the 
standpipe upon said roof shall be not less than six inches 
internal diameter. Said roof hydrant shall consist of two 
two and one half inch outlets fitted with two and one 
half inch gate valves with male end, all fire department 
standard, and not less than fifty feet of standard two 
and one half inch hose and play pipe properly stored 
and accessible for use. 

Fire Department Standpipes, Location, Number, etc. 

Fire department standpipes shall be located so as 

to afford protection against exterior hazard, as well as 



Acts in Chronological Order. 271 

protection to the building in which they are placed, 
and where practicable shall be erected within stair en- 
closures. The number of fire department standpipes in 
each building shall be such that all portions of each 
story of the building may be reached by an effective 
stream from a standard nozzle installed and attached 
to hose not exceeding one hundred feet in length, and 
shall be primarily for the use of the fire department. 



First Aid Standpipes, Number, etc. 

First aid standpipes shall be of such number that all 
portions of each story of the building may be reached 
effectively by a stream from a standard nozzle installed 
and attached to hose not exceeding fifty feet in length. 
When in the judgment of the said building commis- 
sioner the foregoing requirements as to first aid stand- 
pipes are impracticable, separate first aid outlets at 
each story may be taken from fire department stand- 
pipes and the requirements for first aid standpipes may 
be so modified by said commissioner. First aid stand- 
pipes shall be primarily for use by the occupants of the 
building. Each standpipe system shall connect with 
the city water main through one four-inch branch pro- 
vided exclusively for that purpose. Supplies shall be 
taken from high service when such is available. A flow 
test pipe of not less than two inches internal diameter 
shall be provided on each system. Every building sub- 
ject to this act shall be provided with suitable fire de- 
partment connections. When a system is composed of 
more than one standpipe, cross-connections shall be 
made so that supply through fire department connec- 
tions will reach all portions of the system; except that 
when standpipes are widely separated, precluding the 
probability of mistake by the fire department, the sys- 
tem may be divided. 



272 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Standpipes to be Subjected to Hydrostatic Test, etc. 

All standpipes installed under the provisions of this 
act shall be subjected to a hydrostatic test of two hun- 
dred and fifty pounds and shall be satisfactory to the 
said building commissioner. 

Hose to be Tested, etc. 
All hose shall be tested in the presence of an inspector 
from the building department at least once a year, and 
all defective hose shall be replaced without delay. 

Shutting off Water from Standpipes During 
Certain Months, etc. 

Proviso. 
When in the judgment of the said fire commissioner 
it is impracticable to protect standpipes from freezing 
he may at his discretion allow water to be shut off from 
said standpipes from the first day of November in any 
year until the first day of April next following; pro- 
vided, however, that a controlling valve is located, ar- 
ranged, and supervised in a manner satisfactory to said 
commissioner. 

To be Submitted to City Council, etc. 

Proviso. 
Section 3. This act shall take effect upon its acceptance 
by vote of the city council of the city of Boston subject to 
the provisions of its charter; provided that such acceptance 
occurs prior to December thirty-first in the current year. 

[Approved April 14, 1928. 
[Accepted by City Council and Approved by Mayor, Sep- 
tember 18, 1923. 1 



Acts in Chronological Order. 273 

CHAPTER 332, ACTS OF 1924. 

An Act Providing for the Appointment of Special 
Night Elevator Inspectors and the Inspection of 
Passenger Elevators at Night in the City of 
Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Subject to the laws, rules and regulations 
governing the civil service, the building commissioner of 
the city of Boston may appoint not more than two special 
night elevator inspectors to inspect passenger elevators 
at night; provided, that no person shall simultaneously 
hold the position of day elevator inspector and special 
night elevator inspector. The pay of such special night 
elevator inspectors shall be at the rate of ten dollars for 
each night's inspection, but shall not exceed one thousand 
dollars per annum, and their duties shall be prescribed by 
said building commissioner. 

Sect. 2. Upon request to the building commissioner 
by the owner or occupant of any building in the city of 
Boston in which a passenger elevator inspection is to be 
made that such inspection be made at night and upon 
payment to the said commissioner of the sum of ten dollars, 
the commissioner shall cause the same to be so made. All 
money collected for passenger elevator inspections made 
at night hereunder shall be turned over by the building 
commissioner to the city collector of the city of Boston. 

[Approved May 6, 1924- 



274 Acts in Chronological Order. 

CHAPTER 488, ACTS OF 1924. 

An Act Regulating and Restricting the Use of 
Buildings, and Premises, the Height and Bulk of 
Buildings and the Occupancy of Lots in the City 
of Boston and for said Purposes Dividing the 
City into Districts. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

DEFINITIONS. 

Section 1. For the purposes of this act, certain words 
and terms used herein are hereinafter defined; words not 
defined herein shall be construed as defined or used in 
chapter five hundred and fifty of the acts of nineteen 
hundred and seven, and acts in amendment thereof and 
in addition thereto, being the building law of the city of 
Boston, hereinafter referred to as the aforesaid building 
law or, if not defined or used therein, as in the regulations 
of the department of public safety. 

Building, Area of: The maximum horizontal projected 
area of a building, including covered porches but exclud- 
ing cornices not more than eighteen inches wide, steps and 
terraces. 

Dwelling: Any house or building, or portion thereof, 
except a hotel, which is occupied in whole or in part as 
the home or residence of one or more persons, either per- 
manently or transiently. 

Hotel: A building occupied as the more or less temporary 
abiding place of individuals in which provision is not made 
for cooking in any apartment, and in which there are 
more than fifty sleeping rooms, a public dining room for 
the accommodation of at least fifty guests, and a general 
kitchen. 

Lot: Land occupied or to be occupied by a building and 
its accessory buildings, and including the open spaces 
required under this act. Two or more buildings other 



Acts in Chronological Order. 275 

than accessory buildings upon a single parcel of land shall 
be deemed to occupy separate lots. 

[Chap. 219 of 1925.] 

Set-back: The minimum horizontal distance between the 
street line and the front line of the building, excluding 
steps, uncovered porches and covered but unenclosed 
entrance porches on the first story which do not exceed a 
total area of fifty square feet. 

Story, Half: A story which is situated in a sloping roof, 
the area of which at a height four feet above the floor does 
not exceed two thirds of the floor area of the story im- 
mediately below it and which does not contain an in- 
dependent apartment. A half story shall not be counted 
as a story for the purpose of determining yard dimensions. 

Yard, Rear: A space on the same lot with a building, 
between the extreme rear line of said building and the 
rear line of the lot and open and unoccupied except by an 
unenclosed porch not exceeding sixty square feet in area. 

Where said lines are not parallel the mean depth of the 
rear yard shall be considered its minimum depth, provided 
that at no point shall its depth thereby be reduced to less 
than twelve feet. 

[Chap. 219, Acts of 1927.] 

Yard, Side: An open, unoccupied space on the same lot 
with a building extending for the full length of the build- 
ing between the building and the side line of the lot. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF USE DISTRICTS. 

Section 2. In order to regulate and restrict the loca- 
tion of trades, industries and other uses, and the location 
of buildings designed, erected, altered or occupied for 
specified uses, the city of Boston is hereby divided into 
the following classes of use districts : 

Single Residence districts, 

General Residence districts, 

Local Business districts, 

General Business districts, 



276 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Industrial districts, 

Unrestricted districts, 
as appearing on the zoning map prepared by the Boston 
city planning board, dated March fifteenth, nineteen 
hundred and twenty-four and filed, April twenty-eighth 
of said year, in the office of the state secretary, as amended 
by the substitution of a new sheet ten of said plan, filed 
with said office May eleventh, nineteen hundred and 
twenty-four, in place of sheet ten previously filed. 

Except as hereinafter provided no building shall be 
erected or altered nor shall any building or premises be 
used for any purpose other than a use permitted in the 
use district in which such building or premises is located. 

SINGLE RESIDENCE DISTRICTS. 

Section 3. In a single residence district no building or 
premises shall be erected, altered or used except for one 
or more of the following uses: 

( 1 ) Single-family detached dwellings ; 

(2) Clubs, except clubs the chief activity of which is a 
service customarily carried on as a business and clubs 
with more than five sleeping rooms; 

(3) Educational, religious, philanthropic or other insti- 
tutional uses, provided that in the case of a hospital, 
sanitarium, correctional institution or similar use the 
health commissioner of Boston and building commissioner 
of Boston approve the location as not detrimental or 
injurious to the residential character of the neighborhood 
after public notice and hearing; 

(4) Farms, gardens, nurseries or greenhouses; 

(5) Municipal recreational uses; 

(6) Railroad or street railway local passenger stations; 

(7) Cemeteries, provided the health commissioner of 
Boston and the Boston city council approve the location; 



Acts in. Chronological Order. 277 

(8) Accessory uses customarily incident to any of the 
above permitted uses. The term "accessory use" shall 
not include: 
(a) A garage; 

(6) Any use, except signs, located upon that half of the 
lot nearest the street line or lines, or within ten feet of 
such part of an adjacent lot, unless it is either fifty feet 
from the nearest street or in the same building to which 
the use is accessory; 

(c) Signs except those pertaining to the lease, sale or 
use of the lot or buiding on which placed, and not ex- 
ceeding a total area of eight square feet, and except 
further that on a lot occupied by a dwelling there shall 
not be more than one such sign, pertaining to the use 
thereof or bearing the name or occupation of an occupant, 
for each family housed and no such sign shall exceed one 
square foot in area; 

(9) Garages in which the business of repairing is not 
conducted and in which not more than one commercial 
automobile is stored, provided after public hearing the 
board of street commissioners grants a license therefor. 
No such license shall be granted where such garage will 
be detrimental to the residential character of the neighbor- 
hood, or increases the fire hazard or tends to cause con- 
gestion in any private way used in common with others. 
From any decision of said commissioners granting any 
such license any person aggrieved may take an appeal, 
within fifteen days of notice of such decision, to the state 
fire marshal, who may after public hearing suspend- or 
i evoke any such license. 

GENERAL RESIDENCE DISTRICTS. 

Section 4. In a general residence district no build- 
ing or premises shall be erected, altered or used except for 
one or more of the following uses: 

(1) Any use permitted in a single residence district; 

(2) Dwellings; 



278 Acts in Chronological Order. 

(3) Clubs, social or recreational buildings, except clubs 
the chief activity of which is a service customarily carried 
on as a business; 

(4) Hotels, provided they conform to all the require- 
ments of this act for dwellings; 

(5) Accessory uses customarily incident to any of the 
above uses. The term "accessory use" shall be con- 
strued as in section three. 

(6) Telephone exchange offices. 

In a general residence district the building commissioner 
may grant a permit for physicians' offices, provided the 
building or use is not detrimental or injurious to the 
residential character of the neighborhood. 

LOCAL BUSINESS DISTRICTS. 

Section 5. In a local business district no building or 
premises shall be erected, altered or used for any use 
prohibited in a general business district as provided in 
section six, for any use injurious, noxious or offensive to a 
neighborhood by reason of the emission of odor, fumes, 
dust, smoke, vibration or noise, or for any use except one 
or more of the following: 

(1) Any use permitted in a single or general residence 
district; 

(2) Hotels; 

(3) Fire stations; 

(4) Offices or banks; 

(5) Places of amusement or assembly; 

(6) Stables, provided the health commissioner after 
public notice and hearing approves the location; 

(7) Any other retail business or service not involving 
any manufacture on the premises except as permitted in 
paragraph eight of this section; 

(8) Any manufacturing, industrial or other use on the 
same premises with and clearly incidental to one of the 



Acts in Chronological Order. 279 

above uses, provided that it does not occupy an area 
exceeding fifty per cent of the floor area of that part of a 
building occupied by such use, and provided further that 
the major portion of any products manufactured are to 
be sold at retail on the premises to the consumer; 

(9) Filling stations or garages otherwise excluded, 
provided that the board of street commissioners, after 
public notice and hearing, grants a license therefor. No 
such license shall be granted where such filling station or 
garage will be detrimental or injurious to the business 
character of the neighborhood. 

GENERAL BUSINESS DISTRICTS. 

Section 6. In a general business district no building 
or premises shall be erected, altered or used for any of 
the following specified trades, industries or uses: 

(1) Aluminum, copper, iron, steel or alloys thereof: 
foundry or works; 

(2) Assaying, other than gold and silver; 

(3) Blacksmith or horse-shoeing shop; 

(4) Bleaching, dry cleaning or dyeing at wholesale; 

(5) Bottling works; 

(6) Brewing or distilling of liquor or spirits; 

(7) Brick, terra cotta or tile manufacture; 

(8) Building material storage yard; 

(9) Carpet or bag cleaning; 

(10) Coal, coke or wood yard; 

(11) Contractor's plant or storage yard, except during 
building construction on the same or an adjacent lot; 

(12) Cotton or woolen mills; 

(13) Fish curing or smoking; 

(14) Flour or grain mill or elevator; 

(15) Forge works; 

(16) Glass manufacture; 



280 Acts in Chronological Order. 

(17) Ice manufacture for sale, or storage of more than 
twenty tons; 

(18) Junk or scrap iron dump, storage or wrecking; 

(19) Lumber yard; 

(20) Oiled or rubber cloth manufacture; 

(21) Paper or pulp manufacture; 

(22) Petroleum or other inflammable liquid: storage 
in excess of two thousand gallons or manufacture of saiy 
of its by-products; 

(23) Planing or saw mill; 

(24) Public utility power generating plant; 

(25) Rags or scrap paper dump, storage, sorting or 
baling; 

(26) Rock or stone crusher, mill or quarry; 

(27) Rubber manufacture or treatment; 

(28) Shoddy manufacture; 

(29) Soap manufacture; 

(30) Steam railroad yard or roundhouse; 

(31) Stone yard or cutting; 

(32) Sugar refining; 

(33) Tobacco, manufacture of chewing tobacco; 

(34) Any use prohibited in an industrial district as 
provided in section seven; 

(35) Any other trade, industry or use that is injurious, 
noxious or offensive to a neighborhood by reason of the 
emission of odor, fumes, dust, smoke, vibration or noise. 

INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS. 

Section 7. In an industrial district no building or 
premises shall be erected, altered or used for any of the 
following specified trades, industries or uses; 

(1) Ammonia, bleaching powder or chlorine manufac- 
ture or refining; 

(2) Asphalt manufacture or refining; 

(3) Blacking or polish manufacture; 



Acts in Chronological Order. 281 

(4) Blast furnace; 

(5) Boiler works; 

(6) Candle or sperm oil manufacture; 

(7) Cement, gypsum, lime or plaster of paris manu- 
facture; 

(8) Coke manufacture; 

(9) Cremation, unless in a cemetery; 

(10) Creosote manufacture or treatment; 

(11) Dextrin, glucose or starch manufacture; 

(12) Disinfectant or insecticide manufacture; 

(13) Distillation of bones, coal or wood or manufacture 
of any of their by-products; 

(14) Dye manufacture; 

(15) Explosives or fireworks manufacture, or storage in 
excess of five hundred pounds; 

(16) Fat, grease, lard or tallow manufacture, refining 
or rendering; 

(17) Fertilizer manufacture; 

(18) Gas (fuel or illuminating) manufacture in excess 
of one thousand cubic feet per day or storage in excess of 
ten thousand cubic feet; 

(19) Gelatin, glue or size manufacture; 

(20) Hydrochloric, nitric, picric, sulphuric or sulphurous 
acid manufacture; 

(21) Hair manufacture; 

(22) Hot rolling mill; 

(23) Incineration or reduction of dead animals, garbage 
offal or refuse unless accumulated and consumed on the 
same premises without the emission of odor; 

(24) Lamp-black manufacture; 

(25) Linoleum or oilcloth manufacture; 

(26) Match manufacture; 

(27) Metal or ore reduction or smelting; 

(28) Oil, paint, shellac, turpentine or varnish manu- 
facture; 



282 Acts in Chronological Order. 

(29) Petroleum or other inflammable liquids: produc- 
tion or refining; 

(30) Printing ink manufacture; 

(31) Pyroxylin manufacture, manufacture of articles 
thereof, or storage in excess of five hundred pounds unless 
in a vault approved by the state department of public 
safety; 

(32) Rubber manufacture from crude material; 

(33) Salt, soda or soda compounds manufacture; 

(34) Slaughtering except as permitted by the health 
commissioner of Boston; 

(35) Stock-yards; 

(36) Tanning, curing or storage of raw hides or skins; 

(37) Tar distillation or manufacture; 

(38) Tar roofing or waterproofing manufacture; 

(39) Wool pulling or scouring; 

(40) Any other trade, industry or use that is injurious, 
noxious or offensive to a neighborhood by reason of the 
emission of odor," fumes, dust, smoke, vibration or noise, 
but not including places of amusement. 

UNRESTRICTED DISTRICTS. 

Section 8. In an unrestricted district buildings and 
premises may be used for any purposes not prohibited by 
law, ordinance or regulation. 

NON-CONFORMING USES. 

Section 9. Any lawful use of a building or premises 
or part thereof existing at the time of the taking effect of 
this act may be continued, although such use does not 
conform with the foregoing provisions hereof. In the 
case of a building or part thereof designed and intended 
for a non-conforming use, such use in a part thereof may 
be extended throughout the building or part thereof so 
designed and intended or changed to any use permitted 
in a district where such non-conforming use would be 



Acts in Chronological Order. 283 

permitted and not more detrimental or injurious to the 
neighborhood, provided no structural alterations are 
hereafter made therein, except those required by law, 
ordinance or regulation. 

The building commissioner may grant a permit for the 
erection of additional buildings or for the enlargement or 
alteration of existing buildings on the same or an adjacent 
parcel of land, each in the same single or joint ownership 
of record at the time it is placed in a use district, for a 
trade, business, industry or other use prohibited in such 
district where such enlargement or alteration will not be 
detrimental or injurious to the character of the neighbor- 
hood. 

The building commissioner may grant a permit for a non- 
conforming temporary building or use incidental to the 
development of a neighborhood and where reasonably 
required for such development, such permit to be issued 
for an initial period of not more than two years, and in 
the case of a building only upon application accompanied 
by a bond and bill of sale to the city, effective in case the 
building is not removed prior to the expiration of the 
permit. Permits may be renewed by the commissioner 
for successive periods of not more than two years each. 

In a general business or industrial district the building 
commissioner may grant a permit for a building or use 
otherwise excluded from such district, provided such 
building or use is distinctly incidental and essential to a 
use of a building or plant with a series of buildings per- 
mitted in such a district, provided not more than twenty 
per cent of the total floor area of the building or buildings 
is to be so occupied, provided that not more than twenty 
per cent of the employees of the building or plant are to be 
engaged therein, and provided that no buildings or use 
otherwise prohibited in the district is located within fifty 
feet of any street or lot line unless such line adjoins or 
faces property in a district in which such use is permitted. 



284 Acts in Chronological Order. 

establishment of bulk districts. 

Section 10. In order to regulate and limit the height 
and bulk of buildings, the area of yards and other open 
spaces and the percentage of lot occupancy, the city of 
Boston is hereby divided into the following classes of 
bulk districts: 

Thirty-five foot districts, 

Forty-foot districts, 

Sixty-five foot districts, 

Eighty foot districts, 

One hundred and fifty-five foot districts, 
as appearing on the zoning map prepared by the Boston 
city planning board, dated March fifteenth, nineteen 
hundred and twenty-four and filed, April twenty-eighth 
of said year, in the office of the state secretary, as amended 
by the substitution of a new sheet ten of said plan, filed 
with said office May eleventh, nineteenth hundred and 
twenty-four, in place of sheet ten previously filed. 

Except as hereinafter provided no building or part 
thereof shall be erected or altered so as to produce greater 
heights, smaller yards or less unoccupied area than herein 
required for such a building for the bulk district in which 
it js located. 

No lot shall be so reduced that the yards, courts or 
other open spaces shall be smaller than prescribed by this 
act. No yard, court or other open space shall at any 
time be counted as required open space for more than one 
building. 

THIRTY-FIVE FOOT DISTRICTS. 

Section 11. In a thirty-five foot district : — 
Height and Occupancy: No building shall exceed thirty- 
five feet or two and one half stories in height or accom- 
modate or make provision for more than two families. 

Rear Yards: There shall be behind every building other 
than an accessory building a rear yard extending across 



Acts in Chronological Order. 285 

the entire width of the lot and having a minimum depth 
of twenty-five feet, provided that on lots not within a 
single or general residence district the depth may be 
reduced five feet. 

Side Yards: There shall be a side yard on each side of 
every building or pair of semi-detached buildings in a 
single or general residence district. The minimum width 
of any side yard provided in a thirty-five foot district 
shall be six feet, which shall be increased six inches for 
every twenty feet or fraction thereof that the length of the 
side yard exceeds sixty feet, provided that on no lot held 
under a spearate and distinct ownership from adjacent 
lots and of record at the time it is placed in a thirty-five 
foot district shall the buildable width be reduced by this 
requirement to less than twenty-four feet. 

[Chap. 220, Acts of 1927.] 

Courts: Courts shall conform to the regulations pre- 
scribed in sixty-five foot districts. In a single or general 
residence district no window required by the aforesaid 
building law shall open upon an outer court the depth of 
which exceeds its width or upon any inner court. 

Set-back: In a single or general residence district no 
building shall hereafter be erected or altered to be within 
thirty feet of the center of the street on which it fronts or 
within ten feet of the street line, provided that on a lot 
between two buildings not more than sixty feet apart the 
set-back need not exceed the greater of the set-backs of 
such buildings. 

Between the lines of streets intersecting at an angle of 
less than one hundred and thirty-five degrees and a line 
joining points on such lines twenty feet distant from their 
point of intersection no building or structure may be 
erected and no vegetation may be maintained above a 
height three and one half feet above the plane through 
their curb grades. 

Building Area: The area of a dwelling shall not exceed 



286 Acts in Chronological Orders. 

thirty-five per cent of the area of the lot. The area of a 
building other than a dwelling shall not exceed sixty per 
cent of the area of the lot. 

FORTY FOOT DISTRICTS. 

Section 12. In a forty foot district : — 

Height: No building shall exceed forty feet or three 
stories in height. 

Rear Yards: There shall be behind every building other 
than an accessory building a rear yard extending across 
the entire width of the lot and having a minimum depth 
of twenty feet. 

Side Yards: There shall be a side yard on each side of 
every building or attached group of buildings other than 
accessory buildings in a single or general residence district 
unless there is a party wall. The minimum width of any 
side yard provided in a forty foot district shall be six feet 
which shall be increased three inches for every ten feet or 
fraction therof that the length of the side yard exceeds 
fifty feet, provided that on no lot held under a separate 
and distinct ownership from adjacent lots and of record 
at the time it is placed in a forty foot district shall the 
buildable width be reduced by this requirement to less 
than twenty-four feet. 

Courts: Courts shall conform to the regulations pre- 
scribed in sixty-five foot districts, provided that in a single 
or general residence district no window required by the 
aforesaid building law shall open upon any inner court the 
length or width of which is less than its average height. 

Set-back: In a single or general residence district no 
building shall hereafter be erected or altered to be within 
twenty-five feet of the center of the street on which it 
fronts or within ten feet of the street line, provided that 
on a lot between two buildings not more than sixty feet 
apart the set-back need not exceed the greater of the set- 
backs of such buildings. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 287 

Between the lines of streets intersecting at an angle of 
less than one hundred and thirty-five degrees and a line 
joining points on such lines fifteen feet distant from their 
point of intersection no building or structure may be 
erected and no vegetation may be maintained above a 
height three and one half feet above the plane through 
their curb grades. 

Building Area: The area of a dwelling shall not exceed 
sixty per cent of the area of the lot. The area of a build- 
ing other than a dwelling shall not exceed seventy per 
cent of the area of the lot. 

SIXTY-FIVE FOOT DISTRICTS. 

Section 13. In a sixty-five foot district: — ■ 

Height: No building shall exceed sixty-five feet or five 
stories in height. 

Yards and Courts: There shall be in the rear of every 
building other than an accessory building a rear yard 
extending across the entire width of the lot, provided that 
no rear yard shall be required for any building in those 
cases enumerated in section fifty-six of the aforesaid build- 
ing law. All yards and courts shall conform to the re- 
quirements prescribed for tenement houses by the afore- 
said building law. 

Set-back: In a single or general residence district, in a 
sixty-five foot district and in any adjacent forty foot or 
thirty-five foot district on lots fronting on one side of a 
street between two intersecting streets no buildings shall 
hereafter be erected or altered to be nearer the street fine 
than the average set-back of existing buildings within 
such limits, subject to the following provisions: 

1. No set-back need exceed ten feet in any case. Any 
reduced set-back thus established shall be used in com- 
puting the average set-back. 

2. On a lot between two buildings not more than sixty 
feet apart the set-back need not exceed the greater of the 



288 Acts in Chronological Order. 

set-backs of such buildings. Any set-back thus established 
shall be included in computing the average set-back. 

Between the lines of streets intersecting at an angle of 
less than one hundred and thirty-five degrees and a line 
joining points on such lines ten feet distant from their 
point of intersection no building or structure may be 
erected and no vegetation may be maintained above a 
height three and one half feet above the plane through 
their curb grades. 

Building Area: The area of a dwelling shall not exceed 
seventy per cent of the area of the lot. The area of a 
building other than a dwelling shall not exceed eighty per 
cent of the area of the lot. 

EIGHTY FOOT DISTRICTS. 

Section 14. In an eighty foot district: — 

Height: No building shall exceed the height limit here- 
tofore in effect in district B as established by the com- 
mission on height of buildings in the city of Boston under 
chapter three hundred and thiry-three of the acts of nine- 
teen hundred and four, and as thereafter revised; provided, 
that nothing herein shall be construed to affect the now 
existing limit of the height of buildings abutting on Com- 
monwealth avenue between Arlington and Kenmore 
streets. 

Set-back: Between the lines of streets intersecting at an 
angle of less than one hundred and thirty-five degrees and 
a line joining points on such lines five feet distant from 
their point of intersection no building or structure may be 
erected and no vegetation may be maintained above a 
height three and one half feet above the plane through 
their curb grades. 

Building Area: In a single or general residence district 
and for dwellings in any use district the area of a building 
shall not exceed eighty per cent of the area of the lot. 
For other buildings no requirements are herein prescribed. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 289 

one hundred and fifty-five foot districts. 

Section 15. In a one hundred and fifty-five foot dis- 
trict: — 

Height: No building shall exceed the height heretofore 
in effect in district A as established by the commission on 
height of buildings in the city of Boston under chapter 
three hundred and thirty-three of the acts of nineteen 
hundred and four, and as thereafter revised. 

BULK DISTRICT REGULATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS. 

Section 16. The foregoing requirements in the bulk 
districts shall be subject to the following exceptions and 
regulations: 

Height. 

(1) In a thirty-five foot or forty foot district a single- 
family dwelling or building for recreational use may be 
built to a height of three and one half stories but not 
exceeding forty-five feet, and an educational, religious, 
philanthropic or other institutional building may be built 
to a height of five stories, but not exceeding sixty-five feet, 
provided in each case the building sets back from each 
street and lot fine, in addition to other yard and set-back 
requirements, ten feet plus one foot for each foot of such 
height in excess of the height limit; and a telephone 
exchange office may be built to a height of five stories 
but not exceeding sixty-five feet, provided that the part 
of the building above the height limit sets back ten feet 
from each street and lot line, in addition to other yard 
and set-back requirements. 

(2) In an industrial or unrestricted district all dwellings 
shall conform to the regulations herein prescribed for 
dwellings in forty foot districts. 

(3) Structures specified in and exempted from height 
limitation by section four of chapter three hundred and 
eighty-three of the acts of nineteen hundred and five, as 



290 Acts in Chronological Order. 

amended by section one of chapter one hundred and fifty- 
six of the Special Acts of nineteen hundred and nineteen, by 
chapter one hundred and seventy-four of the acts of nine- 
teen hundred and twenty-two and by section twenty- 
seven of chapter four hundred and sixty-two of the acts of 
nineteen hundred and twenty-three, may be erected above 
the height limit herein established. 

Area. 

(4) In a thirty-five foot or forty foot district on a lot 
less than one hundred feet deep the depth of a rear yard 
may be reduced to one per cent of the depth required in 
preceding sections of this act for each foot of lot depth, 
but in no such case to less than twelve feet. 

(5) In a thirty-five foot or forty foot district where 
there is a street, alley, railroad right of way, public park 
or cemetery along the rear or side of a lot, the measure- 
ment of the depth of rear yard and width of side yard may 
be made to the center of such street, alley, right of way, 
park or cemetery, and for that portion of the lot within 
twenty-five feet of any such rear or side, the building area 
may be increased by an additional ten per cent of such 
portion of the lot. 

(6) In a thirty-five foot or forty foot district where 
there is a street, alley, railroad right of way, public park 
or cemetery along the side of a lot, for that portion of the 
lot within twenty-five feet of such side the depth of rear 
yard may be reduced six feet. 

(7) In a thirty-five foot or forty foot district where a 
lot containing ten thousand square feet or less is entirely 
surrounded by streets or by streets and alleys or a rail- 
road right of way, public park or cemetery, the building 
area may be increased twenty per cent. 

(8) In a sixty-five foot or eighty foot district on a lot 
where no yard is required the building area may be in- 
creased thirty per cent. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 291 

(9) No part of a yard required for a dwelling shall be 
higher in level above the floor of the first dwelling story 
than one foot for each two feet of distance from the build- 
ing or for other buildings a similar distance above the 
second story floor. 

(10) Every part of a required yard or court shall be 
open from its lowest point to the sky unobstructed except 
for the projections of skylights above the bottom of such 
yard or court, and except for the ordinary projections of 
window-sills, belt courses and other ornamental features, 
to the extent of not more than four inches. Cornices may 
not extend more than four inches into any court nor more 
than eighteen inches into any yard. Open or lattice- 
enclosed iron fire escape or unenclosed outside stairs may 
project into the rear or side yard a distance of not more 
than four feet, provided that the exact location thereof 
received the approval of the building commissioner. 

(11) The limitation of building area herein prescribed 
shall apply in a thirty-five foot or forty foot single or gen- 
eral residence district at the curb graded; for a dwelling in 
any other district at a level not more than two feet i bove 
the first story floor; elsewhere not more than two feet above 
the second story floor; and not more than twenty feet 
above the mean curb grade in any case. 

(12) On a lot occupied by a dwelling other than a 
tenement house a one-story building of accessory use 
thereto and not more than fifteen feet high measured 
to the mean height of the gable may be located in and 
occupy not more than thirty per cent of the rear yard of 
such dwelling. The area occupied by such a building of 
accessory use shall not be included as occupied area in 
computing the percentage of lot occupancy. 

(13) Chimneys or flues may be erected within the 
limits prescribed for yards, provided that they do not ex- 
ceed five square feet in total horizontal area and do not 
obstruct ventilation. 



292 Acts in Chronological Order. 

boundaries of districts. 

Section 17. Unless otherwise indicated, the district 
boundary lines are the center lines of streets, alleys, park- 
ways or railroad rights of way, or such lines extended. 
Other lines within blocks less than two hundred feet wide 
are median lines between their sides; other lines within 
blocks two hundred feet or more wide are one hundred 
feet distant from the less restricted side of the block. 

Where the boundary line of a district divides a lot in a 
single or joint ownership at the time such district is 
established, a building or use authorized on the less 
restricted portion of such lot may extend to the entire lot. 
but in no case for a distance of more than thirty feet. 
Where the street or alley layout actually on the ground 
varies from the layout as shown on the zoning map the 
building commissioner shall interpret said map according 
to the reasonable intent of this act. 

enforcement; permits. 

Section 18. It shall be the duty of the building commis- 
sioner of the city of Boston to enforce the provisions of 
this act in manner and form and with powers similar to 
those practised or provided under the aforesaid building 
law. No permit shall be issued for the construction, 
alteration or moving of any building or part thereof unless 
the plans and intended use indicate that the building and 
the premises are to conform in all respects to the provisions 
of this act. 

Upon any well founded information in writing from 
any person aggrieved that the provisions of this chapter 
are being violated or upon his own initiative, the build- 
ing commissioner shall take immediate steps to enforce 
the provisions of this act by causing complaint to be made 
before the municipal court of the city of Boston or by 
applying for an injunction in the superior court. 

It shall be unlawful to use or permit the use of any 



Acts in Chronological Order. 293 

premises or building or part thereof hereafter erected, or 
altered wholly or partly, or the yards, courts or other open 
spaces of which are in any way reduced, until the building 
commissioner shall have certified on the building permit or 
in case no building permit is issued, shall have issued a use 
permit specifying the use to which the premises, or the 
building upon being sufficiently completed to comply with 
the provisions and regulations relating thereto, may be 
put. 

APPEALS. 

Section 19. The board of appeal provided for in para- 
graph one of section six of the aforesaid building law 
shall act as a board of appeal under this act, and the 
members thereof shall receive for acting under this act 
the same compensation as provided in the aforesaid 
building law. 

Any applicant for a permit under this act whose appli- 
cation has been refused may appeal therefrom within 
ninety days. Any applicant to the building commis- 
sioner for a permit who appeals to the said board shall 
pay to him a fee of ten dollars before such permit shall 
be considered by the board. Such fees shall be deposited 
by the building commissioner with the city collector at 
least once a week. 

The board of appeal may vary the application of 
this act in specific cases wherein its enforcement would 
involve practical difficulty or unnecessary hardship and 
wherein desirable relief may be granted without sub- 
stantially derogating from the intent and purpose of 
this act, but not otherwise. No such variance shall 
be authorized except by the unanimous decision of the 
entire membership of the board, rendered upon a written 
petition addressed to the board and after public 
hearing thereon, of which notice shall be mailed to the 
petitioner and to the owners of all property deemed by 
the board to be affected thereby as they appear in the 



294 Acts in Chronological Order. 

most recent local tax list aftd also advertised in a daily 
newspaper published in the city of Boston. 

The board shall cause to be made a detailed record of all 
its proceedings, which record shall set forth the reasons for 
its decisions, the vote of each member participating there- 
in, and the absence of a member or his failure to vote. 
Such record, immediately following the board's final 
decision, shall be filed in the office of the building commis- 
sioner and shall be open to public inspection, and notice 
of such decision shall be mailed forthwith to each party in 
interest as aforesaid. 

Any person aggrieved by a decision of the board of 
appeal, whether previously a party to the proceeding 
or not, or any municipal officer or board may, within 
fifteen days after the entry of such decision, bring a 
petition in the supreme judicial court for the county 
of Suffolk for a writ of certiorari to correct errors of law 
therein, and the provisions of section fourth chapter two 
hundred and forty-nine of the General Laws shall, except 
as herein provided, apply to said petition. 

No costs shall be allowed against the board unless the 
court finds that it acted with gross negligence or in bad 
faith. 

BOARD OF ZONING ADJUSTMENT. 

Section 20. There shall be a board of zoning adjust- 
ment to consist of twelve members as follows: — The chair- 
man of the city planning board ex officio, and eleven mem- 
bers appointed by the mayor in the following manner: one 
member from two candidates nominated by the Associated 
Industries of Massachusetts, one member from two 
candidates nominated by the Boston Central Labor Union, 
one member from two candidates nominated by the 
Boston Chamber of Commerce, one member from two 
candidates to be nominated by the Boston Real Estate 
Exchange, one member from two candidates to be nom- 



Acts in Chronological Order. 295 

inated by the Massachusetts Real Estate Exchange, 
one member from two candidates, one to be nominated 
by the Boston Society of Architects and one by the 
Boston Society of Landscape Architects, one member 
from two candidates to be nominated by the Boston 
Society of Civil Engineers, one member from two candidates 
to be nominated by the Master Builders' Association of 
Boston, one member from two candidates to be nominated 
by the Team Owners' Association, one member from two 
candidates to be nominated by the United Improvement 
Association, and one member to be selected by the mayor. 
All appointive members shall be residents of or engaged in 
business in Boston. Two of the appointments first made 
shall be for the term of one year, two for the term of two 
years, two for the term of three years, two for the term of 
four years, and two for the term of five years, respectively, 
so that the terms of two members will expire each year. 
All subsequent appointments shall be for the term of 
five years. Vacancies among the appointive members 
shall be filled in the same manner in which original ap- 
pointments are made. The several heads of departments 
of the city of Boston shall on request of the board supply it 
with all information in their possession useful for its duties . 
Either upon petition or otherwise, the board may, sub- 
ject to the following condition's, change the boundaries of 
districts by changing the zoning map, on file at the state 
secretary's office, to meet altered needs of a locality, to 
avoid undue concentration of population, to provide 
adequate light and air, to lessen congestion in streets, to 
secure safety from fire, panic and other dangers, to facil- 
itate the adequate provisions of transportation, water, 
sewerage and other public requirements and to promote 
the health, safety, convenience and welfare of the in- 
habitants of the City of Boston. Such changes shall be 
made with reasonable consideration, among other things, 



296 Acts in Chronological Order. 

of the character of the district and its peculiar suitability 
for particular uses, and with a view to conserving the value 
of buildings and encouraging the most appropriate use of 
land. No such change shall be made except by the de- 
cision of not less than four fifths of the members of the 
board, excepting only any member or members not 
qualified to act, rendered after a public hearing thereon, 
of which notice shall be mailed to the petitioner, if any, 
to the building commissioner, the chairman of the as- 
sessing department, the chairman of the street laying-out 
department, the commissioner of public works, the fire 
commissioner and the health commissioner of the city of 
Boston, and to the owners of all property deemed by the 
board to be affected thereby as they appear in the most 
recent local tax list and also advertised in a daily news- 
paper published in the city of Boston. No member shall 
act in any case in which he is personally interested either 
directly or indirectly. 

The board shall cause to be made a detailed record of 
all its proceedings, which record shall set forth the rea- 
sons for its decisions, the vote of each member partici- 
pating therein, and the absence of a member or his 
failure to vote. Such record, immediately following 
the board's final decision, shall be filed in the office of the 
building commissioner of Boston and shall be open to 
public inspection, and notice of such decision shall be 
mailed forthwith to each party in interest as aforesaid. 
Upon any decision changing the zoning map, on file at the 
state secretary's office, an amended map showing such 
change endorsed by the chairman of said board shall be 
filed forthwith at said office. 

If a change be favorably decided upon, any person 
aggrieved or any municipal officer or board may, within 
fifteen days after the entry of such decision, bring a 
petition in the supreme judicial court for the county 
of Suffolk for a writ of certiorari setting forth that such 



Acts in Chronological Order. 297 

decision is in whole or part not in accordance with the 
duties and powers of such board as above prescribed 
and specifying the particulars of such non-compliance. 
The provisions of section four of chapter two hundred 
and forty-nine of the General Laws shall, except as herein 
provided, apply to said petition. 

No costs shall be allowed against the board unless the 
court finds that it acted with gross negligence or in bad 
iaith. 

The board shall not reduce in any way the area of the 
one hundred and fifty-five foot district established by 
this act. 

The board shall report its doings annually on or before 
the tenth day of February to the mayor of Boston and 
to the general court. 

If any area is hereafter transferred to another district 
by a change in district boundaries either by action of the 
board of zoning adjustment or by an amendment to this 
act, the buildings and uses then existing within said area 
shall be subject to the provisions of this act with reference 
to existing buildings or uses in the district to which the 
area is removed. 

jurisdiction; penalties. 
Section 21. The jurisdiction of courts in equity and at 
law and penalties for violation of any of the provisions 
of this act shall be as set forth in the aforesaid building 
law for violations thereof. 

INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION. 

Section 22. In interpreting and applying the provisions 
of this act they shall be held to be the minimum require- 
ments for the promotion of health, safety, convenience 
and welfare of the inhabitants of the city of Boston. This 
act shall not interfere with, abrogate, annul or repeal 
any statute previously enacted, relating to the use of 



298 Acts in Chronological Order. 

buildings or premises, provided, however, that where 
this act imposes a greater restriction upon the use of 
buildings or premises or upon the height of buildings or 
requires larger open spaces than imposed or required by- 
such statute, the provisions of this act shall control. 

The provisions of this act shall not apply to buildings 
or land belonging to and occupied by the United States 
or the commonwealth. 

A building or premises used or to be used by a public 
service corporation may be exempted from the operation 
of this act if, upon a petition of the corporation, the 
department of public utilities shall, after a public hear- 
ing, decide that the present or proposed situation of the 
building or premises in question is reasonably necessary 
for the convenience or welfare of the public. 

[1928, c. 70.] 
[See chapter 70, Acts 1928, page 394.] 

EXISTING BUILDINGS AND PERMITS. 

Section 23. Nothing in this act shall prevent the 
substantial restoration within twelve months and con- 
tinuance of use of a building which has been damaged by 
fire, explosion, flood, riot, act of the public enemy or ac- 
cident of any kind to such an extent that the estimated 
cost of such restoration does not exceed three quarters 
of the fair value of the building based on replacement cost 
immediately prior to such damage. In the case of a 
building not conforming in use or in bulk to the regulations 
for the district in which it is located and so damaged to 
a greater extent, the building commissioner may grant a 
permit for restoration and continuance of use where 
neither will be detrimental or injurious to the character 
of the neighborhood. 

Nothing in this act shall require any change in the 
plans, construction or intended use of a building for 
which a building permit has heretofore been issued, and 
the construction of which shall have been diligently 



Acts in Chronoligical Order. 299 

prosecuted within six months of the date of such permit, 
and the ground story framework of which, including the 
second tier of beams, shall have been completed within 
such six months, and which entire building shall be com- 
pleted according to such plans as filed within two years 
from the date this act takes effect. Nothing herein shall 
prevent the restoration of a wall or other structural part 
of a building declared unsafe by the building commissioner. 

VALIDITY. 

Section 24. The invalidity of any section or pro- 
vision of this act shall not invalidate any other section or 
provision hereof. 

WHEN EFFECTIVE. 

Section 25. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved June 5, 1924- 



DEFINITION. 

Statutes. Meaning of Certain Words in 
Construing Same. 
[General Laws, Chapter 4, Section 7.] 
Thirty-fourth, "Town," when applied to towns or 
officers or employees thereof, shall include city. 

[G. S. 3, Sect. 7, cl. 17; 140 Mass. 381; 187 Mass. 150; P. S. 3, Sect. 3, 
cl. 23; 148 Mass. 148; 191 Mass. 78; R. L. 8, Sect. 5, cl. 23; 153 
Mass. 40; R. S. 2, Sect. 6, cl. 17.] 



GENERAL LAWS, CHAPTER 45. 
Public Parks, Playgrounds and the Public Domain, 
Erection of Buildings Upon Parks. 
Section 7. Land taken for or held as a park under 
this chapter shall be forever kept opened and maintained 
as a public park, and no building which exceeds six hundred 
square feet in area on the ground shall be erected on a 
common or a park dedicated to the use of the public with- 



300 Acts in Chronological Order. 

out leave of the general court; but, except in parks in 
Boston and in parks comprising less than one hundred 
acres in extent, structures for shelter, refreshment and 
other purposes may be erected of such material and in such 
places as, in the opinion of the fire commissioners, if any 
do not endanger buildings beyond the limits of such park. 
The superior court shall have jurisdiction in equity upon 
petition of not less than ten taxable inhabitants of the 
city or town in which such common or park is located, to 
restrain the erection of a building on a common or park 
in violation of this section. 

[1877, c. 223, Sects. 1, 2; P. S. C. 54, Sects. 16, 17; 1882, c. 154, Sect. 10; 
1893, c. 75; R. L. C. 28, Sect. 11, c. 53, Sect. 20; 1917, c. 344, 
vi., Sect. 10; 164 Mass. 419; 166 Mass. 347; 212 Mass. 583.] 

Building Line. Height of Buildings on Parkways. 
Section 11. In a city which by a vote of its city 
council, or in a town which by a vote of a town meeting, 
accepts this section, or has accepted corresponding pro- 
visions of earlier laws, the park commissioners may, in 
accordance with section thirty-seven of Chapter eighty- 
two, establish a building line distant at no point more 
than twenty-five feet from any exterior line of a way under 
their control or the part of a public way on which a park 
abuts; and the extreme height to which buildings upon 
such ways may be erected shall be seventy feet exclusive 
of such steeples, towers, domes, cornices, parapets, balus- 
trades, sculptured ornaments, chimneys and roofs as such 
board may approve. 

[1896, c. 313; 1896, c. 370; R. L. c. 28, Sect. 16.] 



SPITE FENCES. 

Fence a Nuisance. 

[General Laws, Chapter 49, Section 21.] 
Section 21. A fence or other structure in the nature of 
a fence which unnecessarily exceeds six feet in height and is 



Acts in Chronological Order. 301 

maliciously erected or maintained for the purpose of annoy- 
ing the owners or occupants of adjoining property shall be 
deemed a private nuisance. Any such owner or occupant 
injured in the comfort or enjoyment of his estate thereby 
may have an action of tort for damages under chapter two 
hundred and forty-three. 

[1S87, c. 348; R. L. 33, Sect. 19; 148 Mass. 368, 407; 150 Mass. 482; 
162 Mass. 543.] 



BUILDING LINES. 

[General Laws, Chapter 82, Section 37.] 

Section 37. If a city by its city council or a town 
accepts this section or has accepted corresponding pro- 
visions of earlier laws, a building line not more than forty 
feet distant from the exterior line of a highway or town way 
may be established in the manner provided for laying out 
ways, and thereafter no structure shall be erected or main- 
tained between such building line and such way, except 
steps, windows, porticos and other usual projections 
appurtenant to the front wall of a building, to the extent 
prescribed in the vote establishing such building line, and 
except that buildings or parts of buildings, embankments, 
steps, walls, fences and gates existing at the time of the 
establishment of the building line may be permitted to 
remain and to be maintained to such extent and under such 
conditions as may be prescribed in the vote establishing 
such building line. Whoever sustains damage thereby 
may recover the same under chapter seventy-nine. A 
building line established under this section may be dis- 
continued in the manner provided for the discontinuance 
of a highway or town way. Whoever sustains damages by 
the discontinuance of a building line may recover the same 
under chapter seventy-nine. 

[1893, c. 462; R. L. 48, Sect. 103; 1913, 572, Sect. 1; 1917, c. 56, 
344, c. 11, Sect. 7.3.] 



302 Acts in Chronological Order. 

STORM WATER. 

Separate System of Plumbing. 

[General Laws, Chapter 83, Section 5.] 

Section 5. In this section surface or storm water 
and such other waters as shall be specified by the depart- 
ment of public health shall be designated as waters and 
all other waters and sewerage shall be designated as sewage. 
When a town has provided both a drain for waters and 
a sewer for sewage in a public way, the owner of every 
parcel of land abutting on such way or connected with 
such drain or sewer shall arrange his plumbing so that the 
waters shall be kept separate from the sewage; and shall 
make such connections with the drain and sewer re- 
spectively that the waters shall pass into the drain and 
the sewage into the sewer in accordance with the direc- 
tions of the board or officer having charge of the repair 
and maintenance of sewers in such town. 

[1903, c. 383, Sect. 1J 



SIGNS AND OTHER STRUCTURES PROJECTING 
INTO WAYS. 

Permits for Signs and Other Structures Projecting into Ways. 
[General Laws, Chapter 85, Sections 8 and 9.1 
Section 8. The municipal board or officer having 
charge of the laying out of public ways may grant per- 
mits for the placing and maintaining of signs, advertising 
devices, clocks, marquees, permanent awnings and other 
like structures projecting into or placed on or over public 
ways in its town, and may fix the fees therefor, not exceed- 
ing one dollar for any one permit, and may make rules 
and regulations relating thereto, and prescribe the penal- 
ties for a breach of any such rules and regulations, not 
exceeding five dollars for each day during which any 



Acts in Chronological Order. 303 

such structure is placed or maintained contrary to the 
rules and regulations so made, after five days' notice to 
remove the same has been given by such board or officer, 
or by a police officer of the town. All such structures 
shall be constructed, and, when attached to a building, 
shall be connected therewith, in accordance with the 
requirements of the inspector of buildings, building com- 
missioner or other board or officer having like authority 
in the town. 

[1915, c. 176, Sects. 12; 1917, c. 344, V. Sects. 9, 10.] 

Not Applicable to Certain Structures. 
Section 9. The preceding section shall not apply to 
signs or other structures projecting into or over the way a 
distance of less than six inches, nor to poles, wires, con- 
duits, and appurtenances of railroad, railway, telegraph 
and telephone, water, gas, electric light, heat and power 
companies. 

[1915, c. 176, Sect. 3; 1917, c. 344, V, Sect. 11.] 



COMMON NUISANCES. 
Burnt or Dangerous Buildings. 
[General Laws, Chapter 139, Sections 1 and 3.] 
Section 1. In a city or town in which the city coun- 
cil or the inhabitants of the town accept this and the two 
following sections or have accepted corresponding pro- 
visions of earlier laws, the aldermen or selectmen, after 
written notice to the owner of a burnt, dilapidated or 
dangerous building, or his authorized agent, and after a 
hearing, may make and record an order adjudging it to be 
a nuisance to the neighborhood, or dangerous, and pre- 
scribing its disposition, alteration or regulation. The 
town clerk shall deliver a copy of the order to an officer 
qualified to serve civil process, who shall forthwith serve 



304 Acts in Chronological Order. 

an attested copy thereof in the manner prescribed in 
section one hundred and twenty-four of chapter one 
hundred and eleven, and make return to said clerk of his 
doings thereon. 

[1855, c. 469, Sects. 1,6; G. S. 87, Sect, 1; P. S. 101, Sect. 1; R.L.,101, 
Sect. 1; 1919, 333, Sect. 7; 1920, c. 5.] 

Owner Aggrieved May Appeal to Superior Court. 

Sect. 2. A person aggrieved by such order may appeal 
to the superior court for the county where such building 
is situated, if, within three days after the service of such 
attested copy upon him, he presents to such court a 
petition stating his grievance and the order of the board. 
After such notice to the board as the court shall order, 
trial by jury shall be had as in other civil causes. The 
jury may affirm, annul or alter such order, and the court 
shall render judgment in conformity with said verdict, 
which shall take effect as an original order. If the order 
is affirmed, the petitioner shall pay the costs; if it is 
annulled, he shall recover from the town his damages, if 
any, and costs; and if it is altered, the court may render 
such judgment as to costs as justice shall require. 

[1885, c. 469, Sects. 3-5; G. S. 87, Sects. 2-4; 1873, c. 261, P. S. 101, 
Sects. 2-4; R. L. 101, Sects. 2-4; 1919, c. 333, Sect. 7; 1920, c. 5.] 

Nuisances May be Abated, etc. 

Sect. 3. The aldermen or selectmen shall have the 
same power to abate and remove any such nuisance as 
is given to the board of health of a town under sections 
one hundred and twenty-three to one hundred and twenty- 
five, inclusive, of chapter one hundred and eleven. 
[1885, c. 469, Sect. 2; G. S. 87, Sect. 5; P. S. 101, Sect. 5; R. L. 101, 

Sect. 5.] 



Acts in Chronological Order. 305 

LICENSES. 

Public Lodging Houses. 

Definition. 

[General Laws, Chapter 140, sections 33, 35, 38, 40.] 

Section 33. In cities of over fifty thousand inhabitants 
every building not licensed as an inn, in which ten or more 
persons are lodged free or for a charge of twenty-five cents 
or less for each person for a day of twenty-four hours, or 
for any part thereof, shall be deemed a public lodging house 
within the meaning of sections thirty-four to forty, inclu- 
sive. No building or part thereof erected, altered or 
converted to be used as such a public lodging house shall 
have the sleeping compartments arranged on the cubicle 
plan. 

[1894, c. 414, Sect. 1; 1904, c. 242, Sects. 1, 8; 1911, c. 129; 1915, 
c. 160, Sect. 1.] 

Inspection of Means of Escape from Fire. 

Sect. 35. No such license shall be granted in any such 
city until the inspector of buildings thereof, or the other 
officer or board having authority to administer the laws 
and ordinances in regard to the construction of buildings 
therein, has certified that the building, if it has eight or 
more rooms or ten or more persons are accommodated 
above the second story, complies with the requirements of 
chapter one hundred and forty-three, and in other cases is 
provided with sufficient means of escape in case of fire, and 
that suitable appliances are provided for extinguishing 
fires and for giving alarm to the inmates in case of fire; 
and such officer or board may from time to time require 
such alterations to be made or such additional appliances 
to be provided as may in his or its judgment be neces- 
sary for the protection of life and property in case of fire. 

[1894, c. 414, Sect. 3; 1904, c. 242, Sects. 3, 8; 1913, 655, Sect. 20.1 
[For penalty see Sect. 40.] 



306 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Access Jot Purposes of Inspection. 

Sect 38. The keeper of every public lodging house 
shall at all times, when so required by an officer of the 
building department, of the health department, or of 
the police department, give him free access to said house 
or any part thereof. 

[1894, c. 414, Sect. 6; 1904, c. 242, Sects. 6, 8.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 40.] 

Penalty. 
Sect. 40. Any keeper of a public lodging house who 
violates any provision of sections thirty-five to thirty- 
eight, inclusive, shall be punished by a fine of one hundred 
dollars. 

[1894, c. 414, Sect. 7; 1904, c. 242, Sects. 7, 8.] 



SUPERVISION OF PLUMBING. 

[General Laws, Chapter 142.] 
Definitions. 

Section 1. In this chapter the following words shall 
have the following meanings: 

" Certificate," certificates of registration issued in 
accordance with section three of chapter five hundred and 
thirty-six of the acts of nineteen hundred and nine, section 
two of chapter five hundred and ninety-seven of the acts of 
nineteen hundred and ten or chapter five hundred and 
eighteen of the acts of nineteen hundred and twelve. 

"Examiners," state examiners of plumbers appointed 
under section ten of chapter seventeen. 

"Journeyman," a person who himself does any work in 
plumbing subject to inspection under any law, ordinance, 
by-law, rule or regulation. 

"Master plumber," a plumber having a regular place 
of business and who, by himself or journeymen plumbers 
in his employ, performs plumbing work. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 307 

"Practical plumber," a person who has learned the busi- 
ness of plumbing by working for at least two years as an 
apprentice or under a verbal agreement for instruction and 
who has then worked for at least one year as a journeyman 
plumber. 

"Registered," registered in accordance with section 
three of chapter five hundred and thirty-six of the acts of 
nineteen hundred and nine, section two of chapter five 
hundred and ninety-seven of the acts of nineteen hundred 
and ten or chapter five hundred and eighteen of the acts of 
nineteen hundred and twelve. 

[1894, c. 455, Sect. 1; R. L. 103, Sect. 1; 1909, c. 536, Sect 9; 219 
Mass. 33; 225 Mass. 192.] 

Application of Chapter. 
Sect. 2. Sections one to seven, inclusive, sections eleven 
and twelve and sections fourteen to sixteen, inclusive, shall 
apply to all cities and seGtion thirteen shall apply to all 
cities except Boston; provided, that any such city except 
Boston may by vote of its city council exempt from the 
provisions of said sections any or all of its territory lying 
outside of the limits of the water supply of such city, or 
unconnected with a common sewer. Sections one, three, 
six and seven and sections eleven to sixteen, inclusive, 
shall apply to all towns which by vote of their inhabitants 
accept said sections or have accepted corresponding pro- 
visions of earlier laws, and said sections, except section 
thirteen, shall apply to all towns which accept rules formu- 
lated by the examiners under sections eight and nine or 
have accepted them under corresponding provisions of 
earlier laws. 

[1895, c. 453; R. L. 103, Sect. 12; 1909, c. 536, Sect. 8; 1910, c. 349.] 
[Sect. 4; 1911, c. 262.] 

Master Plumbers and Journeymen Must be Licensed. 
Sect. 3. No person shall engage in the business of a 
master plumber or work as a journeyman unless he is 



308 Acts in Chronological Order. 

lawfully registered, or has been licensed by the examiners 
as provided in this chapter. The license or certificate of a 
journeyman shall be exhibited whenever required by an 
inspector of plumbing. Every master plumber's license or 
certificate shall at all times be displayed conspicuously 
within his place of business. 

[1893, c. 477, Sect. 1; 1894, c. 455, Sect. 1; R. L. 103, Sect. 1; 1909, 
c. 536, Sect. 4; 213 Mass. 138; 217 Mass. 134.] 

Rules for Examinations of Plumbers. 
Sect. 4. The examiners may make such rules as 
they deem necessary for the proper performance of their 
duties, which shall take effect when approved by the 
department of public health. They shall examine each 
applicant desiring to engage in the business of a master 
plumber or to work as a journeyman, as to his practical 
knowledge of plumbing, house drainage and plumbing 
ventilation and subject him to a practical test satis- 
factory to the examiners, who are satisfied of his competence 
shall issue to him a license as applied for. They shall hold 
frequent examinations in Boston and, twice in each year, 
hold examinations at five other convenient places within 
the commonwealth. Public notice shall be given of all 
examinations. Every application for examination shall 
be in the handwriting of the applicant who shall be noti- 
fied by the examiners of the time and place of examination. 
The examiners may, without payment of any fee issue a 
probationary license in force for six months to a person 
who, having worked as an apprentice, or under a verbal 
agreement for instruction, for not less than three years, 
presents an application therefor with the signed endorse- 
ment of his employer agreeing to be responsible for all 
work done under the license and to have the licensee, at 
the expiration of the license, present himself for examina- 
tion as a journey man. 

[1893, c. 477, Sects. 2, 4; 1894, c. 455, Sects. 2, 4; R. L. 103, Sects. 2, 4; 
1909, c. 536, Sect. 2; Mass. 192.] 



Acts in Chronological Order. 309 

Fees for Licenses, Examinations and Renewals. 
Sect. 5. The fee for the license of a master plumber 
shall be two dollars; for examination and for renewals 
fifty cents each; for the license of a journeyman fifty 
cents each. 

[R. L. 103, Sect. 4; 1909, c. 536, Sect. 3; 1893, c. 477, Sect. 4; 1894, 
c. 455, Sect. 4.] 

Licenses, Validity of — Registration and Revocation of. 

Sect. 6. Licenses and certificates issued by the 
examiners shall be valid throughout the commonwealth, 
but shall not be assignable or transferable. The examiners 
shall forward to the board of health of each town, or to 
the inspector of buildings having control of the enforce- 
ment of regulations relative to plumbing in such town, the 
names and addresses of all persons in such town to whom 
such licenses have been granted. Licenses shall be issued 
for one year and may be renewed annually on or before 
May first upon payment of the required fee. Each holder 
of a master plumber's certificate or license shall register his 
name and business address with said inspector of build- 
ings if he has such control, otherwise with the board of 
health, in the town wherein he desires to engage in business 
as a master plumber. Any such license or certificate may, 
after notice and hearing, be suspended or revoked by the 
examiners upon the violation by the holder thereof of 
any statute, ordinance, by-law, rule or regulation relative 
to plumbing, upon failure or refusal of the holder thereof 
to comply with the rules and requirements of the exam- 
iners, or for other sufficient cause. 

[1928, chap. 76, Sect. 1.] 

Temporary Suspension of License. 

Sect. 7. If in the opinion of such inspector of build- 
ings, if any, otherwise of the board of health, of a town, 



310 Acts in Chronological Order. 

the holder of a license or certificate violates any statute, 
ordinance, by-law, rule or regulation relative to plumbing, 
the said inspector or board of health of the town where 
such violation is committed shall give notice to the 
examiners. 

[1909, c. 536, Sect. 4, 1928, c. 76, Sect. 2.] 

Appointment and Duties of Inspectors. 

Sect. 11. The said inspector of buildings, if any, 
otherwise the board of health, of each city and town, 
shall, within three months after it becomes subject to 
sections one to sixteen, inclusive, appoint from the classi- 
fied civil service list one or more inspectors of plumbing 
who shall be practical plumbers and shall have had prac- 
tical experience either as master plumbers or journey- 
men, continuously, during five years next preceding their 
appointment; provided, that any time spent in service 
in the army, navy or marine corps of the United States in 
time of war or insurrection shall be deemed a part of the 
period of continuous practical experience so required. 
Such inspector of buildings or board may remove them 
for cause shown and shall, subject to approval of the 
city council or selectmen, fix their compensation which 
shall be paid by the city or town. Said inspectors of 
plumbing shall inspect all plumbing in process of con- 
struction, alteration or repair for which permits are 
granted within their respective cities and towns and shall 
report to their appointing power or board violations of any 
law, ordinance, by-law, rule or regulation relative to 
plumbing; they shall perform such other appropriate 
duties as may be required. The approval of plumbing by 
any inspectors other than those provided for by this 
chapter shall not be a compliance therewith. 

[1893, c. 477, sect. 5; 1894, c. 455, sect. 5; 1895, c. 453, R. L. 103.] 
[Sect. 5; 1909, c. 536, Sect. 7.] 



Acts in Chronological Order. 311 

Appointment of Additional Inspectors. 
Sect. 12. No inspector of plumbing shall inspect or 
approve any plumbing work done by himself, his employer, 
employee or any one employed with him, but in a city or 
town subject to sections one to sixteen, inclusive, the said 
inspector of buildings, or the board of health, shall in the 
manner provided in the preceding section appoint an 
additional inspector of plumbing as therein provided 
who shall inspect plumbing so done. Said additional 
inspector may act in the absence or disability of the local 
inspector and for his services shall receive like compensa- 
tion. This section shall not apply to any city or town 
establishing an annual salary for the inspector of plumbing 
and in such city or town the inspector of plumbing shall 
not engage in or work at the business of plumbing. 

[1894, c. 455, Sect. 6; R. L. 103, Sect. 6.] 

Persons Learning Business of Plumbing. 

Sect. 14. Sections one to sixteen, inclusive, shall 
apply to all persons learning the business of plumbing 
when they are sent out to do the work of a journeyman. 

[1894, c. 455, Sect. 9; R. L. 103, Sect. 9.] 

Expenditure of Fees. 

Sect. 15. Inspectors of buildings and boards of health 
may expend such portion of the fees collected by them 
under this chapter as is necessary to properly perform 
the duties imposed thereby, and they shall annually, 
before June first, make a detailed report to their respective 
cities or towns of all their proceedings under sections one 
to sixteen, inclusive, during the preceding year. 
[1894, c. 455, Sect. 11; R. L. 103, Sect. 11 J 

Penalty for Certain Violations. 

Sect. 16. Every person engaged in the business of a 
master plumber or working as a journeyman not lawfully 



312 Acts in Chronological Order. 

registered or licensed, if required by this chapter; and 
every person engaging in or working at the business of 
plumbing in a city or town when forbidden so to do under 
section seven; and every master plumber who engages or 
employs any person to work as a journeyman who has 
not been so registered or licensed; and every person 
violating any provision of sections one to fifteen, inclusive, 
of this chapter or any ordinance, by-law, rule or regulation 
made thereunder shall be punished by fine not exceeding 
fifty dollars. Any city or town subject to the preceding 
sections of this chapter neglecting to comply with any of 
its provisions shall forfeit fifty dollars to the use of the 
commonwealth for each month during which such neglect 
continues. 
11888, c. 105, Sect. 2; 1893, c. 477, Sect. 7; 1894, c. 455, Sect. 8; R. L. 

103, Sect. 8; 1909, c. 536, Sect. 10; 1914, c. 287; 219 Mass. 219; 

225 Mass. 192.] 

Marking, etc., of Range Boilers. 
Sect. 17. No range boiler shall be sold or offered for 
sale unless its capacity is plainly marked thereon in terms 
of Massachusetts standard liquid measure, and with the 
maker's business name, in such manner as to be easily 
identified. 

[1916, c. 154, Sect. 1.] 

Same Subject. 
Sect. 18. No copper, iron or steel pressure range 
boiler, plain or galvanized, or other vessel or tank in 
which water is to be heated under pressure, shall be sold 
or offered for sale without having stamped thereon the 
maker's guarantee that it has been tested to not less than 
two hundred pounds hydraulic or hydrostatic pressure 
to the square inch, together with the maximum working 
pressure at which it may be installed. And no such boiler, 
or other vessel or tank in which water is to be heated 



Acts in Chronological Order. 313 

under pressure, shall be installed if the working pressure 
is greater than forty-two and one half per cent of the 
guaranteed test pressure marked thereon by the maker. 

[1916, c. 154, Sect. 2; 1917, c. 39, Sect. 1.] 

Penalty for Violation of Sections 17 and IS. 
Sect. 19. Whoever sells or offers or exposes for sale 
any range boiler not marked or stamped as provided in the 
two preceding sections, or which is falsely marked as 
having a capacity which is greater by seven and one half 
per cent than its true capacity, or who marks or causes 
the same to be marked with such false capacity, shall 
be punished by a fine not exceeding fifty dollars. The 
inspectors of plumbing within their respective cities and 
towns shall cause this and the two preceding sections to be 
enforced. 

[1916, c. 154, Sect. 3; 1917, c. 39, Sect. 2.] 

Exceptions. 
Sect. 20. The three preceding sections shall not 
apply to the sale or offering for sale of installed range 
boilers or to the sale or offering for sale of range boilers 
as junk. 

[1916, c. 154, Sect. 4.] 



GENERAL LAWS, CHAPTER 143. 

Inspection, Regulation and Licenses for Buildings, 
Elevators and Cinematographs. 

general provisions. 

Sect. 
1. Definitions. 

INSPECTION OF BUILDINGS. 

17. Temporary flooring during construction. 

18. Same subject. 

19. Penalty. 



314 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Sect. 

22. Fire escapes to be kept clear. 

23. Stairways to be kept clear. 

35. Liability of licensee. 

36. Inspection of theatres, etc. 

37. Reports to be kept on file. 

38. Copies of ratings, etc., to be sent to licensee. Pen- 

alty for noncompliance with order. 

39. Copy of ratings, etc., may be posted. 

40. Penalty for false statement, etc. 

41. Penalty for giving or receiving free pass. 
44. Watchmen in hotels, etc. 

50. Penalty for hindering inspector, etc. 

51. Owner must see that law is obeyed. 

52. Penalty for unlicensed use as theater, etc. 

53. General penalty. 

54. Enforcement. 

55. Appeal. 

56. Fees for experts. 

57. Restraining illegal erection, etc. 

58. Concurrent jurisdiction of inferior courts. 

59. Enforcement of inspectors' orders. 

60. Restraining illegal use, etc., of buildings. 

61. Notice to assessors of permits for building. 

ELEVATORS. 

62. Installation and inspection. 

63. Test of safety devices. 

64. Report of inspection^ 

65. Certificate of inspection to be posted in elevator. 

66. Report of accidents and of defective elevators. 

67. Petition for changes in regulations. 

68. Board to amend regulations. 

69. Establishment of regulations. 

70. Appeal. 

71. Penalty. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 315 

Sect. 

CINEMATO GRAPHS . 

72. Regulation. 

83. Application of certain sections. 

84. Penalty. 

85. Special licenses for operators in churches, schools, 

etc. 

GENERAL PROVISIONS. 

Definitions. 

Section 1. In this chapter the following terms, unless 
a contrary meaning is required by the context or is spe- 
cifically prescribed, shall have the following meanings: 

"Alteration," changes iD or addition to a building. 

"Department," department of public safety. 

"Inspector," an inspector of the division of inspection 
of the department of public safety, except that in sections 
thirty-four to thirty-eight, inclusive, "inspector" shall 
include the inspectors of the building department of 
Boston and in sections sixty-three to sixty-six, inclusive, 
"inspector" shall include a building inspector of a city 
or town. 

"Inspector of buildings," a building inspector of a city 
or town. 

"Miscellaneous hall," a building or part thereof con- 
taining an assembly hall with a seating capacity of not 
more than four hundred, a society hall, or a hall in a public 
or private school building. 

"Public building," any building or part thereof used as 
a public or private institution, schoolhouse, church, 
theatre, special hall, public hall, miscellaneous hall, place 
of assemblage or place of public resort. 

"Public hall," any building or part thereof, except 
theatres, armories, churches and schools, containing an 
assembly hall with a seating capacity of more than four 
hundred and used for public gatherings and for such enter- 



316 Acts in Chronological Order. 

tainments, not requiring the use of scenery and other stage 
appliances, as the licensing officer may approve. 

"Repair," the reconstruction or renewal of a building 
or part thereof damaged by fire or other cause. 

"Special hall," a building or part thereof containing an 
assembly hall with a seating capacity of more than four 
hundred which may be used for occasional performances 
for the entertainment of spectators, with the use of scenery 
under such conditions as the licensing officer shall direct 
and for public gatherings. 

"Story," any horizontal portion through a building 
between floor and ceiling of which the ceiling is six feet 
or more above the average grade of the sidewalk or ground 
adjoining. 

"Supervisor of plans," an inspector of the division of 
inspection of the department of public safety designated 
by the commission of public safety to receive the plans 
and specifications of all buildings subject to this chapter, 
to be erected or in which alterations are to be made, and 
to act officially upon them under the direction of the chief 
of inspection of the department of public safety. 

"Theatre," a building or part thereof in which it is 
intended to make a business of the presentation of per- 
formances for the entertainment of spectators, which has 
a seating capacity of more than four hundred, with a stage 
which can be used for scenery and other stage appliances. 

[R. L. 104, Sect. 14; 1904, c. 450, Sect. 1; 1913, c. 610, Sect. 2; c. 055, 
Sects, 14, 30, 39, 41; c, 806, Sect. 1.] 

INSPECTION OF BUILDINGS. 

Temporary Flooring During Construction. 

Sect. 17. If, in the erection of an iron or steel framed 

building, the spaces between the girders or floor beams 

of any floor are not filled or covered by the permanent 

construction of said floors before another story is added 



Acts in Chronological Order. 317 

to the building, a close plank flooring shall be placed and 
maintained over such spaces for the time when the beams 
or girders are placed in position until said permanent 
construction is applied; but openings protected by a 
strong hand railing not less than four feet high may be 
left through said floors for the passage of workmen or 
material; provided that when such flooring cannot be 
used without serious interference with the work of con- 
struction, such provision shall be made to protect the 
workmen from falling material as the inspector shall 
direct. 

[1901, c. 166, Sect. 1; R. L. 104, Sect. 44; 1909, c. 514, Sect. 97; 1913, 

c. 655, Sect. 17; 194 Mass. 431; 213 Mass. 229.] 

[For penalty, see Sect. 19.] 

Same Subject. 
Sect. 18. In the construction of any iron or steel 
framed building having a clear story of twenty-five feet 
elevation or more, a staging with a close plank flooring 
shall be placed under and not more than ten feet below 
the under side of the whole extent of the beams, girders 
or trusses of such story upon which iron or steel workers 
are working. 

[1901, c. 166, Sect. 2; R. L. 104, Sect. 45; 1909, c. 514, Sect. 98; 1913, 

c. 655, Sect. 18.] 

[For penalty, see Sect. 19.] 

Penalty. 
Sect. 19. Violations of any provision of the two pre- 
ceding sections shall be punished by a fine of not less than 
fifty not more than five hundred dollars. 

[1901, c. 166, Sect. 4; R. L. 104, Sect. 46; 1909, c. 514, Sect. 99; 1913 , 
c. 655, Sect. 19.] 

Fire Escapes to be Kept Clear. 
Sect. 22. Any article placed upon a fire escape or an 
outside means of egress of any building is hereby declared a 



318 Acts in Chronological Order. 

common nuisance. Any court authorized to issue warrants 
in criminal cases may, upon complaint under oath made by 
any police officer that any article is placed or maintained 
upon a fire escape or outside means of egress of any build- 
ing, issue a warrant to bring such article when found before 
a court having jurisdiction of the same, and all articles 
seized under the authority of such a warrant shall be dis- 
posed of in like manner as gaming implements seized under 
chapter two hundred and seventy-six. Any owner, lessee, 
tenant or occupant of any building who maintains or per- 
mits to remain upon any fire escape or outside means of 
egress of any building any article for more than twenty 
minutes shall be punished by a fine of not more than one 
hundred dollars. The existence of any article upon a fire 
escape or outside means of egress of any building shall be 
prima facie evidence that such article was so placed, main- 
tained or permitted to remain by the occupant of the 
premises having access from said building to said fire 
escape or outside means of egress. 

[1905, c. 347, Sect. 1.] 



Stairways to be Kept Clear. 
Sect. 23. Every stairway of every building shall be 
kept free and unobstructed, and any person who permits 
any article to remain in any stairway of any building in 
such a manner as may impede the egress of any person 
lawfully in said building or the ingress of any person law- 
fully entitled to enter said building shall be punished by a 
fine of not more than five hundred dollars. The existence 
of any article in any such stairway in any building shall be 
prima facie evidence that it was placed or permitted to 
remain therein by the owner, lessee, tenant or cocupant 
of the building. 

[1905, c. 347, Sect. 2.] 



Acts in Chronological Order. 319 

Licenses for Theatres, etc. 

Sect. 34. In section thirty-four to thirty-eight inclu- 
sive, the term "licensing officer" shall mean the mayor 
of Boston and the commissioner of public safety. In 
Boston the mayor and elsewhere the commissioner of pub- 
lic safety shall issue licenses for theatres, special halls 
and public halls. He may require such changes in the 
structural or other condition of any building before issuing 
any license as in his opinion the public safety requires, but 
no change shall be ordered in excess of the requirements 
for a new building of like character. In buildings existing 
on November first, nineteen hundred and thirteen, an 
equivalent of the conditions required by law may be 
accepted by the licensing officer; provided that such 
equivalents are set forth in detail in the license. The 
licenses provided for herein shall be conspicuously posted 
near the main entrance of the theatre, special hall or public 
hall. Licenses for theatres except in Boston shall expire 
on the first day of September, for special halls on the first 
day of August, and for public halls on the first day of July 
of each year. 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 2; 1905, c. 342, Sects. 1, 2; 1908, c. 335, Sect. 1; 
1910, c. 284, Sect. 1; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 31.] 

Liability of Licensee. 
Sect. 35. The licensee shall be responsible, civilly and 
criminally, for non-compliance with the laws applicable to 
the theatre, special hall or public hall covered by his 
license, and for non-compliance with the conditions thereof. 
The licensing officer shall cause a complete inspection of all 
theatres to be made once in each month, of special halls 
and public halls once in every six months, and as much 
oftener as circumstances may require. 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 3; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 32.] 



320 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Inspection of Theatres, etc. 

Sect. 36. Every inspection of theatres, special halls or 
public halls shall cover all details relating to the condition 
of the building as regards the safety of life and property. 
The inspector shall make a signed report as to all such 
details upon a tabulated inspection blank, the form of 
which shall be determined by the licensing officer. The 
forms of such blanks may be adapted to the circumstances 
of the different classes of buildings, but shall be such as to 
enable the inspectors to report a rating on the points and 
in the form hereinafter specified, and shall include a 
detailed table of legal requirements, with a statement as to 
compliance or non-compliance with each. All inspectors 
inspecting theatres, special halls and public halls shall od 
the first of each week forward to the licensing officer the 
reports of their inspections of the previous week, and shall 
rate each theatre, special hall or public hall on the following 
points in the following form: 

1. Compliance with existing laws, non-compliance in 
any particular to be specified. 

2. The following ratings of each building as to the 
safety of the audience, in the judgment of the inspectors, 
in the fight of improved methods of insuring safety: 

Condition, whether poor, fair, good or excellent. Remarks. 

(a.) Structural condition. 

(6.) Facility of escape of audience. 

(c.) Heating apparatus. 

(d) Water supply. 

(e.) Lighting apparatus. 

(/.) Condition of fire apparatus. 

(g.) Condition of sprinklers. 

(h.) Condition of fire resisting curtain. 

(i.) Protection against neighborhood hazard. 

0'.) General condition of appliances and apparatus. 

(&.) General condition of stage. 

Rating as a whole. 

With regard to safety of audience. 



Acts in Chronological Order. 321 

And such other points as in the opinion of the licensing 
officer may be suitable. These reports and ratings shall 
be signed by the inspectors, and shall give the date of the 
inspection, with such remarks upon the condition of each 
theatre, special hall and public hall as may be suitable to 
give notice of danger or to give confidence in the safety 
of such buildings. After each inspection of a theatre, 
special hall or public hall, the inspector shall post a notice 
in conspicuous type, near the main entrance thereof, in 
the following form : 

This theatre (or special hall) (or public hall) has been 
inspected by inspector (name of inspector) on (date). 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 4; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 33.J 

Reports to be Kept on File. 

Sect. 37. The full inspection reports of theatres, 
special halls and public halls shall be kept on file by the 
licensing officer, but, except as hereinafter provided 
shall not be open to examination by the public until the 
expiration of one month from the time when they were 
rendered, except with the consent of the licensing officer. 
Every licensee shall be entitled to examine the full reports 
of his own building at any time. The licensing officer 
shall make a full report annually of the condition of all 
theatres, special halls and public halls, which shall be 
open to examination by the public at all times. The 
reports of inspectors shall be public records of matters of 
public interest; and a fair publication of these reports 
or parts thereof, or comment thereon, by any person, in 
newspapers or otherwise, shall be privileged. 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 6; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 34.] 

Copies of Ratings, etc., to be Sent to Licensee. Penalty for 
non-compliance ivith Order. 
Sect. 38. A certified copy of all ratings and conclu- 
sions of the inspectors in respect to any licensed theatre, 



322 Acts in Chronological Order. 

special hall or public hall shall be delivered or mailed by 
the licensing officer to the licensee at the building. If 
any inspector shall report that the laws or the conditions 
of the license are not complied with by any licensee, the 
licensing officer may notify the licensee, fixing a time 
within which he shall comply with the law and the con- 
ditions of the license. If at the expiration of such time 
there has not been such compliance, the licensing officer 
shall give a hearing to the licensee; and if upon investiga- 
tion he shall find that there is cause, he shall revoke the 
license. The licensing officer may, if in his opinion the 
public safety requires it, order any theatre, special hall or 
public hall to be closed pending a hearing upon the revo- 
cation of the license, and any person failing to comply 
with such order shall be punished by a fine of not less than 
fifty nor more than one thousand dollars. 
[1904, c. 450, Sect. 8; 1906, c. 105, Sect. 2; 1913, c. 665, Sect. 35.] 

Copy of Ratings, etc., May be Posted. 
Sect. 39. Any licensee may post upon his premises a 
certified copy of the complete table of ratings and con- 
clusions relating to the theatre, special hall or public hall, 
covered by his license, but he shall not post an incomplete 
copy of such table. 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 9; 1931, c. 655, Sect. 36.] 

Penalty for False Statements, etc. 
Sect. 40. Any person having any duty to perform 
under this chapter in connection with the licensing or 
inspection of theatres, special halls or public halls who 
wilfully makes any false statement or report or any false 
record of any statement, report or rating as to any such 
theatre, special hall or public hall shall be punished by a 
fine of not more than one thousand dollars or by imprison- 
ment for not more than one year. 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 13; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 37.1 



Acts in Chronological Order. 323 

Penalty for Giving or Receiving Free Pass. 

Sect. 41. Any officer or person having any duty in 
any way connected with the inspection of theatres, special 
halls or public halls, who requests for himself or another 
or accepts or uses any ticket or pass or privilege of admis- 
sion, or admission, to any theatre, special hall or public 
hall for which he is to pay or has paid either nothing or a 
price less than that demanded of the public generally, and 
any owner, proprietor, manager, lessee, agent or employee 
of any theatre, special hall or public hall, or any other 
person who issues, delivers, offers or allows any such 
ticket, pass, privilege or admission to any such officer or 
person, or to any other person, at the request, solicitation 
procurement or with the connivance of any such officer or 
person, shall be punished by a fine of not less than one 
hundred nor more than one thousand dollars. 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 14; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 38.] 

Watchmen in Hotels, etc. 
Sect. 44. The keeper of a hotel, boarding or lodging 
house or family hotel containing one hundred or more 
sleeping rooms, and being four or more stories high, shall 
have therein at least two competent watchmen, each 
properly assigned, and each on duty between the hours 
of nine o'clock at night and six o'clock in the morning. 
The keeper of every hotel, boarding or lodging house or 
family hotel containing fifty or more sleeping rooms, 
but less than one hundred, and being three stories high, 
shall have between said hours at least one competent 
watchman on duty thereon. In all such hotels, lodging 
houses or family hotels, the halls, corridors and stairways 
shall be properly lighted at night, and a red light shall be 
kept during the night at the top and bottom of each flight 
of stairs; and one or more proper alarms or gongs, capable 



324 Acts in Chronological Order. 

of being heard throughout the house, shall always remain 
easy of access and ready for use in every such building 
to give to the inmates warning of fire. The keeper of 
every such hotel, boarding or lodging house or family 
hotel shall keep a notice descriptive of such means of 
escape conspicuously posted in every sleeping room. 

[1883, c. 251, Sect. 1; 1884, c. 223, Sect. 2; R. L. 104, Sect. 29; 1913, 

c. 655, Sect. 42.] 

[For penalty, see Sect. 46.1 

Penalty for Hindering Inspector, etc. 

Sect. 50. Any person who hinders or prevents or 
attempts to prevent the commissioner of public safety, 
the chief of inspections of the department or any inspector 
from entering any building, structure or enclosure or 
part thereof in the performance of his duty in the enforce- 
ment of the laws of the commonwealth relating thereto 
shall be punished by a fine of not less than fifty nor more 
than one hundred dollars. 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 12; 1908, c. 389, Sect. 2; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 49.] 

Penalty for Unlicensed Use as Theatre, etc. 
Sect. 52. No person shall occupy or use any building or 
part thereof as a theatre, special hall, public hall, miscel- 
laneous hall, place of assemblage or place of public resort 
until a license therefor has been issued by the commissioner 
of public safety or the mayor of Boston or a certificate 
therefor by an inspector or an inspector of the building 
department of Boston. The certificate of the inspector 
shall be conclusive evidence of a compliance with sections 
fifteen to sixty, inclusive, for such use of a hall as he shall 
set forth in detail in the certificate, and shall be conspicu- 
ously posted near the main entrance of the hall. Violation 
of this section or of the conditions of a license or certificate 
shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty-five nor 



Acts in Chronological Order. 325 

more than one thousand dollars or by imprisonment for 
not more than one year, and the license or certificate may- 
be revoked. 

[1906, c. 105, Sect. 1; 1908, c. 335, Sects. 1, 2; 1910, c. 143; c. 284, 
Sect. 1; 1913, c. 655, Sects. 39, 51.] 

General Penalty. 

Sect. 53. Whoever, being the owner, lessee or occupant 
of any building described in section twenty-one or part 
thereof, violates any provision of sections fifteen to fifty- 
two, inclusive, for which no other penalty is specifically 
prescribed shall be punished by a fine of not less than fifty 
nor more than five hundred dollars. 

[1882, c. 266, Sect. 3; 1885, c. 326, Sect. 2; 1888, c. 426, Sect. 12; 1894, 
c. 382, Sect. 2; c. 481, Sects. 60, 62; R. L. 104, Sects. 55, 56; 1913, 
c. 655, Sect. 53; 230 Mass. 306.] 

Enforcement. 

Sect. 54. Sections fifteen to fifty-two inclusive, shall, 
except when otherwise specifically provided, be enforced 
by the commissioner of public safety, the chief of inspec- 
tions of the department and inspectors of the division of 
inspection of the department. The commissioner of 
public safety shall issue regulations necessary for their 
uniform enforcement. All sections of this chapter which 
apply to Boston shall be enforced by the building com- 
missioner. 

[1901 , c. 166, Sect. 3; R. L, 104, Sect. 46; 1909, c. 514, Sect. 99; 1913, 
c. 610 . Sect. 2 ; c. 655, Sect. 54.] 

Appeal. 

Sect. 55. Any person aggrieved by an order, require- 
ment or direction of an inspector under any of the preced- 
ing sections may, within thirty days after the service 
thereof, appeal to a judge of the superior court for the 
county in which the building to which such order, require- 



326 Acts in Chronological Order. 

ment or direction relates is situated for an order forbidding 
its enforcement; and after such notice as said court shall 
direct to all parties interested, a hearing may be had before 
the court at an early and convenient time and place fixed 
by it; or the court may appoint three disinterested persons, 
skilled in the subject matter of the controversy, to examine 
the matter and hear the parties; and the decision of said 
court, or the written decision under oath of a majority of 
said experts, filed in the office of the clerk of courts in said 
county within ten days after such hearing, may alter, 
annul or affirm such order, requirement or direction. Such 
decision or a certified copy thereof shall have the same 
authority, force and effect as the original order, require- 
ment or direction of the inspector. If such decision 
annuls or alters the order, requirement or direction of the 
inspector, the court shall order the inspector not to enforce 
his order, requirement or direction, and in every case the 
certificate required by law shall thereupon be issued by 
said court or by said experts. 

[1890, c. 438, Sect. 1; 1894, c. 481, Sect. 5; R. L. 104; Sect. 19; 1908, 
c. 487, Sect. 1; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 55; 1917, c. 156, Sect. 2; 22S 
Mass. 368.] 

Fees for Experts. 

Sect. 56. The court may award reasonable compensa- 
tion to such experts, to be paid by the county in which the 
application for an order of the court was made, if the order, 
requirement or direction of the inspector is altered or 
annulled, otherwise by the applicant. If the order, require- 
ment or direction of the inspector is affirmed by the court 
or the experts, costs shall be taxed against the applicant as 
in civil cases, and shall be paid into the treasury of the said 
county. 

[1890, c. 438, Sects, 2, 3; 1894, c. 481, Sects. 6, 7; R. L. 104, Sects. 20, 
21; 1908, e. 487, Sect. 2; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 56.] 



Acts in Chkonological Order. 327 

Restraining Illegal Erection. 

Sect. 57. The supreme judicial or superior court may, 
upon the petition of an inspector, or in Boston the building- 
commissioner, temporarily or permanently restrain the 
erection, construction, alteration, use or occupation of a 
building, in violation of any provision of sections fifteen to 
fifty-two, inclusive. 

[1888, c. 316, Sect. 2; c. 426, Sect. 12; 1893, c. 199, Sect. 2; 1894, 
c. 382, Sect. 2; c. 481, Sects, 26, 38; R. L. 104, Sects. 51, 53, 1913, 
c. 655, Sects. 52, 57.] 

Concurrent Jurisdiction of Inferior Courts. 
Sect. 58. District courts shall have jurisdiction con- 
currently with the superior court of prosecutions and pro- 
ceedings at law under sections three to fifty-two, inclusive. 

[1906, c. 105, Sect. 6; 1908, c. 335, Sect. 3; c. 388, Sect. 3; 1913, 
c. 655, Sect. 58.] 

Enforcement of Inspector's Orders. 
Sect. 59. The supreme judicial or superior court may, 
upon the application of the commissioner of public safety, 
the chief of inspections of the department or any inspector, 
or in Boston of the building commissioner, enforce, by any 
suitable process or decree, any provision of sections fifteen 
to fifty-two, inclusive, and any order or requirement of any 
person made under authority thereof. 

[1904, c. 450, Sect. 11; 1913, c. 655, Sect. 59.] 

Restraining Illegal Use, etc., of Buildings. 
Sect. 60. The supreme judicial or superior court may 
restrain the illegal-placing, maintenance or use of any build- 
ing, structure, or other thing. It may upon the petition 
of a city or town for such relief, require the removal of any 
such building, structure or other thing by the owner, and 
may authorize the city or town, in default of such removal 



328 Acts in Chronological Order. 

by the owner, to remove it at his expense. Upon such 
petition, the defendant shall be presumed to have acted 
without a license or authority until he proves the contrarj^. 

[1899, c. 326; E. L. 104, Sect. 52; 1913, c. 655 Sect. 60.] 

Notice to Assessors of Permits for Buildings. 

Sect. 61. The inspector of buildings in every city and 
town having such an officer shall give written notice to the 
assessors thereof of the granting by him of permits for the 
construction of any building therein or for any substantial 
alteration therein or addition thereto. Such notice shall 
be given within seven days after the granting of each 
permit and shall -state the name of the person to whom the 
permit was granted and the location of the building to be 
constructed or altered or to which an addition is to be made. 
[1913, c. 676, Sect. 1.] 

ELEVATORS. 

Installation and Inspection. 
Sect. 62. In cities and towns not having a building 
department or an inspector of buildings, the installation 
and alteration of all elevators shall be under the super- 
vision of the inspectors of the division of inspections of 
the department. In cities and towns having an inspector 
of buildings or a person acting as such, the installation 
and alteration of all elevators shall be under his super- 
vision. No elevator shall be installed or altered until a 
copy of the plans and specifications of such elevator or 
of the proposed alterations shall have been filed by the 
owner of the premises where the elevator is to be installed 
or altered, or by the manufacturer of the elevator, with 
the inspector or building inspector having jurisdiction 
and a certificate of approval or a specification of require- 
ments shall have been issued by him. The inspector 
and inspectors of buildings or departments of buildings 



Acts in Chronological Order. 329 

of cities and towns shall enforce the regulations made by 
the board of elevator regulations as hereafter provided. 

[1901, c. 439; R. L. 104, s. 27; 1913, c. 806, sects. 1, 7.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 71.] 

Test of Safety Devices. 

Sect. 63. On completion of the work o f installation 
or alteration, the manufacturer of the elevator or the 
persons making the alterations shall make a practical test 
of the safety devices of the elevator in the presence of the 
inspector having jurisdiction thereof; and if the test is 
satisfactory to him, he shall issue a certificate approving 
the elevator and safety devices thereof. 
[1913, c.806, Sect. 2.] 

Report of Inspection. 
Sect. 64. All elevators shall be thoroughly inspected 
and a practical test made of the safety devices required 
therefor at intervals of not more than one year, and at 
such other times as may be deemed necessary by the 
inspector having jurisdiction thereof. Within ten days 
after the inspection, he shall report the result thereof to 
the commissioner of public safety, upon forms to be 
furnished by him. This requirement for the making of 
inspection reports shall not apply to the city of Boston. 

[1913, c. 806, Sect. 3.] 

Certificate of Inspection to be Posted in Elevator. 

Sect. 65. If in the judgment of any inspector having 
jurisdiction thereof an elevator is safe, and if the elevator 
has been constructed in the manner required by law or 
by the regulations of the board of elevator regulations, 
the inspector shall issue a certificate to that effect to 
the owner of the elevator or to the person in charge 
thereof, who shall post the certificate in a conspicuous 



330 Acts in Chronological Order. 

place in or near the cab or car of such elevator. Other- 
wise, the inspector shall immediately post conspicuously 
upon the entrance or door of the cab or car of such elevator, 
or upon the elevator, a notice of its dangerous condition, 
and shall prohibit the use of the elevator until it has been 
made safe to his satisfaction. No person shall remove 
such notice or operate such elevator until the inspector 
has issued his certificate as aforesaid. 

[1883, c. 173; 1894, c. 481, Sect. 43; R. L. 104, Sect. 28; 1911, c. 

455; 1913, c. 806, Sect. 4; 227 Mass. 415.] 

[For penalty, see Sect. 71.] 

Report of Accidents and Defective Elevators. 
Sect. 66. Any owner, operator or person in charge 
of an elevator or any person employed to inspect an 
elevator shall, if he thinks such elevator is unsafe, make 
a written report thereof to the inspector having juris- 
diction thereof, who shall forthwith inspect such elevator. 
If any accident occurs to an elevator, the operator, person 
in charge or owner having knowledge thereof shall imme- 
diately report such accident to the inspector having 
jurisdiction, who shall forthwith inspect such elevator. 
[1913, c. 806, Sect. 5.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 71.] 

Petition for Changes in Regulations. 
Sect. 67. Any person engaged in the inspection, 
alteration, construction, repair or operation of elevators 
may from time to time, by written petition to the com- 
missioner of public safety, request that rules and regula- 
tions established by a board of elevator regulations 
heretofore or hereafter appointed be altered or amended. 
The commissioner may grant public hearings upon such 
petition, and if he deems it advisable may appoint a 
new board of elevator regulations as provided in section 
ten of chapter twenty-two. 

[1913, c. 806, Sect. 9; 1919, c. 350, Sect. 106.] 



Acts in Chronological Order. 331 

Board to Amend Regulations. 
Sect. 68. The board of elevator regulations shall 
frame amendments to the regulations relating to the 
construction, installation, alteration and operation of all 
elevators, and relative to the location, design and con- 
struction of shafts or enclosures for elevators, safety 
devices, gates and other safeguards, protection against 
the elevator or hoisting machinery, and means to prevent 
the spread of fire, and also amendments to the regulations 
designed to make uniform the work of the inspectors of 
the division of inspections of the department and of 
inspectors of buildings throughout the commonwealth. 
[1913 c. 806, Sect. 6.] 

Establishment of Regulations. 
Sect. 69. The board of elevator regulations shall, 
within three months after its members are appointed, 
draft amendments to the regulations and submit the 
same to the governor and council for their approval. 
Within sixty days after such submission they shall approve 
the same, with such alterations and amendments and 
after such public hearings as they may deem proper; 
and the regulations so altered and amended shall become 
part of the rules and regulations pertaining to elevators. 
The commissioner of public safety shall furnish upon 
application a printed copy of the regulations to all manu- 
facturers of elevators operating in the commonwealth, 
to all inspectors of buildings in the cities and towns of 
the commonwealth, and to all others who are concerned; 
The board shall be dissolved upon the approval of the 
regulations by the governor and council. 

[1913, c. 806, Sects. 7, 8; 1919, c. 350, Sects. 99, 106.] 

Appeal. 
Sect. 70. Whoever, except in Boston, is aggrieved by 
the order, requirement or direction of an inspector of 



332 Acts in Chronological Order. 

buildings of a city or town in reference to the installation 
or alteration of elevators may, within ten days after the 
service thereof, appeal as provided in section fifty-five; 
and all the provisions of said section, except as otherwise 
provided herein, shall apply to the procedure on such 
appeal. In Boston the right of appeal shall be the same 
as provided by section seven of chapter five hundred 
and fifty of the Acts of nineteen hundred and seven. 

[1913, c. 806, Sect. 11.] 

Penalty. 
Sect. 71. Any person violating or failing to comply 
with any provision of sections sixty-two to seventy, 
inclusive, or of any regulation established thereunder 
shall be punished by a fine of not more than five hundred 
dollars. 

[1913, c. 806, Sect. 12.] 
CINEMATOGRAPHS. 

Regulation. 
Sect. 72. No cinematograph or similar apparatus 
involving the use of a combustible film more than ten 
inches in length, except one using only an enclosed incan- 
descent lamp and cellulose acetate films not more than 
one and one quarter inches in width, shall, except as 
provided by section eighty-five, be kept or used for the 
purpose of exhibiting such films in or upon the premises 
of a public building until such cinematograph or similar 
apparatus has been inspected and approved by an inspec- 
tor, who shall have placed thereon a numbered metal tag; 
nor until a booth or enclosure, which has been inspected 
and approved by such an inspector and his certificate 
issued therefor, has been provided for said apparatus; 
nor until such precautions against fire as the commissioner 
of public safety may specify have been taken by the 
owner, user or exhibitor; provided, that no such apparatus 



Acts in Chronological Order. 333 

shall be operated with oxyhydrogen gas, so-called, or 
with limelight. In addition, in Boston the location of 
any booth or enclosure surrounding such apparatus shall 
be approved by the building commissioner, who may 
order such additional precautions against fire as he may 
deem necessary. 

[1905, c. 176, Sect. 1; 1908, c. 566, Sect. 1; 1914, c. 791, Sect. 1; 
1915, c. 169, Sect. 1.] 

Permits for Special Exhibitions. 
Sect. 82. Except in Boston, the commissioner of pub- 
lic safety may grant permits for the special exhibition of 
pictures by the use of a cinematograph or similar appara- 
tus in a public building which in his opinion is in safe 
condition for such exhibitions, and he may prescribe such 
regulations as he may deem necessary for the presentation 
of the same. Two dollars shall accompany the applica- 
tion for each permit. 

[1911, c. 440; 1914, c. 791, Sect. 12.] 

Application of Certain Sections. 
Sect. 83. Sections seventy-two to seventy-six, inclu- 
sive, shall not apply to any motion picture machine oper- 
ated with only cellulose acetate films not more than' one 
inch and one fourth in width and requiring not more than 
five hundred watts of electric current to operate the arc: 
provided, that such machines shall not be kept or used in 
a public building except under such regulations as the 
commissioner of public safety shall prescribe. 

[1914, c. 791, Sect 13.] 

Penalty. 
Sect. 84. Any person keeping or using a cinemato- 
graph or similar apparatus contrary to any provision of 
sections seventy-two to eighty-four, inclusive, or in vio- 
lation of any rule or regulation made by the commissioner 



334 Acts in Chronological Order. 

of public safety, or, in Boston, in violation of any regula- 
tion or requirement made by the building commissioner 
in accordance with said sections, shall be punished by a 
fine of not less than fifty nor more than five hundred 
dollars. 
[1905, o. 176, Sect. 3; 1908, c. 566, Sect. 3; 1914, c. 791, Sect. 15.] 

Special Licenses for Operators in Churches, Schools, Etc. 

Sect. 85. Notwithstanding any provision of sections 
seventy-two to eighty-four, inclusive, the commissioner 
of public safety may grant special licenses for operator 
of motion picture machines in churches, schoolhouses or 
public institutions in cities and towns, except Boston, 
which in his opinion are in safe condition for said exhibi- 
tions, and he may prescribe regulations for the proper 
conduct of the same. Two dollars shall accompany each 
application for such special license. 

[1911, c. 440, Sects. 1, 2, 3; 1914, c. 791, Sect. 17.] 



GENERAL LAWS, CHAPTER 148. 

Fire Prevention. 
Application of Certain Sectiom. 
Section 2. Sections six, ten, thirteen, fourteen, nine- 
teen, twenty and twenty-two, except as otherwise pro- 
vided in section thirty, shall not apply to the metropolitan 
district. Sections twenty-eight to fifty-one, inclusive, 
shall apply only to the said district. 

[1914, c. 795, Sect. 28; 1920, c. 436, Sect. 2.] 
[1921, c. 485.] 

Delegation of Powers. 
Sect. 31. The marshal may delegate the granting 
and issuing of any licenses or permits authorized by sec- 
tions thirty to fifty-one, inclusive, or the carrying out of 
any lawful rule, order or regulation of the department, or 



Acts in Chronological Order. 335 

any inspection required under said sections, to the head 
of the fire department or to any other designated officer 
in any city or town in the metropolitan district. Except 
as otherwise provided a fee of fifty cents may be charged 
for any such permit. Any such permit may be revoked 
by the marshal or by any officer designated to grant it. 
[1914, c. 795, Sect. 4.] 
[1921, c. 485.] 

Paint or Inflammable Fluids. 
Sect. 32. No paint, oil, benzine, naptha or other 
inflammable fluid shall be kept or stored in bulk or barrel 
otherwise than in the tank of an automobile, motor boat 
or stationary engine, in total quantity exceeding ten 
gallons, in any part of any building used for habitation, 
or within fifty feet of any building used for dwelling pur- 
poses, unless such paint, oil or other inflammable fluid 
is inclosed within a fireproof room or structure, constructed 
and arranged to the satisfaction of the marshal; and no 
paint, oil, benzine, naptha or other inflammable fluid, 
except for domestic purposes, shall be kept, used, stored 
or sold in any part of any building used for habitation 
unless a permit therefor has first been obtained from the 
marshal under such terms and conditions as he may pre- 
scribe. 

[1914, c. 795, Sect. 6; 4 Op. A. G. 397.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 51.] 

Combustible Material. 
Sect. 33. No part of any building used for habitation, 
nor that part of any lot within fifty feet of any building 
so used, shall be used for the storage, keeping or handling 
of any combustible article for other than domestic pur- 
poses, or of any article or material that may be dangerous 
to the public safety as a fire menace, unless a permit has 
first been obtained therefor from the marshal. No part 
of any such building, shall be used as a carpenter's shop 



336 Acts in Chronological Order. 

nor for the storage, keeping or handling of feed, hay, 
straw, excelsior, shavings, sawdust, cotton, paper stock, 
feathers or rags, except under such terms and conditions 
as the marshal may prescribe. 

[1914, c. 795, Sect. 7.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 51.] 

Removal of Combustible Refuse. 

Sect. 34. The marshal or such person as he may desig- 
nate may require the removal and destruction of any heap 
or collection of refuse or debris that in his opinion may 
become dangerous as a fire menace. 

Neglect on the part of either the owner or occupant, or 
both, to remove the cause of complaint under this or the 
preceding section, after notice thereof has been served, 
shall be deemed a refusal; and the marshal or the person 
whom he may designate may enter upon the premises and 
remove such material or article and the containers thereof 
as may be covered by or mentioned in the notice issued. 
The material or articles removed, if of no substantial value, 
shall be destroyed; otherwise they shall be placed in 
storage, and the total costs attending such action shall be 
paid by the owner or occupant. 

[1914, c. 795, Sect. 8.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 51.] 

Use of Salamanders. 
Sect. 35. No salamander or stove for drying plaster 
shall be used in any building except under such conditions 
as may be prescribed by the marshal; and no such sala- 
mander or stove shall be set upon a wooden floor unless it is 
raised above the floor at least four inches and set upon brick 
or other incombustible material in a bed of sand at least 
two inches thick, spread upon the floor and covering an 
area of at least two feet in all directions larger than the 
area of the salamander or stove. 

[1°14, c. 795, Sect. 9.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 51.] 



Acts in Chronological Order. 337 

Automatic Sprinklers. 
Sect. 36. Any building used in whole or in part for the 
business of woodworking, or for the business of manu- 
facturing or working upon wooden, basket, rattan or cane 
goods or articles, or tow, shavings, excelsior, oakum, rope, 
twine, string, thread, bagging, paper, paper stock, card- 
board, rags, cotton or linen, or cotton or linen garments or 
goods, or rubber, feathers, paint, grease, soap, oil, varnish, 
petroleum, gasoline, kerosene, benzine, naphtha or other 
inflammable fluids, and any building used in whole or in 
part for the business of keeping or storing any such goods or 
articles, except in such small quantities as are usual for 
domestic use or for use in connection with and as incident 
to some business other than such keeping or storing, shall, 
upon the order of the marshal, be equipped with automatic 
sprinklers; provided, that no such order shall apply to 
any building unless four or more persons live or are usually 
employed therein above the second floor. 

[1914, c. 795, Sect. 10; 4 Op. A. G. 585.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 51.] 

Dry Pipes in Basement 
Sect. 37. The basements of any buildings shall, upon 
written notice by the marshal to the owners of the build- 
ings, be equipped with such dry pipes with outside con- 
nections as he may prescribe. 

[1914, c. 795, Sect. 11.] 
[For penalty, see Sect. 51.] 

Penalty. 
Sect. 38. Owners of buildings who, within six months 
after having received written notice from the marshal under 
section thirty-six or thirty-seven, fail to comply with the 
requirement of such notice shall be punished by a fine of 
not more than one thousand dollars. 
[1914, c. 795, Sect. 12.] 



338 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Rules as to Fires and Fire Protection. 
Sect. 39. In addition to the powers given by sections 
thirty to thirty-eight, inclusive, the marshal may make 
orders and rules relating to fires, fire protection and "fire 
hazard binding throughout the metropolitan district, or 
part thereof, or binding upon any person or class of persons 
within said district, limited, however, to the following 
subjects: 

A. Requiring the keeping of portable fire extinguishers, 
buckets of water or other portable fire extinguishing de- 
vices on any premises by the occupant thereof, and pre- 
scribing the number and situation of such devices. 

B. Prohibiting or regulating the accumulation and 
requiring the removal of combustible rubbish, including 
waste paper, cardboard, string, packing material, sawdust, 
shavings, sticks, rags, waste leather and rubber, boxes, 
barrels, broken furniture and other similar light or com- 
bustible refuse. 

D. Causing obstacles that may interfere with the means 
of exit to be removed from floors, halls, stairways and fire 
escapes. 

E. Ordering the remedying of any condition found to 
exist in or about any building or other premises or any ship 
or vessel in violation of any law, ordinance, by-law, rule 
or order in respect to fires and the prevention of fire. 

H. Requiring the cleaning of chimney flues and vent 
pipes. 

I. Requiring proper safeguards to be placed and 
maintained about or over roof skylights. 

K. Requiring that all signs and advertising devices 
erected on buildings shall be approved by said marshal. 

M. Defining the classes of buildings to be equipped 
with sprinkler protection as provided by section thirty-six . 
[1914, c. 795, Sect. 13; Op. A. G. 580.] 



Acts in Chronological Order. 339 

Orders to Occupant or Owner. 
Sect. 41. If buildings or other premises are owned, by- 
one person and occupied by another under lease or other- 
wise, the orders of the marshal shall apply to the occupant 
alone, except where the rules or orders require the making 
of additions to or changes in the premises themselves, such 
as would immediately become real estate and be the prop- 
erty of the owner of the premises. In such cases the rules 
or orders shall affect the owner and not the occupant; and 
unless it is otherwise agreed between the owner and the 
occupant, the occupant whose use of the premises has 
caused the making of such additions or changes, in addition 
to his rent or other payments, shall, after the additions or 
changes are made, pay a reasonable per cent of the cost 
thereof annually to the owner of the premises. No rule 
or order shall be made or enforced which requires an 
expenditure by the owner or occupant of more than five 
per cent of the last annual assessed valuation of the land 
and buildings to which such rule or order relates. 
[1914, c. 795, Sect. 22; 4 Op. A. G. 572.] 

Appeals. 
Sect. 45. The marshal shall hear and determine all 
appeals from the acts and decisions of the heads of fire 
departments and other persons acting or purporting to act 
under his authority, done or made or purporting to be done 
or made under the provisions of sections thirty to fifty-one, 
inclusive, and shall make all necessary and proper orders 
thereon. Any person aggrieved by any such action of the 
head of a fire department or other person may appeal to 
the marshal. 

[1914, c. 795, Sect. 18.] 

Tanks for Storage of Fluid. 
Sect. 54. No person shall construct, maintain or use 
any tank or container of more than ten thousand gallons 



340 Acts in Chronological Order. 

capacity, unless constructed principally of wood, for the 
storage of any fluid other than water, unless the same is 
underground, without first securing a permit therefor 
from the commissioner. Whoever violates this section or 
a rule or regulation made under the following section 
shall be punished by a fine of not less than fifty nor more 
than one thousand dollars. 

[1919, c. 303, Sects. 1, 3.] 
[1921, c. 104.] 

Rules and Regulations. 
Sect. 55. The department shaH make rules and regula- 
tions governing the construction, use and maintenance of 
tanks to which the preceding section applies. Such rules 
and regulations shall not take effect until approved by the 
governor and council, and filed in the office of the state 
secretary. 

[1919, c. 303, Sect 2.] 
Department of Public Safety may make rules for keeping, storage or 
use of crude petroleum or any of its products. [See Sects. 10-11 
Chapter 148, General Laws.] 



GENERAL LAWS, CHAPTER 149, SECTION 126. 

Doors not to be Locked During Working Hours in 
Operative Buildings. 
Section 126. No outside or inside doors of any build- 
ing where operatives are employed shall be so locked, 
bolted or otherwise fastened during the hours of labor 
as to prevent free egress. Any person having charge of a 
building or room therein any exit door of which shall be 
found locked, bolted or otherwise fastened contrary to 
this section shall be punished by a fine of not less than 
twenty-five nor more than five hundred dollars or by 
imprisonment for not more than one year, or both. 

[1884, c. 52, Sects, 1, 2; 1894, c. 481, Sects. 53, 54; R. L. 104, Sect, 40; 
1909, c. 514, Sects. 93, 145; 1914, c. 566.] 



Acts in Chronological Order. 341 

GENERAL LAWS, CHAPTER 184. 

General Provisions Relative to Real Property. 

Proceedings Affecting Title to Realty Binding on Third 
Parties, When. 

Section 15. A writ of entry or other proceeding, 
either at law or in equity, which affects the title to real 
property or the use and occupation thereof or the build- 
ings thereon, shall not have any effect except against the 
parties thereto, their heirs and devisees and persons hav- 
ing actual notice thereof, until a memorandum containing 
the names of the parties to such proceeding, the court in 
which it is pending, the date of the writ or other com- 
mencement thereof, the name of the town where the real 
property liable to be affected thereby lies and a description 
of such real property sufficiently accurate for identification 
is recorded in the registry of deeds for the county or dis- 
trict where such real property lies; but this section shall 
not apply to attachments, levies of execution or proceed- 
ings in the probate courts. 

[1S77, c.229, Sects. 1, 3; P. S. c. 126, Sect. 13; 1897, c. 463; R. L. 134 

Sect. 12.] 



GENERAL LAWS, CHAPTER 272. 
Stables — - Exits. 

Section 86. No person shall stable a horse or mule 
on the second or any higher floor of any building, unless 
there are two means of exit therefrom, at opposite ends 
of the building, to the main or street floor, unless such 
building is equipped with an automatic sprinkler system. 
This section shall not apply to cities. 

Sect. 86A. No person shall stable a horse or mule 
above the first or ground floor of any building not equipped 
with an automatic sprinkler system, or horses or mules 



342 Acts in Chronological Order. 

exceeding six in all on the first or ground floor of any- 
building not so equipped, unless there are two unobstructed 
means of exit from each floor whereon it or they are 
stabled, as far apart as practicable and so constructed as 
to grade that the said animal or animals can quickly and 
safely leave the building in case of fire and approved as 
to situation, arrangement and utility by the chief of the 
fire department. The person in charge of horses and 
mules stabled in any building not equipped with such a 
system and requiring two exits as aforesaid shall cause each 
such animal to use each such exit at least once a week. 
This and the four following sections shall apply only to 
cities. 

Sect. 86B. No person shall stable horses or mules 
exceeding fifteen in all at any one time in a building not 
equipped with an automatic sprinkler system unless a 
watchman is employed constantly on the premises to 
guard against fire. 

Sect. 86C. No person shall have a lighted cigarette, 
cigar or pipe in his possession in any building in which 
by the provisions of section eighty-sixA two unobstructed 
means of exit are required or in which by the provisions 
of section eighty-sixB the employment of a watchman is 
required, except in a room in said building made fire- 
resisting. 

Sect. 86D. On every floor of a building not equipped 
with an automatic sprinkler system, where horses or mules 
are stabled, there shall be kept in accessible locations and 
filled at all times, four pails of water and one pail of sand, 
for each one thousand square feet of floor space, to be 
used for no other purpose than extinguishing fires and to 
be so marked. 

Sect. 86E. In the metropolitan fire prevention district 
the state fire marshal or any person designated by him, 
and in cities outside said district, the chief of the fire 
department or any person designated by him, may, at 



Acts in Chronological Order. 343 

all reasonable hours, enter into buildings within their 
jurisdiction where horses or mules are stabled, or upon 
premises adjacent thereto, for the purpose of enforcing 
sections eighty-sixA to eighty-sixD, inclusive, and if any- 
such official or person so authorized finds the existence of 
conditions likely to cause a fire in such buildings or on 
such premises, he shall order such conditions to be 
remedied. Such order shall be served by delivering the 
same in hand or by posting the same in a conspicuous 
place on the building or premises affected thereby. 

Sect. 86F. Whoever violates any provision of sections 
eighty-six to eighty-sixD, inclusive, shall be punished by 
a fine of not more than two hundred dollars or by imprison- 
ment for not more than one month, or both. Whoever 
refuses or unreasonably neglects to comply with any 
order issued under section eighty-sixE shall be punished 
by a fine of not more than ten dollars for each day during 
which such refusal or neglect continues after service of 
such order. 

[1916, c. 158, Sects. 1-3; 1924, c. 478, Sects. 1 and 2.] 



REVISED ORDINANCES 1914, CHAPTER 8. 

Building Department. 

Section 1. The building department shall be under 
the charge of the building commissioner who shall exer- 
cise the powers and perform the duties provided by 
statute, and may appoint not exceeding thirty building 
inspectors for duty in his department. 

[St 1907, c. 550; St. 1914, c. 782 and c. 795.J 

Board of Appeal. 
Sect. 2. There shall be in the building department a 
board of appeal consisting of five members, who shall 
exercise the powers and perform the duties provided by 
statute. 

[St. 1907, c. 550, Sects. 6 and 7.] 



344 Acts in Chronological Order. 

Board of Examiners. 
Sect. 3. There shall be in the building department a 
board of examiners, consisting of three members, who 
shall exercise the powers and perform the duties herein- 
after provided. Each member shall receive ten dollars 
for every day or part thereof of actual service but not 
more than one thousand dollars in any year. 

Examinations. 

Sect. 4. The board shall hold examinations, under 
reasonable rules and regulations adopted by it, of persons 
desiring to be registered as qualified to have charge or 
control of the construction, alteration, removal, or tearing 
down of buildings or structures. Due notice of such 
examinations shall be posted in the offices of the building 
department and of the board of examiners and published 
in the City Record. 

Registration. 

The board shall establish various classes of persons to 
be registered, shall determine the qualifications required 
for each class, and after examination shall register in each 
class the persons found to possess the requisite qualifica- 
tions therefor. The name and address of each person so 
found to be qualified, with the designation of the class in 
which he is registered, shall thereupon be certified by the 
board to the building commissioner who shall make a 
record of the same which shall be open to public inspection. 

Qualifications of Persons in Control of Building Operations. 
Sect. 5. All work of construction, alteration, removal 
or tearing down of buildings or structures in the city of 
Boston shall, hereafter, be under the charge, control and 
personal supervision of a licensed mechanic, qualified by 
education, training or experience for the performance of 
that duty in a manner which shall preserve public safety 
and conform to the laws, ordinances, rules and regulations 



Acts in Chronological Order. 345 

relating to the construction, alteration, removal or tearing 
down of buildings and structures in the city of Boston. 

[R. O. 1914, c. 8; Ord. 1920, c. 10; Ord. 1921.] 

Permits to Persons Licensed. 
Sect. 6. The qualifications of such persons shall be 
determined by the board of examiners,- and no permit for 
the doing of work described in section five of this chapter 
shall be issued by the building commissioner unless the 
application for a permit therefor contains the name, 
address and signature of a person who is duly licensed, 
as herein provided, to take personal charge or control of 
such work; provided, however, that a permit may be 
granted if no person licensed as aforesaid has been named 
in the application therefor whenever the work in question 
is of minor importance, and, in the opinion of the building 
commissioner, stated in writing with his reasons therefor 
upon the application for such permit, the work is of such 
simple character that its execution will not endanger the 
safety of the public, or of any person engaged thereon. 

Exemption from Examination. 

Sect. 7. Any person who shall by affidavit, together 
with such other evidence as may be required by the board, 
show to the board that he has had charge or control 
of the construction, alteration, removal or tearing down 
of buildings or structures in the class in which he applies 
to be registered, and shall satisfy the board that he is 
qualified by education, training or experience to have 
charge or control of such work, may, without any other 
examination, be registered in such class and be certified 
to the building commissioner as a person qualified within 
such class. 

Fees for Building Licenses. 

Sect. 8. The board shall issue a license to each person 
so certified by the board to the building commissioner. 



346 Acts in Chronological Order. 

All licenses hereafter issued, or issued less than one year 
prior to the passage of this ordinance shall expire in one 
year from the date of issuance; and all licenses issued 
more than one year prior to the passage of this ordinance 
shall expire on the date in the year 1921 corresponding 
to the date in the year of issuance. The board may renew 
a license upon any expiration thereof, for the further period 
of one year from the date of renewal, with or without 
re-examination, as the board may determine. The fees 
to be paid to the board for such licenses and renewals shall 
be as follows: new license — five (5) dollars; and each 
yearly renewal thereof two (2) dollars. The first renewal 
of a license heretofore granted ■ — five dollars and each 
yearly renewal thereof two (2) dollars. Special license — 
one (1) dollar. The fees received by the board shall be 
paid to the city collector at least once a week. 

Revocation of License. 
Sect. 9. A person who has been duly licensed as 
aforesaid shall be entitled to have charge or control of any 
work described in section five of this chapter, in the class 
in which he is registered, until his license is revoked or 
suspended by the building commissioner upon the order 
of the board. No license shall be revoked or suspended 
except upon proof of charges, filed with the board by the 
building commissioner or other person, specifying that 
the licensee has been careless or negligent in the per- 
formance of his duty in connection with work under his 
charge or control, or has caused or permitted a violation 
of the building laws in connection therewith, or that such 
laws have been violated in connection with such work 
when the licensee knew, or, in the exercise of due diligence, 
should have known, that such violation had occurred. 
Upon learning of such carelessness, or neglect of duty, or 
of such violation of law, the building commissioner shall 



Acts in Chronological Order. 347 

file charges with the board and prosecute the same. Upon 
the filing of such charges by the building commissioner or 
other person, the board shall give to the licensee notice of a 
hearing upon the charges which shall be held by the board 
not less than seven days after the date of said notice. 
The notice shall be by personal service or by registered 
mail, and shall state the time and place of the hearing and 
contain a copy of the charges. At such hearing the licensee 
may be represented by counsel, and the building com- 
missioner may be assisted by a representative of the law 
department of the city. 

Stopping Work. 
Sect. 10. If, for any cause, a person licensed as herein 
provided shall cease to have charge or control of any 
work described in section five of this chapter before such 
work is finished, the work shall stop until another person 
duly licensed for the doing of such work has been placed in 
charge thereof. 

Penalty. 
Sect. 11. Whoever violates any provision of sections 
five, eight or ten of this chapter shall be punished by a 
fine of not more than fifty dollars for each offence. 

[1920 Ord. amending Sect. 8. Ordained by authority of c. 713 Acts 

of 1912.] 



CHAPTER 41, REVISED ORDINANCES OF 1914. 

Building Limits. 
In the Year One Thousand Nine Hundred and Thirteen. 

Be it ordained by the City Council of Boston, as follows : 

Section 1. The building limits referred to in section 
nine of chapter five hundred and fifty of the acts of the 
year 1907 are hereby extended, defined and established 
as follows: 



348 Acts in Chbonological Okder. 

All that portion of the city which is included within 
a line beginning at the intersection of the boundary lines 
between the City of Boston and the cities of Somerville 
and Everett; thence by the boundary lines between the 
City of Boston and the cities of Everett and Chelsea to 
the intersection with the centre line of Trumbull street 
extended northerly; thence by said centre line of Trum- 
bull street extended, the centre line of Trumbull street 
and said centre line extended southerly to the Harbor 
line; thence by said Harbor line to its intersection wittr 
the easterly line of Pier No. 5 belonging to the Boston 
and Albany Railroad Company; thence by a straight 
line across Boston Harbor to its intersection with the 
Harbor line at the easterly corner of Pier No. 1 in South 
Boston; thence by the Harbor line in the northerly^ 
easterly and southerly portions of South Boston to an 
angle in said Harbor line nearly opposite the intersection 
of the centre line of Columbia road with the centre line 
of location of the Old Colony Railroad; thence by a 
straight "line to the said intersection; and by the centre 
lines of Columbia road, Blue Hill avenue, Seaver street, 
Columbus avenue, Atherton and Mozart streets, Chest- 
nut avenue, Sheridan, Centre and Perkins streets, South 
Huntington avenue, Castleton street and the centre 
line of said Castleton street extended to the boundary 
line between the City of Boston and the town of Brook- _ 
line; thence by said boundary line to a point therein 
one hundred feet southwest of Washington street in the„_ 
Brighton district; thence by a line parallel to and one 
hundred feet southwesterly from the centre line of Wash- 
ington street to an angle formed by the intersection 
of said line with the extension of a line parallel to and 
one hundred feet northwesterly of the centre line of 
Market street; thence by said extension and said line 



Acts in Chronological Order. 349 

parallel to and one hundred feet northwesterly of the 
centre line of Market street to a point one hundred feet 
south of the centre line of Western avenue; thence by 
a line parallel to and one hundred feet south of the centre 
line of Western avenue and said line extended to a point 
in the boundary line between the City of Boston and 
the town of Watertown south of Watertown Bridge, so 
called; thence by said boundary line arid the boundary 
lines between the cities of Cambridge and Somerville to 
the point of beginning. 

Also those portions of Ward 26 upon or within one 
hundred feet of the following named street and square: 
Everett square, so called; Fairmount avenue from River 
street to the Neponset River; River street from the loca- 
tion of the Boston & Providence Railroad to Winthrop 
street; Hyde Park avenue on the easterly side from 
the northerly side of Oak street to Everett street; Hyde 
Park avenue on the westerly side from the northerly 
side of Pine street extension, so called, to a point on said 
Hyde Park avenue opposite the southerly line of Everett 
street; Harvard avenue from River street to Winthrop 
street; Maple street from River street to a point one 
hundred and eighty feet southerly therefrom; Central 
avenue from River street to Winthrop street; Davison 
street from Fairmount avenue to a point three hundred 
feet northeasterly therefrom; Grove street; Pierce street 
from Fairmount avenue to a point three hundred feet 
northeasterly therefrom; Knott street from Fairmount 
avenue to a point three hundred feet easterly therefrom; 
Railroad avenue from Fairmount avenue to a point 
three hundred feet northeasterly therefrom; Station 
street from the Neponset river to a point three hundred 
feet northeasterly from Fairmount avenue; Walnut 
street from Fairmount avenue to a point three hundred 



350 Acts in Chronological Order. 

feet southwesterly therefrom; Maple street from Fair- 
mount avenue to a point one hundred and twenty-five 
feet westerly therefrom. 

This ordinance became operative July 1, 1914. 

[1907, c. 550, Sect. 9; 1914, c. 782, Sect. 1; Ord. 1914, c. 4, Sect. 1.] 



CHAPTER 5, ORDINANCES OF 1922 (AS AMENDED 
BY ORDINANCES OF 1923, CHAPTERS 2, 8 AND 
12, AND ORDINANCE OF 1924). 
Concerning Park Frontages in the City of Boston. 
Be it ordained by the City Council of Boston, as follows: 

Section 1. No building or structure or any part 
thereof hereafter erected or altered on land which abuts 
on and has an entrance into and is within a distance 
of one hundred feet from the following parkways: The 
Fens (excepting Charlesgate East and Charlesgate West 
from a point one hundred feet north from their inter- 
section with Commonwealth avenue to Charles river); 
Riverway, including Audubon road, from Brookline 
avenue to Beacon street; Commonwealth avenue, from 
Arlington street to a line drawn parallel to one hundred 
and thirty feet west of Charlesgate West; and from Wash- 
ington street to Newton line; Jamaicaway; Olmsted Park; 
Arborway; Columbia road on the southerly side from 
Sumner street to Dorchester avenue and from Buttonwood 
street to Marine Park, and on the northerly side from 
Boston street to Marine Park, South Boston; shall be used 
for a livery or public stable or public garage, or for any 
mechanical, mercantile or manufacturing purposes, nor 
excepting churches and chapels, shall the extreme height 
of said buildings or structures exceed seventy feet from 
the mean grade of the edgestone or sidewalk on the front 
facing said parkway, exclusive of such steeples, towers, 



Acts in Chronological Order. 351 

domes, cornices, parapets, balustrades, sculptured orna- 
ments, chimneys and roofs as the board of park commis- 
sioners shall approve; and no roof on any of the afore- 
mentioned buildings shall be used for laundry or clothes- 
drying purposes. 

Section 2. No building or structure shall hereafter be 
erected or altered within a distance of one hundred feet 
from park or parkway in the city of Boston, without 
permission in writing having first been obtained from the 
Park Commissioners of the City of Boston. 

Section 5. No building shall be erected or placed 
upon premises within the following distances from the 
following parks and parkways: Riverway, from Fenway 
to Huntington avenue, twenty feet; Jamaicaway, from 
Huntington avenue to Perkins street, twenty feet; 
Jamaicaway, from Perkins street to Prince street, 
twenty-five feet; Arborway, from Prince street to 
Franklin Park, twenty-five feet; Olmsted Park along 
the northwesterly boundary from Chestnut street to 
Francis Parkman Drive, twenty feet; Audubon road 
on the Riverway, from Brookline avenue to Boston and 
Albany Railroad, twenty feet; Audubon road on the 
Riverway, from Boston and Albany Railroad to Beacon 
street, fifteen feet; Commonwealth avenue from Arling- 
ton street to Beacon street, twenty feet; the Fens, 
twenty feet (excepting Charlesgate East from Boylston 
street to the Charles river, and Charlesgate West from 
Boston and Albany Railroad to the Charles river, and 
Boylston street, south side from Hemenway street to 
Fenway); Charlesgate East from Boylston street to 
Ipswich street, ten feet; and Boylston street, south side, 
from Hemenway street to Fenway, fifteen feet; provided 
that steps, windows, porticos and other usual projec- 
tions appurtenant to the front wall of a building shall be 



352 Acts in Chronological Order. 

allowed where there is a reserved space; that no pro- 
jections in the natnre of a bay window, corner bay, 
circular front, or, octagon front, with the foundation 
wall sustaining the same (such foundation wall being a 
projection of the front wall), shall be allowed (excepting 
oriel windows above the first story on a street corner), 
unless any horizontal sections of such projections would 
fall within the external lines of trapezoids, the sum of 
whose bases upon the rear line of the aforesaid space 
does not exceed seven tenths of the whole front of the 
building, and the base of any one of which trapezoids 
does not exceed eighteen feet, and whose side lines make 
an angle of forty-five degrees with the base; and each 
house in a block shall be considered a separate building 
within the meaning of this section. 

Section 6. No building shall be erected or placed 
upon premises within twenty feet from the exterior line 
of parks and parkways, on the Dorchesterway and 
Strandway, provided that steps, windows, porticos and 
other usual projections appurtenant to the front wall 
of a building are to be allowed in this reserved space 
of twenty feet, subject to the following limitations, viz.: 
First, that no projections of any kind (other than door- 
steps and balustrades connected therewith, and also 
piazzas projecting not more than eight feet) shall ex- 
tend more than five feet from the rear fine of the 
aforesaid space; Second, that no projections in the 
nature of a bay-window, corner-bay, circular front, or 
octagon front, with the foundation wall sustaining the 
same (such foundation wall being a projection of the 
front wall), will be allowed (excepting oriel windows 
above the first story on a street corner), unless any 
horizontal sections of such projections would fall within 
the external lines of trapezoids, the sum of whose bases 



Acts in Chronological Order. 353 

upon the rear lines of the aforesaid space does not 
exceed seven tenths of the whole front of the building, 
and the base of any one of which trapezoids does not 
exceed eighteen feet, and whole side lines make an 
angle of forty-five degrees with the base; and each house 
in a block shall be considered a separate building within 
the meaning of this limitation. 

Section 7. This ordinance shall take effect upon its 
passage. 



354 Addenda. 



ADDENDA. 



STREET LINE SET BACKS. 

In Board of Street Commissioners 

of the City of Boston, June 6, 1924. 

Ordered, That this Board, having passed the order of 
notice relating to building lines on both sides of Beacon 
street, Boston Proper, between Arundel and Miner streets 
on the east and the boundary line between the city of 
Boston and the town of Brookline on the west, and having 
caused a copy of said order to be published May 2, 3, 1924, 
and May 5, 6, 1924, in the Boston Post and the Boston 
Advertiser, two daily newspapers published in the city of 
Boston, and in the City Record of May 3, 10, 1924, and 
having given the public hearing, notice of which was given 
in said order, do hereby determine that public convenience 
and necessity require, and do hereby order that building 
lines be, under the provisions of chapter 462 of the Acts 
of 1893 and acts in amendment or addition thereto, estab- 
lished on both sides of Beacon street, Boston Proper, 
between Arundel and Miner streets on the east and the 
boundary line between the city of Boston and the town of 
Brookline on the west, as follows: 

On the northwesterly side, between Arundel street and 
the boundary line between the city of Boston and the town 
of Brookline, substantially parallel with and distant 
twenty (20) feet from the northwesterly exterior side line 
of said Beacon street, and substantially parallel with and 
distant twenty (20) feet from the curved lines of that part 



Addenda. 355 

of Beacon street, on the said northwesterly side thereof, 
known as Audubon Circle. 

On the southeasterly side between Miner street and 
Audubon road, substantially parallel with and distant 
twenty (20) feet from the southeasterly exterior side line 
of said Beacon street, and substantially parallel with and 
distant twenty (20) feet from the curved lines of that part 
of Beacon street, on the said southeasterly side thereof, 
known as Audubon Circle, to a point fifty-five (55) feet 
distant from the aforesaid southeasterly fine of said street 
projected, thence running westerly and parallel with the 
aforesaid southeasterly fine of said street projected to the 
aforesaid curved line of Audubon Circle. 

On the southeasterly side, between Audubon road and 
the boundary line between the city of Boston and the town 
of Brookline, substantially parallel with and distant 
twelve (12) feet from the southeasterly exterior side line 
of said Beacon street. 

Said building lines are shown on a plan marked "City of 
Boston, Beacon street, Boston Proper, December 1, 1923, 
F. O. Whitney, Chief Engineer, Street Laying-Out Dept." 
and on file in the office of the Street Laying-Out Depart- 
ment. 

And this Board further orders that existing steps, 
windows, porticos and the other usual projections ap- 
purtenant to the front wall of existing buildings, and 
parts of existing buildings so far as they he between the 
building fines herein established and said Beacon street, 
may remain as they are at the time of the passage of this 
order, intending hereby to sanction all existing projections 
over said fine including any necessary foundations and 
walls supporting said projections. 

And this Board further orders, as to future projections, 
that steps, porticos, balconies, eaves and other usual 
projections, except bay windows appurtenant to the 



356 Addenda. 

front walls of buildings with the necessary foundations to 
support the same, may project over said lines, and that 
bay windows or swell fronts with the necessary founda- 
tions to support the same may project over the said build- 
ing lines for a distance not exceeding three (3) feet. 

John H. L. Noyes, 
John J. O'Callaghan, 
Charles T. Harding, 
Street Commissioners. 
Approved, June 10, 1924. 
James M. Curley, 

Mayor of Boston, Mass. 



Addenda. 357 

REFERENCES TO PARTS OF BOSTON 
BUILDING LAW RELATING TO ZONING. 



ARRANGED IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER IN 
THREE DIVISIONS — USE, HEIGHT AND 
AREA. 

Use. 

1893. Chap. 462, Sect. 1. 

Board of officers may establish building line. To 
be parallel to and not more than 25 feet from 
any exterior line of a highway. No structure 
to be built between building line and street 
thereafter. 

Certain building lines were established on 
Beacon street and some of the Parkway 
after passage of this act. 

1907. Chap. 550, Sect. 9. 

Building limits to stand until changed by 
ordinance. Certain buildings, as wharves, 
market sheds and grain elevators, excluded 
from this restriction if approved by com- 
missioner. Single and two-family buildings 
may be built of 3d class construction outside 
original building limits; but no such buildings 
to occupy more than 60 per cent of lot area. 
Third class buildings may be enlarged up to 
60 per cent of lot area. 

Gen. Laws, Chap. 148, Sect. 33. Combustible Materials. 
Permit must be obtained from fire marshal to 
keep combustible materials in dwellings or 
on lot within 50 feet of dwelling. No part 
of any such building to be used as carpenter's 
shop, nor for storage of feed, hay, cotton, 
paper, etc., without permit from marshal. 



358 Addenda. 

SB 

Gen. Laws, Chap. 148, Sects. 54 and 55. Tanks for Storage 
of Fluid.— (Amended 1919, Chap. 303, Sects. 
1 and 3.) 
No tank of more than 10,000 gallons capacity 
for the storage of any fluid other than water, 
unless underground, to be used without 
permit from Commissioner of Public Safety. 
1907. Chap. 550, Sect. 13. 

Stable not to be located within 40 feet of ad- 
joining property, unless authorised by health 
commissioner after public hearing. 
1907. Chap. 550, Sect. 35. (Amended 1923, Chap. 462, 
Sect. 17.) 
First story or basement of 2d and 3d class 
buildings may be used for mercantile purposes, 
provided certain fire protection regulations 
are complied with. 
1907. Chap. 550, Sect. 36. (Amended 1923, Chap. 462, 
Sect. 18.) 
Permit required for change of occupation or use 
of a building. 
1907. Chap. 550, Sect. 68. 

In tenement houses no basement rooms to be 
occupied for living purposes unless following 
conditions observed: 

Height of rooms to be at least 8| feet high. 
Window area to be at least \ of floor area. 
To sleep in room whose floor is below curb of 
public way following conditions must be 
observed: 

At least one side of room shall abut on 

outside wall for at least 7 feet. 
Windows shall open on space at least 15 
feet square, and window area shall be at 
least 10 square feet. 
Height of room to be at least 8| feet. 



Addenda. 359 

1907. Chap. 550, Sect. 81. 

Any part of a theatre building may be used for 
stores, offices or habitation provided that 
exits from the theatre to the street are en- 
tirely distinct from rest of building, and if 
solid partition walls and floors with no 
openings in same, separate it (the theatre) 
from the rest of the building. 

1907. Chap. 550, Sect. 129. 

Any court having equity jurisdiction upon 
application of city by its attorney, may 
restrain construction, alteration, repair or 
occupation of a building constructed or used 
in violation of the provisions of this act. 

1907. Chap. 550, Sect. 132. (Amended 1913, Chap. 586, 

Sect. 2.) 
Building erected or maintained in violation of 

this act deemed a nuisance and may be re- 
moved by commissioner. 
Fine for violating any provisions of this act to be 

not over $500. 
Sect. 133. 
Parts of chapter 419 of acts of 1892 heretofore 

unrepealed are hereby repealed and those 

parts of any other act which are inconsistent 

are hereby repealed. 
1911. Chap. 342, Sects. 1 and 2. 

Garage erected within fire limits to be of 1st class 

construction. 
Garage hereafter erected in any other part of 

city to be of 1st or 2d class construction. 
Garage is building where 5 or more automobiles, 

using a volatile inflammable liquid for fuel, 

are kept. 



360 Addenda. 

1912. Chap. 259. (Approved March 18, 1912.) 

Buildings at 337 Newbury street exempt from 
provisions of Chap. 342, 1911, so long as they 
remain the same size and in same location, 
provided no part of same is used as dwelling. 

1913. Chap. 577, Sects. 1 and 4. 

No building to be erected for or used as a 
garage without license from board of street 
commissioners. 

Provisions of act not to affect existing garages 
except when they be enlarged. 

1913. Chap. 577, Sects. 1, 2, 3, 4. Amended 1914, Chap. 
119. Sect. 2, 1923. Chap. 316. 
No garage to be erected without license from 
board of street commissioners after notice 
and public hearing on application containing 
names of abutting land owners. "General 
character of neighborhood" to receive con- 
sideration at hearing. No license to be 
granted for a garage for more than four (4) 
cars on the same street or within 500 feet of a 
church, school with more than 50 pupils, 
or hospital having more than 25 beds. 

1918. Chap. 115. 

Metal covered steel frame garages for not more 
than two automobiles, and not exceeding 500 
square feet in area allowed outside of building 
limits of 1913. To be not nearer than 5 feet 
to lot line nor 12 feet from any other building. 

1919. Chap. 32, Sect. 1. 

Every hospital to register annually in April with 
Building Department. 



Addenda. 361 

1919. Chap. 163, Sect. 1. 

Every building exceeding 3 stories or 40 feet 
in height to be used as a hospital shall be a 
first class building. 

Every such building to have at least 2 inclosed 
stairways with one additional for over 75 
occupants and one additional for each 100 
occupants additional. 

Hospital of 3 stories or less may be of 2d or 3d 
class construction. 

Gen. Laws, Chap. 82, Sect. 37. Building Lines. 

Building line not more than 40 feet from exterior 
line of highway may be established. 

Gen. Laws, Chap. 85, Sects. 8 and 9. Signs and Other 
Structures Projecting Into Ways. 

Municipal board may grant permits for placing 
of signs, clocks, awnings and other structures 
on or over a public way. 

Preceding section does not apply to signs and 
structures projecting less than 6 inches over 
the street, nor to poles, wires, etc., of public 
utilities. 

(Amended 1915, Chap. 176, Sect. 3; 1917, Chap. 
344 V Sect. 11.) 

Gen. Laws, Chap. 160, Sects. 33, 35, 38 and 40. Licenses. 
Public Lodging House, one in city of 50,000 
not licensed as an inn, in which 10 or more 
persons are lodged for a charge of 25 cents or 
less per day. 



362 Addenda. 

1922. Chap. 5. City Ordinance. Amended 1923, Chaps. 

2 and 8. Amended 1924. Chaps. 5 and 6. 

The following uses prohibited within 100 feet of 
The Fens (excepting Charlesgate East and 
Charlesgate West from a point 100 feet north 
from their intersection with Commonwealth 
Avenue to Charles river); Riverway, including 
Audubon Road, from Brookline Avenue to 
Beacon Street; Commonwealth Avenue from 
Arlington Street to Kenmore Street; and from 
Washington Street to the Newton line; 
Jamaicaway; Olmsted Park; Arborway; Co- 
lumbia Road on southerly side from Summer 
Street and on the northerly side from Boston 
Street to Marine Park, South Boston; livery 
stable, public stable, 'public garage, mechanical 
or manufacturing purposes; no roof for laundry 
or clothes drying purposes. 

1923. Chap. 462, Sect. 17 (Amendment to Acts of 1907, 

Chap. 550, Sect. 35). 
Living room windows of habitable building to 

face an open area not less than ten square 

feet and to be not less than 6 feet from 

opposite wall or lot line. 
Does not apply to 3d class building, except 

provision for window on open air. 



Addenda. 363 

ORDINANCES OF 1924, CHAPTER 6. 

Concerning Park Frontages. 
In the Year One Thousand Nine Hundred and Twenty-Four. 
Be it ordained by the City Council of Boston, as follows: 

Chapter five of the Ordinances of 1922, as amended by- 
chapters two, eight and twelve of the Ordinances of 1923, 
and chapter five of the Ordinances of 1924, is hereby- 
further amended in section one by inserting after the 
words "Sumner street" in the twelfth line of said section, 
the words "to Dorchester avenue, and from Button wood 
street to Marine Park." 

In City Council, September 29, 1924. Passed. 

James Donovan, City Clerk. 
Approved, October 15, 1924. 

James M. Curley, Mayor. 

A true copy. 
Attest: 

James Donovan, City Clerk. 



ORDINANCES OF 1924, CHAPTER 8. 

Concerning Park Frontages. 
Be it ordained by the City Council of Boston, as follows: 

Chapter five of the Ordinances of 1922, as amended by 
chapters two, eight and twelve of the Ordinances of 1923, 
and chapters five and six of the Ordinances of 1924, is 
hereby further amended in section one by adding at the 
end thereof the following words: 

provided, however, that as to the lot of land at the 
southwest corner of Commonwealth avenue and Massa- 



364 Addenda. 

chusetts avenue the prohibition of the use of building for 
mercantile purposes shall apply only to so much of any 
building erected thereon as lies within fifty feet of the 
southerly line of Commonwealth avenue. 

In City Council January 5, 1925. 

Approved by the Mayor January 15, 1925. 
Attest: 

W. J. Doyle, 

Assistant City Clerk. 



STREET LINE SET BACK. 

Beacon street, between Massachusetts avenue and 
Charlesgate East set back of ten feet on southerly side 
and twenty feet on northerly side. All future projections 
limited to five feet. 

Approved by Mayor January 24, 1925. 
See order of December 4, 1924. 



CHAPTER 130, ACTS OF 1925. 

An Act Relative to Building Lines in Cities and 

Towns. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Chapter eighty-two of the General Laws is hereby 
amended by striking out section thirty-seven and inserting 
in place thereof the following: — Section 37. If a city by 
its city council or a town accepts this section or has ac- 
cepted corresponding provisions of earlier laws, a building 
line not more than forty feet distant from the exterior line 
of a highway or town way may be established in the man- 
ner provided for laying out ways, and thereafter no struc- 
tures shall be erected or maintained between such building 
line and such way, except steps, windows, porticos, other 



Addenda. 365 

usual projections appurtenant to the front wall of a build- 
ing, embankments, walls, fences and gates, to the extent 
prescribed in the vote establishing such building line, and 
except that any structure existing at the time of the estab- 
lishment of the building line may be permitted to remain 
and to be maintained to such extent and under such con- 
ditions as may be prescribed in the vote establishing such 
building line. Whoever sustains damage thereby may 
recover the same under chapter seventy-nine. A building 
line established under this section may be discontinued 
in the manner provided for the discontinuance of a high- 
way or town way. Whoever sustains damages by the 
discontinuance of a building line may recover the same 
under chapter seventy-nine. [Approved March 18, 1925. 



CHAPTER 219, ACTS OF 1925. 

An Act Relative to the Use op Buildings and Prem- 
ises, the Height and Bulk of Buildings and the 
Occupancy of Lots in Specified Districts of the 
City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section one of chapter four hundred and 
eighty-eight of the acts of nineteen hundred and twenty- 
four is hereby amended by inserting at the end of the fifth 
paragraph, entitled "Lot" the following new sentence: — 
Two or more buildings other than accessory buildings upon 
a single parcel of land shall be deemed to occupy separate 
lots, — so that said paragraph will read as follows: — Lot: 
Land occupied or to be occupied by a building and its 
accessory buildings, and including the open spaces required 
under this act. Two or more buildings other than acces- 
sory buildings upon a single parcel of land shall be deemed 
to occupy separate lots. 

Section 2. Said section one of said chapter four hun- 



366 Addenda. 

dred and eight-eight is hereby further amended by insert- 
ing at the end of the eighth paragraph, entitled u Yard, 
Rear", the following new sentence: — Where said lines 
are not parallel the mean depth of the rear yard shall be 
considered its minimum depth, provided that at no point 
shall its depth thereby be reduced to less than twelve feet, 

— so that said paragraph will read as follows: — Yard, 
Rear, An open, unoccupied space on the same lot with 
a building and between the extreme rear line of said build- 
ing and the rear line of the lot. Where said lines are not 
parallel the mean depth of the rear yard shall be consid- 
ered its minimum depth, provided that at no point shall 
its depth thereby be reduced to less than twelve feet. 

Section 3. Section three of said chapter four hundred 
and eighty-eight is hereby amended by striking out clause 
(a) of paragraph (8) and inserting in place thereof the fol- 
lowing: — (a) A garage, except garage space for not more 
than two automobiles, of which not more than one may 
be a commercial automobile, licensed as provided in para- 
graph (9). 

Section 4. Section four of said chapter four hundred 
and eighty-eight is hereby amended by inserting after the 
word "physicians'" in the sixteenth line the words: — or 
dentists', — so that the last paragraph will read as follows: 

— In a general residence district the building commis- 
sioner may grant a permit for physicians' or dentists' 
offices, provided the building or use is not detrimental or 
injurious to the residential character of the neighborhood. 

Section 5. Paragraph (22) of section six of said chapter 
four hundred and eighty-eight is hereby amended by 
striking out, in the second line of said paragraph, the word 
"two" and inserting in place thereof the word: — five, — so 
as to read as follows: — (22) Petroleum or other inflam- 
mable liquids: storage in excess of five thousand gallons 
or manufacture of any of its by-products. 



Addenda. 367 

Section 6. The last paragraph of section ten of said 
chapter four hundred and eighty-eight is hereby amended 
by inserting after the word " lot " in the first line the words : 
— , whether occupied by a building erected prior to June 
fifth, nineteen hundred and twenty-four or not, — so that 
said paragraph will read as follows: — No lot, whether 
occupied by a building erected prior to June fifth, nineteen 
hundred and twenty-four or not, shall be so reduced that 
the yards, courts or other open spaces shall be smaller 
than prescribed by this act. No yard, court or other 
open space shall at any time be counted as required open 
space for more than one building. 

Section 7. Section thirteen of said chapter four hun- 
dred and eighty-eight is hereby amended by striking out, 
in lines twenty-five to thirty, inclusive, the words "Be- 
tween the lines of streets intersecting at an angle of less 
than one hundred and thirty-five degrees and a line joining 
points on such lines ten feet distant from their point of 
intersection no building or structure may be erected and 
no vegetation may be maintained above a height three 
and one half feet above the plane through their curb 
grades." 

Section 8. Section fourteen of said chapter four hun- 
dred and eighty-eight is hereby amended by striking out, 
in lines ten to fifteen, inclusive, the words "Set-back: 
Between the lines of streets intersecting at an angle of less 
than one hundred and thirty-five degrees and a line join- 
ing points on such lines five feet distant from their point 
of intersection no building or structure may be erected 
and no vegetation may be maintained above a height 
three and one half feet above the plane through their 
curb grades." 

Section 9. Section sixteen of said chapter four hun- 
dred and eighty-eight is hereby amended by inserting at 
the end of paragraph (9) the following new sentence : — 



368 Addenda. 

No yard is required for one story buildings other than 
dwellings, — so that said paragraph will read as follows: — 
(9) No part of a yard required for a dwelling shall be higher 
in level above the floor of the first dwelling story than one 
foot for each two feet of distance from the building or for 
other buildings a similar distance above the second story 
floor. No yard is required for one story buildings other 
than dwellings. 

Section 10. The second paragraph of section seven- 
teen of said chapter four hundred and eighty-eight is 
hereby amended by striking out, in the second and third 
lines of said paragraph, the words "a building or use 
authorized on" and inserting in place thereof the words: 
— the provisions of this act governing, — so as to read as 
follows: — Where the boundary line of a district divides 
a lot in a single or joint ownership at the time such district 
is established, the provisions of this act governing the less 
restricted portion of such lot may extend to the entire lot 
but in no case for a distance of more than thirty feet. 

Section 11. The third paragraph of section nineteen 
of said chapter four hundred and eighty-eight is hereby 
amended by adding at the end thereof the following new 
sentence: — The board may adopt rules, not inconsistent 
with the provisions of this act, governing notice and pro- 
cedure, — so as to read as follows: — The board of appeal 
may vary the application of this act in specific cases 
wherein its enforcement would involve practically diffi- 
culty or unnecessary hardship and wherein desirable 
relief may be granted without substantially derogating 
from the intent and purpose of this act, but not otherwise. 
No such variance shall be authorized except by the unani- 
mous decision of the entire membership of the board, 
rendered upon a written petition addressed to the board 
and after public hearing thereon, of which notice shall be 
mailed to the petitioner and to the owners of all property 



Addenda. 369 

deemed by the board to be affected thereby as they appear 
in the most recent local tax list and also advertised in a 
daily newspaper published in the city of Boston. The 
board may adopt rules, not inconsistent with the pro- 
visions of this act, governing notice and procedure. 

Section 12. The second paragraph of section twenty 
of said chapter four hundred and eighty-eight is hereby 
amended by adding at the end thereof the following: — 
A majority of the board shall constitute a quorum 
for all public hearings and for all acts of the board, except 
that decisions changing the boundaries of districts on the 
zoning map shall be deemed to comply with this section 
only in case the written record of such decision is signed 
by not less than four fifths of the members of the board 
qualified to act. If less than a majority of the board is 
present at any public hearing or at any executive session, 
the members actually present may adjourn the same by 
proclamation to such time and place as they deem advis- 
able, and further notice thereof shall not be necessary. 
The board may adopt rules, not inconsistent with the pro- 
visions of this act, governing notice and procedure. 

Section 13. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved April 6, 1925. 



CHAPTER 335, ACTS OF 1925. 

An Act Relative to Fire Prevention. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Chapter one hundred and forty-eight of 
the General Laws, as amended in section fourteen by sec- 
tion three of chapter four hundred and eighty-five of the 
acts of nineteen hundred and twenty-one and by chapter 
two hundred and fifty-four of the acts of nineteen hun- 
dred and twenty-four, is hereby further amended by strik- 
ing out said section fourteen and inserting in place thereof 



370 Addenda. 

the following: — Section 14. No building or other struc- 
ture shall, except as provided in section fifteen, be used 
for the keeping, storage, manufacture or sale of any of the 
articles named in section ten, except fireworks, firecrackers 
and torpedoes, unless the aldermen or selectmen shall 
have granted a license therefor for one year from the date 
thereof, after a public hearing, held in the case of cities by 
the aldermen or any committee thereof designated by 
them, notice of the time and place of which hearing shall 
have been given, at the expense of the applicant, by the 
clerk of the city or by the selectmen, by publication, not 
less than seven days prior thereto, in a newspaper pub- 
lished in the representative district, if any, otherwise in 
the city or town, wherein the land on which such license 
is to be exercised is situated, and also by the applicant by 
registered mail, not less than seven days prior to such 
hearing, to all owners of real estate abutting on said land, 
and unless a permit shall have been granted therefor by 
the marshal or by some official designated by him for the 
purpose; provided, that any building or other structure 
once used under a license and permit granted as aforesaid, 
or any building or other structure lawfully used for any 
of said purposes, may be continued in such use from year to 
year if the owner or occupant thereof shall annually, while 
such use continues, file for registration with the clerk of 
the city or town where such building or other structure 
is situated, and with the marshal or the official designated 
by him to grant permits in such city or town, a certificate 
reciting such use and occupancy; and provided, further, 
that any building used as a garage for storing not more 
than two vehicles, used wholly for private purposes by 
the owner or occupant of such building, no part of which 
building is let out for hire, when once used under such a 
license and permit, may be continued in such use from 
year to year without such annual registration, and con- 



Addenda. 371 

tinuous use and occupancy thereof for such purpose shall 
be presumed. The department may by regulation pre- 
scribe the amount of explosives, crude petroleum or any 
of its products, or of any other inflammable fluid or com- 
pound, that may be kept for private use in a building or 
other structure without a license, permit or registration, 
or any of them. 

The right to use a building or other structure for any 
of said purposes may be revoked for cause, after notice 
and a hearing given to such owner or occupant, by the 
aldermen or selectmen having authority to grant licenses 
for such use, or by the marshal. A fee of one dollar may 
be charged for the license and a like sum for the permit 
herein provided for, and one half of said sum for the regis- 
tration of said certificate. Such building or structure 
shall always be subject to such alterations in construction 
and to such regulations of its use in respect to protection 
against fire or explosion as the department may prescribe. 

Section 2. Said chapter one hundred and forty-eight 
is hereby further amended by striking out section sixty 
and insterting in place thereof the following: — Section 60. 
Whoever mixes for sale naphtha and illuminating oils or 
naphtha and oils, to be used for fuel in dwellings or other 
buildings whereby human life is endangered or exposed, 
or sells or offers for sale such mixture, or sells or offers for 
sale, except for remanufacture, illuminating or fuel oils 
made from coal or petroleum which will evaporate a gas 
that will flash at a temperature of less than one hundred 
and fifteen degrees Fahrenheit or ignite at a temperature 
of less than one hundred and twenty-five degrees Fahren- 
heit, to be ascertained by the application of Tagliabue's 
or some other approved instrument, shall be punished by 
a fine of not more than one hundred dollars or by impris- 
onment for not more than one month, or both, and shall 
also be liable for any damage suffered by any person from 



372 Addenda. 

the explosion or ignition of such oil thus unlawfully sold 
or kept or offered for sale. Such oil thus unlawfully sold 
or kept or offered for sale, and the casks or packages con- 
taining the same, shall be forfeited and sold, and the pro- 
ceeds shall be equally divided between the informer and 
the commonwealth. 

Section 3. Section sixty-one of said chapter one hun- 
dred and forty-eight is hereby amended by striking out, 
in the third line, the word "ten" and inserting in place 
thereof the word: — twenty-five, — so as to read as fol- 
lows: — Section 61. For the purposes of the preceding 
section, illuminating or fuel oils made from coal or petro- 
leum and having an igniting point of less than one hun- 
dred and twenty-five degrees Fahrenheit, to be determined 
as therein provided, shall be deemed to be mixed with 
naphtha, and shall be branded unsafe for illuminating 
purposes or for use as fuel. [Approved May 1, 1925. 



CHAPTER 182, ACTS OF 1926. 

An Act Relative to Hospital Buildings in the City 

of Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Every building in the city of Boston 
exceeding three stories or forty feet in height hereafter 
erected, altered or designed for use or occupation as a 
hospital shall be provided with not less than two fireproof 
enclosed stairways, and such additional like stairways as 
the building commissioner of said city, in this act called 
the commissioner, may determine to be necessary. All 
of said stairways shall be so located with the approval of 
the commissioner as to furnish a ready and unobstructed 
means of egress from all parts of the building. All of said 
stairways and the stair landings shall have such clear 
width between hand rails and wall as the commissioner 
may require, but in no event less than forty-four inches, 



Addenda. 373 

and the stair landings shall be free from steps and winders. 
At least one of the stairways shall communicate with the 
roof of the building, and all the stairways shall have such 
exits to grade as the commissioner may require. Such 
smokeproof doors shall be installed in the building as the 
commissioner may require. 

Section 2. The board of appeal provided for by sec- 
tion six of chapter five hundred and fifty of the acts of 
nineteen hundred and seven and amendments thereof 
shall act as a board of appeal under this act and under 
sections one and two of chapter one hundred and sixty- 
three of the Special Acts of nineteen hundred and nine- 
teen, and the members thereof shall receive therefor the 
same compensation as is provided in said section six. 
Any person aggrieved by a requirement of the commis- 
sioner under this act or under said section one or two, or 
by a refusal of the commissioner to issue a permit on ac- 
count thereof, may appeal within ninety days after being 
notified of such requirement or refusal to the board of 
appeal. The appellant shall pay to the commissioner a 
fee of ten dollars before his appeal shall be heard by the 
board, and all such fees shall be deposited by the com- 
missioner with the city collector not later than one week 
after receipt. After notice given to such parties as the 
board shall order, a hearing shall be had and the board 
shall affirm, annul or modify the requirement or refusal 
of the commissioner and shall notify the commissioner 
and the appellant thereof. If the requirement or refusal is 
affirmed, it shall have full force and effect, but if annulled 
or modified, the commissioner shall revoke or amend the 
requirement appealed from or shall issue a permit, if a 
permit has been refused, in accordance with the decision 
of the board. Decisions of the board hereunder shall be 
in writing and shall require the assent of at least three 
members. 



374 Addenda. 

% 

Section 3. So much of said chapter one hundred and 
sixty-three as is inconsistent herewith shall not apply to 
hospital buildings described in section one. 

Section 4. Violation of this act shall be punished by a 
fine of not more than five hundred dollars. 

Section 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved April 2, 1926. 



CHAPTER 350, ACTS OF 1926. 

An Act Relative to the Powers of the Board op 
Appeal of the Building Department of the 
City of Boston to Vary the Application of the 
Boston Zoning Law in Respect to the Height of 
Buildings. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. Section nineteen of chapter four hundred 
and eighty-eight of the acts of nineteen hundred and 
twenty-four, as amended by section eleven of chapter two 
hundred and nineteen of the acts of nineteen hundred and 
twenty-five, is hereby further amended by inserting after 
the fourth paragraph the following new paragraph: — 
No decision of the board of appeal permitting the erection 
or alteration of a building to an extreme height greater 
than that otherwise authorized under the provision of 
this act for the lot or building in question shall be effective 
until and unless confirmed by the board of zoning adjust- 
ment, as provided in section twenty. Immediately fol- 
lowing the board's final decision in any such case a copy 
of the record shall be certified to the board of zoning 
adjustment, — and by inserting after the word "apppeal" 
in the first fine of the fifth paragraph the words: — , except 
a decision permitting the erection or alteration of a build- 
ing to an extreme height greater than that otherwise 
authorized under the provisions of this act, — so as to 



Addenda. 375 

read as follows: — Section 19. The board of appeal 
provided for in paragraph one of section six of the afore- 
said building law shall act as a board of appeal under this 
act, and the members thereof shall receive for acting 
under this act the same compensation as provided in the 
aforesaid building law. 

Any applicant for a permit under this act whose appli- 
cation has been refused may appeal therefrom within 
ninety days. Any applicant to the building commissioner 
for a permit who appeals to the said board shall pay to 
him a fee of ten dollars before such permit shall be con- 
sidered by the board. Such fees shall be deposited by 
the building commissioner with the city collector at least 
once a week. 

The board of appeal may vary the application of this 
act in specific cases wherein its enforcement would involve 
practical difficulty or unnecessary hardship and wherein 
desirable relief may be granted without substantially 
derogating from the intent and purpose of this act, but 
not otherwise. No such variance shall be authorized 
except by the unanimous decision of the entire member- 
ship of the board, rendered upon a written petition ad- 
dressed to the board and after public hearing thereon, of 
which notice shall be mailed to the petitioner and to the 
owners of all property deemed by the board to be affected 
thereby as they appear in the most recent local tax list 
and also advertised in a daily newspaper published in the 
city of Boston. The board may adopt rules, not incon- 
sistent with the provisions of this act, governing notice 
and procedure. 

The board shall cause to be made a detailed record of 
all its proceedings, which record shall set forth the reasons 
for its decisions, the vote of each member participating 
therein, and the absence of a member or his failure to 
vote. Such record, immediately following the board's 



376 Addenda. 

final decision, shall be filed in the office of the building 
commissioner and shall be open to public inspection, and 
notice of -such decision shall be mailed forthwith to each 
party in interest as aforesaid. 

No decision of the board of appeal permitting the erec- 
tion or alteration of a building to an extreme height 
greater than that otherwise authorized under the provi- 
sions of this act for the lot or building in question shall be 
effective until and unless confirmed by the board of zoning 
adjustment, as provided in section twenty. Immediately 
following the board's final decision in any such case a 
copy of the record shall be certified to the board of zoning 
adjustment. 

Any person aggrieved by a decision of the board of 
appeal, except a decision permitting the erection or 
alteration of a building to an extreme height greater than 
that otherwise authorized under the provisions of this 
act, whether previously a party to the proceeding or not, 
or any municipal officer or board may, within fifteen days 
after the entry of such decision, bring a petition in the 
supreme judicial court for the county of Suffolk for a writ 
of certiorari to correct errors of law therein, and the pro- 
visions of section four of chapter two hundred and forty- 
nine of the General Laws shall, except as herein provided, 
apply to said petition. 

No costs shall be allowed against the board unless the 
court finds that it acted with gross negligence or in bad 
faith. 

Section 2. Said chapter four hundred and eighty- 
eight, as amended in section twenty by section twelve of 
said chapter two hundred and nineteen, is hereby further 
amended by striking out said section twenty and inserting 
in place thereof the following: — Section 20. There shall 
be a board of zoning adjustment to consist of twelve 
members as follows: — The chairman of the city planning 



Addenda. 377 

board ex officio, and eleven members appointed by the 
mayor in the following manner: one member from two 
candidates to be nominated by the Associated Industries 
of Massachusetts, one member from two candidates to be 
nominated by the Boston Central Labor Union, one 
member from two candidates to be nominated by the 
Boston Chamber of Commerce, one member from two 
candidates to be nominated by the Boston Real Estate 
Exchange, one member from two candidates to be nomi- 
nated by the Massachusetts Real Estate Exchange, one 
member from two candidates, one to be nominated by the 
Boston Society of Architects and one by the Boston 
Society of Landscape Architects, one member from two 
candidates to be nominated by the Boston Society of 
Civil Engineers, one member from two candidates to be 
nominated by the Master Builders' Association of Boston, 
one member from two candidates to be nominated by the k 
Team Owners Association, one member from two candi- 
dates to be nominated by the United Improvement Asso- 
ciation, and one member to be selected by the mayor. 
All appointive members shall be residents of or engaged 
in business in Boston. All appointments after the initial 
appointments shall be for the term of five years. Vacan- 
cies among the appointive members shall be filled in the 
same manner in which original appointments are made. 
The several heads of departments of the city of Boston 
shall on request of the board supply it with all informa- 
tion in their possession useful for its duties. 

Either upon petition or otherwise, the board may, 
subject to the following conditions, change the boundaries 
of districts by changing the zoning map, on file at the 
state secretary's office, to meet altered needs of a locality, 
to avoid undue concentration of population, to provide 
adequate light aDd air, to lessen congestion in streets, to 
secure safety from fire, panic and other dangers, to 



378 Addenda. 

facilitate the adequate provision of transportation, water, 
sewerage and other public requirements and to promote 
the health, safety, convenience and welfare of the inhabi- 
tants of the city of Boston. Such changes shall be made 
with reasonable consideration, among other things, of 
the character of the district and its peculiar suitability 
for particular uses, and with a view to conserving the 
value of buildings and encouraging the most appropriate 
use of land. No such change shall be made except by the 
decision of not less than four fifths of the members of the 
board, excepting only any member or members not 
qualified to act, rendered after a public hearing thereon 
of which notice shall be mailed to the petitioner, if any, 
to the building commissioner, the chairman of the assessing 
department, the chairman of the street laying-out de- 
partment, the commissioner of public works, the fire 
commissioner and the health commissioner of the city of 
Boston, and to the owners of all property deemed by the 
board to be affected thereby as they appear in the most 
recent local tax list and also advertised in a daily news- 
paper published in the city of Boston. No member shall 
act in any case in which he is personally interested either 
directly or indirectly. A majority of the board shall 
constitute a quorum for all public hearings and for all 
acts of the board, except that decisions changing the 
boundaries of districts on the - zoning map or confirming a 
decision of the board of appeal shall be deemed to comply 
with this section only if the written record of such decision 
is signed, in case of any change of boundaries as aforesaid, 
by not less than four fifths, or, in case of any confirmation 
of a decision of the board of appeal, by not less than two 
thirds, of the members of the board qualified to act. If 
less than a majority of the board is present at any public 
hearing or at any executive session, the members actually 
present may adjourn the same by proclamation to such 



Addenda. 379 

time and place as they deem advisable, and further notice 
thereof shall not be necessary. The board may adopt 
rules, not inconsistent with the provisions of this act, 
governing notice and procedure. 

The board shall review the decision of the board of 
appeal within forty-five days of the certification to it of a 
copy of the record thereof in every case wherein permis- 
sion is granted to erect or alter a building to an extreme 
height greater than that otherwise authorized under the 
provisions of this act for the lot or building in question, 
said review to determine whether or not the relief granted 
derogates from the intent and purpose of this act. No 
such permission shall be confirmed except by decision of 
not less than two thirds of the members of the board, 
excepting only any member or members not qualified to 
act, rendered after a public hearing thereon of which 
notice shall be given as provided in case of a public hear- 
ing under the preceding paragraph. If the lot or build- 
ing in question abuts upon a public park, notice shall also 
be mailed to the park commissioners of the city of Boston. 

The board shall cause to be made a detailed record of all 
its proceedings, which record shall set forth the reasons 
for its decisions, the vote of each member participating 
therein, and the absence of a member or his failure to 
vote. Such record, immediately following the board's 
final decision, shall be filed in the office of the building- 
commissioner of Boston and shall be open to public inspec- 
tion, and notice of such decision shall be mailed forthwith 
to each party in interest as aforesaid. Upon any decision 
changing the zoning map, on file at the state secretary's 
office, an amended map showing such change endorsed by 
the chairman of said board shall be filed forthwith at said 
office. 

If a change be favorably decided upon or if a decision 
of "the board of appeal shall be confirmed, any person 



380 Addenda. 

aggrieved or any municipal officer or board may, within 
fifteen days after the entry of such decision, bring a peti- 
tion in the supreme judicial court for the county of 
Suffolk, for a writ of certiorari setting forth that such 
decision is in whole or part not in accordance with the 
duties and powers of such board as above prescribed and 
specifying the particulars of such non-compliance. The 
provisions of section four of chapter two hundred and 
forty-nine of the General Laws shall, except as herein 
provided, apply to said petition. 

No costs shall be allowed against the board unless the 
court finds that it acted with gross negligence or in bad 
faith. 

The board shall not reduce in any way the area of the 
one hundred and fifty-five foot district established by 
this act. 

The board shall report its doings annually on or before 
the tenth day of February to the mayor of Boston and 
to the general Court. 

If any area is hereafter transferred to another district 
by a change in district boundaries either by action of the 
board of zoning adjustment or by an amendment to this 
act, the building and uses then existing within said area 
shall be subject to the provisions of this act with reference 
to existing buildings or uses in the district to which the 
area is removed. [Approved May 17, 1926. 



CHAPTER 42, ACTS OF 1927. 

An Act Authorizing the Erection in Certain 
Sections of the City of Boston of Metal 
Covered Steel Frame Buildings. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Metal covered steel frame buildings con- 
structed with concrete floors and fire-proof windows and 



Addenda, 381 

not more than one story in height may be erected, subject 
to the approval of the building commissioner of the city 
of Boston, outside the building limits in said city as such 
limits existed prior to the twenty-second day of September, 
nineteen hundred and thirteen; provided, that they shall 
not be located within two feet of a lot line, or within five 
feet of a third-class building. 

Section 2. Such buildings may be used for garages, 
and if so used may have a capacity of not over two cars and 
cover an area of not over six hundred square feet in that 
section of said city between the present building limits 
and said limits as existing prior to the twenty-second day 
of September, nineteen hundred and thirteen; and may 
have a capacity of not over three cars and cover an area 
of not over eight hundred and fifty square feet in that 
section of said city outside the present building limits. 

Section 3. The board of appeal provided for by 
section six of chapter five hundred and fifty of the acts of 
nineteen hundred and seven and amendments thereof 
shall act as a board of appeal under this act, and the 
members thereof shall receive therefor the same com- 
pensation as is provided in said section six. Any person 
aggrieved by the refusal of the building commissioner 
to issue a permit on account of the provisions of section 
one may appeal to said board of appeal. The foregoing 
provisions of this act shall in all respects be subject to 
the provisions of chapter four hundred and eighty-eight 
of the acts of nineteen hundred and twenty-four and 
any amendment thereof. 

Section 4. Chapter one hundred and fifteen of the 
Special Acts of nineteen hundred and eighteen is hereby 
repealed. 

Section 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved February 21, 1927. 



382 Addenda. 

CHAPTER 82, ACTS OF 1927. 

An Act Authorizing Special Licenses for Operators 
of Motion Picture Machines in Churches, 
schoolhouses and public institutions in the 
City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Chapter one hundred and forty- three of the General 
Laws is hereby amended by striking out section eighty- 
five and inserting in place thereof the following: — Sec- 
tion 85. Notwithstanding any provision of sections 
seventy-two to eighty-four, inclusive, the commissioner 
of public safety, upon application accompanied by a fee 
of two dollars, may grant special licenses for operators of 
motion picture machines in churches, schoolhouses or 
public institutions which in his opinion are in safe condi- 
tion for said exhibitions, and he may prescribe regulations 
for the proper conduct of the same, but no such license 
shall be valid for use in the city of Boston unless it also 
bears the written approval of the building commissioner 
of said city. [Approved March 1, 1927. 



CHAPTER 220, ACTS OF 1927. 

An Act Relative to the Use of Buildings and Prem- 
ises, the Height and Bulk of Buildings, and the 
Occupancy of Lots in Specified Districts of the 
City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The eighth paragraph of section one of 
chapter four hundred and eighty-eight of the acts of 
nineteen hundred and twenty-four, as amended by sec- 
tion two of chapter two hundred and nineteen of the acts 
of nineteen hundred and twenty-five, entitled "Yard, 
Rear", is hereby further amended by striking out the 



Addenda. 383 

first sentence of said paragraph and inserting in place 
thereof the following: — -A space on the same lot with a 
building, between the extreme rear line of said building 
and the rear line of the lot and open and unoccupied 
except by an unenclosed porch not exceeding sixty square 
feet in area, — so as to read as follows: — Yard, Rear: A 
space on the same lot with a building, between the ex- 
treme rear line of said building and the rear line of the 
lot and open and unoccupied except by an unenclosed 
porch not exceeding sixty square feet in area. Where 
said lines are not parallel the mean depth of the rear 
yard shall be considered its minimum depth, provided that 
at no point shall its depth thereby be reduced to less than 
twelve feet. 

Section 2. The second paragraph of section eleven of 
said chapter four hundred and eighty-eight, entitled 
"Height," is hereby amended by inserting after said word 
"Height" in the first line the words: — and Occupancy,- — 
and by inserting after the word "height" in the second 
line the words: — or accommodate or make provision for 
more than two families, — so as to read as follows: — 
Height and Occupancy: No building shall exceed thirty- 
five feet or two and one half stories in height or accom- 
modate or make provision for more than two families. 

Section 3. The fourth paragraph of said section 
eleven, entitled "Side Yards," is hereby amended by 
striking out, in the fifth and sixth lines of said paragraph, 
the words "three inches for every ten feet or fraction 
thereof that the length of the side yard exceeds fifty" 
and inserting in place thereof the words : — six inches for 
every twenty feet or fraction thereof that the length of 
the side yard exceeds sixty, — so as to read as follows: — 
Side Yards: There shall be a side yard on each side of every 
building or pair of semi-detached buildings in a single or 



384 Addenda. 

general residence district. The minimum width of any 
side yard provided in a thirty-five foot district shall be 
six feet, which shall be increased six inches for every 
twenty feet or fraction thereof that the length of the 
side yard exceeds sixty feet, provided that on no lot held 
under a separate and distinct ownership from adjacent 
lots and of record at the time it is placed in a thirty-five 
foot district shall the buildable width be reduced by this 
requirement to less than twenty-four feet. 

Section 4. The fourth paragraph of section twelve of 
said chapter four hundred and eighty-eight, entitled "Side 
Yards," is hereby amended by striking out, in the sixth 
and seventh lines of said paragraph, the words "three 
inches for every ten feet or fraction thereof that the length 
of the side yard exceeds fifty" and inserting in place thereof 
the words: — six inches for every twenty feet or fraction 
thereof that the length of the side yard exceeds sixty, — 
so as to read as follows: — Side Yards: There shall be a 
side yard on each side of every building or attached group 
of buildings other than accessory buildings in a single or 
general residence district unless there is a party wall. The 
minimum width of any side yard provided in a forty foot 
district shall be six feet, which shall be increased six inches 
for every twenty feet or fraction thereof that the length 
of the side yard exceeds sixty feet, provided that on no lot 
held under a separate and distinct ownership from adja- 
cent lots and of record at the time it is placed in a forty 
foot district shall the buildable width be reduced by this 
requirement to less than twenty-four feet. 

Section 5. Paragraph (12) of section sixteen of said 
chapter four hundred and eighty-eight is hereby amended 
by inserting after the word "dwelling" in the fifth line of 
said paragraph the words: — ; provided, that on a lot occu- 
pied by such a dwelling on June fifth, nineteen hundred and 



Addenda. 385 

twenty-four, and not since reduced in area, forty per cent 
of the rear yard may be so occupied, — so as to read as 
follows : — (12) On a lot occupied by a dwelling other than 
a tenement house a one-story building of accessory use 
thereto and not more than fifteen feet high measured to 
the mean height of the gable may be located in and occupy 
not more than thirty per cent of the rear yard of such 
dwelling; provided, that on a lot occupied by such a 
dwelling on June fifth, nineteen hundred and twenty-four, 
and not since reduced in area, forty per cent of the rear 
yard may be so occupied. The area occupied by. such a 
building of accessory use shall not be included as occupied 
area in computing the percentage of lot occupancy. 

Section 6. Section twenty of said chapter four hundred 
and eighty-eight, as amended by section twelve of said 
chapter two hundred and nineteen of the acts of nineteen 
hundred and twenty-five and by section two of chapter 
three hundred and fifty of the acts of nineteen hundred and 
twenty-six, is hereby further amended by inserting after 
the word "Boston" in the fifty-sixth fine the following: — 
Any petition for changing the zoning map shall be accom- 
panied by a fee of ten dollars before being considered by 
the board. Such fees shall be deposited by the board with 
the city collector within one month after receipt thereof— 
and by inserting after the word " Boston" in the eighty- 
ninth line the following new paragraph : — In all cases 
where the boundaries of districts are changed so as to in- 
clude the whole or part of an existing single or general 
residence district in a zone for less restricted uses the set 
back required by this act for such district before such 
change shall remain in force unless and until such limita- 
tion shall be rescinded by the board. Such recision may 
be inserted in the original order making such change if 
asked for by said petition and notice thereof given in the 



386 Addenda. 

notice of the original petition for the change, or it may be 
ordered subsequently on petition and notice in the man- 
ner required for petitions for a change in the boundaries 
of districts, — ■ so as to read as follows : — ■ Section 20. 
There shall be a board of zoning adjustment to consist of 
twelve members as follows : — The chairman of the city 
planning board ex officio, and eleven members appointed 
by the mayor in the following manner : one member from 
two candidates to be nominated by the Associated Indus- 
tries of Massachusetts, one member from two candidates 
to be nominated by the Boston Central Labor Union, one 
member from two candidates to be nominated by the 
Boston Chamber of Commerce, one member from two 
candidates to be nominated by the Boston Real Estate 
Exchange, one member from two candidates to be nomi- 
nated by the Massachusetts Real Estate Exchange, one 
member from two candidates, one to be nominated by the 
Boston Society of Architects and one by the Boston Society 
of Landscape Architects, one member from two candidates 
to be nominated by the Boston Society of Civil Engineers, 
one member from two candidates to be nominated by the 
Master Builders' Association of Boston, one member from 
two candidates to be nominated by the Team Owners 
Association, one member from two candidates to be nomi- 
nated by the United Improvement Association, and one 
member to be selected by the mayor. All appointive 
members shall be residents of or engaged in business in 
Boston. All appointments after the initial appointments 
shall be for the term of five years. Vacancies among the 
appointive members shall be filled in the same manner in 
which original appointments are made. The several heads 
of departments of the city of Boston shall on request of 
the board supply it with all information in their possession 
useful for its duties. 



Addenda. 387 

Either upon petition or otherwise, the board may, sub- 
ject to the following conditions, change the boundaries of 
districts by changing the zoning map, on file at the state 
secretary's office, to meet altered needs of a locality, to 
avoid imdue concentration of population, to provide ade- 
quate light and air, to lessen congestion in streets, to secure 
safety from fire, panic and other dangers, to facilitate the 
adequate provision of transportation, water, sewerage and 
other public requirements and to promote the health, 
safety, convenience and welfare of the inhabitants of the 
city of Boston. Such changes shall be made with reason- 
able consideration, among other things, of the character 
of the district and its peculiar suitability for particular 
uses, and with a view to conserving the value of build- 
ings and encouraging the most appropriate use of land. 
No such change shall be made except by the decision 
of not less than four fifths of the members of the board, 
excepting only any member or members not qualified 
to act, rendered after a public hearing thereon, of which 
notice shall be mailed to the petitioner, if any, to the build- 
ing commissioner, the chairman of the assessing depart- 
ment, the chairman of the street laying-out department, 
the commissioner of public works, the fire commissioner 
and the health commissioner of the city of Boston, and to 
the owners of all property deemed by the board to be 
affected thereby as they appear in the most recent local 
tax list and also advertised in a daily newspaper published 
in the city of Boston. Any petition for changing the 
zoning map shall be accompanied by a fee of ten dollars 
before being considered by the board. Such fees shall be 
deposited by the board with the city collector within 
one month after receipt thereof. No member shall act 
in any case in which Jhe is personally interested either 
directly or indirectly. A majority of the board shall 



388 Addenda. 

constitute a quorum for all public hearings and for all 
acts of the board, except that decisions changing the 
boundaries of districts on the zoning map or confirming a 
decision of the board of appeal shall be deemed to comply 
with this section only if the written record of such decision 
is signed, in case of any change of boundaries as aforesaid, 
by not less than four fifths, or, in case of any confirmation 
of a decision of the board of appeal, by not less than two 
thirds, of the members of the board qualified to act. If 
less than a majority of the board is present at any public 
hearing or at any executive session, the members actually 
present may adjourn the same by proclamation to such 
time and place as they deem advisable, and further notice 
thereof shall not be necessary. The board may adopt 
rules, not inconsistent with the provisions of this act, 
governing notice and procedure. 

The board shall review the decision of the board of 
appeal within forty-five days of the certification to it of a 
copy of the record thereof in every case wherein permis- 
sion is granted to erect or alter a building to an extreme 
height greater than that otherwise authorized under the 
provisions of this act for the lot or building in question, 
said review to determine whether or not the relief granted 
derogates from the intent and purpose of this act. No 
such permission shall be confirmed except by decision of 
not less than two thirds of the members of the board, 
excepting only any member or members not qualified 
to act, rendered after a public hearing thereon of which 
notice shall be given as provided in case of a public 
hearing under the preceding paragraph. If the lot or 
building in question abuts upon a public park, notice 
shall also be mailed to the park commissioners of the city 
of Boston. 



Addenda. 389 

In all cases where the boundaries of districts are changed 
so as to include the whole or part of an existing single or 
general residence district in a zone for less restricted uses 
the set back required by this act for such district before 
such change shall remain in force unless and until such 
limitation shall be rescinded by the board. Such recision 
may be inserted in the original order making such change 
if asked for by said petition and notice thereof given in the 
notice of the original petition for the change, or it may be 
ordered subsequently on petition and notice in the manner 
required for petitions for a change in the boundaries of 
districts. 

The board shall cause to be made a detailed record of 
all its proceedings, which record shall set forth the reasons 
for its decisions, the vote of each member participating 
therein, and the absence of a member or his failure to vote. 
Such record, immediately following the board's final 
decision, shall be filed in the office of the building commis- 
sioner of Boston and shall be open to public inspection, 
and notice of such decision shall be mailed forthwith to 
each party in interest as aforesaid. Upon any decision 
changing the zoning map, on file at the state secretary's 
office, an amended map showing such change endorsed by 
the chairman of said board shall be filed forthwith at said 
office. 

If a change be favorably decided upon or if a decision of 
the board of appeal shall be confirmed, any person ag- 
grieved or any municipal officer or board may, within 
fifteen days after the entry of such decision, bring a petition 
in the supreme judicial court for the county of Suffolk for a 
writ of certiorari setting forth that such decision is in whole 
or part not in accordance with the duties and powers of 
such board as above prescribed and specifying the par- 



390 Addenda. 

ticulars of such non-compliance. The provisions of section 
four of chapter two hundred and forty-nine of the General 
Laws shall, except as herein provided, apply to said petition. 

No costs shall be allowed against the board unless the 
court finds that it acted with gross negligence or in bad 
faith. 

The board shall not reduce in any way the area of the one 
hundred and fifty-five foot district established by this act. 

The board shall report its doings annually on or before 
the tenth day of February to the mayor of Boston and to 
the general court. 

If any area is hereafter transferred to another district by 
a change in district boundaries either by action of the 
board of zoning adjustment or by an amendment to this 
act, the buildings and uses then existing within said area 
shall be subject to the provisions of this act with reference 
to existing buildings or uses in the district to which the 
area is removed. 

Section 7. Section two of this act shall take effect upon 
its acceptance by vote of the city council of the city of 
Boston, subject to the provisions of its charter, provided 
that such acceptance occurs during the current year. Sec- 
tions one and three to six, inclusive, and, for the purpose 
only of being submitted to the city council as aforesaid, 
section two of this act, shall take effect upon their passage. 

[ Approved April 6, 1927. 



CHAPTER 246, ACTS OF 1927. 
An Act Relative to a Certain Restriction Imposed 
by the Commonwealth by Deeds op Certain 
Lands in the Back Bay District op the City op 
Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The parcel of land in the city of Boston in 
the county of Suffolk bounded and described as follows: — 



Addenda. 391 

Beginning at a point on the easterly line of Berkeley street 
and the southerly line of Newbury street; thence easterly 
on said southerly line of Newbury street, one hundred and 
twenty feet; thence southerly and parallel with the easterly 
line of Berkeley street, one hundred and twelve feet to a 
passageway sixteen feet wide; thence westerly on said 
passageway, one hundred and twenty feet to the easterly 
line of Berkeley street; thence northerly on said easterly 
line of Berkeley street, one hundred and twelve feet to the 
point of beginning, containing thirteen thousand four hun- 
dred and forty square feet; or however otherwise said 
premises may be bounded and described and be any or all 
of said measurements more or less; being the same premises 
conveyed to George Goss and Norman C. Munson by the 
commonwealth of Massachusetts acting through the com- 
missioners on the Back Bay in pursuance of chapter 
seventy-nine of the resolves passed in the year eighteen 
hundred and fifty-two and chapter seventy of the resolves 
passed in the year eighteen hundred and fifty-seven by 
deed dated September fifteenth, eighteen hundred and 
fifty-nine and recorded with Suffolk deeds, book seven 
hundred and sixty-six, folio one hundred and five, and 

The parcel of land in said city and county bounded and 
described as follows: — Beginning at a point on the south- 
erly line of Newbury street one hundred and fifty-four 
feet west of the westerly line of Arlington street; thence 
southerly by land formerly of Parker, Cabot, Clark and 
Perry, one hundred and twelve feet to a passageway 
sixteen feet wide; thence westerlv on said passageway, 
one hundred and twelve feet; thence northerly on land 
formerly of the commonwealth of Massachusetts, one 
hundred and twelve feet to the southerly line of Newbury 
street; thence easterty on said southerly line of Newbury 
street, one hundred and twelve feet to the point of begin- 
ning, containing twelve thousand five hundred and forty- 



392 Addenda. 

four square feet; or however otherwise said premises may 
be bounded and described and be any or all of said meas- 
urements more or less; being the same premises con- 
veyed to George Goss and Norman C. Munson by the 
commonwealth of Massachusetts acting through the com- 
missioners on the Back Bay in pursuance of chapter 
seventy-nine of the resolves passed in the year eighteen 
hundred and fifty-two and chapter seventy of the resolves 
passed in the year eighteen hundred and fifty-seven by 
deed dated July sixth, eighteen hundred and fifty-nine, 
recorded with Suffolk deeds, book seven hundred and 
sixty, folio two hundred and thirteen, are hereby released 
from the operation and effect of the restriction imposed 
in said deeds on said premises that no building erected 
upon the said premises shall be used for "mercantile" 
purposes, and the division of waterways and public lands 
of the department of public works is hereby authorized, 
on the request of the owner or owners of each parcel of 
land so released, to execute and deliver to such owner or 
owners a release in writing of said parcel of land from 
said restriction. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

{The foregoing was laid before the governor on the fifth day 
of April, 1927, and after five days it had "the force of a law", 
as prescribed by the constitution, as it was not returned by 
him with his objections thereto within that time.) 



CHAPTER 342, ACTS OF 1927. 

An Act Relative to the Requirement of Yard 
Spaces on Certain Lots on the Northerly Side 
of Beacon Street in the City of Boston as 
Affecting Tenement Houses. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section fifty-five of chapter five hundred and fifty of 
the acts of nineteen hundred and seven is hereby amended 



Addenda. 393 

by inserting after the word "feet" in the forty-fourth 
line the following: — ; provided, that on any lot situated 
between the north line of Beacon street and the alley 
known as Back street, and between Embankment road 
and Massachusetts avenue, including corner lots, in place 
of a yard space midway between said Beacon street and 
said alley or elsewhere, said yard space shall be not less 
than thirty feet in depth southerly from said Back street, 
irrespective of the height of the building, but structures 
not over twelve feet in height may be erected in said yard 
space, — so that the sixth paragraph of said section will 
read as follows: — Whenever a tenement house is here- 
after erected upon a lot which runs through from street 
to street, or from a street to an alley or open passageway, 
and said lot is one hundred and fifty feet or more in depth, 
said yard space shall be left midway between the two 
streets, and shall extend across the entire width of the 
lot, and shall be not less than twenty-four feet in depth 
from wall to wall, and shall be increased in depth at least 
two feet for every additional ten feet in height of the 
building, or fraction thereof, above fifty feet; provided, 
that on any lot situated between the north line of Beacon 
street and the alley known as Back street, and between 
Embankment road and Massachusetts avenue, including 
corner lots, in place of a yard space midway between 
said Beacon street and said alley or elsewhere, said yard 
space shall be not less than thirty feet in depth southerly 
from said Back street, irrespective of the height of the 
building, but structures not over twelve feet in height 
may be erected in said yard space. 

(This bill, returned by the governor to the senate, the 
branch in which it originated, with his objections thereto, 
was passed by the Senate April 28, and, in concurrence, by 
the House of Representatives, April 28, the objections of the 
governor nothwithtsanding, in the manner prescribed by the 
constitution; and thereby has ''the force of a law") 



394 Addenda. 

CHAPTER 70, ACTS OF 1928. 
An Act Relative to Notice of Hearings Before the 
Department of Public Utilities upon Applica- 
tions for Exemption of Premises of Public 
Service Corporations from the Zoning Laws 
of the City of Boston. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section twenty-two of chapter four hundred and eighty- 
eight of the acts of nineteen hundred and twenty-four is 
hereby amended by striking out the last paragraph and 
inserting in place thereof the following: — A building or 
premises used or to be used by a public service corporation 
may be exempted from the operation of this act if, upon a 
petition of the corporation, the department of public 
utilities shall, after a public hearing of which notice shall 
seasonably be mailed to the petitioner, and to the owners 
of all abutting property and of all other property deemed 
by the department to be affected thereby as they appear 
in the most recent local tax list, and to the representatives 
in the general court from the district, and to the member 
of the city council of the city of Boston from the ward, 
in which such building or premises are or are to be situated, 
and also advertised at least once in a newspaper published 
in said city, decide that the present or proposed situation 
of the building or premises in question is reasonably neces- 
sary for the convenience or welfare of the public. 

[Approved March 1, 1928. 



CHAPTER 76, ACTS OF 1928. 
An Act Relative to Plumbers' Licenses and 

Certificates of Registration. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Chapter one hundred and forty -two of the 
General Laws is hereby amended by striking out section six 



Addenda. 395 

and inserting in place thereof the following : — Section 6. 
Licenses and certificates issued by the examiners shall be 
valid throughout the commonwealth, but shall not be 
assignable or transferable. The examiners shall for- 
ward to the board of health of each town, or to the inspec- 
tor of buildings having control of the enforcement of 
regulations relative to plumbing in such town, the names 
and addresses of all persons in such town to whom such 
licenses have been granted. Licenses shall be issued for 
one year and may be renewed annually on or before 
May first upon payment of the required fee. Each 
holder of a master plumber's certificate or license shall 
register his name and business address with said inspector 
of buildings if he has such control, otherwise with the 
board of health, in the town wherein he desires to engage 
in business as a master plumber. Any such license or 
certificate may, after notice and hearing, be suspended or 
revoked by the examiners upon the violation by the holder 
thereof of any statute, ordinance, by-law, rule or regulation 
relative to plumbing, upon failure or refusal of the holder 
thereof to comply with the rules and requirements of the 
examiners, or for other sufficient cause. 

Section 2. Section seven of said chapter one hundred 
and forty-two is hereby amended by striking out all after 
the word "committed" in the fifth line and inserting in 
place thereof the words : — shall give notice thereof to the 
examiners, — so as to read as follows: — Section 7. if in 
the opinion of such inspector of buildings, if any, otherwise 
of the board of health, of a town, the holder of a license or 
certificate violates any statute, ordinance, by-law, rule or 
regulation relative to plumbing, the said inspector or 
board of health of the town where such violation is com- 
mitted shall give notice thereof to the examiners. 

[Approved March 1, 1928. 



396 Addenda. 



CHAPTER 137, ACTS OF 1928. 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings in the 
City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section eighteen of chapter five hundred 
and fifty of the acts of nineteen hundred and seven, as 
amended by section eleven of chapter four hundred and 
sixty-two of the acts of nineteen hundred and twenty- 
three, is hereby further amended by adding at the end 
thereof the following new paragraph: — 

Notwithstanding those provisions of this section which 
relate to a maximum height limit of one hundred and fifty- 
five feet, on a lot on which a building one hundred and 
fifty-five feet in height is permitted part of a building or 
structure may exceed such height provided the volume of 
such building or structure does not exceed the number 
of square feet of buildable area of the lot multiplied by 
one hundred and fifty-five feet, and provided further that 
every part of such building or structure above a height 
equal to two and one half times the effective width of the 
street but not exceeding one hundred and twenty-five 
feet shall set back from every street and lot fine one foot 
for each two and a half feet of additional height. 

Section 2. Section fifteen of chapter four hundred and 
eighty-eight of the acts of nineteen hundred and twenty- 
four is hereby amended by striking out the second para- 
graph of said section, entitled " Height," and inserting in 
place thereof the following new paragraph: 

Height: No building shall exceed the height limit 
established by section eighteen of chapter five hundred 
and fifty of the acts of nineteen hundred and seven, as 
amended. [Approved March 19, 1928. 



Addenda. 397 

CHAPTER 260, ACTS OF 1928. 

An Act Relative to the Term of Garage and Certain 
Other Licenses, Permits and Registrations and 
to the Fees Therefor. 
Be it enacted, etc., as folloivs: 

Section 2. Every license, permit and registration as 
aforesaid in effect on the effective date of this act, or issued 
or effected after said date and prior to April thirtieth, 
nineteen hundred and twenty-nine, except a registration 
to take effect on May first, nineteen hundred and twenty- 
nine, shall, unless sooner revoked, expire on said April 
thirtieth. [Approved April 26, 1928. 

Section 1 has been superseded by Section 1, chapter 325, 
of the Acts of the year 1928. (See page 398.) 



CHAPTER 320, ACTS OF 1928. 

An Act Relative to Appeals from Certain Orders of 
the State Fire Marshal. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section five of chapter one hundred and forty-seven of 
the General Laws is hereby amended by inserting after the 
word "thereof" in the second fine the words: — , except one 
made by the state fire marshal under section fourteen 
or forty-five of chapter one hundred and forty-eight, — 
and by inserting after the word "commissioner" in the 
sixth line the words: — , or by an order made by the state 
fire marshal as aforesaid, — so as to read as follows: — 
Section 5. Any person affected by an order of the depart- 
ment or of a division or office thereof, except one made 
by the state fire marshal under section fourteen or forty- 
five of chapter one hundred and forty-eight, may, within 
such time as the commissioner may fix, which shall not be 
less than ten days after notice of such order, appeal to the 



398 Addenda. 

commissioner, who shall thereupon grant a hearing, and 
after such hearing may amend, suspend or revoke such 
order. Any person aggrieved by an order approved by 
the commissioner, or by an order made by the state fire 
marshal as aforesaid, may appeal to the superior court; 
provided, that such appeal is taken within fifteen days 
from the date when such order is approved. The superior 
court shall have jurisdiction in equity upon such appeal 
to annul such order if found to exceed the authority of 
the department, or upon petition of the commissioner to 
enforce all valid orders issued by the department. 
Nothing herein contained shall be construed to deprive 
any person of the right to pursue any other lawful remedy. 

[Approved May 11, 1928. 



CHAPTER 325, ACTS OF 1928. 
An Act Relative to Fire Prevention. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Chapter one hundred and forty-eight of 
the General Laws, as amended in section fourteen by 
section three of chapter four hundred and eighty-five of 
the acts of nineteen hundred and twenty-one, by chapter 
two hundred and fifty-four of the acts of nineteen hundred 
and twenty-four, by section one of chapter three hundred 
and thirty-five of the acts of nineteen hundred and twenty- 
five and by section one of chapter two hundred and sixty 
of the acts of the c irrent year, is hereby further amended 
by striking out said section fourteen and inserting in place 
thereof the following: — Section 14. No building or other 
structure shall, except as provided in section fifteen, be 
used for the keeping, storage, manufacture or sale of any 
of the articles named in section ten, except fireworks, 
firecrackers and torpedoes, unless the aldermen or select- 
men shall have granted a license therefor after a public 



Addenda. 399 

hearing, held in the case of cities by the aldermen or any 
committee thereof designated by them, notice of the 
time and place of which hearing shall have been given, 
at the expense of the applicant, by the clerk of the city or of 
the commission having the authority to grant such licenses 
or by the selectmen, by publication, not less than seven 
days prior thereto, in a newspaper published in the 
representative district, if any, otherwise in the city or 
town, wherein the land on which such license is to be 
exercised is situated, and also by the applicant by regis- 
tered mail, not less than seven days prior to such hearing, 
to all owners of real estate abutting on said land, and 
unless a permit shall have been granted therefor by the 
marshal or by some official designated by him for the 
purpose; provided, that any building or other structure 
once used under a license and permit granted as aforesaid, 
or any building or other structure lawfully used for any of 
said purposes, may be continued in such use from year to 
year if the owner or occupant thereof shall annually, on or 
before April thirtieth, while such use continues, file for 
registration with the clerk of the city or town where such 
building or other structure is situated, a certificate reciting 
such use and occupancy; and provided, further, that any 
building used as a garage for storing not more than two 
vehicles, when once used under such a license and permit, 
or lawfully used for such purpose, may be continued in 
such use from year to yearwithout such annual registration, 
and continuous use and occupancy thereof for such purpose 
shall be presumed. The department may by regulation 
prescribe the amount of explosives, crude petroleum or 
any of its products, or of any other inflammable fluid or 
compound, that may be kept for private use in a building or 
other structure without a license, permit or registration, 
or any of them. Every license and permit issued here- 
under shall expire on April thirtieth following the date of 



400 Addenda. 

issue, and registrations hereunder shall be effected on or 
before April thirtieth to take effect on May first following. 
Such fee as may be established from time to time by 
ordinance or by-law may be charged for any such license, 
permit and registration, respectively; provided, that the 
fee for such registration shall be one half of the amount 
of the fee for such a license. 

The right to use a building or other structure for any of 
said purposes may be revoked for cause, after notice and a 
hearing given to such owner or occupant, by the aldermen 
or selectmen having authority to grant licenses for such 
use, or by the marshal. Such building or structure shall 
always be subject to such alterations in construction and 
to such regulations of its use in respect to protection 
against fire or explosion as the department may prescribe. 

Section 2. Said chapter one hundred and forty-eight 
is hereby further amended by striking out section thirty- 
two and inserting in place thereof the following : — Section 

32. No volatile inflammable fluid except an amount not 
exceeding one quart when contained in an approved 
safety can and no non-volatile inflammable fluid except an 
amount not exceeding ten gallons for domestic use shall 
be kept, used or stored in any part of any building used 
for habitation, and no volatile inflammable fluid in quan- 
tity exceeding one gallon and no non-volatile inflammable 
fluid in quantity exceeding thirty gallons shall be kept, 
used or stored except in the tank of an automobile, motor 
boat or stationary engine within fifty feet of any building 
used for habitation, unless a permit has first been obtained 
therefor from the marshal under such terms and conditions 
as he may prescribe. 

Section 3. Said chapter one hundred and forty-eight 
is hereby further amended by striking out section thirty- 
three and inserting in place thereof the following : — Section 

33. No part of any building used for habitation or that 



Addenda. 401 

part of any lot within fifty feet of any building so used 
shall, except as permitted by section thirty-two, be used for 
the storage, keeping or handling of any article or material 
that is or may become dangerous to the public safety as 
a fire menace unless a permit has first been obtained there- 
for from the marshal. No part of any such building shall 
be used as a carpenter shop nor for the storage, keeping 
or handling of feed, hay, straw, excelsior, shavings, saw- 
dust, cotton, paper stock, feathers or rags, except under 
such terms and conditions as the marshal may prescribe. 

Section 4. Section thirty-nine of said chapter one hun- 
dred and forty-eight is hereby amended by striking out 
clauses H and I and inserting in place thereof the following: 
— H. Requiring the cleaning of chimney flues and vent 
pipes and the installation of spark arresters in chimneys 
connected with permanent wood burning furnaces. 
I. Requiring proper safeguards to be placed and main- 
tained about or over roof skylights and about outer or 
inner courts or shafts at the roof fine. 

Section 5. Said section thirty-nine is hereby further 
amended by adding at the end thereof the two following 
new clauses: — N. Prohibiting or regulating the storage 
in any lot, building, shed, enclosure or other structure, 
of any empty wooden packing boxes, cases or barrels in a 
quantity occupying a space greater than two thousand 
cubic feet, and regulating the height of piles of lumber in 
lumber yards. O. Prohibiting the thawing of water 
pipes by means of a torch or flame, or the fumigation of 
warehouses, factories or commercial buildings by the use 
of any volatile inflammable liquid, or any material requir- 
ing flame, without a permit from the marshal. 

Section 6. Said chapter one hundred and forty-eight 
is hereby further amended by striking out section fort.y 
and inserting in place thereof the following: — Section 40. 
The marshal may provide that any rule shall apply gen- 



402 Addenda. 

erally throughout the metropolitan district or to any 
specified part thereof or to any class or description of 
premises, which shall take effect when approved by the 
commissioner and the governor and council, and on such 
dates as they may fix. 

Section 7. Section fifty-eight of said chapter one hun- 
dred and forty-eight is hereby amended by inserting after 
the word " hundred" in the fourth line the words: — -and 
forty, — so as to read as follows: — Section 58. No person 
shall manufacture, store, keep for sale, sell or transport any 
compound for use as a stove polish containing any liquid or 
compound whatsoever which will emit a gas that will flash 
at a temperature of less than one hundred and forty degrees 
Fahrenheit, except that foundry paste which contains 
inflammable compound, if packed in metal containers, sealed 
by fusion and weighing in gross not less than five pounds, 
and if such container is labelled "Dangerous — Inflam- 
mable compound — Keep away from fire, heat and lights" 
may be manufactured, stored, kept for sale, sold or trans- 
ported for use only by stove foundries, stove manufacturers 
and stove dealers on their own premises under regulations 
prescribed by the marshal. The flash point of said com- 
pound shall be ascertained by use of either Abel-Pensky's 
or Pensky-Martens' closed cup instrument, or by some 
other method approved by the marshal. 

[Approved May 14, 1928. 



CHAPTER 88, ACTS OF 1929. 

An Act Relative to the Building Area of Certain 
Lots under the Boston Zoning Law, So-called. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Paragraph (8) of section sixteen of chapter 
four hundred and eighty-eight of the acts of nineteen hun- 
dred and twenty-four is hereby amended by striking out, in 
the second and third lines of said paragraph, the words 



Addenda. 403 

"may be increased thirty per cent" and inserting in place 
thereof the words: — provisions herein shall not apply, — 
so as to read as follows: — (8) In a sixty-five foot or eighty 
foot district on a lot where no yard is required the building 
area provisions herein shall not apply. 
Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved March 9, 1929. 



CHAPTER 338, ACTS OF 1929. 

An Act Relative to the Height of Buildings on 
Certain Land Abutting on St. James Avenue 
between Clarendon and Dartmouth Streets in 
the City of Boston. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The provisions of section one of chapter 
four hundred and fifty-two of the acts of eighteen hundred 
and ninety-eight prescribing a height limit for buildings on 
land abutting on St. James avenue between Clarendon and 
Dartmouth streets in the city of Boston shall apply only to 
any portion of a building within one hundred feet of said 
St. James avenue and in case any building on land abutting 
on said St. James avenue between said Clarendon and 
Dartmouth streets extends more than one hundred feet 
from said St. James avenue, the volume of the portion of 
such building within the restricted area hereinbefore men- 
tioned shall not exceed ninety feet times the buildable area 
of the land within one hundred feet of said St. James 
avenue, and the volume of the remainer shall not exceed 
the volume permitted on the buildable area of the remain- 
ing land. 

Section 2. Chapter two hundred and eighty-six of the 
acts of the current year is hereby repealed. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

[Approved May 23, 1929. 



INDEX. 

See also Supplementary Index. (Page 525.) 



INDEX. 



Acts of 1907, Chapter 550, and Amendments thereto and General 
Laws, General and Special Acts relating to the erection, maintenance, 
inspection and occupation of buildings. 

Reference in this Index are to Pages, and Sections of the Laws as 
amended and in force. 

Note. — When an asterisk (*) is placed before a figure, see, also, 
regulations for escalators and elevators for the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts taking effect December 26, 1923. 

When a dagger (f) is placed before a figure, see sects. 62 to 71, 
inclusive, chap. 143, General Laws. 

Where comma (,) is added it refers to distinct Pages, Sections. 

Where dash (-) is used it refers to inclusive Pages, Sections. 

A. 

Page. Section. 

ACCESS TO ROOFS, 
permanent means of, required 18, 128 12, 45 

ACCESSORY USE. 

Zoning Act, 1924, c. 488, definition of 276 3 

limitations of 277 3 

ACCIDENTS, ELEVATOR. 

to be reported to Building Commissioner 119 * 38 

ACT EFFECTIVE (JUNE 5, 1924) — ZONING 

ACT 299 25 

ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS. 

necessary for safety of occupants, commissioner 

may order 12 8 

necessary for strength or stability of any struc- 
ture, commissioner may order 12 8 

ADJOINING PROPERTY. 

commissioner may enter to secure unsafe building 7 5 

to be supported 18 12 

AGGREGATES, CONCRETE. 

cinders or slag may be used for, when 28 14 

coarse, to consist of 28 14 

fine, to consist of 28 14 

AIR DUCTS. 

of fireproof material 116 38 

407 



408 Index. 

Page. Section. 
"AIR PIPES " — PLUMBI NG. 

definition of 172 112 

requirements of 175, 177 118 

AIR SPACES. 

in walls 95 26 

AISLES, ASSEMBLY ROOMS. 

must conform to law for theatres, when ordered 

by Building Commissioner 167 107 

AISLES, PUBLIC BUILDING. 

must conform to requirements for theatres 167 107 

no obstructions or temporary seats in 166 105 

persons not to remain in 166 105 

AISLES, THEATRE. 

persons not to remain in : 170 111 

regulations for 158 88 

ALCOVES IN TENEMENT HOUSES, 
light and ventilation; opening into 142 63 

ALTERATION. 

construction, inspection and maintenance of build- 
ings, chap. 284, 1910 240 

wooden building within the building limits 22 13 

ALTERATION OF BUILDINGS — PERMIS- 
SIBLE — ZONING ACT. 
1924, chap. 488 276 2 

ALTERATION OF EXISTING BUILDINGS. 

general regulations for 107 35 

ALTERATIONS. 

affecting stability for fire risk 109 35 

.building to be examined when application is made, 6 3 

fire protection for 101 32 

limit of cost of wooden building, in limits 22 13 

permit required for 4, 18 » 1, 12 

prohibitions relating to (third-class buildings) .... 22 13 

third-class buildings 14 9 

to conform to law for new buildings, to extent of 

alteration 22 12 

when practically produces a new building 109 35 

ALTERATIONS AND REPAIRS- 

permits required for 18 12 

ALTERED. 

what buildings may be, for second-class habitation, 107 35 

ALTERED BUILDINGS. 

height not increased 107 35 

maximum number of stories 107 35 



Page. 


Section. 


20 


12 


94 


24 


94 


24 



8,9 


6,7 


191 


129 


9 


7 


9 


7 


10 


7 


397 




293 


19 


187 


125 



Index. 



ANCHORS. 

for floors 

for walls 

provision for 

"APARTMENT." 

in tenement houses defined 125 42 

APPEAL, BOARD OF. (See Board of Appeal.) 

appointment; terms; vacancies; qualifications; 

decisions; reports, etc 

APPEAL FROM BOARD OF APPEAL 

APPEALS. 

mode of procedure 

time limit 

fees for 

from decision of State Fire Marshal, chap. 320, 
Acts of 1928 

Zoning Act, chap. 488, Acts of 1924 

APPLIANCES FOR POWER AND HEAT. 

hazardous buildings, regulations for 

APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION OF 
ACT — ZONING ACT. 

1924, chap. 488 297 22 

APPLICATION FOR PERMIT. 

form of 5 1 

sworn to 5 1 

to bear name and address of owner 5 1 

ARC LIGHT. 

for emergency in existing theatres 170 111 

ARCHITECT. 

to submit calculation sheets 10 8 

AREA OF BUILDING, EXCEPTIONS AND 
REGULATIONS, ZONING ACT. 

1924, chap. 488 291 16 

AREA OF BUILDING — ZONING ACT — 
DEFINED. 

1924, chap. 488 

AREA OF WOODEN BUILDINGS. 

not to be increased, in alteration, in some cases . . . 
AREAS, RESTRICTION OF. 

First— Class Buildings. 

mercantile or storage above first floor, vertical 
openings to be enclosed with fireproof enclosures, 

to be divided by brick walls to limit area to 10,000 
square feet 

10,000 square feet may be exceeded, when 



274 


1 


22 


13 




7 


75 


17 


76 


17 


76 


17 



410 



Index. 



Page. Section. 



AREAS, RESTRICTION OF. 

Second-Class Buildings. 

mercantile or storage above first floor to be divided 
by brick walls to limit area to 10,000 square feet, 
ART GALLERIES. 

may be placed above theatres 

ASHES 

receptacle, tenement house 

receptacle to be provided in all buildings 

ASHES AND GARBAGE. 

tenement house, receptacles for 

ASHLAR. 

when reckoned in thickness of wall 

ASPHALT SHINGLES 

ASSEMBLY, PLACES OF PUBLIC. 

general requirements 

ASSEMBLY ROOMS. 

to be first class when 

capacity, dimensions, etc 

to conform to law requirements of theatres as to 
exits, stairways, exit lights, aisles and seats, 

when ordered by Building Commissioner 

ASSISTANTS, BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

appointed by commissioner 

AUDITORIUMS, THEATRE. 

heating apparatus under 

seating regulations for 

AUTOMATIC DOORS. 

in air shafts 

AWNINGS. 

projection, allowed 

AXIAL COMPRESSION. 

concentric compression on columns with longi- 
tudinal reinforcement only 

concentric compression on columns when their 
length does not exceed ten diameters of the core, 



76 



153 

93 
25 

165 



17 



168 


108 


190 


128 


153 


75 


190 


128 



75 

23 
13 

105 



165 


105 


166 


105 


167 


107 


3 


1 


165 


104 


158 


87 


76 


17 


24 


13 


51 


15 


51 


15 



B. 

BACK BAY. 

Beacon street, yard spaces on, chap. 342, Acts of 

1927 

Restrictions on certain streets of, chap. 246, Acts 

of 1927 



392 
390 



Index. 411 

Page. Section. 
BACK BAY. 

Saint James avenue, height of buildings on, chap. 

338, Acts of 1929 403 

BAKERIES AND FAT-BOILING. 

prohibited in tenement houses; exceptions 134 53 

BAKERIES IN TENEMENT HOUSES. 

fireproofed 134 53 

BALCONIES 93 23 

tenement house, requirements of 126, 127 43 

"BASEMENT." 

definition of 17 11 

BASEMENTS. 

in tenement houses to be sprinklered, when and 

how 129 45 

tenement house requirements for 146-148 68 

tenement house, rooms in, when exempt from 
strict compliance of this act 147 68 

may be used for mercantile purposes, when 75 17 

BASES — CAST-IRON 

regulations for use of 32 14 

BASIS OF DESIGN. 

calculations to be for working stresses and safe 
loads 41 15 

See Assumptions A, B, C, D, E 41 15 

BAY WINDOWS. 

projection allowed 24 13 

who determines projection 24 13 

BAYS. 

to be treated as wall bays, when discontinuous 57 15 

fiat slab, supported by beams or wall, may be 

reinforced, when and how 57 15 

bending in exterior concrete columns supporting 

flat slab floors formula 57 15 

for floors, half acts below and half acts above slab, 58 15 

for roof, whole bending acts below slab 68 15 

BEACON STREET. 

height of buildings on, chap. 543, 1902 223 

chapter 342, 1927 392 

BEAMS. 

bending moment, positive when subject to other 

than uniform loads 45 15 

continuous or restrained, span length 42 15 

method for computation for span of 39 14 



412 Index. 

Page. Section. 
BEAMS. 

parallel to main reinforcement, shall be designed 

for bending moments, how 45 15 

simply supported, span length 41 15 

steel, tied lengthwise 96 27 

supporting rectangular slabs, when reinforced in 

both directions, — proportion of load, how 

determined 46 15 

to be considered restrained at ends, when 45 15 

wooden timbers in walls of second-class buildings, 106 34 

BEAMS — RECTANGULAR. 

(a) formulas 61 15 

(6) T — formulas 62 15 

(c) reinforced for compression — formulas 64 15 

BEAMS AND GIRDERS. 

steel, relating to .67, 68, 69 16 

BEARING. 

when compression is applied to a portion of con- 
crete surface, etc 50 15 

BEARING WALL, BRICK. 

height of, allowable 36 14 

concrete, plain, height of, allowable 36 14 

BENDING. 

compression on extreme fibre 51 15 

slab floors, how determined 47 15 

A — strips, mean 55 15 

B — strips, mean 55 15 

strips — span, length of 55 15 

strips — A and B — bending moment, table. ... 55 15 

BENDING IN SUPPORTING MEMBERS, 
beams or floor slabs when fixed or restrained at a 
support, the restraining structure (column, wall, 
etc.) must be proportioned to resist stresses. ... 47 15 

BENDING MOMENT — FOOTINGS. 

bond stress, in steel, not to exceed 52 15 

effective area of concrete and steel to resist 53 15 

in rectangular isolated columns 53 15 

supporting a round column or pier 53 15 

BENDING MOMENT — SLABS. 

supported on four sides, distribution of load 46 15 

BENDING MOMENTS, 
uniformly distributed load, in beam and slab, re- 
inforced in one direction only 42 15 

See Assumptions A, B, C, D, E, F, G 42, 43 15 



Index. 



BENT BARS. 

negative reinforcement in A strips 

negative reinforcement in B strips 

positive reinforcement in A strips 

positive reinforcement in B strips 

reinforcing for positive bending, not to be bent up, 

relative to reinforcement in A strips 

relative to reinforcement in B strips 

stress in concrete due to bending in each strip, how 

determined 59 

exception — negative bending in A strips when 

dropped panels used 59 

BLOCKS —BUILDING. 

absorption allowable per cent of 28 

concrete, how made, compression strength 28 

meaning of 28 

terra cotta, crushing strength 28 

terra cotta, working stress of 28 

'BLOW-OFF PIPES. 

how connected 184 

BOARD OF APPEAL. 

See also Chap. 42, Acts of 1927 380 

Chap. 320, Acts of 1928 397 

annual report 11 

appointed by Mayor, on nominations 8 

appeals from, to be heard in equity courts 191 

Building Department, Revised Ordinances 1914, 

chap. 8 ■'. 343 

composition, etc 8 

decision of, to be in writing 9 

to specify variations allowed 9 

applicants to have copy of 9 

summary of, in annual report 11 

fees for appeals 10 

hearings on appealed cases 9 

may vary provisions of building law 9 

members of, how appointed 8 

terms of 8 

compensation of 8 

not to act when interested 9 

to be Boston men 9 

report, annual, to mayor 11 

to contain summary of decisions 11 

to be printed separately 11 





413 


Page. Section. 


58 


15 


59 


15 


58 


15 


58 


15 


58 


15 


58 


15 


>8, 59 


15 



15 

15 

14 
14 
14 
14 
14 

122 



8 

6 

129 

1 
6 
6 

7 
7 
8 
7 
7 
7 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



414 Index. 

Page. Seotion. 
BOARD OF APPEAL. 

to hear appeals on setting engines and dynamos. . . 187-188 125 

to approve egress for large areas 76 17 

vacancies in, how filled 8 6 

who may appeal, to 9 7 

BOARD OF EXAMINERS. 

board to determine qualifications, Revised Ordi- 
nances 1914, chap. 8 345 6 

board to establish classes, Revised Ordinances 

1914, chap. 8 344 4 

board to issue licenses, Revised Ordinances 1914, 

chap. 8 345 8 

Building Department, Revised Ordinances 1914, 

chap. 8 344 3 

examinations, Revised Ordinances 1914, chap. 8. 344 4 

license may be revoked or suspended, Revised 

Ordinances 1914, chap. 8 346 9 

no permit to build or alter to issue unless licensed 
builder signs application, Revised Ordinances 
1914, chap. 8 345 6 

penalty, Revised Ordinances 1914, chap. 8 347 11 

qualifications requisite to take charge of work, 

Revised Ordinances 19 14, chap. 8 344 5 

work to stop unless licensed builder is in charge, 

Revised Ordinances 1914, chap. 8 347 10 

BOARD OF EXAMINERS OF GAS FITTERS. 

not affected by this act 15 10 

BOARD OF HEALTH. 

may limit number of occupants in any building . . . 189 128 

not affected by this act 15 10 

powers of, defined 189, 190 128 

BOARD OF PARK COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this act 15 10 

BOARD OF STREET COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this act 15 • 10 

BOARD OF ZONING ADJUSTMENT, 1924, 

chap. 488 294 20 

BOARDS, CITY, CERTAIN. 

authority of, not curtailed by this act 15 10 

BOILER. 

ceiling over, to be wire lathed and plastered 103 32 

permit required for placing 187 125 

smoke pipe to be 12 inches below ceiling 103 32 



Xjstdex. 415 

Page. Section. 
BOILER — RANGE. 

marking, sale and installation of, chap. 142, 

General Laws 312 17, 18 

BOILERS AND FURNACES. 

hazardous buildings, hearing on 187 125 

not to be placed on wooden floors 23 13 

or under public ways 24 13 

or under certain parts of theatres 165, 169, 104, 111 

commissioner may prescribe conditions for main- 
tenance of 187 125 

BOND. 

stress between concrete and steel bars 52 15 

stress between concrete and approved deformed 

steel bars 52 15 

stress between concrete and drawn wire. 52 15 

BONDING. 

of walls at corners 94 24 

BONDING BRICKWORK. 

provision for 95 25 

BOOTHS, VOTING. 

not affected by this act 15 10 

BORING OF SOIL. 

may be required 82 20 

BORINGS. 

required, when, how, number, location 82 20 

BOULEVARDS. 

building lines on, chap. 82, General Laws 301 37 

BOUNDARIES OF DISTRICTS. ZONING ACT, 

1924, chap. 488 292 17 

BOWDOIN STREET. 

height of buildings on, chap. 543, 1902 223 

BRACING, WIND. 

provision for 39 14 

BRACKETS. 

on exterior columns, to be provided, when 58 15 

on reinforced concrete buildings to transmit load 

from floor to columns 48 15 

such columns to be computed 48 15 

under steel beams, fireproofed 98 32 

when used, span length 42 15 



416 Index. 

Page. Section . 
BRICK. 

quality and constituents of 27 14 

absorption test, requirements of 27 14 

hard, ultimate compressive strength 27 14 

wet, compressive strength of 27 14 

BRICK BEARING WALLS, 
height of unsupported, not to exceed twelve times 

its least dimension 36 14 

BRICK PIERS. 

height of, not to exceed twelve times its least di- 
mension 36 14 

BRICK WALLS. 

fiat slab supported by thickness of wall 59 15 

BRICKWORK, 
stresses of 34 14 

BRICKWORK — BONDING. 

brick facing in skeleton frame building when not 

more than 4 inches in thickness 95 25 

brick walls, to be bonded every eighth course .... 95 25 

or a full heading every eighth course 95 25 

may be bonded by metal ties 95 25 

provision for 95 25 

such ties to be of galvanized wire 95 25 

when faced with brick face, in every eighth course, 

every other brick shall be a full header 95 25 

diagonal header ties prohibited 95 25 

BRIDGES, PUBLIC HIGHWAY AND RAIL- 
WAY, QUAYS, ETC. 
not affected by this act 14 10 

BUILDERS. 

licensed, to control building operations, chap. 8, 

R. O. 1914 344-347 311 

BUILDING AREA, RESTRICTIONS, ZONING 
ACT, 1924, chap. 488. 

thirty-five-foot district 285 1 1 

forty-foot district 286 12 

sixty-five-foot district 287 13 

eighty-foot district 288 14 

one hundred fifty-five foot district 289 1 5 

BUILDING BLOCKS. 

absorption, allowable per cent of 28 14 

relative to and meaning of 28 14 



Index. 417 



BUILDING COMMISSIONER. 

appointment of 

authority and powers of 

may appoint deputy; powers of 

may enter any building or premises 

may require duplicate plans to be kept at building. 

may require plans and specifications 

may stop work for violation of permits 

may order unsafe buildings vacated 

may take measures for public safety 

not to dispense with tenement house restrictions . . 

qualifications required of 

salary of, fixed by City Council 

term of office 

to approve plumbing of chemical laboratories .... 

to approve elevators , 

to approve stable drainings 

to examine all buildings in course of construction, 

to examine buildings dangerous, damaged or un- 
safe 

to keep records of violations 

to have charge of Building Department 

to post notice of unsafe elevators 

to submit annual report to Mayor 

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION. (See Separate 
Subjects.) 

height, excavation, etc., regulations for 77-80 18, 19 

BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

commissioner to be in charge of 3 

how appointed 3 

term of office 3 

qualifications required 3 

salary of, fixed by City Council 3 

may appoint inspectors, employees and assist- 
ants 3 

clerk to keep records, open to public 4 

employees to retain position until removal or dis- 
charge 3 

inspectors, qualifications required of 3 

commissioner, salary, term, etc 3 

may enter buildings and premises 192 129 

not to engage in other business 4 

not to furnish material 4 



Page. 


Section. 


4 


1 


3-5,6 


1,4 


5 


1 


192 


• 129 


4 


1 


4 


1 


5 


1 


7 


4 


7, 18 


5, 12 


153 


76 


3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 


176 


117 


118 


3S 


177 


117 


5 


2 


6 


3,4 


5 


2 


3 


1 


118 


38 


4 


1 



418 Index. 



Page. Section. 





4 


1 




3 


1 




4 

288 

240 


1 




1 


1- 


1 




3 

19 

S2 


1 




12 




20 



BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

employees not to be financially interested. . 
present to hold office until removal or discharge, 

records to be open to public inspection 

Revised Ordinances 1914, chap. 8 

to enforce building laws in Boston heretofore en- 
forced by District Police, 1910, chap. 284. 

under charge of commissioner 

BUILDING EGRESS. 

to be satisfactory before occupancy 

BUILDING FOUNDATION. 

when resting only in part on solid ledge .... 

BUILDING INSPECTION. 

commissioner, or inspector, to examine all build- 
ings in course of construction 

BUILDING LAW, 1907. 

approved June 22 

in effect August 1 

exceptions and exemptions from provisions of ... . 

equity courts given powers to enforce 

law courts given jurisdiction in law cases 

not to deprive certain city boards and officers of 
power • 

not to deprive other departments, etc., of author- 
ity already held 

officials may enter building and premises 

violators of, may be fined $500 

BUILDING LAWS. 

Boston, to be enforced by Building Department 
heretofore enforced by District Police, 1910, 

chap. 284 240 

BUILDING LIMITS. 

City Council may change, extend and define .... 

dwelling in, may be of third class, when 

dwelling in, may be composite, when 

dwelling in, third-class, not to exceed two families, 

further restrictions relative to 

outline of chap. 41, R. O. 1914 

present, to continue until changed 

Revised Ordinances of 1914, chap. 41 

BUILDING LINE. 

in public ways, General Laws, chap. 82 301 37 



193 


134 


193 


134 


14 


10 


190 


129 


192 


130 



15 10 



15 


10 


192 


129 


193 


132 



13 


9 


13 


9 


13 


9 


13 


9 


13 


9 


347 




13 


9 


347 


1 



Index. 419 

Page. Section. 

BUILDING LINE ON HIGHWAYS, 
restrictions as to buildings, 1893, chap. 462 201 1 

BUILDING LINES. 

established by Park Commission 203-205 

may be established, General Laws, chap. 82 301 37 

on parkways, boulevards, etc 301 37 

prohibitive relative to building when same are 

established, General Laws, chap. 82 301 37 

BUILDING LINES ESTABLISHED 202 

BUILDING MATERIALS. (See Separate Sub- 
jects.) 
combustible not to be kept in habitable buildings, 188 120 

commissioner has power to reject 27 14 

quality of mortar, cement and concrete 26-31 14 

BUILDING, OCCUPATION OF 

not unless means of egress are provided 19 12 

BUILDING OPERATIONS. 

control of, chap. 8, R. O. 1914 344-347 311 

BUILDING PERMITS. (See also, Permits.) 

application for 5 1 

how and by whom granted 4 1 

if terms of, are violated commissioner may stop 

work 5 1 

must be on approved printed forms 5 1 

requirements for 5 1 

BUILDING PROHIBITIONS, 
list of general 22-26 13 

"BUILDING, STORY OF." 
definition of 17 11 

BUILDINGS. (See Hazardous Buildings.) 

classes, of defined 15-16 1 1 

height of, defined 16 11 

height of, special commission appointed to deter- 
mine and revise boundaries of districts A and 

B, Special Acts 1915, chap. 333 249 

inspection during construction 5 2 

outside finish of 20 12 

not covered by law 14 10 

not affected by fire limits 13 9 

for manufacturing purposes outside limits, maxi- 
mum height 77 17 

on same lot with tenement house 141 62 

in public parks, chap. 129, 1889 201 




420 Index. 

Page. Section. 
BUILDINGS, 
height of, in Boston, chap. 333, 1904, and chap. 

383, 1905, as amended by chap. 174 of 1922, 226, 232 

chapter 137, Act of 1928 396 

height of, on Copley square, chap. 452, 1898 220 

height of, on Rutherford avenue, chap. 416, 1907, 238 
construction, alteration, inspection and main- 
tenance of, chap. 284, 1910 240 

■burned, dilapidated, dangerous, nuisances, Gen- ^ 

eral Laws, chap. 139 303-304 1-3 

occupation or use of, not to be changed without 

permit from commissioner 112 36 

prohibitions relating to alterations of wooden 

buildings 22 13 

use of occupation of 1 12 36 

wooden, within building limits, may be altered or 

enlarged when and how 14 9 

moving, wooden buildings 22 13 

repairs, wooden buildings 22 13 

requirements for all 18-22 12 

commissioner may enforce 18 12 

restriction of area, chap. 137, Acts of 1928 75 17 

record of violations to be kept 5 2 

erected since August 1, 1907, shall be considered 
as erected in conformity to law, when and how, 

Special Act, 1915, chap. 254 247 

appliance for heat and power in 187-188 125 

hearings on 187 125 

must have permits 187 125 

allowed within building limits 13 9 

ay be vacated or torn down, by Heatlh Commis- 
sioner, 1897, chap. 219 206 1 

public parks, 1889, chap. 129 201 1 

vacated, may be, when, volume of, chap. 137, 

Acts of 1928 7 4 

BUILDINGS, ALTERATION OF EXISTING. 

general regulations for 107-109 35 

BUILDINGS, CERTAIN, OUTSIDE LIMITS. 

commissioner, to prescribe condition for 77 17 

BUILDINGS, CLASSIFICATION OF. 

first and second classes 74 17 

BUILDINGS, COMPOSITE. 

definition of 16 11 



Index. 421 

Page, Section. 

BUILDINGS, DANGEROUS OR DAMAGED. 

commissioner to examine and make record 6 3, 4 

BUILDINGS, EXPOSURES. 

regulations for, when remodelled, etc. 108 35 

BUILDINGS, FEDERAL. 

not affected by this act 14 10 

BUILDINGS, FIRST-CLASS. 

definition of 15 11 

BUILDINGS, OCCUPANTS OF. 

board of health may limit number of 189 128 

BUILDINGS PERMISSIBLE TO BE ERECTED, 
ALTERED OR USED. ZONING ACT, 1924. 
chap. 488. 

single residence 276 3 

general residence 277 4 

local business 278 5 

general business 279 6 

industrial districts 280 7 

unrestricted districts 282 8 

non-conforming uses 282-283 9 

BUILDINGS, PUBLIC. (See Public Buildings.) 

must conform to regulations for theatres 167 107 

BUILDINGS, REINFORCED CONCRETE, 
may be of supported structural steel or of cast-iron 

columns 48 15 

said supports to be fireproofed 48 15 

BUILDINGS, SECOND-CLASS. 

definition of 16 11 

BUILDINGS, STATE. 

not affected by this act 14 10 

BUILDINGS, THIRD-CLASS. 

definition of 16 11 

BUILDINGS UNLAWFULLY CONSTRUCTED. 

deemed nuisances 192 132 

abatement and removal of 192 132 

BUILDINGS, WOODEN. 

general regulations for construction of 120-121, 122-123 39, 40 

height of 122-123 40 

not to be moved within building limits 22 13 

proximity to other buildings 122-123 40 

BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES. 

owner responsible for maintenance of 189 127 

responsibility of lessees 189 1 27 



422 Index. 

Page. Section. 
BULK DISTRICTS. ZONING ACT, 1924, chap. 
488. 

thirty-five feet 285 11 

forty feet 286 12 

sixty-five feet 287 13 

eighty feet 288 14 

one hundred fifty-five feet 289 15 

regulation, height and area 289-291 15 

exceptions, height and area 289-291 15 

BULKHEADS. 

on roofs, 1905, chap. 383 235 4 

BULKHEADS AND SCUTTLES. 

tenement house, requirements for 127 44 

BURNT OR DANGEROUS BUILDINGS. 

how disposed of, General Laws, chap. 139 303 1 

nuisance may be abated, General Laws, chap. 139, 304 3 

owner may appeal to Superior Court, General 

Laws, chap. 139 304 2 

C. 

CAISSON. 

may be used to carry foundation down to ledge... 83 20 

CALCULATION OF STRAINS. 

to be submitted 10 8 

CALCULATION SHEETS. 

must be signed by architect, engineer, contractor 

or responsible person 10 8 

CAPITALS. 

enlarged columns may be provided with 54 15 

horizontal width of 54 15 

width in any direction 54 15 

CAST IRON. 

strength 31 14 

to conform to standard specifications ' 31 14 

CAST-IRON COLUMNS. 

use of, when permitted 31 14 

to be faced at ends, etc 31 14 

when hollow, regulations for use of 31 14 

in garages, etc., prohibited 37 14 

use of, prohibited when 31, 37 14 

to be faced at ends, etc 31 14 



Index. 



CAST-IRON COMPRESSION. 

members, value of 

centrally loaded, safe load 

CAST-IRON LINTELS. 

regulations for use of 

to be not less than f inch in thickness 

not to be used for spans over six feet 

CEILING. 

flush, fireproofing same as for slabs 

suspended, fireproofing same as for slabs 

metal lath and plaster, suspended, fireproofing 

same as for slabs 

CEILINGS. 

in tenement house cellars, metal-lathed and 
plastered 

ceilings, tenement house, construction of 

over furnaces, boilers, etc., to be protected 

CEILINGS, CELLAR. 

tenement house, construction of 

CELLAR. 

definition of 

CELLARS. 

rat proofing 

to be protected from water and dampness 

how protected 

cellar floors not to be constructed below Grade 12, 

exceptions, when made waterproof 

metal foundations to be protected from dampness, 

structural metal work underground, to be pro- 
tected from dampness 

protection from dampness, method of 

lowest, without waterproofing 

CEMENT, LIME, MORTAR. 

required mixture, etc 

CHANGE. 

in use or occupation of buildings, permit for, 

required 

CHASE. 

required thickness outside 

CHEMICAL LABORATORIES. 

plumbing of, to be approved by commissioner 

CHEMICAL WORKS. 

require permit 





423 


,ge. 


Section. 


37 


14 


37 


14 


32 


14 


32 


14 


32 


14 


50 


15 


50 


15 



50 



29 



15 



132 


49 


132 


49 


103 


32 


132 


49 


17 


11 


90 


22 


90 


22 


90 


22 


90 


22 


90 


22 


90 


22 


90 


22 


90 


22 


90 


22 



14 



112 


36 


23 


13 


176 


117 


187 


125 



424 



Index. 



CHIMNEY FLUES. 

height of, above roof 

lining required 

CHIMNEYS. 

floor timber not to be within 2 inches of 

restrictions relating to 

thickness of walls 

how much to be corbelled 

hung from 12-ineh wall 

studding, distance from 

firestopping of 

construction of 

CHURCHES. 

use of cinematograph in, regulation for, moving 
picture exhibition in, Mayor to grant permit 

for, chap. 280, 1913 243 

CINDER CONCRETE. 

composed of 29 

CINDERS. 

may be used for concrete aggregate, when 28 

composition of 29 

CINEMATOGRAPH. 

regulation for use of, General Laws, chap. 143. . . 332 

operation of, General Laws, chap. 143 332 

CIRCULAR HOLLOW STEEL COLUMNS. 

filled with concrete, load allowance 48 

CIRCULAR WROUGHT-IRON COLUMNS. 

filled with concrete, load allowance 48 

CITY COUNCIL. 

to fix salary of Building Commissioner 3 

CITY OFFICERS, CERTAIN. 

authority of, not curtailed by this act 15 

CLASSES OF BUILDINGS. 

definition of 15-16 

CLASSIFICATION. 

of buildings 74-77 

CLAY. 

soft, maximum allowable bearing value in founda- 
tions. 81 

medium stiff, maximum allowable bearing value 

in foundations 81 

hard, definition of 81 

soft, definition of 81 

medium, definition of 81 



Page. 


Section. 


18 


12 


19 


12 


23 


13 


23 


13 


19 


12 


23 


13 


23 


13 


23 


13 


102 


32 


19 


12 



1 

14 

14 
14 

72 
72 

15 

15 

1 

10' 

11 

17 

20 

20 
20 
20 
20 



Index. 425 

Page. Section. 

CLEAN-OUTS, FERRULES, ETC. 

required diameter and weight of 179 121 

CLERK, BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

duties of, defined 4 1 

CLOCKS. 

projecting into ways, permit for, General Laws, 

chap. 85 302 8 

CLOSETS. 

under staircases, restrictions 24 13 

COLUMNS. 

cast-iron, restrictions 31 14 

cast-iron, parts bolted 96 27 

cast-iron, strength 31 14 

exterior, isolated, fireproofing 100 32 

reinforced, concrete, rules for 47, 48 15 

to be fireproofed and how . 99, 100 32 

reduction of floor loads 113 36 

wheel guards on 101 32 

steel, parts riveted 96 27 

steel, strength 31 14 

wood, strength 38 14 

to be of masonry or metal, when 20 12 

loaded eccentrically 37 14 

main reinforcement in floor slabs to be protected, 41 15 

maximum effective area of 47 15 

longitudinal reinforcement of 47 15 

exterior, reinforcement how proportioned 48 15 

strength of, how computed, when core of, shifted, 37 14 
hollow, steel circular, filled with concrete, load 

allowance 48 15 

wrought-iron, circular, filled with concrete, load 

allowance 48 15 

with longitudinal reinforcement only, steel area of, 49 15 
longitudinal reinforcement bars, secured against 

displacement, how 49 15 

with longitudinal reinforcement, when allowed 

stresses given in this act 49 15 

outside finish of, to be of masonry or metal, when, 20 12 
hoop or spirals to be united so as to produce full 

strength 49 15 

footings symmetrical, concentric, to be designed, 

how 53 15 

exterior bracket to be provided, when 58 15 

carrying masonry, thickness of fire protection. .. . 99 32 



426 



Index. 



COLUMNS. 

carrying floors, thickness of fire protection 

carrying roof, thickness of fire protection 

COLUMNS, CAST-IRON. 

use of, when not permitted 

to be faced at ends, etc 

when hollow, regulations for use of 

use of, prohibited in garages 

COLUMNS, CONCRETE. 

to be reinforced, when 

unsupported, height of < 

COLUMNS AND WALLS. 

how poured, when to be poured 

COMBINATION FLOORS. 

concrete floors, with permanent blocks, to con- 
form to this act 

not to be figured as taking stress 

slab, cast monolithic, considered T section, when, 

flush ceiling, fireproofing, same as for slabs 

suspended metal lath and plaster ceiling, fire- 
proofing, same as for slabs 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 

storage of. 

COMBUSTIBLE ROOFING. 

not permitted 

COMMISSIONER. 

experience required, appointment, etc 

salary, how fixed 

appoints inspectors, employees, etc 

power to reject materials 

in charge of department 

may abate as a nuisance a building in violation of 
law 

may placard buildings: 

(a) not provided with sufficient egress 

(6) where violations of building law exist .... 
(c) unsafe or dangerous buildings 

may allow "equivalent" methods 

may appoint elevator inspectors, one for each 1,000 
elevators 

may secure unsafe buildings 

may remove unsafe buildings 



Page. 


Section. 


99 


32 


99 


32 


31 


14 


31 


14 


31 


14 


37 


14 


47 


15 


47 


15 



40 



50 

188 
188 

25 

3 
3 
3 

27 
3 

192 



15 



49 


15 


49 


15 


50 


15 


50 


15 



15 

126 

126 

13 

1 
1 
1 
14 
1 

132 



6 


4 


6 


4 


6 


4 


11 


8 


120 


38 


7 


5 


7 


5 



Index. 



COMMISSIONER. 

may support at dangerous excavations 

may order unsafe building vacated 

may require additional safeguards on elevators . . . 

may require alterations to conform to rules for new 
buildings 

may require borings for foundations 

may require fire damage repairs to conform to rules 
for new buildings 

may require inspector of piling 

may require more exits in theatres 

may require oath to application 

may require plans and specifications 

may require tests 

may require tests of cast-iron columns 

may require tests of materials 

may require inspector on concrete work 

to determine necessary egress 

to determine necessity for temporary floors 

to determine quality of materials 

to determine requirements not covered by this 
act 

to fix floor loads not specified 

to fix number gas outlets in theatres 

to grant permits 

to print Board of Appeal report 

to inspect unsafe and dangerous buildings 

to determine requirements for strength of building, 

to determine requirements for safety of occupants, 

to issue permits for alteration and repair of wooden 
buildings 

to issue permits for hazardous buildings 

to issue permits for engines, boilers, etc 

to issue permits for plumbing 

to issue permits in accordance with decisions of 
Board of Appeal 

to make record of violation 

to notify owners or agents of unsafe and dangerous 
buildings 

not to waive tenement requirements 

or inspector to examine all buildings being con- 
structed or altered, dangerous or damaged, or 
when permit has been requested 





427 


Page. 


Section. 


79 


19 


7 


4 


120 


38 


109 


35 


82 


20 


109 


35 


86 


21 


161 


99 


5 


1 


4 


1 


11 


8 


•32 


14 


27 


14 


31 


14 


19 


12 


124 


41 


26 


14 


11 


8 


112 


36 


162 


99 


4 


1 


11 


8 


6 


4 


12 


8 


12 


8 


22 


13 


187 


125 


187 


125 


173 


114 


10 


7 


5 


2 


6 


4 


153 


76 



5,6 



2,3 



428 



Index. 



COMMISSIONER. 

powers in case of violation 

to pass on exits in altered habitations 

to pass on exposure in altered habitations 

to pass on securing of seats in halls, etc 

to post notice of dangerous elevators 

to prepare sketch of typical plumbing 

to prescribe conditions for maintaining boilers and 
furnaces, steam generators and hot water 
heaters 

to prescribe conditions for certain buildings out- 
side fire limits 

to prescribe conditions for temporary structures . . 

to prescribe conditions for certain walls in steel 
frame buildings 

to prescribe fireproofing of steel in alterations. . . . 

to prescribe maximum floor loads, existing build- 
ings 

to submit annual report 

to take measures for public safety 

to approve drawings for all work 

to approve drawings for egress 

to approve elevators before used 

to approve egress for extra large areas 

to approve plumbing, chemical laboratories 

to approve plumbing, stables . . . 

to approve small openings in walls, etc 

to approve supports for vent shaft skylight 

to fix grade for cutting piles 

to decide if piling is necessary 

to determine cause and remedy for elevator ac- 
cidents 

to record examinations to raise, enlarge, alter or 

repair 

COMMISSIONER, BUILDING. (See Building 
Commissioner.) 

appointment, qualifications, terms, salary, etc 

COMMISSIONER, FIRE. 

not affected by this act 

COMMISSIONER OF WIRES. 

not affected by this act 

provisions of sect. 7 apply to 

governed by decisions of Board of Appeal 



age. 


Section. 


5 


1 


107 


35 


108 


35 


166 


105 


118 


*38 


177 


118 



187 



125 



77 


17 


13 


9 


96 


27 


101 


32 


112 


36 


4 


1 


18 


12 


18 


12 


19 


12 


118 


*38 


76 


17 


176 


117 


177 


117 


98 


31 


133 


52 


87 


21 


82 


20 


119 


*38 


6 


3 


3 


1 


15 


10 


15 


10 


10 


7 


10 


7 



Index. 



429 



Page. 

COMMON NUISANCE. 

General Laws, chap. 139 303-304 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

buildings of, exempt 14 

COMPOSITE BUILDINGS. 

fire protection and exterior finish of 16 

definition of 16 

COMPRESSION. 

on extreme fiber, bending 51 

COMPRESSION, AXIAL. 

concentric compression on columns, with longitu- 
dinal reinforcement only 51 

when their length does not exceed ten diameters 

of core 51 

COMPRESSION MEMBERS. 

cast iron, centrally loaded, safe load 37 

timber, regulation for 38 

timber centrally, loaded safe load 38 

COMPRESSION STRENGTH. 

worldng stresses, basis for design 41 

COMPUTATIONS. 

for span of beams, girders, trusses 39 

of materials, method of 39 

steel construction, method of 66-73 

methods of 39 

CONCRETE. 

reinforced concrete piling 88 

capping for wood piles 85 

composition and strength 30 

inspection of 31 

inspector to make daily reports 31 

reinforced, composition 40 

specifications to be submitted 10 

meaning of 30 

reinforced, meaning of 39 

use of, immediately after mixing 30 

forms, to remain until safe to remove 31 

inspection of, by inspectors approved by commis- 
sioner 31 

work to stop at point of low shear 40 

rules for pouring 40 

stresses of 33 

working stresses, one year old, compressive 

strength of 50 



Section. 

1-3 

10 

11 
11 

15 



15 

15 

14 
14 
14 

15 

14 
14 
16 
14 

21 
21 
14 
14 
14 
15 
S 

14 
15 
14 
14 

14 
15 
15 
14 

15 



Page. 


Section. 


28 


14 


28 


14 



36 


14 


28 


14 


48 


15 


48 


15 



430 Index. 



CONCRETE AGGREGATE. 

composition of 

cinders or slag may be used for, when 

CONCRETE BEARING PIERS, PLAIN. 

unsupported laterally not to exceed in height six 

times its least dimension 36 14 

CONCRETE BEARING WALL, PLAIN. 

unless properly braced not to exceed in height six 

times its least dimension 

CONCRETE BLOCKS. 

how made, compressive strength 

CONCRETE BUILDINGS. 

reinforced, may be of supported structural steel or 
of cast-iron columns 

said support to be fireproofed 

CONCRETE CINDER SLABS. 

thickness of, span of 46 15 

CONCRETE COLUMNS. 

to be reinfroced, when 

maximum effective area of 

longitudinal reinforcement of 

unsupported height of 

CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION. 

live and dead load 10 

CONCRETE FLOORS. 

with hollow blocks, to conform to this act 

not to be figured in taking stress 

CONCRETE FOOTINGS. 

not to be less than 12 inches in thickness 

may be stepped or battered, how 

CONCRETE PIERS. 

to be reinforced, when 47 15 

CONCRETE PILES. 

pre-cast, shall be properly designed and reinforced, 

longitudinal reinforcing, amount employed 

to be thoroughly cured before driving 

diameter or lateral dimension of 

length of ' 

allowable load on, when driven to ledge or hard 
pan 

pre-cast, to be protected against damage in 
driving 

metal shoe to be provided, when driven to ledge . . 



47 


15 


47 


15 


49 


15 


47 


15 



49 


15 


49 


15 


83 


20 


83 


20 



88 


21 


88 


21 


88 


21 


88 


21 


88 


21 


88 


21 


88 


21 



ge. 


Section. 


88 


21 


88 


21 


89 


21 



Index. 431 



CONCRETE PILES. 

cast in place, how made, placed and spaced 

average diameter of such pile 

length of such pile 

allowable load on such pile, when driven, to ledge 

or hard pan 89 21 

general provisions, metal tubes, shall not be con- 
sidered as reinforcement 89 21 

when considered as reinforcement 89 21 

safe load, when not driven to ledge, shall be deter- 
mined by commissioner 89 21 

tests, at expense of owner, may be required by 

commissioner 89 21 

load test to be made in accordance with regula- 
tions of commissioner 89 21 

load in excess of one half test load not allowed. . . 89 21 

tests to be made under supervision of commis- 
sioner 89 21 

test results to be filed with commissioner 89 21 

loads on concrete pile not to exceed thirty tons ... 89 21 

load, increments of, not to exceed 10,000 pounds 

each 90 21 

successive increments, time between 90 21 

test loads, to be applied at capping grade 90 21 

concrete piles, capping of, with masonry only 

allowable 90 21 

CONCRETE, REINFORCED. 

formulas 59-66 15 

CONSTRUCTION. 

alteration, inspection and maintenance of build- 
ings, chap. 284, 1910, building department to 
enforce building laws in Boston heretofore 
enforced by district police 240 

general v 77-79 18 

permit for 4 1 

to be supported 18 12 

CONSTRUCTION, BUILDING. (See Sepakate 
Subjects.) 

certain first and second class buildings 74-75 17 

• equivalents may be allowed by commissioner 11 

CONSTRUCTION, FIREPROOF PARTITIONS. 

to be independently supported at each floor 106 33 

to be securely fastened to ceilings 106 33 



432 Index. 

Page. Section. 
CONSTRUCTION, FIREPROOF PARTITIONS. 

to be stiffened with steel uprights, etc 106 33 

not to rest on wood flooring 106 33 

need not extend above ceiling of top story, when, 106 33 

CONTINUOUS BEAMS. 

subject to other than uniform loads, positive 

bending moment of 45 15 

CONTRACTOR. 

to submit calculation sheet 10 8 

to sign calculation sheets. 10 8 

CONTROL. 

building operations, by licensed builders, chap. 8, 

R. O. 1914 344-347 3-11 

of exits, etc., lights in theatres 161-163, 169-170 99, 111 

of ventilators in theatres 157, 171 86, 111 

COPLEY SQUARE. 

height of buildings on and near (90 feet), 1898, 

chap. 452 220 1 

CORBELS, CHIMNEY. 

restrictions relating to 23 13 

"CORNER LOT." 

definition of 124 42 

CORNICE. 

of second-class buildings, material and construc- 
tion 97 29 

CORNICE STONE. 

to balance 97 29 

projection allowed 24 13 

COTTON, PAPER STOCK, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 188 126 

COURT, MUNICIPAL. 

given jurisdiction in law proceedings 192 130 

COURTHOUSE, SUFFOLK COUNTY. 

not affected by this act 14 10 

COURTS, AREA. 

theatres, must have open 155, 156 79, 80 

COURTS, EQUITY. 

given jurisdiction to enforce provisions of this 

act 192 131 

"COURTS," TENEMENT HOUSE. 

drained 153 74 

definition of 124-125 74 

general regulations for 138 42 



Index. 433 

Page. Section. 

"COURTS," TENEMENT HOUSE. 

inner, provision for 140 59 

not to have roof or skylight 138 57 

outer, provision for 138, 139 58 

vent, regulations for 140 60 

COURTS, ZONING ACT, 1924, chap. 488. 

thirty-five foot district 285 1 1 

forty-foot district 286 12 

sixty-five foot district 287 13 

eighty-foot district 288 14 

one hundred fifty-five foot district 289 15 

CUBICLES. 

public lodging houses, prohibited, General Laws, 

chap. 140 305 33 

CURTAIN WALLS. 

in steel frame buildings, thickness 96 27 

single family dwelling, thickness of 94 23 

in all other buildings, thickness of 94 23 

not to exceed in height thirty times its thickness, 

when more than 20 feet in length 94 23 

may be less thickness, when 94 23 

CURTAINS. 

theatres must have fireproof 156 84 

CUTTING. 

for any purpose, not to reduce strength of part of 

structure below standard required by law 39 14 

CUTTING FOR PIPING. 

restrictions concerning 39 14 

D. 

DAMAGED BUILDINGS. 

commissioner to examine, and make record 6 3, 4 

may be restored to original condition or conform 

to rules for new buildings 109 35 

DAMPPROOFING. 

cellar bottom 90 22 

DANGEROUS BUILDING. 

to be placarded 6 4 

DANGEROUS BUILDINGS. 

commissioner to examine, and make record 6 3 

Gen. Laws, chap. 139 303-304 1-3 

DANGEROUS BUSINESS. 

in tenements 134 54 



434 Index. 

Page. Section. 

DANGEROUS OR UNSAFE BUILDINGS. 
to be inspected and owner notified, notice posted, 

owner to secure or remove 6,7 4, 5 

power of commissioner 7 5 

DEAD LOADS. 

weights to be assumed 1 10 36 

DECISIONS, BOARD OF APPEAL. 

applicants to have copy 9 7 

must be in writing 9 6 

specify variations, etc 9 7 

DEFECTS. 

timber to be free from 32 14 

DEFINITION, ZONING ACT, 1924, chap. 488, 288 14 

dwelling 274 

area of building 274 

hotel 274 

lot • • 275 

set back 275 

story, half 275 

yard, rear 275 

yard, side •••• 275 

accessory use 276 3 

accessory use, limitation of 277 3 

DEFINITIONS. 

certain words relating to tenement houses 124-125 42 

composite building 16 

first-class building 15 

story of a building 17 

basement 17 

cellar - 17 

number of stories of a building 17 

first story of a building 17 

light wall 84 

masonry • 16 

piers 33 

(a) solid ledge 81 20 

(6) shale 81 20 

(c) hard pan 81 20 

(d) gravel 81 20 

(e) sand, compact • • 81 20 

(/) sand, loose. 81 20 

(g) sand, medium grained • . 81 20 

(h) sand, fine grained 81 20 



4 



Index. 435 

Page. Section. 

DEFINITIONS. 

(i) hard clay 81 20 

(j) disintegrated ledge rock 81 20 

(&) medium clay 81 20 

(I) soft clay 81 20 

towns, shall include city, General Laws, chap. 4. . 299 7 

city included in town, General Laws, chap. 4 299 7 

DEMOLITION, 

permit for 4 1 

DENSE. 

definition of — classes of timber 32 14 

DEPARTMENT, BUILDING. 

organization of 3 1 

DEPTH. 

roof slabs 54 15 

DEPUTY BUILDING COMMISSIONER. 

appointments of 4 1 

powers of 4 1 

DESCRIPTION. 

to be filed with drawings, showing entire con- 
struction, assumptions, calculation of stresses, 

etc 10 8 

DESIGN. 

basis of, calculations, to be for working stresses 
and safe loads. (See Assumptions A, B, C, 

D, E) 41 15 

DETAILS, STRUCTURAL. 

to be submitted 10 8 

DIAGONAL AND SHEAR TENSION. 

for beams, with horizontal bars only, with and 

without web reinforcement 51 " 15 

DIAGONAL TENSION IN FOOTINGS. 

shearing stresses, how measured 53 15 

DILAPIDATED BUILDINGS. 

General Laws, chap. 139 303-304 1-3 

DISINTEGRATED LEDGE ROCK. 

definition of 81 20 

DISTANCE FROM LOT LINE. 

tenement house 135-137 55 

(See also, yards, inner and outer court) 124-125 42 

wooden buildings 122-123 40 



436 Index. 

Page. 
DISTRICT — BOUNDARIES OF — ZONING ACT. 
1924, chap. 488. 

thirty-five foot 285 

forty foot 286 

sixty-five foot 287 

eighty foot 288 

One hundred and fifty-five foot 289 

DISTRICT A. 

height of buildings in, defined, Special Act 1915, 

chap. 333, order of Nov. 2, 1916 249-256 

DISTRICT B. 

height of buildings in, defined, Special Act 1915, 

chap. 333, order of Nov. 2. 1916 249-256 

DISTRICT POLICE. 

not to enforce building laws in Boston, 1910, 

chap. 284 240 

DIVISION OF FLOOR AREAS. 

by walls 76 

DOORS. 

stage, in theatres, provision for 159 

in operative buildings, not to be locked, General 

Laws, chap. 149 188 

in tenement houses, existing, rear stairway, to be 

fireproofed, when 130 

on fire escapes to be metal framed, etc 21 

DOORS IN PARTY WALLS. 

size, etc 98 

"DRAIN." 

for cellar floor to have trap, etc 186 

plumbing, definition of 172 

DRAIN PIPES. 

lay out, support, details 184 

DRAINAGE FITTINGS. 

certain, must be galvanized, etc 183 

DRAINAGE OF COURTS AND YARDS. 

tenement house, to satisfaction of board of health, 153 

DRAINAGE, STABLE. 

commissioner to approve fixtures for . 177 

DRAINS, SURFACE. 

must have seal trap and back-water valve 186 

DRAWINGS. 

to be filed before permit is granted 10 



Section. 



11 

12 
13 
14 
15 



1 

17 

91 

12b 

45 
12 

31 

124 
112 

122 

121 

74 

117 

124 



Index. 



DROPPED PANEL. 

compression in bending allowable 

definition of 

depth of, below bottom of slab 

unit shear allowable 

width of, in any direction 

DRY HOUSES. 

regulation for 1913, chap. 729 

DRYING. 

concrete mixture, prematurely, from high tem- 
perature, must be avoided 

DUMB-WAITER SHAFTS. 

in tenement houses to be fireproof ed 

to be of fireproof material 

DUMB-WAITERS. 

in tenement houses to be sprinklered.when and how, 
DWELLINGS. 

in building limits, may be of third-class when. . . . 

in building limits, may be of composite, when . . . 

in building limits, to be of not more than two 
f amilies 

in building limits, restriction of 

in building limits may be converted into three 

f amilies, when 

DYNAMO. 

application to be published 

permit required 

E. 

EARTHENWARE TRAP 

EGRESS. 

means of, in case of fire 

from tenement houses, provision for 

stores and storage buildings 

outside, window openings to be protected when 
and how 

buildings, not provided with sufficient, may be 
placarded 

requisition for, and service of 

commissioner to approve before occupancy 

commissioner may vacate, when 

for large areas to be approved 

outside, projection of 





437 


?e. 


Section. 


54 


15 


54 


15 


54 


15 


54 


15 


54 


15 



245 



40 

133 
116 

129 



14 

187 
187 



175 



21 



15 

52 
38 

45 



14 


9 


13 


9 


13 


9 


13 


9 



125 
125 



117 



19 


12 


125 


43 


77 


17 



12 



6 


4 


6 


4 


19 


12 


7 


5 


76 


17 


25 


13 



438 Index. 



EGRESS. 

for second-class factories and workshops 

two means, mercantile buildings 

two means, for altered buildings over 33 feet high, 

existing buildings 

EIGHTY-FOOT DISTRICT — ZONING ACT. 
1924, chap. 488 

yards, courts, set back, area 

ELEVATOR CABLES. 

how attached 

operators, minimum age 

safety attachment required 

shaft openings, how protected and to be kept 
closed 

shaft, grill under machinery 

shaft, space between car and walls 

shaft windows to have bars 

shaft, fireproof construction 

shaft, height above roof 

shaft in tenement houses to be fireproof ed 

ELEVATOR SHAFTS. 

tenement house, regulations for 

no recess in outer wall 

not more than 4 inches between car and walls. . . . 

to be of fireproof material 

to have skylights 

in tenement houses to be sprinklered, when and 

how 129 45 

ELEVATORS. 

accidents to be reported 

inspectors may be appointed 

manufacturers required to test 

permits for, how obtained 

to be approved by commissioner before being 
used 

unsafe, commissioner to post notice 

who may operate them 

for coal or grain, not restricted by building limits, 

freight, construction of shafts and doors 

freight gates in outside doors 

freight not above first story without fireproof en- 
closure i 

freight, to have danger signals 



Page. 


Section. 


19 


12 


76 


17 


107 


35 


107 


35 


288 


14 


288 


14 


119 


*38 


119 


*38 


117 


*38 


116 


*38 


117 


*38 


118 


*38 


117 


*38 


116 


*38 


117 


*32 


133 


58 


133 


52 


118 


*38 


118 


*38 


116 


*38 


117 


*38 



119 


*38 


120 


*38 


120 


*38 


119 


*38 


118 


*38 


118 


*38 


118 


*38 


13 


9 


117 


*38 


118 


*38 


116 


*38 


117 


*38 



Index. 439 

Page. Section. 
ELEVATORS. 

governor and slack cable device required ........ . 119 * 38 

in areas and hallways to have grille 116 * 38 

in case of accident, commissioner to be notified.. 119 * 38 

not to be used until approved by commissioner.. . 118 * 38 

permit required and plans to be approved 119 * 38 

located to give easy access to machinery 119 * 38 

to be tested by manufacturer in presence of in- 
spector 120 * 38 

unsafe, penalty for use 118 * 38 

to be enclosed, etc., 1914, chap. 782 245 6 

minors under sixteen not allowed to operate, 

clean or repair. (See 1920, chap. 298) 263 1 

ELEVATORS AND HOISTS. 

exceptions 116 * 38 

fireproof enclosures for 116 * 38 

general regulations for 116-120 * 38 

EMPLOYEES, BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

to be appointed by commissioner 3 1 

to retain positions until removal or discharge. ... 3 1 

ENCLOSURES. 

fireproof for elevators and hoists 116 * 3S 

ENFORCEMENT OF BUILDING LAW. 

equity and law courts given jurisdiction 192 130 

ENFORCEMENT, ZONING ACT. 

1924, chap. 488 292 18 

ENGINE. 

application to be published 187 125 

permit required for placing 1S8 125 

ENGINEER. 

to submit calculation sheets 10 8 

ENGINES. 

not to be placed under certain parts of theatres, 169 111 

ENLARGED. 

what buildings may be 107 35 

ENLARGED BUILDINGS. 

appli cation for 4 1 

to be examined 6 3 

ENTRANCE HALLS. 

tenement house, construction of 132 48 

EQUITY COURTS. 

given jurisdiction under this act 190 129 



440 



Index. 



Page. Section. 
ESCALATOR SHAFTS. (See Elevator Regu- 
lations.) 
EXAMINATION OF BUILDINGS. 

dangerous or damaged 6 3 

under application to alter, etc 6 3 

under construction, when made 5 2 

EXAMINERS OF GAS FITTERS. 

not affected by this act 15 10 

EXCAVATIONS. 

general regulations for 79 19 

how and by whom protected 79 19 

responsibility for cost of supporting 79 19 

retaining walls for 79 19 

EXCELSIOR, COTTON, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 188 126 

EXEMPTION. 

special, from restriction of height of buildings, 

chap. 786, 1914 246 

EXEMPTIONS. 

from provision of this act 14 10 

EXHAUST PIPES. 

steam, how connected 185 122 

EXHAUSTS, STEAM. 

regulations pertaining to 184-185 122 

EXHIBITION. 

moving pictures, special, Mayor to grant permit, 

chap. 280, 1913 243 

EXISTING BUILDINGS. 

alterations of 107 35 

height allowed 107 35 

egress from 107 35 

habitation, windows, living rooms 109 35 

habitation, exposure required 109 35 

EXISTING TENEMENT HOUSES. 

defined 124 42 

requirements for lighting and ventilation 151 71 

EXISTING THEATRES. 

general regulations for 169-172 111 

EXIT LIGHTS. 

assembly rooms, to conform to law of theatres 

when ordered by Building Commissioner 167 107 



Index. 



441 



Page. Section. 
EXITS. 

in altered habitations, two required 107 35 

EXITS, ETC., LIGHTS. 

in theatres, control and supply of 169-170 111 

EXITS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

must eonform to regulations for theatres 167 107 

EXITS, ROOF GARDENS. 

requirements for 167 109 

EXITS, SIGNS. 

in existing theatres 169-170 111 

EXITS, THEATRE. 

general regulations for 162 99 

EXPLOSIVES AND COMBUSTIBLES. 

buildings for manufacturing, require permit 188 125 

EXPOSURE. 

for altered habitations, amount 10S 35 

for altered habitations, if on corner, may be 

omitted 108 35 

in altered habitations, not to apply in stores 108 35 

in altered habitations, not to be diminished 108 35 

required for existing buildings altered 108 35 

to apply to new buildings (except tenements) .... 110 35 

required, existing buildings, habitation 108 35 

EXTERIOR COLUMNS. 

reinforcement, how proportioned 48 15 

EXTERIOR ISOLATED COLUMNS. 

fire protection of 100 32 



F. 

FAMILY. 

definition, for tenement houses 

FAT BOILING. 

place must be fireproof ed 

prohibited in tenement houses 

exceptions 

FEATHERS, RAGS, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings . 
FEDERAL BUILDINGS. 

not affected by this act 

FEED, HAY, STRAW, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings . 



124 



42 



134 


53 


134 


53 


134 


53 


18S 


. 126 


14 


10 


188 


126 



442 



Index. 



Page. Section. 



FEES, 
for permits and licenses, authorized, chap. 571, 

1910 • 241 

collection of, authorized by 1910, chap. 571 241 

for appeals • 10 

FENCE, 
erected to annoy, etc., prohibited, General Laws, 

chap. 49. 300 

FENCE (SPITE). 

height of allowable, General Laws, chap. 49 300 

a nuisance when, General Laws, chap. 49 300 

FERRULES, CLEAN-OUTS, ETC. 

required diameter and weights of 179 

FIRE. 

means of egress in case of 19 

FIRE COMMISSIONER. 

not affected by this act 15 

FIRE DAMAGE, 
how restored 109 

FIRE DOORS. 

in party walls, size, etc • • • ■ 98 

shafts stores, warehouses 74-77 

FIRE-ESCAPES. 

in mercantile buildings 76 

interior and exterior in tenement houses 125-127 

minimum load HI 

obstruction of, to be removed by, General Laws, 

chap. 148 338 

stores and storage buildings 76 

in what they shall consist 125, 126 

theatres, outside to be lighted 162, 170 

windows opening on 20 

FIRE PREVENTION. 

see also chap. 320, Acts of 1918 397 

order of Fire Marshal, to apply to occupant, 

General Laws, chap. 148 323 

exceptions to above, when alterations become real 

estate, they apply to owner, General Laws, 

chap. 148 323 

tanks for storage of fluids, General Laws, chap, 

14S 339 



21 

21 
21 

121 

12 

10 

35 

31 

17 

17 
43 

36 

39D 

17 

43 

99, 111 

12 



41 

41 
54 



Index. 443 

Page. Section. 
FIRE PREVENTION. 

tanks, Department of Public Safety to make rules 
relative to their construction, use and main- 
tenance, General Laws, chap. 148 340 55 

application of certain sections, General Laws, 

chap. 148 334 2 

delegation of powers, General Laws, chap. 148 334 31 

paints or inflammable fluids, General Laws, chap. 

148 336 32 

combustible materials, General Laws, chap. 148 . . 335 33 
combustible refuse, removal of, General Laws, 

chap. 148 336 34 

salamanders, use of, General Laws, chap. 148 .... 336 35 

automatic sprinklers, General Laws, chap. 148 . . . 337 36 

dry pipes in basements, General Laws, chap. 148, 337 37 

penalty, General Laws, chap. 148 337 38 

additional powers given Fire Marshal, General 

Laws, chap. 148 338 39 

(a) relative to portable fire extinguishers 338 39 

(6) relative to accumulation of rubbish, etc 338 39 

(<2) egress, obstacles to 338 39 

(e) relative to prevention of fires 338 39 

(h) chimney flues and vent pipes, cleaning of. . . 338 39 

(i) roof skylights, safe guards over 338 39 

'(k) signs, etc., on roofs 338 39 

(m) defining classes of buildings to be sprinkled, 338 39 
FIRE PREVENTION LAW. 

General Laws, chap. 148 334-340 

FIRE PROTECTION. 

general requirements for 98-101 32 

of main reinforcement in floor slabs 41 15 

in beams, girders, columns and walls 41 15 

all structural metal to be fire protected 101 32 

to consist of: 

(a) concrete 98 32 

(b) terracotta 99 32 

(c) brick work • 99 32 

(d) other materials 99 32 

thickness of: 

on columns carrying masonry 99 32 

on columns carrying floor 99 32 

on columns carrying roof 99 32 

on beams carrying masonry 100 32 



444 



Index. 



FIRE PROTECTION, 
thickness of: 

on girders carrying masonry 

on trusses carrying masonry 

on beams carrying roof or floors 

on girders carrying roof or floors 

on trusses carrying roof or floors 

on beams deeper than 15 inches 

on beams having a flange width of more than 7 
inches 

on lugs, brackets, braces, etc 

about isolated columns, exterior 

plaster on metal lath not a fire protection 

metal lath and plaster, when used as suspended 

ceilings 

metal lath and plaster, total thickness 

pipes, wires, cables, or other material, not to be 

embedded in fireproofing of structural members, 

exemptions: 

(a) where wood is permitted for same purpose 

in lieu of metal 

(b) structural metal which faces on enclosed 

spaces, etc 

(c) lintel angles under stone or brick 

(d) buildings built of better class than required 

by law 

(e) metal work in non-bearing partitions 

metal work for f urrings 

metal work to support finish 

metal work for stair construction 

suspension rods for balconies 

steel work for theatre stages 

steel work for fly galleries 

steel work for rigging lofts 

(/) metal other than columns, carrying only 
roof loads, ceilings or suspended balconies 

not over 8 feet wide 

suspended ceiling, construction of 

in alterations, to be made satisfactory to com- 
missioner 

metal guards or wood may be substituted for, 
when liable to injury 



Page. 


Section. 


100 


32 


100 


32 


100 


32 


100 


32 


100 


32 


100 


32 


100 


32 


100 


32 


100 


32 


100 


32 


100 


32 


100 


32 



100 



101 



32 



32 



101 


32 


101 


32 


101 


32 


101 


32 


101 


32 


101 


32 


101 


32 


101 


32 


101 


32 


101 


32 


101 


32 


101 


32 


101 


32 


101 


32 


102 


32 



Index. 445 

Page. Section. 

FIRESTOPPING. 

between stair stringers 102 32 

in alteration work in first story and basement, 

mercantile 107 35 

in studding and furring 102 32 

of bearing partitions 102 32 

of floors : 103 32 

to be approved by commissioner 103 32 

second-class buildings, to be firestopped 102, 103 32 

in second-class buildings 102, 103 32 

to fill all openings where applied 102 32 

rat refuge, spaces creating same prohibited 103 32 

third-class buildings to be firestopped 102, 103 32 

in third-class buildings 102 32 

roof, stairways, chimneys 102 32 

how applied 102 32 

FIRE TEST. 

method of determining 12 8 

FIRE WALLS. 

above roof 97 28 

FIREPLACE. 

construction ; . 97 30 

FIREPROOF ENCLOSURES. 

for shafts in first-class warehouse 75 17 

FIREPROOF PARTITIONS. 

support of 104 33 

how to be constructed 104, 105 33 

in first-class buildings 104, 105 33 

to be constructed of following materials: 

(a) brick, cement mortar 104 33 

(b) concrete, 1-3-6, not less than 4 inches 

thick, 3 inches when reinforced with steel, 104 33 

(c) cinder concrete, 1-3-6, not less than 5 inches 

thick and 4 inches when reinforced with 

steel 105 33 

(d) hollow terra cotta blocks, 3 inches thick . . 105 33 

(e) hollow concrete blocks, 3 inches thick 105 33 

(/) solid or hollow gypsum blocks, 3 inches 

thick 105 33 

(rj) metal lath on steel studding Portland 
cement mortar, 2 inches thick for solid 

partitions, 3 inches for hollow partitions, 105 33 



446 Index. 

Page. Section. 
FIREPROOF PARTITIONS. 

to be constructed of following materials: 

(h) material approved by commissioner when 

in conformity with required fire test. ... 105 33 
pressed metal and glass, at discretion of com- 
missioner 105 33 

temporary partitions of wood and glass within 

rooms inclosed by fireproof walls 105 33 

partitions in excess of 15 feet in height to be 
increased in thickness 1 inch for every addi- 
tional 8 feet 105 33 

support of 106 33 

tests of, method to be employed 106 33 

FIREPROOF STAIRWAYS. 

in mercantile buildings 75-76 17 

FIREPROOF WINDOWS. 

in mercantile and manufacturing buildings 116 37 

FIREPROOFING. 

not to be reduced 11 8 

regulations for . 98-101 32 

of beams, girders, columns, etc 98-101 32 

of stair halls in tenements 131 46 

of steel and iron in alterations, as approved by 

commissioner 101 32 

under self-centering reinforcements 47 15 

flush ceiling, same as for slabs. . 50 15 

suspended metal lath plastered ceiling, same as 

for slabs 50 15 

FIRST-CLASS BUILDING. 

definition of 15 11 

warehouse to have fireproof enclosures and auto- 
matic doors 75 17 

what buildings to be 74 17 

area, restriction of, how and when 75 17 

division walls required, when 76 17 

area, limited to 10,000 square feet 76 17 

area, may exceed 10,000 square feet, when 76 17 

foundations 80-83 20 

tenement houses, basement to be sprinklered, 

when 129 45 

FIRST STORY OF A BUILDING. 

definition of 17 11 



Index. 447 

Page. Section. 
FITTINGS. 

must be galvanized, etc 183 121 

"FIXTURE." 
plumbing, meaning of term 172 112 

FLAT SLABS. 

floor slabs supported upon columns, etc 53 15 

FLOOR ANCHORS. 

floor anchors or ties 20 12 

FLOOR AND ROOF JOISTS. 

minimum bearing 106 34 

on corbels or hangers 106 34 

splayed at ends 106 34 

FLOOR AREAS. 

undivided, maximum 76 17 

FLOOR JOISTS. 

distance between ends • . • • 23 13 

distance from chimney 23 13 

FLOOR LOADS. (See Live Loads.) 

for existing buildings, commissioner to fix 112 36 

minimum Ill 36 

reduction for columns, piers, walls and founda- 
tions 113 36 

to be posted 112 36 

least capacity for Ill 36 

FLOOR OPENINGS. 

framing of . 46 15 

to be kept closed 117 38 

FLOOR SLABS. 

main reinforcement to be fire protected 41 15 

FLOOR TILES, TERRA COTTA. 

average strength, how computed 27 14 

compressive strength of 27 14 

to be tight to prevent loss of material in pouring, 40 15 

FLOOR TIMBER. 

not to be within 2 inches of chimney 23 13 

FLOORING DURING CONSTRUCTION. 

regulations for 124 41 

FLOORS. 

how fire stopped in second and third class con- 
struction 103 32 

security of, requirements for floor ties 20 12 



448 Index. 

Page. Section. 
FLOORS. 

small openings in, to be approved by commis- 
sioner 98 31 

theatre, required levels of 155 82 

stage, requirements for 156 85 

to be constructed to carry loads proposed safely. . Ill 36 

FLOORS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS. 

commissioner to prescribe maximum loads for. ... 112 36 

FLOORS, WOODEN. 

furnaces and boilers not to be placed on " 23 13 

FLUES, CHIMNEY. 

height of 18 12 

lining required for certain 19 12 

FLUES, VENTILATING. 

must be of incombustible material 21 12 

FLUSH CEILING. 

fireproofing, same as for slabs 50 15 

FOOTING LOADS. 

relative to 83 20 

full dead loads and figured live loads to be pro- 
vided for in determining required area for foot- 
ings 83 20 

FOOTING STONE. 

requirements for 83 20 

FOOTINGS. 

bending moment, rectangular, isolated columns. . 53 15 

punching shear in, columns, effective area to 

resist 53 15 

diagonal tension in 53 15 

symmetrical concentric columns, to be designed, 

how 53 15 

foundations, relative to 80-83 20 

of foundation walls or piers, to consist of 83 20 

of wood, when allowable 83 20 

concrete, to be not less than 12 inches in thick- 
ness 83 20 

FOOTINGS, GENERAL. 

symmetrical, concentric column footings, to be 
designed for punching shear, diagonal tension 

and bending moment 53 15 

FORMS FOR CONCRETE. 

when and how to be removed 30 14 



Index. 



449 



Page. Section. 



FORMULAS, REINFORCED CONCRETE CON- 
STRUCTION. 

1. Standard notation: 

(a) rectangular beams 60 

(b) T-beams 60 

(c) beams reinforced for compression 60 

(d) shear, bond and web reinforcement ...... 60 

(e) columns. 61 

2. Formulas: 

(a) rectangular beams : 

1, position of neutral axis 61 

2, arm of resisting couple. 61 

3, 4, fiber stresses 62 

5, steel ratio, for balance reinforcement, 62 

(b) T-beams: 

Case I. When the neutral axis lies in the 
flange, use the formulas for rectangular 
beams 62 

Case II. When the neutral axis lies in 
the stem. 

The following formulas neglect the com- 
pression in the stem: 

6, position of neutral axis 64 

7, position of resultant compression 64 

8, arm of resisting couple 63 

9, 10, fiber stresses 63 

For approximate results the formulas for 

rectangular beams may be used. The 
following formulas take into account 
the compression in the stem; they ate 
recommended where the flange is small 
compared with the stem: 

11, position of neutral axis 63 

12, position of resultant compression. ... 63 

13, arm of resisting couple 63 

14, 15, fiber stresses 63 

(c) beams reinforced for compression: 

16, position of neutral axis 64 

17, position of resultant compression. ... 64 

18, arm of resisting couple 64 

19, 20, 21, fiber stresses 64, 65 

(d) shear, bond and web reinforcement: 

22, 23, for rectangular beams 65 



15 
15 
15 
15 
15 



15 
15 
15 
15 



15 



15 
15 
15 
15 



15 
15 

15 
15 

15 
15 
15 
15 

15 



450 Index. 

Page. Section. 
FORMULAS, REINFORCED CONCRETE 
CONSTRUCTION. 
2. Formulas: 

stresses in web reinforcement: 

24, vertical web reinforcement 65 15 

25, bars bent up, horizontal and web 

members inclined 65 15 

26, 27, T-beams 66 15 

(e) columns : 

28, total safe load 66 15 

29, 30, unit stresses 66 15 

FORTY-FOOT DISTRICT — ZONING ACT, 

1924, chap. 488. 
yards, courts, set-back area 286 12 

"FOUNDATION." 

definition of 16 11 

FOUNDATION PIERS. 

may be used to carry foundation down to ledge, 
etc 83 20 

FOUNDATIONS. 

construction or alteration of, requires permit 18 12 

depths below frost 80, 120 20, 39 

for first and second class buildings, materials 82 20 

for wooden buildings, materials and thickness .... 1 20 39 

metal in, protected with concrete, etc 90 22 

metal work in, protected from dampness 90 22 

not to overload soil 80 20 

of rubble stone, when used 82 20 

walls, thickness 93 23 

rust protection 41 15 

relative to 80 20 

footings of 80 20 

when laid in freezing weather, to be adequately 

protected 80 20 

satisfactory bearing material, means 80 20 

maximum allowable bearing value of, as follows: 

solid ledge rock, 100 ton per square foot 80 20 

shale and hardpan, 10 tons per square foot .... 80 20 

gravel and compact sand, 6 tons per square foot, 80 20 

hard, yellow clay, 6 tons per square foot 80 20 

sand, coarse or medium, dry or wet, 5 tons per 

square foot 81 20 



Index. 



451 

Page. Section. 



FOUNDATIONS. 

maximum allowable bearing value of, as follows: 
hard, blue clay, mixed or unmixed with sand, 5 

tons per square foot 81 20 

disintegrated ledge rock, 5 tons per square foot, 81 20 
medium stiff or plaster clay, mixed or unmixed 

with sand, 4 tons per square foot 81 20 

fine grained dry sand, 4 tons per square foot. . . 81 20 
fine grained wet sand (confined), 3 tons per 

square foot 81 20 

soft clay protected against lateral displacement, 

2 tons per square foot 81 20 

first and second class buildings (brick, stone or 

concrete), thickness of 93 23 

when below grade, how figured 82 20 

stone, to be square split 82 20 

rubble, thickness of 82 20 

walls, to be properly bonded 83 20 

piling. (See Pile Foundations, section 21.) 

steel grillage, relative to 83 20 

wooden buildings (third-class) 120 39 

FRAME OF WOODEN BUILDING. 

described 121 39 

FRAMING. 

wood buildings (third-class) 121 39 

all parts to be of sufficient strength 121 39 

wall girts to be not less than 4 inch by 6 inch 121 39 

ledger boards, not permissible when 121 39 

studs not over 20 inches on centers 121 39 

all angles between partitions and partitions and 

walls to be blocked strongly to form solid corners, 121 39 

posts to be securely braced 121 39 

ledger boards, space behind, to be filled 121 39 

braces to repeat in each story 121 39 

braces shall not be smaller than 3-inch studding. 121 39 

wall girts to be framed to posts and pinned when, 121 39 

to be securely nailed, or framed or ironed together, 121 39 

FREEZING. 

precautions to be taken to prevent. 40 15 

FURNACE. 

distance below ceiling 103 32 

permit required for setting 4, 187 1, 125 



452 



Index. 



Page. Section. 
FURNACE AND SMOKE PIPES, 
furnace, top of, to be 12 inches at least below 

ceiling 103 32 

smoke pipes to be 12 inches below ceiling 103 32 

ceilings over, to be protected 103 32 

FURNACE PIPES. 

to be kept 1 inch from woodwork 24 13 

FURNACES AND BOILERS. 

commissioner may prescribe conditions for main- 
tenance '. 187 125 

public hearings on 187 125 

not to be placed on wooden floors 23 13 

under certain parts of theatres 165, 169, 104, 111 

FURRING. 

distance from chimney 23 13 

fire stopped, where and how 102 32 

not within 1 inch of chimney 23 13 

FURTHER REQUIREMENTS. 

for strength determined by commissioner 12 8 



Q. 

GARAGES. 

erection and maintenance of. 

chap. 342, 1911 242 

chap. 259, 1912 242 

chap. 577, 1913 243-245 

chap. 115, 1918, Special Act 37 

cast-iron columns, use of, in prohibited 37 

to be first-class construction, 1911, chap. 342 242 

meaning of (contains five or more cars), 1911, 

chap. 342 242 

exempt, Newbury street 337, chap. 259 of 1912.. . . 242 

license for, Street Commissioners, 1913, chap. 557, 243 

metal, regulations for, 1918 Special Act, chap. 115, 260 
and chap. 577 of 1913, as amended by chap. 

316 of 1922 243 

as amended by chap. 42, of 1927 380 

GARBAGE. 

receptacle in altered habitations 108 

GARBAGE AND ASHES. 

tenement-house, receptacles for 153 

garbage . 190 



1-4 
1 

1-5 

1 

14 

1 

2 
1 

1 
1 



35 

75 

128 



Index. 453 

Page. Section. 
GARDENS, ROOF. {See Roof Gardens.) 

above theatres, provision for 167 108 

GAS FITTERS, BOARD OF EXAMINERS OF. 

not affected by this act 15 10 

"GAS FITTING." 

definition of 17, 220 11 

municipal court given jurisdiction in law cases.. . . 192 130 

permit for 210 7 

1897, chap. 265 207-212 1-14 

license required 207 1 

journeyman means 207 1 

examination required 208 2 

qualifications required 208 2 

Board of Examiners of 208 3 

examinations, times and places for holding same . . 208 4 

examinations, practical knowledge required 208 4 

license, board to issue 208 4 

license, fees for same 208 4 

inspectors, duties, compensation, removal 209 5 

license number, to be displayed at place of business 210 6 

application for, to be filed 210 7 

permit for, required 2 10 7 

timbers, beams, girders, not to be cut into 211 8 

meter to be removed only by Gas Company 211 8 

gas brackets 211 9 

gas fixtures, etc., Board of Health to inspect 211 10 

penalty 211 11 

annual report on 212 12 

repeals 212 13 

Revised Regulations: 

authorized by 1897, chap. 265 212 

took effect October 1, 1898 212 

amended August 16, 1899, March 12, 1918 — 

July 9, 1923 — January 8, 1924 212 

leaks, repair of, notice 212 1 

pipes or fitting not to be concealed until ap- 
proved 213 2 

pipe not to be subjected to strain 213 3 

outlets, burners, number of 213 4 

pipes to be properly protected 213 5 

swing brackets 213 6 

stop-pins 213 7 

gas fitters, cement prohibited 213 8 



454 Index. 

Page. Section. 
"GAS FITTING." 
Revised Regulations: 

inside service to be tested 

service pipe (inside) to be tested 

service pipe to have main cock 

main cock required on service pipes 

final test to be made by gas fitter 

final tests to be made in presence of inspector . . 
gas fitter to make final test in presence of 

inspector 

material of gas pipes 

gas pipes, material of 

brass nipples 

risers 

scale for piping 

piping, scale for 

brass piping used outside finish is a fixture 

outlets and risers, to be capped, when 

outlets for fixtures 

shields, when required 

brass tubing, when used for arms or fixtures . . . 

threads on brass pipe 

rope or square tubing 

cast fittings 

plugs of all cocks 

stems of fixtures 

L-burner cocks when not allowed 

outlets for gas ranges 

gas ranges, outlets for 

pipes to be laid above timbers • 

second-hand gas pipe not allowed 

drops or outlets 

outlets, how fastened 

weight of gas pipes, pounds per foot 

gas pipe, weight of, pounds per foot 

gas pipe not to be laid within 6 inches of electric 

wire 218 27 

spark or self-fighting burners to be tested with 

mercury test 

gas engines 

exhaust pipes 

diaphragms and bags 

pipes connecting gas engines, size of. 



214 


9 


214 


9 


214 


10 


214 


10 


214 


11 


214 


11 


214 


11 


214 


12 


214 


12 


214 


13 


215 


14 


215 


15 


215 


15 


215 


15 


215 


16 


215 


17 


215 


18 


216 


19 


216 


19 


216 


19 


216 


20 


216 


20 


216 


20 


216 


20 


216 


21 


216 


21 


216 


22 


217 


23 


217 


24 


217 


25 


217 


26 


217 


26 



218 


28 


218 


29 


218 


29 


218 


29 


218 


29 



Index. 



455 



Page. Section. 
"GAS FITTING." 
Revised Regulations: 

gas not to be turned on until piping and fixtures 

approved 219 30 

connections with gas appliances 219 31 

rubber or flexible tubing not allowed 220 32 

hosecock and independent fitting 220 33 

definition of, 1907, chap. 550 17, 220 11 

GAS PIPE OUTLETS. 

theatre, two required 162 99 

inspection of 162 99 

GATES IN STAGE STANDPIPES. 

of theatres 165, 171, 104, 111 

GENERAL RESIDENCE DISTRICT — ZON- 
ING ACT. 

1924 — chap. 488 277 4 

GENERAL BUSINESS DISTRICT — ZONING 
ACT. 

1924 — chap. 488 ■ . . 277 4 

GIRDER PLATE. 

flanges, proportion of 69 16 

stiffeners, to be provided, when 69 16 

intermediary stiffeners 69 16 

GIRDERS. 

computation of, for span of 39 14 

main reinforcement, to be fire-protected 41 15 

GIRDERS AND BEAMS. 

relating to 69 16 

GONGS. 

in hotels, lodging houses, etc., when required, 

General Laws, chap. 143 323 44 

GRAIN ELEVATORS. 

not affected by building limits 13 9 

require permit for use 187 125 

GRANITE. 

stresses of 86 14 

GRAVEL. 

definition of 81 40 

maximum allowable bearing value in foundation, 80 20 

run of bank, use of, when allowed 29 14 

GRILLAGE BEAMS. 

how to be figured for each kind of stress 39 14 

GROUT. 

stresses for 36 14 



456 Index. 

Page. Section. 
H. 
HABITABLE BUILDINGS. 

combustible materials not to be housed in 188 126 

HABITATION. 

main staircase 1 28 45 

first story or basement may be used for mercantile 

purposes 74 17 

when to be first, second or third class 74 17 

second-class building, height of and area of 74 17 

basement or first story may be used for store .... 74 17 

"HALL, PUBLIC." 

tenement house, defined 125 42 

requirements for 128 45 

"HALL, STAIR." 

tenement house, defined 125 42 

construction of 131 46 

HALLS. 

capacity of 166 105 

general requirements for 165-167 105 

must be fireproof, when 166 105 

moving picture exhibition in, Mayor to grant 

permit for, chap. 280, 1913 243 1 

HALLS, ENTRANCE. 

tenement house, construction of 132 48 

HALLS OR ASSEMBLY ROOMS. 

aisles to be kept clear 167 105 

arrangement of seats, passages, etc 166 105 

buildings altered, for, conform to law 166 105 

construction, requirements 165-167 105 

exits, same as for theatres 167 107 

seating capacity, how reckoned 166 105 

seats secured during performances 166 105 

HANDRAILS. 

theatre stairs, requirements for 164 102 

HANGERS OR STIRRUP, 
for trimmers, headers, floor beams 20 12 

HARBOR LINES. 

South bay, 1921, chap. 137 265 1 

HARD BRICK. 

ultimate compression strength 27 14 

HARD CLAY, 
definition of 81 20 



Index. 457 

Page. Section. 

HARDPAN. 

definition of 71 20 

maximum, allowable bearing value in foundations, 80 20 

HAY, STRAW, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 188 126 

HAZARDOUS BUILDINGS. 

appliances for power and beat 187 125 

hearings on boilers and furnaces for 187 125 

must have permits 187 125 

application, hearings, etc 187 125 

HEADERS AND TRIMMERS. 

rules for 20 12 

HEADERS, WOODEN. 

requirements for 20 12 

HEALTH, BOARD OF. 

may limit number of occupants in any building . . 189 128 

not to be affected by this act 15 10 

powers of, defined 180, 190 128 

HEARINGS, PUBLIC. 

hazardous buildings and appliances for power and 

heat 1S7 125 

HEARTHS. 

size and how supported 97 30 

HEARTHS AND PIERS. 

regulations for 97 30 

HEAT AND POWER. 

appliances for, in hazardous buildings 187-188 125 

HEATING APPARATUS. 

theatre, under auditoriums, regulations for 165 104 

HEATING FURNACES. 

ceiling over to be w ire lathed and plastered 103 32 

hot air pipes, to be 1 inch from woodwork 103 32 

top, of, to be 12 inches below ceiling 103 32 

(Also see Furnaces.) 

HEIGHT. 

of altered buildiDgs not to be increased 107 35 

of buildings to width of street 77 IS 

of buildings, special acts governing 79 18 

maximum, for all buildings 77 IS 

existing buildings 107 35 

HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS, 
height limit (70 feet) special exemptions, 1905, 

chap. 383 232-23S 



458 Index. 

Page. Section. 
HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS. 

height limit, no limitation of, 1905, chap. 383, as 

amended by chap; 174 of 1922 232-238 

on street exceeding -64 feet in width, 1905, chap. 

- 383, order of July 21, 1905 232-238 

parkway restriction, 1905, chap. 383, order of July 

21, 1905 232-238 

eighty-foot exception, 1905, chap. 383, order of 

July 21, 1905 232-238 

district B may be 125 feet, when, 1905, chap. 383, 

order of July 21, 1905 '. . . . 232-238 

Mechanic Arts High School, 1905, chap. 383, order 

of November 30, 1905 232-238 

Rutherford avenue (100 feet), 1907, chap. 416 238 1 

Washington street, corner Lovering place, 1914, 

chap. 786 246 1 

district A, extension of, 1915, Special Act, chap. 

333 249-256 

district A, order November 2, 1916, East Bos- 
ton (1) 251 

district A, order November 2, 1916, Charlestown 

(2) 252 

district A, order November 2, 1916, Boston proper 

(3) 253 

district A, order November 2, 1916, Roxbury (3). 253 

district A, order November 2, 1916, Dorchester 

(3) 254 

district A, order November 2, 1916, South Boston 

(3) - ■ •• 254 

district B, order of November 2, 1916 250 

limitation of, Dartmouth street, Trinity place, 

Stuart street, 1920, chap. 455 263 1 

definition of . . » 16 11 

regulations for 77 18 

Copley square. 

chap. 452, 1898 220 

vicinity of State House, limited. 

chap. 457, 1899 222 

on Beacon street and Bowdoin street. 

chap. 543, 1902 223-225 

in Boston. 

chap. 333, 1904 226-232 

chap. 383, 1905 232-23S 

on Rutherford avenue. 

chap. 416, 1907 '. 238 



Index. 459 

Page. Section. 
HEIGHT OF BUILDINGS, 
special exemption. 

chap. 786, 1914 245 

special commission appointed to determine and 
revise boundaries of districts A and B, Special 

Act, 1915, chap. 333 249-256 

on Parkways, order of July 21, 1905 236 

height limit, district A, 1904, chap. 333 249-256 

height limit, district B, 1904, chap. 333 249-256 

exceptions, 1904, chap. 333 249-256 

HEIGHT OF WOODEN BUILDING. 

if altered not to be increased in some cases 22 13 

HOIST AND ELEVATORS. 

fireproof enclosures for 116 * 38 

exceptions 116 * 38 

HOLLOW BLOCK WALLS. 94 23 

HOLLOW STEEL COLUMN. 

circular, filled with concrete, load allowance 48 15 

HOSPITALS. 

registration of, 1919, Special Act, chap. 32 260 1 

construction, alteration and maintenance of, 1919, 

Special Act, chap. 163 261 

first-class 261 1 

second-class 261 1 

third-class 261 1 

shafts in, to be sprinklered 261 2 ■ 

stairs and halls to be kept lighted 262 3 

shafts to be enclosed in basement 262 4 

registration required 262 7 

HOT AIR PIPES. 

to be not less than 1 inch from woodwork 24 13 

HOTELS. 

watchman, lights, gongs, etc., in, General Laws, 

chap. 143 323 44 

HOT WATER HEATERS. 

commissioner may prescribe conditions for mainte- 
nance 187 125 

HOUSES. Tenement. (See Tenement Houses.) 

1. 

ILLEGAL STRUCTURES. 

may be ordered removed by Superior Court 191 1 29 

use of, maintenance of, may be restrained by 

Superior Court 191 129 



460 Index. 



Page. Section. 



INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT — ZONING ACT. 

1924, chap. 488 280 7 

INJUNCTION. 

Superior Court may issue, to restrain, maintenance 

or use of illegal structures 191 129 

INNER COURT. 

defined 125 42 

for tenement house, size 140 59 

INSPECTION. 

of concrete work 31 14 

alterations, construction and maintenance of 

buildings, chap. 284, 1910 240 

theatres and public halls, General Laws, chap. 143, 

sect 36 320 

(See Requirement under section 14) 40 15 

INSPECTION, BUILDING. 

commissioner, or inspectors, to examine all build- 
ings being constructed or altered 5 2 

INSPECTION OF CONCRETE. 

to be done by inspector approved by commis- 
sioner 31 14 

INSPECTION, PLUMBING. 

work must be approved 174 1 16 

INSPECTOR. 

of concrete to be approved by commissioner 31 14 

to be on work while concrete is being mixed and 

poured 31 14 

to make daily report of progress and condition of 

work 31 14 

INSPECTORS, BUILDING. 

appointed by commissioner 

may enter any building or premises 

qualifications required of 

to examine all buildings for which permits have 
been requested 

to examine dangerous and damaged buildings. . . . 

to examine unsafe or dangerous buildings 

to make record of violations 

to post notice on unsafe or dangerous buildings. . . 

to post notice of violations 

to post notice of insufficient egress 



3 


I 


12 


129 


3 


1 


6 


3 


6 


3 


6 


4 


5 


2 


6 


4 


6 


4 


6 


4 



Index. 461 

Page. Section. 
INSPECTORS, ELEVATOR. 

commissioner may appoint 120 * 38 

INTAKE. 

defined 125 42 

for tenement houses, size, etc 141 61 

in tenement houses, size and skylight over 133 52 

tenement houses, provision for 141 61 

INTERIOR BAYS. 

formula, panels 53 15 

INTERIOR COLUMNS. 

least dimensions, supporting flat slabs 58 15 

IRON COLUMNS. 

wrought circular 48 15 

IRON, WROUGHT AND CAST. 

strength of 31 14 

ISOLATED COLUMNS. 

on exterior of buildings, protection of 100 32 

J. 

JAIL, SUFFOLK COUNTY. 

not affected by this act 14 10 

JOINT BOLTS. 

where required 20 12 

JOINTS. 

how formed, between concrete .'. . . 30 . 14 

JOISTS. » 

floor and roof, in walls of second-class buildings . . 106 34 

JURISDICTION. 

given courts of equity 190 129 

law 192 130 

K. 

KITCHENETTE. 

least dimension of 21 12 

in tenement houses to be sprinklered, when and 

how 129 45 

KNOTS. 

timber to be free from 32 14 

L. 

LABORATORIES, CHEMICAL. 

plumbing of, to be approved by commissioner. . . . 176 117 

LADDERS. 

to roof scuttles 18, 127 12, 44 



462 



Index. 



Page. Section. 
LANDINGS, STAIR. 

theatre, required dimensions of 163 101 

LAW COURTS. 

given jurisdiction under this act 192 130 

LAWS. 

certain former acts applicable 79 18 

LEAD PIPES. 

size and weight, plumbing 178 121 

LEADERS. 

capacity required 185 122 

how connected 186 124 

where not to discharge 185 122 

LEADERS, ROOF. 

projection of 185 122 

requirements for 186 124 

"LEAKS, REPAIR OF." 

plumbing, definition of 172 112 

LEDGE ROCK. 

disintegrated, definition of 81 20 

disintegrated, maximum allowable bearing value 

in foundation 80 20 

solid, maximum allowable bearing value in foun- 
dation 80 20 

LEDGE, SOLID. 

definition of 81 20 

LEDGER, BOARDS. 

prohibited when 121 39 

LESSEE UNDER RECORDED LEASE. 

deemed owner of building or structure 189 27 

LESSEES. 

when responsible for maintenance 189 127 

LEVELLERS. 

block granite on piles 85 21 

LICENSED BUILDERS. 

to control building operations, chap. 8, R. O., 

1914, as amended 344-347 

LICENSES. 

fees for, authorized, chap. 571, 1910 241 

plumbers, chap. 76, acts of 1928 394 

LICENSING. 

theatres and public halls, 1907, chap. 463 239 



Index. 



463 



LIGHT AND VENTILATION. 

of existing tenement houses 

of rooms in tenement houses 

of stair halls in tenement houses 

tenement house, provision for 

LIGHT SHAFT. 

in tenement houses to be sprinklered, when and 
how 

LIGHT SHAFTS. 

of fireproof material 

LIGHT WALL. 

definition of 

LIGHTING, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

board of health may regulate 

LIGHTS. 

in hotels, lodging houses, etc., when required, 

General Laws, chap. 143 323 

LIGHTS, EXIT. 

public buildings must conform to theatre require- 
ments -. . . 167 

LIME. 

composition of, allowable 29 

LIME MORTAR. 

composition of, allowable 29 

LIMESTONE. 

stress of 36 

LIMITS. 

building, outline of, chap. 41, R. O. 1914 347 

LINING, CHIMNEY. 

when required 19 

LINTELS. 

on extension of buildings, protection of 101 

LINTELS, CAST-IRON. 

regulations for use of ". 32 

to be not less than J inch in thickness 32 

not to be used for spans over 6 feet .... 32 

LIVE LOADS. 

for various buildings Ill 

LOAD TEST. 

to be i of total load, when 12 

commissioner may require 12 



Page. Section. 


150 


70 


142 


63 


144 


66 


>-137 


55 


129 


45 


116 


*38 


84 


21 


189 


128 



44 

107 

14 
14 
14 

12 

32 

14 
14 
14 

36 



Page. 


Section. 


12 


8 


12 


8 


46 


15 


46 


15 



464 Index. 



LOAD TEST. 

owner to make at his expense 

how determined, in exceptional cases 

LOADS. 

slabs, supported on four sides, distribution of ... . 

proportion of, of beams, supporting rectangular 

slabs 

dead loads: 

to consist of weight of walls, floors, roofs and 

permanent partitions 110 36 

weights to be assumed per cubic foot pounds: 

beech, 42 pounds 

birch, 42 pounds 

brickwork, 120 pounds 

concrete, cinder, structural, 108 pounds 

concrete cinder, floor filling, 96 pounds 

concrete, stone, 144 pounds 

Douglas fir, 36 pounds 

granite, 168 pounds 

granolithic surface, 144 pounds. 

limestone, 150 pounds 

maple, 42 pounds 

marble, 168 pounds 

oak, 48 pounds 

pine, southern yellow, 42 pounds. 

sandstone, 144 pounds 

spruce, 30 pounds 

terra cotta, architectural voids unfilled, 72 
pounds 

voids filled, 120 pounds 

gravel, pounds per square foot, 6 

slag, pounds per square foot, 6 

felt roofing, pounds per square foot, 6 

plastering on metal laths, exclusive of furring, 

pounds per square foot, 8 Ill 36 

live loads: 

includes all loads except dead loads 

permit to state purpose of building 

floors to bear safely weight to be imposed and 

dead load 

stairs to bear safely weights to be imposed and 

dead load 



110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 


110 


36 



111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 



Index. 465 



LOADS. 

live loads: 

safe per square foot, uniform 

armories, 100 pounds 

assembly halls, 100 pounds 

gymnasiums, 100 pounds 

fire houses, apparatus floor, 150 pounds 

residences, 50 pounds 

stables, 50 pounds 

safe per square foot: 

garages, private, two cars, 75 pounds 

garages, public, five or more cars, 150 pounds, 

grandstands, 100 pounds 

hotels, public portion, 100 pounds 

hotels, residence portion, 50 pounds 

lodging houses, public portion, 100 pounds. . . 

lodging houses, residence portion, 50 pounds. 

boarding houses, public portion, 100 pounds, 

boarding houses, residence portion, 50 pounds, 

clubs, public portion, 100 pounds 

clubs, residence portion, 50 pounds 

convents, public portion, 100 pounds 

convents, residence portion, 50 pounds 

hospitals, public portion, 100 pounds 

hospitals, residence portion, 50 pounds 

asylums, public portion, 100 pounds 

asylums, residence portion, 50 pounds 

detention buildings, public portion, 100 
pounds 

detention buildings, residence portion, 50 
pounds 

manufacturing, heavy, 250 pounds 

manufacturing, light, 125 pounds 

office buildings, first floor, 125 pounds 

office buildings, all other floors, 75 pounds. . . 

public buildings, public portion, 100 pounds.. 

public buildings, office portion, 75 pounds. . . 

residences, including porches, 50 pounds 

schools, assembly halls, 100 pounds 

schools, class rooms only, 50 pounds 

colleges, assembly halls, 100 pounds 

colleges, class rooms only, 50 pounds 

sidewalks, 250 pounds 



age. OB 
111 


UWU1I. 

3G 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


3'j 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 



466 



Index. 



Page. Section. 



LOADS. 
live loads: 

safe per square foot: 

stables, public or mercantile, street entrances 

floor, 150 pounds 

stables, feed room, 150 pounds 

stables, carriage room, 50 pounds 

stables, stall room, 50 pounds 

stairs of armories, 100 pounds 

corridors of armories, 100 pounds 

fire escapes of armories, 100 pounds 

stairs of assembly halls, 100 pounds 

corridors of assembly halls, 100 pounds 

fire escapes of assembly halls, 100 pounds. . . 

stairs of gymnasiums, 100 pounds 

corridors of gymnasiums, 100 pounds 

fire escapes of gymnasiums, 100 pounds 

stairs, except armories, halls, gymnasiums, 75 

pounds 

corridors, except armories, halls, gymnasiums, 

75 pounds 

fire escapes, except armories, halls, gymna- 
siums, 75 pounds 

• storage, heavy, 250 pounds 

storage, light, 125 pounds 

stores, retail, 125 pounds 

stores, wholesale, 250 pounds 

not set out in law, commissioner may establish, 

in excess of minimum values given per square 

foot, commissioner may require heavier 

design 

on existing floors, commissioner may prescribe 

maximum load 

occupation or use of building not to be changed 

without permit of commissioner 

on existing floors, not to increase, without per- 
mit from commissioner 

safe, to be posted on each floor, business build- 
ing, on metal plates by owner. 

occupants to maintain metal plates, giving safe 

load, during their occupancy 

owner to affix metal plates, giving safe floor 
loads with each change of occupancy 



Ill 


3G 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 



111 



111 



36 



36 



111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


111 


36 


112 


36 


112 


36 


112 


36 


112 


36 


112 


36 


112 


36 


112 


36 


113 


36 



113 


36 


113 


36 


114 


• 36 


114 


36 


115 


36 


115 


36 


115 


36 


115 


36 


115 


36 



Index. 467 

Page. Section. 
LOADS. 
live loads: 
no load in excess of approved posted load per- 
mitted to be placed on any floor 113 36 

every plank, slab, arch and floor beam, oarrying 
100 square feet of floor or less, shall have 
sufficient strength to bear safely live and 

dead load 

for floors, reduction of, allowed 

roofs, safe minimum: 

with pitch of 4 inches or less per foot 

with pitch of 4 inches to 8 inches per foot. . . 

with pitch of 8 inches to 12 inches per foot. . 

with pitch of more than 12 inches per foot . . . 

wind pressure, on vertical surfaces on buildings: 

40 feet in height, 10 pounds 

40 feet to 80 feet, 15 pounds 

more than 80 feet, 20 pounds 

commissioner may require design for larger 

pressure 115 36 

bracing, additional, shall be introduced when 
resisting moments are not sufficient to resist 
moment of distortion 115 36 

LOADS, FLOOR. 

commissioner to prescribe maximum for existing 

buildings 112 36 

LOBBIES, THEATRE, 
requirements for 159 90 

LOCAL BUSINESS DISTRICT. 

Zoning Act, 1924, ohap. 488 278 5 

LODGING HOUSES. 

public, regulation for, General Laws, chap. 140. . 305 33, 35 

watchman, lights, gongs, etc 305 35 

LOT LINE, 
first and second class buildings to be 5 feet from, 

if there is opening in outer wall 26 13 

wooden buildings, used for habitation, to be not 

nearer than 5 feet from 122 40 

wooden buildings, used for other than habitation 

to be not nearer than 5 feet from 123 40 



Page. Sec 


tion. 


122 


40 


122 


40 


122 


40 


122 


40 



468 Index. 



LOT LINE. 

not to be moved nearer than 5 feet from any 

wooden building 

exception to above, when allowed in habitation. . 
exception to above, when allowed in other than 

habitations 

brick or concrete walls on 

brick walls, openings in, to have metal frames and 

sash and wire glass 122 40 

M. 

MAIN REINFORCEMENTS. 

in floor slabs, beams, girders columns and walls to 

be fire protected 41 15 

MAIN STAIRCASE. 

habitations 128 45 

MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS. 

owners and lessees, responsibility of 189 127 

MANUFACTURING BUILDINGS. 

outside limits, maximum height and area 77 17 

outside building limits, when third-class, not to 

exceed 45 feet in height 77 17 

MARBLE, BUILDING. 

stresses of 36 14 

MARKET BUILDINGS. 

restrictions of sect. 9 apply to 13 9 

MARQUEES. 

projecting, to be supported as required by Build- 
ing Commissioner, General Laws, chap. 85. . . 302-303 S, 9 

permit, construction of, General Laws, chap. 85. . 302-303 8, 9 

projecting into public way, permit for, General 

Laws, chap. 85 302 8 

MASONRY. 

definition of 16 11 

MASONRY, BRICK AND STONE. 

not to rest on wood 23 13 

exceptions 23 13 

MASSACHUSETTS, COMMONWEALTH OF. 

buildings of, exempt from act 14 10 

MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSPITAL. 

exempt from restrictions of chap. 333 of 1902, as 

amended by chap. 27 of 1923 268 



Index. 



469 



Page. Section. 
MATERIALS. 

quality of materials 26-39 14 

strength of materials 26-39 14 

materials, quality and strength of 26-39 14 

computation, methods of 26-39 14 

methods of computation 26-39 14 

commissioner may reject materials 27 14 

may require tests made 27 14 

tests to be at expense of owner 27 14 

absorption, test of 27 14 

bricks: 

component parts 27 14 

quality of 27 14 

hard, ultimate compressive strength 27 14 

absorption, test of 27 14 

wet, compressive strength of 27 14 

terra cotta floor tile: 

compressive strength of 27 14 

average strength, how computed 27 14 

terra cotta 2S 14 

building blocks: 

concrete 28 14 

hollow 28 14 

definition of 28 14 

two-piece 28 14 

definition, building block shall mean 28 14 

concrete blocks: 

ultimate compressive strength 28 14 

allowable working stress of 28 14 

composition of 28 14 

hollow building blocks: 

allowable working stress of 28 14 

ultimate compressive strength 28 14 

composition of 28 14 

terra cotta building blocks, allowable working 

stress 28 14 

concrete aggregate: 

fine — shall consist of 28 14 

course — shall consist of .2S 14 

cinders or slag may be used where 28 14 

sand for concrete: 

quality of 29 14 

tests of, commissioner may require 29 14 



470 



Index. 



MATERIALS, 
stone for concrete: 

to be clean, hard and durable 

for re-enforced concrete 

gravel: 
run-of-bank, use of, to be approved by com- 
missioner 

cinders and slag, composition of 

slag and cinders, composition of 

Portland cement, to conform to standard specifica- 
tions of American Society for Testing Materi- 
als 

lime: 

not to be air slacked 

to be free from ashes, etc 

lime mortar, shall be made, how 

cement lime mortar, shall be made how 

Portland cement mortar, shall be made, how 

concrete, shall mean 

mixing of ingredients 

rubble concrete, shall mean 

when one-man stones are used 

when larger than one-man stones are used 

stones to be clean and wet 

in piers, size of stones in 

not allowed for any projecting footing 

joints, how to be made, between portion of 

concrete 

concrete, use of: 

manner of deposit of 

forms — not to be removed until concrete has 
hardened sufficiently to carry load safely. . . . 

inspection of concrete 

concrete, inspection of: 
inspector to be on work at all time that such 

material is being mixed and deposited 

inspector to make daily reports of progress of 

work 

steel, for all structural work: 

to conform to standard specifications of 

American Society for Testing Materials 

wrought iron, for structural work: 
requirements for 



Page. Section. 


29 


14 


29 


14 


29 


14 


29 


14 


29 


14 



29 



14 



29 


14 


29 


14 


29 


14 


29 


14 


30 


14 


30 


14 


30 


14 


30 


14 


30 


14 


30 


14 


30 


14 


30 


14 


30 


14 


30 


14 


30 


14 


31 


14 


31 


14 


31 


14 


31 


14 


31 


14 


31 


14 



Index. • 471 

Page. Section. 
MATERIALS, 
cast-iron, for all structural work: 

requirements for 31 14 

cast-iron columns: 

shall not be used, when 31 14 

to be faced at ends and to give full bearing for 

cross section 31 14 

hollow — requirements for 32 14 

cast-iron bases, requirements for 32 14 

cast-iron lintels, requirements for 32 14 

timber, for structural purposes: 

shall be free from all defects 32 14 

classes of — dense and Bound 32 14 

strength of materials : 

piers — defined 33 14 

piers height of — defined. 33 14 

stresses in building materials produced by their 
own weight, and loads, shall not exceed limit 
allowed. 33 14 

for brickwork 34 14 

for concrete 35 14 

concrete bearing pier — plain: 

height, permissible 36 14 

concrete bearing wall, plain — height of 36 14 

brick bearing wall, height of — permissible.. ..... 36 14 

stresses, grout and stone masonry 36 14 

loads may be modified when. 36 14 

for cast-iron 36 14 

cast-iron compression members: 

value of 37 14 

stresses due to eccentric on transverse loading 

combined with central loading 37 14 

cast-iron columns: 

use of, not allowable, when 

strength of — when core has shifted 

cast-iron compression members: 

centrally loaded — safe load 

stresses of timber 

timber, stresses of 

timber compression members 

centrally loaded 

other materials — ■ stresses 

wind bracing — provisions for required 



37 


14 


37 


14 


37 


14 


38 


14 


38 


14 


38 


14 


38 


14 


39 


14 


39 


14 



472 



Index. 



Page. Section. 
MATERIALS, 
cutting for piping or other purposes — not allowed 
if it reduces strength of structure below legal 

requirements 39 14 

methods of computation (other materials) 39 14 

computations — method of (other materials) 39 14 

span of beams — girders — trusses: 

shall be taken as 39 14 

not covered by this act, when allowed 11 8 

not mentioned in this act, stresses of, to be de- 
termined by commissioner 26 14 

steel construction 66-73 16 

MATERIALS, BUILDING. (See Building Ma- 
terials.) 

strength of 26 14 

stresses, tables of 33-38 14 

MATERIALS, COMBUSTIBLE. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 188 126 

MAXIMUM LOAD APPROVED. 

allowable 112 36 

MECHANICAL BUILDINGS. 

outside building limits, may be built as approved 

by commissioner 77 17 

MECHANIC ARTS HIGH SCHOOL. 

height of, 1905, chap. 383 232-238 

MEDIUM CLAY. 

definition of 81 20 

MERCANTILE BUILDINGS. 

basement, sprinklers in 21 12 

MERCANTILE PURPOSES. 

first story and basement of habitations may be 

used for 75 17 

METAL. 

steel construction, thickness of 72 16 

window frames and sash 116 37 

METAL GARAGES. 

limited size allowed, chap. 115, 1918, Special Act, 260 1 

regulations for, 1918 Special Act, chap. 115 260 1 

METAL LATH AND PLASTER. 

no fire protection on steel and iron 100 32 

METAL WORK. 

in foundations, protected from moisture. . 90 22 



Index. 473 

Page. Section. 
METHODS. 

not covered by this act, when allowed 11 8 

METHODS OF COMPUTATION. 

strength of building materials 26-39 14 

MEZZANINE FLOORS. 

form a story, when 93 23 

MINORS. 

under 16, not allowed to operate, clean or repair 

elevators, chap. 298, 1920 263 1 

MIXING CONCRETE. 

how done 30 14 

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY. 

steel for cinder concrete '. 52 15 

steel for stone concrete 52 15 

steel for concrete greater than 2,200 and less than 

2,900 pounds per square inch 52 15 

MORTAR, LIME. 

how made 29 14 

MORTARS. 

required qualifications of 29, 30 14 

MOVING BUILDINGS. 

prohibitions relating to 22 13 

MOVING PICTURE HOUSES. 

special permit for, 1913, chap. 280 243 1 

MOVING PICTURE SHOWS. 

subject to chap. 463 of 1907 and chap. 280 of 1913, 239, 243 106 

MOVING PICTURES. 

exhibition of 243 

exhibitions, special, mayor to grant permit for, 

chap. 280, 1.913 243 

MUD SILLS. 

allowed to support masonry 23 13 

N. 

NEGATIVE BENDING, 

panel width at interior line of columns, formula.. . 56,57 15 

panel width at wall 56 15 

may be increased, when 56 15 

how provided for 57 15 

reinforcement shall be provided, when 57 15 

NEIGHBORING STRUCTURES. 

to be supported 18 12 

powers of commissioner in such cases 18 12 



474 Index. 

Page. Section. 
NIPPLES, SOLDERING. 

required diameter and weight of 179 121 

NOTICE, 
on dangerous or unsafe buildings not to be re- 
moved 6 4 

NUISANCE. 

a fence, when, General Laws, chap. 49 300 21 

buildings unlawfully constructed declared to be. . . 192 132 

NUISANCES. 
abatement and removal of, General Laws, chap. 

139, sect. 3 304 3 

NON-BEARING WALLS. 

thickness of. 93 23 

number of stories of a building 17 11 

NONCONFORMING USE DISTRICT. 
Zoning Act, 1924, chap. 488 282-283 9 

O. 

OAK, WHITE. 

stress of 38 14 

OBSERVATION STANDS. 

commissioner must approve plans of 24 13 

on roofs prohibited 24 13 

OBSTRUCTIONS. 

in aisles, etc., of public buildings, of theatres 106 105 

OCCUPANTS. 

safety of — commissioner may order additional 

requirements for 12 8 

OCCUPANTS OF BUILDINGS. 

board of health may limit number of 189 128 

OCCUPATION. 

of buildings forbidden until egress is provided. ... 19 12 

OCCUPATIONS OF BUILDINGS. 

not to be changed without permit from com- 
missioner 112 36 

OFFICE FORCE OF DEPARTMENT. 

how appointed 3 1 

OFFICERS, BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

may enter buildings and premises.. ., 192 129 

not to engage in other business 4 1 

not to furnish materials 4 1 



Index. 

I 

OFFICERS, BUILDING DEPARTMENT. 

not to be financially interested 

requirements and restrictions 

to serve until removal or discharge 

OFFICERS, CITY, CERTAIN. 

powers of not curtailed by this act 

OFFICES, STORES, ETC. 

in theatre buildings 

ONE HUNDRED FIFTY-FIVE FOOT DIS- 
TRICT. 
Zoning Act, 1924, chap. 488, yards, courts, set- 
back area .' 

OPENINGS, 
of 144 square inches or less in walls and floors, 

approved by commissioner 

in floors, framing of 

in roof, framing of 

OPENINGS IN DIVISION WALL. 

area and number restricted 

OPENINGS IN PARTY WALLS. 

for doorways 

OPERATIVE BUILDINGS. 

doors, not to be locked during working hours, 

General Laws, chap. 149 

OUTER COURT. 

defined 

in tenement houses, sizes, etc 

OUTSIDE FINISH, 
in first and second class buildings, materials 

OUTSIDE OPENING IN WALLS. 

protection of 

OVERCROWDING, TENEMENT HOUSES. 

board of health may regulate to prevent 

OVERHANG. 

T-beams — not to exceed, etc 

OWNER. 

to protect against excavation 

OWNERS. 

responsible for maintenance of buildings and 
structures 



475 

Page. Section. 



4 
4 
3 

15 

155 

289 



340 



1 
1 
1 

10 

81 



98 


31 


40 


15 


46 


15 


17 


76 


98 


31 



126 



125 


42 


138 


58 


20 


12 


116 


37 


187 


12S 


47 


15 


79 


19 



189 



127 



476 Index. 

Page. Section. 
P. 

PAPER STOCK, COTTON, ETC. 
not to be kept in habitable building . 188 126 

PARK COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this act 15 10 

PARKWAYS. 

building lines on 201-205 

height of buildings, restriction of, 1905, chap. 

383, order of July 21, 1905 236 

PARTITION WALL. 

denned 16 11 

PARTITIONS, BEARING. 

to be fire stopped 102 32 

PARTITIONS, COMBUSTIBLE. 

to be 4 feet from side and 6 feet from back of 

boiler 24 13 

PARTITIONS, FIREPROOF. 

how to be constructed 104-106 33 

{See Fireproof Partitions.) 

PARTITIONS, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

construction of 133 50 

PARTY WALLS. 

doors, in, size, etc 98 31 

all buildings, thickness 92 23 

in steel frame buildings, thickness 96 27 

in wooden buildings, thickness and height above 

roof 122 40 

small openings in 98 31 

definition of 16 11 

above roof 97 28 

prohibition concerning 23 13 

skeleton 96 27 

timbers in 23 13 

PASSAGEWAYS, PUBLIC ASSEMBLAGE. 

no temporary seats or obstructions in 167 105 

no persons to stand in, during performance 167 105 

PASSAGEWAYS, THEATRE, 
radiators, floor registers, etc., not to be placed in, 164 104 

PENALTIES. 

for not providing watchmen, lights, gongs, etc., 
in hotels and lodging houses, General Laws, 
chap. 143, see sect. 46 325 53 



Index. 



477 



Page. Section. 
PENDENCY. 

notice of, filed in Registry of Deeds, General 

Laws, chap. 184, sect. 15 341 15 

PENT HOUSE. 

1905, chap. 383 235 4 

PERMIT. 

to state proposed use of building Ill 36 

PERMITS. 

fees for, authorized, chap. 571, 1910 241 

what work requires them 4, 22 1, 13 

who issues 4 1 

PERMITS AND APPLICATIONS. 

in what form 5 1 

PERMITS, BUILDING. 

applications for 5 1 

requirements of 5 1 

applicants may appeal to board of appeal 9 7 

action thereon 9, 10 7 

Building Commissioner shall grant, for construc- 
tion 4 1 

if terms are violated commissioner may stop 

work 5 1 

to be on approved printed forms 5 1 

required for all buildings 18 12 

PERMITS, OTHER THAN BUILDING. 

required for alterations 18 12 

boilers, steam. 4 1 

elevators 119 * 38 

furnaces ; . 4 1 

gas fitting 4 1 

plumbing 173 114 

commissioner to grant, on application 4 1 

PICTURE SHOWS, MOVING. 

subject to chap. 463 of 1907, chap. 280 of 1913. . . . 239, 243 
PIERS. 

reduced floor loads, used for 113, 114 36 

to be of masonry or metal, when 20 12 

to have caps and plates 97 30 

definition of 33 14 

height of 33 14 

concrete, bearing, plain, height of, allowed 36 14 

concrete to be reinforced, when 47 15 

brick, height of, allowed 36 14 



478 Index. 

Page. Section. 
PIERS AND HEARTHS. 

regulations for 97 30 

PILE FOUNDATION. 

detached column or pier footing to rest on not 

less than three piles S4 21 

may rest on single pile, when 84 21 

light walls, may rest on single row piling, provi- 
sionally 84 21 

at least two rows of piling required 84 21 

may be 3 feet on centers, when 85 21 

under masonry buildings, capping to be of block 

granite or concrete 85 21 

when capped with concrete, regulations for 85 21 

rubble concrete for capping, not allowed 85 21 

when capped with block granite, regulation for. . . 85 21 

may be capped with timber, when 85 21 

additional piles required, when ordered by com- 
missioner 85 21 

sustaining power of piles to be determined by 

. commissioner 85 21 

wooden piles, regulation for 85 21 

wooden piles, quality of 85 21 

piles to be butt cut 85 21 

piles to have uniform taper from butt to top 85 21 

short bends not allowed 85 21 

all knots to be trimmed close to pile 86 21 

all piles to be not less than 6 inches diameter at 

top 86 21 

piling to be inspected by qualified inspector 86 21 

piling inspector to keep accurate record of piles 

driven 86 21 

square timber may be used, when 86 21 

pile heads to be cut to sound wood before capped, 86 21 

loads on wooden piles ." 86 21 

wooden piles, shall be figured as columns, when. . 86 21 
such piles shall be of hardwood, oak, yellow pine, 

etc 86 21 

safe load on all other wooden piles 86 21 

when testing for value, pile head shall have 

sound wood 86 21 

when testing for value, fall of hammer shall be 

10 feet 86 21 

safe supporting value of wooden, piles, formula.. . 87 21 



Index, 



479 



PILE FOUNDATION. 

wooden piles, distance between to be not less 
than 24 inches on centers 

grade for cutting off piles to be five 

may be cut at higher grade when allowed by 
commissioner but not to exceed grade nine 

wooden piles, depth may be driven below surface, 

when followers are used 

when driving blocks are used 

general requirements for 

supporting value of, how obtained 

driving method of, not to impair strength 

frictional value, not to be relied on for support. . . 

not to be loaded eccentrically 

PILES. 

allowed for supporting masonry 

boring may be required previously 

commissioner to determine grade for cutting 

concrete, allowable load 

concrete, load test 

distance on center 

inspector may be required 

inspector to keep records 

to be capped with granite or concrete 

PINE, WHITE AND YELLOW. 

stress 

PIPES. 

hot air, minimum distance from woodwork 

smoke, distance from ceiling 

steam or hot water, distance from woodwork 

wires, etc., not to be built into fireproofing of 

steel, etc 

PIPES, BACK AIR. 

plumbing, requirements for 

PIPES, BRASS. 

diameter, thickness and weight required 

PIPES, CAST-IRON. 

diameter and weight required 

PIPES, DRAIN. 

requirements, relating to 

PIPES, LEAD. 

plumbing, restricted to short branches 

required diameter, thickness and weight 



Page. ! 


Section. 


87 


21 


87 


21 


87 


21 


87 


21 


87 


21 


87 


21 


84 


21 


84 


21 


84 


21 


84 


21 


84 


21 


23 


13 


82 


20 


87 


21 


88 


21 


89 


21 


87 


21 


86 


21 


86 


21 


85 


21 



38 



14 



103 


32 


103 


32 


24 


13 


100 


32 


175 


117 


181 


121 


181 


121 


183 


122 


180 


121 


180 


121 



480 



Index. 



Page. Section. 
PIPES, REFRIGERATOR AND DRIP. 

plumbing, regulations for 177 119 

PIPES, SMOKE. 

not to project through walls or windows 24 13 

PIPES, SOIL. 

plumbing, requirements for 175 117 

required diameters for 178 121 

PIPES, STEAM, ETC. 

not to be within 1 inch of woodwork 24 13 

restrictions concerning 24 13 

PIPES, WASTE. 

plumbing, requirements for 174 117 

required diameters for 178 121 

PIPES, WIRES, ETC. 

not to be imbedded 100 32 

PIPES, WROUGHT-IRON. 

diameter, thickness and weight required 182 121 

PIPING. 

cutting for, restrictions relative to 24 13 

distance from woodwork 24 13 

PLACARD. 

(a) unsafe elevators, etc 118 *38 

(6) unsafe buildings, etc 6 4 

(c) buildings where violation of building law 

exists 6 4 

(d) buildings where egress is insufficient 6 4 

PLACING. (See Section 14) 15 40 

PLANS. 

including drawings, strain sheets, etc., to be filed 

before permit is granted 10 8 

PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS. 

building commissioner may require 4 1 

duplicates to be kept at buildings 4 1 

observation stands, commissioner must approve. . . 24 13 

open to inspection of inspector 4 1 

to be filed with application 4 1 

PLASTERING. 

on fireproof partitions, thickness 105 33 

PLUMBERS. 

must be registered or licensed 173 113 

must get permits 173 114 

notify commissioner on changing place of business, 173 113 



Index. 481 

Page. Section. 
PLUMBING. 

"air pipes," definition of 172 112 

requirements for 173, 185 115, 123 

back-water valve 186 124 

clean-outs required diameter and weight of 179 121 

connection with sewer or drain 173 122 

definition of terms used in 172 112 

"drain," meaning of 172 112 

drain pipes, details of construction 183 122 

drain pipes, requirements for 183 122 

drains, surface, must have seal trap and back 

water valve 186 124 

exhausts, steam, regulations for 184 122 

ferrules, clean-outs, etc 179 121 

ferrules, required diameter and weight of 179 121 

fittings, drainage, must be galvanized 1S3 121 

"fixture," definition of 172 112 

grease and oil traps if required 185 123 

inspection and tests of work 174 116 

laboratory, to be approved by commissioner 176 117 

leaders, roof, requirements for 186 124 

"leaks, repair of," meaning of 172 112 

municipal court given jurisdiction in law cases. . . 192 130 
nipples, soldering, required diameter and weight 

of 179 121 

pipes, back air, requirements for 175 117 

brass, required diameter, thickness and weight . . 181 121 
cast-iron, required diameter, thickness and 

weight 181 121 

lead, required diameter, thickness and weight. . 180 121 

restricted to short branches 180 121 

refrigerator and drip, regulations for 177, 183 119, 121 

soil and waste, requirements for 174 117 

required diameter of 174 121 

vent, definition of 172 112 

wrought-iron, required diameter, thickness 

and weight 182 121 

relative to business of, General Laws, chap. 142. . . . 306-313 

roof leaders, requirements for 186 124 

separate system, required for storm water, General 

Laws, chap. 83 302 5 

soil and waste pipes, sizes required 178 121 

soil and waste pipes, traps and fittings 174 117 



482 



Index. 



PLUMBING. 

"soil pipe," definition of 

soldering nipples, required diameter and weight of, 

special traps for gasolene, naphtha, etc 

stable drainage fixtures to be approved by eom- 
missioner 

"surface drain," meaning of 

must have seal trap and back-water valve 

terms used in, defined 

tests and inspection of work 

to be inspected and approved 

traps, requirements for 

special, when required 

"vent pipes," definition of 

"ventilation pipe," definition of 

vents, requirements for 

wash stand for vehicles, sand bos for 

waste pipes and traps, provisions for 

water-closets, requirements for 

water-closets, water supply for 

"Y-branches," definition of 

PLUMBING, SUPERVISION OF. 

definitions: 

certificate means — (General Laws, chap. 142), 
examiners, means — (General Laws, chap. 142), 
journeyman means — (General Laws, chap. 142), 
master plumber means — (General Laws, chap. 

142) .. 306 

practical plumber means — (General Laws, 

chap. 142) , 307 

registered means — (General Laws, chap. 142), 306 

all plumbers must be licensed, General Laws, 

chap. 142 307 

master's license to be displayed at place of busi- 
ness, General Laws, chap. 142 307 

examination, rules for, General Laws, chap. 142. . 308 

licenses, registration and revocation of, General 

Laws, chap. 142, 309 

chap. 76, Acts of 1928 394 

fees, for licenses, examination renewals, General 

Laws, chap. 142 309 

licenses, temporary suspension of, General Laws, 

chap. 142 309 



Page. 


Section. 


172 


112 


179 


121 


185 


123 


176 


117 


172 


112 


186 


124 


78-183 


121 


174 


116 


174 


116 


176 


117 


185 


123 


172 


112 


172 


112 


175 


117 


186 


123 


174 


117 


178 


120 


178 


120 


172 


112 


306 


1 


306 


1 


306 


1 



Index. 483 

Page. Section. 
PLUMBING, SUPERVISION OF. 
inspectors, appointment and duties of, General 

Laws, chap. 142 310 11 

inspectors, additional appointment of, General 

Laws, chap. 142 311 12 

persons learning business of plumbing, General 

Laws, chap. 142 311 14 

fees, expenditures of, General Laws, chap. 142. . . 311 15 

penalties, General Laws, chap. 142 311 16 

POLICE COMMISSIONER. 

not affected by this act 15 10 

PORTABLE SCHOOL BUILDINGS. 

not affected by this act 14 10 

PORTLAND CEMENT. 

to conform to standard specifications 29 14 

POSITIVE BENDING. 

formula, panel width 56, 57 15 

POSITIVE MOMENT. 

of continuous beams, subject to other than uni- 
formed loads, may be reduced, when and how. . 45 15 
POWER AND HEAT. 

appliances for, in hazardous buildings 187, 188 125 

PRIVACY IN ACCESS TO WATER-CLOSETS, 
in tenement houses 145 67 

PRIVATE BUSINESS. 

prohibited for department employees 4 1 

PRIVATE DWELLING. 

entertainments in. (See General Laws, chap. 140, 
Section 182.) 
PRIVY VAULTS. 

construction and size 87 120 

PROHIBITIONS, BUILDING. 

complete list of 22-26 13 

relating to alterations, repairs and moving 22 13 

PROJECTIONS. 

permits, supporting of, General Laws, chap. 85. . 303 8 

into public ways, General Laws, chap. 85 303 8 

PROJECTIONS OVER PUBLIC WAYS. 

restrictions relating to 24 13 

PROSCENIUM WALLS. 

theatre must have 156 83 



484 Index. 

Page. Section. 
PROTECTION. 

in case of excavation 79 19 

PUBLIC ASSEMBLY. 

places of, requirements, construction 165 105 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

aisles, passageways and stairways must be clear. . 167 105 

aisles, passageways and stairways, no person to 

stand in during performance lt>7 105 

aisles of, must conform to requirements for 

theatres 167 107 

cinematograph, use in, regulations for, General 

Laws, chap. 143 332-334 72, 83 

84,85 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

exits of, must conform to requirements for 

theatres 167 107 

exit lights must conform to requirements for 

theatres. 167 107 

obstruction in aisles, etc 167 105 

seats must conform to requirements for theatres, 167 107 

seats, temporary, not allowed in aisles, etc 167 105 

seats to be secured 166 105 

stairways must conform to requirements for 

theatres 167 107 

PUBLIC HALL. 

defined 125 42 

PUBLIC HALLS. 

in existing tenement houses, lighting and ventila- 
tion 151 71 

in tenement houses, lighting and ventilation 143 65 

PUBLIC HALLS AND THEATRES. 

inspection and licensing of, 1907, chap. 463 239 1 

PUBLIC HEALTH. 

protection of, chap. 219, 1897 206 1 

PUBLIC HEARINGS. 

on hazardous buildings and appliances 187 125 

PUBLIC HIGHWAY BRIDGES. 

exempt from act 14 10 

PUBLIC HIGHWAYS. 

building lines, 1893, chap. 462 201-208 1 



Page. 


Section. 


;-306 


33,35 




38,40 


305 


33 


305 


33 


305 


35 


305 


35 



Index. 485 



PUBLIC LODGING HOUSES. 

regulations for, General Laws, chap. 140 30 I 

definition of, General Laws, chap. 140 

cubicles prohibited, General Laws, chap. 140 

licenses for, General Laws, chap. 140 

egress to be sufficient, General Laws, chap. 140, 
fire extinguishing appliance required, General 

Laws, chap. 140 305 35 

fire alarm appliances required, General Laws, 

chap. 140 305 35 

free access to, for inspector, required, General 

Laws, chap. 140 306 38 

penalty, General Laws, chap. 140. 306 40 

PUBLIC PARK BUILDINGS. 

1889, chap. 129 201 1 

PUBLIC PARKS. 

buildings in, chap. 129, 18S9 201 1 

PUBLIC SAFETY, 
excavations, commissioner may take necessary 

measures 18 12 

power of, relating to 6, 7 4, 5 

PUBLIC SERVICE CORPORATIONS. 
May appeal on zoning to Department of Public 

Utilities, chap.. 70, Acts of 1928 394 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

use of, for social circle and other uses, chap. 86, 

1916, Special Acts 259 1 

Use of, for social, civic and other purposes, 1916 

Special Act, chap. 86 259 1 

PUBLIC WAYS. 

boilers not to be placed under 23 13 

building line on, General Laws, chap. 82, Section 

37 301 1 

signs and structures encroaching on, General 

Laws, chap. 85 302 8, 9 

PUBLIC WAYS AND SQUARES, 
projection over, regulation for 24 13 

PUBLICATION, 
of records of violations, privileged 5 2 



486 



Index. 



PUNCHING. 

punching shear not to exceed six per cent of com- 
pression strength 

PUNCHING SHEAR IN FOOTINGS, 
area effective to resist in column footings . . . . 

Q. 

QUALITY. 

materials — in general 

brick 

sand 

stone 

gravel 

cinders and slag 

lime 

lime mortar 

Portland cement 

cement lime mortar 

Portland cement mortar 

QUAYS, WHARVES, ETC. 
not affected by this act 

R. 

RADIATORS. 

theatre, forbidden in passageways 

RAGS, FEATHERS, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable buildings 

RAILROAD STATIONS. 

not affected by this act 

RAILWAY BRIDGES. 

exempt from act 

RAISING OF BUILDINGS. 

examination to be made on application to raise.. . 
RANGE BOILER. 

to have capacity mark thereon before sold, Gen- 
eral Laws, chap. 142 

makers' guaranteed test to be stamped on, Gen- 
eral Laws, chap. 142 

penalty of violations of Sections 17 and 18, Gen- 
eral Laws, chap. 142 

exceptions to Sections 17, 18, 19, General Laws, 
chap. 142 



Page. Section. 

52 15 

53 15 



26 


14 


27 


14 


29 


14 


29 


14 


29 


14 


29 


14 


29 


14 


29 


14 


29 


14 


29 


14 


30 


14 



14 



10 



164 


104 


188 


126 


14 


10 


14 


10 


6 


3 


312 


17 


312 


18 


313 


19 


313 


20 



Index. 



RANGE BOILER. 

making, sale and installation of, General Laws 
chap. 142 

RAT PROOFING 

cellars to be made rat proof, when 

method of 

REAL PROPERTY. 

writs affecting title, filing of, General Laws, chap. 

184... 341 

RECESS, OR CHASE, 
requirements relating to 23 

RECORD OF UNSAFE BUILDINGS 6 

RECORD OF VIOLATIONS 5 

RECORDS OF DEPARTMENT. 

open to public inspection " 4 

RECTANGULAR BEAMS, 

formulas 60-63 

REGISTER BOXES. 

to be set in soapstone, etc 103 

construction of 103 

hot-air pipes, to be 1 inch from woodwork 103 

to be 1 inch from woodwork. . . 103 

size of, allowed 103 

connecting pipes ■. 103 

REGISTER BOXES OR PIPES. 

distance from woodwork 103 

how made and protected 103 

minimum size 103 

REGISTRATION OF PLUMBERS ' 173 

REGISTRY OF DEEDS. 

notice of pendency in, General Laws, chap. 184. . 341 

REINFORCED CONCRETE 39-66 

frame for walls 96 

definition: 

reinforced concrete shall mean 39 

reinforced concrete, definition of 39 

reinforcements of, specification for 39 

Portland cement and aggregate: 

required quality 39 

reinforcements, of steel (reinforced concrete) speci- 
fications for 39 



Page. 


Section. 


312 


17 


103 


32 


90 


22 


90 


22 



15 

13 

3 

2 



15 

32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 

32 

32 

32 

113 

15 
15 

27 

15 
15 
15 

15 

15 



488 



Index. 



REINFORCED CONCRETE, 
reinforced concrete: 

mixing of ingredients, consistency of 

inspection of 

forms 

placing 

columns, to be poured, how 

walls to be poured, how 

columns, of same type, concrete mix to be in 

same proportion 

structural slabs, how poured 

stopping of work, to be at points of low shear . 

temperature, high and low 

premature drying to be prevented 

concrete, not to be desposited, below freezing point, 
fire protection, of main reinforcement in floor slabs, 

in beams, girders, columns and walls 

rust protection, of steel in foundations and retain- 
ing walls 

reinforcement, spacing of 

design, basis for, calculations shall be made, how, 
basis for design: 

assumption a — plane section before bending, 

remains plane. 

assumption b — modulus of elasticity of con- 
crete in compression 

assumption c — ■ tensile strength of concrete. . . 

assumption d — under compressive stress, two 

materials stressed in proportion to modulus of 

elasticity 

assumption e — initial stress, neglected when.. . 
span length: 

for beams and slabs simply supported 

when continuous or restrained, built mono- 

lithically into supports 

brackets, and their relation to clear span 

maximum negative moments, when to be con- 
sidered as existing 

bending: 
bending moments for uniformly distributed dead 
and live loads in beams and slabs, reinforced 
in one direction only 



Page. 


Section. 


40 


15 


40 


15 


40 


15 


40 


15 


40 


15 


40 


15 


40 


15 


40 


15 


40 


15 


40 


15 


40 


15 


40 


15 


41 


15 


41 


15 


41 


15 


41 


15 


41 


15 



41 



42 

41 
41 

41 



41 



15 



41 


15 


41 


15 


41 


15 


41 


15 



15 

15 

15 

15 



15 



Index. 489 

Page. Section. 
REINFORCED CONCRETE, 
bending: 

shall be computed on following assumptions: 

(a) for single span freely supported 41 15 

(b) for single span restrained at ends 41 15 

(c) for two equal continuous spans freely sup- 

ported 41 15 

(d) for two equal continuous spans restrained 

at support 41, 43 15 

(e) for three or more equal continuous spans 

freely supported 43 15 

(/) for three or more equal continuous spans 

restrained at support 43 15 

(g) at restrained ends of continuous beams. ... 43 15 

beams and slabs , shall be considered as restrained, 

when 43 15 

continuous beams, positive bending moment 45 15 

beams, parallel to main reinforcement, etc., design 

for bending moments 45 15 

spans of unusual or unequal length 45 15 

slabs, supported on four sides, formula for 46 15 

reinforcements in slabs, bending moments, calcu- 
lated moments 46 15 

beams, load determined how 46 15 

floor and roof openings, framing of, not to exceed 

allowable stresses 46 15 

depth, in roof slabs 46 15 

in T-beams below slab 46 15 

cinder-concrete slabs, thickness span 46 15 

self-centring, prohibited, when 47 15 

reinforcement, fireproofing under 47 15 

bending in supporting members: 

beam or floor slab 47 15 

T-beams, when bond and shearing resistance be- 
tween slab and web of beam is provided 47 15 

columns or piers of concrete: 

shall be reinforced, when 47 15 

height permissible 47 15 

columns, maximum effective area of 47 15 

exterior columns, reinforcement of 48 15" 



490 



Index. 



Page. Section. 
REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS. 

framing of 48 15 

brackets, provided to transmit load from floors to 
columns, shall be computed as follows: 

(a) when placed immediately below floor 48 15 

(jb) when placed immediately above floor 48 15 

circular hollow columns: 
steel or wrought-iron, filled with concrete, 

loading capacity 48 15 

columns, with longitudinal reinforcement only. . . 49 15 

with longitudinal reinforcement 49 15 

combination floors, to conform to requirements of 

law so far as applicable 49 15 

blocks or forms shall not be assumed as taking 

stress 49 15 

working stresses 50 15 

allowable stresses 50 15 

concrete one year old, compressive strength. ... 50 15 
bearing, when 35 per cent compressive strength 
shall be allowed: 

axial compression 51 15 

concentric compression on columns 51 15 

bending, compression on extreme fiber in bending, 51 15 

shear and diagonal tension 51 15 

beams with horizontal basis only 51 15 

with web reinforcement 51 15 

punching, shear 52 15 

bond, stress between concrete and steel bars 52 15 

steel, tensile or compressive stress 52 15 

concrete, modulus of elasticity of 52 15 

footing, general, symmetrical concentric columns: 
footings shall be designed for punching shear, 

diagonal tension and bending moment 53 15 

punching shear in footings 53 15 

diagonal tension in footings 53 15 

bending moment in footings 53 15 

flat slabs: 

capitals, requirements 54 15 

dropped panels, requirements 54 15 

slab thickness, requirements 54 15 

bending, in flat slab floors 55 15 

panel width, A, and B, strips 55 15 

interior bays 55 15 



Index. 491 

Page. Section. 
REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS, 
flat slabs: 

positive bending 56 15 

negative bending 56 15 

walls, bays, restraint 56 15 

positive bending 56 15 

negative bending 56 15 

walls, bays, no restraint 57 15 

positive bending 57 15 

negative bending 57 15 

bays, when treated as wall bays 57 15 

bending floors, one half above and below slab. .. . 58 15 

for roofs, below slab 58 15 

brackets, necessary on exterior columns, when. . . 5S 15 

interior columns, concrete, least dimension of . . 58 15 

reinforcement of strips 58 15 

bent bars, reinforcement 58 15 

concrete, stress in 59 15 

wall beams, in flat slab construction 59 15 

when continuous, negative bending 59 15 

positive bending at mid span 59 15 

brick walls, flat slab supported by brick wall 59 15 

reinforced concrete construction, formulas 59 15 

1. Standard notation: 

(a) rectangular beams 60 15 

(6) T-beams 60 15 

(c) beams, reinforced for compression . . 60 15 

(<0 shear, bond and web reinforcement. 60 15 

(e) columns 61 15 

2. Formulas: 

(a) rectangular beams 61 15 

Fig. 1. Fibre stresses 62 15 

steel ratio, for balanced rein- 
forcement 62 15 

(6) T-beams 62 15 

Fig. 2. Case I., when neutral axis 

lies in the flange 62 15 

Case II., when neutral axis 

lies in the stem 62 15 

formulas which neglect compres- 
sion in stem 62, 63 15 

formulas for rectangular beams, 

approximate results 63 15 



492 



Index. 



Page. Section. 



REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS, 
reinforced concrete construction: 
2. Formulas: 

(c) beams reinforced for compression . . . 

Fig. 3. Position of neutral axis. . 
position of neutral com- 
pression 

arm of resisting couple. . . . 
fibre stresses 

(d) shear, bond and web reinforcement. . 
stresses in web reinforcement, 

formulas 

vertical web reinforcement 

bars bent up, horizontal and web 

members inclined 

T-beams 

(e) columns : 

total safe load 

unit stresses 

may be of supported structural steel or cast-iron 
columns 

said support to be fireproofed 

REINFORCED CONCRETE WALLS 

REINFORCEMENT. 

spacing of, slab reinforcement bars, in tension. . . . 

spacing of beams 

spacing of girders 

self-centring, fireproofing under 

strips, quantity necessary 

when lying obliquely to axis of strip 

REINFORCEMENT SLABS. 

supported on four sides, distribution of 

REINFORCEMENTS, MAIN. 

fire protection of, beams, columns, walls, girders . 
REINFORCEMENTS, STEEL. 

requirements for 

to be free of mill scale and loose rust 

REINFORCING MATERIALS, SELF-CEN- 
TRING. 

use of, prohibited where span exceeds 8 feet 

REJECTION OF MATERIAL. 

power of commissioner 



64 


15 


64 


15 


64 


15 


64 


15 


64 


15 


65 


15 


65 


15 


65 


15 


65 


15 


66 


15 


66 


15 


66 


15 


48 


15 


48 


15 


94 


23 


41 


15 


41 


15 


41 


15 


47 


15 


58 


15 


58 


15 


46 


15 


41 


15 


39 


15 


39 


15 


47 


15 


40 


15 



Index. 



493 



Page. Section. 
REMODELLED. 

what buildings may be 107 35 

REMOVAL OF BUILDINGS. 

permit for 4 1 

REMOVAL WORK. 

to be supported . 18 12 

REPAIRING OF BUILDINGS. 

examination to be made on application 6 3 

'•REPAIR OF LEAKS." 

plumbing, meaning of 172 112 

REPAIR OF WOODEN BUILDINGS. . 
within limits, permit required 22 13 

REPAIRS. 

defined 125 42 

limit of cost, to be called such 22 13 

REPAIRS AND ALTERATIONS, 
permits required for 18, 22 12, 13 

REPEALS, 
chap. 419, 1892, and all acts inconsistent, repealed, 193 133 

REPORT. (Annual.) 

board of appeal to Mayor 11 8 

to be printed separately 12 8 

of commissioner 4 1 

REQUIREMENTS. 

for all buildings 18-22 12 

RESPONSIBILITY FOR MAINTENANCE. 

of owners and lessees 189 127 

RESTRICTION. 

of areas 75-76 17 

RESTRICTIONS. 

tenement-house, commissioner not to dispense 

with 153 76 

RETAINING WALLS. 

for excavation 79 19 

rust protection 41 15 

RIVET HOLES. 

steel construction in tension members 71 16 

RIVETED JOINTS. 

rules for 70 16 

when to be used 96 27 



494 Index. 

Page. Section. 
RIVETING. 

of steel columns 96 27 

of steel frame 96 27 

to be used, when and how 69, 70, 71, 72 16 

RIVETS, 
steel construction 69, 70, 71, 72 16 

ROOF, 
fire stopping of 102 32 

ROOF GARDENS. 

above theatres, provisions for 167 109 

exits required for 167 109 

ROOF HOUSES. 

1905, chap. 383 235 4 

ROOF LEADERS, 
requirements for 186 124 

ROOF LOAD. 

minimum 114 36 

ROOF OPENINGS, 

framing of 46 15 

ROOF SLABS. 

depth 45 15 

ROOFING. 

to be brick, tile, slate, etc 25 13 

of wooden shingles not permitted 25 13 

ROOFS. 

not to discharge on 6treet or alley 23 13 

observation stands, not be erected on 23 13 

permanent means of access to 18 12 

safe minimum live load with pitch of 4 inches or 

less per foot 114 36 

with pitch of 4 inches to 8 inches per foot 114 36 

with pitch of 8 inches to 12 inches per foot 115 36 

with pitch more than 12 inches per foot 115 36 

egress to 18 12 

discharge of snow, etc., from 23 13 

observation stands on, prohibited 23 13 

ROOMS, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

lighting and ventilation of •• 142 63 

size of, regulations for 142 64 

ROT. 

timbers to be free from 32 14 



Index, 
rubble concrete. 

meaning of 

not to be used for any projecting footing. 

RUST PROTECTION, 
foundations and retaining walls 

RUTHERFORD AVENUE. 

buildings on, height of, chap. 416, 1907.. . 





495 


Page. Section. 


30 


14 


30 


14 



41 



238 



15 



S. 
SAFETY OF OCCUPANTS. 

commissioner may order additional requirements 

for 12 8 

SALARIES. 

Building Commissioner 3 1 

members of appeal board 8 6 

SAND. 

when used for concrete, quality of, strength of... . 29 14 

compact, definition of 81 20 

loose, definition of 81 20 

fine-grained, definition of 81 20 

compact, maximum allowable, bearing value in 

foundations 80 20 

dry or wet, coarse, maximum allowable bearing 

value in foundations 80 20 

fine-grained, wet, maximum allowable bearing 

value in foundations 80 20 

SANDSTONE. 

stresses of 36 14 

SANITARY BUILDINGS. 

of wood, chap. 4, 1873 200 1 

SCHOOL BUILDINGS, 
permanent or portable, exempt from provisions 

of this act, except as provided in sect. 17 14 10 

SCHOOLS, 
public, use for social purposes, etc., 1916, Special 

Act, chap. 86 259 1 

SCUTTLES. 

in roof, where required 18, 127 12, 44 

^SCUTTLES AND BULKHEADS. 

•r tenement house, requirements for 127 44 

SEALING OF STANDPIPES. 

on stage of theatres forbidden 165, 171 104, 111 



496 Index. 

Page. Section, 
SEATS, ASSEMBLY ROOMS, 
must conform to law for theatres when ordered 

by Building Commissioner 167 107 

SEATS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

must conform to requirements for theatres 167 107 

SEATS, THEATRE. 

arrangement and space for 158 87 

SECOND-CLASS BUILDINGS 74,76 17 

denned 16 11 

what buildings to be 74 17 

foundations 80-83 20 

to be fire stopped 102, 103 32 

tenement houses to be sprinklered, when, and how, 129 45 

SECOND-CLASS CONSTRUCTION. 

buildings may be of 74 17 

new, adapted for habitation: 

height of not to exceed five stories or 60 feet .... 74 17 

area of such buildings not to exceed 5,000 square 

feet 74 17 

basements of such buildings, or first story, or 
both, may be used for mercantile purposes, 

when 75 17 

area, restriction of, when and how 76 17 

area not to exceed 10,000 square feet 76 17 

SELF-CENTRING, 
reinforcing materials, use of, prohibited, when.. . . 47 15 

reinforcement, fireproofing under 47 15 

SEPARATE HALL. 

in tenement houses - 143 65 

SETTING OF BOILERS AND FURNACES. 

permit for 4 1 

"SHAFT." 

definition of 125 42 

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. 

fireproof, how supported 76 17 

in first and second class warehouses and stores to 

have fireproof enclosures 75, 76 17 

to be of fireproof material 116 * 38 

SHAFTS, ELEVATOR. 

tenement house, regulations for 133 52 



81 


20 


80 


20 


51 


15 


51 


15 


52 


15 


79 


19 


25 


13 



Index. 497 

Page. Section. 
SHAFTWAYS. 

elevator, to be enclosed, 1914, chap. 782 245 6 

light, to be enclosed, 1914, chap. 782 245 6 

ventilators, to be enclosed, 1914, chap. 782 245 6 

SHAKES. 

timber to be free from 32 14 

SHALE. 

definition of 

maximum allowable bearing value in foundations, 
SHEAR AND DIAGONAL TENSION. 

for beams with horizontal bars only, with and 
without reinforcement 

for beams with web reinforcement 

SHEAR PUNCHING. 

not to exceed six per cent of compression strength, 
SHEET PILING. 

where used 

SHINGLE ROOFS. 

not permitted 

SHIRLEY-EUSTIS MANSION. 

exempt from building law provisions, until Jan- 
uary 1, 1918, Special Act of 1915, chap. 306.. . . 248 
SHUTTERS. 

on what buildings, how constructed and where 
placed 

provision and requirement for 

SIGNS. 

projection allowed 

permits, etc., General Laws, chap. 85, sect. 8.. . . . 

projecting into public ways, permit for, etc., Gen- 
eral Laws, chap. 85 302 8 

SIGNS AND STRUCTURES. 

encroaching on public ways, General Laws, chap. 

85, sect. 8 302 8 

SINGLE DWELLING. 

may be converted into three families 14 9 

SINGLE RESIDENCE DISTRICT. 

Zoning Act, 1924, chap. 288 276 3 

SINKS IN EXISTING TENEMENT HOUSES. 

woodwork to be removed 152 73 

SIXTY-FIVE FOOT DISTRICT. 

Zoning Act, 1924, chap. 488. 

yards, courts, set back area 287 13 



116 


37 


116 


37 


24 


13 


302 


8 



498 



Index. 



Page. Section. 
SKELETON CONSTRUCTION, 

method. 96 27 

SKYLIGHT. 

not allowed over court in tenement house 138 57 

over elevator shafts 116 * 38 

over stair hall in existing tenement house 151 71 

over stair hall in tenement house 144 66 

over vent shafts in tenement houses 133 52 

tenement house, regulations for 151 71 

SLAB THICKNESS. 

in flat slab construction. . . . 54 15 

shear about column, capital, or dropped panel. . . 54 15 

SLABS. 

to be considered restrained at ends, when 45 15 

supported on four sides, distribution of loads 46 15 

reinforcement of, bending moment, calculated 

moment 46 15 

simply supported, span length 41 15 

depth below T-beams 40 15 

concrete cinder, thickness of, span of 46 15 

continuous or restrained span length 42 15 

considered integral part of beam, when 47 15 

cast monolithic, a T-eection, when 50 15 

SLAG. 

allowable for aggregate, when 28 14 

composition of, allowable 29 14 

SMOKE PIPES. 

at least 1 foot below ceiling 103 32 

not to project through wall or window 24 13 

regulations for 103-104 32 

relative to 103-104 32 

not to be placed nearer than 1 foot to woodwork, 103 32 
to have metal collars when passed through floors 

or partitions not fireproof 104 32 

entering chimney to have metal collar 104 32 

passing through roof or external wall prohibited. . 104 32 
when within 18 inches of ceiling to have wire lath 

and plaster protection or shields 104 32 

SNOW ON POOFS. 

discharge of 23 13 

SOFT CLAY. 

definition of 81 20 



Index. 499 

Page. Section. 
SOIL. 

character and depth, to be determined by test. . 82 20 

"SOIL PIPE." 

plumbing, definition of 172 112 

SOIL AND WASTE PIPES AND TRAPS. 

plumbing requirements for 174 117 

SOLDERING NIPPLES. 

required diameter and weight of 179 121 

SOLID LEDGE. 

definition of 81 20 

SOUND. 

definition of, classes of timber 32 14 

SOUTH BAY 

harbor lines, 1921, chap. 137 265 1 

no wharf, pier, wall, filling or other structure to 

extend beyond harbor lines, 1921, chap. 137. . . . 267 2 

no structure, filling or other work allowed below 
present high water mark, 1921, chap. 137 

all previous harbor lines annulled, 1921, chap. 137, 
SPACING OF REINFORCEMENT. 

slab reinforcement bars in tension 

beams and girders 

SPAN LENGTH. 

for beams and slabs simply supported 

for beams and slabs, continuous or restrained. . . . 

brackets, when used 

maximum negative moments 

SPAN OF A BEAM. 

denned 42 15 

SPANS. 

unusual or unequal length to be designed to carry 

out intent of act 35 15 

SPECIFICATIONS AND PLANS. 

commissioner may require 4 1 

duplicate to be kept at building 4 1 

observation stands, commissioner must approve. . 24 13 

SPITE FENCE. 

not to exceed 6 feet in height, General Laws, 

chap. 49 300 21 

SPRINKLERS. 

automatic, commissioner may order, in basements 

of mercantile buildings hereafter erected 21 12 

if installed, larger undivided area allowed 76 17 



267 


3 


267 


4 


41 


15 


41 


15 


42 


15 


42 


15 


42 


15 


42 


15 



500 



Index. 



Page. Section. 

SPRINKLERS AND STANDPIPES. 

theatres, regulation for 165 104 

SPRINKLERS IN TENEMENT HOUSES. 

hereafter erected, second and third class 129 45 

first-class buildings 130 45 

existing, basement 130 45 

may be waived, when 130 45 

SPRUCE, 
stress of 38 14 

STABLES. 

distance from adjoining buildings 25 13 

outside limits, maximum height and area 77 17 

public hearings for 25 13 

restrictions relating to location of 25 13 

fire protection in, for horses and mules, General 

Laws, chap. 272 341 86 

outside building limits, may be built as approved 

by commissioner 77 17 

exits, runways, sprinklers, occupancy above 
first floor prohibited when, General Laws, chap. 
272 341 86 

STABLES, DRAINAGE OF. 

fixtures to be approved by commissioner 177 117 

STAGE DOORS, 
theatre, requirements for 159 91 

STAGING OR STANDS FOR OBSERVATION. 

not to be erected on roofs 23 13 

STAIR HALL. 

defined 125 42 

in tenement houses, construction 131 46, 47 

STAIR SHAFTS. 

in first-class stores and warehouses, to be fire- 
proof, automatic doors 75 17 

STAIR STRINGERS. 

to be fire stopped 102 32 

STAIRS. 

constructed to carry loads safely Ill 36 

in tenement houses, dimensions _ . . . 128, 129 45 

fireproof, to roof bulkhead 127 44 

minimum load for Ill 39 

to roof to be kept clear 127 44 

STAIRS AND PUBLIC HALLS. 

tenement houses to have lights, when 130 45 



Index. 501 

Page. Section. 
STAIRS, THEATRE. 

how to be constructed 163, 164, 100, 103 

STAIRWAY ENCLOSURES. 

in tenement houses to be sprinklered, when and 

how 129 45 

STAIRWAYS. 

in tenement houses 128, 129 45 

STAIRWAYS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

must conform to requirements for theatres 167 107 

persons not allowed to stand on, during perform- 
ance 167 105 

STANDPIPES. 

chap. 278 of 1923 269 

STANDPIPES AND SPRINKLERS. 

theatre, regulations for 165 104 

STANDS, OBSERVATION. 

commissioner must approve plans of 24 13 

not to be erected on roofs 23 13 

STATE BUILDINGS. 

not affected by this act 14 10 

STATE FIRE MARSHAL. 

appeal from decision of chap. 320, Acts of 1928. . . . 397 

STATE HOUSE VICINITY, OF. N 4 

height of building (70 feet), 1899, chap. 457 [222 1 

height of buildings (100 feet-70 feet), 1902, chap. ^ 

543 223 1 

STATIONS, RAILROAD. 

not affected by this act 14 10 

STEAM EXHAUSTS. 

regulations pertaining to 185 122 

steam generator, commissioner may prescribe 

conditions for maintenance 188 125 

STEAM PIPES. 

to be not less than 1 inch from woodwork 24 13 

STEEL. 

fireproofing of 9S-100 32 

in foundations, protected 90 22 

need not be fireproofed where wood could be used, 101 32 

reinforcements, requirements for 39 15 

tensile and compressive stress 41 15 

exceptions, in slabs of stone concrete 52 15 

exceptions in drawn wire, etc 52 15 



502 



Index. 



Page. Section. 
SI EEL AND IRON, 
in alteration work to be fireproofed as required by 

commissioner 101 32 

STEEL COLUMNS. 

parts to be riveted 96 27 

hollow, circular, filled with concrete load allowance, 48 15 

STEEL CONSTRUCTION, 
materials, stresses and methods of computation. 

(See sect. 14) 66-73 16 

general requirements 66-73 16 

thickness of metal, allowable 69 16 

rivets 66-73 16 

tension members, proportioning 66 16 

net sections to be used 66-68 16 

STEEL FRAME. 

to be riveted 96 27 

STEEL FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 

may be used for garages 380 

methods 96 27 

STEEL GRILLAGE, 
in foundations, requirements for 83 20 

STEEL, MODULUS OF ELASTICITY. 

for cinder concrete 52 15 

for stone concrete 52 15 

for steel concrete over 2,200 pounds and less than 

2,900 pounds per square inch 52 15 

2,900 pounds or over per square inch 53 15 

STEEL, STRUCTURAL. 

to conform to standard specifications 31 14 

STIRRUP IRONS. 

when and where required 20 14 

STONE. 

when used for concrete, quality of 29 14 

when used for reinforced concrete, quality of 29 14 

STONE MASONRY. 

stresses for 36 14 

STOP ORDER. 

how issued 5 1 

STOPPING WORK. 

concrete work to stop at point of low shear 40 15 



Index. 



503 



Page. Section. 
STORAGE BUILDINGS. 

outside limits, maximum height and areas 77 17 

outside building limits may be built as approved 

by commissioner 77 17 

STORE FRONTS. 

how protected. . 20 12 

outside finish of 20 12 

STORES. 

first-class, to have fireproof shafts and automatio 

doors 75 17 

STORES AND STORAGE BUILDINGS. 

fire escape, requirements for 77 17 

STORES, OFFICES, ETC. 

in theatre buildings 155 81 

STORM WATER. 

separate system of plumbing required for, General 

Laws, chap. 83 302 5 

"STORY," BUILDING. 

definition of 17 11 

STRAIN SHEETS. 

to be filed before permit is granted 10 8 

STRAINS. 

calculation of, to be submitted 10 8 

STRAW, HAY, FEED, ETC. 

not to be kept in habitable building 18S 126 

STREET COMMISSIONERS. 

not affected by this act 15 10 

STREET, PUBLIC. 

boilers under, prohibited 24 13 

STREET WIDTH. 

how measured 77 18 

STRENGTH. 

of materials 26-39 14 

STRENGTH, STABILITY SAFETY. 

of a building, commissioner may order additional 

requirements for 12 8 

STRESS. 

tensile or compressive, of steel 52 15 

exceptions, slabs of stone concrete and drawn wire, 52 15 



504 



Index. 



Page. 
STRESSES. 

working not to be altered 11 

timber compression members due to eccentric 

loading 38 

timber compression members, due to tranverse 

loading 38 

of materials, not set out in law, to be determined 

by commissioner 39 

of materials used in construction 39 

of brickwork used in construction 34 

of concrete used in construction 35 

of grout and stone masonry 36 

of structural cast iron 36 

of timber 36 

not prescribed to be fixed by commissioner 39 

STRESSES BUILDING MATERIALS. 

tables, etc 26-39 

STRESSES, STEEL CONSTRUCTION 39-66 

STRING COURSES. 

projection allowed 24 

STRUCTURAL DETAILS. 

to be submitted 10 

STRUCTURAL IRON. 

stresses for 36, 37 

STRUCTURAL METAL. 

to be fireproofed and how 99-101 

to be fire protected 99-101 

method of same 99-101 

exemptions 101 

STRUCTURAL SLABS. 

to be poured full thickness 40 

STRUCTURAL STEEL. * 

to conform to standard specifications 31 

specifications for design, fabrications and erection, 66 

1 . Allowable Str esses . 

(a) tension, rolled steel, on net section, 66 

(6) compression, rolled steel, on short 

lengths 66 

(c) bending, on extreme fibres of rolled 

shapes 67 

built up sections, etc 67 

when unsupported length 1 exceeds 
15 times b, the width of com- 
pression, flange 67 



Section. 



14 

14 

14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 

14 
15 

13 



14 

32 
32 
32 
32 

15 

14 
16 

16 

16 

16 
16 

16 



Index. 



STRUCTURAL STEEL. 

1. Allowable Stresses. 

(d) shearing 

(e) bearing 

(/) combined stresses 

(g) members carrying wind only 

2. Symmetrical Members : 

3. Beams and girders 

(a) rolled beams 

(b) plate girder webs 

(c) web splices 

(d) stiffeners 

(e) flange plates 

(/) crane runway girders 

(g) rivets ; 

(h) rivets 

4. Column bases: 

(a) distribution of column loads on foot- 
ings and foundations 

(6) top surface of column bases to be 
planed 

(c) column bases, to be set true and level 
and secured to footings 

5. Eccentric loading 

6. Combined stresses. 

(a) members subject to direct and bend- 
ing stresses 70 

(6) when members are subject to stresses 

of tension and compression 70 

7. Abutting joints 70 

8. Net sections. 

(a) calculation of tension members 71 

(b) pin connected tension members 71 

9. Rivets and bolts. 

(a) nominal diameters to be used, when. . 71 

(b) rivets carrying calculated stresses. ... 71 

(c) rivets shall be used for connections 

subject to reversal of stresses 71 

(d) finished bolts in reamed holes 71 

finished shank 71 

washers under nuts 71 

unfinished bolts may be used, when, 71 

10. Rivet spacing 71 





505 


Page. 


Section. 


r>7-68 


16 


68 


16 


68 


16 


68 


16 


68 


16 


69 


16 


69 


16 


69 


16 


69 


16 


69 


16 


69 


16 


69 


16 


69 


16 


70 


16 


70 


16 


70 


16 


70 


16 


70 


16 



16 

16 
16 

16 
16 

16 
16 

16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 



506 



Index. 



STRUCTURAL STEEL. 

11. Connections. 

(a) carrying calculated stresses 

(6) members meeting at a joint 

(c) rivets, pins 

(d) when a beam or girder acts as a 

continuous or fixed end beam 

(e) where stress is transmitted from one 

pin to another 

12. Expansion 

13. Minimum thickness 

14. Workmanship. 

(a) to be equal to best practice 

(&) compression joints, bearing surfaces 

of, to be truly faced 

(c) burning torch, use of restricted 

15. Erection. 

(a) steel skeleton 

(5) work to be securely bolted 

(c) stresses to be taken care of, which 

piles of material, etc., are carried 
during erection 

(d) riveting to be done only after struc- 

ture has been properly aligned 

(e) rivets to be heated and driven with 

care 

STRUCTURES, TEMPORARY. 

commissioner may prescribe conditions for 

STUDDING. 

not to be placed nearer than 1 inch to chimney. . 

to be fire stopped 

SUBSTITUTE MATERIALS 

SUBSTITUTE METHODS. 

plans, formulas, etc., to be filed with commissioner, 
SUMMER THEATRES. 

outside building limits, how may be constructed, 

capacity 

SUPPORT BY CITY j FOR DANGEROUS 
EXCAVATIONS. 

cost may be recovered 

SUPPORT WORK. 

and adjoining property 



Page. 


Section. 


72 


16 


72 


16 


\72 


16 



72 



73 



16 



72 


16 


72 


16 


72 


16 



16 



73 


16 


73 


16 


73 


16 


73 


16 


73 


16 


73 


16 


13 


9 


23 


13 


102 


32 


11 


8 



10 8 

167 110 

79 19 

18 12 



Index. 507 

Page. Section. 
SUPPORTING MEMBERS, 
bending in beams or floors slab proportioned to 

resist stresses, when 47 15 

SUPPORTING WORK. 

power of commissioner 18 12 

SUPPORTS. 

below first floor, to be of masonry or metal 20 12 

"SURFACE DRAIN." 

must have deep seal trap and back-water valve. . 186 124 

plumbing, terms defined 172 112 

SURVEY OF LOT. 

required 5 1 

SUSPENDED CEILING. 

of metal lath and plaster, fireproofing of, same as 

for slabs 50 15 

S\ STEMS. 

not covered by this act, when allowed 11 8 

T. 

TABLES, STRESSES. 

showing strength of building materials 26-39 14 

T-BEAMS. 

depth below slab 50 15 

when slab may be considered an integral part of 

beam 47 15 

its effective width not to exceed, etc 47 15 

its overhang not to exceed, etc 47 15 

TEARING DOWN. 

permit for 4 1 

TEMPERATURE. 

high, premature drying must be avoided 40 15 

low, freezing must be avoided 40 15 

TEMPORARY FLOORS. 

during construction 124 41 

TEMPORARY SEATS. 

in public buildings prohibited 167 105 

in theatres prohibited 170 111 

TEMPORARY STRUCTURES. 

commissioner to prescribe conditions for 13 9 

in connection with other work, commissioner to 

fix conditions 13 9 

when permitted 13 9 



508 



Index. 



Page. Section. 



TENEMENT HOUSE. 

yard, width of 135 

yard, depth of 135 

separate hall ^ 143 

TENEMENT-HOUSE REQUIREMENTS, 

commissioner not to dispense with 153 

TENEMENT HOUSES. 

" apartment," definition of 125 

ashes, receptacles for - 153 

bakeries and fat boiling, in, prohibited 134 

basements' shafts to be inclosed 130 

basement rooms, when exempt from strict com- 
pliance with this act , 147 

basements, requirements for 145-148 

bulkheads, construction of 127 

cellar ceilings, construction of 132 

"corner lot," definition of 124 

" courts," definition of 125 

general regulations for courts 138 

inner, regulations for ; 140 

outer, regulations for 138-139 

vent, regulations for 140 

dangerous business in, regulated 134 

defined 124 

definition of certain words 124, 125 

drainage of courts and yards 153 

egress, provision for, in case of fire 125 

elevator shafts, regulations for. 133 

elevators in basement of, if more than eight suites 
and three stories in height to be inclosed in 

fireproof material 130 

entrance halls, construction of 132 

existing, lighting and ventilation of 150 

fire escapes, construction of 125-127 

in what they shall consist 125-127 

general regulations for 125-127 

internal and external 125-127 

garbage, receptacles for 153 

hallways in, required to be lighted all night, if 
more than eight suites and three stories in 

height T 130 

hereafter erected to have fire escapes 125 



y 



55 
55 
65 

76 

42 
75 
53 
45 

68 
68 
44 
49 
42 
42 
57 
59 
5S 
60 
54 
42 
42 
74 
43 
52 



45 
48 
70 
43 
43 
43 
43 
75 



45 
43 



Index. 



509 



Page. Section. 
TENEMENT HOUSES. 

intakes, provision for 141 61 

light and ventilation, provisions for 135-137 55 

lighting, board of health may regulate 189 128 

lights in hallways, stairways, elevators, etc., to be 

left lighted all night, if more than eight suites 

and three stories in height 130 45 

not to be enlarged to decrease size of yard 141 62 

other buildings, on same lot 141 62 

outside limits, restrictions 133 51 

overcrowding, board of health may prevent 189 128 

partitions, construction of 133 50 

"public hall " definition of 125 42 

"repairs," definition of 125 42 

rooms of, lighting and ventilation 142 63 

size of 142 64 

size of yard, minimum 141 62 

scuttles, construction of 127 44 

"shaft," definition of 125 42 

skylights, regulations for 151 71 

sprinklers in, required, when more than ten suites 

and three stories in height 129 45 

stair hall, defintion of 125 42 

stairway, halls, construction of 131 46 

stairs and public halls 129 45 

stairways in basement of, if more than eight suites 

and three stories in height, to be inclosed in fire- 
proof material 130 45 

to have bulkhead or scuttle 127 44 

ventilation, board of health may regulate 189 128 

water-closets, requirements for 148, 152 69, 72 

water supply, regulations for 152 73 

windows in public halls of 143 65 

for stair halls 144 66 

wooden, limit of height and area 133 51 

"yard," definition of 124 42 

yards, requirements and regulations for 135, 137 55, 56 

where not required 137 56 

hereafter erected, sprinklers required when and 

how 129 45 

sprinklers required in, when and how 129 45 

existing, sprinklers required, when 130 45 

existing, sprinklers waived, when 130 45 



510 



Indp;x. 



Page. Section. 
TENEMENT HOUSES. 

basements, to be sprinklered in first-class 

buildings 129 45 

basements in second and third class, hereafter 

erected to be sprinklered 130 45 

basements in second and third class, existing, to be 

sprinklered 130 45 

kitchenettes to be sprinklered, when 129 45 

elevator shafts to be sprinklered, when 129 45 

stairway enclosures to be sprinklered when 129 45 

light shafts to be sprinklered, when 129 45 

dumb-waiter shafts to be sprinklered, when 129 45 

rear stairway doors in, to be fireproof ed, when. . . 130 45 

TENSION, SHEAR AND DIAGONAL. 

for beams with horizontal bars only, with and 

without web reinforcement 51 15 

TERMS USED IN PLUMBING. 

meaning of, defined 172 1 12 

TERRA COTTA. 

floor tile, average compression strength of 27 14 

how computed 27 14 

building blocks, crushing strength 28 14 

building blocks, working stress of 28 14 

TERRA COTTA PARTITION BLOCKS. 

thickness of blocks 105 33 

TESTS. 

of substitute methods and materials to be made 

satisfactory to commissioner 11 8 

loading, commissioner may order at expense of, 

owner 12 8 

how determined in exceptional cases 12 8 

fire, method of determining 12 8 

of materials, commissioner may require of owner, 26 14 

TESTS, ELEVATOR, 
manufacturers must make 120 * 38 

TESTS, PLUMBING. 
work must be approved 174 116 

TEST, SOIL. 

to determine character and depth \ 82 20 

of fireproof partitions, method to be employed... . 106 33 

THEATRE EXITS. 

general regulations for 159, 161 91, 99 

169, 170 111 



Index. 511 

Page. Section. 
THEATRES. 

aisles, regulations for 158 88 

aisles, passageways, etc, persons not to remain 

in during performance 170 111 

arc light in auditorium in existing theatres 170 111 

art galleries above, regulations for 167 108 

auditoriums, heating apparatus under 165 104 

balcony and gallery platforms for seats, size 158 87 

boilers, engines and heating apparatus under 

theatres 165, 169 104, 111 

control of exits, lights, etc 162, 169 99, 111 

courts and passages, size, etc 154 79 

curtains, must have fireproof 156 84 

doors to open outward 159 93 

existing, if altered, to conform to new law 154 77 

existing regulations for exits. .. 170 111 

exit passages * 154 79 

exit plans on program 162 99 

exit signs 162, 170 99, 111 

exits, location, width, etc 159 91, 92 

160 95, 96 

102, 170 99, 111 

exits to be marked by signs, etc 162 99 

false doors and mirrors not allowed 160 94 

fire escapes, outside to be lighted 162, 170 99, 111 

fireproof construction required 154 78 

floor and stage, levels of 155 82 

floor levels, changes by inclines 158 89 

foyers, lobbies, corridors, passages, capacity re- 
quired 159 90 

gas outlets, number, to be inspected and tested.. . 162 99 

gas pipe outlets required -. 162 99 

gates in stage standpipes 165, 171 104, 111 

handrails, stair, requirements for 164 102 

heating apparatus under theatres 165, 169 104, 111 

inspection, gas pipe outlets, required 162 99 

landings, stair, required dimensions of 163 101 

lighting fixtures over auditorium, protected from 

falling 157 86 

lighting, independently fed on governed system in 

auditorium, halls, etc 162, 169 99, 111 

lights for exits, etc 162, 169 99, 111 

lobbies, requirements for 159 90 



512 Index. 

Page. Section. 
THEATRES. 

obstructions or people in aisles or stairways 170 111 

open courts required ^ 154, 155 79, 80 

opening outward of doors 159, 170 93, 111 

plans on program 162, 170 99, 111 

proscenium wall, construction and openings 156 83 

proscenium walls required 156 83 

curtains required 156 84 

public buildings must conform to requirements for, 167 107 

radiators forbidden in passageways of 164 104 

roof gardens may be above 167 108 

room exits for employees 159 92 

seats in auditorium, requirements for 158 87 

skylight over stage 157 86 

sprinklers, automatic, required 165 104 

stage doors must be provided 159 91 

stage floor, construction 156 85 

stairs, construction dimensions, handrails, etc. . . . 163, 167 100, 108 

stairs, how to be constructed 163 100 

standpipes required 165 104 

stores, offices, etc., under 155 81 

temporary seats not allowed 170 111 

" theatre," definition of 154 77 

to be fireproof construction except certain por- 
tions 154 78 

ventilators, requirements for 157 86 

licensing of, 1907, chap. 463 239 1 

THEATRES AND PUBLIC HALLS. 

inspection and licensing of, 1907, chap. 463, sect. 1, 239 1 

THEATRES, CONSTRUCTION OF. 

to be first-class 154 78 

THEATRES, EXISTING. 

general regulations for 169, 172 111 

THEATRES, SUMMER. 

outside building limits, how may be constructed, 167 110 

THICKNESS OF WALLS. 

defined 16 n 

for all buildings 91. 92 23 

in steel frame buildings 96 

when ashlar included 93 23 

THIRD-CLASS BUILDINGS. 

definition of 1" " 

may be altered or enlarged, when and how 14 



Index. 513 

Page. Section. 
THIRD-CLASS BUILDINGS. 

size and location of window on area . 109 35 

tenement houses to be sprinklered, when and how, 129 45 

fire-stopping 103 32 

THIRD-CLASS CONSTRUCTION. 
(See, also, Wooden Buildings.) 

buildings may be third-class, when 74 17 

THIRTY-FIVE FEET DISTRICT. 
Zoning Act, 1924, chap. 488. 

yards, courts, set back, area 285 11 

TIES. 

steel beams in direction of length 96 27 

TIMBER. 

compression numbers, centrally loaded, safe load 

per square inch 38 ' 14 

for structural use, to conform to specifications 

promulgated by commissioner 32 14 

to be free from all shakes, knots, rot, worm holes 

and defects 32 14 

dense, definition of 32 14 

sound, definition of 32 14 

stresses of 38 14 

compression members, regulation for use of 38 14 

compression members, eccentric loading of 38 14 

compression members, transverse loading of 38 14 

compression members, centrally loaded, safe load, 38 14 

TIMBERS. 

in walls, how to be treated (second-class build- 
ings) 106 34 

in party wall 23 13 

TIMBERS IN WALLS, SECOND-CLASS 
BUILDINGS. 

to enter wall 4 inches 106 34 

to be splayed, shaped or arranged so as to fall 

out in case of fire without injury to wall 106 34 

TORN DOWN. 

buildings may be, by Health Commissioner, 

when, 1897, chap. 219 206 1 

TOWN. 

includes city, General Laws, chap. 4 299 7 

TRAPS, EARTHENWARE 175 117 

TRAPS, PLUMBING. 

requirements for 174-176 117 



il4 



Index. 



Page. Section. 
TRAPS, SPECIAL. 

grease, inflammable compounds, non-siphon 186 123 

TRIMMER. 

arches 97 30 

TRIMMERS, WOODEN. 

hung in stirrup irons, when 20 12 

TRUSSES. 

computation, method of, for span of 39 14 

TRUSSES, RIVETED. 

center of gravity line 72 16 

need not be fireproofed, when 101 32 

TWO-FAMILY DWELLING. 

may be converted into three-family dwelling, 

when 14 9 



U. 

UNDERPINNING FOR WOODEN BUILD- 
INGS. 

materials and thickness 

UNRESTRICTED DISTRICTS. 

Zoning Act, 1924, chap. 488 

UNSAFE BUILDING. 

record of 

UNSAFE BUILDINGS. 

commissioner may order vacated 

commissioner to post notices on 

commissioner may take down or shore up 

owner to take down or secure 

may be placarded 

UNSUITABLE MATERIAL. 

commissioner has power to reject 

USE OF BUILDINGS. 

not to be changed without permit 

U. S. GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS. 

exempt from act 

V. 

VACANCIES. 

in board of appeal, how filled 

VACATE BUILDINGS. 

commissioner may order vacated: 

(a) when unsafe or dangerous 

(6) where violation exists 

(c) where egress is insufficient 



120 


39 


282 


8 


6 


3 


6 


4 


6 


4 


7 


5 


7 


5 


6 


4 


27 


14 


112 


36 


14 


10 



Index. 515 

Page. Section. 
VACATED. 

building to be, when ordered by commissioner 

with approval of Mayor 7 4 

buildings may be, by Health Commissioner when, 

1897, chap. 219 206 1 

VALVES. 

of stage standpipes in theatres 165, 171 104, 111 

VAULTED WALLS, 
regulations for 95 26 

VENT COURT. 

defined 125 42 

VENT COURTS. 

for tenement houses, size, etc 140 60 

VENT PIPE. (See Smoke Pipe).. 103 32 

"VENT PIPES." 

plumbing, definition of 172 112 

regulation for 103 32 

VENT SHAFTS. 

defined 125 42 

of fireproof material 116 38 

in tenement houses to have intakes and skylights, 133 52 

VENTILATING FLUES. 

must be of incombustible material 21 12 

to stoves, broilers or heaters to be of brick 21 12 

"VENTILATION PIPE." 
plumbing, definition of 172 112 

VENTILATION, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

board of health may regulate 189 128 

VENTILATORS, THEATRE. 

requirements for 157 86 

VENTS. 

plumbing, requirements for 175 117 

VIOLATIONS OF BUILDING LAWS. 

to be recorded 5 2 

VIOLATIONS OF PERMIT. 

action to be taken 5 1 

VIOLATORS OF BUILDING LAWS. 

may be fined $500 192 132 

VOTING BOOTHS. 

not affected by this act 15 10 



516 Index. 



w. 

WALL BAYS. 

restraint, when wall is of reinforced concrete 

no restraint 

WALL BEAMS. 

flat slab construction, in 

when continuous, negative bending at columns . . . 
when continuous, positive bending at mid span.. . 
width of columns, formulas (a) and (6) 

WALLS. 

framed with iron or steel 

proscenium, theatres must have 

outside finish of 

8 inches thick to be corbelled for joists 

floor loads reduced in figuring 

if steel frame, how constructed 

in steel frame buildings, thickness 

party, above roof, height and finish 

not to be removed to enlarge floor areas over 

limit 

small openings in 

outside openings in, to be protected 

to be bonded at angles 

to restrict areas 

foundations to be 4 inches thicker than walls 

overhead 93 23 

when reinforced, by frame of steel or reinforced 

concrete 

ashlar, when included in the thickness of 

non-bearing thickness of, height of 

curtain, thickness of, height of 

hollow block, not to be used for bearing walls. . . . 

solid, reinforced concrete (see sect. 15) 

brick, bonding of 

mezzanine floor or balcony more than 10 feet in 

span shall be considered as a story in fixing 

thickness of walls supporting it.. . . 

ashlar, not to be considered unless walls are 16 

inches thick and ashlar 8 inches thick 

also unless alternate courses are 4 inches and 8 

inches to allow bonding with backing 



Page. 


Section. 


56 


15 


57 


15 


59 


15 


59 


15 


59 


15 


59 


15 


96 


27 


156 


83 


20 


12 


106 


34 


114 


36 


96 


27 


96 


27 


97 


28 


76 


17 


98 


31 


116 


37 


94 


24 


75 


17 



93 


23 


93 


23 


93 


23 


94 


23 


94 


23 


94 


23 


95 


25 


93 


23 


93 


23 


93 


23 



93 


23 


94 


23 


94 


23 


94 


23 


94 


23 


94 


23 


91 


23 



Index. 517 

Page. Section. 
WALLS. 

non-bearing, may be 4 inches less in thickness, 

when 93 23 

non-bearing, may be 8 inches less in thickness 

supporting stairs or stair landings 93 23 

non-bearing, not to be less than 8 inches in 

thickness 93 23 

non-bearing, not to exceed a height of 30 times its 

thickness 

curtain, in single family dwelling. . 

curtain, in all other buildings 

curtain, not to exceed in height, 30 times its 

thickness when more than 20 feet in length. . . . 
hollow block, not to be used for bearing walls, when, 

hollow block, relative to 

basement, what it includes 

thickness of, shall be sufficient to keep stresses 

within requirements of working stresses pre- 
scribed by this act 91 23 

for single family dwellings, not over three stories, 

with wooden floor beams spanning not over 15 

feet 91 23 

floor timbers in, ends of, not to be nearer than 8 

inches to each other 91 23 

for dwellings, not over three stories, when floor 

spans more than 20 feet 91 23 

when any part of such building is adapted for 

other than habitation, surrounding walls of 

such part to be not less than 12 inches in 

thickness 

when one part of building is lower than the rest. . 
foundation, to be 4 inches thicker than wall of 

first story 

main reinforcement to be fire protected 

WALLS ABOVE ROOF, PARTY. 

requirements for 97 28 

WALLS, CONCRETE. 

how poured, when to be poured 40 15 

WALLS, CORNICES. 

regulations for 97 29 

WALLS, CURTAINS. 

party and outside, must have 96 27 



91 


23 


93 


23 


93 


23 


41 


15 



518 



Index. 



Page. Section. 
WALLS, PARALLEL. 

to be properly tied _, 20 12 

"WALLS, PARTITIONS." 

definition of 16 n 

"WALLS, PARTY." 

definition of 16 11 

must have curtain 96 27 

openings for doorways in 98 31 

wooden buildings to have, when 122 40 

"WALLS, THICKNESS OF." 

meaning of, defined 16 11 

for basement 91 23 

for single dwelling 91 23 

for other dwellings 91 23 

for hotels 92 23 

for lodging houses 92 23 

for boarding houses 92 23 

for club houses 92 23 

for convents ; 92 23 

for hospitals 92 23 

for asylums 92 23 

for detention buildings 92 23 

for all other buildings 95 23 

WALLS, VAULTED. 

regulations for 95 26 

WASHINGTON STREET. 

corner Lovering place, exempt from height of 

buildings, Act, 1914, chap. 786 246 1 

WASTE PIPES AND TRAPS. 

plumbing requirements for 174 117 

WATCHMAN. 

in hotels, etc., when required, General Laws, chap. 

143 323 44 

WATER-CLOSETS. 

number required 19 12 " 

requirements for 148 69 

178, 190 120, 128 

tenement house, provisions for 145, 148 67, 69 

ventilation of 19 12 

in existing tenement houses, number and ventila- 
tion 152 72 

in existing tenement houses, woodwork to be 

removed 152 72 



Index. 



WATER-CLOSETS. 

in tenement houses, access to 

in tenement house cellar, permit from Health 

Commissioner 

in tenement houses, floors to be waterproofed . . . 
in tenement houses, number, lighting, ventilation, 
number, in buildings where persons are employed, 

number, in habitations 

separate for men and women 

water supply for 

WATER PIPES. 

protection from frost 

WATER SUPPLY. 

tenement house, requirements for 

WATERPROOFING CELLARS. 

when required 

WHARVES AND BUILDINGS THEREON. 

not restricted by building limits 

not subject to building laws 

WHARVES, ETC. 

restrictions of, sect. 9 not to apply to 

WHARVES, QUAYS, ETC. 

not affected by this act 

WHEEL GUARDS. 

on columns 

WIDTH. 

effective, of T-beams, not to exceed, etc 

WIDTH OF STREET. 

how measured 

when uneven, 1905, chap. 383, order of July 21, 
1905 

meaning of 1905, chap. 383, order of July 21, 1905, 

when buildings on one side of street only, 1905, 

chap. 383, order of July 21, 1905 

WIND BRACING. 

provisions for, required 

WIND PRESSURE. 

on vertical surfaces, on buildings 40 feet in height, 
10 pounds 

40 feet to 80 feet in height, 15 pounds 

more than 80 feet in height, 20 pounds 





519 


Page. 


Section. 


145 


67 


149 


69 


149 


69 


149 


69 


19 


12 


19 


12 


19 


12 


178 


120 


19 


12 


152 


73 


90 


22 


13 


9 


13 


10 


13 


9 


14 


10 


101 


32 


47 


15 


77 


18 


236 




236 




236 




39 


14 


115 


36 


115 


36 


115 


36 



520 



Index. 



Page. Section. 
WIND PRESSURE. 

commissioner may require a design for increased 
pressure when in his judgment the exposure 

requires it 115 36 

bracing, additional, may be required, when 115 36 

WINDERS ON STAIRS. 

width 129 45 

WINDOW CAPS AND SILLS. 

projection allowed 24 13 

WINDOWS. 

habitable buildings, regulations for 109 35 

in first and second ciass mercantile and manufac- 
turing buildings within 20 feet of opposite wall 

to have metal frames and wire glass 116 37 

in existing tenement houses 150 70 

in living rooms of habitations, distance from oppo- 
site wall , 109 35 

size 109 35 

tenement house, in public halls 143 65 

for stair halls 144 66 

third-class buildings exempt. (Exceptions) 109 35 

openings on fire escapes 21 12 

WINDOWS IN ELEVATOR SHAFTS. 

to have red iron bars 117 * 38 

WINDOWS IN TENEMENT HOUSES. 

basement rooms 145 68 

courts, exception '■ 141 61 

public halls 143 ° 5 

size and locations 142 63 

of water-closets, bathrooms, halls on court, mini- 
mum size. 139 58 

WIRE GLASS. 

in automatic doors, stair shafts 75, 76 17 

WIRES, COMMISSIONER OF. 

not affected by this act 15 1" 

provisions of sect. 7 apply to .- 10 

WOOD. 

in foundation of wooden buildings on marshy land, 23 13 

WOOD CONSTRUCTION. 

allowed under masonry, when . 23 



Index. 521 

Page. Section. 
WOODEN BUILDINGS. (See, also, Third-class 
Buildings.) 
allowed within building limits, for: 

(a) building on wharves not exceeding 27 feet 

in height 13 9 

(6) elevators for grain or coal 13 9 

(c) temporary structures to facilitate building 

operations 13 9 

(d) dwellings for one and two families under 

certain restrictions 13 9 

- construction of, general regulations for. . . 120-121, 122-124 39, 40 

description of frame 121 39 

for sanitary purposes, chap. 4, 1873 200 1 

foundations for 120 39 

habitations, distance from lot line and next 

buildings 122 40 

habitations, maximum height, number of stories, 122 40 

height of, requirements 122 40 

not habitations, distance from lot line 123 40 

proximity to other buildings 122 40 

regulations concerning 120, 122 39, 40 

tenement houses, limit of size and area 133 51 

when to have brick party walls 122 40 

within limits, not to be enlarged 22, 117 13, 35 

may be altered or enlarged, when and how 14 9 

foundation, requirement for 120 39 

foundation, to be of brick, stone, granite, concrete 

or rubble 120 39 

within limits, alteration and repair of 22 13 

within limits, moving of 22 13 

foundation, to be carried to surf-ace of ground. ... 120 39 
foundation, of brick or concrete, to be 12 inches 

thick 120 39 

foundation, of granite, to be 18 inches taick 120 39 

foundation, of rubble, to be 20 inches thick 121 39 

foundation, to be laid at least 4 feet below surface 

exposed to frost 121 39 

foundation, to be laid on solid ground or upon 

piles properly spaced 121 39 

foundation, no round or boulder stone permitted 

in 120 39 

underpinning, to be of brick or concrete, 12 inches 

thick, or of stone 16 inches 121 39 



522 Index. 

Page. Section. 
WOODEN BUILDINGS. 

ledger boards 121 39 

studding, not over 20 inches on centers 121 39 

solid corners 121 39 

post to be secured, braced 121 39 

ledger board, space back of, to be filled 121 39 

to be securely nailed, framed or ironed together, 121 39 

ledger boards, when not allowed 121 39 

in limits, prohibited 22 13 

fireproofing 101 32 

sanitary purposes, 1873, chap. 4 200 1 

WOODEN HEADERS, 

requirements for 20 12 

WOODEN TRIMMERS. 

requirements for. 20 12 

WORK. 

requiring permit 18, 22 12,13 

WORKING STRESSES. 

not to be modified 11 8 

compressive strength, basis for design. . . 50 15 

table for same 50 15 

concrete shall not be used, when. 50 15 

concrete, one year old, compressive strength of, 50 15 

WORMHOLES. 

timber to be free from 32 14 

WROUGHT IRON. 

strength of , 31 14 

to conform to standard specifications 31 14 

WROUGHT-IRON COLUMNS, 

circular, filled with concrete, load allowance 48 15 

Y. 

"Y-BRANCHES." 

plumbing, definition of 172 112 

YARD, 

for tenement house, not to be decreased, when. . . 141 62 

size, etc 135 55 

to be drained 153 74 

definition of 124 42 

YARDS, TENEMENT HOUSE. 

general regulation for 135, 137 55, 50 

when not required 137 50 



Index. 523 

Page. Section. 
Z. 
ZONING ACT, 1924, CHAPTER 488. 

Definitions. Building, area of 274 

area of building 274 

dwelling. . 274 

hotel. . 274 

lot 275 

setback. 275 

story, half '. 275 

half-story 275 

yard rear 275 

rear yard 275 

yard, side 275 

side yard 275 

accessory use 276 3 

limitations of 277 3 

Single residence district 276 3 

General residence district 277 4 

Local business district 1 278 5 

General business district 279 6 

Industrial district 280 7 

Unrestricted district 282 8 

Nonconforming uses. . 282-283 9 

Bulk — Districts: 

establishment of 284 10 

thirty-five feet in height 285 11 

forty feet in height 286 12 

sixty-five feet in height 287 13 

eighty feet in height 288 14 

one hundred and fifty-five feet in height 289 15 

regulations, height and area 289-291 15 

exceptions height and area 289-291 15 

Districts — Boundaries of 292 17 

Boundaries of districts 292 17 

Enforcement 292 18 

Permits 292 18 

Appeals 293 19 

Publio Service Corporations may appeal to 
Department of Public Utilities, chapter 70, 

Acts of 1928 394 

Board of Zoning Adjustment 294 20 

Zoning Adjustment Board 294 20 



524 Index. 

Page. Section. 
ZONING ACT, 1924, CHAPTER 488. 

Jurisdiction 297 21 

Penalties 297 21 

Interpretation and application of Act 297 22 

Application and interpretation of Act 297 22 

Existing buildings 298 23 

Permit 298 23 

Validity of Act 299 24 

Act when effective '. 299 25 

Buildings permissible to be erected, altered or used: 

single residence districts 276 3 

general residence districts 277 4 

local business districts. . .. 278 5 

general business districts 279 6 

all buildings not specified as, prohibited 279 6 

industrial districts 280 7 

all buildings not specified as, prohibited 280 7 

unrestricted districts 282 8 

all buildings not prohibited by law, ordinance 

or regulation 282 8 

Yards, courts, setbacks, areas. (See also chap. 

200 Acts, 1927) 382 

Rear yards required. \ For 35-foot district 285 11 

Side yards required. I For 40-foot district 286 12 

Courts required. /For 65-foot district 287 13 

Setbacks required. I For 80-foot district 288 14 

Building area restriction./ For 155-foot district 289 15 

Height of buildings, exceptions and regulations.. . 289 IG 

Area of buildings, exceptions and regulations 290-291 16 

Boundaries of district 292 17 

Districts — Boundaries of 292 17 

Permit, enforcement 292 18 



Index. 525 



SUPPLEMENTAKY INDEX. 



LEGISLATIVE ACTS OF THE YEARS 
1927, 1928 and 1929. 

Page 

ACTS OF 1927. 

Chap. 42 — Metal Covered Steel Frame Buildings 380 

Chap. 82 — Licenses for Operators of Motion Pictures 382 

Chap. 220 — Zoning Law, amendments to 382 

Chap. 246 — Back Bay District, restrictions in 390 

Chap. 342 — Beacon Street, yard spaces in 392 

ACTS OF 1928. 

Chap. 70 — Zoning Law, amendment to 394 

Chap. 76 — Plumbers' Licenses 394 

Chap. 137 — Height of Buildings 396 

Chap. 260 — Garages, permit for 397 

Chap. 320 — State Fire Marshal, appeal from decisions of 397 

Chap. 325 — Fire Prevention, amendments to Act relating to. . 398 

ACTS OF 1929. 

Chap. 88 — Zoning Act, amendment to 402 

Chap. 338 — Height of Buildings on Saint James Avenue 403 



CITY OF BOSTON afiEgXfflg^D PRINTING DEPARTMENT. 



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