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Full text of "Building News and Engineering Journal"

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Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

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6 



THE 



BUILDING NEWS 



AND 



ENGINE EEING JOURNAL 



VOLUME THE EOUliTEENTH. 



OFFICE FOR PUBLICATION AND ADVERTISEMENTS: 

31, TAVISTOCK STEEET, COVEN T GARDEN, LONDON. 



1867. 



IV 



INDEX OF CONTENTS. 



Jan. to Dec. 1867. 



OU \LIFICATIONS of a surveyor, (q) 747, (a) 765. Quail- 

^dld surveyor, (q) 29S, (a) 314. Q"^li,'y »' <'»f ^^"f 
wrought iron, deterioration in, (q) 16i, (*) 1S4. -«"■ 
Qnautities, (q) 113. Queen Eleanor's cross, (q) 00b, (a) 
676 604. Queries, (q) 729, <a) 748, (q) 764. 

HADiuSof a curve,W) -'ir,), (a) 232, 247, 263 Railing 
around monuments, (q|2I6. Railway curves, large, (q) 
3S0, (a) .%6, :;S4, 605. Railway work (q) Mb, (a) 7.J. 
Raising buildings bodily, (q) 603, (a) o20, 530 553, 5,0. 
Rancid oil, (q) 167. Rare book, a, (q) 621. Keducmg tim- 
ber to the standard, (q) 947, (a) 765. Bemovmg paint 
from stone, (q)621, (a)658, 694,(q)S37. Removing n«' ((0 
T64 Renaissance, (q) 113. Rents,(q)l)3, Repairs, (q) 203 
(a) 329 Resistance of roads, (q) 15. (a)36. Resonance (q) 
670 (a) 621. Ret.aining ilrawings, (q) 400, 466, (a) 406 48, . 
Retaining w.-als, (q) 466, (a) 570, (q) 694 (o) 113 (a) IJo. 
Bidge tiling, (q) 263, (a) 329. Road track (q) ,b3. Kock 
basins, (q) 450, (a) 4S7. Roofs, (<,) 466. Royal academy, 
(at 3''9 450 (a) 467, 536, (q) 621. Royal studentsliij), 
(q) 74'?.' Roval Institute, (q) 350. Rubble, (q) 400, (a) 417. 
Busted instruments (q) 449, (a) 467. 

SALINE scum on files, (q) 290, (a) 298. Salt in plasteimg, 
(a) 247. Salt, manufacture of, (q) 36, (a) 54. Sawdust 
Jieot, (q) 135. SawMing, (<l) 820. Schools of ait (q) 
621 Scintillations from iron and st«el, (q) 134, (a; loi. 
SeawaUs, (q) 263, (a) 329. Seasoning oak, (.|)183, (a) Lul. 
Sewage difficultv, the, (q) 113. Sewer.age, (n)570 (a) OOa, 
621 658. Sharpening tools, (q) 503, (a) o20. Shellac, dis- 
solving, (q) 298, 466, (a) 570. SheUs for o.imeos (q) 
247 ShuntingofraUwaylines, (a)15. Side drains (,|) 14. 
Siphon, (q) 231, (a) 247. Sii:e of bricks (q) 134 (a) 15,. 
SkvliEhts (..) 216, 263, (a) 280. Slates, (q) 410. 
Smith's poker pictures, (q) 783. Smoke, (q) 167, (a) 1S4. 
Smoky bricks, (q) 216, (a) 231, 247. South KensiDgtou 
prizes, (q) 466, (a) 487. Sp.are time, how to use it, ((|) 3b 
Speciliciitions, (q) 802, (a) 821. SpeciUative builders, (q) 
6''1 Spontaneous combustion, (q) 134, (a) lol. Squaring 
dimension., (q) 314, (a) 3S4, 416. St.am for brickwork 
<q) 185. Stained glass, (q) SOI, (a) 821. Stained oak, q 
298, (a) 367, (q) 712, (a) 731, 745. Stamiug marble,J,0 
150 (a) 167. Staining of stone by cement, the, (q)il.. 
Stand.ard bushel, the, (q) 135, (,i) 200, 216, 231. bt.jiie 
damaged by frost, (q) 76, (a) 93. Stone destroying insects, 
<q) SOI, (a) S21, 838. Stone staircase, (q) 85o. Straining 




tute of CivU Engineers, (q)D20. St. Giles School, EiideU. 
street, (q) 820, (a) 820. St. Mary's Redohff, Bristol, (q) 
450 St Wilfrid's Roman Catholic Cliurch, (q) boo. 
Suburban Village Company, (.|) 553. Sul-veyor's charges, 
(q) 466, (a) 570. Surveyoi's claims, (.j) 44!). Surveyor's 
commission, (q) 416. Sun dials, (a) 54. Sunk church, (q) 
570. 

TASKS for conservatories, (q) 14, (a) 36. Taxes on im- 
proved dwelUngs, (q) 113. Terracotta, (q)366. Thickness 
of retaining walls, (q) S?3. Thompson's universal joiner, 
(q) 306, (a) 366. Tie beams, (q) 764 (a) 784. Tile machi- 
nery (q) 150, (a) 768. Tile roofing, (q) 247, (a) 203. 
Tilin" foreign (q) 416. Tiling for g.ardens, (q) 135, (a) 
151 167 Timber, (q) 450, (a) 467. Timber, preservation 
of (q)553, (a) 587, 60S, 653. Timber, price of, 813, (a) 
873 Tortoiseshell, polishing, (q) 604. Tracings, to 
colour, (q) 640, (,a) 747. Transfening prints, (q) 416, 6/6. 
Tranap.arent paper, (q) 366, (a) 384. Transit theodohtes, 
(q) 36. Trussed scaffolding (q) 135, (a) 200. Tunnels (q) 
13.i, (a) 151. Turnpike roads, (q) 765, (a) 873, 8 '3. 

UNDERGROUND tank, (q) 837, (a) 855. Uudei-pmning 
cement, 150, (a) 200. 

TARNISH for ironwork, (q) 183, (a) 200. V.aniish for 
poUshed iron, (q) 1S3, (a) 200. Varnish for tin buckets, 
(q) 200, (a) 216. Vegetation on'stone ashlaring, (q) 4SB, (a) 
570. Ventilation (q) 449, (a) 407, 503. Ventilation of 
barracks, (q) 350. Very sharj) practice,(q) 747. Vouasoirs, 

'Wages! (q) 113, (a) 135, (q) 910. Walls for frescoes, (q) 150. 
Wiiltham Abbey, (q) 503. Warehouse and granary tloors, 
(q) 36. Warming rooms, (q) 712. Warming by steam, (q) 
S20. Watcrolosets, (q) 432, (a) 450, 486. Wateioloset pans, 
(fl) 134, (.a) 200. Water colours, (q) 676, (a) 094, 712. 
Water piesaura, (q) 76. W.ater through pipes, (q) 14, (a) 
36. 892. Watertight vault, (q) SOI, (a) 873. Wear and te.ar 
of ma«hinery, (q) 70, (a) 113. Weight of angle iron, (q) 
£70, (a) 604, 040. Weight on double girder beam (q) 314, 
(a) 330. Whatiscustomary, (q)621,(a)659, (a)873. White 
varnish, (q) 1S3, (a) 200. Whitewash, (q) 432, (a) 432. 
■Windows in palty walls, (q) 416, (a) 432. Wood beams, 
(q) 855. Wood carving, (q) S37, (a) 855. Wood, uuin- 
Mammable, (q) SOI. Writing on monuments, (q) 113. 
Wrought-iion roof, (q) 658, (a) 677, 729, 748. Wrought- 
iron girders, (q) 200, (a) 231. 

ZISC, (q)416. (a) 416. Hinc for roofe, (q) 519, (a) 536, 652. 
Zincing iron, ((0 150, (a) 167. 

IntereBtinff relic, decay of an, 219 

Intoruational coinage, 665 

Inventions recent American, 174 

Inventors and inventions, 540 

Irish architecture, early, 339 ; illuminations, 527 

Iron, with copper coating, 180 ; ruofa, 100, I-IO, 
220, 252 ; sleepers, 501 ; and steel, solderiufr, 
63-1; for tnnnels, '137; preservatives, 79S ; kiosk 
for India, 578. 

Irriyatiou in France and Spain, 557 

Iteina, American, 238 

JAMAICA-STREET, Glasgow, 416 

Japanning and Varnishing, 267 

Japan, decorative manufactures of, 430 

Jersey, harbour for, 671, 698 

-Jerusalem, 33 

Jewish Synagogue, 499 

Joiner, Thompson's universal, 320 

Joiners, carpenters, &c., 592 

Jottinga in London, 630, 644, 662, 731 

KING frost, 67 

Kiosk for India, iron, 578 

Knob, Myers's drawer, 6 



LABOURERS' dwellings, S35 ; skilled, 62/ 

Lamps, Gas, 142 

Landmarks, the old, 2?7 

Law Courts, materials for Now, 228; Nejv 18, 
-14, 51, 57, 79, 95, 117, 137, 142, 147, 153, 163, 
169 1S6 197, 202, 219, 234, 249, 270, 3tlO, 322, 
35S; 374| 393, 413, 419, 429, 478, 494, 515, 549, 
562,635, 751, 815, 811 

Lb Mans Cathedral, Chevet, 84 

Lea, the river, 39 

Learn, never to old to, 253 

Lecturing, "acrobatic," 102 

Leeds, W. H., the architectural critic, 081, bJ/, 
717 ; Infirmary 

Legislation, sanatory, 691 

Leicester competition, 877 

Libraries, museums and free, 790 

Lifting water machinery, 35 

Light, obstruction of, 122 

Lights, law of window, 96 

Limestones, 353 ; magnesium, 370 

Lincoln, monument to President, 23 

Lions in Trafalgar-square, 89, 107 

Little things, 119 

Literary theft, 738 

Liverpool, Convent of Notre Dame, 578 ; dwel- 
lings competitions, 877 ; Philosophical Society, 
508 ; public parks, 423 ; Sefton Park, 275, 283, 
311, 628 ; shops and offices, 666 

Llandaff, Probate Registry, 6 ; schools, 510 

Llandangh Schools, 340 

Lock Katrine water, 568 

Lodge at Rushton, 510 

London, Barricades, 743; firemen, 877, 890; 
fires in 1866, 110; gates of old, 41 ; improve- 
ments in, 100; jottings in, 6.30, 644, 662, 734; 
pure water for, 424 ; reconstruction of, 90 ; 
springs and wells of, 662 ; University building, 
347, 397 ; water supply of, 34, 40, 60, 153 

Long-acre, Queen's Theatre, 719 

Longevity, houses, health and, 700 

Losses olthe year 1866, 5 

Lunatio asylums, planning of, 149 

Lurking places for infection, 580 

MACHINERY, improvements in, 222 ; trades' 

unions and, 846 
Magnesium limestones, 370 
Making turpentine, 321 
Malachite, 322 

Malton, Roman remains at. 111 
Man and beast, for, 472 
Manchester, statues in, 317; townhall, 549, 648, 

667, 697 ; competition, 618, 636, 648, 791 
Slansfield stone, 637 
Mansion House, alterations at the, 319; Mitfield, 

102 
Marble corrosion, 738, 798 
Markets of the poor, 500 
Masonry, Paris Exhibition, 89 
Materials, carriage of, 304 ; strength of, 483, 756 
Maw and Co.'s encaustic tiles, 131 
Mayer collection of antiquities, 121 
Mechanics, hints to, 347 
McLean's gallery, 772 

Mediaeval fountain, 63, 121 ; fountain in illu- 
minated MSS., 83; furniture, 483; heraldry, 
828 ; tile factory, a 63 
Memorial tablets, 735 
Merchants, English, 173 

Metal work, 22 

Method of ventilation, new, 293 

Metropolitan abattoirs, 774 ; Board of Works, 
802; buildings, 788, 806; Street Act, 672, 
079, 697 ; Traffic Act, 593 

Metropolis, legislation for the, 11 ; water supply 
of the, 34 

Metz, the Cathedral of, 592 

Mica for decorative purposes, 531 

Mines, waste lands connected with, 97 

Mitfield mansion, 102 

Model lodging-houses, 24; dwellings, Paris E.';- 
hibition, 628 

Modelling, architectural, 852, 869 

Modern architecture and architects, 508 

Mont Cenis Railway, 611 

Monument to President Lincoln, 23 

.More' Vandalism, 494 

Mortar, black, 222 ; Norman red, 121 

Mural paintings, 101, 111 

Museum, architectural, 148, 306, 797; South 
Kensington, 408; Twickenham, 895 

Museums and free libraries, 790 

Music balls and theatres, 211 

Myers' dtawer-knob, 6 

NATIONAL Fine Art Exhibition, 473 ; Gallery of 
Art, design for a, 122 ; competition, 17, 49, 72, 
107, 132, 196, 322; new, 7 ; work, a, 270 



Nelson Column, the, 96, 107 

Nests, new fever, 752 

Newcastle, gymnasium for, 205 

New cement, a, 534 

New Jersey, 205 

New York underground, 43 

Nitro-glycerine explosions, 889 

Norman red mortar, 121 

Northern Vandals, 625 

North Shields Lutheran Church, 726 

Norwich Cathedral, the nave, 102 

Nottingham competition, 463 

OAK, Heme's, 664 

Obituary— Bailey, E. H., 374; Brodie, A., 398 ; 
Clark, Dr. T., 870 ; Crawshay, W., 551 ; Cundy, 
T., 594; Faraday, M., 594; Fowler, C, 844; 
Gerard, Dr., 385 ; Hardman, I, 393 : Heiser, 
M., 673; HittorfF, J. I., 320; Leeds, W. H., 
681, 697, 717 ; Lemon, R., 34; MoUinger, 673 ; 
O'Connor, M., 551 ; Pacard, M., 591; Phillips, 
Sir T., 374 ; Ryall, H. T., 673 ; Smirke, Sir 
E., 291, 567 ; Stanfield, C, 363, 397 ; Stirling, 
E., 51 ; Walker, W , 630 ; for the year, 895 

Obstruction of lisht, 122 

Office, Patent, 457 

Offices, Sierra Leone, 648 

Official wisdom, 474 

Oil of roses, the, 447 

Old landmarks, the, 287 

Omnium fastenings, the, 254 

Organic substances in water, 381 

Organ building, progress of, 585, 627 

Organs, 313 

Orkney, pre-historic remains in, 63 

Ornamentation for buildings, 825 

Our illustrations, 474 ; workmen, 72 

Oxford and the ^rt of the future, 680 ; drainage 
of, 155 ; residei:ce of Norham Lodge, 583 

Oyster culture architecturally considered, 97 

PACIFIC railroad is built, how the, 531 

Painted decorations, 4, 438, 490, 715 

Painting, encaustic, 407 , fresco, 305 ; mural, 
101, 111; plaster and wall, 702; silicions, 
338; wall, 157 

Palace, Alexandra, 791 ; yard, works in, 815 

Palais de Justice, Bruges, 863 

Paris, Architectural Congress of, 584 ; Exhibition, 
.39 49, 51,58, 73, 84, 89, 206, 237, 270, 311, 
327, 339, 369, 387, 403. 419,435, 453, 465,469, 
489, 505, 509, 523, 539, 553, 561, 591, 628; 
brickwork and concrete building, 845 ; English 
artizans at, 4/4 ; public gardens, &o., 585 ; re- 
storation of, 424; improvements in, 908 

Park, Battersea, 286 

P.irliament, Houses of, 91 

Parliamentary Intelligence, 133, 181, 214, 223, 
238, 253, 322, 364; legislation over the me- 
tropohs, 11 

Patent Office Library, 457 

Patents toe Intentions — 

Artificial wood, improvements in making, 115 
Artificial stone for grinding, improved, 839 
Bench vices, improvements in, 521 
Blinds, improvements in Venetian, 94 
Brackets, for shelves, improvements in, 714 
Bricks, improvements in machinery for making, 

78 .■ . 

Bricks, improvement in machinery forpressing, 

232 

Bricks, improvement in makin<?, 115, 457, 555; 

tiles, &c., 623, 678, 839, 875 
Calcareous bricks, improvements in, 281 
Carving, improved machinery for, 451 
Ceilings, improvement in the construction of, 

281 
Cement compositions, improvements in, 232 
Cesspools, &c., improvements in, 352 
Chimneys, improvements in, 521, 695 
Chimney top, improved, 457, 555, 623, 678 
Chimney pots, improvements in, 264 
Cisterns, improvements in, 331, 678, 822 
Clay, improved mode of washing, 572 
Cleansing exteriors of buildings, improved 

mode of, 433 
Coal plates, improved mode of securing, 695 
Composition for use for mouldings, &c., im- 
proved, 281 
Concrete, improved apparatus for mixing, 16 
Cowles, improvements in, 451 
Cranes, improvements in, 786 
Damp, composition for coating walls and ex- 
eluding, 418 
Distribution of gas, water, <S:c., improvements 

in the, 875 
Doors, improved hanging centre stop for, 16 



Jan. to Dec. 1867 



INDEX OF CONTENTS. 



Door furniture, improvements in, 333 
Door-handle3, improved moilo of securing, 711 
Door-sereens, improvements in, 331 
Poor-spring, improved, 875 
Jiicavating and mining, improvements in ma. 

chinery for, 385 
Pences, liurdles, &c., improvements in, 786 
Files, improvements in machinery for cuttin?, 

115 
Fireplace, improved smoko consuming, 281 
Fire rniigts, improvements in, 803 ; ^ 

Floors, improvements in construction of, 711, 

803 
F;:rnaces, improvements in, 352 
Furnaces for prevention of smoke, improve- 
ments in, GGO 
Girders, improvements in, 10 
Girders, improvements in iron, and steel, or 

combined, 3S, 115 
Grate-bdrs, improvements iu, 352 
Healing buildings, improvements in metallic 

pipes for, 368 
Horticultural erections, improvements in, 91 
Iron safes, improvements in, US 
Knobs for door-Iatches, improvements in cJiina 

and earthenware, 786 
Lime and cement kilns, improvements in, 232 
Locks, improvements in, 78, 6G0 
Locks and latches, improvements in, 555 
Lowering and raising persona or goods, im- 

proved means of, 521 
Marble, improvements in machines for cultine, 
248 ^ 

Metallic zinc paint, 623 

Motive powar, improved mode of obtainine 

281, 331 ^ 

^^ajJs, improved mode of cutting aud beading, 

451 
Nails, improvements in, 451, 572 
Oxidisation, improved means of preventing, 786 
Faint uninflammable, improved mode of ren- 
dering, 572 
Pavement, improved, 264 
Pipes, improvement in earthenware, 94 
Plane irons, improvements in, 803 
Posts and poles, improvements in, 803 
Privies, improvements in, 433 
Eaisingand lowering heavy bodies, improved 

means, 785 
Eaising weights, improved apparatus for, 875 
Safes, improvements in construction of, 94 
Sash fastening, new, 786 
Sashes, improvements in cast iron, 555 
Siws, improvements in, 331 
Saw-frames, improvements in, 572 
Sawmills, improvements in, 418 
Screws, improvements in, 803 
Seawalls, improvements in, 8/5 
Shuttle and window fastener, improved, 678 
Smoky chimneys; improved means of prevent- 
ing, 418 
Soil-trap, improved, 352 
Steam cranes, improvements in, 600 
Stone, improvements in machinery for work- 
ing, 115, 281, 434 
Stoves, improvements in, 803 
Tmiber, improvements in machinery forsawint? 
281 *" 

Venetian blinds, improved, 678 
Ventilating dwelling-houses, improved method 

of, 264 
Ventilator, improved, 433 
Ventilation of large buildings, improved means 
of, 786 ' 

Walls, improved coverings for, 875 
Wall papers, improved machinery for pasting, 

o85 
Washing clay, improved apparatus for, 368 
Water-closets, improvements in, 232, 623 
Water. cocks, improvements in, 840 
Window, improved method of securing, 695 
Window-sashes, improvements in, 352, 523, 572 
Wood-cutting machinery, 803 
Wood, improved process for preparing, 572 
Wood, preservation of, 281 



Piano, grand, 158 

Pictures, prices of, filO 

Pimlico, shop fronts, 707 

Pipes, water, 900 

Planning luniitio asylnms, 149 

Plaster nnd wall paintinp-, "02 

Plastering and plasterers' lath.", 3/9 

Plate girder-o, 205, 237, 30-1, -122, 4/2 ; glass, and 
its manufacture, 607 

Plates, brass, 791 

Platforms, asphalted, 2SS 

Plea for beautiful churches, 036 

Plymouth, Cornwall Hotel, 64 

Pointed arches, 709 

Pompeii, house decorations of, 408 : a Tartar, 
205 

Poor, dwellings for the, 12, 49, 1G3 ; markets for 
the, 500 

Poplar competitions, 557 

Porcelain, photography in, 90S ; and pottery, 83, 

109 
Porch, 424 
Portland stone, 420 
Portrait Gallery, 407 
Po.t, small, 44 

Pre-historio remains in Orkney, 63 
Preparation of vvbitewasli. G3G 
Preservation of timber, 515, G09, 6J7'; wood, 20, 

59 
Preservatives, iron, 798 
Piices of pictures, GIO 
Prince Consort Statue at Manchester, 73 
Prize designs for cottages, 827 
Prizes for art workmen, 422 
Probate Registry, Llaudaft, 6 
Pi-ogress iu the mechanics of gilding, 38S 
Properties of steel, 799 
Proportion of old scone altars, 59 
Protection against fire, 502 

Public park, Liverpool, 423 : work?, report on 
2G1 ^ 



Paving, bitumen as, 561, SG3 

Peabody Trust, the, 179 

Perfumes, how to extract, 62 

Perpendicular style, the, 121 

Petroleum, C66 

Philosophical view of art, 117, 154, 218, 250, 

302, 354 
Photo-sculpture, 718 
Photographic A-^socialion, 147, 164, 879 
Photographs of churches in Asia, 900 
Photography and architecture, 583, 599, 617 • 

and porcelain, 908 



PuBr,ic.\Tio.\s, Notice of — 

.4bbeys and castles of South Wales, ISl 
Almanack, "City Press," 11; British, 11, 

891; "Hereford Journal," 11; "Post," 52 
America, British, 11 
ArchitectuiT, Ti-eatise on, 470 
Art Journnl. 321 
Atchley's Price-book, 90S 
Bath, the Baths and Minerals of, ISl 
Builders' Price-book, 52 
Cathedrals, Photographs of English, 1S2 
Cottages, &c., Designs for, 599 
Diaries, Letts's, 11 
Encyclopaedia of Arohilectm-e, 245 
Engineering Pacts and Fignres, 245 
Engineers' Pocket-book, 52; Useful Informa- 
tion for, 20 
Gardner's Year-booV, 53 

Guide to Jersey, 447 ; to Paris Exhibition, ISI 
Inventoi-s and Inventions, 511 
Naturalists' Note-book, 11 
Palmerston Copy-books, the, 52 
Paris Exhibition, the, 321 
Photographs of English and Scottish Scenery, 

Poor of Edinburgh, the, 245 

Post-ofEce and the Telegraph, 447 

Quantities and Measurements, 590 

Railways, Facts respecting Street, 11 

Kerainiscences of a Highland Parish, 245 

Science and Art, Year-book o', 245 

Scientific subject!-', Lectures on, 181 

Scotland described, 52 

Sewage, Purification, &o., of, 908; Question, 
the, 447 ; of Towns, the, 321 

Street Nomenclature, 181 

Tourists' Assistant, the, 448 

Dre's Dictionary of Arts, 447 

Waterworks of India, the, 891 
Publication Society, Architectural, 430 
Pugin V. Barry controversy, 6G6, 789 
Pulleys, slipping of belts off, 251 
Purifying water, 179, 809 



Rambles in the Rhine Provinces, 881 

Raphael and his works, 30 

Recent deaths, 259 

Reconstruoiion of London, 90 

Redland Baptist Chapel,'509 

Reform, corporation, 3G3 

Kegeni's Canal Dock, 743 

Reports of Public Works, 2G1 

Reredos and ahar. Westminster Abbey, 296 

Reservoirs and embankments, 823 

Residence, what constitutes a Royal, 392; of 
Norham Manor, Oxford, 583 

Restorationof Chichester Cathedral, 826 ; church, 
782; of Paris, -124 

Restorations iu band, 195 

Retaining wall.=, 285 

Reviving, Greece, 407 

River Lea, the, 398 

Rivers commission, the, 025 : improve ments of, 

295 
Road foundations, 782 ; rollers, steam, 733 
Roads, construotiou of, 2G8; in Sussex, llomas, 

818 
Roller, steam road, 738 , 

Roman remains at Malton, HI ; roads in Sussex 

8l8; tomb, 0, 205 
Rome, 205 
Roofing, zinc, 610 
Roofs, French, 403; iron, 100, 140, 220, 252 ; for 

workshops, iron, 828 
Roses, the oil of, 447 
Rushton, lodge at, 510 
Ryde Church, drawings fjr, 787 



QUALITIES of timber, 898 

Quantities, estimation of, 120: the question of 

Gil ' 

Quarries, sandstone, 526 
Question, cab, the, 211; dwellings, the, 243; 

of quantities, 611; sewage, 213 

RAILROAD, how the Pacific is built, 534 
Railway bridges, long span, 859; economy, 643 ; 

Mont Cenis, 611; viaducts, SO 
Railways, Government and, 605 ; street, 195; 

timber used in, 454 



SANATORY ACT of 130G, 259; legislation, 091 
Sand screening, 319 
Sandstone quarries, 520 
Sandstones, 334 

Saunterings in Southwark-strect, 707 
Saw-teeth, various forms of, 781, S71 
School, Llandaugb, 340 
Schools and almshouses, Walworth, 84; Barns- 
bury, St. Clement's, 510; Biikeuhead, Albert 
memorial, 174; chapel and, Twickeuham, G12;, 
France and Austria trade, 890 
Scotland, old trees oC, 275 
Screening sand, 319 

Screw piles for bridge, Verona, 171 ; wood, 6 
Sculpture, Grecian, 03; at Paris Exhibition, 591 
Sefcou Park, Liverpool, 275, 233, 311, 528 
Sermons in stone, 227, 243 
Serpentine, alabaster and, 493 
Sewage dilficulty, t,he, 81 ; question, the, 213 ; on 

the Thames, 802 
Sham autiquitie.-, 500 
Shopfront, Stranel, 900 
Shopfrouts, 212; Pimlico, 797 
Shops, Shepherd's-busb, 739 ; and offices, Liver- 
pool, 006 
Sierra Leone, offices in, 048 
Silicatisation of stone, 499 
Silicious painting, 338 
Sinking, new systems of well, 048 
Sketchbouk, architectural, 752, 770 
Skilled labourers, 027 
Slates, 293 
Sleeper.-, iron, 501 
Smallpox, dire and neglect, 44 
Smoke, fuel and preveniiou of, 081; and Etone» 

073 
Society of Arts, 22 ; assisting engineers, 494 ;. 
priiies to art workmen, 39, 42, -122 ; Antiquaries, 
Scottish, 22; Newcastle, 101; Arundel, 474;. 
of British Artists, 303; Carpenters' and Joiners', 
375 ; Conservative, 720 ; Engineers', 70 ; Bene- 
volent, 593 ; Ethnological, 157 ; Kent Archa30. 
logical, 528; Liverpool Philosophical, 608; 
M luohester statistical, 339 ; New Arohitectnral, 
755 ; Southampton Literary aud Philosophical, 
141 ; Temperance Building, 156 
Soldering iron aud steel, 534 
Sound in its architectural relations, 573 
South Kensington Museum, 108 
Southampton, Imperial Hotel, 533 
Sonthwark warehouse, 810 
Spire, Cathedral of, 817 
Springs and wells of London, 602 
St. Andrew's Cathedral, 081 
St. George's, Tuffuell.park, 44, 01 
St. John's Clerkenwell, architectural notice of. 

570 ; Harrow. ou-the-Hill, 424 
St. Martin's New Workhouse, 303, 630, 643 
St. Peter's and St. Paul's, Cork, 205 
St. Philip's, Sydenham, 1/4 
St. Stephen's, Hampstead, 544 
Stables for Earl of Zetland, 702 
Stained Glass — Alnwick, 216 ; Ascot, 74- '•^'°°' 
713; Barlestone, 838; Bishop's Nymi.''''^*''' ' 
Boltoa.le..MooiT, 400 ; Bonsall, 400 ; ""P'^am „ 



VI 



INDEX OF CONTENTS. 



Jan. to Dec. 1867. 



37 ; Bristol, 730 Clieriton. 37 ; Cheshire, 216 ; 
Chetwood, 232 ; Djdbrook, 261; Dudley, 168; 
Duihain, 350 ; Edeuham, 659 ; Ely Cathe- 
dral, 713; Exeter, 232; Faraley, 50-1; 
Garustone Castle, 467 ; Glasgow, 537, 622, 
730 ; Glastonbury, 670 ; Gloucester, 784 ; Guild- 
hall, 330, 504 ; 'Haselev, 713; Hastleton, 56; 
Hawkhurst, 281 ; Hereford, S21, 838, 873 ; Hul- 
toi.', 200 ; Islington, 400 ; Keuilwonh, 622 ; 
Kiugstou, S38 ; Kingstown, 281 ; Kintbury, 400 ; 
Kuaresboro', 37; Langtof', 203; Leek, 520; 
Liucoln, 216, 2'i4 ; Llangollen. 622 ; Manches- 
ter, 641 ; llicheldever, 537 ; Newbury, 694 ; 
Newcastle, 520, 022. 706, 838; Nidil, 713; 
North Ber«jok, 37 ; Oxford, 200 ; Paris Exhi- 
bition, 200 ; Portsmouth, 232 ; Quernmore, 
C22 ; Rhosymedre, 834 ; llomsey, 24?, 821 ; 
Eotherham, 330 ; Sawbridgeworth, 200 ; Selby, 
15; Smethhurst, 784; Southampton, 216; 
Stilton, 400 ; Stockbridge. 50, 281 ; Tavistock. 
802; Thornthwaite, 856 ; Tintwistle, 833 ; Tun- 
bridge, 350 ; Waplev, 747 ; Warwick, 168 ; 
Whitby, 873 ; York, 537 
Stamford Church embellishment, 43 
Stanfield, Ciarkson, early days of, 397 
Statue, Manchester, Prince Consort, 73 
Statue?, Memorials, &c. — Aberdeen, 330; Aboyne, 
367; America, 15. 784; Australia, 293; Baltimore, 
55; Balmoral, 713, 730; Berlin, 450; Bradford, 
330; Brechin, 330 ; Bristol, 769, 873; Brompton, 
37 ; Burton-upon-Trent, 243 ; Cadzow Forest, 
433, 537; Caermarthen, 281; Carolina, Sea 
Islands of, 248 ; Castress, 713 ; Charterhouse, 
130, 216; Clun, 384; Cork, 893; Dariington, 
571; Drumclog, N.B., 850; Dublin, 37, 56,216, 
694,713; Dumfermline Abbey, S93 ; East Ham, 
334; Edinburgh, 400, 433; Gateshead, 367; 
Glasgow, 694 ; Gloucester, 833 ; Greyfriars, 
760; Halifax, 838; Hamilton, 487; Hawaii, 713; 
Helmsley, 713; Hereford, 833 ; Hertford, 216 ; 
Hull, 265, 713, 760; Isthmus of Suez, 487; 
Kensal Green, 37, 200; Kew, 437; Kilmar- 
nock, 520; Leamington, 231; Lemgo, 4S7; 
Lisbon, 730 ; Liverpool, 130 ; 281, 417 ; Llan- 
daff, 846; London, 55, 281, 298, 330, 334, 400, 
401, 417, 520, 571, 802, 821, 838; Louisville, 
417; Manchester, 73, 232,204,298, 317, 641; 
Marseillep, 487; Montereau, 554 ; Montmorency, 
15; Nancy, 749; Nantes, 659; N;iS9,in, 210; 
New York, 298, 450, 588 ; Nice, 200 ; Oxford, 
216, 8u2 ; Paisley, 200, 537; Paris, 200, 659 ; 
Pisa, 641; lihosymedre, 37: Rjme, 307, 417; 
Eomsey Abbey, 37, 50 ; Rugby, 041 ; Salford, 
440 ; Salisbury, 094 ; Scotland, 537 ; Shore- 
ditch, 248; Stirling, 694; Taunton, 216, 417; 
Thearles, 730 ; Trichiuopoly, 450 ; Trie.'ite, 520 ; 
Tuam, 730 ; Vienna, 749 ; Westminster, 15, 281, 
554, 893; Winchester, 554; Windsor Castle, 
400, 588 ; Worms, C59. 
Steel bars, &c., strength of, 539; for bridges and 
ships, use of, 64 ; mechanical properties of, 799 
Steeple, Dundee, old, 643 
Steetly Abbey arch, 889 

Stone Company's Works, Concrete, 440; decay 
of, 682; durability of, 507; in India, artificial, 
382 ; Mansfeld, 637 ; Portland, 420 ; sermons in, 
227, 243 ; rilicatisation of, 499 ; smoke and, 673 
Strain, tensile, 799 ; transverse, 799 
Stratford competition, 699 ; vestry. hall, 882 



Street-cleansinfr question, 29 ; railways, 195 ; 
traffic, 234 ; Mr., 771 ; on Bristol Cathedr.al, 549 

Streets, construction of, 492; and thoroughfaies, 
690 

Strength of beams, 473; bricks, 217; of mate- 
rials, 483, 756 ; steel bars, &c., 539 

Strikes and trades' unions, 30 

Style, the perpendicular, 121 

Subway, Thames, S2S 

Suggestions, 77, 114, 150, 103, 184, 431, 748 

Surfaces, glazed ceramic. 790 

Suppiy, our water, 379 ; pure water, 845 

Surveyor for Coventry, 33 

Surveyors, duties for borough, 424 ; position of 
town, 221 

Sweeping, chimney, 6 

Synagogues, Jewish. 499 

Systems, Half-time, 862 



TABLETS, memorial, 735 

Tailors', Benevolent Institution, 823 

Tartar Pompeii, 205 

Tea-party and testimonial, a, 43 

Technical education, 631, 647, 790, 908 

Teeth, various forms of, 781, 871 

Temperance Building Society, 158 

Tenants, evicted, 29 

Tensile strain, 799 

Thames, British caves on the banks ol the, 83 ; 

sewage in the, 862 ; subway, 828 
Theatre burning and building, 859 ; and concert 

hall, Glasgow, 254 ; Long-acre, Queen's, 719 
Theatres and music halls, 211: new, 726; the, 

142, 153 
Theft, literary, 733 
Things, little, 119 
Thompson's universal joiner, 320 
Thoroughfares, streets and, 690 
Tile factory, a mediaeval, 63 
Tiles, encaustic, Maw and Co.'s, 131 
Timber, Austrian, 627 ; creosote, 862 ; preserva- 

tion of, 515, 009, 647; qualities of, 898; trade 

dnring 1306, the, 99; used in railways, 454 
Time, why does the clock keep, 234 
Tomb at Conisborongh, ancient, 738 ; a Roman, 

205 
Tool, improved, combination, 44 
Townhall, Manchester, 549, 648, 665, 679, 697 ; 

surveyors, position of, 221 
Trade daring 1806, the timber, 99; schools in 

France and Austria, 890; unions, strikes and, 

oO 
Trades' union commission, 244, 265, 284, 304, 

317,345, 354, 391, 429, 437, 463, 491, 047, 

683; Unions' Act, 791 ; and machinery, 846 
Trafalgar-square, Laudseer'a liona in, .89 
Traffic, street, 235 
Transverse strain, 799 
Tree, a gigantic, 562 
Trees of'Scotland, old, 276 
Trickery exposed, 516, 552 
Troublesome visitors, 365 
Trust, the Peabody, 179 
Tuffnell.park, St. George's, 44, 61 
Tunnels, iron for, 437 
Turkish bath, Brighton, 863 
Turpentine, Niading, 321 
Twickenham Museum, 895 



UNDERGROUND. New Y'ork, 43 

Union, the Choriton, 339 

Uuion Commission, Trades', 244, 265. 284, 304 

317. 345, 354, 391. 429, 437, 463, 491, 64? 

683 
University College, 440 ; of Wales, 238 
Uricouiuin. ancient city of, 664 



VANDALS, Northern, 625 

Varnishing, japanning and, 207 

Venetian architecture, 44 

Ventilation of dwellings, S9S; new method of, 

293 
Verbal and written agreements, 180 
Verona Cathedral, porch, 122 
Vestry-hall, Stratford, 882 
Viaducts, railway, 80 
Villa and cottage architecture. 340 ; Worcester 

Park Estate, 408 
Visitors, troublesome, 385 



WAGES. French vporkmen and their, 502 ; in 
New South Wales, buildais' work and, 90 

Walk edges for villa garden?, 110 

Wall painting, 157 

Walls, glass, 509; retaining. 285 

Warehouse, Sonthwark-street, 810 

Waste lands, improvement of, 97 

Water, foundations under, 139 ; as a disinfectant, 
277; Look Katrine, 568; for London, pure. 
421; machinery for lifting, 34; organic sub- 
stances in, 381; pipes, 900; purifying, 179 
809 ; supply of, London, 40, 60, 158 ; the metro- 
polis, 34 ; our, 379 ; pure, 845 

Well sinking, new system of, 648 

Wells, arteajan, 897 

Westminster Abbev, reredoa and altar. 29 6; 
improvements, 607 

Wilts, Celtic remains in, 101 

Window lights, the law of, 96 

Windsor, the Albert Institute, 3U 

Wisdom, official, 474 

Wood carving, 801 ; and choice of woods, 852 ; 
furniture, carved, 835 ; incombustible, 890 ; 
preservation o*', 20, 59 ; screw, 6 

Worcester Park Estate, villa, 408 

Work, 181 ; estimating, 824; metal, 22 ; national, a, 
270 

Workhouse, St. Martin's New, 363, 630, 643 

Workmen, our, 72 

Workmen's dwellings, 288 ; exhibitions, 823 

Works, Metropolitan Board of, 862 ; in Palace- 
yard, 815 ; in the provinces in 1866, 2 ; Raphael 
and his, 30 

Workshops iron roofs for, 823, 846 

Worms, Cathedral Of, 780 

Wroxeter excavations, 818 

YARMOUTH competition, 163 
Yarbrook congregation, 589 
Year, losses of the, 5 

ZETLAND, stable for Earl of. 702 

Zinc, 467 

Zinc roofing, 610 

Znyder Zee, drainage of the. 595 



THE BUILDING NEWS 



AND ENGINEERING JOURNAL 



THE ENGINEERING OF 18GG. 

RETROSPECTIVE glances are not always 
of a pleasant character, and there are 
probably many who look back upon the en- 
gineering schemes and works of the past year 
with no pleasurable feelings. As we, how- 
ever, are neither engineers, directors, secre- 
taries, nor contractors, there is no gall mingled 
with our reminiscences, and iu our present 
review we can afford to look only upon the 
bright side of the picture, and to record with 
imalloyed satisfaction the progress and develop- 
ment of the different branches of engineering 
art and science. With the exception of the 
.still unsolved problem of aerial navigation 
there are no means of commimication remain- 
ing to be tried. The future of all those at pre- 
sent recognised lies in extension and applica- 
tion to examples on a scale hitherto unat- 
tempted. Thus a tunnel -under the Channel 
would be but a gigantic instance of what has 
been successfully accomplished under the 
Thames, and what is in process of accomplish- 
ment under the Liffey, in Dublin, by the 
trimi connecting railway. Similarly, were a 
lii"h-level bridge to be substituted for a tun- 
nel, the precedents on a smaller scale are 
almost ^Wthout number. It is seldom that a 
scheme is propounded, digested, the necessary 
funds provided, and the work carried out 
within the short space of one year, notwith- 
standing the present rapid manner of execut- 
ing works ; but an instance of tliis descrip- 
tion is furnished by the history of the latest 
Atlantic cable, together with its fraternal pre- 
decessor, restored to life at the pame time. 

Of all the results of chemical investigations 
and analysis, the most conducive to the 
general welfare and utility is undoubtedly 
that of gas, and we are rejoiced to perceive 
that during the past year the use of it has 
penetrated to Nizam, a remote annexation to 
our vast Indian possessions. It is viewed 
with great favour, and with no little delight, 
by the majority of the native princes and 
rajahs, and we trust that it may really prove a 
light of civilisation into whatever realms its 
illuminating rays may extend. Old Father 
Thames has had another shadow thrown 
across his metropolitan course by the Cannon- 
street Bridge ; the Victoria Bridge has been 
widened to take eight lines of rails ; the new 
Blackfriars Bridge is rising into view, and if 
these structures continue to multiply, he may 
soon have to bid adieu to warmth and light 
while rolling his waters from Westminster to 
liondon Bridge. His banks will be confined 
by granite walls, although at the rate they 
:are progressing it will be long ere that task is 
■accomplished ; or his bed disturbed by the 
Pneumatic Railway, which at present is at a 
standstill, the finances being, like the tube 
itself, considerably below low water. Last 
■autumn witnessed the commencement of the 
Holborn Valley Viaduct, which will soon sur- 
iraount the surrounding palisades ; of its effect 
with respect to appearance we cannot at pre- 
sent speak, but there is not the slightest 
■question of its utility and necessity, and, 
when completed, the untimely death of mmi- 



berless imfortimate omnibus and cab horses 
will no longer lie at our doors. As the 
greatest commercial nation in the world, it 
has been incumbent upon us to provide ade- 
quate accommodation for our shipping, and 
London and Liverpool can boast of docks 
unequalled iu size, security, and facility of 
ingress and egress. A new addition has been 
made to the London Victoria Docks by an 
hydraulic lifting dock, which has proved 
deservedly a success, and a new tidal basin 
at Glasgow is on the point of completion. 
Had iron attained, in the days of Smeaton, 
the notoriety which it now enjoys, it is more 
than probable that he would have built the 
Eddystone Lighthouse of that material in- 
stead of stone. In one recently erected by 
Mr. Stephenson, at Buddoness, a new descrip- 
tion of illuminating apparatus has been em- 
ployed, in which what are known as conoidal 
prisms have been applied for the iirst time to 
that purpose. Although various schemes 
have been put forward for supplying the 
metropolis with pure and wholesome water, 
yet nothing has been actually accomplished, 
and it will require another and more violent 
outbreak of the national epidemic before any 
efforts will be made to effectually remove the 
cause of the evil. 

Those accustomed to attend railway com- 
mittees had imagined that the severe and 
costly contests between rival bills so frequent 
in the palmy days of railroads had passed 
away for ever, but the contest which attended 
the passing of the bill for a new line to 
Brighton was worthy in every sense, including 
that of expense, of the best days of the "battle 
of the gauges." The bill passed ; the act was 
obtained, but — pneterea nihil. The link line 
comiectmg the insolvent London, Chatham, 
and Dover Railway with the Metropolitan sta- 
tion at Farringdon-street was one of the last 
efforts of that company, even while it stood 
tottering on the verge of bankruptcy. It is, 
perhaps, one of the most useful junctions ever 
constructed, and would go far towards re-esta- 
blishing that unfortunate undertaking were 
the contingency within the bounds of possi- 
bility, while the Metropolitan District line 
is disinterring by hundreds the bones of our 
ancestors, the works of the St. John's Wood 
Railway are in a state of abeyance. It was 
but yesterday that the North London Railway 
opened the saloons and refreshment rooms of 
its new station ; and the ground is cleared for 
the erection of the terminus at St. Pancras, 
which will be covered by a roof of gigantic 
dimensions. The proposed bridge over the 
Forth was commenced, so far as the sinking 
of one cylinder can be classed under that 
head ; but the works never proceeded any 
further, and are now, as is well understood, 
definitely abandoned. The East London 
Railway has shown the greatest vitality of 
any, and there is every prospect, before the 
expiration of the present year, of witnessing a 
locomotive traversing the Thames tunnel and 
making some real use of that important sub- 
aqueous construction. In India during the 
past year the line over 1,100 miles in length 
has been opened throughout from Calcutta to 



Delhi, and the Governor-General has availed 
himself for the first time to the full extent of 
its resources. The only completed railway in 
India is the Madras line, which stretches from 
shore to shore, uniting the town of Beypoor 
with Madras, a distance of 400 miles. 
The Indian Branch Railway and the Indian 
tramway companies have both made good 
progress towards supplying with traffic their 
great arterial neighbours. The Suez Canal is 
yet to be cut, Init its two terminating seas 
have already nungled their waters, and, judg- 
ing from what has been accomplished, the rest 
is but a matter of time. No portion of the 
earth, whether surface or interior, has suffered 
so much from the attacks of engineering science 
as the Alps. Mont Cenis, like a person suffer- 
ing from acute rheumatic fever, has been 
racked from summit to base, and what is 
worse, there is no hope of the internal malaily 
abating for some years to come. Within the 
last twelve months an expedition has been im- 
dertaken which is rich in sacred, historic, and 
exciting associations. It carries back the ima- 
gination to the days when the Saracen and the 
Crusader met in battle array, when the war 
cries of "Allah" and "St. George" were 
shouted forth defiantly by contending squad- 
rons, when the Grand Masters of the Knights 
of St. John were kings of Jerusalem, and when 
the ceaseless tread of pilgrims' feet, like the 
irresistible dropping of water, wore away the 
thresholds of the sacred buildings. The re- 
turn of the party of Royal Engineers now em- 
ployed upon the survey of a portion of the Holy 
Land will be welcomed by everyone interested 
in so important a measure, for before any 
engineering works of importance can be un- 
dertaken with a chance of success, an accurate 
survey of the country is indispensable. 

In spite of the utter prostration of trade, a 
few most important chasms have been filled 
up durhig 18(36 in the main railway routes on 
the continent. In Spain, the line crossing the 
passes of the Sierra Modena, the scene of 
many a ruthless guerilla conflict, was recently 
opened, and establishes communication be- 
tween Paris and Madrid via Cordova, Se- 
ville, and Cadiz. The opening of the Badajos 
line placed Madrid en rapport with Lisbon, 
and thus the capitals of our ancient enemy 
and our ancient ally are united by the closest 
ties of civilisation. In Russia, the route 
from St. Petersburg to Warsaw and to Mos- 
cow is completed, and the Russian system will 
soon be united with that of Cracovia. The 
works have also been commenced to join the 
port of Poti, on the Black Sea, with tliat of 
Bakan, on the shores of the Caspian, and this 
connection would undoubtedly give to the 
trans-Caucasian lines the whole of the traffic 
between Europe and Asia. In Italy, Rome 
has been connected with Florence and Naples, 
and the Italian lines, over 3,000 miles in 
length, stretch to the confines ot Illyria. We 
have now brought to the notice of our readers 
the principal works and the general progress 
made by professional skill and ability during 
the past year. It would be to no purpose, 
nor have we the space, to multiply indi- 
vidual examples. That we have many things 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 4, 1867. 



yet to leim, many difficulties yet to over- 
come, will ■ be' sutiiciently demonstrated by 
two instances. One is, .that it took three at- 
tempts to launch the huge " Northumlier- 
land ;" the other evidence of our lamentable 
shortcomings is recorded in ineffaceable cha- 
racters by the hand of Death at the bottom of 
the Bamsley pit. 



WORKS IN THE PROVINCES, 18G6. 

IN our last number we endeavoured to give 
a synopsis of the principal works erected 
in London and- its suburbs during 1866. It is 
our present iiitention to notice some of the 
improvements wliich have been effected in 
the country during the same period. Our ob- 
servations on buildings' last week were the re- 
sult of personal inspection, which it would be 
simply impossible to extend to several liun- 
dreds of buildings of more or less merit scat- 
tered over the provinces. This impossibility 
is most noticeable in the case of churclies, 
either building or in course of restoration. 
Indeed, the restorations are so numerous that 
the lightest chronicle of the fact would fdl a 
small volume. We have, tlierefore, been 
guided in oirr selection chiefly Ijy the reputa- 
tion of the architects, the opinion of friends 
on whose judgment we are accustomed to rely, 
and, in many cases, by our own knowledge of 
the works in question. We have taken no 
note of restorations. 

Of public buildings in course of construc- 
tion there can be no question that the Ex- 
change, Liverpool, is by far the most im- 
portant. The west wing is fast advancing to 
completion. It will contain, besides other 
apartments, a news-room second to none in 
Europe. In point of size the proposed Man- 
chester Exchange stands next. The competi- 
tion did not give satisfaction to anyone, and 
may be recorded as the most unpleasant event 
which has occurred in the architectural world 
during the year. The Pu/iica Jides of com- 
mittees is becoming a by-word. At Bradford 
an Exchange has been commenced, which 
promises well, and will be worthy of so im- 
portant a town. The Exchange at HuU (Mr. 
Botterill, of Hull, architect) was opened 
early in April. It stands on the site of the 
ancient Suffolk Palace, the residence of the 
De la Pole family during the fourteenth cen- 
tury. The general etfect is good, but we 
must repeat what we have often said — that an 
arched opening should never be used when the 
plan is circular. Unless the diameter of the 
circle be very large, or the arched opening 
ridiculously small — a mere slit, as in a Gothic 
ca,stellated building — the arch -(vill not stand, 
and instead of supporting a load must itself 
be supported by artificial means. Next in 
importance to exchanges, which can only be 
looked for in large and busy marts of com- 
merce, we may place the Townhall. Few 
collections of dwellings too numerous to con- 
stitute a mere village but boast of some sort 
of public hall. Tiie number of townhalls 
and market houses comliined which have been 
this year in progress is prodigious. JIany of 
them are of very humble pretensions, but 
some, on the contrary, are imjiosing and 
costly. Of the latter^ the new Townliall of 
Hull is the chief. It is Italian in style, the 
ornament being good and sutficient rather 
than profuse. Mr. Cuthbert Brodrick was tlie 
architect. Ipswich has commenced a new 
Townhall, Messrs. Bellamy and Hardy being 
the architects. It is in the Italian style, but 
by no means so important a work as the first- 
named. At Hexham, a Townhall, which in- 
cludes a com exchange and a bank, has been 
completed. Report speaks favourably of it. 
The architect is Mr. Johnston, of Newcastle. 
AtCongleton, a fine Townhall, in the Venetian 
Gothic, has been erected, thebasement of wliich 
forms a convenient market. Mr. E. W. God- 
win is the arcliitect. In Wolverhampton a 
Townliall of some size has been commenced, 
and from the well-known pubbo spirit of that 
town we are certain that money will not be 
spai-ed to make it a handsome biulding. 



Chester is erecting a Townhall from excellent 
designs by the Messrs. Lanyon. It was in 
connection with this building that a ridiculous 
strike of a few days took place among the 
masons. It seems" they wanted the dismissal 
of the clerk of the works. As far as the busi- 
ness of a contractor is concerned, they might 
as well have demanded the dismissal of the 
contractors themselves. The authorities of 
the union wer6 appealed to, who decided the 
strike to lie frivolous, whereupon it ceased. 
We have a great liking to Chester, because the 
townspeople ■ regard their ancient city with 
more than usual affection, as witnessed by the 
care taken to preserve its ancient character 
when any alteration or new building is neces- 
sary. In most other towns, when it is neces- 
sary to rebuild a house the greatest care seems 
to be taken to make it of the new fasliion, 
whatever that may be. In Chester, on the 
contrary, they endeavour to put up something 
similar in style to the former buUding, but 
•\vith improvements suggested by modern ex- 
perience. At Pendleton, Mr. A. Darbishire 
is the architect for a Townhall, and his name 
if sufficient guarantee that it will be of good 
design and sound construction. Mr. Halier- 
shon is superintending a plam and unpretend- 
ing To'wnhall at Westerham, the cost of 
which we believe to be very moderate. 
The ancient town of Romsey is not behind- 
hand, for a new Townhall will shortly be 
completed. It is Italian in design, which is 
under the circumstances to beregretted, though 
perhaps the townsfolks are the best judges. 
For our ovra part we should be guided in our 
choice of style by the character of the town 
in which the structure would be placed. 
There are certain towns — Oxford, Tewkesbury, 
Chester, Exeter, Gloucester, York, Bristol, and 
others, qiios referre mora est — strongly marked 
by mediajval character, in which we shoidd 
desire to see all improvements conducted with 
special leference to the preservation of that 
character. There are new towns in abun- 
dance having no media;val claims, to which 
tlie Renaissance style seems better adapted. 
Of these, Brighton, Hastings, Liverpool, Man- 
chester, Birmingham, and many others are 
examples. In watering places, which are for 
the most part of modern growth, and in towns 
like Liverpool, where the classical element has 
taken so strong a root that the town promises 
eventually to rival perhaps imperial Rome, 
the introduction of isolated mediaeval liuild- 
ings is particularly unfortunate, as in discord 
with the suiToundings. A Markethall of con- 
siderable size and costly character has been 
recently oyiened at Derby. At Burnley a 
^Markethall is in course of construction, the 
architect being Mr. J. Green, of Todmorden. 
It is a handsome Palladian building of one 
story, with a clock tower of very good design. 
There is no ornament whatever about this 
building, unless a free but judicious use of 
rustication maybe so termed. A new Market- 
hall has been very recently commenced at 
Staleybridge, but we have not the particulars 
at hand. Early in the year Mr. Bright laid 
the chief stone of a new To\\aihall at Roch- 
dale. The architect is Mr. Crossland, of Leeds, 
who has, in spite of the prevailing rage for 
French Gothic, adopted the Late Decorated 
English style. While we must acknowledge 
the necessity for going abroad for Classical 
models, we cannot see the reason why archi- 
tects should go so far a-field when they "design a 
Gothic structure. Independently of its 
national claims, we absolutely deny the infe- 
riority of the English school. A well-known 
writer of plays commented on the passion for 
things foreign in terms something like these — 
"Disable all the benefits of your own country, 
or I will scarce believe you have swum in 
a gondola." 

Compared with the number of banks re- 
cently opened in London the provinces cannot 
be said to have done much in this kind of 
building, and perhaps it is all the more fortu- 
nate for them. Several handsome banks 
have, however, been erected during tlie past 
year. In Southampton, the Hampshire Bank- 



ing fJompany have relnult their bank from 
designs by Mr. R. Critchlow, of Southampton. 
By the use of light iron colimms in the ground 
and first-floor window openings, abimdance of 
light is obtained, while the intervening stone 
piers give sutficient solidity to the appear- 
ance of the building. There is much in this 
facade that we like, but we shall never cease 
to protest against the use of circular or even 
segmental-headed -windows in the upper story. 
Barry never feU into this error, knowing well 
that a cornice demands a square-headed aperture 
immediately beneath it. To a ground-floor 
opening a semi-circular arch is always appro- 
priate, as it indicates the power of bearing 
great weight. For the openings on the first- 
fioor no rule can apply, though a segmental 
head is a gentle transition, but for the upper- 
most openings, whose heads carry little weight, 
the lintel is the only thing which can satisfy 
the reason. Mr. Waterhouse has in hand a 
bank at Leighton Buzzard for Messrs. Bassett 
and Co., an illustration of which appeared in 
the Building New.? of December 21. It is 
decidedly French Gothic in style, but very 
well treated, and is an example of the prin- 
ciples relative to arches and lintels, to which 
we have just called attention. The ground- 
floor openings form a handsome arcade, but 
the openings on the upper floor — there are 
only two stories — are square-headed. The 
details of this bank, which we also gave, are 
well worthy of notice. At 'Darlington, Mr. 
Waterhouse is architect for a bank in some- 
what similar style. The London and Coimty 
Bank at Canlbridge, by Messrs. F. and H. 
Francis, is a pleasing Gothic building, not 
overladen with ornament. The style is 
Gothic and Late Decorated. The porch is 
somewhat heavy, but as a whole this bank 
will be an ornament to the University town. 
Very early in the year the Consolidated Bank 
was opened at Norwich, Mr. R. M. Phipson, 
of Norwich and Ipswich, liaving been the 
architect. The style is Northern Italian of a 
late date. 

We fear that the storms which have 
■wrecked so many hotel companies in the 
metropolis have not passed over the counties 
without leaving traces in t)ie form of vast 
unfinished undertakings. The storms, how- 
ever, are not wholly to blame ; the natural 
laws of demand and supply are as fixed as 
are those of cause . and effect. There is no 
absolute certainty for supposing that a supply 
of any article will produce a demand, but 
experience has proved that a want which has 
a real existence is supplied in every case 
where it is possible, and in many cases where 
it woidd seem impossible. It is, however, less 
our business to examine the causes of the 
disasters which have befallen so many hotels 
than to give a list of the prmcipal ones, with 
a brief description where we are able to do so. 
A very handsome hotel, the Cavendish, is in 
course of construction at Eastbourne, Sussex. 
About two-thirds is finished ; the architect is 
Mr. Knightley, of London. Fronting on the 
sea, and having a fine road on each side, the 
situation of this hotel is very advantageous, 
and we hope soon to see it completed. It is 
in the style of the Renaissance, with high- 
pitched roofs, having a central pavilion, and 
two smaller ones at the angles. The fenestra- 
tion is very well designed, and the whole 
effect exceedingly good. The cofl'ee-room is 
of great merit. The Castle Hotel, Aberyst- 
with, of which we gave an illustration in 
our last number, is one of the unfortimate 
hotels which are at present imfinished for 
want of funds. Mr. J. R. Seddon is the archi- 
tect, and the building is in the French Gotliic 
style, of which he is one of the principal 
exponents. Those portions which are com- 
pleted show, beyond doubt, great picturesque- 
ness of treatment, but we have strong doubts 
if the contemplated lofty central tower is an 
improvement. It is for four stories, entirely 
without varietj-, and the same may be said of 
the turret attached to it, which contains the 
staircase, with the addition that it is nine 
stories high. The coffee-room, overlooking 



January 4, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



the sea, is completeil, and is a hamlsome room 
130ft. long and SOft. -ivide. As much as .£80,01)0 
has been already spent. We hope some day 
to record its completion. The Queen's Hotel, 
in the same town, was opened on the 1st of 
May, Messrs. C. F. Ilayward and 11. O. Davis 
architects. A full description will be found 
inthe Buildino News of May the 11th. At 
Leeds, the Great Northern Railway Hotel is, 
we believe, progressing on the site of the 
Wellington Hotel. The contract was for 
£•31,600. The London and North-AVestera 
Railway Company have selected ]\lr. Water- 
house's design for an hotel in Lime-stieet, 
Liverpool, in a limited competition. This 
work is of considerable importance, and we 
regret that we were unable to inspect the 
drawings during the short time they were at 
Euston-square. The great hotel at Scar- 
borough was not hnished last year, and there 
is not much promir^e of its completion during 
the present. If, however, there be a place in 
England where, above all others, an hotel on 
a large scale might hope to succeed, it is cer- 
tainly Scarborough. 'The Royal Hotel, Car- 
diff, Mr. C. E. Bernard, architect, has been 
completed. The style is Northern Italian. 
The Grosvenor Hotel, Chester, built almost 
entirely at the cost of the Marquis of West- 
minster, was opened in the early part of last 
year. It is built in the style of the old houses 
of Chester, and harmonises perfectly with the 
prevailing character of the old town. The 
first story is supported by pillars of Anglesea 
marble, forming a continuation of the " Row," 
so dear to the townspeople. The upper 
stories above the first floor are in the usual 
lialf-timbered style, having on each front two 
gables. At the angles are turrets surmounted 
by iron finials of very good pattern. In the 
interior a large open court is placed. We 
regard the whole arrangement of exterior and 
interior as a very successful reproduction of 
a most comfortable and eft'eotive style of 
building, a style which we desire to see 
extended to every ancient town in the coun- 
try, to the extermination of the showy stucco 
railway hotel style at present so prevalent. 
In this brief review we must of necessity omit 
many works well worthy of notice. 

Several provincial theatres have been 
recently opened in different places. Report 
speaks highly of the Prince of Wales's Theatre, 
Liverpool, of which Mr. Salomons, of Jlan- 
chester, was architect. It is arranged in a 
somewhat novel manner, the pit beingdevoted 
to the dress circle company, and vice versa. 
Its acoustic properties are said to be remark- 
ably good. It is rumoured that Mr. Jlaiile- 
sun, lessee of Her Ma-jesty's Theatre, is about 
to employ Mr. Salomons to design a new 
tlieatre in London in the neighbourhood of 
Leicester-square. At Stockton, a tlieatre, to 
seat about 1,700 persons, has been erected 
from the designs of Messrs. Potts and Son. 
At South Sliields, at Nottingham, and at 
Brighton, Mr. C. Phipps has been architect 
for theatres of great merit. At Hull, a new 
theatre has been built on the site of the old 
Theatre Royal, burnt in ISo'J, seating upwards 
of 2,500 persons. 5Ir. R. G. Smith was the 
architect. At Holborn a new theatre has 
been built, after designs by Messrs. Finch, 
HiU, and Paraire. One fault in this theatre 
is the wide, wilderness look of the hack part 
of the pit, and the difiaculty of hearing, 
which arises partly from the clatter going on 
at the refreshment bar. 

Educational buildings, such as schools, 
colleges, orphanages, and the like, have arisen 
in considerable numbers. The most import- 
ant of these is the Glasgow University, whicli, 
after many delays, owing to the want"of funds, 
has at length been commenced. Mr. O. G. 
Scott is the architect. The splendid site of 
GUmore Hill has been obtained, and we trust 
that the scheme of the architect will be car- 
ried out in a manner worthy of the import- 
ance in which Glasgow stands with regard to 
the United Kingdom. The estimated cost of 
this ^ edifice is about .£200,000. Mr. Welby 
Pugin is architect for two orphanages, for boys 



and girls respectively, one at Ilellingley (see 
Bl'IIjDINC} News, JIarch 9), the other at 
Bletchingly (illustrated in the BuildiMg Nkws 
of May 11); It will be seen from the plates 
tliat they bear a strong resemblance to each 
other, and that they -are worthy of the 
architect. The Duchess of Leeds generously 
provided the funds for the ei-ection of botli 
of these institutions, ilr. Pugin is also archi- 
tect for the new schools, the foumlation stone 
of which was laid in J uly last. 

Extensive additions are being made to Dul- 
wich College, in accordance with the act of 
reconstruction of 1 80S. Accommodation is pro- 
vided for (iOO boys, equally divided lietween 
the upper and lower schools. The buildings 
are of the Northern Italian style of architecture, 
and are designed by Mr. E. M. Barry. The 
probalde cost will be about £62,000. In July, 
Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales laid 
the foundation stone of the Home for Little 
Boys, atHortonKirby, Farmingliam, Kent, Mr. 
T. C. Clark being architect. These schools, 
which will probably be completed by mid- 
summer, wiU cost about £7,000. The new 
coUege at Hull, to be called the "Hull and 
West Ridmg College," has been progressing ; it 
is in the Gothic style of the nineteenth century. 
The architect isMr. R.G.Smith. As the cost is 
not supposed to be above £3,000, while the front- 
age of the building is 130ft., the depth 
117ft., and the greatest height 70ft., and as 
we understand that there are to be columns of 
red Mansfield stone and that the hall is to be 
Hanked by flying buttresses crowned with 
pinnacles, we conceive that the architect 
must have exercised uncommon ingenuity. 
The Warehousemen and Clerks' School, Russell 
HUl, Caterham Junction (by Mr. J. G. Bland, 
of Birmingham), were completed early in the 
year, the foundation having been laid by Her 
Royal Highness the Princess of Wales, in 18ti3. 
Tliis building, which accommodates 135 boys 
and 00 girls, cost about i.'20,000. It has no 
special merit beyond answering its purpose 
and presenting a picturesque appearance, two 
qualities not always combined in the same 
building. The style is Gothic, treated in a 
liorizontal manner. Early in the autumn the 
foundation stone of the International College, 
Spring Grove, Middlesex, was laid by the 
Prince of Wales. Messrs. John Norton and 
P. E. Massey are the architects. Considerable 
additions have been made to St. Nicholas' 
College, Lancing, Sussex, and its kindred in- 
stitutions at Hurstpierpoint and Ardingly. 
Thearchitects aie Messrs. Slater and Carpenter. 
With this brief notice of works of some im- 
portance we must close this portion of our 
remarks. 

Although we do not profess to go into the 
subject of church restoration, wiiich would 
open an almost boundless field, we must not 
let the most prominent works of Mr. G. G. 
Scott pass without notice. His principal ex- 
ternal restoration of Salisbury Cathedral is 
completed, that is to say, the necessary repairs 
have been eifected, and the work of restoring 
the west front has been commenced. It is 
proposed to replace as many as forty statues 
on this front alone. We have seen the model 
for one of the principal, and are assured that 
the work is in good hands. Mr. Scott has 
also undertaken the restoration of Bath Abbey, 
a church which, with the exception of Chester 
Cathedral, perhaps needed it more than any 
other in England. The restoration, or rather 
rebuilding, of the spire of Chichester Cathe- 
dral was brouglit to a close in June last, the 
ancient vane being then placed in position 
with much ceremony. The repairs of Glouces- 
ter Cathedral; have been commenced, at an 
estimated cost of £70,000. Ely Cathedral is 
still in hand. It seems hard that the present 
generation should have to pay for the neglect 
of their ancestors ; but, unless we are willing 
to let these noble monimients fall to pieces, 
there is no help for it. Mr. Scott has also 
superintended St. Mary's Church, Shakleford, 
Surrey ; St. Andrew's Church, Derby ; and a 
number of others. Mr. B. Ferrey was archi- 
tect for a small church at Somerton, Somerset- 



shire, a memorial, we believe ; and also ^ 
church at Lufton, Yeovil. This hist is small,. 
but of excellent de'srignj as is everything that 
Mr. Ferrey produces. This architect- has im- 
dertakeu a large number of restorations during 
the last year: Mr. Street has also beeil fully 
employed with restorations and new churches ; 
•amongst the latter, may be recliijued St. Peter's, 
Malton, Worcestershire, a small but skilfully 
designed cliutch ; St. John's, Warminster, also 
small, costing about £3,500 ; St.. Peter and St. 
Paul, Teddiilgton, of brick. .At Fawley, Berk- 
shire, the same architect hifs designed a church 
of whicli report speaks well ; another at Cow- 
leigh, Nortli Malvern ; and. one at Wansford, 
near DriHield. The last is a village churcli, 
erected at the expense of Sir Tatton Sykes. 

Mr. Bassett Keeling has exhibited hi« -usual 
predilection for particoloured architecture in 
St. Paul's Church, Norwood. This church is 
of brick, with dressmgs of stones of various 
colours. Mr. Keeling has also commenced a 
church at Killingworth, Northumberland, and 
another at Greenhill, Harrow. Mr. Bucker- 
idge, of Oxford, has been engaged on a small 
but handsome church at Wellingborough, 
Northamptonshire, a description of which 
appeared in the Building News of June 15th. 
He has designed a small church at Rudway, 
AVarwickshire, to seat 250 persons ; and also 
the church of St. IMary, Blackmore End, 
AVhethersfield, Essex, a plain but well-treated 
brick structure. Mr. Buckeridge has been 
very busy in woiks of restoration. Mr. Blom- 
field has also been largely employed in similar 
works, and amongst other new churches has 
produced one of more than usual merit at 
Great Holland, Essex, on the site of a former 
church. Mr. Blomfield's works are always 
marked by good taste, without which origi- 
nality is worthless. Mr. Paley's church of St. 
James, Poolstock, AVigan, is considered to be 
very fine. It was the noble gift of Mr. Eckers- 
by, M.P. Mr. Paley was also architect for a 
small church, dedicated to St. John, at AVood- 
land, Durham. Mr. Butterfield Wius employed 
on St. Anne's, Dropmore, a small church built 
of flint, brick, and timber. At Strathfieldsaye 
he has designed a larger and more costly church, 
considered to be remarkably good. Penarth 
Church, Glamorganshire, the gift f the Baroness 
AVindsor, and a small chiu-ch dedicated to St. 
Mary the Virgin, at Reading, are also among 
the works of this architect. At Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, the church of St. Ives', Leadgate, was 
commenced in September. It is in the preva- 
lent French Gothic style. Mr. H. C. Fowler 
is the architect for this church, and for that of 
the Holy Innocents, Brancepeth, Durham. Mr. 
Roumieu was architect for St. Mark's, Broad- 
water Down, Tunbridge AVells. A full descrip- 
tion of this church will be found in the 
Building New.s of August 24th. At St. 
Leonards, the church of St. Thomas of Can- 
terbury, by Mr. C. A. Buchler, was opened in 
June. The Building News of June 8th con- 
tains a description. The church of St. Gregory, 
Stratford-on-Avon, has recently been o])ened. 
It is in the First Pointed style. Mr. Pugin 
was the architect. He is also the architect of 
churches building at Preston, and was asso- 
ciated with Mr. Ashley in the superintendence 
of erecting St. Peter's and St. Paul's, Cork. 

J\lr. Norman Shaw is proceeding with a 
chiu'ch at Bingley in the First Pointed style. 
The internal walls are unplastered, the roof is 
underdrawn, and the plaster will be decorated. 
Mr. R. J. AA^itliers has commenced a small 
church at Ivegill. It is very small, having 
only 120 seats ; the style is Early Decorated. 
Mr. S. S. Teuton was architect for the new 
parish churcli at Ilopton, in the First Pointed 
style. Mr. Teiilon is not fortunate in his 
towers, as may be seen in Southwark and 
Camden Town. Messrs. Mallinson and Healey, 
of Bradford, were the architects for a church 
which has very recently been erected at Tock- 
\vith. -The style is Second Pointed, and, as in 
Mr. Norman Shaw's church at Bingley, the 
internal and external faces of the walls are 
aUke of stone. The cost was about £4,000. 
Mr. E. E. Scott, of Brighton, was architect for 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 4, l86t. 



a small church at Burgess Hill, Eeymer, 
Sussex, the spire of which is well prnportioiied. 
As the cost of the entire building has been 
very little, the architecture has been of a plain 
character. Mr. J. Medland Taylor, of Man- 
chester, has been largely employed. St. 
John's Church, Strand Lane, was built from 
his design. The church of St. Helen, Liver- 
pool, is by him; also St. Chad's, Romiley, near 
Stockport, opened in April; St. Gabriel's, Hull ; 
a church at Irlam, near Eccles, Lancashire ; 
St. Matthew's, Ardwick, and several others in 
different parts of the country, are by the same 
architect. In the Bcildinq News of January 
26th will be found an illustration of a cheap 
though characteristic brick church by Mr. 
J. Ladds, of London — St. John's Church, 
Lawley, Salop. It contains about 200 seats, 
and cost £1,250 ; notwithstanding which it 
presents both externally and internally an 
ecclesiastical appearance. Sir G. Bowj'er has 
again employed Mr. G oldie, and on this occa- 
sion on a Gothic church, St. Mary's and St. 
Edmund's, Abingdon ; the style is Second 
Pointed. Mr. Goldie has shown, in his elegant 
little church in Great Ormond-street, what he 
can do in the Classical style. Messrs. Stevens 
and Robinson, Derby, are architects for the 
church of St. Michael and All Angels, Black- 
bum ; the style is thirteenth century English 
Gothic. A memorial church has been erected 
at Appleton-le-Moors, Malton, Yorkshire ; 
which, although smaU, accommodating only 200 
persons, is acknowledged to be of excessively 
good design ; the style is First French Pointed. 
The architect was Mr. J. L. Pearson. 



Fio. 1. 




Fio. 2. 



PAINTED DECORATIONS. 
No. IX. 

BESIDES the conventional treatment I 
liave already described, we find that the 
painted decorations of old times included 
painted curtains or imitation hangings. The 
usual place for the painted curtain was that 
which in rich houses would have been occu- 
pied by real hangings — viz., between the floor 
and the first stringcourse, but there are in- 
stances of imitation hangings being painted 
in detached strips, as in the decorations of the 
clerestory at West Walton Church. When 
the curtain is continuous, it is generally 
painted as if looped up in itself to pegs at 
intervals of from two to four feet, and from 
these suspending points, where the curtain 
appears tied up in a knot, hang the folds which 
give such relief to the plain colour. Some- 
times the curtain is covered with a rich diaper, 
or with bands of ornament with fringe at the 
border ; and then it is not uncommon to find 
the folds dispensed with in order to show forth 
the pattern of the diaper, as at the church of 
St. Francis of Assisi. 'The diagrams figs. 1, 
2, 3, 4, are merely to show how the painter 
usually arranged the hanging of the cm'tain.* 
It is quite unnecessary to point out the 
numerous varieties of this decoration. It 
may be of the simplest form and colour, as in 
the Swedish churches, or it may be raised to 
the dignity to which the painter of St. 
Stephen's Chapel, Westminster, raised it when 
he suspended his curtains, richly diapered 
with gold, from the hands of angels. AVhere- 
ever curtain decoration may have been adopted 
it seems to me quite clear that it is eminently 
unsuited for small chambers or irregular or 
broken wall surfaces, or, in other words, for 
chambers where there are many openings and 
projections. So, too, it seems contrary to 
common sense and mediooval practice to paint 
a continuous curtain in a raised position. The 
bottom of the curtain should never be raised 
above the floor higher than the height of a 
seat. 

Division of wall space by means of medal- 
lions is another system of decoration planning 
which the young architect may well study to 

• Tlie King's treaaarer ia ordered to paint Henry III. 'a 
great Chamber, at Westminster, of a Rood green colour, in 
the fashion of a curtain, as aldo the smaU wardrobe,— Close 
roll to liuu-j III. 



Fig. 3. 




Fig. 4. (Diapered Curtain.) 



BASE MOULUIMG 



FLOOR 



advantage. When medallions are adopted the 
ground or space between them is either filled 
up by scrollwork diapers, including the 
masonry pattern, or by ornament issuing from 
the border of the medallion. One of the 
earliest and most interesting examples of 
medallion decoration in this country is that 
on the vaulting of St. John's Chapel, St. 
Mary's Church, Guildford, where subjects of 
three or four figures enclosed in circles are 
arranged symmetrically on the vault, and con- 
nected by scrollwork filling up tlie spandrels. 
Of plain geometrical medallion work with- 
out figures. West Walton presents us ■with a 
very good example of twelfth century work ; 
and of later medallions enclosing symbols 
and emblems we have fine illustrations on the 
groining of the choir of St. Albans Abbey 
Churcli. In some of the Swedish churches 
the roofs are crammed full of circular medal- 
lions containing subjects, but there is nothing 
in Sweden to equal the .splendid range of 
compound quatrefoU medallions which I Iiave 
already descriljed as occupying the crown of 
the vault of the chancel at Bjercsjoe. The 
arrangement of coloured medallions is quite a 
study in itself We find them arranged in 
friezes in the Romanesque churches of St. 
Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna, and Sti. 
Angeli, Perugia, and in the nave at Monreale. 
In England the medallion system per sc was 
not often adopted, but we find many instances 
of a combination of the medallion with other 
systems, as at Winchester and Bristol Cathe- 
drals ; and in the groining of our northern 
churches it was always a favourite way of 
dividing the spandrels from the thirteenth 
down to the filteenth century. In figs. 5, 6, I 



Fi». 5. 





SUBJECT. 



, SUBJECT |J 4 SUBJECT r- 

Fig. 6. (Vaulting.) 




Fig. 7. (Vaulting.) 




Fig. 8. (Vaulting.) 




7, 8, I have shown a few examples of this 
method of separating or dividing the wall and 
roof space. 

In the Liberati rolls mention is made of 
medallion decoration, the form of the medal- 
lions being always described as circles. Thus 
the Sheriff of Southampton, in the year 1238, 
is commanded to see to certain repairs of the 
King's Hall at Winchester, "to repair the 
dais of the same hall, as well with colours, 
where it shall be necessary or otherwise ; and 
to cause the wainscot of the chamber there to 
be painted a green colour and stained with 
gold; and circles to be made on the same 
wainscote in which are to be painted ' histo- 
ries ' of the Old and New Testament." 

Between the continuous and the medal- 
lion systems we have the arrangement 
which may be described as the panel 
system. The church of St. Francis, at 
Assisi, at once occurs as the great medioeval 
example of this system, where curtain, panel, 
and medallion all assist in the one object 
which every wall painter should keep con- 
stantly in view — the decoration of the archi- 
tecture. In its general scheme of division 
and subdivision the painting of the Upper 
Church of St, Francis is grandly monumental. 



^ 



Januaky 4, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



and by the side of the monotonous di\asion of 
Giotto's Chapel, at Padua, shows what an im- 
portant work is the planning or spacing oi 
decoration. That this part of an architect's 
duty was not lost sight of in England is clear 
from documentary evidence, but, unfortunately, 
we possess no works to compare with the 
examples which I have mentioned. What 
Henry's " great chamber " at Westminster was 
like it is impossible accurately to determine, 
but the ordei-s concerning its decorations give 
us a very fair idea of how they were planned, 
and show that at Westminster, as at Assisi, 
the painted curtain was highly esteemed as 
a base to the pictorial or chief decoration. 
These orders are in themselves such curious 
illustrations of how they managed these things 
in tlie thirteenth century that I make no 
apology for ipioting two of those relating to 
this great chamber. The first is from the 
Close roll of the 2l)th Henry III., wherein 
the king's treasurer " is ordered to cause the 
king's great chamber at Westminster to be 
painted of a good green colour, in the fashion 
of a curtain, and to paint iu the great gable of 
the same chamber that verse — 

" Ke ne dune ke ne tune, ne prent ke desire. " 

This order was given at Merewell, Jlay 30th. 
About a year and a quarter later the king 
orders Odo, the goldsmith, " to displace -ivith- 
out delay the painting which was commenced 
in the king's great chamber at Westminster, 
under the great history of the same chamber, 
with panels containing the species and figures 
of lions, birds, and other be;wts ; and to paint 
it of a green colour in the fashion of a cur- 
tain, so^that that great history may be pre- 
served unhurt." We may here, I think, learn 
if we like a very valuable lesson — namely, 
that " the species and figures of lions, birds, 
and other beasts," placed in juxtaposition with 
an important figure subject or " history," have 
a decided tendency (at least in the eyes of 
thirteenth century critics) to hurt the more 
important work, and that the quiet or repose 
of a green curtain is needed to preserve what 
the Americans would call the " go " of the 
painting above. E. W. G. 



THE LOSSES OF THE YEAR. 

IT is the old, old story that the' great reaper 
Death has been busy iu the ranks of the 
living. The losses dnri ng the past year have 
been both numerous and heavy — not so hea^nr, 
perhaps, as in some former years, but still 
great, and in many cases irreparable. If we 
have not had to regi'et the demise of a 
Macaulay, a Thackeray, a Lincoln, a Pal- 
merston, or a Cobden, of men whose names 
were household words, and who enjoyed a 
world-wide reputation as master spirits of the 
time, the list of deaths nevertheless includes 
many men of real genius, occupying the front 
ranks in their respective walks, besides others 
of lesser note. Religion, politics, literature, 
science, and art, have each lost some of their 
brightest ornaments since last the earth made 
the circuit of the sun. It does not fall within 
our province to chronicle the names of all the 
noteworthy men and women who " have gone 
over to the majority" in the course of the year 
which has just closed. Leaving that task to 
others, we shall confine our record to those 
losses which science and art have sustained. 
The deaths of Sir Charles Eastlake, the late 
President of the Royal Academy, of Captain 
Fowke,the engineer and architect, of Nicholas 
Wood and Alan Stephenson, the weU-known 
engineers, and of Richard Golding, the histo- 
rical engraver, closed the obituary of 186.5. 
These all passed away in December of that 
year, and their names and fames have 
been duly recorded. In art, our first loss in 
1866 was Mrs. Newton, whose premature 
death, at the early age of 33, occurred on the 
1st of January. On the 13th of the same 
month followed William Harvey, the appren- 
tice of Thomas Bewick, aud the pupU. of 



Haydon. The illustrations to Northcote's 
"Fables," White's "Selbome," and Lane's 
" Arabian Nights," and Charles Knight's "Picto- 
rial Sluikspeare" establish Harvey's reputation 
as an engraver and designer on wood. He 
was 6'J years of age. On the li)th died an- 
other lady artist of repute, Harriet Ludlow- 
Clarke. John Gibson also passed from among 
us this month. He died at that favourite 
home of sculjitors — Rome, where he had re- 
sided for well nigh half a century — on the 
27th of January, at the ripe age of 75. Of 
John Gibson it will V)e sufficient to say that, the 
son of a Conway market gardener, ho became 
tlie pupil of Caiiova and "Thorwaldsen, and the 
greatest English sculptor of his time. His 
works, of which, happily, England possesses 
not a few, are well knowu. His first im- 
portant work, " Mars and Cupid," was much 
admired liy his great master Canova ; it was 
afterwards reproduced iu marble for the Duke 
of Devonshire, and is now at Ohatsworth. 
His latest was the exquisite " Venus," so fami- 
liar to every visitor of the Great International 
Exliibition of 1862. The death in February 
of Godfrey Sykes was a great loss to the 
Government School of Design at South Ken- 
sington, in whose interest he had labom-ed so 
unremittingly, and, it is to be feared, at the 
sacrifice of Ms own health. This talented 
artist had just conipleted his fortieth year. 
Alfred Newman died in March, one year 
yovmger; Thomas Musgrave in April, aged 
5-i ; and within a month of each other, in June 
ami July, John Hayes and WiUiam Hookham 
Carpenter, at the respective ages of 80 and 74. 
In August died David Dunbar, the eminent 
sculptor ; in September, Edward Train, the 
landscape painter, very suddenly, at his easel, 
and Henry Chawnor Shenton, the historical 
line engraver ; in November, at Leghorn, E. 
B. Spence, a pupil of John Gibson, and a 
sculptor of considerable merit. More recently 
we have had to mourn Thomas Morten and 
Paul Gray, two young and very promising 
draughtsmen, both of whom died a few weeks 
ago. Of Gray, who was but 24 years of age, 
it may truly be said that few artists have 
so rapidly achieved fame ; few have had so 
brilliant a career so early closed. 

oh ! why haa worth so short a d.lte, 
While viilaitis ripen grey with time? 

France, too, has lost her Gavami, the hum- 
ble mechanic who rose to be the greatest cari- 
caturist, beyond all comparison, of his coun- 
try — the John Leech of France — a man of 
brilliant wit, and the most accomplished of 
Frenchmen ; also Joseph Thierry, one of the 
most distinguished French decorative painters. 
Of antiquaries and archajologists. Dr. George 
Petrie, the Irish antiquarian, " departed this 
life " on January 18, aged 76, and Frederick 
William Fairholt on April 2. Both were also 
artists. Fairholt, a Londoner, bom in 1816, is 
best kno-^vn by his "Costume in England," 
published in 1846, and his "Dictionary of 
Terms in Art," published in 1854. He was 
the author of numerous other works on 
literary and archajological subjects. His 
latest work, " Up the Nile," was written and 
illustrated by himself, and is descriptive of 
a voyage he "made in Egypt in 1851. The 
death of the Marquis Camden, President of 
the Kent Archaeological Society, occm-red in 
August. Mr. S. Stone died on September 10, 
in the prime of life ; Charles HaUiday, a 
well-known Irish antiquarian, on the 14th of 
the same month ; and on the 13th of last 
month, Joseph Robertson, LL.D., the most 
learned antiquarian in Scotland, the author of 
"The Book of Bon- Accord," and the best 
account of the ecclesiastical architecture of 
his country that we possess. Dr. Robertson, 
who held the ofiice of Curator of the Histori- 
cal Department of her Majesty's Register 
House, Edinburgh, was a native of Aberdeen, 
where he was born in 1810. The engineers 
have lost a number of members from their 
ranks, the more eminent being George Ren- 
nie, who died on the 30th of March, at the age 
of 75, and Charles Wye AVUliams, only three 
days afterwards, at the patriarchal age of 87. 



To Rennie, in conjunction with his late father 
and his brother, the present Sir John Rennie, 
we are indebted for many important imblic 
improvements. The docks of London, Slu-er- 
ness, Dublin, Leith, Woolwicli, Pembroke, 
antl other places, were constructed by them. 
They were the engineers employed in the 
construction of the breakwater at Plymouth, 
and in the formation of Plymouth, Howlh, 
Kingston, Ramsgate, Portpatrick, and otiier 
harbours. George Rennie made the first sur- 
veys for the Liverpool and JManchester line of 
railway, including the tunnels, cuttings, via- 
ducts, and the famed Chat Moss. He was the 
surveyor of several other lines in England 
and in Belgium, and the beautiful bridge wliiiii 
spans the River Meuse in the latter country 
was constructed by him. Mr. Rennie was 
a member of many learned societies, and 
to tlie "Transactions" of the Royal Society 
lie contributed a number of able papers. Mr. 
Williams was equally distinguislied, though 
in a dift'erent path. At a very early date 
he applied water-tight bulkheads to divide 
ships into separate compartments. In the 
great competition of makers of marine steam 
boilers at Newcastle a model boiler and fur- 
nace for the complete combustion of coal, in- 
vented by Mr. Williams, obtained the £500 
prize. Sir WiUiam Armstrong being one of the 
adjudicators. His a)jle treatise on the same 
subject, first published in 1839, is familiar to 
all scientific men, as is also his essay on " Tlie 
Prevention of the Smoke Nuisance," ibr 
which Mr. Williams received, in 1856, the 
Society of Arts' £25 gold medal How 
heroically Mr. Parkin Jeffcock, the mining 
engineer, sacrificed his life in attempting to aid 
the unfortunate miners at Barnsley our readers 
have already been told. In other brandies of 
science the losses during the year have been 
neither few nor far between. Mr. Brande, the 
veteran chemist, the contemporary of Sir 
Humphry Davj', died in February. That 
wonderful man. Dr. WheweU, the most ency- 
cloptediac mind of his time, expired on 
the 6th of March. He was successively 
Professor of Mineralogy at Cambridge (1828- 
32), Professor of Moral Philosophy, Vice- 
ChanceUor of the University, and Master of 
Trinity College. Dr. WheweU pre.sided at 
the meeting of the British Association held 
at Plymouth in 1842. The Mechanics' Maga- 
zine, in a notice of his death, said of him : — 

In 183S he accepted the Professorship of Moral 
Philosophy, which he retained until the year 1S55. 
To tliis period of his life we owe the most valuable 
of his works, and that, probably, upon which his 
histing fame will be constructed—" The History of 
the Inductive Sciences," with its sequel, "Tho 
Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences." It was upon 
these subjects that tho pen of Dr. WheweU was 
frequently exercised iu the Mechanics' Magazine 
some years since, he having been at one period a 
contributor to our columns, in conjunction with the 
late Dr. Ure, Sir James South, Dr. Woolley, and 
other men of gi-eat scientific attainments. Dr. 
WTiewell wrote .also upon Gothic architecture, and 
an example of his skill as .an architect is to be seen 
in tho memorial chapel in Cambridge Cemetery, 
%vhich he erected to the memory of his first wife. 
Tho architect has now gone to his rest full of 
honours, but not so full of years as seemed pro- 
Kible before the untimely accident which has robbed 
science of one of her best friends. 

Dr. WheweU's father was a humble carpenter 
at Lancaster, at which town the great mathe- 
matician was bom in 1795. He was an ex- 
traordinary instance of success, but he worked 
hard for it, and his career offers a bright 
example to those especially who have been 
born in adverse circumstances. Charles 
Maclaren, the geologist, closed a long life of 
usefulness on the 10th of September. Another 
Edinburgh celebrity— Alexander Bryson, late 
President of the Royal Scottish Society of 
Arts, and other learned bodies— died on the 
7th of December. Colonel Sir George Everest, 
C.B., F.R.S., an ofiicer of great scientific at- 
tainments, died this month, at the age of 
76 ; and the Rev. John Hinde, M.A., the 
eminent mathematician, also in December. In 
medical science the list is a long and mournful 
one. It is particularly painful to reflect on 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 4, 1867. 



the number of young rising medical men 
■who have been suddenly cut oflF by epidemic 
at a time when they could ill be spared. Dr. 
W. A. Patrick Stuart, of the University Col- 
lege Hospital, caught a fatal fever while 
labouring to succour others. He had just at- 
tained his majority. Dr. Jolm Wyber, one of 
the resident medical officers at the London 
Fever Hospital, and Dr. Southey Warter, 
similarly fell victims to typhus, both at the 
age of twenty-six. Dr. Ansell, the medical 
officer of Bow, and Dr. H. Jeaffreson, the 
distinguished physician of St. Bartholomews, 
died suddenly — the one of cholera, the other of 
typhus. Their deaths were a great blow to 
the profession, and a serious loss to the com- 
munity. The past year has not been signalised 
by the death of any great architect, though 
the usual complement of architects and 
buildei-s of local note has been taken from 
among us. Mr. Henry Melsom, an extensive 
builder and decorator at Bristol, died in 
March ; Mr. Hugh Byrne, the city architect 
of Duldin, in the autumn ; Mr. Howell, the 
district surveyor of St. Margaret and St. John, 
Westminster, in August, in which month the 
death from apoplexy was recorded of M. Gisors, 
the architect of the Palace of the Senate ; 
Mr. Shennan, Dean of the Guild of Edin- 
burgh, and an extensive builder, dropped 
down dead at a public meeting in November ; 
Mr. George Phillips Planners, who had been 
City Architect of Bath for the long period of 
forty years, died on the 29th of November ; 
Mr. Charles Reeves, the architect, in con- 
junction with his partner, Mr. Butcher, of 
many of the County Courts in London and 
the chief towns of England, on the 6th of 
December. Mr. Reeves is succeeded in the 
surveyorships of poUce buildings in the 
metropolitan districts and of county courts 
by Mr. Thomas Charles Sorby. A jfortnight 
ago we had to announce the demise of Mr. 
John Tolniie, the sculptor, of Belvedere-road, 
Southwark, which event took place on the 
12th ult. We And that we have to add to 
our list the names of George Hillier, the 
archaeologist ; William Bewick, the historical 
painter ; E. G. Papworth, the sciilptor ; and 
Nicholas Jaley, the French sculptor ; all of 
whom belong to the necrology of 1866. 



LLANDAFF PROBATE REGISTRY. 

THIS building has a recessed porch communi- 
caticg with a vestibide, to the right of which 
is a spacious lofty clerk's office, well lighted, hav- 
ing a strong vaulted munimentrroom attached to 
it. On the leftia a waiting-room, &c., and over it 
and the vestibule a private room for the registrar. 
A residence, with a distinct entrance, for the chief 
clerk, was formed out of an existing cottage, which 
was readapted and incorporated. 

The dressings are of the best Combe Down Bath 
stone, intermixed with bands of Bridgend green 
sandstone, and the body of the walls consists of 
Newbridge Pennant stone in thin flat courses. 
The roofs are covered with small green Carnarvon 
slates. The whole was substantially buUt in 1861 
by Mr. Thomas Williams, builder, for £1,000, from 
designs and under the superintendence of John 
Prichard, Esq., Llandaff. 



Forster Hayward (the honorary secretary to the In 
stitute) was the architect engaged by the owner, 
C. F. Hohnes, Esq., and Mr. R. E. Roberts, the 
builder. 

♦ 

IlvrPROVED WOOD SCREW. 

WE give below a drawing of an improved wood 
screw invented by Mr. Henry Titus, of New 
York, and patented in this country by Mr. J. C. E. 
Brooman, of Messrs. Robertson, Brooman, and 
Co., patent agents, 166, Fleet-street. The im- 
provement consists in so forming the bevelled 
under side of the head of the screw that it shaU 
act as a countersink, so that the screw may be 
used even in hard woods without the necessity of 
using a gouge or other tool to cut away around 
the hole, as ia the present practice. 



DRURIES, HARROW. 



THE building of which we give a plan and 
part of detail this week is one of a class of 



MYERS'S DRAWER KNOB. 

THIS is a recent American invention. In old- 
faahioned times the ornaments of a chest of 
drawers or bureau were of metal and of the moat 
elegant and soUd description. Knobs for opening 
drawers were unknown, but swing handles, solidly 
•ecured to the wood, were for that use as well as fur 
ornament. The convenience of knobs, the modern 
device, suffers some detraction, from their liability 
to break off or unscrew and become loose. To 
prevent this latter occurrence is the object of the 
improvement illustrated in the annexed cut. 




A ia a knob of the usual form, having, instead 
of the wooden screw on its inner face, a plane sur- 
face. The common wood screw B ia used to attach 
it to the drawer or door, while the two sharp pins, 
one on either side of the screw, secure it in posi- 
tion. It is easy enough to see that these pins 
effectually prevent the removal of the knob from 
the outside by unscrewing. The inventor ie 
Dr. L. B. Myers, of Elmore, Ohio, U.S. 



Four new drinking fountains are about to be 
laced ia the atreeta of Bournemouth, Hants. 



and 
X part of detail this week is one ot a class of 
buildings peculiar to our public school system, 
being, in fact, a master's residence, with accommo- 
dation also for about thirty-six to forty boarders. 
A house of this size is called at Harrow a large 
house, and it is evident the general requirements 
are different from those in what are called small 
houses, where special accommodation for only a few 
resident pupila is wanted. The chief arcMtectural 
peculiarities of this building, however, arise rather 
from its position than its special requiremeuts, 
for, although one of the oldest and largest houses 
at Harrow occupied the site of this building, the 
only access was and is now the narrow passige 
way shown on the plau, covered overhead by the 
first-floor of the adjoining house. There is, 
therefore, no frontage whatever to the street, and 
no chance of this interesting bit of architecture 
being found out by anyone merely passing through 
the town. In this respect the forecourt of this 
building represents as near as possible the position 
of many houses in Venice, and perchance this 
view may bring to the recollection of the traveller 
many a charming bit of architectural detail sud- 
denly discovered in his rambles through that 
glorious old city — at any rate, the existence of this 
picturesque front wUl be a surprise, we venture to 
say, to many who fancy they know Harrow well. 
But, although there ia no frontage towards the 
street, the garden front is indeed enough to com- 
pensate for any disadvantage at the entrance. The 
fine steep western side of the Harrow hill slopes 
from the terrace level, aud, falUng away towards the 
west, opens out a magnificent view over the plain as 
far as Windsor and beyond, while, of course, from 
the drawing-room floor and floor above the view 
ia more extensive still. 

The plan shows itself at once as adapted to the 
spot, and the difficulty of obtaining internal light 
and air is well overcome, while uot an inch of space 
seems lost. The house which stood on this spot 
was a mere agglomeration of tumbledown wooden 
buildings — except the rooms facing the garden — 
which have been retained as far as possible in the 
new design. In order to obtain sufficient space for 
kitchens, &c., it was necessary to excavate deeply, 
and thua a rearrangement of levels enabled the 
architect to keep all the ground-floor rooms on a 
level with each other (except about two steps in 
the garden front) aud by setting back the walls of 
the building in two or three spaces to avoid dark 
passages and useless rooms. The part of the house 
devoted to the pupils is divided by their staircase 
(which is of stone, and is built between walls 
without any well-hole), and the rooms occupied by 
them are right and left of this staircase, which 
being carried up as a sort of turret forms au impor- 
tant feature on another elevation of the building. 
The pupil-room — for personal instruction by the 
master — and the boya' dining-hall will be seen on 
the plan, as also the position of lift, &c., which 
adjunct to the working of a large house has now 
become almost a sine qua non. Gas is fitted to 
every room, and hot and cold water laid on to 
every floor. The porch is hghted from above, and 
the hall by the recessed windows. The latter is 
rather a fine feature, being decorated with 
Plymouth marble columns, and it would be evi- 
dent from the upper plan, if we were to show it, 
how it grew into this special picturesque form, 
and how the arrangement of columns and arches 
work in with the entrance and pupils' dining- 
room on the one side, and the principal staircase 
with ante-rooms, &c., on the other. Mr. Chas. 




It will be seen that from each end of the nick 
on the head ia a cut upon the under side (a), being 
of the form common to the counter-sink bit used 
by carpenters. This gives a ready exit for the 
chips and does not disfigure the edge of the head. 



CHIMNEY SWEEPING. 

IT is stated that our present system, in which 
the machine heads or brushes are formed of 
woody fibre, ia very imperfect for thoroughly 
cleansing the chimneys, especially in removing the 
hard lumps of soot which accumulate in them. 
A new brush has been invented, in which the 
woody fibre of the brush or head is replaced by 
steel. The bnish itself is a hollow tube of iron, 
on to which is loosely put four boxwood collars 
about half an inch thick, each having a circular 
groove in it, for the insertion of numerous finely- 
tempered steel bars, which radiate from the centre 
of each collar ; the four being firmly bolted to- 
gether by suitable brasswork ; this forms an 
elastic brush, closely resembling those in common 
use, but with this essential difference, the steel 
bars, being very elastic, penetrate the whole and 
every part of the aperture of the chimney in their 
ascent, no matter how awkwardly built, and allow 
the Ught soot to fall through them, and do not put 
it on the roof ; and in their descent thoroughly 
remove all the hard, so that there is none left in 
the chimney to take fire. The inventor, Mr. 
Thomas Welton, urges this as a manifest advan- 
tage over the usual machine, and, in addition, 
enumerates the following advantages : — It will 
promptly extinguish a fire in the chimney without 
damage to the brush. It will core a new chimney 
without climbing. It can be easily taken to pieces 
and repaired at a trifling expense by almost any 
person. It can have a ball and chain attached, 
so that it may be uaed from the roof It fits the 
brass joints and canes at present in use. It will 
in many caaea cheaply cure a smoky chimney by 
simply keeping it clean. It will, at once, by its 
use, arrest the accumulation of the hard, tarry 
masses of soot in kitchen chimneys, builders' work- 
shops, and other buildings where wood, refuse of 
vegetables, spillinga of fat, bones, cuttings of 
leather, and bituminous coal are burned. 



ThS Building News^ 



News, Jan? 4'^ 1867 




y>priP5, Hanmro. 



HARLES FORSTER HAYWARD. F.S.A., ARCHT 



li n Warry. Iiih 



V'hiCeEDan ^ Basa Uch^^raphcrp riclbarti 



January 4, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS, 



Tl 



NEW NATIONAL GALLERY. 

WE are requested to state that foreign 
ministers, members of the two House.^ 
of Parliament, Royal Academicians, and the 
competing architects will, on presentation of 
their cards at the entrance door by the Vic- 
toria Tower, in the New Palace at West- 
minster, be admitted on Monday and Tuesday, 
the 7th and Sth inst., between ten and four, to 
view the designs for the New National Gal- 
lery, in the Royal Gallery ; and that the public 
will be admitted on Wednesday, the 9th inst., 
and three following days; and also on the 
* four last days of the two succeeding weeks. 



company's act of the previous session 
of Parliament. The bill also prov-ided for 
the compidsory purchase of property. After 
some nioditicatiou it became law. Bail- 
ways bills too numerous to mention by name 
were introduced, and, if they .all became law, 
and were acted on, London would soon be- 
come known as the City of Railways, as 
Rome is kno^vn as the City of Monuments. 
Happily almost all these bills were swept 
away with other " slaughtered innocents," 
and we hope that no bill that aims at cutting 
up London will become law without the ma- 
tuiest consideration. 



PARLIAMENTARY LEGISLATION FOR 
THE METROPOLIS DURING 18C6. 

DURING the last session of Parliament 
the Metropolitan Board of AVorks pro- 
moted several bills for improvements in 
London — namely, for the improvement of 
High-street, Kensington, and its vicinity, for 
the widening of Park-lane, for the formation 
of approaches for the northern embankment, 
and for the embankment of a portion of the 
Thames between Chelsea Hospital and Batter- 
sea Bridge. The first bill came into opera- 
tion in October last ; it proposes to widen 
High-street, Kensington, on the southern side, 
between Young-street and the Metropolitan 
Railway, and to form a new street in substi- 
tution of part of King-street. The nett cost of 
this improvement is estimated at about .£77,000. 
The Board during the last session renewed 
their efforts to effect the desired improvement 
in Park-lane by submitting a plan to 
Parliament for widening the south end 
of the lane, on its western side, near Pic- 
cadilly, at a cost of about £105,000. The 
Chelsea Embankment Bill authorised the 
Metropolitan Board to extend the embank- 
ment of the Middlesex shore of the river 
from the termination of the present embank- 
ment to Battersea Bridge, and to form a public 
roadway between those points behind the 
embankment wall, so as to complete the 
thoroughfare along the river side. The 
length of the proposed embankment is a little 
more than three-quarters of a mile, and the 
cost is estimated at about £206,000. The nett 
cost of the approaches to the northern em- 
bankment were estimated to be about 
.£454,700. The estimated nett cost of the last 
three proposed improvements amounted to 
about £765,000, and the Board proposed to 
Parliament to extend the period of levying 
the coal and wine duties to provide for such 
outlay. The Government intimated their con- 
sent, provided a proposition for levying an 
improvement r.ate on property in the metro- 
polis were combined with it. To this course 
the Board consented, but owing to the press of 
business and the change of government the 
bills were not introduced. There was a bill 
making provision for the improvement of com- 
mons in the neighbourhood of the metropolis, 
and the protection thereof from nuisances. It 
was to apply to commons within the metropoli- 
tan poUce district, and to be carried out by 
a body of five unpaid commissioners. Another 
bin introduced by the Government related to 
artisans' and labourers' dwellings. This bill, 
however, applied to the United Kingdom. 
Two gas bills were considered by Parliament. 
The Gaslight and Coke Company's Bill 
proposed to raise further capital and to 
acquire land at Hackney Wick for the 
erection of works. The land proposed to 
be taken was adjacent to Victoria Park. 
This bOl, though it passed the Commons, was 
rejected on its second reading by the House of 
Lords. The Imperial Gas Company's BiU also 
proposed to erect works in the vicinity of Vic- 
toria Park. This scheme met with a great deal 
of popular opposition, and was lost on a motion 
for the second reading. The Metropolis Sewage 
and Essex Reclamation BiU proposed altera- 
tions in the culverts sanctioned by the 



NATURAL SYSTEMS OF ARCHITEC- 
TURE. 
To the Editor of the Buildinq News. 

ONE of your correspondents having 
opened for discussion Mr. Griffith's 
remarks, just re.ad before the Liverpool 
Architectural Society, on a "Natural System 
of Architecture," I may be excused for 
troubling you with the following considera- 
tions on the same subject. 

Mr. Griffith, in his paper, a fuU report of 
which appe.ared in your journal, displays at 
least an amount of study and ingenuity only 
to be expected from an author who has de- 
voted much time and labour to a very conge- 
nial view of architecture. Whether that view 
can be accepted .as a rational one or not, I will 
briefly ende.avour to show. Starting with a 
very undeniable fact, that .architecture as now 
practised is in a very unsettled state, and is 
governed more by individual caprice than by 
any understood principles, such a system as 
Mr. Griffith proposes, inapplicable to practical 
requirements as it may be proved to be, is a 
step in the right direction. A more logic.il 
and scientific mode of designing than now 
generally adopted is an imquestionable want ; 
and architects would do well, at least, to 
study the geometric beauty .and admirable 
harmony found and preserved in the works of 
nature, and especially in the vjiried domain of 
plant-form. But to go further than to study 
the forms and structures of plants as accesso- 
rial to design — to make such study the funda- 
mental basis of architectural arrangement and 
disposition, or even of architectural propor- 
tion, is to go beyond the legitimate province 
of nature, and is, I conceive, to confound its 
conditions and laws with those of art. Nature 
can teach us much : the crystalline forms of 
the mineral world, the geometrical Ijeauty of 
flowers, .and the structurfil adaptability of the 
stems of numerous plants are all^ valuable 
lessons; but they must not be Inist.aken in 
their purpose or meaning, or be pressed into 
the service of an art because certain laws of 
n.ature have given them symmetrical forms 
and relations of structure. The geometry of 
architecture is not, I take it, necess.arily the 
geometry of nature, for we can proportion our 
halls and rooms in the beautiful manner 
described by Mr. Griffith, by taking either the 
equilateral triangle or the square as the pri- 
mary element or key-note of our design, with- 
out having recourse to the flowers of three 
petals or the cruciterai order of plants. These 
latter may be valuable in our floral and other 
decoration — natural as weU as conventional, 
as shown in the valuable series of " Art 
Foliage," given in the Building News ; and 
for this purpose chiefly do I conceive them 
appUcable. While, then, we can go a great 
way with Mr. Griffith, admire his zeal for 
natural beauty,?and value no less than he the 
three primary elements of form, with their 
compounds, the hexagon, octagon, and decagon, 
and the regular solids derivable from these ; 
while we can thank him for his interesting 
work on the geometrical proportions of our 
churches, I do not think we can follow him 
so far as to believe our architecture can be so 
easily and entirely developed from a geometri- 
cal system as laid domi by him upon certain 
invariable laws of nature. 
These are considerations not dreamt of in 



these natural iind harmonic systems of design.- ' 
Geometrical proportion, though forming a very 
reliable basis for architectural design, is only 
oneof that mass of elements generally accepted, 
thimgli, as yet, un,systematised. Require- 
ments, materi.als, construction, have all to bo 
dealt with, as every practical architect knows, 
in various ways, and generally quite irres. 
pective of any definite rules of design ; besides 
these, there are other considerations belonging 
primarily to .and having for their end the ob- 
ject and purpose of a strvicture, and which depend 
fortheir expression.on the resthetic qualities of 
the mind and the expression,al power of form, 
and not upon .any arbitrary principles founded 
upon nature or upon .any system of numerical 
harmony, .and applicable to .all buildings alike. 
Here, indeed, is the mistake m.ade by Mr. 
Griffith, Mr. Hay, and their school of thinkers ; 
geometry .and harmonic ratios are pleasant 
studies, but we have yet to be convinced that 
they constitute solely the groundwork of ar- 
chitecture, for if they did, it would no longer 
rank as a fine art in which the oonceptive fa- 
culties of man were predomin.ant. 

That we shall eventually systematise our 
materials and construct therefrom a less erring 
standard of taste I firmly believe, and to this 
end the interesting investigations of earnest 
geometricians and naturalists, however un- 
ten.able their hypotheses may be, are auxiliary. 
Awaiting such result we must still go on in the 
same w.ay as we have heretofore, extending our 
studies as much as we please, but only adopt- 
ing those features which common sense can 
sanction and discriminative taste appropriate 
to the purposes of our buildings. — I am, &c., 
G. HnSKISSON GniLLAUME. 



NOTICES OF PUBLICATIONS. 

A BATCH of publications wait for acknowledg- 
ment. Facts Respecting Street Railwmjs^ (P. 
S. King, 34, Parliament-street). A series of official 
reports from the surveyors and mayors of the 
principal cities in the United States and Canada in 
favour of street railw.-iy3, with a view to their 
adoption in this country. The evidence certainly 
proves that street riilways work well on the other 
side of the Atlantic. The NaturaUsts Note Book, 
No. 1 (1, Racquetcourt, Fleet-street). Thia is a 
collection of extracts on natural history subjects, 
gathered from all sources. Some of the informa- 
tion is very old indeed, and, considering the very 
small amount of original matter ■vfhich the Note 
Book contains, it is extravagantly dear at fourpence. 
Of almanacs, the number at this season of the 
year is unlimited. Mr. Charles Knight's British 
Almanac and Companion for 1867 is in many re- 
spects one of the very best publications of its class. 
The present volume is not a whit behind its pre- 
decessors in point of interest. Among the papers 
which form the chief feature of the Compamon, 
we note as particularly good the resume of archi- 
tecture and public improvements for the year. 
The great popularity of Letts's Diaries has long 
proved their merit. The No. 9 Diary, or BiUs Due 
Book and Almanac, is specially intended for men 
in business. A number of our contemporanes are 
in the habit of issuing once a year a useful calen- 
dar and reference-sheet— a gift to subscribers. 
We have received in this way the City Press Alma- 
nac, the Preston Gwirdian Desk Almanac, mth a 
pictorial illustration of Liverpool Free Library; 
the Hereford Joicmal Almanac, bearing an engrav- 
ing of the New Gloucestershire Bank in th.at 
city and others. Messrs. Merritt aud Hatcher, 
lithographers. Poultry, send a very pretty orna- 
mentally printed calendar. British America _(b. 
Algar, 11, Clemenfs-lane, Lombard-street) is a 
pamphlet reviewing arguments against a Union of 
the Provinces, with further reasons for Con- 
federation, by the Hon. J. M'CuUy, Q.C., Member 
of the Legislative Council of Nova Scotia. We 
have also received a Prospectus and Report of the 
Hot-air Engine Company (Limited), and Mr 
Edward Stanford's (6, Charing Cross) New Map of ■ 
the MetropoUton Railways and Miscellaneous Im- 
provements, deposited at the Private BiU Office 
for the session 1867. 



The strike among the operative masons in 
Glasgow continues. 



12 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 4, 1867. 



DWELLTNGS FOR THE POOR. 

MR. A. G. R. HEINE, in a series of four short 
letters published for one penny, at 317, 
Strand, has given some additional information 
. on the habitations of the poor in the metropolis, 
and; also some suggestions well worthy of atten- 
, tion. If anyone wish to know how a large 
number of the poor of London are housed, let 
him Usten to the following : — " The state of the 
block of buildings," says Mr. Heine, " Ijetwean Cow 
Cross and Peter's Lane, in the East Central Uis., 
trict, which I visited during November last, and 
of which I give the following report, is a specimen 
of the condition of the places now inhabited by 
the most poor and neglected : — In Broad Yard, 
which consists of 17 houses, inhabited by 45 
famiUes, eight persons sleeping within a yard of 
the only closet in the court were attacked by 
cholera ; of these eight, but one recovered. No. 3 
has not been lime- washed for five years. No. 14, 
top room front, contains six inhabitants, dimen- 
sions 892'6 cubic feet, overcrowded, scarcely 
habitable for three. No. 17_, bedding in front 
parlour of the foulest description. In Rose Alley, 
where 32 families dwelt in 14 small houses, having 
again but one closet for the common use, Nos. S, 
9, 10, 11, and 12, are full of fever — five cases were 
taken in one week to St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 
Fryingpan Alley, containing 14 houses, with but 
one closet for the whole, is inhabited by 23 fami- 
lies. Bit Alley, having 13 houses, and, as usual, 
but one closet for the whole, shelters 26 families 
Horses and donkeys, being tied to the bed-posts 
at night, share the shelter of the families. Lamb- 
square, 4 houses, 67 inhabitants. No. 2, next a 
school-room, has no closet, most dangeroas. The 
water in aU these tenements is supplied through 
a hole in the wall for one half-hour daily. There 
is tjne house where the water has been entirely cut 
off for the past two years. There is only one really 
efficient dust-bin for the whole of the alleys." 
Mr. Heine is for rebuilding a great part of London, 
by new houses six, seven, and eight stories high, 
and this he would do, not for the better class of 
artisans, who can pay 43., 5s., or Cs. a week rent, 
but for the poor, who can only afford to pay 8d., 
9d., or Is. a week. In order to do this he con- 
siders two questions, namely : — 
" 1. By what means can ground be economised ? 
" 2. Which is the best and cheapest material for 
building ? 

" In answer to the first, I should reply that the 
principle of action should be — the dearer the 
ground, the higher the building. This, of course, is 
to be taken in a practical, common-sense view. I do 
not advocate building new Towers of Babel, but in 
stating that houses can be safely built eight stories 
high, I give utterance to the judgment of sound 
experience. Then, as such large buildings will 
necessarily contain a greater number of inhabi- 
tants, and consequently consumers, the ground- 
floors, to be devoted to shops and places of busi- 
ness, &c., will be of greater value, and their rent 
may tend to a further proportionate reduction of 
the rents for the uppermost tenements. Then, 
secondly, 20 per cent, ground can be saved by re- 
ducing the thickness of the present stone and 
brick walls, through their replacement by iron. 
And this leads to the second question — Which is 
the best and cheapest material for building ? and 
I unhesitatingly answer, iron. As stone and brick 
replaced wood, so, it is my firm belief, will iron re- 
place stone and brick in any reconstruction of 
London on a grand scale. It is scarcely necessary 
to point out the fact that iron is recognised as the 
best material for ship-building, more especially by 
those who pass the greater part of their lives on 
sea. These, subjected to every variety of climate, 
unhesitatingly pronounce the super-excellence of 
iron. 

" It would be out of place here to enter minutely 
into all the advantages iron possesses as a build- 
ing material over atone and brick ; its utility has 
been proved by practice. The fact that, in place 
of thick walls of porous and absorbent material, a 
thin sheet of iron will answer all and every pur- 
pose, and by its use produce a saving of iO per 
cent, of ground, is so great and valuable that, con- 
sidering the enormous prices asked for land in the 
heart of London, iron recommends itself on that 
ground alone to the most serious consideration of 
all men. But houses of iron can be so constructed 
as to be removable to another site at a trifling ex- 
pense of time and money. In case of the removal 
of a six-roomed house becoming necessary, the 
people Uving in it might, so to say, rise in the 
morning in one locality and retire to rest in the 
evening in another in the same house — it being 
actually taken down and re-erected in that time. 



The iron immovability of the great water-towers 
of the Crystal Palace, .at Sydenham, during the 
heavy gales .which ^ited the Surrey side of the 
metropolis some years since, grandly illustrated 
the stability of the material. Another great ad- 
vantage is, that houses of iron are not Uable to be- 
come infectious. The metal, being a natural 
tonic and disinfectant, recommends itself as the 
very- best material for habitation. So, again, in 
an il-on house the air is softer and milder, even in 
■winter,and can be kept so by a reduced ratio of 
firing ; and by painting the outer surface white or 
light grey, the air is cooler in summer than in or- 
dinary houses. There are other important reasons 
why iron houses would materially improve the 
general health of the people. Moreover, iron 
houses are waterproof, and require little founda- 
tion. They can be secured by an admii-able scien- 
tific mode of fixing them to the ground; they are 
in themselves lightning conductors ; they will be 
cheaper as regards insurance ; and they can be 
constructed so as to ex.actly resemble those built 
of brick or stone. Paint will give the external 
imitation, and any decor.ation can be so applied 
as to render an iron house equal in appearance to 
the most elegant and tasteful of modern edifices. 
Lastly, houses of iron can be buUt about 25 per 
cent, cheaper than houses of stone or brick ; a 
strong, good six-roomed house can be had for 
£160. 

" Therefore, if we can by the introduction of iron 
as our^f uture m.aterial for building save, firstly, 20 
per cent, in ground, and secondly, 25 per cent, in 
material, and adding to this another 20 per cent, 
profit arising f rctai the altitude of such new buUd- 
mgs, and all the secondary profits and savings ac- 
cruing from durability, repairs, &c., I think it 
needs not much calculation to .arrive at thLs cer- 
t.ainty, that under those conditions the rents of 
the highest stories could, with a fair profit, be re- 
duced to Lord Shaftesbury's standard of 8d. per 
room." 

It will be seen that Mr. Heine in one respect re- 
sembles Mr. Kerr. He quotes Lord Shaftesbury 
as an authority, but in a very different way and 
with a very diiferent spirit. Lord Shaftesbury is 
for giving the poor house accommodation with 
three rooms for 2s. a week. This was charac- 
terised as " the three-room dogma." Mr. Kerr's 
wonderful panacea is to supply " not a room in a 
house, but a house in a room," or one room with 
three beds in it for 3s. a week. But his plan was 
so completely snirffed out at tlie second meeting 
at Conduit-street that we should hear no more of 
it, had the discussion of the question not been ad- 
journed. Assuming the accuracy of Mr. Heine's 
statement," with regard to the capacities of iron 
for brnlding purposes to be correct, his contribu- 
tion " towards the solution of the problem" will 
produce a useful and a lasting effect. 



CHAPEL-BUILDING— THE THEATRE 
MODEL. 

AN interesting article in the Freeman on 
Chapel-buUding, contains the following 
suggestions as to the choice of style. Having 
passed in review the various styles of architecture, 
the Gothic, the Norman, the Classic, and the 
Eclectic, the writer says : — " In these suggestions 
as to choice of style we have refrained uutU now 
from considering the claims of the theatre model. 
Of course the fastidious taste that can find cold 
comfort in Gothic, whether pure or not, but dis- 
dains the ' Eclectic ' which, hke a Scotch haggis, 
contains a little of all sorts, and finds, with 
Jaques, * good in everything,' — this fastidious 
taste will be shocked at once at the bare mention 
of the theatre as a possible teacher to the taber- 
nacle. But as John Wesley didn't beUeve that 
the devil ought to h,ave all the good tunes, and 
succeeded in consecrating some of the best to 
hymns that will never die, so we rnay fairly ask 
why only the player is to speak in a building in 
which he is perfectly heard without exerting his 
voice, which never flings back taunting echoes, or 
admits on all sides cold draughts. More than all 
may we ask this when we find that the theatre 
m,ay be erected at as little a cost as a chapel, and 
that it is quite capable of adaptation to all our 
purposes. The advantages of the theatre can soon 
be enumerated. Its shape assimilates to the horse- 
shoe, and in the flat of the horse-shoe, of course 
the speaker stands. Its walls, instead of being 
bare and cold, are all alive with people ; galleries, 
boxes, stalls, and pit succeeding each other from 
ceiling to floor. On some such model let one of 
our architects, untrammelled by precedent, and 



daring enough to strike out a new idea, design his 
ch.apel ; let it be capable of containing not less 
than a thousand people ; the platform will occupy 
the place of the stage, and there will be found the 
reading-desk, the baptistery, and the table on which 
the bread and wine are placed for the communion. 
At the end nearest the platform the ground will be 
only two or three feet below this level, but it must 
rise gradually to the back ; and side galleries of no 
great height could probably be planned to run 
round from the platform untd the rising floor 
stopped them. The space beneath, which could 
be gained by elevating the floor, could be adapted 
to a school-room — the vestries and class-room must 
be behind. Broad entries and passages must be 
provided at the two sides. The organ could either 
crown the far end of the chapel, or be placed 
behind the minister, where it would be heard to 
perfection. We can do no more now than roughly 
inchc.ate the sort of building which we refer to, in 
the hope that there may be one at least amongst 
our many and skilful chapel architects who wijl 
work out the idea on paper, and give it a fair 
trial. Untrammelled by precedent, unburdened by 
traditional fallacies, untroubled by hoary super- 
stitions, the art of designing a chapel to fulfil all 
our requirements demands only careful thought 
and common sense. 



THE REMAINS OF ANCIENT ART. 

WE can abandon with comparative indifle- 
rence any small remains of faith we may 
have cherished in the traditional likenesses of 
b.arbaric kings or popes, but it is a very different 
matter when we are reqmred to believe that no 
trustworthy images of the heroes, statesmen, 
poets, orators, and philosophers of classical anti- 
quity have descended to us ; that the busts of 
Alexander, Csesar, Pompey, Hannibal, Pericles, 
Homer, Virgil, Horace, Demosthenes, Cicero, 
Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle, with a host of others 
which we have been wont to admire or venerate, 
are apocryphal. The prima facie argument is 
rather favourable to many of them. Fame is 
more lasting than brass, arre perennitii:, but brass, 
bronze, and marble are lasting enough to have 
endured to our time, and retain a faithful reflex 
of form and features, of character and mind. We 
know that the ancients were never tired of mul- 
tiplying statues of their great men, and that the 
highest genius w.as employed on the greatest — 
Phidias, on Pericles, Socrates, and Alcibiades; 
Praxiteles, on Demosthenes ; Lysippus, on Alex- 
ander and Aristotle, and so on. Alexander issued 
a decree reserving the right of reproducing his 
image to three artists — Apelles, for painting; 
Pyrgoteles, for stone engraving ; Lysippus, for 
statuary in bronze. The more statues the more 
honour, and the number erected to the popular 
favoui-ites was immense. Unluckily they were 
knocked down as eagerly as they had been set up 
when the tide turned. No sooner had the news 
of the battle of Pharsaha reached the capital 
than all Pompey's statues were thrown down and 
mutilated. Augustus began his reign by destroy- 
ing all the busts and images of the assassins of 
Ciesar. At the same time he set about forming a 
collection of the triumphal statues of the great 
men who had contributed to the power of Rome ; 
and the imperial city at that time boasted many 
private galleries rich with the spoils of Greece. 
If Mummius burnt Corinth with most of its in- 
estimable treasures of art — that same Mummius 
who gave the well-known caution to the carriers 
of what he saved— SyUa thanked the gods for 
having granted him two signal favours — the 
friendship of MeteUus Pius, and the good fortune 
of having taken Athens without destroying it. 
But, independently of the risks of removal, and 
the increased difficulty of identification, the accu- 
miUation of all the finest productions of art in 
one place, and that place the capital of the world, 
which ambition or sedition periodically converted 
into a battle-field, was one main cause of their 
being wholly lost, or of their descending in an 
unsatisfactoi-y condition to posterity. Furor 
anna miuistrat : anything or everything, sacred 
or profane, becomes a weapon in a deadly conflict 
when the blood is up. " I expect httle aid from 
their hand," said Front de Bceuf, alluding to the 
stone images in his chapel, " unless we were to 
hurl them from the battlements on the heads of 
the villains. There is a huge lumbering Saint 
C'hristQpher yonder, sufficient to bear a whole 
company to the earth." The Roman wan'iors 
thought and acted like the rude Norman b.aron. 
When Titus Flavins Sabinus, the brother of 



January 4, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



13 



Vespasian, was besieged in the burning capitol by 
the troops of Vitellius, he repaired breaches and 
formed barricades with the statues of the Temple 
of Jupiter. Fire and earthquake co-operated 
with civil war and barbaric conquest to complete 
the work of devastation ; whatever was left un- 
broken or distinguishable lay buried under heaps 
of ruin ; and when the superincumbent mass of 
rubbish was cleared away after the lapse of ages, 
the grand difficulty arose of appropriating the 
proper names to the best preserved images, and 
of duly assorting the arms, legs, heads, and noses 
of the mutilated. This difficulty was aggravated 
by a known practice of the ancients, which may 
have suggested to Sir Roger de Coverley the 
notion of transforming by a few toviches of the 
brush the sign of " The Knight's Head," set up 
in his honour, into "The Saracen's Head!" 
When the Rhodians decreed the honour of a 
statue to a general, he was desired to choose 
which he liked amongst the existing votive 
statues, and the dedication was altered by the in- 
sertion of his name. The prevalence and anti- 
quity of this method of substitution are proved 
by Plato's proposed law for compelling the sta- 
tuary to form each statue out of a single block ; 
»nd instances abound of the ch;mge of heads 
from vanity, caprice, or accident. A striking 
passage in Statins charges Ca)sar with the in- 
credible folly of cutting off the head of an eques- 
trian statue of Alexander by Lysippus, and re- 
placing it by a gilded effigy of himself. Tacitus 
states that Tiberius decapitated a statue of 
Augustus to make room for his own head ; and 
the gods of Greece, including the Jupiter Olym- 
pus of Phidias, were similarly treated by Caligula 
with a view to his own deification. There is a 
statue of Pompey at Rome reputed to be the 
very one at whose base, " which all the time ran 
blood, great Caesar fell." But, objects M. Feuil- 
let de Conches, we must have recourse to some 
anecdote, suspicious as ingenious, to be persuaded 
that the head, very badly restored, is really the 
original head. Rome is full of anticiuity-mougers, 
who will supply any number of consids' or em- 
perors' heads and noses to order. Napoleon was 
a great admirer of Hannibal, and one day during 
a visit to the Lou^Te, he stopped before the bust 
which bears the name of his hero, and inquired 
of M. Visconti, the distinguished antiquary, 
whether it was authentic. "It is possible," was 
the reply ; " the Romans erected his statue in 
three public places of a city within the bounds of 
which, alone among the enemies of Rome, he had 
cast a javelin. Caracalla, who ranked him among 
the great captains, also raised several statues to 
him ; but all this is much posterior to Hannibal." 
"This effigy," rejoined Napoleon, "has nothing 
African about it. Besides, Hannibal was blind 
of one eye, and this is not. Are there any 
medals of the time confirmatory of this bust?" 
" There are medals, also long posterior." Then it 
has been done apres coup. I do not believe in 
it." Although the inference from the eye may 
not be deemed conclusive by connoisseurs, that 
drawn from the want of contemporary medals 
carries weight. \\Tien medals and gems fail, the 
deficiency is not unfrequently supplied by inscrip- 
tions or books. The fine bust of Cicero at the 
Vatican is authenticated by a passage in Livy as 
well as by medals. There are no well-authenti- 
cated busts, medals, or gems of Virgil or Horace ; 
although the biographers of Virgil do not hesitate 
to describe him as tall and dark, with long, 
flowing hair, whilst the personal peculiarities of 
Horace may be collected from his writings. The 
best bust of Plato is apocryphal, which is pro- 
bably the reason why Mr. Grote's last great 
work, " Plato and the other Companions of 
Socrates," appears mthout ^ a frontispiece.^ r?ie 
Edinburgh Review. 



many years. It was considered a remarkable 
work of mechanical skill, and was constructed at 
an expense of several thousand pounds. The loss 
to Mr. Viguoles is irreparable, though a duplicate 
model remains in the engineering -gallery at 
St. Petersburg, placed there by the Emperor 
Nicholas I., to whom it had been presented, with 
the imperial permission. Attached to the model 
was a printed descriptive account, from which the 
above particulars are extracted, by way of putting 
on record some recollection of this beautiful and 
singular work, destroyed, with so many other most 
precious and interesting objects of nature and of 
science, exhibited in the Crj-stal Palace. 



W 



PERSONAL. 

THORNEYCROFT has received a com- 
mission for an equestrian statue of her 
Majesty the Queen, as companion to that of the late 
Prince Consort, at Liverpool. The cost is to be 
£5,000. 

Mr. Leather, C.E., the Contractor of Public 
Works, to whom the Admiralty and the War De- 
partment consigned the execution of the Portland 
breakwater and forts, and who is now engaged, 
under a similar contract, in the construction of the 
foundations for the marine forts at Spithead, has 
joined Mr. George Smith, of Pimlico, in his con- 
tract with the Admiralty for the execution of the 
works for the extension of Portsmouth Dockyard, 
which, according to the terms of the agreement 
with the Admiralty, will occupy fully four years, 
and involve a first expenditure of upwards of a 
milUon and a half sterling. 

Mr. Thomas Charles Sorby has been appointed 
to the surveyorship of police buildings in the 
metropoUtan district, and of county courts, in 
room of the late Mr. Charles Reeves, the architect. 
Mr. Reeves, who died on the 6th ult., in con- 
junction with his partner, Mr. Butcher, designed 
many of the county courtain London, and the chief 
towns in England. 



Hu>"TLY. — The ceremony of cutting the first 
turf in connection with the coustrg.ction of the 
Huntly Waterworks took place 'last week. For 
several [years the want of a sufficient supply 
of water has been much felt at Huntly, and several 
schemes have from time to time been suggested. 
Ultimately the scheme proposed by Mr. Robert 
Anderson, C.E., Aberdeen, was the one selected; 

Supply oe Water to Large . Towns. — The 
Duke of Richmond, Sir John.Thwaites, Colonel 
Henry Drury Harness, K.E., Alderman Phillips', - 
Mr. Thomas .Elhot Har;-isou, and Mr. Josejih 
Prestwich, have been appointed commissioners for 
the purpose of ascertaining what supply of un- 
polluted and wholesome water can be obtained by 
collecting and storing water in the high grounds 
of England and Wales, either by the aid of natural 
lakes or artificial reservoirs, at a sufficient eleva- 
tion for the supply of the large towns, and to 
report, firstly, which of such sources are best 
suited for the supply of the metropolis and its 
suburbs. Secondly, how the supply from the 
remaining sources may be most beneficially dis- 
tributed among the principal towns. 



FIRE AT THE CRYSTAL PALACE. 

DE3TRUCTI0S OP MODELS. 

i MONO the many works of art consumed by 
ii. the late fire at the Crystal Palace, were the 
extensive and valuable collections of naval and 
engineering models placed in the galleries of the 
tropical department. Conspicuous among these 
was the model of the great suspension bridge, 
half a mile in length, over the River Dnieper, at 
Kieff, in Russia, erected about fifteen years ago 
by Mr. Vignoles, F.R.S., for the then emperor, 
at a cost of nearly half a milUon sterling. This 
model was first shown in London at the Exhibi- 
tion of 1351, and was subsequently placed, on 
loan, in the Crystal Palace, where it had remained 



WAGES AND SHORT TIMB 

The carpenters and joiners of Cardiff have 
given notice of a rise of wages of 3s. per week, 
to take effect from March next. 

By the stoppage of a shipbuilder in Greenock, 
2,000 men have been thrown idle. There are 
now ■2,500'mea unemployed in the town. 

At ten o'clock on Monday morning, all the non- 
society joiners, with the exception of a small 
number, including apprentices, left their employ- 
ment on the " Great Eastern," owing to a difference 
with their employers about wages. 

Importation of Joiners' Work. — An importa- 
tion of joiners' work has lately been made into 
this country from Stockholm, consisting of panelled 
doors, jamb-linings, architraves and skirtings, ma- 
chine-made and well put together, of excellent 
workmanship and of first-rate material. They are 
made to EngUsh sizes, and have been offered for 
sale at prices considerably below those which are 
given for English work and material of the same 
quality. It is understood that the machines which 
have been employed in making them are of Eng- 
lish manufacture, imported into Sweden. 

Malvebn. — The masons have given notice for 
reduction of the hours of labour to 55J hours 
per week from the 1st of May next. The reduc- 
tion is pi oposed to be made by commencing work 
at 7 a.m. on Monday, and by leaving off at 1 p.m. 
on Saturday. 

The Belgian Iron Districts. — The wages 
earned in the Belgian iron districis are ; — Furnace- 
keepers, 2s. Id. t'l 2.1. lid. per day ; fiUers, Is. 8d. 
to 2.^. Id. : box fillers. Is. 4d. to Is. 8d. ; labourers, 
Is. 5 1. to la. 8 1. In the foundries, moulders get 
2s. to 23. lid. ; dressers, 2s. to 23. 6d. ; labourers, 
Is. 51. to 2i. Id. In the forges, puddlers get 
4s. 2d. to 5 i.: under hands, 2s. 3d. to 3s. Id. ; 
rollers, 43. 2d. to Ss. lOd. ; helpers, 3s. 4d. to 
4s. 2d. ; shearers, Is. lOd. to 23. 6d. ; labourers. 
Is. 5d. to 23. Id. 



■WATER. SUPPLY AND SANITARY 
MA.TTERS. 

ThePhiladelphians areabout to erect a mammoth 
reservoir, which it is proposed shallj furnish the 
city with 8,000,000 gallons per day. It seems 
that during the past summer, a majority of cholera 
cases occurred in the north-western part of the 
city, where the water is very poor. 



LEGAL INTELLIGENCE. 

Caution to Builders. — Abraham Harris, a 
brickmaker at Reading, was summoned for having, 
on the 12th inst., in Upper Crown-street, caused a 
drain to communicate with the public drain, con- 
trary to the Local Government Act. Defendant 
said he was out in the country, and knew nothing 
of the matter till he received the summons. — Mr. 
Woodman said that he received an application 
from Mr. Brown, on behalf of Mr. Harris, of 
Southampton-street, to allow a water and sink 
drain to communicate with the sewer. Permis- 
sion was given, and on examination shortly after- 
wards the drain from the watercloset was also 
connected, and the closet had been used. — Mr. 
Carter, assistant surveyor, gave similar testimony. 
— Defendant said : The connection has been cut 
off, and the complainants asked me this morning to 
admit the charge, but I will never admit what I 
never did. — Mr. Rogers said that the magistrates 
had no discretion in fixing the fine. The amount, 
according to the act, was £5, costs 12s. 

To Architects. — At the Portsmouth County- 
courtafewdaysago,thecaseof Rawlinsonand Son i\ 
Whenham was heard. This was an action to re- 
cover for professional services alleged to have been 
rendered by the plaintiffs, architects and surveyors. 
One point of interest only arose, and that had 
reference to an item for preparing an " agree- 
ment." His Honour remarked that he questioned 
very much whether an architect could prepare an 
agreement. The senior plaintiff said it was cus- 
tomary. He was frequently in the habit of pre- 
paring agreements. — His Honour: If that be so, 
you may as well say that any person can prepare a 
deed of conveyance. The plaintiffs were non- 
suited 

The Law of Distraint fok Rent. — A corre- 
spondent writes : — Permit me, through the medium 
of your columns, to place before your readers a 
point connected with the law of distraint for rent, 
which I think the pubho in general are ignorant 
of. On the 10th of last September a broker levied 
for rent, amounting to £32 lOs., at some premises 
in Millbank-street, where property of mine (o£ 
trifling value) was. The goods were condemned 
on the 1 7th, and on the same day I gave the broker 
notice that a particular piece of property (describ- 
ing it) was mine, and not the tenant's. The no- 
tice was disregarded, and the sale by auction fixed 
for the 25th, on the premises. I attended it, and 
when the auctioneer arrived at the lot which repre- 
sented my property, I called upon him to ascertain 
if he had not sold, of the tenant's goods, for a 
sufficient amount to satisfy the rent and expenses. 
He cast his book, and told me he had not. My 
lot was then put up, and I had to buy back and 
pay for my own property. The next day I re- 
quested the broker to furnish me with an account 
of the sale, and how the proceeds were applied. 
He repudiated me in toto, and would give me no 
information whatever. Finding I could get no 
redress, and beheviug, as I stUl do, that more than 
sufficient was realised from the tenant's goods to 
satisfy everything, I took out a summons in the 
Westminster County-court against the broker for 
the amount I gave for my own property. The 
summons was heard last Thursday, and I was non- 
suited by the judge on the ground that at law I 
had no claim against the broker whatever, that he 
was not bound to show me any account or give 
me any reason why he had sold my property to pay 



14 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January -1, 18Bt. 



another mau's rent, and that my only remedy was 
against the tenant. Now, sir, if this is the law. 
look In what a position a lodger may he, and I 
have no doubt often is, placed ; his goods may be 
seized and sold to jray his landlord's rent by an 
arrangement (at the cost of a guinea or two) madt 
between him and the broker, although there may 
be ample property belonging to the tenant of the 
house to pay the rent witiiout touching the lodger'.s 
goods at all ; and the only remedy the unfortunate 
lodger has is to bring an action at law against 
his landlord, when if he gains a verdict it Ls pro- 
bably obtained against an insolvent, whose goods 
are protected from execution by a colourable bill 
of sale, whilst the broker who committed this 
act of villany escapes scot free. 



NOTICE. 
*,* The BuiLDrao Nkws inserts advertisements 
for " Situations Wanted," &c., at One Shilling for 
the first Twenty-four Words. 



TO COHBESPONDENTS. 

To OUR RE.4DEB3. — We shall feel obliged to Mij of our 
Teadera who will favoui- us with brief uotea of works con- 
templated or ill progress iu tlie provinces. 

Letters relating to advertisements and to the ordin.iry 
business of the paper should be .^ddresi^ed to the Editor, 
166, Fleet-street. Advertisemeuts fur the cui'rent week 
must reach the office before 5o'clock p.m. on Thursdays. 



RECErvzD.— S. R.— R. P.— R. S. J. B.— J. H.— P. and K. 
— M. R. and Co.— W. S. R.— W. T.— E. B. and J.— T. and 
A.— J. S.— H. C— C. F. B.—C. B.^W. K.— R. W. H.— 
ti. H. P.— E. W. L.— C. L. E.— T. C. S.— J. II.— B. and 
M. W.— J. A.— H. G.— M. and Co.— H. P.— C. C. and Co. 

E. B., Norwich, asks for additional information on 
" Deodoris.ation by Dry Earth." We have written to our 
*' special correspondent ," who reported the Leamington 
Congress, for the same. 

W. II. T., J. H., itc. — There are sever.al questions and 
answers which must remain over tm nest week. 



fctspoiibciitf. 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE. 

To the Editor of the Bhildinq News. 

SiJl, — In proportion as an architect is a great 
artist he will produce good work in any style. It 
is not style that makes the architect either great 
or small. The architecture of Greece was remark- 
able for its exquiiiitely refined sense of form and 
Ijroportion. After the decline of the Roman 
Umpire, however, all the countries of Western 
Europe commenced to develope a new architec- 
ture ; it started upon the Roman, but giadually 
developed a new character, the different branches 
of the Teutonic and Celtic races giving to their 
own works their respective national tiaits, the 
various developments in Europe being also much 
affected by the lUffereut climates ia which they 
were each completed. This architecture attained 
its perfection of constructive form in the thir- 
tcenth century ; up to that date it had gone on im- 
proving in method of construction. All nationali- 
ties when young produce good construction. The 
savage of the present day constructs well, because 
he constructs upon first principles. Construction 
having attained its full development in the thir- 
teenth century, the architectural mind turned 
towards refinement and delicacy of form ; it saw 
very well that, although the thirteenth century 
had produced perfect constructive form, that 
form was often rude ; consequently, in the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries we find the forms 
of architecture and general objects assuming much 
greater beauty and delicacy of outline, with a 
marked aspect of more complete civilisation. All 
ornamentation was more elaborate, as well as 
more refined, in form. The gradual advance of 
civilisation, however, had the effect of leading the 
Itahan mind back to the old Classic authors, and 
art was also conducted iuto the same channels 
until in Italy it became wholly based on the work 
of ancient Greece and Rome. The marvellous 
intellect of such men as Michael Angelo, their 
complete sense of the beauties of ancient art, the 
admirable way in which they adapted it to their 
own times, the fact of its being Roman, all 
tended to make the movement European as well 
as Italian, and we know how in this country in 
the times of Elizabeth the intellect, literary and 
artistic, was iuliuenced by Italy. In England 
there were no models left; this, added to our 
barbarian origin, tended to keep the national 



architecture alive. The Elizabethan architects only 
adopted a certain amount of classicism, and which, 
iu many instances, gave great charm to their 
decorative forms. Our national architecture was 
all this time developing itself in the direction of 
domestic building ; the mansions of the period 
were admirable in every important principle. 
Still later, at the time of Queen Anne, although 
in all gi-eat buildings the Classic style of Italy 
had been introduced, the brick houses retained 
their national character, the high roof remained, 
but, as a more convenient form of glazing m sash 
frames had been introduced, the windows assumed 
the well-known segmental form of the period. 

Although the revived style of Italy was well 
represented in this country at a somewhat later 
period, and although our architects knew well its 
distinctive merits, the style can hardly be said to 
suit our climate. Still, we could not afford to be 
without the admirable examples we have of it. 
They are examples of a development of beauty 
that all true artists must admire. We should be 
thankful for beauty of any kind. The Romans 
must have budt beautifid buildings, and luigo 
Jones built beautiful houses, although not per- 
fectly iu accordance with our climate ; still, the 
beautiful is so attractive that we easily slip over 
this little difficulty. Any real artist would be 
very glad to see a Classic church buUt now, if it 
were only good architecture of its kind. In like 
manner, we should be equally glad to see a building 
iu the style of the thirteenth century of Perigord, 
if it were only good, and not a mere copy of the 
old. And this brings one to consider the posi- 
tion of modern architecture. It is not so much the 
question of style, but the unfortunate fact remains 
that modern architecture is without invention 
and without beauty. It would matter little about 
style if there were only merit and beauty of any 
kind. But yet the principle upon which modern 
architecture is to proceed is one of great import- 
ance, and one which architects seem little likely 
to be agreed about. You may go back to the 
thirteenth century, or to the Greeks, but your 
architecture will remain a copy, and a piece of 
antiquarianism. You may be eclectic, but you 
will only copy the forms of various places and 
times. You may bring your architecture from 
the South of France, or from Hindustan, but that 
will not make it English ; it will only be a copy of 
French or Indian architecture, it will belong to a 
different race and a different climate. Consider- 
ing the admitted want of artistic invention in our 
times when compared with the great ages of art, 
a little modesty would be wise, if we could only 
learn to study old art, not to copy its forms, but 
to acquire the spirit of beauty running through it, 
remembering that each country has developed a 
form of beauty and a practical character which 
answer fully to its wants and to its national feel- 
ing. An Englishman of the nineteenth century 
will never feel as a Greek, or a man of Perigord 
of the thirteenth century. 1 1 is usely to try, and 
can be of no advantage ; the age is gone, aud we 
are in another. If you can learn the spirit of 
construction of the thii-teenth century without 
copying its forms, you will learn something worth 
knowing ; and there is as much to be learnt in 
every other period of art. Each has its distinct 
merits ; only iu the present time we unfortunately 
do n(jt learn the spirit, but only make bad copies 
of the forms. 

To a young architect of the present day one can 
ouly say study, study everywhere — in the wilds 
of Siberia, if so iuclined ; but only, my friend, 
sjiare us the eclecticism when you come home. 
Unfortunately, travelliug does not make genius. 
Florence aud Rome were suflicient for Michael 
Angelo. It may seem odd to a young architect 
of IStiti that it is possible for a man of genius to 
learn all he requires of his art in his own country, 
that it is po.ssible to develope an architecture 
suited to his time out of that which his country 
aSbrds him for study. If he could only forget 
centuries and learn common sense, if he could 
ouly learn the spiiit aud forget the date, he 
might also learn that, with common sense, there- 
particular form. But one sees that he has no notion 
fore good construction, as a basis, he may easily 
continue in the spirit and traditions of his 
country without being slavishly tied down to one 
of the spirit except by copying its forms. Let 
lum consider how the brick architecture of Queen 
Anne's time was distinctly English iu character, 
just as the fourteenth century was ; the same 
spu-it pervaded both, yet they are widely diff'erent 
"~ ' Let us pray for modesty and simplicity 

' I am, &c,, 

A. B. C. 



THE GENERAL CREDIT COMPANY. 

Sir, — As, in^ a former number of the Building New.s, 
you were pleased to review the Building of the General 
Credit Company, at the comer of Lothbury, and alluded 
to the so-called clever treatment of the waterpipes, from 
the roof at the angle of the building in question, and, 
further, as in your number of last week the allusion is re- 
peated, permit me to state that the spiral-shafted angles 
conceal^ nothing whatever ; the down pipes are carried 
down in the interior of the premises to the drains in 
chases for the purpose. The decoration in question ia simply 
a decoration, and one very common in domestic buUdings 
in North Italy. Had I wished to place the doivn pipes ex- 
ternally I should havesho^vn them in their proper material, 
vi2., lead, and not at the angle of the buildings, as in tliia 
case. I would also remark that the bas-relief does not re- 
present Commerce. The female figure represents Enterprise 
assisting with capital the development of industrial works 
generally, such as mining, steam navigation, agricultural 
works, &c. The bas-relief was modelled from my suggestions 
and under my supervision most excelleutly by Mr. Redfem. 
-^l am, &c.. The Architect. 

20, Cockspui'-street, Pjill MaU, 
S.W. 



Iiitcrfoiniuiuucittloii. 



QUESTIONS. 

FIRE DAMP. 

[170.]— I shall feel obliged if you or any of your readers 
interested in the prevention of colliery accidents would 
favour me, through the medium of your valuable journal, 
with a description of AnseU's indicator for the purpose of 
ascertaining the presence of fire-damp in mines'; and 
whether any inquiry be made at tile forthcoming session 
by a commission to be instituted to investigate the real 
advantages of the invention, in order that its adoption in 
min es be made compulsory. S. M. 

BIRKENHEAD PUBLIC BATHS' COMPETITION. 

[171.] — CauNyou or any of yoiu- readers inform the com- 
petitors what has been dtme iu this matter ? The designs 
were sent in on September 1 last, and I think the com- 
mittee should either return the drawings, <tc., or give 
some information, seeing that they have h.ad four months 
for deliberation. A CoilPETiToa. 



DURABILITY OF ZINC. 

[172.] — 'Will you or any of your numerous readers inform 
me, through your paper, of the durabihty of zinc for roofs, 
its cost per square, timber and ail included, for spans of 
about 45ft. ? Does the steam arising from farmyards injure 
the metal ? yf, SiNDS. 



I 



TANKS FOR CONSERVATORIES. 
[173.] — I tike the liberty of requesting some of the sub- 
scribers of your journal to kindly answer the following 
question for me. I am about to put up a tank to supply a 
conservatory, and I want it to liold about 7,000 gallons. 
As the supports are already built conTeniently, I wish to 
make the tauK to suit them. It must not be "longer than 
13ft, Gin. nor wider than 7ft. 6in. I waut to know what 
depth it ought to be to hold the above quantity of water. 

M. G. 



THE PITCH AND SPAN OF ROOFS. 
[ 1 7-1.]— Tlie late gale having nearly stripped the roof of .i 
house which was a vei-y high one, 1 am engaged to lower 
the pitch of the roof to about 2 to 1. The span of the vool* 
is li4ft. Gin., and, as the owner does U')t intend to nso 
the old rafters, which, indeed, are not fit to be used, I have 
to provide new ones, and also new slates instead of the old 
tiles. Would yon be so good as to let me know what 
scantlings my rafters ought to be for a kingpost truss. The 
slates will weigh about 5i cwt. per square, aud I want to 
put the priucipals about fOft. apart. A. C. 

WATER THROUGH PIPES. 

[175.] — Would any of your readers be good enough to in- 
form me how to make the following calculation :— I have 
jmt a Sin. pipe iuto a stream to bring water close to my 
house. The depth of water over the pipe is 2ft. and 2ft. Gin., 
according to circnmstanceg. How many gallons may I <^- 
pect to get per hour for the smallest depth of 2ft. ? 

HOUSEKEEPSR. 



in form. 

in architecture.- 



FOUNDATION FOR A CRANE. 

[176.]— Could you let me know iu your next number 
what sort of a foundation T ought to put in for a 3-tou 
crano ? The ground is chalk at a depth of 17ft. under the 
surface, and gravel at a depth of Sft. under the surface, so 
that I have 9ft. of gravel before coming to the chalk. Cau 
I biiild upon the gravel with safety? Whahf. 



[17 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 

] — I beg to ask, through the medium of your valu- 
able journal, what are the necessary qualifications for a 
young person to obtain admission to the library or reading 
room of tha Britieh Museum, and whether books can bo got 
outoruot? STCDE^•T. 



SIDE DRAINS. 

[178.] — Would you let me ask in your paper what is the 
usual depth to put in side drains along a road, under the 
surface, and how to prevent the edges of open drains in 
marshy ground from filling in? Road Met.aller. 

[The side drains may be put in about Sft. below the sur- 
face of tlie road. The best plan to prevent the edges of 
.open drains from breaking and falling into and choking up 
the channel, is to give the slopes a very flat batter and 
dress them well with the back of the ipfide or ahovel used 
in cutting them.] 



January 4, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



15 



THE RESISTANCE OF ROADS. 

[179.]_i b«g to trespaad on your apaco a little with your 
perraiaaion. What ia tho resistance iu pounds per ton, 
neglecting gravity, on a niacadamiBed road, a paved road, 
ft railroad, and ou a gravel road rather soft ? 

QUBSTIONER. 



FRENCH METRES AKD ENGLISH FEET. 
[150,] — Could any of your numerous contributora give me 
a short role for converting French metres into English feet 
and decimals? I should ba much obliged to anyone giving 
me the information. Metke. 



THE INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS.— CONDITIONS 
OP MEMBERSHIP. 

[ISI.]— Will you kindly inform me how I can become a 
member of the Institute of British Architects? I have had 
about eighteen years' gpod experience aa draftsman, clerk of 
works, and as an architect and surveyor for a period 
of about seven yeara out of that time ; and carried out about 
£30,000 to £40,000 worth of first-rate work on my own 
ftooount, and still enjoy a good practice. But I shouJdlike 
to join a set of men wbo, like myself, do not work under 
£5 percent., 4c. I must add that I am not acquainted 
with any member of the Institute. Is it a costly and a 
difficult matter? Old Year. 

[We fear that if "Old Year" combines the business of 
clerk of works with the profession of uu architect he would 
not be eligible for membership of the Institute. He had 
better addx-eas a letter to the assistant secretary of that 
Bociety, Mr. Charles L. Eastlake, at 9, Conduit -street, 
Hanover-square, when, no doubt, he will be furnished with 
tbe particulars which he requires. The amount of subscrip- 
tion for members depends on whether they enter as 
••associates" or "fellows," and whether they practice iu 
town or coimtry. In any case it is very moderate.] 



REPLIES. 
MEASURING EXCAVATIONS. 
[\g7_] — Iq answer to your correspondent *' Excavator," I 
b^ to send the following answers: — 1, 565 cubic yards 
VJ cubic feet ; 2, 910 cubic yards l^ cubic feet ; 3, 940 cubic 
yards 12 cubic feet ; 4, -7i>i cubic yards. I am not fully 
sure about the last two Wing very correct, aathe" slopingjof 
tbe aides" is not very explicit ; but I shall be happy to 
fUruish him with anj-thlng further if he will be kind 
enough to more fully explain his last two questions. 

G. Moss. 



SHUNTING OF RAILWAY LINES. 

[IfiO.] — To give details of the points, erodings, and 
switches for shunting trains from one line to another, so a.-* 
to enable them to be made and laid down, is a professional 
matter, and one which could not lie explained in your co- 
lonins; moreover, complete plans for etfectiug the opera- 
tion would cost two or three guineas. However, I think I 
can explain to your correspondent Tompkinson what would 
be actually required in the case he alludes to. Iu the cut 




Ib shown what is wanted, viz., six crossings and three 
switch box-jd and levers. In reality seven crossings would 
be required, as it would be impo&aible to bring the lines iu, 
as represented in the cut, the curves being much too sharp. 
Any good country smith can make the V for the crossings, 
cut the rails longitudinally to form the points, and make 
the rod or lever, which is worked by a counter weight, and 
the switch box. I have had many so made ; although, if 
tbey are intended to be permanent, I much prefer c^iot-irou 
cruaaings, as they are heavier, quite as cheap, and keep the 
waggons on the r-ails infinitely tjetter than the others. I 
have had some of these made from designs of my own, 
which have answered very successfully ou small mineral 
lines. Every engineer knows that it is nearly always at 
the crossings where waggons and often the engine gets off", 
and the cause may be invariably traced to the crossings 
being either of an inferior description or not properly laid 
down with respect to bedding, fastening, gauge, or curve. 

L. P. D. 



$uili)ui§ liiteiligciite. 



OHUBCHES AND CHAPELS. 

The district church of St. Simon, Southsea, 
was opened last week. It haa been erected from 
the designs of Mr. Thomas Hellyer, architect, 
Ryde, by Mr. H. Laurence, of Soutlisea. The cost 
of the church was about £4,000. 

A new church, to cost £10,000, ia about to be 
erected by Mrs. Keade, of West Derby, at Liver- 
pool. 

The foundation stone of a wayside chapel of 
ease has been laid at Swimbridge, Devon. The 
building, which is to be dedicated to St. Thomas, 
is from designs by Messrs. Gould and Son, of Barn- 
utaple. It will consist of a nave, 4 oft. by 18ft., 
chancel, 21ft. by ISft., and vestry, and will be in 
the First Pointed style. The contractor is Mr. 
John Cock, of Southmolton. The total cost of 
the chapel will bo about £900. 



A new Wesleyaa Chapel iu Whitefield-road, 
Liverpool, has just been opened. The building, 
erected from designs by Mr. C. 0. Ellison, is iu the 
Gothic style, and will seat SOO persons. The con- 
tractors are Messrs. Nicholson and Eyi-e. 

AUGHTO.v. — A new church, costing about £5,000, 
is to be built in this parish, on a site given by 
Colonel Tempest, of Tong Hall, Yorkshire. 

St. Paul's Church, Bedfokd. — This so-called 
" Metropolitan" of this small county is undergoing 
considerable reparation, and is again being re- 
established as a cruciform church. Late in Per- 
pendicular times this editice must have been re- 
modelled, if not almost rebuilt, though there are 
considerable remains of Early English in the nave, 
and some Late Decorated in the chancel. The 
ground plan, however, was reduced to a parallelo- 
gram, measuring 45ft. by about 16oft., excepting 
the porches to nave and the vestry attached to 
the north side of the chancel. The nave, about 
half the whole length, has two noble perpendicular 
windows, of five lights each, for its west front 
(end). It is considered interesting, if not singular, 
in having its aisle, on the south, exactly of the 
same dimensions as itself ia width, length, and 
height, so that it is sometimes described as a double 
nave, with its arcade of columns and arches in the 
mitlst. There is a good oak roof, renewed about 
twenty years ago. The new works at present 
comprise the steeple and its abutting transept 
north and south. The steeple will be in every 
way superior to the old one, though the general 
outline of it has been preserved. The chief stone 
was laid last May, as noticed in the Building 
News at the time. It stands upon four fine 
Early English piers of Portland stone, the founda- 
tion being laid on the solid rook, much below that 
of the old one. It has now reached a height of 
70ft., and the spire, when finished, by Midsummer 
next, will make the whole about 170ft. from the 
floor. There is a clock with four dials ; also a 
peal of eight bells, tenor 28 cwt. The transept, as 
rebuilt, connects in one mass that which before 
resembled two small churches joined together. Mr. 
Palgrave, of Westminster Chambers, is the archi- 
tect ; Myers and Son, the contractors, for nearly 
£5,000. There is a new north aisle all through iu 
the contemplated additions, and is much needed ; 
but the committee will have to appeal again to the 
liberal and wealthy of the neighbourhood for that 
help which the parish itself cannot afford. 

BUILDINGS. 

It has been resolved to erect another hospital at 
Liverpool at a cost of £40,000. Of that sum, up- 
wards of £24,000 has been subscribed. 

A new Independent College is to be erected at 
Nottingham, and a large piece of ground has just 
been purchased of the Nottingham Corporation for 
that purpose. 

Dab WEN. — On Saturday last Mr. Thomas Hughes, 
M.P., laid the foundation stone of a new Co-opera- 
tive Store here. Mr. James Maxwell, of Bury, is 
the architect. The building will be built of Dar- 
wen stone, by Darwen contractors, viz., Mr. John 
Knowles, mason's work ; Mr. William Kay, joiner's 
work ; Mr. John Watson, plas-terer ; and Mr. W. 
Sutcliife, plumber. The cost of the new store will 
be from £6,000 to £7,000. 

Hereford. ■ — The new Gloucestershire Bank, 
erected in this city, which is now near its comple 
tion, is located at the junction of High-street and 
Broad-street, The style of architecture is Italian, 
and the building is constructed of Bath stone, with 
occasional courses of red Forest stone. The carv- 
ing is by Forsyth, the sculptor. Messrs. Medland, 
Maberly, and Medland, of London and Gloucester, 
are the architects, from whose design the building 
has been erected by Messrs. Iving and Godwin, of 
Gloucester. 

New University College, Glasgow. — By direc- 
tion of the Building Committee of the New Uni- 
versity College, of which Mr. G. G jScott, R. A., is the 
architect, plans were submitted by several engineers 
for the ventilation and warming of the building. 
After due consideration, those of Mr. W. W. Phip- 
son, C.E., London, were accepted, as combining all 
the requirements of this important application. 
The co.st of the building will be about £200,000. 
Mr. Thompson, of Peterborough, is the contrac- 
tor. 

Walsall. — The New Guildhall. — The open- 
ing of this building, which is all but finished, was 
celebrated by a public banquet on New Year's Day, 
his Worship the Mayor presiding. The hall, which 
is the third structure of the kind which has stood 
on the same site, is iu the Italian style. The 
building has been put up by Mr. Charles Burkett, 



of Wolverhampton, the amount of whose contract 
price was £5,083. The erection has been super- 
intended by the architect, Mr. G. B. Nichols, of 
West Bromwich and London, and will be com- 
pleted within that gentlemau's estimate. The 
fittings have been supplied chiefly by Messrs. 
Lambert Brothers, of Walsall, and Messrs. Bro;vn, 
Westhead, and Co., of Hanley. Mr. Barton acted 
as clerk of the works. 



STAINED GLASS. 
Selbt. — Several stained glass windows have 
been placed in the venerable Abbey Church. One 
window, presented by Mrs. John Webster (late 
widow of Captain Frank, mariner), and executed 
by Messrs. Waile-s, of Newcastle, contains repre- 
sentations of Christ stilling the tempest, Peter 
walking on the sea, and theclraught of many fishes, 
and is placed ou,the north side of the choir, to the 
memory of Captain Frank and his two children. 
Another is given by Mr. John Underwood, of Selby, 
and designed by himself in ornamental cathedral 
quarry glass, with the Selby coat of arms executed 
in stained glass iu the centre. This is placed in 
the west front. The churchwardens have also 
placed several additional windows in the church 
this Christmas. 

STATUES, MEMORIALS, &o. 

A bust of Lord Macaulay has, with the per- 
mission of the Dean and Chapter, been placed in 
Westminster Abbey by his sister, Lady Trevelyan. 
It rests upon a handsome bracket, designed by 
Mr. Scott, in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
grave, and of Addison's statue in Poets' Corner. 

The Poet Miekiewicz. — A monument has just 
been erected to the poet Adam Miekiewicz, iu 
the cemetery of Montmorency, which the Polish 
exiles have selected as their Campo Santa. It is 
the work of M. Preault, a well-known French 
sculptor. A bronze medallion, enchased iu a 
smaU stone pyramid, represents the poet dying, 
the expression of features in great repose, and 
the likeness perfect. 

The Freedmen's Monujient to Abraham 
Lincoln. — The model of this monument was 
successfully unpacked and set up for exhibition in 
the art gallery of the Boston Museum on the 11th 
ult. It recently arrived from Italy, and is the 
last work and the masterpiece of Harriet Hosmer. 
She regards it as her greatest achievement, and 
confesses that she cannot improve it. Reserving 
the right to modify or alter a few minor details, 
she otters it as her highest conception of what a 
monument to the martyred President ought to be. 
The model will be exhibited in Boston, New 
Y'ork, and Washington. Then an eflbrt will be 
made to raise the money necessary to complete it 
in the massive proportions which the artist con- 
templates. It will be tJOft. in height ; the base 
will be 60ft. square. The architectural work will 
be of New England granite ; the figures, the orna- 
ments, and the bas-rehefs, of bronze. It will cost 
a quarter of a nulUou of dollars. 



§mnl Items. 



iv;.i 



Her Majesty has signified her intention to 
publicly open the Albert Orphan Asylum, at 
CoUiugwood-court, Bagshot, in J une next, and at 
the same time to lay the foundation stone of a 
dining-hall and chapel. 

The Mersey Dock Board have abolished the re- 
striction hitherto existing of not permitting their 
chief engineers to take articled pupils. The sub- 
ject was discussed at a meeting of the Board last 
week, when a letter was read from the Engineer- 
in-Chief of the London and North-Western Rail- 
way, stating that all engineers-in-chief enjoyed the 
privilege of taking articled pupils, and nowhere 
was there a better school for such pupils than the 
office of Mr. Lyster, the present engineer to the 
Board. 

Fall of a Lighthouse. — The old lighthouse 
at Cromer, which had for so many years been a 
conspicuous object on the edge of the lofty lull, 
has at last succumbed to the voracious assaults of 
the sea. It toppled do^vu the other day, and was 
immediately buried by a great fall from the cliff 
which followed it. 

Sepulchral Tuhuli m Westmoreland. — 
During the last few weeks the Rev. W. Greenwell, 
of Durham, accompanied by the Rev. James Simp- 



16 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 4, 1867. 



son, vicar of Kirkby Stephen ; the Rev. Charles 
M. Preston, vicar of Warcop ; the Rev. T. Tasker, 
of Carlisle ; the Rev. Charles Pixell, of Skirwith ; 
and Mr. R. Hewitson, of EUergill, have made in. 
veatigations in five sepulchral tumuii, situate in 
the mountainous country in the vicinity of 
Appleby, Brough, and Kirkby Stephen. The 
researches have been of the most interesting 
description, the excavations yielding the remains 
of the ancient Britons, both burnt and unbumt, 
and in two cases showing the practice of the 
Anglo-Saxon adoption of older barrows for their 
burials, one of which was discovered as recorded 
just 100 years ago, and another important illus- 
tration recently, in a barrow slightly to the south 
of Kirkby Stephen, a British burial having been 
disturbed to insert the rough log coffin and body 
of, as shown by the funeral accompaniments, an 
Anglo-Saxon, of which the details were of no 
value. 

" Paved with Gold." — In a letter to the Times, 
Mr. J. J.Mechi says :^" The great City of London 
is comprised in an area of only 632 acres and a 
few poles — in fact, the size of a farm which in the 
country could be had for a rent of £600 to £1000 
per annum. My country friends will be astonished 
when I tell them that the last cheap thing I heard 
of as purchased land in Lombard-street was over 
two imlUons sterling per acre, or nearly £70 per 
square foot of area. A friend of mine thought 
himself lucky in obtaining a site a few years ago 
at only£l, 660,000 per acre. At this rate the good 
old City is getting really ' paved with gold.' What 
an amount of generalship is effected by the people 
themselves when some 600,000 persons can be got 
safely into and out of this limited area each 
twenty-four hours ! Our brave departed Duke 
would have been puzzled to have accomplished 
such a wonder." 

Ford's Theatre, 'VVASHmaTON. — The theatre in 
which President Lincoln was assassinated, and 
which was purchased by the Government, is being 
rapidly filled with interesting relics of the war. 
The archives of the Southern Confederacy are dc 
posited there already. There are to be seen there 
ill the latest inventions of artificial limbs, and also 
in jars ^nearly all portions of the human body 
attacked by diseases or wounds incidental to war. 

The Victoria Building, Investment, and 
Freehold Land Society, Birmingham.— The 
eighteenth annual meeting of this society was held 
at the Public Office, Moor-street, last week. The 
Chairman (Mr. Timothy Jones) said that notwith- 
standing the very trying times of the past year 
a considerable business had been transacted ; and, 
although it might be truly said that less building 
had been erected in the town during the year than 
usual, still there was a greater demand for suitable 
dwellings for the industrious classes. The report 
was then read, showing the receipts from all 
sources to be £24,631 18s. Id., and the disburse- 
ments £24,281 lOs. 6d. ; this with a balance of £350 
7a. 7d. in the hands of the secretary, making the 
total sum of £24,631 18s. Id. The report referred 
to the high rate of bank interest during the 
year, and to the state of the commercial world, 
and expressed a strong hope that the coming year 
would be more successful to all. The total re- 
ceipts of the society had amounted to upwards of 
£313,000. ^ 

MEETINGS FOR THE WEEK. 

Tuxs. — Royal Institution. — "On the Cheraietry of 
Gases " (Juvenile LectureaJ, by Professor 
Frankland, 3. 
Institution of Civil Engineers. — Discussion on 
Mr. PrBece'a paper, " lutercommuuication iu 
Trains in Motion," 8. 

Wed. — Geological Society.— The following papers will be 
read: — 1, "On the Age of the Lower Hrick- 
earthsof the Thames Valley," by Mr. W. Boyd 
Dawkina. 2, "On the Occurrence of Conso- 
lidated Blocks in the Drift of Suffolk, "by Mr. 
George Maw. 3, " On the Jurassic Faunaand 
Flora of South Africa," by Mr, Ralph Tate, 8, 



patents for liikiitioits 

COWNBCTKD WITH THE BUILDING TRADE. 
^ 

143S P. J. Messrnt. Improvements in apparatua for 
mixing concrete and other materiaU. Dated May 21, 186S 

The novelty in this mixer conaiets in the configuration 
disposition, and operation of the vessel in which the 
materials for making the concrete or mortar or other ma- 
terials to be mixed are enclosed. The .Jixini; ia accom- 
plished by the revolution of the said vessel oo a spindle, the 
rotating motion being communicated by hand, horse, 
steam, or any other motive power. The vessel may be 
made of cast or wrought iron, of timber, or any suitable 
material, with six, ten, or a larger number of sides, bo 
arranged la angular position to each other that, in turning 



the mixer the materials are turned over from side to 
aide, as well as in the direction of the rotation of the 
vessel. It may have one or two doors or openings, which 
are securely closed during the miiine and opened for re 
ceiving and discharging the materials to be mixed, and the 
concrete or mortar or other result of the materials mixed. 
The vessel should not be more than half filled with the 
materials to be mixed when the do >r being closed and se- 
cured by the fastenings concrete will be thoroughly mixed 
by from eight to fifteen revolutions of the vessel, which, 
however, should not he at a greater rate than fifteen re- 
volutions per minute, twelve rotations per minute being 
the preferable rate of speed. Patent completed. 

1464 W. Hkatbkikld. Improvements in the eonstruclion 
of iron girders and joists. Dated May 24, 1866 

This invention consists in forming the top and bottom 
flanges, or either of them, of iron girders and joists 
of a curved or convex shape in their cross section. Patent 
abandoned. 

1465 J. W. HoffFMAN. An improved hanging centre or 
centre stop for doors, gates, swing sashes, blinds, and other 
similar uses. Dated May 25, 1866 

In performing this invention the inventor employs two 
cones, the one a male and the other a female, both toothed 
or ribbed to fib the one into the other. As applied to a door 
the invention is carried out as follows :— The female cone 
is fitted with lugs by which it may be screwed oo to the 
edge ..'f the door. The male cone is furnished with a 
coiled or other spring, and is attached to the sill, both 
cones being ribbed ; the spring keeps the convexities of the 
one in the concavities of theother, and thus a door so fitted 
may he placed and will remain open at any required dis- 
tance. For swing sashes, toilet glasses, blinds, and many 
other purposes of a similar nature, the same appliance 
may be employed as a centre and stop, and either horizon 
tally or yertically. Patent abandoned. 



^rak Itetos. 



TENDERS. 

Bedford. — Accepted for Mr. Jarvia'a brewbouse, Bed- 
ford. Mr. James Horsford, arohiteot. Quantities uup- 
plied: — 

Harrison, bricklayer £7l2 12 6 

Joy, carpenter 424 14 

Kilpin, smith and founder 115 9 6 

Carling, plumber, painter, 4ic... 110 12 
Bbouohton Park. — For building a house in Broughton 
Park, for Mr. John Lowcock. Mr. Thomas Tulley, archi- 
tect;— 

Ledger £1.870 

Southern and Son 1,817 

Clay 1,780 

Neill and Son (accepted) 1,777 

Enfield. — For a detached villa, to be built in the Ridge- 
way road, Enfield, for Mr. H. W. Draper. Mr. Thomas J. 
Hill, architect. Quantities supplied by Mr. R. L. Curtis : — 

Moreland and Burton £2,159 

Field and Sons 2,100 

Fairhead 1,876 

CuBhing 1,875 

Aoley 1,850 

Patman Brothers 1,849 

Webband Sons 1,757 

Hadlow. — For a row of four labourers' cottages, at 
Hadlow, for Mr W. Crandwell. Mr. Henry Stapley, ar- 
chitect, Tunbridge WelJa ; — 

Hammond £508 10 

HoLBORK. — For new amphitheatre, Holbora. Messri. 
Smith and Sons, architects : — 

Macey £4,679 

Piper 4,500 

Henahaw 4,390 

Bracher and Son 4,300 

Ennor 4,080 

Park-lane.— For new front, &c., to a shop, in Brick- 
street, Park-lane. Mr. S. Dyball, architect:— 

Terrey (accepted^ £57S 10 

Romford.— For a pair of semi-detached villiis, at Rom- 
ford, for Mr. T. Champness. Mr. C. Pertwee, architect, 
Chelmsford : — 

J. Whithers, Romford £1,048 

A. Davey, Romford 1,037 

W. f^per, Chelmsford 1,040 

J. Hammond, Romford 1,025 

WEaTMiNSTER.— For a new dwelling house, in Frederick- 
street, Westminster, for Mr. Eason. Mr. H. W. Budd 
architect : — * 

Clemence £555 

Hemraings 503 

King and Son 490 

Pemberton 475 

Mills and Sou 475 



BATH STONE OF BEST QUALITY. 
Randell ANDSADNDERg, Quarrymen and Stone Mei» 
chants, Bath. List of Prices at the Quarries and Dep-^t* 
also Cost for Transit to any part of the United Kingdom' 
furnished on application to Bath Stone Office. Corsham* 
WiltJ.— [Advt.J ' 



'BAKKRUVTB, 

TO SUBRENDER IN BASINOHALLBTRKET. 
Tho9,\ Chapman, jun.. New North-road, Hoiton, cutler, 
Jan. 23, at 1— Thomas Cook, late of Arbour-square, Step- 
ney, mechanical engineer, Jan. 23, at 1— William Dockett 
Winchester street, Kentish New Town, journeyman kev- 
maker, Jan. 10, at 1— Howard Aahton Holden. Queen- 
street, Cheapside, and Clifton -gardens, Maid-wale con- 
tractor for public works, Jan. 9, at 1— Robert Jolly, 
late of Chatham, cabinet manufacturer, Jan. 23. at 1— 
George H. Manning. Brid port- place, Hoiton, ironmonger 
Jan. 14, atl2— James Worms, Ireland-yard, Doctor's Com- 
mons, builder, Jan. 14, at 12— David Hales, Forest-hill 
Kent, builder, Jan. 16, at 11— William George Homcastle' 
Uigh-itreet, Poplar, auotioneer, Jan. 23, at 12— Heary 



Richard Snow, Whitstable, buiMer, Jan. 14, at 1 — John 
Julian Thompson, Rotherhithestreet, boat-builder, 
Jan. 14, at 1 — John James Ward, Woodford, journeyman 
coach builder, Jan. 15, at 1. 

TO SURRENDER IN THE COUNTRY. 
Thomas Bartlett, Yately, Southampton, builder, 
Jan. 11 — J. FumifuU, Southport, Lancashire,' painter, 
Jan. li — Peter Gray, South Hilton, contractor, Jan. 8 
— J. Hopkinson, late of Rochdale, contractor, Jan. 17 
— Phillip B, Scott, Cardifl", civil engineer, Jan. 9 
— William Barnes, Crich, Derbyshire, quarryman, Jan. 15, 
at 12 — William Davies, Liverpool, joiner, Jan. 15, at 3 — 
Robert Danby, Burwell, Cambridgeshire, plumber, 
Jan. 15, at ll — Wi'liam Davies, Liverpool, joiner, Jan. 15, 
at 3 — Richard Dodd, Manchester, screw bolt manufacturer, 
Jan. 11, at 11 — John Foster, Doncaster, cabinet maker, 
Jan. 19, at 12— Thomas Fraser, Harrington. Cumberland, 
builder, Jan. 11, at 10 — William M'Donald, Keswick, 
blacksmith, Jan. 10, at 11 — James CuUiford Miller, Sun- 
derland, block and mast maker, Jan. IS, at 12 — George 
James Westcott, Bournemouth, builder, Jan. 22, at 11 — 
Hugh Williams, Bryntirion, near Langefiii, joiner, Jan. 11 
at 12. 

NOTICE OF 8ITTING3 FOR LAST EXAMINATION. 

Jan. 18, Q. Wood, Sunderland, shipbuilder — Jan. 18, A, 
Tait, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, iron merchant — Jan. 23, T. 
Pound, Kingswinford, Staffordshire, .blacksmith— Feb. 21, 
S. M. Gammage, Hampstead, painter — Feb. 26, T. B. 
Smith, King"s-road, Victoria-road, builder — March 1, T* 
Garrett, Famborough, journeyman bricklayer — Jan. 28. 
E. and L. Powell, Hereford, builders— Jan. 21, D. Esau, 
AbertiUery, Monmouthshire, contractor — Jan. 15, T. D. 
Perrott, Bristol, coachbuilder — Jan. 11, G. Wilson, Old- 
ham, journeyman millwright — Jan. 19, 3. J. Tozer, Hora- 
ley Heath, Staffordshire, journeyman painter — Jan. 25, C. 
Wilby. Masbrough, joiner— March 1, M. K. Trott, Wal- 
thamstow, plumber. 

PABTNEB3HIP3 DISSOLVED. 

Hartop and Howroyd, Bradford, Yorkshire, plumbers — 
Rownson and Drew, Upper Thames-street, ironmongers — 
Thompson and Co., Hunalet, engineers — Cunliffe and Co., 
Weatleigh, Lancashire, brickmakers — Kitto and Jackson, 
Compton-street, Clerkenwell, engineers — Bairstow and Co,, 
Ovenden, machine makers 

DECLARATIONS OP DIVIDEND. 

8. Berrisford, Stockport, ironfounder, 3s. od. — J. Collier, 
Liverpool, joiner, 23. 9d. — J. Hunter Burscough, boat- 
builder, rtjd. — W. Johnson, Leigh, L&ncashire, iron- 
founder, 20s. — Jolmsoa andWliitaker, Leigh, Lancashire, 
ironfounders, 4h. 7d. 

DIVIDEND. 

Jan. 14, G. Weston, Quemerford, Calno, Wilts, builder, 

SCOTCH SEQUESTRATION. 

Robert Wilson, Glasgow, bellhanger, Jan. 5, at 12, at 
Glasgow. 



I 



LATEST PRICES OF MATERIALS TTSED 
IN CONSTRUCTION. 



TnuER. datr li 


Te&k lo»d 


£» 0<10 


Quabec, rod pine 


S 6 


4 


,, yellow piiie. . 


3 15 


S 


St. Johu N.B. yeUow 








QutbecOak, vrhit«.. 


S 10 





.. birch 


S 10 


4 


elm 


t 10 


* 


Dantsicokk 


1 10 





flr . 


a 

S 

t 


1 






Hlg* 


S 


Swedish 


1 18 


3 


Uaata, Quebec red pin* 


6 


8 


,, yellow pine.. 


5 


<t 


Lathwood.Dantzic.fm 


4 10 


S 


„ St. i'eterBburg i 10 


7 


Deali.prC.iaft. byj 






by 9 in. , duty 2% per 






lokd. drawb&ck 2i. 






Quebec, white spruca 


13 10 


91 


St.John, wbit«apnic« 


12 


16 


Yaliow pine, per re- 






duced C. 






Oaiud», lit qUAlity. 


17 


19 


Ind do 


13 


14 



p9r load, dr&wback, la. 

ATchaDgel, yellow . . Hi 
St. Peteraburg, yeL . . 10 

Finland 8 

Hemel 

Qotheuburg, yellow 9 

., whit« 8 

Gefle, yellow 9 

Soderbamn 9 

Cbristiania, per C, 

12 ft. by 3 by 9 in. 

yellow 18 

Deck Plank, Dantzic, 

per 40 it. 3 in 

PuMJcs SroKB pr ton fi 
OiL3, ac. 

Seal, pale per ton 46 

3penii body 125 

Cod 39 

Wliale, Stb. Sea, pale 45 

OliTe. Gallipoli 61 

Cocoanut, Cochiu,tOD 61 

Palm, ana 42 

Linseed J7 

Rapeseed, Eng.p&le.. 41 
Cottonseed 32 



£18 

10 11 10 

9 10 



10 10 

8 10 

II 

10 10 



61 19 
10 43 



10 42 
S9 d 



r to 8 e 



9 10 

10 10 



S 

3 14 
10 10 



8 15 
10 
10 15 
8 15 
6 10 
10 



Metals. 

1»0!T :— 

Welih Ban In London per ton 

Nail Eod do 

Hoopi . ,, do 

Sheets, Siugtfl do 

StKfTordibire Bart do 

Bar*, in Wale« do 

RailB do 

Foundry PIgi, at GlMg. No. 1 .. do 

Swedish Bars do 

Smu,:— 

Swodisb Keg, hammered per ton 

Swedish Faggot do 

Cuprzn : — 
Sheet a Sheathing, a Bolts ....per ton 

Hammered Bottoms do 

Flat Dottums, uot Hammered .. do 

Cake aud Tuugh Ingot do 

Bast Selected do 

Fine Foreign do 

Yel. Hetal Sheathing a Rods . . . .per lb 
LxAD : — 

Pig. EngUsh per ton 

,. Spanish Soft do 

Shot. Patent do 

Sheet do 

Wliit* do 

Spkltbr:— 
On the spot per ton 

Tim :— 
KngUsh Block per ton 

do Bar do 

do BeSned do 

Banc* do 

Strait do 

Z»c:— 

Bngllsh Sheet per ton 

DsTaux'sV. M. Roofing Zinc .... do '.V 

• And e p«r cent, discount if laid upon the new STstem. 
QuioutLTBE perbtL 6 13 7 • 



nett 
Si 



90 95 
7^ 8 



23 10 
19 16 
23 10 



to 





tl 10 





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84 

83 
83 19 
81 10 









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89 

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83 
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1 



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BaooLtn or AjrraiovT. 
p«r tou a 







Janoary 11, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



17 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



LOSDOa, FRIDAY, JA.yUABY U, 1S67. 



The desims are arranged as follows :- 



1. 



THE NATIONAL GALLERY COMPETI- 
TION. 

TO design a picture gallery in these days, 
with the experience of continental archi- 
tects before us, is not a very difficult task. 
Picture galleries, like churches, have worked 
into a certain groove, and it will take some- 
thing more than one original architect to get 
them out of it. We know no more unhealthy 
sign iu art, as in everything else, than when 
things get into that .stereotyped condition 
which finds expression in the motto " rest and 
be thankful." Satisfaction in any condition of 
art, Greek or Gothic, or in any supposed per- 
fection of plan or proportion, nieaus inaction, 
and consequently death. Not very long ago 
the art world included a respectable number of 
old gentlemen who held tenaciously to the 
belief that the ultimate possible limit of man's 
art power was attained when, in the midst of 
one exquisite harmony of clime, colovu', cos- 
tume, sculpture, and architecture, the Athe- 
nians unveiled the cryselephantme statue of 
their great Goddess of Wisdom. That this 
absurd belief has not quite died out is evi- 
dent from the wa}' in which almost everyone 
we meet assumes that the new National Gallery 
must, as a matter of course, be what is called 
Classical. The first result of this unreasonable 
assiunptiou is now before the public in the 
shape of designs for anew gallery in Trafalgar- 
square. Out of the fourteen views submitted 
two only are Gothic, and the author of one of 
these was so doubtful of the strength of his 
Gothic venture that he has followed it up by a 
design founded upon the Venetian Classic 
Renaissance. 

Like the law courts' competition, this is what 

is called a limited one. Twelve architects 

were selected, including Mr. Scott, Mr. Street, 

and ilr. E. Barry, who are what may be called 

double firsts, having been selected in botli 

groups. Mr. Scott has declined the National 

Gallery, and we think wisely, as it was simply 

impossible for any man to do himself common 

justice in two such works witliin such a short 

period. Moreover, Mr. Scott may have been 

\varned by the foregone conclusion as to style 

to which we have already referred, and may 

not care to become the St. Paul of modern 

architects, to be subjected to any more perils or 

stripes than those he has already received 

,ui-nt the Foreign Office. It will be well if 

Oiers follow his example. Nay, it might 

len be desirable for the sake of English art, 

-upposing any such thing to exist, if some 

Were to retire altogether. 

Elsewhere we have animadverted on the 
narrow limits of the selection of architects for 
tlie law courts' competition. All that we have 
said thereon may be applied with even addi- 
tional force to the case of the National Gal- 
lery. We have no wish to be personal, but, at 
ihe same time, our respect for English archi- 
t.cts obliges us to say that a gross injustice has 
been done them in this competition, which no 
amount of argument, standing as it must side by 
I side with such designs and drawings as those 
I of Messrs. Penrose, Jones, Cockerill, and 
Street, can, under any condition of things, 
i-xcuse or palliate. The error, however, has 
been committed, and the result, as everyone 
I who knows anything of architecture expected, 
is a disgraceful failure. We had intended, 
before visiting the E.xhibition, to have de- 
■ voted at least two articles to the drawings sub- 
mitted, but we must candidly confess that a 
Walk round the room was sufficient to con- 
vince us that, unless we sank the office of 
critic in that of advertiser, and became merely 
the mouthpiece of the ten several gentlemen 
who have competed, there was not sufficient 
material for more than one article. 



^Ir. Owen Jones. 
:;. Mr. Brodrick. 

3. Mr. Street. 

4. Mr. Cockerill. 

,'). Mr. James Murray. 
6. Jlr. E. M. Barry. 
". Mr Penrose. 

8. Mr. G. Somers Clarke. 

9. Mr. M. Digby Wyatt. 
10. Messrs. Banks and Barry. 

1. Mr. Owen Jones has taken his inspiration 
from the new buildings at South Kensington 
Museum. There is, it is true, a'delicate com- 
pliment in this, paid to the art authorities of 
the Bronipton clique, which may certainly 
enlist the sjTiipathies of those art-critics who 
sit at the feet of Cole, C.B. Mr. Jones, 
however, would appear to be considerably 
in advance of the authorities as touching the 
Christian virtue of modesty or humility, 
since otherwise we are at a loss to account for 
the large number of views of his chief fagade 
which this gentleman has thought fit to 
exhibit. In his plan Mr. Jones is in the 
small minority of placing his several build- 
ings, not according to the shape of the ground, 
but at right angles to one another, by which 
much groimd is lost, and, as it happens, great 
irregidarity is the result. There is nothing 
particular to learn from the plans, and less 
than notliing from the elevations. 

2. Mr. Brodiick is, as usual, great in 
pillars. There are some thirty-six Corin- 
thian shafts in the front elevation alone, 
and when we have said this we have said 
nearly all that can be said of the design. 
Everyone who knows Mr. Brodrick's works 
at Leeds and elsewhere need scarcely be told 
that the composition is severe to a fault. Its 
great mistake is in the monotony which 
results from an excess of Corinthian pillars. 
The projecting portico shows no less than 
fourteen in a row, supporting a level entabla- 
ture. The wings ha\-e each six shafts, and 
over the centre in line with the wings ten 
pillars appear, supporting the pediment which 
crowns the design. Tlie plan follows the 
irregidar form of the ground, and nearly the 
whole of the .space is covered with buildings, 
so that neither light nor air worth mention 
is admitted into the interior of the site. 
This plan of nearly covering the ground, 
which has been followed by Mr. E. M. Barry, 
is, we think, most objectionable. 

3. Mr.Street'sdesignis an exceptiontoallthe 
others in more than one particular. In plan he 
confines himself to the ground which has 
already been set aside for the enlargement of 
the present building, whereas all the other 
competitors have made their designs for the 
new gallery on the assumption that the whole 
plot behind the frontage will be a\'ailable. 
So far, Mr. Street is at a considerable dis- 
advantage, and cannot be brought into com- 
parison with his co-competitors. The style in 
which he has worked out the problem to be 
solved will, of course, be called in general 
terms Gothic, but then it is Mr. Street's Gothic, 
and that, too, after visiting Spain, and this we 
submit makes aU the difference. For it would 
be monstrous to accept this design as any, 
even the faintest, index of what really might 
be done by our Gothic school of architects had 
they had the chance of designing a National 
Gallery. For the sake of Gothic art, and 
because of the hasty conclusions people are 
apt to draw from one man's work in a given 
style, especially when that man happens to be 
a well-known one, we cannot but be sorry 
that Mr. Street should have been tempted to 
send this design out of his office. The com- 
position is slight and not even picturesque. 
The front shows a long uninteresting straight 
building of two stories, divided on each side 
into five arched compartments, with a single 
doorway in the centre, supported on each side 
by circular, dome-covered turrets, andc^o\\^led 
by a circular, dome-covered tower. The whole 
design is singularly devoid of anytliing like 
dignity, and, tmtil Mr. Street has made him- 



self capable of grasping the idea of a large 
building— for grandeur and largeness of mass 
are by nomeans inconsistent with true Gothic 
principles— he must fail in his endeavours to 
persuade the public that his style is better 
a lapted to the large public buildings of the 
day than (say) that "adopted by Mr. E. M.Barry. 
4. Mr. Frederick CockerilT has disappointed 
us ; his perspectives are so dull and foggv in 
tone that they would have ruined a far bet- 
ter design. We cannot understand how it is 
that, with such- artistic refinement and such 
tender feeling for the highest development of 
(..'lassie art, this architect .shoidd be enticed 
Ijy any of the false allurements of the Re- 
naissance. 

.'). Mr. James Murray, in two of his designs, 
may be placed in comparison with Mr. Brodrick, 
and, although his perspectives are not quite 
such ett'ective drawings as those of the last- 
mentioned gentleman, we think a comparison 
of the architecture must result in only one 
opinion, and that entirely in favour of Mr. 
Murray. The composition of the elevation is 
very much the same as that in Mr. Brodrick's 
design, but there is far less monotony in 
No. 2, and much more of Greek feeling in the 
treatment of detail, although, strange to say, 
the number of piUars is exactly the same, ex- 
cept in the wings, which have five instead of 
six. In plan, Mr. ilurray is very much in 
advance of all the others. The buildings follow 
the shape of the ground; each of the four 
fronts has a central composition, and the back 
and front are united by a broad gallery, which 
consequently cuts the site in half, forming two 
large courts ; the main galleries run aU round 
the building behind the narrow gallery, in 
compartments for cabinet pictures. The sim- 
plicity of this plan and the thorough adoption 
of the system which the German mind has 
thought "out for us will, of course, commend 
it to the favourable consideration of the judges,^ 
and, if piUars and porticoes be the sort ^ of 
things to be desired in a country where driving 
rains, and fogs, and frost and .snow, and slush 
are but too common, why Mr. Mnrr.ay maj- be 
congratulated for having produced a design 
worthv of the English nation. 

6. Mr. E. M. Barry has evidently gone in to 
win, and, as a sure card with a Loudon public, 
has played oft' Sir C'hri.stopher Wren and that 
much over-rated building, St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral. His plan B, if we omit some of the inner 
galleries which crowd up the site, is much the 
same practically as Mr. Murray's. The central 
dividing block of building Mr. Barry treats 
as a grand staircase, which may also be used 
as a sculpture gallery. This is aU very well 
for the staircase, but we have a fancy — it may 
be only a fancy — that the works of sculptors 
deserve ju.st as good and special a reception 
as the works of painters. The set of draw- 
ings which illustrate this design are really 
worth looking at. Mr. Barry's perspective is 
unquestionably the drawing of the whole ex- 
hibition ; he has chosen, too, his point of 
sight well, for we doubt whether the angle 
domes and the one over the centre of the 
front would group so well from any other 
point. By the way, why will architects con- 
tinue that deplorable practice of drawing 
impossible interior perspectives, which not 
only distort the architecture, but mislead the 
public ! This question is suggested to us as 
we turn from the exterior to the interior views 
which Mr. Barry has exhibited ; the latter are 
as bad and ineffective as the former is good 
and eft'ective. 

7. Mr. Penrose has sent in a design, and we 
prefer to say no more about it. 

8. Sir. G. Somers Clarke has given two de- 
signs — one Venetian Classic Renaissance, 
which we may at once pass over ; the other, 
Italian Gothic — very much so indeed — which 
we regret he had not more time to develop 
into something more homogeneous and com- 
plete. Had the Renaissance design never been 
thought of.and Mr. Clarke had had a little more 
faith in his Gothic design, the extravagances 
of the latter might possibly have been avoided 
by the extra time which would have been se- 



18 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 11, 1867. 



cured for study. The plan adopted is much 
the same, generally speaking, as those of the 
more successful Classic designs. Its great 
feature is the central sculpture hall, admirably 
shown in a perspective, wliich only wants its 
top cut off to be a very true and pleasing 
drawing of a still more pleasing ilesign, which, 
though it does savour strongly of St. Mark's, 
Venice, is none the worse for it ; for, if archi- 
tects must needs borrow, they had better bor- 
row direct from the designs of such struc- 
tures as St. Mark's, than second-hand from 
even the best revivalist. 

9. Mr. M. Digby Wyatt sends no less than 
twenty-four drawings, illustrating a very ori- 
ginal and somewhat picturesque design, so 
original that it is a very great pity it was not 
illustrated by half the number of drawings, 
really well drawn, instead of by a huge, dirty- 
looking view, and a large number of other un- 
satisfactory sketches. The general composi- 
tion of tlie front consists of two triple-grouped 
masses of buildings at the angles over the en- 
trances, circular in plan and domed ; these are 
connected bj' a massive screen wall, in which 
are sunk seven quasi-apsidal recesses divided 
by single shafts. We need hardly point out 
that the great defect of such a design is the 
absence ot any central feature, and the depres- 
sion of the chief part of the facade by the 
emphasis given to the angles. These latter, 
too, although, jdanacd in a higlily picturesque 
way, are exceedingly ill-proportioned in their 
subdivisions and detail. And how Mr. Wyatt 
could have brought himself to set up colossal 
tombstones each side of his doorways, for the 
purpose of inscribing names thereon, is alto- 
gether beyond us. 

10. Messrs. Banks and Barry have sent in a 
careful set of drawings, but, as usual, their 
design, instead of looking like one for a great 
national monumental building, looks more 
like a row of "first class" houses, with here 
and there an extra story or so, which the most 
elastic conscience would scarcely dare to 
admit in the category of towers. The choice 
will no doubt eventually Lie between Messrs. 
E. M. Barry and Mr. James Murray, although 
the very great merit of parts of Mr. G. Somers 
Clarke's Gothic design, especially the great 
liall and the central arcade, is enough to show 
that there is no reason why a national picture 
gallery should not be designed upon CJothic 
principles. 

■* 

THE NEW LAW COURT.^' COM- 
PETITION. 

JUSTICE is said to be blind, and certainly 
so far as this competition is concerned 
cjJ'jjat seems to be her chief characteristic. 
who weJ^i^'^ selection of the twelve gentlemen 
architects tS.'''^"^^"'''' '° '-"^ '■'^'^ °^°'^' ^^ ^^^'^ proper 
more than once-'i?sign a palace of justice, we have 
cannot but still re{,e^'*^'' attention to it, and we 
Kaised upon such a Ic^d It as a huge blunder, 
very surprising if the s^mdation, it wiU not be 
not prove such a success as'-iPerst^wture should 
anticipated. Of course, archlthe commissioners 
who really can gauge, so to .sit-ects and those 
power of the present day will not Gveak, the art 
either by this competition or tha{<'J taken in 
National Gallery, so as to suppose thaE\ lor the 
one or the other, or Ijoth together, form aS either 
ful index of that power. We are not .^»|aith- 
ciently in the secret to state positively hoJiffi- 
many architects out of the dozen personall^w 
sought to be elected, or what amount of tout-V 
ing with portfolios filled with fancy designs 
took place. But of this we are quite sure, that 
without some such proceeding, some of the 
fortunate twelve would have remained in their 
original obscurity. When men to whose 
works we can point with pride are omitted 
from a national competition, and men who have 
no works to show are put in their place, there 
must be something wrong somewhere. How- 
ever, the mistake, or rather we should say, the 
injustice, has been committed, and we sup- 
pose that the English Government, true to its 
traditions, is far too indifferent on the sub- 



ject of art to attempt to rectify it. It may bo 
that, with a foresight for which we can scarcely 
give tliem credit, they have reserved certain 
architects whose qualificaticna are far higher 
than many of those selected to act as profes- 
sional advisers or assessors to the non-profes- 
sional committee who are to deliver judgment 
in this competition. 

Now with regard to the problem which the 
plans about to be exhibited pretend to solve 
we would offer a few preliminary remarks 
before entering upon the merits and demerits 
of the several designs. To begin with the site, 
it appears to u» to liave two great defects — first, 
a deficiency of 'area when compared with the 
requirements of the commissioners and with 
the amount of light necessary for the proper 
illumination of tlie internal courts ; and se- 
cond, an irregularity of the main line of front- 
age formed by the retention of Picket-street, 
which compels the architect either to abandon 
a portion of his already too small area or to 
break up the unity of his chief fajade. 

That interesting document familiar to com- 
peting architects by the term " Instructions" 
is generally the cause of much unpleasantness 
of feeling and not a little miscarriage of 
justice from being too reticent. The Courts 
of Justice "Instructions" err for e.xactly 
opposite reasons. Not only is the area of 
every room given, and the distribution of the 
various groups of rooms indicated, but the 
degrees of light and quiet are laid down with 
almost tyrannical precision, and in one case 
the exact point whence the light is to come is 
determined. How far the competitors have 
obeyed tliese regulations remains to be seen. 
As everyone, from the Lord Chancellor down 
to the taxing master's clerk, demands a full 
measure of riuiet and light for his private 
room, we shall either behold some marvels of 
planning or be amused by no end of lively 
objections arising from a sense of neglect on 
the part of the various officers of the law. 
As to the general scheme or plan, it does not 
require much penetration to foresee that the 
competitors will adopt one or other of the 
following systems, or a combination of two or 
more of them. First, there is the Central Hall 
scheme, which was shown in Mr. Abraham's 
preliminary design ; second, there is the 
Open Court plan ; third, there is the Street 
plan ; and, fourth, the Radiating plan. 

First, the Central Hall scheme depends 
very much on the size of the central hall and 
the use to which it is devoted for its success. 
If it is very large, and is used by the general 
public, it is clear that there cannot be suffi- 
cient space left upon the site for internal 
areas, whilst, at the same time, instead of 
concentrating the machinery of the law, the 
oi polloi will be collected together in a way 
which is evidently contrary to the spirit of 
the instructions. If, on the other hand, the 
central hall is limited to reasonable propor- 
tions, and is devoted only to the use of those 
who are actually engaged in the proceedings 
of the various courts, it may possibly be found 
to be the most satisfactory arrangement. 
Second, the Open Court plan commends 
itself to favourable consideration because of 
the limited nature of the site and the strong 
necessity of securing as much light and air as 
possible for the internal areas. 'This necessity, 
it seems to us, is the one great difficulty of the 
problem, for even without any central liall we 
very much doubt whether anyone will pro- 
duce a plan which fulfils what may reason- 
ably be considered as the necessary require- 
.ments of the " Instructions" as regards the 
It\ ery important desiderata of light and quiet, 
arci, must be remembered, however, that the 
inteihitect who ventures to sacrifice the grand 
hall ^_,-nal architectural efl'ect which a public 
law at, suggests to the practical working of the 
right i?hd the comfort of the workers, altliough 
considijjp so doing, wUl nevertheless stand at a 
drawin^^-rable disadvantage in the show of 
ecoiiony'j's, for, talk as we ^vill about 
knows ; y and all that sort of thing, everyone 
featherj'- well enough by this time that fine 
ks do make tine birds, and that pretty 



v\.i 



pictures do operate very considerably on those 
who adjudicate in these matters. The third 
or Street plan, if the streets are wide enough 
and the buildings not too high, may be made 
perhaps even more convenient than the Open 
Court plan ; but then the streets must have 
through ventilation at the ends by means of 
openings in the main facade, as at Somerset 
House. The only objection to this would be 
that wherever air was admitted sound could 
not be kept out. On the other hand, one 
great advantage of this system would be the 
very great ease with which the various de- 
partments of the law could be kept distinct 
and, so to speak, in separate houses — an advan- 
tage which might also belong to the Radiating 
scheme. The chief drawback to this last- 
mentioned plan would be, we fear, a very 
serious one, inasmuch as from the shape of 
the site there must necessarily arise odd 
corners and inconvenient triangles, with the 
consequent result of much waste of space. 

Whatever the general scheme may be, 
Picket-street is a crux common to all. We 
take it for granted that no one will be foolish 
enough to propose to give up any of the 
ground to the Strand, or have the daring to 
take in Picket-street. If we start, then, with 
these two very natiual assumptions, it is clear 
that there mijst be a break somewhere about 
the centre of the main fa9ade ; or, in other 
words, the Strand front cannot be continuous. 
The treatment of this difficulty will form one 
of the most interesting features in the compe- 
tition. The fact that this break in the site 
occurs at v about the middle of its greatest 
length (TOUft.), coupled with the consideration 
that the law is in the main divided into two 
great branches, viz.. Chancery and Common 
Law, may possibly have suggested to some a 
division of the composition into two or more 
groups of bmldiags ; or, in other words, to 
design a concentration of law courts rather 
than one large palace of justice. We rather 
hope this wiU prove to be the case, for it must 
be borne in mind that 700ft. against the 
Strand is a very ditt'erent kind of thing to 
"OUft. against the River Thames. Again, con- 
sidering that our only points of sight wUl be 
comparatively near — for it will only be the 
tops of the roofs and the tow^ers which will 
be seen beyond the surrounding streets — we 
want diversity and minuteness of parts, and 
careful — even delicate — detail, rather than a 
hugely massed facade with colossal parts and 
bold, obtrusive detail. The distant view will 
be bold enough, for there need be no fear of 
lack of towers if the competitors have only 
followed the suggestions of the officers of the 
Record department. We do, therefore, ear- 
nestly hope that we may have something to 
look at in the streets just a little bit more 
interesting than blocks of granite or even 
base moukUngs. For this reason we hope, too, 
that small perspectives of portions of the 
fronts may be found amongst the drawings, 
and that we shall not have merely to judge 
from impossible views taken at random from 
the other side of the water, or from balloons 
at various degrees of altitude. If we are to 
spend an enormous sum of money on 2,400ft. 
of street front, it is not too much to ex- 
pect a drawing or two showing some of this 
enormous frontage as it wUI really appear to 
the people who go to and fro. 



OUR HOSPITALS. 

THERE are nowadays certain fixed canons 
as to hospital construction bearing 
chiefly on the importance of securing the 
greatest possible comfort and relief as well 
as speedy cure to their suffering inmates, and 
we think it might be worth while to ascer- 
tain how far our London hospitals agree with 
these conditions. One most important point 
is that a hospital should be in as free and airy 
a situation as possible, and, therefore, many 
hold that all should be built in the open 
country. With regard to London .at least, 
this may at once he pronounced impracticable, 



January 11, 1S67. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



19 



for it is obviously impossible to convey aU cases 
of accident or disease a distance of several 
miles without, in some instances at least, in- 
ducing a fatal resiilt, and in all lessening the 
chance of ultimate recovery. Convenience of 
access must therefore be the first consideration, 
an airy situation coming after, though, theo- 
retically speaking, this should not be so. One 
illustration of the point just alluded to is 
King's College Hospital, which is built in al- 
most as bad a situation as could well be chosen, 
but, being surrounded by theabodes of squalid 
poverty, is in the best possible position for 
benefiting the poor wi-etches who constitute a 
large proportion of the number of those ad- 
mitted there. Site, however, has not so much to 
do with the strictly architectural portion of 
the subject as the arrangement and style of 
the building; yet that it may operate disadvan- 
tageously is seen in the case of Westminster 
Hospital, which being built in the Broad Sanc- 
tuary was adapted to the style of the surround- 
ing buildings by the employment of a variety 
of architecture, probably the very worst which 
could have been had recourse to, viz., the cas- 
tellated. Few of our readers may have ex- 
amined all of these abodes of misery, so that 
we may give a brief description of the princi- 
pal general hospitals of London. St. Bartho- 
lomew's, founded in 1123 by Eayhere, said to 
liave been the minstrel of King Henry I., being 
the oldest, the largest, and the wealthiest, first 
invites attention. It is, as many of our readers 
are aware, situated on one side of the old 
Smithfield market, and extends thence back- 
wards towards Aldersgate-street. The build- 
ings were originally quite detached from each 
other, and the patients were located in small 
houses, a few in each, so that the whole consti- 
tuted a little village or parish complete in every 
way. The present building was chiefly erected 
in 1730, but various additions have since been 
made to it, never, however, entirel}' departing 
from the original plan. The main part of the 
buildings consists of four detached pavilions, 
forming the four sides of a square, which last 
is planted with trees and traversed by walks. 
From a sanitary point of view, this style of 
erection is much superior to the other plan 
of conjoining the l)uildings at their angles 
so as to make the square perfectly en- 
closed, the free circulation of the air being 
greatly favoured by the former of these, and 
corresponclingly impeded by the latter. 

Guy's, again, which is situated in Southwark, 
has its principal entrance from St. Thomas- 
street. Here is a sort of court flanked right 
and left with buildings, chiefly occupied by 
those engaged in the management of the hos- 
pital, open towards the front, but shut in be- 
hind by the proper buildings of the hospital. 
These might be said to be arranged in the 
form of two hollow squares behind the open 
court fronting St. Thomas-street, the one being 
separated from the other by a vestibule. Be- 
hind — that is, farther away from St. Thomas- 
street — there area numberof buildings devoted 
to various purposes, and built more in accord- 
ance ^\-ith recent scientific principles than the 
bulk of the hospital, which was erected so far 
back as 1 724. The site of both these hospitals 
is bad, being surrounded with buildings on 
almost every side, and being situated in the 
centre of the city. St. Bartholomews, which 
is the largest hospital in London, contains 650 
beds, Guy's, which comes next, counting only 
575. 

St. George's, the London, University College, 
and Middlesex Hospitals are all bmlt on a 
somewhat similar plan. This consists of a 
frontage to the street, with two wings stretch- 
ing backwards from either extremity of the 
main building to a greater or less extent, and 
thus forming a partially enclosed courtyard, 
which is usually set apart as an airing groimd 
for patients, iliddlesex has, in addition to the 
two wings extending backward, two similar 
ones stretching forwards, so that it possesses a 
figure like the letter H, and forms two court- 
yards, one opening to the front, the other be- 
hind the main building. St. Mary's, at Pad- 
dington, consists of little more than an oblong 



building of simple outline, Charing Cross 
being of a somewhat similar figure. King's 
College Hospital, situated beliind Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, was commenced in 1839, but has 
never been completed ; as it stands, its shape 
is rather irregular. It consists essentially 
of a central building surrounding a square, 
and having at one end a wing, which, how- 
ever, is unfinished. Having roughly sketched 
the external appearances of our Loudon hos- 
pitals, we shall try to ascertain how far these 
are in accordance with the recognised c;inons. 
In the first place, it mxist be remembered that 
all such institutions originate in this country 
from private benevolence, and that conse- 
quently the means at the disposal of the pro- 
jectors may be inadequate for the construc- 
tion of a building perfect in all its details. 
Further, the price of land in London is so 
great that the extent necessary for the erec- 
tion of an hospital on thoroughly scientific 
principles may be unattainable. These con- 
siderations must to a certain extent restrain 
lis in our criticisms, as the poor will pro- 
bably be more benefited by makeshifts than 
by waiting tmtil a model erection can 
be obtained. As it is for the benefit of these 
classes that such asylums are instituted, the 
grand object must be the cure of disease as 
completely and speedily as possible. To 
this end, three great things are required — a 
sufficiency of pure air and water, and, as a 
corollary to the last, a proper and sufficient 
system of drainage. To secure plenty of pure 
air, a site open and exposed to healthy winds 
shoiild be selected, as far removed from 
marshes or stagnant water as possible ; the 
foundation should be on dry and firm soil, 
and should be well drained. Gravelly soil will 
consequently be better than a clayey bottom, 
but either is preferable to soft, oozy, marshy 
ground. One point of very great importance 
with regard to hygiene, but which unfortu- 
nately has not always been attended to, is, that 
the drains made to carry otf the sewage of the 
building should never he permitted to pass 
under any part of the structure itself. The 
reason for this is obvious, ^dz., that should at 
any time the drains become choked, they are 
much more easily reached in the one case than 
in the other, to say nothing of the gaseous 
emanations which may be constantly escaping 
into that portion of the building beneath 
which they pass. Most fiequently, however, the 
architect has not to select a site, but has rather 
to erect a building which will suit the space 
of ground assigned to it. Now there are cer- 
tain general rules with regard to this also. In 
the first place, we think that their exterior 
should be as plain as is consistent with the 
absence of ugliness, for it is difficult to say 
how much florid ornamentation and irregular 
surface inside and out may have to do with 
keepingup that epidemic erysipelas which some- 
times makes such fearful ravages among the 
inmates of our hospitals. So, also, the 
windows should be large and cheerful ; any- 
thing which has a tendency to obstruct 
light or air should be carefully guarded 
against. But with regard to the disposition 
of the buildings themselves, various plans 
may be adopted. When the space of ground 
is limited and it is important to obtain as 
many wards as possible, this being generally 
the case in London, an arrangement simi- 
lar to that of King's College Hospital, or, 
better still, of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
might be adopted. Some are of opinion that the 
shape of Middlesex Hospital i.s that best adapted 
for such erections, but this view is not gene- 
rally entertained. The great end is to have a 
free circulation of air round the wards, and 
this can never be had where the windows or 
ventilators open on courtyards. Complete 
isolation is also a good thing, as one wing or 
building can then be set apart for any in- 
fectious diseases which may make their appear- 
ance. 

In modem times two styles of hospital have 
been received with most favour. The one is 
known as the " corridor system," and may be 
aptly illustrated by the great military hospital 



at Netley ; the other is known as the "pavilion 
system," and is seen in tlie Herbert Hospital, 
at Woolwich, or, better still, in the great 
Lariboisicre Hospital, at Paris. 

By the corridor system it is intended to 
separate as much as possible the patients who 
are able to get up from those who are not, and 
to this end a wide corridor is made to extend 
from one end of the building to the other 
along one of its sides or fronts. In this the 
convalescents may sit or lounge during the 
day, whilst opening otf from the corridor and 
extending at right angles from it towards the 
opposite wall, are wards for those unable to 
move about, and for the accommodation of aU 
at night. By this scheme it was supposed 
that the air would be warmed iu the corridor 
before being admitted into the wards ; but the 
air will not only be warmed, it will also be 
contaminated and rendered less fit for respira- 
tion than when admitted directly from the 
external atmosphere. There can be no tho- 
rough veutOation except from side to side, 
and, as windows can only be placed on one 
side of the ward, and one side of the corridor, 
it is evident that the air must pass through 
one to reach the other. The better of the two 
without doubt is the "pavilion system," 
which was recommended as far back as 1788, 
but only acted upon in very recent times. 
The intention is that each pavilion shall be 
surrounded on every side ^«th air, except at 
the point where it joins a corridor which 
connects them all. This scheme in a sort 
of embryo condition may be seen in the fine 
Marine Hospital at Woolwich, but, better 
still, in the case of the Herbert Hospital 
there. In either case a central building ex- 
tends from one end of the hospital to the 
other ; from this at certain equal distances 
spring at right angles a given number of 
wings, varying of course with the space of 
ground covered. The central erection con- 
stitutes the connecting link between all the 
^vings, and in these wings are situated the 
wards. It may be accepted as one of the 
grand rules in hospital arcliitecture that none 
should rise above the ground to a greater 
height than two stories. Unfortunately, this 
cannot always be attended to for want of 
room and for want of funds, but supposing 
that it is, each jjavilion would thus contain 
two wards, the one above the other, each 
wholly isolated from the rest of the building 
the nroment its own door is shut. It wOI 
thus be seen that the corridor system agrees 
best with a long-extended frontage, whilst the 
pavilions will cover a greater area, but will 
present a mucli more compact appearance than 
the other, although the system is also appli- 
cable to a long and narrow site, as in the 
proposed erection for St. Thomas's Hospital. 

But by far the finest type of this kind 
of hospital is to be found in the Lariboisiere, 
at Paris. In fact, Paris far excels us in 
accommodation of this kind, but it must be re- 
membered they are there Government institu- 
tions, under the enlightened direction of a M. 
Husson. The hospital referred to is situated 
near the Northern Railway, close to the 
boulevard and in the ancient Closde St. Lazare. 
The building was begun in 1846, M. Gauthier 
being the architect; and was finished in 1854. 
The buildings, which are three stories high, 
alone cost 6,245,630f., the total cost of the 
hospital being 10,445,056f., and it is fitted up 
to contain 600 beds. It is composed of three 
pavilions on either side of a wide court 
planted with trees, the pavilions being ar- 
ranged in three parallel lines ■with their ends 
opposite and directed inwards, so that the 
whole, when completed by one long range of 
buildings behind and one in front devoted 
to the " service " of the institution constitutes 
a parallelogram. The separate pavilions are 
connected by a series of buUdings one stoiy 
high, which interv-ene between the inner ex- 
tremities of the pavilions. These are chiefly 
used as dining-rooms and libraries, whilst 
running all round the interior of the court- 
yard is a glazed gaUer}', which serves as 
a means of communication from one pavilion 



20 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 11, 1867. 



to another, and also as a promenade for the 
patients in wet weather. When the weather 
is fine the plots of ground which intervene 
between the different buildings, and which are 
carefidly laid out, serve as airing grounds. 
Each pavilion contains three wards of thirty- 
two beds each, but the number can easily 
be increased. 



USEFUL INFORMATION FOR ENGI- 
NEERS.* 

THERE is a certain class of books of which 
it is difticult to predict the nature of the 
reception they may meet with at the hands of 
the public, or at least of that portion of the 
public for whose benefit they are presumed to 
))e written. At the same time there is also a 
class of works concerning tlie success of the 
advent of which no one feels any doubt, per- 
haps not even the author. The volume ou 
our table belongs to this latter class, its reputa- 
tion having been established beforehand by 
that acqiured by its two predecessors, consti- 
tuting the first and second series of " Useful 
Information for Engineers." It consists, like 
them, of a collection of the subject matter of 
various papers and lectures read and delivered 
from time to time by the author before dif- 
ferent societies and institutes, and some of 
wliich have been jjiililished separately in the 
transactions and records of those bodies. The 
easy,practical style in which the work is written 
renders the contents, especially the lectures, 
exceedingly well adapted for fulfilling the ob- 
ject the author had in view, which, he remarks, 
was the moral and intellectual im[)rovement 
of the engineer and artisan. There are si.\ 
lectures altogether, the first four of which deal 
with general principles, and are calculated to 
be of great benefit to the student, apprentice, 
and younger memljers of the profession, in so 
much as broad rules are laid down for their 
guidance, and the means, and the means alone, 
by which a man can become eminent in after 
life are accurately and conscientiously defined. 
The remaining two, one upon "The Thickness 
of the Earth's Crust," and the other " On Iron 
and its Appliances," are, as their titles imply, 
more special in their character, and were both 
delivered to the members of the Literary and 
Philosophical Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
In the latter a valuable practical and theoreti- 
cal e.Kample is given in the drawings and de- 
scription of a wrought-iron tubular engine 
beam designed and consturcted by Mr. Fair- 
bairn for the purpose of replacing the cast-iron 
beam which by its failure occasioned the 
lamentable Hartley Colliery cacastrophe some 
years ago. The strength of the wrought-iron 
beam is investigated by the well-known formula 

W =: -~ and all information aftbrded likely 

to be of service to those engaged in designing 
similar structures. We cordially concur in the 
remark made by our author when investigating 
the strength of a crank ; he observes, " for 
ordinary purposes these calculations wiU be 
found practically safe, but iu all these con- 
structions I must confess that much depends 
upon the e.\perience and practical knowledge of 
the engineer, and that a keen eye to proportion 
and a sound judgment are frequently of much 
greater value than a whole volume of algebrai- 
cal formulre." 

The first three papers are abstracts of Mr. 
Fairbairn's report to the Board of Trade upon 
the machinery department of the Paris E.xlii- 
bition of 1855, and that of the International 
Exhibition of 1862, and contain a detailed 
description of nearly every machine possessing 
any especial features of novelty and interest. 
The papers on iron roofs contain some well- 

" " Useful luformation for Eugineers." Third series. 
.\a comprised m a series of lectures ou the applied sciences, 
and on other kindred eubjecta, together witli treatises on 
the comparative merits of the Paris and London Inter- 
national Exhibitions, on roofs, on the Atlantic cable, and 
on the effect of impact on girders. By William Fair- 
bairn, E5q.,C.E., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., &c.. correspond- 
ing member of the National Institute of France and the 
Bo.val Academy of Turin, Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honour &c. London : Longmans, Green, and Co. ISOS. 
ine right of translation is reserved. 



selected practical instances of the various 
forms on which roofs are constructed, in- 
cluding an elevation of the gigantic example 
of Mr. W. H. Barlow, intended to roof in the 
Midland Railway Station at St. Pancras-road, 
London. It surpasses iu span and other 
dimensions every structure of a similar nature 
in being 240ft. wide in the clear and BUOft. in 
length ; it will rise to a height of 125ft. about 
the level of the present roadway. In the first 
portion of the paper the question of the theo- 
retical determination of the strains upon the 
rafters and various liars of trussed roofs is 
entered into rather fully, liut not by any means 
more so than what the importance of the sub- 
ject demands. Roofs of this description, like 
all trussed structures, require a careful and 
detailed calcidation in order to arrive with any 
degree of accuracy at the correct proportions 
of the component parts. Since the whole of 
their economy consists in putting the metal 
just where it is wanted, and in no other place, 
it is evident that they cannot be designed, as 
some structures may, by " rule of thumb ; " 
while on the one hand, they allow of a far 
closer economical approximation of practice 
to theorj' than any other form, on the other, 
they require considerably more skill and scien- 
tific knowledge in order to obtain that desir- 
able result. Paper 5 is a brief history of the 
experiments undertaken by the author, at the 
request of the Atlantic Telegraph Company, 
upon the insulation and other properties of 
submarine telegraph cables. Tables are added 
giving the results obtained under dift'erent 
pressures and with difi'erent coatings. At the 
present time, when ocean telegraphy is upon its 
trial, these experiments are deserving all atten- 
tion from electricians and those interested in 
the subject, as a host of valuable information 
is contained in the records of them. Paper 6 
is of a similar character to the foregoing, and 
narrates the experiments which induced the 
company to select the cable now doing its 
silent duty at the bottom of the Atlantic. In 
paper 7, which together with a short appendi.x: 
concludes the volume, we have a record of 
experiments made by tlie author, at the 
request of the Board of Trade, to determine 
the ett'ect of impact, vibrator-y action, and long- 
continued changes of load on wrought-iron 
girders. The jiractical conclusions arrived at 
are, " that cast-iron bars or girders are not safe 
when subjected to a series of deflections due to 
one-half the load that would break them ; " 
but that they are perfectly secure in sus- 
taining a dead weight not exceeding one-third 
of the weight that would break them, and 
that these reiterated deflections appear to have 
no injurious ett'ect upon the metal from which 
the bars were cast. With respect to the dura- 
bility of wrought-iron girders and beams, we 
find that it is not safe to submit them to vio- 
lent disturbances when loaded to one-third of 
their breaking weight, but that they may be 
perfectly safely subjected to the same shocks 
with a load equal to one-quarter of their l)reak- 
ing weight. According to Mr. Fairbairn, a 
wrought-iron girder will last, under the latter 
conditions, 328 years, but under the former, 
only for the term of eight years. On this 
hypothesis, then, we may assiune that when 
our bridges last eight years, they will last un- 
til it is time to get new ones. Great and 
deserved as has been the success of the two first 
series of this work, we consider that the new 
comer will eclipse the fame they have acquired 
both at home and abroad. The name of the 
publishers is a guarantee for everything con- 
nected with that department. 



PEESERVATION OP WOOD IN DAMP 
AND WET SITUATIONS.* 

"VrO introductory apology for the theme of this 
JJl p.aper is judged necessary. A few plain 
statements will show that the subject is one of 
vast though unheeded importance. 

The annual drain which is exhausting our forests 
is startling when we remember the vast areas of 



• From the "Journal of the Franklin lostitute.' 
H. W. Lewis, University of Michigan. 



By 



our country utterly destitute of timber — when we 
learn, for instance, that upon the 55,000 square 
miies of Illinois, there grows not a single pine 
large enough from which to fashiun a board. 
Statistics showthatiu 1865, above 5,000,000,000ft. 
of lumber, 2,000,000,000 of shingles, and 
900,000,000 pieces of lach were sold in Chicago 
alone. Michigan and Wisconsin almost entirely 
supply that market. 6,000ft. of pine lumber per 
acre is an average yield. No formal calculation is 
necessary to show us that, with the present de- 
mand, a single generation will exhaust the supply 
those states can aftbrd. 

But the consumption increases in a rapid ratio. 
It has already raised the prices. Clear lumber 
sold for 18 dollars per thousand in 1855, for 2-1 
dollars per thousaud in 1860, and for 45 dollars 
per thousaud in 1805. And following close on 
Chicago, in this trade, are Albany and Pitts- 
burgh. 

Improvidence will soon, we fear, make us as de- 
pendent on foreign supplies of timber as is England, 
who has already granted numerous patents for 
processes promoting the durability of the lumber 
every enlightened nation must have. 

shall we employ those processes whose utility 
experience has demonstrated ? Self-interest re- 
turns but one answer. But in America raUway 
management, self-interest seems to be disregarded. 
WhUe the average life of English railway 
sleepers is fifteen years, that of American sleepers 
is only seven year.s. Allowing 2,112 sleepers per 
mile, at 50 cents each, 1,056 dollars per mile of 
American railroad decays every seven years. 
Thoroughly impregnate those sleepers with sul- 
phate of copper, at a cost of 5 cents each, and they 
would last twice as long. Thus would be effected a 
saving of 880 dollars per mile iu the seven years on 
sleepers alonfe. In the United States are 33,908'6 
miles of railroad. The whole saving on these 
lines would be 29,839,568 dollars, or upwards of 
4,262,795 dollars per annum. 

Again, English engineers deride American 
wooden railway bridges. Eight years is their 
average duration. Creosote them and they are 
good for double or treble th it time. For ordinary 
railroad purposes they cost 40 dollars per linear foot. 
The use of Bethell's process would effect a great 
saving on such a line as the Grand Trunk Railway, 
whose wooden bridges measure 9,355ft. upon tlie 
Montreal and Portland division alone. Further 
ilkistrations of the importance of preserving tim- 
ber from decay seem unnecessary. Let us pro- 
ceed to the discussion of this desirable object. 

In situations so free from moisture that we may 
practically call them dry, the durabiUty of timber 
is almost unlimited. The roof of Westminster 
Hall is more than 450 years old. In Stirling Castle 
are carvings in oak, well preserved, over 300 years 
of age. Scotch fir has been found in good condi- 
tion after a known use of 300 years, and the 
trusses of the roof of the BasiUca of St. Paul, 
Rome, were sound and good, after 1,000 years of 
service. After these well-attested examples of 
preservation, the further consideration of wood in 
this state seems unnecessary. 

Wood constantly wet in fresh water is quite as 
durable. Piles were dug from the foundations of 
old Savoy Palace, in a perfectly sound state, after 
having been down 650 years. The pdes of old 
London Bridge were found sound and perfect 
800 years after they were driven. 

While the acidity of bog-water retards decay, 
it seems to us that part of the preservative pro- 
perty attributed to the stagnant liquid should be 
ascribed to the salts of metals or alkaline earths 
held in solution, and deposited among the woody 
fibres. 

In the above .situations, the action of natural 
agents cannot be improved. But in certain other 
conditions, man must resort to preservative pro- 
cesses to secure permanence of structure. For 
convenience of discussion we have introduced the 
following classification : — 

1. When wood is damp we have to guard 
against dry rot. 

2. When wood is alternately wet and dry we 
have to guard against wet rot. 

3. When wood is constantly wet in sea-water 
we have to guard against teredo navalis and lim- 
noria terebrans. 

1. AVood in Damp Situations. — When un- 
seasoned wood is surrounded by de.ad air, it very 
rapidly decays, fine fungous gro\vth3 extending 
through everj' part. After the rot has begun, the 
mere contact of decayed and sound wood seems 
sufficient to ensure, by a catalytic action, its spread 
through the latter. This has probably led some i 
observers to their conclusions, that the accompany- } 



January 11, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



21 



ing parasitic plants, Merulius lachrymans (or L. 
vastator) ami Polyporus bydridus, cause the decay. 
But the highest authorities now regard these 
growths as accessory, and beginning only after a 
suitable habitat has been prepared for them. Thvis 
the fungus acts the part of a scavenger and con- 
verts corrupt matter into new forms of life. The 
presence in the timber of the fungi spores is easily 
explained. The researches of Pasteur show that 
atmospheric dust is filled with minute germs of 
various species of animals and plants, ready to 
develope as soon as they fall into a congenial 
locality. He concludes that all fermentation is 
caused by the germination of suck infinitesimal 
spores. That they elude observation, does not 
seem strange, when we consider that some infu- 
soria are only l-24000iu. in length. Admitting 
that they are only ten times the linear dimensions 
of their germs, the latter will be l-240000ia. 
long. But with the best microscopes we cannot 
perceive objects measuring less than l-80000in. 
These germs might find their way into the 
growing plant through both roots and leaves. 
The whole tree is thus filled with the seeds of 
decay, awaiting suitable conditions to spring into 
growing organisms. The prolonged vitality of 
spores, made necessary by this theory, cannot be a 
serious objection, when we remember the vigour 
of the " mummy wheat," and the unknown plants 
which start from the earth raised from deep exca- 
vations. Indeed, time, even when measured by 
centuries, seems hardly to affect the vitality of 
Tegetable germs. 

But what prepares timber for the germination 
of the fungi spores ? Probably fermentation of 
the juices and semisolids of the moi^t wood. For 
fermentation, five conditions are necessaiy, viz. : 
1. Presence of water. 2. Temperature from 40 
deg. to 110 deg. Fah. 3. Presence of a ferment. 
4. Presence of a fermentable body. 5. Exposure 
to the atmosphere. 

Three of these conditions almost always pre- 
vail. Very rarely, if ever, can we maintain the 
temperature of any timber construction below 40 
deg. Fah., or above 110 deg. Fah. Probably 
countless numbers of ferment spores are annually 
absorbed into the fluids of the smallest sapUng. 
Completely excluding any construction above 
earth and water, from the atmosphere, is practi- 
cally impossible. The two remaining conditions 
we can generally prevent. 

1. We can remove the water by thorough 
seasoning, and in damp situations we can practi- 
cally prevent its return by ventilation or resinous 
coatings. 

Examples of remarkable durability of wood have 
been cited. With equal care in selecting nnd 
preparing the lumber, modern constructions might 
last as long. But while the wood of those old 
edifices was drying through years of preparation, 
the timber of modern constructions is translated 
from the primitive forest into a painted and var- 
nished city dwelling in less than a single year's 
time. No wonder that in a very few decades, the 
whole structure is unsafe, and that an odour of 
decay makes the mouldering rooms untenable. 

Thorough ventilation is indispensable to the 
preservation of even well seasoned naked wood in 
damp localities. The rapid decomposition of sills, 
sleepers, and lower floors is not surprising where 
neither wall gratings nor ventilating flues carry off 
the moisture rising from the earth, or foul gases 
evolved in the decay of the surface mould. In the 
close air of cellars, and beneath buildings, the ex- 
periments of Pasteur detected the largest percent- 
age of fungi spores. Remove the earth to the 
foot of the foundation, and fill in the cavity with 
dry sand, plaster rubbish, &o., or lay down a thick 
stratum of cement to exclude the water, and pro- 
vide for a complete circulation of air, and lower 
floors will last nearly as long as upper ones. 

Various expedients have been resorted to, in 
order to hasten the seasoning process. Mr. P. W. 
Barlow's patent provided for exhausting the air 
from one end of the log, while one or more atmo- 
spheres press upon the other end. This artificial 
aerial circulation through the wood is prolonged 
at pleasure. However excellent in theory, this 
process is not practicable. By another method, 
the smoke and hot gases of a coal fire are con- 
veyed among the lumber, placed in a strong 
draught. Some writers recommend the removal 
of the bark one season before f elhng the tree. All 
good authorities agree that the cutting should take 
place in the winter season. 

An impervious covering upon undried timber is 
very detrimental, for by it all the elements of de- 
cay are retained and compelled to do their de- 
stroying work. The folly of oiling, painting, or 



charring the surface of unseasoned wood is there- 
fore evident. Owing to this blunder alone, it is 
no unusual thing to find the painted woodwork of 
older buildings completely rotted away, while the 
contiguous naked parts are perfectly sound. 

In concluding this part of the subject we may 
say, thoroughly season your lumber, afterwards 
covei it with varnish, paint, or pitch, or maintain 
around it a constant and thorough circulation of 
air. 

2. We can remove the fermentable body, or che- 
mically change its nature. 

Woody fibre consists chiefly of cellulose and lig- 
nine. The former is very durable, and the latter 
moulders away but slowly, when exposed to air and 
moisture. But permeating through these, and 
increasing from the heart to the alburnum, ai'c ni- 
trogenous substances of the sap and immature 
wood, mostly vegetable albumen. These are the 
fermentable bodies we desire to remove or change. 
A patented process has been proposed to wash out 
the albumen by water flowing in at one end of the 
log while a vacuum was produced at the other. 
Theoretically sstisfactory, this method does not 
seem to have been adopted. Boiling and steaming 
partly remove the ferment spores, but may not 
destroy the vitality of those remaining. For, ac- 
cording to Milve-Edwards, he has seen tardigrades 
resist the prolonged action of a temperature of 
248 deg. Fah., and has known them to survive a 
temperature of 2S4 deg. Fah. That low forms of 
vegetation are fully as tenacious of life cannot be 
doubted. 

Boiling and steaming also coagidate the albumen 
at 140 deg. Fah. Although coagulated albumen is 
insoluble in water, the water of solution is, by 
this heating process, sealed up in the wood, and 
the cohesion of the latter is said to be diminished. 
Albumen is also coagulated by sulphate of 
copper, pyrolignite of iron, chloride of mercury, 
chloride of zinc, &c. Some of the compounds 
thus formed are albuminates of the metal- 
lic oxides. Probably this is the reason why 
some of those salts are such excellent preserva- 
tives. But the researches of Kceuig show that, 
when blue vitriol is employed, a certain portion of 
basic sulphate of copper remains combined in the 
pores of the wood, so that water will not wash out. 
The most resinous woods retain the most of the 
basic salt. Impregnated woods also contained, he 
found, less nitrogen than natural. It is even 
possible, he states, to remove all the azotized com- 
pounds by long immersion in the sulphate solution. 
The albuminous substances first precipitated by 
the solution are redissolved by excess, as in case 
of concentrated sulphuric and muriatic acids. The 
operation of such solutions should, therefore, be 
cue of lixiviation. Koenig hopes similarly to ex- 
plain the action of the chlorides. A recent expe- 
riment on animal albumen, by Professor Prescott, 
shows that its precipitate by the chloride of mer- 
cury, is also soluble in excess of the chloride solu- 
tion. From this we may conclude that the anti- 
septic qiialities of the chlorides depend, at least 
partly, on their dissolving out the albumen. 

But could all the nitrogenous substances be re- 
moved, thereby preventing fermentation, the cellu- 
lose and lignineof unprotected wood would slowly 
decompose. Hence the salt used should act on 
those substances also. According to good authority, 
sulphate of copper has this action. M. Weltz 
maintains that, after a time, the sulphuric acid 
leaves the base, and, acting upon the timber, car- 
bonises it. He has seen the props in a mine, 
opened 1800 years ago, charred by the free acid 
thus eliminated and in a perfect state of preserva- 
tion, while their surfaces were covered with metallic 
copper in regulus. 

The use of corrosive sublimate was patented by 
Mr. Kyan in 1832; that of chloride of zinc by 
Burnett in 1838. M. Boucherie has >ised solutions 
of blue vitriol and pyrolignite of iron. Easy im- 
pregnation of the wood is the great merit of his 
method. 

Each process has in turn excited the most ex- 
travagant hopes, and neither has justified a tithe 
of the expectations formed. While " Kyanising," 
" Burnettising," or the use of any salt whatever, 
has not prevented the ravages of teredo navalis or 
limnoria.terebrans, each of the processes named 
improves the durability of wood exposed to damp- 
ness. Each is, therefore, worthy of explanation 
here. 

Kyan's specified solution was one pound of 
chloride of mercury to four gallons of water. 
Long immersion in the liquid in open vats, or 
great pressure upon both solution and wood, in 
large wrought-iron tanks, is necessary for the 
complete injection of the liquid. The durability 



of well-kyanised timber has been proved, but the 
expensiveness of the operation will long forbid its 
extensive adoption. 

For "Burnettising," a solution of chloride of 
zinc — one pound of salt to ten gallons of water — is 
forced into the wood under a pressure of 1501b. 
per square inch. 

Boucherie employs a solution of sulphate of 
copper one pound to water twelve and a half gal- 
lons, or jiyrolignite of iron one gallon to water six 
gallons. He encloses one end of the green stick 
in a close-fitting collar, to which is attached an 
impervious bag communicating through a flexible 
tube with an elevated reservoir containing thesjlt 
liquid. Hydrostatic pressure soon expels the sap 
at the opposite end of the log. When the solution 
makes its appearance also, the process is com- 
pleted. 

He finds the fluid will pass along the grain— a 
distance of 12ft. — under a lower pressure than is 
required to force it across the grain — three- 
fourths of an inch. The operation is performed 
upon gi'een timber with the greatest facility.* 



EXETER DIOCESAN ARCHITECTURAL 
SOCIETY. 

THE report of the committee of this society was 
read at the quarterly meeting, held recently 
at the College-hall, the Yen. Archdeacon of Exeter 
in the chair. The following are the principal 
passages of the report ; — At our last quarterly 
meeting your committee referred with pleasure to 
the great increase of real practical work in which 
they had been engaged, and which could be traced 
at once most readily to the then recently adopted 
resolution of the society. It is with like pleasure 
that they have now to state that a considerable 
number of plans and drawings have since that 
time been reported on ; and they think that in the 
future the real utility of the unanimously adopted 
resolution will be found most evident to all. It 
will be found that architects, as a rule, do not feel 
aggrieved because their designs are reported on — 
criticised if you like — by the committees of such 
societies as our own. They know that the reports 
of such committees will be taken only for what 
they are really worth. If they are fair criticisms, 
candid, outspoken reports, they will be duly 
weighed, and it may be will be acted upon. In 
either case no harm will be done, either to our 
common cause or to the ai'chitect. At the most 
it will only be another proof that even when all 
agree there are points wherein a difierence of 
opinion can well exist. Yea, architects who have 
a great love for their art, and withal a greater love 
for the church of which they are members, will 
not care much whether the one common object be 
attained by theu- own individual exertions, or by 
the helping hands of architectural committees ; 
will not care much whether they have to do the 
work unaided, or whether it be encouraged and 
promoted by the reports or the criticisms of non- 
professional opinion. Yea, more — architects, as a 
rule, know very well that they and your committeo 
are in the main united, that in all chief points they 
will most likely agree; that, instead of being an- 
tagonists, they are the best of friends. The first 
plan, in order of time, is one by Messrs. Gould and 
Son, for the restoration, enlargement, and reseat- 
ing of the very small, but in many points very 
interesting church of St. Thomas h, Becket, New- 
ton Tracey. It may be well to remark that New- 
ton Traoey and Bovey Tracey have both the samo 
dedication. The church at present consists of a 
well-developed chancel, nave, and with tower oi 
very early full pointed work. A great deal or 
mural painting is still to be found in the chancel ; 
drawings of this have been kindly promised to be 
forwarded by Mr. Gould for the society's portfolio. 
In the north wall were found two early arches of 
unequal span, which had been for a long period 
walled up. These evidently formed the arcade of 
a short north aisle ; portions of the foundation of 
the north wall have also been discovered. All the 
old features of the church will be carefully pre- 
served ; amongst which must' be placed the use of 
different coloured stones m the construction of the 
arches. Ham Hill stone is somewhat freely used 
in them ; and the employment of this material in 
such a locaUty as Newton Tracey proves how great 
must have been the zeal of these old builders, 
who must have met with many difficulties in sup- 
plying for this church a material on which they 
had Set their hearts. The next in order of time 
were plans by Mr. St. Aubyn for the partial resto- 

* To be continued. 



22 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 11, 1867. 



ration, rearrangement, and reseating the church of 
St Wenhear, near BoJmin, Then plans by Mr. 
Fenton, for the eularsing, rearranging, reseating, 
and restoring the church of St. Martin, Martinhoe. 
This church is another proof of the mistaken 
opinion, once ver\- prevalent, that all our Devon 
churches were of Third Pointed or Perpendicular 
work. There can be no doubt that a vast amount 
of church work was carried on in Devonshire 
durin<' the Third Pointed Period ; and the probable 
reason or cause of this great activity would well 
supply a very profitable subject of inquiry ; but 
there can be no doubt that whilst a great deal ot 
Third Pointed work is to be found everywhere, 
there is nevertheless to be found a very consider- 
able amount of very early work. It is no uncom- 
m jn thing to find Third Pointed windows taking 
the place of earlier ones, whilst the walls themselves 
hive remained untouched. The church at Martinhoe 
is wholly of First Pointed work. Old features will 
be preserved, the chancel will be lengthened, and 
the needed increased church room will be attained 
by the erection of a short west aisle. The plans 
bv Messrs. Gould and Son for a chapel of ease at 
Traveller's Rest, in the parish of Swimbridge, 
have also been laid before us. It will be remem- 
bered that the first design for this chapel of ease 
(not by the Messrs. Gould) was sent by the Arch- 
deacon of Barnstaple to your committee, that they 
might report thereon. A full report on these 
plans .was forwarded to the Archdeacon ; and there 
is but little doubt that one of the consequences of 
that report is to be seen in the very effective and 
striking design which is now to be carried out. 
No one who cares to compare the present design 
with the originally proposed one cau hesitate 
about at any rate one of the reports of your com- 
mittee having been of real service to the cause 
which we have in hand. Even without our report, 
it is not likely that the original plans y?ould have 
been carried into execution ; but without that 
report it is not likely that an entirely new design 
would have been thought necessary. Very rich, 
beautifully drawn, and most carefully prepared 
designs by Mr. E. S. Sedding, for the restoration 
of the chancel of St. Mary at Rewe, having also 
been reported on. This design, although expres- 
sive of the greatest care and thought, was freely 
criticised, and your committee think that it will 
be no betrayal of confidence if they add that that 
report of theirs has been acknowledged without 
any tokens of displeasure. The sixth was :i 
design of one of the members of our own com 
mittee, Mr. Ashworth, for restoring and cor- 
rectly fitting the chancel, and reseating with open 
benches the nave and north aisle of the church of 
St. Mary at Tedburn, This forms the third 
church in our present list which gives proof of 
the prevalence of First Pointed work in our 
churches. The chancel roof is probably First 
Pointed ; there are also two-light lancets on the 
south side and one on the north of the chancel. 
These are the following adjoining churches where 
the like features are to be found : — St. Mary, 
Cheriton Bishop ; St. Mary, Colebrook ; St. Bar- 
tholomew, Bovey or Nymet Tracey. And the 
lasta design by ilr. Street for a metal altar cross, a 
teredos, and an east wall enrichment for the church 
of St. Mary, Down. A work of restoration has 
for some time been in progress in the chapel of 
St. Saviour, the chantry of Bishop Odam in our 
cathedral. The cost of the restoration is borne 
by Corpus Christi, Oxford. The architect engaged 
is Mr. Hayward. But very few would hesitate 
about regarding the work done here as being in 
the main both a restoration in the proper mean- 
ing of the word and a needful restoration. There 
are some who have expressed doubt upon this 
point, and have lamented the loss of the old 
colouring on the sculptured figure of the Bishop. 
This supposed very valuable example of ancient 
figure colouring was indisputibly not ancient at 
all. And the coarse way in which the colour was 
laid on looked more like a figure whereon to clean 
out paint brushes than anything else. The 
coarsest paint had been daubed on ; the fingers 
were wholly obliterated ; and when this miserable 
substitute for medieval work was carefully re- 
moved, sufficient evidences of the original colour- 
ing in the main could be distinguished. Those 
tokens of ancient works have been carefully fol- 
lowed. Your committee do not appear here as 
defenders of Mr. Hayward — he is very well able 
t J Jo that liimself ; but they do desire to express 
their opinion that though there may have been 
(as there are) cases where true principles have 
been lost sight of in the work proposed, yet there 
are other cases where the fault-finding with the 
work done has ikewise been based, as it seems to 



your committee, upon a mistaken principle. To 
be conservative m matters connected with the 
works of other days is quite needful ; to have a 
great care and regard for aU the artistic features ot 
the works of other days is undoubtedly ever to be 
encouraged ; but to set a value upon the deed 
which mars the works of other days is surely 
" conservatism" run mad, when such a maxim is 
to be applied to the House of the living God. _ A 
ruin by all means touch it not, but a church is no 
ruin'- it may be venerated in age and feature but 
it ought to be youthful and lively too. If our 
churches are to "be mere museums for preser%ang 
the records of the past, if they are to be mere gal- 
leries of art, then indeed let nothing be touched 
that has once left the hands of the old master 
complete ; but, if a church be, as it is, God s 
House, if it is to tell of the present, as well as the 
past, then the true conservative spirit, whilst it 
preserves with care all the works of the artist 
craftsman, which cannot be touched without losing 
its value, will at the same time endeavour to pre- 
vent, if it may be, the least sign and token of 
decay, every evidence of waste, every symptom of 
neglect. 



THE SOCIETY OP ANTIQUARIES OF 
SCOTLAND. 

A SPECIAL meeting of this society was held 
last week, Sir James Y. Simpson, Bart., vice- 
president, in the chair. Professor George Ste- 
phens, of Copenhagen, author of "Old English 
Runic Monuments," described the Runic inscrip- 
tions on thirty-five monuments in Great Britain, 
from which it appeared they had been found on 
crosses, coffin-lids, brooches, rings, and caskets. 
Among the crosses, Mr. Stephens directed particu- 
lar attention to that at Ruthwell, in Annandale, 
which he regarded as the most sumptuous in orna- 
ment, and the most interesting, from its inscrip- 
tions, of any in the world ; and he implored the 
society to take some interest in the preservation of 
a monument so precious. Mr. Stephens explained 
that the first part of his work contained the 
old northern Runic inscriptions in Scandinavia, 
and that the second, which was now well ad- 
vanced, would contain all such inscriptions known 
in Britain, with careful and detailed drawings 
of the crosses, caskets, rings, and other objects on 
which the inscriptions were engraved. Some of 
the sheets of this part were exhibited, and excited 
general interest and admiration. Mr. Stuart 
trusted that Professor Stephens's interesting dis- 
course might make his great work better known 
among them, and that it would lead themselves to 
prize the venerable monuments still remaining in 
the land, on which Mr. Stephens had lavished so 
much zeal and learning. With regard to the cross 
at Ruthwell, he had recently been corresponding 
with the minister of the parish on the subject of 
its better preservation, and he trusted that ere 
long a suitable plan would be devised for this pur- 
pose. 

♦ 

METAL WORK. 

MESSRS. PEARD and JACKSON, 159, High 
Holborn, have issued a new and enlarged 
edition of their examples of metal work. The 
catalogue consists ol'several hundred illustrations 
of metal work " for ecclesiastical and domestic 
use, designed after the manner of mediaeval 
works.'* Most of the designs are by Mr. Peard. 
Some of them, however, were designed by Mr. 
A. W. Blomfield and Mr. John Goldie. Duo 
praise is awarded to Mr. W. G. Smith, the artist, 
who has drawn the examples on wood. We take 
the following, on iron, from the preface of the 
catalogue : — 

" By some persona who profess themselvea to 
be very learned in the peculiarities which should 
distinguish the consLructiou of works in iron, is 
the use of malleable cast iron rigorously pro- 
st^ribed. These gentlemen cannot have endea- 
voured candidly and honestly to comprehend its 
capabilities, and in not seeking to utilise a mate- 
riul which modern science has produced, do but 
resist an economic law of commerce. It has its 
legitimate application, and this there is no difficulty 
in defining. To adopt it for designs in which 
the chief characteristic of construction suggested 
to the mind would be welding, is manifestly an 
absurdity, because for all practical j>urposes it 
is incapable of this mode of manipulation; and 
as absurd would be its use for those purposes in 
which ordinary cast iron is equally available. It 
should bear the impress ot'its mode of production, 
.casting, and when used as the ornate parts of 



work constructed in frame of wrouzht iron, and 
secured thereto by means of rivets, screwed pins 
or bands— a quantity of each one or more parts 
being required — the manufacturer has at hand 
an exceedingly economical as well as durable 
and ductile material, capable of great variety in 
treatment, since it can with ease — after passing 
the annealing process — be hammered and va- 
riously shaped. 

"Too often are crude and egotislio notions 
set forth as to the manner in which wrought 
work should be done. It is taken for granted 
that because welding is a very natural mode of 
making junctions, &c., it was almost universally 
adopted in ancient work, and that any departure 
therefrom must be disallowed as ' not legiti- 
mate.' It is forgotten that riveting is a process 
only largely attainable with wrought iron, and 
therefore a natural process, though to solely or 
mainly rely thereon in mediaeval design is to 
descend, it may be, to ' metal joinery.' The 
introduction of rivets and bands will frequently 
produce pleasing variety in welded scroll and 
other work, providing they are made points 
in the design, while the proper tapering or 
diminishing of all the out-growths of scrolls 
furnishes the best evidence of hand labour 
having been bestowed on them ; frequently, 
however, ia the manufacturer restricted in de- 
veloping to its proper extent the latter, by the 
necessity laid on him to 'keep down cost." 
Complaints are sometimes made, not always 
without reason, that smiths will persist in filing 
their work, and obliterating the marks of the 
hammer : this will be rarely the case when a 
design is such aa can be fairly executed with a 
smith's ordinary tools ; but it is notoriously true 
that smiths are too often expected to forge that 
which neithar hammer, cutter, nor punch can by 
any possibility produce on the anvil; hence 
complaints are unfairly made on grounds and 
for reasons insufficiently understood. A deter- 
mined and careful 'stady of the processes em ployed 
by the best artificers of all times,' especially of 
our own, in which mechanical contrivances have 
been so largely augmented, would enable artists 
as well as manufacturers to avoid prejudice, cor- 
rect errors, and attain success." 



r 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL. 

the Department of Eure-et-Loire, at Bazo- 

ches-les-Hautes, not far from an old Roman road 

which still bears the name of " Route de C^sar," ^ 
and about half-way between Chartres and Orleans,' 
there is the farm called the Fauconifere, which has 
been in the possession of the same family of 
farmers, of the name of Neveu, for the last three 
centuries. On the adjoining ground a consider- 
able n'lmber of Roman and Gallic antiquities have 
been picked up from time to time, and the foun- 
dations of buildings, together with quantities of 
coins and medals of Nero, Faustina, the Anto- 
nines, and the Constantines, confirm the opinion 
that a Roman camp formerly existed there. _ The 
late M. Neveu had formed a tolerable collection of 
such antiquities, but was not suflieieutly read in 
archajology to enable him to classify them. His 
son, now residing at JanvUle, has, however, made 
himself thoroughly master of the subject, and is 
not only an experienced farmer, but also a learned 
archteologist. Having taken great pains to classify 
and increase his father's collection, he has at length 
succeeded in forming a very valuable museum, 
which excites the admiration of visitors. Among 
the curiosities he possesses there are a Roman 
steelyard, two Roman chandeliers of bronze dis- 
covered at a depth of 13 metres, a Roman hatchet, 
two flint ones, three bronze keys, four u-on ones, a 
bronze Mercury in perfect preservation, &c., and, 
above all, seventy Gallic medals, including three 
gold and three silver ones ; the rest are bronze. 
These medals, which are in excellent condition 
comprise about fifty difl'erent types, five of which 
seem to be quite new to archaeologists. One of the 
gold ones is among the latter. Besides these Gal- 
Uo medals M. Neveu possesses forty Roman ones 
of a small size (sixteen of which are silver), and 
fifty of a much larger type and all of bronze. 
Lastly, his museum contains two gold pieces, one 
of Charles VII. and the other of the Black 
Prince. 



Since the process of photographing upon silk 
and linen has been perfected in France, many per- 
sons have their portraits upon their linen inste.ad 
of their names or initials. Washing, it is said, 
does not injure the portraits. 



Janltaky 11, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



23 



EARTH CLOSETS. 

THE followiug observations have bueu commu- 
nicated to the Sanitary Committee of Norwich. 
If earth closets are applicable to that city wo see 
no reason why they may not be applied else- 
where : — 

To the Sanitary Committee. 

Gkntlemex, — As 1 imderstand that tlie Board 
of Health, at their meeting held on Tuesday, the 
18th inst., referred to the consideration of your 
committee the question of the applicability ol the 
dry earth system for the purposes of deodorisation, 
and the feasibiUty of the substitution of that sys- 
tem for the proposed enormous expenditure in 
irrigation and the extension of the city sewerage, 
I take the liberty of asking your attention to the 
following considerations : — 

EVILS OF THE THESEST SYSTEM. 

The best method of removing from large towns 
the excrementitious matter, sink washings, semi- 
liquid and other refuse from slaughter-houses, 
stables, factories, &c., is one of the most perplexing 
q\iestions of the day. 

Cesspools and common privies are acknowledged 
to be simple abominations. 

About fifty years since waterclosets were intro- 
duced, and a system of di-ainage was organised 
which seemed to solve the vexed question. How- 
ever, a.s the contents of hundreds and then thou- 
sands of these waterclosets, with sink washings, 
factory wastes, and other offensive matters, were 
indiscriminately conducted to the sewers, we now 
discover that in practically carrying out this system 
two gigantic evils are created. 

Yirst — The drainage which is necessary in every 
town to carry away the rainfall and other inoft'en- 
sive liquids is converted from a sanitary blessing 
to a service for conveying noxious and pestilential 
gases into all our thoroughfares, yards, and houses, 
producing disease, fever, and death. 

Second — It pollutes the river into which it dis- 
charges. 

The first evil. — This, thoretically, can be ob- 
viated by trapping, but we know thlsas practically 
impossible in the extensive ramifications of highly 
charged pestilential gas drains. 

The second evil. — This can be preventedby divert- 
ing it from the river and deodorising it by irriga- 
tion over land — a plan which appears to be 
most in favour with engineers, but it cannot be 
done without enormous expenditure, and with very 
questionable results. 

THE DRY E.iRTB PROCESS. 

A conference has been held at Leamington, which 
was attended by deputations from the governing 
bodies of Manchester, Glasgow, Oxford, Maccles- 
held, High Wycomb, and other places. Other 
towns were also represented by their engineers and 
other officials — in all about 300 gentleman. The 
report in the Building News * divides the papers 
read into three classes — first, those advocating 
the "rlry earth" system: second, those in favour 
of irrigation ; and lastly, those which had special 
schemes for converting sewage into manure easily 
transportable. The decision appears to have been 
decidedly in favour of the dry earth. 

On ruefully reading the report, the iby earth 
.system appeai-ed to me to be well worth further 
investigation. I therefore procured " National 
Health and AVcalth," and other papers upon the 
subject, and also '• Liebig's Natural Laws of 
Husbandry," and from a common sense point of 
view, it seemed to me that we must look to earth 
and not to water for the solution of the difficulty. 

Mix water with excrementitious matter, and it 
causes fermentation and the production of noxious 
gases. Its influence decays wood, stone, iron, &c., 
and it is enormously expensive. 

(Jet the next most abundant composition of 
nature, earth ; dry it (not wet it) and on appUca- 
tiuu it perfectly deodorises the most ofiTensive 
matter, and makes it a rich manure for the 
growth of our grain, and it preserves what water 
destroys. 

CAN' THE DRY EARTH PROCESS BE APPLIED TO 
NORWICH ? 

If the earth system can be carried out in Norwich, 
it will be needless to expend £60,000, or it may 
be £100,000, upon a system of sewerage. The 
annual expense of pumping the millions of gal- 
lons of sewage and annual expense of main- 

• The overwhelming weight of opinion at the meeting 
was in favour of dry earth, but a ditferent opinion was ex- 
pressed as to its applicability to large town=. 



tenance will be saved, and the risk of failure 
avoided. 

An injunction from the Court of Chancery will 
not be required to prevent our authorities pollut- 
ing the river ; and an injunction from the Court 
of Chancery will not be required to prevent our 
authorities polluting the atmosphere. One inj unc- 
tion is as reasonable as the other, for be it re- 
membered pestilential gas is always being gene- 
rated in our sewers and drains, is forcing its way 
out, not only in the close imhealthy November, 
but every day in the year, through thousands 
of apertures in our streets, passages, yards, and 
ho\i8es. But our rivers are not pestilential (ex- 
cept for drinking purposes) only on a few hot 
days in a very dry summer. 

The <iuestion which the (Government appears to 
have really gone into is " The best means of pre- 
venting the pollution of rivers," not '■ The serious 
evil of the pollution of the sewers," but the latter 
is a question whith must soon follow. The irriga- 
tion system only deals with the former, and its 
success appears to be imcertaiu. 

HOW DRY EARTH MAY BE USED WITH PROFIT. 

Upon the foregoing considerations the question 
arises— Can the earth principle be can'iedout with 
health, comfort, and cleanliness in Norwich ?— 
With proper and systematic arrangements ii seems 
to me that it can, and I have made the following 
cidculations based upon the recommendations of 
I)r. Hawkesley, and the special convenience of the 
city. 

Norwich, according to the census tables of 1861, 
contained 17,112 inhabited houses, with 7-1,801 in- 
habitants (on the average i)^ persons to each 
house). 

Divide Norwich into twelve districts, each 
having a depot for the earth, horses, &c., in con- 
venient positions to attend the houses, &,c., allotted 
to it ; each district to comprise on the average 
1,400 houses or 2,000 closets. These districts 
must be divided into two classes, according to the 
nature of the locality, viz. : — 

1st Class. — Houses with closets— one-third re- 
quiring removal every day, one-third every 
two days, and one-third every three days ; 
say four districts. 

2nd Class. — Houses with closets downstairs, 
which can be constructed to contain a fort- 
night's accumulation ; say eight districts. 

Each depot of the first class districts would 
employ five vans, ten horses, ten men. Each van 
would convey 200 clean paUs and 181b. of earth, 
and would remove from each area, yard, or door, 
the used pails placed there over night, or when 
called for between six and nine o'clock a.m. each 
day, second day, or third day. Each van when it 
left the depot would convey 200 pails, weighing 
9 cwt. and 3,tj001b. of earth, representing a total of 
2 tons 1 cwt. The additional weight on its return 
to the depot wo\dd be 16 cwt. 1021b. 

Each depi')t of the second class would distribute 
llj tons of dry earth, remove 17 tons of manure, 
and procure 3.^ tons of fresh earth per day. 

The annual cost of collection and management 
for each first class district would be £834, for 
second class districts £542, in the aggregate. The 
four first class districts and the eight second class 
districts, with cost of the earth required, would 
incur an expenditure of £8,438, and the sale of the 
manure to be disposed of at 20s. per ton or 6s. an 
individual, amounts to £22,986, being an annual 
profit of £14,548. 

It should be particularly observed that I have 
only valued the manure at 6s. per individual per 
annvim. Br. Hawkesley's lowest estimate is 14s., 
and Mr. Moide gives a much higher value ; and 
Norwich being in the centre of a rich agricultural 
district, with railway and water carriage, the maxi- 
mum value will be eventually obtained, and the 
manure being in a solid and inoffensive form its 
transit is convenient. 

As to the first outlay, I calculate that it will only 
be about £4,600, invested in horses, vans, pails, 
and drying kUns. 

As to the treatment of the other refuse from 
towns, I quote the following from the report of 
" the Royal Commissioners for inquu-y into the 
best means of remedying the pollution of rivers," 
whose pubhc inquhries in the North closed last 
week : " Sewage, beyond all question or doubt, 
may be applied to irrigate land, or the earth closet 
may be introduced so as to prevent stream and 
river fouUng. SoUds of all sorts and kinds from 
manufactories atfd dyehouses may be intercepted, 
and in some instances, much of the colouring 
matter which is mechanically suspended in the 
water may be filtered out before wa.sting this 



pollution into the stream. Absolute purity of 
the w.ater will be impossible and need not be 
looked for.'' 

As a further proof of the recognition of the value 
of the dry earth system amongst scientific men, 
1 may add that an international conference on 
cholera has recently been held at Constantinople, 
when the conference decided, amongst other things, 
in favour of the universal abolition of all sewers, 
and the a<loption of earth closets. 

(il'AyTlTV OF EARTH REQUIRED. 

The main difficulty whic'u many people raise is 
the vast .amovmt of earth that seems to be re- 
quired. I quote Mr. Moule's words : " For the 
removal of excrciiicntitious matter alone, .an aver- 
age of 41b. a day for one person will be suffi- 
cient. This would be 1 cwt. a fortnight, or for a 
family of five pei-sons 2.|i cwt. a fortnight, or 1 ton 
for sixteen weeks, or 3| tons a year. What family 
thinks of the trouble of taking in so much coal 
every year '; The removal need not be more fre- 
quent, nor would it require much more labour. 
But then this labour would not devolve on the 
family itself." 

The following is an extract from a letter in the 
Times, signed Oeorge Faithorn, medical officer of 
the Chesham District of the Amersham Union : — 
" I inspected the earth sheds, and saw the process 
in every stage. I put my nostrils into close contact 
with soil which had been taken from the closets 
this morning, .and I took up some which had been 
out no more than a fortnight without soiling my 
hands, and, lastly, 1 have come away with a small 
parcel of the dried soil in my pocket, having during 
the whole investigation met with nothing in the 
smallest degree disagreeable." 

COST TO OCCUPIERS. 

The cost to each occupier or owner to alter his 
existing seat and riser, and adapt it to the earth 
closet will be about £2 per closet ; but this ex- 
pense will be repaid back in four years by the 
saving of water rate of 10s. per annum, in addition 
to which there wovdd be the important saving of 
the extra rating which the irrigating .system 
would necessitate. And those whose waterclosets 
and privies are not attached to the sewers, but 
who wUl be compelled to use the new sewers, will 
-save at least half that cost by the use of the earth 
closet. 

I will close these remarks by stating that I have 
no interest in either scheme, directly or indirectly, 
except as a ratepayer, wishing health, wealth, and 
prosperity to my native city. 

I .am, Gentlemen, yours obediently, 

Edward Boardm,in, 
Architect and Surveyor. 

Queen-street, Norwich, December 19, 1866. 



MONUMENT TO PRESIDENT LINCOLN. 

IN our last number, under the head " Statues, 
Memorials, &c.," we gave a short notice of 
a proposed monument to the late Tresident Lin- 
coln, the model of which was designed by Harriet 
Hosmer, who sent it from Italy. The sculptor, in 
a letter to the Tresident of the Freedman's Monu- 
ment Association, writes :— " In designing a 
monument to record the life and services of Abra- 
ham Lincoln, I have endeavoured to express the 
idea that the Temple of Fame which we rear to 
his memory is based upon the two great acts 
of his .administration, viz., the emancipation of 
the sliive and the preservation of the American 
Union. Commencing, however, with his earlier 
history, I have represented other scenes of the 
President's life in the four bas-reliefs which sur- 
round the lower base. In the first, his birth, his 
journey through the woods to his new home 
in Indiana, and his occupations .as builder of log 
cabins, rail-spUtter, flat-boatman, and farmer; in 
the second, as stump-speaker, as member of the 
legislature, as bidtiing farewell to his constituents 
and friends .at Sprmgfield, and as taking the oath 
of office as President of the United States at 
Washington ; in the third, four memorable events 
of the war — the bombardment of Sumter, the 
capture of Jlobile and of Petersburg, and the sur- 
render of Lee at Appomattox; and the fourth, the 
ass.assination, the funeral procession, and the final 
interment at Springfield. Upon the cu-cular 
columns which enclose these bas-reUefs, and 
crowning the first base of the temple, are placed 
four statues, representing the condition of the 
negro as it actually existed at difi'erent periods of 
the President's four years of office— first, as ex- 



[SUPPLEMENT.] 



24 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 11, 1867. 



posed in chains for sale ; second, upon the planta- 
tion ; third, as giiide and assistant to our troops ; 
and fourth, ag a soldier and a freeman. Above 
these columns rises an octagonal base, four sides of 
which contain the inscriptions ; — 

"Abraham Lincoln; 

" Martyr-President of the United States ; 

" Emancipator of Four JliUious of Men ; 

" Preserver of the American Union. 

" Upon this rests a circular base, forming the 
immediate base of the temple, upon which i-^ 
represented a bas-relief composed of thirty-six 
female figures, hand in hand, symbolical of the 
union of the thirty-six States. Upon this rise 
the four columns of the temple, supporting a cor- 
nice, upon which are inscribed the concluding 
words of the Emancipation Proclamation : — 
'And upon this, sincerely believed to be an act of 
jxistice, I invoke the considerate judgment of man- 
kind and the gracious favour of Almighty God.' 

''Within the temple a statue of the dead Presi- 
lent rests upon a sarcophagus, and the four 
mourning Victories, with trumpets reversed, 
which guard and surround the whole, record 
the sorrow of the nation, stricken down at the mo- 
ment of proclaiming its triumphs. 

" It is needless to say that in so small a space 
but little study could be given to details. Should 
opportunity be afforded me of completing the 
design uptm a larger scale many improvements 
and accessories would be introduced ; for in- 
stance, the historical bas-reliefs woitld contain 
careful portraits of individuals and places ; in the 
circular bas-reliefs the characteristics of each 
separate State would be preserved, and the shields 
affixed as architectural ornaments would bear their 
appropriate coats of arms. The object thus far 
in my design has been merely to convey to you an 
idea of its general effect, and of the manner in 
which I should propose to illustrate the history of 
the great man whose life was so rich in events 
that it only remains for the artist to give pro- 
minence to its most brilliant passages." 



HONOLULU CATHEDRAL, HAWAII. 

THE proposed new cathedral at Honolulu, the 
capital of the Hawaiin Islands, is to be 
erected as a memorial to the late King Kame- 
hama, and, for the purpose of raising the neces- 
sary funds for this object his widowed queen 
visited this country. He had taken very great in- 
terest in the growth of religion in his country, 
and to his exertions are due in a great measure 
the foundation of the See of Honolulu. The 
bishop was consecrated by the late Archbishop of 
Canterbury in December, 18ijl. 

The plan of the church consists of a nave six 
bays in length and •24£t. wide, with north and 
south aisles, each lift. 6in. in width ; north and 
south transepts, Sift, wide ; and choir, with a five- 
sided apse with processional path continued roundit. 
The length of the choir, from the first step to the 
outside of the apse columns, is 45ft. The tower 
stands in the angle between the north iransept 
and the north choir aisle, and the octagonal 
baptistery is placed in a corresponding situation on 
the south side. There are two rows of six stalls 
each on each side of the choir, the dean and pre- 
centor's stalls being respectively at the western- 
most ends of the south and north upper stalls, 
and the chancellor's and treasurer's stalls at the 
eastern ends of the same rows of stalls. The 
bishop's throne is on the south side, eastward of the 
stalls^ (omitted on the accompanying plan by an 
oversight). The altar is raised seven steps above 
the nave level, and will have over it a lofty bal- 
daguin of metal work. A low iron screen divides 
the choir and nave, and it is also intended to place 
metal grilles in all the arches of the choir and apse, 
withgates opening into the processional path. Thu 
pulpit will be erected against the northeastern 
pillar of the crossing, and the nave and transepts 
will be devoted to the congregation, using the 
aisles as passages. The font will stand at the 
western end of the nave, and in the centre of it. 

It has been sought to convey the cathedral idea 
more by the general plan and arrangement of the 
building than by grandeur and magnitude of 
design, for to such a comparatively small place 
as Honolulu the EngUsh type would not be ap- 
propriate, even had it been possible, through the 
amount of funds available, to have contemplated a 
building on that scale. With regard to the build- 
ing materials, there were only two courses to be 
adopted — either to send out the mason'swork from 
England, or to build the whole of rough stone 



plastered inside and outside. It has been resolved 
to adopt the former course, and the columns, arch- 
mouldings, strings, cornices, windows, doors, &c., 
will therefore be sent out. The whole of the is- 
land is volcanic, and there is no freestone of any 
kind. For ordinary walling, black basalt and reef- 
stone (cut from the reefs by the native prisoners) 
is used, quarried to any size, and 8iu. thick. The 
natives thoroughly understand and do this sort of 
work well, but skilled mason's labour is very ex- 
pensive, abouttiveor six dollars a day being asked. 
Bricks, if used, have to be brought from Cali- 
fornia ; the lime is good and cheap, and there is 
plenty of good Oregon timber at reasonable rates, 
and also American pine. Shingles are used for roof 
coverings. 

The portion of the cathedral which it is now in 
contemplation to erect is the choir and proces- 
sional path, and the tower. The choir is of three 
bays in length, with an apse^of five arches ; the 
columns are cylindrical, with sculptured capitals ; 
the archmouldings are in two orders. The clere- 
story has in each bay two lancet windows (ex- 
cept in the apse, where there is one window in 
each bay), with moulded internal arches, resting 
on shafts with carved capitals ; on a line with the 
springing of these windows rise the arched prin- 
cipals of the roof, resting on wall shafts, which 
are continued down to the caps of the arcade. 
Under the clerestory runs a string of ornamental 
terra-cotta, and of this material will be the labels 
of the arches. The aisle windows arc coupled and 
have arch-mouldings and shafts inside and out- 
side ; they will have movable glazed sashes and 
wooden inside Venetian blinds. The tower is 
divided into four stages in its height, and has a 
circular stair turret on its east face. The west, 
north, and east sides of the second stage have a 
series of rich sculptured niches, with figures, the 
principal ones being — our Lord, the first Bishop of 
Honolulu, and the late King. The third stage is 
plain, and the fourth or belfry stage has on each 
side a deeply-recessed and moulded two-light 
traceried window. A timber and shingle spii-e 
will eventually be added to the tower. 
The nave .and transepts will correspond in their 
general design with the choir. The four arches of 
the crossing are of lofty and massive proportions, 
and the walls above them, under the arched prin- 
cipals of the roofs are pierced with three open arches, 
resting on slender shafts. Over the crossing will 
be a rich fieche of timber and lead, surmounted 
by a figure of St. Michael. It is proposed to use 
Doulting stone for the masonry, together with 
Ketton and Bath stone for the ashlar internal 
lining. The external w.alls will be of basalt laid in 
regular courses, and not plastered. Terra-cotta 
wiU also be used for strings, plinths, &o. The tile 
flooring and all fittings will be sent out from Eng- 
land. The font, a gift of Lady Franklin, has al- 
ready arrived at Honolulu. Separate funds are 
also being raised for the bells and stained glass. 

The completion of the whole building is of course 
a matter of time, and depends on the raising of 
the requisite funds, but it is hoped that the actual 
erection of the choir will be begun at once, the 
plans for the foundations h.aviug been already sent 
out to the bishop by the architects to the cathedral, 
Mr. W. Slater and Mr. R. Herbert Carpenter. 
We intend giving a view of the interior of the 
cathedral in a future number of the Building Nf;ws. 



DESTRUCTION BY FIRE OF CROYDON 
CHURCH. 

WE re.gret to have to state that the fine old 
]iarish church of St. John the Baptist, 
at Croydon, was on Saturday night almost totally 
destroyed by fire. The sacred edifice is situated 
in the lower portion of the town, at the end of 
Church-street, near to the old palace of the Arch- 
bishops of Canterbury, and was of great antiquity. 
It has always been regarded as one of the finest 
examples of ecclesiastic architecture in Surrey. 
The greater part of the fabric was erected in the 
beginning of the fifteenth century, but there are 
in and about it remains of work of an earlier date. 
It consisted of a massive square tower and belfry, 
with a nave, two ai.sles, and chancel ; and a clock 
with chimes had proclaimed the flight of time for 
generations to the whole neighbourhood. The 
architecture was in the Perpendicular style of the 
fifteenth century. About seven years ago the 
whole interior of the church was re-fitted with 
oak, finely carved, under the supervision of Mr. 
George Gilbert Scott. The fire broke out in 
a part of the tower communicating with the roof, 
and is supposed to have been caused by the over- 
heating of a flue used in warming the fabric. 



The roof of the side aisles was of old oak, as dry 
as tinder, and that of the nave of pitch pine, var- 
nished, and when once materials so inflammable 
caught fire they burnt with inconceivable rapidity, 
fanned as the flames were by a strong wind. The 
fire was discovered about half-past ten on Satur- 
day evening, and burnt, with more or less fury, 
during the whole succeeding night. On the fall of 
the roof in blazing masses the fire was communi- 
cated to the interior woodwork, and eventually 
the destruction was complete. Of the fabric 
itself nothing now remains except the tower, 
which, however, has been completely gutted, and 
the outside walls, some of which are in so dan- 
gerous a state that they may topple over at any 
moment. Fortunately, the registers, dating from 
1533 down to the present time, were saved, with 
the Communion plate and an ancient lectern, 
much prized. But, imfortunately, the organ, 
built by Avery in 1794, with subsequent improve- 
ments by Messrs. Hill, and one of the finest 
instruments of the kind, has been completely de- 
stroyed. It was blown by hydraulic pressure. 
The chancel, or, rather, the ch.antries, contained 
monuments of no less than six archbishops, 
all more or less magnificent, viz., of Archbishop 
Grind.all, who died in 1583; Archbishop Whitgift, 
who died in 1603; Archbishop Sheldon, 1677; 
Archbishop Wake, 1 736 ; Archbishop Potter, 
1747; and Archbishop Herring, 1774. 'The figures 
were mostly recumbent, and executed in marble 
and partly in alabaster, the monument of Arch- 
bishop Sheldon in particular, which has been sadly 
defaced by the fire, being considered one of the 
most perfect pieces of sculpture in the country. The 
whole of the fine peal of bells, except one, has 
been destroyed, and the hands of the clock in the 
belfry, pointing to a quarter to twelve, show the 
precise time when its mechanism was arrested by 
the conflagration. Mr. George Gilbert Scott, the 
architect, p.aid a visit to the ruins on Monday, and 
is understood to have expressed an opinion that 
the tower, which was erected in the time of Arch- 
bishop Chicheley, towards the end of the four- 
teenth or early in the fifteenth century, is capable 
of being restored, all or most of the exterior walls 
having been preserved. The fabric was insured 
to the amount of £10,800. 



MODEL LODGING-HOUSES, ST. ANNE'S, 
SOHO. 

ONE of our lithographic sh eets contains an ele- 
vation and plans of model lodging-houses 
recently erected in St. Anne's, Soho. The dwell- 
ings were built for L. M. liapi, Esq., from designs 
by Jlr. Burges, of Buckingham-street, at a cost of 
£2,900. They consist of a school-room, shop, and 
kitchen, with scullery and cellar under, eight rooms 
let at 3s. each per week, one set of two rooms at 
6s. per week on the first floor ; four sets of two 
rooms at 5s. 6d. per week, and one set of two 
rooms at 63. on second floor. The third floor is the 
same as second. There are dust shoot, sink with 
water, and two waterclosets on each floor. The 
building is substantially built, so that no struc- 
tural repairs are likely to be required. They pay 
about £5 per cent. 



GRANITE PIERS FOR BLACEFRIAE3 
BRIDGE. 

A SCOTCH paper eayg, a new industry has 
lately b"en introduced into Glasgow, that 
of polishing granite, an art for which Aberdeen 
has long been noted. The works established 
near Pollokshields by the Scottish Granite Com- 
pany are presently employed in the preparation 
of eight polished granite columns for the piers of 
BlackfriaTS Bridge, London, now being rebuilt 
by the Corporation of the City. One of these 
immense monoliths is already in an advanced 
stage of its progress, and presents an object of 
great novelty and interest in this part of the 
country, if it be not also the largest block of 
granite that has ever been wrought into a 
polished column in Scotland. It is about 7ft. in 
diameter, and about lift, in length ; and four of 
the number are to be about 8ft. in diameter and 
lart. high. The material is the beautiful red 
syenitic granite of Mull, which takes on the 
finest possible polish, and will no doubt rise into 
favour for ornamental and memorial purposes. 
Visitors of the works are shown various produc- 
tions in the grey granite of the South of Scot, 
land also; but the most remarkable sight of all 
is the stupendous granite cylinder for the bridge 
ju London. 



The Bmldinf Nsws, Jan^ li"' i867 




D R Warry, liiK 



SIM ' tejinns, _ ;Sf • JTnn'B • ({uufjf ,• ;?ofia. 



Whiteman & BsLss , Ijdio^rapliers Holbom. 



IVT? W. SURGES, ARCHT. 







T-fji I ^im'^^mi 







J 



January 11, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



29 



THE STREET-CLEANSING QUESTION. 

ni HE past week has sufficiently proved that one 
I of tlie ^^reatest inconveniences we might 
almost say calamities — that couUl well happen 
to London is a protracted snowstorm. A 
great fall of snow, by blocking up and render- 
ing the streets impassable, interrupts her 
gigantic trattio, than which no heavier cala- 
mity could liefiil the metropolis of the world. 
This will be admitted on all hands. Under 
the circumstances, therefore, the very favour- 
able change which has taken place in the 
weather is far from imwelcome. The streets 
of London, which a week ago were " knee 
deep" in snow and slush, are once more open 
thoroughfares, and street traffic and indi- 
vidual locomotion, which were entirely sus- 
pended, or at best performed mth wearisome 
etfort, are again in full swing. With a lively 
recollection of what we Londoners have ex- 
perienced and "passed thi'ough," we grate- 
fully thank Providence ! As was pointedly 
remarked by a West-End householder, who, 
on Monday, applied at the Marlborough- 
street Police-court for a smnmons agaiast 
the Vestry of St. George's, Hanover-square, 
for neglecting to remove the snow from the 
streets in that parish, " had not Providence 
done what the Vestry neglected to do, the in- 
convenience to the public would have been 
imbearable." Let us hope that the experience 
of the past week will lead us to trust less to 
Providence in a matter like this at least, and 
more to ourselves for the future. At present 
we are enjoying a cessation of the storm, for 
■which, for the reasons abeady stated, we are 
thankful ; the question, however, is, Will we 
he better prepared to cope with another such 
storm when it comes — as there is every 
reason to expect it will come before " the 
winter is past and gone" — than we were to 
cope with the last ] We fear it must be very 
generally admitted that Mr. Bumble did not 
manage matters in the most satisfactory manner 
on a recent occasion. Indignant complaints of 
the pig-headedness of that pompous and self- 
sufficient fimctionary have been rife in all 
quarters. He has been charged \vith a dere- 
liction of his duty, of which a very principal 
portion, as is generally conceived, is to pre- 
vent the accumulation of snow in the streets. 
There could be no doubt as to the condition of 
the streets. It would appear, however, that 
the law of the case is not so clearly defined as 
it might be and ought to be. We can only 
say that the sooner the law is more clearly de- 
fined the better. While one local board con- 
siders itself legally bound to remove the snow 
from the streets mthin its district, another 
local board cannot see it. Thus during the 
late severe snowstorm, while the St. Paneras 
District Board set to work ■n-ith commendable 
spirit, and cleared the main thoroughfares 
■within its jurisdiction, other vestries were 
content to leave the work to Providence. The 
consequence was that the traffic suffered very 
little inconvenience in some parts of the 
metropolis, while in other parts there was no 
traffic at all. And it so happened that it was 
juBt those portions of the metropolis most 
needing relief, viz., the City, which were most 
neglected. As usual, " they manage these 
thongs better in France." In Paris, for ex- 
ample, they go to work in a thoroughly busi- 
ness-like and systematic style. That city is 
divided into small districts, to each of which 
a certain number of sweepers are always 
attached, and these not only clean the streets 
every day, but are liable to be called out 
at a moment's notice on extraorcUnar}' occa- 
sions, such as a fall of snow. So perfect is 
the organisation that the men begin work as 
the white flakes fall, their numbers being 
increased as the occasion may require, and the 
!<now is swept to the sides "of the streets in 
heaps, and then carted into the Seine or into 
open spaces with surprising rapidity. So it 
ought to be here, and so it would be imder a 
better system of local government than we 
have at present. It is said that difficulties 
exist in London which do not exist in Paris. 



There need be no difficulty at all. What 
is possible in Paris, as regards street-cleansing 
at least, is surely possible in London. The 
vast extent of the metropolis presents no in- 
surmountable difficulty. Loudon, like the 
French capital, is. divided into separate and 
distinct districts for the sake of public con- 
venience, and idle labourers are as abundant 
here as there. It was estimated that be- 
tween 5,01)1) and ti,(in() persons connected 
with the building trade, of whom a large 
niunber were labourers, were thrown out 
of work by the late frost. Admitting that 
these men would be ■willing to turn public 
scavengers, how, it is asked, are you to get 
at them i The answer is easy enough. Let 
each parish issue placards announcing the 
offer of work, and hundreds of hands would 
be obtained at any moment's notice. Have 
not gangs of frozen-out labourers been 
parading every street in London in search 
of work ? The St. Pancras Board experienced 
no such difficulty. It found labour in abund- 
ance, and readily availed itself of it, and the 
St. Pancras district was the only one in the 
metropolis which was not snowed-up. At all 
events, the main thoroughfares were kept 
comparatively clear, and, as a consequence, 
traffic suffered less interruption there than 
anywhere else. From a report by the Chief 
Surveyor of St. Pancras we learn that nearly 
ten miles of streets in this parish were cleared 
at an expense of £1,000 — by no means a large 
sum, considering the object. It was not 
attempted to clear away the snow fi-oni the 
whole width of the roads, but mainly for a 
width of about 10ft. from the kerlj, by which 
tourse was also removed all the snow that had 
been swejit off the roofs of the houses, and 
the channels left open and free for the thaw 
when it came. As much as 7,000 loads of 
snow were carted away by means of 120 carts, 
with the assistance of nearly 300 men, work- 
ing for three days and a half and three nights. 
Arrangements were made for taking the snow 
into the squares and shooting it round the 
enclosures. We observe that this Board has 
had a deal of abuse heaped upon it for the 
course it took. Some of its own members 
have charged the Board or its surveyor with 
gross extravagance. Had you waited for 
a time, say these wiseacres, there would 
have been no occasion to do what was done. 
It is all very well, though it is not very honest, 
to censiu'e now that the thaw has accom- 
plished all that was wanted. But supposing 
the storm had continued and increased it is 
very probable that we should have heard com- 
plaints of a very different kind. The cry- 
would have been for action. The truth is 
that the law on this point is at fault. The 
Metropolitan Local Management Act, as far as 
it relates to the cleansing of the streets, must 
be amended. What is wanted is a special 
clause making it imperative on vestries to re- 
move the snow from the streets within their 
respective parishes. According to the decision 
of Mr. Tyrwhitt, which will fje found in our 
legal intelligence, the act, as it stands, does 
not empower a police magistrate to grant 
a summons against a vestry for neglecting to 
remove the snow or other refuse from the 
streets. The matter, therefore, is one with 
which the legislatiue must deaT, and no doubt 
it will be brought before Parliament when it 
meets. Indeed, ilr. BentLnck, JI.P., is almost 
pledged to ask that august body to consider 
the law with a ■j-iew to its amendjnent. 



EVICTED TENANTS. 

ONE of the gravest — if not the gravest — 
question of modem times is, how are the 
poor of London to be lodged ! It is of vastly 
more consequence than Vjiulding a new 
National Gallery or new Law Courts. We 
give on another page some illustrations of 
uewmodel lodgings recently built from designs 
by ilr. Wm. Surges. Though many such 
dwellings have been erected in London dur- 
ing the last few years, all that has been done 



is a mere drop in the bucket compared to what 
has to be accomplished. The question as- 
siunes larger proportions daily on account of 
the increase of London, the increasing denumd 
for space for railways, &c., and the continual 
increase in the price of land. On Wednesday 
last the j':victed Tenants' Aid Association 
waited on Lord IXuliy, to whom tliey jiro 
sented a memorial. The memorialists saiil : 
We " approach your lordship and the members 
of your Cabinet in the name of hunuuiity and 
religion, us well as in the economic interests of 
the inhabitants of the metropolis at large, rich 
and poor; ;uid with reference to the three 
points which embrace the scope of their 
labours, tliey venture very humbly to sug- 
gest : — 1. That with reganl to evictions, no 
further railway extension or public works 
should be sanctioned in the metropolis by the 
Legislature without compulsory provision or 
compensation for tenants liable to be evicted 
thereby. 2. That the ((uestion of overcrowd- 
ing should be left for the present to the ope- 
ration of the Sanitary Act of last session of 
Parliament. '.). That with reference to re- 
building, some public body or bodies should 
be charged with the duty of improving pro- 
perty now occupied and overcrowded by the 
poorer classes, by causing such property as 
may be judicially condemned to be imfit' for 
occupation to be pulled down, and suitable 
other residences to be erected in their stead, 
when the owners of such property refuse to 
undertake the improvements required of them, 
and that the dehcit, if any, be made a charge 
on tlje metropolitan rates ; and that with this 
view the society urge .the immediate accept- 
ance of ilr. Torrens' bill of last session of 
Parliament as reported by the select com- 
mittee, or some measure founded on similar 
principles by your lordship's Government." 

A long and desultory conversation took 
place between the memorialists and the noble 
lord, but little practical good was the issue. 
The gentlemen forming the deputation ■R'ere 
certainly unfruitful in useful suggestions, and 
Lord Derl)y did not treat the question with 
the gravity and thoughtfulness it demanded. 
We think it is desirable that Mr. Torrens' 
bill, ■ft'hich provides for the compulsory sale of 
fever-infested localities, should become law, 
but what then I Who are to build the new- 
houses ? We have wealth in London to meet 
aU the modern exigencies. Dwellings for the 
people can be made to pay, and pay much 
better than Confederate or Peruvian bonds, 
or the many schemes in which millions ster- 
ling are annually lost. Resolution and honesty 
are the only things now required. There is 
plenty of sympathy afloat. Let that sym- 
pathy be combined with zeal and integrity, 
and this great problem will begin to be satis- 
factorily solved. There are scores of acres of 
land covered with two-story dwellings which 
might be replaced with five-story and six-story 
dwellings, and so more habitations may be 
proWded. 

♦ 

ART EDUCATIOK. 

THE Eight Hon. Sir Suiffurd Nortbcote toolc 
the chair at the ancual meetiug of the Ex- 
eter School of Art, at Exfier, otwliich iusLitution 
he is the Pre&ideut, on Monday evening, la the 
course of his address, be said — " Thei^e will be 
an interesting exhibition of the works of alf na- 
tions at Paris this year ; and, though we have had 
a great many international exhibuions, I tbinlc 
there is a general feeling that there never baa 
been an exhibition sirice that of 1851 which pos- 
sessed the interest which the Paris Exhibition of 
the present year is likely to possess. The Exhi- 
biiioii of 1851 was exceedingly interesting, be- 
cause it wag the first brin«^ing together of the 
productions of all nations. The Exhibition of 
1867 will be interef ting because it is likely to be 
the greatest attempt at bringing togutbera fair 
representation of the works of all nations. I 
think, without jealousy or carping, we may admit 
that the French have a wondt-rful power of or- 
ganisation, which probably exceeds this or any 
other nation ; and we know well that tiiey are on 
their mettle; that they are determined to make 
this one of the greatest Exhibitions that have ever 



30 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 11, 1867. 



been seen. I think there is every promise that 
it will be, perhaps, more remarkable than any 
since that of 1851, to wliich it will be decidedly 
very snperior in extent and scale of magniSoence. 
It is iinportint that Eaff'ai'I should show well at 
the Paris Exhibition, and I think very probably 
that England will do well and be very creditably 
represented in indnstry and art. 1 hope that 
those who take an interest in art will go over to 
Paris, and I hope tho result of the Exhibition will 
be as remarkable in its way in advanoinj the 
cause of art education as tho Exhibition of IS.jl 
was in first promoting a movement which has 
now grown to so much. I think the French Ex- 
hibition will bo extremely valuable, and will well 
repay the trouble nnd expense of a visit. " In 
another part ofhis speech the right hon. baronet 
referred to the spread of art eduoatiou. He 
said — " I am [.leased to see that drawing is now 
becoming so completely a part of national educa- 
tion as it is. I was very much struck the other diy 
in looking nt a report of one of the assistant com. 
missioners who are sent out by the commission 
npon middle cla'S education — of which I have 
the honour to be a member— to find that in going 
through the list of the various branches ot edu- 
cation drawing stood higher than any other 
in the district which the assistant commissioner 
was appointed to survey. Drawing was tjaught 
in 95 per cent, of the schools which he visited, 
while in onlv about 87 per cent, was raiy one other 
subject taught. If you looked at the number of 
pupils learning diffjrentsubjeots, more boys were 
learning Latin and English grammar than were 
learning drawing; but drawing stood third on the 
list. l''do not wish to place drawing above Eng. 
lish grammar, history, and mathematics, or any 
other branches of instrnctinn ; but I do look up- 
on it as a very important fact, and one exceed, 
jngly gratifying to those who are friends of 
schools of art, that drawing has taken such a 
place in the education of the country, because 
when this movement b»gan we remember quite 
well people used to talk of drawing as a mere ac- 
complishment, its acquirement waste of time to 
boys who ouirht to b? learning something useful, 
and only to be taken up by those with a particular 
taste and genius (or it. But I am happy to find 
this delusion is begir.ningto be dispelled, and we 
may hope that iu course of time the English na. 
tion will throw aside altngether the delusion, 
which I believe was a very unfortunate one for 
this country. We are beginning to discover that 
drawing may be taught upon as strict principles 
as almost any other branch of education. It may 
be made a means of training the mind as well as 
the eye and the hand, and will enable the learn- 
ers to appreciate much more fully the work they 
have got to do in other respects. We are be- 
ginning to Bee that it is not only useful in all 
branches of industrial life, but that the habit of 
working careiully truly to represent on paper 
actually what we see is good for the mind, be- 
cause it induces a habit of clear observation. " 



to the smaller and weaker order of talent; bat, 
instead of this, hard aud resolute work. In 
Raphael's paiuting he was not aware of a single 
instance of bad, careless, or vague drawing. His 
earliest achievements showed qualities of perse- 
verance and hard fag, and that practical common 
sense to seize clearly, and deal concisely with, 
the points of a subject, without which brilliant; 
powers were of little avail. His youthful works 
indicated another pledge of future greatness, a 
remarkably clear and painstaking effort to 
approach the truth. There was something ten- 
tative and timid in the touch; there were signs 
of modesty and misgiving in his first attempts 
to follow afcer nature; his mind was recipient 
and expectant rather than productive and ori 



Michael Angelo, but from sculptors of a orior age, 
that the school found patronage, whose works 
were then exhumed from the dt-firis of the Roman 
empire. Indeed, no artist was removed from 
this world-wide influence. In the Roman styla 
of Raphael this painting of many generations 
obtained its consummation. Raphael made the 
old art live and move ; he saw nature through 
the classical, and from the classical he drew 
that which was eternally true. He made no dead 
transcripts from the Greek, but worked as the 
Greek artists would had they received from 
Julius and Leo commissions. They recognised in 
his lines the same grace, in his forms the same 
beauty, in his compositions the balance and the 
symmetry, in his humanity the ideal and tran- 



native. As a pupil, he was content to be as his i sceudent types which brought Greek art so near 



EAPHAEL AND HIS WORKS. 

THE lec'nres at the Institution, Park-street, 
Bristol, were resumed on llonday evening, 
when Mr. J. Beavington Atkinson read an able 
paper on the above eubjt-ct, illustrating his 
remarks by numerous engravings from his port- 
folios, and also by photographs from the cartoons 
lent by the Bristol School of Art. Mr. Atkinson 
in his opening remarks observed that a single 
evening was far too short to devote to the express 
consideration of the genius aud works of the 
greatest painter the world had yet known ; the 
difficulty in treating tho subject would be in 
concentration. In sketching biographically the 
life of Raphael at Urbino, it was remarked that 
he was certainly, in all that concerned his art, a 
favoured child of fortune. Perhaps as a first 
iiiatrnctor few could be safer and sounder than 
his father, but as Raphael was only twelve years 
old when his parent died, it might be taken for 
granted that in those early lessons little more 
than the rudiments of the art were taught. His 
progress in the school of Perugino, to which he 
was sent by bis uncle, w,na then glanced at, and 
in noticing his early death, at the age of 37, the 
lecturer observed that it was well, therefore, that 
he went eariy to work; his genius was not 
wasted, for from the hour when his hand could 
hold a pencil not a day passed without a line or 
from his father a lesson. In him they saw no 
silly reliance on genius, often the plea for indo- 
lence — no gaping for inspiration, no swoonings 
eostacies of seatimeut— all frailties incident 



master. As Curistiau art at the close of the 
fifteenth century had well-nigh reached its culmi- 
nating point, to say that Raphael when he left 
his master*s studio was equal to him was to 
assert no less than that a novitiate in his twenty- 
first year was already a proficient, and that an 
ordinary term of apprenticeship had put the 
pupil in possession of an art which it had needed 
three centuries to mature. He had the advan- 
tage of being able to commence life at the point 
where old men were content to leave off. 
Raphael's second or Florentine period, which 
was next noticed, extended from 1501 to 1508, 
and these four years were full of great works. 
There was then, surely, in the Tuscan Athens 
sufficient noble thought, high art, intellectual 
converse, and refined luxury to stimulate and 
delight a sensitive and aspiring mind. The 
almost Christiin character maintained by the 
artist during this time might in some measure 
be due to the friends he chose. Having eluci- 
dated the first and second styles of Raphael by 
alluding to the Madonnas and holy families, of 
which he painted no less than fifty — the best 
known were especially commended for tho sim- 
plicity and purity of their Christian sentiments — 
Mr. Atkinson remarked with reverence that 
Christian art, if true and positive and of any 
worth, must follow iu the footsteps of Him who 
was at once human and divine. He then pro- 
ceeded to discuss the questions of genius, aud 
inspiration, and beauty in art, remarking that 
the Christian art into which Raphael threw him- 
self was the embodiment of Christian truth and 
beauty. Raphael joined physical and spiritual 
beauty, and so made that enduring and ideal 
humanity which reconciled as it represented 
two natures. Thus, laying aside all pretension 
to inspiration (the lecturer remarked) in any 
sense, he had endeavoured to show how from 
merely natural powers and materials Raphael 
matured Christian art. Tne genius he had 
ascribed to him infused into the manner of 
the period vigour, beauty — in short, nature. Of 
the painter's third or Roman period, it was 
remarked that it brought with it a vast develop- 
ment, and to it belonged the greatest pictures 
tho world contained. When at the age of 
28 Raphael travelled to Rome he did not 
get rid ofhis Florentine manner; the two periods 
overlapped each other; there was no break in 
continuity, no sudden revolution, but merely 
progress through development. Directing atten- 
tion to the Roman school generally, of which 
Raphael was the founder and chief ornament 
the lecturer, the better to illustrate his observa- 
tions, glanced at the intellectual and religious con. 
dition of Rome at the time, and then went outoshow 
what compensations and advantages came to the 
Roman scliool of paintings under the changes he 
had just traced. He denied the charge that 
Raphael owed the greatness of his Roman style 
to Michael Angelo, partly because, with the ex- 
ception of one or two figures, such as Isaiah, 
there was nothing in common between the works 
of the two contemporaries, and also because there 
were other causes amply sufficient to efl'ect the 
change from the Florentine to the Roman man- 
ner. Raphael had in style and mind grown into 
the man, aud in Rome he entered a great and 
busy world which called forth his power. Tho 
support of patrons and the rivalry of the greatest 
artists of tho age stimulated to utmost effort. He 
was also accustomed to take counsel of the 
learned men and leading intellects of the time, 
and thus they could in some measure understand 
how Raphael was called to the highest arguments, 
and as a painter representative of the times. 
Raphael, so far as he was not self-made, was 
fashioned by his age ; in part he founded the 
Roman school, but that school had never been 
known had the city of Rome not existed. That 
city demanded a school ; aud it was not from 



perfection. This was the Roman school of which 
Raphael was the founder, or rather the reviver. 
The stern grandeur of tlie Greek was in his bands 
softened ; it was in this blending of two schools, 
the Christian and spiritual of Florence with the 
grandeur and simple nature of the Greek, that 
the perfection of Raphael's Roman manner was 
reached. The close of the paper was devoted to 
a critical estimate of Raphael's genius as a nhole. 
Raphael, as they had seen him, owed as much to 
others as to himself: he borrowed without rob- 
bery ; he reoaid and made the world rich. Genius 
was with him often the power of adaptation, the 
art of putting the right thing in the right place 
— that least " touch of nature that makes the 
whole world kin," aud gives to the style called 
Raphaelesque a charm words could not well de- 
fine. In considering the precise relations to 
nature and art iu which his pictures stood, it was 
observed, he troubled himself litte, let us hope, 
with metaphy,aical perplexities; intuition was his 
surest guide; that his first intuition led him to 
approach as near as might be to nature's truth 
and beauty his countless studies showed; and 
from this it would seem as if he never painted 
a figure till he had made careful studies from tho 
life, even of the extremities, the draperies, and 
sometimes of the anatomies which draperies 
would conceal. Illustrating the naturalistic yet 
trauscjndental method of which Raphael's pic- 
tures were express examples, Mr. Aikinson re. 
marked that while the Dutch school made itself 
at home in a beer cellar, aud its utmost reach 
was the temptation of St. Anthony, the Roman 
school rose to argument, to philosophy, theology, 
and jurisprudence. This contrast resulted from 
the diverse view and interpretation of nature. 
Raphaal so stuuied nature as to get at her central 
underlying idea— the original and perfect t^pe, 
and in this he was not singular. They might be 
sure that the artist had greatness in hiui wheu 
he made them think more nobly of nature than 
they did belore. Uf Rjphael it might be said 
that he added to man manliness, and, like Shak- 
spearo, clothed womanhood in womanly grace 
and modesty. In his pictures lived characters 
which could not die; his genius sustained them 
iu immortality. Were those figures annihilated, 
not only would art suffer loss, but nature herself 
would feel the void. The genius of Raphael was 
finally summed up by the lecturer in one word, 
dramatic, though he said he feared he should 
scarcely carry conviction to his audience. What 
writers accomplished in words, he reached by 
pictorial composition. His chief works were 
eminently dramatic. But he avoided the comia 
side of the dramatic. At some length it was 
argued that if a man was true to nature he must 
be dramatic ; aud several of Raphael's works 
were cited iu proof of the assertion. 

The lecture, of which the above is a brief ab- 
stract, showed that much time and thought had 
been bestowed upon its preparation. At its 
close a cordial vote of thanks was teudered to 
Mr, Atkinson. 



STRIKES AND TRADE UNIONS. 

AT a recent meeting of the Statistical Society, 
Col. Sykes, M.P., presiding, a paper was read 
on " Combinations and Strikes, with 14eference to 
Wages and the Condition of Labour," by Mr. Jacob 
Waley, M.A. 

The following is an outline of the essay, which 
was exhaustive in its treatment, and was atten- 
tively listened to by a crowded meeting of members. 
Mr. Waley first discussed the question whether 
strikes were, in any case, economically justifi.able. 
He said that ipiestion must be answered in the 
negative if, iu the nature of things and under the 
operation of irreversible, economical laws, the 
labourer was incapable of obtaining, by means o£ 



January 11, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



31 



a strike, any important advantages which could not 
more readily and beneficially be obtained by less 
violent means. This was a matter upon which the 
greatest possible differences of opinion still pre- 
vailed. So much of capital as was paid in wages 
was the fund to be divided amongst workmen. 
Its pr(jportion to their number determined the 
rate of wages. Capital was attracted to a prosper- 
ous and repelled from a declining trade, and the 
interest of the workman was, therefore, bound up 
with that of his trade. Capital and labour at 
variance were like two heads on the same stem in 
perpetual conflict, notwithst^xnding theii- having 
common sensation. In a declining trade a strike, 
by augmenting its disadvantages, might cause its 
ruin. Notwithstanding strikes, there was prodigi- 
ous activity in the London building trades, which 
could not be transferred to a foreign soil, and in 
spite of them the coal, iron, pottery, and cotton 
industries flourished. In fluctuating trades, where 
there must be a large margin of uncertainty in the 
division of returns between profits and wages, a 
strike may advance the latter, perhaps permanently. 
It was difficult to say how far wages rose naturally 
with prosperity, and it would be well if employers 
would prove by example that they did so. Re- 
viewing certain strikes and deducing inferences, 
Mr. Waley questioned the received mode of com- 
puting the losses of the workmen during a strike 
by adding the amount actually expended to the 
loss of wages. The money expended took the place 
of part of the wages which would have been earned. 
The contributors took upon themselves the loss re- 
presented by their contributions ; the balance of 
the loss of wages fell upon the workmen on .strike, 
but the aggregate of the workmen's loss w;is equal 
to the amount of wages which would have been 
earned, and no more. Having shown that historians 
of the strikes of the engineers, the Preston opera- 
tives, and the London builders, considered that 
the balance of advantage, consequent as well as 
immediate, was on the side of the men, Mr. Waley 
remarked that there were more solid and cogent 
reasons for preserving the integrity of the standard 
working day than for abridging its duration. He 
saw no objection, but rather the reverse, to work- 
men directing their efforts to a reasonable and 
moderate reduction in the hours of labour instead 
of to a rise of wages. Referring to apprenticeship 
restrictions, he said that it must appear strange 
that, after legal requirements had been removed, 
others should be voluntarily imposed, and they 
must have a pernicious effect in preventing the 
transfer of labour and in hindering the w^orkman 
from bettering himself. On the whole, although 
apprenticeship might be sound as a practice, it was 
questionable whether it could afford a reasonable 
ground for combined workmen to make a stand 
upon against tlie m;isters who, finding capital and 
running risk, must mainly control organisation and 
industry. Whilst conceding that the power which 
combination conferred upon the workmen was 
essential to his protection, it must be earnestly 
desired that that power should rarely be called 
into active exertion, that its effect should be felt 
rather in promoting peaceful solutions and avert- 
ing contests than in provoking them or determin- 
ing their issue. That in some districts strikes 
were so chronic, must arise from some serious un- 
soundness in the relations of employer and work- 
man. Discu3.sing remedies, he passed over courts 
of conciliation as inapplicable to a free bargain, 
and referred to the successful experiment at 
Methley Colliery, of dividing the profits above 
10 per cent, with workmen, shareholders, and 
customers, which Messrs. Briggs found more pro- 
fitable to themselves than their former plan of 
working. Messrs. Fox, Wood, and Co., of the 
Xi'wport Rolling Mills, Middlesborough, had intro- 
'luced a similar scheme without making a joint- 
atojk company. These schemes did not go so fai- 
as ordinary cooperation, which might ultimately 
affect materially the organisation of labour. Mean- 
while candour, good temper, and understanding of 
the relations must be relied upon. On the whole, 
he thought the following conclusions might be 
accepted as being in aecjrdance \\-ith the facts : — 
The single workman is, when alone, no match for 
liis employer. His weakness naturally leads to his 
combining with others having the same interest 
\nth himself. This combination may be legitimate 
though not confined to the workmen under one 
master, but much more extensive in its scope. 
The w-orkmen of a trade may fairly combine for 
upholding common trade interests against a master 
or any number of masters. A strike, or the fear of 
a strike, is the last resort of workmen for enforcing 
a more favourable bargain with employers. With- 
out the assistance of an extensive organisation by 



which funds could be collected from workmen in 
employment and applied for the maintenance of 
workmen on strike, it would hardly be possible 
that a strike could be conducted to a favourable 
is.sue. Hence the connection between trades' 
anions and strikes. A strike for a rise of wages 
or a reduction in the hours of labour, if made 
when the condition of trade renders such a demand 
reasonable, if not resorted to until peaceable 
means have failed, if carried on without violence 
or intimidation, is not necessarily to be condemned 
on economical or other grounds, but, as it is sure 
to inflict great loss and distress, and to impede the 
production of the wealth <m which both employers 
and workmen must live, it should bo regarded as a 
great calamity, aud should not be imdertaken 
without careful consideration of the circumstances 
of the trade, nor while there is a chance that the 
dispute may be amicably settled by peaceful means. 
Employers must consent to abandon the autocratic 
view of the position of the chiefs of industry ; 
they must be forbearing and conciliatory in their 
relations with their workmen ; they must recognise 
in the trades' union a power co-ordinate with them- 
selves, and consent to regard it as representing the 
workman in those matters on which he has a right 
to be heard, such as his hours of labour and the 
.salubrity of the factory in which he works. On 
the other hand, they are not bound to admit of 
the interposition of the society as to any matters 
not immediately connected with the remuneration, 
health, and comfort of the workman. Workmen, 
both individually and when connected in trade so- 
cieties, must bear in mind that they have a common 
interest with their employers as well as a separate 
interest. Both are interested in the augmentation 
of the trade resources which form the fund to be 
shared between them, and it is only when the ap- 
portionment takes place that there is room for 
variance. Trade unions must avoid meddling and 
officious interference, as those whose means keep 
industry going and who run the risks attendant on 
industrial undertakings must be left to control 
and discipline industry. Unions must cease to 
assume that there is an antagonism between them 
and the masters, and must bear in mind that they 
are doing their constituents incalculable mischief 
when they hinder the growth and impair the pros- 
perity of the trade to which they belong. They 
must keep to their own functions, that is, the pro- 
tection of trade interests and the due administra- 
tion of their common funds. Their action for 
jiolitical objects can only be fatal to their efficiency 
for the purposes for which they were formed. 
Above all, they must respect the freedom of others, 
whether masters or workmen. Only when they 
abstain from coercion, rely on the free and volun- 
tary support of their members, and forbear to 
interfere with the liberty of others, can they ex- 
pect to win respect or support from enlightened 
opinion. In the ensuing discussion the views of 
Mr. Waley were generally endorsed. 



THE BIRMINGHAM ARCHITECTUEAL 

SOCIETY.— ANNUAL MEETING. 

THE annual dinner of this society took place at 
the Hen and Chickens Hotel, New-street, 
on Friday evening last. The chair was occupied 
by Mr. J. H. Chamberlain, president of the so- 
ciety ; and the vice-chair by Mr. W. Harris, the 
Vice-President. The following menibei's of the 
society were present : — Messrs. J. R. Botham 
(treasurer), F. B. Csborn (honorary secretary), J. 
Jf. Bateman, Thomson Plevius, J. G. Bland, F. 
Emp.son, H. Yeoville Thomason, T. Naden, G. 
Bidlake (Wolverhampton), J. A. Chatwin, E. 
Holmes, James Veall (Wolverhampton), A. B. 
Phipson, Nichols (West Bromwich), Corser, J. H. 
Hawkes ; and Messrs. P. Hollins, S. Timmius, 
Allen E. Everitt, and J. T. Bunce, honorary mem- 
bers of the society. 

After dinner the President gave the health of 
" The Queen," which was duly honoured. — Mr. 
Naden then proposed, and Mr. A. B. Phipson re- 
plied to, the toast of " The Royal Institute of 
British Architects." 

The next and principal toast, " Success to the 
Birmingham Architectural Society," was given by 
the President (Mr. Chamberlain), who said : — In 
the two years that have elapsed since we last dined 
together nothing of very great importance has oc- 
curred in the history of our national art and 
architecture ; and with regard to our own little 
society, we have been content to follow our ordi- 
nai-y custom, taking up such subjects as were pre- 
sented to us for discussion, and assisting one 
another with advice and counsel whenever that ad- J 



vice or counsel was required. But we have to 
congratulate ourselves upon the additions that 
have been made to our numbers ; and we are most 
glad to welcome here to-night those gentlemen 
who, practising our art in neiglibouring towns, 
have joined o\ir society, and those honorary mem- 
bers whose talents and attainments have so often 
proved of advantage to us. There is surely no 
need to dwell upon the vise of a society like this, 
or upon the advantages of association. All of ua 
must constantly have felt how comparatively weak, 
helpless, and useless we are without the assistance 
of our fellows, and how impossible it is for nearly 
all men to achieve much that is good or great if 
they cut themselves off from intercourse with 
those who, by similarity of mental habit and study, 
are naturally able to assist and help them. In pro- 
fessional questions it is often a matter of neces- 
sity that we should consult together, and decide 
upon a common course of action. And there aro 
now being presented to us, day after day, ques- 
tions relating to matters of custom and practice, 
which it is almost impossible for any one architect 
to decide upon rightly by himself. Take, for in- 
stance, those questions which are now being per- 
sistently raised by the Builders' Association. 
There is one change in particvilar which is called 
for, and which, if it shouM by any means be 
brought about, would entirely subvei-t the present 
position of the architect and the builder, and 
would be most entirely, thoroughly, and com- 
pletely disadvantageous to the latter. The change 
that the Association wants to bring about is this : 
that in future the architect shall cease to care for 
the interests of the builder, and shall regard him- 
self as only and solely the agent of the client. In 
fact, the Association considers it an impertinence on 
the part of the architect that he should profess to 
be anything else. Now all of us know, from our 
own experience, that, although we are *' paid by 
the employer, and can be dismissed by the em- 
ployer," yet that in the numberless questions that 
arise during the continuance of all building opera- 
tions our influence is exerted over and over again 
to the advantage of the builder, aud that he does 
derive from us continual assistance and support. 
We have hitherto regarded it as our duty to see 
that our clients or employers have their work pro- 
perly performed, and the stipulations of the con- 
tract fully carried out. But at the same time it 
h.as been and it is a tradition amongst us, that the 
builders' interests are also to be considered by us, 
and that our position is constantly and of neces- 
sity that of an unbiassed arbitrator, and that we 
do not take the narrow, the exclusive, the one- 
sided view of a mere paid agent or partisan. From 
this position the builders would depose us. But 
they will have cause to be sorry if the change 
they desire is really carried out. They ask the 
architects, deliberately and with emphasis, to take 
from them the help which is now constantly given, 
and to transform themselves as far as they can, if 
not actually into the builders' enemies, at least 
into their stern and severe judges; alw.ays on the 
watch for faults and defects, always looking to the 
letter and never to the spirit of the law, and al- 
ways prepared to visit every shortcoming and 
every deviation from the letter of a contract with 
the narrowest, the severest, and the most bitter 
judgment which it Ls possible for one class of men 
to mete out to another class, for whom it feels no 
sympathy and towards whose well-being it has no 
care. But there are other subjects, momentous 
ones, which, as a society, we ought to study. For 
instance, there is the study of archicology and of 
art. Nothing much need now be said about the 
study of archicology, as that vrill be specially 
dealt with in the course of the evening ; but it is 
a matter of much importance, and with which we 
are greatly concerned. The town is gradually 
changing ; one by one the old buildings are re- 
moved ; old streets are widened, new ones are 
made, and unfortunately, in the majority of in- 
stances, without any record being kept of the na- 
ture of the change. Now, each architect ought to 
consider himself as in duty bound, whenever he 
is called upon to replace an old building with a 
new one, whether that old building is good, bad, 
or indift'erent, to make or to have made careful 
drawings of the work he is about to destroy. 
Then, if such drawings were deposited in our own 
library, we should have, in time, a most valuable 
series of historical records, which, alike to the 
antiquarian, the archo3ologist, or the historian, 
w^ould possess great and undying interest. Then, 
with regard to the study of art, in past times 
architects have done great things. Take, for in- 
stance, four names only, those of Stuart, Cham- 
bers, Rickman, and Pugin. The first of these was 



32 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 11, 1867. 



the great delineator aad historian of Grecian art. 
He it was who revealed to the European world for 
the first time the unsurpassed glories of the 
greatest triumphs of ancient art. Sir William 
Chambers, also, was the historian of Palladian 
architecture, and the chief English exponent of 
that school, the Italian Renaissance. Again, Rick- 
man, a native of this town, directed the growing 
taste for Gothic architecture, and, for the first 
time, classified those monuments which so many 
had learned to admire ; and after him, Pugiu re- 
vealed to us the inner life of that glorious school, 
and by patient and minute investigation, aided by 
the fire of his great genius, discovered the roots 
from which that glory had sprung, and revealed 
his knowledge to us. But of late years architects 
have not appeared in the foremost ranks of art 
literature. The work of investigation has been 
carried on by archceological and architectural so- 
cieties, but no English architect has distinguished 
himself greatly (unless we except Mr. James Fer- 
gusson) as an author. Yet the field is a wide one, 
and one subject that demands our most earnest 
consideration is that of the unity of art. In- 
deed, it is owing to this unity of art being 
so little felt or acknowledged that, compara- 
tively with our hope, so little actual progress 
is made. Artists work alone, and neither feel nor 
see. nor seem to care to know, that all art is one ; 
that it is literature, painting, sculpture, architec- 
ture, music, and the minor arts that together 
make up decorative art ; that these are really and 
rightly (me and indivisible. The painter thinks 
only of pictures — the sculptor only of the statue, 
the author only of his book ; but the architect 
who knows anything at all knows well that, to 
produce a great result — that to erect a building 
for which men shall care, and towards which they 
shall look — these separate excellences must be 
united together. Those who have studied both 
art and literature know that the history of the one 
is. almo.st the exact counterpart of the history of 
the other, and that uo man can have a perfect 
knowledge of ancient art without a knowledge of 
ancient literature, or can understand that litera- 
ture without an insight into the meaning of its 
contemporary art. Yet, however keenly we may 
study art, however diligently, however honestly, 
we shall find that the result of our studies will 
be that we shall be divided into two classes, each 
representing a distinct line of thought. Through- 
out the history of many long years these two 
separate trains of thought have been recognised, 
and have been called by different names. They 
have been called Calvinistic and Armiuian, Tory 
and Radical, Catholic and Protestant, Classic and 
Gothic, and by many other names, all tending to 
point out those two great schools of thought 
under whose banners all great thinkers have en- 
rolled themselves, and will probably continue to 
be enrolled. But as far as we are concerned there 
seems to be no cause for regret, as, indeed, there 
is no use in regretting that which is inevitable. 
On the contrary, we may, whilst we grieve that 
there are truths which we can never fully appre. 
ciate, be glad that there are others to whom these 
truths are made clear. Also, in pursuing the 
study of art, we shall see more and more clearly 
how all that is good in ornament and beautiful in 
design arises out of " use ;" that from the com- 
monest wants of mankind the most beautiful 
forms have been originated ; that if we are to excel 
in our art at all, or understand its history at all, 
we must look below the surface of all form to find 
the causes which eventually determined it ; and 
that we shall not find those causes in the fancy or 
imagination of the designer, but, in the first place, 
in some commonplace want or necessity, honestly 
and thoroughly met. It is our knowledge of 
these things, and our practice of them, that gives 
us that influence which we now possess. It is an 
advantage that we cannot well be too proud of, 
that, generally speaking, we are so attentively 
listened to in matters of our art, and our opinions 
deemed worthy of consideration. In the great 
revival of art which we have happily lived to see, 
the influence of architects has effected much. It 
has already well nigh banished the apparently 
cheap, but really costly shabbiness, which at one 
time threatened to leave our towns a wilderness 
only of rotting and rotten laths and crumbling 
stucco. But every year better and sounder 
materials are being employed, and every year 
more and more of beauty is introduced into our 
work. Therefore, in proposing this, the toast of 
the evening, " Success to the Birmingham Archi- 
tectural Society," what we are really desiring is 
increase in knowledge amongst ourselves, increase 
our mutual reliance and support, and for our 



town a gradual and constant change, from mean- 
ness into nobleness, from shabbiness to greatness, 
and from ugliness to beauty, until at last it may 
become, as indeed there is no reason th.at it should 
not become, as full of all grace and loveli- 
ness and beauty as those old Italian cities in 
which it is impossible to walk mthout rejoicing, 
and of which the memories are imperishably and 
unspeakably dear. 

The addre.=<3 of the president was frequently in- 
terrupted by applause, which was warmly renewed 
at its close. • 

LIVERPOOL ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

THE seventh meeting of the members of this 
society, tliis feession, was held on Wednes- 
day evening, Mr. T. J. Kilpiu, the presiJent, in 
the chai"-. The President said before they pro. 
ceeded to the transaction of the ordinary 
business it was his painful duty to announce to 
the meeting the death of one of the most valued 
members of the society, Mr. Stirling, the sculp- 
tor, who expired on Sunday, after a long illness. 
He had been connected with the society from its 
commencement, and there were few members 
who took a greater interest in it and devoted 
more attenlion to it than he did. The society 
was particulaily indebted to him for the trouble 
he took in forming and instructing the students' 
modelling class, to which he gave the use of his 
premises and devoted his services, his time, and 
his talents gratuitously. In the particular branch 
of his profession to which he devoted himseli' 
Mr. Stirling had few equals. 

Mr. Boalc moved " that the secretary be re- 
quested to convey to Mrs. Stirling the expression 
ot the deep feeliugs of regret which the society 
experiences on the occasion, and of their sincere 
condolence with her in the heavy affliction which 
has befallen her." Mr. Bradley seconded the 
motion, which was unanimously adopted. 

Mr. Gibbs gave a brief description, illustrated 
by a diagram, of a plan for improving the venti- 
lation of sit-ting rooms. The plan consists in 
leaving the jambs on each side of the fireplace 
hollow, carrying up the flues instead of building 
them solid, the due on one side being for the 
ventilation of the rooms on the upper story, and 
that on the other for the rooms on the ground 
floor. The cold air is admitted through a grating 
in the plinths of the building, and in ascending 
the flues passes through cast-iron chambers in 
close proximity to the fireplace, thus getting 
slightly warmed before entering the room 
through a perforated zinc panel near the ceiling, 
or through an open ornamental cornice. 

Mr. Boult exhibited some beautiful specimens 
of polished madrepore marble, from Devousliire, 
remarking that in the rough block the stone was 
used in the coustrnction ot the Plymouth break- 
water. 

The subject of building contracts, which was 
discussed at the last meeting of the Architec- 
tural Alliance in London, and by this society last 
session, was again introduced by Mr. Boult. It 
will be remembered that at the last meeting of 
the Architectural Alliance a form of contract was 
submitted by Mr. Plevins, of Birmingham, and 
that considerable discussion took place with 
regard to the last clause, which provided that in 
certain cases matters in diflerence between the 
contractor and the proprietor, instead of being 
arbitrated by the architect, should be referred to 
an independent party. It was ultimately resolved 
that the draft contract be referred to the difl'erent 
societies in the Alliance for their consideration 
and report. Mr. Boult no iv expressed his opinion 
that, although he believed it would be very 
seldom enforced, the insertion of such a clause 
in the contract would tend to promote harmony 
and confidence between all the parlies to the 
contract. A circular from the General Builders' 
Association, submitting four suggestions on the 
subject of building contracts, was read, and, 
after some conversation, it was resolved that the 
form of contract prepared by Mh Plevins and tie 
suggestions of tho Builders' Association be cir- 
culated amongst the members, and that the 
further consideration of the subject be adjourned 
to a future evening in the current session to be 
appointed by the council. 



NORTHERN ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIA- 
TION.— ANN UAL MEETING. 

THE eighth annual meeting of the members of 
Uie Northern Architectural Association was 
held at tho Old Castle, Newcaatle-on-Tyue, on 



Tuesday, the 8th inst. In the absence ofthe pre- 
sident (Mr. Tho9. Moore, of Sunderland), Mr. J. 
Johnstone, vice-president, took the chair. 

In the absence of the honorary secretary (Mr. 
T. Oliver), Mr. Dunn, Newcastle, read the annual 
report, which detailed the business done diiring 
the year, and congratnlated the members on the 
increase to their numbers which had taken place 
daring the past as during previous twelvemonths. 

On the motion of Mr. John Ross (Darlington), 
seconded by Mr. G. G. Hoskins (Darlington), the 
report was adopted. 

On a ballot being taken, Mr. J. G. Sullivan was 
elected an associate of the association. 

The Vice-President afterwards delivered an 
interesting address to the meeting, in the course 
of which he said : — 1 have to congratulate you, 
gentlemen, on the continued and increasing pros- 
perity of this society, as yoii have heard Irom 
the secretary's report. Many new members and 
associates have been enrolled, and the state of 
our finances is healthy. We now number amongst 
our members, with very few exceptions, the 
names of all in the three counties who are note- 
worthy in the architectural profession. The con- 
sequent influence of this society is great, and is 
being yearly more and more felt, to the advance- 
ment of arc and the elevation of the profession 
in the public mind. This picture of our position 
is certainly very gratifying ; but that future pre- 
sidents may be able to paint it in still more glow- 
ing colours, does it not behove us in the present 
to make strenuous eBTorts by every means in our 
power to increase even further the influence and 
utility of our association ? In the first place, I 
hold it to this end highly essential that we should, 
if possible, obtain and hold our meetings in pre- 
mises of our^own. I would advocate the forma- 
tion of a collection of local building materials, 
and appliances and patents connected with the 
building trades j the introduction of classes for 
assistants, pupils, outworkmeu, and operatives, 
in which projective instruction — art ptinciplea 
applied to building — the use of materials and 
kindred subjects might be taught; and the insti- 
tutiuu of a library where a few costly books of 
reference (such as are not to be lound in general 
libraries) might be lodged. And I wonld earnestly 
entreat every member to make great individual 
efiurt to popularise our general meetings, and in- 
duce a larger attendance — such small audiences 
as we generally have being little encouragement to 
gentlemen to expend the thooght and labour 
necessary to the preparation of a creditable paper. 
One of the great dl^advantaues we labour under, 
as at present lodged, is the want of accommoda- 
tion for the sale keeping of drawings, books, pho- 
tographs, models, &c., that might be sent down 
for exhibition, after and during the time inter- 
vening betiveen general meetings. I do not 
doubt but many members andfriends would coroa 
forward with donations of books, photographs, 
sketches, and the like, were we but once out of 
lodgings and comfortably settled down into a 
habitation of our own. I cannot leave tnis part 
of my subject without remarking on the great 
good such societies as ours work among their 
members. Interconr,-e to a great extent swamps 
petty jealousies and rivalry, and engenders a 
gentlemanly and cousiilerate line of conduct to- 
wards each other ; much mutual improvement is 
the natural result of the interchange of opinion. 
I have now to draw your attention to the work, 
ing ofthe Town Improvement and Sanitary Acts 
in this borough, for 1 cannot but tiiiuk that the 
strict enforcement of the letter of the bye-laws 
is, in many instances, prejudicial to the improve- 
ment of the town, and, in exceptional cases, an- 
tagonistic even to sanitary reform. What is 
requisite is discriminating and intelligent inter- 
pretation of the bye-laws by those in authority. 
After lengthy reierenoe to sanitary matters and 
labourers' dweUings, he said : — My own ex. 
perience in the management of tenement pro- 
perty in the metropolis, in Glasgow, and in our 
town, teaches me that a great deal may be done 
towards the provision of working class dwellings, 
by the judicious renovation of old and dilapidated 
properties. Did time permit, I could point out 
in our town many properties and localities to 
which the principle might be advantageously ap- 
plied. To all lovers of mediteval art, it must be 
most gratifying to learn that at length steps are 
about to be taken to restore, and place beyond 
chance of destruction, that noble monument o! 
the middle ages, the St. Nicholas' tower and 
spire, which has sj long been an ornament toonr 
town, and the pride ot our ouuntry. The com- 
mittee of management, I think, have displayed 



January 11, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



33 



great discretion in their selection of an architect 
to whom to depute this important under- 
taking. Mr. Scott's acknow'edsed ability and 
great experience are sufficient guarantees 
that the restoralion will be effected in a 
conscientious and painstaking spirit. After 
alluding to St. Andrew's, which had been 
restored by Mr. Oliver, tho chairman said: — 
Conspicuous among tho Dissenting places of 
worship in our town is that in Rye-hill, designed 
by Mr. Cubitt, of London, displaying as it does 
great artistic merit, and much original yet 
pleasing detail. Schools by Mr. R. I. Johnson, 
and Messrs. Johnson, Hogg, and Son, are erect- 
ing in our town, while theimportant commercial 
buildings, mostly by Mr. Paruell, lately finished, 
and at present completing, give interest and 
form characteristic additions to the street archi- 
tecture, for which our borough is so justly cele- 
brated. It must have been distressing to our 
honorary secretary to see his building in New 
Bridge-street (the new Mechanics' Institute) 
standing through so many months partially 
built, in consequence of the masons' strike, 
which has so seriously impeded building opera- 
tions in the town. May the time not be far dig- 
tant when tho universal adoption of a few judi- 
cious measures, such as payment by tho hour 
and the recognition of the individuality of the 
workmen, shall put a stop to strikes, with all 
their inconveniences and impoverishing effects, 
for ever ! A great opportunity for the exhibition 
of some good architecture now presents itself in 
onr borough. I refer to the St. John's Lane 
improvement, and beg to submit that tho new 
street, when finished, ought to be second to 
nothing of the kind in the kingdom. It should 
be handsome and capacious, for it will be a lead- 
ing thoroughfare from the central station to the 
heart of the town. It is, happily, placed in tho 
hands of our able engineer and architect, Mr. 
Lamb; and I look forward with great hope to 
the result. What is being done in the matter of 
tho new police-courts ? and can anyone explain 
how it is that the Newcastle public, generally so 
excitable, and the magistrates, lawyers, and 
officials put up so patiently with their present 
accommodation, or rather the want of it ? Our 
neighbours on the opposite bank of the Tyne 
seem to make but little progress towards the re- 
alisation of their new Town-hall scheme. Can 
it be that by this time they have discovered that 
the course pursued by them in procuring a design, 
and in the preparation of the necessary drawings, 
was as injudicious and extravagant as it was in- 
sulting to the local architects. This increasing 
practice, on the part of public boards and com. 
mittets, to depute important architectural works 
to officials ignorant of the very elements of the 
art, and whose real duties are conse- 
quently neglected, cannot be sufficiently 
deprecated. In noticing the new lunatic 
asylum for the borough at Coslodge, I cannot 
but reflect on the conduct of the magis- 
trates in their selection of an architect, evincing, 
as it did, great ihconsideration, not to say injus- 
tice, towards us of the profession in this town ; 
as ratepayers wo severally had a claim, and none 
will dispute but that we include in our body 
many gentlemen quite capable ot carrying out 
such a building in .accordance with the most ad- 
vanced and enlightened views. It is with great 
pleasure I notice, after much talk, a practical 
and determined effort is being made to perpet- 
uate the memory ol Newcastle's greatest builder, 
Richard Grainger, whose enterprise and indo- 
mitable energy, I may say, almost created our 
town. I cannot conclude without a passing word 
of tribute to tho memories of the late Mr. G. T. 
Gibson and Mr. Ralph Walters — men who worked, 
although not long, yet successfully, to improve 
their native town. The great architectural 
events of tho coming year will be the competi- 
tion for the new Law Courts, and for tho re- 
building of the National Gallery. Twelve com- 
petitors have been named in each instance, but 
this number is much too limited to embrace any- 
thing like a fair proportion of the talent of the 
country, while a glance at the names of the com- 
petitors will make it apparent to every unpreju- 
diced mind that the selection has been made in 
many cases with more favouritism than discri- 
mination, many gentlemen being included whose 
forte does not lie in this direction. I cannot 
Dring my mind to think that the steps taken by 
the Government in this matter are those best 
calculated to procure the best design the country 
is capable of producing; but, nevertheless, we 
may reasonably expect a fine exhibition of de- 
signs, for some of the ablest heads and hands are. 



no doubt, at this moment busy on the draw 
ings. I would say a word or two on competi- 
tions generally, and, like most other architects, 
could cite many instances, within my own ex 
perience, of ill-usage and want of consideratioi 
received at the hands of coni'iiittoes. Competi 
tion I consider a great principle, and well calcu 
liited to encourage genius, and could it only be 
in some way systematised, and weeded of the 
many abuses that characterise its application at 
the present time. Attempts in this direction 
have been made by the Royal Institutfe of Britinih 
Architects and tho Asso?iation in London, and 
by some provincial societies, our own amongst 
the number. It is of the first importance, in the 
conducting of a competition to a successful issue, 
that the conditions and instructions be well de- 
fined and explicit, and the selection be made by 
some properly qualified and thoroughly disin- 
terested tribunal. I am decidedly opposed to 
the method, so much in vogno latterly, of leaving 
tho selection to the arbitrament of some profes- 
sional man, however pure hia motives and inten- 
tions; for it must bo quite impossible for 
any mind to divest itself of the prejudices arising 
Irom education, study, or, it may be, a Ion:,' 
practice in a certain school ; and deal justice 
alike to all comers in ditferent styles. You will 
no doubt all of you have remarked that a new 
system is likely to be inaugurated by the forth- 
coming competition for tho Manchester New 
T.iwn-hall, as described in tho building papers; 
it seems sufficiently remunerative and promises 
well. I shall watch its progress with much 
interest, and in the meantime let us give all 
credit to the committees for their readiness to 
receive and profit by suggestions froni without. 
Very many important works have been under- 
taken and finished during the past year through- 
out the kingdom, and I think I may say, gene- 
rally, in a manner creditable to the architectural 
taste of the day. I believe that the architectural 
taste during the last few years has made great 
strides, and that the buildings at the present are 
not so utterly devoid of vitality and expression 
as some of the critics would seem to think. We 
have no predominating style, but I fancy there 
are few styles that ever existed, and contained 
the germs of a living art, but have been cleverly 
adapted and reproduced in our own time in our 
own land. I am no partisan of either side in 
the battle of the styles, for I hold that bad 
buildings are more frequently due to the want 
of art in their designers than to any insur- 
mountable peculiarities of the style they affect. 
As a noteworthy example of this, I beg to 
mention the entirely successful designs of Mr. 
Thomson, of Glasgow, in that, perhaps, least 
plastic of all styles — the Greek. I cannot pass 
Mr. Thomson's name without a reference to a 
paper by him, in vindication of his favourite 
style, read before tho Cilasgow Association a 
short time ago. I consider it one of the ablest 
papers of the year in connection with our art. 
Mr. Dunn moved and Mr. Hopkins seconded 
a vote of thanks to the Vice-president for the 
interesdng address he bad just read. 



JERUSALEM. 



MIR MOSES MONTEFIORE, Bart., has de- 
O termined since his return la.'st spring from 
the Holy Laud, to erect another Hospice at Jeru- 
salem, for the residence of several poor Israelitish 
families. This building will be on a large scale, 
and built near to that which was erected in the 
year 1859, under the superintendence of Mr. 
William Edward Smith, architect, of 45, Upper 
Bedford-place. Tne contemplated works, we are 
informed, are entru-t^d to the professional skill 
of the same gentleman. 



ELECTION OF A SURVEYOR FOR 
COVENTRY. 

A SHORT time since the authorities of Coventry 
advertised for a surveyor, and eixty-one can- 
diOates applied for the situation. At ameetiugof 
tbecouucil on the26th ult., twenty-one were select- 
ed, viz. — Mr. C. H. Lowe, London; Mr. C. H. Cope, 
Birmingham ; Mr. Alfred Morris, Rusholme, neai 
ilanchester; Mr. Ai'thur Jacob, Cioydon; Mr 
J. E. Fdlmer, Rugby ; Mr. E. J. Purnell, Wolver 
hampton ; Mr. U. Taylor, Coventry ; Mr. C. Slagg, 
Manchester; Mr. William Beaumont, Ellaud ; 
Mr. James Lund, Sueerness ; Mr. James Richard- 
son, Leeds; Mr. John Wood, Nuneaton; Mr. W. 
W. Pereday, Burtjn-on-Treot ; Mr. Robert 



Vawser, Belfast; Mr. William Ground, Durham; 
Mr. Thomas H -ws m, Salford ; Mr. J. Jowett, 
Dorchester; Mr. John Liing, Londo ; Mr. 
Edwin VVnnemiii, Crewe; Mr. E. W. Shaw, 
I'oi-qu ly ; Mr. Miciiael Creamb, Bri:^hton. 

After some investigation tho number was re- 
lucod to nine, and tho following are the particu- 
lar.s ot tho names, residences, occupation, and 
experience of the candidates from whom tho 
choice is to be made : — 

J. E. Palmer, Rugby, surveyor to local board, 
was at Cardiff and Swansea, carrying on the 
drainage and other improvement works six years. 
Has extended tho drainage works at Rugby, and 
carried out now waterworks, laid out new streets, 
and is thoroughly conversant with sewage irriga- 
tion schemes, 'i'estimonials from Rugby Local 
Board of Health ; inhabitants of Rugby ; several 
engineirs and others at Swansea and Cardiff'. 

E. J. Purnell, Wolver-hampton. surveyor at 
Wolverhampton frotn 1857 to 1804; prepared a 
scheme of sewage, canctioned by Council and 
approved by Mr. Rawlinson, the Government 
Inspector ; superintended the formation of 79 
streets there, at a cost of £20,000. Testimonials 
from Sir J. Morris, several eminent civil engi- 
neers, and members of Local Board, Wolver- 
hampton. Could commence forthwith. 

Chas. H. Ljwe, London, assistant surveyor to 
parish of St. Mary-le-bone, has been concerned 
in every class of work required at that place, 
including paving, cleansing, lighting, watering, 
and drainage ; was acting surveyor twelvo 
months, during illness of surveyor, tor which he 
received a gratuity of .-tjO ; prepared plans and 
estimates for the workhouse and infirmary there, 
to hold 1,900 inmates, which were approved by 
the architect to Metropolitan Board of Works. 
Testimonials from Vestry Clerk, Mary-le-bone; 
Dr. Whitmore, Mary-le-bone; Mary-le-bone 
Guardians, Dr. Randall, Surveyor of St, Pancras, 
Engineer to West Middlesex Waterworks Com- 
pany, Rev. S. H. Widdrington, and others. 

Alfred Morris, Rusholme, near Manchester, 
surveyor to local board, was articled tor six 
years to corporation of Bolton, afterwards was 
engaged by them as assistant; his present em- 
ployers have recently advanced his salary. 
Testimonials from several mayors, ex-mayors, 
and members of council, and civil engineers, at 
Bolton. 

Arthur Jacob, Croydon, assistant engineer of 
the public works, had sole charge of twenty 
miles ol the Great Indian Peninsula Railway to 
construct, under directions from the Indian 
Government ; he prepared schemes for supplying 
w.iter to two towns ; on his return to England 
was chief assistant to Mr. Addison, Westminster. 
Tustimonials from Lieut.-Gol. Kennedy, Mijor- 
Goueral Scott, Lieut. -Col. Lisle, C. B. Lane, Edq., 
B.aldwin Latham, Esq., C.E,, Chairman of Croy- 
don Local Board of Health. 

Wm. Ground, Durham, surveyor to local board, 
has held his present office since 1856 ; has been 
engaged ou the Middle Level Drainage Works, 
in Cambridge ; was Superintendent for the 
Lords Commissioners of tho Admiralty, in re- 
pairing breach at the mouth of the Humber; 
was on the Ordnance Sarvey of England, at Dur- 
ham, two years. Testimonials bear date fn.m 
1851 to April in the present year, and refer to 
applicant's ability as a surveyor, &o. ; they have 
been used for similar occasions. 

George Taylor, Coventry, architect and sur- 
veyor, has had considerable experience in every 
branch of his profession; is thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the construction of the waterworks 
and baths ; furnishes list of twenty-eight public 
buildings erected under his superintendence. 
Testimonials from Charles Hanson, Esq., Rev. 
D. H. Haigh, Ediugton ; H. Woodyer, Esq., Rev. 
G. F. Pessey. 

Charles Slagg, Greenhays, Manchester, was 
surveyor at Leek from 1858 to 1862, during 
which time he thoroughly drained the town, and 
delivered the sewage on land ; has been assisting 
the surveyor at Manchester tho last four years, 
in extending the waterworks, and improvement 
uf river and drainage; has assisted in the erec- 
tion of several pumping engines. Testimonials 
rom surveyor to local board, Norwich; City 
-urveyor, Manchester; T. Curley, Esq., C.E. ; 
Dr. Ritchie, and others. 

James Lund, Sueerness, engineer and surveyor 
to the local board, has been engaged for many 
years on sewage and waterworks; bad consider- 
able experience in tunnelling, bridge building, 
and town improvements. Testimouml from R. 
Rawlinson, Esq., certifies as to the ability of 
.ipplicant while employed under him at Lancaster 



34 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 11, I86r. 



and Wigan. On the 2nd of Janaary a special 
meeting of the Board of Health was convened, 
■when the nine selected candidates had a personal 
interview with the Board. It was decided to re- 
duce the number from nine to three, when 
Purnell secured 29 votes, Lowe 18, and Palmer /• 
The third and fiual voting was — Puinell 28, ami 
Lowe 10. The Mayor then formally announced 
that Mr. Purnell, of Wolverhampton, had been 
duly elected the surveyor for the city. 



PERSONAL. 



MR. SERJEANT BaRKE has been elected 
for lS6t)-7 Directeur or chief honorary 
otiicer of the well-known Society of Antiquaries of 
Normandy. This is the first time the compliment 
has been paid to an Englishman. 

Mr. W. C. RobsoD, the honorary secretary of the 
Master Builders' Associaciou of Newcastle, has 
been presented with a handsome gold watch and 
appendages by the members of the association. 

Mr. Thomas Purnell is succeeded as assistant 
secretary of the Grand Archaiological Institute by 
Mr. A. R. Lodge. 

Mr. E. J. PurneU has been elected surveyor fur 
the city of Coventry, after a contest with sixty- 
one candidates. 

Mr. Thomas Wheatley, locomotive superinten- 
dent to the London and North- Western Railway 
Company, at Wolverton, has been appointed 
locomotive superintendent to the North British 
Railway Company. 

The death is announced of Mr. Robert Lemon, 
F.S.A., late of her Majesty's State Paper OflBce. 
He contributed many valuable papers of an anti- 
quarian nature applicable to history and archaeology 
to the QentUmaji's Majazine and other periodicals 
of the kind. Mr. Lemon was 67 years of-age. 

If John Dyble, who was in business about 27 
years ago, near Kingslaud Gate, as marble mason, 
will apply to Mr. Peirse, 2, Cobourg Villas, Co- 
bourg-ruad, Old Keut-r.iad, he will hear some- 
thing to his advantage. — Second column of Times. 

Mr. Joseph Newton, of the Mint, has been re- 
appointed president of the Association of Foremen 
Engineers. We believe that this is the ninth 
time he has had this distinction conferred upon 
him. Mr. Keyte has been chosen vice-pretideut. 

The following are the names of the judges ap- 
pointed to decide on the merits of the New Na- 
tional Gallery designs : — Viscount Hardinge ; Lord 
Elcho, M.P. ; A. J. Beresford Hope, Esq. M.P., 
president of the Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects ; W. Tite, Esq. M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A. ; W. 
Russell, Esq., trustee of the National Gallery ; W. 
Boxall, Esq., R. A., director of the National Gallery; 
D. Br,i.ndun Esq., F.S.A. ; T. Gambler Parry Esq. ; 
and R. Redgrave, Esq., R.A., Inspector General, 
Science and Art Department. A preliminary 
meeting was held on Wednesday last. 

At the last meeting of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, on the 8th inst., Mr. C. H. Gregory, 
vice-president, in the chair, six candidates were 
balloted for, and declared duly elected, includiug 
five members, viz. :— Mr. John Clark, engineer to 
the Municipal Council of Shanghae ; Mr. Lewis 
Henry Moorsom, resident engineer in charge of the 
■works at the London-road Station, Manchester, of 
the London and North-Western, and Manchester, 
Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway Companies ; 
Mr. James Long Parker, executive engineer of the 
Ist grade in the service of the Government of 
India, Meerut ; Mr. Charles Sacre, chief engineer 
to the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire 
Railway Company ; and Mr. Edwin Thomas, en- 
gineer to the Regent's Canal Company, and one 
Associate, viz. :— Mr. Adam Fettiplace Blandy, re- 
sident engineer, Millwall Ducks. 



WATER SUPPLY OF THE METROPOLIS. 

n^HB following account ia taken from the an- 
X nual report on the health of the parish of 
St. Maryiebone for 1865, and dated November, 
1866. It is from the pen of Dr. John Whitmore, 
the medical officer of health (or the parish. 
He says that he is indebted to the courtesy and 
kindness of W. H. Whiffin, Esq., the secretary 
of the West Middlesex Water Company, for most 
of the facts and stati tics here given, and for ihe 
privilege of personally inspecting the works at 
the diSertnt stitions of the company. 

The water supply of the metropolis has of late 
occupied so large a share of public attention, 
and the effects of its impurities on the health of 
the population has formed the subject of so much 
discussion amongst men eminent m science, that 



1 need offer no apology for describing somewhat 
in detail the method by ■which the water sup- 
plied to this parish by the West Middlesex 
Company is brought from its source to the dwell- 
iog of every householder, and the process it 
undergoes in its transit to deprive it of its or- 
ganic and other imparities; but, apart from these 
considerations, the magnitude of the operations 
of this one company — which it must be remem- 
bered supplies only one-eleventh part of the 
population of London — cannot fail to be a sub- 
ject of interest, inasmuch as it shows very forc- 
ibly what human skill and enterprise can 
accomplish, and the beneficent effects they are 
calculated to produce when wisely and properly 
directed. 

The company's source of supply ia the River 
Thames at Hampton, Middlesex, above the vil- 
lage, and sis miles above the tidal influence, 
whence the water is pumped direct to Barnes, 
Surrey, through a 36in. main, 8| miles in 
length, passing through Twickenham and under 
the River Thames (through duplicate pipes) near 
Richmond Bridge ;ind through Richmond and 
Mortlake. Tliere are two engines at Hampton of 
105-horse power each. At Barnes the company 
have three snbsiding reservoirs* of about 20^ 
acres area, containing about 55,161,763 gallons, 
available for filtering, and five tilter-beds of eight 
acres area, the storage of the beds beiui,' 
9,501,2.33 gallons. A small engine of 6horse 
power is used for the purpose of washing the 
tine sand through which the water is filtered. 
This process of cleansing the sand I have seen in 
operation, and must pronounce it to be very 
effective. I may add that the filter-beds require 
cleansing out at intervals varying from one to 
three weeks, dOj ending principall} upon the state 
of the weather. From the filter-beds at Barnes, 
the water is conveyed by means of a 36in. con- 
duct pipe under the bed of the river to the 
pumping establishment at Hammersmith, whence 
it is propelled to the high-level reservoirs and 
(iistricts by means of five pumping engines of 
an aggregate amount of 900-hor6e power. The 
company have a covered reservoir at Notting- 
hill, which is 112ft. above Trinity high-water 
mark ; it is about l^ acres in area, and will con- 
tain 3,672,000 gallons. They have also another 
covered reservoir at Barrow-hill, near Primrose- 
hill, which is 177ft. 6iu. above Trinity high-water 
mark; this hag an area of about l^ acres, and 
will hold 4,750,000 gallons. At Barrow-hill there 
are two pumping engines, one of 40-horse power, 
and the other of 43-horse power, for the supply 
of the higher parts of the district about St. John's 
Wood, the New Fiuchley-road, H<!ndcn, &c.,which 
places tlie reservoir cannot serve by gravita- 
tion. For the future permanent supply ot this high 
locality the comp.iuy have purchased land at the 
back of Kidderpore Hall, near Child' .s-hill, Fmch- 
ley-road, wh.re they are constructing another 
covered reservoir which will be 310ft. above 
Trinity high-water mark, and will contain about 

2 500,000 gallons. The average daily supply of 
water to each person is thirty gallons. As i-e- 
gards the puriiy, the results of analyses made by 
Dr. Litheby and Dr. Fraukland, and of those 
wliich I have conducted, show that its saline 
constituents amount to from 15 grains to 17 
gr.iins per imperial gallon, and its organic and 
other volatile matters to an average of from half a 
grain to three quarters of a gram per impeiial 
gallon. Compare this with the quantity of or- 
ganic matter coutdned in the water derived 
from the surface wells of London, and which in 
many instances amounts to 3 grains, 4 grains, and 
even 6 grains per gallon, and we cau then form 
an estimate of the great superior! y of Thames 
Water for all drinking purposes. It would not be 
possible in this brief summary to desciibe the 
arrangements of the filter-beds, but 1 m.iy stale 
generally that the bottom of them is Loveied 
over witli a concrete bed, upon which is first 
placed a layer of course gravel 12in. thick; 
above this are four other layers of gravel tf 
gradually increasing fineness, the thickness o! 
these layers varying successively 6in., Sin, 2in., 
and 4in. Above the gravel is a layer of Barnes 
sand 12in. thick, and again above this is a layer 
of Harwich sand 21in. thick. Thus we have a bed 
of filtering material 51't. thick, and through this 
all the water is made to pass before it is distri- 
buted for our use. I ought not to omit mentioning 
that since the year 1852, when the company oi- 
tained an Act of Parliament enabling them to 
change their source of supply from the Thames 

'* la these reservoirs a cousiderable portion of the solid 
matter iield in suapeiisiou ia allowed to aubside before the 
water passes into liie filtering-beds. 



at Barnes to Hampton, £263,000 have been 
spent b}' them in the construction of new works. 
At the present time five water companies ob- 
tain their supply from the River Thames, viz., 
the West Middlesex, the Grand Junction, the 
Southwark and Vauxhall, the Chelsea, and the 
Lambeth, the three first at Hampton, and the 
two last at Thames Ditton. The quantity of 
water taken from the river by these companies 
amounts to an average of about 50 millions of 
gallons daily, or upwards of 18,000 millions of 
gallons annually. The inexhaustibility of the 
source from whence this enormous quantity of 
water is derived may be estimated by two facts, 
first, that in seasons of the greatest drought the 
tall of the river at Hampton does not exceed from 
Sin. to 4in, and next that the water which flows 
over Teddington weir in 24 hoars is calculated 
at an average of 500 millions of gallons. 



MACHINERY FOR LIFTING 'VVATEK. 

THE mechanical or motive power derived from 
the employment of water as a prime agent, 
Says the Mechanics* Magazine^ is due to the non- 
equilibration of the pressure it exercises in any 
given direction. The pressure may assume the 
condition of simple weight or the action of gravity, 
or of impact, or, as frequently occurs, of the two 
combined ; it may likewise present itself as a 
force centrifugally developed. As air and water 
were the only mechanical powers available before 
the introduction of steam, many machines, as 
might be anticipated, were invented at varioas 
times for economising and utilising their force. 
The preference appears, however, to have been 
given on the whole to water wheels, of which 
there are three different descriptions generally 
recognized — viz., the nadershot, overshot, and 
breast wheel. The turbine and Barker's mill are 
both well calculated to do good service in situ- 
ations where the others could not be made use 
of; but they act not so much by the direct force 
of the water applied as by its reactive agency, 
and are consequently rather more complicated iu 
their mechanism. The undershot wheel affords 
the simplest method of utilising the impaotive 
force of water. It may be briefly described as a 
vertical wheel, turning upon a horizontal axis 
and carrying paddles upon its periphery which 
are perpendicular to the plane of the wheel, and 
are, in fact, iaa line with the prolongation of any 
radius. All these wheals are so well known to 
engineers that we shall not describe them, except 
generally, la fixing an undershot wheel, there 
is one important practical detail to be borne iu 
mind, and that is to so erect it that the current 
ot the stream or river should be as nearly as 
possible iu the direction of a- tangent to the cir- 
cunifiirence of the wheel when the paddles dip 
into the water. Un the supposition that only one 
paddle was in the water at the same moment, it 
would be possible to arrive at au accurate result 
of the work done by the wheel by a mathematical 
investigation ; but as this is never the case, as 
two or three paddles always dip at the same mo- 
ment, the problem becomes so exceedingly com- 
plicated, owing to the fact that each paddle pro- 
duces an alteration iu the angle and the velocity 
of the water when striking ihe next, that its so- 
lution has defied all theoretical attempts to reduce 
it to calculation. Although no accurate calcu- 
lation can be made, except upon facts deduced 
from actual experiments, yet some general con- 
clusions may be arrived. Confining the theo- 
retical inquiry to the first assumption — viz., that 
only one paddle is <.cted upon at a time — it has 
been found that the work done by an undershot 
wheel never, except in rare instances, exceeds a 
quarter of that due to the water. The greatest 
.tmount of work is got out ot the wheel when its 
velocity is equal to about half that of the water. 
It has been assumed, in deducing these con- 
clusions, tiiat there is no escape of water, and that 
he paddles are sufficiently broad to fill the entire 
breadth of the channel — an impossibility in prac- 
tice. The undershot wheel is not, however, a 
good machine to employ where it is necessary to 
economise the power ; for it wastes half the water .■ 
when constructed iu the most perfect manner, as 
suggested by theory. All machines set in motion > 
by water impinging upon a succession of flat |l 
surfaces are open to the same objection, and the | 
remedy is to curve the surfaces. This improve- / 
mentis carried out in Poncelet's wheel, which! 
has concave paddles, and which has been fouud 
by experience to do nearly twice as much work 
as any wheel with flat paddles. In 1S25, the Iu 
stitute of Prance awarded a prize to M. Poncelet 



I 



January 11, 1866. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



3.5 



for his improved form of paddle, after satisfying 
itself that it produced the practical advantages 
claimed for it by the inventor. Theoretioully 
this wheel ia perfect in its construction, but in 
Tiractioe it only utilises about three- filths of the 
motive power; its maximum effect is produced 
when the velocity of the wheel is rather more than 
half that of the stream. 

In the overshot wheel, the water is above in- 
Btead of nuderneatb, and runs into buckets, 
which replace the padJles iu the undershot, and 
are so constructed that they should retain the 
water until the wheel has nearly made a semi- 
revulutiou. Theoretically the water should not 
leave the buckets unlit a serai-revolution is ac- 
complished, but this condition cannot be fulfilled 
in practice, and hence arises the chief defect 
of the wheel. It has been endeavoured to over- 
come this defect by a peoulitir sliape of bucket, 
but it was found to lead to a more serious evil — 
viz., that of retaining some of the water iu 
the buckets during their ascent, and so adding 
considerably to the dead weight to be moved. 
We have alluded to the breast wheel, but it is in 
reality a modification of the overshot wheel, and 
differing from it principally iu the direction at 
which the water enters the bucket?. In the 
cver^hot the water falls into cue of the top 
buckets and impels it in the direction of the 
stream. In the breast wheel it enters a bucket 
on a level with the centre of the wheel and 
impels it downwards, causing the lower part of 
the wheel to move iu the direction of the stream, 
and also enabling the water to act with effect 
upon it, which cannot be done in the case of the 
overshot wheel. Tlie relative advantages of 
these two wheels may be summed up as follows : — 
With a good fall, but small qaantiiy and velocity, 
use the overshot wheel ; with a small fall but 
large quantity, use the breast wheel ; the latter 
should always be employed when the tail race is 
intended to be utilised. 

It is clear, coutiuues the Mecluinics' Magazine, 
that these three wheels can ouly act under par- 
ticular conditions of fall, quantity, and velocity, 
and to do so advantageously demauds a com- 
bination of circumstances that cannot be always 
attained. Receutly a description of wheel has 
been patented by M. de la Fontaine, with the 
object of combining the several advantages of 
the different systems.* This new wheel has flat 
paddles so arranged as to act whether par- 
tially or totally immersed in water, and capable 
of revolving in both directions. The inventor 
remarks that this would be a valuable detail 
where the motive power was that of the tides. 
The principle of the invention consists in fixing 
the paddles upon pivots, upon which they can 
move freely, and which allows them to assume 
a pendent position, wbeu the force of the cuirent 



F I G . I. 



| _l I II 11 J_ I I I' 




ceases to act upon them and to revolve com- 
pletely round when the direction of the current 
is reversed. In fig. 1, the paddles a a are 
represented mounted upon the circumference of 
the wheel, and resting partly upon the short 



* We are indebted for the particulareof thia invention to 
our contempoiarr Le Genie JndMtriet. 



bars and stops c c, and partly in a pendent 
position. Supposing the water to be at the 
level X, and the sluice c opened to allow the 
proper amount of head, directly the water 
touches the paddles they at once bear upon the 
points of support or stops c fixed upon tho frame 
of the wheel, and it commences to rotate. As 
the wheel emerges from tho water they assume 
a pendent position until again acted upon by tho 
force of gravity, and finally bear again upon tho 
stops. The paddles in their ascent evidently 
present no resistance to tho water, as they drop 
at onco to tho necessary angle of inclination. 
In fig. 2 a somewhat similar wheel is repre- 
sented, but, instead of tho paddles bearing upon 
Slops, they base their points ol'support upon the 
axis of the wheel, which allows it to ait under 
all conditions of partial or total immersion. 
Tnis principle of wheel, therefore, is founded 
upon that ofarticulated or suspended and movable 
paddles, so arranged as to yield to the current 
when opposed to it in direction, hut to resist it 
rigidly when act'ug favourably for the develop- 
ment of tho motive power. It also possesses 
the other advantages with respect to immersion 
already mentioned, but tho pith of the patent 
lies in the novelty of the paddles. 

WAGES AXD SHORT TIME. 

Staffordshire. — The ironmasters of South 
Staffordshire and East Worcestershire gave notice 
on Saturday of their intention to reduce the wages 
of the men iu their employment. It is stated that 
among the millmen and puddlers, some opposition 
will be offered to the reduction ; but the masters 
appear confident that a strike will not be resorted 
to. At a meeting of the London Working Meu's 
Association, held on Tuesday, the foUowmg 
resolution was passed: — " That iu the present 
circumstances of the iron trade, not only in North 
England, but in Staffordshire, it is desirable that 
the existing eU'orts on behalf of the ironworkers be 
continued." 

♦ 

LEGAL INTELLIGENCE. 

INFRINGEMENT OF THE ChIJINEY-SWEEPERS' AcT. 

— At the Hammersmith Police court on Monday, 
Thomas Liley, a chimney-sweeper, was summoned 
for allowing a boy under sixteen years of age to 
enter the house No. 17, Addison-road North, 
Kensington, for the purpose of sweeping a chim- 
ney. The proceedings were instituted by a master 
chimney-sweeper named Stromeger, who saw the 
boy with the defendant at the house. He said to 
the defendant, " Thomas, you are violating the 
act in taking the boy into the house," when he 
replied that he did not care for him or the act so 
long as he had a shot in the locker to pay. Fined 
20s., and 23. costs. The defendant, who refused 
to pay the fine, was then ordered to be im- 
prisoned for fourteen days, with hard labour. 

Tenants' Kights in Minerals. — A case of 
some public interest, as ati'ecting the right of 
tenants for life under settlements to work mine- 
rals, was the other day decided by Vice-Chancellor 
Wood. Tenants for life may work mines already 
opened, but if not empowered to commit waste, may 
not open new mines for their own benefit, and the 
question has often been raised, What amount of 
previous working renders a mine open, so that 
tenants for fife may work it for themselves ? The 
plaintiffs in this case were Colonel Stepney and 
his two sons, who are the present owners of the 
Stepney estate in South Wales ; and the defendant 
is Mr. William Chambers, who is the executor of a 
late tenant for life of the estate, who was not by 
the terms of the will of the settler authorised to 
Commit waste. On coming into possession of the 
estate, however, he granted a lease of all the 
coal under certain farms forming part of the estate, 
and the suit iu question was instituted for the 
purpose of recovering the amount of royalties re- 
ceived under this lease. The defendant contended 
that the mines were open ones at the date of the 
settlement, and that it was consequently not waste 
in a tenant for life to work them ; and in support 
of hia view he proved the existence on the farms of 
an old trial pit, and a very considerable amount of 
superficial working at the outcrop of the various 
seams of coal on the side of the mountain. The 
Vice-Chancellor, however, held that workings of 
this description did not amount to an opening of 
the mine, and gave the plaintiffs a decree with 
costs. 

The Snow CLEiBrNG Qcestion.— Mr. Ben- 
tinck, M.P., and Mr. Percy Doyle attended at 
the Marl borough-street Police-court, on Wed- 



nesday, to learn tho decision of Mr. Tyrwhitt on 
the application for a summons against the vestry 
of St. George, Ilanover-squaro, for neglecting to 
remove tho snow iu their parish. Mr. Tyrwhitt 
said — I have attentively considered tho Local 
Management Act, 18 and 19 Vic, cap. 120, sec. 
125 and 23 1, with 25 and 26 Vic, cap. 102, see. 
65. The question for the magistrate is whether 
ho has summary jurisdiction to inflict a penalty 
on the vestry of St. George's for not swcejiing 
tho streets in their parish during the late snow 
fall. It is well settled that, without express 
words inflicting a penalty, and making it recover- 
able before a magistrate, he has no such power, 
and I find no such words. Section 125 of tho 
Local Management Act is the only section bear- 
ing on tho subject; it requires the vesti-y to 
appoint and employ a sufficient number of per- 
sons, or to contract with any company or person, 
for such sweeping, but no penalty is attached on 
the vestry for not so doing, but a penalty of £5 
is inflicted on the scavenger who afier such con- 
tract shall fail properly to perform tho work. 
Supposing the vestry not to have employed a 
siitticient number of persons to sweep the streets, 
or not to have contracted for doing that work, 
the remedy against the vestry would be by indict- 
ment for disobedience to the statute, or had tho 
snow lasted, by mandamus. It may be that tho 
legislature was content with requiring vestries to 
employ scavengers, and took it for granted that 
they would do so ; but with that the magistrate 
has nothing to ( o. I am, therefore, of opinion 
that I should do wrong in issuing a sum- 
mons against the vestry. — Mr. Bentinck wished 
to assure the magistrate that m bringing books 
to the court it was from no feeling of disrespect ; 
his only view in coming forward was that tho 
public question might be raised. He quite agreed 
with the decision just given, and was pleased to 
find that the ratepayers had no remedy aiiainst 
the vestry, as the legislature must be called upon 
next session to provide a remedy. 



NOTICE. 

*^* The BurujiNG News inserts advertisements 
for " Situations Wanted," &c., at One Shilling for 
the first Twenty-four Words. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

To OUB Readers. — We shall fijel obliged to any of our 
readei-s who wilt favour us with brief notes of works con- 
templated or in progress iu tlie provinces. 

Letters relating to advertisements aud to tlie ordinary 
business of the paper should be .addressed to tlie Editor, 
166, Fleet-street. Advertisements for the current week 
must reach the office before 5u'elock p.m. ou Thursdays. 

Received.— D. N.— H- D. L.— A. C. P.— A. and R. D.— 
J. E.— M. and Co.— M. T. S.— ,T. B.— J. C. F. K.— J. W.— 
J. P.— T. G.— B. aud D.— C. W. L.— E. IS. and .J.— 
M. H. aud Co.— R. P. S.— M. and M.— T. O.— W. D. and 
Son.— J. C. and Co.— J. A. F.— E. B. F.— H. S. P.— T.M. 

Several questions and answers for the intercommunica 
tiou must remain over another week. 

. H. T. — We can't .advise you; apply to a patent agent. 

J. H. R. — It is contrary to our rule to give the price of 
books. 

W. H. — Write to the Secretary of the Architectural 
Association, 9, Couduit-street. 

J. L. — Suu-diats next week. 



CoiTcspoukiice. 



THE NATIONAL GALLERY COMPETITION. 
To tlic Editor of the Buildisq News. 

Sir, — I was never more disappointed— I had 
almost said disgusted — on paying a visit to these 
designs yesterday. What can our architects have 
been about ? A m.ajority of the plans would dis- 
grace an architect's pupd. We have been told 
again and again that the National Gallery site is 
'• the finest site in Europe." But the competitors 
appear to have looked at it as one of the worst 
sites in the world. All I can say is, that if these 
drawings are the best fruits our architects can 
show. Lord have mercy on our future architec- 
ture ! I heard but one opinion during my two 
hours' st.ay in the Victoria Tower, aud that was 
that the competition was a monstrous failure. 
Would an unUmited competition have produced 
more melancholy results than this ? I trow not. 
Let us hope that the law courts' designs will 
efl'ace the memory brought away from the Vic- 
toria Gallery. I, for one, look forward to them as 
a child who longs for a piece of sugar after taking 
his physic. — I am, &c., 

^ Architect's Pupil. 



36 



THE BUILDING NEWS, 



January 11, 1867. 



A GOOD ARKAXGEMENT. 

Sir,— Since reading your notice of Murray's 
cash pad I have seen an arrangement at the 
Portland-road station on the Metropolitan, which 
seems to me much more practical, and one which 
possesses every quality of durability. 

The counter in front of the money taker, from 
•which the passengers take their change is deli- 
cately fluted, and most effectually gets over that 
bite which the coin always takes upon a counter 
with an even surface. 

The annexed sketch will make the arrangement 




SECTION A. B 



better understood. It will be seen that the fluted 
form is well adapted for the fingers, and on 
account of the concavity of its surface prevents 
the coin from lying flat. — I am, &c., 

Broad-street Station, Jan. 7. E. H. HoRNE. 



STRIKE IN CHESTER. 



Sir, — Yon state, when referring to the town-hall, in your 
last number, that a strike of a, " few days" took place on 
that job, and tliat "the authorities of tlie union on being 
appealed to declared the stiike to be frivolous, whereupon 
it ceased." This is incorrect. The works have been at a 
complete stand since the strike took place and are so still ; 
the contract has been transferred to another contractor, 
but the masons (the only trade which struck) have not yet 
recommenced work, nor do they appear likely to do so. It 
is much to be regretted, as the building trade here is very 
slack, and the money which the job would put in circula- 
tion would be acceptable to many. Asking pardon for 
thus trespassing upon your time. — I am. Sir, F. 

Chester, January S. 



BIRKENHEAD PUBLIC BATHS' COMPETITION. 

Sir. — 1 see in your columns a letter signed "Com- 
petitor," asking for information respecting the above com- 
petition, :jnd complaining very justly of tlie lumsual and 
unnecessary time taken by the committee for deliheratiog 
upon the same, viz., since September 1 last. Will you 
allow me, through your columns, to endorse the complaint 
of your correspondent, and to repeat his inquiries as to 
whether anything has yet been done in the matter? and 
thus oblige. Another Competitor. 



Iiittrtoiunumictitiou. 



QUESTIONS. 

MANUFACTURE OF SALT. 
[182] — Will you allow me to ask if any of your readers 
will kindly inform me what average quantity of coal is 
consvimed in producing a ton of salt by the usual method 
of boiling sea water? Enquirer, 



IRON IN CESSPOOLS. 
[lS3.}--Would you or any of your readers inform rae of 
the utility of putting iron (small pieces to obtain as much 
surface as possible) into a cesspool one-fifth in depth, the 
contents of which have to be pumped out on to a kitclien 
garden? Constant Reader, 



MEASUREMENT OF LATHS. 
[1S4.] — Will you kindly inform me, through the medium 
of your widely circulated paper, wliat number of feet run 
there should be in a bundle of laths, and how manylmndles 
there should be in a load, and if there is any standard 
measurement, the s^ame as timber and other materials? A 
person agreed to supply me with laths at a certain price 
per load. On measuring tbe same I found them consider- 
ably short of the usual quantity, viz., 400ft. run. I want 
to know if I can demand the full complement. 

A Countryman. 



HOW TO USE SPARE TIME. 
[1S5.]— Would you or some of your numerous readen 
favour me with the benefit of their exjjerience on the fol- 
lowing, and I have no doubt jt will prove of great assist 
ance to many others :— A fellow student and myself have 
been resptctively five and four years in the architectural 
profession. Now, Sir. I eing anxious to employ our spare 
time in the most useful manner possible, we are at a loss to 
know whether we (should enter a schoo' of art to learn free- 
hand drawing orwheiher we should turn our attention to 
water-colour drawing, or whether it would be better to 
join the Class of Deaigu of the Architectural Association? 
A Would-be Goth, 



WAREHOUSE AND GRANARY FLOORS. 

[1$6.]— May I be allowed to use the medium of your 
valuable journal for deriving the information required as 
follows ?— A warehouse is proposed to be erected, one story 
high, the upper floor to be used for the stowage of gram, 
and to be carried on columns and girders as under : -Pro- 
posed columns, cast iron, circular, 10ft. from ceutreto centre, 
Mft. high, 4iiin. diameter at bottom, Sjin. at top, ^in. metal ; 
proposed girders, vellow timber. 13in. by 9iu., Oft. 6m. 
from centre to centre; proposed joists, Oin. by Sin. ; floor- 
boards! Jin. yellow battens. Would the above scantlings 
lie sufficient for such a purpose? and if so, what weight per 
square would it can'y? If any of your readers could obhge 
me with scantling of timber and ironwork for a similar 
purpose and the tested weight they would carry, one, two, 
or three stories high (each floor separately), tbey would 
gi-eatly oblige, A Provincial Subscriber. 

N.B.— The requisite thickness of external walls would 
also oblige. 



THE WEIGHT OF LIME. 
[ 1 s7. ]— Coii Id any of your subscriber inform me what, if 
any, is the difi'erence in weight per bushel of ordinary 
stone lime and blue lias ? H. M. 



TRANSIT THEODOLITES FOR LARGE SURVEYS. 
[1S8.]— I should take it as a favour if you would ins-rt 
the enclosed ques'.iou iu the next number of your excellent 
periodical. Is there any advantage to be gained by using a 
transit theodolite for large surveys in preference to the 
older form where the telescope has to be taken out of its Y's 
to prolong the same line in theopposite direction. I should 
be very much obliged if some of your practical engineering 
or surveying subscribers would let rae have their opinion on 
tho matter, as I have an excellent 5-inch Troughton of the 
oilier form, and I do not wish to be put to the expense of 
purchasing a new instrument unless there is a necessity for 
it. Many of my professional friends are similarly situated 
to myself. A Surveyor of the Old School. 



CEMENT FLOORS. 
[189.] — I shall feel obliged to any of your i-eadei^s inform- 
ing me how to mix and work a cement concrete floor, the 
proportions, Ac. Birtley. 



GALTON'S VENTILATING STOVES. 
[190.]— Could any of your readers inform me where I can 
get Galton's ventilating stoves ? Is his the best in use ? 

Tom. 



EEPLTES. 
DURABILITY OF ZINC. 



[172.] — Zinc does not fonna'very durable covering for roofs 
in comparison with many other substances. Its chief ad- 
vantage consists in its lightness; it only weighs licwt. per 
sqiuire of 100 superficial feet, whereas cornigated iron, 
which is infinitely its superior in point of durability and 
strength, weighs 3 cwt. per square, and slates and tiles more 
than double that of iron. Neither iron nor zinc would be 
sensibly aff'ected by the cause W. Sands alludes to. Witli 
respect to that portion of his question relating to the total 
cost of aroof per square, it is impossible' to givean approxi- 
mate reply, because in a span of 4 jft. there is considerable 
lattiude iu thechoiceoftlmdesign of the principals. Agood 
economical design might be got out, and, on the other 
hand, a very bad and expensive one. Roofs having me- 
tallic coverings require a difi^erent tieatment of principal to 
those covered iu the ordinary way with slates or tiles. Our 
corres]}oudent may, however, calculate the cost upon the 
following dimensions : — Principal rafters, Oin. by 4in. ; 
tie beam. 12in. by Oin. ; queenposts, Oin. by 4in. ; struts, 
4in. by 4in. ; straining piece, Oin. by Oin, The scantlings 
of the purlings will depend upon the distance apart of the 
principals, and will be from Sin. by 4in. to "in. by4in. The 
small or secondai^ rafters may be taken as 4in, by Sin. No 
accurate estimate could be made without a preliminary 
rough design being got out. 

[172.] — I should like to infoi-m W. Sands that, though I 
cannot say how steam would act upon zinc, I can say, after 
a long experience in buildings, &c. , that where there is no 
steam it will only last a few years. I have taken do\vn a 
zinc spout 20ft. long that would not weigh more than 21b. 
or 31b., and inthehouselnow live in, tlie spouts, which bad 
only been up eight years, liad to be replaced with other ma- 
terial. J. Rattray. 



TANKS FOR CONSERVATORIES. 
[173.] — Your coiTespondent's question may be solved as 
follows : — Let D = the depth required. Now it is clear 
that the cubical contents of the tank must just equal the 
cubical contents of 7,000 gallons, the quantity of water re- 
quired to be contained in it. As a cubic foot of water 
weighs practically (52Jlb., and one gallon of water 101b., it 
is evident that a cubic foot will contain OJ gallons of water. 
The cubical contents of tlie tank are equal to D x 13 'oft 

7000 
X 7'^ft., and that of the water = ^.t;,. equating therefoie 



■ 0-25 



7000 



D X 13*6ft. X 7'of. =-77;^, and solving for D, we find the 

depth to exactly equal lift. In constructing the tank, which 
may be either of cast-iron plates bolted together, and the 
joints well caulked, or of very thin riveted boilerplates, 
stifl'ened along tlie sides and edges by angle-irons or strips. 
it would, of course, be necessary to make the total depth of 
the tank from 4in. to Oin. more than the actual theoretical 
dimensions required. L L. D 

[173.I— One cubic foot uf water = 2355 gallons, which 
although nearer 0^, is generally reckoned for practical pur- 
poses OJ ; therefore for 7,000 gallons 1,143 cubic feet are 
required. The depthof "M. G.'s" cistern mustbe lift. 4in. 
without allowing for the working of the ball under the lid. 

E. T. 

[173.]— I beg your permission to answer "M G.'s" ques 
tion inyour last week's number. If the inside tank for the 
conservatory be 13ft. Sin. x 7ft. Gin. he will require it to 
be lift 1 in. deep. This capacity will hold the required 
7.000 gallons. For all practical purposes he must take 
J gallons to equal one cubic foot.— William Watts, In- 
spector Aehtoii and Staleybridge Waterworks. 



THE PITCH AND SPAN OF ROOFS. 

[174. ]_I think "A. C. " may .safely make his rafters for 
a kingpost truss of the span and pitch he mentions to be 
5in. by 4in. ; the tiebeara should not be less 1 ban 9in by 
i)in. ; the kingpost should be 4in. by 4in. For a iQft. 
bearing between the principals the puilins will have to be 
at least 7in. by Oin., and the common vafters 5in. by 3in. 
With so large a bearing as 10ft, I should be inclined to 
dispense with thecommon rafters altogether, and make the 
purlins about 3iin. by 2in., placingthem to suit the slates. 

J. X. 

[174.] — In answer to " A. C." on " The Pitch and Span 
of Roofs," I should say that scantling required for rafters 
would be about Oin. by 2Mn. The span of roof being 
about 25ft the rest of the roof should be in the foUo^ving 
proportions, viz. : — Principal, Sin. by 4in. ; tie beam, lOin. 
by Oin. ; kingpost, 5in. by 5iu, ; struts, 5in. bvSin. 

T. L. Colley. 



WATER THROUGH PIPES, 
[175.] — Our correspondent may work from the following 

formula :— G = 1 / ('■'> x <f) ^ x h ^ where G = number 

of gallons delivered in one hour, d = the diameter cf the 
pipe in inches, h = the head or depth of water above the 
pipe in feet, and /=the length of the pipe in yards. ^ As 
" Housekeeper " has not given us the value of I we cannot 
solve the equation for him, which otherwise we should 
have been glad to do. 



FOUNT)ATION FOR A CRANE. 

[176.]— Would you allow rae to answer the query of 
"Wharf" in the last issue of your able journal, more espe- 
cially as Xhavehad some experience in getting in crane foun- 
dations? If the gravel is of a hard and sound quality, it is 
quite as safe to build upon as the rock. The kind of foun- 
dation I should put in would be of common concrete, with 
a small proportion of Portland cement mixed with it, if the 
ground he damp. I should carry up the concrete to about 
3ft. of the surface, and then put in the bed for the crane 
post, eitlier in stone or brick in cement, but I should pre- 
fer large heavy blocks if I could get them at a reasonable 
price. E. A. A. 

[176.] — I beg to state, in answer to "Wharfs" question 
that he may make the foundation for the crane with per- 
fect safety upon^he gravel. I would advise him to bed a 
piece of ashlar 4ft. square by 2ft. thick in concrete. This 
will be a cheap and good foundation. By screeutug the 
gravel it can be used for the concrete. The iron step for 
the crane to work in must be let into the centre of the 
ashlar, and set level with the surface.— William Watts, 
Inspector Ashton and Staleybridge Waterworks. 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 
[177.]— In order to be admitted a reader at the British 
Museum, the api)licant must apply In writing, and accom- 
pany his application by a recommendation from a respect- 
able householder, who will be required to certify that the 
applicant is over 21 years of age, and seeks admission for 
literary purposes, the application to be addi'essed to the 
principal librarian. On no account are books permitted to 
bo taken out of the reading room. 



SIDE DRAINS. 
[17S.]— The plan mentioned in your last number in an- 
swer to "Roail Metaller " to prevent the edges of open 
drn'us from breaking and falling into and choking up tho 
channel is undoubtedly a good one, but it is not always 
efficacious. I have known instance^ where the soil was so 
unstable as to require the ^ides to be pitched with thin 
slabs and flat pieces of stone and slate, which alone kept the 
drains iu proper order. Borough Surveyor. 



THE RESISTANCE OF ROADS. 

[179.]_In answer to "Questioner," who desires some in- 
formation respecting the frictional resistance of various 
surfaces, I would, with your permission give liim the fol- 
lowing reply: — The resistance in pounds per ton, neglect- 
ing gravity upon a macadamised road is about 551b. on an 
average, but varies according to the exact, nature of the 
surface. That of a paved road is 33ilb. ; on a gravel road 
about ]551b., and on a railroad from 71b, to Sib. It need 
scarcely be mentioned thjt the state of the weather has a 
great deal to do with the practical truth of these results. 

F. B. 

[179] — In answer to your con^espondent " Questioner " 
on the subject of " Resistance of Roads," I beg to state the 
following for his information :— The resistance in pounds 
per ton of load (neglectin g gravity) on a macadamised road 
= about Stilb. ; paved road, 331b ; soft gravel, 2101b. The 
resistance on a railroad, with train moving at usual velo- 
city, say 30 miles per hour, the track being straight and 
level, would be 13|lb. per ton of load. On a sharp curve 
201b. per ton, or 50 per cent, added to its resistance on a 
straight line. T. L. Colley. 



FRENCH METRES AND ENGLISH FEET. 

[ISO ]— To convert French metro? into English feet and 
decimals of a foot multiply by 3-2S09, orfor all practical 
purposes, where only approximate accuracy is iequire<l, by 
3'2S1. R- "W. D. 

[ISO.]— In answer to "Metre" respecting conversion of 
French metres into English feet and decimals, I would in- 
form him that 1 metre = :^3-371 English inch, and multi- 
plying English feet by "30479 will give him length in metres. 
Thus— lOOft. X -304:9 = 30*47 metres. T. L. Colley. 



The town of Coburg, Canada AVest, was ou the 
1st ult. hghted with a new gas, made from pine 
wood, bones, and refuse vegetable and animal 
matter. The light was brilliant, surpassing that 
manufactured from coal, which had been formerly 
u.^ed, while it will be more economic. 



January 11, 1866. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



37 



¥ni[iiin(i ^hittKiqciirc. 



CHTTKCHES ASD CHAPELS. 

A Roman Catholic Cathedral has been erected 
at Tetuan, iu llorocoo. 

Spitalfields Church was last week reopened 
after having undergone restoration and repairs 
which have cost nearly £7,000. 

Aberdeen— Old Machar Cathedral. — This 
interesting structure, of which we recently gave 
an account, has been carefully examined by Mr. 
Daniel Macandrew, architect, Aberdeen, with a 
view to its restoration. In noticing the architect's 
detailed report, the Aberdeen Free Press says the 
report shows that the movement for restoration 
has not been made a day too soon. 

ALTiUNcn.iM (JI.\N'cnESTER.) — A new church has 
j ust been opened. It is of the Early Deeor.ited 
style, and consists of a broad nave of five bays, 
with north and south aisles, and north and south 
transepts. There is a western porch, and .adjoin- 
ing it on the north side is the baptistery which is 
marked ofl' from the north aisle by a small triple 
arcade : on the south of the porch is the steeple, 
which rises to a height of 140ft. The chancel 
aisles open by .arches into the chancel .and tran- 
septs, and these arches are fiUed to the height of 
7ft. with aroaded wooden screens. The material 
is stone of three or four kinds. Accommodation 
is provided for 950 persons. Mr. J. M. Taylor 
was the architect, and Mr. J. Thompson the 
builder, Manchester. The builder's contract was 
£5,330. 

Liverpool. — A new Wesley.an Chapel has just 
been opened. It is in the Italian style, and con- 
sists of two square towers surmounted by a man- 
sard roof t)5ft. high from the level of the road. 
The front and sidesare facedwith red bricks, with 
dressings of Stourton stone. The chapel will ac- 
commodate 500 in the body, and 350 persons in 
the gallery. The work h-as been carried out, from 
tha designs of Mr. J. Brattan, architect, by Mr. J. 
Hogarth, builder, at a cost, including the land, 
of £5,500. 

LlNDLET. — The memori.al stone of a new Wes- 
leyan Chapel at Lindley, near Huddersfield, was 
laid oa Saturday last. It is to be built of stone in 
the G jthic style, and, with galleries, will accommo- 
date 650 persons. Mr. George Woodhouse, of 
Bolton, is the architect. The cost of the chapel 
will be £2,500. 

LivESEY. — The foundation stone of a new 
church w.aslaidhereafewdayssince. The churchis 
after the type of the twelfth century architecture, 
consisting of a nave S5ft. in length, transepts 25ft. 
wide and 64ft. across; to the east of the nave 
is the chancel, 35ft. long and 24ft. wide. The 
tower is 22ft. square externally, and rises to a 
height of 160ft. The church will be built of Dar- 
wen pier points, the spire being built of ashlar. 
The church is from the designs of E. G. Paley 
Esq. architect, Lancaster ; Messrs. .Swain and Co. 
being the builders. 

Newcastle. — The ancient church of St. Andrew 
was reopened on Sunday last. In addition to a 
thorough renovation and remodelling of the 
interior by the removal of the galleries and 
unsightly pews, and their substitution by open 
benches in keeping with the ecclesiastical character 
of the building, the east end of the chancel has 
been rebuilt, and the great east window is now 
fitted with a stained glass representation, in 
mediaeval character, of the Ascension, from the 
m;inufactory of Mr. Wailes, of Newcastle. The 
alterations have been carried out by Messrs. John 
Burnup and Sons, of West Clayton-street, under 
the supervision of Mr. Thomas Oliver, F.I.B.A., 
architect. The cost of the entire work will be 
about £2,500. 

RiPON. — Restoration of the Cithedral. — A 
meeting of the restoration committee was held the 
other d,ay in the Townhall. Mr. Clarke, Mr. G. 
Gilbert Scott's clerk of the works, was present, 
and received instructions to take down the papier 
mache ceilings of the north and south transepts, 
and to put up new ones more accordant with the 
style of the architecture. The papier mache ceil- 
ings, erected about 1842, now being demolished, 
are bad imitation of a style at least fifty years 
before the date of the tninsepts, which were built 
between .i.D. 1154 and 1 1 ^'». On commencing the 
demoUtioa of the south ti, incept ceiling, the old 
beams and springs of a Perpendicular ceiling, ad. 
1490, were seen yet intact above the curve of the 
sham groining. It was also decided that a new 



pulpit .and lectern should be erected, and the 
bishop's throne, contracted to its old and proper 
limit, thoroughly restored ; the seat belonging to 
the throne has been long preserved in the vestry. 
The under part represents the " Two Spies 
returning with the Bunch of Grapes " from the 
Promised Land. A couple of burlesque figures- 
all heads .and limbs— face and follow the spies 
with quarter staffs. An interesting discovery con- 
nected with fresco painting of an early date (cer- 
t,ainly before a.d. 1190) has just beeu made in the 
chapel dedicated to St. Andrew. 

Sheffield. — A new chapel is to be erected in 
Sutherland-roa<l for the Primitive Methodists. The 
trustees invited designs for the chapel to seat 1,200, 
vestries and schools, &c., from four gentlemen in a 
limited competition; and .after meeting several 
times adopted the design submitted by Messrs. C. 
J. Innocent and Brown, of Sheffield, and appointed 
them the architects. 

WrxDSOR.— The Chapel Royal.— This chapel, 
in Great Windsor Park, near Cumberland Lodge, 
h.as been reopened for di\'ine service. The new 
edifice, the chancel of which was consecrated some 
time back by the Bishop of Oxford, has been 
erected in the E.arly English style of architecture 
by the Commissioners of Woods and Forests from 
designs by Messrs. S.alvin and Teulon, the archi- 
tects, the works having been superintended by Mr. 
Morris. The exterior of the chapel is composed of 
Princes Risborough stone, with Bath stone facings, 
and the west end is provided with a belfry fur- 
jiished with a couple of bells. The plan includes 
a nave, .an aisle, chancel, and transept, while the 
open pointed oak roof is carried partly by the 
north wall, some finely-carved stone pillars sepa- 
rating the n.ave from the south aisle. In the 
chancel Ls a fine memorial window to the memory 
of the late Duchess of Kent. The subjects of the 
memorial include the principal events in the life 
of the Saviour, and at the bottom of the window 
the arms of the Duchess and her husband are 
emblazoned. Separated from the chancel by an 
open handrail, and on its south side, is the Royal 
closet, which has a stone screen dividing it from 
the end of the aisle. About 200 sittings are pro- 
vided for the congregation, which consists of the 
families of the members of the Court and the 
employes on the Crown estate of Windsor Park. 

buildings. 

It is in contemplation at the Poor Law Board 
to supply three fever hospitals for the reception 
of pauper patients. One would be erected in the 
e.asc, and one in the south of London. 

Boston, in Mas3,achusetts, is to have an .art 
building which will cost £200,000. Land worth 
£50,000 has been already set apart for the purpose. 

A few days ago the new Catholic schools attached 
to St. Albau's Church, Blackburn, were opened. 
They .are of Gothic architecture and- have been 
constructed to accommodate about 400 scholars, 
and are from the designs of Messrs. Biutley .and 
M'Call, architects, of Kendal, at a cost of £1,950. 

Clapham — New Orphanage. — Mr. Spurgeon 
has just concluded the purchase of 2i acres of 
land, adjacent to Clapham Common, upon which 
the buildings for his new orphanage will be 
erected. It is correct, as stated some time since, 
that a lady has placed a sum of £20,000 at Mr. 
Spurgeon's command for the purposes of the 
orphanage ; but it is accompanied by a condition 
that only £8,000 out of it shall be spent, the 
remaining £12,000 to go to capital account for 
the permanent benefit oi the institutfon. 

Halifjlx. — Mr. John Crossley has just erected 
a five-story substantial stone building, in the 
Italian style of architecture, for a new model 
lodging house. It will provide sixty beds in sepa- 
rate rooms, and has cost £2,811. Mr. PauU, of 
Manchester, was the architect. This model lodging 
house ilr. Crossley proposes to transfer to the 
Halifax Corporation on very liberal terms. 

Liverpool. — At their meeting last week, the 
Liverpool Town Council resolved to rent some land 
near Liverpool, and to erect on it buildings suit- 
able for a Juvenile Reformatory, at a cost of £3,000, 
and also to pay 1 s. per head for each boy committed 
by the local magistrates to the reformatory. The 
Juvenile Reformatory Association are to manage 
the institution, and pay the Corporation 44 per 
cent, on the above outlay, the corporate officials 
having at all times access to the establishment. 

London. — The new vagrant wards for the 
Holborn Union are now completed and occupied. 
The building is situate in Vine-street, Liquorpond 
street, the ground on which it stands having been 



cleared of buildings for the purpose. The architect 
engaged was Mr. L. H. Isaacs, of Verulam-build- 
iugs, Gray's Inn ; the builders were Messrs. Simp- 
.-ion and Son, of Baker-street, Portman-square. 
The contract price for the whole was £2,662. 



STATUES, MEMORIALS, &c. 

Arrangements are being made for the erection 
of a monument to the memory of the late Sir W. 
W. Wynn, Bart., at Rhosymedre. 

It is proposed to erect at Dublin, by subscrip- 
tion, a statue of Mr. Guinne-ss, the restorer of St. 
Patrick's Cathedral. Mr. Foley h.as undertaken 
to carve the work. Well does Mr. Guinness de- 
serve the honour ! 

Memorial of Novel Design. — A tomb h.as just 
been erected in the Brompton Cemetery to the 
memory of a gentleman many years member for 
an important borough in the \Vest of England. It 
h;is been designed by Mr. Ashpite!, in the style of 
those of the early Christians, as found in the cata- 
combs at Rome. The body is of Portland stone, 
the frieze .and plinth are of Green Forest of Dean, 
and the pilasters of polished Peterhead granite. 
The most novel features of all are the statues 
of the four Evangelists, in bronze, by Messrs. 
Potts, cf the Art Works, at Haudsworth, near 
Birmingham, which are cast by their new process, 
and are undercut and ch.asod up by hand in a very 
satisfactory manner. They are modelled by Sig- 
ner Brucci.ani. On the top is a plain cross ; 
on one side the monogram of Constantino ; and 
on the other an interl.aced Alpha .and Omega. 

Monument to Cardinal Wiseman. — We under- 
stand that a magnificent monument is about to 
be erected over the vault which contains the 
body of the late Cardinal Wiseman at Kensal 
Green, where it will remain until the intended 
metropolit.an cathedral is built. It will be then 
removed, and occupy a conspicuous position in 
that ediSce. The work has been entrusted to Mr. 
Welby Pugin. 

The Proposed Memorlvl to Lord P.ylmer- 
STON. — A young architect in a letter says: — Ob- 
serving, in your impression of December 28, a 
notice of the National E.xhibitiou of Architecture 
at South Kensington, in which criticism is made 
on the drawing of the proposed memorial to 
the hate Lord Palmer.ston in Romsey Abbey 
Church, and a touch of incredulity expressed about 
the correct restoration of the low-pitched roof to 
the proposed Lady Chapel, I write to inform 
you that authority is found for the same by the 
fact of the ancient weather moulding still rem.ain- 
ing, showing precisely the origmal position of the 
roof, which was obviously kept down to prevent 
the obscuration of the unrivalled geometric win- 
dows in the east end of the choir. Similar roofs 
as regards flatness of pitch exist over the east end 
of New Shoreham Church, and over the great 
north porch, Christ Church, and other examples 
if necessary might be referred to. 



STAINED GLASS. 



The east window of Bulphan Church has been filled in 
with stained glass, by ilesdrs. Cox and Son, of London. 
The centre light has for its subject the CrucifLuon. The 
window was given by Mrs. Mark Gotta, of Bulphan, as a 
memorial of her deceased husband. 

C.HKRITON. — A stained glass window has been placed at 
the ea,.t end of the south aisle of Cheriton Church, near 
Hythe, by James Pilcher, Esq. llessrs. Clayton and Bell 
furnished the glass, under the direction of Messrs. Pownall 
and Yoimg. architects. The subject is taken from the early 
life of Christ— the Xativity in the centre, and on either 
side the Annunciation, the Salutation, the presentation iu 
the Temple, and Christ among the doctors. 

Knaresborough. — A memorial window has just been 
placed in the east end of the south aisle of Trinity Church. 
It consists of two lights, the subjects being the raising of 
Lazarus, and Mary at the feet of Jesus. The artists were 
Messrs. Ward and Hughes, of London. 

North Berwick. — A stained glass window has been 
erected in the Episcopal Church, by Colonel Denny, to the 
memory of the officers and soldiers of the 71st Royal High- 
land Light Infantry, who died in Canada, the West Indies, 
and other places, and who served with him from 1S42 to 
1S37. The subject is Christ raising the widow's son. 
Messrs. Ballantine and Son, of Kdinburgh, were the ar- 
tists 



The Sand Patch Tunnel on the Pittsburgh and 
Connelsville Railroad is at last cut through. Its 
total length is 4,750ft., being 1,000ft. more than 
the long tunnel on the Pennsylvania Central Rail- 
road through the AUeghanies between Altoona and 
Cresson. It is intended for a double track, and ia 
22ft. wide by 19ft. in height. 



38 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 11, 1867. 



§tmi\\ Items. 



The harp has been introduced in aasociation 
with the organ in the service at St. Andrew's 
Church, Wells-street. 

A correspondent suggests, as a preventive of 
frozen water taps, that the water should be 
allowed to " drop " constantly, not, however, to 
run. 

A furious gale occurred at Portland on Saturday 
morning, and a large portion of the breakwater 
staging was swept away. 

The freehold of No. 9, St. James' s-square, has 
been sold for £35,000, three tunes the sum it cost 
a few years ago. 

The election of Associates of the Royal Academy 
takes place on the 31st of this month. There are 
two vacancies only. 

Sir Isaac Newton is said to have worn in his 
finger ring a loadstone weighing three grains, and 
capable of sustaining over 250 times its own 
weight. 

The nineteenth annual ball in aid of the funds 
of the Builders' Benevolent Institution wUl take 
place at WiUis's Rooms on Thursday, the 31st iust. 

The long-talked-of Finsbury Park, as well as the 
Southwark Park, are to be formed. The lands for 
both have been purchased, and the residents of 
south and north London may expect shortly to be 
in possession of these places of recreation. 

It is not generally known that a sheet of paper 
laid on a bed, under the counterpane or blanket, 
by retaining the warmth, is equal to an additional 
blanket ; old newspapers stitched together answer 
well. 

The Common Coimcil have agreed to purchase 
Southwark Bridge for £200,000 ; and in the mean- 
time, in order that the public may be allowed its 
free use, the Bridge Company is to be compensated 
at the rate of £5,500 per annum. 

The CuLTrvATios of Timber in Deserts.— 
A modern writer of eminence, says an American 
paper, ventures the assertion that, with proper 
care and protection, even inarable territory and 
sandy deserts, as in Arabia and Africa, might in 
places be covered with fijrests, the theory not 
being inconsistent either with experience or the 
deductions of scii'nce. In fact, many acres in the 
Sciota and Miami valley.s, in Ohio, are to-day 
covered with a thrifty timber growth sufficient for 
fuel and fencing, which thirty years ago were 
entirely destitute. It is stated that timber is 
becoming sufficiently abundant for domestic use 
in that State, where the land at the period of first 
settlements was without trees, and, in the ordinary 
parlance of the times, was known as the " bar- 
rens ; " the process of timber cultivation being 
now, in fact, silently going on in the States of the 
west as well as those in middle latitudes. 

Newcastle Society op' Antiquaries. — This 
society held its usual monthly meeting in the 
Museum, in the Old Castle, last week, Mr. John 
Clayton presiding. Mr. Thompson laid on the 
table an engraving of two portraits, supposed to 
be those of the Emperor Severus and the Empress 
Julia. The engraving was taken from a has relief 
found in front of a house in the High-street of 
Edinburgh. The museum is possessed of casts of 
these portraits. Mr. Thompson read an interesting 
paper on the subject. There was no business of 
public importance before the meeting. 

Ancient Silver Coins. — A man, while plough- 
ing up a headland on Chanton Farm, between 
Washington and Ashintou, Sussex, felt his plough 
come against something which caused it to be 
thrown out of its course. It proved to be an old 
crock, or earthenware pot, containing a number of 
old coins, chiefly of the time of Edward the Con- 
fessor and Harold. They were all packed in the 
crock on their edges, as closely as possible, and 
had evidently remained undisturbed since first 
hiilden. The Government authorities have been 
communicated with on the subject of the treasure. 

The METRoroLiTAS Main Brainage Works. — 
The latest statistics of ihe new Metropolitan Main 
Drainage works are very curious. The total length 
of new sewers at present completed is 82 miles, 
and the works, when finished, will have cost 
£4,200,000. The drainage intercepted and carried 
off by these sewers is derived from an area of 



about 117 square mOes and a population of 
2,809,000. The amount of sewage carried off on 
the north side of the Thames amounts to 10,000,000, 
and on the south to 4,000,000 cubic feet. In the 
construction of the works 318,000,000 bricks and 
880,000 cubic yards of concrete have been used, 
and about 3,500,000 cubic yards of earth excavated 
This grand systemof sewerage has been constructed 
under buildings, and over and under canals, rivers, 
and roadways, from 25ft. above, to 75ft. below the 
surface, without any important casualty or inter- 
ference with the public convenience or traffic. The 
constructural arrangements of the metropolis 
would appear to be more wonderful and successful 
below the surface than above. 

Flowers in Pots. — It is a common fault to put 
plants kept in rooms into too large pots. This has 
always a bad eft'ect. If the soil be good and not 
over watered the plant will indeed grow rapidly, 
but it will produce leaves and branches instead of 
flowers ; and if the soil be over watered the ma.ss 
of sodden soil around the roots has the same 
effect upon them as stagnant water in a saucer. 
The soil should always be in such a state as to ad- 
mit air with the water to the roots ; but this it 
cannot do when it becomes blackened paste by 
being saturated with water. At the same time fre- 
quent repotting is often absolutely necessary to 
keep the plants in a dwarf compact habit of growth, 
and to prevent them from being drawn up. The 
way in which practical gardeners ascertain when 
repotting is necessary, is by turning the plant out 
of the pot, with the ball of earth attached, and if 
they find they look white round the outside of tlfe 
mould, then the plant should be transferred to a 
larger pot. but only one size larger ; afterwards it 
may be repotted again if necessary, but always to 
a pot only a little larger than the one it 
was taken from. By persevering in this 
mode of treatment for some time, and never ad- 
vancing more than one size at each change, a 
plant may be grown to a large size, and made to 
produce abundant of tlowers ; while by the con- 
trary treatment, that is, suffering it to remain in a 
very small pot or shifting it suddenly into a very 
large one, the stem wiU become weakened and 
elongated, and the flowers will be few and very 
poor. 



f iitciits for liibtiitroits 

CONNECTED WITH THE BUILDING TRADK. 



1544 O Hkndersos. Lnprovements in girders manu* 
factured in iron, steely or otherwise combined with timber. 
Dated Jane 4. 1866 

These improvements relate to constructing girdi^rs on the 
priociple described in the specification of a former patent 
granted to the present patentee dated 7th of February, 
1865 (No. 335), consist in the employment of a web or 
webs (with orwithoutflanges) and ahatments or skewbacks 
used in conjunction with anarch or arches of brick, stone, 
tile, timber, or other material, the arch or arches being 
formed between theabutments or skewbacks forming part 
of the girder. The webs of the girders are generally con- 
structed of metal, cast or otherwise manufactured, bat in 
some cases the webs may be in part formed of iron bands 
or rods and timber or other suitable materials combined. 
The abutmeuta or skewbacks herein mentioned are either 
cast or otherwise manufactured in metal ; in some 
instances, however, the abutments may be formed 
of timber or of timber and metal together, and may 
be solid or hollow. The inner side of the abuimeats 
or skewbacks are formed to the particular angle 
to suit the radius of the intended arch or arches that 
are constructed within the span or space between the two 
abutments, and in the centre, or sometimes in other parts 
of the said skewbacks or abutments, he forms a tenon or 
slot to receive the ends of the webs, as hereinbefore men- 
tioned. In some instances he forma the abutment, in east 
or otherwise manufactured metal in the sliape of a shoe or 
plate, the lower side being horizontal to the wall or foun- 
dation. andtheinner side is made to incline to ananglesuit- 
able to the arch or arches which abut on to the face of this 
shoe. The web of the glider may be of rolled or cast metal 
and may sometimes be made in timber in conjunction with 
hoop iron bands, or otherwise strengthened by braces 
running parallel therewith, but in common the web will 
be of metal, the form thereof usually being that of a longi- 
tudinal flitch or plank, and the ends thereof are either 
dovetailel or turned up to fit the tenons or slots in the 
before-mentioned abutments or skewbacks, or they are 
formod to suit such other mode of fixing as the occasion 
may require. He then places the skewbacks or other 
abutments in position, and securely fixes the web to the 
skewbacks by dropping or placing the dovetailed or turned- 
up ends of the web into the tenons ot slots of the skew- 
backs, or secures them together by such other means as 
may appear best suited to the particular occasion. The 
arch or arches is then connected within the span or spate 
or between the abutments, and built up clear of the top 
of the web, which is never suiject to vertical pressure, but 
the weight or pressure is firmly supported or carried by 
the arches on either side. In order to obtain the neces- 
sary length of the web where the spans are of considerable 
length, as will frequently be the case in bridge building, 
the web Will be formed by one or more plates or pieces of 
iron, steel, or other materials placed together, bolted and 
screwed together in the usual way, or connected in some 
other manner. Patent completid. 



MEETINGS FOR THE WEEK. 

MoN. — Royal Geographical Society.— The following 
papers will be read : — 1, "A Journey to Kano 
from the Niger," by the late Dr. W. B, Baikie. 
2. " On the i^ortb-East Province of Madagas- 
car," by the Bishop of Mauritius. 3. " Diary 
of a Hill Trip iu Burmah," by Lieutenant T. 
H. Leu-in,S^O. 

Tdes. — Institution of Civil Engineers. — "Ships ofWar," 
b"y Mr. J. Bourne, S. 
Royal Institution. — "On the Ancien Regime, 
as it Existed on the Continent before the 
French Revolution," by Rev. C. Kingsley, 3. 

TiiURS.— Royal Institution. — "On the Ancien Regime, 
as it Existed on the Continent before the French 
Revolution," by Rev. C. Kingsley, 3. 
Linnean Society, S. 
Chemical Society, S. 

FRi.—Royal Institution. — "On Sounding and SenaitiTe 
Flames," by Professor Tyndall, S. 
Architectural Association. — " Notes on Shop 
Fronts," by Mr. T. Blashill, 7.30 

Sat.— Royal lu-titution. — " On the Ancien Regime, aa 
it Existed on the Continent before the French 
Revolution," by Rev. C. Kingsley, 3 



^xuk B^tos. 



TENDERS. 

Batlev. — For five woollen warehouses, in Station-road, 

Batle.v, for Mr. lsa.ic Colbeck. Mr. M. Shean, architect :— 

Masona and bricklayei-s. 

W. Copley .iDd Co £3,150 

J. Brier 3,065 

J. Booth 2,650 

Preston and Webster 2,550 

Carpentei-s and joiners. 

B. Ibberson £2,305 

M. S. Butler 2,200 

J.Fozard 2,145 

J. Willana 2,050 

tlumfHng, glazing, and gasfiUtng . 

T. Armitage £289 5 6 

J. Wright 270 

J. M. Hart 265 6 6 

J. H. Senior 245 2 6 

tlastering. 

J. W. Hey £247 10 

It. Howrovd 185 

J. Bro.idhead 165 

Blatiug. 

E.Denton £146 

J. and W.Atkinson 127 10 

J. andJ. HiUB 110 

Islington. — For two houses with shops, in Rotherfield- 
street, Islington, for Messrs. Tubbs, Lewis, and Co. Mr. 
W. Sniitb, architect. Noquantity given ;— 

Taylor £2,079 

Madgin 1,700 

Johnson 1,485 

King 1,478 

Saby .....: 1.396 

Cvabb 1,385 

Hunt 1,362 

Grover 1,346 

Cubitt 1,021 

Kesbt.— For a email country house, at Kenby, Surrey, 
for Mr. T. Davis. Quantities not supplied. Mr. H. Wiber 
Webster, architect : — 

Shield £1,200 

Calow 1,112 

Graham 1,030 

Danby 970 

Liverpool. — For seven shops, Hardman-street, Liver- 
pool, for Mr. H. C. Beloe. Mr. T. Cook, architect. Quan- 
tities supplied : — 

Witter £4,8T5 

Bamber 4,605 

Wiley 4,600 

Henshaw 4,4ii7 

Urmson 4,4-'9 

Callie 4,424 10 

KicholsonandAyre(accepted)... 4,299 

Liverpool. — For three houses, Rupert-lane, Liverpool, 
for Messns. W. and D. Busly. Mr. T. Cook, architect. 
Quantities supplied :— 

Urmson £1,361 

Westmorland 1,348 

Wiley 1,340 

Nicholson and Avre 1,289 15 

Wilson 1,274 

CaLlio (accepted) 1,230 

Oxford. — For building a branch bank, at Oxford, for 
the London and County BauK. Messrs. Francis, architects. 
Ouanlities by Mr. J. Robson : — 

Castle £9 840 

Sjmm 8,994 

Hill and Son 8,970 

Dove Brothers 8,895 

Dovor 8,698 

Jones and Son 8,250 

Ri\t:rleioh. — For billiard room, conservatory, forcing- 
house, &c., Iliverleigh, near Liverpool, for Mr. J. M'Ardle 
Mr. T. Cook, arclutcct. Quantities supplied :— 

Section Section 

No. ). No. 2. 

Urm=on £502 £410 

M'Gerron — 394 

Lamb (accepted) ... 461 10 346 10 



BATH STONE OF BEST QUALITY. 
Randell and Saunder-s, Quarrymen and Stone Mer- 
chants, Bath. List of Prices at the Quarries and Deptita, 
also Cost for Transit to any part of the United Eangdom, 
furnished on appUoatioD to Bath Stone Office, Coislum, 
Wilts.— [An VI.] 



January 18, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



39 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



LOUDON, FRIDAY, JAXCABY IS, 1SG7. 



ART 



THE 



WORKMANSHIP AT 
SOCIETY OF ARTS. 

rjIHE works sent in competition for tlie 
J_ prizes ottered this session, a list of which 
will be fouutl elsewhere, are now on public 
view in the great room of the Society of Arts, 
Adam-street, Adelphi. They are divided into 
two classes, namely, works to be executed from 
prescribed designs, and works to be executed 
without prescribed designs, the latter in- 
cluding works executed and finished by ma- 
chine. These divisions embrace carving in 
stone, modelling in plaster, carving in wood, 
refousse work in metal, hammered work in 
metal, carving in ivory, chasing in bronze, 
engraving on metal, enamel painting on cop- 
per, painting on porcelain, decorative wall 
painting, wall mosaics, die-sinking, glass blow- 
ing, bookbinding, and illuminations. The 
entire number of articles on exhibition, only 
102, strikes the visitor as rather small, and 
were it not for the general excellence of the 
majority the Society would not have grounds 
for the satisfaction with which, 'we imder- 
stand, they regard this exhibition. The prizes 
are already awarded by the judges, but at the 
time we write the awards have not been made 
known. We give, therefore, the result of our 
o\vn examination of the various objects. 
With regard to some of the subjects exhibited 
we must call attention to the fact that this is 
supposed to be an exhibition of the works of 
art workmen, not of art masters. Compara- 
tively few are aware of the width of the gulf 
which lies between these two classes, though 
its existence seems generally recognised. AVe 
should define an art workman as one who 
could produce from a pattern an artistic work, 
and we should call an art master one who 
could produce the pattern, or, in other words, 
an original work of excellence. There are 
many art workmen who work almost 'n-ithout 
model or pattern, and these are, to a very 
great extent, art masters, but it must be con- 
fessed that there is a large number who mis- 
take the bent of their talents, and who would 
be better employed in copying good designs 
than in origiaattng bad ones. This is espe- 
cially remarked in sculpture and carving. 
Carving in stone, for instance, is not sculp- 
ture. The distinction is subtle, but neverthe- 
less clear, and is as thoroughly received in art 
circles as an axiom in Euclid, or, what is 
at present of almost equal authority, the 
dictum of Mr. Ruskin. Now as a means 
of testing the proficiency of an art workman 
an exhibition liie this is invaluable. It is not 
of the overgrown dimensions of an industrial 
exhibition, wliich is an omnium gatherum of 
objects of every conceivable nature, nor does 
it bear the exclusive character of the Royal 
Academy. The judges are men who under- 
stand their offices, and we believe that the re- 
wards are distributed vrith equal impartiality 
and discrimination. Having said thus much 
about the exhibition, we will proceed to notice 
those works which struck us as most interest- 
ing, taking the objects as they appear in the 
catalogue, under their several headings. 

No. 1 (Can-ing in Stone), "Panel, after 
Chimneypiece by Donatello." This is a work 
in low relief, Cupids and arabesques. It is 
very fairly carved. This subject, in the 
original, may be called a sculpture rather than 
a car\'ing. No. 2 is purely a stone carving, 
being, like Nos. 3 and 4, a Gothic bracket 
or corbel. These corbels are of almost the 
same size, and there is about the same quan- 
tity of work in each, but the prices ditfer 
widely. No. 2 is valued at £5, and Nos. 



in treatment, and in this respect it is not 
equal to No. 3 ; but, notwithstanding its low 
price, it is better than the others. No. 4 is 
remarkable for two birds, whose legs are most 
delicately carved, though not in a way desir- 
able for "the treatment of stone. It also has 
a good grotesque head. No. 5 (Flowers, in 
Caen stone], is boldly and weU-carved. No. ti is 
weU-executed, but, in our opinion, marljle is 
an Tinsuitable material for small subjects. 
With some of the Greek marbles, whicli seem 
to ha\-e the grain and colour- of ivory, the case 
is dUferent ; but, with the best Italian marble, 
the shining luminous particles destroy the 
repose of any but a large composition. It is 
for this reason that the plaster cast invari- 
ably looks better than the marble, and in the 
opinion of many the clay model bears the 
palm from either. Mr. Jones is also exhibitor 
of an unfinished basso-relievo, in marble, 
representing the Arts and Sciences, tlie price, 
when finished, to be £20. Judging from the 
model in plaster, we think very highly of 
tliis work, which is original, and we consider 
the price extremely low. No. 9 (original), a 
basso-relievo in marble, subject " Christ 
Blessing little Children," we do not think 
very highly of as a work of art, and the 
material is most unsuited to the subject. No. 
12 (original), a plaster model of national 
emblems — rose, shamrock, and thistle — struck 
us as very good. 

We next come to the carving. Under this 
head tliere is only one work executed after a 
prescribed design ; it is No. 14, a sort of 
covered cup wth figures for handles, after a 
design by Holbein. Some of this carving is 
good, but the figures, which demand the most 
care, are the least pleasing portions of the 
work. All the following wood carvings are 
original :— No. 79, a statuette of " Egeria," 
though it might be anyone else for aught we 
can see, as it is particularly badly placed. 
No. 80, " Cyntliia," by the same hand, is a 
very pleasing work. No. bl, a female head in 
satinwood, is in our opinion of great merit ; 
the material is almost equal to ivory in 
texture. No. 83, an original group in walnut, 
something like a race plate, and represents 
"Wallace at the Battle of Stirling." TMs 
work has considerable merit, but we regret 
that 50 much labour has been expended on 
such a material. With a few emendations, 
such as giving a better proportion to the upper 
body to one of Wallace's antagonists, the sub- 
ject is worthy to be executed in silver. No. 

84, a dog's head, is very clever, as is also No. 

85, " Bird and Flowers," by the same hand. 
No. 88, vase of flowers, &c., is very elaborate 
and delicately carved, but the design is in- 
appropriate. Mr. Bull should exercise his 
talents in copying imtil he has gained more 
knowledge of composition — he must see that 
the vase is very much too small for the bracket; 
but the carving is excellent. This closes the 
list of wood car\-ing. We next come to metal- 
work, which forms the principal portion of the 
exhibition. There is so much repouss^ work 
that our limits mil not allow us to mention 
each specimen ; we may say, however, that of 
the five copies of " Raphael's three Graces," 
we should be puzzled to select the best. There 
is a beautiful piece of leafage in copper, No. 
23a (original) and a portrait of the late Viscount 
Pahnerston in copper, which is a good likeness. 
Nos. 24, 25, and 26 are specimens of hammered 
brass work. Nos. 25 and 26 are hammered 
brass brackets, displaying workmanship of a 
high order. Of hammered iron work there 
are some good specimens. Nos. 27, 28, and 29, 
brackets, are much to our liking ; and No. 30a, 
a panel for a screen, and 32, a bread-basket, 
designed by Mr. A. W. Blomfield and executed 
by T. Winstanley, wUl, we imagine, find favour 
in the eyes of the judges. Some ivory carving is 
to be found in the glass cases, but there is very 
little of it, and that little principally interest- 
ing as having been executed by the machine. 
These are Nos. 96, 97, 98, and 99, the 
latter the head of her Majesty. The 
chasings in bronze, of wliich there are several 



claims to notice. Tliere are three liu>ts uf 
" Clytie," of about ec^ual merit, by difierent 
e.xhibitors ; and two statuettes of " Caractacus" 
and " Jacob Wrestling with the Angel," which 
attracted our attention ; but the two " Minia- 
ture frames raised and chased," by the same 
hand, appeared to us not particularly happy in 
design. Tlie engravings on metal after ara- 
besques, ofwhichtherew'ereGor 7, pleased usas 
much as anything we saw. The " Ornamental 
jdateau in blue," No. 60, after a design by 
Maestro Ludovico, we consider very good. A 
pair of door finger-plates in majolica style, by 
Miss L. Leila Hawkins, must please the ad- 
mirers of that style, and, with all the sur- 
roundings to matcli, their somewhat powerful 
colour would not be inappropriate. Nos. 62 
and 63, circular plates, subjects from the 
"Signatura" ceiling, are of great merit. Of 
decorative painting, that is to say, wall paint- 
ing, there are four specimens, and we are 
sorry that we camiot speak in terms of praise 
of any of them. Dr. Salviati sends a single 
specimen of glass blowing of more than usual 
merit, inasmuch as the vessel stands straight, 
and Samuel Cooper sends the only wall 
mosaic. Of bookbinding there are only four 
specimens, but they appear to us to be very 
good. There are only two illuminations, Nos. 
77 and 78, which appear to possess about equal 
merit. Two specmiens of enamel painting on 
copper are exhibited, and some painting on 
porcelain, aU of which are worthy of praise. 
The awards of the judges will l)e made puVilic 
in a day or two, and we hope they will be as 
satisfiictory to the exhibitors as beneficial to 
the general progress of art. 



3 and 4 at i'15 and il2 respectively. The „- — -- 

face which appears in No. 2 is too naturalistic examples, do not appear to possess unusual 



HORTICULTURE AT THE PARIS 
EXHIBITION. 

THE year which is to witness the crowning 
attempt of the Emperor Napoleon in 
behalf of peace and concord has already com- 
menced. We begin to reckon the weeks that 
must elapse before the inauguration of his 
magnificent project, while time — inexurnhile 
iempus! — rapidly diminishes the fleeting 
hours. Among the many novelties connected 
with this gigantic undertaking, not the least 
important is the Exhibition of International 
Horticulture. This interesting department 
has been partially developed on numerous 
other occasions, and, in fact, there is not 
a park, public or private, which does not con- 
tain many specimens of rare and valuable 
exotics. But a brief description of the pro- 
minent part it plays in the forthcoming Exhi- 
bition will demonstrate that it has at last 
obtained that degree of attention and consi- 
deration which it unquestionably merits. The 
display of international horticulture will take 
place in a reserved or special garden separated 
from the rest of the .park \>y an iron railing. 
Those who are familiar with the position of 
the Botanical Society's Gardens in Regent's 
Park will be at no loss to form an accurate 
idea of the case in question. It is bounded 
by the avenues of Labourdonnaye and Pi(iuet, 
by the principal walk of the Park, and by the 
circular railway. Its area is rather over 
70,000 square yards, and the main entrance 
faces the junction of the two avenues alluded 
to. The price of admission wiU be half a 
franc, and no further payment will lie re- 
quired in any part of the garden. There is a 
point connected -n-ith the arrangement of the 
admission into this garden which, miless it is 
altered, visitors wUl do well to bear in niind. 
Suppose a person already in the park wishes 
to view the garden, he ])ays his half franc, 
and passes in ; but if he does not care about 
seeing the garden, he pays no more than the 
sum he has already paid for entrance into the 
park. Now a person entering the garden from 
the exterior, that is, by an entrance which 
does not open on the park, will be obliged to 
pay not only the half franc for admission into 
the garden, "liut also the sum for admission to 
the rest of the Exhibition, whether he wishes 
' to go there or not. Thus if a visitor had seen 



to 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 18, 1867. 



the Exhiljition and wished to pay a visit spe- 
cially to the Horticultural Garden he would 
have to pay over again for wiiat he had 
already seen aud might not wish to see again. 
This unwise arrangement, which we hope 
never to witness carried into eft'ect, will cut 
two ways ; in the tirst place, it is manifestly 
unjust, and secondly, it is a trap to catch 
the unwary, as many will prohably enter by 
the garden entrance, and have to pay their 
half-francs without caring to see the garden 
at aU. 

Entering by the avenue of Tourville a 
splendid panorama bursts on the view. Not a 
vestige of the Exhibition buildhig or its 
numerous appendages is ■idsible, but tlie limpid 
surface of a vast lake relieves the verdant hue 
of the expansive sward. From the centre of 
the former rises a lofty mass of superincum- 
bent rocks, siu'mounted by a cascade, which, 
in its never-ceasing flow, restores to the lake 
the waters to which it owes its life. The 
Bward is crowned by a smaU. crystal edihce 
constituting the Winter Garden, and appro- 
priated to the reception of exotics. On each 
side of this building are formed two artificial 
gorges or ravines, at the end of which the 
ground rises, and on the level spaces are a 
couple of greenhouses, surrounded by ponds 
fiUed ■with aquatic plants. The entrance to 
these gorges is guarded by masses of rockwork, 
and embellished with lakes and cascades, 
while through the falling spray can be dimly 
seen the gloomy mouths of grottoes and caves, 
alike inviting the curiosity of the visitor, and, 
by their sombre appearance, forbidding him 
to gratify it. Towards the right of the house 
devoted to the orchids stands a large semi-cir- 
cular budding with an elegant colonnade and 
portico. It is the diorama, and is a peculiar 
feature of the Exhibition, and was invented 
by M. Eouzzi. As it was impossible to collect 
all the known pilants of the world in one spot, 
a number of photographs, amoimting to 4,000, 
of the most interesting specimens, were ob- 
tained in different lands and forwarded to 
Paris. In order that these might be viewed 
of the natural size, fifty magnifying glasses 
are provided for the purpose, to each of which 
is attached a handle. By turning this handle 
the visitor causes to pass in review before him 
about eighty different specimens of foreign 
plants. A natural fac-simile of the photo- 
graph is appended to each where it has been 
possible to procure it. Passing the collections 
of fruits and vegetables we find ourselves un- 
der the palm trees, by the banks of a river. 
Following its sinuosities, they lead to a lake 
filled with rare and curious fish, while its 
banks are bordered with plants of a nature 
seldom seen in our northern climates. In the 
large lake previously mentioned are the 
famous carp which were brought from the 
ornamental water of Fi)ntainebleau by per- 
mission of the Empress. They are of an 
enormous size, and are said to be two or three 
hundred years old. The submarine chamber, 
although not strictly connected with our sub- 
ject, deserves notice. It is about 60ft. in 
length, and the first impressions created by 
entermg it are those of mingled astonishment, 
fear, aud admiration. The sea is above, below, 
on all sides ; the fhiny inhabitants congregate 
in myriads to gaze upon theii- unknown visi- 
tors, and sea-horses and dolphins sport and 
gambol above their heads. A large oyster- 
bed, and marine plants of every hue and 
shape, serve to increase the illusion. Near 
the marine aquarium is the building devoted 
to the reception of Brazilian orchids ; an 
elegant kiosk for bouquets a la main ; a hot- 
house fur large forced vegetables ; and a 
beautiful little crystal palace, where, sur- 
rounded by the fruits and flowers indigenous 
to their tropical climate, the humming-birds 
pass the live-long day, flitting from one flower 
to another with never-tirhig wing. 

Situated in the avenue parallel with I'Ecole 
MiUtaire, is the conservatory appropriated to 
the reproduction and growth of plants, and 
which, of all others, claims the first attention 
of the horticidturist. Let those who are scep- 



tical on the subject of rapid growth enter and 
observe how the flower is born, grown, and 
multiplied, not by a process contrary and 
inimical to the laws of nature, but by forcing 
her to proceed at fuU gallop, by compelling 
her to accomplish her results in the shortest 
possible space of time. It is not too much to 
assert that the present is a forcing age, no mat- 
ter in what light it may be viewed. Men never 
forced their brains to so injurious an extent as 
they do now. The minimum speed of the 
race of life has changed from the post-horse 
to the locomotive, and a man lives now in 
twenty years more than his great-grandfather 
did in fifty. It is especially a fast age — fast 
for the mind, fast for the body. We not only 
force ourselves, but everybody and everything 
connected with us. We force all our mechani- 
cal means to the utmost, we strain the steel 
and stretch the iron until they can bear it no 
longer, and lamentable catastrophes bear wit- 
ness to the truth. Discovery and invention 
were never so rife as now, and man's intellec- 
tual facidties are ever on the rack to keep 
pace with the strides of scientific investigation 
and research. To take relaxation and repose 
is to be idle, to lose time ; aud thus the only 
chance for a man to attain to the " three-score 
and ten years" is destroyed by the restless 
system of life of the present centiuy. 



WATER SUPPLY OF LONDON.* 

IT is not necessary that we should trace and 
demonstrate the direct influence which 
the water supply has upon the physical and 
moral health of the inhabitants of a great city. 
Evidence, vast in extent and irresistible in 
its force, has proved the thesis that wherever 
water is not, disease and \'ice will flourish, and 
the converse holds good. Those, therefore, 
who may assist in solving the problem how to 
increase the water supply of a town in pro- 
portion to the wants of its increasing popula- 
tion "deserve well of the State," and are 
especially entitled to respectful consideration 
when they briug to bear on the subject 
experience and scientific knowledge. Many 
propositions ha\-e been made during the last 
tew years for supplementing the acknowledged 
deficiency of tlie metropolitan water supply, 
and several of them have from time to time 
received attention in these pages. It is not 
essential that they shoiUd now be recapitu- 
lated, and some of them certainly are placed 
beyond the pale of practicability, Irom the 
enormous cost which woidd attend their insti- 
tution as realised plans. The most recent 
attempt to accomplish the desideratum — and 
which certainly has some claims to attention — 
is that which is explained in the pamphlet 
under notice, and of which Mr. Teltbrd 
Macueill, C.E., is the author. This gentleman 
insists that nature has so adapted the topo- 
graphical and geological position of some of 
the environs of London to the purpose, as that 
a system of natural filtration of the waters of 
the Thames might readily and inexpensively 
be inaugurated for the abundant supply o'f 
the metropolis. The statement and the 
deduction are alike bold, but they appear to 
have been based on carefuUy prepared data. 
The geological position of London itself is 
peculiar, and it may be briefly depicted before 
proceeding with a further elucidation of Mr. 
MacneiU's scheme. Loudon is situated upon 
the lower tertiary formation. The upper 
stratum is a tenacious clay ; the next is known 
as plastic clay, and is really composed of 
argillaceous deposit aud beds of sand. These 
latter rest upon the clialk, a foriuation vary- 
ing from 300ft. to 000ft. in thickness, and not 
lying horizontally, but rising up all round 
like the sides of a Ijasin, and coming to the 
surface at the Surrey and ChUtern Hills. 
The water which falls upon and percolates 
through the edges of the porous chalk is 

* "Water Supply of Loudou, by 51 eans of Natural Fil- 
tration of tiie Waters of tiie River Thames." 13y Tklpord 
I M ^f^^'T:ILL. London : Edward Stanford, tJ, Chcirinir Cross. 
I 1667. 



arrested at the bottom of the basin by a layer 
of gault or impermeable clay, where it accu- 
mulates until the whole stratum becomes 
charged with water. The rim of the basin (to 
carry out the simile) being higher than the 
strata it contams, the water, whenever the 
opportunity is given by a sufficiently deep 
well, has a tendency, resulting from h.\ dro- 
static pressure, to rise to its natural level 
above the surface of the ground. The wells 
usually sunk within the area of the London 
basin are, as a general nde, of three classes. 
The first, and most numerous, are shallow, 
and in many instances yield a positively 
poisonous water, impregnated with the drain- 
age from graveyards, the soakage from cess- 
pools, the leakage of carburet ted hydrogen, 
&c., by difl'usion through gas pipes, and other 
impurities. The second reach the sandy, 
water-bearing beds of the plastic clay, antl 
generally produce water full of ferruginous- 
like contaminations. The third class— and of 
these there are many in London — are sunk 
into the chalk, and supply clear and good, 
though generally very hard, water. The 
idea of obtaining an inexhaustible quantity of 
water by means of innumerable wells of the 
last-named kind prevailed very largely some 
years since. Experiences of later date have, 
however, demonstrated the fallacy of the 
notion, and it is a matter of notoriety now 
that in a few years hence that source of sujjply 
must fan. At present, many of the large 
breweries of the metropolis, in spite of the 
existence of their artesian wells, are com- 
pelled to become customers of the water com- 
panies; whilst the gradual subsidence of the 
water level of the chalk springs involves con- 
tinual expenditure in lowering pumps, driv- 
ing adits, and remodelling lii'ting appli- 
ances. 

Thus, then, it may be said that London will 
have eventually to depend for its increased 
supply of water from rivers in its own neigh- 
bourhood, or, water must be brought into the 
mighty city by aqueducts communicating with 
more distant sources. Mr. Macueill argues 
that there is no necessity for travelling far 
from home in order to achieve what is re- 
c[uired. His project, as described by him- 
self, " contemplates conducting to the Bagshot 
Sands (Bagshot Heath) and spreading over 
them a supplemental quantity of the water of 
the Thames — taken from an unobjectionable 
place and in a jiroper manner — together with 
the water from the Greensand Hills, south of 
Guildford ; gathering the water again, by 
means of catch-water canals or cuts, after its 
perfect filtration through these purifying 
sands, and reconducting it, in a covered con- 
duit, to a service reservoir at Norwood, from 
whence it may be supplied to the centres of 
distributionof the existing companies." . .' . 
" Five years from the present time would be 
sufficient for the completion of the work, and 
that would bring us to the census year, 1871." 

By that date Mr. Macneill assumes that the 
consumption of water in London will have 
reached 250 millions of gallons per day. 
The river companies have now power to take 
100 millions of gallons per day without pro- 
viding any water compensation for the loss. 
The abstraction takes place some miles above 
Teddington, and Mr. Macneill suggests taking 
his own supply from a point immediately 
above the weir at Teddington, to the foot of 
which the tide flows. That portion which 
would be taken direct from the Thames 
" would be conveyed by an open canal as far 
as Chertsey, a distance of eight miles. A 
pumping station to lift 30ft. woidd be 
requireil at the west side of Bushy Park. 
The conduit through the park might be 
covered if thought necessary. The water 
woidd then be passed under the Thames to 
another pumping station one mile to the 
south of the river, where a lift of 85ft. 
would take place, and then would be delivered 
through pipes into the existing Basingstoke 
Canal, at a level of 102ft. above the Ordnance 
datum. The next four miles of its course 
would be along the Basingstoke Canal, which 



JanlTAry 18, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



41 



can, by slight alteration, be ruaile to convey 
this water to the Bagshot Sands." 

Mr. Macneill calculates tliat by such means 
a daily sujiply eijual to 125 millions of gallons 
might be obtained. The water to be obtained 
from the Guildford districts the same gen- 
tleman estimates at 50 millions of gallons per 
diem, and, owing to the favourable nature of 
the gathering grounds, extensive reservoirs 
■will not be required — as he states, and ap- 
pears successfully to show. Both streams, 
being at length imited in the Basingstoke Canal, 
are proposed to be taken to the fdtering 
districts in the following way : — " A vertical 
lift of 40ft. will deliver the water into 
another reach of the canal two miles long, 
whence it will be put into the lowest dis- 
tributing conduit on the sands by a lift of 
68ft." Over the Bagshot district there would 
be three main distrilmting conduits at the 
respective levels of 360ft.", 300ft., and 200ft. 
over Ordnance datum, and thus 22i square 
miles would be irrigated. The surface of this 
vast filtering ground would be so treated as to 
ilTiprove to the utmost the quality of the 
water. In the pamphlet under notice valuable 
appendices are subjoined, containing the 
results of analyses of the Thames and Ccreen- 
sand Hills waters, together with scientific 
opinions favourable to the mode of filtra- 
tion as suggested by the author. For 
the conveyance of the water to Norwood, 
Mr. Macneill proposes the construction of a 
brick culvert ISft. in diameter, with a fall of 
]ft. per mile, and which would be sufficiently 
capacious for tlie passage of 400 million gal- 
lons every twenty-four hours. At Norwood a 
reservoir " at the 210ft. level " must be con- 
structed, and from this the water would have 
to be conducted to the existing centres of sup- 
ply in the metropolis, " which would then 
nave," enthusiastically remarks Mr. Macneill, 
"an unlimited command of water of the pur- 
est character, except in softness, ever pro- 
vided for any town in the world." So much 
for the mode of operation proposed, and now 
for the cost of realising the very comprehen- 
sive plan. Tliis is set down in round num- 
bers at £5,000,000 sterling, supposing that 
200 millions of gallons per day only were re- 
quired, and au additional expenditure of 
j£l, 700,000 would be necessary to make the 
works yield 400 millions of gallons. Such are 
the propositions, briefly summarised, of the 
ingenious author of the "Water Supply of 
London by Natural Filtration." That they 
are eminently practical there is no doubt, and 
assuredly they are worthy the consideration of 
all who take an interest in the great question 
of obtaining for London an unfailing fountain 
whence may flow and permeate among its 
three or four millions of inhabitants piu'e 
streams of that fluid so essential to the health 
and well-being of humanity. 

There wUl, no doubt, be much discussion 
during the ensuing session of Parliament upon 
this and other plans for siipplying London 
with a largely increased quantity of water, 
and in one way or another the work will 
have to be done. Many of the principal 
towns of this and other countries are in ad- 
vance of the metropolis in this respect, but 
we have the advantage of their example, and 
may hope to profit by their experience. Such 
contributions to the subject of metropolitan 
water supply as that of Mr. Macneill are of 
great value, as directing public notice to it, 
and we recommend those who would learn 
further of his plans to obtain and study the 
pamphlet, which is illustrated by a map of the 
various districts to which we have referred. 



THE GATES OF OLD LONDON. 

IN earlier times the boundaries of "the 
ancient and most famous cittie of 
London" were limited, and a wall was not at 
first deemed necessary for its defence. It was 
bounded on the south by old Father Thames, 
on the west by the River Fleet, on the north 
by a deep morass in Moorfields, and on the 



east liy a stream called the River of Wells, now 
Walbrook. Those were the luitural I'ortiti- 
cations of the city at the date of Ciosar's first 
visit to our shores in the year 55 B.C. We 
liave no correct data as to when London was 
first walled in. That tlie original wall and 
gates were the work of tlie Romans is un- 
disputed ; the exact period of their erection 
cannot be fixed with certainty. Maitland 
assigns the building of the wall to the era of 
Theodosius, 368 A.D. ; other writers to that of 
Helena, mother of Constantino, about sixty 
years earlier; and Stow fixes ujiou the year 434. 
This of course refers to the wall biult by the 
Saxons ; of the Roman wall no traces are to 
be discovered above ground, and very few 
have been discovered underground, for it is 
well known that the surface of the present 
city is several feet higher than the Colonia 
Augusta, or Londinium of the Romans. At 
various periods of its existence the wall met 
with very rough usage. Thus in S3!) it was 
completely demolished, and not rebuilt until 
forty years afterwards ; in the years 994 and 
1016 it was destroyed by our powerful enemies 
the Danes. Accepting what would appear to 
be the most reliable account, the wall began 
at the Tower, went along the Minories to 
Aldgate, by the back of Houndsditch to 
Bishopsgate, thence in a straight line by Lon- 
don Wall to Cripplegate, Aldersgate, and 
Newgate, thence to the Thames by the River 
Fleet. It was about 20ft. high and Oft. 
thick, and defended by towers and bastions. 
The circuit of the city within the walls was 
little more than three miles, and we are fur- 
ther informed by Fitz-Stephen, who wrote in 
Henry the Second's reign, that the wall on 
the north was in the form of a bow, aiid on 
the south like the string of it. In the neigh- 
bourhood of the Minories the remains of a 
portion of the walls may still be seen. The 
original gates of the city, of which we have any 
mention, were Ludgate, Doorgate, Aldgate, 
and Aldersgate, all purely Saxon names. Four 
were subsequently added, Cripplegate, Bishops- 
gate, Moorgate, and Newgate. Besides these, 
there were the postern on Tower Hill, and 
the bridge-gate at London Bridge, both of 
which were of great antiquity. The former 
was erected shortly after the Conquest, and it 
either fell down or was taken down while 
certain additions were being made to the 
Tower in the reign of Henry VI., about the 
year 1440. It was never rebuilt, but we are 
told that "a plaine cottage of timber, lath, 
and loame, with a narrow passage" was 
erected in its stead. This also passed away 
some time after the year 1611. A woodcut of 
the bridge-gate of Queen Elizabeth's time — a 
strongly embattled structure, abundantly gar- 
nished with traitors' heads — may be seen in 
Vis.scher's View, published in 1579. Doorgate, 
orthe Watergate, answering tothemodern Liow- 
gate, has left no traces behind it. Aldgate 
stood about 500 yards to the north of the 
postern on Tower HiU. It is mentioned in 
a charter of Edgar,lA.D. 967, and was un- 
doubtetUy one of the original and principal 
gates. During the bitter war between King 
John and his barons, the latter entered the 
city through this gate, and their leader after- 
wards rebuilt it in the Norman style, and 
made it a place of great strength. In 1606, 
being then in a very ruinous condition, Aldgate 
was taken down and restored, on which occa- 
sion a number of Roman coins was discovered 
at the foimdation. Two of these coins Mr. 
Bond, the surveyor, had copied on a stone 
tablet, and placed on the east front of the 
new building, which also bore the in- 
scription, " iSenafus pnpulsque Londinensis 
fecit," 1609 : Sir Humphrey Wild, Mayor. 
And the northern postern bore the words 
" This foot postern was made at the care and 
charge of the Honoirrable City of London, in 
the mayoralty of Sir Anthony Bateman, Knt,, 
ANNO DOM. 1660." In 1602 one of the quarters 
of Sir Thomas Armstrong, who suffered for his 
complicity in the Rye House Plot, was spiked 
on the gate ; and m 1694 the head of Sir John 
Friend was similarly exhibited, as a reward 



for the part which the unlucky brewer-knight 
was sup]iosed to have taken in the Jacobite 
conspiracy against William 111. Aldgate re- 
mained until 1760, when it was sold by the City 
Lands' ConnnitteetoMr. r>lagden,awell-knowTi 
carpenter in Coleman-street, for £177 lOs. 
.Mr. Blagden, the same year, purchased 
Cripplegate for i,'91, and Ludgate for £148, 
and the following year he contracted with the 
Committee for the ground from Cripi)legate to 
Moorgate for building i)urposos. The ground, 
1,000ft. in length, brought £350, being at the 
rate of 7s. per foot. Such was the value of 
land in the city a century ago ; how value it 
now, except by naming the most fabuloua 
sums ? A piece of ground purcha.ied in Lom- 
bard-street recently cost over £2,000,000 
sterling per acre, or nearly £70 \>r.r square 
foot of area. Bishopsgate was situated about the 
same distance north-west from Aldgate as the 
latter was from the postern. The conjecture 
is that Bishopsgate took its name from its foun- 
der, a bishop of London in the eleventh cen- 
tury, and old chroniclers tell us that Henry III. 
confirmed to the Hanse merchants certain pri- 
vileges, in return for which they were bound 
to keep the gate iir repair, and to defend it in 
times of danger. However this may have 
been, we read that the City Corporation restored 
the gate in 1551, and in 1731, when it had 
again become dilapidated, theyrebuilt it. It was 
finally pulled down during the general demoli- 
tion in 1761, and the materials sold. Moorgate, 
again, was 550 yards westward, of Bishojisgate, 
and was erected in 1414-15 by Thomas Faul- 
coner, mayor, who drained the tract of ground 
now called Moorfields, then a swamp or marsh. 
Moorfields was for a long the favourite place 
of recreation with Londoners, and this gate, 
which gave the jieople access to the fields, was 
a very stately structure. " Its arch was much 
higher than the other gates, and than the 
common rules of proportion, for the conve- 
niency of the city trained bands marching 
thro' it to exercise in the fields with their 
spikes erect." It had two side posterns for 
pedestrians, and apartments over the main 
archway for the accommodation of the Lord 
Mayor's carvers. The gate was sold in 1761 
for £166. Cripplegate owes its name to having 
beenthecomuionresort of cripples, wdio loitered 
about the gate soliciting alms of piassers-by. 
It spanned the old Roman military way called 
Ermine-street, which led from London by 
Hornsey northward, and is mentioned as early 
as the year 1070. It would seem to have been 
rebuilt by the brewers of London in 1244, and 
again, in 1491, by the executors of Edmund 
Shaw, goldsmith and Lord Mayor, who be- 
queathed 400 marks for that purpose. Crip- 
plegate was used as a prison for common tres- 
passers, but afterwards became the official 
residence of the water bailift'. It was repaired, 
and a new postern added, by the Corporation 
in 1033, rebuilt after the great fire in 1666, and 
finally done away with, as already stated, in 
1760. London chroniclers are at variance as 
to the origin of the word Aldersgate. Some 
will have it that the founder of tlie gate was 
one Aldrich, a Saion; others say that it took 
its name from a group of elder trees which 
at one time flourished hard by. On the other 
hand. Stow, a very trustworthy authority, is 
of opinion that the gate was called Aldergate, 
or Oldergate, simply to mark its antiquity. 
The last of the gates of this name was built 
in 1617. It was a heavy Gothic structure, 
and a special monument to James I., who had 
passed through the old gate on coming to 
take possession of the English throne fourteen 
years previously. On the north front, over 
the archway, it bore a figure of the king on 
horseback, and above, the arms of England, 
i Scotland, and Ireland, quartered ; on the same 
side (east) was an effigy of the jjrophet Jere- 
miah, with the text, " Then shall enter into 
the gates of this city kings and princes, sitting 
upon the throne of David, riding in chariots 
and on horses," &c., Jer. xvii., 25. On the 
west a companion effigy of Samuel, and these 
words, " Behold, I have hearkened unto your 
Toicein all that ye said imto me, and have made 



42 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 18, 1867. 



a king over you," 1 Sam. xii., 1. His Majesty 
was also represented on the soutli front, sitting 
in his chair of state in royal robes. In 1670 
the gate was repaired, having been much de- 
faced by the great fire. It was restored in 
1739, and the circumstance has given us 
some notion of the state in which one of the 
principal streets of London was kept, even 
in that late day. The word " beautified '' 
having been stuck upon the gate after its re- 
storation, the Lord Mayor received a letter 
signed " Civicus," reminding his lordship that 
the word "safety" had been forgotten. The 
writer stated tliat " a deep channel for the 
current of much water being in the middle 
of the gateway, just where the cart-horses 
must go, it had happened that a horse, choos- 
ing better footing on one side of the channel, 
had unexpectedly drawn the wheel against 
the stonework and crushed a person to death." 
" Civicus " therefore suggested that the chan- 
nel " should be turned to one side, as at 
Newgate." This was accordingly done. One 
of the quarters of the unfortunate Sir Thomas 
Armstrong was placed on Aldersgate, and at 
one period of its existence the Common Crier 
resided in it. The first of the city gates 
that was pulled down to make room for 
modern improvements was Ludgate. Leland 
discards the notion that this gate was ori- 
ginally erected by King Lud, as Geoffry of 
Monmouth says, about the year of Christ 66. 
The name is derived, according to Leland, 
from the Saxon word find, floete, or fleet, a 
small water-course, namely, the River Fleet, 
which ran close to the gate. In the year 
1379, Su' Nicholas Brewer being Mayor, the 
Common Council ordained that all freemen 
of the city should, " for debt, trespasses, ac- 
counts, and contempts," be imprisoned in 
Ludgate, and thereby hangs a very pleasanttale, 
with a moral to it. One Stephen Foster was 
a prisoner here, and one day being at the 
" begging grate," a rich widow, who happened 
to be passing, stopped and asked the unhapjjy 
debtor what sum would jiurchase his release. 
Foster replied, £-20, which the compassionate 
widow paid, and afterwards took him into 
her service. In the language of the penny 
novelist, "need the sequel be told ?" Stephen 
gained the afTection of his benefactress, and 
married the widow. By indefatigable appli- 
cation to business, he acquired great wealth, 
and became Sir Stephen Foster, Lord Mayor 
of London. Sir Stephen was possessed of a 
grateful heart and a kindly disposition. He 
did not forget the miserable condition of the 
poor prisoners in his old quarters at Ludgate. 
He contriljuted greatly to their comfort and 
welfare by enlarging the prison and render- 
ing it more commodious. He also added to 
it a chapel, on the wall of which was placed 
a brass plate bearing this quaint inscription : — 

Devout soula that pass tliia way 

For Stephen Foster, late maior, heartily pray, 

And Dame Agnes, Lia spouse, to God conaecr.ite, 

That for pity thishouae made for Londoners in Llldgate, 

So that for lodgings and water prisoners here nought pay, 

As their keepers shall all answer at dreadful dome3*day. 

These good acts Sir Stephen Foster per- 
formed in 1454, the very year in which he 
was elected Lord Mayor, and it is gratifying 
to laiow that by none was his conduct more 
warmly applauded than by the worthy widow 
who became Lady Foster. At Ludgate ended 
the rebellion of Sir Thomas Wyatt in 1554. 
Having marched his forces along the Strand 
and Fleet-street he found the gate .shut against 
him and strongly manned. Wyatt was sum- 
moned by the herald to surrender, and he had 
enough good sense left to comply with the 
request. But he lost his head all the same. 
The last gate — that which was pulled down 
in 1760 — was erected in 1586, and was adorned 
on the west front with a statue of Queen 
Elizabeth, and on the east with statues of 
King Lud and his two sons. Newgate was 
situated about a thousand feet north-west of 
Aldersgate, and was the newest or latest erected 
of the city gates. It was also considered 
" the fairest of all the gates." The original 
structure dates from the time of Henry 1, or of 



Stephen, and, as Liidgate was the prison for 
civil trespassers, this was the gaol for crimuial 
offences, and had been so used since the reign 
of King John. In 1422 the executors of the 
famous Dick Whittington "re-edified" New- 
gate in accordance with his last will and 
testament. It was rebuilt "' more stately than 
ever" after the great fire. The present New- 
gate prison of coiu'se takes its name from this 
gate, which occupied a portion of the site of 
Dance's edifice, begmi in 1770, com])leted in 
1783. During the Lord George Gordon riots 
in 1780, old Newgate had been pretty well de- 
molished, a fate that entirely befel the King's 
Bench prison, to which the rioters set fire, re- 
leasing s even hundred prisoners. And so 
passed away the ancient city gates. They were 
interesting as relics, but having served their 
end and purpose they were no longer neces- 
sary. They met with imiversal fate, and are 
now numbered among the things that were. 



SOCIETY OF ARTS.— PEIZES TO ART 
WORKMEN. 

THE works sent in competition for the prizes 
ottered this session are placed in the Great 
Room, for the inspection of members and their 
friends. 
The following is a catalogue of the works re- 

C61V6(i ' 

FIRST DIVISION. 
Works to be Executdd from Prescribed Designs.* 

1. Ciirviug in Stone. — Panel, after cbimneyjiiece by 

Donatello, by J. Daymond, jnu., 4, Edward street, 
Vauxhall bridge road, S. Price £8. 

2. Ditto, Gothic bracket, by E. J. Price £5. 

3. Ditto, by John Edward Daly, 33, Medway street, 

Westminster, S. W. Price £15, 

4. Ditto, by John, Barker, 4, John street, Maxlborough 

road, Chelsea, S.W. Price £12. 
'5. Flowers carved in Caen stone, by W. H. Holmes, 

101, Dean street, Soho, W. 
*6. Head, in marble, "' Ecco Homo," by J. P. F. Jones, 

4. Surrey vLUas, Nunhead green, Peckham Rye, 

S.E. Copies made for £5. 
*7. Basso relievo, in marble, representing the Arts and 

Sciences, by the above. Price wben finished £20. 
*S. Ditto, in marble, by the above. 

*9. Car\'ing in Stone. — " Christ blessing little Children," 
by H. Francis, Reigate heath, fturrey. 

*10. Ditto, "First Steps in Life," by the above. 

*11. Ditto, specimens of letter-cutting in stone, by the 
above 

•12. Modelling in Plaster. — National emblems, arranged 
by J. DajTnoud, jim., 4, Edward street, Vaxixhall 
bridge road, S. Price £3. 

*13. Head in Caen Stone. — "Winter," by T. Heme, 22' 
Werrington street, Oakley square, N. W. 

14. Carving in Wood, after design by Holbein, by T. E. 

Mayle, 33, James street, Stockwell, S. 

*14a. Carving and Gilding. — A Glass Frame, designed and 
carved by W. M. Holmes, principal part of the 
flowers by Mouatt (deceased), gUt in double 
mat and burnished by Messrs. Buchholtz, Venning, 
Chowne, sen., Ettershank, Connor, and .iVlleu, 
exliibited by J. H. Wyatt, 101, Dean street, W. 

15. Repuusse Work in Metal. — Executed in iron, after 

tiie jVIartelli bronze mirror case at South Ken- 
sington, by G. Page, 39, Duglas street, North- 
ampton-road, Clerkenwell, EC. Price £20. 

16. Ditto, by J. S. NichoUs, 4, Everilda street, Heming- 

ford road, Islington, N. Price £6. 
16a. Ditto, on silver cup, by X. Y. Z. Price £30. 
IT. Ditto, on silver, by V. U. (Unfinished.) 
IS. Ditto. " Raphael's Three Graces," in silver, by Joseph 

Hakowski, 09, Frith street, Soho square, W. 

Price £20. Copies at £15. 
]8a. Ditto, "Thi-ee Graces," in silver, by X. Y. Z. Price 

£12. 

19. Ditto, "Three Graces," in copper, silvered, by 

Charles Yerman, 14, Gerrard street, Islington, N. 

20. Ditto, "Thi'ee Graces," in copper, by Alexander 

Dufour, 36, Cleveland street, Fitzroy square, W. 

21. Ditto, "Three Graces," in copper, by W. Holliday, 

14, Nailour street, Islington, N. Price £15. 
■*22. Ditto, Portrait of the late Viscount Palmerston, by 

the above. (Sold.) 
*23. Ditto, Group, in copper, " Abundance," after J. Van 

Eycken, by Thomas James Bowman, 3, Rheidul 

terrace, St. Peter's. Islington, N. Price £7 lOs. 
*23a. Ditto, "Raffle-leafage." Price £5. 

24. Hammered Work in Brass. — Adapted for use as a 

bracket, by W. Mansfield, 72, Bishop's road, 
Camberwell New road, S. 

25. Ditto, by E. Millward, 35, Little Clarendon street, 

Somer s town, N.W. 

26. Ditto, by Albert Edward Millward, 13, New Comp- 

ton street. Soho, W. 

27. Hammered Work in Iron. — Ditto, by Alfi-ed Mill- 

wjird, 35, Little Clarendon street, Somers toivn, 
N.W. 

28. Ditto, by G. H. Price £5 lOs. 

29. Ditto, by James Gwillim, 19, Sidney square. Mile 

End, E. Price £15. 
*30. Ditto, by the above. Price £20. 
30fl. Panel for a Screen, by W. Letheren, Lanadown Iron 

Works, Cheltenliam. 



' Those marked with au asteriflk (*) are not after the 
prescribed designs. 



*31. Ditto, by William CunlifEe, St. Peter's street, 

Burnley. Price £5 5s. 
*32. Ditto, Bread-basket, designed by A. W. Blomfield. 

Esq., architect, for East Sheen Church ; executed 

bv T. Winstanley, 7, Stanbope street, Clare 

market, W.C. Price £12. 

33. Carving in Ivory. — Medallion Portrait of Flaxman, 

by J. W. Bentley. 22, Sherwood street, Golden 
square, W. Price £10. 

34. Chasing in Bronze. — Bu»t of "Clytie," by Frederick 

Beech, 52, Great Colmore street, Birmingham. 
Price £16 16s. 

35. Ditto, by H. R. Batchelor, Jan., 149, St. John 

street road, E.C. Price £14. 

36. Ditto, by T, Nichols, 4, Everilda street, Hemingford 

road, Islington, N. Price £15. 

37. Ditto, Ornament, after Goutier, by B. Reynolds. 15, 

Oak village, Kentish town, N.W. Price £15. 

38. Ditto, Ornament, after Goutier, by G. 

39. Ditto, Ornament, after Goutier, by H. J. Hatfield, 

16, Alfred street, Tottenham court road, W.C. 

Price £15. 
*40, Ditto, Statuette of " Caractacus," by the above. 
*41. Ditto, Group, " Jacob Wrestling with the Angel," by 

the above. 
*42. Two Miniatui'e frames, raised and chased by the 

above. 

43. Engraving on metal, after arabesques, by G. S. B. 

Price £3 lOs. 

44. Ditto, by G. BeiTy, 31, Brewer street, Golden 

Square, W. Price £4 4s. 

45. Ditto, by William Rowe, 4, Larkhall lane, Clapham, 

S. Price £3. 
*46. Ditto, by GillesM'Kenzie, Tudor street, Sheffield. 
*47. Ditto, by the above. 
*48. Ditto, by the above. 
*49. Ditto, on silver cup, by the above. 

*50. Enamel Painting on Copper. — "Madonna and Fish," 
after Raphael, by Frederick Lowe, 13, Wilderness 
row, EC. 

*51. Ditto, "Boy and Doves," after Raphael, by Walter 
J. W, Nimn, lu, Garduur street, Bi-omehead 
street, Commercial road, E. Price £6, 



Painting on Porcelain, — "Two Children," in 

Raphael's cartoon of " Lystra," painted on a vase, 

by Edwin Saunders, Messrs. Battam and Sou, 

Gougtt s juare, E. C. 
Ditto, ' ■ Two Children, ' ' painted on a vase, by W, 

J. W. Nunn, Messrs. Battam and Son, Gough 

square, E.C. 
Ditto, "Two Children," by F. D. Bradley, West 

Parade, Mount Pleasant, Stoke upon Trent. Price 

£4 4s. 
Ditto, "Two Children," by John Slater, Field 

place, Stoke upon Trent. Price £3 3s. 
Ditto, "Two Children," by William Slater, Field 

place. Stoke upon Trent. Price £3 lOs. 
Ditto, " Two Cliildren," by William H. Slater, Oak- 

liill cottages. Stoke upon Trent. £5 10a. 
Ditto, ornament, by F. D. Bnidley, West Parade, 

Mount Pleasant, Stoke upon Ti'ent. £5 53. 
Ditto, ornament, by Alexander Fisher, 5, Clyde street. 

Stoke upon Trent. 
Ditto, ornament, plateau in blue, after design by 

Maestro Ludovico, by the above. 
Ditto, pair of door finger plates, majolica style, by Miss 

L. Leila Hawkins. Price £5 5s. 
*G2 & 63. Ditto, Circular plates, subjects from the *' Sig- 

natura " ceiling, by \V. P. Rhodes, School of Arts, 

Stoke upon Trent. 

C4. Decorative painting. Ornament, by John Slater, Field 
place. Stoke upon Trent. Price £3 Ss. 

65. Ditto, by ^. 

66. Ditto, by Charles Pfiinder, 28, Baybam street, Camden 

town, N.W. Price £6 5b. 

67. Ditto, after a picture frame in the South Kensingtun 

Museum, by the above. Price £13 lOa. 

CS, Wall Mosaics, after Bertini, of Milan, by Samuel 
Cooper, 2, Waterfurd terrace north, Walham green, 
W. 

69. Die Sinking, after Wyon's *' Head of Prince Consort," 

by W. E, bartelle, 4, Chichester place, Wandsworth 
road, S. Price £15. 

70. Ditto, by J. W. Minton, 9, Royal Mint, E.C. Price 

£20. 

71. Ditto, by Albert Heness, 3. Egbert street, St. George's 

road, N.W. Price £10 10s. 

72. Glass Blowing.— Exhibited by Dr. Salviati, 431, Ox- 

ford street, W. Produced by Marco Seguao, of 
Murano. 

73. Bookbinding. — After an Italian specimen " Quintus 

Curtius,",by John Jeffrey, 23, Upper Maryleboue 

street, W, Price £7 
►74. Ditto, Early Florentine style. " Histoire de la Por- 

celaine," by Louis Geuth, 30, Brydges street, 

Covent Garden, W.C. Price £35. 
f76. Ditto, "CEuvresde Lorize Labe," by theabove. Price 

£SSs. 
►76. Ditto, case specimen of mosaic, by the above. 

Price £10 10s. 

77. Illuminations. — Specimen by Charles Pfander, 2S, 

Bayham street, Camden town, N. W. Price 
±5 lOs. 

78. Ditto, by Miss Mary R. David, 4, Anderson street, 

Chelsea, S.W. Price £5 os. 



SECOND DIVISION. 

Works to be Executed without Prescribed Designs. 

Wood Carving. — (a.) Human figure in the round, in alto or 
inbas-relief .Ajiimals or natural foliage may be used 
as accessories. 

79. '• Egeria," by J. W. Gould. 33, Bayham-place, Camdeu 
town, N.W. Price £15. 

50. *' Cynthia, by the above. Price £lO. 

51. "Autumn," Female head in satin wood, by G. F, 

Bridge, 3, Vincent square, S.W. Price £5 lOs. 
82. A Finial carved in oak, by R. Davison, 28, Winchester 
street, South Beltiavia, S.W. 



January 18, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



43 



83. Original Group in walnut. " Wallace at the Battle of 
Stirling," by John Lucas, 82, Long Acre, W.C. 
Price £31 lOs. 

' (b.) Animal orstill life. Fruit, flowers, or natural foliage 
m^iy bo used as accc^s.sorles. 

54. " XJog's Head," by K. Dujardin, iO, CamberwcU grove, 

S. Price £2. 

(c.) Xatural foliage, fruit, or flowers, or conventional oruar 
ineut, ill wliich grote.st|ue ligures or animal:* may form 
accessories, preference being given where tlie work is of 
au appl'od character fur ordinary decorative purpoatw, 
as representing commercial value. 

55. Panel, '* Binl and Flowers," by F. Dujardin,4G, Cam- 

berwell grove, S. Price iilO. 
SG. Panel in Lime Wood, by J. S. Booth, 19, Maiden road, 

Kentish Town, N.W. Price i;iO 10s. 
87. Chemera Truss Leg, by R. Baker, Messrs. IloUaud 

and Sous, Gilliugham street, Pimlico, S.W. 
Sii. Vase of Flowers and Conventional Bracket, by G. II. 

Bull, IG, Miilmau mews, Millman sireot, W.C. 

Priw £23. 



89 & 90. Design for Damask Table Linen, by Miss A. 

Kemp, 27, Hereford square, Brompton, fci.W. 

Price of No. $0, 15s.. No. 90, lOs. 
9L Design for a book Cover, by Miss Mary R. David. 

Price jEI lOs. 
92 & 93. Designs for Damask Table Linen, by the above. 

Price lOs. each. 
94 & 95. Works in Oil, by Charles Maibeu, -10, West HiU 

street, Brighton. 



Works Executed and Finished by Machine. 

ExMbited by Charles J. Hill, 6, Albany street. Regent's 

Park, N.W. :— 
96 — 93. Three Groups in Ivor}-. Price £15. "^ 
99. " Head of H. M. the Queen," in Ivory, Price 

100. " Greek Head " in Steel. Price £S. 

101. Ditto, in malachite. Price £5. 

102. Case with Two Proofs from Engravings on Steel for 

Surface Printing, and iwi> "Medusa's Heads." 
Engravings and dies in hand. Price £4 each. 



D01IE3XIC PIRES. 

IT is not ea^y to overrate the importance of 
what is now looked upon as " the great coal 
question." • Whether oar supply of coals will be 
Butficient for the coming centuries, or whether 
England will by-aud-bye be beaten in the race of 
nations, either for the want of coals or from 
the difficulty of getting at them, we will not now 
consider. We, however, welcome any suggestion 
wliich may tend in any way to preserve our national 
wealth, and therefore have pleasure in giving cur- 
rency to the useful hint given by Mr. Recorder 
Warren to the people of Hull. In a letter to the 
Mayor of th^t town, dated the Gthinst., he says: — 
'■ Wishing you and all the town and corporation a 
happy and prosperous new year, and many of 
them, I cannot leave for town without ottering a 
practical suggestion to yourself and every house- 
holder in Hull, which may at least show my good- 
will. On that suggestion I have profitably acted 
for seven years, and it relates to coal. Do you 
wish to have the fall benefit — that is, without 
waste^-of every ounce of coal you pay for ; to save 
nearly one-third of your ordinary consumption ; to 
have a fire lit in the morning, which, with a little 
care, will last nearly the whole of the day, with 
possibly a single replenishing, and so save trouble 
as well as coal, and have warmth equally distribu- 
ted through your apartment, great or small ? — then 
attend to the following practical suggestion, upon 
which I have acted at home with complete success, 
for, as I have said, seven years, and have, with a 
like result, recommended to very many friends. 
The suggestion is not my own ; I met with it 
seven years ago in a Loudon journal. Ordinary 
fire-grates have open bars at the bottom, the re- 
sult of which, of course, is to place the coal be- 
tween the two draughts, one from below and the 
other from above, up the chimney, and ensure two 
things, rapid consumption and diminished heat in 
the apartment. When I arrived at my hotel last 
Wednesday afternoon — a bitter cold day — I found 
a large fire, which was twice replenished before I 
went to bed. The coal was excellent, but I could 
scarcely get warm. I prevailed on my worthy 
landlord to try my experiment on my fire-grate 
here. He has done so, and with what resiUt { Ask 
him. But I will tell you that to-day my fire was 
made up at ten a.m. It is now five p.m. I have 
enjoyed, and am enjoying, a most comfortable 
warmth, without having to sit within a yard of 
the fire. Not an ounce of additional coal has been 
placed on it, nothing having been required but 
now and then, at long intervals, a poke from be- 
' neath and a pressing down from above. Now, 
how is this brought about ? I will tell you. Send 
for an ironmonger or blacksmith, and order him to 
take the measure of the bottom of your grate and 
make you a sheet-iron plate of about the l-6th of 
an inch in thickness, or even less, which, if your 



grate be large, will cost you 2s. Simply lay thi.s 
on the bottom of the grate, then let yoiir servant 
lay and light your fire as usual. It will soon burn up, 
but you must keep pretty open the lowest bar, so 
as to secure a slight draught. When the fire has 
begun to burn, poke it gently from beneath, and 
the flame will gradually get through the entire 
mass of coal, the iron plate beneath gets red hot, 
and so keeps up a constant combustion, at the 
same time dispersing the heat through the room, 
instead of its being sent up the chimney, thus en- 
tirely consuming the coal, instead of filling the 
hearth with ashes. In my own house I tried the 
experiment for a week in the breakfast^ruom, then 
in the dining-room, then in the kitchen, with 
uniform and complete success ; and then I had 
the sheet iron plate put into every fireplace — and 
there are many throughout the house — with equal 
success. So I do with the fireplace in my official 
residence. When the fire is once made up, say 
about tena.m., for the day, an occasional poke, and 
possibly a single replenishment, suffices for the 
day. In my own case, and also at my hotel here, 
where three scuttles were required, one now suf- 
fices." 



NEW YORK UNDERGROUND. 

1 CORRESPONDENT of an American paper 
ix writes : — -Several years ago, a Uttle German 
Jew, named Schwartz, believing that in the sewers 
of New York might be found many articles of 
value which had been lost, entered them, and for 
three days wandered through the labyrinth. He 
was very successful, picking up some 27,000 dol- 
lars' worth of jewellery, spoons, forks, &c. ; but 
having lost his way the first day, he beUeved that 
he might have found much more could he have 
carried out the original plan, which was to visit 
Fifth and Madison Avenues, Broadway, and the 
wealthy portions of the city. So great, however, 
were the difficulties and dangers which he encoun- 
tered that nothing could induce him again to visit 
"New York underground." His adventure for 
a time created quite a little sensation, but there 
were none venturous enough to attempt a second 
until Wednesday of last week, when an adven- 
turous party of three entered the sewer of Hous- 
ton-street, at the ferry on East River, intending to 
remain one week, during which time they proposed 
visiting every portion of the city where there 
seemed to be any chance of finding treasure 
trove. The party consisted of Mary Walker, 
a young girl of 18, her brother James, aged 16, 
and Michael Grady, an old man of about 50. 
Miss Walker, some months ago, in an old paper 
wrapped around a parcel which she was taking 
home from a "slop-shop," saw an account of 
Schwartz's undertaking, and resolved to imitate it. 
Maps were obtained, and the city studied carefully. 
Each day's work for herself, her brother, and 
Grady, who was formerly in her father's employ, 
was carefully marked out. Every preparation 
which limited knowledge could prepare for was 
made, and the adventurers started. Each day 
they rendezvoused several times in the chambers 
at the street corners. On Sunday they had filled 
all the bags they had taken with them, some fif- 
teen in number, and Miss Walker returned. James 
AValker and Grady continued their search, empty- 
ing six of their bags at the corner of Tweuty- 
second-street and Fifth Avenue. On Wednesday 
morning, at a very early hour, and before people 
were stirring. Miss Walker was at the place with a 
waggon. On removing the iron plate which 
at each street corner leads into a smaU chamber 
connecting with the sewer, she found her brother, 
but not Grady. .He had started off on another 
trip, although the six bags had been filled in 
Madison Avenue. The loose treasiu-e was placed 
in extra bags, and the whole driven to a Broad- 
way jeweller's. The rest were taken from the 
place on Thursday morning. A watch was set for 
Grady, but up to this time of writing nothing has 
been heard from him, and it is feared that he has 
perished. The result of the week's search is 
rouglily estimated at 1,500,000 dollars. I saw the 
treasures yesterday, piled in three heaps on the 
floor, and the jeweller informed me that it must 
have cost over 3,000,000 dollars, but in conse- 
quence of the old fashioned style of setting, its 
bruised, battered, and con-oded condition, its 
value was reduced to about one-half. A Uttle 
over a bushel (how queer it sounds to talk 
of jewellery by the bushel !) has been sorted, and 
among it has been found one diamond ring valued 
at 16,000 dollars, two more valued at 5,000 dollars, 
and half a dozen valued at 3,000 dollars and 
upwards. The most curious is a plain gold ring, 



inscribed on the inside, in Dutch, " Peter Stuyve- 
sant to wife." It is an heirloom of the Stuyve- 
sants, and was stolen, with other jewellery, last 
March, by burglars. How it came into the sewer 
is a problem for philosophers to speculate .about. 
Miss Walker and her brother, who find themselves 
thus lifted suddenly from penury to great wealth, 
intend to proceed to England, where they have 
relatives. This adventure is talked of everywhere, 
and already there are others preparing to follow 
in their footsteps. 



A TEA PARTY AND A TESTIMONIAL. 

ON the evening of Friday, the 11th inst., a 
trade union meeting of a somewhat remark- 
able character, if taken in connection with the 
general attitude assumed between masters and 
men in the building trade, took place at Crown 
Works, the new and extensive premises of Mr. 
William Higgs, the well-known builder of the Me- 
tropohtau Tabernacle, the Guards' Barracks, 
Chelsea, &c. At six o'clock the whole of the work- 
people of Mr. Higgs, with their wives and families, 
sat down in the large joiners' shop (which was 
tastefully decorated for the occasion) to a hearty 
and substantial tea, provided at the expense of 
their employer. The meeting was one of the 
merriest of its kind, men, women, and children 
enjoying the excellent cheer and the roaring fun 
that a lot of workpeople at home in their own 
workshop are sure to create upon such an occasion 
as this. Strong expressions of satisfaction and 
pleasure beamed on the countenances of everyone, 
whilst Mr. Higgs went about the place seeing that 
all the folk enjoyed themselves. There were 
about 600 men, women, and children present. 
After tea the company adjourned to the other 
wing of the shop, which had been fitted up as a 
lecture-hall. Amongst the gentlemen on the plat- 
form were William Higgs, Caleb Higgs, George 
Higg.9, Joseph East (Mayor of Kingston-on-Thames), 
G. Charlton, W. Cheshire, T. Gluey, W. Olney, and 
C. Blackshaw, Esqs., and the Revs. C. H. Spur- 
geon and Frank White. The interesting ceremony 
of presenting a testimonial to Mr. Higgs, as a 
mark of respect and esteem from his clerks and 
foremen, was the first proceeding of the evening. 
The testimonial (which was one of Benson's best 
timepieces) was a beautiful black marble pedestal, 
inlaid with malachite panels, surmounted by an 
urn hung with festoons of gilt flowers, and bear- 
ing the simple inscription, " Presented to William 
Higgs, Esq., by his emploiics ; 11th January, 
1867." Amidst loud applause Mr. Higgs thanked 
his people for this token of their respect (which 
had been kept secret from him until the moment 
of presentation), and trusted that meetings such 
as these would strengthen the bonds of union be- 
twsen employers and employed, assuring them 
that in everything that laid in his power he should 
be only too glad to conduce to their happiness. 
The enthusiastic applause that followed showed 
that there was a bond of union between master 
and men, far difl'erent and much stronger than any 
trade compact, viz., the bond of sympathy. He 
has already given them most substantial proofs of 
his care for them, having, amongst other things, 
gone to some considerable expense in fitting a 
large and comfortable dining-room on the pre- 
mises. Mr. Spurgeon afterwards delivered his 
famous lecture, " Sermons in Candles." Unani- 
mous votes of thanks were passed to Mr. Spur- 
geon and to Mr. Higgs, and the highly delightsd 
meeting broke uj). 



STAMFORD CHURCH EMBELLISHMENT. 

THE decorative painting in the chancel of St. 
John's Church, Stamford, is now completed. 
The colouring of the roof is a restoration, all the 
old work being accurately reproduced. Though 
little of it was visible before, yet, when the 
scaffolding was erected, it was not difficult to make 
out the whole of the work on the timbers and 
carved figures. All the principals and tracery are 
grounded vellum colour, the pattern work and 
picking out being principally chocolate, black and 
red. A very quaint cinquefoil in red, with gold 
centre, is frequently introduced. The carved 
bosses are gilded, also the coronae of the angels and 
the emblematic shields they hold. The panels of 
the roof are a blue, which has the peculiarity of 
lighting up well, and showing its blue colour as 
well by artificial light aa by day. This efl'ect is 
produced by some peculiar preparation of the 
ground colour. Upon the panels is a powderinc 
of stars, a very large one being in the ceutrs el 



44 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 18, 1867. 



each. The wall abuve the altar is painted as a 
teredos in three compartments. That in the centre 
contains a large gilt cross on a richly diapered 
ground, with an Agnus Dei on a medallion at the 
intersection of the arms of the cross. This is 
divided from the side panels by passion flower or- 
nament, lu the outer panels are four demi-figures 
of angels bearing inscribed scrolls. These are on 
gold grounds, and have gilt coronce and jewelled 
clasps. The wall below these figures is diapered 
all round the chancel with a very eflective block 
diaper, on a dull red ground, in black, white, green, 
and buff. The walls above, to the height of eight 
feet, are painted dull red with white lines, one 
inch broad, and about six inches apart, at an angle 
of 60 deg. Upon these lines are black pellets, and 
the spaces between are filled with a sprig of haw- 
thorn in green, and rosettes in white and buff al- 
ternately. 

The upper part of walls to the cornice is divided 
into three spaces and filled with diaper work of 
different patterns, separated by bold and effective 
borders. The pattern that intersects the points of 
the arches is particularly good, being a sort of 
brick pattern, in white, on a dark olive ground. 
The white squares bear a red quatrefoil, and the 
dark spaces, herring-bone work, in fine lines of 
russet colour. The moulded arches to the north 
and south chapels stand out from this work with 
very fine effect. The space under the window, on 
the north side, is divided into three panels. The 
centre one contains a medallion of St. John the 
Baptist, girt with a camel's hair girdle. The side 
panels are filled "with geometrical devices. The 
splays to east window have a vine scroll on the 
sides and square panelling on the soffit. The splays 
to side windows are very successfully treated, with 
an arrangement of lines forming enriched panel 
work of alternate squares and diamonds. The 
elegantly moulded arches are carefully and judi- 
ciously coloured, and, though all the patterns differ, 
all are equally good. The artist is Mr. J. C. Lea, 
Lutterworth, who has recently decorated the in. 
terior of St. Michael's Church, Stamford. 



THF NEW COURTS OF JUSTICE. 

WE are authoritatively informed that when the 
article on the designs for the New Courts 
of Justice which appeared in one of the daily 
papers, and will be found in another part of the 
Building New.s, was penned, none of the drawings 
were hung, and a large part of them were un- 
packed. It will be seen that the article referred 
to is so expressed as to imply that it was written 
after an inspection of the exhibition. AVe are in- 
formed that the delay in exhibiting the drawings 
arises from"! the necessity of multiplying all the 
floor plans by photozincography, their intricacy, 
and the number of persons whose minute exami- 
nation of them is necessary, being such as to com- 
pel this course. At a recent meeting of the Exhi- 
bition Committee a series of resolutions were come 
to as regards the opening and management of the 
exhibition. It was resolved that the exhibition 
shall open on Friday, February 8, and that and the 
following day shall be reserved for a private view 
by members of Government, peers, members of the 
House of Commons, judges of superior courts, 
foreign ambassadors, and other distinguished per- 
sons. After the first two days the exhibition will 
be open for four weeks, that is, to Saturday, 
March 9. On Mondays, Tuesdays, and Wednes- 
days, the Commissioners and their officers, mem- 
bers of the law, architects, and artists will be ad- 
mitted, Thursdays being set apart to the public. 
Admission ou these four days will be by 
card, to be obtained at the office of the commis- 
sion, 33, Lincoln's Inn-fields. Fridays are to be 
reserved for the special work of the commission, 
and Saturdays to members of the Government, 
&c., as on the first two days. The invitations to 
the private views on these d.iys will be under 
the direction of the Board of Works. The 
hours of admittance will be from eleven a.m. 
to four p.m. daily. The following noble- 
men and gentlemen form the Exhibition 
Committee : — The Kight Hon. the Lord Chan- 
cellor (chairman), the Right Hon. the First Com- 
missioner of Works, Hugh C. E. Childers, Esq., 
M.P., J. C. Lawrence, Esq. (Alderman), the Pre- 
sident of the Law Society (A. Bell, Esq.), W. H. 
Walton, Esq., H. A. Hunt, Esq., J. Greenwood 
Esq., Q.C., R. P. Amphlett, Esq., Q.C. 



IMPROVED COMBINATION TOOL. 

THE term " Yankee notions " has been applied 
to many simple but very effective devices, 
designed to lighten labour and conduce to the 
comfort of the race. These "notions" are often 
valuable. The engraving herewith pre- 



very 




sented shows one of these handy combination 
implements, simple in construction, cheap in 
price, and effective in operation. It is a com- 
bination of hammer, pincers, nail-drawer, tongs, 
and hooks, and can be applied to varied uses 
about the house. The jaws A are intended 
to pull tacks and nails, to grasp covers of stoves, 
handle cooking utensils, &c. The hammer B is 
lor driving tacks, and the hooks C for lifting pots, 
kettles, sad-irons, and otlicr household appli- 
ances. The working part is of iron, and the 
handle of wood. It was patented through the 
Scientific American Patent Agency, and is manu- 
factured by Messrs. J. C. Longshore and Bro- 
ther, Mansfield, Ohio. 



ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH, TUPNELL PARK, 
HOLLOWAY. 

THE church, as illustrated on another page, is 
beiug erected from the designs of Mr. 
George Truefitt, .architect, of 5, Bloomsbury- 
square. We are glad to lay it before our readers 
because it is so entirely different to the many 
churches erected, and which are all so very much 
alike. The difficulty the architect had to deal 
with was to get the building at all on such a sharp 
triangular piece of ground, but the way he has 
done it shows he does not beUeve that a church 
must of necessity be of the usual nave, aisle, and 
chancel type, about which there is perhaps really 
no design whatever. In this church the interior 
effect has been principally thought of, and as a 
building partaking of the circular plan always 
looks externally smaller than it really is, so the in- 
terior, which in this case is very spacious, sur- 
prises all who enter, as it seems so much larger 
than it ajipears from the outside view. There will 
be sittings for 1,020 adults, without galleries, the 
cost £5,400, being without the tower and spire, 
which it is hoped the heir to the estate will build 
when he comes of age. The site is presented by 
the Tufnell Park estate, the subscriptions coming 
principally from the seatholders of the temporary 
church, but, as only about half of the money has 
been collected, the building is now stopped for 
want of funds. The indef,atig.able treasurers are 
at work, however, and hope to see the building 
finished before long. At present the roofs are all 
on and slated. The materials are Kentish rag and 
Bath dressings ; the columns, of cast-iron, ten 
inches in diameter. The roofs, which are open, 
are .ill rough from the saw, without stain or var- 
nish, and are boarded and tongued with iron. The 
pewing will be varnished, the seats being all open. 
The chancel and passages will be all laid with 
cement or concrete, ready for future tiles. The 
walls, as at present .arranged, will be plastered to 
a height of six feet only, leaving the rest to be 
done at a future time — in fact, everything is being 
carried out with regard to economy, as far as the 
fittings and finishings are concerned, so that the 
architect's original estimate of £5,400 may not be 
exceeded. The builders are Messrs. Carter and 
Sons, of Hornsey-road. 

We are sorry to say that we did not receive 
drawings of section and plan of church in time to 
get them engraved for this week. They will, how- 
ever, appear in our next issue. 



SKETCHES OP VENETIAN ARCHITEC 
TURE. 

tASA DI PARVOLINELLI. 

THIS palace (as nearly every house in Venice is 
so called) is situated on the Grand Canal, 
nearly opposite to the celebrated Church of Sta. 
Maria della Salute, and not far from the Palace 
Contarini Fasan, whose rich balconies do not fail 
to arrest the eye as the traveller passes along the 
great highway of Venice. It appears to have been 
built in the fifteenth century, and it seems probable 



that it was erected soon after the Palace Contarini 
Fasan, since it closely resembles it in the arrange- 
ment of the openings. This Casa di ParvoUnelli 
exhibits the usual characteristics of the Venetian 
type on a small scale, though with less richness of 
detaU than is generally met with. Here is the 
spacious water-gate, with small openings on either 
side ; above is the elegant arcade (the original bal- 
conies no longer existing), and here, on the third 
story, is the large blank space invariably found in 
Venetian palaces. The name ParvoUnelli is that of 
the present owner. 

CAMPANILE BT AMAEIA DEI FRARI. 

The beautifid apse of the Church of Sta. Maria 
Gloriosa del Frari is no doubt familiar to tho 
readers of the Building News, as some time 
ago an engraving of it appeared in these pages. 
The campanile does not present any remarkable 
speciality of design, but is interesting as being the 
oldest part of the church ; an inscription on a 
stone at its base bears the date 1361. The refine- 
ment and purity of detail of the campanile will 
enable it to bear comparison with the lofty Re- 
naissance one of St. Mark's without suffering by 
such comparison. There is scarcely any pecu- 
liarity of situation to lend a charm to the simple 
campanile of the Frari Church, unless it be 
its severity of form, which contrasts reproachfully 
with the wayward curves of the gable to the west 
front (not shown in the sketch), and yet taken by 
itself it exhibits a be.auty which that of St. Mark's 
by itself does not possess. 

Henkt Jarvis, Jun. 



THE SMALLPOX— DIRT AND NEGLECT. 

FROM th~E last monthly report of the parish of 
Marylebone, we learn that smallpox has 
recently made considerable progress in that 
parish. How this disease is intimately associated 
with dirt and bad sanitary arrangements, and .also 
with the neglect of vaccination, may be gathered 
from Mr. Lightfoot, the temporary inspector. 
That gentleman says : — " Having been re- 
quested by you to furnish a report of the 
sanitary condition of the houses in which per- 
sons are suffering from smallpox, I beg to sub- 
mit the following for your information : — 
' Many of the houses are in a very filthy condition, 
.and overcrowded. W.alls and ceilings dirty ; drains 
untrapped ; pavements broken in washhouses, 
yards, and areas, holding stagnant water, and 
smelling very badly ; closets dilapidated and with- 
out a supply of water ; butts and cisterns that re- 
quire cleansing and covers ; dustbins full of vege- 
table and other refuse, in a putrid st;vte. In 
houses of this class the disease spreads rapidly ; 
and I have observed in rooms only large enough 
for three persons — but where seven, eight, and as 
m<any as nine are crowded — two and sometimes 
three cases of smallpox in each room. I have ex- 
perienced great difficulty in persuading persons 
sutt'ering from the disease to go into the hospital ; 
and where children are in question, the parents 
positively refuse to part with them. The greatest 
number of these houses did not undergo s.anitary 
improvement during the house-to-house inspec- 
tion, being situated in streets that were not visited. 
Those in Manning-street, Manning-place, and 
Suffolk-place, are, with regard to rooms, in the 
same du-ty condition as when I first visited them, 
my term of office having expired before I could 
get the orders completed. I have carried out the 
measures authorised by you for arresting the pro- 
gress of the disease, by placing in every room in 
each house a vessel containing chloride of lime, 
moistened with diluted sulphuric acid, and have 
used carbolic acid to drains, closets, and damp cel- 
lars ; and, as far as practicable, have disinfected 
clothes and bedding. I have also set free a plenti- 
ful supply of chlorine in the Iron Hospital, and 
have left there also a quantity of carbolic acid for 
disinfecting purposes. I may add that I have in- 
spected thirty-eight houses in which cases of 
smallpox have occurred, and in those houses alone 
I have found twenty-nine children that have not 
been vaccinated." 



Cab Pares. — On the evening of Wednesd.ay. 
the 6th February, Mr. Henry Cole, C.B., will 
introduce the following subject at a meeting of 
the Society of Arts: — " On the existing legal regu- 
lations in reference to the Cab Fares in the Metro- 
polls, and their effect in rendering the Vehicles 
inferior to those provided in other European 
Capitals and the large Mimicipal Towns of this 
Country.' 



The Building News. Jan' 18''' 1867 





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January 18, I8b7. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



49 



IMPROVED DWELLINCxS FOR THE 
POOR. 

THE adjourned discussion on Mr. Kerr's 
paper for providing better accommoda- 
tion for the poor took place on. Monday, at the 
Institute. Mr. Kerr's one-room theory did 
not fare better in the hands of the gentleiuen 
wlio spoke than on tlie preceding occasion. 
In fact, Mr. Kerr must, by this time, be con- 
vinced that, liowever much the poor may be 
compelled to live in single rooms, they 
do so from necessity and not from choice. 
But even if they did so from choice, that 
would be no reason to encourage them in such 
a coui-se. By all means provide single rooms 
for single men, for single women, or for mar- 
ried couples without children ; but by no 
means provide large rooms capable of con- 
taining three beds for families of sis or seven 
persons. We are sorry that only an hour 
could, be devoted to the discussion on Monday 
evening. Certainly when there were so many 
speakers present who were capable of offering 
valuable observations on the question, and so 
much of the evening was taken up in mis- 
cellaneous Institute business, that the time 
for the discussion might have been protracted 
for a short time, and more particularly as 
Mr. Kerr decided to put his observations in 
reply on paper, and send them in as a con- 
tribution, instead of giving a speech. At aU 
events the Council of the Institute must see 
the importance of the question, and if they 
would appoint an early day for another dis- 
cussion, or encourage some competent person 
to read, another paper on it, they would do 

welL 

♦ 

PARIS EXHIBITION.— ARCHITEC- 
TURAL COMMITTEE. 

MR. CHARLES FORSTER HAYWARD, 
"the honorary secretary of this com- 
mittee, has just issued a circular stating that 
space having been promised to the committee 
for the ptirpose of exhibiting architectural 
photographs, he should feel obliged if he be 
informed, at the earliest convenience, of the 
titles and sizes of any photographs the pro- 
prietors of which may like to be sent to Paris. 
The committee wiU only select the best ex- 
amples, and no excessive margins can be 
allowed. The space for photographs has only 
been just granted, and as the Fine Art Court is 
now adjoining the Art Manufactures Court, and 
the photographs wiUbehung between, thegene- 
ral group of architectural objects illustrating 
the art and science in conjunction is so far satis- 
factory. The time for sending in the photo- 
graphs to South Kensington is from the 21st 
to the 2Sth inst. They will be sent to Paris 
with the pictures in Group I. without any ex- 
• pense to the contributors. AU communi- 
cations are to be addressed to G. B. Wood, 
Esq., assistant honorary secretary, 9, Conduit- 
street, W. 



THE DESIGNS FOR THE NEW 
NATIONAL GALLERY. 

IN the last nmnber of the Bcildisg New.s, 
an intimation was given that the merits 
of the ten competitive designs were not such 
as to require a second notice, but the exhibi- 
tion has evoked so much criticism that many 
of our readers may desire a short synopsis of 
what mav be called "the opinions of the 
Press," which ^iU be found to coincide in a 
marked manner with those we have already 
expressed, added to which, it seems reasonable 
that a further notice of all art matters should 
be expected than will be found in an ordinary 
periodical. Far from being captious or hyper- 
critical, if we followed the promptings of our 
feelings, that which could not conscientiously 
be praised would be pas.sod over in silence. 
We have, however, seen no reason to modify, 
still less to alter, our pre\'iously expressed 
opinions, and if the present remarks should 
pain any, it must not be forgotten that, 
whereas only ten persons are directly in- 



terested in the competition, thrice that number 
of millions, roundly speaking, for many gene- 
rations, are concerned that the National 
Gallery should be the best that the wealth 
and talent of England can ]>rovidc for its 
greatest city. It must not be understood that 
excuses are made for the line we have taken, 
or are about to take. The only lino we have 
ever taken, and we hope to be preserved from 
ever taking any other, is the straight line of 
impartial, though perhayis unusually free, 
criticism. In pursuing this course we cannot 
fail occasionally to run counter to some gene- 
rally received opinions, but if nothing is ex- 
tenuated, nought is set down in malice. 

Design No. 1, by Mr. Owen Jones, does not 
on further acquaintance remove the impression 
of want of permanent character which a first 
view suggested. It has more the character of 
a continental Kursaal, or Biarritz pavilion, than 
a national gallery in the cent re of a great metro- 
polis. Of'Mr. Jones's design the Times thus 
speaks : — 

Mr. Owen Jones, for examplo, has sent in a de- 
sign, on which he has bestowed all his groat skill. 
He has produced a standard work called the ' Gram- 
mar of Ornament," and his name is associated with 
a system of decoration which, if not original, is at 
least nncomraon. We approach his design, there- 
fore, with the confidence that it will be infinitely 
more picturesque than the old edifice. He is so 
confident of this himself that he has ventured on a 
comparison which no other competitor has chosen 
to invite. He has had a photographic copy made of 
his design for a national gallery, and of the pictorial 
effect which he imagines it would have when erected 
in Trafalgar square. From precisely the same 
point of view in the square, and on precisely the 
same scale, he has had a photograph taken of the 
existing gallery. And he has framed the two photo- 
graphs side by site, so that we may compare one 
with the other. We must say candidly that the 
existing gallery does not sufi'er in the comparison. 
Judging by the photographs, we cannot help asking, 
why should we pull down the old building of Wil- 
kins to make way for the new one of Mr. Owen 
Jones ? Still more, why should we pull it down 
when we can improve it as Mr. Cockerell suggests ? 

We have carefully compared the two views, 
and entirely agree with the remarks ; indeed, 
the want of scale causes Mr. Jones's building, 
though absolutely considerably higher, to ap- 
pear actually smaller than the existing gallery. 
For all we see to the contrary it might not be 
more than 300ft. long. The Athenmon remarks 
that " Mr. Jones sends a very pleasing and 
elaborate design, that in its appearance suggests 
the Venetian-Renaissance of the sixteentli 
century, and marked by much of its elegance," 
but after a brief description the reviewer ap- 
pears to come to the conclusion that 

On the whole, although the conventional elegance of 
this work must be admitted, there is nothing in its 
exterior either striking for itself or proper to a 
picture gallery. Reduced in scale, it would do 
equally well for a mansion or bank as tor a purpose 
where the long-stretching galleries of the interior 
should not fail to be externally indicated. So far as 
architectural beanty goes, we should gain as much 
by removing the domes from the present ga.lery. 
and retaining its better features, as by building a 
new one after Mr. 0. Jones's designs. 
This is " danming with faint praise," Init 
it contains a fair simimary of the faiilts 
which disqualify it for a national gallery. 

Design No. 2, by Mr. C. Brodrick, is thus 
commented on by the Times : — 



We are to imagine a facade that suggests the ap- 
pearance of a great square building defended on all 
sides by a countless regiment of pillars and pilasterf. 
On the top of this great square is placed a Greek 
temple, also surrounded by a vast regiment of 
pillars. The effect in Mr. Brodrick'a drawing is suf- 
ficiently imposing ; but it looks as if in snch a build- 
ing there must be a prodigious waste of room, and 
we fancy that when the eye of the Londoner be- 
comes accustomed to such an army of pillars, with 
all the little urns atop of them on the sky-line, it 
would begin to hold them cheap and to make miith 
of them We should begin to count the pillars; we 
should all count them wrong ; there would be a 
wordy war in consequence; we should have weary 
arithmetical calculations to show who is right ; and 
at length the interminable pillars of the National 
Gallery would be given up in despair as the sand ot 
the sea and as the leaves of the forest. 
This is almost precisely what we said of the 
design in our last number, and now add that 



the defect is imme;isurably increased by the 
fact that the columns are set at least one 
diameter too close together. In Mr. ]\Iurray's 
design, where a number of columns are used, 
this fault is avoiiled. The AlhencBum mixes 
inaise aii<l censure in a rather amusing man- 
ner. The extracts are from the commence- 
ment, middle, and conclusion of the review. 

It would be hard to find a better or more care- 
fully considered plan. He proposes to include and 
adapt almost the whole of the existing buildiugs, 
and, in design no. 3, for the gallery floor, . . . 
an apse, as before, is provided, but with arrange- 
ments that are much superior to those of Mr. O. 
Jones. The exterior of this design is at once ad- 
mirable and objectionable ; it reminds us of some of 
the better qualities of Soanr's finer designs— is 
dignified, but eminently unfitted to the nquire- 
meuts of our climite, and painfully recalls the sooty 
fate of all buildings which depend for architectural 
dignity on ranges of great columns, recessed frouts, 
pediments, and large quantities of statuary. . . 

. . The ranges of columns are grand in them- 
selves; their disposition, especially in the recesses 
of the south front, is excellent ; also, the decoration 
of the wall-spaces with friezes and pilasters, and 
the cornice. On the other hand, the peripteral 
second story is an absurdity ; a temple raised on 
the roof of another is destructive here, and un- 
desirable anywhere. Mr. Murray has recourse to 
a similar device, but in a less unfortunate manner 
than Mr Brodrick's. It would be well to refine 
some of the parapet decorations in this design, or 
to remove them ; the cost of statuary and b.as- 
reliefs would be very great. Much space is lost by 
the colonnades. 

This is as neat an example of blowing hot 
and cold as we ever remember to have encoun- 
tered. 

No. 3 (Mr. Street).— This; plan is very good, 
particularly in the arraugement of corridor, 
giving access to a large number of small rooms 
for cabinet pictures. The great galleries of 
Europe are similarly furnished with accom- 
modation for pictures which would be lost in 
a wide or lofty hall. The Times gives a very 
brief notice of Mr. Street's design :— 

If we understand them rightly his plans for the 
arrangement of the National Gallery, in so far as 
these relate to convenience, will commend them- 
selves to the common sense of his readers, and they 
accord with the practical experience of our chief 
authorities in the management of picture galleries. 
Also we must say for Mr. Street that his design is in 
parts well conceived. But there can be little doubt 
that in the mass it will disappoint even the admirers 
of Gothic architecture. The roof of his building is 
like the roof of a barn. It is a straight line from end 
to end, broken in '.ha middle by a dome. The ro.if 
we have compared to that of a barn ; it is stdl mora 
like that of a workman's shed, or the long monoto- 
nous roof of one of the huts at Aldershot str etched 
out beyond all conscience. But no doubt Mr. Street 
can easily correct this ugliness, unless he is too strict 
in his notions of Gothic. 

The AthewBum devotes nearly a column to 
Mr. Street's design ; we can give but very 
brief extracts : — 

It is impossible not to admire the courage of Mr. 
Street in furnishing a purely Gothic design for a 
building to which that style is popularly believed 
inapplicable. The candid student will profit by 
reading the vigorous apology this architect has at- 
tached to that eminently beautiful and original 
work, which, whether judged by its own standard or 
that common here, is surely the most interesting of 
the collection. 

This is perfectly true, but we cannot help 
feeling that pubUc opinion will be an echo 
of the review in the Globe of the luth, which 
says :— 

The metropolitan character of a National Gallery, 



situate in one of the most important sites in Eng- 
land required a very different treatment ; and be- 
cause he has not recognised this peculiarity of his 
task, Mr. Street has, in our opinion, entirely failed 
to produce a suitable design, or even to prove that 
a Gothic picture gallery is desirable. 

Design No. 4 (Mr. Cockerell).— The plan is 
good, but the elevations are not. His al- 
ternative elevation is m some respects better, 
and in others worse. The pavilions at ends 
swamp the central composition. The arcade 
without capitals or imposts naturally wants 
character, and the whole exterior is an 
agglomerated copy of iudifl'erent Roman 
examples. Mr. Cockerell can do very weU on 
ordinary occasions, but on the present he Has 



50 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



Janqaey 18, 1867. 



taken his ndmii'ers by surprise. After men- 
tioning that Mr. Cockerel! had sent in two 
designs, each of which is an adaption of the 
old building, the Times remarks : — 

That lie has given all bis heart to the work of im- 
proving upon the prerent edifice. He has certainly 
done wonders witli it in both his designs, and we 
should imagine that unless something particularly 
good can be devised for a new building, the judges 
will be very loath to reject Mr. Cockerell's propo. 
sals. He has made the most of the building as it 
stands, and the public will be inclined to let it 
stand thus improved, if in any new design they do 
not find a marked superiority. 

The Athmaum takes very much our own 
view of the merits of Mr. Cockerell's eleva- 
tions : — 

We consider the designs of Messrs. F. Cockerell 
and P. Penrose undesirable for lack of character, 
to say nothing of the oddly-shaped rooms of the 
latter. 

No. 5 (Mr. J.Murray). — By inconsiderable alte- 
rations in the fagade of the existing edifice, Mr. 
Murray produces a very fair result. The Times, 
after alluding to the difficulties of remodelling 
the National Gallery, says that Mr. E. Barry, 
Mr. D. Wyatt, and Mr. J. Murray have each 
given a remodelled view. " They seem to 
have worked in the spirit of those who make 
the best of a bad business, and to have re- 
served their labour of love for the new designs 
they had in hand." We prefer Mr. J. Jlur- 
ray's adaptation to any de.sign in the exhibi- 
tion, excepting his own, for an entii-ely new 
building, and may add that, judging from the 
remarks of the visitors, tliis opinion seemed to 
be held b}' many. To these designs the 
Athenceum refers : — 

Mr Murray sends two designs, one of which is 
Greek, with Corinthian columns and pilasters, and 
a super-imposed temple by way of second story, a 
pediment of false constructional character on the 
west front ; the last is intended to be seen from a 
new street in that quarter. On other grounds this 
design is not without grandeur and grace : it is to 
be preferred to its fellow, that illustrates the worst 
Roman mode in chamfered stone courses, detestable 
rustications, and those hideous pillars which put 
one in mind of tea-chests and Cheshire cheeses 
placed one on the top of the other ; bearded masks 
decorate the keystones of the window openings on 
the lower tier; commonplaces of this sort ought 
not to be tolerated in a new public building. 

Mr. Murray can afi'ord to smile at tlie flip- 
pancy which calls rustication "detestable," 
and for the " tea-chests and cheeses, and 
masks," perhaps he has seen them at Somerset 
House. Flippant criticism is seldom sound ; 
it is always a safer course if one happens not 
to know anything about a matter to say no- 
tliing. We regret that we have not space to 
describe this design at length. It has all the 
merits of Mr. Brodrick's with few of its faults, 
and with the exception of introducing horses 
as a decoration on the parapet, and relying too 
much on the little Grecian temple on the top 
story, the design is excellent. 

Design No. (i (Mr. E. M. Barry).— This is in 
many respects a fine design, but the defects it 
exhibits in eveiy case neutralise its merits. 
Striking at first, the more it is examined the 
less will it be foimd to please. Apart from 
the tmdesii-ability of rivalling St. Paul's, it 
has no outward appearance of being a gallery, 
or, indeed, anything else. The Times alludes 
to the design thus ; — 

There is enough of Greek detail in Mr. Edward 
Barry's design to make us speak of it next. It is ex- 
ceedingly able — one of the most scholarly in the 
gallery ; and again and again, while we stood before 
it, we heard persons pronounce upon it as the best 
of all. "That's the design for me," they said. It 
is not difficult to see what it was in this design that 
attracted so many of the spectators. Londoners are 
accustomed to St. Paul's Cathedral, and the mass of 
them regard it as the chief glory of Knglish archi- 
tecture. Now, Mr. Edward Barry's design is an 
adaptation of the leading ideas of St. Paul's to a 
Becular building, with a very broad facade. Therein 
lies the strength and the weakness of his design. We 
see in it the dome, the arrangement of pillars, the 
statues on the sky-line, and the general effect with 
which we are familiar. So the design touches the 
popular standard of excellence, and goes to the 
popular heart. On the other hand, the metropolitan 
cathedral ia so unique that it may ba doubted 



whether we can tolerate another piece of architec- 
ture in London that will suggest a resemblance to 
it. We are far from accusing Mr. Edward Barry of 
a slavish imitation of Wren. Every architect is 
more or less of an imitateT, must work in a parti- 
cular style, and Mr. Barry has shown a vigour in his 
design which deserves all praise. But the fact re- 
mains that some things may be imitated and others 
not. The finest buildings in Pall-mall are imita- 
tions of various Italian edifices. An architect may 
imitate a Grnek temple, and no one will quarrel 
with him. But we must repeat our doubt that 
Englishmen would like to see in Trafalgar-square an 
imitation, however free, ol St. Paul's. 

We have only space to add that the Atlienceum 
contams a notice of about the same length, 
and even more complimentary. 

Design No. 7 (Mr. Penrose). — There is a 
certain amount of picturesqueness in this 
design, but it is only suitable to a provincial 
capital in Spain or Italy. The p)lan is simply 
extraordinary. 

Design No. 8 (Mr. G. Somers Clarke).— To 
.say that this design was a huge heap of three- 
storied littleness, with telescope towers at- 
tached, would not be an inapt description. 
The dome springs from a square, and such a 
composition would never form good outline. 
In the perspective considerable changes have 
been made, but the weak places are iU-cou- 
cealed. In fact, the perspective is not to be 
relied on. The alternative Gothic view groups 
rOitliGr ucttpr 

Design No. 9 (Mr. M. Digby Wyatt).— This 
design has no central feature, and relies for 
distinction on a cupola at each end, or rather 
on three cupolas, one at one end and two at 
the other. These will seldom group in an 
endurable manner, and from many points of 
view will be bewildering and ruinous to the 
efl'ect. The alternative design is a very arti- 
ficially contrived structure, having a funny 
little Grecian temple atop, supported by cary- 
atides of some size. In other respects the 
facade is little changed and less improved. 
One of the perspectives is of unusual tone, 
appearing to have been executed during the 
prevalence of a dense fog. Though we do 
not consider Mr. Wyatt has done himself 
justice in this design, of his ability there is 
no question whatever. The Times gives a long 
notice ; — 

Italian designs are contributed by Mr. Digby 
Wyatt, Messrs. Banks and Barry, Mr, G. Somers 
Clarke, Mr. James Murray, and, wo may add, by 
ilr. Penrose, though his design is more French than 
Italian. Of these we have no ditticulty in giving 
the first place to Mr. Wyatt, whose drawings have 
bpen prepared with extraordinary care, and show 
great spirit and invention. What first of all strikes 
the eye in the appearance of the facade are seven 
great arches on the second story, and occupying 
nearly the whole frontage of this story. At first 
sight we imagine these archways to be intended for 
windows j but we soon see that we are mistaken. 
Then we fancy that these great arches must be the 
magnificent supports of a grand covered balcony or 
Verandah, and that the windows are behind. But no 
such thing. These arches are simply the arches of 
deep recesses or alcoves, and in the back of each 
alcove there is nothing but a statue. We are puzzled 
to know what the architect can mean by what 
seems at first to be only a most elaborate and expen- 
sive ornamentation. The meaning is this. He be- 
lieves only in top lighting. His upper story is 
lighted from the roof, and there accordingly ail is 
natur.il and well. But how light the ground-floor 
without windows ? He has cut these deep alcoves 
into the upper story, which seem to be useless 
alcoves, and nothing more, or useful only as enor- 
mous niches for far withdrawn, timid statuary. 
But, in reality, the floor of the alcove becomes a 
skylight of theground floor. This is exceedingly in- 
genious. Mr. Wyatt's designs are, perhaps, the 
most original and also the mott showy in the 
gallery ; whether they are the best is quite another 
question. 

Last on the list. No. It) is the design of 
Messrs. Banlvs and Barry. It ia not lofty, nor 
is it imposing ; but ixom its propriety, or 
perhaps practicability, it stands a better 
chance of being built than many of its more 
pretentious neighbours. The Alhenceum, 
which can have nothing if not magnificent, 
says ; — " Messrs. Banks and Barry have an 
ineffective exterior for their work ; large wall- 
space within, and superior internal arrange- 
ments; we fancy the pruicipal galleries are 



lighted at too great an elevation from the 
floor." 

A good deal of this is true. The lower 
story is not quite satisfactory, and the pa- 
vilions are squat, but there is considerable 
merit about the design. We should call it 
correct rather than bold, quiet rather than, 
imposing. 

In summing up, the Times says : " Upon 
the whole we are not enthusiastic about these 
designs. They all contain good, and some 
admirable work, but we doubt if any wiU 
quite satisfy the public expectation, and we 
are sure that the judges will be not a little 
puzzled to know which to recommend for 
adoption." 

In these remarks we cordially agree, and 
hope that no rash decision wnU be arrived at. 
That the exhibition now to be seen in the 
Royal Gallery represents the architectural 
talent of England is what few would care to 
assert, and still fewer endeavour to maintain. 



EDINBURGH ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIA- 
TION. 

AT the usual fortnightly meeting of this asso- 
tion Mr. John C. Hay read a paper, en- 
titled " Suggestions as to the Sanitary Improve- 
ment of Large Cities, and bow Overcrowding 
may be Remedied." In introduciDgthesubject,Mr. 
Hay gave interesting statistics, showing the great 
discrepancy between the old and new portions of 
the city of Edinburgh in reference to density of 
population, amount of disease, and proportion of 
rental to accommodation. While the population in 
the denser parts of the Old Town is 314-5^ in the 
suburbs it is only 10-2. During the year 1865, 
while there were 494 cases of fever in the High- 
street and Cowgate district, in the whole New 
Town north of Princes-street there were only 38 ; 
and while in the Old Town the rents in many 
cases are as high as 8d. per superficial foot of floor 
space, those in the best parts of the New Town 
range from 5d. to 6d. Mr. Hay next adverted to 
the importance of an abundant supply of pure 
water, and deprecated the present monopoly, re- 
commending that the corporation should take the 
supply into their own hands, as has been done in 
other cities. A more thorough carrying out of a 
general system of drainage was recommended as a 
most important item of sanitary improvement. 
With regard to the clause in Provost Lindsay's 
Act empowering the authorities to order the gene- 
ral introduction of waterclosets, Mr. Hay con- 
sidered that this should be enforced, and was of 
opinion that in a short time their benefit would be 
fully appreciated by the lower classes. One of the 
remedies suggested for reducing the overcrowding 
at present so excessive in the older portions of the 
city was to encourage co-operative efforts on the 
part of the working men themselves in erecting 
dwelling-houses. Instances were quoted — Lon- 
don, Liverpool, Manchester, and other English 
cities — where co-operative societies of working men 
had purchased estates in the outskirts, and erected 
dwelling-houses for themselves, and found it a 
remunerative investment. Mr. Hay considered 
that if such a plan were adopted in Edinburgh it 
would materially relieve the over-crowding, and 
enable the Lord Provost to carry out his improve- 
ments at a much less cost, as rents would fall to 
their natural level, and properties could be ac- 
quired at nearer their actual value. A Uvely dis- 
cussioQ followed, in which the views advocated in 
the paper were generally concurred in by the 
members. 

♦ 

YORKSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

THE general annual meeting of this society was 
held at York last week, the Dean of York in 
the chair. The Rev. G. Rowe read the twenty-fifth 
annu.al report, which stated that the society main- 
tained ground, and, though slowly, was steadily 
advancing in position, and the working power of 
the society has increased. In one point they had 
not been so successful as they could have mshed, 
the society's ofier of prizes to art workmen, adopted 
in the last report for subjects modelled in clay, not 
calling forth any competitors. Aitev an attempt 
to account for this, the report went on to state 
that the committee beUeved that the plan was a 
good one, and in furtherance of it, they recom- 
mended that for the year 1S67 the subjects for 
competition should be carved in wood, varioui 



January 18, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



51 



articles useful in church architecture being defined 
for carrying out in oak and deal, the prizes to be 
given to the producers of the two best examples in 
the former series being five and three guineas, aud 
for those in the second series two guineas and one 
respectively. During the year the society had suc- 
cessfully memorialised the Lords Commissioners of 
her Majesty's Treasury in support of an appeal 
made by the Dean of ^Yestmiuster for the resto- 
ration of the Chapter-house ; and at the instance 
of the Architectural Society of Bristol they had 
in a memorial to the Town Council of that place 
deprecated the further destruction of the mediaeval 
buildings known as Colston's House, the site of 
\rhich was said to be required for new assize courts. 
It was further mentioned that the summer excur- 
sion of the society had been made on the 31st of 
May to Bolton Abbey, on which occasion a paper 
was read by the well-known antiquary, J. R. Wal- 
bran, Esq., upon the history of the place. It 
would interest many to know that the Duke of 
Devonshire had instructed Mr. Street to restore so 
much of the Abbey Church as was necessary for 
public worship. 

It was unanimously resolved that the report 
be received, adopted, and printed. The whole 
of the officers were also re-elected, the only al- 
teration being the substitution of the name of the 
Rev. J. Palmes, on the committee, for the Rev. C. 
Kerry. The names of about a score gentlemen 
were also added to the list of members of the 
society. 



THE LATE EDWIN STIRLING, 

SCULPTOR. 

" "VTT H. P.," writing to the Liverpool Mercury, 
VV « says : — All who have watched with in- 
terest the progress of the numerous buildings 
erected in Liverpool within the last twelve or 
fifteen years must have been struck with the great 
increase of sculptural embellishment displayed in 
their decoration. One reason of this has been that 
a class of workmen has been gradually rising up 
amongst us of a higher order than heretofore, who 
not only carry into execution the ideas of another, 
but work out their own thoughts in all the beauti- 
ful forms which nature has given us as examples. 
Foremost among these art workmen was the sub- 
ject of this notice. 

Born at Dryburgh, in the South of Scotland, in 
the year 1S19, he early manifested a taste for 
sculpture. When quite a boy, some models in 
clay, found in a field, which were discovered to be 
his work, attracted the attention of Sir David 
Erskine, a gentleman who resided in the neigh- 
bourhood. He obtained for the incipient sculptor 
an apprenticeship with Mr. Smith, of Darnick. 
After serving his time he succeeded in obtaining a 
situation iu Edinburgh, where he enjoyed the ad- 
vantages of the School of Art there established. 
From Edinburgh he removed to Ulverstone, where 
he remained three years. He then came to 
Liverpool, and, after working some time with 
Mr. Canovan, entered into business with him as 
sculptors and architectural carvers. The first 
building of importance upon which Mr. Stirling 
was engaged was the church of St. Francis Xavier, 
Salisbury -street, in which he executed much beau- 
tiful carving. Upon the death of his partner he 
continued the business on his own account, Vjeing 
engaged upon most of the large commercial build- 
ings which have been erected in the town. 
Tower-buildings, Water-street ; Richmond and 
Hargreave's-bmldings, Chapel-street ; Queen In- 
surance-buildings, Dale-street ; Parana-buUdings, 
and Berey's-buildings, near the Exchange Station ; 
and the recently erected North-Western Bank bear 
testimony to his skill and taste as an artistic carver. 
Upon the front of Hargreave's-buildings he exe- 
cuted a series of heads, in full relief, illustrating 
the discovery of America — among others, those of 
Columbus, Cortez, and Ferdinand and Isabella, of 
Spain. Over the doorways of the elegant build- 
ing lately erected for Mr. Stock, in Exchange- 
street East, are figures of cupids astride upon dol- 
phins, with other beautiful sculpture, the work of 
Mr. Stirling. At Brown's-buildings he modelled 
and carved the two gigantic figures which flank 
the centre doorway, the statues of the four seasons 
surmounting the building, and an elaborate frieze, 
divided into compartments, which for play of 
fancy and excellence of work is worthy of the 
closest examination. His works, however, were 
not confined to Liverpool. Specimens of his work 
have been scattered abroad throughout the country, 
among which may be mentioned the statue of the 
Prince Consort at Hastings, and the statues which 



crown the .south front of Hooton Hall, 
Cheshire. 

On the subject of this notice it may truly be 
said "he was a workman worthy of his hire." 
When engaged upon any work he took the warm- 
est and most intelligent interest in it, making 
it his own delight as well as that of his em- 
ployer, working con amore, without grudge 
of labour or trouble, in order to attain a 
satisfactory result. To him his art was a 
pleasure for its ovm sake, apart from any pecu- 
niary considerations. As a master he took the 
liveliest interest in the progress and welfare of 
those in his employ, and he has been the means 
of training up many of the best carvers at present 
in the town. This characteristic of self sacrifice 
was shown in his devotion of two evenings every 
week during two successive winters to the in- 
struction of a modelling class in connection with 
the Liverpool Architectural Society. The feeling 
for the beautiful which he exhibited in his works 
was but the echo of that beauty of holiness which 
he cherished in the inner man. 



ENGLAND AND THE PARIS EXHIBITION. 

HER MAJESTY'S Commissioners, with the 
Associate Commissioners, held meetings on 
Friday at South Kensington Museum. The 
Prince of Wales presided at both meetings. His 
Royal Highness read the following memorandum 
on the prospects of the Exhibition: — " 1. Her 
Majesty's Commissioners thank the Associate 
Commissioners for the suggestions they have made 
in recommending jurors. They also thank the 
several committees of the Associate Commissioners 
who have frequently met iu order to ensure a pro- 
per representation of objects of ancient art, 
modern pictures, engravings, various manufac- 
tures, printing, navigation, munitions of war, &c. 

2. Her Majesty's Commissioners thank the 
trustees of the British Museum as well as those 
of other public institutions for the readiness 
with which they have consented to lend objects 
necessary for completing the Exhibition at Paris, 

3. It has not been found necessary to ask for the 
services of the Associate Commissioners in several 
classes because the demands for space in those 
classes have greatly exceeded the amount that 
could be granted, and, iu respect of the classes for 
agricultural stock, action has been suspended by 
the Imperial Commission in consequence of the 
cattle plague. 4. A statement of the representa 
tion which each class appears likely to make in 
the Exhibition will be laid before the Associate 
Commissioners, and her Majesty's Commissioners 
will be glad to receive their assiatance in supply- 
ing some few deficiences. 5. Her Majesty's Com 
niissioners regret that the staple industry of 
cutlery, for which England is remarkable, should 
at present appear to be most imperfectly repre- 
sented ; it may be hoped that by the co-operation 
of the Associate Commissioners and the Master 
Cutler of Sheffield, an adequate representation of 
that important branch of industry may be effiscted. 
6. Notwithstanding this deficiency, her Majesty's 
Commissioners have the gratification of believiag 
that, in other respects, the United Kingdom, 
India, and the colonies will be far more com- 
pletely represented than iu any previous inter- 
national Exhibition. 7. A new and very im- 
portant inquiry, namely, the effect on workmen of 
co-operation and benevolent associations through 
out Europe, has been originated by the ofl'er of 
prizes by the Imperial Commission. To each 
Associate Commissioner has been sent a copy of 
the series of questions which it is desirable should 
be answered by persons or establishments in this 
country, and the Associate Commissioners will 
much promote this inquiry if they will assist in 
causing these questions to be filled up as exten- 
sively and as soon as possible. 8. It is the earnest 
wish of her Majesty's Commissioners that the 
example set by the French iu 1862, of assisting 
foremen of works, and artisans, to study the 
Exhibition, should be followed, and that the 
utmost facilities should be afibrded to British 
workmen to visit and study the Paris Exhibition. 
Her Majesty's Commissioners express a hope that 
the Associate Commissioners will, in concert with 
the Society of Arts, municipal authorities, and 
chambers of commerce throughout the country, 
be able to assist materially in promoting such 
visits. 9. The executive department of the 
British section has provided offices for the trans- 
action of business at 71, Avenue des Champs 
Elysees, Paris, where the Associate Commissioners 
will be able to obtain information respecting the 
Exhibition, and facilities for visiting it." 



PERSONAL. 

AT a meeting of the Town Council of Doncaster, 
specially convened to receive the resignation 
of Mr. T. B, Mason as Town Clerk of the borough, 
which he had held tor upwards of thirty years, it 
was unanimously resolved to present him with a 
testimonial of 200 guineas and a gold box, for his 
long and valuable services. 

Dr. Joseph Rogers has been elected by the 
Vestry of St. Ann's a member of the District 
Board of Works in the room of Mr. Warne, re- 
signed. 

On the 7th inst., John Bull Gardener, F.R.I.B. A., 
of Goldsmid-road, Brighton, died in the 81st year 
of his age. He survived his wife only eight days. 

The Council of the Society of Arts have ap- 
poiuted Jlr. .\.strup Cariss, of Liverpool, Honorary 
Local Secretary to the Society of Arts iu that dis- 
trict, in the room of the Rev. Dr. Hume, resigned. 

Mr. J. B. Wariug has been appointed general 
manager and Chief Commissioner of the National 
Exhibition of Works of Art to be held in Leeds in 
1S68. Anyone who knows anything of the distin- 
guishing qualifications of Mr. Waring will no 
doubt say that the council could not have chosen 
a better man for the purpose. 

Mr. E. Welby Pugin held a conversazione at 
his London residence, 21, Saville-row, on Monday 
evening last. 

Mr. Sturrock, of Doncaster, the locomotive su- 
perintendent of the Great Northern Railway, has 
resigned that appointment, aud is succeeded by Mr. 
Stirling, from the Glasgow and South-Western 
Railway. 

The Paris Exhibition. — The Duke of Cam- 
bridge, the Secretary of State for War, the First 
Lord of the Admiralty, and Mr. Robert Napier 
(late president of the Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers) wUI be the commissioners. 



THE DESIGNS FOR THE NEW COURTS 
OP LAW. 

THE proposed Courts of Law will be the most 
important architectural work which has 
been projected in the metropolis since the build- 
ing of the new Houses of Parliament, or, more 
correctly, the New Palace at Westminster. Let 
us hope that the experience of the past may 
warn us against repeating the errors which have 
done 60 much to mar the utility and spoil the 
effect of the latter building, and which, but for the 
genius and industry of Pugin, would have been 
far more aggravated than they are. The public 
have already paid about turee millions sterling 
for a building so lamentably deficient in the first 
essential condition of architecture that the 
House of Commons does not actually provide 
a seat. for every member, while the ceiling of the 
chamber is lowered many feet, the whole of its 
fair proportion destroyed, and half of its win- 
dows buried, iu order that the voice of the 
speaker may be heard. In tlie House of Peers 
so faulty is the design that hearing is almost out 
of the question, while the accommodation for the 
"faithful Commons" is so miserably restricted 
that scenes almost as indecorous as those which 
were said to have occurred at " Drawing-rooms " 
once held at St. James's Palace are repeated on 
each successive opening of Parliament. The 
dilTiculties to be contended with in the con- 
struction of the new Houses of Parliament will 
not, however, have to be encountered in the pro- 
posed Palace of Justice. The architect of the 
latter cannot complain of the site, aud, beyond 
a common hall or place of rendezvous, no very 
large chamber need be constructed with especial 
view to acoustics. The architects invited to com- 
pete for the new Courts of Law are ten in num- 
ber, viz., Mr. Gilbert Scott, R.A., the architect 
of the new public offices in Downing-street ; Mr. 
Waterhouse, Mr. Surges, Mr. Garling, Mr. H. 
Lockwood, Mr. Street, Mr. Deane, Mr. H. 
Abrahams, Mr. E. M. Barry, and Mr. Seddon. 
Two of the above (Mr. E. M. Barry and Mr. 
Street) are amongst those who have contributed 
designs for the new National GiUery in Trafalgar- 
square. It is pleasant to be able to state, in refe- 
rence to the proposed Courts of Law, that all the 
architects who have furnished drawings have, to a 
greater or lesser extent, left the beaten track of 
precedent, and have supplied something which, if 
not quite original, has many originsl features. 
Few of the designs can be described as con- 
ventional iu their mode of treatment, and the 



52 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 18, 1867. 



spectator will not have to recognise many re- 
productions of old friends, seen somewhere be- 
fore, but which may not be at once identified. 
Many of the designs have been produced with 
great care, while others indicate want of sufficient 
study in the preparation. As a whole, however, 
the exhibition is creditable to the profession, 
and is likely to be satisfactory in this sense, that 
the verdict of the public may be taken upon 
some one or other of them without much appre- 
hension that it will fail to realise the expecta- 
tions formed of it. The drawings of Mr. Gilbert 
Scott, Mr. Garling, Mr. Burges, and Mr. Deane 
are those which will probably attract most atten- 
tion. Mr. Scott luxuriates in a grand Gothic 
conception, and his perspective is very imposing. 
Mr. Waterhouse, whose assize courts at Manches- 
ter already entitle him to very favourable consi- 
deration, suggests a magnificent and appro- 
priate pile; while Mr. Garling presents a very 
superb design, full of character and expression. 
The drawings of Mr. Burges and Mr. Street 
evidence tlie keen appreciation in which those 
gentlemen hold the Gotliic school, while Mr. 
Deane presents a sketch which has the merit of 
being peculiarlyunique in its way and thoroughly 
original in its mode of treatment. Indeed, the 
selection of Mr. Deane as a competitor is highly 
creditable to the late Government, as his build- 
ings—both at Oxford and at Trinity College, 
Dublin — enti'Je him to a liigh place amongst the 
architects of his day. Those who have had ex- 
perience of the library lately built in the inner 
Temple by Mr. Abrahams may not be favourable 
to the plan proposed by that gentleman ; nor is 
the drawing of Mr. E. M. Barry very solid or 
imposing, though it may be likely to obtain a 
large share of popularity. Mr. Lockwood sug- 
gests something more subdued in its character 
than that presented by Mr. Scott, Mr. Water- 
house, Mr. Deane, or Mr. Garling, but his design 
has great merit, so far as may be gathered from 
a very cursory view. Mr. Seddon has been at 
the pains to produce a model in plaster in ad- 
dition to drawings of the building which he 
would set up. The model suggests shadowy 
recollections of the " White Tower" in the 
Tower of London, with endless repetitions of the 
same in reduced shapes, and " pepper castors," 
the number and variety of which would gladden 
the heart of the late Mr. Wilkins, the architect 
of the National Gallery, could that worthy again 
appear in tho llesh to examine this unique work. 
Exception may, perhaps, he taken to some of 
the designs on the score of being too ecclesio- 
logical in their character. On the other hand, 
it may be held that others do not aulBoiently 
proclaim their purpose. As before slated, how- 
ever, there is no reason to suppose that the ex- 
hibition will not answer the object intended, and 
that from among the many designs presented 
some one may not bo aelecied which, when 
carried out, ■will realise a suitable building, the 
absence of which has long been a scandal. 
Fortunately, in the present competition no ques- 
tion can arise as to tho retention of the existing 
courts. They have been so generally and em- 
phatically condemned that the idea of preserving 
even the best of them has never entered into the 
mind of any rational being. The task of the 
judges in ttiis case will bo far less difficult than 
that which awaits those who may have to pro- 
nounce an opinion upon tho competing designs 
fur the new National (ialh.'ry, for the probability 
is that the relative claims to be considered will 
eventually be limited to those of Mr. Waterhouse, 
Mr. Garling, and Mr. Deane. — Morniiuj Post. 



NOTICES OF PUBLICATIONS. 

The Engineer's, Architect's, and Contractor' s 
Pocket Book for 186/. London : Lockwood and 
Co., Stationers' Hall Court. — We have so often 
spoken of thLs annual that it is only necessary now 
to say that the copy for this year is ready. It 
closely resembles its useful predecessors. 

Tlie PMilder's and Contractor's Price Book for 
1867. Revised by G. R. Burnell. Lockwood and 
Co., 7, Stationers' Hall Court. — This volume, as 
usual, contains a multitudinous variety of useful 
information for builders and contractors. The 
information is so arranged as to admit of easy re- 
ference, and with its aid the prices for all work 
connected with the building trade may be esti- 
m itcd. 



Photographs of English and Scottish Scenery. 
— We have received a volume of twelve photo- 
graphs of Scottish scenery, published by Messrs. 
Marion, Sou, and Co., Regent-street. The photo- 
graphs consist of Edinburgh, from Calton Hill ; 
Old Town, from the Calton Hill : Burns' Monu- 
ment ; the Post Office ; Sir Walter Scott's 
Monument, Nelson's Monument, Holyrood Palace, 
Fountain at Holyrood, and other scenes from 
Edinburgh. They are by Mr. G. Wilson, who is 
so well known as a successful photographer, and 
those who prefer photographic illustrations to en- 
gravings may gratify their tastes by purchasing 
this vohtme. 

The Gardener's Year Book, Almanac, and Direc- 
tory, 1S67. By Robert Hogg, LL.D., F.L.S. 
Price one shilling. — This Year IJook is published 
in connection with the Journal of Horticulture, 
171, Fleet-street. In addition to a variety of in- 
formation of the kind which one naturally looks 
tor in an almanac, this publication gives, as its 
chief and distinctive features, descriptive accounts 
of the new plants and new flowers of 1866, and a 
directory of the horticulturists and gardeners 
throughout the kingdom. 

Tlte Post Almancu: oMd Insurance Birectory, 
1867, price 6d. (W. J. Stokes, Wine Office-court, 
Fleet-street), is specially devoted to matters con- 
nected with fire and life insurance, on which, we 
believe, it is a sort of recognised authority among 
almanacs. 

Tlie Palmerston Series of Copy Books. (Whit- 
taker and Co., Ave Maria-lane.) Of Mr. Vere 
Foster's copy books it will be sufficient to say that 
they are sanctioned by the Commissioners of Na- 
tional Education in Ireland, and that they met 
with the approval of Lord Palmerston, after whom 
they .are named. The series consists of eight books 
with instructions. 

Scotland Descrihed. A Series of Topographic 
ftketches. By Alexander Murray. Glasgow : A. 
Murray. — Very handy as regards size, and very 
neatly got up, is about all we can say in favour of 
this volume. We neither like its arrangement 
nor the style in which it is written ; the former is 
confused and inconvenient, and the latter is very 
slipshod, and sometimes absurd and ludicrous. 
In short, Mr. Murray's book is neither so useful, 
so readable, nor, we may add, so accurate, as we 
had a right to expect from one who is the author 
of several works of a similar kind, and one who 
really ought to be able to desciibe Scotland. 

Among the various almanacs for the current 
year, that of the Royal Insurance Company 
deserves mention. The issue for 1867 contains 
full details of the progress made by the company, 
elaborate tables and diagrams of the mortality 
experienced during the last twenty years, and 
statements of the business transacted and the 
funds accumulated by the company year by year. 



THE FINE ARTS. 



The Louvre. — Another fine new room has been 
opened in the Louvre ; a large square .apartment, 
situated in the Pavilion Denou of the new Louvre, 
and between the two galleries, appropriated to the 
French school, opened some time since. It is 
highly decorated ; in the centre of the ceiling is a 
seated female figure, writing on large tablets, 
painted in what is called camaieu mordore, red- 
dish brown tints, by M. Charles Miiller. In the 
angles .are four historical pictures, the subjects of 
which are : — Louis XIV. ordering the construc- 
tion of the Louvre ; Fran9ois I. in the atelier of 
an artist, with a sketch of the famous Chateau de 
Chambord in the distance : St. Louis, with a view 
of that architectural gem the St. Chapelle, which 
was built by his order by the side of the Palais de 
Justice, where he resided, to receive the relics 
brought from the Holy Laud : and, lastly. Napo- 
leon I. decreeing tho completion of the Louvre, 
which his nephew, the present Emperor, accom- 
plished. Around the ceiling .are richly-decor.ated 
vaultings. The room is surrounded by an enta- 
blature, forming a balcony, and abovethis are eight 
female figures, representing tho fine .arts in their 
various forms, and painted in false niches. On 
the walls arc the battles of Alexander, by Charles 
Lebrim. The ancient apartments of Anne of 
Austria, which contain a portion of the classic 
sculpture of the museum, have been thoroughly 
decorated, and will shortly be opened again to the 
public. 



SANITARY MATTERS. 

The Committee of General Purposes, Win. 
Chester, have opened nine out of the eleven plans 
sent in for the sewerage of the town. The esti- 
mates vary from £13,000 to £20,000. 

LiKCOLN. — The plans sent in by the engineers, 
for the drainage of the city, have given rise to 
much discussion. Mr. Lawson's is a very com- 
prehensive lilan, its estimated cost being £60,000. 
He divides the city into three drainage areas — 
one comprising the south side of the Witham, 
called the low-level ; one comprising the north 
side up to the liill, called the middle-level ; and 
the third taking all the rest of the city, and called 
the high-level. He recommends that the sewage 
be conveyed below Heighington, four miles from 
the city, where there is suitable land for irrigat- 
ing. Mr. Tarbottom's plan he estimates at 
£29,000. He proposes to erect a pumping station 
on the Newark-road, to lift the sewage to the 
requisite height for the land which is to be irri- 
gated, viz., Bartholomew's and the Swallow Beck 
farms. A main drain would run from the pump- 
ing station up the High-street to the Stone Bow, 
and this would receive the contents of all the 
tributary drains on each side. He proposes to 
bring the sewage from the parts of the city by 
"girthing the hill with the intercepting Unes," 
and thus " avoid bringing large bodies of water 
down the declivity of the central axis of the city." 
Due provision is made for carrying off "storm 
water," for ventilation, flushing, &c. There would 
be 19 miles of sewers, 272 man-holes, and 124 
lamp holes. Mr. Drury's scheme has the advan- 
tage of cheapness ; he proposed to use the present 
drains for carrying off the rain and surface water 
into the^river, and thus keep the sewage to itself, 
which he would convey to tanks at the extreme 
corner of the Holmes Common, whence the liquid 
sewage might be conveyed by " tunnels to any 
district in the neighbourhood suitable for irriga- 
tion," the solid portions remaining in the tanks 
and carted away as wanted. The cost estimated 
at £15,400. 



LEGAL INTELLIGENCE. 

CoNTHACT AMD SnB-coNTRAOT. — At the Court 
Common Pleas on Monday, a young lady nami 
Best sued to recover damages for having been n 
over by a horse and cart, and at the trial befo 
Mr. Ju.stice Keating she recovered £30. J 
Serjeant Hayes now moved to enter a nonsuit 
le.ave reserved. The plaintiff", it appeared, was 
young woman passing along the streets in Lond 
when a dustman's empty cart was coming alo; 
the street in St. James's, and the horse for soi^ 
reason ran aw.ay, and was not stopped by thent 
driving it, who ran after it, until it had gi» 
on the pavement and knocked down the plaint » 



WAGES AND SHORT TIME. 

Coventry. — The bricklayers have given the 
master builders three months' notice for a termi- 
nation of the obligation of the present trade rules. 
They have given no particulars either of what they 
object to in the present rules, nor of their require- 
ments in reference to any future code. It is said 
they will be asked for such p.artictd ars, and that 
then a conference will be held. 

Glasgow. — The masons' strike in Glasgow, 
which has lasted for the last nine weeks, was ar- 
ranged at a meeting of masters and men, held in 
the Trades Hall, on Tuesday evening. The men 
having withdrawn their demand for a rise of wages, 
it was ai?reed to resume work on Monday morning. ' 

The London Trades' Council. — At a meetmg 
of this Council, held on Monday at the Bell Inn, 
Old Bailey, Mr. Danter (President of the Society 
of Amalgamated Engineers) in the chair, the follow j 
ing resolution was adopted ; — " That this meetinf j 
is of opinion that the position of the woiking 
man can never be much improved, and is in im 
minent danger of being seriously depreciated 
whilst the people of different countries havi 
no regular intercommunication among themselve 
for the purpose of regulating the hours of labou 
and assimilating wages ; and as the Internationa 
Association ali'ords the best facilities for briugin, , 
about that object it is hereby resolved to co-operat | 
with that association for the furtherance of a I 
questions affecting the interests of labour, i 
the same time continuing the London Trade 
Council as a distinct and independent body, as b( 
fore." 



Jandary 18, 1867. 



Ivho was seriously injured thereby. The cart 
3ore the name of the defeuduut, who was the cou- 
tor for removing dust for the parish of Keu- 
,tou, but he had a sub-contract by which 
iiiiither person was to remove and sift the dust 
,'i.r 13d. a load, the defendant flndmg horses and 
:arts, and the sub-contractor servants. This 
being so, the cart was not under the control of the 
iefendant's servant when it ran away. Another 
.ircunistance, which showed the truth of the say- 
ing of Lord Palmerston that " dirt was only some- 
thing in the wrong place," was that the defendant 
paid upwards of JtSOO a year for the privilege 
o£ remo\'ing the dust. The defendant's principal 
object was to get the breeze for his brickfield, and 
the sub-contractor had all the metal, bones, rags, 
i sovereigns found. The defendant did not ap- 
L'lt and could not remove the man in charge of 
;:i'' cart, and therefore ought not to be held 
nsp,>usible for his acts. Rule granted. 

TuE Streets ASD the Snow. — The non-removal 
of snow from the streets during the late storm was 
the princiiKil question before the weekly meeting 
vi the City Commission of Sewers on Tuesday. 
A special report of Mr. Hayward, engineer, upon 
the subject, contained many interesting details as 
to the extent of the work to be done, and the 
efforts made to perform it. Mr. Keed, who hap- 
pened to be in Paris at the time, said that much 
less was done there than in the city of London. 
It was contended by Jlr. Bontems that the com- 
missioners had done all in their power ; but there 
seemed some difference of opinion as to whether 
the contractors were equally blameless. Mr. 
Deputy Elliott, on their behalf, mged '' that the 
requisite forces did not exist to cope all at once 
with such a sudden storm," and that such forces 
had to be " improvised by degrees ; " all the 
horses, for instance, " having to be roughed before 
anything could be done." Summonses, therefore, 
which had been taken out against the scavenging 
contractors, were ordered to stand over till the next 
meeting. 

NOTICE. 
*,* The BuiLDiSQ News inserts advertisements 
for " Situations W.vnted," &c., at Oue Shilling 
for the first Twenty-four Words. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



63 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

To Odb Readers.— We shall feel obliged to any of our 
rwulera who will favour us with brief not«s of works con- 
t.;iiipiat*xl or in progress in the provinces. 

Letters relating to advertisements and the ordinary busi- 
^-t nf the paper should Iw addresse*! to the EorroA, \GG, 
I icet street. Advertisements for the current week must 
reach the office before 5 o'clock p.m. on Thursday. 



BECEfVED.— J. X.— D. H-— C. F. S.— C. F. H. -C L. E. 
—J J. and Son.— J. P. S.-J. N — M. H.— R. D W.— 
P. and Son. —J. N— J. C— H. T.— D. K. and Sons.- 
F. S. 8.— G. M.— S. and Sons.— C. A. M.— A. C. and Co.— 
Q. P.— J. P. B.— T. L. C— R W.— W. H. F. G.— J. H. A. 
—J. H.— J. C— W. O. C— W. H. L.— D. K. and Sons. - 
J. W. 

T. H.— When our correspondent has seen the National 
Gallery competition designs perhaps he may bo able to 
speak more positively about them. 



♦ 

WORKMEN'S DWELLINGS. 

HOW MUCH THEY ARE REQUIRED FOR MEN AND 
WOMEN EARNING LESS THAN TEN SHILLINGS 
WEEKLY TO BE DECENT AND HEALTHY HOMES, 
AND HOW THEY SHOULD BE PROVIDED. 

To the Editor of the Ecildino News. 
Sir, — The want of decent healthy homes is 
most severely felt, and is telling most fearfully upon 
the social and moral state of an immense popula- 
tion earning less than lOs. weekly. It becomes a 
duty on the part of working men in receipt of bet- 
ter wages, and all of those forming the middle 
class who may have carefully watched, since the en- 
actment of the present Poor Law, the deterioration 
of this immense class. It cannot for one moment 
be supposed that its promoters ever contemplated 
the depressing effect it has had on the energy and 
Belf-reUance of this large mass of workers. 

The working man, with the middle class, would. 
no doubt, be joined by those whose social position 
' • IB placed above the anxieties to provide for their 
* ' daily wants. Joint action would provide a remedy 
■J* for these existing evils. The metropolis has the 
•r machinery at hand to carry into execution a 
jf ' gigantic plan of vast importance to all the inhabi- 
tants, rich and poor, beyond any plan that has been 



conceived on this most important subject, that of 
providing decent healthy homes as a hrst portion 
for a population of 250,0U0, thus remedying in 
part the evils of overcrowding, in a great measure 
arising from the numerous evictions for the con- 
struction of railways and public improvemcnt.s, 
also from the increase of the papulation by resi- 
dents, and emigration from the country. 

It would be utterly futile for private individuals, 
or companies, or parishes, to take up this question 
sullicicutly comprehensive so as to stem the daily 
increasing evil — the want of single rooms at such a 
rent as to meet even those whose average earnings 
are not more than 5s. per week. They can only 
follow the examples of the Metropolitan Society's 
Improved Dwellings, Miss Burdett Coutts's build- 
ings, the Peabody, and Mr. Alderman Waterlow's, 
and a few others. These are all very excellent in 
their way, but do not in the least meet the wants 
of those earning such smaU weekly wages. No 
doubt, a portion of the Peabody fund should have 
been appropriated for that purpose, but the 
trustees were frightened at the magnitude of the 
want, to be remedied ; so that the rents of the 
above are all adapted for those earning wages 
above liOs. weekly, many of whom are teuauts 
who could well afford to be householders. The 
want is, and must be supplied — single rooms, to 
let from 9d. per week. Single women, married 
men and single men — the number of each class 
may be told by tens of thousands, great numbers 
of whom earn less than Is. per day ; these rents 
wovild give them a decent healthy home, also 
removing them from iutiuences most deadly to 
their morals, and, by raising them in their own 
estimation, their energies would be quickened, 
cleanliness and thrift would become their rule, 
and, as we are taught " Cleanliness is akin to god- 
Uness," the good thus effected is beyond calcula- 
tion, and should the plan be carried out to the 
full extent, there is reason to expect that calls for 
parish relief will be such that, with other charities, 
the want of poor's rates will be superseded in a 
few years. 

Joint action should be taken by all classes 
requesting the Legislature to grant the necessary 
powers to the Metropolitan Board of Works, form- 
ing, as they do, the representatives from the various 
parishes which, in then- " concrete " state, make 
this vast increasing metropolis, to bon-ow money 
from the Consolidated Fund at 3 per cent., with 
compulsory powers to purchase freehold sites in 
those dense neighbourhoods where fevers are always 
more or less rife, and to erect block bidldings. To 
provide decent healthy homes for 250,000, will 
require about 3,000 blocks, each to contain 32 
rooms, with other conveniences, at a cost of 
£960 per block, total cost, £2,880,000; to this add 
cost of sites, £2,120,000. The rent from fovir 
varied sized rooms at9d., lid.. Is. 3d., and Is. 6d. 
per each room per week, gives an annual rent of 
£270,000. After payment of interest, rates, and 
collector, &e., the balance to be paid to liquidate 
the debt ; thus, by decreasing the interest, and 
increasing the balance yearly, in about thirty-four 
years these freehold buildings would become the 
property of the metropoUs. 

The annexed plan, with elevation, shows an ap- 
proximation as to the kind of building suitable. 
If desirable, a basement story could be easily 
added by placing the ground floor higher, so as to 
have the basement floor 4ft. below ground line. 
Although not an advocate of great height for 
tenants to travel, an additional story could be 
placed, and in some localities it might be highly 
desirable and advantageous to the tenants that the 
ground story should be shops. 

The size of rooms to each floor : two, 10ft. by Oft. 
to be let at 9d. per week each room ; two, 10ft. by 
10ft., to be let at lid. per week ; two, 12ft. by 
9ft., to be let at Is. 3d. per week ; two, lift, by 
12ft. at Is. 6d. per week each room. 'The stairs 
and lobby, with watercloset, sink, and dust shaft to 
each floor, project from the main building ; if 
formed in the corridor, it would save nearly £100. 
The fittings are suggested to be as follows for 
each room : — Welch's range, with oven and inter- 
nal and external ventilatoi-s, iron bedstead, coal 
bunker, to contain 2 cwt. of coals, to serve as 
a seat. The cost of these buildings is founded 
on haring concrete walks, concrete floors, and 
concrete roofs, covered with asphalte, with 
store stairs, so as to be fire-proof, thus saving 
nearly all dilapidation and insurance. Brick 
building in the usual manner would cost one- 
third more. As concrete for walls in this 
country has not been used to any extent 
in buildings, and to those unacquainted 
with its quahties it is well to refer to what has al- 
ready been done. In Paris are many buddings. 




some of them 60ft. in height, and many country 
railway stations ; also, it has been very successfully 
used in bridges of Toft. span. The docks and quays 
at Marseilles are also constructed with it, although 
having an excellent building stone on the spot, 
but the concrete gives them a saving of 40 per 
cent. 

The Emperor Napoleon, as his contribution to 
the 1867 Exhibition, is erecting fifty blocks of 
workmen's dwellings, three and four floora in 
height, with three rooms on a floor and other con- 
veniences : those with three floors in height at a 
cost of £240 each block. They are built by an 
English contractor, using Tail's apparatus in the 
formation of the walls. 

The fortifications now building in Sussex for 
Government are of concrete. About fiftyyears since 
the sea wall to the East Cliff at Brighton was 
formed of beech shingle, sand, and hydraulic lime, 
which, when properly made, is stronger than brick or. 
stone,anon-conductorof heat, cold, and sound, and 
impervious to all moisture and to vermin. 
I am, &c., 

Peter Thojipson. 

24, High street, Marylebone. 



BIRKENHEAD BATHS. 

Sir, — It was with melancholy satisfaction that 
I saw the letters in your journal respecting the 
above competition, for I began to think that my 
drawings had miscarried, and was thinking of 
going to Birkenhead to make some inquiry about 
them. From information received from a friend 
in Liverpool I concluded the matter was settled. 
This information wdl no doubt be a great comfort 
to my fellow competitors ; so I give it : " The 
design of the borough surveyor has been selected ; 
the estimated cost is £18,000," — in confirmation of 
which the Liverpool Mermry was forwarded to 
me, containing a letter from " A Ratepayer" (I 
believe) complaining of the manifest injustice to 
other competing architects, &c. I am sorry this 
paper has been destroyed, and that I cannot for- 
ward you tlie letter, for I expected after that offi- 
cial intimation would be given. Now, Sir, if the 
above is correct what reliance is there on printed 
" Instructions to Architects," the seventeenth 
clause of which says, " Should the estimated cost 
of erecting and completing the selected design ex- 
ceed the sum of £8,000 iu the opinion of a com- 
petent surveyor, the author will not be entitled to 
the premium, and the commissioners will, in such 
case, proceed to make another selection from the 
designs sent in." I say. Sir, if such is the case 
all the " baths" the commissioners can take, 
whether fresh, salt, hot or cold, Turkish or 
swimming, will not remove the pollution of such 
injustice. — I am, &c., A LovBR OP Justice. 

January 15. 



54 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 18, 1867. 



THE GREAT COMPETITIONS.— A PLEA 
FOR THE PROVINCES. 

Sir, — I feel sure that many of your readers 
must share my regret to find that the arrange- 
ment.') made for exhibiting the drawings for the 
proposed new Law Courts and National Gallery, 
prohibit the possibility of a large number of pro- 
vincial architects seeing the drawings for both 
buildings, unless they can make it convenient to 
remain in London for nearly three weeks, or make 
two separate journeys— the first, foi the National 
Gallery, now ou view ; and the second, for the 
Law Courts next month, inasmuch as the exhibi- 
tion of drawings for the former closes on the 26th 
inst,, and those for the latter cannot be seen by 
the profession until the 11th prox. Will you 
kindly bring your influence to bear upon the 
matter, in the hope that the authorities may make 
some arrangement by which the exhibition of the 
National Gallery drawings may be prolonged, and 
so prevent great disappointment, or a sacrifice of 
much valuable time ? — I am, &c., 

G. G. HosKiNS. 
Darlington, January 9. 



MACHINERY FOR LIFTING WATER. 

SiK,— In your impression of last week a portion 
of the remarks under this head once and again 
forcibly exemplifies the truth of the axiom that 
Nothmg sublunary is novel." The " articulated 
float wheel," precisely as illustrated and described 
m your columns, was, I beg to inform you, in- 
vented, patented, manufactured, and exijerimented 
with by myself and others at least thirty years 
ago. We applied one of these wheels to a small 
boat, which plied upon the River Thames for 
a considerable time, until it attracted the attention 
of Lord Cochrane, who, with several other gentle- 
men distinguished by their scientific proclivities, 
honoured us with their presence on board in a 
trip we all took up the river. These gentlemen 
expressed themselves highly delighted with the 
result of this excursion, and signified their inten- 
tion of proceeding further in the matter. But it 
happened just at that tmie, as far ag I can remem- 
ber, that his lordship became reinstated in his 
command of the British navy, and conseqiiently, 
being too much engaged to occupy himself with 
the scheme, it, like many other incipient plans, 
fell through for want of encouragement. Before 
this consummation, however, numerous trials 
had been made, which resulted in the following 
experience :— It was found that the wheels 
typified by the diagram (fig. 1) answered very 
well as far as wheels totally immersed were con- 
cerned, but in cases such as water-wheels, &c., 
where circumstaucea would admit of only partial 
immersion, some modifications were introduced, 
viz., the floats, instead of being attached to the 
periphery 6 (fig. 1) and permitted to fall against 



D C, or, rather, moment of (C B 3) = moment of 
(A C — A D) W, where C B = length of one arm, 
C D = length of the other, g = the impact or 
force of gravity of the water, W = weight of 
float and resistance of the air. It was discovered 
in the case of partial immer.sion that the weight of 
the paddles ou the ascending side of the wheel 
sometimes absorbed all the useful effect that was 
produced on the other side, so that the develop- 
ment of power was extremely limited. I should 
not have ventured any observations on this subject 
had it not been claimed ;is an invention of and pa- 
tented by M. de la Fontaine. A wooden model of 
the wheel as represented by your diagi'ams may be 
found somewhere in Somerset House. I caused 
another to be constructed with the before-men- 
tioned modifications, but at this advanced period, I 
do not exactly remember what became of them. 
— I am, &c., S. W. WoRSSAJi. 

Iving's-road, Chelsea, S.W. 



CHESTER TOWN-HALL. 



Sir. — The correction by a correspondent in yoiU'la.st issue 
of a slight inaccuracy on your part in referring to this 
matter in a former number being rather calculated to mis- 
lead, I trouble you with the following particulars. About 
June last it happened that the then contractor for the 
building found it convenient to stop work and negotiate for 
a transfer of the contract to another builder. It was at 
thi.s time that the strike (so-called) took place, the osten- 
sible re,ison being undue harshness on the part of the clerk 
of the works. The onus of the stoppage was thus, through 
their officer, thrown on the committee. The negotiations 
for a transfer were not^concluded until September. In the 
meantime the men who were prominent in the strike, and 
who are local men, obtained employment under the 
builder to whom the contract was afterwards transferred, 
who, being alsoa local man, had, and still has, works going 
on in the neighbourhood of Chester, at which these men 
were taken on, and continue to be employed Some time 
since a deputation from the Masons' Society, with some 
representatives of the local union, had an interview with 
oiu^ town-hall committee, when some frivolous charges were 
advanced against the clerk of the works, of which those that 
could be at ail substantiated went to prove nothing more 
than proper vigilance in the discharge of his duty. The 
distinctive features of a genuine strike are thus wanting in 
this case — first, substantial grounds for such a proceeding; 
and secondly, the men are not supported by the society, 
which should be the case if the position assumed by them 
w.as considered justifiable by those in authority. I am told 
tliat the only real objection to the clerk of the works is that 
he is Irish. — lam, Ac, Deva. 



be placed the exact time must be found by a good watch, 
but the preferable way is to find the accurate time by an 
observation of the sun with a quadrant or sextant. Having 
saken his altitude and noted the time by a watch, compute 
the time for the observed altitude, and set the watch ac- 
cordingly. Having once obtained correct time the dial can 
be fixed at leisure, but the beat time is when the sun is at 
its meridian. I have supposed that the dials are, of course, 
-accurately constructed, or your correspondent's labours will 
lie in vain. It is by no means an easy problem to construct 
diab, although, as they are not regarded now except in the 
light of toys, extreme accuracy is not of so much import- 
ance as when they served as the only measure of time. 
After having set the dials they should be watched and 
checked at intervals, for they frequently reqtiire a little 
shifting after having once been set up. J.J. 



1170.]- 



FIRE-DAMP INDICATOR. 
-A correspondent (" S. 51.") inquired in a recent 



liitoiuimnuciittaiL 



ri9i.> 



QUESTIONS. 

PERSPECTIVE INSTRUMENTS. 
-It would be conferriug a great benefit upon rue if 




the inuer circumference a when acting under the 
gravitating influence of the water, were jointed to 
the perimeter of an internal annular ring d (fig. 2) 



F IG 




in such a manner that when impinged upon by the 
head water or tidal current they came in contact 
with stops e placed in this instance upon the 
outer circumference h. 

The superiority of this system may be mani- 
fested by supposing the horizontal plane A B to be 
a lever, with tlie centre C of the wheel as a 
fulcrum. Of course the advantage gained is the 
difi'erence between the length of the arms C B aud 



you or aome of your correspoiideuts would kindly iuform 
meaatothu adjustment aud uso of the "peidpective in- 
strument," consisting of three lega connected by a brass 
joint in the centre. What are its uses, and when is it ad- 

ViiUtagiiOUS to use it? CULLINtlFORD. 

[If our correspondent will describe the instrument more 
in detail, we shall be happy to explain its uses and adjust- 
ments ; bat it is impossible to form any idea of it from the 
description he gives. Send us a sketch.] 



EUCLID. 

[192.] — Would you kindly intimate, through the medium 
of your valuable paper, the meaning of the letters Q. E. D., 
terminating the problems, die., of Euclid's elements? 

E. P. 

[Q. E. D. stands for the initials of the Latin words, quod 
etat demonstrmid'tm, sv^nifyiu'^ " which was to be demon- 
strated," In a similar manner the letters also frequently 
met with, Q. E. F., stand for quod erat /acterulntn, 
signifying "which was to be done. "J L. M, 



number as to the nature of the above-named apparatus. 
It is impossible to give briefly an intalligible reply to the 
query, and we therefore propose to explain the contrivance 
at such length as is felt necessary to make its peculiarities 
clear. Much public interest exists on the subject, and this* 
warrants the course named. A natural law, wiiich must 
have existed since the creation of the earth's atmosphere, 
and which was subsequently known as that of '* osmose," was 
fii-st noticed by Priestley andothers. It was reserved, how- 
ever, for Prof Graham to discover and record many new phe- 
uomejia in connection with that law. Graham recliristened 
the old law and called it '"dilfusion." Mr. Ansell has 
based on the law of diflasion his proposition for the indica- 
tion of fire damp in mines, because he had become con- 
vinced that specific grarity. as specific gravity alone, must 
fail from its being interfered with by dust and draughts in 
coal pits. Difl^usion, as now understood, is that physical 
motion of gases by which they travel through space or 
through septa, which, although pervious to gases, are usually 
considered impervious. In explanation of this latteratate- 
meut let us assume that gases ^e made up of atoms or 
molecules which have motion in every direction. This mo- 
tion not being arrested by such substances as described, — 
namely, imglazed Wedgwood ware, wood, india-rubber, <fec., 
it follows tliat if a porous vessel be placed in a metal box 
aud be then tilled with coal gas, and is afterwards brought 
out into the atmosphere, thegas will rapidly escape through 
the pores of the vessel, while just half the quantity of air 
will pass into the vessel and take the place of the gas. The 
two giises will, indeed, have crossed each other's passage in 
the intersticea of the Wedgwood ware. What is called 
effusion is that peciiliav property possessed by gases which 
allows of their bemg forced out by mere mechanical pressure. 
The force o^ powei of difl'usion is simply equivalent to so 
many pounds pressure upon the square inch, and at first 
it appeared that etfusion must be fatal to Mr. Ausell's 
views. That gentleman in the first instance employed 
india-rubber as a medium of experimentation in the 
form of balloons of small diameter. These allowed of the 
diffusion into their interior of fire-damp, aud then expand- 
ing by its force gave audible signals of danger. The fragile 
nature of thin india-rubber, aud the danger of its derange- 
ment in pitd induced Mr. Ansell to seek for some other ma- 
terial for his indicators, and singularly enough he adopted 
eventually cast iron and marble. His most i-ecent adapta- 
tion of the indicator consists of an iron funnel or cup with 
a stem of gas pipe U shaped. One limb of the II opens 
into the cup, aud the other is closed by a cap of brass. 
Through this cap is passed a platinum-pointed copper 
wire. Mercuiy is placed in the cup, aud finds its level at 
about 1-lOth of an inch distance under the platinvim point 
of the wire. The mouth of the cup itself is closed by means 
of a disc of Sicilian marble of about Jin. in tliick- 
ness, the marble forming the porous septum for the admis- 
sion of gas or fire-damp into the cup. If now either 
coal gas or fire-damp be allowed to impinge upon the outer 
surface of the marble it quickly diffuses through it, ex- 
panda the air within, aud presses on the surface of the mer- 
cury. The latter is driven down in the cup, and by a me- 
chanical law is mjde to rise in the other limb of the U tube 
until it touches the wire. This action completes an elec- 
tric circuit, and telegraphic warning of danger is at once 
given, on the spot or at a distance. Such is the Ansell 
Indicator, and it seems to us that it must be of great value 
in all fiery mines. Posaibly, however, it may require the 
power of the Legislature to enforce its use therein. 



CLERKS OF WORKS. 

[193.]=Can you infoi-m rae if tliere is an institution or 
society for clerks of works, and what is the subscription and 
benefit? H. L G. 

The only society wliich we know of is the Builders" 
Clerks' Benevolentjinstitution. Write to Mr. F. T. MuUett, 
the secretary', 1 4, Betlford-row, who will no doubt give you 
all the desired information. 



GAS PIPES. 
[194.]— Will you oblige by a reply to the following query? 
A large gas stove being fixed in a room, the noxious vapoui-s 
from the same is carried off by a 3in, wrought-iron pipe at 
the back into a flue. This pipe, as a matter of course, 
carries off a great deal of heat, which, of course, is all 
wasted. If to utilise that heat we fix round it a 6in. 
wrought-iron pipe open at the bottom for the aii' to pass up, 
and convey such outside pipe through a floor, and a brass 
ventilator at top of same to warm room above, would such 
be dangerous to the floor and likely to lead to it catching 
fire? An Old SuBSCfiiBER. 



REPLIES. 

SUN-DIALS. 
[126.] — To set sun-dials, whether vertical or horizontal, 
the upper edge of the gnomon must point truly to the pole, 
aud the liorizontal line must be parfectly level, aud in a 
vertical dial the noun lino must be perpendicular to the 
horizon. Having prepared the plane on whic htUe dial in to 



FRENCH METRES AND ENGLISH FEET. 
[180.] — Many thanks for insertion of replies in Intercom- 
munication Column last week ; but with regard to the reply 
to " Metre, "either it wlis a clerical error of mine or amis- 
piint, viz., instead of " 1 metre = 33 "371 English inch,' ' 
read " = 39371 English inch." T. L. Collev. 



MANUFACTURE OF SALT. 
[1S2.] — I would advise " Enquirer" not to attempt to 
obtain salt by distillation from sea water. Sea water may 
be distilled in cases of emergency for the sake of obtaining 
pure water, but no man in his senses would endeavour in 
a commercial point of vi«w to distil sea water for the siike 
ofthesaltin it. Let him consider the following calcula- 
tions : — 1,000 gallons of sea water contains exactly 27 gallons 
of salt— that is, 10,000lb. of water gives (270 X •2-2b) iu 
round numbers fiOOlb. of salt, and therefore it would re- 
quire 40,0001b. of water to give a ton of salt. On the ave- 
rage lib, of coal will evaporate lUlb- of water, very often 
not so miich, but it may be safely assumed in the present 
ealculation. On the lowest estimate it would therefore re- 
quire about 1^ tons of coal to evapoi'ate one ton of salt. 
The weight of one gallon of sea water is rather more than 
lOlb., the weight of one gallon of fresh water, but I have 
taken the above value to be on the safe side, and also for 
facility of calculation. L. P. D. 



IRON IN CESSPOOLS. 
[1S3.] — Your correspondent '* Constant Reader " is not 
explicit. What does he mean by " a cesspool one-fifth in 
depth ? " One-fifth what — feet, inches, fathoms, or miles ? 
I very much doubt the practical utility of putting pieces of 
iron into a cesspool. It would appear to me that with the 
exception of chloride of limo or some ilisinfecting agent the 
less extraneous matter put into it the better. Farmers at 
all events would be very sorry to have any iron or solution 
of it iu their soil. M. H. 



January 18, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



00 



MEASUREMENT OF LATHS. 

[IM.]— We have recently had several questions from cor- 
reeix.ndonts on this subject. They all arise from the ain- 
bigiiitv re?ipectLDS the fiict that some bundles are 100 and 
jomu \20 lathi It would be the better plan for our corre- 
sp 'iident-s to satisfytheniselvesbefunihand about what they 
?iiv-.:t to get for theirmoney. 

[isi.J — I mil, with your permission, inform "Country- 
man" that tht)re should be MH'ft, niu in a bundle, and ^0 
buntUes = one loacL This I believe is the stamlard .[uan- 
titv. and anything: short of the same would not be correct. 
The ;iboTe are onUnar>- laths ; there are others, for iuBtance, 
pantile laths, bundle luft. long, containing twelve laths, 
120ft. ran in bundle; ditto, I'ift. long and contAining twelve 
aths, 144ft. nm in bundle. T. L. Collev. 



HOTT TO USE SPARE TIME. 

tiSo.}— In answer to "A Would-be Goth" I tliink it 
would txj his best plan to join the Class of resign of the 
Atchitectur.il Association, as he would there leam and 
have the opportunity of acquiring a knowledge of subjects 
intimately ctmnecteii with his profession. At the same 
time he should bear in mind the motto of " Self Help," 
and not trust to schools of art or any other schools for 
"making up" any part of what he ought to know. I^et him 
first find out the particular branches connec ed with the 
architectural profession in which he is deficient, obtain a 
little aid if necessary, but do the hard-working part of it 
himself, if he ever intends to become a worthy member of 
the profe&aion. An Old Stager. 



WAREHOUSE ASQ G RAX ART FLOORS. 

[186.] — Would you allow rae the benefit of your columns 
to^reply to ** A Provincial Subecriber?" He puts a case 
which a practical engineer or architect would require a 
oouple of hours' study to answer even approximately. I 
have frequently observed myself, in common with nume- 
rous other subdcribere, the readiness witb which you afford 
and obtain for us. through the medium of your excellent 
joornal, .ouswcra to different queries, but I do think there 
ough* to be a limit to your wish to afford your readers in- 
formation, and also a limit to their demands. I am getting 
out a design for a warehouse at present, and with your 
permission will send an answer to your corre-pondent in 
yuur next number, although I consider I shall be trespass- 
ing on your indulgence to a verv ereai extent. 

L. P. D. 



THE WEIGHT OF LIME. 

pS7.] — In answer to your correspondent "H. M.," I beg 
to state the following, which I believe to be correct : — In 
the stone : Plymouth stone lime. 701b. per bushel ; lias 
(Lvme Regis), Volb. per bushel; lias (Keynsham), SOlb. per 
bofihel. Ground : Blue lias (Kevnsham.) 631b. [per bushel ; 
blue lias (Lvme Regis), 70lb, per busheL T. L. Collet. 



TRAXSIT THEODOLITES FOR LAJIGE SURVEYS. 

[1 8S.}— The only advantage gained by using a transit 
theodolite instead of a plain thecxiolite is a greater facility 
in what is termed "reversing the telescope." It is certainly 
a more handy instrument to use when set up, but it is much 
heavier and more expensive than the ordinary form . It would 
be folly for a surveyor to get rid of a goi^ plain theodolite; 
simply for the sake of the additional advantage offered by a 
transit, although if a person is going to buy a new instru- 
ment let him by all means go with the age and purchase a 
transit, as the other form will soon become ol^lete. 

S. V. 

nSS. 1 — In answer to the question of " A Stirveyor of the 
Old School," ■' rs there any advantage to be gained by using 
a transit theodoUta for large snrveys in preference to the 
older form, where the telescope has to be taken out of its 
ys to prolong the &ame line in an opposite direction ? ' ' The 
tnosit theodolite preserves a Bymmetrical arrangement of 
the upper part of the instrument, and gives the advantage 
I of a complete circle, with opposite verniers for the determi- 
nation of altitudes, and maJtes it altogether as effective for 
astronomical as it is for geodetical operations. It may be 
reven^ and set by a tangent screw, without interfering 
with the telescope or removing it from its Y's. Also ver- 
tical angles may be taken of any elevation or depression 
that is ever likely in practice to be required. Excepting 
these particulars, which are matters of great convenience to 
engineering surveyors, a *' 5in. Troughton " of the old 
form is e ^iially suitable for large surveys (if in perfect ad- 
justment) as the transit theodoUte. I have very frequently 
for some years used both descriptions of Lnstniment. and 
must confess that the oin. transit theodolite lately suppUed 
to me by Messrs. Troughton and Simms is more con 
venient and handier thka the old form. This is con- 
firmed by the report to me of an experienced assistant 
stirveyor. now employed in this office, and who has been 
using it for the last six months. If your correspondent's 
excellent "oin, Troughton of the old form" is in good 
adjustment. I do not think it is necessairy he should 
'pend his spare cash in purchasing a transit theodilite for 
;large surveys. — Thomas C. Thorbcrx, C.E., Town Sur- 
veyor's Office, 35, Hamilton-square, Birkenhead. 



Notice. — The Liverpool Architectural and 
ArchEBological Society, in a notice to student 
tmemberSjSaya : — Thedesignfor theaecond students' 
competition, for an east window in the English 
iStj'le of the thirteenth century, is to be sent in to 
the council on the 6th February. The third 
design, for a window in the style of the fourteenth 
century, is to be sent in on the 20th Slarch. The 
i fourth design, for a window in the style of the 
Sfteenth century is to be sent in on the 17th 
April. The first set of drawing will be exhibited 
>and commented upon at the next meeting. The 
dates thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centu- 
ries to be taken as indicating the three phases of 
English Gothic, commonly known as Early 
English, Decorated, and Perpendicular. 



^\Mn Intclligcnfc. 



CHtJBCHES ASD CHAPELS. 

Belfast. — The foundntion stone of a new Pres- 
byterian Church, at Whitehouse, near Belfast, was 
laiil on the Ist inst. The building will be in the Ve- 
netiiJ-Gothio style. The materials will be per- 
forated brick, -with Scotch stone dressings. In 
length it will be 75ft., .and in brea<lth about 40ft. 
It is calculated to accommodate 6-40 persons, and 
to cost about £2,000. Messrs. Bell and Marsh, Bel- 
fast ^Are the architecta. 

Chetwvnd (Newport). — A new church ia now 
in course of erection here. It is in the Geometric 
Decorated style, and consists of nave and south 
aisle, 33ft. wide and Toft, long, chancel 19ft. wide 
and 31ft. long. The exterior walls are of the local 
red sandstone in irregular random courses with 
wrought quoins. The interior is lined with white 
ashlar and banded with red courses. The nave is 
separated from the south aisle by an arcade of four 
arches. The columns are of polished Devonshire 
marble, and the capitals elaborately carved. 
Marble is largely used in the interior, and num- 
bers of illuminated texts are inscribed over the 
arches. The seats in the chancel are of oak, and 
in the nave of deal varnished. The church will 
seat 250 persons. The tower contains a peal of six 
bells brought from the old church, and is sur- 
mounted by a spire, which rises to the height of 
123ft. A schoolmaster's house and national 
schools are erected near. Mr. Ferrey, of London, 
is the architect. The church will cost about 
£3,000. 

Hasletos. — The parish church of Hasleton, on 
the Cotswold Hills, has been reopened after gene- 
ral restoration, and the additiim of a new aisle. 
The church, hke most in that district, has some 
Norman features, but the tower and nave are of 
late Perpendicular style, and very simple and plain. 
Messrs. Medland, Maberly, and Medland were the 
architects, and the work was carried out by Messrs. 
Earle and Sons, of Northleach, carpenters, and 
Mr. Barnfield, mason, of Shipton. 

St. Helen's Church. — The Marquis'of North- 
ampton has forwarded a donation of £50 on be- 
half of the St. Helens Church restoration fund, 
and has also announced his intention of restoring 
the noble monument of his ancestor Sir John 
Spencer. During the last century the monument 
was reduced to a uniform white by the then church- 
wardens, but happily Lord Northampton has in 
his possession a drawing showing the original 
colouring. Unfortunately the monument com- 
pletely blocks up a good decorated arch, and 
which formerly communicated with the chapel of 
the Holy Ghost (now used as the vestry), and this 
may be said to be the only good piece of architec- 
ture remaining. On the south side are two fine 
windows , the tracery intact, but the interven- 
ing spaces bricked up. During the progress of the 
works some most interesting discoveries have been 
made in the nuns' choir — two doorways and three 
hagioscopes, in addition to the one be hin d the 
tomb of Sir T. Gresham. From one of the door- 
ways a flight of stone steps has been brought to 
light, and these are supposed to have formed the 
means of communication with the dormitory of 
the nuns. The other doorway is of much earlier 
character, and at the sill. Sift, beneath the pre. 
sent level of the church, some fine encaustic tiles 
were found. At the north-east angle of the aisle 
a deeply splayed lancet window has been imbricked, 
and it is evident that it formed one of a series of 
the same character, and that the others were de- 
stroyed to make room for the three Jacobean 
monstrosities, at the repair of the chiu'ch by Inigo 
Jones, in 1633. Immediately opposite, in the south 
aisle, the head of a window of rather later charac- 
ter is to be seen; this still remains bricked up. 
On removing the pulpit a small piscina was dis- 
covered, the lip of which is on a level with the 
present floor. The church presents a curious 
combination of various levels, and would well re- 
pay a careful investigation by some of the archi- 
tectural societies. It is a matter for regret that 
owing to want of funds the works have been at a 
standstill for nearly three months. 

Whitet. — The Archbishop of York, having 
declined to licence the Congress Hall, on the West 
Cliff, a meeting was held recently, under the pre- 
sidency of the Rev. W. Keane, the rector, to 
devise means for raising a new church on the 
Cliff, capable of seating not less than 1,800 per- 
sons, and to cost £10,000. The committee for 



carrjHng out this object will be composed of the 
clergy and churchwardensof the different churches 
in the town, subscribers of £20 and upwards, and 
laymen, who will be designated at a future meet- 
ing. Before the meeting closed, resolutions ap- 
proving of the scheme, and promising support, 
were carried unanimously, and subscriptions may 
be sent to Messrs. Simpson, Chapman, and Co., 
bankers, Whitby. The Congregationalists and 
Wesleyana also contemplate building on the West 
CUff. 

BUILDDfGS. 

There were 1,289 new houses, 1 church, 1 chapel 
2 schools, 11 manufactories, and 23 warehouses 
erected in Birmingham during 1866. 

It is said that the new Bristol Post-offico — a 
building of some architectural pretensions — will 
be commenced forthwith. 

The new agricultural hall, Bridgenorth, was 
opened by a public dinner on S.aturday last. 

E.xeter. — The Albert Memorial Museum. — 
The merits of Mr. Hayward's design are beginning 
to be better ajipreciated now that the exterior of 
the north wing and centre is approaching com- 
pletion. The Mus-eum is an example of what may 
be called French Gothic. The carving is being 
executed by Mr. Boulton, of Worcester, from Mr. 
Hayward's designs. All the capitals of the shafts 
supporting the window arches will be carved, and 
no two capitals will be alike. The cornice beneath 
the parapet exhibits sculptured decorations of a 
French order. There will be also some carving in 
the entrance arcade. The sum of £1,000 is still 
needed to complete the interior of the building 
already erected. If it be subscribed forthwith, the 
new museum will be opened this year. 

Newhaven', U.S. — The Yale Art Building has 
just been completed, the corner stone of which 
was laid in November, 1864. The plan of the 
building is such as to let in the northern light, 
and is erected in the form of a Greek cross, the 
wings running east and west, and joining upon a 
central building. The southern wing is 34ft. by 
80ft., and the northern 72ft. by 24ft., while the 
central structure is 44ft. by 35ft. Portland and 
Trenton granite have been used in the walls, while 
Ohio " yellow " stone constitutes the ornamental 
portion of the outside work. At the main en- 
trance are two columns of Quincy granite, which 
is quite as susceptible of a high degree of polish 
as the Scotch granite, though the veiniug is 
coarser. The outer shape of the art building is 
septagonal, and seven miniature towers crown the 
different towers. Inside, at the opening of the 
south wing, commences the great hall, which runs 
the whole length of the building to the end of the 
north wing, bisecting the central section. The 
two rooms, one on either side of the passage, are 
devoted to the reception of the various works of 
art as well as books, engravings, &c., which the 
college now does or may possess. The galleries 
are lighted by skyUghts of heavy glass. The waUs 
are painted a dark maroon colour, which is said to 
form the best background for pictures, and are 
wainscoted to the height of 3ft. or 4ft. with 
pine, the natural colour of which is preserved by 
varnish. The beauty of this hght lemon colour in 
contrast with the maroon is very noticeable, and 
it is remarkable that this wood has not been used 
more in finishing private dwellings and public 
buildings. It certainly is much brighter and more 
cheerful than the oak and walnut of the sombre 
tone in which Americans so much delight. In the 
northern gallery there is an oriel window. The 
total cost will be about 200,000 dollars. 



STATUE3, MEMORIALS, &c. 

An effort is being made in Baltimore, U.S., to 
erect a monument to Edgar Allan Poe in that 
city. 

An Offer. — A gentleman in thecity, well known 
as a man of business, writes to the Atheneuin as 
follows : — " My mission is neither literature nor art, 
but I admire and respect both. The Thames Em- 
bankment fronting the present Temple Gardens 
progresses towards completion ; a bronze statue of 
Shakspeare would be in good keeping in that 
locality. If the public saw a good design, I am 
satisfied funds ample for the purpose would be 
forthcoming. I therefore am wilUng, preseiA-ing a 
strict incognito, to offer a premiun of 50 guineas 
for the best design, 20 guineas for the second, and 
10 guineas for the third. Should yoiu- editorial 
opinion coincide with mine, can you find a comer 
for these lines in an early impression ?" Th«^ 
site suggested above, remarks our contempora^, 



56 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



Jaktjaey 18, 1867. 



is thatj-which has commended itself to almost every- 
body's mind as the most suitable for a monument 
to Shakspeare, from its association with the his- 
torical plays, and its vicinity to the old playhouses. 
We have the gentleman's name, and we canguarantee 
the good faith of his proposal. 

The O'Conhell, Statde, Dublin. — The Muni- 
cipal Council have decided that Hog.an's fine statue 
of O'Connell, with its pedestal of Dalkey granite, 
at present iu the centre of the City-hall, Dublin, 
shall be removed to the space between the centre 
pillars in front of the building and facing Parlia- 
ment-street. 

The late Lord Palmerston. — In consequence 
of the heavy expense and other difficulties, the de- 
sign as originally agreed upon for a mortuary 
chapel at the eastern end of Romsey Abbey Church, 
in memory of the late Lord Palmerston, who was 
a resident of the town, has been abandoned, and 
in its stead the sub-committee recommend the 
insertion of stained glasss in the large windows at 
the western end of the church, so justly celebrated 
for theii' beauty. The memorial, if carried out, 
will be in close proximity to the tomb of the 
Temple family. 'The Hon. W. Cowper has stated 
that the suggestion has the full approval of Lady 
Palmerston, and has also ofi'ered to receive from 
the committee the funds which have been contri- 
buted towards the erection of a memorial statue 
in the market place of Romsey, and himself to 
supplement the sum to such an extent as may be 
necessary to secure a work of art from the hands 
of a sculptor of the highest reputation; whom he 
would select. 



STAINED GLASS. 

The east wmdow of the uew church at Stockbridjio, in 
Hants, is of ricli .st.aiued glaas, aud cost 120 guineas. It 
was given by Mr. John ijay, of Danebury, the well- 
kno\vn horse trainer. 

Hasleton. — The east window of the parish church, 
which has just been restored, is filled with stained gl.iss 
representing the Ci-ucifi.viou ; and a small ^vindow near 
the font has been filled with painted glass representinj; Our 
Lord's Uaptisra. This window was the gift of Jlessrs. 
Medland, JIaberly, and Medland, the architects. The 
glasi ia by Messrs. Heaton, Butler, and Bayne. 



§mnil Items. 



A new list of members of the Society of Arts 
has been printed, and any member can have a 
coxjy sent to him on application to the Secretary. 

China Clay. — Cornwall has for some years past 
done a large and profitable business in china clay, 
the greater part of which has been raised in the 
St. Austell district, where several important works 
are now in progress. There is every prospect, 
however, of a new district being opened up on an 
extensive scale in a short time. Fine samples of 
china clay have been discovered in three parishes, 
and the ground in various localities is believed to 
be very rich. Steps are being taken with a view 
to establish works which would afford employment 
to a large number of people. 

The French Conscription and the Industri.al 
Classes.— A I^aris paper gives, with reference to 
the present plan of conscription, the following 
trades from which the recruits forming the annual 
contingent of 100,000 men are taken :—" Work- 
men in wood, carpenters, joiners, &c., furnish 
nearly 6,185 men to the armv; in iron, black- 
smiths, locksmiths, founders, &o., 4,289 ; in lea- 
ther, as tanners, skumers, &c., 4,33.3 ; tailors, 973 
and more ; bargemen and watermen, 2,513 ; shoe- 
makers, basketmakers, wheelwrights, bakers, 
house-painters, masons, &c., 20,507 ; clerks, 3,703 : 
young men of no profession, whose parents in some 
cases only possess a small income, 3,237 ; finally 
field labourer.?, 51,329 ; but the proportion of the 
latter is sometimes greater. Thus, the contingent 
of 1855 comprised 75,000 agricultural labourers." 

LrvEKpooL Gallery of Inventions and Science. 
—The committee of this institution invite the 
attention of inventors, manufacturers, and dealers 
to the advantages which tliis institution affords 
them of exhibiting gratuitously in this gi-eat com. 
mercial centre, models of new inventions, and 
objects illustrative of progress in the arts and 
sciences No charge is made to exhibitors, the 
object of the founder (the late Sir William Brown, 
Bs,Tt.), and of the committee of management being 
to render the gallery commercially beneficial to 
exhibitors, as well as a means of affording interest 
and instruction to the general pubhc. Forms of 
atphcation for space, and further information, 



may be had of the honorary secretary, Mr. Astrup 
Cariss, 3, Cook-street, Liverpool. 

Fall of Scaffolding. — A range of lofty build- 
ings and warehouses for the storage of malt and 
hop.s has been lately erected in the Mile End-road 
by Mr. Webb, the builder, from designs by Mr. 
Dyson, on the western side of the old brewery of 
Messrs. Charrington and Head, to meet their in- 
creased and increasing trade, and to complete the 
extension of their premises it is intended to erect 
a ventilating shaft, to communicate with the malt- 
ing floors. For this purpose a lofty scaffolding had 
been erected at the northern end of che new 
buildings, which was a conspicuous object in the 
east end of London. It braved the storms and 
inclement weather of last week, and w'ith the 
return of fine weather it was intended to erect 
the shaft, which will rise to the height of 150ft. 
from the ground. At half-past nine o'clock on 
Monday morning the whole of the scaffolding gave 
way, poles and cords were snapped asunder, and 
the fabric, erected at much cost and with great 
ingenuity, fell. The whole is now a shapeless and 
broken mass, and the lofty scaffold will have to be 
erected again to complete the design. In conse- 
quence of the unsettled state of the weather no 
men were at work at the time the scaffold fell, and 
no one was injured ; but some of the poles were 
precipitated a considerable distance, and fell near 
some of the men at work on the brewery. The 
main building was only slightly damaged by the 
falling timbers. The new buildings are of great 
solidity, and will involve an expenditure of 
£25,000. 

The Industrial Exhibition, Islington. — The 
ceremony of distributing the prizes won at the 
Metropolitan and Provincial Working Classes 
Industrial Exhibition, Islington, took j^lace at 
Exeter Hall, on Saturday last. Mr. G. J. Goschen, 
M.P., presided, and dehvered an interesting ad- 
dress, after which the prizes were distributed. 
The special prizes amounted in the aggregate to 
£57. The first of them, a £10 note, the gift of 
the Agricultural Hall Company, was presented to 
H. A. Major, a letter-carrier, for the best painting 
in oil. Sums of £5 each, the gifts of the same 
company, were presented to R. C. Dunham, 
butcher, for a decimal key ; W. H. Myers, printer, 
for a working model of railway signals ; and E. R. 
May, late lieutenant in the Indian navy, for boat- 
lowering apparatus. Miss Alice Haselden, aged 17, 
was presented with £5, the gift of Mr. J. Harris, 
for the best watercolour drawing. The young lady 
was loudly cheered as she stepped upon the plat- 
form to receive her prize. Mr. W. A. Latta, a 
compositor, received a prize of £2 2s., the gift of 
Mr. J. E. Wilson, for the best specimen of orna- 
mental typography. Miss Ellen M. Hammond, 
governes.s, was presented with a prize of .£2 2s. for 
the best specimen of fancy needlework. Mr. 
Franklin was awarded both a silver cup, the gift of 
Mr. J. Howard, of Bedford, and a silver medal for 
agricultural machines. After the special prizes, 
the silver medals, 85 in number, were presented ; 
next the bronze ones, of which there were 187 ; 
and then the certificates of honourable mention, 
189 in number. 

The Suburban Villages and General Dwell- 
ings' Company (Limited). — The first general 
meeting of the shareholders was held on Monday 
last, at the offices of the company. No. 1, West- 
minster Cbambers, S.W., E. Vigars, Esq. the chair- 
man of the directors, presiding. The meeting was 
well attended, and the statements made by the 
chairman and secretary were received with feelings 
of general satisfaction. The company have held 
back in their operations, not having been able to 
procure a desirable estate to commence upon, and 
in consequence of the extreme deadness in the 
money market. They had been offered an estate 
situated near to four railway stations, and desira- 
ble in all other respects, from the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners, upon very advantageous terms, and 
had accepted the offer. The share capital now sub- 
scribed being much smaller than at first con- 
templated, the operations would be restricted. 

Obituary. — Mr. Joseph O'Brien, builder, 
Loughrea, died on the 4th inst., aged 44. Deceased 
had executed a number of fine mansions as well 
as public buildings in various parts of Ireland. 
Mr. I. I. Cherry, architect, Belfast, died a short 
time since. The death of the great French painter 
M. Ingress, at the age of 87, is also announced this 
week. The death is announced of Mr. George Baxter, 
the inventor and patentee of oil-colour picture 
painting. The deceased gentleman was sixty-two 
years of age. Some time ago he met with an ac- 
cident, which proved the remote cause of the 
attack of apoplexy from which he died. 



MEETINGS FOR THE WEEK. 

MoN. — Society of Engineers. — President's Inaugural Ad' 
dress, T.30. 
Royal Uiyted Service Institution. — *' Breech- 
loaders ■with jeference to Calibre, Supply, and 
Cost of Ammunition," by Captain J. H, 
Selwya. 

TuES. — Institution of Civil Engineers. — DiBCUSsion on 
" Ships of War," * 
Royal Institution. — " On Vibratory Motion, with 
special reference to Sound, " by Professor 
Tyndall, 3. 

Wed, — Geological Society. — The following papei-s will be 
read: — l. " On Chemical Analyses of Varie- 
gated Strata," by Mr. G. Maw. 2. "On the 
Jurassic Fauna and Flora of South Africa," by 
Mr. Ralph Tate. 3. "On Consolidated Blocks 
in the Drift of Suffolk," by Mr. G. Maw, 8. 

T1IUR8. — Royal Institution. — "On Vibratory Motion, 
with special reference to Sound," by Professor 
Tyndall, 3. 

Fei, — Royal Institution. — "On Mr. Graham's Recent 
Discoveries on the Diffusion of Gases," by 
Professor Odling, 8. 

Sat. — Royal Institution. — " On Harmony," by Mr. G. A. 
Macfarren, 3. 



-<>■ 



ijuk llclus. 



The "Wesleyan chapel aud schools, which have recently 
been rebuilt, have been heated by J, Jones and Son's hot- 
water apparatiLs. The warming apparatus of Enfield 
Church, recently restored, has boon erected by the same 
firm. 

Cork Gaol. — The contract for the alterations and addi- 
tions to the County of Cork Gaol has been given to Mr. 
Evans, builder, of Cork, at £4,095 ; Mr. Newstead, of Fer- 
moy, who had previously been declared contractor, having 
declined to fulfil his engagement in consequence of a mia- 
take in his tender. 



TENDERS. 

Batswater. — For alterations, at No. 20, Kensington 
Park -terrace, Bayswater. Messrs. Bird and Walters, archi- 
tects : — 

Huggettand Hiissey £501 15 

Newman and Mann 379 

E. Brown 850 

Williams and Son 347 

Kelly Brothers 337 

CiTv. — For the erection of two warehouses, in Alderman- 
bury, ^r Mr. Meyerstcia. Mr. T. Ci Clarke, architect. 
Quantities by Messrs. Hovenden and Heath : — 

Scrivener and White £7,183 

Hill and Sons 7,167 

Macey 7,159 

Patraan and Fotheringham 6,789 

Newman aud Maun 6,371 

Kilby 6,310 

Henshaw 6,196 

Conder 0,117 

King and Sons 6,098 

Bx'owne and Robinson 5,974 

Cit\"-road. — For alterations and additions to premises 
85, City-road. Mr. Thomas J. Hill, architect ; — 

Bishop £390 

Perry 312 

Anley 303 

Sabey 294 

Fenchurch-street. — For alterations. No. 164, Fen 
church-street. Messrs. John Young and Son, 'architects : — 
No. 1. No. 2. Total. 

Chessura £869 £526 £1,395 

Ashby and Homer ... 832 518 1,350 

Henshaw. 786 477 1,263 

Webb and Sons 798 447 1,245 

Islington'. — For alterations and additions to No. 231 
Upper-street. Islington, for Miss Tubbs. Mr, W. Smith 
architect. No quantities supplied : — ■ 

First contract. Second contract. 

Waters £305 £455 

M'Farlane... 195 255 

Sabey 185 310 

Hunt 160 200 

Cubitt 87 145 

LoNDny. — For alterations, (fee. . to Dock House Tavern, 
East India-road. Mr. W. Barrett, architect:— 

Langmead and Way £,1096 

Sheffield 1,063 

Phillips 760 

Marylebone. — For the erection of casual wards at St, 
Marylebone workhouse. Mr. H. Saxon Snell, architect 
Quantities supplied: — 

Ebbs and Sons £1,347 

Brown 1,316 

Nightingale 1,263 

Hale 1,253 

KeUy 1,243 

Rigby 1,193 

Sabey 1.176 

Potter and Sods 1,130 

Shaw 1,117 

Crabb and Vaughan 1,083 

New Kent-road. — For building St. Matthew's Church 
New Kent-road. Mr. H. Jai-vis, architect :— _ 
Church. 
Patmanand Fotheringam £7,276 

Thompson ti,56J 

Gammon 6,370 

Henshaw 6,1S4 

Dove Brothera 6,335 

* Myers and Son 6,075 

Higgs 5,265 

* Mr. Higgs having made a mistake. 
Son's tender being the next lowest was accepted. 

PiMLico. — For alterations to the Sun Tavern, Ranelagb 
street, Piralico. Messrs. Bird and Walters, architects : — 

Henshaw £647 

Ebbs and Sons 589 

Williams and Son 567 

E. Brown 549 

Newman and Mann 539 

M'Lachlan 510 

i 



Total. 
,. £760 
,. 450 
,. 495 
,. 360 
,. 232 



Spire. 


Total. 


£|>S0 


£7.956 


070 


7,230 


605 


6,975 


728 


6,912 


520 


6,855 


630 


6,605 


518 


5,783 . 


lessrs. 


Myers ant 



January 25, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



67 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



lOJTDOir, FRIDAY, JASVARm, 1S67. 



THE 



COURTS OF JUSTICE COM- 
PETITION. 
A FORTNIGHT ago we made some pre- 
liminary remivrks on this the most im- 
portant architectural battle since that for the 
Bouses of Parliament, when the late Sir 
Charles Barry, by the help of Pugin, came 
off victorious." Who the new Sir Knight 
is to be, and by whose and what help — whether 
by help of good name, or legal favour, or 
leregone conclusion, or real art-power — are 
points about which we might have been ear- 
nest had the competition been free, open, and 
unlimited ; narrowed as it is, we confess we 
have almost come to be indifferent, and, after 
seeing the plans, we reallj' do not think art 
■wHl gain or lose much by any decision the 
judges may choose to make, taking it of course 
for granted that their choice will be sure to be 
limited to five designs — viz., those by ^Messrs. 
Scott, Waterhouse, Street, Seddon, and 
Surges. 

In OUT first article, we pointed out the 
varieties of plan possible to the site under the 
conditions laid down by the instructions. 
We can scarcely say that we were prepared for 
such a concord of opinion as exists touching 
the Central Hall scheme, which has been 
adopted in some shape or other by the great 
majority of the competitors. We also ex- 
pressed a hope that the architects would 
uvour us with possible views of their designs, 
and not merely give fancy perspectives repre- 
senting the building as if it were to stand on 
one side of a gigantic square or platz. Some 
have done as we hoped they would ; yet views 
have been sent in, as we feared they might be, 
the authors of which have cooUy presumed to 
remove all the buildings between the Strand 
and the river. This question of perspective 
drawings is always more or less one of the 
chief obstacles in the way of fair competition, 
and imtil instructions are peremptory on this 
point, fixing the size and angles of the one or 
more views required, the public must be con- 
tent to be misled, on the one hand, into undue 
admiration by charming realistic drawings 
showing things as we may see them every day, 
or, on the other hand, into unfair condemna- 
tion by impossible views which have nothing 
real about them, and which, instead of em- 
hancing the merits of the design, only tend to 
damn them. As an illustration of this, we 
cannot help thinking that both ilr. Surges 
and Mr. Seddon would stand in a much more 
favourable light if they could be permitted to 
withdraw their exterior perspectives alto- 
gethei; whilst, on the other hand, the attrac 
tions of Mr. Waterhouse's design depend most 
materially on the very admirably drawn and 
truthful series of views by which he has so 
well illustrated it. The admission of models 
in a competition is another important con- 
sideration. To the uninitiated public a model 
is always attractive, because it affords them an 
opportunity of forming some sort of judg- 
ment, without having to undergo the horri- 
ble task of trying to make out the relation 
of the several plans, elevations, and sections. 
But, then, it is manifest that, in order to 
put all competitors on the same level and 
give them all equal chance with the pub- 
lic and non-professional judges, every 
architect should be obliged to submit a 
model of his design made to the same scale 
and got up in the same style as the others, or, 
failing this, no model should be received, lest 
its exhibitor should obtain an \mdue advan- 
tage over his co-competitors. That Mr. 
Seddon may be inclined to quarrel with us 
for expressing just now such an opinion is not 
unlikely, seeing how much his design depends 
upon his model for illustration, but when the 
battle is over we feel confident that Mr. 



Seddon will be the very first to admit the 
justice of our argument, and even now we 
would dare go so far as to ask the Govern- 
ment to pause in such an important work as 
the selection of a design for a building of such 
magnitude and costliness until they have had 
models made of the other designs. There 
would be, too, this additional advantage, that 
whereas at present each man's work is sepa- 
rated from his neighbours designs, and can- 
not be compared except by an effort of 
memory, a row of models would enable one to 
judge at a glance the merits or demerits of the 
general composition at least, whilst a detail 
model of one bay would furnish a test of the 
authors knowledge in a department of art 
quite as important as the power of grouping 
and massing of parts. 

Before attempting to discuss the particular 

features of each plan we propose to make a 

few additional comments on the competition 

extension of those we made in our pre- 



liminary article. The room where the draw 
ings are" exhibited is subdivided into ten com- 
partments in pairs, as follow : — ■ 



Mr. 



Scott. 

Waterhouse. 

Street. 

Seddon. 

Lockwood. 



Mr. Abrahams. 
„ E. M. Bany. 
„ Brandon. 
„ Burges. 
„ Deane. 
„ Garling. 
It is a somewhat singular coincidence that 
Mr. Scott occupies the head of the room on 
the right side of the passage as we enter the 
building, and here, we venture to predict, will 
be his position in more senses than one at the 
end of the fight. In saying this we do not 
wish our readers to suppose that we mean to 
endorse Mr. Scott's design as the best ; at the 
same time we cannot help feeling that a man 
occupying the proud position which this archi- 
tect has so long held in spite of the unques- 
tioned talent which the younger members of 
the profession have lately shown would 
scarcely have dared to jeopardise his fame 
and run the risk of a defeat at the hands of 
such comparatively young men as ilr. Water- 
house or Mr. Burges, had he not possessed 
grounds for confidence in the issue of the 
struggle more solid than that of mere reliance 
on his artistic sense and architectural powers. 
For Mr. Scott must surely feel by this time 
that his work has not kept pace with many of 
his confrl-res in quality, however much it may 
have over-reached in quantity. The opinion 
has been expressed by more than one or two 
that ilr. Scott would have done well to have 
declined competition invitations and commis- 
sions altogether after his election to the Royal 
Academy. They argue that it is not becoming 
in one who has attained the highest honours 
open to an English architect, whose name 
is almost as familiar on the continent as 
that of M. VioUet le Due himself, and whose 
private practice is not only enormous, but in- 
cludes nearly all the really costly Gotliic works 
of the day — it is not, they say, a becoming or 
graceful attitude to be always labouring to 
overwhelm the less fortunate disciples of the 
school to which he belongs, by throwing into 
the scale of competition the immense weight 
which the public always attaches to the name 
of the successful man. But then, to all this 
Mr. Scott may reply, in the somewhat jocular 
vein in which he sometimes indulges, " But 
if I do not enter the lists with you, where is 
the credit of your ^^cto^y ? I am the champion. 
I am older and have had larger practice than 
any of you. The world says I am Al. Beat 
me, and the belt is yours. It is only for the 
sake of our fair mistress, for the honour of 
Gothic art in general, and our Revivalist school 
in particular, that I feel constrained, until you 
do beat me, to put in an appearance and come 
up to 'time.'" Besides, in this particular com- 
petition, the greatness of the scheme may well 
be urged by Mr. Scott as an excuse, if any be 
wanted. This " greatness," and all that it in- 
volves, Mr. Scott himself has with true modesty 
recognised at the very outset of his report, and 
inasmuch as, whatever we may feel compelled 



to say in our criticisms hereafter, there can be 
but one opinion touching the great labour of 
mind and hand to which every competitor has 
been subjected in this trial of architectural 
strength, we think we cannot do better than 
give Mr. Scott's confession, if onlj- to keep be- 
fore our own eyes the difficulties of the com- 
petition, which are such as may well temper 
the judgment of the most severe : — " On first 
entering upon the consideration of the subject 
two impressions force themselves upon the 
mind : the nobleness of the project, and the 
va.stness of the labour of carrying it out, even 
upon paper; and, strong as the first impression 
must be of the labour to be undertaken, I think 
all of us must have found it so much greater 
in reality than in idea tliat had we on firet 
entering upon it realised its magnitude, we 
might well have shrunk back from the ta.sk ; 
indeed, it is only the grandeur of the under- 
taking which has enabled one to face out the 
almost incredible labour of the design." After 
this we are not surprised to find that Mr. Scott 
has gone in for " the liberal rather than the 
literal interpretation of instructions ; " and 
this suggests another great difficulty in dealing 
with this competition. Mr. Scott says the 
spirit rather than the letter has been his guide; 
but Mr. Street says, "I have assumed from the 
first to last that the schedules prepared with so 
much care for the competing architects were 
meant to be strictly adhered to." Here it is 
obvious Mr. Scott "has an advantage over Mr. 
Street and all who, like Mr. Street, have tram- 
melled themselves and tethered the flight of as- 
piring genius by the chains forged by the Com- 
missioners. The more we see of competitions, 
limited or unlimited, the more apparent be- 
comes the difficulty of doing justice. In the 
case before us the instructions are so complete 
as to tell you when and where you may depart 
from them ; and yet, with all this completeness, 
one competitor interprets this to mean that the 
architect is not to be bound by anything, whilst 
another insists, if we understand his words, that 
this very liberality on certain points implies 
the strictest attention to everything laid down 
by the instructions. This is precisely the 
same rock upon which the competition ior the 
Bristol Law Courts came to grief. It'wiU 
be remembered that Messrs. Godwin and 
Crisp adhered rigidly to the instructions, and 
were awarded the premiums by a professional 
judge for having produced the best designs 
within the narrow limits of the instructions ; 
but two or three other liberal-minded com- 
petitors took it on themselves to instruct the 
instructors by thro^ving their instructions 
overboard, and the interesting result is that 
Messrs. Godwin and Crisp have not received 
the commission they were entitled to, and 
Bristol enjoys the unenviable notoriety of 
being the laughing-stock of the Western Cir- 
cuit. Now we do not cite this case as by any 
means a parallel case with the one before us. 
No one in the Courts of Justice Competition 
has been guilty of any flagrant departure 
from the main points of the instructions, but 
then the words of this document either have 
or have not a definite meaning. If they can 
easily and naturally be made to assume half-a- 
dozen dift'erent shades of meaning, then the 
Commissioners have been guilty of a grievous 
fault. If, on the contrary, they plainly set 
forth the meaning of the Commissioners in a 
simple, distinct, straightforward way, why 
should they need interpretation ? And where 
is to be the limit of that liberality which they 
are interpreted to mean i If one has liberty 
to interpret according to his conscience (and 
consciences in these days are wonderfully 
elastic), we have no right to limit the liberty 
of others ; and the liberty of some people 
is so great that it is impossible to say where 
such a doctrine might eventually land us. 

It remains for us to say one or two words 
about the general aspect of the exhibition, 
and we take this opportunity of telling the 
Morning Post, first, that it ought to know 
better than to try to palm off a string of 
generalities about things it has never seen for 
observations founded on fact, and, second. 



58 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 25, 1867. 



that it requires immense caution in tlie use of 
the pufl' general to liide the putt particu- 
lar. As to the general style selected 
we may hroadJy say that the styles of 
the thirteenth century are at the bottom 
of nearly every design. On this general 
foundation, each architect has given to his 
building his own particular treatment. Mr. 
Scott and Mr. Deane have as usual a strong 
Italian bias, the latter following (rather a long 
way off) the early mediaeval architecture, the 
former almost at times leaning to that ex- 
pression of the early renaissance wliere the 
Gothic arch maintained its ground though 
nearly surrounded by the returning tide of 
classic detail. The chief attractions of Mr. 
Scott's etfort are the entrance-hall, the double 
ambulatory, and the domed hall in the centre 
of the building. In Mr. Waterhouse's design 
there is just a flavour of Italy, and strong 
evidence of having read " The Stones of 
Venice" more as, an office duty than as an 
antiquary or an artist. His chief points con- 
sist in the management of the streets within 
the outer shell of his building, and the 
arrangement of his sky-liue. Mr. Street 
shows very strongly the church intluence, and 
even here does not forget that he is the 
champion of the High Ohvirch party. Mr. 
Seddon declares his design to be " pure 
English Gothic." We shall not now pause 
to inquire anything about the purity or the 
English ; whatever the style may be, the 
building is massed with great simplicity 
and breadth of effect, and the mighty vaulted 
hall which traverses the whole length of the 
site is something to remember. Mr. Brandon, 
probably deeming that there was no such 
thing nowadays as originality, has sought in 
"Westminster Abbey and the Sainte Chapelle 
and foimd — a design. Mr. Burges, with a sly 
wink at the present Government, and with tliat 
caution and foresight which characterise him, 
has prepared for possible contingencies by 
fortifying his law courts with a sumptuous 
array of strong machicolated towers ; these 
towers, especially those flanking the entrances, 
are very imposing, and, had Mr. Burges 
given us a few street or bridge views, 
like Messrs. Waterhouse, Street, and Scott, 
or a model like Mr. Seddon, we are sure 
hia studies of French chateaux and palaces 
would produce an effect as pleasing as his 
present view is displeasing. Mr. E. M. Barry 
has caught the dome and pinnacle fever, and, 
like Mr. Abrahams, Mr. Lockwood, and Mr. 
Garling, treats us to that kind of Gothic in 
which Batty Langley and Horace Walpole 
delighted, but which we had hoped would 
never have been resuscitated, even on paper. 
Art may or may not be deail, but of tlds we 
are sure that the science of archaeology has 
made such progress that, to anyone of ordinary 
education, the designs which these gentlemen 
exhibit under the flattering supposition that 
they are Gothic can only occasion amusement 
or pity. In saying thus much, let it not be 
understood that we mean to make no distinc- 
tion between the gentlemen just named, tor, 
although all are outside the pale of the Gothic 
school, and all are probably ecpially ignorant 
of the principles of the great style in which 
they have felt themselves compelled to work, 
yet there can be no question that some are 
vastly ird'erior to others, aud that the toe of 
the best outside the pale is close upon the heel 
of the least best within the pale. The great 
fault was in the selection of these four gentle- 
men. They could not choose but work, how- 
ever much they must have felt it to be against 
the grain. The strange tiling was, that, as 
everyone knew the building Wiis to be Gothic — 
a fact fully proved by the plans exhibited — and 
as the competition was to be limited to 
twelve men, the Commissioners did not select 
the twelve best men of the Gothic school. 
They must have foreseen, if they knew any- 
thing at aU of modern art and modern archi- 
tects, that such men as Mr. Barry and Mr. 
Garling would be nowhere in competing on 
Gothic ground with such men as Mr. Scott 
and Mr. Burges. Indeed, Mr. Garling has 



felt this so strongly that he has declined to 
fight altogether on such a basis, and has sent 
in an alternative design after his own heart. 

There is just one more point which should 
be noticed before we commence our detailed 
ciiticisms, and that is the all-important point of 
scale. AVe are neither giauts nor lilliputians, 
and so long therefore as our stature remains 
what it is, our buildings ought manifestly to 
bear some relation to it. In prescribing 14ft. as 
the mean height of the ordinary rooms 
the Commissioners acted like practical 
men, but a glance at the various elevations is 
quite sufficient to show how difficult it is 
to prescribe for aspiring genius. Thus one 
architect appears to have adhered to this limit 
not only on the sesthetical ground of being 
in proportion with the arcliitectm'e of the age, 
but on the liighly practical ground of saving 
as many stairs as possible, and so concentrat- 
ing the law offices vertically as well as hori- 
zontally ; while another, regardless of the 
nuisance of having to run up and down 
stairs, and thinking possibly that deficiency 
in quality can be made up by increase of 
quantity, has defied the heavens and the pub- 
lic purse at the same time by raising his 
building to a height which would crush every- 
thing else from Charing Cross to St. Paul's. 
Again, in the divisions and subdivisions of 
tlie elevations there is evidence of some archi- 
tects havinc; forgotten the scale to which their 
plans are drawn. It is true that the scale of 
eight feet to an inch is that most commonly 
used, but, although this may in part account 
for certain extravagances, it by no means 
excuses the thoughtlessness or the audacity 
which has led some of the competitors to 
design to an eight scale when the drawings are 
limited to so small a scale as that of sixteen feet 
to an inch. This, we submit, is one of the 
most important points for tlie judges to keep 
in mind in making their award. It is just 
this sort of thing whicli most misleads the 
non-professional mind, which is somehow or 
another always ready to accept height as an 
index of grandeur, if not to take it for 
grandeur itself. In a building that is to 
stand alone, and is to be seen at a glance, of 
course the height should have due relation to 
length and breadth ; but in a street front of 
700ft. in length cut up into parts liy towers 
and projections, tliat height whicli might 
look imposing when drawn out geometrically 
on paper may become overpowering and 
extragavant in the foreshortened views, which 
are the only ones capalile of being realised of 
the building itself. It is very necessary to 
be as emphatic as possible on this point, 
because ot a few not the competitors have 
treated their designs with apparently the 
utmost contempt .for the site, and, instead of 
suiting their work to its position in the 
Strand, liave taken no thought for what may 
be called the conditional elements of the case, 
but, ignoring all such mundane trammels, 
have set out their elevations as if the build- 
ing were to enjoy the glorious expanse of a 
park or river frontage. We do not for a 
moment pretend to say that there ever was 
any idea in the mind of any architect who 
adopted this line of action of taking advan- 
tage of those more modest men who are 
simple-minded enough to believe that people 
ought, even in these go-ahead days, to cut 
their coats according to their cloth, or, in other 
words, suit their building to its site. But 
such an advantage is really taken, however 
unconsciously, for, unless we have a model of 
the neighbourhood surrounding a model of 
every design, it can scarcely be e.xpected 
that anyone save the most cautious and 
deliberate will be able to draw out anything 
like a fair balance-sheet of the merits and 
demerits of some of the schemes submitted. 



THE ARCHITECTURAL COMMITTEE 
OF THE PARIS EXHIBITION. 

AS the time for the opening of the Great Ex- 
position of 1867 approaches, expectation 
begins to awaken and apathetic remarks give 



way to general speculations as to the result of 
all the imweariedpromptingsand pushing which 
for the last twelve months have emanated from 
the various quarters interested in the final issue. 
Everysvhere, either in a quiet and unostenta- 
tious way or in a manner quite tlie reverse, 
have the South Kensington and other authori- 
ties been at work, as they are wont, persever- 
ingly and determinedly. We cannot but 
thmk that special difficidties and objections 
have had to be overcome this time, and that 
manufacturers and others have not been too 
well pleased to be stirred up as was necessary, 
but have met the oveitures of the Exhibition 
authorities wdth some lukewarmness, have 
hung back too much, and felt rather inclined 
to consider they were doing a favour in 
exhibiting than receiving one in being in- 
vited to contribute to the glories of the French 
Exhibition of 1867. 

It was not so in 1851, in Paris in 1855, nor at 
Manchester, or here in 1862. Oa these occa- 
sions enthusiasm for trade, or science, or art 
produced an impetus which carried all before 
it, infused an energy into all the arrangements 
— a determination which went itself a long way 
towards overcoming any dilHculty in the 
path. 

Possibly we may account for this want of 
spirit from the red tape of exhibition mongers 
being drawn too tightly at times, so as to 
threaten to choke the exhibitors, and by re- 
membering how frequent these exhibitions 
have been of late years, and the immense 
amount of time and trouble they must have 
absorbed. Or we may assume that another 
cause — the want of due care being taken of 
the valuable articles exhibited — has had some- 
thing to do with the reluctance of exhibi- 
tors. It i^ highly important that not only in 
the transmission and return of packages, but 
in the actual exhibition of goods some guaran- 
tee for care and attention should be aflorded 
by the names of the aiitliorities at the head of 
the arrangements. It may not be new to some 
of our readers to hear of furniture damaged, 
carpets and hangings spoilt, models destroyed, 
in the last two or three exhibitions. And a 
desire not to afford an opportimity for such 
carelessness again may have something to do 
with the difficulties aliove mentioned. Some 
special insurance society should be established 
to take not only real but so-called accidental 
risks, and from damage which is but too often 
the result of p)ure carelessness in those con- 
nected with the exhibitions. But we trust the 
high constitution of the Imperial Commission 
will prevent any but the most unavoidable 
accidents trom spoOing the pleasm-e or profit 
derived from the Paris Exhibition. Indeed, it 
would be but a graceful acknowledgment to 
exhibitors to guarantee a proportionate com- 
pensation for all other damage. Thus we 
trust the justly noble character of the first 
International E.xhibition may be reproduced 
in this last, and make it possible at some 
future time to hold others at periods not too 
frequently recurring. 

Still, wlule admitting to the full, as we do, 
these drawbacks to the honour or profit of ex- 
hibitors, we think something is also due to 
the honour and credit of the manufacture it- 
self, and to the dignity of the art embodied, 
as well as to the honour of the country exhibit- 
ing and the country inviting exhibition. We 
should feel ashamed of ourselves a.s a nation 
if it could be said that we failetl to respond in 
a handsome and generous manner to the invi- 
tations of our neighbours, and thanks are cer- 
tainly due to those who remind us of our cour- 
tesies as well as our duties and obligations. 
To those who hang back we would say, " Take 
care that you are not forgotten in the race, and 
if you are who will regret it so much as your- 
selves ! " 

The immediate object in view has been the 
united representation of those branches of in- 
dustry essential to Architecture which might 
either not be represented at all, or might be 
scattered up and down throughout the various 
classes and subdivisions into which the groups 
themselves were to be arranged. Some diffi- 



January 25, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



59 



cultv occurred naturaUy at the outset to defuie 
exactly the boundaries of the arts cognate to 
architecture, and to state how far the Com- 
mittee were justified in admitting into their 
Art Court, for instance, wood carving and lur- 
niture not strictly of an architectund charac- 
ter while they excluded moulded ironwork in 
Bto'ves, and sucli like objects of an architect's 
desitm. But the difficulty was solved bv the 
strm'cent regulations of "the Imperial Com- 
missfon ; while, at the same time, sufficient 
has been done to claim for the arcliitect a sliare 
in the tli.-ection at least, if not the actual de- 
sitm.of those essentials— the fittings and lurni- 
tiu-e of a building— whether of marble, stone, 
wood, iron, or woven faVirics. 

The classification of the Exhibition will be 
understood by our readers sutticiontly to know 
that the concentric ring representing " Furni- 
ture," &c. (and a very large et cetera it is), 
comprised in what is called Group ILL, is some- 
what removed from the one Lmmediately en- 
closing the Fine Art section, which is like the 
kemefof a nut enclosed in many outer coat- 
ings. In this imier art group the Committee 
have entire charge of the exhibition of Archi- 
tecture as one of the fine arts, being specially 
delegated to this duty by the British executive, 
but their space is so" small that the result of 
any exhibition must be a poor display of archi- 
tecture, and cannot, except in a very small de- 
gree, give any idea of the arcliitectural life 
amongst us in" the present day. The prelimi- 
narj' exhibition at South Kensington, of which 
we "have already written, is the first result of 
the labours of this Committee; but we are now 
speaking of the endeavours to combine the 
e.xhibition of executed works of Architectural 
Art -manufacture (which are matters of the daily 
attention of architects, with their architectural 
designs themselves, as shown by drawings and 
models. Outside this magic circle (or oval) of 
Fine Art, the Committee were placedupontheir 
own responsibility, and had to provide not only 
the objects but tlie means for exhibiting them. 
While engaging themselves to the authorities, 
on the one hand, to occupy the space assigned 
to them, they were obliged to seek from Art- 
manufacturei-s, on the other (somewhat reluc- 
tant to contribute) their earnest and active co- 
operation. By subscription amongst them- 
selves, and by pro rata contributions from the 
exhibitors, we are informed the treasiirer's im- 
mediate requirements have been satisfied, and 
the necessaiy expenses of arranging the court 
provided for. 

Owing partly to favour and partly to the 
force of circumstances, the space allotted to the 
committee in the group where alone their Art 
Manufactures Court could properly be placed, 
has been removed so as to adjoin and be coa- 
nected with Group I., the Fine Art space 
allotted to the drawings and models of iifchi- 
tects. And thus it seemslikely, if no unforesuea 
difficulties arise, that for the first time a com- 
prehensive view of the Art and the Science of 
Architecture — the designs of architects, and the 
skill of execution of Art-manufactures inclose 
proximity — will be afforded. As a germ of 
whatwe may oneday see more fully developed, 
it is important to draw attention to this, and 
we wish all success to those engaged in the 
production, though we feel sure they will be 
the first to admit its meagreness and insuffi- 
ciency compared with what might have been 
hoped for under more favourable circum- 
stances. 

We are informed that we may expect to 
find the names of nearly all those we are fa- 
miliar with in the designing or executing art 
workmanship. We hope to see, for instance, 
the drawing and the model by Mr. G. G. Scott, 
B.A., for the Prince Consort Memorial in the 
one group, and in the adjoining group the actual 
workmanship of part of it by Messrs. Skidmore 
of Coventry ; and if in the same way through- 
out, we cannot directly connect the one piece 
of art workmanship with the design upon the 
adjoining screens, we can at least be sure that 
generally the body of Art workers on the one 
side are constantly engaged in some way or 
other in. giving effect, in substance and living 



colour, to the emanations of the minds of the 

architects. Thus a harmony of result is reason- 
ably to be hoped for, and a combination which 
we "only trust will be favourable alike to the 
individuals composing the groups and to the 
country represented. Messrs. Hart, Hardman , 
Mintoii, Maw, Blashfield, Ransonie, and others 
are c^uite capable of sustaining the reputation 
of the art manufactures of England, and we 
trust thev will reap their reward. The com- 
mittee and their indefatigable ofiicers will find 
their laboui-s not unappreciated by the ])rofes- 
sion, which, when it comes to 
been done amid great dilficultir^ 
to approve their honorary and 
vices. 



ee what has 
, will not fail 
devoted ser- 



PEESERVATION OF WOOD IN DAMP 
AND WET SITUATIONS* 

IN 1846, eighty thousand sleepers of the most 
perishable woods, impregnated by Boucherie's 
process, with sulphate of copper, were laid down 
on French railways. After nine years' exposure, 
they were found" as perfect as when laid. This 
experiment was so satisfactory that most of the 
railways of that empire at once adopted the 
system. We would suggest washing out the sap 
with water, which would not coagulate its 
albumen. The solution woidd appropriately 
follow. 

Both of the last-named processes are compara- 
tively cheap. The manufacturing comi>anies of 
Lowell, JIasa., have an establishment fur " Bur- 
nettisiug" timber, la which they prepare sticks 
50ft, in length. Under a pressure of 1251b. per 
square inch, they inject from 2oz. to 8oz. of salt 
into each cubic foot of wood. The cost, in 1861, 
was from 5 dollars to 6 dollars per 1,000ft., board 
measure. Boucherie's method must be still 
cheaper. It costs less than creosoting by Is. per 
sleeper. 

All American engineer, Mr. Hewson, for inject- 
ing railroad sleepers, proposes a vat deep enough 
for the timbers to stand upright in. The pressure 
of the surrounding solution upon the lower ends 
of the sticks will, he thinks, force the air out at 
their upper extremities, kept just above the sur- 
face of the solution, after which the latter will rise 
and impregnate the wood. In 1859, he estimated 
chloride of zinc at 9 cents per pound, sulphate of 
copper at 14 cents per pound, and pyrolignite of 
iron at 23 cents per gallon. He found the cost of 
impregnating a railway tie with sufficient of those 
sidts to prevent decay, to be — for the chloride of 
zinc 2'S cents, for blue vitriol 3'24 cents, for pyro- 
lignite of iron 7'5 cents. 

Among the numerous other preservative com- 
pounds, may be mentioned Le Gras's mixture of a 
double salt of manganese and lime (or zinc) with 
creosote, Payne's solutions of sulphate of iron and 
muriate of Ume, forming by double decomposition 
,au insoluble sulphate of lime among the wood 
fibres, Margary's solution of acetate of copper, and 
Ransome's hquid silicate of potassa. Payne's 
process met with some favour. But neither of the 
last are of appreciable value. 

Vessel owners had long ago observed that those 
ships which have early sailed with cargoes of salt 
are not attacked by dry rot. Indeed, several in- 
stances are well attested of vessels whose interiors 
were Hned with fungi having all traces of the plant 
destroyed by accidental or intentional sinking in 
the sea. Acting on such hints, a trader of Boston 
salted his ships with 500 bushels of the chloride, 
disposed as an interior lining, adding 100 bushels 
at the end of two years. Such an addition of dead 
weight (35,0001b. in this case) is sufficient ob- 
jection to a procedure which has other great disad- 
vantages. 

The unpleasant odour of creosote is greatly 
against its use upon lumber for dwellings, and 
Bethell's process, therefore, is not described here, 
although the most satisfactory known. Pyro- 
lignite of iron is offensive and also highly inflam- 
mable. The affinity of the chlorides for water 
keeps the structure into which they are introduced 
wet ; besides, they corrode the ironwork. 
Sulphate of copper is free from these objections, 
and is, at present, cheaper than the chlorides. 
Therefore, for protecting wooden structures against 
dry rot in damp situations, like mines, vaults, and 
the basements of buildings, sulphate of copper 
seems preferable, and Hewson's or Boucherie's 



* From the "Journal of the Franklin Institote." By 
H. W. LEWia, University of Michigan. Concluded from 
page 21. 



method of injectmg it cheaper and more expedi- 
ent, according as the timber is short or long. 

II. Wood .iUternately Wet and Dry.— The sur- 
face of all timber exposed to alternations of wetness 
lud dryness gradually wastes away, becoming 
lark coloured or black. This is really a slow_ com- 
bustion, but is commonly called wet rot, or simply 
rot. Other conditions being the same, the most 
dense and resinous woods longest resist decompo- 
sition. Heuce the superior durability of the 
heart-wood, in which the pores have been partly 
tilled with lignine, over the open sap-wood, and of 
dense oak and lignum vita: over Ught poplar and 
willow. Hence, too, the longer jireservation of the 
pitch-pine and resinous " jarrali " of the liast, as 
compared with uonresinous beech and ash. 

Density and resinousness exclude water. There. 
fore our preservatives should increase those quali- 
ties in the timber. Fixed oils fill up the porea 
and increase the density. Staves from oil barrels 
and timbers from whaling ships are very durable. 
The essential oUs resinify, and furnish an imper- 
meable coating. But pitch or dead oil possesses 
advantages over all known substances for the pro- 
tection o£ wood against changes of humidity. Ac- 
cording to Professor Letheby, dead oil, first, co- 
a''ulates albuminous substances ; second, absorbs 
and appropriates the oxygen in the pores, and so 
protects from eremacausis ; third, resinifies in the 
pores of the wood, and thus shuts out both air and 
moisture ; and, fourth, acts as a poison to lower 
forms of animal and vegetable life, and so protects 
the wood from .aU parasites. All these properties 
specially fit it for impregnating timber exposed to 
alternations of wet and dry states, as, indeed, some 
of them do for situations damp and situations con- 
stantly wet. Dead oil is distilled from coal tar, of 
which it constitutes about '30, and boils between 
390 deg. and 470 deg. Fah. Its antiseptic quality 
resides in the creosote it contains. One of the 
components of the latter, carbolic acid (phenic 
acid, phenol), C12 Hs , the most powerful antisep- 
tic known, is able at once to arrest the decay of 
every kind of organic matter. Professor Letheby 
estimates this acid at 4 to 6 per cent, of the oil. 
ChrysUic acid, On Hg Oj, the homologue of carboUc 
acid, and the other component of creosote, is not 
known to possess preservative properties. 

Bethell's process subjects the timber and dead, 
oil, enclosed in huge iron tanks, to a pressure vai-y 
ing between lOOlb. and 2001b. per square inch, 
about twelve hours. From Sib. to 121b. of oil are 
thus injected into each cubic foot of wood. Lum- 
ber thus prepared is not affected by exposure to 
air and water, and requires no painting. A large 
number of English railway companies have already 
adopted the system. Sib. of oil per cubic foot is 
sufficient for railway sleepers. 

The cost of creosoting, as this process is some- 
times called, was given in 1855, by Ronald and 
Richardson, at somewhat less than four pence per 
cubic foot, in England. At one shilling per gal- 
lon, the price at which dead oil was obtainable in 
England in 1S63, four pence per cubic foot would, 
we presume, be sufficient. 

A process recently patented, and described in 
the Scientific A^aeriom, February 17, 1866, pro- 
poses to introduce highly heated oleaginous vapours 
among the timber, confined in an iron tank. The 
patentee hopes that, as fast as the moisture is ex- 
pelled from'the wood, the vapour will take its place. 
Whether this substitution would not .soon arrest 
itself, should it even commence, is in our mind a 
debatable question. 

While an external appHcation of coal-tar pro- 
motes the preservation of dry timber nothing can 
more rapidly hasten decay than such a coating 
upon the surface of green wood. But this mis- 
take is often made, and dry rot, instead of wet rot, 
does the work of destruction. The reason must 
appear from what has been said on dry rot. Car- 
bonising the surface also increases the durabiUty 
of dry, but promotes the decay of wet timber. 
Farmers very often resort to one of the latter 
methods for the presen'ation of their fence-posts. 
Unless they discriminate between green and sea- 
soned timber, these operations will prove injuriou.s 
instead of beneficial. 

In this connection, we remark, that inverting a 
post from the position in which it grew is by 
some supposed to retard decay. According to the 
president of the Northern Architects' Association, 
England, the valves close against moisture ascend- 
ing through the ducts from the earth into the post. 
But, according to Gray, thin places only separate 
contiguous ducts. Fluids can pass through them 
in one direction as well as in the other. When 
age obliterates these thin mediums, nothing op- 
poses the flow upward or downward. Further- 



60 



THE BUILDINa NEWS. 



January ,25, 1867. 






more, the passage of fluids through wood is not 
confined to ducts ; it takes plaee on all sides of 
them as well. In face of these facts, very careful 
experiments will be requisite to convince us that a 
post is more durable in the inverted than in the 
normal position. 

III. Timber Constantly Wet in Salt Water.— AVe 
have not to guard against decay when timber is in 
this situation. Teredo navalis, a mollusc of the 
family Jubicol^rio, Lam., soon reduce.s to ruins any 
unprotected submarine construction of common 
woods. I quote from a paper read before the In- 
stitute of Civil Engineers, England, illustrating 
the ravages of this animal : " The sheeting at 
Southend pier extended from the mud to 
8ft. above low-water mark. The worm de- 
stroyed the timber from 2ft. below the surface 
of the mud to Sft. above low-water mark, spring 
tide ; and out of thirty-eight fir timber piles and 
various oak timber piles, not one remained perfect 
after being up only three years." Specimens of 
wood taken from a vessel that had made a voyage 
to Africa are ia the museum, and show how this 
rapid destruction is eff"ected. 

None of our native timbers are exempt from 
these inroads. Robert Stephenson, at Bell Rook, 
between 1814 and 1813, found that green-heart 
oak, beef wood, and bullet treeiwere not perforated 
and teak but slightly so. Later experiments show 
that the jarrah of the East, also, is not attacked. 
The cost of these woods obliges us to resort to ar- 
tificial protection. 

The tereno never perforates below the surface 
of the sea-bottom, and probably does little injury 
above low-water mark. Its minute orifice, bored 
across the grain of the timber, enlarges inwards 
to the size of the finger, and soon'becomes parallel 
to the fibre. The smooth circular perforation is 
lined throughout with a thin shell which is some- 
times the only material separating the adjacent 
cells. The borings undoubtedly constitute the 
animal's food, portions of woody fibre having been 
found in its body. While upon the surface only 
the projecting siphuncles inflicate the presence of 
the teredo, the wood within may be absolutely 
honeycombed with tubes from lin. to 4in. in length. 

It was naturally supposed that poisoning the 
timber would poison or drive away the teredo, but 
Kyan's and all other processes employing solutions 
of the salts of metals or alkaline earths signally 
failed. This, however, is not surprising. The con- 
stant motion of sea-water soon dilutes and washes 
away the small quantity of soluble poison with 
which the wood has been injected. If any albu- 
minate of a metallic base still remains in the wood 
the poisonous properties of the injection have been 
destroyed by the combination. Mureover the 
lower vertebrates are unaflected by poisons which 
kill the mammals. Indeed, it is now known that 
certain of the lower forms of animal life live and 
even fatten on such deadly agents as arsenic. 

Coatings of paint or pitch are too rapidly worn 
aw.ay by marine action to be of much use, but 
timber, thoroughly creosoted with lOlb. of dead 
oil per cubic foot, is perfectly protected against 
teredo navalis. All recent authorities agree upon 
this point. In one instance, well authenticated, 
the mollusc reached the impregnateil heart-wood 
by a hole carelessly made through the injected ex- 
terior. The animal pierced the heart-wood in se- 
veral directions, but turned aside from the creo- 
soted zone. The process and cost of creosotiug 
have already been discussed. 

A second destroyer of svibmarine wooden con- 
structions is limnoria terebrans (or L. perforata. 
Leach), a mollusc of the family Assellotes, Leach, 
resembling the sow-bug. It pierces the hardest 
woods with cj'lindrical, perfectly smooth winding 
holes, l-20in. to l-15in. in diameter, and about 
2iu. deep. From ligneous matter having been 
found in its viscera, some have concluded that 
the limnoria feeds on the wood, but since other 
molluscs of the same genus, Pholas, bore and de- 
stroy stonework, the perforation may serve only 
for the aniuLal's dwelling. The limnoria seems to 
prefer tender woods, but the hardest do not es- 
cape. Green-heart oak is the only known wood 
which is not speedily destroyed. At the harbour 
of Lowestoft, England, square llin. piles were in 
three years eaten down to 4in. square. 

While all agree that no preparation, if we ex- 
cept dead oil, has repelled the limnoria, an emi- 
nent English engineer has cited three cases in 
which that agent afforded no protection. 

We Jo not find that timber impregnated with 
water glass has been tested against this subtle foe. 
The experiment is certainly worthy of a trial. 

A mechanical protection is found in thickly 
studding the surface of the timber with broad- 



headed iron nails. This method has proved suc- 
cessful. Oxidation rapidly fiUs the interstices be- 
tween the heads, and the outside of the timber 
becomes coated mth an impenetratable crust, 
so that the presence of the nails is hardly ne- 
cessary. 

Inconclusion,wecannot but express surprise that 
so little is known in this country concerning pre- 
servative processes. Their employment seems 
to excite very little interest, and the very few 
works where they are being tested attract hardly 
any attention. Those railroads which have sus- 
pended their use assign no reasons, and those 
upon which the timber is injected publish no 
reports concerning the advantages of their parti- 
cular methods. Even the National Works, upon 
which Kyan's process was formerly employed, 
have laid it aside, and now subject lumber to 
dampness and alternations of wetness and dry- 
ness, without any preparation beyond seasoning. 
When sleepers cost 50 cents and creosoting .30 cents 
each, it is cheaper to hire money at 7 per cent, 
compound interest than to lay new sleepers at 
the end of seven years. Allowing any ordinary 
price for the removal of the old and laying down 
the new ties, the advantage of using Bethell's 
process seems evident. If some cheaper method 
will produce the same effects the folly of neglect- 
ing all means seeking to increase the durability 
of the material is still more palpable. 

Complete and reliable reports upon the preser- 
vation of the various species of woods experi- 
mented upon in this country are greatly needed, 
and we hope they may shortly appear. 



THE CONSTANT WATER SUPPLY FOR 
LONDON. 

AT a meeting of the Health Committee of the 
National Association for the Promotion of 
Social Science, held on Monday evening, at the 
offices, Adam-street, Adelphi (Dr. Aldis in the 
chair), Mr. J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S., read a 
paper upon "A Constant Water Supply for 
London." 

The lecturer, after referring to his experience 
in the construction of waterworks, made the follow- 
ing general observations; — The question of con- 
stant supply is one which most materially affects 
the comfort and convenience of the poorer cla.sses, 
and the inhabitants of smaller houses. In larger 
houses ample cistern space is generally provided to 
secure the equivalent of a constant supply ; but 
where water is constantly laid on from the street 
mains there is scarcely any occasion for house cis- 
terns, except for the supply of waterclosets. By 
proper arrangement little or no inconvenience is 
experienced from the occasional shutting-ofi' of 
water for the changing or attaching of house ser- 
vices. The first cost of iutroducing the water to 
the houses is reduced to the lowest possible point, 
and the pollution which more or less commonly 
attends .the storage of water in house cisterns is 
entirely prevented ; the water is delivered in the 
purest, freshest, and coolest condition ; and very 
much of the annoyance and inconvenience arising 
from frozen cisterns and burst pipes, which are 
the common attendants of the winter season, is 
avoided. There is no occasion for exposed pipes 
in out-ofthe way places, for cisterns in roofs or 
the tops of the houses to be filled with soot and 
dust in summer, and to be frozen in winter ; and a 
man may live in tolerable comfort without the 
dread of the water bursting above his head, and 
deluging the apartment in which he resides. But 
the advantage of constant supply to the consumer 
has been so often and so clearly demonstrated, 
that it is useless to dwell further on this branch of 
the subject. The question of its adoption does 
not entirely rest with the consumers, but with 
those who have to provide the water. It is believ" 
ed by many that the consumption, under the con- 
stant supply system, is so great that no company 
or waterworks can meet the demand — it would be 
ruin to them if they attempted it. I cannot but 
think that all this is a delusion — it is not that 
more water is actually consumed for the use of 
the individual under the one system than under 
the other ; but that the amount of waste which re- 
sults from bad pipes and bad fittings constantly 
supplied with water is so great as to occasion 
serious loss and inconvenience to a water company, 
and perhaps in some cases to exhaust their sup- 
plies. The experience of those towns where the 
supply has always been on the *' constant system," 
and where every precaution has been taken for the 
purpose of securing good workmanship, the best 



and strongest materials, and the most improved 
apparatus, the consumption of water per head is 
certainly., not more, probably less, than it is in 
towns similarly circumstanced in all other respects, 
but supplied with water on the intermittent sys- 
tem. This is abundantly proved by the statistics 
of water supply in such places. Fur instance, the 
average consumption of water in the manufactur- 
ing towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire is from 16 
to 20 or 21 gallons per head per day for all pur- 
poses, including trade, and of course, all the waste 
which may be taking place. In IManchester, the 
quantity consumed by about 600,000 persons, and 
by the trades demanding water within the district 
supplied, varies from 12 to 13 million gallons per 
day. Of this quantity it is estimated that one- 
third is supplied to manufacturers, leaving the nett 
quantity consumed for domestic purposes, includ- 
ing waste, 14 gallons per head per day. The 
experience of Preston, Blackburn, Bolton, Stock- 
port, Halifax, Warrington, and all the other • 
manufacturing towns in the north of England, is 
identical with that of Manchester ; and if this be 
compared with the consumption which obtains in 
towns supplied under the intermittent system, it 
will be found that scarcely in any case does the 
supply fall to so low a point as under the constant 
system. In London it is 32 gallons per head per 
day, and in Plymouth, Devonport, Shrewsbury, 
Oxford, and other places supplied on the inter- 
mittent system, the consumption amounts to 30 
gallons or more per day. The quantity required 
in different towns no doubt varies according to 
the class of inhabitants, the circumstances, and 
the habits of the people, and it is universally 
found that where waterclosets exist as a general 
rule, the consumption is greater than where they 
are comparatively absent. Where everything is 
in good order, and both the water provider and 
the water consumer do their respective duties 
properlj^ there is no disadvantage to either party 
by the supply of water on the constant supply sys- 
tem, while the advantage to the consumer in the 
facility with which he obtains water, and the tri- 
fling cost at which it can be introduced into hia 
premises, are incomparably greater than can be 
enjoyed under the other system. Where, however, 
the intermittent system has hitherto prevailed, 
the desirableness, and, indeed, the practicability, 
of abandoning it, and adopting the constant sup- 
ply, depends very much upon the consumers. If 
they will submit to such regulations as are neces- 
sary for preventing waste, there can be no difli- 
culty in introducing constant supply ; it wUl con- 
sume no more water than the intermittent system. 
The only changes which 'are required are the 
abandonment of all bad fittings, such as common 
ground taps, leaky cocks, and wasteful water- 
closets. The cisterns already existing in houses 
which have been adapted to the system hitherto 
employed may remain if it be the will of the 
owner or occupier that they should. If they are 
large enough they do now practically give a con- 
stant supply, and it is only just to the provider of 
water that care should be taken to prevent im- 
proper use. Those who prefer to abandon their 
cisterns and to take their water direct from the 
pipes can do so at very little expense. In all new 
buildings there would be no necessity for the ex- 
pensive paraphernalia of cisterns ; a stopcock on 
the service I'ipe of the house would enable the 
water to be turned off whenever repairs or altera- 
tions were required to be made within the house. 
Little inconvenience is felt by grouping a number 
of houses together, commanded by one stopcock ; 
and, indeed, it may be said that complaints of in- 
convenience arising from interruption to the sup- 
ply of water are scarcely ever heard in towns 
where the constant supply is at work. If the 
public will not submit to introduce the best de- 
scription of fittings, and to prevent waste, and will 
not subject themselves to the vigilant inspection 
which ought to be exercised by the provider of 
the water, and be willing to correct everything 
which requires correction, it will be difiiculfc, and 
in some cases impossible, to introduce the con- 
stant supply. To confirm these positions Mr. 
Bateman referred to the experience of Sheffield, 
Cambridge, Manchester, and Glasgow. The 
general result of these examples was to show that, 
apart from its other advantages, the system of 
const>ant supply led to economy of water, and 
the conclusion at which the lecturer arrived was 
that there was no reason to doubt that if in this 
great metropohs the providers and consumers of 
water would both do their duty and work har- 
moniously together, the citizens might enjoy the 
benefit of an unlimited supply of water constantly 
laid on, without consuming a gallon more water 



January 25, 1S67. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



61 



than, if, indeed, as much as, was now supplied by 
the water companies. 

At the conchision of the paper, the Chairman 
moved, and Mr. Kendall seconded, a vote of thanks 
to Jlr. Bateman, which w;is unauimonsly agreed to. 

Mr. J. Locke, M.P., said that it appeared to 
him that the fault of the intermittent system arose 
from the want of proper cisterns in the houses of 
the poor. There could be no doubt as to the ad- 
vantage of a continuous sujiply in ca.ses of tire ; 
but he did not quite see what would be its ad- 
vantage for domestic use where people had proper 
receptacles. , 

Mr. Kendall s.aid that in London the poor had 
either no receptacles for water at all, or ouly .such 
a3 on account of their nature and situation could 
not preserve the water in a wholesome condition. 
There was no wonder that meu who had to drink 
Bach water went to the gin-shop to get something 
pleasanter. In those parts of London in which a 
constant supply existed there was no waste, and 
the water supplied to the inhabitants was cool, 
dear, and pure. 

Mr. Holland referred to the advantages which 
had resulted from the introduction of a constant 
supply of water into Manchester, and said that 
there was not a single fallacy in regard to the 
subject which now flourished in Loudon which 
had not to be killed in Manchester before that 
constant sujiply was obtained. 

Mr. Elt (suggested that the water which was 
said to be wasted operated beneficially by flushing 
and cleansing the house drains and sewers. 

Captain Shaw said that there could be no 
doubt that, if a town was sufficiently supplied with 
water for sanitary and commercial porposes, at 
high pressure, there would always be enough for 
the extinction of fires. 

Mr. Kendall asked whether it was not vrrong 
that half an hour should elapse, as in London was 
often the case, before water could be obtained for 
the extinction of a fire. 

Captain Shaw said that the average time within 
which water was upon a fire was not half an hour, 
but ten minutes. 

Sir J. Thwaites expressed his satisfaction with 
the paper which had been read, but .as a member 
of the royal commission upon the water supply 
of the metropolis, declined to pronounce any 
opinion upon the question which it had raised. 

Mr. Bateman said that when a town was well 
sewered, and there wa.s a constant supply of water, 
there would be no need to flush the se%vei-s. 

Several other gentlemen addressed the meeting, 
and the proceedings terminated with the usual 
vote of thanks to the chairman. 



EARTH CLOSET.?. 

THE following correspondence has taken place 
on the earth closet question between the 
surveyor of Norwich, who was instructed to report 
on the matter, and Mr. Edward Boardman, whose 
very useful observations we published a fortnight 
since. As the authorities of many other towns 
are now considering the question, thus controversy 
will most likely assist them in their decision. 
TO THE CHAIKJIAN a;>JD OENTLEMEX OF THE S.ISI. 
1ARY COMMITTEE. 

Norwich Board of Health, Surveyor's Oflice, 
December 2S, 1S66. 

In accordance with your instructions, I beg to 
report to you on the pr.acticabihty oi' the earth 
closets proposed to be used in Norwich instead of 
waterclosets, by which change it is imagined by 
some that the plan for intercepting sewers and 
irrigating works for which this corporation is now 
applying to Parliament for powers to carry out, 
will not be requiied, and the injunction obtained 
ag:iinst the corporation avoided. 

No. 1. It seems to me that, it is not so much 
the question which of the two systems of closets 
Is the best, but whether by doing away with water- 
closets entirely, the necessity for intercepting the 
remaining drainage, and preventing it entering 
the river to pollute it, will be avoided. My opinion 
most decidedly is, that the sewage from the 
houses, consisting of urine, slops caused by cook- 
ing vegetables, &c., washing refuse, and the drain- 
age from the various breweries, dyeworks, and 
factories, together with the filth washed from the 
streets, will stUl be so foul that it will never be 
permitted to flow into the river, and that, conse- 
quently no advantage will be gained to the city 
by the proposed alteration. 

No. 2. It has been long since proved that 
water is the cheapest mode of conveying away the 
filth of towns, and I believe that the value of the 



sewage in a liquid st.ate is not depreciated by the 
dilution, although it is impossible to collect, in a 
solid form, all the valuable salts after they have 
been so diluted. 

No. 3. In all systems of drainage it is most im- 
portant, in order to ensure the proper working, 
that every part should, ;is far .as po.ssible, be self, 
[acting, and I am quite sure that there would be 
iso much difficulty, nuis.inco, and expense, in c.ai't- 
ing the earth into the city, and the collecting and 
removal of it when soiled, to s,ay nothing of the 
.almost impossibility of getting proper attention 
'p.aid to the closets in cottages, lodging-houses, &c., 
that in practice the earth closets would not be 
found to answer. 

No. 4. In the letter written by Mr. Boardman, 
sent to the members of this committee, and printed 
in all the local papers, ho estimates that the 
annu.al cost of working the closets in this city 
would be £S,438, and the revenue £22,986, leav- 
ing an annual profit of £H,5IS. This is the 
theoretical view of the matter, but at Manchester, 
where the annual cost of emptying the privy bins 
is .about £17,000, the soil is sold for about £9,000, 
leaving a loss of about £S,000 a year, instead of 
a profit, to which in our case would have to be 
added the cost of the earth (which must be of a 
particular description) and of the carting and 
delivery thereof. 

No. 5. It is also stated in the same letter, that 
the decision of the Leamington Conference was 
"decidedly in favour of the dry earth." This 
most certainly was not the case, for the only 
resolutions carried were as follows : — First, 
" That, after careful consideration of the valuable 
information submitted, this congress is of opinion 
that the systems of allowing oxcrementitious 
matters from houses to paas into and pollute the 
rivers, is in all cases highly objectionable, and 
ought, so far as may be practicable, to be pre- 
vented." The second was, "That the system of 
irrigation, when carried out in a scientific manner, 
removes the difficulty which arises from the pre- 
sent noxious plan of polluting the rivers of Eug. 
land, but that there are circumstances in which 
other systems may be applicable. That as each of 
the systems possesses some peculiar advantage, a 
combination of the several systems according to 
the particular circumstance of each, can probably 
possess the most efiective and advantageous re- 
sults." 

No. 6. lu conclusion, I am quite satisfied that 
the board has, imder the circumstances, acted 
wisely in deciding to intercept the whole of the 
sewage and to take it to one point, as, whatever 
may eveiitually be found the best method to treat 
sewage, the cost of the intercepting sewers will 
not have been expended in vain. 
I am. Gentlemen, 

Your obedient servant, 

Alfred W. Morant. 



im. BOARDMAN S REPLY. 

Queen-street, Norwich, January 14, 186". 

Gentlemen, — As requested by you, I beg now 
to reply to the report of your engineer, which was 
read to me at your meeting of the 27th ult., and a 
copy of which Mr. Miller has furnished me. To 
prevent repetition, and that my replies may be 
more easily identified, I have affixed figures to 
divisions of your engineer's report. 

No. 1. The first question raised is, " whether by 
doing away with waterclosets entirely the neces- 
sity for intercepting the remaining drainage, and 
preventing it entering the river to pollute it, will 
be avoided." My reply to this is, that if the 
waterclosets be discontinued, the main cause of 
the pollution of the sewers will be removed. The 
public, and all private urinals, can be treated with 
earth quite as easily and satisfactorily as with 
water ; the other liquid refuse of towns will form 
so small a proportion of dirty, or diluted water, as 
compared with the volume of water in the river 
(and being free from the excrementitious matters, 
which is the cause of pestilential pollution), that 
the injunction will not be maintainable, for the 
Royal Commissioners tell us, " Absolute pumty of 
water ivill be impossible, and need not be looked 
for." Of course it will be necessary to dredge 
the river of the accumulated mud, and keep down 
the weeds, as in any case ought to be done. 

No. 2. I say, most emphatically, that it has not 
been proved that water is the cheapest mode of 
conveying away the filth of towns, but, on the con- 
trary, is most wasteful and expensive ; and it is a 
well ascertained fact that when once sewage 
matter is diluted it is rendered practically value, 
less. 

No. 3. Taking every contingency into considera- 



tion for the occupier, the earth closet will be prac- 
tically as self-acting as the watercloset, with the 
exception of very few inst.ances, where w.ater- 
closets have been fitted up regardless of expense. 
The majority of occupiers know the annoy.ance 
and expense of pipes bursting, ball-tap leaking, 
drains choked up, sewer-g.as escaping, doctor's 
bills to pay in consequence ; and witli careless, 
dirty people, the watercloset is generally out of 
order. The earth closet will not be sul>ject to any 
of the above objections. Dry earth can, .and will 
bo, supplied as punctually as the food we consume, 
at the necessary periods, and the application and 
remov,al \\'ill not be so formidable as imagined. 
Out of 3,000 waterclosets in Norwich, I suppose 
about 1,000 are upstairs ; if six persons use one of 
these latter every morning, a cle.an pail with dry 
earth will be left at the door (about the weight 
of a coalshoot half full) ; this the servant will take 
upstairs, and bring down the used pail ; if only 
three persons on the average use it, the removal 
will be every other day. (I would remark this 
makes ample allowance for diarrhoea disorders.) 
The remainder of the closets are downstairs, and 
invariably next an outside wall at tlie back or 
side of the house ; these can be supplied with 
earth and removed from outside by the man, with- 
out entering the house at all, except where there 
is no back entrance. The whole process is less offijn- 
sive than carrying aslopB(ail,and notmore dirtythau 
carrying the ashes and coalshoot about the house. 
If the dry earth is taken to the dirtiest and most 
careless of j^eople, I think they would be more 
likely to use it than to send for tradesmen to do 
the necessary repairs in the water system. The 
3,000 closets, if treated with earth, would require 
to be supplied with about 7,000 tons of earth 
per annum ; what is this compared with the 
95,000 tons of mixed goods and coals which 
annually arrive at the Thorpe and Victoria 
Stations, and from thence are distributed over 
the city ? Most people admit that the system ia 
adapted for villages or small towrts. If the city 
is divided mto districts, as I proposed, they be- 
come, as it were, an amalgamation of small towns; 
and every business man knows that an extensive 
systematic arrangement is easier and more effec- 
tually carried out than a limited one, as it will 
atibrd more efficient men t-i supervise. Our food, 
and everything we require for existence, is, as 
it were, supplied to us in large towns haphazard; 
then cannot our excrementitious matter, which 
is infinitely smaller in biilk, be removed by a 
general systematic arrangement ? ' 

No. 4. Chemists tell us that the constituents 
of human excrements and guano are the same, 
but the proportions of the former are far better 
fitted to sustain the fertility of the soil. Agricul- 
turists, who liave tried the experiment, tell us 
the same. Travellers and history tell us that in 
China and Japan the only manure producer is 
man ; this has been going on for thousands of 
years, yet the land is as productive as ever ; they 
grow more corn than they consume, but do not 
lock up their capital in bullocks for the purpose 
of producing manure. With these facts, can it be 
stated to be worth nothing in England ? Put the 
natural manure in a portable form, and it will be 
worth something certainly, if the farmer will now 
give £5 to £9 per ton for guano and artificial 
m.anure. It is stated that the known accumula- 
tions of guano will not last more than 10 or 12 
years, and the supply m.ay at any time be cut ofi' 
by war (and cannot be proved to be better). Y'ou* 
inspector stated in the public papers last week, 
that "the contractor for the removal of the night 
soil, to whom the city p.ays £30 yearly, threw 
up his contract as being unremunerative." The 
contractor tells me that his reason for throwing 
it up is because the " flying dustmen" empty all 
the large and convenient bins, but leave him the 
inconvenient places, which, as city contractor, 
he is bound to empty. He has to clean silt from 
the street guUies, and is not allowed to make a 
depot even on the outskirts of the city. Why 
night soil has not been profitable is, because it 
is generally mixed with water and every kind of 
rubbish, and smells so oflensively that it is dif- 
ficult, now especially, to get men to remove it, 
but the keeping it dry and mixing the earth with 
it destroys all unpleasantness to sight or smell, 
and this adulteration with earth is not in greater 
proportion than is a good deal of the expensive 
manure ; and the very fact of turning over vege- 
table soil also improves its fertilising qualities. 
Manchester is not under the earth system, as 
your report implies ; instead of earth, ashes are 
mixed, which unsuits it for corn crops, therefore 
detracts from its value. (If the earth system had 



62 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 25, 1867. 



been tried and been a failure, I do not think Mr. 
Heron, the town clerk of Mancheste.i, would have 
gone to the Leamington Conference and have pub- 
licly supported it a3 he did.) Clay, or any soil which 
will grow corn, is suitable for mixture. 

No. 5. The assertion I made, relative to the 
Leamington Conference, is fully borne out by the 
Building News of last Saturday. It says, " The 
overwhelming weight of opinion at the meeting 
was in favour of dry earth, but a different opinion 
was expressed as to its applicability to large 
towns;" but, as I stated in No. 3, its applicability 
to large towns is as reasonable as to small towns, 
for if it be po,ssible to attend 1,000 houses, 10,000 
can be done with more certainty, in consequence 
of the superior supervision available. 

No. 6. The questions I would ask are : First, 
will the water system you propose to carry out 
stop the pollution of the river ? Second, is the 
irrigation system a success ? Third, will it prevent 
an injunction ? Croydon is usually quoted as the 
successful example of the system, and after which, 
I believe, Norwich is to be treated. .It appears to 
be managed in this way (see Bannehr on the 
" Sewage Difficulty") :— 

Immediately after leaving the towu outlet, the sewage 
passes into subsiding or separating tanks, where tije larger 
portion of the suspended matter is abstracted from the 
sewage, and (it being of a very offensive character) is mired 
with dry ashes or other deodorant, and is sold to farmers at 
such a price as barely to cover the cost of manipulation. 

These tanks, I believe, in Norwich are to be £.t 
Trowse. 

The clarified sewage is then conveyed to the irrigated 
land, the greater part of which is sown with Italian rye 
gi'ass. It is thus obvious that a large proportion of the im- 
purity is abstracted from the sew.age water before it is 
bestowed on the iiTigated laud, and there is no pr.jof that 
any considerable proportion of manunal impiu-ity is elimi- 
nated from it after it has left the tanks. 

When the sewage leaves the tanks, it has much the ap- 
pearance of dirty soap water, and when it arrives at the 
river, it appears to have been divested of part of its soapy 
appearance ; but it is far from clear, and if it were per- 
fectly clear and bright, chemists tell us it is no evidence of 
purity. It is said that when the sewage leaves the town 
outlet, it contains :>2 grains of organic matter, and when it 
arrives at the river, after irrigation, it still possesses 22 
grains. 

The process of five successive applications of Edinburgh 
sewage to five different fields, 222 out of 224 grains of solid 
matter held in suspension in each gallon, were deposited on 
the hand ; whilst only 15 grains out of S7 of the matter in 
solution were eliminated from it after passing over five 
tieUa. 

It is obvious suspended matter may be eUmi- 
nated from it by irrigation, but that is of very 
slight importance, as it is found necessary to 
separate the larger portion, as at Croydon, before 
applying sewage to the land. 

At .\lnwick, where the Duke of Xorthumberland had 
incun-ed the e.tpense of making sewage available to farmera, 
they, after tr>-ing it for several years, refused to have it^ 
rven as a gift, because it w;is perfectly useless or mischievous 
to them ! 

Great stress has been laid upon the large quan- 
tities of grass grown at Croydon ; it is said very 
nearly the same quantity is produced from the 
Clipstoue irrigation fields by the use of pure water, 
and it probably would be as much if the water 
possessed the two or three degrees of extra tem- 
perature which sewage possesses. In the Royal 
Commission Blue Book, page 13, it is stated, 

Tliat there is still occisional cause to complain of the 
condition of the effluent water, as it sometimes comes off 
the land, either turbid or so imperfectly cleansed from 
sewage, that it pollutes both the River Wandle and the 
atmosphere in tlie vicinity. 

These evils, so far as they exist, wa are satisfied admit of 
explanation. When the water is turbid (as distinct from 
bemg fotil fi-om sewage), the cause probably is, as suggestetl 
by Mr, Gurney, that cattle sent in to graze upon the ii-ri- 
gated fields (a very large number in proportion to the 
acreage) h'lve trodden the surface and fouled it with their 
dung. When the effluent water flows ott', carrying both to 
sight and smell unmist;ikable signs of sewage, it has not 
been applied to a sufficient area of land. The smell luis 
been most objectionable on Sunday evenings, probably be- 
cause the men have neglected the work. 

As to the value of the grass : Croydon has a po- 
pulatiou of 30,240, is within ten miles of Loudon 
with 3,000,000 inhabitants. Norwich has no such 
market for grass as this, and we have no extensive 
dairies of cows, and I don't think it is usual to 
give working horses much green food, especially 
all the year round, so where will the grass grown 
by the sewage of the 75,000 inhabitants be con- 
sumed ? If the following are facts, it ought to 
make us pause before extending sewage irrigation. 

It is a very striking fact that at Edinburgh, where dairy 
stock are largely fed with sewage grown grass, there has 
for many years been a much less healthy condition, and 
more deaths among dairy cows than in other parts of the 
kingdom ; it is also remarkable tliat Mr. Marriage, the 
lessee of the Croydon 8ew.ige, has lost a larger proportion of 
his dairy stock by rinderpest than have any of his neigh- 
bours. 



On the steppes of Russia, where the rinderpest con- 
stantly prevails, there are large quantities of stagnant 
water, which cattle commonly drink in default of better ; 
this circumstance is very suggestive of the cattle plague 
being attributable in some degree to our cattle being sup 
pUed with impure food, or polluted water, in the same way 
that cholera, and other an.alogous disorders, are traceable 
to similar influences among human beings ; (but this ques- 
tion is more fully treated by Mr. Bannehr, page 10.) 

There are nearly six months in the year during 
which vegetation is dormant ; what becomes of 
the sewage which is produced during that period, 
and when the ground is frozen ? It must be ap- 
plied to land continually as a matter of form, but 
without producing any manurial result. 

Mr. Morant, in his report, makes no mention of 
the pestiferous gas which the excrementitious mat 
ter produces when in the sewers ; this is a greater 
evil than the pollution of our river ; this \vill be 
greatly aggravated when the number of water 
closets is increased. I extract the following from 
a London paper, December 29th. After observing 
that more than £2,000,000 have already been 
spent, and other particulars about the great 
scheme, it states, 

There is, however, a question as to the ventUation of 
sewers, which evidently demands attention. Though not a 
new subject, it has never yet presented it.self in so formid- 
able a shape as now. Unless the sewage passes off rapidly 
from the sewers, the foul fluid is liable to undergo putre- 
faction, liberating poisonous g;ise3, and producing all the 
evils of a gigantic cesspool ; all attempts to eliminate this 
mischief by carrying off the gases, or consuming them, or 
by disinfecting them, seem to be attended with extreme 
difficulty. 

It is suggested to drive the sewage out hy a 
more abundant supply of water, but I am j 're- 
pared to prove this will not remedy the evil. The 
surveyor to the Westminster Board of Works has 
recently visited Paris, to obtain information about 
their sewers ; among other matters he reports 
" that in Paris it is forbidden to discharge night 
soil by t he house-drains, but every provision is 
made for washing the surface deposits of the 
streets into the sewers. From the absence of 
night soil the sewage is much less offensive in 
Paris than in London, and the water. mains and 
telegraph wires are laid in the sewers." 

What I have attempted to prove is, that the 
water system of sewage is wrong in principle, 
wasteful, and unsuitable for the removal of excre- 
mentitious matter. 

I remain. Gentlemen, 

Yours obediently, 

Edwahd Bo.\rdm.4N. 



GRECIAN SCULPTURE. 

LAST week, Dr. Kinkel, F.R.G.S., delivered his 
second lecture at the Bradford Mechanics' 
Institute before the members of the Bradford 
Philosophical Society. In commencing he ex- 
plained the three styles of Grecian sculpture — the 
round, which was used for the statues in the in- 
terior of temples ; the high relief, which was 
adopted in the exterior of these buildings, where a 
full light could fall upon the sculpture ; and the 
low relief, where only a reflected light was obtain- 
able. In his preceding lecture. Dr. Kinkel cur- 
sorily touched the question as to the tinting of 
sculpture by the Greeks ; and now, in discussing 
the point more at length, he held the evidence to 
be sufficient to prove that the Greeks did paint 
their statues — not only the dresses but the hair 
and the flesh, in order to produce all the colour 
of Southern beauty, which, however, was not of the 
florid tint, but oUve, and therefore more easily 
imitated in colour. And besides the advantage of 
obtaining a closer copy of nature, there was this, 
that the colouring material, in which wax was 
mixed, preserved them from the action of atmo- 
sphere. The Greeks copied, and followed, nature, 
but at the same time there was an idealism in 
their statuary which, however ditlicultto define — 
inasmuch as the ideal in art was to some extent 
mei'e feeling, ;is indescribable as the fragrance of 
the carnation, or the odour of the lily or the rose — 
was still there. This ideal — about which he would 
lay down no theories — was the one thing which 
distinguished ancient sculpture from the sculpture 
of modern days. He might illustrate the subject 
by referring to the peculiar anatomical formation 
of the human heel bone. In a man the heel bone 
projected somewhat beyond the bones of the leg, 
and in the animal — particularly in the horse — 
this projection was very marked. In ancient 
sculpture, especially with female figures, the heel 
bone was almost done away with, thus giving a 
lightness to the statues which was very charmiug. 
The straight line of the nose and the beautiful 
forehead introduced by the Greeks also gave an 
ideal expression to the sculpture. It must be con- 



fessed that there was no ideal form upon earth. 
The most perfect beauty was not ideal beauty, for 
it was clear that if such was the case all men must 
look alike, because there could only be one abso- 
lutely perfect form. All the charm of life rested 
upon the deep secret of individuaUty. In repre- 
senting the ideal the artist had to unite two forms 
of beauty which human beings never possessed at 
the same time, viz., that perfection of intellectual 
expression which was only obtained towards the 
close of life, and that perfection and fulness of 
form which was only enjoyed at the very com- 
mencement of life. Now the Greeks had the ideal 
of the body, but not of the mind, as shown in the 
face ; and herein was the difference between the 
earlier Greeks and the early Christian artists, for 
while the latter did not give the body such grace, 
they did give a noble expression to the features. 
Having thus opened his subject, the lecturer pro- 
ceeded at considerable length to review the Greek 
" periods" of sculpture. There was the sublime 
period, as represented by Phidias ; the beautiful, 
as represented by Scopas and Praxiteles ; and the 
heroic, which came to its eflTulgence after the con- 
quests of Alexander, and which might be con- 
sidered as represented by Lysidas. The full 
efflorescence of the sublime period of Grecian 
sculpture was, when the Athenians undertook the 
rebuilding of the Parthenon — the works of which 
were superintended by Phidias — and the combina- 
tions of styles and subjects made the Parthenon, 
even in its ruins, the great school of art. But not 
only at this period was Athens alone distinguished 
for its art. There was at the same time, in the 
Peloponnessus, a school which very distinctly took 
humanity for its model, Polycletes there standing 
out in prominence for the accuracy of his work. 
After the "sublime" came the "beautiful;" and 
now the grand simplicity of the preceding period 
was changed for a style in which there was much 
of softness and effeminacy. The figures were no 
longer colossal, but they were graceful and beauti- 
ful ; and Scopas, when about eighty years of age, 
produced the finest model of the female figure in 
existence. But now came the " heroic," and that 
was the last period of Grecian art. No longer the 
sublimity of Phidias or the beauty of Praxiteles 
pleased, the military exaltation of the Greeks lead- 
ing their sculptors to revel in battle scenes and 
kindred subjects, and sculpture which had 
flourished through five centuries at last merged 
into a sensational style which closely resembled 
the sculpture of modern times. 



HOW TO EXTRACT PERFUMES. 
QJULPHURET of carbon is a curious substance, 
io which formerly cost about 60f. a kilogramme, 
and which has now fallen to the price of a few 
halfpence, in consequence of the great demand for 
it, which set chemists to the task of contriving 
some cheap way of manufacturing it. It is a 
colourless and very refringent liquid. It boils at 
43 deg. Cent., and enjoys the unenviable privilege 
of smelling like rotten cabbage. It is the most 
powerful sulphuriser known, and a dissolvent of 
india-rubber, to which latter circumstance the 
gi-eat demand for it is due. According to Qalig- 
ani, Mr. Millon, chief chemist to the hospital of 
Algiers, has recently discovered the singular fact 
that this offensive liquid is the best dissolvent of 
the essential oils of flowers, to which the latter 
owe their sweet perfumes. This discovery has sug- 
gested to M. Schnaiter a very easy way of obtain- 
ing those perfumes. He fills a large phial with 
the petals, just gathered, of the flower he wants to 
operate upon ; and, having poured a suf&cient 
quantity of sulphuret of carbon upon them, corks 
the phial, shakes it, and then lets it stand. The 
sulphuret penetrates into the substance of the 
petals, and expels the water they contain, which 
goes to the bottom. After a six days' maceration, 
the sulphuret charged with the essential oil of the 
flowei's is decanted into another phial containing 
fresh flowers, and this operation is repeated four 
times, after which, if the quantity of flowers be 
considerable, the sulphuret will be strongly 
coloured. It is now necessary to separate the per- 
fume from the sulphuret. If the quantity be 
small, the latter substance, which is extremely 
volatile, may be left to evaporate in the open air, 
and the residue is then treated with alcohol at 40 
deg. of the areometer. But in case the quantity 
to be operated upon be larger, oil of almonds 
should be poured in, the liquid should be well 
shaken three or four times a day for the space of 
four days, then distilled at a very low temperature 
in order not to lose the sulphuret, and the residue 
is treated with alcohol, as before. 



January 25, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



C3 



FIRE-ESCAPES. 

WHATEVER may be said to the cijutrary— 
there are people who will say any tiling' — 
it has been unl'urtimately but too often demon- 
strated that the means at oiu- eomiuand foi' 
extinguishing Kres and the appliances for prc- 
.serving human life have not arrived at that 
degree of certainty and precision which the 
urgency of all such contingencies demands. 
For more than half a century man's inventive 
faculties have been at work endea\'ouring to 
bring to perfection the tout ensemble of the ap- 
paratus required whenever the cry of lire 
rouses the slumbering denizens of any particu- 
lar locality into a state of wakefulness far 
more energetic and complete than that e.xcited 
in them by the chimes of the early Ixdls. The 
dithculty is not so much to procure a tire-escape 
and have it ready at hand for action, but to 
manage it properly. It is certainly, viewing it 
in the most favourable light, not an inviting 
means of avoiding danger, and imquestionably 
many timid and nervous persons are at first 
doubtful whether to accept its aid or run the 
chance of the fire w'hich may be raging next 
door to them and have already seized the 
lower part of the dwelling they occupy. The 
princi;:les upon which fire-escapes have been 
founded are pretty well kno^^^l to our reader's, 
but lately a new application of a well-known 
principle has been pressed into the service 
wliich bears upon its face the appearance of 
novelty. 

The principle we allude to is that of hydrau- 
lic pressure, and which in this instance is em- 
ployed to raise a system of metallic tubes fit- 
ting concentrically one inside the other, after 
the fashion of telescope tubes. When drawn 
out they form one large mast, to which is at- 
tached one or two rope ladders with canvas 
slings and other accessories. As a counter- 
balance to the weight of this escape when ex- 
tended there is attached to the small car at 
the bottom a reservoir in w-hich water is forced 
and which serves to raise each j .lint of the mast 
to the height required. There is a special 
mechanical arrangement to enable the rope 
ladders and slings to be worked from below, and 
by simply opening a cock the tubes can ))e 
made to collapse as rapidly as desired, and so 
allow of the speedy descent of those who are 
contained on the ladders or in the slings. AVe 
have seen, therefore, that this new invention, 
which is the design of a gentleman at Geneva, 
acts as a fire-escape, but in addition it com- 
bines with that duty the office of a fire-extin- 
guisher as well. The tubes forming the en- 
tire length of the mast being hollow, serve 
as large water pipes, and as the top joint is 
finished in the manner suitable for discharg- 
ing a jet of water the greatest facility is 
afforded for administering it in the very places 
where it is most required. AVhatever height 
maybe given to the escape, whether all the coni- 
ponenttubesare drawn out or notjthe mechanism 
is so arranged that ''it is always equally easy 
to rig the ladders and slings, which are main- 
tained in complete order in the small car at 
the base of the machine. Notwithstanding 
the double service thus performed by this new 
description of escape, it can be transported 
from place to place with great facility. While 
on the one hand we should wish never to 
■witness the practical trial of machines of this 
nature, yet on the other we should equally 
wish that they might never fail when the 
hour of trial did arrive. 



the Priory, is a small shapeless fragment of 
brick and stone, wliich iihie out of teu of those 
who do visit the place probably jmss by with- 
out an attempt to uiidcrstaud it. A little 
consideration of it soon reveals that it is the 
remnant of a mediaeval fountain of the latter 
]!art of the fifteeiuh century, and as such foun- 
tains, in England at least, are very rare, it ia an 
architectural curiosity worth notice. It is soon 
seen that tho depression in the ground about 
it is the sunk b.isin, of octagonal shape, and 
perhaps 12lt. or XHt. across, in which the 
tbuntidn stood. Tho fountain itself consists <jf 
a baso oi brickwork, upon which stands an 
octiigonal stouo cano[)y with ogoo dome, not 
unlike in its general conception to tho pinnacles 
upon the buttresses of Henry VIl.'s chapel at 
Westminster. It is canied on shafts at the 
angles of the octagon with ogee arches, which 
carry the ogee dome above. The carving pre- 
sents only ordinary late fifteenth century forms, 
and the architect will easily conceive the whole 
design. The water rose out of a central shaft 
and fell into tho little stone reservoir over- 
shadowed by tho canopy ; thence it ran, out of 
openings cut in the sides of the top of the 
reservoir, into the great basin beneath. It 
would be easy from what remains to make a 
complete restoration, on paper, of the original 
design, and it would be worth while for some 
visitor with more leisure than your correspon- 
dent had at his command to do so, as a record 
of a class of work which is so anusual among us. 



• A MEDIAEVAL FOUNTAIN. 

LITTLE Lees Priory is in a rather out-of- 
the-way and ioaocessible corner of Essex, 
and is therefoie not so well known to archi- 
tectural antiquaries as it deserves to be, for 
there are considerable remains of the Priory 
buildings and out-buihlings remaining, and they 
offer some very good examples ot the fine 
monlden brickwork which came into fashion, 
especially for mansions, in the latter part of 
the fifteenth century. Standing in what is 
now an open field, but what must have been 
an inner court, perhaps the cloister court, of 



many short cists, wit'i burnt bones and relica 
of bronze. With regard to tho rude stone 
weapons, and other stone objects found in graves 
and mounds at Keiss, of the aitificial character 
of which doubts had been expressed, llr. Laing 
had been able to discover many similar remains 
from brochs and graves in Orkney, in kitchen 
middens at Meiklo Ferry, in Sutherlandshiro, at 
Cromnrty, at St. Andrew's, and in an under, 
grouiul liouso and an adjoining refuse heap at 
Skaill, in Orkney, where many stone Hikes, cir- 
cular discs, pounders, and oilier aiticleS in the 
course of manufacture, were found. 



PRE-HISTOEIC REMAINS IN ORKNEY 
AND CAITHNESS.. 

ANY additional evidence as to tho date from 
which man has existed upon the earth ia of 
more than archaeological interest; it enters 
into the great religious questions which during 
this generation have agitated the public mind. 
TheSr! considerations give additional value to a 
paper read at the meeting of the Society of 
Antiquaries last week, reported in the Scotsman^ 
" On the Age of the Burgs or ' Brochs,' and 
some ot the Pre-Historic Remains of Orkney 
and Caithness," by Mr. Samuel Laing, M.P., 
F. S.A. Scot. In this paper Mr. Laing has 
made a great contribution to the history of a 
class of objects of which Dr. Daniel Wilson 
has said that they are the earliest native archi- 
tectural remains which wo possess, and consti- 
tute a most important element in our national 
history. Mr. Laing has left to others a con- 
sideration of the constructive features of the 
brochs, and has devoted his attention to the 
facts bearing on their early date, and the con- 
dition of the people by whom they were .:rected. 
In the course of his excavations in Caithness 
about two years ago Mr. Lifing, among other 
early re mains, excavated a ruined burg or "broch." 
Of these excavations he has given a detailed 
account, with suitable illustrations, in a vulume 
devoted to tho purpose, and has deposited in 
the National Collection the whole of the objects 
which he discovered ; thus exhibiting a desire 
to turn his discoveries to public account, in- 
stead of hoarding tho relics, without use to any 
one, in a private museum. With regard to the 
ruined buig at Keiss, Mr. Laing believes that 
its remains gave clear proof of successive 
occupation down to a comparatively recent 
period, by tho superposition of pavements at 
diiJ'erent levels, the addition of walls of diffe- 
rent structure, and in one instance by the con- 
version of a massive doorway into a rude fire- 
place and chimney; that the rare instances in 
which ebj cts of bronze or iron were f..und 
came, as did all the specimens of finer pottery, 
from the upper level, while the great mass of 
relics, including all those of the lower levels, 
coiiSisted of artcles of stone and bone of great 
rudeness, and of excessively coarse hard-made 
pottery. The food oi the early dwellers ia the 
brochs seemed fri^m the adjoining mounds to 
have cou-isted of limpets and perriwinkles with 
a fauna consisting mainly of red deer (some- 
times of gigantic siz.), bos Icngifrons, horse, 
goat, hog, dog, lox, whale, cormorant, goose, 
and auk. In the course of a recent viiit to 
Oikney Mr. Laing was able to accumulate 
many facts bearing on the same p-ints — viz., 
the remote date of the brot;hs and their suc- 
cessive occupation. One of these is of a ver\ 
striking character, showing that on tne top ol 
a ruined broch, which in the course of time 
had become a green mound, a people had 
placed one of their buryiug-places, containing 



A MEDIAEVAL TILE FACTORY. 

IT is a matter of considerable interest wh?n 
we find, not merely new relics of ancimt art, 
but traces of the processes by which they were 
produced. Thus the discovery by I\Ir. Artes, 
at Caistor, of the potteries of Roman DurobrivaJ, 
revealed the fact that a particular kind of ware 
found with Roman remains throughout England 
was of native manufacture. Tile kilns still 
extant showed the pn,cess ol manufacture, and 
tho fragments of damaged pottery supplied a 
whole museum of the kindsof ware and patterns 
of vessels manufactured there. Again, the 
discovery of a thirteenth century brickkiln at 
Coggeshall, Essex, with broken specimens of the 
manufactures scattered over the ground, proved 
that the plain and moulded bricks used in the 
Transition-Norman and Early English work of 
tho ancient abbey theie were really manufac- 
tured on the spot, a point of some interest, 
since they are the earliest moulded mediaeval 
bricks yet noticed in England. And now wo 
have the interesting discovery in the grounds of 
Repton Priory, Derbyshire, of a kiln for the 
manufacture of encaustic tiles, with specimens 
of the tiles remaining plentifully on tho spot. 
The following is tho account of the discovery 
as communicated to the Pall Mall Gazette: — 
The boys of the school have been for some time 
engaged in levelling a part of the enclosure 
known as the Upper Paddock, with a view to 
form a new ciicket-grouud. In the courso of 
this work they uncovered a considerable number 
of encaustic tiles, some of which were laid in 
rows, others mixed with the soil. The spot 
where they were found is about a hundred yards 
south of the remains of the old Priory church. 
As the work went on the tiles and fragments of 
tiles became more abundant, and mingled 
with these a mass of the purest and strongest 
clay was found. As this bed of clay was gra- 
dually cleared away brickwork was disclosed, 
and, by means of much judicious and patient 
labour, a very curious structure was laid open. 
This consists of two small chambers side by 
side, about 5ft. long and 2ft. in width, and 
nearly the same in depth. One end of these 
chambers is open ; the other end and the two 
outer sides are formed of strong stonework, 
backed by gravel, and lined with tiles in hori- 
zontal titrs. The wall between the chambers 
is formed of a single tier of tiles. Each com- 
partment is arched over by six separate arches 
of tiles, evidently niouldefl for tho purpose of 
fire-clay, and laid with great care and precision. 
The spaces between tho arches are about equal 
in width to the arches themselves, that is, 5in. 
Of the twelve arches five only remain, the others 
having been broken down by tho mass of clay, 
mingled with broken tiles, which had apparently 
been sliovelkd in when the work tor which 
these chambers were designed had been com- 
pleted. The floor is of plain blue tile. There 
is no doubt that this structure was used by tho 
monks in the inanniacture of encaustic tiles 
for the priory church, though it is difficult to 
say precisely how. 'J'he tiles which have been 
found are, almost without e.xoeption, either 
damaged or imperfectly executed — in fact, the 
refuse of the manufactory, but enough remains 
to show a surprising fertility of design and skill 
in execution. At least twenty different patterns 
have been made out, and some members of the 
sixth form of the scliool have displayed great 
patience and judgment in putting them together 
and making drawings of them. Two noble speci- 
mens of 16-tile patterns have been made out, 
besides a variety of smaller designs. They are, 
for the most part, of the fourteenth century, 
though one or two rich instances of Early 
fjinglish work have also been discovered. It is 
intended to preserve them by fixing them in 
proper order and combinations to tho wall of tho 
great school-room." 



64 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 25, 1867. 



THE USE OF STEEL FOR BRIDGES AND 
SHIPS. 

THE Board of Trade have issued circulars and 
have obtained several replies as to the pro- 
bable effect of the use of steel in the construction 
of bridges and ships. The repUes generally are 
favourable to its use, but it is not recommended 
that the weight of steel employed should be so 
much reduced as would be due to the proportion 
in which its tensile strength exceeds that of iron. 
It is also recommended that further experiments 
should be made. A certain thickness is no doubt 
felt to be required to provide for wear and the ac- 
tion of the weather, over that which might be 
theoretically necessary to withstand the strains to 
which the structures may be subjected. The 
Board of Trade have laid it down as a rule that 
the material of a structure, whether this material 
he of iron or steel, shall not be subjected to a 
greater strain than five tons per square inch. As 
it is well known, says the Scientijic Reviev), that 
steel will bear a much greater tensile strain than 
iron, this rule of the Board of Trade operates as a 
great restriction on the use of steel in bridges, &c. 
The experiments which we at present possess on 
the strength of steel are neither sufficiently 
numerous nor authoritative to fix definitely the 
number of tons per square inch which will express 
as a rule the strains to which steel may safely he 
subjected. It is therefore very desirable that 
trustworthy experiments on this subject should be 
made, and continued from time to time as im- 
provements are made in the manufacture of steel. 
Above all, uniformity in tensile strength should, it 
practicable, or, at least, as far as may be practic- 
able, be rigidly euforced on manufacturers. It 
would be a great boon not only to the engineering 
profession, bat to the public generally, were if 
possible to ascertain definitely the tensile strength 
of a specimen of iron or steel with the same 
facility as the density may be ascertained, and 
without the expensive and laborious, and, afterall, 
uncertain, operation of the proving machine. AVe 
hope it will not be long before the progress of 
science will enable us to attain to this result. 



ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH, TUFNELL 
PARK. 

LAST week we gave a perspective drawing 
of the exterior of this handsome and unique 
church recently erected at Tufnell Park, Hollo- 
way, from the designs of Mr. George Truefitt. 
We now give section and plan of the same church. 
The architect having a rather odd bit of ground 
to deal with has, it must be admitted, turned it 
to good account in an original way. 



fast as houses can be raised. The only church is 
situated at the extreme end of the town, farthest 
removed from the quarter where the greatest in- 
flux has taken place, and where, within the last 
six years, a new district has risen of not less than 
8,000 inhabitants, all fishermen and dock labourers, 
so that a new church is most urgently required. 
The district of Parkgate has sprung into existence 
witliin the last few years in connection with the 
Parkgate Ironworks. At present there is a popu- 
lation of 3,000, and it is veiy rapidly increasing. 
The people are nearly all poor ; only eight houses 
are rated at £20, the rest are below £7. The pro- 
prietors of the works refuse to contribute any- 
thing towards this object. A convenient site has 
been given. There are thirty-six churches in the 
parish of Leeds, but this gives no idea of the need. 
The nearest church to the district of Sheepscarhas 
sittings for less than 200, the population being 
5,000. Theparish of Llanbrynmairis nine miles by 
four and a half in extent. The proposed church is in- 
tended for the accommodation of 700 of the in- 
habitants at one end of the parish, the nearest of 
whom are two miles, and the m.ajority four miles, 
distant from any parochial church or chapel. The 
above extracts are taken from the details of some 
of the many urgent cases submitted for aid, but 
the society was not able to assist them so effectually 
as they would have done, and as the cases de- 
served, from lack of funds. 



BUILDING AND REPAIRING OP 
CHURCHES AND CHAPELS. 

THE Incorporated Society for Promoting the 
Enlargement, Building, and Repairing of 
Churches and Chapels held its third meeting for 
the present session on Monday, at the Society- 
house, No. 7, Whitehall, S.W., the Rev. Canon 
Nepean in the chair. There were also present the 
Revs. A. Borradaile and Robert Tritton ; Messrs. 
John Boodle, J. F. France, Arthur Powell, and 
William Rivington ; and Rev. George Ainslie, 
M.A., secretary. Grants of money amounting to 
£1,090 were made in aid of the following objects : 
■ — Building new churches at Byker (St. Anthony), 
near Newcastle ; Curbar, in the parisli of Baslow, 
near Chesterfield ; East Marsh, in the parish of 
Great Grimsby ; Parkgate, in the parishes of Raw- 
marsh and Gresborough, near Rotherham ; Rams, 
dell, in the parish of Wootton, near Basingstoke 
Sheepscar, in the parish of Leeds and Trefol-; 
wern, in the parish of Llanbrynmair, Merioneth ; 
rebuilding the church at Cantriff, near Brecon ; 
enlarging or otherwise increasing the churches 
at Aldbourne, near Hungerford ; Canton, near 
Cardiff, and Coychurch, near Bridgend, Glamorgan. 
All the additional sittings (4,175 in number) pro- 
vided in the above cases, except 33, are free and 
unappropriated. The society also accepted the 
trust of a sum of money as a repair fund for St. 
Matthias Church, Poplar. Twenty years ago the 
number of the inhabitants of Great Grimsby was 
about 4,000. By the census of 1851 it had 
reached 8,800 ; in 1861, it had further increased to 
11,067 ; and at present it may be computed at not 
less than 17,000, and this number is increasing as I 



THE DUKE OF CORNWALL HOTEL, 
PLYMOUTH. 

THE building of which we give an illustration 
to-day, and of which we have spoken in 
Voh XII., page '574 — viz., the Duke of Cornwall 
Hotel, Plymouth — has given rise to a great deal of 
wise and unwise criticism, and is in itself so re- 
markable amongst the numerous buildings of its 
class lately erected that we think it worth while 
to again call attention to it. And here we may 
mention that already it has become the occasional 
resort of royalty, having received visits from the 
brother of the Emperor of Russia and our own 
Duke of Edinburgh, within the short time it has 
been opened. This fact shows its capacity for 
the extensive accommodation required by such 
personages. 

The position of the building is a point which 
has ruled the architectural design considerably, 
and when we look to the plan we see how the diffi- 
culties have been met and made subservient to the 
requirements of the building. But we cannot see 
all the difficulties, for the section would show that 
the ground rises so very considerably on the 
Citadel-road elevation that the mezzanine floor 
level in front becomes almost on the ground level 
at a very short distance back. In addition to this 
the whole of the basement and a considerable de^jth 
of the ground floor has been excavated from 
the solid limestone rock, which has been partially 
used in the construction of the building. The 
railway station is immediately iu front, the docks 
and landintr places, and the Hoe (or Port of Ply- 
mouth), are close at hand, and the views towards 
Mount Edgecumbe, the breakwater, and the rest of 
the grand sea prospect, as well .as the wild moor- 
land scenery of Dartmoor and the Tors of Cornwall, 
are uninterrupted from the first and upper floors. 
Turning to the interior of the building we find the 
accommodation to be of an extent and character 
quite worthy of the commanding position we have 
just described. To commence with the ground 
floor. Passing through a somewhat remarkable 
glazed porch or portico (published in our number 
for March 2, 1865) and up a broad flight of granite 
steps, we pass the vestibule, and immediately front 
the bar and office, behind which are the manager's 
rooms, communicating directly with the basement 
kitchens, and cellarage. The corridors right and 
left, as well as the entrance and inner halls, are 
paved with Maw's tiles, and the grand staircase 
leading up from these is of Portland stone, sup- 
ported on wrought iron strings at the outer edges 
of the steps. On the right is the coffee-room, size 
about 65ft. by 25ft., and about 20ft. high, occu- 
pying the cu'cular corner with smaller reading 
rooms, &c., at each end, and a special service of 
lifts, Ac, adjoining. Above this is the ladies' 
cofl'ee-room, a circular apartment, with some of 
the best sitting and bedrooms of the first floor en 



suite therewith. On the left of the entrance is the 
dining-room, measuring about 42ft. by 22ft., and 
the same height as the coffee-room. The mez- 
zanine floor is omitted over these to obtain proper 
and proportionate height. 

On the first floor are, as has been stated, the best 
sitting-rooms, some 20ft. by 16ft. {en suite with bed 
anddressing rooms, with perforated wood cornices), 
as also the ladies' coffee room, in all lespeclis 
worthy of its fellow on the ground floor. On the 
second floor are twenty-seven sitting and bed- 
rooms, some with dressing-rooms, and with a height 
of 12ft ; on the third floor about twenty-eight 
rooms, with a height of 9ft. ; and on the fourth 
floor twenty-five rooms of the same size as those 
beneath. From the fourth floor ascends the tower 
staircase, leading to the fifth and sixth floors (these 
in the tower only), each containing several good 
bedrooms. From the octagon room or lantern, ap- 
proached by a sjjiral staircase, the whole town and 
neighbourhood of Plymouth lays spread out, as in 
a picture, before the beholder. Luggage and other 
lifts afford ample means for the expeditious trans- 
port of visitors' effects from the bottom to the 
top of the building, while one of the now-so-gene- 
rally-used travelling-rooms (space for which is pro- 
vided) is intended one day to effect a similar 
transfer of his person. Hot and cold baths are 
fixed on every floor. The exterior is constructed o£ 
the local materials — granite and limestone — as well 
as terracotta (manufactured by Blashfield), and some 
brickwork for chimneystacks, &c. The combination 
of these materials ofiered difficulties as well as 
afforded opportunities to the architect, who pro- 
duced some really valuable pieces of architectural 
work, as will be seen in the details in the margin 
of our view. Some of the cornice and balcony 
blocks are amongst the largest ever made 
in the material, and the columns and caps 
among the hardest and most delicate. 
These, set io^ the severe granite frames of the 4ft. 
thick walls, show the contrast desired by the 
architect to be obtained between the massivenesa 
of the supporting construction and the delicacy 
of the filling in of the ojienings. One peculiar 
feature is the way in which the chimneystacks 
are worked in with the upper floor — which is con- 
structed out of the roof itself — boldly assisting 
the construction, as well as contributing to the 
skyline and general effect. The necessity of a 
regiment of chimneys is evident iu such a build- 
ing, and the architect was right in not endeavour- 
ing to conceal this necessity, but to let it exhibit 
itself, and form a special feature in the work. 

The building, which was commenced iu July 
1863, and finished in July, 1865, was erected by 
Messrs. Call and Pettick, of Plymouth, from the 
designs and under the superintendence of Charles 
Forster Hayward, Esq., F.S.A., and honorary 
secretary of the Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects, at a total cost, exclusive of the site, of about 
£25,000. 

We particularly desire to correct an error in 
our mention of this building (page 575 of last 
year's volume), where the cost is stated at 
£140,000, which, even if furniture and the cost 
of site, &c., be added to the above, is nearly 
£100 000 wTong; and we think our correspondent 
of that date might have informed himself more 
correctly before making the statement. 

The building, on the whole, is one of the 
cheapest, as well as one of the finest and most 
remarkable, in the West of England. 



The tarifl ot the prices of admission to the 
Paris Exhibition has now been published. 
There are to be three separate enclosures — 
the park, containing the Exhibition building 
itself ; the Horticultural Gardens ; and the 
Billancourt enclosure, which is especially devoted 
to agricultural matters. The prices for the first 
week are exceptional — 20f. for the opening day 
and 5f. for the rest. From the 8th of April the 
charge for admission to the park will be If., that 
to the garden If. 50c. The enclosure Billancourt 
will have a special tariff asyet undetermined. The 
price of a season ticket will be lOOf. for a gentle- 
man and 60f. for a lady. In order to avoid the 
trouble and delay of the signatures which were 
formerly required on entering, the holders may 
send two of their photographed portraits, one to be 
affixed to the ticket of admission, the other to re- 
main in the hands of the administration. There 
will also be issued cards of admission for a week 
subject to the same conditions, and conferring 
for the time the same privileges as the season- 
tickets.— rtiit Mall Gazette. 



Th« Building News Jiii'25''' 186 7 



}S!l5FDijgF'i^(I!jur|rl]:^u|nF(l-]}aijk: 



M" G.TRUEFITT, ARCH"^. 




AA PosiUon of ',Ke Temporary wooden 
Church which has lo remain uplilllne 
Perniflneni one is finishe.o . 



BLOCK PLAN OF GROUND 






^WiuCe«naii&iBa,9S Lidio^raphers, 236, Holborn 



FDes Partes, lich 



I 



January 25, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



69 



KING FROST. 

KING FROST is a bit of a tyrant. Wlien 
the mood is on him lie reigns almost 
supreme ; and he is particularly an enemy to 
the strength and durability of building ma- 
terials. He peels olf the face of good stone, 
and sometimes snaps it in two, as mentioned 
by a correspondent in our Intercommunication 
department of to-day. He plays havoc with 
mortar, unless it is of the very best description ; 
he penetrates the very interstices of iron and 
steel, causing them to fracture at less than half 
their ordinary breaking strain; he bursts leaden 
pipes, causing no end of domestic discomfort ; 
and he even disarranges and weakens the 
structural properties of glass. A case in point 
occurred on Sunday evenin" last at the C'lap- 
ham-road Station. A gentleman on alighting 
from his carriage suddenly disappeared as 
through a trap-door, in conset|uence of step- 
ping upon a flooring of glass about a yard 
square which covered a shaft, and was precipi- 
tated about seventeen feet. The glass, though 
very thick, had been made brittle by the frost. 
The gentleman, as may be imagined, suffered 
considerable injury, being very much cut. 
The question, we suppose, now arises, who is 
liable for the damage. King Frost cannot be 
arrested and arraigned. AVe suppose that the 
railway company, which is invested with al- 
most sovereign power, and is consequently 
held by jui-ors rigidlj' responsible for the right 
exercise of that power, will, as usual, have to 
pay the piper. That is a question, however, 
beyond uur province. We only took pen in 
hand to record some of the passing antics of 
King Frost, and to caution builders as to the 
strength of glass when the ornamental waters 
of the metropoUs are covered by skaters. 



mi 



CLEAR THE WAY. 

^HE public thoroughfares of this great and 
I overgrown metropolis are defective and 
inconvenient in many respects, but they have 
one or two defects that are more felt than the 
others. Speaking generally, they are badly 
named and numbered, the majority are vastly 
too narrow and intricate for the requirements 
of the traffic, while not a few of them are 
effectually closed against all traffic whatever 
by private turnpikes. In commenting recently 
upon the stupid system, or rather want of sys- 
tem, adopted in the naming of the streets of 
the metropolis, we quoted some curious results 
obtained from a glance at the London 
Directory. It was shown that not only are 
there scores of streets bearing the same name, 
but there are certain names — the list, in fact, 
is a long one — that are repeated as street de- 
signations scores of times. For example, there 
are as many as sixty streets within the metro- 
polis answering to the name of York-street 
And this number does not include terraces, 
crescents, places, roads, &c., bearing this once 
popular title of royalty, but only the streets 
so called. It was also shown that what is reall}' 
one street, a straight line of thoroughfare, is 
frequently divided and subdivided into three 
or four " streets " having diiferent names and 
different sets of numbers. The result of all 
this is a great deal of confusion, mistake, and 
unnecessary labour and trouble. But this, 
after all, is perhaps the least of the incon- 
veniences to which we have alluded. The re- 
numbering and renaming of our streets is a 
much more easy matter than their enlargement. 
It is here where the shoe really pinches. We are 
all alive to the fact that the great majority of the 
London thoroughfares — within the area of the 
city itself there are very few exceptions- 
are miserably inadequate to accommodate the 
general traffic. There are upwards of 900 
streets in the city alone. Of these only, 194 
have sufficient width for one line of vehicles, 
and 174 in addition are without thorough- 
fares. There are only SO which admit of two 
lines of vehicles, and 6S which admit of three 
or more. Thus, it will be seen that upwards 
of two-thirds of the city streets are incapable 



of carrying any considerable stream of traflic 
at all. " We have been grumbling for years at 
this state of things, without being able to help 
ourselves. As regards the city there is no 
doubt that the almost priceless value of land 
there is the great obstacle in the way of any 
sweeping improvements in this direction. But 
there are other parts of the metropolis where 
the difficulty does not press to anything like 
the same extent, and in these localities much 
might be done that remains undone. But 
great as is the obstacle that presents itself, it is 
not insurmountable ; at least, it ought not so to 
be. If wealthy railway companies can obtain 
power to cut up London in any and every di- 
rection they have a mind to, what should hin- 
der a great and wealthy municipal corporation 
from effecting improvements manifestly for the 
public good. A railway company has recently 
pulled down miles of dwelling-houses in 
the very heart of the metropolis in order 
to carry out a new line of railway, and yet the 
city authorities either can't, or won't, remove 
a single block of buildings, the existence of 
which in the middle of one of its leading 
arteries causes the most serious obstruction to 
the general traffic of the metropolis. How 
long, for instance, are we going to tolerate 
Middle-row, Hol'oorn ! It has been doomed 
for years, but Mr. Bumble is awfully slow to 
move in the right direction. The clearing 
away of this block woidd be so very great an 
improvement to this locality, so enormous a 
relief to the tremendous veliicular traffic of 
Holborn and Gray's Inn-lane, that it is more 
than surprising that it should be allowed to re- 
main 5'ear after year. In the city-, as every- 
body knows, matters are about as bad as they 
well can be. Look, again, at the condition of 
Chancery-lane and Fetter-lane. The traffichere 
is nearly always in a dead lock, and it requires 
the constant presence of a couple of policemen 
to keep these thoroughfares something like 
passable. Considering their situation these 
streets ought to be at least 20ft. wider than 
they are. If we cannot widen the Poultry, 
or a dozen other streets in the city, we might, 
at all events, pidl down such obstructions as 
the Middle-row, and the block of buildhigs 
forming Boziers-court, Tottenham Court-road. 
The removal of this latter would be a real 
improvement to this important neighbourhood, 
which is one of the great omnibus termini of 
the metropolis. At present an excellent op- 
portunity offers of abolishing this block. 
Half of it has had to come down in consequence 
of a recent fire, leaving, we think, two houses 
standing. Of course, so soon as the weather 
will permit, this obstruction will be rebuilt, 
and so the opportunity for improvement will 
be lost. When things come to the worst they 
mend, they say. Let us hope that the proverb 
will apply in the case of the streets of London. 
In the meantime we wdsh success to the en- 
deavours of certain members of the Metro- 
politan Board of Works who desire to see the 
private turnpikes abolished throughout the 
metropolis. At a recent meeting of the Board, 
Mr. Sliaw moved, pursuant to notice, " That 
a petition be presented by the Board to Par- 
liament to repeal any authority given to pri 
vate individuals to erect gates or barriers 
across streets or thoroughfares, so as to 
obstruct the traffic therein, in cases where the 
maintenance of such streets or thorough- 
fares is paid for out of the puljlic rates." 
He said that, " as Parliament had called upon 
the different vestries to make a return of all 
gates and barriers in the streets of their re- 
spective parishes, and to state the circum- 
stances mider which they were erected, and at 
the same time to intimate any attempts made 
by the parish for their removal, it ap- 
peared to him to be a good opportunity 
for the Board to petition Parliament to get rid 
of these considerable obstructions to traffic 
altogether." We think so too. We have no 
desire to interfere unnecessarily with " vested 
interest^,"' but these bars are very numerous, 
and tend greatly to increase the obstruction 
complained of, and as a necessary conse- 
quence, they increase street accidents. As 



was justly remarked, these turnpikes are a 
public nuisance. They benefit only a few- 
owners of property, who do not contrilnite to 
the tax for metropolitan improvements, who 
pay nothing towards the expense of lighting, 
cleansing, or repairing the streets, the main- 
tenance of which falls upon the ratepayers, 
who are not permitted to have the use of them. 
It was complained at the meeting that oii the 
Bedford estate the bars and gates on tin; soiith 
side of Euston-road ju'event a direct tho- 
roughfare from Camden and Kentish Towns, 
Hainpstead and Highgate, to New Oxford- 
street, obliging vehicles to turn off, .and pro- 
ceed a long distance for those destinations out 
of the direct load. In the Euston-road — 
the termini of three metropolitan railways — 
we are told a continual obstruction by these 
barriers is the cause of many accidents and 
great loss of life. We might mention other 
localities where the nuisance is scarcely less 
felt. Mr. Shaw's motion was very warmly 
supported, and the f(jllowing resolution was 
adopted unanimously by the Board : — " Tliat 
it be referred to the Works and General Pur- 
poses Committee to take into theirconsidcration 
the existence in the streets of the metropolis of 
many barriers, gates, and private tolls, to the 
obstruction of the general traffic, with power 
to take counsel's opinion thereon, and to 
report their recommendation to the Board. 
If the Board carries its point — as we hope it 
may — it will earn the thanks of the entire 
community. 



I 



ARCHITECTURAL PROSPECTS. 

N all quarters, and among men of every 

shade of opinion, there is now stronger 

than ever a desire for a new style of architec- 
ture. A good deal of ingenuit}" and clever- 
ness has been brought to bear theoretically upon 
the subject ; but hitherto, except to some ex- 
tent in one direction, little practical progress 
has been made. That this desire should grow 
upon us in these days of uninstructed copy ism 
is not to be wondered at. When we consider 
the enormous outlay that architecture has cost 
the nation during the last fifty years, the 
thoughtful man cannot fail to have great mis- 
givings as to our getting any considerable ad- 
vantage from the art as piu'sued generally in 
this day. There is far too much copying, and, 
worse still, far too little real knowledge of 
true art. In numberless cases, buildings are 
encumbered with a mass of unmeaning, inar- 
tistic, and badly-executed ornament in place 
of intelUgently beautified construction. Pro- 
fusion usurps the place of taste, and vulgar 
expense that of modest, thought-bred beauty. 
Many seem to think a veil of ornament, how- 
ever coarse and tasteless, makes up for poverty 
and mediocrity of design. Our readers must 
have noticed this exhibition of mediocrity and 
vulgarity in the works of several of the city 
architects. Some of the buUdiiigs literally 
covered with foliage and other sculpture are 
among the worst buildings of our day. Of aU 
ornament, perhaps the use of granite and 
marble columns has been most abused. In one 
biulding in London at least, the sturdy granite 
cohunns and the puny pilasters of the same 
material have been so arranged as to give the 
appearance of the whole ornamental part 
being sometliing stuck on to the real building, — 
as if, in fact, a few good crowbars judiciously 
inserted might fetch it all down without affect- 
ing the stability of the edifice. The use of 
granite to support, perhaps, a badly-executed 
bit of stone rope can surely be nothing else 
than a ridiculous misapplication of an excellent 
material. It seems that some imagine 
that the beauty of the material will excuse 
the greatest absurdity of treatment. Granite, 
above all other stone, should surely not be 
used without some apparent constructional 
reason. At any rate, it must be a grievous 
mistake when the use of so strong a substance 
does not apparently assist the stability of a 
building. In certain instances it seems 
scarcely able to support itself. 

There is another vice which cannot be too 



70 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 25, 1867. 



strongly reproljated, wliicli disgusts the art- 
lover, troiii which, also, we cannot escape go 
where we will — it has become so common and 
is so widely supposed to supply the place ol 
art. We allude to the lozenge and notch 
dodge — for a dodge it is, and nothing else. It 
is sickening to see the notching and boring 
that some people mistake for invention, and, 
what is pretty nearly as bad, the fantastic 
bevelling that is made to supply the place of 
good moulding and carving. It is just such 
stuff as to to take possession of the fancy of a 
man \vithout power or originality. Any 
young lady who took to architecture instead 
of crochet or cross-stitch could invent such 
things by the hour together. A spot here and 
a notch there, and a sweet bit of shallow in- 
cising up a-toj), all together form a charming 
design, tolerated by the multitude as long as 
it is fashionable, but as certain to be laughed 
at or hated as soon as the fanc}' has departed. 
The great desirabileness, if not necessity, for a 
new style is ui'ged by such considerations 
as these ; but then conies the question. How 
is it to be gained I Mr. Griffith suggests a 
geometrical system founded upon natiu'e. Of 
the value of observing proportion carefull}' 
and studying nature as iutimately as possible 
we can have no doubt. Nor can we shut our 
eyes to the fact that few of the present day 
have done either ; but we must see l)y 
practical experience how his system would 
work before giving an opinion upon its prac- 
ticability. Professor Fergusson seems to ex- 
pect wonders from the study of the construc- 
tional principles of Indian architecture. Of 
this we feel very doulitful — the climate, the 
purposes for which buildings are required, the 
■ tastes and habits of the people, are so. en- 
tirely difl'erent in the two cases. That a cle- 
ver man may get some valuable liints, espe- 
cially in the matter of design, from this 
interesting architecture there is little doubt ; 
but any adaptation of the architecture to our 
varied wants, as a style, is more than ques- 
tionable. What are we to do then ? A lead- 
ing article in one of the daily papers gives a 
very gloomy view of oiu' prospects. The age 
is not one of art. Aj^ropos of the New 
National Gallery, it says: — "The thing we 
possess and have been obliged to call our 
National (iallery is really too contemptible 
for criticism." And our hopes for the future 
are not much better. We can't get a Vatican, 
and it is hopeless " to expect a parallel of the 
Louvre in Trafalgar-square, but it may be 
confidently maintained that the principles of 
elevation and arrangement perceptible in the 
Louvre are those which should govern the 
plan for any new National Gallery." But alas ! 
aU that the Standard anticipates, however 
humiliating the admis.sion may be, is that we 
■shall get " a pistaccio of pillars and posts, 
dead walls, ill-placed windows, meaningless 
decollation, and inconvenient rooms." The 
writer, however, is rather foggy on the sub- 
ject, for, says he, after all, there are some 
grounds for disbelieving his own prediction, 
" inasmuch as London has lately put on a 
decidedly better appearance, and we are try 
ing, at all events, to be architectural with our 
railway termini, hotels, bazaars, arcades, mu- 
seums (why not musea, if we have ter- 
mini ? ), and exhibitions," with all our build- 
ings, in fact, of the slightest consequence. 
Still, notwithstanding all tliis, if there is any 
sense in the article at all, there is actually a 
danger of any new design " being spoilt by the 
effacing of the original design, however bad 
that may have been," which in the present in- 
stance has been pronounced by the writer 
himself to be too contemptible for criticism. 
But perhaps we do not see the meaning of the 
writer. His words are these : — " What the 
nation wants is a picture gallery ; and as 
a mistake in stone or brick is not easily recti- 
fied and usually spoilt ( ? what) by tlie effacing 
of the original design, however bad that may 
have been, we should hesitate most conscien- 
tiously before adopting a plan or giving up a 
site to the caprices of an ingenious architect." 
If we have mistaken the meaning we are 



sorry for our denseness, but really such mas- 
terly language is a little difficult of certain 
interpretation. AA'e wish we could quite un- 
derstand the writer of the article in (question, 
for he has discovered the real source of the 
evil, Init unkindly hides his great discovery 
under a heap of words worthy of any of the 
Sibyls. " We mistake the proper nature 
of architecture for the real nature of the 
world, and as long as we do that we shall 
never have a National Gallery " worthy of 
being compared with the works of our fore- 
fathers. If the writer had gone to see the de- 
signs for tlie new National Gallery he might 
have knoflii that, unsatisfactory as they are as 
a whole, still our prospects were not so bad as 
all this. There are four or five of the designs 
which, though falling far below what we 
ought to exjx'ut i'rom the architects of the 
day, would be infinitely superior in every 
way to the present aljominable building. The 
art criticism of the Stcmdard is certainly not 
of a higher order than the art of the day, 
which is little likely to gain any advantage or 
enlightenment from such writing as this. 

There is, however, no doubt that a study of 
'ihese National Gallery designs only bears out 
what we have said in the beginning of this ar- 
ticle. There is a lack of progress in most of 
them, though many are very scholarly, 
which bodes ill for the future. To expect, 
however, any new style to spring up sponta- 
neously, Jlincrva-like, from the head of any 
single creator, is agaiust all history. Such a 
thing has hitherto never happened, and in all 
humanprobability never will. In all previous 
times and countries development has been 
the rule ; one style of art has gradually passed 
into another, and no doubt this will l)e so 
again. But before we can run we must learn 
to crawl. Architecture has till quite lately 
been so much a question of mere copying with- 
out auy idea that art training was at all neces- 
sary or even desh-able, that no wonder so little 
advance has been made. This, however, we 
may say for certain, that what advance has been 
achieved is due to a consistent and steady per- 
severance in one particidar style. There was 
a saying when we were schoolboys that no- 
body could write good Latin prose or verse till 
he could think in Latin, and such mastery of 
an old style seems necessary before we can 
hope to develope from it something new. If 
any new style is to rise it seems of the nature 
of things that it should be by development. 
Possibly more than one new style may in the 
course of years be imperceptibly developed, 
according as the Mediicval or Classical styles 
are so learned as to become living art in the 
hands of a true artist. Then comes the diffi- 
cult question, of which style we shall begin 
with. A correspondent some time back advo- 
cated the Greek as most perfect, and asserted 
that a wholesome development from it had 
already begun in Scotlaml. This we doubt. 
When the Grecian stj'le of architectuie is 
allowed to be one of the most perfect, if not 
the most perfect, that the world has seen, 
it does not by any means follow that it 
would be perfect or in fact good in any way 
for a different age, climate, or people. 

What care I how fair .she be. 
If she is uot fair to me ? 

The fact of an arcliitecture being admirably 
suited to such a cormtry as Greece with its 
lovely wild scener\-, clear skies, and matchless 
materials would preclude it from such a land 
as England, which is the opposite of all this. 
If there was any analogy between the two 
conditions it would seem to be in the purpose 
to wdiich Greek architecture, as far as we know 
it, was tlevoted. What was the ordinarj'-life 
architecture of the Greeks we can scarcely 
guess ; absolutely no remains of such exist, 
though it is true we liave a few hints scattered 
about the classic authors. It is only in its 
religious phase that we really know anything 
about it, and this is the very phase of it that 
has almost unanimously by common consent 
been agreed to be unfitted for our present 
wants. Our opponent, whom we cannot com- 
pliment either upon the clearness or fairness 



of his argument.s, talks about preferring to exe- 
cute work in the most perfect style to design- 
ing in that of the middle ages, just as if it was 
the easiest thing in the world to rival Greece 
in its best period, though none of the condi- 
tions which produced their glorious art exist, 
or can exist, at the present day. You might 
jusf as well, in the same ott'-liand way, re- 
commend the production of a play like .3is- 
chylus' or Aristophanes' as anything ap- 
proaching the architecture of Athens. One 
point alone, proljably among the least difficult 
of ancient problems, the sculpture of the 
human frame, in the perfection it reached 
in the glorious Pericleau era, has hitherto 
baiffed the Ijest among us, though they have 
given their life to the study and their ex- 
tremest labour to the work. Beautiful as Gib- 
son and Storey have lieen in much they have 
done, their happiest efforts have never touched 
the best Greek works. There can scarcely be 
a doubt that the most probable source from, 
which a wholesome and useful development 
may lie looked for is the European architec- 
ture of the earlier part of the middle ages. 
Its scope is so much wider, its remains are so 
widely scattered and so uiimerou«, as to be 
open to the study of all. The buildings of 
these ages also are of so many kinds. Wfr 
have cathedrals, churches, halls, palaces, and. 
even country houses and cottages. This fact 
alone is of the utmost value to aid a thorough, 
study of the art — to enable some great artist 
or school of artists working in unison so far 
to make it their own as to be aljle to make it 
grow. When such a mastery over the style 
has been gained, so far from the objection. 
sometimes urged against Mediaeval art, viz., 
that it is incompatible with the highest de- 
scription of sculpture and painting, being 
true, it is probable that the new style, if such 
happily be developed, will be owing to our 
greater knowledge and practical facility. It 
is to the practice of fine art in stone, metal, 
and colour by true artists that we are to look 
for improvement and advance. This we feel 
certam wiU be the case, whether a new style 
be wrought out of the Classical or Medireval 



mi 



SOCIETY OF ENGINEERS. 

ADDEESS BT THE PRESLDEST. 

HE first meeting for the year of the above 
J., society took place on Monday evening in the 
lower room, Exeter Hall. The chair was taken 
by Mr. Zerali Colburn, the retiring president, who 
introduced Mr. W. H. Le Feuvre, the president 
for the present year. After the reading of the 
minutes of the previous meeting, and other pre- 
hminary business, Mr. Lewis Olrick moved, and 
Mr. Brim seconded, a vote of thanks to the retir- 
ing president and council, after which the new 
president proceeded to read his inaugural ad Jress. 
Mr. Le Feuvre, in the course of a very lengthy 
and able address, congratulated the Society of 
Engineers on the progi-ess it had made during the 
twelve years it had been in existence. Turning 
thence to the matters in which the society Lad 
a vital interest, he noticed the recent collapse in 
the commercial world, which had so seriously 
retarded all railway and other engineering works. 
Another and a more recently discovered enemy 
with which the British engineer had to contend 
was, however, the cheap work of our Belgian rivals. 
The race of competition was now, in fact, in favour 
of Belgium ; so much so, that although in the case 
of the late Amsterdam Exhibition English work 
was used in the commencement, before the work 
was completed it was found that what was re- 
quired could he procured much cheaper from 
Belgium. In the case of the New Pimhco Wheel 
Works, his (Mr. Le Feuvre's) firm, had to give 
way to Belgian contractors ; and for lu^Ua work 
was actually shipped from Belgium to London, 
and thence transhipped to Bombay, at a less cost 
than it could have been purchased at from British 
manufacturers. In short, the inroads of foreign 
competition had at length reached to such an 
extent that one of our leading railway companies 
had invited a Fi'ench firm to compete with our 
manufacturers for the supply and erection of the 
ironwork of their terminal station in London. 
Glancing at the much discussed prospective 
scarcity of coal, the President expressed hi^ hope 



January 25, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



71 



I 



that a substitute might be found to some extent 
in petroleum, with which experiments were at 
present being made under the auspices of Govern- 
ment. A singular result had recently been ob- 
tained by the introduction of a jet of steam into 
the llame of petroleum. The flame, which had 
hitherto been dull and red, now became white 
and clear, its volume was five-fold increased, and 
so complete was the combustion that the soot 
which was created vinder the ordinary mode of 
ignition almost wholly di-sappeared. Compressed 
peat hatl been successfully used for smelting pur- 
poses, and therefore he trusted that long before 
our coal had become exhausted various substitutes 
would have been found. With respect to colliery 
accidents, he thought that their danger might be 
nmch repressed by lighting the mines with gas, 
arranged in large chambers divided into compart- 
ments, and also by increasing the number of shafts. 
Turning to our shipping, he noticed the great 
stride we had made when we substituted iron for 
wood in the construction of ships, and there was 
every prospect of quite as great a further improve- 
luent by the substitution of steel for iron. The gas 
and water supplies came nest under review, the 
lecturer stating that there was a waste of 100,000 
t'-ns of coals in London alone in consequence of 
the leakage of gas. Coming to the enormous 
loises which we continue to sufler from the 
i-avages of fire, Mr. Le Feuvre said that we could 
not but come to the conclusion that up to the 
present moment we have only arrived at very in- 
adequate means to cope with this destructive ele- 
laent. The loss of life and property by fire seems 
r.ither to augment than diminish. Without 
I'et'erence to the deplorable loss of life occasioned by 
coIUery explosions, almost a thousand lives are 
ye,arly sacrificed by fires of ordinary occurrence, 
and the annual loss of property is considered, 
upon an average, to exceed £2,000,000 sterling. 
These are facts grave enough to demand our most 
urgent attention. It is demonstrated beyond all 
doubt that, after a fire has reached a certain stage, 
the application of water tends to spread instead of 
limiting its ravages. It is eWdent that this must 
be the case in conflagrations arising from inflam- 
mable oils, and substances resembling them in 
property. One of the greatest disadvantages 
attending the use of water for the extinction of 
fire consists in the impossibility of directing it to 
the seat from whence the principal danger o 
extension proceeds. The flames in most case 
decompose or convert the water into steam befor 
it can reach the body of material in combustion 
and consequently it can only be advantageous in' 
protecting to some extent surrounding property 
by copious saturation. This is, in some cases, as 
destructive as fire itself. What we require before 
any advantage can follow the application of water 
to the extinction of fire, is the suppression of the 
flames, so that water might be afterwards directed 
upon the red-hot embers with successful results. 
The quick dissemination of flame is the only 
dangerous element to contend against in outbreaks 
of fire, as it involves every combustible body 
within its reach. Some years ago a means of 
annihilating fire was introduced into this country 
in the form of a machine known after the inven- 
tor's name. Some such system as that embodied 
in Phillip's fire annihilator would seem to be 
the only way of placing in our hands an agent 
enabling us to eflectually arrest the progress of 
flame upon its immediate outbreak. The principle 
of the fire annihilator was to exclude the access of 
the atmosphere, supporting and aiding combustion 
by the sudden generation of large volumes of 
vapour in the vicinity of the material on fire. This 
vapour, being directed through a hose into a 
chamber filled with flames arising from the burn- 
ing of inflammable substances, cauied their almost 
immediate subsidence, and the burning embers 
remaining were extinguished by water. Vapour, 
having something of diffusive properties, will seek 
out the locality of a fire should it be hidden, as in 
the case of a fire occurring in the hold of a vessel, 
whereas water must flow in abundance over parts 
where there is no fire raging, and its application is 
in such cases useless. The fire annihilator ob- 
tained a wide reputation, and was practically and 
successfully adopted. All the vessels chartered 
by the emigration commissioners were compelled 
to have a certain number of these machines on 
board. The system was approved by Brewster, 
Arago, Faraday, Glaisher, Dumas, Herschel, and 
Liehig. From some unexplained circumstance, 
this invention has passed away from public atten- 
tion. The insurance system was apparently 
Drought to bear against its progress, arising from 
the impression that without fire there is no risk, 



and without risk no insurance, and aided, probably, 
by other circumstances, the fire annihilator in its 
earlier form is no longer known. A modification 
of it has lately been introduced under the title of 
the Extincteur, which, however, does not seem to 
have those features which led the original fire 
anniliilator to have so much attention bestowed 
upon it by men of scientific research. It is to be 
hoped that some effectual means may speedily be 
discovered to afford protection from the ravages 
of this dangerous element. It is lamentable to 
reflect that we are at this moment liable to a 
repetition of the circumstances which attended 
the destruction of the late church at Croydon. 
This seemed like a voluntary sacrifice made to 
call the attention of the scientific world to the 
unguarded situation in which we are placed with 
respect to disasters of this nature. We have to 
add to the list of catastrophes arising from fire 
recently, the destruction of a considerable portion 
of the Crystal Palace, at Sydenham, involving a 
loss to nearly the extent of a quarter of a million. 
It was stated that, owing to the severe weather 
which existed in the locaUty and direction of 
Croydon Church at the time, and the impass- 
able condition of our roads, no aid could be 
brought to the spot in which the fire was raging. 
After some notice of sanitary engineering, the 
lecturer turned to the character of our prevaiUng 
architecture, which he said could not fail to be of 
interest to a society like theirs. He said : We 
have still to regret the absence of anything like 
conformity in the several practices of architects 
and engineers, and no doubt the character of our 
nation, judged by its architecture alone, would 
not stand very high. We have, of course, no 
modem undertaking which for style could be com- 
pared with Westminster Abbey or St. Paul's. 
The more we go back into the architecture of our 
country, the more grand and refined it seems to 
stand out. We have at length reached no style 
or character of architecture at all. I consider 
this to arise in a great measure from the attempted 
estrangement between professions which are 
analogous, and the failure of modem architects 
to accommodate their design to the progress of 
engineering science. A system is now being ex- 
tensively adopted with regard to modem buildings 
which may be called, more or less, a system of 
iron architecture. The immense gain in strength 
and durability, in buildings where this material 
is employed, is undeniable. Architecture is the 
science of building, and therefore the engineer to 
an iron bridge or other structure in which iron is 
employed is as much an architect as the designer 
of Gothic structures with stone roofs, flying but- 
tresses, and pinnacles. Considering the church of 
St. Peter at Rome, and the cathedral of St. Paul, 
and other so-called architectural works from a 
constructive point of view, it will be found that 
what is now called civil engineering was exercised 
by the architects of those structures in a very 
great degree. They built with the materials con- 
venient to be used, according to the locality of the 
structures, and their works have remained com- 
manding and imperishable. Until it is conceded 
that there can be but one science of building, we 
cannot look forward to any works likely to deserve 
our own admiration or the admiration of others. 
It is apprehended that, out of the numerous 
designs lately submitted to a committee of selec- 
tion with the object of improving our present 
National Gallery, or erecting a new one, not 
one of the designs sent in is likely to be adopted ; 
whereas, had the co-operation of some of our 
more eminent engineers been enlisted in this 
undertaking, there is no doubt it would have 
tended greatly towards improving the nature of 
the designs, and the results might consequently 
be expected to have been more favourable. Pro- 
ceeding to consider the influence of the engineer- 
ing profession on the civilisation of the time, the 
lecturer said : Our profession, no doubt, has a con- 
siderable influence upon the civilisation of our 
time. Domestic architecture, which is one of the 
earlier indications of improved social changes, is 
indebted to us. Then we have the development 
of railways to consider ; the construction of 
harbours and docks for our shipping ; the manu- 
facture and distribution of gas ; the purification 
and supply of water ; the drainage of our large 
towns ; the construction of bridges ; iron ship- 
building ; agricultural machinery ; telegraphy ; 
the improvement of ordnance and other defensive 
implements of war, and all those aids to progress 
which compose the features of particular eras, or 
mark the character of nations. Where the arts of 
peace predominate, the tranquillity of kingdoms 
must remain secure. It is owing, no doubt, to 



the extent of our manufactures and enterprise 
that the prosperity of our nation must be chiefly 
attributed, 'fhoso undertakings arising from the 
co-operation of business-men have contributed 
largely towards establishing the reputation of our 
country. There are certain disadvantages, how- 
ever, allied with our systems of local government 
which it should be our aim to eradicate. They are 
the cause of very considerable pubho incon- 
venience, and in many cases expose us to the 
ridicule or astonishment of our contemporaries. 
Our metropolis, containinga population of 3,000,000, 
has been for nearly a week in a helpless state of 
inactivity in consequence of the inefficient means 
we have at our disposal for clearing away the 
snow, and the utter want of system and care in 
the p.aving, lighting, cleansing, and traffic arrange- 
ment is well worthy of the attention of our pro- 
fession. The snow might be removed at night by 
means of snow ploughs, and rapidly melted by 
heat at convenient places. The relaying of our 
pavements and streets might be effected by im- 
proved machinery, and a diminution of time and 
inconvenience would thereby ensue. The introduc- 
tion of subways, as suggested by the Metropolitan 
Board of Work.s, would tend to prevent the inces- 
sant breaking up of our main streets. The lighting 
of our public thoroughfares is a disgrace to this 
city ; the designs of our lampposts and lamps are 
neither novel nor elegant ; our finest streets are in 
comparative darkness as soon as the shops are 
closed. The cleansing of our streets is effected by 
means of manual labour at the most inconvenient 
hours of the day ; the watering-carts lay the dust, 
and, raisinf mud ankle deep, destroy the macadam, 
create dirt, bespatter our persons and carriages. 
The encounter of the mud cart and its two or three 
attendants complete the delights of a summer 
day's walk, ride, or drive in town. The traffic ar- 
rangements in our streets in the metropoUa must 
shortly receive attention, as we are informed from 
statistics obtained that more accidents and loss of 
life take place in the streets in our metropolis, 
than on the whole of our railway system in the 
United Kingdom. How is this occasioned ? we may 
naturally inquire. The immensity of the traffic 
might be reUeved by employing the present area 
of our streets in a twofold manner, viz., by con- 
structing subways for traffic under or above our 
existing streets. The grave and lamentable acci- 
dent on the ice in Regent's Park is attributable to 
that negligence which, in some form, continually 
endangers the public safety. It would perhaps be 
advisable to remove the systems of local govern- 
ment which now control matters connected with 
the convenience and safety of the pubUc by sub- 
stituting some scheme of centralisation. The cha- 
racter of our public works, too, has long been the 
subject of severe comment. The operation of the 
numerous vestry boards in our various parishes is 
inefficient. Whether the condition of our streets 
is owing to the incompetency of the vestries as 
they are at present constituted, or whether the 
system under which their operation is carried out 
is inadequate, it is manifest that the public at large 
have at present to endure the most unreasonable 
perils. After the construction of new streets of 
houses, the roadway is allowed to remain in a most 
objectionable and dangerous state for a long 
period. It is not uncommon to observe a street 
of large and well built houses through the road- 
way of which none but an army in sight of a be- 
sieged capital would pass. The anomaly is that, 
during the time that this condition of the roadway 
continues, the vestries are receiving rates for the 
object of its improvement. In cases where pro- 
perty is chargeable in perpetuity, for purposes of 
cleanliness and repair, it would be advantageous, 
and unattended with difficulty, to procure a large 
sum for carrying out the requisite work, to be 
afterwards refunded out of the rates. The condi- 
tion of the dwellings of our labouring population 
has, under the obscure operations of local boards, 
become a subject of national reproach. It is to be 
hoped that, under the auspices of our present 
Premier, who recently stated that he was warmly 
interested in this subject, some important steps 
may be made to remedy the condition of the 
dwellings of the poorer classes. If property has 
its duties as well as its rights, there is at present a 
pressing claim for their performance, and a wide 
scope for their exercise. On the subject of inven- 
tions the lecturer remarked that inventors and in- 
ventions subject to the patent laws of this country 
labour under many disadvantages. They are sup- 
posed to have the privilege granted by the State 
of a monopoly for a period of fourteen years, to 
reap whatever pecuniary benefit might be deriv- 
able from their invention ; but it need hardly be 



72 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 25, 1867. 



stated that this is not the case, owing to the in- 
complete nature of the information afforded by the 
Patent Office as to the novelty of inventions. An 
inventor, after having, with great expenditure of 
time, trouble, and money, perfected his invention, 
goes to the further expense of having a complete 
search made among the patent records to ascertain 
the fact that his invention has not been patented 
before, and this search proving isatisfactory, he ap- 
]ilies for his patent. No sooner, however, has a 
description of his invention appeared in print than 
he is informed that the identical invention has pre- 
viously been made and commercially used, though 
not patented or made generally known ; thus the 
patentee finds himself in the position of having 
spent his time and money to no purpose, without 
having any possible means at his command 
whereby he might have obtained the information 
before taking out his patent. It is to be hoped 
that some substantial improvements in our patent 
laws may be carried out during the cuiTent 
year. 



OTJE WORKMEN —THEIR LABOUR, 
REWARDS, AND TRIALS. 

PROFESSOR LEONE LEVI recently deli- 
vered a lecture at the Shire-hall, Stafford, 
on " Our Workmen — their Labour, Rewards, 
and Trials," the Earl of Harrowby in the chair. 

Professor Levi, on rising to address the 
audience, was received with loud applause. He 
commenced by an elaborate sketch of the vast 
extent and the great variety of the products of 
human labour, and from that deduced the fearful 
loss which was involved in the frequent suspen- 
sion of this productive effort by strikes. He 
showed how essential for the development of the 
faculties of man was the necessity for exertion. 
Speaking of the numbers of the working classes. 
Dr. Levi said: — "Altogether I have calculated 
that the number of persons actually at work in 
the United Kingdom amount in round numbers 
to 12,000,0U0, of whom about 5,000,000 are men 
of 21 years and upwards, and the remainder 
women, and boys aud girls under age. What 
proportion of the domestic class, including 
wives, mothers, and children, not classified as 
workers, should be added to arrive at tfio tot;d 
number of the working classes it is difficult to 
say. Ordinarily we take each adult male to re- 
present a family of -I'bO persons, and at this rate 
the working classes would number 22,000,000, 
being little more than two to one of the entire 
population of the United Kingdom. What is the 
economic condition of so large a number of 
persons ? What are their resources ? What is 
their mode of life ? What a number of social 
problems present themselves when we enter on 
80 great atopic. The reward which the labourer 
demands is more substantial than mere applause. 
It consists in a share of the produce of his labour, 
which shall at least be sufficient for good lodging 
and clothing for himself and his family. And 
here we are brought to the difficult question of 
the relation of capital and labour. Wealth, it is 
true, is the result of labour, but the workman 
depends on the capitalist for the raw material 
and implements to work with. We might 
fancy the capitalist and the labourer agreeing to 
act jointly in a kind of partnership in which one 
puts his labour, the other his capital. But the 
labourer cannot wait till the article is completed 
and sold to aivido the produce with the capitalist. 
Nor can he work on the chance that the article 
may be sold, or may prove profitable. Better 
for him to receive something prompt aud certain 
than a larger sum at a distant time, and con- 
tingent on the success of the enterprise. Nor 
would such an agreement answer the capitalist. 
He must look to the best time for selling his 
merchandise. He oaimot expose himself to the 
pressure of the labourer, or to the danger of dis- 
agreement. Better for them both to substitute 
the contract for wages, or the purchase and sale 
of certain services for a certain remuneration. 
In the contract, both parties are free to act as 
Ihey please, the one to demand and the other to 
give whatever their respective interest may sug. 
gest. _ But even this freedom is controlled by 
ceitain economical laws. The labourer must re- 
member that he is interested in the extent of 
capital destined or appropriated to the payment 
of labour, that he depends on the increase of the 
Bame for his own welfare, and that whatever he does 
which diminishes or retards such increase, must 
necessarily recoil on himself. The capitalist 
must remember that the labourer must live, that 
he must maintain his family, that he must edu- 



cate his children, and have a share of relaxation 
and enjoyment, without which life is a burden. 
He must not forget that the best way to make a 
labourer work well is to pay him well, to keep 
him happy and cheerful, strong and healthy, and 
that if he will deal justly by his labourers, they 
will neither neglect their labour nor be dis- 
affected, they will neither complain nor be dis- 
posed to strike. If on the one hand the employer 
has a right to endeavour to lower the wages, lest 
by enhancing the cost of the production too high 
he becomes unable to compete with the foreign 
producer, and thus lose the trade altogether, the 
labourer has a right to expect that the wages 
shall bear a certain proportion to the profits of 
the undertaking, be they high or low. And 
while the competition among labourers is favour- 
able to the master in keeping the wages at the 
minimum limits of the labourers' wants, the 
freedom of labour, an extensive field of labour iu 
the colonies of America, and the right to com- 
bine among themselves to control as far as 
possible such competition, enable the labourers 
to resist the attempt to lower the wages below 
what is just and necessary." After indicating in 
general terms the conditions which regulate the 
rate of wages, the lecturer pointed out the want 
of decent homes, often of substantial food, by 
working men, and urged the necessity, from the 
greater demand for intelligence in the workman, 
that more attention should be paid to the educa- 
tion of his children, and he impressed attention 
to this as a duty on working men, as well as on 
those whose position in life enabled them to assist 
in affording the means. Dr. Levi appeared to 
think the representations made as to the compe- 
tition of Belgium in the iron manufacture had 
been exaggerated, and proceeded to speak of 
Trades' Unions: — "Trade unions have been the 
subjects of great animadversion of late. But 
let us do justice to the good they perform, in the 
discipline and order they maintain in the trade, 
the check they impose on riot and excess, the 
help they afford to the sick, the poor, and the 
widow, and the many purposes they subserve cf 
charity and beneficence. TUere are points iu 
their action decidedly objectionable. The re- 
strictions they put to the number of apprentices, 
and all hindrances they impose on the freedom 
of labour, admit of no defence. Any endeavour 
to thwart the introduction of machinery is abso- 
lutely wrong and useless. And decidedly wrong 
is the exercise of any moral or physical coercion 
for inducing all labourers iu the trade to act 
with them. We cannot dispute the right of any 
one to influence others with his views; but I 
have no hesitatiou'iu saying that all intimida- 
tion or coercion used for that purpose, whether 
by applying terms of opprobrium on the re- 
luctant party, or injuring his tools, or any other 
means, is most reprehensible. If we prize in- 
dependence of action for ourselves, we must 
allow it to others also. But what shall I say ot 
strikes and lock-outs? Not a word in their 
favour. Nothing could be more injurious to 
masters and operatives than to bring matters 
to such extremes. Any concession is better, 
and arbitration is better still. The cessation ot 
production, the heart-burnings, the uncertainty 
of transacti ns, the endless quarrels — oh, what 
an amount of evil do they engender. Calcula- 
tions have been made of profits and losses from 
such strikes. But one thing is certain. The 
nation loses always. Addressing myself par- 
ticularly to our working men on these important 
subjects, I must ceitauily say: Take care, lest 
in the hope ot bettering yourcoudition, you only 
open up tor yourselves a source of suffering and 
privation. Take care, lest in obtaining the co- 
operation of your co-labourers, you resign to 
others that freedom of action which it is most 
desirable you should always preserve. Remem- 
ber that the winter before us is likely to be a 
trying one, that provisions will be dear, house- 
rent high, and even clothing cosily. To strike 
and throw off labour now is quite suicidal. 
Better "half a loaf than no loaf at all." If, 
however, our working men do sometimes err in 
committing themselves to a perilous course, let 
us remember that it is not always and altogether 
their fault. Not the least of the trials which 
await our working men at every step is, in fact, 
the difficulty and haphazard way in which they 
must move in order to better themselves. How 
seldom do we hear of masters taking the initia- 
tive in raising the wages in times of prosperity. 
How often do they wait till compulsion is almost 
exercised upon them." As to the earnings of 
the working classes, he said : — " Collectively the 
working classes exercise considerable influence 



on the nation. I have estimated upon very good 
basis, though necessarily in a general manner, 
that the 12.000,000 persons at work annually 
earn £418,000,000. Comparing this income with 
the income of the middle and higher classes, I 
find that the income assessed to income-tax, 
paid principally by the latter, amounts to 
£327,000,000, whilst probably £100,000,000 
more is supposed to be the property of such 
class under £100 or not assessed to that tax, 
making in all £-127,000,000. Apparently the 
difference between the income of the two classes 
is not so material. But when we take the num- 
ber of persons belonging to each into account, 
the result is very different. If we take the work- 
ing classes to number as I have said, 22,000,000, 
and the middle and higher 8,000,000, it will 
follow that the £-118,000,000 will give a propor- 
tional income per head ofabout£l9 perannnm, or 
£85 per family, whilst the £427,000,000 will 
give a proportion of £53 per head, or £238 per 
family ; these proportions, however, varying in 
the various grades of society from £20 to £300 
per family in the working classes, and from £50 
to £50,000 in the middle and higher. The 
accumulation of capital among the working 
classes, however, has been very great of late. 
In 1830 the number of depositors in savings' 
banks was 17 in 1,000 of the population, and the 
amount of deposits averaged lis. 3d. per liead. 
In 1848 the number of depositors was 39 in 1,000, 
aud the amount of deposits 30s. sd. per head. In 
1865 the number of depositors was 48 in 1,000, 
exclusive of the depositors to the Post-otiice 
savings banks, and the amount of deposit 303. 
per head inclusive of the deposits in the Post- 
office banks over and above the amount invested 
in friendly societies, building societies, and co- 
operative associations." He regretted that 
£"0,000,000 was annually spent in the United 
Kingdom in ardent spirits besides wines, and 
that £50,050,000 of this was spent by the work- 
ing classes. He concluded by an earnest and 
eloquent exhortation to working men to avoid 
excess, and to strive to improve their positions 
and their homes. 



THE EXHIBITION OF DESIGNS FOR 
THE NEW NATIONAL GALLERY. 

(From the Westminster Gazette.) 

ON viewing these designs one is simply tempted 
to ask — where are our architects ( For it is 
impossible to concede the merit of true architec- 
ture to any cue of them. Where they are or'g'nal, 
they are fanciful and extravagant ; where ihey 
are adaptations, they are unsuccessful ; where 
they are copies, they are misapplied ; where they 
are practical, they are ugly ; where they are meri- 
torious, they would be costly ; where they are 
picturesque, they woidd be impossible. I will 
leave others to discover their merits, such as those 
of arrangement, &c. I %vill speak only of their 
architectural defects, which are lamentable in the 
extreme. And, first, let me remark generally how 
unfit they are iu the main for their destination. 
They may be palaces, banks, clubs, coach manufac- 
tories, mortuary memorials, athena3ums, scenes iu 
a grand opera, or faucy examples for a new edition 
of " Pugin's Contrasts ;" but picture-galleries in 
modern, dirty London, they are not. A contem- 
porary thus writes of them : — ■ 

Viewed merely as works of art. many of the drawings are 
of ;i high order of merit, but it e:inuot be said that they re- 
present precisely what is required. Some, for instance, 
are too palatial and domestic in their character ; others 
suggest city banks (without the money) ; some call to mind 
the clubs of Pall ^lall, aud others the Mansion House, or 
the great hotels at Charing Cross and Oaunou-stieet. In 
few do we hud that impress of originality which ought to 
characterise our generation and the age m which we live, 
aud many, it must be admitted, do not fulfil the first con. 
Uitioa of true architecture ; that is, they do not proclaim 
their object aud purpose. 

And what is far worse than this, there is scarcely 
a monstrosity, or anomaly, or inconsistency, or 
misapplication, or violation of principle against 
which we have cried out during the last twenty 
years which is not now perpetrated in one or other 
of these designs. There are the same useless 
features, the same colonnades, moiddings, and pedi- 
ments which have been reproduced ad noiiseam 
in every direction ; the same eccentric recesses, 
and semi domes and makeshifts — there are dooi- 
ways big enough for giants — sham domes only cal- 
culated to produce draughts and store up wind — 
the same absurdities of detail, vases, and pots, and 
jjyramids, and pyramids growing out of pots, and 
balls perched on the tops of pyramids, and 
winged horses and tripods, aud marvellous vegetable 
productions — the same want of true feature where 



J= 



January 25, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



73 



it is required, and the same amount of distorted 
fi it iires without a necessity, like wens and bunions 
whieh disfigure the human form. But of sim- 
]'U«'ity, dignity, power of form, proportion, fitness, 
there is literally next to none. There is but little 
evidence of real genius — its force, individuality, 
and \-igour. The architects invited to compete 
w.^re ten in number, and all have sent drawings. 
The names of the gentlemen competing are : — 
.Mr. Owen Jones, Mr. Somers Clarke, Mr. G. E. 
Street, Mr. F. P. Cockerell, Mr. Digby Wyatt, 
, Messrs. Banks and Barry, Mr. J. B. JIurray, Mr. 
i E. M. Barry, Mr. Ciitlibort Brodrick, and Mr. 
f Penrose. I will hastily glance at their respective 
designs. 

Banks and Barry. — A mass of windows and 
doors multiplied and piled upon one another — 
a general flatness and want of character pervading 
the whole building, the front of which is broken 
by four square tower-like masses, each having a 
small square turret at the angles, surmounted by 
a mal-formed roof. Not an original idea through- 
out — the same common-place monotony and 
! poverty of invention which is still visible in most 
I of their productions. 

I. Edward Barry. — A still more insipid and weari- 
I some monotony. Engaged columns ail infinitum 
i — rows of pota and other absurd details, three 
y useless domes terminating outside in a collection 
I of spikes. The entrance hall and grand staircase 
I forming apparently the corpus of the building, and 
the picture galleries comparatively insignificant 
adjuncts. In short, there is scarcely a fault which 
thus building has not; but it is not more lamenta- 
ble than the same architect's station at Cannon- 
street, where the roof appears to have slipped 
through the supporting towers, and is about the 

J worst thing ever seen, both in construction and 
efl'ect. 

. Somers Clarke. — Style— a sort of Moorish-Italian- 
|3oanian-melodramatic, displaying a considerable 
iimount of eccentric originality, but thoroughly 
impractical and costly. It wants balance and 
jonsistency. The different varieties or adapta- 
;ions of styles blend no better than oil and water. 
iiAnd con anyone tell us for what purpose that over- 
poweringly lofty tower rears itself alongside ? For 
what earthly purpose is it intended ? It is divided 
|.nto some ten or eleven floors, the use of which it 
lis not easy to conceive ; and one entire side is 
;i3ierced with a number of irregular sUts, which 
I juite defy interpretation. 

J: Cockerell. — A most dismal-looking structure — 
ii-esembling more a huge cemetery church than 
tinything else. A great eyeless dome, and details 
I ike Paris furniture in the time of the Fii-st 
(iSmpire. The drawings are absolutely depressing. 
i\Tiat would the actual production be ? 

Brodrick. — A childish multipUcation of columns 

vithout motive or reason ; a temple, with more 

Inmns perched on atemple, having arectangular 

f, covering a flattened dome within. Tower 

fs like a collection, of pastry, surmounted by 

T'lwns. 

Murray. — Really deplorable; long unbroken 

iws of those eternal columns, some of them with 

hose most hideous square blocks intersecting 

hem — the upper story composed principally of 

ilind windows, hollowed into niches, about 

uventy in number — a monstrous square block 

ising up— it is diflicult to make out exactly where 

-like a huge tank at waterworks. 

Penrose. — A collection of villa doors and win- 

ows, pilasters, pyramids in pots, panels, a bust, 

nd a chimney — nothing more. 

Owen Jones. — Very much like a bit of the old 
•Exhibition, with Renaissance pilaster, &c., attached. 
Street. — The only Gothic design, but by no 
aeans sitisfactory. Wants unity, balance, and 
onsi»tency. Parts of it are like a church, others 
ke a school ; it is collegiate, monastic, domestic, 
U in one. It has Mr. Street's usual great merits, 
nd his usual faults. It looks as if it had been 
esigued in bits at intervals under different inspi- 
itions. Parts are bald as a washhouse — others 
re overclothed with ornament ; and ornament 
30 all out of proportion, and sometimes mis- 
laced and too obtrilsive. It is too mediaeval ; it 
loks too much like a collection of favourite bits 
■om different places introduced because they are 
ice ; so it is not a building of the day, and gives 
ae a totally wrong idea of its destination. It is 
1st the sort of building which, with aU its merits, 
■ts people against Gothic work, and this is much 
be regretted. 

Digby Wyatt. — A magnificent dream — a scene 
r an extravagansa^a perfect orgy of misplaced 
■namentation— a face, as it were, covered with 
■es, noses, and other features, without a solitary 
t of cheek or forehead. The front elevation 



exceedingly striking and original, but, as far as one 
can make out, defective in construction, and 
mystifying in its various parts. What look like 
tombs beneath semi-domes hollowed out of the 
ujiper walls turn out to be .skylights for the lower 
floor. This is a sort of unreality, not, however, so 
bad as that of the domes (for this gorgeous struc- 
ture rejoices in three lofty domes), the upper por- 
tion of which — to a height of some -lOft. or 50ft. 
jierhaps above the ceiling below — seems entirely 
dev(jted t(t a twisting iron staircase and a water 
tank. They are gorgeous shams. The windows 
of the great hall and staircase are adaptatifins of 
those of the Certosa. The great entrance doors 
are of an appalling character — of huge size, flanked 
by gigantic caryatides, surmounted by a b.alcony 
and arch window, the proportions of which are on 
such a scale that they dwarf and crush all aroimd 
them. 

One word about all these designs in the lump. 
The architects seem mainly to have forgotten that 
their buildings were to be made for the pictures, 
and that the pictures were not painted for their 
buildings. 



STATUE OF THE LATE PRINCE CONSORT 
AT MANCHESTER. 

THE inauguration of the statue of the Jate 
Prince Consort, erected in the centre of 
Albert-square, Manchester, took place on Wed- 
nesday. A committee was appointed to under- 
take the work in January, 1862, and the offer 
of the then mayor (Mr. Goadsbv) to present a 
marble statue, on condition of the city afford- 
ing a suitable site and finding money for a 
pedestal and covering, was accepted. The 
statue, which is by Mr. Noble, of London, and 
is of Sicilian marble 9fr. high, representing the 
Prince in the robes of the Order of the Garter, 
has been completed some time. The memorial 
building in which the statue is placed, and (he 
rich Gothic canopy over it, were designed by 
Mr. Worthington, of Manchester. The report 
presented to the committee describes the 
work as follows: — The memorial building 
is raised 5ft. above the surface of the street, 
on granite steps, occupying a square of 35 ft. 
The base of the structure is 20ft. square, and 
15ft. 6iu. to the platform on which the pedestal, 
which is 6ft., stands. The entire height from 
the pavement to the summit of the vane is SOft. 
Four open arches above the basement support 
a grand canopy, forming a shrine, in the centre 
of which, on a pedestal of coloured polished 
granite, stands the statue. The four arches are 
surmounted bv lofty gables, and the external 
angles are abutted by four square piers or 
buttresses rising in solid masonry to the level 
of the springing of the great arches, shortly 
above which level they disengage themselves, 
and rise up as detached and elaborately enriched 
pinnacles; these pinnacles illustrate subjects in 
which the late Prince Consort took active and 
practical interest. Each pinnacle has two stages 
above the springing of the arches, the upper 
stage being an open canopy supported on 
polished granite shafts ; these four canopies 
contain figures of Art, Science, Agriculture, 
and Commerce. Art is supported by Music, 
Sculpture, Painting, and Architecture ; Science, 
by Astronomy, Mechanics, Chemistry, and Geo- 
metry ; Agriculture, by Spring, Summer, Autumn, 
and Winter ; and Commerce, by Europe, Asia, 
Africa, and America. The four great gables 
contain a circular open panel enriched, and in 
the three triangular spandrels are medallions con 
taining twelve heads, representative of Art and 
Science — Michael Angelo, Wren, Inigo Jones, 
Raphael, Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Goethe, 
Schiller, Milton, Shakspeare, Tasso, and 
Dante. On the summits of the four gables are 
winged angels, holding gilt trumpets ; the spire 
is banded with polished gray granite, and the 
shafts of the main archways are of the same 
material. The pedestal supporting the statue 
consists of a deep red granite-centred block, 
with angle shafts of gray granite, bearing the 
simple inscription "Albert" on the south side. 
On the centre of the piers or buttresses 
are shields carved in stone representing the 
arms of England quartered with those of Saxony 
differenced with the late Prince Consort's own 
label of three points argent, charged in the 
central point gules, alternated with the simple 
arms of Saxony emblazoned with foliated bands 
and arched coronet on a field barry of ten, or 
and sable. Each shield is surmounted by the 
peculiar coronet of the late Prince, which 



differs from the Imperial Crown in having eight 
instead of four arches, rising from strawberry 
loaves and curved. Each shield is encircled 
by the garter, with the usual motto, and 
below on a label is the motto, " Treu und 
fe^t." These armorials are repeated in the eight 
angle panels of the basomeut, and on the iuter- 
tuediato panels (of which there are five) are 
carved the various crests of the Prince. The 
memoriiil is enclosed by a rich and elaborate 
wroughtiron railing or grille, by Skidmoro and 
Co., of Coventry. The angles are encircled by 
gilt foliated finials, and shields engraved witlitho 
arms are placed at intervals along tlie cornice of 
the railings, a central one bearing the full 
quartered arms emblazoned in colours. The 
emblematical figures were executed with excel- 
lent taste and finish by 'Messrs. T. R. and E. 
Williams, of Manchester and Liverpool. The 
memorial "bears the following inscription round 
the base: — "In grateful acknowledgment of 
public and private virtues, Albert, Prince of 
f^axe-Coburg and Gotha, Consort of her Ma- 
jesty Queen Victoria, erected by the inhabi- 
tants of Manchester, ad. I860. The statue was 
presented to his fellow-citizens t>y Thomas 
Goadsby, Mayor of Manchester, 1861-2." The 
total cost of the memorial, exclusive of the 
statue, has been £0,249 15s. 4d. The ceremony 
of inauguration was exceedingly brief and simple. 
The committee met at tho Town-hall at one 
o'clock, when Mrs. Goadsby, widow of the late 
mayor, read a few lines formally presenting the 
statue on behalf of her late husband to tho Mayor 
and corporation. The committee and other 
gentlemen then went in procession to a tem- 
porary building fronting the southern face of tho 
statue, and Dr. Fairbairn, C.E., read an address 
of inauguration. The statue was then unveiled 
in the presence of a concourse of many thousand 
people, who cheered lustily. 



THE PARIS EXHIBITION. 

A PARIS correspondent says the Exposition 
Uuiverselle is evidently not about " to dis- 
appoint the promise of its spring ; " it is to be 
universal. The Germans are going to send lis an 
iron house, with room for a " respectable f.amily," 
which is made entirely of iron, ])ut together like a 
Chinese puzzle, weighs very little, is brought, in 
fact, from Germany for about five pountls ster- 
ling, and is capable of being warmed but not 
burned. 

American schools are to be represented (chiefly 
through Massachusets liberality), in models of the 
best school houses, and representations of the 
most approved apparatus and modes of instruc- 
tion, school books, results of education and edu- 
cational laws. Every sort of religion and manners 
have free and equal welcome, and, a5 an offset to 
the above, Spain will exhibit a national character- 
istic — six bull fights — for which a Spanish com- 
pany are making preparations on a gorgeous 
scale. 

All the gods and goddesses in the Versailles 
gardens are to be washed and mended for the Ex- 
hibition season. A more begrimed and dilapidated 
set of Jupiters, Pomonas, and Hebes than those 
which adorn the Grand Monarque's stately 
plaisaunce can hardly be conceived. 

A Chinese Restaurant.— ^mong the wonders 
of the coming Paris Exhibitiim, will be a Chinese 
Restaurant. It will be borne on the ehoulders of a 
celestial. The kitchen departm«it is of the 
lightest bamboo, and will be borne on the said 
celestial's left hand, while he wi^l cook, keep up 
his fire, &c., with his right. The bamboo edifice 
is divided into three stories. The lower contains 
the plates and dishes, the second the wood and 
matches, and the rez-dc-chaiissee the hatterie (Id 
aiisiiie, ovens, &c.;thelarder,stockedwith meat, fish, 
and vegetables, is at the back of the structure. It 
appears that these ambulatory cooks and their 
kitchens are to be seen wherever Chinese workmen 
are congregated, and serve a hot cutlet or > fried 
fish for a few farthings. 



PERSONAL. 

THE following gentlemen have )een elected 
members of the Architectural >.83ociation : — 
Mr. Charles Moxon, Mr. Waiiams, ilr. H. Jeckell, 
Mr. Turner, Mr. Bainbridge, M'- H. Jackiers 
Mr. Scare, and Mr. Parkon. 

Mr. Ellis, of AuBtmfriars, is tb architect of the 
new works for the Great NortheO Brick Company 
near Hitchin. 



74 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 25, 1867. 



At a meeting of the Society of Eugineers held on 
Monday, premiums were presented to Mr. Cecil 
Wessely, for his paper on arched roofs; to Mr. 
Thomas Cargill, for his drawing of the bridge Place 
de I'Europe, Paris; and to Mr. Arthm* Jacob for his 
" Reservoirs and Embankments^." 

Tbe Duchess nf Leeds and Lady Herbert of Lea 
have each contributed £10,000 towards the pur 
chase, for Roman Catholic purposes, of Prior Park; 
and a Yorkshire gentleman has given £5,000 for 
the completion of the xiutinished chapel. 

Mr. J. R. Herbert has undertaken to paint a pic- 
ture or a series of pictures, for the new Roman 
Catholic church at Kilburn, the work of Mr. W. 
Pugin. 

Captain Mark Huish, for many years general 
manager for the London and North- Western Rail- 
way, died on Friday. 

E. J. Reed, Esq., Chief Constructor of the Navy, 
will occupy the chair, and S. W. Wors^am, Esq., 
the vice-chair, at the fourteenth anniversary festival 
of the London Association jf Foremen Engineers, 
to take place at the Freemasons' Tavern on Feb- 
ruary 16 nest. 

It 13 understood that Sir R. A. Glass will shortly 
retire from ^e chairmanship or the Atlantic Tele- 
graph Company. Sir Charles Bright, M.P., is 
spoken of as his successor. 

The following gentlemen were elected members 
of the Society of Arts at its last; meeting: — S. J. 
Addis, 49 and 50, AVorship-street, E.C. ; John 
Becke, Northampton ; Samuel Richard Bosanquet, 
Dinastow court, near Monmouth ; Alexander Glen- 
dining, jun., Redleaf; Robert Jobson, 32, Great 
St. Helens, E.C. ;T. W, M'Crirrick, Bitterly- court, 
Ludlow, Salop. 

The first meeting of the year of the Society of 
Engineers was held on Monday evening. At 
the termination of Mr. Le Feuvre'g address the 
following gentlemen were balloted for and elected 
members of the society: — Harry MauU Finch, Co- 
lombo, Ceylon ; John Jasper Homer, 30, Avenue- 
road, Hammersmith ; Ewing Matheson, 32, Wal- 
brouk, E.C. ; Jabe;; Church, Hamlet House, Chelms- 
ford ; Joseph Bennett Howell, Sheffield ; Thomas 
Jourdain Hay, 19, Great College-street ; Arthur 
Jacnb, B.A., Croydon ; Henry Gieigud, 3, George- 
yard,- Lombard street ; John Wood, Church-street, 
Nuneaton; Cbarles Sexten Baylee, 11, Oakley- 
crescent, Chelsea. Associates: Joseph Cash, Hove, 
near Brighton ; Johannes D. F. Hald, 9b, New 
Broad-street;Jame5Young, Davidson, 5, Brunswick- 
place, Lewisham ; William Oxford, Grosvenor-road, 
Pimlico. 



SCHOOLS OF ART. 

It has been proposed to establish Govern- 
ment Schools of Art at Banbury and Maidstone. 

KjDDERMrNSTEU. — The annual meeting of the 
Schoul of Art here took place last week, Lord 
Lyttelton in the chair. Mr. Briuton read the re- 
port, which stated that aa regarded the attendance 
of students at the Artisan Class, the committee 
were unable to speak favourably; whilst the pro- 
gress of the older and more advanced students 
was satisfactory, there was au extremely scanty 
supply of that succession. uf junior students upon 
which the progress, and, indeed, ultimately, the 
existence of the school, depended. The decrease 
iu the number of junior and artisan students had, 
under the new regulations, seriously aflected tlie 
amount of aid recei'sed from the Government. 



WAGES MOVEMENT. 

A Correspondent writes : — "'Wliat will the men want 
next? The masous employed upoQ tbe new Post Ortice, 
Darlingtou, struck on Saturday, December 29 1S6G, because 
the contractors bronglit some worked stone into the town, 
consisting of some balustera, 13iu. high by 4jin square. 
They were turned at York by Union men. The Darling- 
toa men own that they could not work them, but they say 
tha'; if they had been allowed to work the top and bottom 
beds they couid have been sent anywhere to be turned, and 
then \hey mi^ht have been set. The clerk of works pro- 
posed to them, at a meeting, to take l-16th oft" the top and 
bottom \>etl.s, but they would not hear of it. Fresh balus- 
ters musx be worked before they will i-esume work. It is 
rather foi'.unate for them that thoy are on strike during 
the frost, \s If they were not they would be recei\'iug 
nothing. A^ it is they are receiving the lodge pay." 

A letter ii the T'me'!, from a Clyde shipbuilder, says 
that the Londt^i shipwrights are puid" 40 per cent, higher 
than the Clydtghipwrights, or ^.' per day against 5s., and 
he anticipates tl»t shipbuilding must soon cease ou the 
Thames. \ 

The Printino^and Biokbinding Trades and the 
Factory Act. — Tfe Commissioners appniuted to inquire 
into the employmW of women and cliildren having, in 
their fifth report. Vcommended the application of the 
Factory Act to theVrintiog and bookbinding trades, a 
movement to get theVecommendation carried into effect 

as been set on foot; \ci ou Monday a deputation from 



ihe lettei-press printers of Edinburgh waited upon the 
Lord Advocate, in his chambers, upon the subject. Tlie 
deputation submitted some statistics to his lordship, with 
the view of 8ho\ving the necessity for the application of the 
Factory Act to the pilnting trade. The Lord Advocate 
expressed his heaixy sympathy with the object of the de 
pntation, and assured them that he would bring the 
subject under the notice of the Home Secretaiy. The 
deputation took the opportunity of directing the attention 
of the Lord Advocate to the present law of master and 
servant, and expressed a hope tliat a hiU would be brought 
in during the next session of Parliament to abolish im- 
prisonment for breach of contract ; and they were in- 
fonned that their views on the subject would be lepre- 
seiited to the Government. 

The Building Trade.— On Friday last a large and in- 
flueutial meeting of the master builders of England and 
Scotland was held at the Victoria Hotel, Leeds, the Mayor 
of Manchester (Mr. R. Neill) in the chair. The greatest 
unanimity and good fteliug was shown, and a resolution 
was imanimonsly passed to amalgamate the Yorkshire 
Asaociatiou of Master Biiilders with the General Associa- 
tion of Buildei-s. When the business of the meeting con- 
cluded, the General Builders' Association wei-e entertained 
at the Victori.i on the invitation of the Yorkshire Associa- 
tion of Master Builders, Mr. A. N^ill, of Bradford, in the 
chair. 

The Potteries. — The carpenters and joiners of the 
Staffordshire Potteries have given notice to their employers 
of a demand for an advance of 6d. a day in their wages, 
raising them to 30s. a week, and a reduction of the hours 
of labour to the extent of two and a half hours a week, the 
cbani^e to come into operation on May 1. The builde s in 
reply have offered the men tid. an hour, making the wages 
29s. a week, but they decline to reduce the hours of labour 
below 5S hours a week. The operatives liave not had time 
to decide upon the offer of the mastere, but. as it will, if 
adopted, introduce the system of woiking and paying by tlie 
hour, it is not unlikely to be refused by them, 'ihe difli- 
culty with the bricklayers, which h;X3 been pending since 
May last, and lias ever since prostrated the building trade 
of the district, has only just been removed by a reference of 
the dispute to arbitration. 

Inverness. — A meeting of employers was held here on 
the iGthinat.. when it was resolved to establish a local 
association in connection with the General Builders 'Asso- 
ciation. A committee was appointed to draw up rules and 
regiUations, and report to a general meeting to be called as 
early an 



WATER SUPPLY. 

Leeds. — At a meeting of the Leeds Town Council on 
Monday, the Waterworks Committee reported that the 
original estimate for providing a further supply of water 
for the borough had been increased from £150,000 to 
£300,000, the chief reason for the additional cost being 
that, under the advice of Mr. Hawksley., C.E., provision 
had been made for more than d >uble the amount of 
storage of water originally determined upon. This largely 
increased estimate, however, does not include a sum of 
£110,000, which would have to be expended upon the 
pipes necessary to convey the water to consumers. A long 
discussion took place on an amendment proposed by Mr. 
Addyman, recommending, on ac<;ount of the immaturity 
of the scheme, that the bill should not be proceeded with 
next session ; but the recommendation of the committee 
watt confii'med by a lai'ge majority. 



LEGAL INTELLIGENCE. 

At the Newcastle Police-court, at the instance 
of the Corporation, the Newcastle and General 
Gas Company, were summoned for supplying an 
inferior quaUty of gas to that specified in their 
Act of 1864. A fine of £5 was infficted. 

Master and Servant. — A master must provide 
for his servants decent and reasonably-comfortable 
accommodation, and not endanger their health. 
This rule was laid down in the Liverpool County- 
ciurt on Tuesday by Mr. Blair, the judge, in 
a case in which Mr. Palmer, pianoforte manufac- 
turer, was sued for balance of wages by two ser- 
vants, cook and housemaid. The defence was that 
the girls left without notice, and so forfeited their 
wages. It was proved for the plaintiffs, however, 
that the room in which they slept was in such 
a bad state that the rain came in and wetted the 
bed iu which they slept, and that they had both 
sufi'ered in health as a result. They had then felt 
compelled to leave the place. The judge decided 
in favour of the girls, ordering payment of the 
amount claimed, and 2s. 6d. each for attendance. 

A Question of Chimneys vcrsits Roofs. — At the 
Bail Court last week, Mr. Kingsford, a dentist in 
Piccadilly, sued Mr. 'Wells, a jeweller, his ne-xt 
door neighbour, for damages for the fall of a stack 
of chimneys. The defendant pleaded a number 
of pleas, the principal one being that the chimneys 
fell by the act of God, there being a hurricane at 
the time. Moreover, on the part of the defendant 
it was urged that the plaintiffs roof was in a dila- 
pidated state. In 1859 the defendant had the 
premises examined and repaired. In October and 
November, 1865, the weather was exceedingly 
boisterous. Other chimneys in the neighbour- 
hood were blown down, and bricks came down de- 
fendant's chimneys. Trees were at that time 
blown down in the parks, and the hurricane was 
so great that it blew off the roof of the London, 
Chatham, and Dover Railway Station. Defendant 
found the rafters of the plaintiff's house to be 



f 



very slight and much decayed ; the stack of chim- 
neys in question was not more than fifteen years 
old. A gentleman from the Meteorological De- 
partment of the Board of Trade was called, and he 
stated that on the 22ud November, 1865, at eight 
o'clock in the morning, it was blowing a strong 
^ale, which had greatly increased at half-past nine 
o'clock ; the force of the wind on that day was 11. 
With a force of 12 no ship could carry a sail. 
A greater force of wind had not been registered 
for a number of years. The jury returned a ver- 
dict for the plaintiff, adding that they were of 
opinion that the defendant was not aware of the 
dilapidated state of the chimneys. 

Important Qoestion as to Trades' Unions. — 
The case of Hornby (appellant) u Close (respond- 
ent), in the Court of Queen's Bench last week, 
raised a very ' important question withj re- 
ference to trades' unions and benevolent ' 
institutions. The appellant and respond- 
ent are members of the United Order of 
Boilermakers and Iron Shipbuilders, and the 
respondent was summoned before the justices of 
Bradford for having, as an officer of the society, 
unlawfully withheld the sum of £21 8s. S^d., be- 
longing to the society. By the Friendly Societies' 
Act justices have power to deal with m.atters of 
this kind, though the society be not enrolled, pro- ■ji ^ 
vided the purposes of the society are the same aa SI 
or analogous to the objects enumerated in that ^il ■ 
Act for other purposes which are not illegal. At 
the hearing of the case it was shown by the rules 
that this society had two objects, one in the cha- 
racter of a trades' union, and the other benevo- 
lence, and the justices declined to entertain the 
summons, and dismissed it. Mr. Mellish and Mr. 
Macnamara contended th.at the decision of the 
justices could not be supported. The Court, how- 
ever, confirmed their decision. 

Disputed Contract. — Harvey v. Lawrenci:. — 
This was an action tried on the Western Circuit 
before Mr. Justice Byles. A rule nisi for a new 
trial, and to set aside the verdict for the plaintiff 
having been obtained on the ground of the refusal 
to receive certain evidence as to £38 worth of 
lead, last week the Solicitor-General showed cause 
against the rule, and Mr: Coleridge, Q.C , appeared 
in support of it. The plaintiff', it appeared, is 
a builder at Torquay, and the defendant is a mer- 
chant at Liverpool. The plaintiff contracted to 
alter, budd, and enlarge a house called Cadwell 
House, about two miles out of Torquay, for the 
defendant, for £930, according to certain specifi. 
cations, subject to the power of the architect,'! 
who lived at Torquay, to make alterations. The ' 
house was finished, and the lodge and gates, and 
the architect gave his certificate. It was then 
found that the width of the g.ate entrance had 
been narrowed, and that Mr. Lawrence could not • 
drive his carriage through the gates. This had to 
be altered, and a dispute arose as to the cost, and 
as to a set-off of £38 for old lead, which the 
plaintiff contended had been taken into account - 
under the contract which he had entered into. 
The Court were of opinion that the rule must be | 
discharged. If the contract had been to execute 
the work according to the drawings, there might 
have been something iu the objection ; but the 
contract was to execute the works according to 
the drawing.^, specification, and directions of the 
architect ; and it must be taken as a fact that the 
architect did give directions. The objection, 
therefore, failed. -As to whether or not tbe 
builder was entitled to the £38, the evidence was 
not satisfactory, and the Court would speak to 
Mr. Justice Byles. Rule discharged accordingly. 

Important Decision Underthe Ejectment .\ct. 
— At the Clerkenwell Pohce court, on Monday, 
Mr. Cooke delivered judgment in a cose which 
was brought before him by Mr. Treherne, solicitor, 
under the following circumstances : — Mr. Tre- 
h ern applied on behalf of Mr. Richard Brown, the 
owner of the house No. 2, Prebend-street North. 
Islington, in the occupation of Mr. Thomas Charles 
Redfern, under the 13th section of the 3rd anc 
4th Victoria, cap. 84, for an order to afiix to th< 
premises, they being deserted, calling on Mr. Red 
tern to show cause why he should not either paj 
the back rent, or why an order should not be issuec 
by the magistrate giving the landlord possessioi 
of the premises. An action was brought by Mr 
Brown against the occupier for arrears of rent, am 
a judgment had been obtained for the amoun 
of one quarter's rent, but that judgment had no 
been put in execution. Mr. Treherne contends 
that there was now the whole of the rent due, noi 
withstanding the judgment of the County-courl 
the judgment not being put into execution, an 
hence his application for the magistrate's order t 



Oiar.. 






Jakuary 25, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



l.p affixed to the deserted preraise:*. Jlr. Cooke, 
lifter havingreferred to several cases, said he 
iimstMecline making the order, but tlie order misht 
1..- ^'ranted wheu another three months rcut be- 
K^MiiK- due. 

Thk Recent Snowstoum.— On Tuesday, at the 
weekly meeting of the City Commissioners of 
Sowers held at Guildhall, the fo\u- scavenging 
LLintractors to the Commission were fined in suras 
amounting in all to £9S5 — viz., Mr. Reddin, 
£•280 lOs. ; Mr. Kaston, £313 lOs. ; Mr. Stephens, 
£192 10s.; and Mr. Winn, £200; the whole of 
the penalties so imposed, with the exception of 
.I'-iD in the case of Mr. Stephens, being for neg- 
lecting to .perform conditions of their contracts 
as to the removal of snow during the snowstorm, 
which began on .January 2. 

NOTICE. 
*,* The BniLDiSQ News inserts advertisements 
for " S1TU.VT10NS Wanted," &c., at One Shilling 
for the first Twenty-four Words. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

To Our Re.\ders. — We sliall feel obliged to any of o\ir 
■.'iRlei-s who will favour 113 with brief uutes of woi'ks con- 
Miplateil or in progi-es.^ in the provinces. 
1 .etters relating t»i advertisements and the ordinary busi- 
-s of the paper should bo adclressed to the Editor, lOi!, 
■et-street. Advei-tisoments for the ciu-i-eut week must 
.1 rh the office before 6 o'clock p.m. on Thui-sday. 



Ueceived.— W. B. and Co.— J. J.— W. M.— J. D.— 
II Vf. B.— C. C.-F. C. C— J. C. J.— J. H.— A. R.— 
r L. C— J. L — F. P.— R. F.— T. B.— C. F. H— K. F.— 
W G.— R. audS.— T. D.— U. J., juii,— J. N.— B. andD— 
J. D.— J. T.— \V. H. L.— J. C— W. and S. 

" Gothic's " opinion on the manBiou now erecting fur 
, Richard Hornsby, at the Spittlegate Ironworks, may be 
*|Uit6 correct, and if so, we should be gl.ad to illustrate it 
I iu our pages. Can he send ua a drawing ? 
* T. Ollis.— We cannot undertake to answer general 
questions, such, for instance, as tlie merits of printiugma- 
chines. We think it is desirable to keep as close as possi- 
ble to professional matters. 

The correspondent who signs liiniself "A Bloated 
Aristocrat '' must be a fool. 

A CouNTKV Subscriber — The Buildin'o News %vill be 
published at threepence permanently. The subscribers, 
however, will not be the losers, as they will find as we go 
OH. We will give our reasons for altering the price in our 
ueit number. 



€'Orrtsp0iii)ciice. 



A NEW W'AY TO UTILISE SEWAGE. 
To the Editor of the Buildi.n'g News. 

8111, — [ was ylad to find by a letter of Mr. 
Boardman's, which appeared in your columns 
of the lUh instant, that the question of the 
disposal of the excreta of our town population 
was opened for ventilation. The subject is, un- 
doubtedly, of the utmost importance, for iu it are 
iuvolved considerations affecting the health and 
lives of all the inliabitants of towns, as well as 
the means of producing food for our rapidly 
inc-easing population, the figures coucerning 
which can scarcely be estimated, so vast are the 
interests involved in this great question. This 
word " question " naturally suggests the reflec- 
tion that, if we had adopted an unexceptionable 
method of disposing of tho offensive matters of 
our population, there would be no doubt or 
question for solution. Thus we have admitted 
errors to cure — the problem is how best to ac- 
complish this. 

The old method of storing human excreta in 
cesspits, al'hough, in an ecouoinieal sens", pre- 
ferable to the hydraulic system in affordiog 
valuable agricultural manure, has been found so 
repulsive as to have encouraged the introduction 
of the watercloset to a considerable extent, but 
it is now becoming p.ainfully evident that tho 
modern is little if at all to be preferred to the 
old system ; because, although the former may 
appear to have obviated the more palpable evils 
resulting from the latter, it lias been the means 
of introducing evils of other kinds of a very 
BerioQS character. I allude particularly to the 
polludon of dr nking water, the generation of 
poisonous gases in our sewers, the production of 
■iokness and death iu almost numberless cas s 
and, as a climax to all, tlie utter impossibility of 
eatiifactorily disposing of the polluted water 
Oil.ed "town sewage,'' even although we may be 
willing to forego the advantages which, under 
other circumstances, we might be able to derive 
from the polluting matters as manure, and are 
thus driven to the necessity of relying on foreign 
■nppliea of manure, to the value of many mil- 



lions sterling annually, to compensate for our 
waste. For wo shall not be permitted to con- 
tinue tho practice of conveying town sewage 
into running streams — tho law is against it ; nor 
sliall wo be able to resort to an exteiisivo system 
of "sewage irrigation," because, notwithstanding 
the extravagant pretensions set up in favour ot 
it, anil the " fact " that four or five crops of 
coarse Italian ryegrass may be grown by sewage 
irrigation for two consecutive years, with the ne- 
cessity for breaking U|) the irrigated parts every 
third year in consequenoo of the land having 
become too gross to allow grass to grow because 
of the surface being coated with fbesal matter 
deposited by repeated irrigation; yet we have 
tho still more important and satisfactory fact 
that in Lombardy seven or eight crops of more 
wholesome, because unpolluted, gr.iss are an- 
nually grown by irrigation with pure water, 
without tho necessity of breaking up tho land 
every third year. The truth is, grass is not a 
manure consuming vegation, but it grows abun- 
dantly by the aid of air and water only, and, 
therefore, it is fallacious to suppose the manurial 
or polluting element in sewage is to any im- 
portant extent elirniuatod by its u-e as an irri- 
gaut, because the real polluting matter is in 
solution, and cannot bo'thus separated, as w s 
shown many years ago by a series ot analyses 
of Edinburgh sewage, when it appeared that, 
in five successive applications of sewage to five 
different fields, 2'23 grains out of 221. grains of 
matter in suspension wheu it entered on the 
first field were found to have been depo- 
sited on its leavinor the last of the five fields ; but 
only 15 grains out of 87 grains of matter in 
solution were found to have been eliminated by 
the five successive applications. Now, as the 
urine constitutes about nine-tenths in quantity, 
as well as from four-tifths to six-sevenths of 
manurial or polluting matter, it is evident sew- 
age irrigation is quite ineflTective for divesting 
sewage of its impurity, even although sewage 
may be thus deprived of its repugnant appear- 
ance, or, in fact, of its colouring matter, for 
tho recent analyses of London well waters by 
Dr. Letheby show the danger of relying on 
such deceptive appearances as bright sparkling 
water. 

I must not, however, trespass too much on 
your space, but I beg to refer you to my 
pamphlet on the "sewage difficulty," iu which 
I have entered pretty foully into the various 
phases of this imjiortant subject. Although this 
subject is surrounded with diffieulti s, I tliiuk 
we must be. careful, iu attempting to overcome 
them, to avoid committing ourselves to erro- 
neous schemes; because in so doing the remedy 
might be worse than the disease. Of such a 
character do I consider Dr. Hawksley's new 
scheme for remedying the evils of the present 
sewage arrangements. 

Dr. Hawksley occupied about two hours of 
time which might have been more profitably 
employed at the "Leamington Congress," in 
delivering a paper on the earth closet system, 
in which he sought to show that if the inhabi- 
tants of London would adopt the use of 
Moule's earth, closet, which would only re- 
quire the collecting men to call daily with fresh 
supplies of dried earth, aud remove the pails 
containing the earth charged with the previous 
dav's product, then the diliijulties aud mischief 
produced by the present arrangements would be 
obviated, and the ratepayers might realise a profit 
of, I think he said, 7s. perhead annually. I coincide 
in the Doctor's opinion that even the scheme he 
proposed would be far preferable to the hydraulic 
method of polluting an enormous quantity ot 
water, which cannot be satisfactorily got rid of; 
but I deny the correctness of his conclusion 
that any profit whatever could by the utmost 
stretch of proDahility be derived fiom so cum- 
bersome, and, with tho preposseasiou of Lon- 
doners in favour of the watercloset system, 
perfectly hopeless and impracticable a proposal. 
Londoners will, however, have to reform their 
present sanitary arrangements, bat they will 
not consent to do this until they Ijave spent 
many more millions in abortive attempts to 
patch np the present erroneous system, or until 
the population has been decimated by some fear- 
ful visitation consequent on bad sanitary arrange- 
ments. There is, however, ample fOope and ne- 
cessity for sanitary reform in other parts of the 
kingdom, and to those localities should we direct 
attention. 

As I have no right to cavil at other persons' 
schemes without being able to propound some- 
thing which I believe to be better, I will now 



briefly propose my remedy, and in doing so I feel I 
am open to have my plans controverted as freely 
as 1 have criticised those of others. Maiiurialiy 
.and practically, tho polluting and mischievous 
elements in town sewage consist of tho excreta of 
the population. Although there aro other pollut- 
ing matters, tlioso are so trifling and unimportant 
as to be liardly worth notice. The excreta of 
each adult amounts to about 1 cwt. of fo»:!es and 
about 10 cwt. of urine annually. Tho urine pos- 
sesses, as proved by oft-repeated analysis, from 
four-fifths to six. sevenths of the manurial value 
as well as of nearly all the power for mischief by 
percolation. Each ton of human urine, unini,xed 
and undiluted, is worth chemically for manure 
20s. I therefore propose to collect tho urine 
passed during nondefocation separately and apart 
from the fceoes as far as possible, by means of my 
fixed or portable saving urinals, without tho 
slightest oU'enoe or aunoyanoo, and then remove 
it to tho suburbs, where it would have, as I 
have already said, an intrinsic manurial value 
of 2O3. per ton for agriculture. But as 
it would not be suitable for market in a liquid 
state I treat it chemically by means of very 
inexpeusive agents', so as to obtain tho full 
manurial value known to be inherent iu urine, 
after which I evaporate tho merely aqueous 
portion and thus convert it into a dry concen- 
trated powder manure possessing all the requi- 
sites for agricultural purposes. It is obvious 
the urine might be collected from tanks at con- 
venient interv.ils, or even by a system of under- 
ground pipes such as is adopted in localities 
where it is collected for use by woollen manufac- 
turers. By these means I obtain a far more 
satisfactory result than cuuld possibly be obtained 
by preparing and conveying into the town two 
or three tons of dried earth to be used as a 
vehicle for taking back to the country a pre- 
paration of manurial matter which, after all, 
could not possess more thauone-hali or one-third 
the value of its cost. 

Having thus provided for the collection ami 
manipulation of by far tho larger as well as 
more valuable portion of the excreta, there 
would not be much difficulty in providing for the 
disposal of the more repugnant although less 
valuable portion of the excreta, the foaces. This 
I would accomplish by the means indicated 
in my pamphlet; but, instead of using dried 
earth, which, although nominally most abun- 
dant, is nevertheless not so easily obtained 
as some other suitable matters, I rhould 
use, at the rate of about 2 cvvt. yearly for each 
per.son, a cheap and easily available carbonaceous 
matter produced in town^, and which would be 
iu ,a more concentrated form than earth. Such 
a system as I have briefly alluded to would un- 
doubtedly produce a very large profit, without 
creating the slightest annoyance or injui-y to 
health, and thus be the means of obviating the 
evils of the present sanitary arrangements, as 
well as producing an abundance of concentrated 
manure suited to all agi icultural purposes. And 
now a few words as to the pretensions set np by 
Mr. Mottle respecting the deodorising effects of 
dried earth. Such a claim is evidently a mere 
delusion, because so far back as the year 1SS8 
Mr. Thomas Swinburne patented a dry or earth 
closet, and published a prospectus which I re- 
cently re[:)rinted in the Leamington Courier^ draw- 
ing attention to tho advantages derivable from 
its use and the disadvantages of the hydraulic 
system. I was the inventor and co-patentee of 
Moule and Bannehr's earth closet, which I re- 
linquished in Mr. Moule's favour because I placed 
but small value on it as an agent for solving the 
sewage difficulty. — I am, &G., 

Exeter, January 23. J. BiNNEHB. 



DANGEROUS WALKING. 
Sir, — At the present season of the year, one of 
the greatest dangers to which pedestrians are 
liable arises from the slippery state of the coal 
plates on the pavement. 1 refer iiartieularly to 
those that are smooth on top. These covers may 
be said to be more or less dangerous at all times, 
but they are especially dangerous in wet or dirty 
weather. The recent severe frost and snow storm 
rendered them as smooth as glass, and the conse- 
quence was that a number of serious accidents oc- 
curred to old and young, owing to the impossi- 
bility of always avoiding walking on these plates, 
or knowing their position when the pavement is 
covered with snow. Within the last few weeks I 
have mtuessed several mishaps where women 
and old folks have received severe injuries from 
having slipped their foot on these nuisances. 



76 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 25, 1867. 



Casualties of this nature must be very numerous 
in the metropolis, since there is hardly a street 
door without a coal plate in front of it, and it so 
happens that the plates commonly in use are the 
plain or smooth surfaced ones. If they coald all 
he abolished, and roughened plates substituted in 
their stead, it would be a blessing, say I. Really 
I consider that this is a matter of some public im- 
portance, and deserving the attention of district 
boards of works. Is there any reason why pro- 
prietors and landlords should not be instructed to 
lay down roughened coal plates, if it can be shown 
that smooth ones are a public nuisance and a 
danger ? The difference in price between the two 
articles would be but a few shillings, so that no 
hardship would be inflicted on proprietors by being 
obliged to conform to such an order. On the 
other hand, we should thus get rid of at least one 
of the dangers of the streets of London. — I am, 
&c., Pro Bono Publico. 



DURABILITY OF ZIXC. 

Sib, — I feel obliged to point out that the opin- 
ions expressed in the Boilding News of the 11th 
inst., as to the durability of zinc, are calculated to 
mislead those who have no practical knowledge of 
the subject. A great many properly constructed 
roofs of good zinc have now been erected all over 
the country, and in most instances, after careful 
inquiry. The advantages of a zinc roof are well 
understood by the highest authorities in such 
matters. The chief advantage is, not its light- 
ness, but its durability ; when once properly laid 
it wants no repairs, and when well constructed, if 
a sheet becomes injured in any way it is easily 
taken out and replaced. 

So called galvanised iron is not more durable — 
in fact, is not durable at all, for it depends solely 
upon the protecting surface of thin zinc with 
which it is coated. Galvanised iron is being re- 
moved from various important roofs and being re- 
placed by zinc. I shall be happy to give your cor- 
respondents any information as to the mode of 
forming a good and lasting roof of zinc, the three 
main requisites being — pure metal, a proper thick- 
ness, and right workmanship. For the evil results 
which occur where all or any of these particulars 
are neglected, I need only refer to the experience 
of your correspondent, " J. R." (Intercommuni- 
cation, January 11). The effects of steam in a 
very large railway station, where there was no 
boarding, and where galvanised iron had perished 
and zinc has been substituted, was anxiously in- 
quired into by myself and the engineer of the rail- 
way company, but no good reason appeared why 
steam should do harm. — I am, &c., 

James Edme ston, Architect. 

5, Croiva court. Old Broad-street, E.G. 
Janu.T/ 21. 



CHESTER TOWN-HALL. 



Sir,— A correspondent in your last number, who signs 
himself " Deva," accuses my letter iu the pretious number 
of being " calculated to mislead," and, without slioniug 
wherein its tendency to do so consists, he proceeds to give 
liis version of the strike and its consequences, and in such 
a manner as to surprise those who, being citizens, are 
acquainted with the facts. From his letter it might natu- 
rally be inferral that the strike and transfer of the 
contract were simultaneous, and almost consequent on 
each other, when the fact is that the strike had been 
pending some weeks previous to the transfer. The strike 
was at that time a local one, confined to the Chester 
branch alone, and unsupported by the Masons' society .-it 
targe ; still men from a distance on learning that the stop- 
page was the result of a turn-out, refused to work on the 
job. Finding this to be the case the executive of tlie 
society were communicated with, and two delegates were 
Bent to investigate the matter at the beginning of last 
month ; the result being that the strike is now counte- 
nanced by the society. These are facts of which '• Deva " 
must be cognisant, though apparently not honest enough 
to assert them. I omit, as 1 did before, all allusions to the 
cause of the dispute, as my sole object is to tell the truth, 
and not to be a party to any deception if I am aware of it. 
— I am, &c., John ^RA^■CIS. 

27, Pitt-atreet, Chester, January 22. 



|nlnTomnumic;itioii. 



QUESTIONS, 

CARVING. 
[195.] — You will very much oblige me if you can inform 
me, in your " Notices to CoiTespou dents " of next week's 
i83ue, what is the best authority for a carver to obtain a 
knowledge of the way in which figures such as saiuta, 
gods, ana goddesses, &c., should be represented. 

A Working Man. 



COMPOSITION FOR MODELLING. 

[196,] — Would any of your numerous readers inform me, 

♦hrough the medium of your journal, the best composition 



for a beginner to model with — one that is easy to cut, for I 
find plaster of Paris too hard for me to use at present? By 
so doing they will greatly oblige Novice, 



STONE DAMAGED BY FROST. 

[197.] — Will you kindly insert the following in your 
valuable '' Intercommunication Column," in the hope that 
I may obtain a solution to it from some practically ex- 
perienced man, to whom I would be much obUged ? What 
damage, if any, is done to stone {placed on its natural bed 
iu a buildingj that has been riven asunder or lifted up by 
tlie frost? Size of blocks about 2ft. 3iu. by 2ft. by 2ft. 
No weight is placed upon the stoue at present. And if tlie 
atones were built in. and the work was finished, whether it 
would then have been diimaged in a similar manner? To 
be more concise, is the stone so fractured as sound and 
good in a building as it was before the frost so affected it ? 

A SOBSC&IBEB. 



ALTERING CRANES. 

[198.]— Having lately been obliged to raise the level of 
my wharf floor whereon a crane stands that I have used for 
some years, it would be a great convenience to me to be 
able Ui change the pitch of thejib so as to geta higher lift. 
The present length of the arm, which consists of a couple 
of round iron bars, is 10ft. fiin., and the height uf the post 
ii 3ft. Cin. As the old post is worn out I shall put up a 
new one, and I should be greatly indebted to any of your 
correspondents who would let me know, when I have made 
it 16ft. long instead of l3ft. 6in. (the length of the old one), 
what will be the reduced length of the arm or tie-bars in 
order that I may use the same jib, which is an excellent, 
sound, and thoroughly seasoned stick, and I should be sorry 
to lose it. I should also wish to know whether the differ- 
ence in the pitch of thejib will make any alteration in its 
strength, and if so, to what extent. The crane lifti up 
to 2i tons, and the foundation is perfect, 

WHAErHOLDER. 



METALLING. 

[199.]— Could you inform me in your next number what 
are the proper contents of a heaped bushel of metalling? 
I have had several measurements of mine lately questioned 
upon this point, and I wish to be certain that I am doing 
Biy work rightly. Scrvetob's Assistant. 

IRON'WORK FOR FRANCE. 

[200.] — Tn doing ironwork intended to be put up in 
France, do tlie regulations of the Board of Trade here agree 
with those of the French authorities? An answer to this 
question will oblige a Dratghtsman in Ironwork. 

[By no means. If you are engaged in getting out draw- 
ings for ironwork in France you had better at once commu- 
nicate with the officers of " Les Fonts et Chaussees." 
With respect to wrought iron, for instance, the rule of the 
Board of Trade is that no portion of any structure of that 
material shall be subjected to a greater strain than 5 tons 
]>er square inch of nett area. The corresponding rule in 
France fixes the maximvim strain at 3'82 tons per square 
inch of gross area, and the other regulations are similarly 
at variance with ours.] 



CAST-IRON GIRDERS. 

[201.] — I require the assistance of your reader* in the 
following case- I wish to know how to obtain the breaking 
weight with the load spread evenly over the girder, of a 
cast-iron girder having the following dimensions: — The 
depth is 1ft. 9in., the span 20fc. ; the breatlth of the t<jp 
and bottom flanges is luin. and 5in. respectively, and the 
thickness of each 1 Jin. The middle part is about iin. in 
thickness. I am about to incre.ise the present load upon 
it, and I wish to ascertain if I may do so safelv. 

' C. C. 

CONVERSION OF STANDARD WEIGHTS. 

[203. ] — Is there any rule or formula for converting pounds 
troy into pounds avoirdupois. Very recently the question 
has frequently been put to me, and you would confer a favour 
upon me if you would allow me to use your valuable me- 
dium of intercommunication for the purpose of satisfyiug 
myself. 

A Country SrHOOLMASTrK. 

[Our corresx)ondent may convert pounds avoirdupois into 
pounds troy by multiplying by the constant 1 ■2152, and can 
of course reverse the operation by dividing by the same 
constant instead of multiplying ] 



WEAR AND TEAR OF MACHINERY. 
[203.] — Five years ago I stai-ted mechanical works which 
have not paid as I was led to expect, and I am therefore 
determined to sell ofi" my premises and stock and retire 
trom the concern altogether. It would be conferring a 
favour upon me if you or some of your numerous readers 
would give me some idea of the percentage liable to be de- 
ducted from the first cost for the wear and tear of the 
various machines and implements since I first started. 
They were all new at the time I have mentioned, and have 
been carefully handled and used during the time they have 
been at work. Retireb,' 



PARLOUR STEAM ENGINES. 

[204.] — Can you give me any information on these 
machines ? as Uiave seen them mentioned in some of the 
public papers. People in country towns are frequently 
verj' ignorant of things with which Londoners are quite 
famlUar. 

[The Parlour Steam Engine is simply a scientific toy. It 
goes very rapidly. By using scent instead uf water for 
getting up the steam a refreshing perfume soon pervades the 
room. J 



WATER PRESSURE. 

[205.1 — I take the liberty, through the medium of your 
intercommunication column, of asking yourreaders to be so 
good as to inform me what is tlie pressure per square yard 
on a dam when tiie velocity of the current acting upon it 
is three miles per hour, and also when it is four miles. 



HOT WATER FOR CEMENTS. 

[20G.]— I should feel obliged if any of your read- 
ers «an inform me, through the medium of your Intercom- 



munication columns, whether there is any advantage o 
disadvantage in mixing cuinents. mortars, piasters. 4ic.' 
with hot instead of with cold water? If any of your 
correspondents have tried e.\periments on cements, «Sw:., 
with hot water, and have found any perceptible diff^erenco 
in facility of working, rapidity of setting, durability, or 
otherwise, I should esteem it a favour if they would give 
me particulars of the results, or refer me to a.ny pMbhcst- 
tion in which 1 can find a description of them. 

Amateur. 



MEASUREMENT OF TIMBER. 

[207.] — I have received the invoice copied below from a 

timber dealer, and 1 don t know aow it is calculated : — 

40 Spruce Deals, Ilift. 3 x 7 i ,r 

40 do, 12ft. 3x9 } ^ . ToAfiift 

40 do. 12ft. 3 X 11 j ^ ^ - 26 6-18. 

If you would have the goodness to show me the mode of 

doing it I can assure you I should feel very mJfch obliged. 

MiLO. 



PERSPECTIVE INSTRUMENTS. 

[SOS. ] — Many thanks for your insei-tion of my inquiry in 
your columtis. I find from a list of instruments that the 
one I want information upon is called a centrolinead, and 
what I now desire to know is the principle of its working, 
itsadju-straent, and when it would he advantageous to use 
it (for I know several draughtsmen who never use it). I 
have lookedinto several books on mathematical instrumeuta, 
but have not been able to find a description of it. 

CO'LLINOFORD. 

[The instrument alluded to by our correspondent was 
invented many years ago by Sir. Shnttleworth, who was 
rewarded by the Society of Arts for his invention. It is of 
great use in perspective drawing, but of not the slightest 
use in any other kind, and scarcely one draughtsman in ten 
knows anything about it except he be continually engaged 
in making peRpective designs. The centrolinead consista 
of a blade about 2ft. 3in. long, a stock Ift. 4in. long and 
2^in. wide, and an ivory scale Sin. long and divided into 
ten parts is attached to it. One edge of the stock has a 
small re-entering angle about 7^ degrees at the centre, and 
it is along thi« edge that the ivory scale is applied. One of 
the uses of the instrument i3 as follows : — If the draughts, 
man desires to draw converging lines to one or more Inac- 
cessible vanishing points, let him ascertain from the plan 
how far the vanishing point is from any point in the hori- 
zontal line. Place the angle of the centrolinead stock oa 
that point ; lay the edge of the blade along the horizontal 
line, and refer to the scale for the figures coiTesponding to 
the number of feet and inches in the required distance, and 
at those poiatd fix pins in the drawing board. The vanish- 
ing point will be as many feet and inches distance from the 
angle of the instrument as the pins are distant in di#isiona 
and subdivisions from the same angle. The value and full 
use of the instrument can, of coui-ae, only be learned by 
actual practice and study. ] 



REPLIES, 
IRON IN CESSPOOLS. 

(IS3.] — To be explicit, for "M. M." and others' sake, 
allow me, Mr. Editor, to state that I have to fill up a 
cesspool (loft, deep by Oft. in diameter) one-fifth (3ft.) in 
height from the bottom, i\'ith small pieLies of iron, to 
utilise the contents for garden manure. In doing this [ 
only carry out instructions from my employer, who had 
been advised to adopt it by a friend, and I honestly confesa 
that in my practice of upwards of thirty years, 1 have 
never known such a thing used or advocated ; and ' , with 
" M. M.," doubt its utility ; yet in these days of advance- 
ment there may be some that can throw some light upon it. 
If so, I should feel much obliged for any infonuation they 
can give. Constant Keader. 



GAS PIPES. 

[194.]— lam inclined to think that the Gin. protecting 
pipe might with safety be carried up through the floor aa 
" Old Subscriber" mentions, but all such experiments are 
extremely hazardous. In new buildings the authorities 
never permit any naked pipe serving as a flue to be brought 
into contact with the woodwork, and when we consider 
the f .tal and innumerable accidents that have been caused 
by the overheating of pipes and the consequent ignition of 
the wood in contact with them, we cannot but feel 
they are right. No one would probably maintain 
that the plan proposed by ''Old Subscriber" is not 
to all appearance a perfectly safe one, but at the same 
time I thiuk no one would like to maintain that in the 
event of the outside pipe becoming overheated an accident 
might not ensue. L. P. D. 



CEMENT FLOORS. 

[1S9.1— In answer to yours of the llth inst. (So. 189.). 
respecting cement iloors. By using the washed road grit in 
three substances — coarse at base, second centre, fine at 
surface ; 3iu. for public foot trattic, 2in. for yards. 1 ,in. for 
kitchens, acuilerj-, and cellars, one in three of the best 
Portland cement. This surpasses all round beach or York 
stone, as it has no flaking properties, but angle and bind- 
ing. Having done some in Ramsgate, at several instances, 
one for public traffic, in King-street, adjacent the market, 
in ISGO, there being no appearance of wear on the surface 
of that yet, nor do I think there will be. Should advance of 
thickness be required for sewers, horses, carts, or waggons, 
use well-burnt hard batts, bedded, in blue mortar, not 
tlnshed, will give akey forthe concrete,iandJfonnasolid,6in. 
thick. To prevent slipping in frosty weather, cro^sit with 
a sharp tooth rake into lines ; reverse to form squares, 
that must act with just as the concrete is setting; also 
for stables, coachhouses, meat, and fruit markets. A 
ditferent groove would be for fish and cattle markets or 
roads Hin. wide. Iin. deep, would form a level that would 
stand traffic, and uot crush when thoroughly set to form 
by using weU-seasoued oak laths IJin. wide, liu deep, 
across roads, &c. The surface to be executed rough, with 
a ditto floating rule, the laths to be removed after con- 
crete being set. Such could be thoroughly cleansed in 
any department, there being no joints for corrosion, as in 
other pa\ings, for filth. — I am, &c., James Saxby, Guil- 
ford Lawn, Ramsgate, January 16. 



I 



January 25, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



77 



^S^utidcstious. 



UNDER this head we hope to give from time 
to time some useful hints on matters apper- 
taining to materials, construction, public con- 
venience, domestic economy, and a score of other 
matters which will be found both valuable and 
interesting to our readers. As we shall to some 
extent be depending on correspondents to give 
variety, scope, and utility to this column we most 
respectfully beg to snHcit practical suggestions 
from all for the good of all. 

COAL FIRES. 
In order to keep coal fires in stoves over night G. S. IJ. 
siiggestA that the firo bo i»vered with firebricks fitt-jd to the 
eize of thu stove. On rfinoviug the bricks iu the moniinii 
a clear fire will be fountl, much easier revived thau when 
aahes are u-sed as covering. 



SOFTENING LE.\THER. 
Permit me to sir.^esi tiie use of ca'*t<.ir-oil for softening 
leather which h;is Woiuo lianleneJ either by time or expo- 
sure to weather. Hardened boots rubbed with this oil and 
let stand for forty-eight hours twcome soft and pliable : so 
al-'wdo driving bands, harness, fee. P. F. N. 



ACCIDENTS ON ICE. 
After the catastrophe in Regent's park, which sent a 
thrill of horror thn>ugh the Britisli he;xrt. many suggestions 
wew made to prevent accideuts in future, or if they occur 
to mitigate them. The iu"j^t practical hint thn>wn out, we 
think, was that of suspending rupes across the waters in the 
parks, as if fium clothes poles, so that when an (infortxuiate 
alips through the Ice the rope may be lowered imme<liately 
fox Ills assistance. 



DOMESTIC FIRES. 
The suggestion maile by Mr. Samuel Warren in refer- 
ence to economising fuel, and which appeared in the last 
number, has called foith many responses. One correspond- 
ent says, '■ 1 have tried the plan and found it to answer 
capitally." Another says, "How extraordinai-y that so 
simple a thing was never suggested before." Our corre- 
spondent is wrong hero ; it has been acted on, we hear, fur 
Bome y*arB past. Mr. Warren, in another letter to a con- 
i-eraporarj". says, " I beg to inform your readers, first, th.t 
the plates are equally applicable to large and small .grates. 
Secondly, that the plates last a long time, mine having 
been in use seven yeai-s. and I see nn reason why they 
should not last seven years longer. Thirdly, the cinders 
falling on the hearth after poking the fire should from time 
to time be placed on the fire, a^ they contribute greatly 
towards keeping it at a uniform red heat. Fourthly, the 
plate is specially useful in a kitchen grate, securing an 
excellent ruddy and uniform frontage for roasting, and here 
also, the cinders on the h&irth are a ver>- valuable addition 
to the fire. Lastly, after the fire has been once made up 
by and bye will be seen (say in about two houi-s' time) a 
hollow in the fire causetl by the combustion underneath. 
Then press down the top of the fi^re. and jou have a second 
in excellent onler ; and so you go on, as may be neceasar>', 
adding as much fresh coal as may be deemed requisite. 
With myself a fire of average size, made up about ten or 
eleven a.m. lasts, with a few occasional fillips by way of 
pressing down and poking up, till half-past four or five 
p.m. without fresi) co.»l. 1 find that these plates are 
rapidly getting into use everywhere : and in a Hull paper 
just sent Ut me it is said "the uniform testimony ia that it 
answers admirably." 



fniKbing IntcKigrnfc. 



CHURCHES AND CHAPELS, 
A new Primitive Methodist chapel at Rawden 
Wiu opened last week, ^and the cost, including 
school-rooms, will be about £2,000. Sir. Dre^-ing 
is the architect. 

The Countess of Huntingdon's chapel, on Mount 
Ephraim, Tunbridge Wells, is about to be rebuilt 
from the designs of Messrs. Wimble and Taylor, of 
Walbrook. 

Croydon Church is to be restored by voluntary 
subscriptions. Upwards of £6,000 was raised at 
a public meeting held the other day, and the church- 
wardens have received £9,200 from the insurance 
offices. 

The Rev. Prebendary Charles Mackenzie has just 
taken possession of the Uving of All Hallows, Lorn, 
bard street, which has been united by Act of Par- 
liament with the Parish of St. Benet, Gracechurch. 
The spacious church of the last-named parish, 
situate at the corner of Gracechurch-street and 
Feuchurch-street, will consequently be removed 
in the course of a few weeks, the materials sold, 
and the site devoted to secular purposes. With 
a portion of the purchase money a new church 
will be erected in the parish of Stepney, with 
an endowment of £300 a year for the incumbent. 
HuDDERSFiELD. — The New Connexion new 
chapel in High-street, though not quite finished, 
was opened recently. It has been designed in 
the Decorated Gothic style of the fourteenth 
century, by William Hill, Esq., architect, of Leeds, 
■whose design was selected froin a limited com- 



petition of architectural designs publicly ex- 
hibited previous to selection. The new building 
stands clear of others — the four elevations being 
built of pitched-faced wall stones in courses, this 
stone being from the Longwood edge quarries. 
The ashlar and other hewing stuff are from the 
contractor's quarries at Crosl,ind-hi)l. The ground 
plan is a parallelogram 96ft. by 60ft., with tran- 
septs, vestries, and staircases projecting from each 
side, and at the north end, making a total width 
of 88ft., outside measurement, and tobil length 
96ft. The total cost of the chapel will be about 
£9,500. The contractors for the works were Abra- 
ham Graham aud Sons, masons ; Robert Whiteley 
j oiners', carpenters', and smiths' work ; H. Garton, 
plumber ; John Brook, painter ; D. Tunnacliffe, 
plasterer. Mr. William Smith has acted as clerk 
of works. The stone carving has been executed 
by Mr. S. Ruddock. 

Poplar. — The large and beautiful church of St. 
Stephen lately completed in the E.ast India Dock, 
road. Poplar, was to have been consecnated on St. 
Stephen's day December 26 last, but owing to the 
illness of the Bishop of Londor and the desire 
of the principal subscribers that no other prelate 
should officiate at the opening ceremony, the con- 
secration will not take place until the Bishop of 
London is sufficiently recovered to take part in the 
ceremony and preach the consecration sermon. 
Mr. Henry Green, the shipbuilder, has given £6,000 
towards the building and endowment fund of the 
church. The ladies of the new district of St. 
Stephen have presented a magniticent stained 
glass window for thechancel, at an expense of 200 
guineas. The seats in the church are all open, and 
th«re are no pews, but in one part of the building 
there are comfortable seats with backs to them for 
the accommodation of aged and infirm persons of 
both sexes. It was intended to erect a lofty tower 
and spire at the south-east ingle of the church, 
aud the height was to be ISOft. ; but owing to 
the want of sufficient funds, the plan cannot at 
present be entirely carried out. The tower has 
been abruptly terminated at a height of 50ft. The 
architect of the church is Mr. Francis, whose de- 
signs] have been carried out by Mr. Howard, the 
builder. The total expenchture on the new church 
will not be less than £20,000. There will be no 
ritualism or histrionic services in the new church. 
The tirst incumbent will be the Rev. Mr. Little, of 
Walthamstow. 

ToByUAT. — A church is about to be erected at 
EUacombe, Torquay, for the accommodation of 
this fast increasing neighbourhood, at an outlay 
of about £5,000. Sir Lawrence Palk, M.P., has 
already given the ground, and competition designs 
are to be advertised for. Babbicombe Church 
Torquay, is still progressing. The nave is approach- 
ing completion, but this, is with the exception of 
the tower, the only work yet commenced. 

BUILDINGS. 
Bbadford. — TheNewE.xchange. — This building, 
says a local contemporary, is fast approaching com- 
pletion. The exterior, with the exception of the 
final touches from the hands of the carvers in 
stone, is now all but finished ; and the great hall, 
it is hoped, will in a month or two be completed. 
The medallions which are now being sculptured 
along the front of the exchange represent men 
among statesmen, navigators, engineers, and 
manufacturers who have cleared the way for trade, 
and to whose lives and labours towns such as 
Bradford owe their,prosperity. Next to the tower, 
in the place of honour on the Market-street front, 
the head of Cobden is appropriately placed, and 
next to that is a finely chiselled head of Mr. Titus 
Salt. These are all that are finished on this front, 
but heads of Stephenson and Watt are partly com- 
pleted, aud there are to follow in order Arkwright, 
Jacquard, Gladstone, and Palmerston. Along the 
Bank-street front the heads already finished are 
those of Sir Walter Raleigh, Drake, and Columbus, 
and these are to be supplemented by Captain Cook 
and Commodore Anson. In front of the tower 
under the canopies, there will be statues — one of 
Bishop Blaize, patron of the woolcombers. 

Gloucestershire. — The Newnham National 
Schools. — The contract for these buildings has 
be»n taken by Mr. Coleman, who is proceeding 
with the works under the direction of Messrs. 
Medland, Mabely and Medland, the architects to 
the committee. 

Gloucestershire. — Severn Bank Hotel, Newn- 
ha:j. — The contract for this building was taken by 
Mr. Coleman, of Chaxlull, at £3,300, and he is now 
piogressing with the works. The hotel comprises 
large coffee room, smoking room, commercial 
room, bar, manager's rooms, kitchens, offices, and 



conveniences on the ground floor, with some pri. 
vate sitting-rooms and bed-rooms on the first and 
second floor. The hotel, as its name implies, 
stands on the banks of the Severn, and commands 
beautiful views of the river and the neighbour- 
ing hills. It will, no doubt, become a place of re- 
sort during the summer months, both from it« 
proximity to the Forest of Dean, which abounds in 
beautiful scenery, and from the absence of proper 
hotel accommodation for the district. The archi- 
tects are Messrs. Medland, Maberly, and Medland of 
London aud Gloucester. 

♦ 

STATITES, MEMORIALS, &c. 

A movement is on foot to erect a monument 
over the grave of the late Mr. Robert Dick, of 
Thurso, the distinguished botanist and geologist. 

Arrangements are being made for the erection 
of a monument to the memory of the late Sir W. 
Wynn, Bart, at Rhosymedre. 

Mr. Charles Bacon, the sculptor, is at present 
executing a bust of hia Royal Highness the Duke 
of Edinburgh. 



ieiieral Htms. 



The Liverpool Town Council have agreed to 
present a bill to Parliament for powers to abolish 
the existing slaughter-houses in the town, and to 
build pubUc abattoirs at Stanley, near Liverpool, 
to be subject to the control of the Corporation, at 
a cost not exceeding £200,000. 

The nineteenth annual ball in aid of the funds 
of the Builders' Benevolent Institution will take 
place on Thursday next, the 31st inst. 

The Liverpool Town Council has agreed to sup- 
port the Liverpool Tramways Bill, which is to 
be brought before Parliament iu the ensuing 
session. 

Tub New Cemetert, Belfast. — The joint com- 
mittee appointed by the Town Council to investi- 
gate the merits of the v<arious plans for the new 
cemetery on the Falls-road, Belfast, have selected 
the design of Mr. Gay, of Bradford, subject, we 
understand, to several alterations. The area of the 
cemetery is 45 acres within the walls, and the lay- 
ing out of the ground, planting, draining, and 
boundary walls is estimated to cost about £10,000 

Caught. — A person living in the Rue Mont- 
martre, Paris, finding that his coals were being 
stolen from his cellar, disposed amongst the heaps 
some petards of his own manufacture, made to 
resemble lumps of coal. Ou Thursday a violent 
explosion was heard in the porter's lodge, where 
the stove, pipe, and all had been blown up ; this 
explosive detective had done its work, and the 
oncierge was arrested. 

Ah Ancient Passage. — A party of sappers and 
miners are again engaged in exploring the ancient 
pass.age leading from under York Tower of Windsor 
Castle, in order if possible to trace its source. This 
passage, it will be remembered, was visited by some 
members of the Antiquarian Society, a few months 
since, and created much speculation as to its origin 

Paris and London Omnibuses. — The Paris Om- 
nibus Company, having found it necessary, in 
order to increase their receipts per omnibus in 
proportion to their increased expenditure, recently 
determined on constructing omnibuses to carry 
twenty -six passengers, i.e., two more than hitherto ; 
but in affording the necessaiy accommodation they 
found the weight of the omnibus so much in- 
creased as to exceed the powers of the horses, 
and so create a serious difference in the wear and 
tear of the stock. In this difficulty they applied 
to the London General Omnibus Company, whose 
omnibuses, constructed to carry twenty-six pas- 
sengers, besides the driver and conductor, weigh 
only 23 cwt. A visit has accordingly been mad e 
to the works of the latter company by one of the 
directors and the manager of the coach factory of 
the Paris company, which has resulted in the pur- 
chase and shipment to Paris of a London omni- 
bus, constructed, and complete in every particu- 
lar, for the London streets, at the coach factory 
of the London General Omnibus Company, to 
serve as a model. 

Obitcart. — We regret to announce the death 
of another of those eminent scientific experimen- 
talists and discoverers of whom the present age 
has been so prolific. Sir William Snow Harris, 
F.R.S., universally known as the inventor of the 
only safe method of Ughtning conductors, died 
this week. He was born at Plymouth in 1792, 
and was of humble origin. 



78 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



January 25, 1867. 



An esteemed con'espondent, and an authority in 
such matters, in a letter says ; — " I am dehghted 
with your criticisms on the National Gallery com- 
petitions : the drawings are almost beneath con- 
tempt. Why don't you have a slap at Barry's Can- 
non-street shed ? where the roof looks as if it had 
slipt through the supporting towers. This, I 
believe, of all unshapely thingsy is the most un- 
shapely and unconstructional." 

The Recorder of Hull's Plax for Saving 
Coal. — Mr. C. Johnson, of Hull, says that he has 
adopted the suggestion of the Kecorder of Hull 
for saving coal, by covering the bottom of the grate 
with a plate of iron, with the following result : — 
" The result in my house, where I have had 
quarter-inch iron plates fitted at the bottom of 
two fire-grates, at an expense of 2s. each, is a 
saving in coal of about one-third, with a consider- 
able increase in heat. A large number of persons 
here have already satisfactorily tried the experi- 
ment, and the use of the plate is likely to become 
general in this locality." 

QOEENSLAND Land REGULATIONS. — To encou- 
rage the settlement of farm hands in the colony 
an act has been passed by the Queensland Legis- 
lature enabling persons to lease from 30 acres to 
2,560 acres on the following terms ; — Any of the 
country lands which are frequently being put up 
to auction 'oeyond the distance of two miles from 
the boundary of any town or village at an upset 
price of 203. an acre, if not sold at the auction 
or by selection within thirty days after being 
offered at auction, will be leased to first applicant 
at an annual rent of 2s. 6d. an acre, paid in cash or 
emigrants' land orders, the eighth payment to 
secure the full purchase of the land, after which a 
deed or grant in fee simple will be issued by the 
Government. This is specially intended, and 
no doubt will have the effect of encouraging the 
settlement of sheep farmers with limited means, 
as well as agriculturists, on the extensive and fer- 
tile lands throughout the colony. The extent of 
the new colony of Queensland is nearly twelve 
times that of England and Wales. 

Consecrating a Gas Factory. — The city of 
Moscow was hghted with gas for the first time on 
December 27. At two in the afternoon a large 
number of persons who had been invited were pre- 
sent at the consecration of the gas factory, when a 
" Te Deum" was sung. The guests, after partak- 
ing of a breakfast, proceeded to the Kremlin, 
where the lighting was to commence. The people 
had gathered around a gas lamp opposite the Ca- 
thedral of St. Michael, near the Czar's bell. A 
platform covered with red cloth had been erected 
and was occupied by a military band. At half- 
past four the mayor ascended the jilatform, took a 
taper intended to light the lamp, whilst one of the 
other gentlemen turned on the gas, the band 
playing the national hymn. The music had 
not ceased before the whole Kremlin was lighted, 
as well as 2,016 lamps in the streets of the city. 

The New Docks at Suez. — A recent letter 
from Suez says : — " The new careening dock con- 
structed by the Viceroy, Ismail Pacha, near this 
town, was inaugurated yesterday in presence of 
the Consuls of England, Italy, and France, and 
numerous Egyptian dignitaries. It is about 425ft. 
long, nearly 100ft. mde, and more than 31ft. deep. 
It is in advance of Suez, in face of the mountains 
of Attaka, and has the desert to the left. At a 
given signal water was admitted from the sea, and 
the dock was filled. Then the steamer " Taka," 
belonging to the Viceroy, entered amidst shouts 
from the people. The "Taka" was afterwards 
removed, and the dock was emptied — an operation 
which lasted six hours. Tlie dock has been 
executed by French and Egyptian engineers." 

The Bristol Assize Courts. — The time for 
holding the spring assize will soon be here, says 
the Western Vaibj Press, and still there is no hope 
of anything being done in the matter of the new 
courts. We may expect a strong reprimand from 
the judges, and another representation to the 
Home Secretary. What is to be done ? Is any- 
thing to be done ? Do the council intend to 
adopt either of Messrs. Godwin and Crisp's 
designs, or do they intend to throw the subject 
open for another competition ? Perhaps it is in 
contemplation to memorialise the authorities to 
take away the privilege of a criminal assize which 
we prayed for so earnestly. Bristol is certainly 
placed in a most ludicrous position, and citizens, 
when they hear of the stinging sarcasms current 
at more go-ahead places, will be compelled to 
" grin and bear them." We are not satisfied with 
our king now that Jupiter has answered our 
prayer. 



Ipittcitts for liibciittaiis 

CONNECTED WITH THE BUILDING TRADE. 



1581 0. H. Mdrrat. Improvements in machiwry for 
ma king bricks. Dated June 8, 1866 

The pateutee claims catting the clay into the form of 
bricks by forcing the clay forward by means of a puahing 
board or otherwise a^ain^t a series of fixed wires, so 
arranged that the clay is pushed on or forced past the 
wires on to a movable board provided with handles, so 
that twelve or any other c tnvenient number of bricks may 
be reiioved at the same time, as described. Patent com' 
pleted. 

1597 F. W. KoBZ. Tml^rovements in the construction o/ 
locks. Dated June 12, 1866 

This lock consists, principally, of two strong bolts con- 
nected together hy a bar running' at ri^ht angles thereto, 
the whole sliding toijether and actuated by a toothed pinion 
working into a toothed rack securely fixed to the middle of 
the said bar. The spindle which carries the pinion is also 
provided with a disc, havinc a notch or projection formed 
thereon ; two or more tumblers are provided, which suc- 
cessively catch into or against the notch or projection, and 
prevent the disc and spindle from turning till the tumblers 
are pressed back by a projection from the bit of the key. 
The end of the spindle is squared, so that the pipe of the 
key, which is similarly formed, tits over it, and turns the 
spindle whilst the bit of the key raises the tumblers. One 
turn of the key ^vill shoot the bolt, but by giving two or 
more turns, according to the length of the rack, the bolts 
can be thrown a greater distance into the recesses made to 
receive them, and thus a greater security will be affor>ied. 
The lock is further secured by means of fixed wards, and by 
a revolving guard, inside the keyhole, which turns with the 
key, and closes the keyhole before there is any action on the 
tumblera. I*att7it abandoned. 



MEETINGS FOR THE AVEEK. 

MoN. — Royal Geographical Society. — Papers t<j be read. 

— 1, " A Geogi'aphical Inquiry, with reference 

to the Best Site for a Capital of India," by the 

Hon. George Ciimpbell. 2, "On the Inland 

Navigation of Travaucore," by Mr. C. R. 

Mark ham, 8.30. 
TuES.— Institution of Civil Engineers. — Discussion ou 

"Ships of War," S. 
Royal Inslitutiou. — " On Vibratory Motion, 

with special Reference to Sound," by Profesaor 

Tyndall, 3. 
Thur-s, — Royal Institution. — " On Vibratory Motion, 

with special refurence to Souud," by Professor 

Tyndail, 3. 
Fri. — Royal Institution, — " Ou theCrystal Palace Fire," 

by J. S. Russell, 8. 
Royal United Service" Institution. — "The Best 
. Mode of Recniiting for the Army, and the 

Influences bearing upon that Service," by 

Captain R. C. Noake, 3. 
Architectural Associati on. — * * Oyster C ult ure 

Architecturally Considered," by Mr. J. P. 

Beddou, 7.30. 
Sat. — Royal Institution. — "On Harmony," by Mr. G. 

A. Macfarreu, 3. 



fak %t\yi%. 



The tender for the diversion of the Lime-kiln Dock and 
Blackwall sewers has been given unanimously to Mr. 
Webster for £20,000. An amendment was made to let Mr. 
Ritsou have it for £18,500, but met with no support. 

5Ir. C. N. Foster, of Whitefriars, is the contractor for the 
new works for the Great Northern Brick Company, at 
Hitchin ; and the ilessre, Dixey, of Abchurch-lano, are the 
contractors for the erection of the new bridge over the 
canal at Westbourne Green. 



TENDERS. 

Ascot. — For house and stable at Ascot. Mr. Rush\Yorth 

architect : — 

Haywood £3,877 

Nonis 3,276 

Iliggs S,2(>3 

Simpson 3,0S9 

Sa\vyer ^,830 

Krnt. — For Kent County Lunatic Asylum, new office 

buildings, dining-hall, &c. The accepted tenders are — Mr. 

StiS'forcontract No. 1; Messrs, Weeks and Son for contract 

No. 2 ; and Mr. .Aldridge for contract No. 3. 



^ l"2j ' t '. 






i' I I i 



2 m 1*3.^ 



SoUitt, Strood | 2S,114 

SimmaaudMjirten.Loudon 24.325 

Anscombe. Maidstone 19,635 1.760 3.040 24,350 

Wiillis and Clements, i I 

Maidstone 13.967 

Wilson, Canterbury 18.747 3.007 15 

VftUghan. Maidstone 18,650 0, i .22,297 

Greusted. Maidstone 18.550 ' | 

Niiylar and Sou. Rochester 18.187 o o 1,370 2.640 22.093 

Matthews, Dover 18.<»'>0 1,259 2,999 IS 22.2.18 18 

Stiff. Dover 16,767 0, | 21,195 

uiig. C.irringtou. and> 



Co . Perth and Loudou 

Shrubsole. Maidstone I 

SpeuceLargh. Hochesier .. 
Butchard, Graveseiid .... 

Smyth and Co.. Dover 

Russell. Strooii 

Garrett and Co.. Maidstone 
Drury and Blggleston. Can- 
terbury 

Colling. Maidstone 

Weeks and Son, Maidstone 
Foord and Sous, Matdstone 

Chandler. Dover 

CrutteiidenandSon, Maid- 
stone 

Pr yer, Maidstone 

Hyles. Miidstone 

Aldridge, Rochester 



1,590 

1 409 nl 

1.377 It! 7 

1.375 

1,.'J69 2,746 

1,353 10 

'1.350 10 

1.310 

1,300 

1,285 

2,889 18 

2,867 

I 

2.747 

2.616 

2.597 

3,538 



HoLBEACH. — For the new carved roof of nave of Holbeach 
Church ; — 

Deal. Additional for oak. 

Milson, Donoington £890 £455 

Brown, Lynn 831 258 

Paterson 820 233 

Bennett. Lynn (accepted) 740 160 

Leadenhall-street.— For the erection of premises, 69 
and 70, Leadenhall-street, for Mesara. Pound. Messrs. 
Humphrey and Son, architects : — 

Mvers £6,179 

Rider 5.991 

Henshaw 5,97i> 

D. KingandSona..*. 5,960 

Sparks 5,890 

Ennor 5,890 

Ashby and Sons 5,875 

Hart 5,831 

Ashby and Horner 5.800 

Brass 5,634 

London. — For alterations, ko., to the Talbot public- 
house, Caledonian-road, for Mr. W. Jones. Mr. T. Brookes, 
architect ; — 

J. D. Cowland £S75 

Turner and Sons 797 

Langmead and Way 775 

Gillett and Wi=bey 750 

TuNBRiDGE Well-s.— For rebuilding the Countess of 
Huntingdon's chapel. Mount Ephraim, Tunbridge Wella. 
Messrs. Wimble and Taylor, architects : — 

Edwards Brothers £5,611 6 

Walker 5,301 VI 

Grinsted 5.066 2 9 

Pove Brothers 4,570 

Simms and Marten 4,534 

KingandSona 4,277 15 

Anscombe 4,073 

Wednesbury.— For the erection of cemetery chapels, 
lodge, and entrance gates for the Wednesbury Local Board 
of Health. Messrs. W. and S. Horton, architects :— 

Lovatt. Wolverhampton £2,687 10 

Jetfrev and Pritchard. Birmingham... 2,652 10 

Stockton and Sons, Oldbury 2,550 

BrUev. Birmiogham 2,499 17 1 

Burkitt, Wolverhampton 2,360 

Crutchlev, Walsall 2,349 10 

Haffner, Tipton 2,264 10 

*Trow and Sons, Wednesbury 2,253 

* Accepted, subject to modifications. 

Wolverhampton. — For esteusiona to the Wolverhamp- 
ton Union Workhouse. Mr. J. R. VealJ, architect : — 

G. andF. Higham £1,100 

Lovatt 1,085 

Birkett 1,066 

Roberts 999 

Plank 974 

Thompson (accepted) 935 



BATH STONE OF BEST QUALITY. 

Eandell and Saoxders, Quarrymen and Stone Mer- 
chants, Bath. List of Prices at the Quarries and Depots, 
also Cost for Transit to any part of the United Kingdom, 
furnished on application to Bath Stone Office, Coi-aham, 
Wilts.— [Ad VT.J 

■ ♦ 

PROPERTY SALES. 

January 21. 

At the Guildhall Cofj-ee-hocse.— By Mr. Kow- 
botham.— Freehold residence. No. 7, Stafford-road, Trede- 
gar-road. Bow, let at £23 Ss. per annum— sold for £235. 

Freehold residence. No. S, Stafford-road aforesaid, let at 
£21 per annum — £235. 

January 22. 

At the Ma.rt.— By Mr. W. T. Jon«s.— Leaseliold resi- 
dence. No. 53, Sussex-street, Warwick -stiua re, Pimlico, let 
at £4S per annum, term 73 years from IStiU, at £8 per 
annum— £155. 

Leasehold residence, No. 5, Albion- ten-ace, Grosvenor- 
road, Pimlico, let at £55 per annum, term 71 years from 
1862, at £9 per annum — £185. 

At the Guildhall CoPFEE-nousE.— By Messrs. E and 
H. Lumley. — Freeiiold two I'esideuces, situate in the 
Bridge-road, Redhill, Surrey— £975. 



BANKRUPTS. 

TO SURRENDER IN BASINOHALL-STREeX. 

John Hitchcock Chubb, Belg rave street, builder, Jan. 30, 
at 11 — Sydney Dyne, South .\orwood, carpenter, Jan. 30, 
at 1 — John Faulioier Mathews, Reigate. builder, Feb. 4, 
at 1— William Ring Naish. University street, Totteuham- 
ciiurt road, house decorator, P'eb. 4, at 1— Daniel Simp.'wu, 
Grange-road, Bermondsey, plumber, Jan. 30, at Pi- 
Maurice Benjamin Solomons, Stafford street, Piccadilly, 
commission merchant, Jan. 30, at 2— William Barton 
Barnard. Grundy-street, Poplar, house decorator, Feb. 6, 
at 2 — Abraham John Cave, Veiiiou street, Clerkenwell, 
house decorator, Feb. 7. at I— \Mlliam Cran8to\vn Day, 
Rotberhithe, plumber, Feb. 4, at 2— Thomas Dieuy, Comp- 
tou street, Clerken%vell, jobbing carjienter, Feb 4, at I— 
Abraham Evaus, Great College street-, Camden Town, con- 
tractor, Feb. 4, at 1— William Wallace Redgrave, Grovo 
street. South Hackney, builder, Feb. 6, at 12. 

TO SURRENDER IN THE COUNTRY. 

Thomas Churchward. Torquay, carpenter. Jan. 29, at H 
— J. Mottram, Eccleslield, slater, Jan. 31. at 1 — J. King, 
Rixon, Wellingborough, brickmaker, Jan. 30, at U — Faul 
Sharpe, Heieford, builder, Feb. 1. at i2— Edward Speed, 
Oldham, lath render. Jan. 30, at 12— Thomas Taylor, Nor- 
wich, painter, Jan. 29, at 11— W. Willey, Ntiiubope, Dur- 
ham, contractor, Jan. 31, at 10— Edward Williams Wynne, 
Liverpool, commission mercbaut, Jan. 29. at 11 — John 
Thomas Hall, Bright.4de Bierlow. Yorkshire, joiner, 
Feb. 13, at 12— Joseph Hawkins. Stafford, joiner, Feb. 4, 
at 12— John Morgan, Neath, builder. Feb. 1, at 11— John 
Pickering, Wakefield, joiner, Feb. 2, at 11 



February 1, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



79 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



LONDON, FRIDAT, FBBRUART 1, 1867. 



THE COURTS OF JUSTICE COM- 
PETITION. 
Article III. 

IN our detailed notices of this competition, 
we propose, first, to devote an arti ele to 
each design as arranged in the exhibition ; we 
>liall then place in direct comparison wliat we 
opine to be the chief merits and the great 
faults of each, and finally reriew the leading 
criticisms and opinions which may be made 
public during the time the exhibition re- 
mains open. The first men to enter the lists 
are Mr. Abrahams and Mr. Scott. As we 
have not yet been favoured with a copy of 
Mr. Abraliams' report, and as Mr. Scott has 
been kind enough to send us a copy of his, 
we propose devoting this article to a con- 
sideration of the design submitted by the 
latter gentleman. 

That this design, with its report, exhibits a 
vast amount of very laborious work is un- 
questionable, and when Mr. Scott tells us that 
it has employed his best thoughts and time 
and aspirations for tlixee-i[uarter3 of a year, 
we cannot feel surprised. On the contrary, far 
from feeling astonished at the length of time 
tlie subject has occupied Mr. Scott's attention, 
we are, as we have always been, immensely 
surprised at the brief period allowed for the 
preparation of such an important set of 
drawings, and the solution of such a difficult 
problem. When we consider for a moment 
the multifarious engagements and the many 
very hard tasks which our leading architects 
are called upon to fulfil in the course of their 
ordinary practice, and when we have learnt to 
appreciate the magnitude of this competition, 
and what it is which constitutes the problem 
to be solved, we cannot but be struck with 
amazement at what we can only regard either 
as the ignorance or the coolness of the Commis- 
sioners in putting so short a limit to the time 
for thinking out such a stupendous subject. 
That Mr. Scott should give the Commissioners 
a gentle hint on this very point, in the second 
paragraph of his report, is not to be wondered 
at. He tells us, in the modest and earnest lan- 
guage usual with him — " Others may possibl}- 
have greater facility of arrangement than my- 
3 elf, though I have probably had as much ex- 
perience in arranging large buildings as any 
man ; but I may say that to me, the labour 
has been such that, though I embarked in it 
vigorously on the very day after I agreed to 
join in the competition, I have ever since 
been hard at work upon it, often giving to it 
eight hours or more a day for many days to- 
;.;etlier." We most heartily sympathise with 
those unfortunate, or, as some would say, too 
( fortunate, architects who have been committed 
*' to such desperate slavery : nor can we help 
cjming to the conclusion that the Commis- 
sioners have acted with a most imwise haste, 
, to say the least, for they must have known, 
!. if they cared to give a thought to the subject, 
that the design they sought and the country 
n eeded was no every-day matter, nor was it 
likely that it would weU forth, at a moment's 
notice, in the head of any, even the most 
accomplished of architects, nor flow out,like 
Tupperian rhymes, in spite of preoccupied 
brains and the crowd of thoughts which the 
daily practice of a well-to-do architect must 
necessarily generate. If, then, in the capacity 
of critic, we have to recognise and point out 
more failures than successes, errors of judg- 
ment which a second thought would have cor- 
rected, faulty design which has been forced 
out of an overworked intellect, or hurried, in- 
complete, imperfect drawings, which have been 
made as it were against time, it must not be taken 
as by any means a correct or unqualified mea- 
sure of the art-stature of the architect,but rather 



as another proof, if any proof were needed, 
of the utter incapacity of the English people 
to appreciate, we woidd almost say to appre- 
liend, the spirit of art, or see anything beyond 
the narrow boundaries of trade and merchan- 
dize. It is this essentially shoppy aspect of 
architecture which Englishmen persist in 
taking — a view which assumes that Gothic or 
CUissic, or anything else, can be bought by the 
yard, and that the best shop is that which has 
been the longest established and employs the 
greatest number of hands. It is this wretched 
little vanity of us that will not permit us to 
see the use of anything liigher or nobler than 
ourselves, even if we are so far removed from 
idiocy as to believe that anytliing can be 
higher or nobler, which is at the root of all 
the miserable failures in the history of 
modern architecture. It may be that Mr. 
Scott believes he is to be judged by men who 
know more of his art than he does himself, 
or it may be that he accepts as true what we 
have said, but from what are called motives 
of policy, or from an overflowing tenderness 
of heart, declines to act as he would, were he 
physician, poet, painter, sculptor, or engineer. 
This tenderness in a great art age may be all 
very well, but at a time when the people only 
care for accommodation — when there is no 
architectural knowledge, not even in the so- 
called artists, the architect who would be of 
any use to his craft and to the world must 
assume a difl'erent attitude to that to which 
architects are, as a rule, accustomed. He 
must lead and not be led, nor must he at 
every slight provocation enter upon an ela- 
borate defence of the line he has adopted, or 
dream of making any apology because people 
care not to understand Mm. We have been 
led to these remarks from finding in Mr. 
Scott's report some six pages devoted to what 
we can only call a defence of the " architec- 
tural treatment" of his design, which goes so 
far as to include a defence of Gothic art in 
general and Mr. Scott's Gothic in particular. 
" That this style," says Mr. Scott, " is suited 
to Law Courts and offices has been practically 
proved at Manchester. That design was made 
very soon after my own designs for the Go- 
vernment offices. I was driven by adverse 
circumstances, and the mistaken preposses- 
sions of one great man, to abandon my design, 
while Mr. Waterhouse was so fortunate as to 
carry his into execution, and in doing so has 
proved the absolute truth of all which I had 
in vain urged respecting my own." We are 
not at present writing a biography of Mr. 
Scott, or we might make up a chapter on 
every sentence in the pregnant remarks just 
quoted. The great point we wish now to 
note is the confession that an architect, who 
we may fairly presume has a will of his own, 
was driven by the mistaken prepossessions of 
another man. Now in all seriousness we ask 
Mr. Scott, Can he expect to lead — can 
he suppose that men will acknowledge 
his power, when he himself submits to 
be driven by what he knows to be " mis- 
taken prepossessions ? " In the general 
suavity of manner and kind!}' feeling which 
are so eminently characteristic of this archi- 
tect, we were learning to forget how at a 
critical moment he left his first love, and like 
the Red Cross Knight, became entrapped by 
the still greater suavity of a "subtill Archi- 
mago ;" but this attempt at an excuse or an 
apology for an act which shook to its founda- 
tions the trust his brethren had learnt to place 
in him only opens the old sore, and makes the 
case worse than it was before. In this, how- 
ever, there is little difficulty in discovering a 
certain nervousness or restless anxiety, which 
appears not merely once or twice, but mani- 
fests itself throughout the report, and in 
almost every drawing. This is the one great 
defect of the design before us, and, if Mr. 
Scott can produce nothing better in architec- 
tural composition and detail than that of the 
elevation towards the Strand, the world will 
probably have to thank the late Lord Palmer- 
ston for having bullied whatever promise 
there might have been in the architect of the 



Foreign Office to such a pass as to be nearly 
akin to death. That he did not quite kill Mr. 
Scott is evident from tlie bits of his old power 
whicli he here and there displays in some of 
his drawings for the Courts of Justice. We 
can only hope that Mr. Scott, who is by no 
means an old man, will gather his mantle 
more closely aromid him, and nurse a strength 
which lie undoubtedly once possessed, but 
which people now say is failing, and so obtain 
many a future triumph. 

Tlie general plan which Mr. Scott has ad- 
opted is very unlike all tlurothers, in as much 
as the outer shell of building does not com- 
pletely surround the site, being omitted to- 
wards the Strand in order to give more space 
to the central block of building. The outer 
sliell, or tlie bmldings towards Carey-street, 
Clement's Inn, and Belt Yard, are devoted 
to the minor departments of the law, the 
projection of the site towards Clement's Inn 
being devoted to the Record department. 
Within the outer shell is an area or street 
opening into the Strand. Bounded by this 
internal street on the north, east, and west, 
and by the Strand on the south, is a huge block 
of buiJdings, with a central projection towards 
the south of one-third the length of the main 
building, and " an open space" in the centre of 
the block. This central mass is devoted to 
twenty-two out of the twenty-four courts re- 
quired, and the chief offices. The other two 
courts, the Divorce Court and the Bankruptcy 
Court, though on the same floor and connected 
with the general group, are drifted off to the 
right and left, " each to its proper department," 
that is to say, the Bankruptcy Court is in the 
midst of the department towards Bell Yard, 
and the Divorce Court is towards the south- 
ern end of the Clement's Inn fagade. Each of 
these is connected witli the general group of 
courts in the central block by a bridge across 
tlie internal street. We will now consider the 
arrangement of the coirrt floor as involving 
the essence of the great question of concen- 
tration. 

Beginning with the centre of the buUding, 
what we have above described, in Mr. Scott's 
words, as an " open space," is, in fact, no such 
thing, the " open space" being very con- 
siderably cut up into four small areas by a 
central octagonal hall, and corridors leading 
therefrom. In the centre of this hall is a 
great circular lift, about 8ft. in diameter. 
Round this are two concentric staircases of 
iron enclosed by an octagon ; beyond this, 
leaving ample space, come the great walls of 
the octagonal hall. The four cardinal sides 
open into corridors. The four diagonal sides 
are recessed so much as to bring the octagon 
very nearly to a square ; the corridors lead us 
to a very elegant and spacious ambulatory of 
nearly 30ft. wide, divided into two aisles by 
about forty-six shafts supporting quadripartite 
vaulting. This ambulatory, which Mr. Scott 
says far exceeds Westminster Hall in super- 
ficial area, is one of the chief charms of tliis 
design, perhaps the chiefest. Opening out 
from this ambulatory, the outer aisle of which 
is prolonged through the east and west blocks, 
are the chief courts, arranged as follows : — On 
the north, to the west of the centre, which is 
occupied by a corridor, is the court of the 
Lord Chancellor ; then an open area, and we 
come to the courtsof the Lords Justices and Vice- 
Chancellor Stuart ; then another open area 
and Vice-Chancellor Wood. To the east of 
the centre we have the Master of the Rolls, 
an open area, Vice-Chancellor Kindersley, the 
spare Equity Court, another open area, and 
the additional Banco Court which was only 
hypothetically asked for. In the eastern 
block we have the three Courts of Queen's 
Bench and in the western block opposite we have 
the Admiralty Court, the extra Ecclesiastical 
Court and the Exchequer Chamber. On the 
south side we have in the centre the spare 
court required, which Mr. Scott jocularly 
calls the " Sensational Court ;" presuming that 
this court is intended for causes of more than 
usual public interest, the extia size reqmred 
for this court has induced Mr. Scott to project 



o 







THE BUILDING NEWS. 



February 1, 1867. 



it apse-like into the ambulatory. To the east 
of this central feature we have an open area, 
then two of the Courts of the Common Pleas, 
another open area, and the third Court of 
Common Pleas ; and to the west we have 
the three Courts of Exchequer similarly 
arranged. We have already said that the 
Bankruptcy and Divorce Courts are placed in 
the midst of their own departments. One 
more court remains to be described ; this, the 
Appellate Court, wliich, as its name implies, 
dift'ers from all the others, is placed in the 
very centre of the Strand front, and it is only 
fair to Mr. Scott to note that he has antici- 
pated the objection that would naturally 
arise to the position of this court, on the score 
of sound iu the following passage: — "The 
front windows are sufficiently elevated above 
the street to prevenip annoyance from sound. 
They would also be double glazed with plate 
glass. They need never be opened, as ample 
ventilation is provided without them." Con- 
sidering the enormous traffic of the Strand, 
which would necessarily be increased rather 
than diminished by the erection of the Courts 
of Justice, we must confess that the position 
of this court is by no means a desirable one ; 
the other faults of the arrangement above 
described are comparatively minor ones ; thus 
the projection into the ambulatory of the 
central court ruins the architectural effect of 
the south walk. The separation of the Courts 
of E.Ycheijuer from the other Common Law 
Courts by the introduction of this "Sen- 
sational Court" is also utidesirable. Por the 
rest no one can fail to see that the courts are 
brought well togetlier, and every convenience 
afforded for the legal public without waste 
of room or unnecessary display. Transversely 
the arrangement of tliis central block of 
buildings is as follows :— Beginning from 
the insiile we have, hrst, the ambulatory, 
then the courts, then the judges' rooms 
and staircases, then a corridor, and then 
barristers' rooms, judges' clerks' rooms, &c. 
These last have a story above them, 
entered from a gallery in the corridor, 
so that the latter may receive plenty 
of light over the flat roofs of the judges' 
retiring rooms. The chief mistake in 
Buch an arrangement as this seems to lis 
to be the lack of privacy ibr the judges, as 
unless they are constantly going up and down 
stairs their only means of intercommunica- 
tion would be by a corridor which is also used 
by the barristers. Passing, now, to the e.xter- 
nal shell, we have the chambers and offices 
of the judges and chief clerks in equity at 
the back of their respective courts, and con- 
nected with them by covered bridges. Tliis 
is all as it should be ; but when we turn to 
the Common Law Department we find that 
the judges' chambers are pushed to the 
ground floor, in order to find room for the 
Court and Offices of Bankruptcy. This we 
think a mistake, arising, no doubt, from Mr. 
Scott's anxiety to provide not only all the 
courts positively required, but also the extra 
ones which were suggested — in other words, 
.spoiling the completeness of his plan in 
order to give more courts than can be per- 
fectly adapted to the site. The western side 
of the outer shell, as well as the projection 
beyond it into Clement's Inn, is for the main 
part given up to the courts on this side, 
and here it is that Mr. Scott's dift'ers mate- 
rially from any of the other plans. The 
boundary of the site on this side was ex- 
ceedingly irregular, and the consequence of 
this was that iu Jime last Mr. Scott wrote, on 
behalf of the competitors, asking for an ex- 
tension of the site, and obtained leave to 
make .such projections or extensions of the 
building westward as the architects might 
find desirable, so long as they preserved an 
equivalent in area for Clement's Inn, and 
abided by certain other arrangements which 
it is not necessary to specify. This "privi- 
lege " Mr. Scott has, we think, unwisely 
taken full advantage of by projecting beyond 
the main line of his west front two Record 
towers, at a considerable distance apart, and 



between and beyond these a large pile of 
buUding devoted to the Probate Office. The 
odd thing is that, in order to secure this and 
possibly to get a greater width for the central 
projection in the Strand front, owing to the 
peculiar line of Pickett-street, he has posi- 
tively sacrificed some 30ft. of the main frontage, 
and, as we think, spoilt in a measure both his 
plans and elevations. We shall not attempt to 
go into the arrangements of the various ottices, 
either in this or in any other design. But we 
have yet to notice two things — the sections or 
rather that portion of them which relates to 
the levels, and the elevations. Now the level 
of Carey-street, or the north side of the site, 
is about 17ft. higher than the level of the 
Strand, the dift'erence of level from north to 
south being immaterial. Mr. Scott has taken 
the Strand level as the level of his internal 
streets, and as the floor of his lowest story. 
This dift'erence in level it is as well to keep 
strongly before us, for Mr. Scott truly ob- 
serves that, owing to it, great confusion may 
arise, as what is ground floor in one place may 
become first floor in another, and what is 
ground floor in the Strand may become base- 
ment in Carey-street. Mr. Scott has rightly 
taken the court floor to be defined by the in- 
structions which makes it some 38ft. or 40ft. 
above the Strand level. The way in which 
tliis 40ft. is treated towards the Strand, that is 
to say, in the central block, is very ditferent 
from the arrangement at Carey-street. In the 
former, for instance, there is a story imme- 
diately beneath the court level devoted to 
witnesses, attorneys. &c. This floor is one level 
throughout, and though the rooms below the 
court are low, those exterior to the courts, and 
which therefore come below the judges' room^, 
&c., .are raised by the additional height of the 
bench to the ordinary dimeusions of the other 
stories. Below this we have one lot ty story 
for public offices, and then we come to the 
basement, which is half a story above the 
level of the Strand. Now in Carey-street we 
have three stories below the court level, or 
what would be the first floor to Carey-street, 
and the third floor to the internal street; and 
the report is not unlikely to confuse, as it de- 
scribes the floor immediately below the court 
floor " The upper ground story," the lower 
of these stories being so placed as to be half 
above and half below the level of Carey-street. 
This seems to us to boa very good arrangement. 
We wish we could say the same of all Mr. 
Scott's endeavours to deal with what he calls 
its architectural character and design. On 
this point, Mr. Scott tells us that, though essen- 
tial, it should be postponed to .all practical 
considerations ; that he exercised an almost 
" stoic virtue" in studying the practical ar- 
rangements, to tfie exclusiou of nearly every 
thought of art, labouring day by day over the 
juxtaposition of rooms and the locating of de- 
partments, frequenting the law offices till he 
was almost ashamed to show himself in them 
with his roll ot papers in his hand ; and then 
follows another confession, which is very im- 
portant indeed : — " I confess I could not have 
ke[)t myself up to this pitch of virtue had I 
not the prospect before me of at length cloth- 
ing my work in a sightly garb, and rewarding 
myself at last by the application of art to that 
wliich had hitherto been merely contrivance." 
We have not now time to discuss the ques- 
tion involved in this confession, to separate 
the architect into a virtuous contriver on the 
one hand, and into an artistic dresser on the 
other hand. To divide his power, genius, or 
whatever you like to call it, into two or 
more parts, with the idea thct these can 
have a separate life and action, seems to us as 
suicidal as it w-eU can be, and about as unplii- 
loso]jhicial as if the eye were to say to the 
hand, " I have no need of thee ;" or the head to 
the heart, " I have no'need of you." We may 
return to this hereafter. It is enough to say 
that we think Mr. Scott's architectural power 
declared itself in his Gothic designs for the 
Foreign Office, in his design for the Hamburg 
Exchange, and in his new Town Hall at Pres- 
ton, much more than in any of the drawings 



for the Law Courts. It is true that ilr. Scott 
insists that his design is the outcome of the 
plan, and that nearly all the great features of 
what people call the architectural composition 
result from the practical distribution of the 
building. AVe can only say that the require- 
ments of the Commissioners, even though con- 
trived with Spartan courage, are not the sort 
of tilings to encourage the development of 
art. In the towers which flanked the pro- 
jection towards the Strand, Mr. Scott was 
unfettered, and so practically he makes them 
both clock towers, for, although one is to serve 
as a ventUating tower, its great purpose 
would appear on its four sides, in the shape 
of huge sun-dials. These towers and the 
whole composition which they flank we look 
upon as the greatest defect iu the design ; the 
portals are low and out of ]iroportion with the 
superstructure. The smaller features remind 
us of the most unsatisfactory parts of the 
Foreign Office designs, and the attempt to 
secure lightness has resulted in monotony, 
the effort to grasp repose and strength has 
ended in baldness. That much of this would 
have been obviated had the architect had time 
to think out the subject, and give that recon> 
sideration which a building of such magnitude 
demands, we do not for a moment doubt. The 
designer of the double ambulatory and the 
interior of the porch and vestibule, with the 
help of such draftsmanship as is manifested 
in this latter drawing, could scarcely fail to 
have produced a building incomparably 
finer tlian that depicted in the general 
views, had he but had time commensurate 
with the thought and experiment required 
for such an exceptional work. Indeed, 
we have^at times felt it difficult to say the 
hard things we have said when we have re- 
flected on the enormous labour which has 
been crammed into nine months ; but the 
architects, having accepted the conditions, 
must abide by the result ; and after all it is 
only a question of comparison, as no one of 
the designs exhibited has had anything like 
sufficient thought bestowed upon it to justify 
the e.\penditure of a million and a half of 
money. The gieat question to be decided 
is not whose design is prettier from this 
point of view or from that point of view, or 
whether the Centrfil Hall schemer or the 
Corridor schemer should win the day, but 
which architect shows the greatest grasp of 
the whole subject ; and who, not as a con 
triver of rooms or a dresser of walls, but as 
an architect in all the grandeur which the 
name implies, is most likely from the evidence 
before us to carry out the building in every 
respect to a successful issue. 



RAILWAY VIADUCTS. 

THE frequency of calamitous accidents in 
connection with arched viaducts — a form 
most extensively adopted in railway construc- 
tion, and occurring m continuous miles upon 
our suburban lines — seems to call for condem- 
nation from the press, and a strict investiga- 
tion from authoritative quarters. An isolated 
failure may be referable to especial circum- 
stances, but the constant recurrence of similar 
accidents points to unsoundness of principle. 
It is hardly necessary to state that the favour- 
ite and prevailing form, of arch in these worka 
is the elliptic, and that of all the forms in. 
common use the elliptic is the weakest. It is 
the least homogeneous, the least uniform in its 
curvature, at the best ; but we do not find in 
the examples now under contemplation such 
models as were presented to the admiration of 
passengers by Mylne iu the late bridge at 
Blackfriars. We are, rather, doomed to «-on- 
der at the degree to which so giaceful a curve 
can be distorted and degenerated. There aie 
sharply-pinched haunches with a broad ex- 
p.anseof intervening work infinitely more 
allied to the notion of a flat soffit than to any- 
thiuc fairly to be denominated head or crown. 
The^infirmity of such a line is obvious : the ' 
under and outer faces (the intrados and extr*- 



Februasy 1, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



81 



dos) of the arch are of equal dimensions, and 
the voussoii's lose their sustaining, wedge-like 
shape. The danger of such a form would be 
great, even with masonry of the nicest worlv- 
manship and blocks of the largest size — with 
hard, closely-fitting material recjuiring and 
admitting only a very small amount of mor- 
tar. W'liat, tlien, must be the peril when 
very considerable spans are attempted in a 
few — seldom more than four — half-brick rims, 
in very common mortar, whose defective 
quality is sought to be atoned for by profirsion 
in its use i 

The Trinity Bridge at Florence, the bold de- 
sign of Bartolomeo Ammauati, architect to 
Duke Cosmo I. (15(iG-l.")(;i)), is of course tlie 
staple authority of adventurous moderns. The 
centre arch of this famous liridge is 9oft. 3in., 
and the two at the sides are each 85ft. fiin. in 
width, the rise being only 14ft. lOin. and I'M't. 
7iin. respectively. But there is one peculiarity 
in the St. Trinity not usually copied or even 
noticed. The arches are sli';htly pointed, 
though the angle is discernible only from 
beneatli, being concealcil on the faces by the 
marble shields which decorate the crowns. 
The deptli of the voussoirs is 2ft. 9Ln. through- 
out, and there is a total thickness of 4ft. 2in. 
between the face of the sotUt and the surface 
of the road. The piers are 21ft. wide, in 
accordance with the safe but disproportionate 
massiveuess common before the days of Per- 
ronet. The tl.ittened ellipse conveys, perhaps 
more than any other, an impression of com- 
pleteness with a limited elevation. It falls 
agreeably into the vertical lines of the piers, 
and is eligible where tlie utmost headway is 
requisite ; but it would certainly add to the 
supporting power of the arch if the apex were 
pointed, and yet further if the central portion 
were regarded as partaking of the character of 
a beam with a maximum depth at the crown, 
for, let the yielding point be where it may, no 
part is more prompt to follow that yielding 
than the middle section of the work. It is 
here, too, that water-setting mortar should be 
especiidly employed, and every means be 
applied to prevent the destructive action of 
percolating moisture. 

It has been thus far assumed that a particu- 
lar form of arch must be used, and the 
superior strength of segments, simple or 
pointed, is not thrown into contrast ; but 
there are two distinct forms of constructive 
design that may well be compared when the 
question of safety is under review. The most 
primitive kind of bridge conceivable is, per- 
haps, the trutik of a tree thrown from one 
bank of a stream to the other ; the next, two 
such trunks, with a flooring of planks sup- 
ported by them. The Euphrates at Babylon 
had a bridge of this sort, with piers or abut- 
ments of stone, and the framew-ork being 
removed at night Icept the predatory Assyrians 
from nocturiuil maraudings. "Without stop- 
ping to e.xamine how stone piers might be ex- 
temporised by boats, as ascribed to i)arius, or 
■whether the bridges of Xerxes across the Hel- 
lespont had much affiidty with the suspension 
principle of modern example?, it is sufficient 
to perceive in the Babylonian instance the 
existence of beams and flooring. This princi- 
ple of beams and fljoring mu,-,t have been in 
common use for ages previous to the invention 
of the arch, has kept its ground in the face of 
that discovery, and is not, apparently, likely 
to be superseded. In timber construction the 
original beam would be sometimes represented 
by a supporting framework of struts, ties, 
and braces, and to each aggregate of this kind 
we should apply the term "rib." In the dis- 
position of the several parts an endless variety 
would be observable, but the leading elements 
have been handed down from the remotest 
periods to our own day. 

The Greeks were not perhaps eminent 
bridge-builders, but the Romans acquired un- 
precedented skill in aroiation, and were thus 
enabled to substitute for wood the more 
durable material of stone. The ancient 
examples were of very moderate width, and 
the footways were raised and protected by 



parapets. Masons of other times and places 
are known to have adopted the mechanical 
systems of the carpenters they followed, and 
these may have coutinued to construct bridges 
with ribs of stone, as did their descendants 
and imitators of the Middle Ages. Thus, the 
twelfth century bridge, at Avignon, with 
twenty-two arches, has for each arch four 
ribs or series of vault stones, separately built. 
This bridge had an elbow to the current, but 
its singularity in this respect disappears by 
comparison with the Old English specimen of 
three branches at Crowland, in Lincolnshire. 
Not, however, to forget the main subject, it 
may be said that the ohl stone bridges of this 
country were generally built witli ri'os. 

Next, in point of time, comes tlie applica- 
tion of iron, an application still novel, 
and a material in this particular com- 
paratively now. The properties of the 
others greatly intensihed make up its own. 
In its manipulation the mason gives way 
to the smith, but the carpenter becomes so 
much the model that carpentry appears with 
necessary modifications to be reproduced in 
iron. In bridges the rib principle is again 
mide use of, and with most economical etl'ect. 
We will not now discuss the question of 
simulative ii'on arches ; it must be admitted 
they are strong. They can be placed more- 
over with direct reference to the superincum- 
bent strain. Thus, at Westminster they are 
much closer under the roadway than under 
the footpatlis, and in railway works they can 
be applied at the precise point of necessary 
support. Where the forces are so concentrated 
as in railway trains, it seems only rational 
that the sustaining power should also be con- 
centrated ; and when all circumstances are 
taken into account it may appear that few 
methods would surpass in lightness, facility of 
erection, durability, even cheapness, and 
our chief object at the present moment 
— safety — of iron ribs in lieu of brick arches. 



THE SEWAGE DIFFICULTY— EARTH 
CLOSETS, &c.* 

^TIHE time is evidently approaching when 
J_ the whole question as to the best mode 
of dealing with the sewage of towns will have 
to be reconsidered, and when, as it is to be 
hoped, it will be satisfactorily solved. There 
is no doubt that the subject is one of thofee 
which calls loudly for the interference of 
scientific and practical men. It is a great point 
gained by those who seek for such reforms that 
the public are day by day becoming more and 
more interested in them, and that the sewage 
dilliculty and its surroundings are now dis- 
cussed with a freedom which false delicacy for 
a long time prevented. The statistics furnished 
by various authorities in reference to the posi- 
tive evils, as well as the intolerable nuisances, 
arising from defective sewerage, and the pub- 
lished experiences of those who have devoted 
time, study, and labour towards remedying 
those delects, furnish admirable data upon 
which to base future action. In matters of 
this nature, a little actual experimentation is 
worth much theorising, and facts are far more 
valuable than the must ingenious speculations. 
It is unquestionable, nevertheless, that the 
papers on sewage, water supply, &o., read before 
such societie< as the National Association for 
the Promotion of Social Science and other 
bodies of a cognate character, as attracting at- 
tention, and by familiarity lessening and not 
breeding contempt, have their value, and must 
on no account be disparaged. 

The now celebrated sewage conference 
which took place appropriately enough in the 
Royal Pump Rooms at Leamington j last Octo- 
ber gave prominence to a system of what might 



* "The Sewage DifEculty: it3 Cause, Effects, Remedy. 
Considered iu Reference to it3 Sanitary, Commercial, and 
Agricultural Aspects." By J. Banneur. London : R. 
Hardwicke, Piccadilly. 

Repijrt uf the Sanitary Committee of the town of Not- 
tingham, for the yeai ending September 30, 186lj. Jamea 
and John Vice, Nottingham. 

t Vtde Building News, November 2, 1S65. 



be termed domestic sanitation, which had previ- 
ously occupied the attention of several gentle- 
men of eminence, but which, in principle at 
least, is almost as old as the creation of man — 
we mean the earth-closet arrangement. To 
Mr. John Hitchman, of Leamington, indeed, 
belongs the merit of suggesting the general 
practicability of commingling dry earth with 
those materials which now pass in almost all 
towns into sewers and drains, and afterwards 
of utilising them as nature, which is ever 
thrifty, appears originally to have intended 
they should be utilised. Since then Mr. 
Boardman, of Norwicli, has very ably .shown 
the possibility of aiiplying the plan with ad- 
vantage and economy in the city of Norwich. 
The communication of the last-named gentle- 
man in rejily to Mr. Moraiit, and which ap- 
peared in the Building Nkws of the 25111 
nit., is a very good exposition of the earth- 
closet system and its correlative superiority 
over e.xisting modes of dealing with household 
sewage, although, as in all cases of suggested 
improvement, the would-be improver will have 
to encounter much activeantagonism. Last week 
we gave some more correspondence, and this 
week we give Mr. Morant's rejoinder. We have 
published this correspondence at length, as it 
relates to one of the most important social ques- 
tions which can occupy the minds of English- 
men at the present moment. As there was an 
apparent discrepancy between the speeclies 
and the resolutions, as given by our special re- 
porter, of the Leamington Conference, we 
wi'ote to that gentlemen for an explanation. 
He says, in reply, that whilst the opinion was 
in one direction, the resolutions which were 
passed after several hours' debate, and when 
many had left the room, were in another. 

Perhaps, however, the author of the pam- 
phlet entitled the "Sewage Difficulty" has 
contributed yet more complete evidence in 
favour of earth vers^i<< water closets, than 
either of the persons just named, whilst his 
facts and inferences are strongly put and 
lucidly drawn. In his instructive treatise 
on sewage, and how to deal with it, Mr. 
Bannehr has avoided as far as was possible 
technicalities, and he carries his reader for- 
ward with almost irresistible force. A very 
pertinent question is that propounded at the 
fourth page of the pamphlet under notice, 
viz.. What is sewage ? and the answer given is 
e.xplicit. 

I will (says the author) take the word sewage to 
mean simply what its name impli-s, — the water in 
and from seweror servicedrains ; and, therefore, as not 
necessarily containinGf any human excreta or other 
maniirial matter whatever ; altboug^h sewage is in 
many insttances polluted with, and made a medium for 
conveying the most offensive .and repugnant matter 
with which we t\re acquainted — human excreta — as 
well as many other matters But it is very common 
to hear " night soil" called sewage because sewage 
sometimes contains in an elementary — that is, in a 
fresh or undecomposed state — the fluid and solid 
matters which if they were in a state of admixture 
would constitute night soil. And it is this confused 
iilea of the identity of " sewage " and '^ night soil " 
which serves to cause much misapprehension re- 
specting the sewage difficulty. It should, however, 
be remembered that, although sewage may contain 
a certain amount of human e-xcreta, sewage is not, 
like night soil, suitable for manure ; because as a 
nUe. at the time it leaves the town, such manurial 
matter has not undergone the process of decomposi- 
tion which is essential for changing its elementary 
state and making it suitable for nourishment of 

vegetation It may be taken as 

an axiom that what will support animal life is un- 
fitted for the nourishment of vegetation, and that 
what will support vegetablo life is quite unsuited 
for the sustentation of animal life. 

Mr. Bannehr, who has evidently' devoted 
years of patient inquiry to the subject upon 
which he treats, enters next into a statement 
of the chemical characteristics of the two 
parts of the excreta, solid and fluid, and 
adduces also the tables of Dr. Thudicum as 
to the market value of the various components, 
in support of his own calculations. The 
sew.age system of Croydon, that of irrigation, 
is criticised and condemned by the writer of 
the " Sewage Difficulty," who endeavours to 
connect with it certain cases of rinderpest as 
resulting from the consimiption by cattle of 



82 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



FEBEnARY 1, 1867. 



sewage-fed grass. The rather too well-known 
phenomenon, if the term be admissible, of the 
liberation ot a certain quantity of sewer gas 
when the handle of a water-closet is lifted, is 
mentioned and explained. " It arises from 
the admixture of the various matters in the 
sewers producing gaseous exhalations which 
escape to the outer atmosphere," — by the 
action of the beneficent and wondrously- 
beautiful law of the diffusion of gasses, " and 
cause in such instances pernicious effects." 

Some remarkable facts are adduced with 
regard to the sewerage of Birmmgham, which 
is generally termed a well-drained town. Mr. 
Bannehr tells us — and he has furnished him- 
self with incontrovertible evidence in supjjort 
of his facts in tMs as apparently in all other 
cases to which he refers — that the main drain 
at the sewage outlet discharges in dry weather 
about 1.5,000,000 gallons daUy. Assimiing the 
population to be 300,000, this is a rate of 50 
gallons per day for each individual, whilst the 
average consumption of water does not exceed 
10 gallons for each person. The discrepancy 
shown by these figures is due to the circum- 
stance that " the sewers drain the shallow 
springs," as was proved when the drains were 
constructed, for many of the wells of the 
town then ceased to yield water. " It naturally 
foUows that if the water percolates into the 
drains from above their level, the drains iviU 
also permit a portion of their contents to pass 
through fissures and cracks into the springs 
below their level. . . . Such is the disgusting 
condition of much of the Birmingham water 
that an analytical chemist there has dis- 
covered 2G0 grains of organic impurity in 
the gallon, and of this quantity 150 grains 
absolutely consisted of human excreta ! " 
Many propositions for dealing with the " sew- 
age difficulty " in Birmingham have from time 
to time been made, but Ihey have not been 
realised. Some of them were, indeed, posi- 
tively and manifestly impracticable, whilst 
others, if practicable, could only have been 
effected at a ruinously heavy outlay. The 
author of the " Sewage Difficulty," indulges in 
some very severe remarks upon the Metro- 
politan Board of Works, in reference to the 
main drainage system as being carried out 
imder their direction, prophecies the failure 
of that scheme to eft'ect the great objects 
sought, and broadly asserts " that the whole 
of the systems in force for the Iiydraulic dis- 
posal of the excreta of town populations are 
in error." Tliey are nothing more nor less 
than " ingenious methods of polluting enor- 
mous quantities of water (which ought to be 
kept as pure as possible to meet the indis- 
pensable requirements of a very rapidly- 
increasing population), and thus producing a 
maximum of evil without any corresponding 
advantage." These are unquestionably sweep- 
ing remarks, and they are perhaps due to some 
extent to the enthusiasm of the ■^^Tite^, rather 
than to the exact reflection of actual facts. At 
all events we are not disposed, even in presence 
of the startling array of evidence summoned 
in their justification, to take them as infallible 
dicta. One of the mistakes into which pro- 
moters of inventions and of innovations upon 
existing institutions almost inevitably fall, is 
to overstate the case they wish to sustain, and 
thus to damage instead of strengthening it. 

Having (as Mr. Bannehr thinks he has) de- 
monstrated that all the systems of disposing 
of excreta at present pursued in England, 
whether by means of the watercloset, irriga- 
tion, of the cesspit, or of the dumb-well, are 
alike inadequate for their purpose, he proceeds 
to the solution of the " difficulty" in his oto 
way. In lieu of the ordinary waterclosets in 
dwelling houses he would introduce an 
arrangement' which, so far as an ingeniously- 
constructed model which we have inspected 
is concerned, appears likely to prove efficacious. 
Above the ordinary seat and in a fitting re- 
ceptacle or reservoir he places a supply of 
carbonaceous powder, which by means of a 
channel at the bottom of the reservoir is at a 
fitting time allowed to deposit itself on a ledge 
or shelf under the seat, and of course out of 



the range of the seat orifice. There is a flat 
plate or disc under the orifice, and this is 
placed lietween the seat and the shelf, and is 
so contrived that it closes the outlet channel 
except when the disc is fully open. The disc 
is provided with a brush on its lower side, so 
that, in the act of closing the disc, the brush 
sweeps forward a portion of the deodorant 
powder so as to make fall npon and cover the 
ordure deposited La the receiver below. Thus 
the moisture ^\-ill be to a considerable degree 
absorbed, and the escape of ofl'ensive odour 
prevented. These operations can readily be 
made automatic by the application of simple 
yet ingenious mechanical apparatus to the 
Bannehr closet. 

One objection which naturally presents 
itself to the mind in connection with the 
plans of the author of this scheme consists in 
the apparent trouble involved in the subse- 
quent removal of the deodorised material. 
This, however, Mr. Bannehr meets by the 
statement that it would be xmnecessary for 
the "collecting men" to enter the premises 
except at intervals of one, two, or more years, 
" because the strong receptacle might be made 
sufficiently capacious to require very infre- 
quent attention, and the receptacles for mine 
might be so constructed — by the aid of pipes, 
&c. — as not to demand the entry upon the pre- 
mises of collecting men at all. In fact, says 
the very confident originator of the scheme, 
"the whole of the details might be so carried 
out as not to be any source of annoyance or 
of offence to delicacy whatever, even in re- 
spect of the most fastidious." 

It is not essential to foUow the author of 
the " Sewage Difliculty : its Causes, _ Effects, 
and Remedy" into his comparative estimate of 
sanitary and pecuniary advantages supposed 
to be contingent upon the adoption of his 
plans. Such estimates, although it may be 
that they are framed conscientiously, are not 
always strictly reliable, and we shall content 
ourselves with having directed the attention of 
our readers to the nature of the propositions, 
and by advising them to obtain for themselves 
the excellent publication in which those pro- 
positions are more elaborately explained. 

The sanitary committee of the town of 
Nottingham have supplied a brief but explicit 
report of their operations in regard to the 
various and important points implied and 
understood by the term sanitary, during the 
past year. It is gratifying to note the energy 
and ability with wliich those operations seem 
to have been performed. The water supply 
and the sewage questions have been intelli- 
gently and practically dealt with. Many sur- 
face wells have been altogether abandoned, 
and the inhabitants of Nottingham are now 
provided abnost universally, we believe, with 
water from the mains ot the AVaterworks 
Company. In the matter of privies and 
closets much has been done by way of im- 
provement, the general principle adopted 
being the admixture of earth or ashes and 
night soil, with the exclusion of extraneous 
water and proper ventilation. We have the 
satisfaction of introducing here apian, section, 




LAN, 



and side elevation of a single pri\'y with ash- 
pit arrangement, and which will thus make 
the matter more readily understood. The 
plan, which can be extended so as to combine 
pairs, or blocks of any number, is simple. 
It consists in its chief feature of a water-tight 
pit or receptacle, so formed that all soil falls 




4-Q(iTcSin gg 




4'/za3 



vSection A.B. 



directly into its centre, and to the lowest 
level, so as to be immediately covered by 
the next deposition of earth or ashes. The 
committee ^record their opinion that dry 
earth is probably the best deodoriser, and state 
that a daily covering of that material prevents 
all smell, absorbs all liquid, and aids in form- 
ing a manure equal to guano. Ashes, which 
are supplied from all houses, though not 
equal to dry earth, produce similar effects, 
and thus this domestic refuse and heretofore 
nuisance may not only be rendered innoxious 
but of great agricultural value. By adopting 
the ficrured dimensions of the illustrations in 




End Elevation. 

the construction of such works, facilities will 
be afforded for removing the material, whilst 
the relative positions of the groundline, the 
aLihpit door, and the seat, wUl not allow one 
part to become overcharged. The cost of such 
a construction as that shown above, according 
to the experience of the Nottingham com- 
mittee, ranges from £9 to .£10. 

No drainage is necessary in these cases, and 
by the method of ventilation pursued perfect 
immunity from disagreeable odours is ob- 
tained. We apprehend that the time is not 
distant when the example of Nottingham will 
be followed by other towns, in the densely- 
peopled districts of many of which filth aad 
disease now reign paramount. 



February 1, 1867. 



THE BUILDINO NEAVS. 



83 



Irffjxolotiii. 



ARCHJlOLOGYis one of the popular pur- 
suits of the present generation, and one 
which has had and still haj a powerful in- 
fluence on its mental progress. The very 
name is an invention of the present genera- 
tion, and serves to distinguish t!ie scientific 
character of the study as at present pursued, 
from the too often fanciful and speculative 
antiquarianisni of a past age. One eWdence 
of the popularity of the study and the energy 
with which it is pursued is to be seen in the 
organisations which liave been established 
to secure co-operation among tlie students 
and encouragement from the sympathis- 
ing public. There are, besides tlie ancient 
chartered Society of Antiquaries, two me- 
tropolitan societies, which embrace the 
three kingdoms within the scope of their 
operations, and nearly every county has its 
county society besides. Another evidence is 
the considerable amount of literature which 
I has accumulated on the subject within the 
last five-aud-twenty years. The books and 
■iphlets till a fair-sized library ; every 
ii'ty has its special publication of Transac- 
tions; the literary periodicals give a share 
1 attention to it; and the London and 
vincial papers gladly insert occasional 
:. (graphs of antiquarian news. But with 
•i'.l this interest felt in the subject, and 
all this attention devoted to it, archasology 
has no special organ in the weekly press, 
nor is there even any weekly publication 
■ which the antiquarian student may look 
th the knowledge that his tastes have been 
■cially catered for ; and that he will there 
tolerably sure to find a record of archseo- 
_lcal discoveries, notices of the new archseo- 
,ical books, and the latest news of archaeo- 
^ical circles, and the opportunity of com- 
municating with his brother archseologists by 
means of correspondence. 
The BciLDiSG News has resolved to en- 
ivour to supply this want. It has arranged 
10 devote to the subject a portion of its space 
weekly ; it has taken steps to secure compe- 
tent correspondents in various parts of the 
kfngdora; and it has put the special 
1 ■partment into the hands of a competent 
iitor. It only remains to solicit the co- 
operation of those who are specially interested 
; in antiquarian pursuits, and to beg them to 
favour us, for the common benefit, with the 
means of communicating early intelligence of 
antiquarian discoveries, and of making these 
columns interesting and useful to the anti- 
(juarian reader. Communications to be ad- 
dressed to the Editor, 166, Fleet-street, E.C. 



1 Crater, with an open shaft at its apex. When the 
rupe and the force are there it is not everybody who 
cares to be let down, astride of a stick at the end 
!if a rope, into a uaiTow shaft, which is he due^ 
not quite know how deep, and leads to he is not 
([uite sure what. A party of adventurers have, 
however, recently organised a visit, and one ol 
them obliges us with notes of what he saw. These 
Dene holes, as the country people call them 
(.'Dane holes) are situated iu a wood c;illed Hairy- 
man's Wood, in the parish of Tillbury. The/ 
had brought a long stout rope, aud had tied a 
short stick at one end, aud invited us one by one 
to sit across the stick and allow ourselves to be 
lowered down the crater, and down the shaft of 
uukuovvn depth to which the crater formed a con 
veuit:nt funnel. It looked ugly, but one of u.s 
volunteered to make the first descent. The shaft 
was about 3ft. in diameter and about 85ft. deep. 
At the bottom of the shaft we came to a cone 
some 25lt. high, which would just have 6Ued the 
crater above, since it consisted of the loose soil 
which had crumbled iu from the sides of the 
shaft and formed the crater. At the bottom of 
the shaft were two openings opposite to one 
another, each of which g.ive access to a group of 
three caves. The ground plan of the caves was 
like a six-leaved tiower, diverging from the central 
cup, which is represented by the shaft. The 
centralcave of each three is about fourteen yards 
long and four yards wide, and about six yards 
high. The side caves are smaller, about seven 
yards long and two yards wide. The section is 
rather singular : taken from end to end, the roof 
line is horizontal, but the floor line rises at the 
end of the cave, so that a sketch of the section 
from end to end of the two principal caves is like 
the outline of a boat, the shaft being iu the posi- 
tion of the mainm;ist. The section across the cave 
is like the outline cif an egg made to stand on its 
broader end. They are all hewn out of the chalk, 
the toul marks, like those which would be made 
bv a pick, being still visible. A good deal of loose 
chalk lies on the floor, fallen probably from the 
sides. It is under this chalk that there is a chance 
of finding some traces of the original use of the 
caves ; the caves were dry and the air pure. We 
descended another shaft which led into other 
caves, much like in plan and dimensions to those 
above described. If the rest of the open and 
closed and conjectured shafts led to similar caves 
the total amount of cave room is very consider- 
able. We saw nothing which could give a clue 
to the purpose for which these singular excava- 
tions were made, or to the date of their excava- 
tion, uidess the pickmarks which we saw indicate 
that they were dug out, not with flint or bronze 
celts of the usual shapes, but with a metal tool 
like a pick of later date than the age of celts. We 
were told there are simdar Dene holes on the south 
side of the river, which we hope to explore some 
day. __^ 



offect which always attracts a group of gazer* 
round the window aforesaid, and whi<^h onr four- 
teenth century ancestors were not above admiring. 
In the illumination a knight sits on the step of 
the fountain, and rests his elbow on the margin of 
the lower basin. A lawn surrounds the foiint.ain, 
there are flowering plants above, and trees in the 
background, and a gateway on the right. The 
jcene seems to be a mediaeval garden. 

The other fountain has on a raised step a deep 
circular basin, with arcaded sides. From the 
middle rises a twisted shaft, which carries two 
lions* heads, from whose mouths the water flows. 
The numerous allusions to fountains in the 
medi;eval romances prove that they were com- 
mon then — more common than they are now ; the 
constant allusions to the bath show that it was 
then in universal use among well bred people; and 
we are led to suspect that some of the sanitary 
arrangements five hundred years ago were superior 
to those oi the present day, and to wish that 
architects would now give us baths universally in 
oui houses, and fountains frequently in our pubUc 
places. 

Dr. Bruce is about to issue by subscription 
a new edition of his work on the Roman w.all. It 
will not be merely a reprint of the work, but will 
contain additional matter, the result of later sur- 
veys and discoveries, and additional plans aud 
woodcuts. It is a standard and valuable work, 
which ought to be in every antiquary's library. 

The Rev. H. J. Ell.acombe, the well-known cam- 
panologist, is engaged upon a volume on the bells 
of Devon. He has visited every church tower in 
the county, and copied all the bells, more than 
two thousand in number. It will be a valuable 
contribution to the ecclesiology of the county and 
to the campanology of the kingdom. 

Mr. John D' Alton, the Irish historian and anti- 
quary, has just died at Dublin. For upwards of 
half a century he had collected materials for the 
history of nearly every Irish family of note. Mr. 
D' Alton was a member of the Irish bar. Among 
his published works were " Memoirs of the Arch- 
bishops of Dublin," several Irish historical essaya, 
and a national romance, entitled " Dermid, or 
Erin iu the Days of Boroihure." He was also for 
many years a frequent contributor to the Gentle- 
man's Ma .azine, besides various Irish periodicals. 
He has left behind him a large collection of 
valuable MSS. 

Mr. Charles Roach Smith, who is known to all 
the world as an antiquary, is just now earning re- 
putation iu a very different field. He has been 
giving dramatic readings at Rochester, with un- 
bounded applause. Twice as many tickets were 
applied for as were issued, and the reading was re- 
peated. He has since been reading at Lewes, a£ 
he had done previously in Bedfordshire. He 
is said to display very great dramatic power. 



BRITISH GATES ON THE BANKS OF 
THE THAMES. 

Is "Camden's Britannia" there is an account 
of some remarkable excavations near Tilbury, 
on the north shore of the Thames, which he sup- 
poses to be of British origin, and to have been 
made as granaries for corn, according to a custom 
of the Celtic tribes, for whose existence he quotes 
Tacitus as his authority. Since Camden's time 
these remarkable caves seem to have been lost 
eight of. They are not mentioned by the county 
historians, and they do not, although so near Lon- 
don, seem to have attracted the attention of the 
modern school of archseolngi.^ts. There are good 
reasons why they should not be often visited. 
They are in an out-of-the-way, uninhabited partof 
the country for a stranger to reach ; they are not 
easy to find when the visitor has reached the place ; 
■when found it is necessary to have a long and 
stout rope to lower and raise the explorer, and 
force enough to do it ; and when the five of them 
are now open — about five more have been open 
within a few years, but are now closed by the 
falling in of the surface soil — there are also a 
n imber of other conical depressions just like those 
which are known to be the mouths of filled in 
shafts, which we may fairly suppose to be also of 
the same nature. We found the farming men 
whom our friend had sent to help us standing 
beside a conical pit, like the mouth of a small 



MEDLSTAL FOUNTAINS IN ILLU- 
MINATED MSS. 

A coRRESPOTiDENT writes : — I was interested in 
your account of the fifteenth century fountain at 
Little Leighs, having some time since in vain 
sought for any English mediseval examples. I 
found some authorities in the illuminations in 
MSS., but usually they were so defective in draw- 
ing that they served only as suggestions of the 
general form and character of the structure, 
which had pleased the illuminator's eye, and 
which he tried to represent. A description of 
two, which I saw again last week in turning over 
the rich pages of the fourteenth century MSS. 
'• Histoire du Roi Melindus," in the British 
Museum, may interest your archaeological readers. 
One consists of a shallow octagonal basin, placed 
upon a base of one step. In the middle of this 
basin stands a s ort, stout, octagonal shaft, with 
well-moulded base and capital. The capital carries 
a design composed of four lions' beads facing out- 
wards, from whose mouths water issues into the 
basin beneath. On these lions' heads is placed a 
smaller fiat circular basin with embattled edge, 
and from the middle of this upper basin rises 
what seems to be intended for some such fanciful 
waterwork as those we see in the shop window 
just west of Temple Bar, where Mr. Lipscombe's 
filters are sold. In the drawing there is a short 
upright pipe, on the top of which is what I take 
to be a hollow sphere, with several short pipes in- 
serted iu it, out of which water is represented 
as gushing. I conjecture that this sphere was 
turned round in some way by the force of the 
water, and so the water was ejected from the pipes 
in fantastic shapes, and produced the kind of 



POTTERY AND PORCELAIN. 

A COURSE of six lectures " On Pottery and 
Porcelain" -(the Cantor lectures) is bow 
being delivered at the Society of Arts by William 
Chafi'ers, Esq. The first lecture of the course was 
delivered on Monday, the '21st inst. Mr. Chaffers 
illustrated his remarks by the exhibition of a col- 
lection of very fine specimens of ancient pottery 
of the Egyptian, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman 
periods, which were attentively examined after 
the lecture by the members. Behind the chair 
were placed numerous diagrams of the forms of 
Greek vases, drawings of the potter's wheel, a Saxon 
grave, urns, &c. The lecturer commenced by 
speaking of the nature of clay, and the various 
changes it was subject to from its primitive state, 
through all the intermediate stages, until it culmi- 
nated iu the perfect vivse, dv.'eliing upon the de- 
siccation and baking the clay, the means adopted 
by potters in the formation of vessels, viz., the 
potter's wheel, modelling tools, moulds, 
&c., the skUl exercised by the arti-ts in. 
decorating the ware, and the diflaculties they had 
to contend with in painting upon the moist clay ; 
the na'-ure of the glazes employed by the ancients ; 
the shrinkage while in the kiln, and many other 
curious facts in connection therewith. Mr. Chaffers 
alluded to the extraordiuary circumstance that not- 
withstanding the fragility of specimens of ceramic 
art, and their liability to injury, our mu-seum» 
throughout Europe abounded with perfect and 
uninjured examples not only of pottery, but of the 
stUl more fragile material, glass. For the preser- 
vation of th?se we are indebted to the simple piety 
of the ancients, who, according, to their rites of 



84 



THE BUILDING NEWS, 



Febeuaey 1, 1867. 



burial, placed in the grave those objects which 
the deceased esteemed most daring his lifetime. 
Thus we find by the side of the skeleton, in the 
simple tumulus of earth, in the cinerary urn, or in 
the stone sarcophagus, gold and silver personal 
ornaments, fictile vases, and other ceramic re- 
mains, glass vessels, weapons, &c. ; and this is the 
source of our possession of such valuable testi- 
monies to the habits and customs of the ancients, 
for, without exception, all the relics preserved to 
us have been discovered either in places of sepid- 
ture, or in the exhumation of long-buried cities, 
devastated by conquest, or overwhelmed by vol- 
canic eruptions. The lecturer then noticed the 
description given by Herodotus of the city of Ec- 
bataua, the capital of Media, surrounded by seven 
walls of as many ditferent colours, which he in- 
ferred were of bricks, or tiles with enamelled sur- 
faces, and compared it with a building of similar 
character, described by Sir H. Rawlinson as still ex- 
isting at IJirs Nimrud, in Chaldffia, which from the 
custom of placing cylinders in the buildings, is as- 
certained to have been restored by King Nebuchad- 
nezzar 605 B.C., who designates it "The seven 
spheres of Borsippa." This structure consisted 
of six stages, each about '20ft. high, of pyramidal 
form, dedicated to particular planets, and vitrified 
or glazed with the colour attributed to it by astro- 
logers. Adverting to the glazed Babylonian bricks, 
Mr. Chafiers showed the early knowledge of the 
use of the stanniferous enamel glaze as a covering 
for earthenware. He alluded to the researches cf 
Mr. W Kennett Loftua in Chaldsea, who disco- 
vered piles upon piles of earthenware cofiins co- 
vered with glaze in a cemetery at Warka, proofs 
of the successive generations by whom this method 
of burial was adopted from its foundation until 
the place was abandoned by the Parthians, a pe- 
riod probably of more than 2,000 years. The earth- 
enware of Egypt next claimed his attention, which 
he described as a sort of silicious frit, frequently 
covered with a greenish blue glaze ; the deities and 
emblems discovered so abundantly in the catacombs 
and tombs were many of them steatite, carved into 
form, and placed in the kiln. The earthenware 
vessels were used to contain the waters of the 
Nile, and for various household purposes. The 
favoitrite ornamentation on their vases was de- 
rived from the lotus, its buds and flowers, the 
borders and details being taken from the petals, 
stems, and divisions of thecalix. The mostflourLsh- 
ing period of Egyptian art is assigned to a very re- 
mote date, viz., 2,000 years befi n-e our era. The 
period of the Ptolemies is known by the marked 
influence of Greek artists. The frit gives place 
to a pottery, coarse and soft, sometimes painted on 
the plain surface, and sometimes glazed. This 
was continued down to the second and third cen- 
turies of our era, when Egypt was under Roman 
domination. In speaking of the Greek fictile vases, 
Mr. Chaffers said they were found in large quan- 
tities in the sepulchres of Etruria during the last 
century, and hence they were erroneously called 
EtruSLjan, even after they were still more abun- 
dantly discovered in Magna Grfecia, Sicily, Attica, 
&c. It is indisputable that these vases are the 
productions of Greek artists, and the style of paint- 
ing the designs as well as the inscriptions are 
decidedly Greek. This portion of the lecture was 
illustrated by some remarkably fine Greek vases 
kindly lent to the lecturer by Mr. Felix Slade, 
Mr. Henderson, Mr, Battam, and M. RoUm. For 
the purpose of classifying the Greek va-es he di- 
vided them into five periods, assigning approxi- 
mate dates of antiquity, as' follows: — First archaic 
period, previous to the eighth century B.C. ; se- 
cond archaic period, from the eighth to the seventh 
B.C. ; third archaic period, from the seventh to the 
sixth B.C. ; fourth, the finest period, from the 
sixth to the fourth B.C. ; fifth, the decadence, from 
the fourth to the second B.C. The peculiar char- 
acteristics of each period are as follow : — The first 
archaic period: Of these, the earliest specimens of 
Greek fictile art, most are discovered at Athens, 
Corinth, Melos, Camirus in Rhodes, and Etruria. 
They are very rude, painted in reddish brown or 
black, on ash-coloured ground, with chevrons, con- 
centric circles, stars, &c., and primitive represen- 
tations of men and animals. The vases of the se- 
cond archaic period are abundantly supplied from 
Camirus, in Rhodes, as well as in other parts of 
Greece. They show a great improvement in the 
drawing of the figures ; they are usually of cream- 
coloured clay, painted with crimson and white, and 
red on black, the details being scratched with a 
point, the style of ornamentation being two or more 
rows of animals (real or imaginary), of birds, har- 
pies, sphinxes, &c. In the third archaic period are 
found the most valuable Greek vases, cf a more ar- 
tistic character than thgse which precede it. The 



figures are painted in black, on a red ground, and 
the designs are confined to a square tablet between 
the two handles, the rest of the vase being painted 
a lustrous black. Mythological and heroic subjects 
are now introduced, and complicated groups of 
figures, chariots, and occasionally inscriptions. The 
fourth is the best period of Greek art. These vases 
may be especially distinguished by the designs being 
left red,the ground filled in with black, and the de- 
tails of costume, features, and anatomical delinea- 
tions produced by black lines. Sometimes are found 
black figures on red, and red figures on black, on 
the same vase. This may be considered a transi- 
tion from the archaic to the more artistic style. 
The fine vases of Nola may also be attributed to 
this period. The fifth period may be called the 
decadence, and dates from the accession of Alex- 
ander the Great, B.C. 336, to B.C. 186, when it is pre- 
sumed the fabrication of painted vases altogether 
ceased, shortly after the edict of the Roman senate 
against the celebration of the Bacchanalian festi- 
vals in that year. As we approach the second cen- 
tury B.C. we find less freedom in the design, a cer- 
tain mannerism in the drawing, as well as a greater 
profusion of ornament. 

Various specimens of Etruscan pottery were ex- 
hibited to illustrate the lecturer's remarks, and the 
Roman section was copiously illustrated by selec- 
tions from his own collection, displaying the most 
striking varieties. The red ware of Arretium was 
described, as well as the Samian ware, so fre- 
quently discovered on the sites of Roman cities, 
ornamented in relief with mythological subjects 
and elegant scroll patterns ; it was used by the 
Romans at the table for their meals. Mr. Chaffers 
also described other varieties of Roman ware found 
in Biitain and Germany, aud vessels of various 
forms, small drinking cups, inscribed with short 
convivial sentences, as " Imple," " Reple," "Bibe," 
" Vivas," " Da vinum ;" mortaria, lamps, clay sta. 
tuettes, &c., specimens of which were upon the 
table. In conclusion, he spoke of the Saxon period, 
and described the contents of some of the Saxon 
or Franki-sh graves which are dispersed over 
Northern Gaul, and the earthenware vessels so 
commonly found among them. 



PROPOSED SCHOOLS AND ALMS- 
HOUSES, WALWORTH. 

THESE buildings, of which wegiveanillustration 
elsewhere, are about to be erected near the 
Elephant and Castle Railway Station, for the con- 
gregation of the Rev. C. H. Spurgeon. They con- 
sist of eighteen sitting-rooms for aged females 
(each with souUery, coalplaee, and a recess for bed 
to be closed by curtains), schools for 200 children, 
and an eight-roomed teacher's house. There is a 
covered playground under the girls' school. The 
walls are of brick with stone dressings. The 
details given below our view are taken from the 
elevations, andmerely explain the general arrange- 
ment, not the precise design of the ornament. The 
architect is Mr. James Cubitt, of Addington- 
square, Camberwell. 



provision for these collections has long been felt. 
The expense of carrying out the architect's designs 
and plans, exclusive of fittings, would be about 
£25,000, including the amount (£2,300) already 
granted by the Court for the improvement of the 
present building. This sum the Court will be 
asked to vote at their next meeting. 



LE MANS CATHEDRAL CHEVET. 

TOAVARDS the year 1220 the ancient apses of 
most of the French cathedrals were demo- 
lished and rebuilt, with the view at some future 
time of reconstructing the whole of the buildings 
in the thennew style. The scheme for rebuilding the 
whole of the cathedrals was not realised in many 
cases, a fact which is not to be regretted, since 
we thus have preserved to us the original naves of 
the rormd arch style. The work of rebuilding 
the cathedral of Le Mans stopped at the trans- 
epts. M. VioUet le Due* has pointed out that the 
chevet of this cathedral, with its two aisles of 
diS'erent heights, presents a precisely similar 
arrangement to that of Bourges, the apsidal 
chapels of which, however, are considerably deeper 
than those at Le Mans. The Chapel of the 
Virgin (shown on the left side of the sketch) is, as 
frequently occurs, two bays longer than the 
rest of, the chapels of the apse. It is ele- 
vated on a crypt. The doorway is of 
much later date than the chapels ; the 
steps leading to it are entirely of wood. The ori- 
ginal cathedral of Le Mans, which dates from 
early in the eleventh century, consisted of a nave 
covered with a wooden roof, with north and south 
aisles and north and south transepts, each having 
an apsidal chapel on the east side. There was an 
apse eastward of the crossing, with one aisle 
covered with a barrel vault. Portions of the 
transepts of the eleventh century are still remain- 
ing on the north side of the present chevet. 
During th8 twelfth century the vault over the 
nave and transepts was built; it is hexapartite, ' 
in square bays. The clerestory, with its two- 1 
light AngioWne windows, was at the same time i 
constructed, and the early arcade and triforiumj 
restored ; the lofty pillars were built against every ^ 
alternate pier to carry the vaulting. 

Henri Jarvis, jun. ^ 



GUILDHALL IMPROVEMENT. 

THE Guildhall Improvement Committee have 
presented a report to the Court of Common 
Council, on the subject of a new library and 
museum. They state that having directed the 
City architect to prepare and submit designs and 
an estimate for the erection of a new building 
which would give ample space both for the recep- 
tion of books and antiquities belonging to the 
Corporation and for the accommodation of visitors, 
that gentleman has prepared a ground plan of the 
present arrangement of the Guildhall and offices, 
providing for the erection of a new library and 
museum on the ground between the eastern end 
of the hall and Basinghall-street. The new build- 
ing will contain a basement floor, with an area of 
9,000 superficial feet ; a ground floor, which will 
be used as the museum, with a like area ; and an 
upper floor, which will be devoted to the purposes 
of the library, and will contain an area of 6,000 
superficial feet. On this floor it is proposed to 
erect a g.allery, which will materially contribute 
to the space required for the reception of the 
books. Since its foundation by the Corporation 
in 1824, the GuildhiiU library has been steadily 
increasing, until at the present time it consists oi 
one of the most valuable assortment of works of 
standard literature to be found in the country, 
and in addition to this it possesses the largest and 
most complete collection of works in relation to 
the City of London which is known to be in 
existence. The necessity of making some proper 



THE PARIS EXHIBITION. T 

AVERY useful feature of the arrangements is a 
covered way which leads from the railway 
station just beyond the limits of the grounds to 
one of the side doors of the building itself, so 
that all who arrive by rail will be under shelter 
the whole way ; this covered way is nearly 
finished, and will shortly be connected with the 
entrance by a vestibule. On the other side of the 
building is another large covered way for carriage* 
to pass under and set down their occupants. 

Beyond the Exhibition grounds, the steel 
bridge, which crosses the opening made in the 
quay, is completed ; a large and convenient land- 
ing place is being formed for those who arrive by^ 
water, and who may enter the grounds of the Ex- ' 
hibition either by the way beneath the bridge or byX 
the main entrance in the quay. On the rigbi^ 
and left of this landing place, but on a level withp 
. the qu.ay, two large restaurants have beei 
erected, and one of these will, it is said, be undei 
the direction of two well-known English caterers." 

The portion of the machinery gallery which haat 
been assigned to Great Britain contains eighty^ 
large clerestory windows. It is intended to fill tbei 
with bUnds of a decorative character, and a wiudoi 
has been offered to each of the most importan| 
corporations of Great Britain, chambers of col 
merce, civic companies, and railway companies, 
enable blinds illustrating the manufactures, &Cjj 
peculiar to the town, or decorated with design* 
heraldic or otherwise, to be erected. Amonf 
those which have at present accepted these invita- 
tions are the corporations of London, Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, Liverpool, Belfast, 'Newcastle-on Tyne, 
Bradford, '^Oldham, Rochdale, Stoke Chamber of 
Commerce, the Honourable the Mercers Company, 
and the Stockton and Darlington Railway Company 
The British executive will fill several windows, 
with blinds illustrating the early history of iuven-- 
tions. Stephenson's " Rocket," Braithwaite's *' No- 
velty," Hackworth's " Sanspariel," being the 
earliest trial locomotives ; Symington's steam pad- 
dle engine, which was the first successful engine 
of the kind ; Watt's " Sun and Planet" beam en' 
gine, aud Arkwright's loom furnish subjects. 

« " Dictioauaire da I'Arcliitwtaid," Xome v., p. 3ii. 



^1 

i 

esai' 
"tf 




/v'h, ' ■■:!. -i_r. :■- h \S3 



H^Jaivis. . 



Iiti (Hm^ (^m^iim^^ii Cm'^f ^^m j^-^ 



The Building News Feb' I" 1867 




P F. Warrv '-r 



Vrtnf.eToa^ tEass Lidiographers 236 Bolbom 



Prupuiifii ^^rlianla- s"!: •AlmiilmuriP.s^-WHriDurtB m«james cubui archt. 



February I, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



89 



LAXDSEER'S LIONS IX TRAFALGAR 
SQUARE. 

JUST a few minutes before arranging for 
the press we had a ghvnce at the lions 
■which have just been put on their respective 
pedestals in Trafalgar-square. The first 
thought that strikes one in looking at them is, 
Why has there been such a tedious delay in 
their production and erection? For many 
years tlie vacant places in the square have 
been the butts for critics and cynics, and 
Sir E. Landseer's name has been mentioned 
not over reverently in the matter. After 
waiting so long, public expectation has natu- 
rally been on the tiptoe. Great things have 
been expected, and in some minds great will 
be the disappointment. At the first glance, and 
when close to them, the lions look too big 
for the site, but when looked at from a 
short distance the objection loses its force. The 
lions are all the same size, and they are very 
much alike. The bodies and legs appear, in 
fact, as if they were cast in the same mould ; 
the expression of the face ditfers, we believe, 
in each instance, and herein will be found the 
artist's merit. Each lion appears as if he 
were arranged to sit for his portrait. The 
forepaws in each instance are stiff, formal, and 
artificial. In fact, no lion could sit in such a 
posture more than a minute without pain. 
Why each body should be exactly alike, why 
each head should be almost in the same 
position, why each mouth should be open 
and the tongue in the same place, must 
be best kno«Ti to the artist. If they were 
to differ at aU, why not dill'er more ? Then 
each figure would have an interest of its own, 
beyond the facial expression which it now 
presents. There is a grand repose in the back 
part of each figure ; but the spreading out of 
the fore paws indicates anything but repose. 
There is, however, throughout a structural 
symmetry about the figures, which palpably 
shows that Sir Edwin has imitated nature 
with considerable care. It is, we think, not 
only a pity, but a mistake, to have made the 
noble brutes so closely resemble each other, 
and particularly when so much time and 
labour and money have been expended in their 
execution. It must be admitted, however, 
by the most critical, that these additions im- 
part a sense of completeness and an air of 
majesty to " the finest site in Europe." 



EARTHWORK AND ilASONRY IN 
THE PARIS EXHIBITION. 

SO much attention has been bestowed upon 
the superstructure or metallic portion of 
the approaching Paris Exhibition that pro- 
bably many of our readers will be surprised 
to learn that the masonry and earthwork con- 
stitute combined a rather formidable item in 
the total expenditure. The amount of the 
contract for these two portions of the work is 
close upon £80,000. Of this sum more than 
half is absorbed in the formation of the ter- 
races and the masonry in the foundations, and 
the rest in masonry above ground, including 
the walls of the grande nef. The formation of 
the terraces was commenced by constructing 
the platform of Le Champ de Mars, which 
comprised 230,000 cube yards of excavation, 
employed for filling the hoUbws. The cutting 
and filling were paid for at the rate of 8d. 
per cube yard for the double operation. 
About the same quantity of filling was also 
obtained for the same purpose by permitting 
Btuff to be run to spoil by anyone who wanted 
some place to shoot it. The excavation for 
the foundations proper of the Palace amounted 
to 80,0p0 cube yards, and were paid for at the 
rate of Is. Gd. per cube yard, which price of 
course included running it to filling where 
required ; the larger portion of it being used 
in bringing the ground in the interior of the 
building to the proper level. When this ope- 
ration was completed the whole surface of 
the made ground was well punned and watered, 



so as to thoroughly consolidate it and render 
any subsequent sinking or unevenness im- 
possible. An extra price of a penny half- 
penny was allowed for this work per cube 
yard. Some idea of the labour and expense 
attending the operation of watering the ground 
may be gathered from the fact that the con- 
tractors erected for the purpose ten reservoirs, 
to which water was conducted by numerous 
leaden pipes, having an aggregate length of 
two miles. The water was distributed from 
jets ; the contractors agreed with the water- 
works company for a daily supplj- of 17,000 
gallons, and the total cost w;is about £1,000. 
Under tlie item " terraces" must be included the 
formation of the principal road running con- 
centrically with the curve of the Palace, and 
situated about half-way between the limits of 
the Palace itself and those of Le Champ de 
Mars. The making of thisroad consumed nearly 
12,000 cube yards of flints and 8,000 of sand; 
the whole being supplied from an immense 
pit dug near L'Ecole Militaire. The 
excavation, cartage, and spreading of the flint 
stones was paid for at 3s. Id. per cube yard, 
and the sand at 8d. The surface was after- 
wards rendered smooth and in a suitable state 
for traffic by rolling it in the same manner as 
all newly macadamised roads are done in 
Paris. It is only we who retain the barbarous 
custom of laming and cutting the feet and 
legs of horses by allowing them to draw loads 
over roads, every stone of which bears a strong 
resemblance to the small three-pointed pieces 
of iron used in the times of barbaric warfare, 
to impede the advance of cavalr)'. 

The masonry underground includes that 
used in the construction of the subterraneous 
galleries, some of which are concentric with 
the plan of the building, and others radiating ; 
also, that in the foundations of the galleries 
appropriated to the fine arts and the records 
of industry and in the foundation of the 
curtain walls of the principal gallery. In 
these parts of the building upwards of 40,000 
cube yards of masonry were _ used, of which 
11,000 were of rubble masonry, built with 
mortar, at 12s. 3d. the cube yard. About the 
same quantity of beton was employed at 
9s. 2d. the cube yard; the remainder was 
built of masonry in cement at 143. Id. per 
same unit. The arches of the subterraneous 
galleries are built of beton concrete on the 
Coignet principle, and consumed 10,000 cube 
yards of material at £l 7s. 6d. per yard, 
which price included all charges for centreing, 
fixing, and other labour. The culverts and 
drains for drainage and surface water are 
built of the same description of concrete ; 
their diameter varies from 1ft. to 1ft. 7iin., 
and cost per running yard 43. 8d. and .53. lOd. 
respectively. Connection between the iron 
columns and the drains is maintained by 
earthenware pipes at lOd. per running yard ; 
this price is low, but as a set-off no deduction 
was made for the holes formed in the masonry 
for the passage of the pipes. Nearly all the 
mortar is made in pug miUs worked some by 
steam and others by horse power. As an 
illustration of a few somewhat unusual con- 
tingencies the contractors had to provide for, 
it may be mentioned that they purchased 
nearly ,5,000 square yards of straw matting to 
protect the fresh masonry from the effects of 
frost ; they constructed a large number of 
movable sheds to allow the work to be 
carried on under cover, and furthermore they 
provided a large quantity of additional cloth- 
ing for some of the workmen. It was stipu- 
lated by the authorities that the contractors 
should complete all the earthwork and ma- 
sonry belonging to the half of the Palace 
facing the quay by the 1st of February in the 
present year, and the works of a similar 
nature in the other half by the 1st of April 
following, under the penalty, in case of non- 
compliance, of £20 for every day of delay 
beyond the specified time. As many changes 
were made from time to time in the original 
designs, it was only by working night and 
day that the work was finished at the time 
stipulated for. 



The masonry above ground comprises the 
side walls of the two galleries already alluded 
to, and the curtain walls of the gratide nef. 
The former are 37ft. Gin. in height above the 
ground, and 2ft. thick at the base, and 
1ft. 7iin. at the top, and are built partly of 
masonry and partly of beton. The manner in 
which the beton is used is as follows : — Com- 
mencing at the base, a layer 5f't. in height, 
composed of beton in horizontal lengths of 
UU't., alternating with lengths of rubble work 
of 5ft. throughout the whole length of the 
wall ; over this layer is placed a layer of rubble 
work l.^ft. in height, then again a layer of 
beton and rubble as at first, with a layer of 
rubble only on top, and so on until a height 
of 20ft. is reached, the rest of the wall being 
built of rubble in cement. The alternations 
of masonry and beton present no visible 
appearance, as the whole surface of the walls 
is plastered over. The plastering was priced 
at a fraction over 3d. per square yard. The 
curtain walls of the principal gallery are con- 
structed without any beton, and, deducting 
openings, are equal to about 6,000 cube yards ; 
600 cube yards of American pine are also 
used for wall plates, wooden bricks, and other 
purposes. These walls follow closely upon 
the erection of the pillars, and each pair of 
bays is finished ten days after the adjoining 
columns are in position. About 20,000 square 
yards of flooring are completed, comprising 
the following formation : — A bottom layer of 
biiton, 3'15in. in thickness, is first deposited, 
consisting of stone and mortar in cement ; over 
this is spread a layer, or rather a coat of 
mortar in cement, composed of sand and 
cement, in the proportion of 12 cwt. of cement 
to 1 -3 cube yards of sand, the whole being 
carefully levelled and smoothed. The arrange- 
ments respecting the workmen employed and 
the labour in general are excellent, and we 
therefore extract a brief account of them from 
" Les Travaux Publics:'' — Any workman 
desiring to be engaged on the works must 
present himself either 20 minutes before the 
commencement of the day's labour, or in the 
evening immediately at its termination, at one 
of the gates of the Champ de Mars, and, on 
stating his object, will be attended to by one 
of the foremen of the particular trade he be- 
longs to. If Jie is engaged, he will receive a 
" carte," containing his name, address, and the 
number, which will serve, besides, to identify 
him ; on it is also written the number of the 
workshop where he is employed, and, after 
the first day of his trial, the pay he is to 
receive will be inscribed upon it. Admission 
to the works is only obtained by his present- 
ing liis " carte " daily, which is signed by one 
of the contractors. Every workman must 
bring his own tools, and they must, moreover, 
be in good working order. Excepting between 
the mouths of April to October, the day is 
divided into ten working hours, and the hour 
is taken as the base for calculating wages. 
Ten minutes before the time for beginning 
work the bell is rung, and the men can come 
in, the doors are afterwards closed, and those 
who are too late, locked out until a cessation 
of labour occurs. Every workman quitting 
his work without the consent or knowledge of 
his foreman is liable to a fine of 5f , besides 
the deduction for time lost. Pay day comes 
the second Sunday of every month, and for 
this purpose an especial office has been built 
in the Champ de Mars; but checks, not 
exceeding in value half the wages gained by 
the workmen at the time, are given out every 
Saturday to those who want them. The men 
must give eight days' previous notice to their 
respective foreman when wishing to leave the 
service, or otherwise they will not receive 
whatever amount of pay may be due to them. 
Those who are dismissed, are paid off at the 
close of the day's work ; and anyone in a state 
of drunkenness is summarily expelled the 
premises. 

To ensure a due and skilful professional 
attendance upon those who may suffer, either 
through their o\vn indiscretion and negligence, 
or through the inevitable contingencies attend- 



90 



THE BUILDING NEV/S. 



February 1, 186f. 



ing all large works of a similar nature, a 
rebate of 2 per cent, is levied upon all wages 
to provide for medical assistance. Two 
medical men attend regiilarly at the works 
upon the wounded and the sick, to whom 
medicines are supplied gratuitously ; visits 
are also made to those of the men who may be 
confined to their beds. Workmen who are laid 
np in consequence of injuries received through 
no fault of their own, but in the legitimate 
course of their labour, receive half pay while 
incapacitated for work ; this is the usual 
arrangement with most of our own large firms. 
On the other hand, those M'ho may be injured 
while in a state of intoxication, or from a dis- 
regard of ordinary prudence, or disobedience 
of orders, are allowed gratuitous medical aid, 
but nothing more. Curing the period of 
cholera, the Imperial Commission ordered tea 
to be distributed free to all the workmen, and 
altijoiigh we, who do not drink tea as a medi- 
cine, may be inclined to doulU the efficacy of 
the precaution, yet none will dispute the 
liberality of the action. 



YORKSHIRE ASSOCIA-^TON OF MASTER 
EUILDEKS. 

THE half-yearly general meeting of the mem- 
bers of this association was held at York, on 
Monday, Mr. Archibald Neill, of Bradford, in the 
chair. The attendance, in consequence of the 
importance of the business to be Lransacted, svas 
large, and represented the principal build, ng firms 
in all parts of the county. A report of the com- 
mittee was read, containing a variety of recom- 
mendations, one of which was the doing away 
entu-ely with the bond, a document which had 
been devised for the purpose of kuittiug the 
members together into a united body, and inflict- 
ing certain penalties for an infraction of the rules of 
the association. It was counsel's opinion that the 
document possessed no power, and it was therefore 
resolved to do away with it, resting for the future 
entirely on the honour of the members of the 
a-ssociation. Of the other recommendations the 
first and most important was " That the Yorkshire 
Association of Master Builders join the General 
Builders' Association, but that we retain our 
present arrangements as a Yorkshire association." 
A very lengthy discussion on this point was intro- 
duced by ilr. A. Mault, the representative of the 
General Builders' Association, who read the rules 
of the general body. The advantage of such a 
junction was acknowledged on all hands, whilst it 
appeared to be thoroughly appreciated that only 
by the strength of imity could reforms be brought 
about between masters and workmen, and archi- 
tects persuaded to guarantee the quantities which 
they furnished and adopt articles of agreement. 
During the discussion the evils of the day system 
of working were pointed out, and the advantage 
of the hour system both to man and master 
descanted upon, and a variety of inconsistencies 
indulged in by the workmen referred to. As to 
the latter it was stated that in some places bricks 
were not allowed to be manufactured, or stone 
dressed by machinery. These were fe ters upon 
the building trade which, it was argued, must be 
ultimately broken, and with this end in view a 
junction of the Yorkshire with the General 
Builders' Association was but the initiatory step. 
In fact, it was stated that in certain places in the 
county notice had already been given to the work- 
men of the intention of the masters to adopt the 
hour system. Ultimately the full recommendation 
of the committee was carried out, the Yorkshire 
association retaining its present arrangements as a 
county body, and becoming merged into the 
General Builders' Association. The secretary of 
the Yorkshire branch was then instructed to give 
certain notice of strikes impending, and to him 
the names of men likely to be or already on strike 
were also requested to be furnished by employers. 
This was a step which, from the discussion, 
appeared to possess some importance, in order that 
men on strike might not migrate to other towns 
and find employment from members of the 
association. An important discussion next took 
place upon the best means of adopting the hour 
system throughout the association. Mr. Mault, 
■whil-t stating that the Birmingham Association of 
Masters had determined to try their strength with 
the men on this point, added that the General 
Builders' Association had deemed it unwise at 
present to take the initiative in such a step. It 
waa one, however, which he thought it most 



desirable the builders of the country should give 
their attention to, in order that a uniform system 
might be adopted throughout the country. During 
the discussion a variety of difficulties and anoma- 
lies were pictured as existing under the present 
system, whilst there was also the additional anomaly 
that in a few places the hour system is at present 
in force, and with such manifest advantage to the 
men that they were ready to strike sooner than 
submit to an alteration. It was ultimately resolved 
" that this branch association recommend to the 
general association at its annual meeting the con- 
sideration of the desirability of giving a general 
notice for the adoption of imposed trade rules, 
including the hour system, at as early a date as 
Iiossible." The subject of the best means to be 
used to induce architects to furnish and guarantee 
quantities, and to adopt articles of agreement, 
were referred for consideration to the next meet- 
ing of the General Association of Builders, to be 
held at Bristol, and the association was requested 
to bring the matter to a satisfactory settlement 
as early as possible. A sub-committee was ap- 
pi >inted for the purpost^ of watching over any bill or 
bills which might be brought into Parliament 
affecting the trade, and also to consider any question 
not brought before that meeting. Local associa- 
tions were exhorted to use every endeavour to 
extend the usefulness of the association by push- 
ing it into new districts, after which it was 
determined that the next meeting of the York- 
shire branch should be held at Harrogate. The 
meeting then adjourned to the Royal Station 
Hotel, and about eighty gentleman sat down to a 
most excellent repast. The after proceedings 
under the presidency of Mr. Woolley and Mr. 
Whiteley, were kept up until the departure of the 
later trains of the day. 



BUILDERS' wore: AND WAGES IN NEW 
SOUiH WALES. 

"p ESOLUTION passed at the Carpenters' and 
_£Aj Joiners' Society : — 

" That we form a committee to inquire into the 
present depression in trade, and call delegates 
from other trades with the view of ascertaining 
the amount of distress existing amongst each 
trade or calling in the colony of New South 
Wales." 

To llie Secretary ajid Memhers of tke Amalgamated Society 
of I he Unileil Kiitijdom. 

Gentlemen and Fellow Workmen, — We the undersigned, 
as delegates of the various trades of Sydney, hereby for- 
ward you a correct account of the great depression existing 
among all classes of skiUed and unskilled labour in the 
colony. It is with extreme regret that we feel it our duty, 
and a very painful duty, to make you acquainted with our 
present depressed conditiou. Owing to the great want of 
employment experienced by all trades andcal.ings. more 
especially amon^ the building and iron trades, labourei-s in 
the building trades also, we wish particularly to warn you 
against the glowing but false accounts that often find their 
way to the United Kingdom by almost every mail. We can 
assure you that the laboui* offices are daily besieged by 
willing and anxious hard-working men, offering their ser- 
vices for any kind of employment or wages ; but the 
demand for labour is as scarce as the applications for em- 
ployment are nuraeroua. 

We do not wish you to understand that we never had 
New South Wales in a distressed state before now, for we 
can a-ssvire you that the colony has not been worth a man in 
the United Kingdom, who was doing moderately well, or 
getting a moderate amoxint of emplo^Tnent, to leave to 
come here for these last six or seven years ; in fact, employ- 
ment is always hard to obtain, and where obtained is 
mostly of short duration. 

We ^^-ill now give you a tnithful statement of the wages 
paid and received by the best workmen in the colony and 
city of Sydney, and that isthe very highest received by any 
trade or calling : — Stonemasons. 10s. perday of eight houra, 
but not in a shop or under a shed, as in the old country, 
but under the scorching sun of Austral-a. no protection 
either from hot winds or di'enching riins, but knock ott and 
go liome, lose the time, and, consequently, the money, from 
the already-too-sraall amoimt of wages ; carpenters and 
joiners, Ps. pen- day, not in shops such as you have at home, 
as we caU it, but most of oirr work is done in sheds that 
are neither wind or water tight, or else in the building*, 
and subject to all the annoyances of the plasterers and all 
other trades when the work is prepared in the building ; 
bricklayei-s, 10s. per day, or v2 lOs. to £3 per rod of piece- 
work ; plasterers, 9s, per day, or from Gd. to lOd. per yai-d 
of piecework, and, if at day^vork. there are uo hawk-boys, 
but the mortar is pitched on the board, and in nine cases 
out of ten you must dispense mth the labourer when the 
floating is done ; painters, 8s. per day ; iron trades, ranging 
from 03. to 10s. per day of ten hours ; slaters, all by the 
square, from 6s. to Ss. Cd. ; plumbers. 10s. perday; brick- 
layers' labourei-s. Ss. per day ; brickmakers deliver bricks 
within four miles of the kiln for £2 58 per thousand (the 
fuel costs them for burning about from 10s. to los. per 
thousand) ; quarrjTuen. from Ss. to IDs. per day of ten 
hours. We cannot give you a correct account of cabinet- 
makers, upholsterers, Freuch-pobshera. tailors, shoemakers. 
Arc, but we can assure yo.i that they are in a most deplor- 
able condition, as the most of their branches of trade are 
imported from England and other cointrios. 

In the above we did not tell you how many of each trade, 
or the average, were employed, but we will do so to the 
best of our knowledge ; — Masoas, about two-thirds only 



employed ; carpenters and joiners about the same — if any- 
thing, a little less; painters, we are sorry to say, only about 
one-third ; bricklayers and plasterers, about two thirds 
employed ; bricklayei-s' and plasterers' labourers, we are 
sorry to say, only aooiit half; and the iron trades, only 
about two out of every ten in employment — they are in a 
most deplorable condition. 

Now we d ire say you will think the '• ages in New South 
Wales «r6 very higli, or, at any rate, very good, and won- 
der what we are complaining about, but when we show you 
the expendituie side of the account we think, if intending 
emigrants are not quite Australiau-niad, they will at once 
see that there is no b.dauce in favour of the Aiu4.ralJan 
wages, saving nothing about the ujisteadiness of emplo) 
ment. In the fii-st place, if you wish to live in or near tbi^ 
city, for a house of four amall rooms you will have to p:i > 
frnm 14s. to "203. per week rent ; if in a court or alley from 
Ids. to 15s. per week ; if in the suburb^, for a four roomed 
huu^e from 10s. to 15s. per week ; and the smaller the h''JUse 
the more rent you have to pay in proportion. Firing and 
lights will cost about 43. per week all the year round. 
Vegetables cost about 250 per cent, more than in England. 
Only fancy giving Sd. for a small cabbige! That is the 
price now. Bread averages about 5d. the 21b. loaf; beef 
and mutton average abjut 5d. per pound, pork about Td., 
veal, about 7d. ; bacon and cheese, about Is. Gd. ; milk, 8d. 
per quart; groceries, about tht^ same as in England, only 
very inferior, generally speaking ; boots and clothes, about 
tbe same (slops), but there is much less wear in these things 
here on account of the greater amount of perspiration, as 
iu all hot countries you may often see people a> wet as if 
they ha(^ been dipped into a pond — we might easily say 12 J 
per ceut. more here than in England. 

Now there is another cause of complaint of a very 
serious nature There is not the slightest inclination on 
the part of employers to take as apprentices any of the 
thousands of young Arabs, as they are colo.iially called, 
and the conseqiieuces are that they are entirely dependent 
on their parents ; and, also, there is no sort of industry 
that youug girls can engage in, except millinery and dress- 
making, which is already overdone, and their pay is down 
almost to starving point. What we are going to do with the 
rising gener.itiou is an everyday question, but no one 
appears to be able to answer t he question. We are sorry to 
say that oxir streets are thronged with unforttmate gu-ls as 
a consequence of non-employment. The Government ar» 
building aud enlarging gaoLs all over the country, and our 
b ne\olent institutions are all full, and one or two aro 
getting additional wings built to accommodate the numer- 
ous applications for relief. There is one iustitution in 
Sydney that gives out once a week the large number of 
1,800 2lb. loaves. It is nothing uncommon to see ar;.'3pect- 
able mecha lic call in where other men are working to seek 
employment, or such other assistance as we may be able to 
give him ; these are principally new arrivals, a:id most of 
them have travelled overland from Queensland, a distance 
of 60iJ miles or (100 miles The distress there no doubt yuu 
have heard of before now The colony of New South Wales 
has been getting gradually worse these last seven yeara, 
chiefly owing to the great amount of emigration aud the 
faliing-off of our goldfidlds, and more so through tlie great 
amount of importation of almost every article we left our 
homes to come here to manufacture. 

We are, gentlemen, voiirs respectfully, 

HENRY .JAMES HOLLAND. Chairman. 

JOSRPH COOPER. 

EDWARD REYNOLDS, Secretary. 

(^Delegates from .loiners' Society.) 

THOMAS GOaTi-LOW, Chainnan. 

EDWARD COTTRKLL. Treasurer. 

JOSEPH M'NEK.LY, Secretary. 

(Delegates from P.ointers" Society.) 

THOMAS NORTH. 

JOHN WILKINS. 

(Delegates from Bricklaver*. > 

THOMAS H ASS ELL. 

DENNIS HARRIS. 

(Delegates from Labourers' Society. ) 

Sydney, New South Wales, November 12, 1S66. 



BECONSTRTTCTION OF LONDON. 

THE Commons' Seleofc Committee of last session 
on the local government of the metropolis, 
though it did not complete its investigation, took 
evidence upon various topics from persons filling 
offices which cause them to be well acquainted 
with the way in whii;h the poor of London live. 
A member of the Whitechapel Board of Wurka 
states that there are in that district 5,000 houses 
in courts and alleys and small streets requiring 
constant supervision, for there is such an indiffer- 
ence to cleanliness that if you make places dfceut 
they are soon again in a most filthy condition. 
Other witnesses say the same ; but the medical 
officer of Newingtun observes that, as a ruie, the' 
accummnda^on the people have very much deter- 
mines their character as to cleanliness. Their 
habits would be better if wretched ludgings did 
not exercise a degrading influence ui>on them. 
The Whitechapel witness declares that there is a 
certain progress towai-ds better habits observable 
even in the luwestgrade uf life. "The other day," 
he says, " I saw in a back street an advertisement 
by a landlord who had rooms to let iu houses of 
the poorest description, that the supply of water 
was abundant; a few years ago such a thing wuuld 
not have been mentioned as recommendatory of 
such premises." But, as things still are, the poor 
are housed in a manner thoroughly discreditable 
to the n^tropolis. Very many of their houses are 
quite unfit for human habitation; houses in which 
there can be no thorough ventilation ; housea 
built back to back, or against the dead wall of a 
towering warehouse ; houses in courts, that are no 
thoroughfare, and, perhaps, not above three yarde 



February 1, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



91 



I vide. " Sometimes," says the vestry clerk of St. 
George's, Southwark, " there is no room in the 
jyard for a dustbin, and the people tiirow into the 
street what should go into a dustbin, and our 
scavengers take it away ; we get it done as rapidly 
as we can." When fever breaks out, the sick per- 
son, in many instances, will not go to a hospital, 
and the authorities have no power to compel him 
to be removed out of the district, nor at all if he 
has a " proper lodging," with only one family in 
the room ; so he lies there, and spreads infectious 
disease. The clerk of the Rotherhithe Local 
Board gives an account of his application for the 
only remedy open to him, closing premises as unfit 
for habitation. He says, " I served fifty-seven 
notices in one street, bvit, before orders coukl be 
obtained from the magistrates, the fever spread 
, throughout the district, and we lost a curate and a 
I relieving officer through it." The power to deal 
( with nuisances is, and perhaps must be, limited, 
i; A vestryman of St. George's-in-the-East says : — 
f " There is a large dust yard on a contractor's 
y premises in a very olose and confined district, and 
a we have twice obtained an order from a magistrate 
f.irthe removal of the refuse, but when the quan- 
y is 700 or 800 tons it takes a long time to re- 
1 e it. It is excessively disagreeable during the 
■ lua of its removal, and dangerous in hot weather; 
t ferments, and when moved after being there a 
.; time it is exceedingly ofl'ensive. The fact is 
^ is not a fit place for such an accumulation, 
[ the magistrate did not consider that he co\ild 
1'. >■ a prohibitory order limiting the quantity that 
dd remain there in future." The witness 
I'd, " It would be better to pay compensation, 
i get the owner to go elsewhere, than to allow 
' continue." There is a va.'st amount of pre- 
tible sickness and preventible waste of life in 
•I'lon. Act after Act is passed, but the remedy 
; 't thorough. The overcrowding increases, and 
jieople poison one another by it. The poorer 
. >iishes are weighed down by their rates, and as 
*lr. Rendle, of Southwark, had to say, the ea.siest 
viy to avoid , expense, is not to have inspectors 
iiough, so that the whole truth may not be found 
'. But a remedy is spoken of by more than 
of the witnesses before this Parliamentary 
'.mittee. The vestry clerk of St. George's, 
viuthwark, says, " We have not been able to do 
uuch in the removal of inhabitants from houses, 
Hscause we have really nowhere for them to 
emove to. Many of the houses in this parish are 
built as to be unfit for habitation, and many of 
f he courts are such that they would be injurious 
life whether overcrowded or not. There is 
cely any other remedy than pulling the neigh- 
.' hood down and reconstructing it. You could 
ot pull down a thousand houses at once without 
rst having others ready to receive the people, but 
ou might pull down a few at a time." The vestry 
erk at Rotherhithe can point out seventy or 
.lity houses there incapable of being made fit for 
itation, and in some instances no house ought. 
' built upon the site. The vestry clerk of St. 
.-irtinin-the- Fields is for power being given to the 
cdl authority to compel the owners of houses 
almost uninhabitable" to close them or take 
lem down and rebuild them; to live in them 
rings disease and death, and the occupation of 
xeh houses should be stopped. A vestrvman of 
K. Panoras speaks of houses there built ' in such 
irrow courts and passages that they never could 
,J wholesome habitations, and he considers it 
ould be for the pubUc good that they should be 
.ken down. Everybody feels that it would be a 
.essing if such houses were burnt down without 
ijuring anyone. In the case of injury from ob- 
•otionable manufactures practically almost 
apossible to be got rid of, the vestry clerk of 
ermondsey is of opinion that if such works in 
jiat parish could be stopped, the compensation 
lat would be awarded would not be equal to the 
.38 and injury the inhabitants have sustained 
om them. The low class of house propery to 
hich we are referring gets much into the hands 
persons of small means ; and if for this or other 
asons the reconstruction should be undertaken 
' the authorities, it is argued that the expense 
. lould fall upon the metropolis generally, because 
je peril from these festering plague-spots is proxi- 
ate to all London, and if the work were done by 
ioh parish for itself, there might in a parish be a 
irden too great for its resources, since under the 
esent system the poorest ratepayers pay the 
ghest rates. But, by some means or other, "if 
■ere's a will there's a way." — Times. 



HOUSES OP PARLIAMENT. 

THE Times says that since the last sitting of 
Parliament con.siderable alteration has been 
made in the House of Lords, in order to lessen, as 
far as practicable, the risk of conflagration. There 
was a very large .accunudation of easily 
combustible material over the ceiling, which 
had been employed in making arrangements 
for certain methods of ventilation long ago 
condemned as failures, and abamloned accord- 
ingly. The numerous openings in the ceiling for 
the outlet of the vitiated air from the house, the 
manner in which the woodwork was distributed, 
and the desiccation of the wood in consequence of 
the ascent of the highly heated products of com- 
bustion from the large gas burners 9ft. under- 
neath, were conditions obviously most favourable 
to ignition and rapid combustion ; and if, un- 
happily, fire had broken out in that part of the 
Hi>use, it would have been subdued with great 
difficulty, in spite of the constant attendance of 
firemen with all their appliances at hand and in 
good order. The combustible matter removed 
consists of dry seasoned pine, laths, and quarter, 
ing, and the total weight is not far short of 20 
tons. There were 6,700 square feet of flooring, 
an inch thick, with the framed quartering to sup- 
port it; nearly 2,000 square feet of partition, 
formed of upright quartering, covered on both 
sides with lath and plaster, several doors and minor 
partitions, extending over about 500 square feet. 
The total surface would thus exceed 9,000 square 
feet of dry wood, of which the greater part was 
only a few inches above the ceiling. During the 
recess of lS65a large quantity of useless, dry, and 
readily inflammable pine wood was taken away 
from above the ceiling of the House of Commons. 
Even if fire should occur in or above the ceiling 
of either House every part is now accessible to the 
firemen, and would be so fully exposed to the 
action of the water ejected from the hose that 
there is every reason to believe it would be 
speedily extinguished. In both Houses of Par- 
liament the risk of conflagration may now be re- 
garded as very greatly diminished. 
_ The -damp, it is said, is playing havoc with the 
eight frescoes in the upper waiting halls of the 
Houses of Parliament. They cost the country 
some £500 each, but are now literally crumbling 
away from the wall. Sir W. Hayter's picture of 
the House of Commons on its meeting after the 
passing of the first Reform Bill, which cost the 
nation a large sum of money, hangs in an obscure 
committee-room, where the damp rising from the 
river daily impairs its colouring. There are plenty 
of vacant spaces in the building where it could be 
placed with advantage, and where .the colour- 
ing of the picture would at the same time be 
preserved. Two new frescoes are ready for placing 
in the Peers' Lobby, but it has been decided to 
defer fixing them until the Easter recess. 



tend very much to the promotion of the health, 
pleasure, and profit of the present and future 
generations. 



WAGES MOVEMENT. 

Tho strike among the joiners ofKi-ndnl continues, and ia 
as must bo the c:i«c, the aiiiso of much tuilering and incon- 
vonienco. 

The Am.ilgamiited Engineers of Blackburn hiving re- 
ceived notice of a reduction in wiiges of is. a week to all 
employes ciruing -i.'is. or more a week, have resolved not to 
work more tliau four days a week on tliotie terms, or to 
cease work altogether. The AmnlganL-rted Eugineer-a liave 
a fund of flliO.OUO, and the Ironmoulders XoO.OOO, 

Soi;th Stafkordshike.— The workmen of tho Wedncs- 
bury Ironworks have agreed to accept the reduced 
wages, and to go to work aa soon a-s the furnaces can be got 
ready for tlicni. The dispute in tho iron trade in South 
Staflordshire ia, therefore, at an end for the present. 

The Eioht Hours' Aoitation ry Factory Orera- 
TIVES.— Ou Sunday a meeting of delegates from tho various 
cotton manufacturing towns in Lancashire, Yorksliire, 
Cheshire, and Derbyshire, was held at Acciington, tho 
object being to further the eight hovirs' jigitation with 
the view to get an Eight Hours' Bill passed by ibo l.egLsla- 
ture as au amendmeut upon the Ten Hours' Bill and 
its provisions, so lar as they relate to employment in the 
cotton manufactories oi this country. Resolutions were 
adopted in favour ef an eight hours' bill. The question of 
arbitration in ca'ies of disputes was next considered, and 
resolutions a-^reed to to petition Parliament to adopt a bill 
instituting courts of conciliation and boards of arbitration 
for the settlement of all disputes between employer and 
employed. 



The well-known sculptor, 51. Jules Klagman, 
s just died at BatiguoUes. 



LIVERPOOL ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. 

THE usual fortnightly meeting of the members 
of this society took place on Thursday, Mr. 
F. J. Kilpin (the president) in the chair. Mr. 
Boult, referring to an article in the scientific 
papers descriptive of what was called a recent in - 
vention for the manufacture of useful and orna- 
mental articles out of sawdust, exhibited a speci- 
men of the work twenty years old. It consisted 
of a beautifully carved and polished letter weight, 
which had all the appearance of a piece of black 
marble. The President said he had heard of 
bread being made out of sawdust, but he had 
never heard of sawdust being converted into 
marble, and he thought the process would be more 
expensive than marble itself. — Mr. J. A. P. 
Macbride, sculptor, read the paper for the even- 
ing, on " Toxteth-park ; the site of Setton-park, 
and the surrui nding district ; its history, topo- 
graphy, and antiquities." The paper was illus- 
trated by a large number of sketches from the 
pencil of Mr. Whitby Williams, of old buildings 
in the park, which Mr. Macbride said would 
shortly be swept away. In the course of a dis- 
cussion which followed the reading of the paper 
the opinion was expressed that some monument 
should be erected in the town in honour of 
Horrocks, the astronomer, who lived and died in 
Toxteth-park, and a hope was expressed that in 
the laying out of the new park care would be 
taken to preserve the relics of antiquity within 
its precincts. The President said he thought it 
would be admitted that in making the purchase 
for the new park the corporation had shown a far- 
seeing and comprehensive wisdom, which would 



■WATER SUPPLY. 

Brechin. — A special meeting of the Police Commission 
was held last week— Provost Guthrie in the chair— for tho 
purpose of considering a repoi-t by Mr. James Leslie, C. E. , 
Edinburgh, as to the best and most economical supply of 
water that could be provided for the burgh. Mr. Leslie's 
report described four schemes varying in expense, the cheap- 
est of which was a scheme for a supply by gravitation from 
the Noran. This he seemed to recommend as the beat 
scheme, and stated that the expense miglit amount to 
about £10,000 or £U.0UO. according to the quantity of clay 
or iron pipes that were laid. It was agreed generally to 
approve of Mr. Leslie's report. 

IjOndos. — The Registrar General, in his report on tha 
Health of the Metropolis, states that last week n ine water 
compauies state that they supplied London on a daily ave. 
r.age vith 94,064, 151* gallons, equal to 427,3;il cubic metres, 
or about as many tons by weight. This was nearly a ton 
of water, or a cubic metre, to a house. Dr. Frankland s 
careful and impartial analysis shows that the solid matter 
in 100. 000 parts of the waters ranged from 3 1 84 (Chelsea) 
til 39 40 (Kent) : the organic matter from 0.69 (New River) 
to 2 04 (East London), The waters, except those of th» 
New River, were turbid when drawn from the maina. 



LEGAL INTELLIGENCE. 



Mr. Commissioner Kerr has decided that railway 
companies are answerable for damage arising from 
the detention of goods m transitu. This will open 
up a wide field for future damages, which will be 
very interesting from time to time. 

Obstruction of Light by New Buildings. — 
The Lord Chancellor gave judgment in the case of 
Calcraft v. Thompson last week. It was an appeal 
by the plaintiff from a judgment of the Master of 
the Rolls. The facts were brieflj* these ; — The 
plaintiff was owner of two houses, numbered 2 
and 3, Duuster-court, Mincing-lane, and the defen- 
dant was proprietor of No. 38, Mincing-lane. It 
appeared that at the top of plaintiff's house. No. 
2, Dunster-court, there was a room of considerable 
size, the roof and sides of which were, for the pur- 
pose of obt.aining the greatest possible amount of 
light, constructed principally of glass. The room 
was used by the tenant for exhibiting samples of 
foreign produce. The defendant had added a new 
story to his house, and built a large chimney be- 
fore the filing of the bdl, the eflect of which was, 
.as the plaintiff alleged, to darken his windows. 
The plaintiff filed his bill for relief, but the Master 
of the Rolls dismissed it with costs. The Lord 
Chancellor, in giving judgment, was of opinion 
that the plaintiff had not made out such a case as 
to warrant the interposition of the Court. Evi 
dence of surveyors had been adduced on behalf of 
the plaintiff; and without considering the value of 
that evidence, he felt bound to disregard it, be- 
cause the plaintiff had refused to allow the sur- 
veyors of the defendant to enter his house to give 
their view of the case on the defendant's behalf ; 
and if he (the Lord Chancellor) had entertained 
any doubts as to granting the plaintiff relief, this 
fact would have satisfied him that he ought not to 
interfere, and that the plaintiff should be left to 
his remedy at law. The appeal must be dismissed, 
and with costs. 

The Liability of Public Bodies. — An import- 
.ant decision was given in the Court of Exchequer 
(sitting ill Banco) on Tuesday, affecting the lia- 
bility of pubUc bodies for the results of negli 



92 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



Febkuary L 1867. 



gence on the part of their servants. The vestry of 
Bermondsey were making a sewer in BKie Anchor- 
road, when a Mr. Juniper stumbled, iu the dark, 
over a heap of dirt lett by the workmeu, which 
caused his death. Mrs. Juniper then brought au 
action, and obtained a verdict, with t:S75 damages, 
which the vestry appealed against, and now moved 
for a rale to set aside. In giving judgment the 
Lord Chief Baron said that recent decisions had 
finally settled the principles of the law as ai^plica 
ble to cases of this uatiu-e, and it was now autho 
ritatively settled that the members of a public 
body created for pubUc purposes, although having 
only public duties to perform, receiving no salaries, 
and having no funds out of which to pay damages, 
were liable fur the damages caused by the negli 
gent performance of their duties. The rule was 
refused, and the verdict therefore stands. 

Light and Air. — In the Vice Chancellor's 
Court, on the 26th ult., before Sir John Stuart, 
the cause of Lyon v. Dillimore came on on an ap- 
peal against the Chief Clerk's certificate finding 
dilOO damages due to the plaintiff for iujui-y to hi^ 
light and air. The plaintiS' was a toymaker and ship 
modeller, and carried on his business iu a work 
shop at the back of his premises. The defendant 
was engaged in erecting a riding school in the rear 
of the plaintiflf's workshop, so as, as the plaintiti 
contended, seriously to inteifere with the plaintitt s 
light and air, and he accordingly filed this bill. On 
the case coming on on motion it was referred to 
chambers to ascertain what damage, if any, had 
been sustained by the plaintifl'. The Chief Clerk 
had fixed the amount at £100. and this was an ap 
peal against that decision. Mr. Greene, Q.C., and 
Mr. F. H. Colt appeared for the defendant, and 
contended the amount was once paid. Mr. Bacon, 
Mr. Surrage, and Mr. Jason Smith appeared for the 
plaintiff. The Vice-Chancellur said he had fre- 
quently expressed his view to be that where a mat 
ter was referred to the discretion of one person 
his judgment ought not to be disturbed where it 
was honestly and fairly given merely because 
another person might have taken a different view. 
Perhaps he might have thought illOO a large 
sum, but as the Chief Clerk had taken a different 
view he should not disturb it. The motion must 
be refused with costs, and the defendant must 
pay the costs of the suit. 



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TO CORRESPOXDENTS. 

To Ovs. Readers.— We shall feol obliged to any of our 
readei-3 who wiU favour us with brief notes of works con- 
templated or in progress in the provincea. 

Letters relating to advertisements and the ordinary busi- 
ness of the paper should be addressed to the EoiroK, 16(5, 
Fleet-street. Advertisements for the cm-rent week must 
reach the office before 5 o'clock p.m. on Thursday. 



Rkceived. J. P.— T. P.— U. M.— J. X.— R. A.— 

S. W. and Co.— D. K. and Sons.- R. D G.— G. M. B.— 
B. and Co.— L. Bros.— J. D.—T. M.-E. L. C— G. C— 
A. W. M.— 3. \V. and Co. 

G. H. G. — Should be glad to receive the articles. 

Ja3. Downes ;tnd Son (Colcbester). — The address of 
Messrs. Lambert, who supply the patent taps, is Short- 
street, Lambeth. 

T. K. — We know of no such book. 

'• One."— To give general infoimation on the nee ssaiy 
studies for a mining engineer would be rather wide of the 
mark in a builoing jom-ual. 

Delta and Oiheiw. — ihe reason why the Bdilding 
News has been increased from twopeuce to threepence 
weekly, is tliat when sold at twopence it did not pay if we 
gave more than one page engraving. "When two pages oJ 
engravings were given, so costly is lithographic work, that 
there «as an actual loss on every copy sold. We, therefore, 
had to do one of two things - eitlier to give one page en 
graving and charge twopence, or two page engravings and 
charge threepence . vv e decided to do the latter, and tu give a 
supplement when necessary. Tliese supplements will some- 
times consist of extra illustrations. For instance, the week 
after next we shall ^ve, besides the ordinary two page en- 
gravings, two additional pages of coloured engravings. 



meeting of the Board of Health last Tuesday. 

And 1 shall be glad if you will add that after 

much discussion the following motion was carried 

ivith only one dissentient ; — " That the system of 

earth closets is not applicable in this corporate 

district." I send this thinking that you will like 

to print the result of the discussion. — I am, &c., 

Alfred W. Morant. 

Norwich Board of Health, Surveyor's Office, 

January 29. 



Cflrrtspoiikiice. 



EARTH CLOSETS. 

To the Editor of the Building News. 

Sir,— As I find that you have published a 
letter of Mr. Boardman's, and my reply, and also 
a fuither letter from him, I forward to you a 
copy of my rejoinder, which v?aa read at the 



To he Chainnan and Gentlemen of the Sanitary 
Committee. 

Gentlemen, — I bog to offer a few remarks upon Mr. 
Boardman's letter of the 14th inst., and in the firat place 
again to express my opimon that preventing the filth from 
the waterclosets entering the drains will not enable the 
Board to dispense with the proposed intercepting sewei-s; 
and besides it should be remembered that without a por- 
tion of these sewers being made, some parts of the district, 
such as the Newmarket, Ipswich, and Unthank's Roads 
jannot be di'alned at all, m addition to which the esti- 
m.ited amoimt of expeuditure also includes the cost of 
diaiuing ihorpe, Catton, Heigham, and other parts of the 
district now enthely unpro%"ided for. and which must bo 
sewered at some early period even if the comprehensive 
plan no\v proposed be not carried out. 

At the meeting of your Committee on the 2Sth of Dec, 
I most particularly called your and Mr. Boardman's atten- 
tion to the necessity of sewers for the purpose of conveying 
away the hquid refuse of houses, factories, and surface 
washings of streets, and asked Mr. Boardman what he 
proposed doing to purify the Hquid filth before it was 
.illowed to enter the river ; he said he would provide a 
filter for each house or series of houses. 1 objected to this 
as being not only impracticable but also another source of 
uuisauce and expense, and be was requested by the chair 
man particidarly to turn his attention to this point, and to 
define the means he intended to apply for pui'ifying such 
sewage. In his answer to ray report, I find, however, 
that lie has evaded the question, and I am not at all sur- 
prised at this, knowing as I do the great dirfaculty, nay, 
even the impossibility, of caj-rying out auy such system. 

Great stress is laid upon the danger of the gases evolved 
from seweis; no doubt some nuisance does occur from these 
foul givses, but a good supply of water (so used as to dis- 
charge the sewage into the outfall before putrefaction 
takes pLice). combined with a proper system of ventila- 
tiou, ■will greatly obviate this. 

Mr. Boardman and the advocates of the earth closet 
system appear to object to all sewers, but 1 cannot ima- 
gine that it is desired to return entirely to surface dialn- 
a;^e -the liquid filth running along th-j sides of the street 
autil it eventually reaches the river would not, i conceive, 
a i<l much to the salubrity of the city or corofort of the 
citizens. 

At Winchester, lately, the Local Board inspec ted the 
ash closets invented by Dr. Taylor, and used at. Romsey, 
and came to the conviction that, however eff'ectual tiie 
closets might be for certain objects, they do not and cannot 
effect the great object of main drainage or sewerage works, 
the getting rid of cesspools, and the prompt and rapid 
removal fi'om town houses of all fluid or semifluid refuse, 
wliich, if stored up, would enter the putrefactive state 
and create the nuisances all are too familiar with. 

In my fonner report I alluded to the absurd 
value placed upon the night soil of this city. Oui- 
coutractur has lately refused to remove it and take it for 
nothing; and at Alilershot camp, though the ground is of 
the poorest de.^cription, no one will take the refuse of the 
privies gratuitously, and it costs the War Orhce from ^JUO 
to £i)OLt a year to get it removed. 

At Yarmouth also, until within the last foiur years, the 
privy bins wei'e emptied by boys and men with carts, who 
were very anxious for the muck, as they obtained a 
ready sale for it ; now the iuliabitants have to pay in order 
to effect its removal. The Corporatiun used to receive 
seveial pounds a year for the rent of the ground on which 
the manure ia deposited ; now they are obUged to let the 
groimd at a nomuial rent. The contract for scavengering 
Uied to be iilOO a-year, now it is £'6bO, and it is a sing\dar 
fact that the contractor has nearly the whole of the 
manure of last year still imsuld. 

I may add that if it can be proved that the aboBtion of 
waterclosets will render sewage sutticiently innocuous, the 
earth closet system is unt, in my opiuion, nearly bo good 
and convenieut as tliat of Captain Lenme. 

Thei-e is, no doubt, much truth iu the a^ument used by 
the opponents to the outlay required to be incurred for the 
proposed sewerage works in this city — namely, that the 
question of the best means of util ising sewage is at present 
m its infancy ; but when it is couiidered th.it there cau be 
but httle difference of opinion as to the uecedsity of takiug 
the sewage out of the river and taking it to one point 
tnere to treat it as may seem best (as pointed out by Mr. 
.Miller and myself iu our joint report of the ISth JauUiuy, 
lS6t5), and that as the constructing the sewers will occupy 
about two ye,ii-s, we (-hall have the opportunity of taking 
advantage of any improved method which may be dis- 
covered dui-iug that period, so that there cimuot be auy 
re:isou why the works should not be earned out a3 recom- 
mended by the special Sewerage Committee and confirmed 
by the Board. 

1 would add that, although irrigation may not ulti- 
mately prove to be the best method of piu'ilyiug and dis- 
posing of sewage, it is at this present time certiunly the 
best and most remimerative mode yet known. It has been 
tried successfully on a large scale, and I believe (although 
I did not at first advocate the system) that the Board has 
done wisely in decitliug to try it, paiticularly as, from the 
manner in which the intended works are to be arranged, it 
will be easy to adapt them to any improved system wliich 
may eventually be discovered. It should also be under- 
stood that the Board luis hired neaidy twice the quautity 
of land generally manured with the quantity of sewage 
duo to the populatiou of Norwich, with the express inteu 
tion of preventing any risk firom saturation, aud also to 
obviate some other objections raised by the opponents of 
the system of irrigation. 

It IS qiute a mistake to assert that nothing but grass can 
be grown, as t;everal other crops have been found to be 
greatly increased by the use of liquid sewage manure. 

I wUl not take up your time with auy further state- 



ments in favour of irrigation or in answering the objec- 
tions quoted by Mr, Boardman (some of which are indeed 
anticipated in my first report). They have frequently been 
made before, and as often denied and refuted 

It is a fact that the system is found practically both to 
purity the sewagu so that it can be allowed to enter rivers 
without fouling the water, and also to produce most satis- 
factory results in a monetary point of view. The old 
saying that an ounce of practice is worth a pound of theory 
may well be applied in this case. 

In couc usion, although I am quite aware that I might 
gain a temporary popularity by recommending earth 
closets or any other plau to stave off the dreaded '* Drain- 
age Scheme," I feel so assured that, under existing circum- 
Atance3, the cheape.st plan in the end will be for the 
citizens to boldly meet the difficulty and at once carry out 
the proposed plau (which lias been long aud carefully con- 
sidered) that I cannot help strongly urging this opinion 
eveu at the risk of present unpopulai'ity. 

I am. Gentlemen, your obedient servant. 

ALFRED W. MORAXT. 

Xonoch Board of Health, Surveyor's Office, 
January 18, 181)7. 

[We have for want of space left out two or 
three passages of Mr. Morant'a letter. — Ed. B. N.] 



DURABILITY OF ZINC. 



SiK, — "We have seen in your number of the 4th 
inst. an inquiry respecting the durability of zinc 
roots, and in your number of the 11th inst. two 
replies to it, which condemned zioc as a covering in 
a very summary manner. Perhaps the best 
answer which can be given to the two latter 
letters is that our company, who are the manufac- 
turing agents of the Yieiile Montagne C(»mpanyjB« 
undertake to give legally- binding guaranteejjf 
against all repairs arising from any deficiency in 
the quality of materials or workmanship for 
periods of from fifteen to twenty-five yean 
accortling to the gauge used. This is also subject^ 
to the conditions imposed by the VieiUe Montagnd 
Company, that the work shall have been passed I 
Messrs. J. and K. Fisher, the architects of tha 
company. — We are, &c., 

^ Fred. Braby A^^) Co. 

Fitzroy Works, Euston-road, K.W., January '23 



orul 



! re-l 



CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE IN EDIHN 
BURGH. 

Sir, — So it is alleged that Classical architectare 
is receiving a new development in the " Modern 
Athens." Where is the evidence of this ? In the 
new General Post Oifice ? — a structure abounding ia 
attached pillars, circular-headed pediments, balus- 
ters, and shallow-dentUled cornices ; the design 
having been tinkered upon by one official and 
then another till all spirit has been burnt out of 
it. In the University Club ? where the Con 
monument has been split in two, and the one 
placed over the other to do duty as an ori 
window : here you have the usual acanthus, houe^'i 
suckle, and fret, all sandpapered into inanity. In 
the City Bank ? where fluted pilasters and balus- 
ters are tacked on to the wall surface. In tfiie 
Sheriff's Court ? where attached columns, risii 
through two stories, are superimposed upoa 
rustic basement, balusters as usual, and vases 
sembling cabbages, which same vases have 
sprouted up as vigorously as that vegetable od 
two other buildings here. 

These fourbuildings are the most recent we have 
and it puzzles me to find out in which of then: 
there is any sign of development. Is it a pleasun 
for me, thiuk you, to brea'i imiges ? Far from it 
I would hail with delight the smallest symptom o 
development, but it has not as yet shown itseli 
and it won't do to let conceit puff itself up an( 
palm off dry bones as a living reality. We ar 
rather a conceited lot, priding ourselves on ou 
Classical knowledge. borne of us are iDdiguaii 
that a selection has not been made from our uho 
bers to compete for the great prizes in Londoi 
We have men of talent here. Sir — men who stril 
out new ivieas, who add Doric portic(.)es to 
pyramid, aud say " There is something original ai 
grand." 

If we have to design a church iu the Gothi 
style, it must not be simple, but grand, ai 
phister is the best medium of producing a gia 
effect at smaU cost ; development in that stj 
does not obtain more than iu the other. 0' 
Academy opens in a few days. Will there 1 
aught worthy of note in architectui'al design ( 
hibited there ? In painting there often is. T 
have recruited the ranks of the Royal Acadei 
lately to some extent ; there is development 
that line. The grand and colourless Classittil sti 
has been abandoned by our painters — when w 
the architects follow ? — I am, &c., 

Ediaburgh, January 30. Iconocla*. 



1, 



February 1, IS 67. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



0:', 



BIRKEXUEAD BATHS COMPETITION. 
Sib, — In these days of reform, ia it not wonder- 
ful that some improvement has not been brought 
about iu the matter of public competitions ? Year- 
after year the younger members of the architec- 
tural profession, whose peihaps sole chance of pro- 
gress and distinction depends upon success in 
these ccrtamiii'-i artis, submit to be gulled by the 
apparently honourable '• instructions," put forward 
by various boards, commissions, and others. In 
the face of adverse and not un frequently unfair 
decisions, they too often are content to suffer iu 
silence the bitterness of successive defeats ; where 
the injustice is unusually glaring they at most put 
forward a feeble protest against it, and finally 
allow the matter to siuk into the limbo of past 
mistakes, glad to forget each failure, but hoping 
against hope, when each new opportunity offers. 
Surely there must be some remedy for these little 
less than s^vindles. 

The competition for the proposed public baths 
at Birkenhead seems to be a peculiarly flagrant 
case. The instructions are framed on what ap- 
pear to be the strict-:st and most honourable 
principles. The amount of tinting allowed and 
forbidden on the drawings was specified to the 
nicest 8h;ule, the amount of accommodation very 
carefully set forth, and generally the document 
reflected the very highest credit on the Town 
Surveyor, whose name w s appended as a guarantee 
of its accuracy, aud shall we say, to round the sen- 
tetce, good faith. Amongst other things, the ex- 
penditure was not to exceed £8,000, and should the 
probable cost of the execution of the design 
first selected be found, upon examination by a 
competent surveyor, to exceed that sum, the sense 
of justice which so sternly swayed the official 
iniud at Birkenhe.ad would cause it at once to be 
set aside, and a fresh selection to ensue. This com- 
mission, if in common with other corporate bodies 
it possess not the conscience of ordinary mortals, 
would appear to have been at least free from their 
"weaknesses. Its eyes refused to be dazzled by 
ultramarine skies, it would not yield its judgment 
captive to the charms of gorgeous perspectives 
(for it w;\s expressly stipulate<l that these latter 
were not to be furnished), but all things were to 
be dett-rmiiied by the crucial test of cose. All this, 
however, turns out to be a specious, — nay,'an impu- 
dent — sham. The drawings have now been for just 
five mouths in the hands of the oommision with- 
out one word from them to the competitors con- 
cerning their decision, the purport of which at 
last oozes out only through the channels of the 
local press. And what a decision ! As far as the 
matter is at present understood, it would appear 
that they have positively selected the design of 
the very Town Surveyor whose name appears on 
their instructions, and who is probably ex ofi io 
a member of their body; and, moreover, the estimate 
for this design amounts to £1S,000, considerably 
more than double the limit imposed upon the so- 
caUed competition. 

I want to know if there is no remedy against 
all this really barefaced injustice. The dei mujore 
of the profession, the members of the Institute,' 
lulled as they are into a peaceful quiescence con- 
cerning all external matters by the sound of their 
own aud each other's sweet voices, will of course 
take no pains to stir in the business. The Archi- 
tectural Alliance, which has before now done 
good seivice in similar cases, makes no sign. If, 
in point of fact, such Is really the state of this 
matt»r, will those gent emeu (and they are 
probably not a few) who were, like myself, bona 
fide competitors come forward and join me in ob- 
taining counsel's opinion as to whether compen- 
Bation cannot be obtained from the commission 
by all whose designs were in accordance with the 
instructions ? — I am, i&c, H. L. 



CHESTER TOWN HALL. 
SJ'') — As the survivmg partner of the original finn of 

ooutractors for tho above 1 ftwl called upou to Dotiire the 
letter of " Deva ' which appeared in your impression of the 
ISth Inst. I have to complain, in the first place, that 
"Deva ' has y«ry unnecessarily pulled the contractors into 
the discussion, which, 1 take it, has reference only to tlie 
Btrike, and in the second pl.aco, that having done so, he 
has kept back part of the truth. His assertion that "about 
June htst it happened that the then contractor for tlie 
building found it convenient to stop work aud negotiate 
for a transfer of the contract to another builder,"' is not 
only veiy «-ide of the mark, but is calculated to mislead 
the public and damjge me, I m, therefore, under the 
necessity of making the following explanation :— The con 
toact was originally taken by my father and mvself wheu 
trading a. (ieoige Clark aud Son, but about' six week> 
«fte_r the siguin.- of tUe contr ct, namely, on October 31, 
I860, my father died, and his eiecuto)-s wishing to settle 
tUo estate, urged me to get some one to take the contract 
Off our hands; to tbisi demurred until about March, when 



they told me plainly that they would not act unless the 
estate was r^Iieveil of the Chester Town Uali contract. _ 1 
then, to prevent family ditficulties, conuncnced negocia 
tions with the present contractor, aud at a very consider- 
able loM, turned over the job t« him in September last, 
w e did not stvip the work, the strike did that. Had 
neither the strike nor the transfer taken place the work 
would have been going on still in our hands. — 1 am, itc, 

GhOKGK Clakk, 
[It is not necessary for the public interest that any luoro 
letters should appear on tltia quoatiou,J 



CRITICISMS ON COMPETITIONS. 

Sir, — 1 h.ave often been struck and mtich pleased with 
yoiu- honest and impartial remarks on designs submitted by 
ditfflrent architects iu competitions. But there is one 
thing which I scarcely think justifiable- namely, to make 
those remarks before the contest is ended. In a cei-laiu 
ense you become the jlulge, so fa rat least as those appointed 
tj that office may be led by your remarks. You theie 
fore may be the Uieiuis of throwing hundreds of poiuids 
out of the pocket of ono m,an into the pocket of auothel-, 
Peradventtire. however, you may be the means of having a 
better structure erected, I think it would be better to 
m.ke your remarks after the decision of the judges is 
made known. — lam, ko., John Ratt.av. 

5, Minshall-street, .Manchester. 

|.\3wehave an object iu view, — namely, the improve- 
ment of the architecture of the country, and as we have no 
respect for persons, and are influenced only by public 
motives, we think it " writ dowu in our duty ' 
to embrace ei-ery opportunity to otfer criticisms on passing 
events. We think they are the wise'^t judges who listen to 
suggestions from ail quarters before they decide. Criti- 
cisms, if worth anything, must bo more valuable before than 
after an adjudication. — Eo. B.N.l 



canno:j street station. 

Sir, — I observe in your Last issue two references to the 
" ahed" roof of the Cannon-street Station, in each of which 
itsdesign is ascribed to the architect of the hotel, Edward 
M. B.irry, E q. Allow me to Siiy that this is an entire 
mistake. Mr, Barry is responsible for the hotel only, and 
the engineers for the station aud ;;oof. 

OniC iLNGAGltn ON THa "WoRKS. 



|iitercominunic;itioit, 

FREEDOM OF ARTICLED CLERKS. 
[209.] — I aminfarraed th it an architect s articled pupil is 
peimitted, with or without the consent of his principal, to 
attend the architectiiritl school at the Royal Academy. 
Will you khidJy inform me how far tliis is tine ? 

A Parent. 



NEW LIGHTS IN OLD OPEX NG3. 

[210.'' — Would you be kind enough to inform me, through 
the medium of yuiir paper, whetlier putting new Siishes 
into old openiuga looking on to some adjoining property 
would prejudice in any way the prescriptive light to light 
through :iuch windcvs ? Tbis is to settle a question raised 
and for future reference. — Edward Davies, y, Temple- 
court, Liverpool. 



riSTON PACKING. 

[211.]— "Would any of my fellow readers give theiropinion 
of the following. Tlie pricking of the piston gets rotten a 
faw days after it has been renewed. I think it is caused by 
imperfdct condensation or bail water, or it may be the 
steam pressure being so high (55lb.) it burns the packing. 
Any information gladly received. i>. W. 



PILING. 
[*2l2.] — Isthere anile for guiding one in proportioning 
the weiirht to be safely put upon iiiles ? When the ground 
is bad there would be more likelihood of the piles getting 
down with a heavy weight upon them than if the founda- 
tion was hard. If any of your numerous correspondents 
could oblige me with atiy information on this subject 1 
should feel much obliged to them, a^ 1 have'sought far and 
wide before I ventured to trouble your readers with my 
request. Hellinoworth. 



THE ADULTERATION OP GAS. 
[?13.] — It seems to me that the ratepayers of the metro- 
polis and other large towns wliioli are supplied with gas 
should be better informed than they are as to the simplest 
and most effectu 1 modes of testing its purity and actual 
illuminating power. As matters stand at present the pur 
chasers of gas— which they generally have to pay a yiry 
high price for — have scarcely any means of checking the 
quahty ol the article anpplied. Could not you, sii-, throw 
some liglit of a practical nature upon the subject, and thus 
enable us t^» see our way towards obtaining this necessary 
of civilised life in an unadulterated state ? The various 
processes of purification pursued by the large gas compa- 
nies are perhaps tolerably well understood, but there is a 
wide spread conviction among the general public that their 
meters register the passage of other substances than car- 
buretted hydrogen, pure and simple, and that therefore 
they have to pay for what they do ii tget^gas of the highest 
dlumiu ting power. My own conviction is that atmosphe- 
ric air, which should be free to all, is frequently paid for, 
n hen passed through giis pipe.i, at 4s. or 4g. 6d. per 
thousand feet. Isthere any easy mode of detecting this 
imposition ? If so, you will oblige mo and many others by 
explaining it. Cakbonic Acid. 



CHOKE-DAMP, AFTER-DAMP, STYTHE, ic 
[214.1— In reading the reports published day by day of 
the iuquest on the bodies of some of the poor fellows who 
so unfortunately perished in the Oaks Colliery when the 
:«rrible explosion occurred t ere lately, I have been 
puzzled by the singular technicalitie* employed by some of 



the wiiuesses, Iu fact to understand them all one would re- 
quire a miner's dictionary, which 1 have not got, and 
which perhai« doea not exist. Possibly you or some of 
your correspondents mav be able to enlighten me on at 
Iea.-<t some of the obscure points. The word fiiedampl 
believe moans coal gas, but what of choke damp, afivr- 
danip. stythe, dampie. black-damp, white damp, and fiie. 
\ imagine that I am far from beiug ahme iu my i;;noiance, 
aud othei-a may be equally thankful for exphiuations. 

Iauuirem. 



IRON IN CESSPOOLS. 
[182.] — The union of oxygen with oi^anic matter cause* 
the dacompoiitiou of that mittjr. Whju osido of 
iron is present this union is effected much more rapidly 
tlian wlieu the organic matter is left to itself^f w., one 
may sometimes see lying on the sea shore a piece of timber 
with a bolt hole and purhaps bolt in it. This hile will bo 
found to be much mure dejayed thau any other hole which 
has no iron or nist about it. Eccs. 



COMPOSITION FOR MODELLING. 
[I'jtj.]— Your correspondent " Novice " has made a mis- 
take in the terms ho uses. Plaster of Pans is never used 
for modcUiiig. '1 he proper material i^ modelling clay, 
which is worked iut > accurate contours by various model- 
ling tools of diHorent sizes and shapes. Ihese tojls are made 
of hard, wellsearioued wood, aud although well adapted for 
maknig an impression on clay would not produce ny 
etlect upon amaterjal so hard as plaster of laiis. 1 tiiiiik 
" Novice " is confounding taking casts from models with 
modelling. 1 do not know what he means by using tlie 
word "cut" iu conne.tiou with the subject. He had 
bettor take a few le::<>ous in modelling at oneof the London 
Schools of Art, the West London School,|for jjistance, where 
I have been. A Modeller. 



STONE DAMAGED BY FROST. 
[197.] -Will you all )W me to inform " A Subscriber ' 
that 1 should not hesitate to use the stones he mentions a 
second time, I should dress the edges and turn the broken 
surfaces a bit. and they would be as good as ever they were. 
Had the ston.;s not been left exposed they would never 
have been injured by the frost iu the manner described. 

Mason. 



ALTERING CRANES. 

[198,] — With your permission I will give "Wharf- 
holder" the infonnation he desii'es. 'ihe length of the 
tie-bars will be reduced to Sft. Sin. in order to allow the old 
jib to be Used. The change in the angle of the jib *iU bfl 
on the safe side foi' i*s strength, so that if it were perfectly 
strong enough before it is sure to be so now. C. C, 



METALLING. 
[19rt.] — In reply to your correspondent I beg to acquaint 
him tliat he may consider a heaped bushel of metalling to 
measure about I'.TOO cubic inches, and that if he miikes hia 
calculations on this basis he may rely upon their standing 
test. At the same time in my own practice, I never shave 
the thing too closely ; give and take is the principal to go 
upon, and I have always found it answer best. 

A Baother Surveiob. 



CAST-IRON GIRDERS. 

[201.]— I think, if you will allow me, 1 can satisfactorily 

answer the query of your correspondent " C. C' Tuo 

breaking weigiit of any cast-iron Hanged girder can be 

obtained by the use of Mr. Hodgkiusou's formula 

A V • X C 
W = — , where A is the area of the bottom flange 

D the depth of the gu-der, L the span, and C a constant 
equal to 26 All the dimensions must be in inches. In 
lue particular example referred to A = 10 X Ij = 1-'^ 
square inches ; D = 21in. aud L = 20 X 12 = 240iu. 

12 j X 21 X 26 
We therefore have W = ~^^''40 — ' — ^^^ solving 

the calculation we have the breaking weight at the centre 
(he beam equal to 28^ tons. The breaking weight of the 
b:am spread evenly over it, as " C.C. '' intends didig. will 
be just double this, that is, 57 tons. As the loa<.l will ba 
stationary, and not bring any violent shock or jerk upon 
the girder a fourth of this breaking weight may be safely 
put upon it. Thus the girder will bear 14 tons uniformly 
distributed over it with perfect safety, but it would not be , 
wise to exceed this amount. Engineer. 

[201.] — *'C-C. "will obtain the breaking weight of his 
ADC 



girder by using theformiila W = ■ 



, in which W ; 



breaking weight ; A = area of bottom flange in inches ; 
D = deptli of girder in inches ; C =- a constant, in this 
case SO ; and L = span in inches. Or taking thedimensiona 



he gives W = 



12-5 X 21 X 5Q 
240 



54 68, or 54] tons nearly, 



aa the weight, equally distributed, that will break It. 

N. S. P. 

[201.] — In answer to " C. C.'s " inquiry regarding the 
strength of a cast-iron girder of the following dimensions ; 
— Length, 2(tft,, depth, 21in., area top flange, 26in., 
bottom, 12"5in. Let A = area of bottom ilange, D =■ 
depth of gilder, in inches, L = length between sup- 
ports iu inches, VV = breaking weight iu tons at centre. 
tV D C 



Then wo have W 



-93'40ton3. For distributed 



as asafo 



load - ^ - a factor of safety of 6 gii-ea 9 '46 tons, 

load for the pirder. The example " C. C. " gives is a very 
defective girder, as four square inches might bededuvted 
fiom the top flange witliout interfering with the strei gth. 
Four squar inches multiplied by the length of the girder 
is equal to 24l» (ilbs. of inn wasted. W. S. ValGHan. 
Queen's Insmauce Buildings, Liverpool. 



WEAR AND TEAR OF MACHINERY. 
[203.] — No man knows the market value of anything 
until he tries to sell it , I should be afraid of dlsappolLtlng 



94 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



February 1, 1867. 



" Retirer " were I to tell him Uow much I lost upon an 
occasion similar to the one he describes. But he may con- 
Eider himself luckv if ho sells his whole stock and concern 
for one-tbird of what they originally cost him. 

Experience. 



■WATER PRESSURE. 
[205.]— The gentleman desiring information upon this 
subject may use the following rule:— Let P be the pressure 
in pounds per square foot, and V the velocity of the cur- 
rent in miles per hour, then P = 4-0S5 X V2. With a cur- 
rent of three miles per hour the pressure will be about 
36Ub. to the square foot, and when the velocity is four 
miies it will equal 651b. In using this etiuation it must 
be borne in mind that it is only approximate for very high 
lelocities. "• *^- 



HOT WATER FOR CEMENTS. 

[506.]— Hot water should not be used either in mixing 
Roman, Portland, or Parian cement, or plaster of Paris. 
Chilled water might be used, but the cement would be 
stronger with cold water. J- ®> 

[206.]— The qiierv of " Amateur" appears to show that 
he had not reflected much before putting the question. 
He ought to be aware that in mortar and concrete, for in- 
stance, when the sand and lime are mixed dry the slaking 
of the lime when cold w.-iter is added in reality makes hot 
■water of it, as it raises the temperature to a high point. 
Independently of the fact that hot water has no effect upon 
the quality of the mortals and cements used it would be 
simply impossible to have hot water always ready for build- 
ing purposes. J- T. H. 



MEASUREMENT OF TIMBER. 
[207.] — In answer to your correspondent " Milo." battens, 
deals, and pines are generally, but not always bought by 
the standard of 120 l--'ft., IJin. K Siin. He must therefore 
reduce his deals to sizes, as under : — 
120 12ft. Jin. X Sin. the exact average width equal to 
1,440 ft. inn Sin. thick. 



2,8.S0 ft. nm, IJin. thick. 



11) 25,920 

12) 2,357 ft. run, llin. wide. 

196'5.12ft. length*, = 1 C ' 
120 1 C 
80 2 qrs. 

16 5-12 



16 5-12 standard 



1 2 165-12 
The I 2 26 G-IS, as charged, must be an error. 

Builder's Clibk. 



^iiili)iii§ liitclllgciite. 



OHTOOHES AND CHAPELS. 



Mr. R. D. Gould, of Barnstaple, is erecting some 
churches, schools, and par-^onages in Devonshire 
■wbioli hive been favourably noticed by the local 
societies. 

A New Episcopal church is about to be built in 
Alloa, Scotland. The new edifice will be of stone, 
and will have a tower and spire. The architect is 
Mr. Withers, of London. 

The congregation of the Independent Church in 
Collins-street, Melbourne, Australia, are erecting a 
new place of worship. It is to be completed in 
nine months, and it is designed to accommodate 
200 persons. 

America. — St. Mark's Church, on Green Island, 
■was consecrated by Bishop Potter on December 12. 
The edifice, says the New York Churchman, is a 
perfect model for beauty of design and finish. 
The material of the exterior is rough finished 
blue stone, the style of architecture being much 
the same as that of St. John's Church, Troy, The 
dimensions of the church proper are 30ft. wide by 
90ft. long. A Sunday-school building, 22ft. in 
width by 60ft. in length, is connected with the 
main edifice by a structure 20ft. square. The 
spire is about 60ft. in height. The seats are of 
chestnut and the ceiling of walnut. The stained 
glass windows at either end of the church are 
beautifid specimens of art. The device upon the 
chancel window represents St. Mark with a lion 
crouching at his feet. The opposite window is a 
memorial from the children of St. Paul's Church, 
and represents three children singing. The edi- 
fice was built through voluntary contributions, 
some citizens fairly outdoing themselves in 
liberality, and cost 17,500 dollars. 

FnLFORD. — A new church at Fulford, near York, 
which has been erected at a cost of £5,000, and de- 
signed by Mr. J. P. Pritchett, architect, Darlington, 
has just been consecrated and opened by the Arch- 
bishop of York. The style of the church is the 
Early Decorated, and at the south-west corner is 
placed a tower and spire, 1 40ft. high. The name 
of the church is St. Oswald's, and the contractor 
for the works was Mr. Weatherley, of York. The 
pulpit and reading desk were executed by Messrs. 
Forsyth, and Co. of London; the altar rails were 
supplied by Messrs. Skidmore and Co., of-Coventry ; 



and the carving was done by Messrs. Burstall and 
Taylor, of Leeds. 

York.— The foundation stone of a new Baptist 
chapel in Priory-street was laid last week. The 
building will be in the Early Decorated style. 
The plan consists of a nave and aisle, with trans- 
epts. The length of the nave will be 7Sft., 
and the width 24ft. 6in. The width will 
be 44ft. between the aisle walls, and 49ft. 
6in. across the transepts. The height to 
the eaves above the clerestory will be 32ft. 6in. 
and to the collar beam of roof 44ft. 6in. 
The timber work of the roof of both church and 
schools will be exposed to view. The exterior of 
the church will be faced with stone, the dressings 
in Whitby stone, and the walling of Bradford sets, 
in thin beds. At one corner of the church will 
be a tower, the height to the top of the pinnacle 
being 61ft. At the other end wUl be two gables, 
one being the school, and the smaller one the 
transept of the church. The architect is Mr. W. 
Peachey, of Darhngton. The contractors are— 
For the brick and stone work, Messrs. C, Bowman 
and Co ; plastering, Mr. M. Croft ; slating, Mr. T. 
F. Wood; carpenter .and joiner, Mr. W. BeUerby. 
The total cost, including the land, will be about 
£5,000. 

BUILDINOS. 
On Wednesday week last a new Wesleyan School 
was opened at Blackpool. The school was built to 
afford accommodation for 260 persons at a total 
cost of £545. 

Another addition to the orphan houses on Ash- 
ley Down, Bristol, is about to be made by Mr. 
MUUer, at a cost of £20,000, and the contract for 
the erection of the new building has been under- 
taken. 

Leeds.— The directors of the Queen's Hotel at 
the Wellington (Midland Railway) Station have 
completed an additional wing to the hotel, thus in- 
creasing the total number of roomsin the building 
to 140. One of the principal features of the addi- 
tion is a spacious well-lighted hall, 80ft. long, 35ft. 
wide, and ISft. in height. The total cost has been 
about £13,000. 

Melbourne. — The inaugural ceremony of the 
■Victoria Deaf and Dumb Institution took place on 
the 13th of October. The building, which isadj.a- 
oent to St. KUda-road, was formally opened by the 
Governor. Including the fencing and out-build- 
ings, the edifice cost £6,800. Towards the liquidation 
of that amount Parliament has voted £4,000, and 
a sum of £1,800 has been received from private sub- 
scriptions, leaving £1,000 stiU to be provided. The 
building is surmounted by a lof tv tower. 



(§mul Items. 



Mr. E. Lynam, the Wakefield borough surveyor, 
who a short time ago sent in his resignation, has 
been induced to withdraw it. 

The Eastern Railway Company (France) has just 
adopted a new third class carriage. It is two 
stories high, and contains seats for 80 persons. 

The following gentlemen were elected Fellows 
or Associates of the Royal Institute of Archi- 
tects, on Monday last : — As Fellows : — John 
CUrk, 2, James-street, Bedford-row, W.C.; 
William Henry Crossland. 25, Park square, 
Leeds ; Henry John Paul!, Manchester. As 
Associates : — Charles James Moxon, 28, Denbigh- 
place, Belgrave-road, S.W. ; William John 
Bowyer, Cambridge; Edward Joseph Hansom, 
Clifton ; Edmund Kirby, Liverpool. 

The following gentlemen have been elected 
members of the Society of .Arts: — Phillips 
Bevan, Albert-terrace, Windsor; Sir John Francis 
Davis, Bart., K.C.B.,Club Chambers, Regent street, 
S.W., and Hollywood, Henbury, Bristol ; Admiral 
Sir Henry J. Leeke, K.C.B., K.H., Theydon-park, 
Epping, Essex, and 5, Euston-place, Leamington ; 
Evan Lewis, Aberdare ; Thomas Henry Phillips, 
51, Lime-street, E.C. ; Joseph Fitter, 2, Thanet- 
place, St'-and, W^.C. ; George W. Railton, Alderley- 
edge, Manchester ; Howland Roberts, Neilgherry- 
house, Hampstead, N.W. 

On Saturday last the Bristol Art and Industrial 
Exhibition was closed, after having been opened 
24 days, and visited by 2,000 persons. The re- 
ceipts amounted to £185, and the expenditure 
about £100, leaving a balarce of £85. 



Papers intended to be read, together with any 
drawings connected with them, should be sent to 
the assistant secretary. No. 7, Adelphi-terrace, on 
or before the 2l3t of March. 

Cirencester. — The distribution of prizes gained 
by students of the Cirencester School of Art took 
place last week, the Earl of Bathurst in the chair. 
The report stated the school had obtained one 
silver medal out of twenty, and two bronze medals 
out of fifty, distributed among the 100 schools in 
the kingdom, and that the school was surpassed 
only by nine of the largest schools of art, including 
the metropolitan. An able and interesting address 
was deUvered by Mr. J. B. Atkinson, of London. 

Steam on Common Roads.— Mr. Page, the well- 
known engineer, has started a plan for converting 
high roads into railways, which recalls Sir Robert 
Peel's dream of twenty-five years ago : — " Some new 
discovery which shall enable us to lay down a light 
railway on the turnpike roads at (say) £2,000 a 
mile." Mr. Page proposes to do this by means of 
peculiar locomotives, with extra guide wheels on 
independent axles. The wheels of the axles are 
to run, not on iron, but on tramways of creoaoted 
wood, as indestructible as iron, but giving by fric- 
tion much more power to the engine. The guide 
wheels and wheels of the carriages ■will run on light 
iron rails- 

MouNTAiN Attraction.— The penduluna expe 
riments now carried on in India in connection ■with 
the great Trigonometrical Survey under the du-ec- 
tion of Lieutenant- Colonel Walker, R.E., have led 
to certain new and important conclusions as regard ■ 
mountain attraction. Theoretically, the nearer 
the observing stations are to the Himalayas, the 
greater the force of gravity ; but the reverse is 
found to be the fact, and the difference between 
theory and fact diminishes with the increased dis- 
tance of the stations from the hills. Commenting 
on this phenomenon in a communication to the 
president of the Royal Society, Colonel Walker 
writes;- "Thlsseems a remarkable confirmation of 
the Astronomer Royal's opinion, that the strata of 
earth below the mountains are less dense than the 
strata below plains and the bed of the sea." Is 
there not something in this result worth considera- 
tion by geologists 

St. Katherine's Docks.— We regret to observe 
that the front wall of the passengers landing place 
St. Katherine's Docks has since the recent thaw ex- 
hibited signs of extensive settlement. Although 
there has been a gradual settlement apparent for a 
long time, still no one was prepared for anything so 
sudden and extensive as has taken place. The 
building which is only one storey in height, must 
be entuely taken down, and the greatest care will 
be required to prevent accident happening from 
the extremely uncertain condition of the wall. The 
sinking of the wall has thrown severalof the iron 
columns which support the roof considerably out 
of position, so much so that unless shoring is im- 
mediately resorted to, the effect of a single tide 
may be to bring down the roof, ■very possibly car- 
rying the parapet on the street with it. The pri- 
m.ary cause of this state of things, we believe is a 
notoriously bad foundation. It is very seldom in- 
deed that fractures so very extensive take place m 
so very short a time. 

Coffer Smoke.— For generations past efforts 
have been made to utilise or neutralise the smoke 
emitted from the various copper works of the 
kingdom, which is known to be so injurious to all 
vegetation around. In the neighbourhood of 
Swansea, which is the principal seat of the copper 
trade, there are thousands of acres with hardly a 
blade of grass upon the ground, and in many in- 
stances the smelters have had to pay heavy 
damages for the injurious effects of the smoke on 
adjoining properties, even trees many miles dis- 
tant being affected. About twelve months ago 
Mr. H. H. Vivian, M.P., adopted an invention at 
his works in order to see whether something 
could not be done to abate the nuisance, and, if 
possible, utiHse the smoke as weU. A consider- 
able outlay was incurred in gi^•ing a thorough 
practical test to the invention, and at the meetmg 
of the West Glamorgan Agricultural Society, Mr. 
Vivian announced that his efforts had been 
crowned with entire success. The smoke is con- 
densed, and by judicious admixtures a very excel- 
lent superphosphate is produced, which is espe- 
cially suitable for root crops. Mr. Vivian calcu- 
lates that in a short time he wUl be able to pro- 
duce annually sufficient manure for 40,000 acres 
of land. The success attained will no doubt in- 
duce other copper smelters to follow the example, 



tj 



Institotion of Naval Architects. — Thenext --i, 

annual meeting of this institution will be held in J and many thousand acres, which are now almost a 
Loudon on the Uth, i2th, and 13th of AprU next. ' barren waste, wiU then be made fertile ground. 



February 1, 1867. 



THE BUILDING NEWS. 



VII 



^nkiits for liibtiitioiis 

C0N5ECTED WITH THE BUILDINQ TRACK. 



1580 J. Cranston. Ijnj'rovements in horticuUnra 
rectxons. Dated Juue 8, 1866 
In (jerforminj; thia iuveiitioii the inventor proooses to 
CODStiuct a simple ami eC'inomical form of ff'ass house b> 
hinying tiffether onhnary sash frames in such manner, 
and by so connecting iheiu to the wood sill pla'es and up- 
rights of the structure, aa to admit of the house hemp 
opened rifiht and left at the ridpe or other apex of the 
roi'f, so as to allow a passage down the centre when re- 
(|uired, the whole heinp capable of cloeinji by drawing 
lojreiber the two sides of the house. Pattnt abandoned. 

1698 F. W. Kunz Jntprovemfuts in the cotiitructton o/ 
safes or stromj routns. Dated June 12, 1866 

In the tirst place, Instead of having a door ordoors to Open 
upon hinges, as usuallv adopted, the inventor employs two 
or more doors sliding in grooves. Instead of eroplojing a 
eingle sliding door, he proposes to apply twoor more sliding 
doors, so arranged as to slide in grooves ona behiml the 
oiher, and to uividL' the safe or room into two oc mne com* 
partiu€nt% hy a partition or partitions, bo that only one 
Oompartraent is open at a time. By this arrangemt-nf the 
grooves in which the doors slide are carried round all four 
Bides of the opening, thai is, right, left, top, and bottom; 
and there is no long *Iit or openini; for the doors to slide 
oat throueh, as they do n it slide out beyond the safe, hut 
merely slide one before or behin-i the other. This element 
of weakness being thus dispensed with, the safe or strong 
ro.im is reodeied much more secure, and the introduction of 
wedges or other tools for breaking open the same much 
more diflBcult. As a farther protection, he also proposes to 
fl I up the top or bottom groove, or both, in which the front 
uoor slides by means of a hinged bar, which cannot be re- 
moved until the other door, which slides lehind it, has been 
openeii. He also fixes a dovetail bar across the opening, 
about midway between the top and bottom, on which bar a 
dovetail eroove in the hack of the sliding door fits, Pattnt 
abandon d. • 

1698 *-■. F. CoTTKKii.L. ImprovemenU in theinanufactwe 
of mrth^nwart aud other p' pes, aud in tnachinery or appU' 
ratus to be employed in the said manufacture. Dated June 
26. 1866. 

This invention relates to such pipes as are made double 
and in segments, that IS, pipes which consist of two con- 
centiio pipes one within the otlier made hy bein; built up 
Ot segmental pieces. The said pipes are usaally made of 
earthenware and are principally used for conveying water 
and sewage. The improvements iti the manufacture of the 
said pipes consist in making 'he segmental pieces much 
thinner than usual, ind filling up the space between the 
inner and outer pipes with cement, so as to consolidate the 
whole into one compact mass ins' ead of leiving the space 
between the two pipes empty. Patent abandoned. 

1706 E. Ambrose Improvements in Venetian blinds and 
blind fittings, and in machinery for mukintj the same, parts 
of which machinery may be medjor other purposes. Dated 
June 27, 1866. 

The patentee claims, first, the suspension of Venetian 
blinds by the top lath being huagon pivots in fixed bracke s 
or supp.rts, instead oi in the u ual manner. Secondly, the 
two m jdes desc ibed of fixing the ends of hlindi tu their 
rol'ers, so a* todi>pense witli nailing andsewiog. Thir^'ly, 
the ar-angementot winding ap.a atus d scribed. Fou thiy, 
the e'astic holder fir ihf shade cord of veneiian blinds. 
Fifthly, the mec-hani^ra describe-! fjr planmg the two s-idei 
and ediies of the laihs by the fixed plaoes, an riesciibed 
Sixthly, the arrangement of plants and cutters for planing 
and cu tmg blinU rollers, as destrib::d. S venthly, the 
apparatus hereinbefore described for prin icg laths of 
Venetian blinds and similar anicles, by firsr passing sucli 
laths or other articles through paint, cr dipping them in 
paint, and afterwards scaping and finishing ttiem by mt-ans 
of fixed ela-tic sciapers and brashes, as de:^cribed. Eightiy, 
the apparatus desL.nhed for cutting the t,hort narrow tapes, 
and 11 arLing the broad vertical lapes of Venetian blinds. 
JiJiotblv, the apparatus described for punching the holes in 
the laths of venttian blinds, whether the punch for the 
pupose be worked by a handle or by a lever ; and, lastly, 
the ananirement of fixed scrapers for sciaping laths required 
to be lepiinted. Patent completed. 



Bromptos. — For new sower, Yeoraan's-row, Brompton, 
for the Kensington Vestry : — 

Bond £5Sr 

Williams 400 

Atkins 397 

Moxou and Mutton 395 

Thackemy 395 

haoey 385 

Wigtnoro 374 

Thirst 34f» 

Whittick (accepted) 29.^ 

City.— For rebuilding Xos. 2 and 3, and alterations to Xo. 
■1. Finch-lane, City, for Mr. Alfred runwoll. Mr. Hflrbort 
Williams, architect. Quantities supplied by Mr. C. 
Reilly :— 

Turner and So"s £3,299 

Banislev aud Sons, Birmiugham ... 3, ISO 

Ashby and Horner 2,890 

Ashbv and Sons 2,869 

Conder 2,721 

Newman aud Mann (accepted) 2,637 

Sheffield. — For the new drapery establishment, Shef- 
field, exclusive of stoves, chimne}i)iece3, warming apparatus, 
gas or any fittings, for Messrs. Cole Brothers. Messrs. 
Flocktou and Abbott, architects : — 

Wilson £10,3oO 

Robdrtson 10,300 

Huddleston 10,132 

Barber 9,96t> 10 fi 

Gomersall (accepted) 9,650 

Clubley and Stringfellow 9,494 

Sheffield.— For counter and desk?<. at the new Sheffield 
and Rotherham Bank. Messrs. Flockton and Abbott, ar- 
chitects: — 

Manuel and Son £710 

Eadon and Son 500 

Johnson and Son (accepted) 420 

Stoke Newington. — For the erection of two villas. Stoke 
Newington. for Mrs. Burdett. Mr. T. Hill, architect :— 

Nash £2,S97 

Patmau and Fotheringham 2.575 

Carter and Sons 2,5;J0 

Longmead 2,447 

D. King and Sons (accepted) 2,3fi0 

Maclachlan 2,152 

Strakd. -For alteration at the Rising Sun Tavern, 
Strand. Mr. William Xunn, architect: — 

AnJey (accepted) ..£521 



LATEST PRICES OF MAl'ERIALS USED 
IN CONSTRUCTION. 

TlMBsa, dutv !• P«r loiwl. drawback, It. 



Teak load £9 01 

Quebec, red pine .... S 6 

,, yellow pine.. 2 15 

it John N.B. yellow 

Quebec Oak, wbit« . . 6 10 

„ birch 3 10 

,. elm 3 10 

Oantzlco&k S 10 



tlr . 



3 



Memel fir 

Riga 3 

-Swedish 1 13 

Uaalo.tjuebecrediilne 6 
,, yellow pine., fi 
LftthwotHl,Diuit7.1c.fni 4 10 
„ St. ?et«ralnirg 6 10 
Deals, prO.,l'_' ft. I>y3 
by9in.. duty'28i)er 
lofid, dnvvvbihok 'Js. 
Quebec, white ajiruce 13 10 
3t.Jolm,whtt«9i)ruce 13 
Yellow pine, per re- 
duced C. 
Canada, 1st quality. 17 
2nd do 12 



4 


l.'S 


3 


LO 








6 


(. 


4 ml 


6 





K 





fl 


10 


3 


10 


3 


b 


•2 


3 


H 





n 





6 


10 


7 10 


21 


10 


15 





19 10 1 


14 


o| 



ArchiiUgel, yellow .. £19 £18 



St. l*«t«rsburg, yeL . . 10 10 

Fluliiud 8 

Meitiel 

UotheuburK, yellow 9 

,. whTto 8 

(lefle, yellow 

Soderhtvmu 9 

Cbriatiuuia, per C, 

V2 It. by 3 by 9 in. 

yellow 18 

Dock eiH.uk. Uiuitzic, 

per 40 ft. 3 iu 14 

PuuiOB Ktonb pr ton 6 
OiLa, &c. 

Seal, pftle per tun 45 

Sporm body 127 

Cod 4i) 

Wh.ile, Sth. Sea, pale 45 

Ulive, r>alliiKili 63 

Cocoanut, Oochin.tou bS 

Palm, flue 41 

Linseed 36 10 

KJipeeeed, Eug.pale.. 41 
Cottouseed 31 



11 10 
9 10 


10 10 
8 ID 

11 
10 10 



Metals. 

iROM : — 

nTelsh Bars In London [>er ton 

.Vail Rod d 

Hoops do 

Sht^ets. 9in^'le do 

Statfordahire Bare do 

B.ira, iu Wales do 

R.iils do 

PouiidrvPigB. at Qlaag. No. 1 .. do 

Swedish Bars do 

8teel:— 

Swedish Keg, hammered per ton 

Swedish Faggot do 

Copper :-~ 
Sheet A Sheathing, & Bolts ....per ton 

Uiiiumered Bottoms do 

Plat Bottoms, not Hammered .. do 

Cake aud Toujjh lugot do] 

Best Selected do 

Fine Foreign do 

Vel. Metal Sheathing^ Bods ....per lb 
Lkad:^ 

Pig, English per ton 

,, Spauish Soft do 

Shot. Patent do 

Sheet do 

WTiit« do 

Speltsr:— 

On the spot per ton 

Tin :— 
English Block per ton 



17 
9 17 
7 17 
5 15 
5 15 
2 14 
10 10 

15 15 

10 10 



8 

8 5 2^ 

9 10 
10 15 

8 10 

5 9 

6 nett 



1« 
12 10 



do 



MEETINGS FOR THE WEEK. 

MoN. — Royal United Service Institution.— "A Light, 
Short Gun, throwing a Sharp-edged Discoid- 
ally formed Projectile," by Lieut. General 
W. N. Hutehiuson. 2. " The Working of 
Heavy Broadside Guns," by Mr. A. W. Drew, 
S.30. 
Royal Institution.— Monthly Meeting, "2. 
Society of Engineers. — "On Safety Valves," by 
Mr. T. Baldwin, 7.30. 
TUES.— Royal Institution. — "On Vibratory Motion, 
with special Reference to Sound/' by Professor 
Tyndail, 3. 
Institutioil of Civil Engineers.— Discussion on 
** Shipi of War;" and, "Description of the 
Cliftou Suspension Bridge," by Mr. W. U. 
Barlow, 8. 
Wed— Geological Society, S. 

Thdrs.— Royal Institution.—** On Vibratory Motion, 
with special Reference to Sound," by Professor 
Tyndall, 3. 
Chemical Society, 8 
Linnean Society, S. 
Fm_Royal Institution.— *' On Public School Educa- 
tion," bv Rev. F. W. Farrar, 8. 
Sat.— Royal lastitution.- " On Harmony," by Mr. G. 
A. MacfaiTen, 3. 

4 

TENDERS. 
Bethnal Green.— For rebuilding house, No. 7, Green- 
street, for Mr. G. Baugh. Messrs. Tolley and Dale, archi- 

Withers ^'^e 

Forrest 748 

Hicga (accepted) 677 



BATH STONE OF BEST QUALITY. 

R.VSDELL and Sadsders, Quarrymen and Stone Met 
chants, Bath. List of Prices at the Quarries and Depots, 
also Cost for Transit to any part of the United Kingdom, 
furnished on applicition to Bath Stone Office, Corsham, 
Wilts.- [Advt. ] 



PROPERTY SALES. 

January 28. 
At M.\.son9' Hall. — By Messrs. P. and J. Belton.— 
Leasehold six liuuses. Nos. 1 to 6, Church-street, Wimble- 
don, producing £6i per annum, tei-m 40 years from ISOti, 
at £12 6s. per anuam — sold for £790. 

January 29. 
At the Mart. — By Messrs. Farebrother, Clark, aud Co. 
—Freehold three houses, Nos. 3 and 4, High-road, and 2, 
Derby-road, Tottenham — £1,085. 

By Messrs. Delienham, Tewson, and Farmer.— Leasehold 
warehouse, situate in Counter- street and Hay's-lane, 
Tooley -street, Southwark, let on lease at £210 per annum, 
term 2ti years unexpired, at £24 10s. per annum £2,100. 

Leasehold premises, Nos. 20, Tooley street, let on lease 
at £110 per annum, term 26 years unexpired, at £20 per 
annum — £1,050. 

Leasehold house aud shop, No. 27, Tooley-street, let on 
lease at £62 per annum, term 26 years unexpired, at £10 
per annum — £660. 

Leasehold house and shop, or warehouse. No. 47, Tooley- 
street, producing £105 per annum, term 20 years unexpired, 
at £14 3.*. per annum— £1.010. 

Leasehold house and shop. No. 48, Tooley street,