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University of Illinois Bulletin 

Issued Weekly 
Vo'- XII January 25, 1915 No. 21 

(Entered as second-class matter ^f.^-^-^j^l^lZ-^f 3t herpes t office at Urbana. Illinoi,. under 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 



BULLETIN No. 13 



Proceedings of the High School Conference 
of November 19, 20, 21, 1914 




PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
URBANA 

The 1915 Conference Will Be November 18, 19, 20 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2008 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/bulletin013illiuoft 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 



BULLETIN No. 13 

Proceedings of the High School Conference 
of November 19, 20, 21, 1914 



Edited by Horace A. Hollister 



URBANA, ILLINOIS 
PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY 



INDEX OF CONTENTS 

Pack 

Statistics of Conference, 1914 5 

Conference Committees 6-7 

Editorial Comment 8 

Part I. General Sessions 9-46 

1 . THURSDAY EVENING SESSION 9-21 

Paper by Dr. W. C. Bagley, on "Principles Justifying Com- 
mon Elements in the School Program" 9-21 

2. FRIDAY EVENING SESSION 22-32 

Explanatory statement of Plan of Conference Program by Pro- 
fessor H. A. Hollister 22-23 

Address by John W. Withers, "The Principles Upon Which 

Readjustments of the Program of Studies Should Be Based" 24-32 

3 . SATURDAY MORNING SESSION 32-46 

Report of Committee on "the Administrative Factors Involved 

in Readjustments of the Program of Studies" 32-42 

(a) Report of Professor C. H. Johnston 32-38 

(b) Report of H. E. Brown 38-39 

(c) Report of B. D. Remy 39-41 

(d) Report of C. M. Bardwell 41-42 

Address by Principal M. H. Stuart, on "The Relation of Courses 

in Vocational Education to our Present School Curriculum". . 42-46 

Motion referring all matters of readjustment 46 

Part II. Joint Session of Science Sections 47-71 

1 . Report of the committee appointed in 1913 47-48 

2. Paper by Professor F. D. Barber, "The Present Status and 

Real Meaning of General Science" 48-58 

3. Professor J. M. Coulter's Paper, "The Mission of Science in 

Education" 58-63 

4. Professor J. F. Woodhull's paper, "Science Teaching bv Pro- 

jects" .' 63-70 

5 . General discussion 70-71 

Part III. Section Meetings 72-328 

1 . administrative section 72-95 

(a) Supervised Study: 

Paper by J. G. Moore 72-78 

Paper by F. W. Johnson 78-84 

(b) Improving the Position of the High School Teacher of 

Histor^r and Civics : 

Paper by Evarts B. Greene 84-88 

Paper by W. W. Earnest 88-91 

(c) Meeting of Illinois High School Athletic Association 92-95 

2. agricultural section 95-1 14 

(a) Minutes of meeting 95-96 

(b) L. F. Fulwiler's Paper, "Extension Work for the High 

School 96-104 

(c) I. A. Madden's Paper, "Collection and Organization of 

Suggestions for Teaching High School Agriculture" 104-110 

(d) Renzo Muckleroy's Paper, "DiflFerentiation of Funda- 

mentals and Accessories" 110-114 

3 . BIOLOGY section 114-121 

(a) Report of Committee on Illustrative Materials, Professor 

T. W. Galloway 114-118 

(b) Report of delegate to General Science Committee, J. L. 

Pricer 118 

(c) W. W. Whitney on "Photographing Wild Flowers" 119-121 



Pace 

4. classics section 121-138 

(a) Report of Committee on Third Year Latin, Laura E. 

Woodruff 121-126 

(b) Miss Sarah E. Sheehan's Paper, "Views of High School 

Graduates Regarding Value of Latin" 126-132 

(c) H. V. Canter's Paper, "High School Equipment for 

Teachers of Latin and Ancient History" ; . . . 132-138 

(d) W. A. Oldfather on "With Camera Through Classic Lands"138 

5. COMMERCIAL SECTION 139-151 

(a) Guy M. Pelton's Paper, "High School Bookkeeping" 139-141 

(b) General discussion 143-144 

(c) Arthur L. Loring's Paper, "The Relation of High School 

Commercial Courses to University Courses in Com- 
merce" 144-149 

(d) General discussion 149 

(e) Report of Committee on Educational Value and Content 

of Shorthand, Typewriting and Commercial Arithmetic, 

by A. R. Williams 150-151 

6. COUNTY superintendents' and VILLAGE PRINCIPALS* SECTION 151-163 

(a) Mr. Edwin Packard's Paper, "Relation Between Rural 

Schools and Village Schools" 151-156 

(b) J. Calvin Hanna's Paper, "The Curriculum of tlie Small 

High School" 156-163 

7. DOMESTIC SCIENCE SECTION 163-172 

(a) Executive Committee Report, Miss Florence Harrison. .. .163-164 

(b) Report of Committee on Outlines for Cooking and House- 

keeping in Seventh and Eighth Grades, Miss Elizabeth 
E. Etone 164-166 

(c) Paper of Miss Olive Lothrop Grover and Miss Esther D. 

Bedker, "Correlation of Drawing and Design with 
Domestic Arts" 166-171 

8. ENGLISH SECTION 172-1% 

(a) Minutes 172-176 

(b) H. G. Paul's Paper, "The Preparation of High School 

Teachers of English" 176-188 

(c) John M. Clapp's Paper, "The Speaking Voice" ....188-189 

(d) P. M. Watson's Paper, "Standards for Testing Composition 

Work" 189-190 

(e) Miss Lora A. Henion's Paper, "The Teaching of the His- 

tory of Literature" 191-196 

9 . GEOGRAPHY SECTION 196-210 

(a) Marion Sykes' Paper, "How I Conduct Laboratory Work 

in Physiography" 196-199 

(b) Lewis Walker's Paper, "How I Make Laboratory Work 

Concrete" 200-202 

(c) George White's Paper, "How I Make Field Work Con- 

crete" 202-206 

(d) Eunice Blackburn's Paper, "How I Make Field Work Con- 

crete" 206-209 

10. MANUAL ARTS SECTION 210-236 

(a) Arthur F. Payne's Paper, "The Rule and Reason Method 

of Teaching Design" 210-216 

(b) Outline Presented by Mr. R. Winship, "Architectural Draw- 

ing in High School" 217-222 

(c) Discussion and table by C. E. Howell showing status of 

Architectural Drawing in Illinois High Schools 223-227 

(d) J. Scott Wiseman's Paper, "Methods of Presenting Manual 

Training Instruction" 228-230 



Page 

[e) L. Day Perry's Paper, "Some Essential Elements in Manual 
Training" 230-232 

f) Report of Committee to Formulate Second Unit in 

Mechanical Drawing, F. S. Needham 232-236 

11. MATHEMATICS SECTION 236-262 

[a) Minutes 236-237 

^b) E. J. Townsend's Paper, "Fundamental and Accessory Ele- 
ments in High School Algebra 237-241 

'c) General discussion 241-243 

^d) R. L. Modessit's Paper, "An Efficiency Test in Algebra" .. 243-245 

^e) General discussion 246 

^f) E. R. Breslich's Paper, "Supervised Study in Mathematics" 247-258 

;^g) Discussion by L. C. Irwin 259-260 

;h) H. O. Rugg's Paper, "Marking Systems" 261-262 

12. MODERN LANGUAGE SECTION 263-280 

[a) Miss F. L. Stuart's Paper, "The Demand for Spanish". .. .264-268 
;b) C. H. Johnston's Paper, "Experiments Profitable for Lang- 
uage Teachers" 268-269 

;c) A. Kengott's Paper, "Supplementary Reading in Modern 

Language Instruction" 269-270 

^d) Outline of Mrs. Theresa Dillon's Paper 270-271 

'e) Review of Some Recent Publications, by Miss Charlotte 

Reichman 271-277 

'f) S. O. Rorem's Paper, "A Few Knotty Problems of French 

Teaching in High School 277-279 

;g) A. R. Seymour's Paper, "Business Spanish in High 

School" 279-280 

13 . MUSIC SECTION 280-297 

'a) Discussion of Syllabus, Grace V. Swan 281-283 

^b) Discussion of Syllabus, Mildred Miller 283 

'c) Open discussion of Syllabus 284-285 

^d) J. Lawrence Erb's Paper, "Accrediting Applied Alusic in 

High Schools" 286-290 

'e) Discussion by Wm. D. Armstrong 290-292 

' f ) Discussion by E. R. Lederman 292-294 

Jg) Discussion by O. V. Shaffer 294-296 

;h) Discussion by Miss Minerva Hall 296-297 

14. PHYSICAL SCIENCE SECTION 298-305 

'a) Abstract of A. P. Carman's Paper, "Some Recent Advances 

in Physics" 298 

'b) Abstract of Eugene Davenport's Paper, "The Limiting 

Factors in Agricultural Production 299-300 

^c) W. F. Rice's Paper, "Original Devices for Teaching Chem- 
istry and Physics" 300-304 

;^d) L. A. Pinkney's Paper, "An Apparatus for the Determina- 
tion of 'g' " 304-305 

15 . SOCIAL SCIENCE SECTION 305-328 

[a) Frances Morehouse's Paper, "Criticisms on the Customary 

Form of the History Recitation 305-313 

^b) Discussion by A. F. Trams 313-316 

[c) Abstract of Miss Elizabeth P. Brush's Paper, "Obser- 
vations of the Preparation of Students Entering Ele- 
mentary Courses in the University" 317 

;^d) Discussion, Arno Bratten 318-323 

^e) E. T. Austin's Paper, "The High School Text-Book in 

Civics" 324-325 

(f) E. V. Latham's Paper, "Use of Current Events" 326-328 



STATISTICS OF THE HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE, 1914 

Total attendance 1200 

Total registration exclusive of University community 1109 

Number of public high schools represented in Conference 304 

Number of teachers representing high schools 1013 

Number of representatives of academies 6 

Number of representatives of normal scliools, colleges and universities.. 147 

Number of county superintendents registered 7 

Number of teachers present whose expenses were paid in full by their 

districts 139 

Number whose expenses were paid in part 220 

Number of high schools represented by delegates whose expenses were 

paid in full or in part 155 

Registration by sections : 

Administrative 166 

Agricultural 32 

Biology 76 

Classics 95 

Commercial 43 

County Superintendents and Village Principals 30 

Domestic Science 16 

English 157 

Geography 18 

Manual Arts • 32 

Mathematics 90 

Modern Language 49 

Music 24 

Physical Science 52 

Social Science 51 

No section given and miscellaneous 178 

Total 1 109 



CONFERENCE COMMITTEES, 1914-15 



General Conference Committee ; 



Administrative Section 



Agricultural Section : 



Biology Section : 



Classics Section : 



Commercial Section 



County Superintendents' and Vil- 
lage Principals' Section : 

Domestic Science Section : 



H. A. Hollister, University, Chairman ; J. Cal- 
vin Hanna, State Department, Springfield ; B. 
H. Bode, University ; H. L. Rietz, University ; 
W. C. Bagley, University; A. P. Johnson, Ur- 
bana ; W. W. Earnest, Champaign ; J. G. Moore, 
Paris; L. F. Fulwiler, Mt. Pulaski; G. J. 
Koons, Murphysboro; Mary L. English, Deca- 
tur; A. L. Loring, Danville; B. C. Moore, 
Bloomington ; Florence Harrison, University ; 
Florence Skeffington, Charleston ; J. L. Rich, 
University ; Anna G. Brown, Jacksonville ; Fiske 
Allen, Charleston ; Augusta Krieger, Highland 
Park; Constance Barlow-Smith, University; 
C. M. Wirick, Crane Tech., Chicago; Silas 
Echols, Mt. Vernon. 

J. G. Moore, Paris, Chairman, 1917; H. H. 
Edmunds, Clinton, 1915 ; W. L. Goble, Elgin, 
1916. 

L. F. Fulwiler, Mt. Pulaski, Chairman, 1917; 
E. D. Lawrence, McNabb, 1916; E. B. Collett, 
DeKalb, 1917; A. W. Nolan, University, Sec- 
retar>% 1915 ; Lorenzo Muckleroy, Carbondale. 
1916. 

G. J. Koons, Murphysboro, Chairman, 1916; 
W. W. Whitney, Chicago, 1917; Faith Mc- 
Auley, St. Charles, 1915. 

Mary L. English, Decatur, Chairman, 1915; 
Harriet L. Bouldin, Springfield, 1916; E. S. 
Lake, Benton, 1917. 

A. L. Loring, Danville, Chairman, 1917; 
Charlotte Van Der Veen, Joliet, 1915 ; Cora 
Pryor, Bloomington, 1916. 

B. C. Moore, Bloomington, Chairman, 1915 ; 
G. P. Chapman, Chatham, 1917; F. A. Gil- 
breath, Watseka, Secretary-, 1916. 

Florence Harrison, University, Chairman, 
1917; Isabel Bevier, University, 1917; Alice 
Treganza, Bloomington, 1915 ; Elizabeth 
Stone, Decatur, 1915 ; Mabel Dunlap, Decatur, 
1916; Esther Bedker Kenihvorth, 1916. 

6 



English Section 



Geography Section 



Manual Arts Section : 



Mathematics Section ; 



Modern Language Section ; 



Music Section 



Phj^sical Science Section : 



Social Science Section : 



Florence Skeffington, Charleston, Chairman, 
1915; J. M. Clapp, Lake Forest, 1915; Eva 
Mitchell, Ccntralia, 1915; H. G. Paul, Univer- 
sity. 1915; C. H. Woolbert, University, 1915; 
Caroline Rice, Peoria, 1916; Ruth Moore, 
Bloomington, 1916; Willard M. Smith, Cicero, 
1916; Zens Smith, Quincy, 1916; Margaret 
Wilson, Cairo, 1916. 

J. L. Rich, University, Chairman, 1917; 
George White, Saybrook, 1917; H. W. Clem, 
Chicago, 1915 ; F. W. Cox, Lawrenceville, 
1915; James H. Smith, Chicago, 1916. 

Anna G. Brown, Jacksonville, Chairman, 1915 ; 
A. P. Laughlin, Peoria, 1916; C. E. Howell, 
Decatur, 1917; A. F. Payne, Peoria, 1917. 

Fiske Allen, Charleston, Chairman, 1915; L. 
C. Irwin, Joliet, 1917; E. B. Lytle, University, 
1916. 

Augusta Krieger, Highland Park, Chairman, 
1915; Blenda Olson, Macomb, 1916; John D. 
Fitz-Gerald, University, 1917. 

Constance Barlow-Smith, University, Chair- 
man, 1916; Mrs. Elizabeth McNair, Mattoon, 
1916; O. E. Robinson, Chicago ,1915; W. D. 
Armstrong, Alton, 1917; E. R. Lederman, 
Centralia, 1915. 

C. M. Wirick, Chicago, Chairman, 1916; F. R. 
Watson, University, 1915; T. M. Barger, 
Bloomington, 1917. 

Silas Echols, Mt. Vernon, Chairman, 1917; 
U. S. Parker, Quincy, 1915; L. M. Larson, 
Universit}', Secretary, 1916. 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 

As in the proceedings of last year the editor has taken the liberty 
to attempt to unify educational terminology. This has been done in 
most instances where the terms ''course," "curriculum" or "program of 
studies" has occurred ; also in the use of terms designating the high 
school grades or classes. It is possible, however, that, in some 
papers, the forms used have escaped notice, and so remain unchanged. 

A strange heresy has taken hold of our educational meetings 
with regard to the functions of committees. It is the prevailing no- 
tion that the chairman is the committee and that other names are 
added merely for ornament. We are all prone to accept this heresy. 
But I am sure it is a harmful one. It may be well enough for one 
member of a committee to prepare a suggestive program or report ; 
but its final adoption should be after thorough discussion and prob- 
ably amendment, either in a meeting of the committee after time for 
deliberation, or through correspondence, or both. 

Take the matter of preparing a syllabus. A speaker at Spring- 
field the other day condemned syllabus making on the ground that a 
syllabus is usually one man's idea, or else is made to fit a text book. 

Now we all know this to be too true. But note further : the 
same speaker said that we need especially to study each subject 
taught with a view to determining what are the essential educative 
materials which it is able to supply in such a form as to be most 
effective in the education of youth. 

Now this would mean committees. It might better start with a 
well prepared syllabus than anything else, for a syllabus it would 
have to be until some one made of it a book. So there we are. The 
remedy is in the method of doing our committee work. 



PART I 



GENERAL SESSIONS 

The First General Session of the Conference of 1914 assembled 
in Morrow Hall at 7:30 P. M. Thursday, November 19. Professor 
H. A. Hollister, Chairman of the General Conference Committee, 
presided. 

Professor J. M. White, Supervising Architect of the University, 
was announced, and with the aid of a few lantern slides gave the au- 
dience of teachers a clear view of the present plan of the University 
Campus and of its proposed future development. 

Dr. W. C, Bagley was then announced as the speaker of the 
evening. As Chairman of the Committee on Program of Studies he 
presented a discussion of "Principles Justifying Common Elements in 
the School Program." Dr. Bagley spoke as follows: 

The topic that has been assigned to me for this evening implies in its very 
statement that the person who discusses it believes in a certain measure of uni- 
formity in the school program, — believes, in other words, that all of the pupils 
should have some work in common. In the past, so far as what we call general 
education is concerned, uniformity has been the rule. A uniform curriculum is 
the line of least resistance. It costs less to administer. It is simpler pedago- 
gically. Its materials can be standardized. 

With the growth especially of the high schools, however, and with the in- 
creased funds at their disposal, uniformity has gradually given place to diversity, 
and the single curriculum has been differentiated into more or less specialized 
curriculums, adapted in some slight measure at least to differentiated tastes and 
abilities. This movement has been accelerated by several factors. 

Arguments Against Uniformity 

In the first place, the function of the high school in preparing the pupil 
for work and service in a highly organized social group has become more and 
more clearly recognized, and the necessity of differentiated curriculums has 
been forced home as a result of this recognition. The school must prepare, 
not only for life in general, but for specific occupations and modes of life. In 
the second place, an apparent lack of adjustment of a single curriculum to widely 
different grades of ability and innate capacity has been revealed by the studies 
in retardation and elimination. Innumerable investigations of other types have 

9 



10 

emphasized, through compelling evidence, the existence of individual differences 
in taste, capacity, needs, and interests which it would be folly for the school- 
master to neglect. Differentiated cirriculums have been justified, therefore, on 
the basis both of economic and social needs and of individual differences in 
mentality. In the third place, uniformity is clearly inconsistent with the cur- 
rent doctrine of interest, while this doctrine strongly supports differentiation. 

Some of these contentions have naturally been over emphasized (or "over- 
worked") in the effort to break away from the evils of uniformity. Thus, while 
retardation and elimination are doubtless due in part to the fact that school work 
has not been adjusted to individual needs and capacities, it is still true that the 
school enrollment has increased steadily relatively to the population, and that 
the proportion of each age group enrolled in the schools has shown a similar 
increase from decade to decade.^ Thus, while elimination is a solid fact that 
must be reckoned with, there is no evidence that elimination is increasing and 
there is every evidence that the schools have been growing as rapidly as could be 
expected in spite of the readjustments referred to. This is not advanced 
as an argument against differentiated curriculums, or against the attempt to 
meet social needs more effectively. It is merely advanced as an antidote to the 
panicky hysteria which misinterpreted statistics of school enrollment are likely 
to induce both in the public at large and among the teachers of our schools. 

Again, the investigations of individual differences have made it clear that 
mental abilities are determined very largely by heredity or native endowment. 
This does not mean that innate abilities may not be improved by training, but 
it does mean that the training will vary in its effect on different individuals. It 
means that some pupils will reach given standards of attainment much more 
quickly than other pupils, and that we must probably always reckon with a small 
proportion who can never reach a reasonable standard of proficiency. But the 
fact that mental abilities are matters of native endowment does not mean that 
skill and knowledge and ideals are inherited ; nor does it mean that the great 
proportion of individuals may not be put into possession of common ideas and 
common skills and common ideals if this should seem desirable. Education 
cannot make all members of the social group equal in ability or in capacity. The 
world would be extremely flat and uninteresting if this were the case. Differ- 
ences in capacity are inevitable ; but education can give to all, or to practically 
all, the same ideas and the same ideals if it wishes to do so. Some individuals 
will take a longer time and others a shorter time in acquiring these ; and the 
manner of their employment after they have been acquired will vary infinitely; 
but the fact remains that individual differences do not preclude the fulfillment of 
this function. And significant as individual differences are, it should not be 



'This is clearly shown in the report of the census of 1910, in which the figures include 
all types of schools. The figures given in the annual reports of the Commissioner of Educa- 
tion show a falling off in the per cent of total population enrolled in public schools, and in 
the per cent of all children of school age enrolled in these schools. Closer investigation, 
however, shows that this relative decrease is confined largely to the cities, and a comparison 
of figures indicates that it is to be explained by the increase in the enrolhnent of the paro- 
chial schools and by the decrease in the average number of children to each family, (which 
means a smaller proportion of children in the total population). That it does not mean more 
elimination the figures in the census report abundantly prove. 



11 

forgotten that, for social welfare, resemblances in ideals and standards are vastly 
more important than resemblances or differences in native capacity. You would, 
I am sure, find it more comfortable and more profitrable to live in a group of 
individuals varying from you in ability, but possessed of common ideals and 
common standards of conduct than in a group of savages with a high grade 
of native ability parallel to your own, but with savage ideals and savage stand- 
ards. The illustration is extreme, but it will serve to emphasize the kind of 
service that education can readily be made to render; and it may also suggest 
certain fallacies of contemporary educational theory, which has, in some quar- 
ters, permitted the undoubted and very valuable facts concerning native indi- 
vidual differences to play havoc with its common sense. 

We may find in contemporary educational literature, indeed, illustrations 
of the extent to which the demand for differentiation has gone under the stress 
particularly of this notion of individual differences. I quote from a recent book 
that has had a very wide circulation : 

"Shall, then, our public schools have no courses of study? I am asked. And 
I hasten to reply: No fixed and uniform courses, the same for all the children 
of all the people ; no course that is 'that or nothing' for every child — nothing 
like that. Surely not. We shall simply carry out, in all departments of these 
schools, the principle of 'electives,' now so thoroughly established in the leading 
colleges and universities of this country. 

"Then, instead of sticking to the idea that the children are made for the 
schools, we shall stand on the just and rational basis that the schools are made 
for the children. 

"Then, in determining what studies each child shall pursue, in making up 
a course of study for each, we shall be guided by the natural aptitude and abili- 
ties of that child, by the way he is, and not by the demands of any institution, 
or set of institutions, or of men — parties who have never seen the child in ques- 
tion, and so know nothing of what he really needs to make the most of himself." 

The author's apparent enthusiasm for the elective system as it operates 
in colleges and universities might be dampened a little by knowledge of the fact 
that it has failed lamentably in practice even with relatively mature students, 
and that it has been now replaced by a system of group requirements; his hope 
that the natural aptitudes and abilities of the child will not be interfered with 
by the "demands of any institution" is likely to run amuck of the most signifi- 
cant institution of all, — human society itself; and while his statement that the 
school is for the child and not the child for the school may not blind him, it 
has certainly blinded others to the fundamental fact that the school is for the 
public good, and for the realization of individual demands only insofar as these 
are consistent with social welfare and social progress. But his contention cer- 
tainly expresses an important attitude toward the problem at issue. 

A second quotation is from Superintendent Spaulding's criticism of the 
Portland high school program in the Report of the Portland School Survey. 
After naming the list of subjects which he believes should be taught in the 
high school, he says : 

"By selecting and combining in varying proportions from these subjects, 
an indefinite number of 'courses' may be made * * * The making of such 
courses should be largely individual, and determined merely by convenience ; 
they should aid and not hinder the adaptation of work to the individual needs of 



12 

every pupil. In practice there must be as many 'courses' as there are pupils." 
(P. 165). 

Here, as in the preceding quotation, we have an expression of the principle 
of extreme differentiation which does not admit for a moment that any particular 
significance attaches to common elements in the secondary program. 

The Justification of a Certain Measure of Uniformity 

In view, then, of the apparently wide currency of this point of view toward 
the secondary program, it would seem incumbent upon one who is to discuss 
principles for determining constants first to justify common elements. And 
that, indeed, will be the first task of the present paper. Is the uniformity which 
has in the past been so striking a characteristic of our school programs an un- 
mixed evil, or does it rest upon a rational basis? I shall attempt to show, first, 
that a certain measure of uniformity is essential, and for a reason vastly more 
fundamental than mere economy or expediency of administering a single cur- 
riculum as compared with administering differentiated curriculums ; secondly, 
that the justification of a certain measure of uniformity furnishes one rather 
definite standard for selecting common elements ; and, thirdly, that the essential 
uniformity may be insured without interfering unduly with desirable differen- 
tiation. 

Common elements in the curriculums of the public schools are not only 
justified, they are demanded, by social needs, and particularly by the needs of 
a democracy. We hear a good deal today about the democratic basis of educa- 
tion. For this evening, I should prefer to reverse this statement and speak of 
the educational basis of a democracy. If democracy depends upon any one factor, 
it depends upon social solidarity, — it depends upon a certain community of ideas, 
standards, ideals, and aspirations among all of the members of the democratic 
society, and it is this necessity that lies at the basis of uniformity in the pro- 
grams of a democratic school system. 

So far as the common basis of standards, ideals, and aspirations is con- 
cerned, it will be taken care of in large part automatically, so to speak, by the 
forms of government and institutions of society, although even here there is 
need for some attention at the hands of formal education. In respect of a com- 
munity of ideas, however, the need of a certain measure of uniformity in the 
program of formal education is clearly indicated. Democracy involves the col- 
lective consideration of common problems. There must be a basis for common 
discussion. The leaders must be able to appeal to the people in terms that will 
be understood, and if this appeal is to rise above the level of instinct or primitive 
interest or crass prejudice, there must be among all the people a common basis 
of knowledge. 

This general principle may, I think, be embodied in two statements, the first 
of which, at least, is so axiomatic as to claim the title of a law. It may be for- 
mulated as follows: 

The efficiency of a democracy is directly dependent upon the number of 
ideas that are common to all of the members of the democratic group. 

The second principle, while perhaps not axiomatic, may be substantiated 
by inferences from facts. It may be formulated in this way : 



13 

The level upon which a democratic society does its collective thinking is 
dependent upon the level to which formal education has raised the great majority 
of its members; or, to put it in another way, a high level of common ideas is 
essential to collective thinking on a high plane. 

In support of the latter principle, it would be generally agreed, I believe, 
that the current evils that we find in democratic government are due, in part, 
to the fact that ignorance, superstition, and prejudice may be exploited and 
capitalized by those who seek power; and that this exploitation is the more 
frequent, the lower the level of common intelligence. When only a few ideas 
are common to all of the members of a social group, a leader who would derive 
his power from the people is forced to make his appeal upon a plane that is 
common to all, — and this inevitably is the plane of instinct, of primitive prejudice, 
or of crass emotion. 

A High Level of Collective Thinking Depends Upon a High Level of 

Common Ideas 

This general contention may be illustrated by reference to some facts which 
we came across quite by accident in making an investigation for quite another 
purpose. In order to determine the relative value of a knowledge of certain facts 
of geography and history as a basis for interpreting current happenings, I asked 
a group of graduate students to help me by checking up the geographical and 
historical references in newspapers and magazines extending over a period of 
ten or more years. The outcome of this investigation as related to the problem 
that we set out to solve need not detain us at the present time. We did, however, 
very early in the inquirj^ lay bare some facts that are quite pertinent to the 
present discussion. We found that there were certain newspapers and magazines 
in which geographical and historical references and allusions were very few and 
far between. The emphasis, even in news items, and more particularly in com- 
ment on current events, was distinctly upon the transitory and the superficial, — 
generally, indeed, upon what would be called the sensational and the spectacular. 
These newspapers and magazines revealing what could be legitimately called a 
poverty of ideas were, in general, those that made their appeal to the masses, — 
those, in other words, of very wide circulation. On the other hand, the news- 
papers and magazines that related and discussed the events and problems of the 
day on a broad and comprehensive plane, with interpretations and references 
that involved for their understanding a certain capital of formal knowledge, 
appealed in general to a smaller clientele, and had, in consequence, a limited 
circulation. 

All of this, of course, might have been inferred from what we know of 
current literature. It serves to illustrate, however, the point that I wished to 
make: namely, that the level upon which the members of a democracy do their 
collective thinking depends upon the level to which education has lifted the group. 
It is a favorite theory of those who have recognized the importance of a com- 
munity of ideas in a democracy, that if only we give all of the people the tools 
of knowledge, this dissemination of common ideas will be adequately taken care 
of through newspapers and other forms of current literature. If the facts above 
referred to show an\-thing, they show that this hope is futile, and that the level 



14 

upon which newspapers and magazines make their appeal is pretty clearly de- 
pendent upon the extent to which the intelligence of their readers has been trained 
through formal education. 

One case that we discovered deserves particular notice as substantiating this 
conclusion. A certain magazine that had had an honorable but not very successful 
career was taken over by a publisher with the avowed intention of "making it 
pay." He succeeded in a short time in giving the magazine a very wide circula- 
tion. We took the files of this journal and catalogued the geographical, historical, 
and literary references for five years before and five years after it changed 
hands. The secret of the increased circulation was apparent; as the circulation 
went up the references diminished, and the appeal was made in larger and larger 
measure to immediate, transitory, and primitive interests. This man achieved 
his aim by impoverishing the ideas that he gave to his readers, and by making 
his appeal upon a more primitive plane. 

I believe that we may say v»'ith confidence that a very important function 
of education in a democracy is to furnish a common basis of ideas or a common 
basis of knowledge. It is not that all are to think alike on every question. Far 
from it. It is rather that all shall have certain common terms in which to think 
and in which to discuss their common problems. Just as the worth of gold is 
greatly increased because of its universality as a common denominator of value, 
so the worth of ideas, concepts, and meanings is greatly increased when they 
become common denominators of experience among larger and larger groups of 
people. It President Wilson wishes to discuss with the people an important 
policy of government, the very fact that he can refer to events in our past his- 
tory or in the history of other countries with confidence that the people can under- 
stand him, gives to the common knowledge of these events a very large and sig- 
nificant value. If it would serve his purpose to sum up in the name of some 
great character of the world's literature a certain thought that he wished to con- 
vey, it would be of advantage to him to know that those to whom he made his 
appeal would understand him. Lacking this basis, his appeals would necsesarily 
be limited in content and scope, and they would necessarily approximate the 
plane of primitive thinking. 

One should not imply, of course, that mental growth stops with the end 
of formal education. The average man increases very markedly during his work- 
a-day life the number of his ideas and his facility in using them in his thinking. 
But, because his work is necessarily specialized, his new ideas are very largely 
limited to the special field in which he works, and the efficiency of his thinking 
grows apace in this field, but not necessarily in other fields, — except in individual 
cases where there is a strong desire for systematic study beyond one's immediate 
needs. Under average conditions, however, the struggle for success is usually 
so keen as effectually to preclude such broadening study, and the general level 
of common intelligence is, consequently, pretty clearly indicated by the extent 
of the common elements in the school program. 

High School Education Will Soon Be Practically Universal 

Accepting this principle (at least for the sake of the argument), let us see 
how the development of the high school affects the problem. The most significant 



15 

triumph of American public education during the past half century is expressed 
in the growth of the public high school. From fewer than forty high schools in 
1860, the number has increased until there are now within the United States 
twelve thousand of these secondary institutions supported by the people. And 
the rate of growth shows no signs of diminishing. From an enrollment of two 
hundred thousand in 1890, the increases for the past twenty-four years have 
brought the present total close to one million, two hundred thousand, an increase 
of six fold during a period when the population has increased only about 51 per 
cent., — a growth, that has been at least ten times as fast as that of the population. 
Not only is this true, but we have in the public -secondary schools of the United 
States almost as many pupils as there are enrolled in the secondary- schools of 
all the rest of the civilized countries combined, — in spite of the fact that our 
period of secondary training covers only four years as against six, eight, or nine 
years in most other countries. 

In Illinois our high school enrollment has increased 800 per cent, since 1880, 
— during a period when the population of the state just about doubled. In Illi- 
nois, as in the rest of the country, the recent increases in the second and third 
year enrollments also indicate very clearly that the high school is holding a larger 
and larger proportion of its pupils for a longer period, and is graduating each 
year increasingly larger proportions of the classes that entered four years pre- 
viously. The proportion of boys to girls is also increasing steadily. In the face 
of these figures, the sweeping charges that public secondary education has been 
a complete and total failure are too absurd to merit consideration. 

From our present point of view, — from the point of view of common ele- 
ments in the secondary program, — these facts of the past and present growth of 
our high schools have a peculiar significance. We can, I believe, look forward 
to a time, not far in the future, when the high school will be, to all intents and 
purposes, an institution of universal education, as the elementary school is today. 
At the present time, according to the computations of the statistician in the office 
of the Federal Commissioner of Education, about twenty-six per cent, of all 
pupils entering the first grade go on into the high school. This figure is perhaps 
a little high, but the proportion must be well over one in every five. In fifty 
years, the proportion will, at the present rate of increase, be sufficient to insure 
in the general population a fair preponderance of men and women who have 
had the advantages of secondary instruction. 

The Opportunity and the Responsibility 

What this may be made to mean to the future of our state and of our 
country will depend very largely upon the breadth of vision and the steadfastness 
of purpose among those who are todaj^ determining the destinies of our high 
schools. It has been my privilege to read fairly carefully through the files of the 
early school journals of Illinois, — and especially the first teachers' journal which 
was published in the 'thirties, and The Illinois Teacher, which was published in 
the 'fifties as the organ of the State Teachers' Association. I have been greatly 
impressed with the fact that our predecessors in this field were men who were 
looking into the future. They were thinking and planning in terms of a state 
system of education. Their ideals were broad and comprehensive, rather than 



16 

narrow, local, and partisan. And one who lives vicariously with them through 
the arduous struggles which they underwent to establish our school system ; to 
put on a sure and certain basis the principle of tax-support for public education ; 
to insure for all the children of all the people a type of training that would re- 
dound to the benefit of the state as a whole and of the country as a whole; one 
who does this and then studies our present schools cannot escape the conclusion 
that these men had a vision the like of which we might well struggle to attain, 
and that if they could come to life again at the present day, they would see about 
them the realization of many of their dreams. 

With the anticipation of the future that our present situation and our recent 
growth permit, it is distinctly for us to catch something of their spirit, — to build 
in a broad and comprehensive way for the future. If our vision is narrow; if 
our ideals are local or partisan; if we fall prey to the insidious fallacy of the 
immediate ; if we let amateurs bungle our work ; then we may be very sure that 
the generations that are to come wall hold us responsible. It is for those who are 
in direct charge of the schools today to assume, as did their predecessors, the 
responsibility of advising and counseling with the people regarding the policies 
of the people's schools. Our predecessors in this great work did this and did it 
effectively, although at the cost of stupendous toil and effort. Democracy does 
not mean that the collective will of the people operates automatically toward the 
best and the wisest courses of collective action. Democracy means rather that the 
collective will must be determined by a collective intelligence and that this must 
be stimulated and informed by those who, through hard-won experience and 
through the travail of hard thinking, are qualified to give to the people wise 
counsel regarding their collective problems. It is in this position that the school- 
men stand toward the future of the schools. 

And to my mind there is nothing fraught with greater significance to the 
service which the high school may be made to render in the near future than 
to make the common elements in the high school program realize their fullest 
measure of value in insuring this essential basis of social solidarity. The ten- 
dency in the past in our high schools toward uniformity is unfortunate because 
the uniformity that has prevailed has been more or less accidental, — at least, 
it was not always nor often determined by a clear vision of social needs. I have 
not the slightest doubt in my own mind that some of the basic traditional sub- 
jects of the old uniform secondary curriculum will remain as constants in our 
modem differentiated programs. We cannot jump out of our skins as an old 
teacher of mine was wont to say; and the educational pabulum of the past is 
too closely woven into the warp and woof of our intellectual life to be dis- 
carded. As I suggested a while back, the very fact that an idea or set of ideas 
has been a part of the educational program gives it an educational significance 
■ that it would be folly to neglect. Those who would cast aside the garb that the 
past has woven are probably sincere in their motives, but they forget that the 
divestiture would leave the race as naked although perhaps not so unashamed as 
the primitive savage. The prominent gentleman who recently said that the best 
thing for humanity would be to cut itself off completely from its past forgot 
that we should still be left with the primitive instincts, and that to conquer and 
refine and sublimate these instincts the same tortuous paths would have to be 



17 

retraversed, the same old mistakes and blunders repeated, the same old blind- 
alleys followed up to their cul-de-sacs of disappointment and despair. Not long 
ago I talked with a so-called educational expert who had been commissioned 
to reconstruct a school system. He was slashing away at the program of studies 
with a cross-cut saw and a cleaver. History was the especial object of his blows. 
"Why," he said, "any cu>rrent event has vastly more educational value than any 
fact of histor>' ! Anything that is farther back than twenty-five or thirty years 
ago ought to go from the common curriculum. The child must not deal with 
dead and musty facts; he must deal with vital, present, contemporary-, interesting 
life-problems !" Education certainly needs some kind of protection against this 
type of reformer. 

Uniformity in the Past has been Largely Accidental and Imitative 

But, while the traditional secondary program must furnish many elements 
to the programs of the future, it has, as I have suggested, been determined not 
always by a clear recognition of its function. The uniformity of the past has 
been largely imitative; the uniformity of the future must be rational, intelli- 
gent, and clear-visioned. The time is past when we can safely put all of our 
pupils through the same mill. The time has already arrived when different mills 
are being constructed and tested. Before these have had time to crystallize into 
a static and permanent form (as they must do ultimately), the time is opportune 
and the need imperative to canvass most carefully and thoughtfully the whole 
situation; to recognize the social significance of some measure of uniformity; 
and to ask in what that uniformity may m.ost effectively consist. 

The principles that I stated earlier in the discussion appear to justify a cer- 
tain degree of uniformity; they give us no index as to how much uniformity is 
desirable or in which subjects it is most desirable, — to say nothing of what par- 
ticular topics of each particular subject shall be chosen. These problems, it is 
clear, cannot be solved in a day, nor can they be solved by a single individual. 
Two years ago, at the request of the Committee on Economy of Time of the 
Department of Superintendence of the N. E. A., I thoughtlessly said that I 
would attempt a determination of "constants" or "minima" in two elementary 
school subjects, geography and history. Fools sometimes rush in where angels 
fear to tread ; and this was a case in point. I have not only given to this problem 
a good deal of the time and energy that the University expects each man to give 
to research in his especial field, but I have enlisted the efforts of our graduate 
students and of some of my colleagues, and I have made bold to call upon special 
workers in the field of historj-, especially, and, if our present plans mature, shall 
request many more services of them and of geographers as well. And this in 
connection with two fields in which it might be supposed that there is already 
an overplus of uniformity. Now the results of these two years of work are far 
from large and still farther from conclusive. As a matter of fact, we very quickly 
found that the uniformity was not so marked as had been expected, and we 
also found that what uniformity there is, while obviously justified in some cases, 
was in others just as obviously the result of a blind following of tradition. Many 
things have got into the common pabulum in both geography and history that 
everyone would agree ought to be there ; and there are other things for which 
I have in vain sought a rational explanation. 



18 

When we reflect for a moment upon the really superlative honor that we are 
doing a topic, a character, or an event by insisting that everyone shall know it, 
the injustice of making out a list of minimal essentials without the most careful 
and conscientious study is plainly apparent. And this is all the more forcibly 
impressed when we remember that the time at our disposal is limited and that the 
number of facts that can be so clearly presented and so richly illustrated and so 
adequately reviewed as to become permanent possessions of our pupils is relatively 
small. We have attempted, in connection with elementary geography and his- 
tor)', to get some adequate standard for determining whether a given fact or a 
given event or a given character should receive this very high honor. As I have 
suggested, we have analyzed current literature with this end in view, and have 
a little light on the kinds and amounts of geographical and historical knowledge 
that are essential to an adequate understanding of current problems and current 
discussions. Just now, Ave are having an analysis made of twenty-four text- 
books in American history, to determine the elements that have been common in 
the past and are common in the text-books today, and to learn all that we can 
regarding the text-book as a means of teaching this subject. When this task is 
completed, we shall submit the results to specialists in American history, and to 
teachers and superintendents, and have the topics listed in the order of their 
importance by these men and women, one group of whom are spending their 
lives in historical study and research, and the other group in adjusting history 
to the capacities of children and to the multitudinous claims of other subjects. 
We are finding from our school survey here in Illinois how much time is actually 
being devoted to history and geography in different types of schools, and the 
amount of ground covered in the time given. We already have summaries o£ 
course-of-study requirements and time allotments, and we are checking these up 
with the work actually accomplished. 

It is clear, then, that a task of this type, even with subjects usually sup- 
posed to be fairly well standardized, is stupendous. But I can see no way to 
accomplish the end except through some such process as this. Is the game worth 
the candle? Personally I am convinced that it is. If the principles that were 
laid down earlier in the discussion are valid, — if social solidarity depends upon 
a community of ideas, and if the value of any idea is increased immeasurably 
by the fact that it is a common denominator in the exchange of thought, — then 
it is surely worth while to spend time and energy in seeing to it that the common 
elements of knowledge are worthy of the high honor that is being conferred 
upon them. There is no Hall of Fame to compare for a moment with the com- 
mon pabulum of elementary and secondary education. Should we not see to it 
that whatever finds a niche here richly deserves the honor and that the facts 
which we require every one to know are the most important facts, from one point 
of view or another, that can be selected? The line of least resistance in our 
educational system is toward uniformity; from the point of view of administra- 
tive expediency, from the point of view of curriculum-making, from the point of 
view of text-book construction, from the point of view of the preparation of 
teachers, a certain measure of uniformity is inevitable. Well, let us make a 
virtue of necessity, and see to it that the uniformity that is inevitable richly 
realizes the value that it may be made to realize. 



19 

Desirable Differentiation Will be Promoted by Intelligent Uniformity 

And when this is done, there will be all the greater opportunity for needed 
adjustments to individuals, to groups, and to localities. From the point of view 
of teaching and administration, this is the permanently difficult task. Once the 
common elements are fairly well standardized, however, these adjustments may 
be made much more readily than they can be made now. 

With particular reference to the secondary program, this matter of determin- 
ing constants is perhaps not so vital as it is to the elementary program. But I 
believe that a certain core of materials can, in the interest of this function of 
social solidarity, be made common to all high school curriculums. There will 
possibly be exceptions, even here. In the readjustment of our high school pro- 
grams to meet the needs of vocational education, it is quite possible that some 
very highly specialized curriculums will be essential. Personally, I do not like 
to think of any curriculum so highly specialized with reference to vocational 
demands as to preclude all liberal or cultural studies. This is a matter upon 
which opinions may dififer, but it is clear to me that the state is just as vitally 
concerned wtih the liberating of the individual's mind as it is with the develop- 
ment of his technical skill. That is, assuming that democracy really means what 
it implies; if democracy is a failure we might as well go to work to reorganize 
our educational system on the European basis without further ado, — we might 
as well establish our separate system of industrial schools for the masses, and 
leave our present schools for the classes. But unless we are willing to go the 
whole length, we should best keep our present system until it has more clearly 
demonstrated its failure. Certainly there is no evidence now that it is failing 
so seriously, that perfectly feasible readjustments within the present organization 
will not correct existing evils. With our high schools growing ten times as fast 
as the population, and with increasingly larger proportions of pupils remaining 
to graduate, it would not, in my opinion, check this growth unduly to make a 
few common demands. Perhaps we could say to our pupils. Here are certain 
differentiated curriculums, some of which are more or less specialized with ref- 
erence to bread-winning occupations; but common to all of these curriculums 
are certain subjects. Some of these subjects may not attract you now, but they 
have been carefully selected because it has been found that these represent the 
elements of knowledge that should be common to all. It is for you, after careful 
consultation to select a curriculum that will meet your interests and your needs. 
This privilege the state offers to you. In return, you are to do your best with 
these subjects that are common to all of our work. You may not want to take 
these subjects; they may not seem valuable to you now; but this is the price 
that we ask you to pay for the other privileges. 

Uniformity and the Doctrine of Interest 

Is the price too heavy? Surely if our boys and girls cannot sacrifice so little 
as this for the common good we are in a pretty bad way. If a war impended, 
and the call to arms were issued, the boys would flock to the recruiting offices 
and the girls would volunteer as nurses, each deeming life itself a very trifling 
gift to offer to one's country. Are we to conclude that the kind of sacrifice and 
effort that democracy demands in the way of general intelligence and a reason- 



20 

ably liberal culture common to all is beyond our boys and girls? Shall we yield 
the palm so readily to that other country toward which our eyes are now so 
often turned? In that country boys and girls have been taught from their earliest 
school days that the welfare of their Fatherland depended upon their intelligence 
and their skill, and that their education was something more than gratification 
of evanescent interests or a means of realizing individual ambitions. Just a little 
of this attitude would not hurt our pupils or our schools, — just a little feeling 
on the part of the adolescent that for him to be ignorant when he might know, 
for him to lack the basis of intelligent judgment and valuable opinion, when he 
might have this basis with a little effort, is just as likely to imperil his country's 
welfare as would his failure to do his duty on the field of battle. Individualism 
is a splendid thing to contemplate, but the price of individualism carried to an 
extreme is paid in national decadence. Contemporary educational theory, in 
spite of its prating about social efficiency, is individualistic at basis. It talks 
of the social spirit, but it has read the word sacrifice out of its vocabulary; it 
talks of the common good, but it has no place for the concept of duty. With 
its constant dread lest the child may by accident be required to do something 
that he does not want to do, it is generating among our boys and girls individ- 
ualistic doctrines that no amount of pupil self-government, and no multiplicity 
of socializing devices in the recitation can counteract or cover up. Madame 
Montessori stands as the most radical exponent of the current educational theory ; 
and yet her radicalism is only a consistent carrying through of its tenets. When 
she tells us that only weak nations have glorified restraint and only weak indi- 
viduals need to cultivate sacrifice and duty, we at last see the true inwardness 
of "soft pedagogy." 

One thing is certain : contemporary educational theory will condemn at once 
any proposal to justify or indorse uniformity in the school program beyond the 
merest tools of reading, writing, and the number of arts. 

The Problem of Determining Constants in the Secondary Program 

When it comes to determining what shall be the content of this common 
core in the secondary program, opinions will inevitably differ; and here is the 
place and here is the opportunity for the debate and discussion, the investigation 
and research, which a body like this High School Conference is particularly com- 
petent to undertake. It would be presumptuous for me even to volunteer a tenta- 
tive opinion on the specific materials that should be included or excluded. Indeed, 
when I look over the present high school program with this question in mind, 
it is the difficulty rather than the ease of choice that the more strongly impresses 
me. There are those who maintain that algebra and geometry, for example, 
have no place among these constant elements ; and yet when I note in every-day 
thinking and in every-day discussion the importance of the concepts and mean- 
ings that elementary mathematics involves, — when I see how generally useful 
are such terms, for example, as axiom and axiomatic, constancy, limits, equiva- 
lence, demonstration, hypothesis, to say nothing of the clear-cut methods of 
thinking and the definite criteria of truth represented by this study, — I believe 
that I could make out a case on the other side. 



21 

It may be that these terms are not sufficiently valuable to warrant their in- 
clusion in the common pabulum. It may be that they can be adequately mastered 
without the discipline that mathematics involves — but this I doubt very seriously. 
In any case, there is room here for that kind of discussion and investigation 
which will clarify our conception of functions and values, and consequently 
make our teaching of these subjects much more efficient whether or not they 
are ultimately chosen as common elements in the program. 

In connection with literature, we have the important question as to the 
classics that shall be read by all of our pupils. It may or may not be that certain 
books should be known by all. Certainly, if my theory is valid, the value of any 
item of knowledge is greatly increased if it is universal. There are characters 
in literature that so clearly crystallize human types that one is handicapped in 
conveying thought if one cannot use them; and there are portrayals of situations 
and events so compact, so representative, and so universal in their appeal that 
we might well conclude that these certainly should be constants in our secondary 
program. 

In the field of science, there is abundant opportunity for determining the 
basic facts and principles that everyone should know ; and a course in general 
science that does not involve some of these would, I believe, fall far short of its 
possibilities. 

And so we might go through with the entire list of high school studies with 
this single principle in mind, and we should find, I am sure, that each could be 
made to realize a value from the point of view that I have taken. The task 
would then be to determine which would be the most important ; and this again 
would not be an impossible task. Collective judgments based on rankings made 
by as many competent individuals as could be induced to undertake the task 
would at least be a far safer guide than any criterion that we now possess. 

In conclusion, my proposal is that we should look upon common or funda- 
mental education as something more than a mere mastery of the tools of knowl- 
edge. The common pabulum should include the most priceless elements of the 
heritage of race experience. It should be meat and not milk and water. It should 
aim primarily to furnish the concepts, the meanings, the facts and the principles 
that are fundamentally essential to collective thinking upon a relativel3' high 
plane. It is bound to be prodigal, — all liberal education is in its very essence 
prodigal. It looks beyond the needs of the moment. It furnishes some materials 
that will probably never be used. But its prodigality is like that of nature itself. 
It prepares against crises. And when social crises come in a democracy, there 
is nothing that is more keenly needed than a high level of general intelligence 
among the people as a whole. The price that we need to pay for the common basis 
of this collective intelligence, as I have tried to point out, is not a high price. 
It will not imperil our high school growth, nor will it preclude the offering of 
specialized work adapted to individual tastes and individual needs, and calculated 
to enhance individual efficiency. But it will furnish a basis of mutual intercourse, 
mutual understanding, and mutual sympathy, and this is not only worth while; 
it is absolutely essential to a successful democracy. 



22 

The Second General Session was convened in the Auditorium 
Friday evening, November 20, at 8 o'clock. 

President Livingston C. Lord of the Normal School, Charleston, 
presided. 

An explanatory statement of the plan of the Conference program 
for the present session was presented by Professor Hollister as Chair- 
man of the Conference Committee. The statement was, in substance, 
as follows : 

As announced, the chief topic for our General Sessions and for the Joint 
Session of Science Groups is a consideration of the adjustments needed in the 
Program of Studies of our schools. Last year a committee was created to in- 
vestigate the subject of general science as to its desirability, feasibility, and the 
kind of course which should be offered. As a by-product of its investigation this 
committee recommended back to the General Committee of the Conference that, 
in order to deal fairly with the problem which a discussion of general science 
involved, the whole matter of readjustment of the science curriculum should be 
considered. Evidently, such consideration of the science curriculum would in- 
volve, also, the consideration of the readjustment of all curricula, or the entire 
program of studies, since, among other things, science work is closely correlated 
with many vocational lines of work. 

For these reasons, it seemed best to the General Committee that we should 
devote the time of the general sessions, as well as the time of the joint session 
above referred to, to a discussion of various fundamental aspects of the problem 
of readjustment of the program of studies. An introduction to this discus- 
sion was given on Thursday evening by Dr. W. C. Bagley, Chairman of the 
General Program Committee. He, in his characteristically clear and concise 
manner, undertook to set forth the principles which underlie the determination 
of maxima and minima or constants and variables in the program of studies. 
This afternoon (Friday) was held the joint session of the science groups. The 
committee reported that for the present any definite recommendation as to the 
feasibility of general science, or as to a course which should be offered, is not 
deemed advisable. Following this report a discussion of the problem was pre- 
sented by F. D. Barber, of Normal, who spoke in favor of general science; by 
Professor J. M. Coulter, of the University of Chicago, who presented the 
claims of particular or special sciences to a place in our scheme of secondary 
education; and by Professor J. J. Woodhull, Columbia University, who under- 
took to maintain the proposition that all science work in high school should 
be presented through a series of projects involving the application of scientific 
principles. This evening we are to have a presentation, by one who has been 
actively engaged in the work, of the results of a year's study of the problems 
of readjustment by the leading educators of St. Louis: and the Saturday 
morning session will present, first, a report bj' a subcommittee of the general 
program committee, headed by Dr. C. H. Johnston, on the administrative factors 
involved in the problem. This committee report will be followed by an address 



23 

by Principal M. H. Stuart, ot" Indianapolis, who will give us his experience in 
undertaking to correlate academic and vocational subjects in high schools. Thus 
we have presented at this time at least two distinct aspects of the general 
problem. First, the principles involved in adjustments as concerns the subject 
matter of the program, and, second, the question of adjustment as relates to 
administration of the program. 

We all readily recognize the need of a readjustment. There is a tendency 
in institutions to become static, and thus to drop behind the social and industrial 
progress of the time. That seems to have happened with us. We have simply 
failed to keep our school programs adjusted to social and industrial needs. 
What we need to do is to bring them up abreast with present movements in 
society. Among other things, we need to consider economy in education. This is 
tnie not only as to the cost of education, but as to the time factor as it con- 
cerns the individual to be educated. But in all our plans for reform we must 
remember that there is the problem of the teacher involved. We cannot hope 
to revise our program of study once for all, for that will need to change as 
social and industrial conditions change, rather than to become fixed and im- 
mutable. Then, again, it is one thing to propose reforms, and another to get 
the teachers who are qualified to carry them into effect. This is illustrated in 
our own educational history. In 1821 the Boston Fathers projected the high 
school with the idea that it was to fit more directly and completely for the 
ordinary vocations of life. They felt that the Latin Schools of the time failed 
in this, although they furnished a satisfactory preparation for college training. 
But not until within the last decade have we begun, in any very full sense, to 
realize the ideals of the Boston Fathers. The reason, chiefly, was that when 
the high school for boys had been projected it soon became apparent that the 
only source of supply for teachers was from those same institutions which 
trained the teachers for the Latin Schools. The point is that whenever a state 
undertakes to reform, or readjust the program of studies of a school it should 
also make provision for the training of teachers who are qualified to do the 
kinds of work which it is proposed to establish in place of, or in addition to, 
what has already been taught in the schools. 

It seems evident that something should be done here in Illinois toward 
settling this question. The N. E. A. has taken up the matter of readjustments, 
but does not seem to be making very great headway. The North Central Asso- 
ciation has also taken up some phases of the work. We are especially in need 
of such readjustments in order to meet the urgent requirements of the educa- 
tional situation in our state. The General Committee has felt that a very proper 
approach to this problem would be, first, to lay the foundation for its considera- 
tion in some such general presentation as we are having in this session of the 
Conference, and that following this all these presentations should be referred to 
the General Committee on Program of Studies, with power to select assist- 
ants, and to go ahead with such further investigations and experiments as may 
seem desirable in order to arrive at satisfactory conclusions as to what we should 
do in the way of such readjustments as we all seem to agree are needed. 



24 

President Lord then introduced Dr. John W. Withers, Harris 
Teachers College, St. Louis, who as speaker of the evening gave an 
address on "The Principles on Which Readjustments of the Program 
of Studies Should be Based." 

Dr. Withers spoke as follows : 

The needs and values of life, to which education in the broadest sense 
must minister, cover the whole period of life. Education, therefore, is a con- 
tinuous process co-extensive with life itself. One is being educated to some 
degree and in some direction by every experience through which he passes. 

An educative experience is any interaction between an individual and his 
environment. It is the response, physical and mental, which he makes to any 
situation that his environment provides or suggests. Education as a process 
may be identified with this living interaction in both its physical and mental 
aspects, but education as a result is the more or less permanent modification or 
effect which the interaction or experience leaves behind. The experience which 
produces education may be, and usually is, conscious, but the educational result 
is not a fact of consciousness and can only be known by the influence which 
it exerts upon subsequent experiences and behavior. 

The educative process, therefore, involves the two factors, — the educative 
situation and the educative response. These two conceptions are very useful 
in the scientific study of education because they center thought upon all the 
influences which should fundamentally determine and control the work of edu- 
cation. There are, fundamentally, two kinds of problems. First, given any 
desired educational result, required to find the situation or series of situations 
which, through the educative responses evoked, will produce that result. Second, 
given a certain situation or series of situations, including the method of apply- 
ing them, required to ascertain the educational result that should be expected 
to follow. Out of these two conceptions, therefore, must be derived the facts 
and principles that determine, at least on their formal side, teaching, and testing. 

For our purpose I shall define these conceptions as follows : an educative 
situation is that part of an individual's environment which acting upon him at 
any given time calls forth in him an educative response ; it is that part of the 
total environment whose effect on the response is appreciable. The educative 
response which an individual makes to any situation may be considered from 
two points of view, — first, the direct, immediate, and partial response, and 
second, the indirect, prolonged, and complete response. The first is the kind 
of consciousness immediately called forth and the bodily behavior occasioned by 
the situation. The second is chiefly mental and consists of the reflective, emo- 
tional, and volitional processes that are started by the direct response and guided 
and controlled by association, attention, and will. 

The result of an educative experience may also be, and usually is, two- 
fold in character, for the individual is different and the environment may be 
different after the experience from what they were before. The change that 
takes place in the individual is both mental and physical and is known only 



25 

by the influence which it exerts upon his subsequent life of consciousness and 
behavior. 

Before considering the means and values of education, let us distinguish 
three important processes that influence the course of study. (1) The process 
of educating, properly so called. This process may evidently go on without 
the aid of a teacher. It is determined by the nature of the educand and of the 
educative situation to which he responds. It, therefore, involves two variables. 
The nature of the environmental situation and of the individual making re- 
sponse to it. The educational result that follows is a function of both variables. 
The basic science is educational psychology. (2) Teaching. This is the process 
of selecting and applying the environmental situations that are designed to 
evoke or stimulate educative responses on the part of the educand. This pro- 
cess is determined by the will, intelligence, and skill of the teacher and the 
availability of appropriate environmental means. It, therefore, exerts a limited 
direct control over but one of the two variables involved in education. The 
basic science is the science of teaching. (3) Testing. This is a process of ascer- 
taining as accurately and fully as possible the results of educating. Like teach- 
ing, testing is also limited to environmental control. Since the results of edu- 
cating can only be known by the influence which they exert upon the subsequent 
experience and behavior of the educand, the process of testing can only deter- 
mine through the study of new responses the modifications produced by former 
ones. Its problem is that of ascertaining what responses in any given case will 
truly reveal the effects of previous educational effort and of providing the proper 
situations to call forth these responses. Testing also stands in need of a basic 
science. There is, perhaps, nothing more significant in present day education 
than the effort that is being made to attain at least the beginnings of such a 
science. The hope of improving much further the theory and practice of teach- 
ing lies in a large degree in the direction of improving the means of scientifi- 
cally testing as far as possible the actual results of teaching. Herein lies also 
the hope of detecting and eliminating useless or ineffectual material from the 
program of studies and of otherwise improving it by ascertaining the relative 
effectiveness of different methods of instruction and different plans of organiz- 
ing and presenting the subject matter of the program. 

From what has been said up to this point, it is obvious that the means of 
education are limited entirely to educative situations. The course of study 
is, in fact, a scheme designed to aid the teacher to call forth in the child the 
desired educative responses. After all, this is the one operation of fundamental 
importance. System, organization, program of studies, supervision, and every- 
thing else is subordinate to this. The school or system of schools is in fact an 
organization having the one supreme function of providing thru the course of 
study, or otherwise, educative situations of the right sort, in the right order, 
and at the right time. The actual production of situations planned for in the 
program of studies is, of course, under the direct control of the teacher and 
the effectiveness of the program depends upon her insight, intelligence, and 
skill in making the situations which the course calls for real and vital to 
the child. 



26 

Since, as I have said, the whole means of education are the environ- 
mental situations which call forth the responses of life, it follows that the 
only means that can be employed by one person in the effort to educate another 
are physical and confined to the possibility of modifying, in one way or another, 
the physical environment of the educand. In other words, the whole effort 
to educate is but an effort to make changes in the physical environment with 
certain educative results in view. Without such changes and the capacity to 
respond to them, there can be no education. The teacher, within certain limits, 
can manipulate the environment of the child, but when this is done, if the 
desired results do not take place, there are no other different means which the 
teacher can employ. 

Taken as a whole then the means of education are of two general sorts, — 
human and non-human. The latter are determined and applied by non-human 
forces constituting the natural environment. The former are those which are 
or may be controlled by human agencies. They are also of two kinds, which 
for want of better names, I shall call the direct and the indirect or symbolic. 
The former consist of the manipulations of things, objects, etc. ; the latter of 
language, illustrations, and symbols of all kinds. 

I turn now to consider directly the aim of education as governing the 
choice of means ; the values to be realized thru the means chosen ; the agencies 
concerned in the actual selection and application of the means ; the public 
school's rightful place among these agencies ; and finally its own proper work 
as determining what the program of studies should be. 

A satisfactory conception of the general aim of education must be broad 
enough to cover the whole of education, not merely that of the school. It 
must represent the interests of society as well as those of the individual and 
give the right value to each. It must include education as a process and also 
education as a result. It is, in fact, identical with the aim of life, so that 
changes in the conceptions and practices of education must keep pace with 
changes in the conception and needs of life. The aim of education must be 
consistent with the spirit which permeates the life and thought of the time. 
It must take account not only of the changes that have taken place in our eco- 
nomic and social life, due to the remarkable industrial development of the last 
half century, but also of those changes equally potent and profound in our 
mental attitude toward the world and toward human life in all its relations. 
Intellectually we have lost much of the certainty and dogmatism of the past 
and are becoming much more open minded and flexible. The notion of pro- 
gressive adaptation, which has become so influential in all scientific and philoso- 
phic thought, has weaned us from the inflexibilities of the past and given us 
a world that is more plastic and maleable. Hence there is need that present day 
education, in its aims, practices, and products shall also be characterized by 
open mindedness and reasonable adaptability. As a result of the economic and 
social changes thru which we have passed, profound changes have also taken 
place on the moral side of life. Previously accepted standards have proven 
more or less inadequate ; the influence of recognized moral sanctions has gen- 
erally declined; the contacts and wants of life have greatly increased; the op- 
portunities to go wrong as well as to do good have been multiplied. The pace 



27 

of life has been accelerated and its strains increased so that the wiiole problem 
of moral life and moral education has become complex and difficult. 

Briefly, then let us define the aim of education as being the aim of human 
life, both individual and social. As we conceive the latter, so should we con- 
ceive the former. Education's central purpose is to reduce suffering and waste 
of human life and to promote individual and social well-being, to assist as fully 
and economically as possible in meeting life's needs and in the realization of 
life's values thru proper selection and control of the means of education. 

All those agencies and influences in modern life, which in any way con- 
trol and apply the means of education, are involved in one way or another in 
the realization of this aim of education. Among the most important of these 
agencies are the school, the home, the playground, the occupations, the neigh- 
borhood, the church, the press, the library, the stage, the museum, the club, 
and the government. Each of these has a share in the work which varies more 
or less with local conditions and the period of life considered. What is the 
public school's relation to these other agencies. Should it deliberately attempt 
to cooperate with them, and if so, how? It is obvious that these questions must 
be answered by reference to the local conditions, the nature and educative effi- 
ciency of the agencies actually operating in the local environment, and to the 
conception which one holds as to what is essentially the public school's own 
work. 

The principles, therefore, which should be applied in answering the above 
questions, are the following : First, the total task of education should be ac- 
complished in such a manner, at such periods of life, and by such agencies as 
will secure the best results. Second, each agency should be held responsible 
for that part of the work that it can do more efficiently and with greater economy 
than any other. Third, the principle of cooperation among the various agencies 
should be applied in such a way as mutually to stimulate endeavor and eliminate 
waste in accomplishing ths total work. Fourth, the public school, as the one 
exclusively educative agency representing the collective will of the people, 
should be regarded as the final arbiter and custodian of the child's educational 
well-being. Fifth, in our democracy the public school is charged with the pe- 
culiar responsibility of defining the aim and work of education as a whole and 
of determining the right relation of other educative agencies to itself and to 
each other. 

Applying these principles, we get the following definition of the public 
school's relation to other educative agencies. First, the public school should 
endeavor to understand the actual operation and results of other agencies in 
so far, at least, as they are operating in its own community and to the extent 
that is necessary to ascertain their significance. Any educational survey which 
confines itself to the school is obviously partial and inadequate. The responsi- 
bility for making thoro and continuous surveys must be accepted by the school 
itself. Secondly, it should have a definite constructive policy with regard to 
other educative agencies operating within its own territory, should actively 
encourage them to do the part of the work which belongs to them, and should 
attempt, in some degree, even to direct their operation. Thirdly, whenever any 
agency neglects the functions which belong to it or fails to discharge them 



28 

properly, these functions should be taken over by the public school, within 
limits determined by the social necessity for the performance of these func- 
tions; the legal right and actual ability of the public school to perform them 
adequately, in addition to those functions which are peculiarly and distinctively 
its own ; the probable deleterious effect upon the efficiency of other agencies 
which would be produced by taking over their special functions; and, lastly, 
if the results of other agencies neutralize or vitiate those of the public school, 
the latter has a responsibility in the matter which it must attempt to meet in 
any way that is legitimate and effective. 

Turning now to the question of the school's own peculiar work, I desire 
to note in the first place that the value of any educational effort must be meas- 
ured by the character of the responses which it produces and the more or less 
permanent educational results of those responses. With reference to the aim 
of education, these results are of two kinds, — those which are of value to 
society and those which are of value to the individual. The results which are 
of primary importance to society are the organized motor tendencies and bodily 
forms of expression of the individual, constituting behavior in its broadest 
meaning. Those which are of secondary importance to society are the organ- 
ized forms of mental life in the individual which directly or indirectly influence 
his behavior. The results which are of first importance to the individual are 
those which secure for him the satisfactions of life, while behavior has value 
for him only in a secondary sense, that is, only on condition that it brings 
to him, actually or by anticipation, some desirable experience. On the other 
hand, organized mental life, which is the result of education and which may 
be highly valued by the individual, is of no concern to society unless it some- 
how actually or conceivably influences the individual's behavior in relation to 
others. The word behavior, as I am using it, is not restricted to volitional 
conduct, that is, conduct determined by consciously chosen ends, nor merely 
to the grosser forms of behavior. It means bodily expression of all sorts that 
can in any way influence the lives of others, including those forms of be- 
havior which are initiated and controlled by consciousness and those that are 
beyond immediate conscious control. 

Now an educative response may have both a behavior and a conscious 
aspect, and the value of the educational result which it produces is determined 
by the way in which this result influences one or both of these aspects of sub- 
sequent responses in the same and in other individuals. There are two, and 
only two, ways in which anything may be of value. It may have value either 
in itself directly or as a means to something else that has value in itself. The 
first kind of value I shall call inherent or intrinsic, and the second instrumental. 
The conscious aspect of an educative response may or may not be valuable in 
the first sense, depending upon whether it is or is not felt to be directly desirable 
by the person who makes the response. It may also be valuable in the second 
sense if, tho not desirable in itself, it leads by association or otherwise to 
some experience which is desirable in itself. The behavior aspect of an educa- 
tive response can never be intrinsically or inherently valuable. It may or may 
not be instrumentally valuable, according as it does or does not serve as the 
direct or the indirect means of producing intrinsically valuable conscious re- 



29 

sponses in the same or in other individuals. Behavior may also have poten- 
tial instrumental value when it is considered by anyone as being capable of 
calling forth desirable conscious responses, tho, at the time, it does not actually 
do so. It is obvious then that the seat of all human values is fundamentally in 
the feeling or affective aspect of individual human consciousness. To eliminate 
feeling would be to eliminate all possibility of value of any sort. Feeling is 
individual. Its very essence lies in its being experiences by somebody. It fol- 
lows, therefore, that all intrinsic educational values can be realized only in indi- 
viduals and that they are for the individual the values that are of primary 
concern ; all else is secondary. It is also evident that society is primarily inter- 
ested in the behavior aspect of the response of individuals, for it is this aspect 
alone that can serve as means of producing desirable conscious responses in 
other individuals. My fellow men are interested in my education and are will- 
ing to tax themselves in order that I may receive it, but they do so funda- 
mentally because they hope that out of that education will come forms of be- 
havior which may serve as means of enhancing the lives of others by helping 
to produce in them desirable forms of conscious experience. The artist's be- 
havior in producing a picture is, for instance, socially valuable because of the 
aesthetic satisfaction which it brings to others. The primary purpose of public 
education, therefore, is the determination of socially valuable individual be- 
havior. An individual's knowledge and other organized forms of mental life 
which result from education are of course socially valuable, but only because 
they are important means of determining behavior. Unless they actually or 
conceivably influence the individual's behavior they have no social value, and 
if they result in behavior that is detrimental to the general well-being they are, 
of course, socially undesirable. The principles, therefore, which should control 
the organization and direction of public education, must be derived from the 
study of socially valuable human behavior and of the means of determining and 
controlling it. The problem may be stated as follows: What kinds of behavior 
are socially as well as individually valuable, and how shall the means of pro- 
ducing such behavior be selected and applied? 

I have said that behavior can have only instrumental value, and this in 
so far as it serves to promote directly or indirectly in the individual himself 
and in other individuals the realization of intrinsic or inherent values. The 
essence of behavor, therefore, from the educational point of vfew, is individual 
and social service. To serve any one is to assist him by means of one's behavior 
to realize inherent values for himself, either directly or indirectly. In fact, 
this is the only way in which service can be rendered. 

Now an individual can, by means of his behavior, serve himself and 
others in two and only two general ways. First, by what he produces for the 
use of himself and others and by his manner of producing it, and secondly, 
by what he himself uses and the way in which he uses it. 

The sense in which these terms are employed is this: Man is a producer 
whenever he makes environmental changes of any sort, temporary or permanent, 
that may be used for the satisfaction of any human want, physical or spiritual. 
He is a user whenever he appropriates any such changes, whether made by 
himself or others, for the satisfaction of his own wants. 



30 

The realization of the general aim of education requires training for these 
two kinds or aspects of behavior. An individual cannot realize himself and 
promote the well-being of society unless he has developed in himself the capac- 
ity and disposition not merely to produce well himself, but to use wisely the 
productions of others. The individual who is merely a user and does not pro- 
duce anything for the inspiration and use of others is a parasite on the social 
organism and is therefore an undesirable citizen, whether he be a millionaire 
or a tramp. On the other hand, one who produces skillfully and well much 
that society needs but who himself uses comparatively little of the products 
of others is certainly not the most desirable member of the community. To 
the extent that such a man does not spend his means in securing products of 
the labor and inspiration of others he prevents them from satisfying their own 
proper physical and spiritual wants by the use of products which they in turn 
might secure. The one who best realizes himself and promotes the well being 
of others is the one who is best equipped and most disposed not only to pro- 
duce, but to use the good things of life. 

If the foregoing analysis is correct, it follows directy that the principles 
which should determine the work of public education, including the proper 
content, organization, and arrangement of the program of studies, should be 
derived from determining in the order of their relative worth the values which 
should be realized thru education for production and education for use; and 
from ascertaining the principles, conditions, and methods which determine the 
most economic development of right behavior from these two points of view. 

If we define general or fundamental education as that which is designed 
for and supposed to be needed by all, the sort that the public elementary schools 
are supposed to give, we must recognize two grades of education for production 
and education for use. Specialized vocational education which later in the 
child's life seeks to develop specialized knowledge, skill, and efficiency in some 
form of productive activity accepted as the child's life work, must be based 
upon and grow out of a more general and fundamental kind of vocational 
education, which seeks to give the child those forms of experience, ideals, 
attitudes, and habits that will help to determine for him his appropriate place and 
attitude in the world of producers. Again, specialized education in the use of 
things which in secondary school or college, in home, church, librarj-, theatre, 
museum or club seeks to develop a refined taste and appreciative use of any 
products of the labor and inspiration of others, past and present, must also 
be based upon an elementary education in the right appreciation and use of the 
simpler and more common things of life. 

The public elementary schools should attempt to provide neither specialized 
vocational education nor specialized education in the use of things but a gen- 
eral or fundamental education that is the best possible preparation for both, 
that provides for marked individual differences in children, makes for adapta- 
bility, and is well suited to the nature and capacity of children. Therefore in 
making a program of studies for the public elementary schools we should 
answer as well as we can the following three questions: (1) Are there any 
experiences, forms of knowledge, types of behavior, mental attitudes and dis- 
positions that are fundamental to all legitimate vocations or at least to 



•^ 31 

those upon which the majority of the children of a given school are likely to 
enter? If so, these should be defined and provided for in the elementary pro- 
gram of studies. (2) What are those values, knowledges, forms of behavior, 
dispositions, and qualities of mind which are fundamental in enabling an indi- 
vidual to make the most of his opportunities to live a rich, well-balanced, happy, 
and socially valuable life as a user of the increasing wealth of things which 
the labor and inspiration of men of all time have made possible for his comfort 
and for the enrichment of his life? So far as possible these values must also 
be provided for in a unified elementarj- program of studies. (3) What, from 
the standpoint of the elementary school, for the period of the child's life which 
it covers, is the relative importance of those two aspects of life, and how shall 
these two types of material be brought together in the program of studies? 

I do not hesitate to saj' that these types of material can be fairly well 
ascertained and that for the elementary school the second type is the more 
important for the following reasons: (1) These values are fundamentally 
intrinsic in character. They represent the individual's capacity to appreciate 
and enjoy, and are the ultimate determinants of his behavior. Those 
which are peculiar to himself, together with the relative emphasis which 
he places on others determine his individuality ; while those which he appre- 
ciates in common with others make for commonality of life in thought and 
behavior and are the basis of all cooperation and of social unity and solidarity. 
(2) As a people we have shown greater skill and proficiency in the production 
of all sorts of things which we have a mind to produce than wisdom, propor- 
tion, and refinement in the use of things and of our social and civic relations 
and opportunities. Our excessive use of patent medicines ; the general over em- 
phasis upon the monej^ cost of things, leading too often to vulgar display and 
ostentation upon the part of those who can financially afford it, and to over 
straining, dishonesty and despondency upon the part of those who cannot ; our 
great lack of proper discrimination in the choice and remuneration of public 
servants, are striking examples of the fundamental lack of proper education 
in this direction. We actually spend more money to correct and to prevent 
the damaging results of the misuse of things and of social contacts than we 
pay for all sorts of constructive educational effort. (3) There are in the 
United States 500,000 traveling salesmen whose annual salary, including travel- 
ing expenses, is more than one billion dollars, a sum large enough to purchase 
annually all public school property, houses, lands, and equipment in the United 
States and to pay the annual operating expenses of the public school systems 
of New York and Chicago. The sole function of these men is to educate 
people in the use of things, and the nation is paying $10 a piece for every man, 
woman, and child for the kind of education which they provide, — a kind of 
education w-hich, tho highly efficient, is not dominated by the motive of pro- 
moting individual and social well-being but by that of profit which not infre- 
quently operates to the detriment of people. Education in the right operation 
and use of things is therefore a fundamental and serious obligation of the 
public school which it cannot surrender to any other educative agency. (4) 
This form of education is important on account of the influence which it exerts 
on production itself. There is, in fact, on account of the ever increasing wealth 



32 

and variety, not only of things which an individual may use but also of those 
which he must use, a correspondingly increasing necessity of generalizing and 
defining the capacities and wants of individuals as users. In order to maintain 
the spirit and ideals of democracy, to encourage, stimulate, and diversify the 
right sorts of production, both mental and spiritual, to eliminate by disuse the 
wrong sorts, and to raise as far as possible the general standard of living by 
enlarging and refining individual and social tastes, this sort of education is 
a necessity. 

It is the function of the high school and college to provide the various 
forms of specialized education for production and for use. Here, again, what 
may be properly undertaken at public expense must be by a study, more or less 
local, of social and economic needs and opportunities. 

The Pinal Session of the 1914 Conference w^as held on Saturday 
morning, November 21, in Morrow Hall. The program w^as opened 
promptly at 9 o'clock with Dr. B. H. Bode of the University presiding. 
First came the report of a sub-committee of the Committee on Pro- 
gram of Studies, under the direction of Professor Charles H. John- 
ston of the School of Education. The subject which this Committee 
was considering was "The Administrative Factors Involved in Read- 
justments of the Program of Studies." The report was made in sec- 
tions by different members of the Committee. These reports follow : 

/. Report of the Chairman, Professor Charles H. Johnston: 

There is no single way to characterize adequately the movements for reor- 
ganizing public secondary education. Reorganization may refer to the matter of 
economy by the elimination of a grade ; or it may refer to a change in methods 
of teaching, discipline and internal school management; or it may refer to a 
reorganization of content of instruction within the various courses ; or still 
again it may refer to a change in administrative units within the 12 years of 
the public school system, such as we commonly mean to describe by the terms 
of six-six plan, or the six-three-three plan, etc. Generally current discussions, 
ever since the N. E. A. Standing Committee Report in 1905 on "6 weeks' 
course of study", show a confusion as to the precise and distinguishable issues 
involved. 

In the present report your committee has omitted all consideration of the 
problems of the "junior-college annex" to public high schools and has confined 
its consideration to reorganization as it applies to the common twelve grades 
of public education. Within these grades any modification of the arrangement 
of eight grades of elementary and four of high school education, for the com- 
mittee, has represented some form of rearrangement or reorganization. In 
1912 the U. S. Bureau reports 9 types of segregated junior high schools, or 
combinations of grades — 5 to 10th inclusive, and reports 6 combinations of 
higher grades representing senior high school arrangements. These and other 
existing forms of reorganization are indicative of unrest and experimentation. 



33 

Likewise theoretically different types of reorganization have been worked out 
in detail for cities of different sizes. The causes doubtless are more varied 
than the forms of reorganization, some of them involving educational princi- 
ples, some indicating adjustments for temporary convenience, some for economy 
merely, some topographical in character, w^hile some again are merely fortuitous. 
It may be that none of the present types of reorganization are permanently 
significant as types. Some educators, indeed, claim that they are all mere tem- 
porary makeshifts, heralding some profound and revolutionary form of funda- 
mental school reorganization which will come into existence as we revise and 
refine our educational ideals. 

The present extent of the movement for reorganization is of interest. 
The U. S. Commissioner and the National Bureau are publicly committed to 
this reorganization. The Committee on Economy of Time of the N. E. A. 
incorporate the same plan as a fundamental feature of their report. The 
National Association of State Universities has declared in favor of the same 
type of reorganization. A committee of the North Central Association last 
year presented a similar report to that body. This was adopted. The same 
association enlarged its committee and instructed them to present the details 
of further procedure at the 1915 meetings. Ten sub-committees of the N. E. A. 
Committee on Reorganization of Secondary Education are likewise at work 
upon these details of further developments in this direction. The State of 
New York as a state, through its separate official curriculums for the first six 
grades, the intermediate grades, and the high school grades, virtually declares 
for its adoption. Likewise the State of California. Unanimous resolutions 
from the State Teachers' Association of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Mon- 
tana favor specifically the six-six plan of school organization. The State of 
Michigan, as well as did earlier the State of North Dakota, is apparently 
launching a campaign for a similar statewide readjustment, and the state super- 
intendent has published a pamphlet containing not only urgent advise and lists 
of reasons for the change, but, in addition, definitely worked out plans for the 
reorganization of courses. 

Paralleling these official acts from state offices comes the Universities of 
Michigan and Chicago with their methods of accrediting and standards of 
entrance requirements readjusted so as to recognize and to sanction this new 
type of school organization. Add to these imposing actions of university facul- 
ties the recommendations of the directors of the School Surveys of New York 
City, of the State of Vermont, or Portland, of Boise, and of Springfield, Illi- 
nois, and the movement assumes proportions which demand the serious atten- 
tion of students and administrators of education. From the U. S. Commis- 
sioner's Report, 1913, it should also be noted that there is a movement in the 
parochial schools which contemplates similar reorganization steps. Among cities 
which have adopted this reorganization we may note especially Palo Alto, Los 
Angeles and Berkeley, California; Detroit, Grand Rapids and Saginaw, Michi- 
gan; Columbus and Dayton, Ohio; Portland, Oregon; Concord, New Hamp- 
shire; Trenton, New Jersey; Boston, Fitchburg, Newton, Massachusetts; Min- 
neapolis and Cokato, Minnesota; Grafton, South Dakota; Ogden, Utah; Roch- 
ester, New York; Lewiston, Idaho; Kansas City, Wichita, Garden City, Neo- 



34 

dosha and Fredonia, Kansas ; Richmond, Evansville and other cities in Indiana, 
and Springfield and Quincy and, in modified form, East Aurora, Decatur and 
Urbana, Illinois. 

The writer has drawn from current literature on this subject some fifteen 
reasons for the change advanced by its advocates, and as many reasons against 
this reorganization, furnished by those who prefer the present elementary-high 
school arrangement. It is instructive to note, in present developments of the 
controversy, that reorganization advocates are more careful to champion some 
change rather than tie themselves down to any particular rigid form of reor- 
ganization; while those who resist the proposals of reform are chiefly attacking 
only the dangerous possibilities to which it may lead, — each shifting the burden 
of proof to the other side. 

These reasons, for and against, are as follows : 
/. Arguments for: 

1. The scheme is fundamentally a plan for segregating the pre-adolescents 
and providing the unique environment required with the consequent development 
of the simple forms of student social activity. 

2. It provides a better organization for the grouping of students with 
reference to their varying abilities, and their physical, mental, social and moral 
traits, at the most critical stage for this sort of diagnosis and treatment. Organ- 
ized vocational guidance and placement is to be begun at this time. 

3. This scheme provides for an instructorial organization with a better 
grade of women teachers and with more men in instructional force. 

4. The teachers themselves also in this particular environment will de- 
velop the particular traits required for this work. 

5. It allows for a partial segregation of sexes with appropriate modifica- 
tion of teaching methods and management and courses. 

6. The natural pedagogy of some subjects like modern language calls for 
this readjustment. There is also need for an earlier correlation of English 
language and grammar with the foreign language and grammar, of arithmetic 
with elementary algebra and demonstrational geometr}', and of history and 
geography. 

7. It makes the whole school system more nearly a unit. 

8. This would leave the elementary school of six grades still freer to 
teach easily, without the imposition of any scholastic standards, the tool sub- 
jects as tools as well as common fundamental ideals and at the same time 
have most of its time and energy for the natural unrestrained and wholesome 
unrestricted exercises of imagination, play, construction, emotion, imitation, etc. 

9. This would also leave the Senior High School proper free to develop 
with more distinctiveness of function genuinely differentiated curriculums of 
college preparatory^ commercial, agricultural, manufacturing, and domestic 
science, arts, sewing and homemaking. 

10. The 6-3-3 plan makes possible a richer variety and greater number 
of courses for these children from 12 to 15 years of age, and with this larger 
number of courses. Most important perhaps of all, it allows at a better time 
than the first year of school, for a partial differentiation of curriculums.* 



35 



*We have had two sharply opposing views of the Ideal American High 
School presented for the conference already. One of these is that the high 
school now must be a miniature university in form of organization, with its 
agricultural students, its students of the commercial arts, students of the me- 
chanic arts, students of the domestic, and students of the college preparatory, 
all mingling together, but seeking different vocational goals. This means that 
the varied high school program must have curriculum offerings for these im- 
portant and distinguishable groups, all within the public school system. This 
view is of course the counter suggestion offered by Dean Davenport as a sub- 
stitute for and as better than the separate and undemocratic and costly plan 
provided by the well-known Cooley Bill, which if passed will impose upon 
the present high school only academic responsibilities and weaken it in every 
way. The State Commission Bill, favored by all the school people, as I inter- 
pret it, carries rather the implication of the desirability and practicability of 
several high school curriculums, preserving the good varied vocational features 
of the Cooley provision and omitting the "dual system" feature. This curri- 
culum differentiation feature of the high school instructional program is the 
common feature upon which harmony is sought. It is moreover what both 
approve — the real cause of the whole issue in every state in the Union, — the 
need of vocational education. 

The opposing view of the high school is that identical items of knowledge, 
identical topics of courses, identical curriculums, a single curriculum in fact, 
is the ideal toward which designors of high school educational work should 
strive. This is presented as the only guarantee of universal social sympathy, 
national loyalty, and other common virtues essential to a democratic civiliza- 
tion. To those who have looked long for curriculum designs, of any sort even 
in the high school program, to say nothing of the elementary, panicky fears 
of curriculum differentiations seem groundless. The arraignment of the move- 
ment toward curriculum variations seems like raising up a bogey or straw man 
and hitting him very hard. Those senior and even junior high school principal? 
with whom I have talked have not found possible yet even a partial differentia- 
tion. Besides, I have found no one who in the remote future hopes to differen- 
tiate trainings so completely that a liberal amount of common instruction will 
not be required in all the curriculums. The German Higher Schools, under a 
dual or even triple system of local administration are undemocratic, and un- 
American, not for the lack of common elements, for they have these every- 
where, nor from the fact that their differentiated curriculums are well and 
carefully designed for special purposes— fc«; because they do not provide for 
some classes in their secondary system at all. Curriculum differentiation would 
seem rather to provided for just that mutual acquaintance with and appreciation 
of diverse educational aims represented in our future still larger and vocationally 
more representative high school student body which we may expect,— and 
which in places we now have. Fundamentals in these higher grades, so far as 
preparation for citizenship is concerned, as Dean Davenport so clearly pointed 
out, may be provided in other ways than by one rigid curriculum. 



36 

A Cooley Bill or some substitute will likely pass. The substitute should 
as a safeguard provide diflFerentiated curriculums. 
(Portland and New York Surveys.) 



11. The pupils will thus, by semi or wholly departmental organization of 
instruction, be promoted by subject, get the benefit of contact with a special 
Junior High School type of teachers, their individualities being better rounded 
out and developed, preserved from narrowness and uniformity — or conformity 
to one teacher's moulding. 

12. It may afford such vocational insights and inducements that a larger 
percent will remain in school an additional year. It also postpones for one 
year the transportation difficulties of high school attendance, time, carfare, etc. 

13. It is cheaper, on same basis as ordinary 7th and 8th grade work, 
(Hanus' New York Report, Supt. Rundlett, Concord, N. H.) or, if adequate, 
it makes for a better adjustment of per capita costs. (Holland and Francis. 
$40, $60, $80.) Town can often make over with proper equipment a grammar 
school or old high school building. (Francis, p. 190-1.) 

14. Provides for better and more continuous use of equipments for 
domestic science, manual training and vocational courses, with a better set of 
instructors who can, when necessary, alternate with the different classes. 
(Springfield) 

15. It becomes possible for bright pupils to finish their public school 
work beyond the sixth grade in 5 instead of 6 years. 

//. Arguments against: 

1. In general all the plans increase the difficulties of school organiza- 
tion and administration. 

2. The child of this age will be confused in adjusting himself to the indi- 
vidual peculiarities of so many teachers. 

3. More difficulty in placing responsibility for poor teaching which will 
affect work in all subjects. 

4. There will be much confusion incident to changing rooms. 

5. Teachers of one subject become narrowed. 

6. We can't make a thoroughgoing rearrangement and reorganization with 
mediocre teachers. Such intermediate teachers must have preparation of at 
least high school grade and are not procurable. 

7. The scheme requires specially gifted and trained principals who are 
not available. 

6. The elementary school principals will object to taking away the "pride 
and inspiration of their schools". So also the high school principals, their 
numbers. 

9. The upper grade teachers who can't be promoted to this intermediate 
type of teaching and who hence must be demoted to lower grades and probably 
lower salary if retained, will strenuously oppose this "injustice" to them. 

10. Inconvenienced parents will object. 

11. It can't be done in the smaller towns and cities. 



37 

12. It is merely a different name for essentially the same operation. No 
real change in educational principles; all good effects may be secured by im- 
proving present plan. 

13. There is grave danger of losing the essentially personal influence of 
the teacher in this distribution of personal responsibility among so many 
teachers. 

14. There is equal danger that the many departmental teachers, ignorant 
of the child's all day round of school work, will overwork the pupils by the 
very natural, practically inevitable over-emphasis on particular subjects. 

15. It may well be also that the child's age advancement accords with 
our present grade advancements. It is likely that it is not desirable to save 
a year or to change the content and method of work and discipline. An en- 
forced rate of intellectual progress and more complicated type of intellectual 
exercise, which the intermediate or grade High School scheme requires, might 
be against the fundamental law of the child's rate of maturing. The 7th and 
8th grade stages may be simplj^ plateau levels in the individual's life, nodes, 
which cannot be done away or transformed by pedagogic device or administra- 
tion manipulation. 

16. Brings in the school lunch problem. 

17. It tends to underestimate the necessary amount of drill work. 

As to evidence of success or failure of the equipments with reorganization 
we have as yet little that could be called proof either way. Superintendent 
Bunker has carefully enumerated his initial obstacles encountered in Berkeley 
during the first two years and has told how they all were gradually overcome. 
Superintendent Rundlett of Concord, N. H., has demonstrated by comparative 
statistics how average marks of whole classes were raised with the adoption 
and continuation of the scheme; how something like Zi per cent more actual 
ground was covered during an identical period in such subjects as Latin, his- 
tory and mathematics; and how the scheme proved to be considerably cheaper 
for Concord, N. H. Superintendent Francis of Los Angeles has shown us 
just how, and how much it costs, to transform an old grade building into a 
model junior high school. Professor Hanus has, as Director of the New York 
Survey, told that city how much cheaper the junior high school organization will 
be to the city. Superintendent Study of Neodosha has reported figures showing 
striking increases in enrollment and in promotion rates, decrease in elimination, 
and greater interest of the community in the school work following the adop- 
tion of the junior-senior high school arrangement. Superintendent Giles of 
Richmond, Indiana, reports the good effect on general marks in all subjects 
of those boys who in junior high school were assigned to a partially differen- 
tiated curriculum. He reports also a system of advice and guidance, through 
committee of junior high school teachers, which seems to him to be typical of a 
sort of individual work not so easily done under the old form of organization. 
A thirty-five piece orchestra is, he thinks, typical of forms of junior high school 
activities which may be better developed under such a system of segregating 
the 7th, 8th, and 9th grades. The writer has found no evidence that any of 
these school experimentors would be willing to return to the old system. While 
he has found no reliable proof with which to convince those temperamentally 



38 

inclined to doubt the promise in all these new plans of school administration, 
he is of the impression that demonstrations and proofs will be forthcoming. 

2. Report of Prin. H. E. Broivn, New Trier Township High School: 

Reorganization of the Public High School on the 6-6, 6-3-3, or 6-2-4 basis 
would necessitate a reorganization of the subject matter of secondary educa- 
tion. This reorganization would take the form of rearrangement of the sub- 
jects at present taught in the high school for (a), psychological reasons, or (b), 
for the purpose of economy of time, or (c) for economic reasons, (d) increased 
attendance. The psychological argument is that many subjects can well be begun 
with more chance of success in the twelfth or thirteenth year than in the four- 
teenth or fifteenth ; that in some of the subjects now taught in the schools 
better results can be obtained by giving more time to cover the same ground, 
and (e) that some of the subjects taught now in the seventh and eighth grades 
would be better to be taught in the ninth, tenth, eleventh or twelfth; (f) that 
an earlier differentiation of the subject matter would tend to react favorably on 
the subjects now covered in the various grades. 

Some of the arguments for the Economy of Time are that by proper 
organization and correlation of subject matter, time may be saved; that sub- 
jects taken in the first two years of the Junior High School would not need to 
be repeated in later years. Experiment has proven that at least a year's time 
may be saved on the last two grades of school work; that the change from the 
ordinary eight-year type of education and the differentiated type accelerates the 
work of students and teachers; that much of the subject matter now treated 
in the seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh and twelfth grades is non-essential 
and could be eliminated. 

Junior High School being located in convenient portions of the city would 
tend to make for economy by decreasing the cost of transportation, by con- 
centrating all the pupils of one grade in a definite building. This concentration 
of effort and consequent lack of waste, with all the pupils and teachers having 
a more definite idea of education by this group, greater progress could be made 
than under the present system. 

The break coming at the twelfth rather than the fourteenth year, would 
tend to keep many pupils in school who would otherwise drop out. With the 
greater number of students in school, we would have a consequent social saving. 

With the end in view of attempting to meet the arguments suggested above, 
the committees on High School Reorganization of the North Central Association 
of Colleges and Secondary Schools, the committee on Economy of Time of 
Education of the National Education Association, and the committee on Units 
of the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, are at- 
tempting to re-cast the program of studies. 

At a recent meeting of the committee on Units of the North Central Asso- 
ciation, a definite program of units for Junior and Senior High School for the 
first two years of college was suggested. 

Similar action is under consideration by the committee of Reorganization 
of the High Schools of the North Central Association and the committee on 
Economy of Time of the National Supt. Association. 



39 

In Illinois, Junior and Senior High School may he easily established under 
our law, both in communities that work under the general school law, and com- 
munities that work under township high school organization. Our school law 
allows the Board of Education to establish a program of studies. This leaves 
us great leeway. It allows township high schools to establish a program of 
studies for the purpose of "teaching the older pupils". This, also, gives us a lee- 
way to establish additions to the township high school both above and below 
the present organization. 

J. Report by B. D. Remy, Decatur: 

In the reorganization of the schools on the 6-3-3 basis, the Intermediate 
School possesses the following advantages, and faces the following dangers, 
as I see it from three years of experience in this type of school. 

I. Advantages. 

1. A sufficient number of pupils is brought together of each grade to 
departmentalize the teaching. This is an advantage, if properly directed, in 
giving opportunity for better instruction. Each teacher becomes a specialist 
so far as subject matter is concerned and improves in the technique 
of her teaching. She has more time to improve her equipment along the one 
line and is much more likely to do it than if trying to do ever>thing. She 
becomes more intelligently critical of the course of study and its adaptation to 
the mind and interests of boys and girls. There arc enough classes in such 
a school if it has four hundred or five hundred pupils to use the time of one 
teacher or more in each of the following special subjects: manual training, 
drawing, music, cooking, sewing, and possibly others. It makes possible, be- 
cause of numbers to be reached through a single preparation, some vocational 
guidance of an effective nature. 

2. Enough pupils are brought together of a single grade to classify ac- 
cording to their abilitj^ and hence according to their needs. Where one hun- 
dred and fifty 8B's are in a building there are enough for six classes. These 
may be graded as those of best ability, medium ability, and poorest ability. 
The program of studies may then be modified to meet their needs. In fact, 
we often find that the groups representing those of poorest ability need more 
work of a simple nature in Reading, or need more work on the fundamentals 
of Arithmetic, or a different type of English work. Sometimes they have been 
found to need simpler texts than the ones used by the pupils of best ability. 
Grouped in this way it is much easier to make assignments commensurate with 
the ability of all in the group. This of course is to the advantage of the bright 
as well as the poor ability groups. It makes possible having study lessons, in 
which pupils are taught to study effectively. Usually this is found necessary 
with the poorer groups but not with the brighter. Since school teaching at 
present is group teaching this plan more nearly approaches taking proper care 
of the needs of the individual than the other plan. 

3. Promotion of pupil by subject, makinr his progress depend upon his 
work and not sending him on with some subject unprepared because the others 
are satisfactory and vice versa not holding him back in subjects in which he 



40 

is prepared because not up to the standard in some subject or subjects. In 
other words, his progress depends upon what he earns, no more, no less. 

4. Contact of pupil with many personalities instead of one. For instance, 
in this school each pupil comes into contact with eight teachers as teachers, 
some time every week besides those who may have charge of him in home 
room or study room. This I believe to be broadening to the pupil. 

5. Enthusiasm of numbers of given grade and age. This shows in class 
competition, athletics, dramatics, music, etc. 

6. Makes possible glee clubs and choruses and orchestra. Because there 
are enough with ability and willingness we can carry these organizations as 
additional opportunities for those who desire the work. 

7. Better opportunity for experimenting and for making careful tests of 
methods of procedure in teaching. There are numbers enough of a given grade 
to offset exceptional cases and give a reasonably valid result in any test or 
experiment. 

8. Opportunity for variation of courses and introduction of new courses 
of prevocational nature — Algebra one semester for brighter pupils, but more 
Arithmetic for those not developed enough mathematically to profit by the study 
of Algebra. 

2. Dangers. 

1. There is need for a fine cooperation among teachers in such school. 
Indeed, the plan will fail unless this is secured. Teachers with breadth of view 
and willingness to see beyond their own small field of operation must be secured 
for such school. 

2. The tendency is to overwork the pupil. This comes from the teacher 
not covering all of the subjects and hence not knowing the amount of work 
being assigned elsewhere. This condition prevails, however, in high schools 
and other institutions and is no more serious in an Intermediate School than 
elsewhere. We are meeting it here by giving the pupil his study period follow- 
ing his recitation under the direction of the same teacher conducting the reci- 
tation. She knows how much time he has and how he uses it, and can judge 
of the length of his assignments. 

3. Losing sight of the individual. This may seem to contradict a state- 
ment made under "advantages" but it does not. It means that it is not possible 
for a teacher meeting one hundred and fifty pupils per day and teaching them 
one subject to get an intimate acquaintance with the personality of each pupil. 
They are more likely to be considered as pupils and not as separate personalities 
on an intimate basis. 

4. The danger of the mechanical predominating in the organization. This 
is simply the danger to which all intricate organization is liable. 

5. Danger of standards becoming too high. Again this is not more true 
of the Intermediate than of the High School. Where a teacher teaches one 
subject she usually teaches what she likes best and hence what is easiest for 
her. It is quite possible for her to lose sight of the difficulties of children and 
expect them to understand more readily than she ought to expect them to. 
It is quite likely that she will expect a more detailed knowledge than many 



41 

pupils can acquire. The tendency is to desire and insist upon all of the facts 
being retained rather than the most significant ones. 

4. Report of Superintendent C. M. Bardivell, of Aurora: 

For fifteen years previous to the completion of our present High School 
building in September, 1912, all of our pupils had elementary Algebra for their 
Mathematics in eighth grade and had also studied elementary Civics for the 
first half year and Greek History for the second half. Upon the occupation 
of our new High School building all the eighth grade classes, containing some- 
Vk'hat over 200 pupils, were gathered in the building thus vacated, and various 
changes were introduced into the program of studies, this school now being 
called the Lower High School. Where, hitherto, the program had been uni- 
form for all, certain options were now offered ; Commercial Arithmetic and 
Bookkeeping may be taken in place of the Algebra. English Literature, Com- 
position and Spelling are required of all, and for the first semester Civics and 
General Science are also required, these two being class study subjects; that 
is, they are so presented as to require no study outside of class. 

Aside from these requirements all work is optional. Various combinations 
are advised by the teachers, as for instance, if a pupil does not take English 
Grammar he is advised to take either Latin or German. While the work has 
not been tabulated into formal courses, yet the studies offered naturally shape 
themselves into definite courses which fit into the courses following in the 
High School, tho it is not necessary to continue there a subject begun here. 
To illustrate : Commercial Arithmetic may be chosen here to be followed by 
Algebra the next year if the pupil so desires, or if he has studied Algebra here 
he may then take Commercial Arithmetic in its place the following year. 

Some may object to the making of Music and Drawing optional in this 
grade, but it is our belief that if a pupil who has been instructed in these sub- 
jects for seven years, does not care to continue either, he has likely reached 
the limit of profit in that subject . 

We have been able to double the time devoted to Manual Training and 
Household Science, and while these are optional, practically every boj' takes 
the former and every girl the latter. 

The German taught here is not the traditional leisure class High School 
German, but is rather vocational in its nature and purposes. Our community is 
very largely German and a speaking knowledge of that language is a valuable 
asset for a boy or girl seeking a position. As in Germany, the .schools give 
a good control of the English language, so we try to give a usable knowledge 
of the German. 

The General Science as given in this grade is made to touch directly upon 
the lives of the pupils and is vital in every particular; it is made to correlate 
with the Hygiene and with the Household Science. 

If this building were of sufficient capacity to accommodate the seventh 
grade also it would permit similar opportunities for that grade, where at pres- 
ent there is only one uniform program. 

As for the results attained by the changes thus far made it is as yet im- 
possible to pronounce decisively. Apparently the per cent, of loss of pupils 



42 

in this grade has not been lessened appreciably as yet, tho we hope that added 
experience will demonstrate that the school life of the children of the com- 
munity will unquestionably be lengthened. While it is true that our present 
first year High School class is larger than ever before and also greater by 
forty-seven per cent, than the average of the past ten years, this increase may 
not be wholly due to the changed conditions in eighth grade. 

Naturallj', problems have arisen in adapting the courses of those coming 
from this school so that they fit in readily with the courses of those entering 
the High School from other schools, of whom there are about an equal num- 
ber. But thus far this has not proven an insurmountable task, artd our two 
years' experience with the plan gives us the best of encouragement as to its 
successful working. 

The report of the sub-committee vv^as follov^ed by the address of 
the morning which was given by Principal M. H. Stuart of the Man- 
ual Training High School, Indianapolis. Mr. Stuart's subject was 
"The Relation of Courses in Vocational Education to Our Present 
School Curriculum." His address was as follows : 

It will be difficult for me to give you my conception of this subject without 
referring constantly to our Indiana situation. Our superintendent, Mr. J. G. 
Collicott, could give you a very much more comprehensive view of our prob- 
lems, but I have had the opportunity of coming in direct contact with a great 
deal of the work and shall do my best to make the presentation clear. In the 
first place, we have the unit system. Our vocational law places the organiza- 
tion of vocational courses in charge of the regular State and local boards 
of education. The State Board, however, was enlarged at the time of the 
making of the vocational law by the addition of three members particularly 
representative of the industries. As a safeguard against local school boards 
organizing courses without practical knowledge they are required, in commu- 
nities desiring vocational work, to appoint advisory boards composed of per- 
sons strictly representative of the specific vocations to be taught. Although, as 
the name indicates, purely advisor}^, the usefulness of such boards in keeping 
the new line of work in touch with the field can scarcely be over-estimated. 

The most important provision of the law is the creation of a state voca- 
tional fund from which the State Board is to pay two-thirds of the salaries 
of vocational teachers, provided their work meets with the approval of that 
body. This is the only line of education in Indiana in which there is a state 
award. So you see it is absolutely necessary that the State Board draw a clearly 
defined line between vocational education and general education. This fact, 
to my way of thinking, is the salvation of the entire scheme. On the one 
hand, it leaves our general educational courses uncommercialized, while on the 
other hand it forces the vocational work to hew to the specific purpose of 
fitting for profitable employment. 

Under this new law, Indianapolis has developed three types of all day 
vocational schools. First, a school for machine shop practice is in session 
five days of the week, from 8 A. M. to 4 P. M. In addition to shop prac- 



43 

tice, one and one-half hours each day is given to mechanical drawing and ap- 
plied mathematics and from two to four periods a week given to shop lec- 
tures. Second, a school for electrical workers, including one-half day of actual 
shop practice, supplemented by laboratory and class work in electricity. In 
addition to this, the class carries applied mathematics and applied English with 
civics and industrial history twice a week. Third, a school of printing. The 
work here consists of one-half day in the print shop, supplemented by daily 
work in applied English, shop mathematics, practical art, and industrial history. 

The practical work in the above schools is done by men selected directly 
from the field. The machine shop man has had twelve years' experience in 
the shop. One of the electricians is an engineering graduate with considerable 
practical work. The other has had about fifteen years of experience along 
varied lines of electrical construction. In printing we are unusually fortunate. 
The school of printing conducted by the United Typothetae of America is at 
our disposal. Our boys work in the regular print shop under the control of 
the head man, who is rarely well prepared. 

In part time work we have only just begun. Already we have established 
for women three courses, dressmaking, fundamentals of home furnishing, 
commercial illustration and design. These classes usually meet twice a week 
at the high school buildings. In evening classes we are developing courses in 
some six or eight trades, including mechanical drawing, machine shop practice, 
pattern making, electrical work, etc. 

According to our law, evening classes are vocational if the instruction 
relates to the day employment, and part time work shall be complementary 
to it. This last provision has its advantages and its disadvantages. Where a 
man is working in a grocery and is mechanically inclined it seems rather unfair 
to keep him out of a part time and evening school in mechanics simply because 
the instruction is not complementary to his day employment. In a way it is 
forcing a man who is in a blind alley job to remain there. Of course, the 
object of the law is to stress the value of such instruction in terms of produc- 
tion and thereby induce employers to release a man a certain number of hours 
a week on pa\'. This ideal is splendid, but it is a question whether the law will 
promote its attainment. 

So much for the vocational situation. Now as to the relation of all this 
to our general curriculum. In Manual Training High School of Indianapolis 
we have been trying for twenty years to develop a comprehensive cosmopolitan 
program of studies. We have considered it our job to develop a program 
helpful to every boy and girl in the city regardless of his or her purpose. To 
this end our program of studies has been made largely elective, requiring for 
graduation only three and one-half years of English and one year of mathe- 
matics. I am not sure that the latter requirement can be justified, yet we still 
adhere to it. Ever>-thing else, including a program of five hundred daily classes, 
is wholly elective, not by courses but by subjects. In fact, our program of 
studies is one general program, leaving it to each individual pupil to select 
the subjects which are the best for his present and future interest. As a con- 
sequence, no two pupils in a graduating class have necessarily taken the same 
subjects. Now I dare say, your first thought is to the effect that such arrange- 



44 

ment means a great deal of skipping about on the part of the pupil without 
any purpose and that snap hunting runs rampant. To prevent this, you will 
find that in our printed program of studies after a given number of terms in 
a subject a star is placed. No pupil who selects this subject is permitted to 
drop it for another until he reaches the star. When he has met this require- 
ment, he is at liberty to select any other subject, provided it is not beyond his 
English grade. For example, the star in mathematics is placed at the end of 
two and one-half years, in history at the end of two years, in German and 
Latin at the end of four years, etc. 

All exceptions to the rule of sequence of studies must be made by the 
principal personally. For example, a pupil completing his first year of mathe- 
matics may wish to take up a business curriculum, and therefore substitute com- 
mercial arithmetic, followed by bookkeeping. This change the principal is 
willing to grant, provided the choice is a vocational one and made with the 
thorough understanding of both pupil and parent that the curriculum there- 
after is to point toward the office and not toward the college. A little card is 
used here, which reads as follows: 

asks permission to omit 

in order to take 

Permission to do this implies an understanding that the pupil is pre- 
paring for and that other subjects leading to the 

same end are to be taken later in the course. 

This change may prove a handicap to the pupil should he wish to attend 
college, since the subject to be omitted is usually required for college entrance. 
By signing below, the parent signifies that he realizes the above condition, but 
requests that the desired permission be granted. 

Date 



Parent. 

As soon as the principal is convinced that the subject in question falls 
under the province of the card, the pupil is asked to take it home and have it 
signed. It is returned and placed on permanent file and the school from that 
time on, is released from any college obligations whatsoever. Our choices of 
study are made twice a year. Each time any pupil has the opportunity of 
modifying his curriculum as suggested above, provided there are vocational 
reasons for the same. Many conferences with the parents result, but with 
the help of a number of well selected teachers, we are able to handle the 
choice in a way which we feel means educational guidance. I emphasize edu- 
cational guidance because I believe that Dr. Strayer is right in saying that it 
is a better term than vocational guidance for secondary education. We give 
a large part of December and May to this work, but the results amply repay 
us for the effort. 

So much I have said about our present high school work and our voca- 
tional courses for the purpose of making a background for setting forth what 
I consider the proper relations of the one to the other. Vocational education 
has its purpose in profitable employment. No pupil should be in such a school 
who has not that purpose uppermost at the time. All the work, therefore, may 



45 

profitably point toward the vocation involved. I have the feeling that the 
work in such a school must not only be practical but it must articulate definitely 
with the trade. It is perhaps not wise for the articles manufactured to be sold 
in competition, but it is necessary that the articles manufactured be usable 
and thoroughly salable. The teachers employed should be those who can de- 
mand the respect of actual tradesmen and there is no way to get such teachers 
except to select those who have had good training and in addition to this 
actual trade experience. The suggestion made by Mr. Duffy, Secretary of 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters, is to the point. He believes that to select 
a well-trained, practical teacher and a well-trained shop man and put them 
side by side in the vocational school will bring us the best results. 

Our high school, on the other hand, should have a broader purpose, al- 
though it may include courses just as practical as the vocational school. For 
example, we have pattern-making in our school that is just as practically 
taught, by a teacher who is just as well trained as you can hope to find in 
any vocational school for pattern making. Some of these pupils may eventu- 
ally become pattern makers, while others may go on and take an engineering 
course. In one case the work is vocational and in the other case it is pre- 
vocational, or more properly, pre-engineering. Now this type of work in the 
high school is not going to be superceded by vocational education. It has just 
as legitimate a right for being as has any vocational course. The fact of it 
is as we all know, our high schools in the last twenty-five years have changed 
from an agricultural environment to one in which the industries predominate. 
For a boy to live a useful life in a modern community he must understand the 
mechanical processes which lie at the basis of our industrial life. It used to 
be necessarj^ for everj' boy to be able to harness and drive a team. It is more 
important now for him to understand the automobile. You can add illustra- 
tions at your leisure, which point in the same direction. The sympathetic in- 
sight into our industrial life, obtainable in a cosmopolitan high school, is needed 
both for the sake of the boy and of our industrial world. It is the only guaran- 
tee that our wealth will be properly directed and that our army of coming 
workers will find the jobs for which they are by nature suited to do. 

Even if we did not wish our boys to have a definite insight into occupa- 
tions other than their own, it would not be possible in a very great number 
of cases to know to which vocational school a given boy of high school age 
should be sent. Go out on the street and ask men of forty if they are doing 
today what they thought they would be doing at the age of twenty and you 
will be surprised at the small percent of people who are now carr>-ing out the 
purpose which was uppermost in their teens. We must reckon with this ele- 
ment in a large, prosperous American community. Our high school industrial 
courses therefore must be largely pre-vocational and pre-engineering and articu- 
late so closely with vocational schools tliat with well directed educational guid- 
ance our boys may enter intelligently into the right line of specialization as soon 
as they are sufficiently developed to do so. 

Vocational education therefore comes in to complement our old time 
school system. It will enable many boys now little interested in school to 
re-enlist for work which will make their lives both useful and happy. Twenty- 



46 

five years ago we had an industrial wave sweep over the country and manual 
training was the result. It was a great step, which, as indicated above, has 
much good still in store for us. Unless the vocational type of school, how- 
ever, is made an addition, we shall duplicate our present course. The advisory 
board, the practical shop teacher, and the state award for those schools which 
measure up to the vocational standard furnish hope for real success. Out 
of it all, if intelligently directed, will come a well developed system of education 
fitted to meet the various demands of our complex, highly specialized indus- 
trial communities. 

The following motion presented by Professor HoUister was unan,- 
imously adopted: That the whole matter of readjustment as pre- 
sented by Dr. Bagley on Thursday evening, in the general science dis- 
cussion Friday afternoon, by Dr. Withers Friday evening, by the sub- 
committee report and Mr. Stuart's address of Saturday morning, be 
referred to the General Committee on Program of Studies ; and that 
said committee be authorized to appoint such additional assistants or 
supplementary committees as may be found necessary in order to 
carry forward the investigations and studies necessary for a more 
complete determination of the adjustments needed. 

The Conference here adjourned. 



PART II 



JOINT SESSION OF SCIENCE SECTIONS 

The joint session was held on Friday afternoon, November 20, in 
Morrow Hall, with Professor H. B. Ward presiding. It included the 
following sections : Agriculture, Biology, Domestic Science, Geogra- 
phy, and Physical Science. This joint meeting was called to hear the 
report of a committee created at the 1913 Conference for the purpose 
of considering the problem of a general science course for the first 
course in our science curriculum for high schools. 

The committee was a representative one composed as follows : 
W. L. Goble, Elgin, Chairman, representing the Administrative Sec- 
tion ; W. L. Eikenberry, Chicago, representing the Agricultural Sec- 
tion; J. L. Pricer, Normal, representing the Biology Section; Miss 
Alary Moore, Chicago, representing the Domestic Sience Section; H. 
M. Clem, Chicago, representing the Geography Section ; H. S. Pepoon, 
Chicago, representing the Physical Science Section. 

The report of the committee was made by the chairman, W. L, 
Goble, of Elgin. This was follow^ed by a discussion led by Professor 
F. D. Barber, of Normal, Professor J. M. Coulter, of the University 
of Chicago, and Professor J. F. Woodhull, of Teachers College, 
Columbia University. The report of the committee and the discus- 
sions follow : 

/. Report of the Committee. 

To The Science Sections of the Illinois High School Conference: 

Your committee appointed last year to confer with reference to 
a course in general science for high schools begs to report as follows : 

There is a strong and rapidly increasing tendency on the part of 
high schools thruout the country to organize and put into operation 
courses which are called general science. There is a wide diversity in 
the plan of organization, in the content, and in the evident purpose of 
these courses. There is not at present a sufficient understanding of 
the meaning and mission of the movement, of the issues involved in 
the change proposed, or of the final result on science instruction in the 

47 



48 

high schools to warrant any definite recommendations or final con- 
clusions in regard to general science. The subject is still up for 
study, and experimentation, and discussion. 

In accordance with this belief, we as a committee decided that 
the most valuable service that we could render was to arrange, 
through the aid of Professor Hollister, the program of addresses 
which is to follow. 

We believe that the speakers on this program represent three 
more or less distinct points of view with reference to this problem and 
that they will give us some of the most mature thought on the sub- 
ject that could be found in the country. It is our hope that the gen- 
eral discussion which is to follow the main addresses will be free and 
frank and scientific, i. e. impersonal. A group of science teachers 
should be able to discuss their problems with no other motive than 
that of an endeavor to arrive at the truth. 

In behalf of the Committee, 

W. L. GoBLE, Chairman. 

2. Professor Barber's Paper: 

The Present Status and Real Meaning of General Science 

One characteristic marks off the 19th century from all preceding cen- 
turies in the world's history. That characteristic is the achievement of science 
and man's mastery over the forces of nature. The 19th century opened with 
such means of transportation and communication only as were enjoyed by 
Abraham when he journeyed out of Ur of the Chaldees unto the land of 
Canaan. Under such conditions man perforce through all the centuries of his 
existence had led an isolated life. Within one century through the influence 
of the railroad and trolley line, the telegraph and the telephone, the ocean 
cable and ocean greyhound, the wireless and the newspaper, time and space 
were all but eliminated and the whole civilized world became a single social unit. 

A second phase of the achievements of science was the recasting of all 
the activities of daily life. The achievements of science during the last cen- 
tury completely revolutionized the home, the school and its surroundings, every 
phase of country, town and city life, all methods of heating and lighting, venti- 
lation, and sanitation, of obtaining food and clothing; in fact, they revolutionized 
all activities of modern life. To fit into this modern world anywhere under- 
standingly some knowledge of the living world and the physical forces about 
us is a necessity. The social significance of science in modern life gives it ever 
increasing importance as a subject in our public school curriculum. 

Again, the content of our knowledge concerning the natural world and 
physical forces is increasing with a rapidity and a certainty almost beyond the 
comprehension of the human mind. For convenience, the mature scientist, view- 
ing this new world of knowledge philosophically, divides it into many so-called 



49 

special sciences, and the mature student aspiring to do research work and 
make some contribution to our fund of knowledge necessarily confines his study 
to some small portion of a single science. Moreover, he can hope to succeed 
only by acquiring the technique of the specialist. 

The great mass of humanitj^ however, those engaged in the world's work, 
laboring in the humbler walks of life, in production, as in agriculture, horti- 
culture, gardening, stock raising or in mining, or in the manufacturing indus- 
tries, or in trade and commerce, or even in many of the professions — these 
people have slight need of such special training and technique. They need in- 
stead an insight into the broad general principles of science and above all they 
need to see clearly and to comprehend the significance of science as it spins and 
weaves the social fabric of modem civilization. 

Science Must Be Disseminated 

To neglect the training of research workers in the field of science would 
be fatal to further progress in man's control of Nature and her forces. It 
would mean stagnation in material progress and that must ever mean stagna- 
tion in mental, moral, and spiritual progress. But, on the other hand, to neg- 
lect the interpretation and dissemination of scientific knowledge and the train- 
ing of the masses of common people in scientific thinking is to rob humanity, 
in a large measure, of the fruits of scientific research. It is to the interest of 
all humanity that even the humblest laborer, toiling with pick and shovel, shall 
have some knowledge of the laws of science as related to his labor and his 
living. Modern civilization and all that is most significant to the common 
people in the way of improved living conditions, of more efficient labor, of 
shorter hours of labor, and of greater facilities for recreation and pleasure, 
depend largely and primarily upon, first, the achievements of the research 
worker in revealing the truths of science, and second, upon the dissemination 
of those truths among the common people and training of the masses in 
thinking scientifically. 

We are confronted today with no danger of neglecting the training of 
research workers in the field of science. Every great university in the land 
is chiefly engaged in this work. The ablest men in their science departments 
are spending their energies largely in training research workers in their grad- 
uate departments. The undergraduate departments of these universities and 
most of our colleges are largely engaged in preparing students to enter these 
graduate schools, while the science courses in our high schools are in the main 
shaped and determined by college entrance requirements. Our high schools 
are vestibules to the college our colleges are vestibules to the graduate school 
of the university. From top to bottom and from bottom to top the science 
work in our educational institutions is chiefly shaped and planned to furnish a 
direct path for the training of research workers. It is necessary that such 
a path be provided; but, we must not lose sight of the fact that it is equally 
necessary that the needs of the masses of young people preparing not for re- 
search work but for the ordinary activities of life receive some consideration. 
Science falls far short of fulfilling its mission unless the fruits of scientific re- 



50 

search fall upon fertile soil and take root in the daily life activities of the 
masses. 

Are our educational institutions preparing the masses to appreciate and 
utilize the products of research work in science? This can be done directly 
and efficiently only through science instniction in our public schools where the 
masses of 3-oung people should learn to interpret and to understand the signifi- 
cance as it affects their life work — to think scientifically as they work. They 
need less the scientific thinking of meditation ; they need most the scientific 
thinking of participation in the fundamental activities of modern life. And 
where are our great educational institutions which stand out conspicuously for 
their efforts and accomplishments in the training of science teachers for our 
public schools? Where are our great universities which emphasize the art of 
interpreting and disseminating the fruits of scientific research as they empha- 
size the art of research itself? 

Decline of Science 

Notwithstanding the ever increasing importance of science as a factor in 
modem life, it is a fact well known to students of education that the percentage 
of students studying science in our public schools is on the decline and has 
been on the decline for twenty years. Leading educators have from time to 
time called attention to this fact. The Commissioner of Education has re- 
peatedly shown it in his reports. And yet, the rank and file of public school 
superintendents, principals, and science teachers have, until recently, sat idly by, 
alternately boasting of the triumphs of science and lamenting the slowness of 
the farmer, of the laboring classes, in fact, of the masses everywhere, to avail 
themselves of the fruits of scientific research in their daily life-activities. 

In commenting upon the tendencies in our high schools the Commissioner 
of Education in his report, 1911, reviewing the educational progress of the 
decade, says : "Latin is holding its ground ; French and German are gaining ; 
algebra occupies a large share of time and is steady ; geometry is gaining ; 
English and history have gained materially; all the older sciences, rather 
strangely, are relatively falling off." 

At last we are waking up to the situation. We are beginning to realize 
that something is wrong — radically wrong — with our public school work in 
science. What is the trouble? Have you diagnosed the case? Have you a 
remedy to suggest? 

Over Specialisation 

Some of us are convinced that the malady with which the public school 
science is suffering is directly traceable to an overdose of specialization. The 
needs of the research specialist are dominating and determining largely the 
college courses in science ; college entrance requirements almost completely de- 
termine the character of our high school courses in science. We liave built 
our science courses from the top downwards. We have attempted to start 
every fourteen-year-old boy and girl entering the high school upon the path 
laid out for the benefit of the exceptional boy or girl who 7nay become a re- 
search worker in the university. We have presumed that every four- 



51 



Graph, Showing percentage of students studying eacli of tlie subjects 
in the public high schools of the United States during the twenty years from 
1890 to 190. From the report of the Commissioner of Education, 1910. Vol. 
2, p. 1139. 




teen-year-old youth is eager and ready to think in abstract terms. 
We have attempted to feed him on abstract principles and generaliza- 
tions, never pausing to inquire about his likes and dislikes or to study 
the fundamental characteristics of the adolescent mind. We have failed 
to note that boys and girls of fourteen are chiefly interested in learn- 
ing things for the sake of knowing those particular things. The adoles- 
cent is not yet a philosopher. Abstractions, generalizations and type studies 
are foreign and distasteful to the normal adolescent mind. Youth is ambitious, 
but it ever seeks the short cut. Necessity also plants its iron heel firmly down 



52 

upon the ambition of the jouth from the toiling classes. The wail and clamor 
from hungry mouths, the pleadings for the necessities of life are ever ringing 
in his ear, and in the ear of his parents. If he enters the high school at all 
it is generally for the purpose of spending one or two years, possibly three or 
four years, in better preparing himself for life's work — for the struggle of 
earning a living. The boys and girls from the laboring classes, indeed, from 
the masses of the common people ever>'where, as well as their parents, have a 
right to demand that they be shown the worth-whileness of the tasks set before 
them. Can our high school principals and science teachers do this successfully 
while following the usual courses in special science shaped and planned chiefly 
for a different purpose? 

The disregard of the nature and character of the adolescent mind, to- 
gether with the failure of the high school to offer subject matter which appeals 
to the boys and girls from the masses as being worth while, largely accounts 
for the fact that only about 30 percent of the boys and girls of high school 
age ever enter the high school and that 40 percent of those who do enter quit 
the first year, while only 28 percent of them complete the course and graduate. 
Educators are beginning to realize this fact. The widespread conviction that 
our science courses in the high school must be revised is one of the results of 
this awakening. The experiment of putting, so called, general science in the 
first high school year is part of this movement. 

Present Status of General Science 

At the request of the chairman of the National Educational Association, 
I undertook last summer to discover the status of what is known as general 
science. I endeavored to ascertain where and in how many high schools 
courses called general science were being taught and later to obtain from the 
principals of some of those schools information as to what they were attempting 
to do and with what measure of success their efforts were meeting. From my 
investigation I conclude that during the school year of 1913-14 not less than 
250 or 300 high schools in the United States attacked the problem of revising 
their science courses by offering a course which they called general science 
while large numbers of other schools seriously contemplated doing so soon. 

About June 1, 1914, a questionaire was sent to 180 schools reported as 
offering a course called general science. With few exceptions these were ad- 
dressed to the principals. Up to June 25, replies from 73 schools had been 
received. No course called general science was reported from 6 schools. Re- 
plies from 67 schools indicate that they have seriously attempted work in gen- 
eral science as they understood the term. All the questions asked were framed 
with the idea of stimulating thought rather than obtaining ease of tabulation. 
Some of the replies were consequently rather difficult to tabulate, but it is the 
belief of the writer that a truer expression of ideas was obtained. A copy of 
the questionaire with a summary of the replies is in your hands. 

A complete analysis of this report is unnecessary. Facts, if correctly re- 
ported, are facts, and therefore undebatable. They are, nevertheless, of the 
greatest value since they furnish the only reliable basis for opinion. I shall 
call attention to but two items under the questions of fact. First, in replying 



53 

to the second question, regarding the length of the cause given, it will be 
noted that but one school reports a course in general science more than one 
year in length. I predict with confidence that a similar investigation ten years 
hence, possibly five years hence, will reveal many schools offering general 
science courses at least two years in length. Second, in reply to the sixth ques- 
tion, regarding texts used, it will be noted that eleven different texts were used 
in giving these, so called, general science courses. To one at all familiar with 
the science texts available during the school year of 1913-14 the answer to this 
question, together with the answers to the tenth question in the second list, 
indicates that up to that date, at least, no generally satisfactory texts had made 
their appearance. I am also convinced that for some years to come, at least 
until there is available a supply of teachers especially trained to teach general 
science, text books presenting well organized courses will be as necessary in 
general science as they are in special science or in any other subject offered 
in our high schools. The greatest need today, one felt keenly by every science 
teacher who has become convinced that our science teaching has become too 
highly specialized is for organized courses in general science. Furthermore, 
however true it may be that the best science teaching, at least for the first high 
school year, is merely the teaching of the science of the pupil's environment, it 
is asking the impossible when we ask each teacher to organize such material 
and put it in teachable and available form. 

Passing to the questions of opinion : Opinions are always debatable but 
the answers to the first and second questions indicate clearly, to my mind, 
that thus far the experiments with so-called general science have very generally 
met the approval of the principals of the schools in which they have been tried. 
It was most interesting to me to discover that the only person answering the 
first question in the negative answered the second question in the affirmative. 

In my judgment the most significant question in the entire set was the 
sixth in the second list: "Should the units of instruction in general science 
differ materially from those in special science?" And yet, there were fewer 
answers to this question than to any other. The term, "units of instruction," 
seems not to have been understood by many. From the replies one is w-ar- 
ranted in concluding that many of the respondents have no clearly formulated 
ideas regarding the real nature and real significance of the general science 
movement. Science organized and developed into units of instruction not 
matrially differing from the units of instruction in special science can be noth- 
ing other than special science. To attempt to organize science material without 
recognizing the fundamental difference in the organization of special science 
and general science is certain to result, it seems to me, in a mere collection of 
loosely related principles picked from the various special sciences. Those prin- 
ciples may be the most interesting and striking principles of the special sciences 
and yet such a course might easily have considerably less significance as edu- 
cative material than any course in special science. In my judgment, most of 
the so-called general science being offered today is merely fragmentary special 
science and of exceedingly doubtful educational value. 

General science as conceived by its leading advocates is quite as much a 
different mode of organization and a different mode of attack as it is a new 



54 

and different selection of material. Much of the material which has thus far 
appeared in texts called general science consists of clippings from the special 
sciences. To a less extent the same is true of the half-dozen unpublished out- 
lines which I have received. In many cases little or no unifying idea giving 
the unit of instruction significance and educational value is evident. In my 
judgment, the advocates of special science, with justified reverence for logical 
thinking and training in scientific thinking, may well call such a course "hodge 
podge" and dub it a "spineless wonder." 

If general science is to be of educational value, it must consist of well 
organized units of instruction. These units must be as definite and as well 
organized as are the units of special science. They will differ, however, from 
the units of special science in the fact that they are fundamentally units of 
practical science or applied science instead of units of theoretical science. The 
core of the unit in general science will be some process or some device utilized 
by the individual or by society in the ordinary activities of modern life. To 
illustrate : In the special science, physics, under "Light", we find such units as 
these : "Light, Its Rectilinear Propagation ; Shadows ; Photometry and the Law 
of Reflection; Mirrors and tlie Formation of Images; Refraction of Light; The 
Formation of Images by Lenses; Optical Instruments; Color and Spectra; Na- 
ture of Light; Interference and Polarization." In marked contrast, general 
science, adapted to the ninth grade will be developed through units of instruc- 
tion somewhat of the following character: Primitive Lamps; Candles; How 
the Candle Burns; Discovery of Petroleum; Kerosene Lamps; How Kerosene 
Burns; Evaporation, Boiling-point and Distillation; Crude Petroleum; Dis- 
tillation of Petroleum; Gasoline; Why Gasoline is Dangerous; Inspection of 
Oils; Cautions in Using Kerosene and Gasoline; Gasoline Lamps; Gasoline 
Gas; Illuminating Gas; Distillation of Coal; Coal Gas; Water Gas; Acetylene 
Generators; Acetylene Lighting; Electric Lights and Electric Lighting; Natural 
Lighting of Rooms; Direct and Diffused Light; Importance of Diffused Light; 
Intensity of Light Required; Cost of Artificial Lighting. 

A course in general science properly conceived, has unity and logical de- 
velopment. It has educational value of the highest order. It is adapted to the 
adolescent mind and at the same time appeals to the pupil as worth while. It 
trains in scientific thinking and deals with material with which the pupil is 
already somewhat familiar. It starts with the known and proceeds to the 
related unknown. It deals only with the concrete because the significant is 
always concrete. It gives the pupil control of his environment and an appre- 
ciation of the significance of science in modern life. Such a course in science 
study is general because it disregards the artificial boundaries of special science. 
To study tallow or paraffin candles, the material of which they are made, how 
they are made, how they burn, and their significance in the development of 
civilization, involves material from several different special sciences. The units 
of applied science are never drawn from the field of a single special science. 
The science involved in the raising of corn on the fertile plains of Illinois or 
Kansas involves some knowledge of the character of the soil itself, geology, 
some knowledge of the structure and composition of the soil, soil physics atid 
soil chemistry, some knowledge of plant life and plant growth, botany, some 



55 

knowledge of the weather and cHmatc, nictcurulogy, and some knowledge of 
insect life, zoology. Why do we insist that the pupil be eternally separating 
these elements of nature — these items of his natural environment which the 
Creator has so marvelously and wondrously fitted together into a perfect 
whole? Why do we insist that he forever and eternally be separating them from 
their natural, logical and necessary relationships and placing them in the man- 
made catagory of special science? Is there less education, less mental training, 
less scientific thinking, or less culture in seeing and comprehending the units 
of nature as designed by the Creator than by seeing and comprehending the 
units designed by man? 

The Plea for Special Science. 

Occasionally we hear an advocate of special science in the high school 
presenting his case. While admitting that science instruction in the high school 
may, at this time, very justly have been called to the bar of public opinion, 
he still insists that science instruction is improving daily, that the rank and 
file of science teachers will soon be so prepared that they can present special 
science in an interesting and profitable manner. He closes his argument with 
the statement that to substitute general science for special science in the early 
years of the high school at this time would completely upset the entire course 
in science, set science in the high school back a generation, and inevitably mean 
a great and deplorable loss for the cause of education. 

I never hear such an argument without recalling another case which is 
recorded in that delightfully written volume, "the biography of Thomas Went- 
worth Higginson," by Mary Thacher Higginson. Not long after the close of 
the civil war a very attractive young woman appealed to Mr. Higginson to 
attempt to secure a pension for her on the grounds that she was the daughter 
of a certain man, that he was a union soldier, and that he died of starvation 
and exposure in a confederate prison. Mr. Higginson, after a careful and 
thorough investigation summed up the case. He announced that he found the 
case a difficult one to handle. The beauty, brilliancy and culture of the girl 
were all in her favor, but there were three strong points against her case which 
would be difficult to overcome. First, She was not the daughter of the man 
as represented. Second, The man never was a union soldier, and never was 
in a confederate prison. Third, The man was still living, well and hearty. He 
concluded to drop the case. 

Now, as I understand it, the theory is that special science is the only 
science instruction having any considerable cultural and educational value — 
that is is only when the great truths of nature are thus presented that one 
can see the natural and physical world as a unit and in its logical order, and, 
finally, that it is only when one thus studies nature that one acquires the truly 
scientific spirit. This theory while beautiful, brilliant and attractive must be 
considered in the light of some cold, hard facts when applied to adolescent 
minds in the early years of the high-school. 

First. The adolescent mind demands no such view of nature as will 
enable it to see either the unity of the universe or such unity of portions of the 
universe as is presented in the typical special science. The child mind is not 



56 

the mind of the philosopher. The adolescent mind demands merely an ex- 
planation — a simple common-sense explanation — of his environment, a working 
explanation of the here and now. 

Second. Special science, as usually developed, deals chiefly with abstrac- 
tions and generalizations. These are usually arrived at through type-studies. 
The best and most striking types are often found outside of (shall I say rarely 
within?) the range of the pupil's past experience. The material placed before 
the student may have the semblance of concreteness but in reality it lacks con- 
creteness because material is concrete only when it has significance and mean- 
ing in the light of past experience. No matter how concrete in form material 
may appear to the teacher with his more mature mind and richer experiences, 
if it lacks significance in the pupil's past experiences it is to him abstract and 
consequently lacks interest. 

Third. Special science has had its trial in the early years of the high 
school and has failed. It has failed in a large measure to interest the pupil; 
science teachers generally regard it as more or less of a failure ; superintend- 
ents, school boards and especially thinking patrons and hard headed business 
men have lost faith in it and are demanding a change in science teaching as 
well as in other phases of high school work. While the significance and im- 
portance of applied science in modern life have multiplied many fold, science 
instruction has steadily declined during the past 20 years. If the rate of decline 
continues at the present rate for another 20 years, science will then occupy 
but an insignificant place in the high school program. 

We can not much longer disregard these potent facts and cling to the 
theories of specialists and research enthusiasts when shaping up science courses 
for fourteen-year old boys and girls just entering the high school. 

General Science Is Concrete 

Science may be organized into units having practical application and 
more or less utilitarian values for a basis with exactly the same logical sequence 
as when organized in accordance with purely theoretical considerations. The 
science involved in the production and use of light from pine knots and grease 
lamp of primitive times to the most modem methods of lighting may be as 
well organized and will require the same logical thinking and be of greater 
educational value than is the organization of the material usually presented 
under the head of light in a special science, physics. 

When science is organized upon the basis of practical application and 
utilitarian values only significant material is required. Our text books in special 
science today are, in a great measure, loaded down with non-significant and 
therefore abstract and uninteresting material introduced solely because of the- 
oretical considerations. As a teacher of physics principally engaged in teaching 
students of secondary school attainments I assert with confidence that at least 
one-third of the subject matter in the ordinary physics text may be omitted 
without practical loss to the average high school student and with a positive 
gain in interest. 



57 

Organisation of General Science 

I repeat, the significant material of science may be organized into units 
of instruction presenting as much of logical order and sequence as is to be 
found in special science. Consider physics for a moment: There is no ac- 
cepted order of topics in physics. Some texts begin with the mechanics of 
solids, some with a study of liquids. In some texts sound is presented early 
in the course ; in others it comes late. In every physics text there are complete 
breaks in the logical sequence, as, for instance in passing from heat or sound 
to static electricity. Several popular texts have even divided the usually ac- 
cepted units, presenting a portion of the topic early and the more difficult por- 
tions later in the course. An examination of the 30 or 40 texts in physics 
published during the past 25 years will convince any fair minded person that 
there is no necessary nor accepted logical sequence of topics in the subject of 
physics. The same lack of accepted sequence is equally evident in chemistry. 
About 30 years ago the order of topics in zoolog>' suffered a complete reversal. 
Previously the higher forms of life had usually been treated first and lower 
forms last. Man was the first topic studied and the amoeba the last. An 
examination of all the texts of special science published during the past half 
century would prove conclusively, I believe, that authors never have and do 
not today recognize as necessary a certain sequence of topics. Of course, 
within a unit of instruction a logical sequence is observed but history proves 
that special science demands neither that a certain fixed and unvarj^ing set of 
topics be treated nor that those which are treated shall be studied in a fixed 
and unvarying order. 

Now, the general science advocated today violates no accepted principle of 
science teaching in proclaiming that there is no single set of topics which should 
be treated in every school and every class and further that there is no set and 
unvariable order in which the topics chosen may be treated. In these respects 
special science never has been universalized and it is to be hoped that general 
science may never be universalized. Nevertheless, science to be significant and 
concrete must reveal to the pupil his environment in its true significance. Now, 
there are certain phases of environment which are universal or nearly so. 
These phases of environment may be organized and developed into a course 
in science. If organized in accordance with the basic principle of revealing their 
utilitarian, social, and economic values, and without material reference to the 
theoretical considerations of special science, I believe we shall have organized 
a course in what progressive educators now call general science. Such an or- 
ganized course will differ materially from our usual courses in special science 
both as regards the materials used and the mode of presentation. 

A Course in General Science 

It is my conviction that the first year, probably the first two years, of 
science in the high school should be organized as general science as interpreted 
above. 

Our plea is not for an easy, a "snap" course nor a sentimental, namby- 
pamby course, but rather for a course full of meaning and value, and one 



58 

which will enlist the interest and demand the best eflfort of the pupil. It must 
rest upon an historical setting and reveal to the pupil something of the social 
and economic value of science in modern life. It must recognize the nature 
of the adolescent mind and must appeal to the pupil and to his parents as 
worth while. 

When we recognize these fundamental principles and reorganize and adapt 
all our high school courses to them — when we recognize the needs of the mil- 
lions of young people who will never see the inside of a college or university 
or even complete a high school curriculum — when we give up the idea that 
we must attempt to make profound scholars out of all the boys and girls of the 
generation or failing in this, crowd them from the high school — when those 
in charge of our public high schools come to recognize the fact that the greatest 
service they can render is to make their high schools of such a character that 
they will attract and hold the great mass of young people till they can be 
trained into fairly intelligent, self-supporting and self-respecting citizens, then 
and not until then may we hope to see high school mortality lessen and science 
in the high school again assume the relative position which its importance in 
modern life justifies. 

J. Professor Coulter's Paper: 

The Mission of Science in Education 

Before determining the method of presenting science in the high school, 
it is necessary to determine the most valuable contribution of science to edu- 
cation. Perhaps the crux of our differences lies here. If we can agree upon 
what science should do for us in our work as teachers, we should probably 
not be very far apart as to the method of securing the result. The variation 
in method would be no greater than the inevitable and desirable individualism 
of teachers. If we differ as to the essential contribution of science to educa- 
tion, of course we shall differ as to the methods. The fundamental problem, 
therefore, is the mission of science in education. 

I shall call attention first to some of the results which science is capable 
of producing, results which are generally acknowledged. It can be used to 
develop the scientific attitude of mind, which a distinguished theologian recently 
defined as nothing more than trained common sense. 

This attitude of mind is a spirit of inquirj-, which recognizes that we are 
surrounded bj^ a vast body of established beliefs that need a thorough going 
over to distinguish heirloom rubbish from the priceless results of generations 
of experience. 

It is also a spirit that demands a close connection between a result and 
its claimed cause. Failure to develop this spirit provides the soil in which 
political demagoguery, destructive charlatanism, and religious vagaries flourish 
like noxious weeds. 

It is a spirit that keeps one close to the facts, remembering that a fact 
is influential only in its own immediate vicinity, and that whole systems of 
thought and belief lie in a region far beyond the sphere of influence of any facts. 



59 

In short, it is a spirit that makes for sanity in thought and action, a spirit 
which is slowly increasing in its influence, but which as yet docs not control 
the majority of citizens. Any subject that can be used to cultivate this spirit 
is of the greatest practical importance. 

Of course the methods introduced by science are now being developed 
in connection with other subjects, and the same result may be obtained through 
them; but it still remains true that the scientific spirit just described is more 
easily and efifectively developed in contact with the concrete materials of science. 

A strong claim for science can be made, however, as an essential constit- 
uent of all education. It gives a training peculiar to itself, and one that is 
essential in every well balanced education. It is this contribution that I wish 
to emphasize. 

I shall assume that any peculiar result of science in education must be 
obtained, not through information in reference to the facts of science, but 
through contact with the materials of science. However valuable information 
may be, it can hardly be regarded as a substitute for knowledge. Information 
is always at least second hand, while knowledge is first hand. The real edu- 
cational significance of personal experience, which is a better name for what 
we call the laboratory method in education, is very commonly overlooked, even 
by teachers of science. 

We were first told that science teaches the laboratory method, the infer- 
ence being that the content of science is of no particular educational advantage 
in itself, but is merely useful in teaching a valuable method. Of course this 
method holds no more relation to science than do algebraic sympols to algebra; 
they both represent merely useful machinery for getting at the real results. 

Then we were told that science cultivates the power and habit of observa- 
tion. Of course it does, but this is not peculiar to training in science, for it 
belongs to anj^ subject in which the laboratory method is used. 

Then it was claimed that the study of science trains the powers of analy- 
sis. This is certainly getting the subject upon higher ground, for the power 
of anlysis is of immense practical importance, but to imagine that analysis 
is the ultimate purpose of science in education, is not to go very much farther 
than to say that the ultimate purpose is the laboratory method. The latter 
is the method, the former is but the first step in its application, and is by no 
means peculiar to science. 

Be\'ond analysis lies synthesis, and this certainly represents the ultimate 
purpose of science. The results of our analysis are as barren as a bank of sand 
until synthesis lays hold of them; but even synthesis is not peculiar to science. 
To pass by the incidental and the temporary and to reach the real and permanent 
contribution of science to education is to discover that it lies, not in teaching 
the laboratory method, in developing the power of observation, in cultivating 
the spirit of analysis, or even in carrying one to the heights of synthesis, but 
in the mental attitude demanded in reaching the synthesis. In this regard the 
demands of science are diametrically opposed to those of the humanities, for 
example, using this loose term to express the great region of literature and 
its allies. The general effect of the humanities in a scheme of education may 
be summed up in the single word appreciation. They seek to relate the student 



60 

to what has been said or done by mankind, that this critical sense may be de- 
veloped, and that he may recognize what is best in human thought and action. 
To recognize what is best involves a standard of comparison. In most cases 
this standard is derived and conventional ; in rare cases it is original and indi- 
vidual ; in no case is it founded on the essential nature of things, in absolute 
truth, for it is apt to shift. It is the artistic and aesthetic which predominates, 
not the absolute. The whole process is one of self-injection in order to reach 
the power of appreciation. Any education which stops with this result is in- 
complete, for there is another mental attitude which is a necessary complement 
before a full rounded education can be claimed. This complementary mental 
attitude is developed by a proper study of science. 

If the study of nature is conducted so as to cultivate chiefly a sentimental 
appreciation of natural objects, it is merely more of the same thing. If it is 
conducted so as to store the memory chiefly with encyclopedic information, it 
misses the high level of its educational opportunity. If the proper intellectual 
result of the humanities is appreciation, whose processes demand self-injection, 
the proper and distinctive result of the sciences is a formula, to obtain which 
there must be rigid self-elimination. Any injection of self into a scientific 
synthesis vitiates the result. Ihe standard is not a variable and artificial one, 
developed from the varying tastes of man, but absolute, founded upon eternal 
truth. 

Two such distinct mental attitudes as self-injection and self -elimination 
must receive attention in education, which cannot be complete without both. 
They are not contradictor}^ but complementary. The exclusive cultivation of 
either one must result in a lop-sided development. Persistent self-injection 
tends to mysticism, a confusion of ideals, or even vagaries, with realities, a 
prolific cause of all irrational beliefs. Persistent self-elimination narrows the 
vision to a horizon touched by the senses, and clips the wings that would carry 
us now and then beyond the treadmill of life into a freer air and a wider out- 
look. The two processes and the two results are so distinct and so comple- 
mentary that any scheme of education which does not provide for the definite 
cultivation of these two mental attitudes is in constant danger of resulting 
in mental distortion. 

This seems to be the great and unique mission of science in the education 
of men and women, and nothing more superficial or temporary should divert 
us from it. It is men and women we have in mind, and not science, or the 
various subjects under which it is organized. It is obvious that this mission 
must reach the greatest number, and therefore its beginnings cannot be deferred 
to the educational schemes of colleges and universities, where the small minority 
are in training. This work, therefore, is a high school problem. We face the 
question as to the most effective method of accomplishing it. 

The problem is peculiarly difficult because it has been much confused by 
the various standards used to measure the results. In the main these standards 
have been too concrete, such as the immediate effect of science upon the earn- 
ing capacity of the student; the amount of useful information a student may 
carry into his subsequent life; the number of ordinary phenomena the student 
can pretend to explain, etc. Too often the higher intellectual standard is lost 



61 

sight of, the standard of a mind trained to an effective attitude toward all sub- 
jects, an attitude that persists when unrelated facts are forgotten. 

This confusion becomes worse confounded when incompetent teaching 
enters into the program, and the obvious results of lack of interest, and lack 
of any practical or intellectual outcome, are referred to science as a subject 
rather than to the teacher as an incompetent. From the midst of all this con- 
fusion, leading to merited criticism and a babel of opinions, there emerge some 
facts which seem clear. 

Science has become so vast and so complex a subject, and in addition to 
this, is so growing a subject, that no teacher can command even its most ele- 
mentary every day phases. There was a time when men taught Natural Science ; 
there is no man v^dio can do this now. If the most obvious facts of science are 
to be presented truthfully, they must be presented by teachers trained in the 
various fields of science. If much confusion has arisen from teachers incom- 
petent in some field of science, the amount of confusion that v^^ould result if 
the same group should attempt to teach all science, must be left to the imagina- 
tion. Of course, in our every day experience we face nature as a synthetic 
affair, but you must remember that synthesis is the last step in progress, and 
is an impossible first step. This means that we must begin by laying hold of 
single threads and following them, until finally we see them woven into the 
intricate pattern we call nature ; and this is the process that brings appreciation, 
insight, and intellectual equipment ; the process that enables science to achieve 
its peculiar mission in education. 

An illustration may be taken from another synthetic experience, common 
in large cities, as in Chicago, for example. Almost all the living languages 
are represented in its population, and yet it would hardly seem rational to teach 
a child foreign languages all at once, by picking out the commonest words and 
phrases from each. The result might be some scrappy information, but to call 
it education in language would be far from the mark. The real sj^nthetic study 
of language is philology, based upon some organized knowledge of the different 
languages. 

A division of the materials of science seems necessary, therefore, not only 
to secure competent teaching, which is a practical reason, but also to secure a 
point of view that represents the permanent possession which is the essential 
feature of education. This does not mean organization for the sake of a sub- 
ject, but for the sake of a pupil ; an organization which means a structure that 
abides, and not inchoate building material. 

I sympathize fully with the demand that the materials selected should be 
more related to the experience of pupils. This is common sense, and therefore 
science. I confess that this has been too much lost sight of in our zeal to 
organize knowledge so that it may be permanent ; but the material selected may 
vary, while the use to which it is put remains the same. The appeal to experi- 
ence for our material, and the use of this material in organizing a definite body 
of knowledge, is the combination that will retain all that is vital in our past 
teaching, and admit all that is helpful in the new demands. 

Experience teaches us many things, and changes must be made that will 
satisfy every possible need, without destroying things that are more important. 



62 

A tree may be made to yield more and better fruit by pruning and grafting, 
but not by uprooting. My picture of the situation in science teaching is that 
of a tree, rooted and grounded in all the good that the past has revealed, but 
reaching out its branches and ever renewed foliage to the air and the sunshine, 
and taking into its life the forces of today. 

I have met hundreds of students, entering the university from all parts 
of the country, who have had work in science in high schools, and although the 
results have been variable, they have been in the main so satisfactory that it is 
clear to me that science teaching in the high schools has not been a failure. 
Those who state that it is a failure must mean that it has not been as successful 
as it is capable of being made. I have been interested in tracing the com- 
parative failures to their sources, and invariably I have encountered incom- 
petent teaching as the responsible cause, rather than the materials of science 
that have been presented. The majority of cases, however, that have come 
under my observation are not failures, for they have brought to me a substan- 
tial foundation upon which to build, and what is more important, an aroused 
interest of their own to build upon the school foundation. 

It may be claimed that this evidence is very partial, since it includes only 
the select few who pass from the high schools into the universities, while the 
major product of the high schools passes directly into the activities of life. 
Just how this dissolving crowd can be followed and estimated I am at a loss 
to imagine. Of course, general impressions are current, which are propagated 
from no definite source of reliable data. For example, I have heard a business 
man condemn the whole system of high school education because of an un- 
happy experience with one high school graduate. Nothing is more common 
than such illogical generalizations, and they may become propagated so ex- 
tensively as to be regarded finally as a "public demand". The average "public 
demand" is about the vaguest scientific proposition one ever encounters. 

It has been assumed by some that the large majority of high school stu- 
dents need a type of science instruction entirely different from that which has 
been given. This assumption is either a response to public demand, or a peda- 
gogical abstraction, and in neither case can it rest upon a convincing body of 
evidence. 

Some of the implied criticisms of the present methods are rather hard 
to be understood by one who is merely observing the discussion, rather than 
participating in it. For example, if any science teaching deals with "abstrac- 
tions" and "generalizations" rather than with concrete material, it is not science 
teaching. That there should be a certain amount of generalization, based upon 
observed facts, is obvious, for this is making facts live, which is the pedagogy 
of the subject. That our science teaching should consist only in explaining to a 
student what he encounters in his own experience, is to limit his life, rather 
than to enrich it by extending his horizon. There are many things worth 
knowing which we only begin to experience v.hen our attention is called to 
them. 

Perhaps, however, the best expression of the opinion that the current 
method of teaching science should be changed entirely is to be found in the 
recent texts on "General Science." I find myself quite in accord with the 



63 

motive of what is called "general science'', in so far as it voices a growing 
opinion that high school students should know more about science in general, 
and tries to meet this opinion with a method. What I cannot agree with is the 
method, and for reasons indicated in a general way in the preceding part of 
this paper. A mosaic made up of fragments of information breaks up all nat- 
ural connections, and forbids the development of those ideas which relate and 
hold facts. As I said, it seems to be really a substitution of the encyclopedic 
for the educative. The relations suggested by a mosaic are purely artificial, 
and never can develop a body of knozvledge, as contrasted with a body of facts. 
With me this is a matter of pedagogy, that is, of the child, and not at all of 
the sciences as partitioned off into different fields. These sciences can take 
care of themselves, but we must make them render the best possible service 
in the education of children. 

As one advances through a university, the subjects of science become more 
and more subdivided, on account of our rapidly growing knowledge. Subdi- 
visions of this kind have no place in elementary instruction, but there are 
groups of these subjects which are units, so far as education is concerned. It 
is these natural educational units that must be preserved (and they are not 
numerous), if science is to do its perfect work in education. I do not under- 
stand how an inextricable tangle of these units can be regarded as an education 
in science ; certainly it is not an education hy science. 

Of course, when these few natural units are segregated, and perhaps called 
by names indicating that they are not specialized sciences, then the common 
experience of life would enter into the choice of illustrative material. We 
cannot meet the demand for more general acquaintance with science by putting 
all the sciences into a short course. Such a general acquaintance can only be 
obtained by extending the time given to science instruction. My program, 
therefore, would be : enough time for science, so that its natural units may be 
developed, and also better teaching all along the line. 

./. Professor IVoodhnU's Paper: 

Science Teaching by Projects 

Science is a word to conjure with. There are those who say nothing 
worthy to be called science may be taught before the last three years of the 
high school program— the Senior High School. Something that bears a slight 
resemblance to science may be taught in the three years preceding,— the Junior 
High School, but it must not be called science. In fact, some of our friends 
do not seem to care what we teach to the junior high school — nor //ow we teach 
it — but they are most concerned about what we shall call it. They say that 
real, serious science is to be found chiefly in the college, and that what is per- 
missible in the senior high school is the learning of "fundamental principles" 
preparatorj^ to college science. There are, however, other philosophers who 
say that children from 12 to 15 years of age come nearest of all persons to 
using the method of great masters of science, and practice the most real 
research. 



64 

"The native and unspoiled attitude of childhood, marked by ardent curi- 
osity, fertile imagination, and love of experimental inquin.-, is near, very near, 
to the attitude of the scientific mind.'" 

"At present, the notion is current that childhood is almost entirely unre- 
flective — a period of mere sensory, motor, and memory development, while 
adolescence suddenly brings the manifestation of thought and reason * * ♦ 
But thinking itself remains just what it has been all the time * * * Only by 
making the most of the thought-factor, already active in the experience of 
childhood, is there any promise or warrant for the emergence of superior re- 
flective power at adolescence or at any later period."" Elsewhere Dewey says it 
is not our function to teach children to think — they think quite as much as 
we do. It may be our privilege to guide their thinking. 

We are told that the high school-college-preparatory course in physics, for 
instance, with its 200 odd topics, is serious science, that it is highly specialized 
and that it is preparatory to still more serious science hereafter. My opinion 
is that it is a disjointed skeleton of falsely called "fundamental principles": 
that it is not science and does not prepare for science ; that it is not specialized 
at all but is a hodge podge of stuflf never met by intelligent people in real life. 

Dr. Coulter in his address on what the University expects of the Secondary 
Schools said, "The average college preparation presents to the university the 
most narrow and unevenly trained material that can be imagined."' 

And those who deal with graduate students say the same thing about the 
college work. 

Since the defects in high school teaching are due chiefly to the fact that 
high school teachers are college products and are close imitators of college 
methods we must first deal with the colleges. 

"An ever present question in an institution of the higher learning is how 
to interest officers of instruction in the subject of education. They are certain 
to be interested each in his own particular branch of study, but much too tew 
of them are interested in education itself. The consequence is that the teach- 
ing of many very famous men is distinctly poor; sometimes it is even worse. 
This results in part from the breakdown of the general educational process 
into a variety of highly specialized activities, and in part from the carelessness 
of college teachers as to everything v/hich effects a student's manners, speech, 
conduct, and sense of proportion, provided only he gets hold of certain facts 
which the teacher desires to communicate. 

One mistake into which college teachers are most likely to fall is that of 
confusing the logical with the psychological order in the presentation of facts. 
The really good teacher knows that the logical order is the result of mature 
reflection and close analysis of a large body of related phenomena, and he 
knows too that this comes late in the history of intellectual development. He 
knows also that the psychological order — the true order for the teacher to fol- 
low — is the one which is fixed by the intrinsic interest and practical significance 
of the phenomena in question. The good teacher will not try to force the 



*Dr. John Dewey, "How We Think." 

»Dr. John Dewey, "How We Think." F. 65. 

"School Review, Vol. XVII. P. 81. 



65 

logical order of facts or phenomena upon the immature student. He will pre- 
sent these facts or phenomena to him in their psychological order and so give 
him the material with which to understand, when his knowledge is sufficientlj- 
complete, the logical order and all that it means. * * * 

It should be possible for an advanced student specializing in some other 
field to gain a general knowledge of physical problems and processes without 
becoming a physicist; or a general knowledge of chemical problems and pro- 
cesses without becoming a chemist; or a general knowledge of zoological prob- 
lems and processes without becoming a zoologist, or a general knowledge of 
mathematical problems and processes without becoming a mathematician. The 
reply that knowledge has become so highly specialized that no one can be lomid 
to give such courses of instruction is the saddest confession of incompetence 
and educational failure that can possibly be made. It ought not to be made 
except under cover of darkness."* 

The process of learning in school should not differ from that out of 
school. 

"Adults have some occupation about which their thinking is organized. 
Information is not amassed and left in a heap. Inferences are made not from 
purely speculative motives but because they bear upon some of life's problems.'" 

Dr. McMurry states the case convincingly as follows : "Should the stu- 
dent be a collector of facts at large, endeavoring to develop an interest in what- 
ever is true, simply because it is true? Should he be unmindful of particular 
problems? or should his study be under the guidance of a specific purpose?" 

"Much has been said in times past about art for art's sake, science for 
the sake of science, and knowledge for the sake of knowledge; but these are 
vague expressions that will excite little interest so long as the worth of a man 
is determined by what comes out of him, by the service he renders, rather 
than by what enters in."* 

"There is nothing less profitable than scholarship for the mere sake of 
scholarship, nor anything more wearisome in the attainment. But the moment 
you have a definite aim, attention is quickened, the mother of memory, and 
all that 3'ou acquire groups and arranges itself in an order that is lucid, because 
everywhere and always it is in intelligent relation to a central object of con- 
stant and growing interest." ^ 

"If students regularly occupy a portion of their study time in thinking out 
live questions that they hope to have answered by their further study, and inter- 
esting uses that they intend to make of their knowledge, they are equipping 
themselves with active power both for study and for the broader work of life."' 

"Indeed the reason why self-trained men so often surpass men who are 
trained by others in the effectiveness and success of their reading, is that they 
know for what they read and study, and have definite aims and wishes in all 
their dealings with books." * 

^Annual Report, Nov. 1914, President Butler, Columbia University. 

="How We Think." P. 41. 

•How to Study, pp. 16 and 198. 

^How to Study, p. 37 —quoting Lowell. 

*How to Study, p. 39. 

•How to Study, p. 33 —quoting Porter. 



66 

Some are accusing General Science of lacking organization of subject 
matter. But when rightly understood it will be found that the whole movement 
is an attempt to introduce first of all a very specific organization where none 
now exists and secondly a very different kind of organization from that hitherto 
contemplated. This lack of organization which makes the school below a sort 
of dumping ground for the school above is one of our grievances. If the 
teacher above wants to use the slide rule, the teacher below must teach it. 
If he wants to use the metric system, the teacher below must teach that. If 
the college professor wants to measure gas as no one else on earth does it, the 
high school teacher must teach that process even though it crowds out a thou- 
sand more important matters judged from the standpoint of the pupil's needs. 
These pupils are going to buy and sell gas all their lives. But anything done 
in school to teach them to do that intelligently is decried by some as savoring 
of the practical, while in view of such persons it would be a great scandal to 
admit one to a freshman course in chemistrj- who has not been trained in the 
clumsy method in vogue in college laboratories. 

Very little of this knowledge which the high school pupils spend so much 
time to acquire, is possessed by any intelligent group of persons. But for the 
high school pupils it ranks as "fundamental principles" preparatory to "serious 
science." 

The movement for general science is first of all a protest against the pres- 
ent regime of unorganized subject matter. We propose general science as an 
antidote for that which now is too general to be called science either serious or 
flippant. The movement is in the second place, an attempt, for purposes of 
instruction, to introduce a "psychological organization," as Dr. Dewey puts it : " 
or a "genetic organization," as President Hall states the case : 

"The chief among many reasons why all branches of science are so disap- 
pointing to their promoters in high school and college is, that in the exact 
logical, technical way they are taught, they violate the basal law of psychic 
growth, ignore the deep springs of natural interest and attempt to force a pre- 
cocity against which the instincts of the young, so much wiser and truer and 
older than their consciousness, happily revolt." " 

Organization of subject matter must be made around the knowledge 
of the pupil, not around that of the teacher or syllabus maker. We have to 
build on the instincts and experiences of the individual, otherwise we are hang- 
ing our building on a hypothetical foundation in mid-air. 

The real way to learn fundamental principles is to attack those problems 
of which life is full for each individual, not through the preparatory fallacy 
called the scientific method, but by a "forked road situation." The school should 
prepare pupils to walk alone by attacking real problems as Archimedes, Galileo, 
Davy, Faraday, Pasteur, Tyndall and all the rest did. Most of us know, if 
we would think back over our experiences, that we never really learn these 
so-called fundamental principles until they come to us as an interpretation of 
some of our life's problems. Our teaching bears so little fruit because we are 
attempting what in the nature of the case can never succeed. We know that we 



"See "How We Tliink," Chap. V. 
"Adolescence, Vol. 11, Chap. XTI. 



67 

are not learning things that way now, never have learned things that way, never 
can. We prescribe that sort of "serious science" for the defenceless, and when 
their unerring instincts revolt, we accuse them of being unwilling to be serious, 
unwilling to work even while they are pleading to be rid of us that they may 
get to work. It is not merely the geniuses like Newton, Maxwell, Kelvin and 
all the rest who thank the Lord when they get out from under their teachers, 
but this is likewise true of many of the pupils of today, some of whom instinc- 
tively know what science is and are pursuing it in spite of us and outside of our 
tuition, and they are tired of our evasion of their questions and of our im- 
pertinent interference with their natural research. 

We will not take our own medicine. Imagine one of us up against the 
following situation: We build a dam across a stream of water, and the pond 
that thus results surrounds some trees which we value. In our ignorance we 
think the trees will fare better now than before, having an abundance of water 
food brought to them by the river. But soon they die, and we go to our friend, 
the botanist, for light on this subject, and he undertakes to prescribe to us, as 
he does to his pupils, something like this: "You must take a series of prepar- 
tor>- courses in botany before I can help you with your problem. Here is a 
First Course in Botany for Children which I prescribe." It has 158 pages, 
the first thirty-six of which classify leaves as net veined, parallel veined, feather 
veined, palmate veined; entire, serrate, crenate, dentate, repand, hastate, sagit- 
tate, lanceolate, cordate, ovate, reniform, orbicular, rotundate, auricular, deltoid, 
spatulate, peltate, runcinate, pedate, lyrate, pinnate, digitate, cirrus, adnate, 
ochreate, sessile, etc., for thirty-six pages. You are advised to have the leaves 
present to make the study concrete. This is classified knowledge, and hence 
science, serious science, preparatory serious science. As a supplementary exercise 
j-ou might classify all the nails in the school yard fence. 

Or imagine ourselves going to a physicist for information regarding a 
self-starting system for our automobile, and his prescribing Newton's laws of 
motion, Boyle's law, Charles' law, Lenz's law, Archimedes' principles, index of 
refraction, laws of falling bodies, laws of reflection, law of cooling. Ohm's law, 
polarization in a cell, specific heat, nodules of elasticity, hystersis, etc., up 
to 260 items of unclassified knowledge which the physicist is so lacking in a 
sense of humor as to call serious science. This is the preparatory fallacy and 
it runs throughout all our subjects. Our method of teaching science today by 
the study of "fundamental principles" is closely analagous to what was in vogue 
about a century ago in the field of grammar, when children were required to 
commit to memory rules of grammar, to learn sj-ntactical laws of language and 
acquire skill in logical analysis in order that they might be prepared to read, 
write and speak. The analogy goes still further. We have recently heard 
something of an attempt to make physics a little more concrete by the inter- 
jection here and there of a few applications of principles for the sake of eluci- 
dating those "fundamentals." It was about 1823 that the teaching of rules 
of grammar was made a trifle more concrete by the introduction of sentences 
to which the rules might be applied. For a discussion of this sort of teaching 
grammar see Dr. Briggs' monograph in Teachers College Record Vol. XIV, from 
which it appears that science teachers today are in perfect accord with English 



68 

teachers of a century ago in attempting to present an adult, scholarly interest 
to children by a logical and metaphysical treatment of their subject. "Tradi- 
tion has perpetuated details which have lost much or all of their justification. 
When old reasons have faded there is a tendency to invent new ones to justify 
practice." 

This attempt to store facts for future organization is what the Massa- 
chusetts Board of Education in Bulletin 4, 1912, calls "Education in Forgetting." 
"The structure and habits of the human mind and brain are such that following 
the psychological laws of segmentation, unused knowledge tends to be forgotten. 
Much, a vast deal, of the subject-matter turned over and otherwise dealt with 
by the subject-study method is of such a nature that in out-of-school hours 
and in after-school years it remains unused. Examinations once passed and 
the school j^ear ended, subjects are forgotten * * * g^t project study has 
merits peculiarly its own. No more diligent or effective application of the 
inductive method in education has ever been witnessed than that proposed, and 
in good measure already practiced, by the project study of agriculture." 

"The knowledge which is the boy's quest in project study is knowledge of 
which he sees the need. Being needed year by year, it will, year by year, be 
recalled. Used again and again, added to, modified and exactly applied, it will 
tend to be distinctly remembered." 

"The project method of education, more, it is believed, than all others, 
takes into account the aptitudes, requirements, and accomplishments of indi- 
vidual pupils as these are revealed from hour to hour." 

The Smith-Lever bill which has just passed Congress appropriates five 
million dollars annually to foster the project method of study in agriculture 
throughout the country. 

But let us return to the drowning trees and attempt to elaborate this into 
a project for general science. 

Drowning Trees, a Project for General Science 

We dammed a small stream to make a skating pond and a place for cut- 
ting ice in winter. The pond which was thus formed surrounded certain trees 
in the valley which had often suffered for water during dry spells. Some of 
us thought this would be a benefit to the trees in as much as they would here- 
after always have an abundance of water. Furthermore, the stream would now 
deposit about the roots of the trees an abundance of the food which they would 
need. In spite of our good intentions, however, the trees soon died. Upon 
inquir>' we learned that the trees had been drowned and that they need air 
at the roots quite as much as water. We were then reminded that a neighbor 
when he regraded the land in front of his house had built a circular retaining 
wall around a tree to keep the earth from being banked against the tree itself 
and exclude the air. Another man said that it would do quite as well to pile 
loose stones against the tree and throw earth over them, and let the grass 
grow quite up to the tree. Air would readily iind its way to the roots through 
loose soil as indeed it does to all trees. He said that earth worms, ground moles 
and various burrowing animals loosen up the soil and let the air in. But best 
of all when water in the ground freezes it expands, we say it heaves the ground 



69 

up. Then when the ice melts and the water drains out much room is left for air 
to come in. Thus land which may be very hard in autumn becomes soft and 
spongy in spring. Spring is the time to mend fences. One can dig post holes 
easily then. Spring is the time to cart off from the fields the stones which the 
winter frosts have brought to the surface. Soils which are too clayey to let the 
water drain out of them m.ay sustain only a very stunted growth of vegetation 
for lack of air. The mixing of gravel with such land (and thus letting in air), 
will sometimes make it produce luxuriantly. All soils are improved by having 
a net work of drains a few feet below the surface. So that all the water which 
will drain off may do so. The ideal arrangement for plants is a loose porous 
soil with air filling all the spaces between the particles and only so much water 
present as will cling to the surface of the particles. This is called capillary 
moisture which indicates that the spaces must be very small so that water will 
creep through the soil as kerosene does through the lamp wick. 

The care of potted plants requires continual thought about maintaining 
the balance between air and water at the roots. If the soil is very rich and 
has little gravel in it and if water is always poured on from above, the soil 
gets packed down so hard that air may not enter. The hole in the bottom of 
the pot permits of under draining, but the water soon makes channels down 
through the mass, and it does not spread to all the rootlets, in the hardly 
packed earth they may be suffering for both air and water in spite of the fact 
that the pot is porous and that it receives frequent watering. By this con- 
sideration soil may be too rich as well as to poor. It must have air and mois- 
ture quite as much as fertilizing material. If the soil is rightly proportioned it 
will suffice to pour water into the saucer. The proper amount of both air and 
water will creep through the soil. Persons who set out young plants, thinking 
that the tender roots require very soft soil, sometimes make the mistake of not 
packing the dirt around them firmly enough. The result is that while they get 
plenty of air they have too little moisture. Moisture creeps by capillarity only 
through very small spaces, not large ones. If the soil is properly proportioned 
the best way is to press it about as firmly as one can around young plants when 
they are first being set out. The surface of the ground should be frequently 
scratched over to make the spaces between the particles at the surface too large 
for the water to creep quite to the surface and pass off by evaporation. This 
is one great reason for hoeing, harrowing and cultivating fields. Another is to 
kill weeds. 

Some people have asked whether earth worms rain down since they are 
seen in such great numbers crawling on the surface of the ground after a rain 
storm. The fact is that they crawl out of the ground to get air, having been 
drowned out. They cannot live without air as long as the trees and some other 
plants can. Some plants, however, are able to live in earth which is perpetually 
flooded with water as we see in and about all ponds and streams. 

In winter, when there is lack of air and water at the roots, lack of heat 
to stimulate chemical activity, lack of green matter in leaves to respond to 
the actinic rays of the sun, plants put winter blankets upon their buds and on 
their root tips and remain dormant. 



70 

This is called a project in General Science but it is more specialized than 
any portion of the college preparatory science, and like a dog pursuing a hare, 
it has a specific aim, albeit it jumps those useless boundary fences between the 
various fields of science. This is our justification for the use of the word 
general. The idea of completeness, — complete statements of facts and princi- 
ples, is one of the greatest barriers to successful teaching. The attempt to 
teach all that is known about each topic results in very little being understood 
about any topic. 

What is wanted is to set the face in the right direction: — teach the first 
steps : — arrange many facts and many observations to point in a similar direc- 
tion : — acquire the habit of having one experience suggest another. 

The method is precisely that of the masters of research who are, after 
all. Masters of General Science. There is no difference between educating for 
research and educating for life. But the high schools and colleges have a strong 
propensity to neglect this their chief duty. It requires continual belaboring to 
get the high schools to do much else than to cram facts for college use. The 
colleges do little else for education than to prepare professors' assistants: — 
professors' assistants in research: — professors' assistants in college training: — 
professors' assistants in high school preparation for college. 

One hundred and fifty years ago the academies were founded as a protest 
against the idea which dominated the grammar schools of the time that educa- 
tion consisted in storing the facts which the higher institutions would use. 
These academies were called the people's colleges. The pupils were to be taught 
wholly according to their own needs. But forthwith the process of inbreeding 
began. The teachers appointed for these academies were youths recently grad- 
uated from college; in effect, professors' assistants who stored data for college 
use, a process as futile to the education of the few who went to college as to 
the many who did not. Again the same protest was renewed fifty years ago 
in the founding of public high schools. These were to be free from the pre- 
paratory fallacy to which the academies had fallen victims. 

It remains to be seen whether the high schools, which are the people's 
colleges of today, can be saved from repeating this history. Perhaps the thing 
most to be feared is that the colleges may accept General Science and place it 
in the preparatory group. Before this happens we must introduce into the 
school and college the psychological organization of instruction and suppress the 
preparatory fallacy. 

5. General Discussion 

Professor Gallozvay. General science is but a modified nature 
study. There are so many new sciences, outgrowths of the old 
sciences that it is doubtful if science has not started back. We 
have had a tendency to rush into this work without much to work 
on. There is a need for some honest experimenting along this 
new line first; — get the right attitude and then the facts will be 
gotten. 



71 

The high school \)U\)\\ already has developed the organized 
mind. General science is a good thing; it is a coming thing, but 
it belongs in the upper grades, seventh or eighth. The import- 
ant thing to be striven for is a scientific attitude. 

Professor Eikenbcrry. Not much done in real nature study yet. 
The high school is a distinct organization and must maintain it- 
self in its own limits. This subject very decidedly belongs in 
the high school. 

Professor Pricer. Under our present plan of organization we should 
not expect the grade teachers to teach science; this has been 
proved by experiment. The general science, however, belongs in 
the grades, under departmental organization. There is need of 
a modification of the sciences in the high school. 

Professor Caldwell. Experiment will bring general science but there 
is danger it will come so fast that we won't get what is needed. 
We should be scientific. There is evidence of the success of 
courses in general science. 



PART III 



SECTION MEETINGS 

As will be seen the sessions of several of the sections were this 
year limited to a half day. This was due, in most cases, to the joint 
session of the science groups on Friday afternoon. In the case of 
the Administrative Section space was again given, in the afternoon, 
for the meeting of the State High School Athletic Association. The 
half day session of the County Superintendents and Village Princi- 
pals is preferred in order that other sections in which the members 
of this group are largely interested may be attended. 

A large number of those attending the section meetings took ad- 
vantage of the social hour at the Woman's Building from one to two 
on Friday afternoon. 

The complimentary concert by the University Band, given at the 
Auditorium from five to six on Friday was also much appreciated by 
the teachers, as shown by the large attendance. 

Administrative Section 

This section met in the Chemistry Lecture Room with Supt. J. F. 
Wiley, of Mattoon, in the chair. 

The first topic discussed was "Supervised Study." Papers on 
this subject were read by Supt. J. G. Moore, of Paris, and Principal 
Franklin W. Johnson of University High School, Chicago, These 
papers follow. 

Superintendent J. G. Moore's Paper: 

I take it that I am to discuss this subject of supervised sti*dy from the 
standpoint of the school executive whose business it is to get a maximum of 
tangible results from a given set of conditions. As an administrator, the su- 
perintendent or principal must face his problems with a somewhat different 
attitude from that with which the teacher organizes or reorganizes his class-room 
work. For the teacher, the success of his plans are usually rated by the degree 
of efiRciency in the direct outcomes of his instruction. For the superintendent or 
principal, a teacher's -plans reach their highest degree of efficiency only when, in 
addition to maintaining a high standard of results in classroom instruction, 

72 



73 

these plans fit in with the general policy of the schools as determined by the 
conditions limiting and giving individuality to the local school system. 

Naturally, then, the experienced school executive is deliberate in recom- 
mending to his teachers, in a large way, plans entirely new or those that have 
met with more than ordinary success in other schools operating under condi- 
tions diflFering widely from those under which his own schools are working. 
By this I do not mean to imply that the attitude of the average school executive 
is reactionary. On the contrary, the general trend of school administration is 
steadily toward a more efficient organization of all educational work. Rather, 
I should say, that, along with a sympathetic spirit and an attitude receptive to 
whatever seems best in other schools, the head of a school system must keep 
constantly in the foreground a practical grasp of the actual and potential 
conditions limiting or controlling the workings of his own schools. The teach- 
ing corps, its personnel, professional standard, and ability to put new plans into 
successful operation; the school plant, the scope of its ordinary functions, 
the possibility of its adaptation to materially changed programs and of its 
standardization ; the program of studies, the difficulties attending its adjust- 
ment and continuous readjustment to meet the present day demands ; the finan- 
cial resources, the limitations imposed by local conservatism or by statutory 
regulations, and the kinds of procedure needed to render these limitations more 
flexible ; the pupils, the conditions determining their normal progress, and the 
methods that promise a maximum of pupil efficiency under the given conditions 
of the local school system: — all these enter into the deliberations of the school 
executive in planning the organization of his schools, and all these must be 
taken into consideration in the introduction of new plans into the system. 

Surrounded by all these tendencies that make for conservatism, the rep- 
resentative school head of today is nevertheless keenly on the alert for every 
new type of organization that promises a safe and sane way of securing a larger 
measure of results with the same expenditure of resources. Since the day of 
the establishment of the Normal School the method of the recitation and the 
content of the course of study have been focuses of investigation toward a 
more efficient organization of the teaching process. Contemporaneous with 
this, the rise of a professionally trained class of teachers gave a tremendous 
impetus to the efficiency of the classroom. More recently the material equip- 
ment of the school plant has become the subject of a widespread investigation, 
with reference to standardization. Just now the supervision of the health of 
the child in its bearing upon his school efficiency is gradually assuming a de- 
partmental position in the school organization. Beyond the confines of its 
own walls, the school is going out into the community, to the homes, the busi- 
ness houses, the shops, the mills, the factories, into every vocational field, and 
is picking up the broken ends of the lines of communication which in the near 
future will link the school with every constructive phase of life within its sup- 
porting territory. In these larger movements the school executive has, almost 
without exception, been a vital factor, usually a constructive and unifying in- 
fluence. In the more highly specialized t>T)es of organization, of a greater or 
less localized significance, he has, as a rule, moved conservatively in attempting 



74 

their bodily appropriation from another school system. The needs back of 
these special types of organizations are frequently common to a large number 
of schools. The aim and spirit with which they are attacked have a common 
basis. But the type forms of organization must necessarily be specifically for- 
mulated to fit into the limiting conditions of the local school system, if the 
maximum of efficiency is to be realized in the practical working out of the 
plans. 

These things I am led to say, because of a somewhat extended elementary 
school experience in connection with the subject that I have been asked to dis- 
cuss at this time, — an experience which I shall recount briefly without attempt- 
ing to draw general conclusions applicable either directly or by implication to 
other school systems. The needs which inspired these plans will doubtless find 
many counterparts in the schools represented in this assemblage. And I trust 
that the aim and spirit of the attack upon these needs will find a common bond 
of constructive interest. But, beyond that, I should not care to stand sponsor 
for the success of these plans in any considerable number of schools represented 
here. — unless the controlling conditions are essentially the same in these schools 
as in the schools where these special forms of supervised study have been 
successfully tried out. I am convinced that where this work is thoroughly 
done in the grades, the hardest part of the problem is already solved for the 
high school. This latter phase I leave to the speaker who follows me on the 
program, and whose experience in that field has been much larger than my own. 

Some eight years ago, when I was in charge of a small system of schools 
in Central Illinois, too small to permit of the semi-annual plan of grading, but 
having the customary two divisions in each classroom, it occurred to me that 
the fact of a teacher and a pupil being contemporaneously confined within the 
same four walls did not necessarily mean that the pupil was receiving the 
proper amount of direction in his study, particularly when the teacher was giv- 
ing her entire time to the hearing of two sets of recitations, — a general condi- 
tion which many speakers and writers on supervised study, in confining their 
discussions to the secondary schools, seem to ignore or to be unacquainted with. 

My suggestion that the grades, above the second, be organized in one 
division for each classroom, with half time for supervised study, met with the 
enthusiastic support of the teachers, and the plan was put into operation at once. 
During the four succeeding years practically every pupil whose attendance was 
regular — with the exception of a few of marked capacity — won his regular 
promotion. During that period, the standard of scholarship, which for many 
years previous had been widely recognized, steadily increased. Practically all 
the pupils who finished the grades entered high school. 

This was in a small, wealthy, retired-farmer, all-American town. The 
teachers in the grades were all normal school graduates, or of full equivalent 
preparation. The classroom enrollments averaged 35. A fine professional spirit 
had been in existence for many years previous. The plan was not tried out in 
the high school. 



75 

At the end of that period I went to a much larger system, of a very differ- 
ent character, where the semi-annual plan was in operation, I found that, 
although this was ranked as one of the best systems in the Middle West, and 
although the population of the city had been practically stationary for a number 
of years, the number of pupils finishing the grades was less than 28 per cent 
of those enrolled in the second grade. (I took the second grade as the normal 
enrollment, since a considerable number of foreign children left the public 
schools at the end of the first year to enter the parochial schools.) The semi- 
annual plan seemed to have had little, if any, value in contributing to the work- 
ing efficiency of the pupil. He got a lighter jolt, it is true, in being told to 
back up for a half year, instead of for a whole year; but he got more of them, — 
and in the long nm seemed to end just about where he would have ended under 
the annual plan. The remedial course lay clearly along some other line of 
attack. 

It did not seem advisable to discontinue the semi-annual plan, with its two 
divisions in every classroom, and to introduce the plan of supervised study 
which had worked so well in the schools which I had just left. This was my 
first experience with the semi-annual plan, and I was desirous of giving it a 
thorough try-out before drawing a final conclusion. Accordingly the study 
problem was attacked from another, and more limited stadpoint. The plans 
were confined to the retarded pupils. Several special methods were put into 
operation, among which were: (1) Group work at the close of shortened ses- 
sions; (2) Individual help by special teachers; and (3) Doubling the time allot- 
ment in weak subjects, by reducing or omitting temporarily the time allotment 
in other subjects that could better spare it. The first two methods are so 
widely used that they call for no comment. The third method is in much less 
general use, although by far the most effective and the only practicable form 
of supervised study with which I am familiar that can be carried on in a class- 
room having two divisions of pupils, — without adding to the cost of instruction. 

The form of special organization which met with the most marked success 
in bringing these retarded pupils up to grade was the Elementary' Industrial 
School, modeled somewhat after the Cleveland plan. I cite it in this connection 
because a large measure of its success was due to the close supervision of study 
as carried on during the years 1912-1914. Of the 24 boys and 16 girls who en- 
tered these classes in September, 1912, all but 2 had been failing regularly in 
their studies. Doubtless, the giving of one-fourth time daily to manual work, — 
shop work and mechanical drawing for the boys ; cooking, sewing, home equip- 
ment, home management, and home decoration to the girls, made a stronger 
appeal to these pupils than they had had presented to them before. But we 
found, within a few days after the classes opened, that the one big thing those 
boys and girls needed was to learn how to work. One of the strongest teachers 
in the city had been placed in charge of the classroom work in their regular 
studies. She set about at once to direct their study and to train them in habits 
of study. 



76 

In the following March, all the 8A pupils over the city were given, without 
previous notice, the famous Springfield, Mass., Arithmetic Questions, of 1846. 

Following are some of the results: 

Industrial Class Regular Classes 
20 Pupils 60 Pupils 

Per cent Per cent 

100 per cent 15 5 

Above 95 per cent 35 8 1-3 

Above 82.7 per cent 65 53 1-3 

(city average) 
Below 70 per cent 15 23 1-3 

Average of regular classes, 60 pupils, 81.7 per cent. 

Average of Industrial class, 20 pupils, 85.7 percent. 

It should be remembered that, with two exceptions, the members of this 
Industrial Class had in previous years been failing in their regular studies. 
That this power carried over into other studies was shown by the fact that, 
of the 14 who entered high school the following September, 12 were carrying 
their work at the close of the first semester. 

This city was a typical industrial center, somewhat cramped in resources, 
and with a large foreign population. The requirements for teachers were the 
same as in the city from which I had come. A strong professional spirit pre- 
vailed, but it was rather inelastic, owing to an emphasis for many years upon 
the course of study rather than upon the pupils. The results of directed study 
were limited to the retarded pupils, largely because of this inelasticity. This 
was unfortunate, for the pupil who is capable of making a grade of Excellent 
and makes only Good, or the one who is capable of making a grade of Good 
and makes only Fair needs attention just as seriously as the pupil who is capable 
of making only a grade of Fair at the best and makes a grade of Poor. The 
high school in this city was under township organization, and consequently I 
did not follow up these pupils so closely as I might otherwise have done. 

In the city where I am now located we are working at this problem in a 
more comprehensive way than I have heretofore attempted. Twenty-four of 
the grade teachers have organized the classrooms into single divisions and are 
giving double periods to all the principal subjects. A Latin teacher in the high 
school has been working on the same plan with a Caesar class. 

The period of our experimenting has been too short in my present position 
for general conclusions to be drawn, but we have every reason to believe that 
we are on the right track. 

This last city is very much the same type of town as the first I cited, — 
a wealthy, retired-farmer, ail-American community. No formal requirements 
have been prescribed for teachers previous to this year, but the general standard 
is about the same as in the other two cities cited. The general attitude is 
receptive to new ideas, and the superintendent is given practically unrestricted 
freedom. The classes involved range from 25 to 45 pupils. Our experience 
at Lexington showed that the plan can be safely undertaken with classes of 
less than 35 pupils. The phase of the plan with which we are experimenting 
most carefully at Paris is to determine how far beyond this previous class limit 



77 

of 35 pupils it is possible to go without appreciably lowering our eflBciency 
standards. 

Supervised study makes some peremptory demands upon the teacher; and 
the superintendent or grade supervisor must see to it that these demands are met 
or the whole plan will fall flat. She must work with her pupils individually, 
and at close range. During the study period, which, for the most part with 
us immediately precedes the recitation proper, she can not sit at her desk 
correcting papers or performing other clerical duties, meanwhile interjecting 
directions or answering questions at long range. She must get out among her 
pupils and study their reactions to the task at hand, noting the weak and the 
strong points of each, stimulating the slow worker, holding in check the hasty 
and careless, jollying up the discouraged and pessimistic, strengthening the 
power of attack of those who lack initiative and decision, observing the needs 
in working grasp of basic facts or in habit formations common to any consid- 
erable number so that she may be prepared to deal with these in the recitation 
proper, keeping always in the conscious foreground that the ultimate aim is to 
make the pupil self-reliant and molding her directive help to that end. If this 
is well done, it is not nearly so easy work for the teacher as the conducting 
of a formal recitation ; and where directed study is attempted on a large scale 
involving many teachers, the frequent stimulus and inspiration of the super- 
visor and the superintendent is needed. 

This leads me to my last statement, that no general plan of directed study 
can reach its maximum of efficiency without close supervision. At the begin- 
ning the local situation must be carefully studied, its needs defiined, and plans 
of organization formulated which will fit into local conditions, actual or po- 
tential. The superintendent, principal, or supervisor, must maintain a close, 
first-hand knowledge of the practical workings of the plan. Occasional objective 
tests, of the general character devised by Courtis, and others, should be given 
and the results made available for comparison in some form, or forms, that 
may be readily grasped by the teachers and the community. Lastly, the plan 
of organization in directed study must not be permitted to become so inflexible 
that it can not be readily modified to meet changed conditions or unforeseen 
imperfections. This means that the superintendent and his supervisory force 
must, within practical limits, keep the experimental attitude so that when the 
forms of special organization, or parts of them, fail to secure the expected 
results after a fair trial, the useless features shall be abandoned without hesi- 
tation and some other plans substituted which give reasonable promise of higher 
efficiency. 

As I have already indicated, we are not yet far enough along in directed 
study plans in the grades at Paris to furnish reliable data from objective tests. 
But we are giving attention to the teaching demands and the kinds of super- 
visory control essential to a fair trial. 

To meet our local high school needs we have not yet discovered a satis- 
factory general plan that will not increase our operating expenses beyond the 
financial capacity of the district to meet. In the educational value of directed 
study in the high school, particularly in Mathematics, Language, and Science, 
I believe most firmly. I am open to the light on any feasible plan of bringing 



78 

this about. Meanwhile I am convinced that the working out of supervised 
study programs in the grades, wherever it is possible — and the range is large — 
will contribute materially in reducing the present needs in high school for 
supervision of study. A much larger proportion of pupils will then know fairly 
well how to study when they enter high school. 

I might add that our local high school is using the period from 3:00 to 
3 :4S as a study period for all students who have not, by the report of any of 
their teachers, been working up to full capacity during the preceding week. 
This includes, not only those who are failing, but also those who, in the opinion 
of their teachers, might rate as Excellent or Good, but fall below these stand- 
ards for reasons that may be remedied by personal instruction during this period. 
This is not used in addition as a penal period for misconduct, but purely for 
instructional purposes. Where two or more teachers report a need for the 
same pupil, the decision is made by the principal. The students retained pass 
to the respective classrooms as notified by the principal at the beginning of the 
week. A student's time may be distributed among two or more teachers, at the 
option of the principal. Regular reports are sent out quarterly; special reports 
on the need of better work, are made weekly. The clerical work involved in 
these weekly reports has not become a burden, bcause the cases are not per- 
mitted to grow to troublesome proportions, at least, where it is possible to pre- 
vent this by swift remedial action. Classrooms at period will usually have 
one or more pupils from each of the classes of the teacher. The instruction is, 
of course, entirely individual. The plan is working very satisfactorily. 

Principal Franklin W. Johnson's Paper: 

It is customary for teachers at each stage in our school system to criticize 
the work of the grade or school below. The college finds fault with the high 
school, the high school with the elementary school, and within these schools 
individual teachers find fault with the work of the teacher in the grade below. 
There has also been of late some very vigorous criticism from outside our ranks. 
While much of this criticism has been vague or fantastic, there has been almost 
a unanimous complaint that our pupils are not taught how to study. We must 
grant that this is a valid criticism. Our pupils certainly do not, in most cases, 
know how to study and those who do, have not been consciously taught the 
art by their teachers. Each teacher who makes the complaint lays the fault 
upon the teachers in the grades below and recognizes no responsibility for teach- 
ing the neglected lesson. The teacher of Caesar thinks it so important to get 
his pupils through the four books which long tradition has assigned to his 
year's work that he has no time to lose in teaching his pupils how to study. 
Let those who can not keep the pace of all fall by the wayside. And the dead 
scattered along the road each year are as numerous as those who fell in the 
most sanguinary of Caesar's campaigns in Gaul. In this country until recently 
it has been almost uniformly the practice to spend most of the class hour in 
the recitation by the pupil of lessons assigned the previous day to be learned 
at home. How ineffective this method has been we are all well aware. It 
has afforded little incentive to the bright pupil and little training to the dull 
one. It has resulted quite as much in training pupils to slipshod, if not dis- 



79 

honest methods of working and of thinking, as in giving mastery of the ma- 
terial studied. It has been in large measure responsible for the heavy toll of 
failure and elimination that mark all statistics dealing with school grades. 

The method of conducting the recitation on the basis of assigned home 
work fails to take into account two ver>' important factors: (1) individual 
diflferences in the capacities of children, (2) the futility of much of what is 
called home study. It is unnecessary here to demonstrate the fact that pupils 
vary widely in the amount and quality of work which they can do in a given 
time. Scientific tests have shown this and the experience and observation of 
every teacher gives assent to the proposition. I think we will give equally 
willing assent to the proposition that much of the so-called home work of 
pupils is futile. I am unable to recall in my elementary and high school days 
I ever had a lesson assigned except at the end of the class period in the form 
of a statement that the class should prepare for tomorrow the next three prop- 
ositions or the next twenty lines in Caesar. So far as I can recall there never 
was any hint as to how the lesson should be prepared. No teacher ever told 
me that the index in my Latin grammar was of any possible value to me, or 
taught me how to use the dictionary or encyclopedia. There may be those who 
will urge that this unaided effort to overcome difficulties to which this method 
subjected me was of great value. I can see in it now little but waste of time 
and effort which I might well have devoted to better ends had I been better 
taught. The fact is that we are sending pupils home at the end of each day 
to prepare tasks which many of them do not understand, under conditions fre- 
quently so unhygienic or distracting as to preclude the possibility of their secur- 
ing the preparation which we blandly assume they will get. And on the follow- 
ing day the recitation is conducted on the assumption that the tasks assigned 
have been prepared though the teacher may very well know that some of the 
pupils have not prepared the assignment at all, while others have met the re- 
quirement through dishonest means. And so the vicious round goes on — with a 
few pupils gaining mastery over the material and many falling into loose or 
dishonest methods of work and still others falling by the wayside, discouraged, 
to join the ranks of the eliminated. 

A few years ago, I urged upon my teachers at a faculty meeting the de- 
sirability of making a careful study of the most effective method of study of 
the various subjects from the standpoint of the pupil. I could not tell them 
for I did not know ; there was no literature of value on the subject. The most 
striking fact connected with the day's discussion was that most of the teachers 
evidently felt that the method of instruction they were already employing was 
the most effective that could be devised. Shortly after this, one teacher who 
was rather more progressive than the rest tried a natural and most illuminating 
experiment. One of his pupils had reported that it was his custom to assign 
the home work in mathematics without any suggestion as to the method of solu- 
tion. Suprised that a pupil should make such a report after what he regarded 
as careful directions for the performance of home work, he decided to test the 
effectiveness of these directions with the whole class. At the next meeting 
of the class he gave directions for the home work of the next day with unusual 
care and then told the class that they would spend the next fifteen minutes 



80 

in performing a part of this work. What resulted was a revelation to him. It 
was apparent at once that none of the pupils appreciated the value of limited 
time for none of them went to work promptly. So much time was spent by 
some of them in the mechanical technique of getting started, such as sharpening 
pencils and getting other material arranged that they accomplished nothing 
else whatever. Some showed complete lack of individual initiative, and spent 
most of the time in looking about helplessly and simply imitating others. Yet 
most of these same pupils had been accustomed to present the required home 
work each day. In the entire fifteen minutes very little was done by any, 
nothing by many. 

In this case a class of apparently average ability was unable to apply on 
the spot the directions of a very good teacher. Yet we have been accustomed 
to expect pupils who have gone hurriedly from one recitation to another, to go 
home at the end of the session and prepare assignments given by several teach- 
ers, often with little definiteness and little or no smoothing out of difficulties. 
I think you will readily agree with me that the recitation system generally em- 
ployed in our high schools is wasteful of the pupil's time and effort, productive 
of loss of interest, offering little incentive to the able pupil, and ineffective 
in training in good habits of study. 

Several plans have been employed to provide for individual differences in 
pupils and to supplement the recitation by giving individual instruction and 
training earlier as a part of the regular class exercise or in special or lengthened 
periods. Among these, the so-called Pueblo and Batavia plans are well known. 
In the remaining time at my disposal, I shall describe, with emphasis rather 
upon their administrative aspects, some experiments in the direction of super- 
vised study. 

A very interesting experiment has been made in teaching Latin in several 
New Hampshire schools, notably the high schools in Concord and Berlin, and 
in a private girls' school in Exeter. Mr. H. A. Brown, Deputy State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, referred to this in an article on Secondary 
School Education in New Hampshire in the last April number of the School 
Review. Briefly the experiment began with teaching a few common words 
and then using them at once in writing sentences for the pupils to read. Pupils 
are not taught at first grammatical principles and inflections, but use the different 
forms as they function in sentences. The pupils do no home study but read ex- 
tensively in class. Some of the schools have completed by this method all the 
reading required for admission to college in three years and have spent the 
fourth year in reading such college authors as Tacitus' Germania and Agricola 
and the Phormio of Terence. No less an authority than Professor Hale of the 
University of Chicago, who visited some of these schools, vouches for the suc- 
cess of the work. In the University High School two years ago we tried the 
experiment of conducting several first year Latin classes without home work. 
Whatever was new in each lesson was taught with great care ; then the pupils 
applied the new material in translating sentences from English into Latin and 
from Latin into English. Much use was made of perception cards in teaching 
new words and forms. The first semester, the pupils did absolutely no home 
work in four sections, while for purposes of comparison, one class was thaught 



81 

in the usual manner of home assignment and recitation. This class was taught 
by one of our best Latin teachers. At the end of each month, uniform tests 
were given to each division and the papers were carefully graded by all the 
members of the department. At the end of the first month the four classes 
without home work graded on the test as follows : 

No home work. Home work. 

First test 92.1 86.1 86.2 74.6 84.4 

Second test 85.5 89.7 81.8 86.2 85.5 

Third test 85.4 86.5 87.9 80.4 88.2 

Fourth test 82.7 87.5 85.1 72.7 90.6 

Semester test 87.6 84.9 84.3 Id.d 83.9 

End of year 75.63 83.85 81.46 71.56 75.61 

In the second semester an important change was made in the method, in 
that home work was assigned consisting of exercises for translation both into 
English and Latin, using words and constructions that had been thoroughly 
taught in class. This home work it will be observed consisted not of new 
material but of additional practice in the use of material which had already 
been taught. This change seemed justified by the results and the experiment 
was continued last year in that form. A comparison of the grades secured by 
all first year Latin pupils on exactly the same written monthly tests during 
these two years is interesting and suggestive. 

Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Semester 

1912 84.9 85.9 86.1 86.5 84.7 IT .1 

1913 90.1 87.4 88.2 90.7 89.7 86.0 

It would appear from this experiment that with no home work at all, 
under proper instruction, a class may do as well, or better, than a class taught 
under the usual method of home work and class recitation ; but that with a 
modified form of class work and of home work, better results may be secured 
than by either of the other methods. This conclusion is also reached from an 
experiment extending over a longer period in mathematics. 

Mr. Breslich has reported the earlier stages of this experiment in the 
twentieth volume of the School Review and in the Thirteenth Year Book of the 
National Society for the Study of Education. He was teaching two first year 
classes in Mathematics whose grades at the end of the first semester were dis- 
tributed as follows : 

A B C D F Average. 

Section A 25.0 25.0 37.5 12.5 0. 81.4 

Section B 29.4 23.5 23.5 17.7 5.9 79.4 

At the beginning of the next semester he conducted Section A as he had 
been accustomed to do with home work and class recitation. Section B, with 
no home work, spent the time given by the other section to recitation in study 
and practice. Exactly the same instruction was given to both classes. Both 
sections spent fourteen days on the chapter on Linear Equations, at the close 
of which the same written test was given to both classes with the following 
distribution of grades: 



82 





A 


B 


C 


D 


F 


Average. 


Section A — 














(Home work) . . 


7.1 


21.4 


21.4 


0.0 


50. 


62.8 


Section B — 














(No home work) 


0.0 


6.2 


37.5 


25.0 


31.2 


65.5 



The low grades received in both classes are explained by the fact that the 
test was invented to be difficult and that no review was given in preparation 
for it. 

It will be observed by comparison that Section B, though a little weaker 
on the basis of the grades for the previous semester, came out a little stronger 
on the average after supervised study. A comparison in detail indicated that 
the poorer students profited greatly by the method of supervised study, while 
the better students did not succeed so well under supervised study as without it. 
On the statement of the pupils it was ascertained that the average time spent 
by Section A in home study had been one hour and fifteen minutes. A com- 
parison of the number of problems worked by each section showed that Section 
B, without home work, had actually worked an average of two more per pupil 
than Section A with home work ; although at the beginning of the experiment 
Section A had been able to work more rapidly than Section B. 

On the following chapter on operations with fractions, the methods em- 
ployed with the two sections were reversed. Section A working under super- 
vision and Section B with home work. This chapter required but six lessons. 
At its close the following grades were given on a written examination : 





A 


B 


C 


D 


F 


Average, 


Section A — 














(No home work) 


31.2 


25.0 


18.7 


12.5 


12.5 


77.5 


Section B — 














(Home work) . . . 


52.9 


23.5 


5.9 


11.8 


5.7 


80.4 



The average time reported by Section B was thirty-six minutes per day. 
The amount of work done was about the same. Section B was still the stronger, 
as at the close of the previous chapter, apparently because this chapter was too 
short to allow the other section to adapt itself so completely to the method of 
class work without home study. 

Before any final conclusions can be drawn, further experimental work is 
needed. It was obviously indicated that the type of home study which has 
been required and regarded as essential to school work, may be given up en- 
tirely with advantage to the weaker members of the class and without loss 
to the average quality of the work of a class, though apparently with loss to 
the better members of the class. The following year a form of organization 
was adapted which was regarded as consistent with these indications. 

The class hour devoted much time to supervised work upon material upon 
which instruction had been given. When it was certain that all could do the 
work, assignments were made of further similar material for practice at home. 
It was found after a few weeks that in the various first year sections there 
were some twenty pupils who were falling behind and needed more attention 
than could be given them in the regular classes. These were dropped from the 



S3 

regular class and assigned to a special study class after school where they 
could be given such supervision as they needed. These pupils were assigned 
to the special class with the understanding that they were to return to the regular 
classes as soon as they could do work of satisfactory grade. Of these twenty, 
five returned to their regular classes before the end of the semester. In the 
final examination they received grades of 63, 65, 71, and 100 respectively (60 
being the passing grade), one having left school before this time. At the end 
of the school year this class had fourteen members. Of these all but four were 
given credit for the year's work, although some of them were advised to take 
no further work in Mathematics. 

The present method in Mathematics provides a special study class after 
school, open to any pupils who desire to do their home w^ork under supervision 
and required of pupils in any course who are doing unsatisfactorily. 

From the experiments which we have tried in the University High School 
the following advantages may be fairly claimed for the combination of modi 
fied home work with supervised class study : 

(1) It aims to make pupils independent. It was found that only one 
pupil was kept in the special study class all the year. All others showed enough 
improvement to be allowed to withdraw at least at intervals and return to the 
regular class, 

(2) It has improved the general professional attitude of the teachers 
and has made them more effective. The special class has been in charge of 
each teacher at some part of the year and thus he has in turn come into close 
touch with the difficulties and weaknesses of individual pupils. Each teacher 
has also been brought into closer contact with the other teachers of the de- 
partment. 

(3) It gives special help to pupils who need it and as long as they 
need it. The better pupils can spend their time to better advantage working 
alone and can thus learn to rely upon themselves. 

(4) It has resulted in a marked reduction of the amount of failure. 
For the past four years the percentage of failure in Mathematics has been 
16.2, 11.1, 6.8, 8.5. There has also during the same time been a marked reduc- 
tion in the number of pupils who have withdrawn from courses before the 
end of the semester. 

(5) The plan is economical. Teachers are generally expected to spend 
considerable time in helping individual pupils. The study class does away with 
the need of most of this. It is more economical than the double period plan 
and quite as effective, for one teacher can take care of twenty-five pupils at a 
time with practically the same results as would result if several teachers were 
placed in supervision of the entire classes from which these twenty-five slow 
pupils come. 

(6) The plan provides opportunity for pupils who have been ab^^cnt for 
any reason to make up lost work under supervision without undue expenditure 
of time on the part of the teacher. 

In no direction is there promise of such increase in the efficiency of our 
secondary schools as in improved class room methods which shall train our 
pupils in effective habits of work in the early part of the high school course, 



84 

better still in the upper grades of the elementary schools. There is need of 
carefully considered experiments in the different subjects of the curriculum 
which shall furnish objective results on which may be based definite conclusions 
regarding the length of class period, length of day, and length of year which 
will yield the largest results, as well as regarding the most effective methods 
of employing the time of the pupil while he is under the charge of the teacher 
in the school room. 

The second topic for discussion was "Improving the Position of 
the High School Teacher of History and Civics." Dr. Evarts B. 
Greene, of the University, and Supt. W. W. Earnest, of Champaign, 
led the discussion. Their papers follow : 

Dr. Evarts B. Greene's Paper: 

There seems to be a certain presumption in bringing before a conference 
primarily concerned with general administrative problems a subject which, at 
first sight, appears to belong to one of the sections organized for the study 
of specific parts of the high school curriculum. Yet after all, whatever may 
be said, and rightly said, as to the importance of administrative work, the real 
end of all this mechanism is to provide ways and means for getting particular 
subjects well taught. To secure this result, the teacher and the administrative 
officer ought now and then to get together on a level for the purpose of ex- 
pressing frankly, each to the other, his own point of view. I am speaking this 
morning primarily from the standpoint of the teacher, but having had some 
years' experience as an administrative officer I shall try not to be too hard on 
the present members of that hard-worked class. I should add that, though I 
have had the history teacher primarily in view, my main contention is equally 
applicable to teachers of other subjects in secondary schools. 

For some years I have taken part in the conferences of the section devoted 
to the social sciences and have found them profitable. In those section meet- 
ings we have discussed the defects of the present situation and sometimes have 
worked out attractive plans for the improvement of teaching methods and peda- 
gogical equipment; but though it is comparatively easy to get some consensus 
of opinion among department teachers themselves, we are constantly brought 
face to face with the administrative limitations which bar the way. For the 
sound teaching of history, as for the sound teaching of any other subject, we 
need two things, good equipment, of course — not so much money as adminis- 
trative officers are rather easily persuaded to spend for scientific laboratories, 
but a much larger sum that is commonly thought necessary for books and maps 
and other illustrative material. We need, however, first of all, good teachers, 
men who have taken up teaching as a serious and permanent profession, not 
as a mere stepping stone to administiative office. When we get such a class 
of professionaly trained teachers of history — and in professional training I 
include, of course, training for real scholarship in the subject taught, — they 
will take care of these problems of subject matter and methods for themselves. 
Some things which have been largely done for high schools by college men 



85 

will then be done by high school men for themselves. The cooperation of college 
teachers in the writing of high school text books and the preparation of syllabi 
for high school courses has been necessary and sometimes the work has been 
efficiently done. It will certainly be better done, however, by men who, with 
adequate scholarship, such as may be found in the German Gymnasium, the 
French Lycee, or the best English public schools, have also studied the prac- 
tical problems of secondary teaching from the inside. 

In no field is this consideration more important than in history- which 
is concerned today with some extremely difficult problems of selection and 
point of view. Shall we emphasize those aspects of the past which seem to have 
the closest connection with contemporary society, or shall we try to understand 
the outlook on life of a generation with standards of value and proportion 
quite different from our own? Shall we begin with the present which we think 
we know and work backward to the past, or shall we begin with the origins 
as a prerequisite for the interpretation of the present? All these are debatable 
questions, and the answers to some of them may be of one kind for the college 
and of quite another sort for the high school. So it is with other questions of 
method. What are the relative values of text book and oral instruction; of 
source book and narrative history; of map-drawing and the exhibition of illus- 
trative material? All these are questions not primarily for the expert his- 
torian, on the one side, nor, in my humble opinion, for the expert in educational 
administration. They belong not exclusively, but mainly, to the expert high 
school history teacher. Yet of these three kinds of experts it is the "man 
behind the gun" who has so far had the least to say about the matter. The 
people who have shaped history programs in schools have been too largely 
university professors on one side and principals on the other. Everybody knows 
the famous saying of Abbe Sieves on the eve of the French Revolution in 
speaking of the constitution of his country, "What is the Third Estate? Noth- 
ing. What ought it to be? Everything." To apply that proposition to the 
department teacher would be going too far, but we ought certainly to give 
him a much larger role than we now do. 

The real reason why the secondary teacher of history, and of other sub- 
jects, has not had more to say is that such teaching as a permanent profession 
does not now hold, if indeed it attracts at all except in rare cases, young men 
of force and first rate intelligence. Here and there, there are men of fine 
unselfish spirit who hold to teaching for the sheer love of their work, but most 
of the ambitious young men who take up secondary teaching at all soon abandon 
educational work altogether or find their line of promotion in principalships 
or superintendencies. Under existing conditions this is just what we have to 
expect. 

I have secured from the office of the University High School Inspector the 
last available statement of the situation in this respect in twenty-four high 
schools in which there is at present a man in charge of department work in 
history and civics. Doubtless the result varies slightly from year to year, but 
certain general conclusions may be safely drawn. The list includes such rep- 
resentative schools as Oak Park, Bloomington, Rock Island, Mt. Vernon Town- 
ship, Peoria, Danville, and Decatur. Of the twenty-four men included in this 



86 

list only eight received salaries of $1200 or more, and of these all but three 
were principals or superintendents. Seven were receiving less than $1000 and 
only two, both principals, received as much as $2000. One has only to compare 
the salary of $765 which one city pays to its high school teacher of history 
and civics with the annual return of, let us say, a plumber or chauffeur, to ap- 
preciate the status assigned by the community to the man who more than any 
other has to carry the responsibility of training young people for right thinking 
on their duties and privileges as citizens. 

Now what is the effect of this policy on the professional permanence of 
the teacher? As my colleagues in the department of education have pointed 
out, this situation is not peculiar to any one group of teachers. Only two of the 
twenty-four teachers mentioned above had served as much as ten years in the 
position then held, and both of these were principals. Only three more had 
served as long as five years ; not more than seven had had a total teaching ex- 
perience exceeding ten years, and two of these were principals. It must be 
remembered too that these are not in the class of the "submerged tenth", but 
distinctly above the average. From time to time we here at the University 
are called on to advise young men who seem to have a definite call to teaching 
as distinct from educational administration, but who properly ask whether there 
is a career open to them at all comparable to that which opens before the young 
engineer, or farmer, or lawyer — not in money returns only, but in terms of 
social recognition and public esteem. What kind of an answer can we hon- 
estly give? 

Here we reach the striking weakness of our American educational system, 
our lack of interest in the development of a strong class of secondary teachers 
comparable with those who are teaching young people in the more highly devel- 
oped European states. European visitors to the United States who are deeply 
impressed with the generosity of our provision for education in other respects, 
especially in point of material equipment, are equally struck by the fact that 
these results are secured after all at the expense of weakness in personnel. 
Here again, I mean, of course, the teaching as distinguished from the adminis- 
trative staff. Teaching probably never will be a highly paid profession in any 
branch of the service; its rewards are of another and higher sort. Neverthe- 
less, public opinion regarding the social value of any service tends to express 
itself in terms of financial support, and may thus stimulate or depress the self- 
respect of those engaged in such service. 

Mr. Learned in his book on The Oherlehrer, just published by the Har- 
vard University Press, describes the recent achievement of the secondary teach- 
ers of Prussia in securing a salary scale corresponding to that of the judges. 
As is well known the German Oherlehrer looks to a definite and solid career 
for men with provision for regular increases in salary and the prospect of a 
pension on retirement. The importance of this policy from the point of view 
of the public interest has been emphatically recognized by representative states- 
men. Bismarck gave unmistakable evidence of his attitude in this matter by 
devoting the sum of $300,000 presented to him by the German people on his 
seventieth birthday to a fund for the training of secondary teachers with special 



S7 

reference to traveling endowments. I cannot refrain from repeating; here one 
of Bismarck's notable utterances on this subject. 

"For us Germans there can never be any doubt that the bond which unites 
us is no mere institution of external police power; it is rather the inseparable 
and irresistible community of interests in scientific scholarship, in art, and in 
poetry that has grown up between all the German peoples. The real medium 
for all this is not the minister of state, but the instructor of the growing youth, 
the secondary teacher. When the funds from which I established the Schon- 
hausen Foundation were placed at my disposal, I asked myself, 'To what pur- 
pose shall I apply this million marks?' And I came to the conclusion that the 
secondary teacher is the most important factor in the patriotic education of the 
rising generations." 

Has not the time .come for a similar movement in the secondary schools 
of this country? Should it not receive precedence over any other claims on our 
high school budgets? So far progress in this direction has been retarded by 
insistent demands for buildings, and for what is called "enrichment of the cur- 
riculum". There has been a decided increase in the number and variety of 
subjects taught, and, without going into the merits of the new subjects as 
compared with the old, it is evident that the process adds materially to our 
expenditures. Public sentiment needs to be led to a point where it will realize 
that progress lies not half so much in increasing the number and variety of 
subjects taught as in improving the quality of the work done. As regards 
variety of subjects studied by secondary school pupils we are certainly not 
behind other countries. What we lack above all else is a thoroughly courageous 
insistence upon standards. We cannot expect to get this from teachers who, 
as we say, are "hired" from year to year at the lowest market rates and neces- 
sarily fail to secure the substantial status in the community necessarv' to enable 
them to make head against the constant demands for letting down the bars 
and following the lines of least resistence. As I have said before, there is a 
special reason for urging this thorough identification with the community in 
the case of the teacher of history and civics. It is his business to introduce 
young people to the serious consideration of their part in the carr\ing forward 
of civilization from the generations which have gone before to those who are 
to come after, — to a vital recognition of their relation to Society and the State. 
How can he rise to such a responsibility if he himself has no permanent and 
honored place in the community which he serves? 

Decent salaries are certainly essential to any substantial advance in the 
quality of history teachers; but after all, when the essential demands of a re- 
spectable existence are met, the real teacher and scholar cares more for other 
things. We need much more attention to teaching assignments in order to 
lessen the variety of subjects taught by a given teacher. Only so can he satisfy 
the reasonable demands of a scholarly conscience. I am not asking for extreme 
specialization— our colleges are suffering from that now, possibly a few high 
schools— but for care in the grouping of related subjects. A teacher of English 
history may gain rather than lose by taking another class in English literature; 
and a teacher of ancient history by a course in Latin which makes him at home 
with Csesar and Cicero. Still more obvious is the usefulness of keeping history 



88 

in close touch with government and economics. But the frequent combinations 
of history with algebra, chemistry, bookkeeping and other quite unrelated sub- 
jects are surely unfortunate. Such combinations make serious scholarship 
almost impossible in any direction and tend to isolate the history teacher from 
his historical colleagues in other parts of the educational system ; from his 
fellow workers in his craft. The secondary teachers of history are welcomed 
into our national historical association. They should be encouraged to share 
in such intellectual scholarship and given freedom for keeping their own schol- 
arship fresh and keen. 

I have not said much about equipment, because the question of personnel 
must stand first; yet the two are not unconnected. The professional self- 
respect of the history teacher is inevitably depressed when he compares the 
meager sums ordinarily allowed for books and maps with the relatively lavish 
amounts which are now easily secured for laboratories of physics and chemistry. 
I need not dwell on this contrast. It is familiar and almost universal. 

I am quite aware that the problem which I have presented is not wholly 
within the control of administrative officers, whether superintendents or prin- 
cipals. The ultimate responsibility rests, of course, with the school boards 
and with the communities which elect them. Nevertheless I am sure some of 
you may and often do exert a decisive influence on the development of public 
opinion in all these matters. Here is an opportunity for leadership which must 
certainly appeal to the men who are concerned with the sound development of 
our educational system. 

Discussion by W. W. Earnest of paper of Prof. E. B. Greene: 

The claims of ever>' course of study forming a part of any curriculum, if 
properly presented by a sincere and devoted specialist, are strong. If this 
were not so, that course would not be a part of any good curriculum. In this 
case, there is no doubt that the claims of the history and civics course have 
been presented properly nor that they are genuine. We can not hesitate to 
admit that this course stands in as close relationship as any other receiving 
attention in the schools to the development of good citizenship, the generally 
accepted purpose of the public schools. It is also clear that this course is one 
the desirable outcomes of which depend on inspiration rather than on any sort 
of drill resulting merely in habitual accuracy or skill or knowledge of any 
kind, valuable as these may be. It follows that no degree of faithfulness and 
industry in a teacher can make up for a lack of enthusiasm or of imagination 
or of interest in social, economic, institutional, governmental affairs; because 
these are the qualities that make it possible for a teacher to be a source of 
inspiration to pupils and so to lead them to high resolves so to discharge the 
duties of citizenship as to contribute in full measure to the welfare of their 
fellow-beings in community, state and world-wide relationships. Hence it 
follows further that the finest spirits as well as the best-trained scholars are 
needed to take upon themselves this order of the priesthood of patriotism, with 
its higher degree of cosmopolitanism, the priesthood to which every teacher of 
history and civics should be consecrated. 



89 

Of course, every other high school department has a right to make its 
requisition for the best and strongest manhood and womanhood in those who 
come close, or ought to do so, to the soul of youth and influence through their 
personal touch the direction and quality of all the future activities of the boys 
and girls instructed. The justice of no such demand is denied ; we wish here 
only to lay the firm foundation that this demand of the social science depart- 
ment is at least as just as that of any other. 

It is plain that the only way to be assured of getting the best is to pay 
for the best and make the conditions of service as agreeable as possible. We 
do sometimes get the best in other ways; but when we do it is the gift of 
Providence, for which we should be devoutly thankful. But the very wording 
of our topic contains an implication that, in the thinking of those who assigned 
it, the position of the teacher of history and civics needs to be improved not 
only as its present status is regarded but also as compared relatively with that 
of teachers in other departments. The question "What will you do about this?" 
seems to be put to us who are supposed to be administrators of these delicately 
related matters, regardless of the fact that we are sometimes in reality not even 
suggesters to our superiors, who have been known to reserve for themselves 
so important a matter as that of the fixing of relative salaries and then go 
away leaving us charged with the duty of getting good results with machinery 
which they have themselves thrown out of adjustment. 

Assuming, however, as we are accustomed to do, because there is no 
use of trying to escape it, the responsibility for present conditions, we may 
perhaps enter a disclaimer as to the relatively unfortunate position of the 
teacher of social science, so far at least as many schools are concerned. Is it 
really true that the teacher of history and civics is generally regarded as 
of less importance than teachers of other subjects or less well rewarded or less 
sufficiently provided with the tools of his trade? That this is not generally 
true is merely an impression which some one else may have evidence to dis- 
prove. This is a matter which may come within the scope of our Illinois school 
survey now in progress and Dr. Coffman and his co-workers may be able to 
report at some later time facts not now in our possession. It is true that the 
equipment of science laboratories and of manual arts shops may be more im- 
posing in appearance; but the apportionment of funds invested in reference 
books and other library facilities for the teacher and student of history and 
government may be not more scanty than that granted to other departments. 
Besides, we would not expect the surgeon's case of tools to be as bulky as the 
outfit of the house-mover nor think his equipment poor because it occupies 
less space. 

If injustice of this kind is common. in schools, we then have, as the ap- 
propriate suggestion for administrative action, the duty of calling attention to 
the injustice of unfavorable discrimination in salaries or in provision of helps 
and of using such power or influence as we have in the direction of equalizing 
conditions. We will all admit that the function of teaching histor>' and civics 
should not be relegated to the weaker teachers, and boards or committees are 
quite likely to concur in that view, if the facts be properly presented. This 
is a matter worth looking into in all of our schools and consideration of this 



^ 90 

topic will be justitied if it leads to the discovery and removal of unjust condi- 
tions. 

There may seem to be a wrong relation between expenditures for material 
equipment, especially that for buildings, at the present time and the expendi- 
tures for teaching talent, but the effect on the social science department is no 
worse than that on any other; and, after all, this regrettable relation may be 
a necessity of our present stage of development. For some time our school 
system as a whole has been growing rapidly. Especially in cities, with which 
we are chiefly concerned, because in them, for the most part, high schools are 
maintained, the school attendance has been increasing faster than the taxable 
wealth. This is probably the result of three factors, — the actual diminution of 
per capita wealth, gradual shrinkage of assessed values as compared with real 
value sand the increase of school attendance as a result both of more attractive 
schools and better enforcement of compulsory laws and health regulations. The 
high schools have been increasing not only at the same rate as the total attend- 
ance, but at a considerably greater rate and the per capita cost in the high 
school, inevitably greater than in the elementary schools, has been painfully 
emphasized for school boards and taxpayers who have had to provide for this 
most expensive and most rapidly increasing part of the system buildings, 
equipment and teachers from only slowly increasing revenues. As the need of 
buildings can most plainly be brought to the consciousness of the greater public 
and that of equipment next, while the finer spiritual differences in teachers can 
not be placed so clearly before them, it may be, as suggested, a necessity of 
our present development to take first what we can get first. Representing a 
community whose liberality toward its schools could not be greater within 
the law, I feel that this explanation is complete for this district and possibly 
for many others. It may be that no adequate measure of relief will be possible 
until we shall have progressed a little further beyond this era of pioneering. 
Then, when the more permanent structures of our present building shall have 
been paid for and comparatively less of this form of expansion shall be re- 
quired or when the relation of revenues to school needs shall have been im- 
proved, we may put more of our expenditure on what we all know is the great- 
est need of every school, — the teacher. The nearby possibilities of improvement 
seem to lie in the hope of increased state contributions for the relief of districts 
already carrying the heaviest possible burdens and the stimulation of stronger 
school sentiment in communities that have under present laws more resources 
than they use and would use more, if convinced that it is worth doing. When 
all teachers can have more, those of this particular class will doubtless share 
in the general benefits. 

The unfavorable comparsion between conditions here and those in the 
schools of European countries, or those that were in those lands abroad before 
the present outburst of military insanity, may be attributed not so much to the 
greater age of their systems of popular education as such, for this they do not 
have, but to the greater age of their civilization as a whole with its harder 
economic conditions and more firmly fixed boundaries or barriers between occu- 
pations. When economic rewards in other occupations shall have sunk to the 
level of such rewards in the old world, then, if not sooner, we shall be able 



91 

to attract with the same salaries greater ability to the service of the schools. 
Economic evolution will automatically effect more definite vocational guidance 
than we have now in operation, and we are beginning to study the subject and 
to attempt to supplement the natural process by conscious efforts to help young 
people to choose occupations intelligently. With more definite social suggestion 
and with more purposeful choice, there will be less of drifting, greater proba- 
bility of finding satisfaction in the occupations first chosen and more especially 
prepared for by each. In this older and more settled country the teacher of 
history will be a man prepared to teach historj-, a man who counts in a "man's 
size" job, a man who is practically assured of permanency of position "during 
life or good behavior". He will, of course, be a teacher of greater professional 
pride and enthusiasm than the bright \-oung man or woman whose taste leads 
toward history, who thinks a high school position may prove interesting for a 
jear or two. We are thankful to get the best of the latter type, but it will be 
better for the schools and better for the teacher when the permanent position 
and the teacher to fit it appear. 

While the development of this desirable permanency is largely a matter 
of the ripening of our civilization, we may do some things to hasten the estab- 
lishment of better conditions. We may call attention to the advantages to a 
school of permanency in such positions and favor it in the case of every satis- 
factory teacher, even though it involve some increase of salary. We may pro- 
mote so far as we can see our way to do it safely and sanely interest in voca- 
tional guidance, thus helping the coming generation to choose their life work 
in a less haphazard manner than that in which the majority of those now 
on the stage of action chose theirs. 

There has already been considerable progress as to the desirability of posi- 
tions offered to high school instructors. This progress should be accelerated fur- 
ther by intelligent recognition of needs by us and by promoting recognition by 
the public of what is desirable as well as by board members and teachers them- 
selves. Teachers of history and civics will then share in the benefits that come 
to all. If, in the case of some school systems, this department is not receiving 
the dignity and recognition it deserves, then the duty rests on us as adminis- 
trative factors of helping to secure for it its proper place of relative dignity 
together with all that should go with it. 

At the close of these discussions certain business matters were 
taken up. Superintendent J. G. Moore, of Paris, was elected mem- 
ber of the executive committee for three years and to act as Chair- 
man. 

A resolution was unanimously adopted to the effect that it is the 
wish of this Section that the University establish an exchange for 
motion picture films for the high schools of the state; and that we 
urge upon the President of the University the speediest possible con- 
clusion of such an arrangement. 



92 

Professor Hollister presented a proposed new blank for reports 
from high schools, the nature and use of which he explained to those 
present. On motion this new form of report was unanimously ap- 
proved. 

The afternoon session considered matters pertaining to the Illi- 
nois High School Athletic Association. Principal George E. Mar- 
shall, of Davenport, Iowa, gave a report on the work of the Iowa 
Association, No minutes of this session were reported to the editor. 
The following paper by Prinicpal W. L. Goble, of Elgin, was sub- 
mitted : 

The Illinois High School Athletic Association, Past, Present, 
AND Future 

Late in the nineties I was teaching in a high school that boasted of a big 
football team, as was common in schools of an enrollment of 200 or more. 
Three members of the team were pupils in actual attendance. Some of the 
team lived in neighboring towns and came into play the games. The school 
had little to do with the game more than to finance it, drum up the crowd, and 
take the blame when things went wrong. With the public the game was about 
on a par with professional baseball. It was run and supported by the sports. 
The pupils of the school had little interest in it. At the same time there were 
in the school two or three real school teams that had no recognition, but played 
the game day after day for simple love of the play. 

Those were the days when school authorities were wondering what to 
do with athletics. An activity had come into our institution that had not been 
developed there and had not been recognized as a part of the education of the 
pupil. It was a question whether to refuse to recognize it as a legitimate 
function of the school or to accept and control it. I suspect it was the instinct 
and persistence of the boys in playing it rather than the new note of emphasis 
upon the physical that came into our psychology about that time that saved the 
day for athletics. To accept it brought the necessity of controlling it. 

For the support and control of athletics local student athletic associations 
were formed. These were found to afford some support, but little control. 
Local eligibility rules could not protect against professionalism in a rival team. 
Cooperation was seen to be necessary. The colleges furnished the example. 
State High School Associations began to appear. Among the early ones was 
this one in Illinois. It began with the large schools. About 60 in all were 
soon enrolled in it ; for they all realized the need of its moral support in the 
matter of eligibility rules. I think one of the surprises was the ease of settling 
the standard of eligibility. The standard was soon recognized all over the 
state and became the basis of all inter-school contests whether the schools were 
members of the association or not. Many schools preferred to take its eligi- 
bility rules as an ideal without committing themselves to it by taking member- 
ship in it. 

The rule preventing members of the association from the promiscuous 
scheduling of games with schools outside the association was the one on which 



93 

the success or failure of the enterprise largely depended. It was hard to en- 
force it and preserve the interests of the small school whose near neighbors 
were not members. Hesitancy at this point brought the natural conclusion that 
the work of the association had been accomplished. It had established some 
good standards, and had done a great work, the results of which would be per- 
manent without further membership in the association. And the membership 
dropped off to nearly nothing — IS, I think, in 1907. But a campaign of educa- 
tion and a call for the enforcement of that rule started a rapid rise in mem- 
bership until it has now reached 317. 

An added incentive for taking membership in the association came with 
the establishing of the sectional and state basketball tournaments. Basketball 
is now the most popular form of athletic contest. The small school can meet 
the large school in this game on practically even terms and may aspire to state 
championship honors. 

So much for the history of the association, but I suspect we are all more 
interested in what the association is now and what it is actually doing. We 
will be surprised, I know, to learn that nearly all the accredited schools of the 
state are in the association. Omitting the academies and high schools of Chi- 
cago, which have an effective organization of their own more definitely suited 
to their special needs, there are fewer than fifty accredited schools out of the 
association. 

We cannot easily estimate the good that comes to all these schools through 
this association. Ideals and standards prevail and are accepted as a matter 
of course that could not have come without the moral support of such an or- 
ganization as this behind the local control of athletics. It has brought faculty 
administration to replace student management. It puts responsibility and school 
honor behind every contract. It puts definiteness and dependableness into nego- 
tiations for games. It takes kid caprice out of the conduct of the game and 
puts the control where it belongs, in the hands of those whom the public holds 
responsible for the influence and results of school organizations. 

To make this concrete I can only tell what the influence of the associa- 
tion has been in the school with which I am connected. As soon as it was 
announced the athletic association of the school voted to take membership in 
it and immediately adopted the eligibility rules as a part of the by-laws of the 
association. The Board of Control, which was half student and half faculty, 
soon saw that the administration of eligibility rules under a system of this kind 
devolved upon the faculty and turned its work over to the faculty. In fact, it 
soon ceased to exist and was supplanted by a faculty board of athletics. The 
eligibility rules have been printed from time to time in the school paper and 
are accepted as a matter of course. The school is kept informed as to all 
changes in constitution or eligibility rules, and awaits these changes with inter- 
est. The athletic reporters of the local papers ask every year about the changes 
and report them as matters of general interest. The ideals and standards of 
the association became immediately the "law and gospel", so to speak, in things 
athletic to the young people of the city. This is only an example of what is 
taking place generally throughout the state. 



94 

And now as to the future of the association. Of course it will soon in- 
clude in its membership all the accredited high schools of the state that are 
not alread)' in an organization more definitely suited to their needs. The Chi- 
cago high schools are in such an organization. Teams in the association should 
be permitted to schedule games with them. 

The object of the association, as expressed in the constitution, opens up 
a good field for thought when we look for work yet to be accomplished by 
the association. "The object of the association shall be to protect the athletic 
interests of the high schools belonging to this association, and to promote 
pure amateur athletic sports." 

The protection of the athletic interests of a school cannot be secured while 
there is such overemphasis placed on the winning of games and championships, 
especially if schools are allowed the present freedom of importing athletes 
from surrounding schools. The gain to one school is a loss to other schools. 
It makes possible the setting of so high a standard of athletic prowess to secure 
a place on a team that deserving and logical members of a team are displaced 
by bo}S who would never be in that school except for the purpose of building 
up a mighty team. The practice violates the spirit of the association, which 
aims always to keep out of athletics those who are in the school specifically 
for that purpose, and to keep the honor of representing the school in competitive 
play for those to whom it rightfully belongs. It shakes the faith of young people 
in our sincerity in our attempts to regulate these matters. The effects of the 
practice in any one place are far reaching and sometimes bring out bitter com- 
ments in schools that are far away but affected by it. It is up to the association 
to prevent the practice. 

A proper protection of the athletic interests of a school should prevent 
the exploiting of its athletics for the aggrandisement of the city, the pride of 
its professional sports, or the convenience of a wagering public. There is too 
much of the spirit of ownership of school teams in some of our cities. The 
desire to win at any cost is fostered too much. Winning the game rather than 
skillful playing is too nearly what is wanted. There is not much parading for 
the losing team however finely it plays. And yet right athletics in the school 
should bring a right appreciation of the plajang, whether the game is lost or 
won. It brings a keener delight to see a school and a city support a team for its 
good playing though it loses the game than to see them celebrate the victorj' 
of a winning team without regard to the character of the playing. Whenever 
this association or any other agency succeeds in securing a proper appreciation 
of the play rather than the winning of the game in high school athletics and 
makes it general it will have properly protected the athletic interests of the 
schools and will have promoted pure amateur athletic sports. Such a spirit 
is worth working for in our association, and I believe we shall be able to ac- 
complish much along this line. 

Less of partisanship in the management of games, less sparring for favor- 
able officials, and more courteous and generous treatment of opposing teams 
present ideals and aims, the realization of which should and will engage the 
attention and effort of the association as it goes on to attain the object it has set 
for itself. It would seem that plans for cooperation to secure approved and more 



r 95 

competent officials at reasonable rates could be worked out. At present we have 
no approved list of officials. 

A great work to be done by this association is the cultivation in the rep- 
resentative of the schools that make up the association of right ideals in the 
supervision and management of athletics, and a proper appreciation of the op- 
portunities afforded through athletics of affecting the characters of not only 
those who take part in the games but of all who take an interest in them. It 
is to be regretted that so many representatives never get into the meetings 
of the association. Perhaps more in the way of reports and literature should 
reach them. 

These suggestions for the future work of the association may seem some- 
what indefinite. They may serve at least to point out that much yet remains 
to be done, and that it is well worth doing. 

Agricultural Section 

Minutes of the Proceedings. November 20, 1914 
Professor A. W. Nolan of the College of Agriculture of the 
University of Illinois introduced Professor S. H. Dadisman, now of 
the College of Agriculture at Ames, Iowa, who presided over the 
meeting of the section. 

The following papers were read : 

1 . Extension Work and Short Courses in High School Agri- 
culture, Principal L. F. Fulwiler, Mt. Pulaski, 111. 

2. Collection and Organization of Suggestions for Teaching 
High School Agriculture, Professor I. A. Madden, Normal, 
III. 

3. Differentiation of Fundamental and Accessory Materials in 
the Content of High School Agriculture, Professor Renzo 
Muckelroy, Carbondale, 111. 

An interesting general discussion followed the reading of these 
papers. 

The following men were elected new members of the executive 
committee : 

L. F. Fulwiler, Chairman, Mt. Pulaski, 1917. 

E. D. Lawrence, McNabb, 1916. 

The following committee was appointed to report on a balanced 
course in high school agriculture, — the amount to be given and its 
place among the other subjects of the curriculum : 

A. W. Nolan. Chairman. 

Renzo Muckelroy. 

J. C. Hanna. 



96 

The conference voted to request the College of Agriculture to 
reprint the circulars on Market Classes and Grades of the various 
live stock, and Prof. W. H. Smith was appointed to bring the re- 
quest to the Animal Husbandry Department. 

The Section adjourned to meet with the other science sections-. 
in the afternoon on the question of General Science. 
S. H, Dadisman, 
Chairman. 

A. W. Nolan, 

Secretary. 

Principal L. F. Fulwiler's Paper: 

Extension Work for the High School 

The state Universities have for a number of years given considerable 
attention and devoted much effort to Agricultural Extension Work. The object 
of this work is to get much valuable information, which the Universities have 
found is being assembled by them, into the hands of the fanners at once, in 
order that the people at large may receive the benefit of the greater production 
which the Better Farming Movement might make possible. It may be said that 
under the responsibility layed by the law, upon these educational institutions 
that they were doing their duty and measuring up to their responsibility when 
they placed this valuable information in the hands of the student who have 
the good fortune to attend these schools. But with the real professional gen- 
erosity which characterizes the teaching profession the heads of these institu- 
tions have not been content with merely measuring up to their legal responsi- 
bilities but they are striving with might and main to measure up to the possi- 
bilities which the possession of this magnificent fund of practical knowledge 
has opened up to them. 

In order that the agricultural information coming from the laboratories 
and experimental fields of all these splendid institutions might become imme- 
diately available an Extension Department in each of these Industries was 
created. 

The information offered by these new Extension Departments was for a 
time discredited by many practical farmers. The questions came, "What do 
college professors who never did a day's work in their lives, know about soils, 
crops, animals and the business of farming?" Many said these schools had 
better stick to preparing their students for professional service and leave the 
farming to the American farmer, who is the best farmer on the face of the 
earth. 

But through the public press, the magazine, the bulletin, the lecture course, 
the one-day institute, the farmers' week, the exhibit train, and the University 
Short Course these extension departments struggled for recognition. Inspired 
by the knowledge that they were bearing the truth and the truth was vital to 
the future interests of all the people the indifference and criticism with which 



97 

they were met served only as an inspiration. Renewed efforts soon brought the 
recognition desired, the tide turned and the "Better Farming Movement" is 
the popular reform of the day. 

The Extension Department of our own State Institution is today literally 
swamped with demands from local organizations for help in their attempts to 
follow its lead in bringing to the farmer material which will aid him in growing 
two stalks of com where but one has grown. The farmer himself is aroused 
and the University Short Course which was formerly but a handful now enrolls 
its hundreds and the department must do something to meet this demand. 

A letter which I received last year at the opening of our short course 
from President James indicates the manner in which he thinks this relief should 
come. It reads as follows : 

"Dear Sir: — I note in my daily paper the opening of your Agricultural 
Short Course. I want to congratulate you on this undertaking. It seems to 
me that this is the way the benefits of the college of agriculture are to be 
brought home to the knowledge and consciousness of the farming population. 
We can only take care of a couple of thousand people at our short course, 
but if every Township High School were to run a similar course we might 
take care of ten or twenty or even 50,000, and so multiply the results of agri- 
cultural work. I congratulate you on your vision. 

"Yours, 

"Edmund J. James." 

The Township High School is the farmer's school and should, it would 
seem, serve the out-of-school people within its jurisdiction as well as those of 
school age who have enrolled in its regular classes. May not the high school, 
and more particularly the Township High School, be generous enough to go 
beyond the legal responsibility placed upon it and in a measure arise to its 
possibilities by following the example of our own and other State Universities 
in the institution of an Extension Department through which the State Uni- 
versity can come in close contact with the man who runs the farm. 

The Mt. Pulaski Township High School is attempting to serve its town- 
ship in the fullest possible manner and a year ago, offered its services to the 
Extension Department of this State University as a means of reaching the 
farming interests of our community. 

Our Six Weeks' Short Course in Agriculture and Domestic Science was 
the direct and immediate result of this offer. Just a year ago at the close 
of the High School Conference I met Mr. Nolan in his oflSce and in consul- 
tation with Mr. Rankin we planned what I am informed was the first Six 
Weeks' Short Course in Agriculture and Domestic Science held in a Township 
High School in the state of Illinois or in any other state as far as we know. 
I had held one the year previous in a district high school at Saybrook, 111. There 
we did not have Domestic Science but ran the Agriculture six weeks with a 
class of eighteen students ranging in age from fifteen to thirty. The boys came 
only in the forenoon, had four classes, a class in Soil Fertility, using Frank 
Man's soil book as a text, a class in Farm Law, using topics from Lyon's Com. 
Law, a class in Arithmetic and Accounts, using problems from Prof. Nolan's 
Lessons in Agriculture, and a class in Veterinary Science which consisted of 



98 

lectures and demonstrations given by the local veterinary surgeon, we had no 
help from outside. The boys recited all morning and then were excused, some 
studied in the library, some played basketball in the gymnasium in the afternoon. 

The latter part of the course found them all in the gymnasium every 
afternoon. They got the craze and soon had a team organized that gave our 
first high school team all they could do. For each Friday evening during the 
six weeks we had a lecture or a basketball game. We called on the University 
for Friday night lectures and Mr. Nolan coming to our assistance, suggested 
closing the Six Weeks' Short Course with a Farmers' Week. We adopted his 
plan. We cut it down to three days and had only evening sessions. We opened 
Wednesday evening with an agriculture lecture at 7 :30, which lasted for one 
hour, followed by an hour and a half's concert by the Chicago Ladies' Orchestra. 
On Thursday evening we had Frank I. Man and the Carolina Jubilee Singers, 
and on Friday evening J. V. Stevenson, from the University, and the Jubilee 
Singers. Our speakers came for expenses, but we paid regular bureau prices 
for the musical attractions. We sold 200 season tickets with reserved seats 
for 75 cents each. Our total receipts ran over two hundred dollars. After 
paying all expenses we had $17 left. We were assisted in this Farmers' Week 
by the Farmers' Institute Association of Cheney's Grove Township, whose 
life we had saved two years before by marching the high school down to their 
institute when no other victims appeared. Our gymnasium seating 500 people 
was packed each night, three nights in succession and on Saturday night we 
dragged them back to a final basketball game between the short course team 
and the high school. 

The Short Course and Farmers' Week were a great success from every 
point of view. It brought new life into the school, it aroused much interest 
among the farmers in agricultural education, and it opened to the high school 
a new field of possibilities. 

The Mt. Pulaski Short Course opened January 19th and closed March 
1st, 1914. We used four of our teachers as instructors, had Professor Wooters 
for two weeks from the University and W. A. Winter for one week, furnished 
by the State Farmers' Institute. In Domestic Science we had Mrs. Barlow one 
week, furnished by the University, and Mrs. McMurray, by the Farmers' Insti- 
tute, for one week. In addition we had a farmers' lecture course, one number 
at the close of each week. On that we had A. P. Grout, President of the 
National Alfalfa Growers' Association; Mr. Rankin and A. W. Nolan of the 
University ; W. A. Winter and Mrs. Murray. The dedication of our new building 
was held during the Short Course, and Dean Davenport of the U. of I. deliv- 
ered the address. 

We enrolled 80 students in these short course classes, 50 ladies in House- 
hold Science and 30 men in Agriculture. The men came all day, from 9 A. 
M. until 4 P. M., had text books, study hours and recitation periods as in regular 
high school. The subjects taught were "Permanent Agriculture," "Farm and 
Business Law," "Farm Arithmetic and Accounts," "Farm Architecture and 
Animal Husbandry." The text books were : "The Farm That Won't Wear 
Out" and for side reading "The Story of the Soil," both by Dr. Hopkins. Lyons' 
Com. Law, "Barn Plans and Out Buildings," by Powell. Arithmetic problems 



99 

were taken largely from Mr. Nolan's book, and "Beginnings in Animal Hus- 
bandry," by Plumb, was used in the study of domestic animals. 

The ladies came only in the afternoon, and while but 50 were enrolled 
from 10 to 25 visitors were often present. In the cooking Mrs. Lyford's receipt 
book was followed and the Snow system of cutting used in the sewing. A 
special class of 12 young ladies who were employed in oflfices and stores during 
the day worked from 7 to 9 each evening, and had the benfiet of the special 
teachers the same as though they had attended the day classes. 

Recreation (Basketball) 

The short course was not all work. Had it been, we might have lost 
some of our students, but, as it was, all stayed until the last day and some vis- 
ited the high school for a week after the short course closed. For recreation 
basketball teams were organized among the young students, both boys and girls, 
two teams of each. The boys played each day at 3:20 until 4:10 and the girls 
played two evenings a week after supper. 

The boys' teams were carefully coached and at the close of the six weeks 
played a tournament with the two high school teams. The basketball was again 
as at Saybrook a vital feature in attracting the younger people. Several ad- 
mitted that they came to play basketball, but became greatly interested when 
they found that the instruction was both interesting and valuable. 

A reception was tendered the short course students by the high school, 
refreshments served and a lecture, "Managing John", given by Mrs. McMurray 
for entertainment. 

Another special feature was the giving of the "King of Sherwood," or 
"Robin Hood, the Robber Knight," in comic opera, presented by the high school 
under the direction of our music teacher. 

The opera was a great success. Our Auditorium seats 550 people and 
every seat was sold before the date of the opera. The receipts were $170.00. 
Our Manual Training class had constructed a large stage and completed it with 
scenery and a drop curtain, and the sewing classes had produced fifty of as 
nobby costumes as the King of Sherwood and his companj- had ever worn. 

The closing day of the short course was Saturday and designated as Dis- 
trict School Day. 

Invitations were sent out to 40 district schools to spend the day at the 
Mt. Pulaski Township High School. Four hundred and fifty pupils above the 
fourth grade, with their teachers, were present. The forenoon was occupied 
with exhibition basketball by High School and Short Course teams. At noon 
a model school lunch was served by the domestic science classes and the after- 
noon was taken up by a repetition of the opera. 

The majority of the 450 guests arrived at 10 o'clock on the morning trains 
and left at 4 P. M., so every minute of their time in Mt. Pulaski was taken up. 

The district school board proved the best advertising scheme that the high 
school had used. Pupils, teachers and parents from the district schools were 
delighted with their entertainment and the high school won over to be friends 
many who had opposed it. 



100 

[Many interesting letters received by Mr. Fulwiler gave evidence 
of the complete success of the undertaking. Our space will not per- 
mit us to publish these here.] 

The agriculture class included landlords, farmers, who farmed their own 
farms, tenants, and farm hands; ranging in age from 16 to 70, 16 members 
of the class had attended school only in a district school, three had attended 
high school, two had attended a business college, two had attended a military- 
school, two had attended short courses at Champaign, and one had attended 
school at Champaign, one was a graduate and practicing physician, one an ex- 
bank cashier, who had retired to look after his land interests, two were cattle 
feeders, one a breeder of draft horses, one of fast horses, one of saddle horses, 
and several were giving special attention to poultry, several were selling cream 
to city trade. 

The class represented 7000 acres of cultivated land in the immediate neigh- 
borhood. On this land at the opening of the short course there was 300 acres 
of clover, less than ten acres of alfalfa, 80 acres upon which rock phosphate 
had been used, no lime had been used. None had definite systems of rotation. 

These lands had produced 80 bushels of com, 40 bushels of wheat, 80 
bushels of oats, 2 tons of timothy and 4 tons of clover, but the average crop 
for the last five years has been 45 bushels of com, 25 bushels wheat, 1 ton of 
timothy and 2 tons of clover per acre. The yields on poor farming and poor 
seasons have been as low as 15 bushels of corn, 6 bushels of wheat, 5 bushels 
of oats, % ton of timothy and 1 ton of clover. 

Our enrollment of 80 pupils was not gotten by merely announcing that 
we were going to have a Short Course. We carried for six weeks, space ads 
in our two local papers, wrote up column after column of reading articles about 
it; got out a leaflet descriptive of it and made a public distribution. We made 
up a special mailing list, getting names from towns and country about, of young 
people who might be interested and sending them circulars and post cards. The 
week before we opened we got our regular high school students and the board 
members out doing personal work among their friends. One board member 
spent three days on the street button-holing every farmer he saw and talking 
short course to him. 

Plans for the coming year are under headway. The dates are to be the 
same, the school board will back it financially; the forenoon will be devoted 
to class work, the afternoon to lectures and round table discussion. Each Fri- 
day evening a basketball game, lecture, social event or entertainment will be 
provided. 

The expense to the students will be kept as low as possible and every stu- 
dent given an opportunity to belong to a basketball team. An evening school 
in the interest of business is proposed. Requests have been coming in from the 
business men and their employes that the short course include an evening 
school devoted to the interests of the business men. An effort is being made 
to comply with this request and an evening school devoted to such subjects 
as general business management, salesmanship and such of the common branches 
as there may be need for will be arranged. 



101 

In addition to basketball teams a class in physical culture will be arranged 
for the young business men, meeting two evenings each week. 

During the short course our domestic science class served dinner cafateria 
plan. It was a fine scheme and was figured out to just pay expense so that 
from 20 to 30 cents bought a splendid dinner. For six weeks every day the 
dining room was taxed to the limit. This will be done again this year. 

Other Extension Schemes 

The Short Course is only one of our extension schemes. The Annual 
Com Show, which was held Oct. 22, 23, and 24, was just as big a success. 
We had a three days' program conducted in the high school auditorium. The 
University furnished us one speaker. Prof. Checkley. We paid James H. Shaw 
of Bloomington for one lecture on Thursday evening. We had W. A. Winter, who 
judged the com, speak on Friday afternoon ; had Bob Seeds for Friday evening 
and Saturday afternoon. The five programs given during the three days con- 
sisted of two numbers each — a concert of one hour, given by a local orchestra, 
and our high school vocal department, followed by the addresses mentioned. 
Our auditorium seats nearly 600 people and was packed to the outside doors. 
On Friday evening the windows were all open and many stood in the yard to 
hear Bob Seeds. 

The exhibit was displayed in the gymnasium and in spite of the poor 
corn this year over 100 exhibits were displayed and the samples were unusually 
good. In addition to the display of corn, wheat, oats, alfalfa, an unusual dis- 
play of vegetables appeared, making this, without doubt, the biggest show ever 
held in Logan County. The expense of the show was about $500. This was 
raised by donations from the business men and farmers. The show was put 
on by the Mt. Pulaski Farmers' Institute and Com Growers' Association. This 
Association, composed of about 30 members, had held a corn show annually 
in a tent on the public square, for the past two years at the time of the Horse 
Show, but this year the Association was reorganized as the Mt. Pulaski Farm- 
ers* Institute and Com Growers' Association, and at our invitation came to the 
high school building and is now affiliated with us as a part of our Extension 
Department. Its membership has increased to 75. 

This same organization takes charge of the annual One Day Institute 
offered by the State Farmers' Institute and this Institute will be held at the 
high school as a part of our extension work. An acre com growing contest 
is also managed by this Association. 

The Mt. Pulaski Household Science club of 50 members has also joined 
hands with us and makes the high school their headquarters. 

The Mt. Pulaski Horse Show 
Held September 15, 16 and 17, while not a part of the Extension Work 
of the school, must not be omitted in this connection, as it is a very material 
part of the community activity along agricultural lines. The horse show is mn 
by the Horse Show Association, composed of business men and farmers who 
subscribe annually to its support. This year $3,000 in premiums was distributed, 
five hundred entries were made, 3000 to 5000 people attended on each of the 



102 

three days. Premiums were offered in 80 different classes of heavy and light 
horses and mules. 

The show was held about the public square and during the entire three 
days morning, afternoon and evening, the local band, assisted by the P. & O. 
Quartette, of Canton, kept up a continuous performance. 

The annual agricultural events at Mt. Pulaski may be summed up as 
follows, beginning in — 

September, the Horse Show, three days. 

October, Corn Show ; three days. 

December, Farmers' Institute, 1 day, and in January and February, the 
Short Course, six weeks. Monthly meetings of the Mt. Pulaski Farmers' Insti- 
tute and Com Growers' Association and the monthly meetings of the Household 
Science Club. 

Further Plans 

For the development of Extension Work. We have organized a parents' 
club of 50 members, composed of the patrons of the graded and township high 
school. It is the intention to interest the patrons of each district school in the 
township to organize such a local organization and then to have all the districts 
join in a Township Patrons' Club. This club to become active in the interests 
of all the schools in the township. The next step will be a School Directors' 
Association of the township, looking toward a close relationship between the 
district schools and the township high school, if possible, to terminate in 
township supervision by the principal of the high school. 

An Experimental Farm 

We have dared to hope for an experimental farm. Our ideal of an experi- 
mental farm for the school is an eighty-acre farm, laid out, improved, and 
cropped in accordance with the best ideas obtainable in all of its details, farmed 
by a practical farmer under the direction of the school, acting under the advice 
of our State University. This farm may belong to the school or not, but it 
must be run for financial profit in order that it may be practical for the guid- 
ance of both students in the regular work and farmers in the extension work. 

It is our hope that some day we may have such a farm as an addition to 
our school. Until such a provision can be made "Home Project Work" is all 
that can be done profitably. Each member of the class may attempt one definite 
thing for his summer work and report on it in the fall. Someone takes alfalfa 
growing, another uses lime, another phosphate, one raises an acre of com, sev- 
eral try dairy experiments, and others try experiments in the feeding of cattle 
or hogs. 

Green House and Stock Pavilion 

Another addition hoped for is a green house in which experiments with 
soils and farm crops can be carried on all the year around, together with a 
stock pavilion into which all kinds of stock and machinery may be brought 
from the street and carefully studied. 



103 

This addition is inexpensive and of the greatest value in the study of all 
agricultural questions. 

Publishing the Results of Work 

We have published in the local press papers prepared by different students 
on practical agricultural subjects. Upon finishing the study of soils a paper 
has been assigned to a student, "The Soils of Logan County," for example. 
The student spent a week on this paper, handed it in for approval, and it was 
then sent to the printer and published in our regular school column. 

This scheme furnishes an inspiration to the student, it pleases his friends 
and lets the public know that our agricultural work has real merit. 

Visiting Farms 

After the Horse Show, the Corn Show, the Farmers' Institute and the 
Short Course, all of which presented new ideas and acted as a stimulation to 
the farmers, we have been interested to know just who our progressive farmers 
were and what they were doing, so we got into an auto and started to visiting 
each farmer in his own home to talk over with him the things that he was 
doing to better his farming. The most progressive men were visited first and 
careful notes made of their work and articles written for the paper from 
these notes. 

The farmers we visited were pleased to have us interested in their indi- 
vidual schemes. When these write-ups came out they were widely read, and 
the invitations began to come in from all sides from others not visited, asking 
us to come out and see what they were doing. Many who have been doing 
nothing are getting busy, and summing it all up we are having a real "agricul- 
tural revival" in our community. Everybody is getting religion in the good old 
fashioned way, good fellowship prevails, as we all put our shoulders to the 
wheel to give the "Better Farming Movement" one big push. 

The School Has Other Fields of Action 

But why should high school extension work be confined to agricultural 
interests? Why should commercial short courses not be held as well as agricul- 
tural? Why should not the school work in the interests of the business man 
as well as the farmer, or in the interests of the tradesmen, or in that of manu- 
facturing, mining, lumbering or fishing interests? Why not in all these interests, 
as much as in the interests of the farmer? In other words, why should the 
high school not work in the business interests of the class of people that are 
taxed to support it? Why should the high school not be the biggest, most com- 
prehensive influence for the betterment of material conditions in every com- 
munity? 

Mt. Pulaski Federation of Community Interests 

Since the writing of the above paper, Mt. Pulaski has taken the initial 
steps toward the federation of her community interests in order that a unified 
effort may be made and a vigorous progressive campaign fully launched. At 



104 

the regular annual meeting of the Horse Show Association held at the High 
School Auditorium, at which time ISO guests sat down to a splendid banquet 
prepared by the Domestic Science Department, a move was started to federate 
all the community interests into one organization whose object should be to 
guide a unified effort to make Mt. Pulaski a model community. 

A stirring address was given by Dr. R. E. Hieronymous, community ad- 
visor for the College of Commerce of the University of Illinois, in which he 
carefully outlined the benefits of such an organization and proposed in outline 
a form of organization and plan of action. Several short addresses by citizens 
representing the commercial, agricultural, professional, trades, educational, and 
other general interests followed. At the close of these discussions a committee 
of ten representing these interests was appointed to draft a constitution and 
by-laws for such a federation, with authority to call a second meeting when 
the committee was ready to report. 

Mt. Pulaski is a little city of 2000 inhabitants, situated at the junction of 
two branches of the Illinois Central, 24 miles from Springfield, 11 miles from 
Lincoln, 20 miles from Clinton and 22 miles from Decatur. The old court house 
in Mt. Pulaski was once the county seat of Logan County. It is still standing 
on the summit of the old hill. About it on four sides are the business houses 
and from its grounds at the four corners the streets stretch away down the 
hill to the residence portion of the city. It is one of the wealthiest of the rural 
communities of the state. The soil is a rich brown silt loam that characterizes 
the corn belt. The people are largely of German origin, have lived industrious, 
economical lives and extended their land interests to many other states. 

Their faith in education is evidenced by the tv/o magnificent buildings that 
have been provided for school purposes. One, the grade school, erected in 1911 
at a cost of $30,000, and the new Township High School, which when fully 
completed and equipped will cost $50,000. 

The city has oiled streets, paved gutters, a water system, electric lights, 
one coal shaft, three electric elevators, about 40 business houses and seven 
churches. 

Professor I. A. M add en's Paper: 

Collection and Organization of Suggestions for Teaching High School 

Agriculture 

The teaching of agriculture presents more difficulties than the teaching 
of any other subject found in our present school program. The mass of ma- 
terial which should be crowded into a four-year curriculum in agriculture in the 
high school, the absence of suitable laboratories and laboratory equipment, the 
scarcity of field materials, and the lack of text books made the teachers' task 
enormous. The teachers of agriculture are to be congratulated for being in 
the work, for there are but two things which have drawn them there, the love 
of money or the love for the work, and I am inclined tc think it cannot be 
the former, for men do not usually enter the teaching profession because of 
the money involved. Let us assume then, that the teacher of agriculture is 
equipped with plenty of nerve and a willingness to work as many hours as 



105 

he is awake, and proceed to give lilm a few hints as to the paths into which 
his energies can be turned for the best interests of himself and his pupils. 

Let us turn to the United States Department of Agriculture and see what 
is there for the teacher and his classes. Some wit has said that the department 
annually furnishes the farmer sufficient bulletins to fire his furnace. I wonder 
if some of our schools do not look to the same source for their fuel. I know 
it is a big question with every teacher as to what to save and what not to save 
from the great quantities which may be obtained from the government printing 
office. In the first place, no school in the State of Illinois should be without 
a copy of the Year Book of the United States Department of Agriculture. See 
to it that your senator or representative in congress sends you a copy each year, 
and see that it is put into your library where the students may be referred 
to it. Next in order are the Farmers' Bulletins. Very seldom is there one 
of these publications issued that is not of interest to the farmers of any state. 
From the list of bulletins from the various bureaus in the department select 
those that are of value to the people of your state and order them. If you are 
in doubt about their being of value to you order them. Those that are labeled 
w'orth five cents, ten cents, or any number of cents, are usually the most valuable 
publications and they are the ones you want. Write to your senator or repre- 
sentative and ask him to send you copies of them. Your senator or repre- 
sentative will not be obliged to pay for them and Uncle Sam has more money 
than most high schools in Illinois. If he runs short, we may levy another war 
tax. If you run short, there will be war but no tax. The United States De- 
partment is issuing a series of bulletins and letters on teaching agriculture, and 
they have made lists of the bulletins in their possession helpful in teaching the 
various branches of agriculture. These bulletins may be had for the asking. 
See that your school gets in touch with the officials dealing with the teaching of 
agriculture and get their suggestions. In addition to the helps already men- 
tioned there is issued by the department lectures bearing on various phases 
of agriculture. These lectures are accompanied by excellent lantern slides which 
are loaned to those wishing to use them for the payment of express on the 
same. No better class exercise could be had than to place the lecture and slides 
in the hands of a student and have him present them to the class. 

In addition to the quantities of material furnished by the United States 
Department of Agriculture the state experiment stations are in position to fur- 
nish you with a wealth of material for reference work. There should not 
be a school in the state that is not on the mailing list of the Illinois State Ex- 
periment Station, and every bulletin issued by the station should be carefully 
preserved. In addition to the bulletins and circulars issued ever>- officer in 
the station stands ready and willing to answer any question asked regarding 
his specialty. I have never found one of the station staff who was not willing 
to go to considerable trouble in answering questions directed to him. In addi- 
tion to the men in the various fields represented in the experiment station work, 
we have an extension department created especially for your benefit and you 
should see to it that they earn their money. 

The question that is now in your mind is the disposal of this multitude 
of bulletins and circulars after they have been collected. I believe the best 



106 

practice is to collect all bulletins and circulars and file them in the series in 
which they are published. For instance, all bulletins issued by the State Experi- 
ment Station should be collected, and when a sufficient number has been col- 
lected to make a volume, they should be bound. If it is impossible to bind them 
in a permanent binding, they may be preserved in a paper box or folder made 
for this purpose. The Farmers' Bulletins should be collected and bound in 
numerical order and not under the various subject heads which they happen 
to represent. This scheme should be followed in all bulletins issued in series. 
Indexes may now be made up and pasted on the outside of the boxes or on the 
covers of the bound volumes. The student or teacher will then be able to find 
material on the subject he is investigating without sorting through the entire 
list of bulletins. In addition to the indexes, there should be a series of sub- 
ject indexes accessible to the student where he could find material on any sub- 
ject upon which he is working. I have tried to file bulletins and circulars 
under subject heads, and my plans have ended in chaos because of the many 
publications treating more than one subject. At the Normal University we 
are filing all state and national publications in series with excellent results. 
If the bulletins and circulars are not bound, it is often feasible to store them 
in pigeon holes made especially for this purpose, but this method, although 
somewhat quicker than boxes, will not allow expansion in the files as boxes will. 
With the box method one box may be filled and another one placed on the shelf 
beside it. With the pigeon hole method, the bulletins cannot be kept in groups 
without constant shifting and relabeling. However, any method of handling 
bulletins that might be suggested will involve considerable labor and some 
expense. 

The next place that the teacher should turn to keep in touch with his 
subject is to the book companies. New books are constantly being published, 
especially books suited to high-school agriculture, and the teacher should see 
to it that he gets copies of these books from the publishing companies for ex- 
amination. A few years ago all books written on agricultural subjects were 
for colleges, but today the writers are finding a sale for books in high schools 
and academies and are turning their attention to this field. In the past few 
years, several excellent books have appeared for high school work. Every book 
whether adopted or not should be carefully gone over by the teacher, for they 
all contain many new and valuable suggestions, and will broaden the teacher 
in his view of the subject. Keep in touch with all publishing companies and 
examine their books as they appear on the market. Many are using old and 
inefficient books because they do not know there are new and better books 
to be had. 

Next in importance to the teacher of agriculture after government and 
state publications and text and reference books come the farm papers. There 
are dozens of these publications and some of them are worthy of considerable 
attention on the part of the teacher and student, but considerable caution should 
be used in subscribing for these papers and in sanctioning the veracity of all 
articles published therein. No matter how excellent the farm paper there are 
always people contributing to it for monetary reasons alone, and they are more 
than apt to stretch the truth or paint the lily in order to sell their articles. I 



107 

have often said that it was necessary to know more about every subject dis- 
cussed in farm papers than the writer did in order to verify the statements 
made. I make a practice of not taking too much stock in articles in farm papers 
unless the articles are signed by students or investigators who would not dare 
attach their names to an unsound doctrine. The teacher must guide the pupils' 
reading of farm papers and caution them against approving all statements 
made. Each school should take a few farm papers and keep them where they 
are accessible to students of agriculture. The reading of them should be en- 
couraged for it keeps the student abreast of the advanced farming interests. 
I might recommend the Breeders' Gazette, Hoard's Dairj'man, The Countr>- 
Gentleman, and Wallace's Farmer as a group of papers representing nearly 
every farm interest. 

Every teacher of agriculture should get in touch with the State Live 
Stock Commission at Springfield, and secure from them digests of laws govern- 
ing the handling of livestock, and the use of senims and antitoxins, and the 
placing of quarantines on farm. In addition to these data, they should secure 
the addresses of all stock breeding associations and secure from them the lit- 
erature relative to each breed. Each livestock association has on hand a con- 
siderable amount of literature valuable in the study of animal husbandrj*. In 
addition they have excellent photographs or halftones of the best animals of 
the breed. These pictures make excellent substitutes in the absence of the 
animal, and there is no community that affords one-third of the kinds of stock 
bred. I have recently started collecting a series of photographs representing 
the various breeds of livestock and up to date the work is proceeding with 
excellent results. 

In addition to the State Live Stock Commission the State Board of Health 
and the State Board of Agriculture stand ready to aid in all questions relating 
to their work. Working with the State Board of Agriculture is the State Farm- 
ers' Institute. We should all be on their mailing list and receive the many 
valuable bulletins, circulars and letters issued. 

The teacher is probably called upon more times during the year than any 
other professional man to attend meetings and conventions relative to his work. 
The teacher of agriculture should attend more than other men in the profession, 
if he is to keep abreast of his occupation. The state and county fairs, the 
International Live Stock Exposition, the National Dairy Show, the Land 
Show, the Cement Show, and others too numerous to mention all contribute 
to the broad experience that must be his who teaches agriculture well, and in 
addition provide him with a wealth of ideas for presenting the work to the 
students. At the National Dair\' Show held in Chicago last month the exhibits 
presented by the Department of Dairy Husbandry in the state colleges were 
rich with important data and with ideas of bringing these data before the class 
in such a way that they realize its importance. I would rather miss almost any 
teachers' meetings than one of these shows or fairs for they furnish material 
that is not to be had at a meeting of pedagogues. 

In the past few years companies having goods which they wish to bring 
before the public have resorted to a new system of advertising which they are 
pleased to call publicity work. Some of these concerns employ capable men 



108 

who act as their field agents as well as editors of various pamphlets and other 
material advertising the wares of the company. In the majority of cases these 
concerns furnish inforfhation that is desirable and authentic. Among such 
companies, we may note the various types that teachers should be in touch with. 
Among these companies are the ones dealing in seeds and the ones dealing in 
live stock. Both publish much valuable information and many excellent photo- 
graphs which are useful in the class room. Closely allied with these companies 
are the nursery companies with a wealth of information relative to planting 
trees and shrubs as well as the care of the same. 

One of the manufacturing concerns that is spending a considerable amount 
of money on this type of advertising is the Association of Portland Cement 
Manufacturers. This organization is not in the field to advertise any special 
brand of cement, but it is their mission to make the people more familiar with 
Portland Cement. They issue a series of bulletins giving minute instructions for 
the construction of any cement or concrete structure known to the art. The 
bulletins are carefully prepared by expert engineers and the teacher doing work 
in concrete construction need not fear using them. In fact, there is not a book 
on the market today that will give the information wanted as well as these 
bulletins will. In addition to these bulletins, each cement company maintains 
an information bureau and valuable bulletins may be had from these concerns 
for the asking. Recently the Universal Portland Cement Company has started 
on a new venture. They propose to give a series of correspondence lessons 
in cement and cement construction. All are eligible to take these lessons and 
may do so by applying to the company for lesson one. I am asking my students 
to take these lessons for I consider them the best I have seen in that line of 
work. I hear comments from my students every day as to the interest taken 
in the lessons. I hope all my hearers will be enrolled before the end of another 
week. The price is return postage only. 

Another group of companies interested in the publicity work are the power 
and feed machine companies. Teachers with classes in farm mechanics should 
secure the catalogs of all machine companies of importance, and in addition 
to catalogs should try to secure their salesman's guide. This guide discusses 
each machine and treats of the good points and special features of the ma- 
chine. In addition to these corporations like the International Harvester Com- 
pany publish many pamphlets, etc., which are of great value at times. The 
manufacturers of steam and gas engines always publish excellent cuts of simple 
and compound steam engines and of two and four cycle gas engines. These 
cuts are always wanted when we teach the principles of these machines. 

Farmers should always know how to mix paint and thus avoid paying 
exorbitant prices for poor quality of mixed paint. White lead companies publish 
pamphlets on mixing of all kinds of paints. These should be where you could 
lay your hands on them for books do not give you sufficient information. 

All manufacturers of fertilizers publish data collected to show the value 
of their wares to the farmer. In many cases the data quoted is not complete 
enough to allow for a complete analysis of the material to be sold, but much 
valuable data may be had from these concerns. There are some fertilizer com- 
panies which publish data which should not fall into the hands of our pupils 



109 

and the teacher should sec that these bulletins are removed from material fur- 
nished students. 

Another source of valuable illustrative material is the flour mill which 
makes a practice of converting the by-products of flour manufacture into feeds 
for live stock. These mills usually are willing to send samples of the various 
products of the mill to schools if these samples are to be used for instructional 
purposes. No better samples of the common mill feeds could be had than 
these. Corn product companies also make a practice of sending samples of their 
products, and packing houses send samples of the by-products of the packing 
house, consisting of anything from horn combs to ground bone meal for fer- 
tilizing. 

The manufacturers of dairy machinery' and of dairy products often pub- 
lish valuable booklets and pamphlets on dairying. Separator companies arc 
doing considerable valuable publicity work. 

If w^e are working on plans for barns and sheds the various barn equip- 
ment companies stand ready to send blueprints and folders describing the best 
tj'pes of bams and sheds and the proper construction of them. Some of the 
best bams in the countrv- have been planned by the architects working with these 
companies and they are perfectlj^ able to execute excellent plans. 

In addition to all these concerns we have the manufactures of fungicides, 
insecticides and spray machinery who publish valuable spraying calendars and 
guides to the horticulturist. 

I have gone through this subject hurriedly in order to show you the possi- 
bilities which lie before the teacher of agriculture. I know that all the material 
mentioned herein is not the best, but it will fill the bill in the absence of some- 
thing better. I have seen men teach at agriculture in high schools and colleges 
for two years and at the end of that time all they had to show for their work 
was a well worn text book. They had given up the teaching of agriculture 
as an impossibility, and it was with them in the chair. They should have been 
spending their time collecting material, making charts, and w^orking out exer- 
cises that could be carried on in the absence of an abundance of illustrative 
material, and a well equipped library. The teacher of agriculture who is "onto 
the job" for two years should have at his command a library of which he could 
well be proud, if he will only collect and organize that great mass of free ma- 
terial that is his for the asking. 

Material from United States Department of Agriculture: 

Year Book of Department of Agriculture. 

Experiment Station Record. 

Bulletins of following Departments : 

Farmers' Bulletins. 

Bureau of Education. 

Bureau of Animal Industry'. 

Bureau of Entomology. 

Bureau of Forestry'. 

Lists of bulletins prepared for teachers of agriculture. 

Lists of lantem slides available for educational purposes. 

Special reports on Diseases of Horses. 



no 

special report on Diseases of Cattle. 

Material from State Experiment Stations. 

All available bulletins and circulars as well as charts, etc. All schools 
should be on the mailing list. 

Get bound copy of report if possible. 

Get reports and bulletins from states other than your own. Have school 
on all mailing lists. 

Addresses where material may be had : 

State Live Stock Commission, Springfield, Illinois. 

State Pure Food Commission, Springfield, Illinois. 

State Board of Agriculture, Springfield, Illinois. 

State Board of Health, Springfield, Illinois. 

State Farmers' Institute, Springfield, Illinois. 

Association of Portland Cement Manufacturers, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Live Stock Companies Advertising in Farm Papers. 

Seed Companies advertising in Farm Papers. 

Nursery Companies advertising in Farm Papers. 

International Harvester Company, Chicago, Illinois. 

John Deere Plow Company, Moline, Illinois. 

Moline Plow Company, Moline, Illinois. 

P. & O. Company, Canton, Illinois. 

Avery Co., Peoria, Illinois. 

Minneapolis Threshing Machine Co., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Oliver Plow Co., South Bend, Ind. 

Dairy Machiner>- Companies advertising In Hoard's Dairyman. 

Barn Plans 

Manufacturing Company, Fort Atkinson, Wis. 
Loudon Machinery Co., Fairfield, Iowa. 
Hunt, Helm, Ferris Co., Harvard, Illinois. 
Porter Co., Ottawa, Illinois. 
National Lead Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

Professor Renzo Mtickelroy's Paper: 

Differentiation of Fundamentals and Accessories in the Content of 
High School Agriculture 

The wording of my subject allows quite a little latitude, and ample room 
for differences of opinion. In the main we may not differ materially in the 
fundamentals of Agriculture, but there may be some variation in the accessories. 
What may be one person's fundamental in the subject may be another's acces- 
sory and vice versa. The section of the state in which we teach, the county or 
community where the school is located, and the interests of the people in the 
agricultural work, will all determine the fundamentals and accessories. For 
the above reasons, it is not within my power to properly label the agricultural 
material to the satisfaction of all concerned. A few type studies will be dis- 
cussed. 



Ill 

One of the first fundamentals which I wish to discuss is that agriculture 
shall be taught as a separate subject. The way this Nature Study Agriculture 
is being taught does not accomplish much. We can never reach the farm life 
with our agriculture work clothed in the form of our so-called Nature Study. 

I am not opposed to Nature Study, it is all well and good in its place, 
and in the hands of a teacher who knows the subject, but with the average 
teacher of today either in the country schools, city schools or high schools the 
subject is a farce in so far as its aim is the basis of agriculture. 

Just now when so many high schools are anxious to have it said that 
agriculture is being taught, they are tacking it to one of the physical or biological 
sciences as a sort of appendage. This is not fair to the subject of agriculture 
to undertake to explain the facts in such a disconnected and poorlj' organized 
manner. Such a method does not give prominence to the fact that agriculture 
is itself a science. If these facts of agricultural practice are considered with 
reference to underlying principles, and if from these are formulated definite 
lines of procedure organized into a system, we may call the conduct a science. 
The science of agriculture is more than a unifying organization of correct agri- 
cultural practices. 

If high school agriculture ever fails it will be on account of its trailing 
the other sciences as a "sort of a filler." The cause will be found in the teacher 
who has not had sufficient training, who is handicapped by the lack of a broad 
foundation and who must resort to the nature study viewpoint in which the 
recurrence of the seasons governs, to no small degree, the selection of topics 
and their subsequent organization. 

If for no other reason we hold the teacher of agriculture as a separate 
science one of the fundamentals, it would be that the high school students are 
not given a "square deal". To hold them so closely to an industrial education 
of a peculiar kind at this period, to give ever>' boy and girl in the high school 
a bent toward agriculture would be a step as radically wrong as it is uncalled 
for. If agriculture is to be taught with the physical and biological sciences 
who can tell how much agriculture has been taught, the character of the work 
done, and the amount of credit due either, when a transfer is made? 

Following this fundamental fact that agriculture should be taught as a 
separate subject, is another which is just as important. It is that there should 
be no one year courses in the high schools covering the whole field of agriculture. 
Just think of such an eflFort. No wonder we have teachers of but little training 
who feel equal to the occasion. How often have I heard the remark, "Anyone 
who has lived on the farm can teach agriculture." Such teachers view the 
whole subject as a task. We have hundreds of just such agricultural teachers 
in the countr>' schools, and they have a right to feel proud of their efforts 
when they perhaps have covered the whole field in one year of the high school 
and have had their view substantiated by hearing some instructor in a county 
teachers' institute correlate agriculture with Geography and in five lectures (the 
fifth one shortened because of Friday afternoon program) preach from Genesis 
to Revelation. Such an effort is disgusting. The one year text books, which 
have flooded the countrj^ the past few years covering the whole subject, are 
having their day, and will die a natural death when we know more about our 



112 

condition. Such books contain a little of everything and not much of anything. 
If we can give but one year's time to the subject, let us have two years' work 
and alternate the years, Soil Fertility and Crop Production one year and Animal 
Studies and Feeding the other year. I care but little for the arrangement just 
so the work is done in units and someone can actually give the boundaries and 
name the product. 

If it is fundamental that agriculture should be taught as a separate science 
in the high schools and as units of work, what shall be the units? This has 
been pretty well worked out in general, and the teacher is left to choose and 
make the arrangement and application. 

The subjects to choose from are such as Soil Fertility, Soil Physics, Crop 
Production, Orcharding, Gardening, Principles of Selection and Breeding, Care 
and Feeding of Farm Animals, Types and Breeds of Domestic Animals, Poultry, 
Dairying, Farm Machinery, Farm Mechanics, Landscape Architecture, Farm 
Management, etc. Possibly but very few high schools feel at the outset that 
they can cover the whole range of the agriculture work, but there is nothing 
named in the above list that is not of vital importance to the business of farm- 
ing. And we may even say that the list is incomplete when we consider the 
training of the boy who will be the farmer of the future. 

Should I choose from the list it would be those subjects which I consider 
fundamental to my section. Such a choice would include Soil Fertility, Crop 
Production, Types and Breeds of Farm Animals, Care and Feeding of Animals, 
Soil Phj'sics, Farm Mechanics, Orcharding and Farm Management. 

Not even in my enthusiasm for crowding all possible subjects into the 
curriculum would I dare to substitute a study for Farm Mechanics and work 
Farm Mechanics in connection with a general course of Physics, or to cover 
the ground of Farm Management in connection with Soil Fertility and Animal 
Studies. Such an effort would be almost suicidal. 

The study of Soil Fertility is fundamental to every form of successful 
agriculture, and here should be placed special emphasis to the end that those 
who till the soil may know and understand some of its physical character and 
to some extent its chemical composition. The students should know how and 
why soils differ as well as their classification and name. They should know the 
characteristics of these soils with the methods of handling in order to secure 
the best results for growing crops. 

In the study of farm crops the student should know in part some of the 
chemical and physical requirements in relation to growth, in general the inven- 
tory of the soil, and the plant food requirements. 

The accessories for these two very important subjects. Soil Fertility and 
Crop Production, will be the laboratory and field demonstration. In the begin- 
ning the Fertility Laboratory need not be an expensive one. If the school 
should have well equipped phj'sical and biological laboratories much of the 
material may serve a double purpose. Such things as soil augers, soil pans, 
capillary tubes, specific gravity tubes, oven, etc., will have to be purchased, but 
for a class of ten to fourteen working in groups of two, the extra cost can 
be kept between $50.00 and $75.00 the first year. 



113 

The equipment for farm crops should include carefully selected and pre- 
pared specimens, especially of those crops grown in the respective communities. 
Specimens of weeds that are both common and troublesome should be prepared. 
As far as possible these specimens should show the whole plant, roots and tops, 
with matured blossoms or seed. Small sheaves of the different cereals and 
grasses may be gathered. The laboratory should be well stocked with speci- 
mens of seeds of farm crops carefully labeled. Samples of the various com- 
mercial fertilizers on the market should be kept with a statement of the chemical 
analysis of each. Pot culture work should have its place to show the effect 
of the various plant foods and combinations of such foods. 

The field work is of absolute importance, so much so that it should be 
classed as a fundamental. It may seem hard for the average village high school 
to secure land for demonstration. Perhaps the ideal of the teacher may be too 
high for this phase of work. It is not necessary that high schools have acres 
for this demonstration, a city lot or a few rods in the corner of some man's 
field, is ample. I had much rather have a small area, each plot being only one 
rod square where students may do the work, than to have acres and hire all 
the labor. 

The objection to this field work is that school will be out at the time the 
work grows most interesting and needs attention. This may be overcome by 
allowing a certain amount of vacation credit for such work. If this agricul- 
tural field work is to reach the best results some system of vacation credits 
must be worked out. But somewhere, some time, some township that supports 
an up-to-date township high school will give us an ideal solution to the prob- 
lem. This township will hire its agricultural teacher for full time, and put in 
a four years' curriculum. This teacher will do his class work, give instructions 
to farmers over the township, organize his clubs, etc., during the winter, and 
■when summer comes he will continue his work by directing the boys in the 
vacation credits and at the same time be the township adviser. The county 
adviser is all well and good and must serve the purpose until we can do better, 
but the solution will never come until the agricultural work has its heart in the 
schools and works out from these as centers, not only directing the father in 
his efforts, but better still his boy, the one who will be the farmer of the future. 

The equipment for the work in animal studies will probably be the more 
difficult to provide. In the study of the large domestic animals we will have to 
resort to pictures, charts, etc. Animals can usually be borrowed for demonstra- 
tion work, but they are not always the best type. In addition to this study of 
breeds, the handling and care in breeding and feeding must be taught. It will 
be a long time before the average high schools can afford the larger animals 
for this purpose. To demonstrate these principles I think that poultry is the 
best thing available for this work. I hope that poultry will soon become stand- 
ard school equipment for this purpose. There are several reasons why we 
should concern ourselves with poultr^^ First, because practically every home, 
both city and country, has poultr>-. Pure bred poultry is growing in popularity; 
it appeals to both the young and the old, to people of wealth as well as those 
of little means. Its products are growing in demand as pure food and cost of 
living concern us; it need not occupy much space, it does not need much invest- 



114 

ment, does not depend on climatic conditions ; it is self-supporting and may be 
made a source of profit if properly conducted. The same principles of breeding 
and feeding apply equally to horses, cattle, sheep and swine. The rapidity with 
which poultry multiplies and the shortness of time for development makes it 
especially well adapted for such courses. This work I place as a very valuable 
accessory to the study of Animal Husbandr>^ 

Every farm boy should know more about the care and handling of milk 
and its products. The smaller high schools can do but little in this subject 
except along -general principles, milk testing, cream separating, churning, etc. 
The nearer we approach the specialized forms of agriculture study the harder 
it will be to secure the needed equipment at moderate expense. 

Time will not admit of any detailed discussion of the other possible high 
school studies. In conclusion, may I say, as our subject matter is being better 
worked out, it is getting time to marshall our forces. The Agricultural Depart- 
ment here at the University must ever be the source from which complete in- 
struction and direction must come. The field is too large for one institution 
to cover all phases of the work in all parts of the state and do it well. The 
smaller colleges, the state normal schools, city and township high schools must 
take up the work in their respective spheres of action. The country boy in the 
country schools must feel the pulse and catch the inspiration of that better life 
which he may live from one or all of these institutions. 

Biology Section 

The meeting of the Biology Section of the High School Confer- 
ence was held Friday, November 20, from 9 to 12 A. M., in Room 229 
Natural History Building. Principal G. J. Koons, Chairman of the 
Section, presided. 

The first business of the Section was the reading of the Report 
of Committee on Illustrative Materials for High School Biology 
Courses, presented by Professor T. W. Galloway, James Millikin 
University, Decatur. The report is as follows : 

Your committee, appointed to make recommendations as to the illustrative 
materials with which high schools should be supplied in order to give in a 
satisfactory way the courses in Botany and Zoologj^ beg to make the following 
report : 

1. We desire to express our conviction that every school should, regu- 
larly and with some system, undertake to build itself up in this regard. By 
following this practice thru a period of years any school may supply itself with 
the minimum necessities, without financial strain. 

2. It is possible, for convenience, to divide the illustrative necessities into 
two main groups: — (a) those that must be purchased outright, and (b) those 
that may be made gradually by students of successive classes, if only they are 
supplied with the necessary raw materials. This latter group is somewhat larger 
than we may at first sight believe. Furthermore, whenever it is possible for 



115 

some such materials to be made by students the very making may become a 
means of increasing interest and of giving fuller meaning to the course. 

3. We desire also to insist that most teachers do not use as fully as they 
should the supply of illustrative material which nature affords. The individual 
vi^ork in fields and forests, in swamps and in the waters, in parks and gardens, 
in green-houses and zoological gardens furnishes a means of illustrating courses 
which our formal use of the laboratory and class room cannot at all replace. 

4. In detail we make the following suggestions as to what should be held in 
the mind of the teacher of Biology and the directors of schools as an objective : — 

a. Museums. Small sjTioptic collections illustrating the main phyla and 
classes of animal kingdom and the main groups of plants are very valuable. 
These should not be large and should be built up by successive classes, teachers, 
and friends of the school rather than got by purchase. Money should go into 
the cases, containers, and preserving materials, rather than into specimens. It 
will be necessary to buy some specimens, — as sponges, corals, and other sea 
forms. Aside from such synoptic collections, built up by successive classes, 
two particularly interesting lines of addition are open to the museum of a high 
school: (1) considerable numbers of certain kinds of objects (e. g. snail shells, 
or leaves, or insect species) arranged, to illustrate the range of variation, may 
be mounted for display; (2) skeletons may be prepared and mounted, or other 
specially excellent dissections by members of a class may be preserved. Such 
original contributions by students may well be labeled and credited to the stu- 
dent preparing it. Such a museum does not need to be large to be exceedingly 
valuable ; but it should be fairly representative and synoptic. 

b. For living materials, plant and animal. Some green-house facilities, 
if only a sunny window, for winter use, and outdoor beds for spring, are desir- 
able for first-hand supply of botanical material. A comer in the local green- 
house can often be rented. 

There should be one aquarium of some size, if possible with running water. 
A number of battery jars or other glass vessels of various sizes, insect cages, 
life-boxes, and the like are essential. Students can make many of these boxes 
and cages, and even small wood aquaria with one or more glass sides. A small 
fund should be set apart for such purposes and be available without unnecessary 
delay. All these things are valuable to insure having organisms when they are 
needed, to allow experiments and continued observations on habits, and to allow 
study of development. The librarj- should have at least one good book contain- 
ing suggestions for making such apparatus and the care of living animals. We 
commend Ganong's "Teaching Botanist" as an aid in the organization of the 
museum and in other respects. If the school room is not kept heated at night 
these life supplies may be kept in a suitable basement room during the coldest 
weather. 

c. The local collection of living material. We feel that something is lost 
if classes are not encouraged to collect as much of the needed local material as 
possible for themselves. Field work should be so organized that at least some 
of this shall be done. In connection with this sort of work a home-made map, 
drawn to suitable scale, of the locality for several miles around the school may 
be perfected, if the locality at all lends itself to this treatment. All important 



116 

topographic points that have to do with plant and animal life should be located. 
The roads, streams, springs, ponds, and otlcr special habitats of specially inter- 
esting plants and animals should be indicated. There should also be a card 
catalog or indexed book in which are inserted the locality on the map where 
special types of plants and animals are discovered from year to year. In a few 
years such an arrangement will illustrate some of the local facts of geographic 
distribution, as well as be an aid to each incoming class in finding what it needs. 
It will be necessary always to purchase some materials for laboratory and 
museum work. We cannot publish a complete list of dealers; but the following 
are reliable : 

A. A. Sphung, North Judson, Ind. Live or preserved frogs, crayfish, 
turtles, etc. 

H. M. Stephens, Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa., Zoological and Botanical 
materials for class use. 

C. S. Brimley, Raleigh, N. C. Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fishes, living or 
preserved. A good reference for the winter months. 

Biological Supply Co., 106 Edgerton St., Rochester, N .Y. Plant and ani- 
mal materials for laboratory; slides. 

Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. Preserved materials for 
Botany, Zoology and Embryology. 

Saint Louis Biological Laboratory', St. Louis, Mo. Microscopic and Lantern 
Slides. 

d. Microscopes. If microscopes are used only for demonstration purposes 
there should be at least two good standard instruments with powers ranging 
from 50-500, so that both low and medium power views can be shown at the 
same time. There should also be one oil-immersion objective for occasional 
high power demonstrations. 

If microscopes are to be used as a regular part of the laboratory work, 
as we feel they should be, there should be at least enough to supply each pair 
of pupils in the largest section with one complete, standard instrument. We be- 
lieve that no laboratory section in Biology should contain more than 24 members 
for one instructor. Twelve microscopes can be made to serve such a section. 

There should be a simple dissecting microscope for each pupil or each pair 
of pupils. 

e. Microscopic slides. These may be divided into four groups: (1) tem- 
porary slides, which teachers and pupils may make freely. The teacher should 
become expert in making these and enabling his pupils to do so; (2) permanent 
mounts of interesting objects small enough to be stained and mounted whole. 
There are very many such which are valuable. It should not be necessary to 
purchase these. The teacher should be supplied the necessary materials and 
learn to make, stain, and mount these; (3) temporary or permanent mounts 
where free-hand sections may serve all necessary ends. The teacher should be 
able to make, stain, and mount these; and (4) permanent mounts of materials 
where expensive apparatus is necessary for imbedding, sectioning, grinding, etc. 
These can be bought much more cheaply than made, and the apparatus neces- 
sary to make them is hardly to be sought in the ordinary high schools. 



117 

We append a suggestive list of especially valuable microscopic slides that 
should be purchased and used at least as demonstrations in high school courses. 
These should be the best of their kind, — clear, typical, and perfectly stained. 

1. Cell structures, cell-arrangement, and cell-division as seen in 
longitudinal section of root tip of Tradescantia or Hyacinth. 

2. Cross-section of leaf, showing structure of this basal organ of all 
nutrition. 

3. Cross and longitudinal sections of monocotyledonous and dico- 
tyledonous stems. 

4. Cross-section of a root. 

5. Cross-section of ovary of lily or other suitable plant, showing 
relation of the parts. 

6. Longitudinal section of young flower or leaf bud showing the 
beginning of floral parts, or of the foliage units. 

7. Section of another showing pollen- formation. 

8. Longitudinal section of pollinated pistil showing pollen tubes, etc. 

9. Some properly stained bacteria, — as Spirillum, Bacterium, Bac- 
cillus, etc. 

10. Sections of hymeniun of Ascomycete and Basidiomycete. 

11. Cleavage, morula, and gastrula of some form like the starfish. 

12. Sections of tadpoles of 1 to 3 weeks to show how animal cells 
come to be related in tissues and organs, as well as the relations 
of the organs. Good to compare with (1). 

13. Cross and longitudinal sections of Hydra. 

14. Section thru vertebrate eye in visual axis. 

15. Section of compound eye in axis of ommatidium. 

16. Longitudinal and cross section of bone. 

17. Longitudinal section of tooth. 

18. Cross-section of stomach or intestine, showing coats, glandular- 
absorptive surface, etc. 

19. A Golgi preparation showing ramifications of neurons. 

20. Section thru skin of animal. 

21. Section of injected liver. 

22. Ciliated cells. 

23. Cross and long (several segments) sections of earthworm. 

f. Projection apparatus. We believe that a projecting lantern with opaque 
projector and a projecting microscope should in time be provided for each high 
school. The usefulness of such a lantern would not of course be confined to 
the courses in Biology. This would demand also the gradual accumulation of a 
limited number of well selected lantern slides and microscopic slides. 

g. Illustrative books. So much success has attended photography, both 
gross and microscopic, and the reproduction of these pictures in books that 
every school should supply itself with some books illustrating natural history 
to aid in identifying the plants and animals discovered by the classes and in 
visualizing such as the student may not be able to find in his own locality. 
Under this head comes illustrated natural histories, flower-books, bird-books, 



118 

butterfly-books, the reptile book, and the like, — as well as some larger texts 
showing figures of dissections and microscopic structures in plants and animals. 

h. Charts. Very effective charts for both Botany and Zoology are issued 
by a number of firms. These are valuable, but expensive. Each school should 
perhaps have a limited number of these charts illustrating certain features of 
life not readily illustrated in some other ways. 

Of even more value, however in some respects, are home-made charts, 
drawn from figures and tables in books and periodicals. They may be made 
on paper or on paper reinforced by cloth. They may be mounted on a roller or 
kept flat. Ingenious devices to display them can be made by the pupils them- 
selves. Ink may be used, put on with a brush, or colored crayons may serve. 
A spray of shellac, from an atomizer after the crayon marks are made, will 
keep the crayon from spreading. There is almost no limit to the number of 
charts, — of lines or simple shaded surfaces, — which classes and teachers may 
make by copying figures from books, nor to the help they render in making 
structures clear. The selection and making of such charts with their lettering 
and interpretation is very valuable work for the pupils. The school should fur- 
nish the materials for making these charts. 

i. Blackboard drawings as illustrative material. The committee desires 
to emphasize the importance of the ability of the teacher to make simple free- 
hand diagrams before the class. Every teacher should give time to cultivate 
this power to his full capacity, and to use whatever drawing ability the mem- 
bers of the class may have. These diagrams should not be made too complex. 
They are valuable because of their simplicity and the consequent emphasis on 
essentials, and on the fact that they grow under the eyes of the pupil. 

T. W. Galloway, 
Clarence Bonnell, 
E. N. Trauseau, 

Committee. 

The report presented by Professor Gallov^^ay was formally ac- 
cepted by unanimous vote of those present. 

The Report of the Representative to the Committee on General 
Science Course was next read by Professor J. L. Pricer, Normal 
University, Normal. During the discussion of Professor Pricer's 
report several teachers gave accounts of experiments in the line of 
courses in General Science. Miss McAuley of St. Charles, and Miss 
Weckel of Oak Park, gave especially concrete information regarding 
the scope and results pf General Science courses given by them. 
They and several others expressed opinions favoring courses in Gen- 
eral Science as legitimate additions to the present curriculum of sec- 
ondary schools. Others raised questions as to the nature and con- 
tent of such courses, and what their relation should be to specialized 
science courses already given. No consensus of opinion was ex- 



119 

pressed, and further discussion of the subject was deferred until the 
afternoon meeting. 

Several matters of business were next disposed of. Mr. W. W. 
Whitney was renominated as a member of the Executive Committee 
of the Biolog)^ Section, and unanimously elected. 

The Botany Syllabus presented to the Section at the meeting 
in 1913 was declared accepted by the Chairman. 

The meeting closed with a talk on Photographing Wild Flowers 
by Mr. Warralo W. Whitney of the Hyde Park High School, Chi- 
cago. His paper follows : 

Photographing Wild Flowers 

(Illustrated with Stereopticon Views.) 
The Camera. 

A large camera with a long focus lens and perhaps a telephoto attachment 
has usually been considered necessary for photographing natural objects such 
as birds and flowers. Such an outfit is heavy and cumbersome to carry on long 
trips, and but few pictures can be taken because of the large amount of time 
required to set up and properly focus such a camera. Only an enthusiast with 
an unusual amount of time will have the patience required. 

I have found that an ordinary roll film kodak will do excellent work in 
wild flower picture taking. I have used for practically all my pictures an East- 
man 3A Kodak — equipped with a Zeiss-Tessar anastigmat lens and a Compound 
Shutter. In addition to this I use an Eastman portrait lens for increasing the 
magnification and a 6-foot ruler for measuring the distances carefully. This 
outfit is light and requires comparatively little time for taking the picture. 
One can take it along for a few pictures when it would be impossible to take the 
heavier outfit. The pictures will answer every purpose for enlargement or for 
lantern slide making. It will not give quite as much magnification as the long 
focus camera, but most pictures should include some of the habitat and this 
small camera will do just as well as the larger one. 

I intend to go one step farther as soon as finances will permit and invest 
in a still smaller camera. It has been found that the very small cameras will 
give the same detail and depth with a larger stop than the larger cameras. 
This means a shorter exposure — a very important feature, as will be explained 
later. Lantern slides can be made from the small pictures by contact, a distinct 
advantage now with the daylight printing lantern plates. The equipment recom- 
mended would take a picture If^ by 2^^ in. or 2^ by 3^ in. with, in either 
case, an anastigmat lens of good make and 3-inch focus, compound shutter, film 
pack and plates, and extension bellows. Such an outfit can be carried in the 
coat pocket and will take as fine pictures as any camera can take. The tripod 
may also be correspondingly light. With such an outfit one will make dozens 
or even hundreds of exposures under circumstances which would prohibit the 



120 

use of the large camera. With most of us teachers the smaller expense for 
supplies required for the small camera is an important itern. 

Taking the picture. 

In taking pictures of wild flowers depth and detail are absolutely neces- 
sary. This requires the use of small stops. I generally use F32. Snap shot 
pictures with large stops do not give sufficient depth and can not be used. The 
use of the small stop necessitates the use of a tdpod and "time" varying from 
1-5 second to IS minutes, according to the character of the light. 

People not familiar with wild flower photography may think the flowers 
stationary and easy to take, but this is far from the truth. It must remem- 
bered that only one end of a wild flower is stationary. The air is in constant 
motion and the aerial portion of a plant is likewise constantly swayed by the 
moving air. The taller and more wand-like the plant the greater the movement. 
You will not be prepared to appreciate the difficulty of taking time pictures of 
plants in constant motion. Fortunately the air moves in waves or gusts with 
more or less slight lulls between. These lulls are usually sufficient if correctly 
gauged, except on windy days or with very wand-like plants. A screen on the 
windward side of the plant is very helpful if the light is from the right direction. 
Spring flowers, on account of their size and the leafless condition of the sur- 
rounding vegetation, are far easier subjects than the summer and fall flowers. 
Pictures of plants in the shade except of very small plants are extremely diflS- 
cult on account of the greater time required. 

Another difficulty lies in the color of the flowers. Reds and yellows do 
not take well without the use of a color filter. But the filter requires greatly 
increased time — so much so that this method is often impracticable. So far as 
my experience has gone one must be content with inferior pictures from yellows 
and reds except when they are light in tone or the plants are very small. 

The pose of the plants is important. A suitable background adds much 
to the effectiveness of the picture. A tree trunk is usually good. The plant 
should be isolated from other plants so far as practicable so that it will stand 
out in the foreground of the picture, but of course this may be overdone and 
the natural environment which gives charm and setting to the picture lost. It 
is usually best to take several views of the same species of plant showing its 
varying characteristics in differing environments and at close and distant range. 
The student viewing the pictures shown by the lantern will in this way gain 
a much clearer appreciation of the plant. 

Wild flower picture-taking is an occupation that takes one out into the 
open. It gives an excuse for, and makes a pleasure of the long walks in the 
country. It opens one's eyes to possibilities of beauties in plants never before 
noticed. There is sufficient difficulty in the work to give it zest, and the result- 
ing pictures are certainly more entertaining and illuminating than dried her- 
barium specimens. But if the wild flower photographer is a teacher of botany 
he will be sufficiently rewarded by the enthusiasm aroused in his classes for 
the wild flowers. It makes a good preliminary for excursions by giving the 
pupils a better appreciation of the varying habitats and appearance of the plants 



121 

the teacher expects' them to see. Every teacher should have some hobby„ For 
botany teachers in high schools photography is certainly an ideal one. 

Mr. Whitney's talk was illustrated by a series of stereopticom 
views made from photographs taken by him. All the slides were 
very beautiful as well as instructive, and were greatly appreciated by 
all, especially by those who are seeking new and live methods of 
making Botany real to high school students. 

The meeting adjourned to the Joint Session of the Science Sec- 
tions, Friday afternoon. 

Lester S. Parker, 

Secretary. 

Classics Section 

The Classics Section of the High School Conference mt*- in room 
202, Lincoln Hall and was called to order by the chairman v?f the 
Session, Professor H. J. Barton. 

There was a large attendance of representative teachers of the 
classics. The chairman briefly referred to the reexamination of ed- 
ucational values in the high school course and urged that classical 
teachers keep abreast of and participate in all discussion bearing on 
any readjustment that may be necessary. 

Professor H. V. Canter, whose term of office as a member of the 
executive committee of the section has expired, was succeeded in' 
office by Principal E. S. Lake of Benton, Illinois. The executive 
committee then organized as follows ' Chairman, Mary E. English, 
Decatur, Ills. ; Secretary, Harriet L. Bouldin, Springfield, Ills. 

The Section had in the past, through committees, reported on the 
work of the first and second year in Latin in the high school. This 
year a committee on the work of the third year presented its report 
by its chairman, Laura E. WoodruflF, Oak Park, Ills. 

Miss Woodruff spoke as follows: 

Report on Third Year Latin 
universty of illinois, november 20, i9i4 
The committee appointed to consider the work of the third year of high' 
school Latin submits its report under the following three divisions : 
L Literature to be read and method of procedure. 

n. Grammar and composition work to be done and manner of pre- 
sentation. 

in. Supplementary work in history, institutions, private life, geog- 
raphy, etc, 



122 

1. For several years there has been a demand among teachers of Latin 
for greater latitude in the choice of the literature to be read and, as you know, 
several committees have sought in vain to find some practical solution of the 
difficulty. The subject is now being considered by the Committee on Ancient 
Languages, appointed in 1912 under the direction of the National Education 
Association, and if we may judge from the preliminary report of this Com- 
mittee, some radical changes are about to be suggested. Meanwhile it may 
be helpful to recall what has already been done in connection with third year 
work and to mention some of the plans that are now being attempted. 

In 1909 the Commission on College Entrance Requirements in Latin 
issued a report suggesting that the amount of reading required of candidates for 
admission to college should not be less than Cicero's four orations against 
Catiline, the oration for the Manilian Law, and the oration for Archias, and 
that selections equal to that amount of text be made from Cicero's orations, 
letters, and De Senectute, and from Sallust's Catiline and Jugurthine War. It 
prescribed for examination only the orations for the Manilian Law and for 
Archias. 

Less freedom in the choice of selections was offered by the "Syllabus 
for Secondary Schools" for 1910, issued by the New York State Education 
Department. Here we find that the required list included not only the orations 
for the Manilian Law and for Archias but also the first and third orations 
against Catiline. The remaining selections were to be chosen by the teacher 
from the same works stipulated by the Commission of 1909. They were to 
be used for sight reading and were to be equivalent in amount to the second 
and fourth orations against Catiline. 

You. all know that Professor D'Ooge of the Michigan State Normal Col- 
lege, discussing this question in the October number of the Classical Journal, 
says "Cicero is so versatile and fascinating a writer that there is no difficulty 
in planning an attractive course for the third year from his writings alone. 
He favors reading selections from Sallust's Catiline, but thinks Cicero's letters 
somewhat difficult because they involve a greater knowledge of political and 
social conditions at Rome than a high school pupil possesses. He feels that 
greater profit can be obtained from reading more orations, especially the 
Marcellus, the Roscius, the Ligarius, and the King Deiotarus, as well as parts 
of the De Senectute and the De Amicitia. 

Some of our high schools, taking the initiative in this question of authors 
and works, have on their own authority introduced new selections into their 
Latin course. Thus in one school only four orations of Cicero are read, and 
for the other two, the book of John, some letters of Pliny the Yunger, and a 
few miscellaneous selections are substituted. In another school Terence's 
Phormio has been read by the pupils toward the close of the third year. In 
this case the classes have read the orations for the Manilian Law and for 
Archias, and also Catiline I and III intensively and have merely outlined 
Catiline II and IV. In another instance selections from Ovid have been used 
in place of one or two of the Catilinarian orations. 

In regard to the method of procedure, the vital question seems to be, how to 
conduct the work in such a way as to secure the greatest possible degree of effi- 



123 

ciency on the part of the pupil that will render him more capable of meeting and 
solving the problems not only of the Latin world, but also of the larger world in 
which his lot is later to be cast and that will at the same time make him better 
fitted to enrich his own life by his understanding and appreciation of the life 
of the past. Fortunately the test of the pupil's power is taking more and 
more the form that wilF help to encourage an eflfort to grow both in knowledge 
of the subject and in ability to do independent thinking, for there is an ever 
increasing tendency to make sight work the basis of all examinations. It is clear, 
then, that we should employ the method that will be most helpful in promoting 
the power to meet such tests and in seeking to do this, we find that the same 
instrument used for the final proof of efficiency is also a most useful tool in 
developing that efficiency. By working out an unfamiliar passage with a 
class, much can be done to show the pupils how to attack a new section and 
how to economize time in the preparation of an advance lesson. If they 
can be taught to work their way entirely through a sentence without turning 
to the vocabulary at the sight of each apparently unfamiliar word, if they 
can be trained to see word groups and to look for the relation of a word to 
its surroundings, they will acquire a distinct gain in power of observation 
and concentration. If they can be taught to seek the connection a sentence 
has with the thought that has preceded, they will not only come to realize 
that the Latin text is something more than an accumulation of words but 
they will also help to develop within themselves the power of clear thinking. 

In addition to this, if we see that the pupils learn the meaning of certain 
idiomatic phrases and become acquainted with their English equivalents, if 
we try to strengthen their appreciation of the various shades of meaning 
that a word may assume in its different relations and to increase their ability 
to see in a word its English cognate, we shall do much toward facilitating 
the work of translation. 

In connection with this, it is essential to emphasize whatever is of human 
interest, to study the characters presented and to think of modern parallels, to 
investigate the political institutions and conditions involved and to call to mind 
like instances in our own time, to analyze the ancient orator's method of influ- 
encing his audience and to compare that employed by later speakers, to arouse 
as far as possible an appreciation of Cicerco's style and his wonderful power 
of expression and to consider his literary skill side by side with that shown by 
writers of succeeding generations, in short to make the work so much alive 
that the class will realize that it is studying not alone the past but the present 
as well. 

The question of finding time in which to accomplish all that we wish 
to do is a very difficult one and we see only one remedy, nameh', to lessen 
the amount of intensive reading required. If the third year work covered an 
equivalent of five of Cicero's orations rather than six, we should be able to 
secure more accurate results than we are at present able to attain and our 
pupils would have a clearer understanding of what they have read and a 
deeper conception of its meaning. In order to encourage more exact thinking 
and to offer an opportunity for more minute study of the Latin language 
and the life of the people who used it, some teachers have already adopted 



124 

the expedient of leaving certain passages, after they have been read at sight 
or translated by some member of the class to whom they were assigned as an 
individual task, and not returning to them for intensive work. 

II. The study of Latin grammar and the writing of prose have ever 
presented two of the most perplexing problems in our Latin course. The 
amount of work to be done, the manner of dealing with the same, and the 
time to be assigned to it have raised questions that probably none of us feel 
have yet been satisfactorily settled. But upon this one point we think all 
will agree, the ordinary high school pupil is too young and his knowledge of 
Latin is too limited to make it possible for him to have a real feeling for the 
Latin language and a keen appreciation of literary values such as would render 
his study of grammar and his writing of prose a source of pure joy to him. 
Some background is necessary to make him see their importance, to make him 
understand the connection between them and the other Latin work he is 
doing. For that reason the study of constructions and of prose composition in 
the second and third year of the high school Latin course should be so closely 
associated with the work of translation and the memorizing of vocabulary that 
it will not be an added extraneous burden but a help to a better understand- 
ing of the other elements. To that end it is an advantage for the prose com- 
position to follow the text a class is translating. Then new or difficult 
grammatical principles needed for a particular prose lesson may be explained 
before that lesson is assigned and new or unusual words may be learned in 
the connection in which the Latin writers used them, and when the pupil 
attempts to translate his English sentences into Latin, he will not go blindly to 
the task, but will have the Latin text to guide him. Moreover, he will have 
a clearer conception of the meaning of that Latin text because of his efforts 
to use its principles of syntax in expressing the thoughts set forth in the words 
of his own language. 

The grammatical constructions to be studied during the year, both in con- 
nection with the translation of the Latin and the writing of prose, should 
follow some well-ordered scheme, arranged before the opening of school and 
including at least the ordinary constructions that should be mastered during 
the third year. Some such outline as that presented last spring at the Univer- 
sity of Chicago by a committee appointed in 1912 to set forth the minimum 
amount of form and syntax work that should be required in high school Latin 
might be used as a basis upon which to build.* 

It is not always safe to assume that constructions are understood because 
the translation is approximately correct and, although there are many of the 
commoner forms of syntax that need not be emphasized unless ignorance of 
them is displayed by some error in the English rendition of the text, yet some 
systematic work in this line is helpful to a clearer understanding of the real 
meaning of the Latin as well as necessziify for an intelligent use of the language 
in writing prose. Such constructions as are characteristic of the Latin author 



• A copy of the syntax outline recommended by this committee for the second and 
third years of high school Latin is given at the close of this report. 



125 

whose works are being read or such as were less frequently found in the selec- 
tions read during the second year may be especially noted. 

If a prose book is used, the teacher should look far enough ahead to 
prepare the class for the coming lessons, if possible through the grammar 
and the vocabulary of the Latin text. If the teacher writes his own sentences, 
he should follow the definite outline he has laid out for the work of the year. 

When the prose work is to be done must depend upon the judgment of 
the teacher. Some think they have most success with one prose lesson each 
week, some choose to devote two consecutive days every other week to this 
part of the work, and some prefer to stop the translation of the Latin selec- 
tions for five days every six weeks and give these five days to Latin writing. 
Occasionally a teacher may wish to vary the usual plan, but in all cases there 
is need of a clearly defined system, if reliable results are to be attained. 

In the manner of conducting the composition lesson different methods 
are employed. A certain number of sentences assigned for preparation usually 
form the foundation of the lesson. During the class hour some teachers have 
these written on the board with or without reference to the prepared papers 
and then ask that they be criticised and discussed. Some teachers have the 
sentences written on slips of paper without reference to the prepared work and 
after these papers are collected, they have the sentences written on the board 
and all questions concerning them answered. Then the papers are returned for 
correction. Later the teacher underscores the mistakes still remaining and 
the following day the papers are again returned for a complete elimination of 
errors. The teacher employing this method says that it requires much time 
but insures accuracy. 

Another method that has met with some success is to present to the class 
at the beginning of the recitation period sentences similar to those previously 
assigned but with changed moods and tenses and with changed case relations, 
and from these to lead up to the prepared work, which may then be corrected. 

During the last ten minutes of the recitation period, four or five short 
sentences, similar to those already given but so altered that the pupil must 
think out the changed conditions, may be given as a basis for grading the 
work of the day. These sight sentences stimulate thought and arouse a live 
interest by giving the pupil a feeling that he is really accomplishing something. 
Moreover they furnish both pupil and teacher an opportunity to see whether 
the principles of the lesson are clearly understood or not. 

III. In regard to the supplementary work, the committee feels that it 
is not primarily a pleasant diversion, though even when considered in that light 
it is not without value, but that it is a real necessity for the pupil's intelligent 
interpretation of what he is reading. Some knowledge of Roman history both 
contemporaneous with the authors read and prior to them, some understanding 
of Roman political institutions and religious belief, some acquaintance with 
Roman private life, some familiarity with the careers of Rome's citizens, some 
appreciation of her ideals and aspirations help the pupil to know what his 
Latin means, to see the connection between the past and the present, and 
to realize that the fundamental elements of human nature were no different 
in the time of the Romans than they are with us. 



126 

The advantage of knowing the geography of the scenes described is self- 
evident. Maps, lantern-slide pictures, photographs, informal talks, and lectures 
add a vividness and charm and furnish a basis of understanding that can be 
gained by no other means. 

All this supplementary work may be pursued in different ways, some- 
times by investigations conducted by the entire class, sometimes by assign- 
ments made to individual pupils, again it may be given in an informal talk by 
the teacher, and occasionally in a more formal way by some friend of the 
classics whom we are fortunate enough to have in our midst. But in general 
the more actively each member of the class is involved in the situation, the 
keener his interest in it will be, the clearer his understanding, and the more 
lasting his remembrance. Thus an organization of the Roman State formed 
by the pupils in a manner similar to that employed in the high school at East 
Rochester, New York, even though on a less pretentious scale, would call forth 
a more vital conception of the meaning of Roman methods of government 
than any number of reports could do. Likewise an actual presentation of the 
scene in which Cicero describes the conviction of the conspirators and of the 
meeting of the senate when its members assembled to decide the fate of the 
prisoners, gives a vivid touch to the picture that the translation alone cannot 
convey. 

Aside from the regular class work, some schools have organized a Latin 
club whose aim is to increase the profit and pleasure of the study of Latin 
by giving programs, presenting tableaux, and offering an occasional play rela- 
tive to classical topics. Sometimes a Latin paper is published or a Roman 
calendar is made. Various devices of this nature have been suggested and sev- 
eral have been tried with success. 
Respectfully submitted, 
Laura B. Woodruff, 

Oak Park and River Forest Township High School, 

Oak Park, Illinois. 
Emily B. Mack, 

Joliet Township High School, Joliet, Illinois. 
Grace M. Warner, 

Moline High School, Moline, Illinois. 

There was an extended discussion of this report. 

The second paper of the Session was presented by Miss Sarah E. 
Sheehan of Springfield, 111., on 

Views of High School Graduates Regarding the Value of Their 

Training in Latin 

Miss Sheehan spoke as follows: 

Doubtless we have all seen or heard of Miss Sabin's charts for showing 
the practical value of the study of Latin. We acknowledge that they are most 
excellent in accomplishing their purpose. But they do so in a general way. 



127 

The committee in assigning to me the theme for this paper desired to 
get from students of Latin, themselves, their own opinions as to the practical 
value of Latin, in other words, how it has helped them in any one or more ways. 

A questionaire was made consisting of eleven general and several sub- 
ordinate questions. These were sent to the Latin teachers of several High 
Schools of the state. They in turn gave them out to the graduate students, who 
had studied Latin for three or more years in their High School course. 

The High Schools chosen were representative schools of the manufactur- 
ing, agricultural, and mining districts of the state. Answers were received 
from the following schools : Oak Park, Rock Island, Moline, East Aurora, 
Jacksonville, Quincy, Lincoln, Galesburg, Sorento, Wheaton, Carthage, Chicago 
Heights, and Springfield. 

Sixty answers were returned, about evenly divided between the young 
men and the young women ; and I shall give them to you this morning. 

First let me state the questions : 

1. From what High School did you graduate? 

2. How many years of Latin did you have? 

3. What business have you been engaged in since graduation? 

4. Has your High School Latin helped you? (1) In getting at the 
meaning of English words? (2) In your spelling? 

5. Has it made you more observant, more accurate in attention to 
details? 

6. Has it developed a taste for good literature? 

7. What college have you attended since graduation? 

8. Have you taken any College Latin? If so, How much? 

9. What special course are you taking? What profession do you expect 
to follow? 

10. Has your Latin helped you in any of the following subjects? If so, 
in what way? (a) Literature, (b) Rhetoric and Composition, (c) Histor>-, 
(d) Modem languages, — German, French, Italian, Spanish, (e) Science — Chem- 
istry, Botany, Zoology, Physics, (f) Law, (g) Medicine, (h) Dentistry, (i) 
Pharmacy, (j) Engineering, (k) Commercial Course. 

11. If you had it to do over, would you include Latin in your High 
School course? 

In general the answers returned were quite uniform, but it is interesting 
to notice how much more definite and particular some were than others. 

I have already stated the answers to the first question, when I mentioned 
the schools represented. 

Question 2: — "How many years of High School Latin did you have?" 
Forty-eight of those who answered this question stated that they had taken 
four years; three, three and a half years; three, three years; and two, two years. 
From this we see that about eighty-two per cent completed the four years' 
course in the subject. 

Question 3 : — "What business have you been engaged in since graduation ?" 
was answered as follows : — twenty-seven continued their schooling at the differ- 
ent universities, colleges, and Normals. Eleven were engaged in teaching. 
(This includes one who is teaching Music). Four were doing Stenographic 



128 

and Office work; one newspaper reporting, one practicing Pharmacy, one Law, 
one in a retail business, one in Architectural Designing. Then there were 
twelve who left the question unanswered. 

Question 4: — "Has your High School Latin helped you? (a) In getting 
at the meaning of English words? (b) In your spelling? 

All the answers to the first were to the same purport. "Yes!" "Yes, 
indeed!" and "Very much!" — followed by two exclamation points even. Of 
the sixty answers to the second part, all but eight were in the affirmative. 
The eight in favor of the negative very modestly added that spelling had always 
come naturally to them. Apropos of this, I heard a young lady say once, 
that the only way she could remember how to spell "auxiliary" and know 
whether to put the second "i" in or not, was to think of the Latin word 
"auxilium." 

The answers to the fifth question — "Has it made you more observant and 
accurate in attention to details?" were very uniform. I wish to quote from 
some of them that are especially interesting. One young lady, who is at present 
attending the University of Chicago, says, — "The close study necessary to 
the mere mechanical translations of Latin has developed in me a habit of 
accuracy and close observation." 

Another says : — "Yes, especially in the sense that a knbwledge of Latin 
roots has helped to make me more discriminating in my choice of words." And 
again, — "It has made me more careful and accurate in my other work and more 
methodical." 

A young lady who has been engaged in stenographic work since her gradu- 
ation from High School answers this question more fully: — "Since graduation, 
which was almost three years ago, I have held a stenographic position, where 
it has been necessary for me to compose my own letters in some instances and 
dictate letters on all subjects which would be apt to come up in any business 
office and enterprise. I have found in ordinary instances that a knowledge of 
Latin terms has been of great help to me. The increased vocabulary which 
I acquired from the Latin has been of great value to me in my work and has 
enabled me to compose letters with more ease and with better results. Many 
people seem to think that because Latin is a "dead" language it is not prac- 
tical to spend time in translating the old Roman and Greek legends and the 
stories of the gods and goddesses. But I find a great deal of pleasure in being 
familiar with those legends, and especially so because there is hardly a book 
or magazine or editorial in which there is not some reference to these Latin 
stories. It is true also in many sermons and lectures. For my part, the satis- 
faction and pleasure derived from listening to such a sermon or lecture comes 
from my understanding of the things to which they refer. My study of Latin 
has been not only a decided aid in my business career but a source of constant 
pleasure and enjoyment in my social life." 

Question 6. — "Has it developed a taste for good literature?" Forty-eight 
answered this in the affirmative and seven in the negative. One said that 
he did not know and four left the question unanswered. Some of the answers 
that were given more fully were : "It certainly has helped toward a fuller 



129 

appreciation of good literature, especially poetry." And another: — "It has cer- 
tainly developed my appreciation for higher and better things in every way." 

The next three questions ask : "What college have you attended since 
graduation?" "Have you taken any Latin?" "If so, how much?" Fifty-five 
have attended some university, college, Normal School, or Business College, 
and two were intending to enter College this Fall. 

Twenty-nine Universities, Colleges and Normals were represented, com- 
prising all the leading colleges for both men and women. 

Of the fifty-five who continued their studies in College, twenty-nine 
elected Latin, one had five years of it; five had four years; three, three years; 
six had two years ; and fourteen had one year. 

Question 9 asks: — "What special course are you taking?" Answers to this 
included, Literary, Law, Domestic Science, Agricultural Engineering, General 
Science, Pharmac}', Dentistry, Medicine, Economics, Business, Music, Journal- 
ism and Geological. The second part of question 9: "What profession do you 
expect to follow ?" gave answers in this proportion : Twenty-five expected to 
enter the teaching profession. However, only two said that they expected to 
teach Latin. (I do not doubt that it was an oversight on the part of the oth- 
ers.) Eight were to practice Law; two Medicine, and one each of the follow- 
ing : — Astronomical work. Architectural Engineering, Pharmacy, Research work 
and Investigation, Telephone business. Secretarial and Office work, and Eco- 
nomic Geology. 

Question 10: — "Has Latin helped you in any of the following subjects, 
and if so, state in what way?" 

First, "In Literature?" Again the answers were uniform. Some quoted 
are as follows : "By having become acquainted with the ethics, philosophy, 
culture and art of the old Romans, I have gained an invaluable back-ground 
for the study of English Literature and a finely tempered taste for its appre- 
ciation." Another says : — "First-hand knowledge of mythologj' is essential to 
a full appreciation of Literature." 

"It develops a deeper critical sense and a demand for the best in Lit- 
erature." And still one more — 

"Latin has helped me in my study of literature, in that it has made me 
more familiar with the many and frequent allusions to the Classics. It has 
given meaning to many long difficult words. It has been especially helpful in 
the analyzation of poetry." 

In Rhetoric and Composition. Uniformity once more. 

"In Composition and Rhetoric, Latin has helped me in that it has given 
me a more perfect understanding of English Grammar. It has increased my 
vocabulary and has given me a sense of rjthm and shades of meanings that I 
would not have had otherwise." 

"Latin as a supplement to English Composition seems to me to be worth 
four years in High School. Further than that I am not prepared to say but I 
think for the majority of people that that would be enough." The young man 
who is to follow Journalism, says, that the fine distinctions in meanings essen- 
tial to newspaper work are to be found almost exclusively in the Latin. 

"Does Latin help in the study of History?" 



130 

Forty-six affirmative answers were received. Two negative answers, and 
twelve did not answer at all. 

One young lady says, "Historical people seem more real in their own 
compositions." 

Another says, "Tacitus, Pliny and Livy have all been great direct helps 
in my gaining a more intimate knowledge of Roman history and life." 

"Latin lends interest to characters and color to situations in History." 

"It has made History more interesting and has helped wonderfully in the 
pronunciation of names." 

"It especially helps in the study of Roman History by giving a deeper 
insight into the character, feelings, motives, and ideals of the Roman people." 

And this last: — "In this it has helped me in proportion as history has 
been treated by the authors I have studied." 

Forty-seven answered "Yes" to the question, "Has Latin been a help in 
the study of Modem Languages?" 

One underlined both German and French and said that Latin made both 
grammar and vocabulary very eas}^ especially in the French. 

This is a short but excellent answer — "Gives facility in methods of study." 

"Latin helps in the knowledge of roots of words, and grammar and sen- 
tence structure in French and German." 

"Latin helps in giving a general method of attacking a foreign language." 
Another says that she is just beginning Spanish, but can translate quite well 
in it already, because of her knowledge of Latin. 

"It has given me in a general way a grammatical skeleton for all other 
languages." 

And "The study of as highly inflected a language as Latin made it much 
easier for me to grasp the mere mechanical elements of German." 

"Has Latin helped in Science, Chemistry, Botany, Zoology, Physics?" Eigh- 
teen gave no answers to this question. The other answers were similar in 
thought but rather different in wording. 

One was very brief but to the point. — "Yes — Terminology." 

"In my study of these four sciences, Latin has been especially valuable in 
helping me understand and learn scientific terms and nomenclature." 

"Yes, because these subjects use Latin word forms exclusively." 

"In the sciences a knowledge of Latin was invaluable as so many scientific 
names and terms are of Latin origin." 

I quote this statement from a Pharmacist : "Latin is the ideal language 
of science. It defines and restricts. Its advantages are almost too numerous to 
mention." He also says that it helps much in all the sciences pertaining to 
Pharmacy, in prescription writing and reading; and that it lessens the liability 
to grave mistakes. 

We all know the value of Latin in the study of Law. Four "young law- 
yers" agree in their answers which say that in understanding legal phrase- 
ology, Latin is of great help. 

The same answers were sent in for the value of Latin in the study of 
Medicine and Dentistry. 



131 

The one Architectural Engineer says that the mental training obtained by 
the study of Latin is splendid training for an engineering student. One answer 
was received for the value to the commercial course and business. "Latin 
develops training in accuracy as no other subject with the possible exception 
of Mathematics, can possibly do." 

The last question presents some interesting answers. 

"If you had it to do over again, would you include Latin in your High 
School course?" 

Again we find emphatic and uniform statements. Those who had four 
years say: 

"Yes, indeed I feel there is nothing like Latin to develop concentration 
and self-discipline, both essential to the young student." 

The young Pharmacist says : "Yes, most emphatically yes ! And I should 
make sure that I had more Latin than formerly. (He had only three years.) 
I value the knowledge and training in accuracy, reasoning, judgment, as well 
as the liberal vocabulary in English and the inestimable worth to the practice 
of my profession more than any subject that I have studied." 

One answer is slightly amusing. As it comes from a graduate of my 
chool, I do not hesitate to give it. He says, "I think I should take Latin ; but 
I should go no further with it. My objection to Latin is the same as to the 
Modem Languages — to-wit : that too much is mapped out for the student to 
cover and thoroughness is sacrificed. There seems to be a desire to cover space 
and not to improve the lesson. This is not confined to High Schools, alone." 

Shall we carry this message to the Board of College Entrance Require- 
ments ? 

In 1911, the Latin Department of my High School edited one issue of 
the Bulletin, our High School paper. We had among other things articles from 
prominent men of different professions showing the value of Latin, and also 
articles from pupils of the school who were taking Latin at that time. 

I should like to quote from some of the articles written by the pupils. 

"I find that Latin has trained my memory and my reasoning powers. The 
translation of a Latin sentence requires constant reasoning to discover the more 
important words, their relation to each other, and the most appropriate mean- 
ings for the words." 

Another — "Latin has broadened my conception of things more than any- 
thing I have ever studied." 

One young girl wrote — "One day last week I had an English test, one 
question consisting of twenty words which were to be defined. Out of the list 
there were five that I did not know. But I was able to give the meaning of four 
of those five, because I recognized Latin words in them." 

Again — "Latin has been of untold value to me in the study of English 
words and their derivatives. I am often confronted with a Latin sentence or 
quotation ; and there the meaning would be lost, but for my knowledge of 
Latin. The greatest value, though, comes indirectly. It is the power to think 
and to reason in a logical manner; the habit of consciousness which it gives; 
the ability to grasp a situation readily, to take in its details and yet see it as a 
whole." 



132 

I shall quote only two more — one written by a student in the University 
of Chicago and since then, becoming an instructor in the same institution. 

"My faith in the value of the knowledge of classical languages has induced 
me not only to continue the study of Latin in the University, but to learn Greek 
as well. They form a foundation, which renders foreign modem languages 
comparatively easy and which makes our own vastly more intelligible. 

"One must know something of these languages to do satisfactory philologi- 
cal work in English, which we cannot avoid meeting to some extent. In an 
introductory Shakespeare course here, in which the Elizabethan vocabulary is 
carefully studied, both proved very helpful. It is, moreover, a source of pleas- 
ure to be able to recognize the many tersely apt Latin and Greek quotations 
scattered through English Literature. French after Latin, is exceedingly easy. 
A friend of mine here finds French and Italian very difficult because she lacks 
Latin. In the Science course Latin is of great help because so many scientific 
names are Latin. The first question asked in an advanced Zoology course was, 
'Are you a classical student?' It makes clearer any branch of study, and aside 
from this, the pleasure of reading the greatest Latin and Greek literature, Hor- 
ace, Livy, Virgil and the Iliad is immediate compensation for the energy ex- 
pended." 

The last quotation which I shall give is from a letter written for the same 
issue of the paper by a young man who was well along toward thirty years 
of age. He was taking, as a special student, the first two years of Latin to help 
him in his law studies. He wrote as follows : "The failure upon my part to 
include the study of Latin in the curriculum of my school days was a mistake 
which has often seriously handicapped me. I formed the opinion, prematurely, 
that the study of this language was not only non-essential to my future suc- 
cess, but that it was as well, burdensome to me as a student, and had no bene- 
ficial results. Subsequently I have realized such opinions to have been abstract 
vagaries. I have been studying Latin since last September. The close appli- 
cation to and concentration of thought upon this study has developed mental 
alertness. It has animated my reasoning faculties from an apparently latent 
state, turned my literary inclinations from modern fiction of the trashy sort to 
those, heretofore by me unfathomable treatises, written by men of deepest phi- 
losophy, whose virility gives strength and endurance to the mind, and it has 
created productive ideas along practical lines." 

From what I have tried to give, we can see what a few people think of 
their knowledge of Latin. Perhaps the unfortunates who have not been able, 
as yet, to realize the value it has had for them, in time to come, will be like 
the young lad in a Latin class of one of our large High Schools. He said to 
his teacher one day, "I didn't use to think Latin amounted to much, but I've 
changed." 

After discussion, the third paper of the Session was presented 
by Professor H. V. Canter of the University on "High School Equip- 
ment and Publications Helpful to Teachers of Latin and Ancient 
History." 



133 

Professor Canter spoke as follows: 

During the winter of 1913-14 it was my privilege to observe the work being 
done in some thirty representative High Schools in Illinois. In addition to 
other interests connected with my visits I was particularly anxious, as a teacher 
of the classics, to observe what teachers of Latin and Ancient Histor>' were 
doing, how they were teaching, how their school rooms and libraries were 
equipped for successful handling of their subjects, what books and periodicals 
the teachers themselves were reading, and what degree of success was attend- 
ing their efforts, not only in teaching the fundamental facts of language and 
history, but in directing pupils to the civilizations of Greece and Rome, as to 
a never-failing source of inspiration for things cultural. I cannot today speak 
■f the teachers, or of their success in leading in the vanguard of those who 
would pursue humane learning, and cultivate a sense for the ideal in literature 
and art. In the short time at my disposal I wish to emphasize the fact that 
in many schools a need of certain equipment necessarily limits the teacher's 
eflficienc}-. For this condition in some cases the school management is responsi- 
ble, while in others the teachers have nobody to censure but themselves. 

First will be noticed some illustrative material for the teaching of Latin 
and Ancient History. Every school has its own problems, and in most of them 
only a limited amount of money is available for the purposes here indicated. 
The fact remains, however, that there are few schools which cannot, and will 
not, provide necessan.- equipment for any eflficient, wide-awake teacher who will 
adequately present the need. With but few exceptions Superintendents and 
Principals are anxious that their schools should be well equipped. But they 
naturally depend upon their teachers to take the lead, and in the absence of 
suggestions from this source are frequently not aware that their schools are 
below standard. Teachers of Latin in Illinois as elsewhere have been too slow 
to press upon school authorities their need of classroom equipment, and con- 
sequently it has received little attention. It is just as important that such 
teachers should have modem equipment for their work as it is for the teachers 
of science or of anj' other subject in the course of study. In the hope that it 
may be of service to Illinois teachers, lists (by no means exhaustive) of illus- 
trative material, books and publications are given below. It is suggested that 
a memorandum be made of what is most needed, and that this be presented 
to the consideration of the school authorities promptly. If it is not possible 
to secure ever>'thing in a single year, keep the matter before the board until all 
that is needed is bought, making such additions as a reading of the classical 
magazines will suggest from time to time. 

In the second place attention will be directed to certain publications, and 
a few handbooks, of which no really alert or ambitious teacher of the classics 
can afford to deprive himself. Because of the direct stimulus toward growth in 
special and general scholarship, a good part of the publications and books sug- 
gested under this head ought, if at all possible, to find a place in the teacher's 
own private collection of books. But in any event they should be in the school 
library, and pupils should be referred to them and taught how to use them 
expeditiously and profitably. 



134 

Maps 

Maps, a practical necessity and of the utmost importance for effective 
teaching in Latin and Ancient History, are wanting in the larger number of 
schools. No teacher who is without good maps, conveniently mounted, can 
appreciate how constantly such an aid may be made to serve the interest and 
understanding of his pupils. In purchasing it will be economy to secure the 
best. Recommended are : Kepert's maps, published by Reimer of Berlin, and 
to be obtained through G. E. Stechert & Co., 151-155 West 25th St., New York, 
Goder-Heimann Co., Chicago, or Rand, AIcNally & Co., Chicago. Any or all 
of the following will be found of great assistance : Lands Encircling the 
Mediterranean ; Ancient Latinum and Bordering Lands ; Ancient Italy ; Gaul, 
Cisalpine and Transalpine, with parts of Britain and Germany; Roman Empire; 
Ancient Greece ; Asia Minor. 

Another excellent classical wall map series, and at about the same price, 
is that of Kampen. The following are obtainable: Graecia; Italia; Gallia; 
Imperium Romanum. Order through Goder-Heimann Co., Chicago. From the 
same firm may also be obtained Johnston's classical wall maps, a cheaper publi- 
cation and one extensively used. They are six in number and may be purchased 
singly or in sets complete; Orbis Veteribus Notus; Orbis Romanus; Asia Minor 
Antiqua ; Gallia Cisalpina et Transalpina ; Italia Antiqua ; Graecie Antiqua. 

Photographic Reprints 

There is no more effective way to arouse and to foster an interest in the 
classics than to exhibit in the school room photographic representations of 
classical objects, architecture, and sculpture, or of objects and places notable 
for historic, literary, or artistic association. The High Schools have scarcely 
made a beginning with such material, which is relatively inexpensive (ranging 
in price from one cent to two dollars each print) and easily obtained. Order 
from : Perry Picture Co., Maiden, Mass. ; Bureau of University Travel, Bos- 
ton, Mass. ; Berlin Photo Co., 305 Madison Ave., New York City ; Elson Art 
Publishing Co., Belmont, Mass. ; National Art Supply Co., Chicago ; Goder- 
Hiemann Co., Chicago ; Cosmos Pictures Co., New York. A very attractive 
series of classical pictures is to be found in Gurlitt's Illustration of Caesar's 
Bellum Gallicum (Goder-Heimann Co.), with the following contents: Castra 
Romana; Alesia; Caesar and Ariovistus; Vercingetorix and his Staff; Caesar 
landed in Britannia ; Caesar storms Avaricum. For large photoprints of ancient 
works of art and architecture, which are of high pedagogical value in the class- 
room, and also from appropriate wall decoration, the following are very desir- 
able: the Moffit Prints (National Art Supply Co.) and the Seeman publications 
(Goder-Heimann Co.). Dunton & Gardner, Boston, will furnish these larger 
photographs in prints remarkably fine, but also rather expensive. The Soule 
Art Pub. Co., Boston, make bromide enlargements which are beautiful, accu- 
rate, and inexpensive. For ordinary class-room use pictures of the size 8x10 
inches will be found satisfactory. Photographs of this size of practically every 
great monument or site in Italy, Greece, or elsewhere may be had from Som- 
mer, or Anderson in Naples, and from Alinari in Rome, at remarkably low 



135 

rates. Such supplies when ordered for educational institutions are admitted 
free of import duty. These illustrations would make the nucleus of a good 
High School collection : Views of the Forum ; Mamertine Prison ; Temple of 
Jupiter, Stator, Basilicia Julia; Mausoleum of Hadrian; Tomb of Caecilia Ma- 
tella; Servian Wall; Aurelian Wall; Arch of Titus; Arch of Constantino; 
Claudian Aqueduct; Mulvian Bridge; the Pantheon; Tarpeian Rock; Column 
of Trajan; the Coliseum; Circus Maximus; The Tiber with Mouth of Cloaca 
Maxima; Vesuvius from the Tomb of Vergil; Tibur; The Falls of the Anio; 
Baiae; Verona — Roman Amphitheater; Pont du Card Theater at Nimes; Mai- 
son Caree at Nimes ; Views of Pompeii ; Ruins of Troy ; Laocoon ; Syracuse ; 
Scylla and Charybdis. 

Slides 

Practically every High School at this day can afford a lantern in its equip- 
ment. Slides are one of the very best of appliances to facilitate instruction in 
classical history, literature, and art. Catalogs may be obtained showing a large 
collection of views of Ancient Rome, Pompeii, Italy, and Gaul ; of temples, 
theatres, sculptures, etc. Slides are sold by many of the large dealers in 
stereopticons, as Mcintosh Stereopticon Co., Chicago, or Williams, Brown & 
Earle, Philadelphia; also by A. S. Cooly, Auburndale, Mass., and George R. 
Swain, Ann Arbor, Mich. The latter has an admirable collection of Caesar 
slides illustrating his life, the territory, marches and battlefields covered by 
his Gallic and Civil campaigns. Particularly commended are the set of 50 
slides for Beginning Latin, and the set of 40 for Vergil sold by the Records 
of the Past Exploration Society, Washington, D. C. More difficult to find are 
slides suitable for use with a Cicero class, showing places and objects men- 
tioned by him, or scenes with which the great orator must have been familiar. 
The following are suggested as the beginning of such a set: Map of the Hills 
of Rome ; the Capitol ; Mamertine Prison ; Mulvian Bridge ; the Senate, Cicero 
and Cataline ; Cloaca Alaxima ; Via Sacra ; Velia and the Via Sacra ; Temple 
of Vesta; Vestal Virgins; Views of the Curia; Shrine of the Spears in the 
Regia ; Lacus Curtius ; Fountain of Treveri ; Forum Plans and Restorations ; 
Forum showing views of the Lapis Niger, Altar of Caesar ,and Rostra. 

Illustrative Material Made by Teacher and Pupils - 

The problem is greatly simplified where the cooperation of the Manual 
Training department — and that means nearly every school at this day — can be 
invoked. But in every class there will be found some pupils with a mechanical 
turn of mind, and it is not difficult to interest such pupils in making, in model, 
copies of the objects which are daily kept before them in class, especially while 
reading Caesar. 

Illustrations and dimensions for such things as the pilum, hasta, gladius, 
sicca, scutum, parma, fasces, etc., may be secured from designs given in any 
of the standard works on Roman Antiquities, and here and there in the text 
books. From these, even if accurate dimensions are not to be had, estimates 
can be made which will answer every purpose. Boys will take pleasure in set- 
ting up a reproduction of Caesar's famous bridge. In every school there are 



136 

boys skilled enough in wood-working to undertake a model of a Roman Camp, 
as also of the aquila, the vexilla, the various signa, the vineae, turris ambulatoria, 
aries, falx muralis, catapulta, scorpio, ballista. It will be found profitable to 
have some of the girls who are taking Domestic Science make, in model also, 
articles of dress, such as the tunica, toga, stola, sagum, solea, calceus, caligae, 
etc. An excellent but more difficult understanding would be, if suitable minia- 
ture figures were obtainable, to have these dressed out entire, one each as 
imperator, legatus, centiirio, lid or. 

Classical Atlases 

The following have clear and fairly correct maps, are free from the con- 
gestion of names which mar many such handbooks, and show with sufficient 
prominence the natural and political divisions of ancient countries: Murray; 
Small Class Atlas, Oxford University Press, New York, 1904; Kiepert, Class 
Atlas, B. H. Sanborn & Co., Boston, 1902; Shepherd, Atlas of Ancient History, 
Henry Holt & Co, New York, 1913. 

Classical Periodicals 

Out of the many which may profiatbly be read by the High School teacher 
the three mentioned below are of special importance. : Classical Journal, Univ. 
of Chicago Press. Classical Weekly, Teachers' College, Columbia, N. Y. The 
School Review, University of Chicago Press. I was surprised to find so large 
a portion of classical teachers in Illinois who do not read any of these maga- 
zines. Some had never seen a copy. And the pity of it is they are the very 
teachers who are not here today, teachers who sorely need the help and stimulus 
such publications invariably give. In addition to valuable editorials, reviews 
of new books, programs and reports of meetings held by various organizations 
of classical teachers, notes and discussions on important passages in classical 
authors, etc., there is scarcely an issue which does not contain articles that bear 
directly on the method or subject matter of any ordinary High School. To con- 
vince one's self of this he has but to run over the files of two of these journals 
for the past two years and note such contributions as the following : Pre- 
positional Compounds with the Dative in High School Latin ; Hints for the 
Latin Teacher; Illustrative Material for Latin Teachers; Cicero the Stylist; 
The Tragedy of Dido (Two Parts) ; Was Cicero Successful in the Art Ora- 
torical?; Co-ordination of Latin with the other Subjects of the High School 
Curriculum (Two Parts); Latin as a Practical Study; The Direct Method of 
Teaching Latin ; The Prosecution of Cataline's Associates ; Genitive and Abla- 
tive of Description; The Presentation of Classical Plays (Three Parts); Latin 
Composition in the Secondary Schools; Legality of the Trial and Condemna- 
tion of the Catilinarian Conspirators; American Politics and the Teaching of 
Cicero; Ways in Which the Latin Reading of the High School may be Brought 
into Vital Relation to the Life of Today. 

Recently a new illustrated non-technical magazine entitled Art and Arch- 
eology has been begun by the Archaeological Institute of America. It has 
scholarly contributors, appears monthly and is intended for general readers, 
teachers in schools, members of art societies and all others interested in the 



137 

educational aspects of archaeology and art. A special discount of 20% is 
given to members of the Classical Association of the Middle West and South. 

Latin Grammars 

Every High School library should contain one or more of the standard 
grammars, and pupils ought to be taught how to use them, and how to become 
acquainted with their resources: Allen and Greenough (Ginn & Co.) ; Gilder- 
sleeve-Lodge (D. C. Heath & Co.) ; Bennett (Allyn & Bacon) ; Harkness 
(American Book Co.); Hale & Buck (Ginn & Co.). The following also will 
be found of great service: Lodge, Vocabulary of High School Latin (Colum- 
bia University Press) ; Byrne, Syntax of High School Latin (University of 
Chicago Press). 

Latin Lexicons 

Harper's Latin Dictionary, American Book Co.; White, Latin-English 
Lexicon, Ginn & Co. ; Lewis, Elementary Latin Dictionary, American Book Co. 

Roman History 

In addition to the usual Ancient History texts, in which Roman History 
is treated, some of the larger handbooks and expanded works on Roman His- 
torj' make a valuable addition to the library. Such are : How and Leigh, A 
History of Rome to the Death of Caesar, Longmans, Green & Co. Shuckburgh, 
A History of Rome to the Battle of Actium, MacMillan Co. Jones, Roman 
Empire, Putnam's Sons. Bury, A History of the Roman Empire to 180 A. D., 
American Book Co. Merivale, General History of Rome, American Book Co. 
Ihne, Early Rome, Scribners. Beesley, The Gracchi, Marius and Sulla, Scrib- 
ners. Merivale, The Roman Triumvirates, Scribners. Capes, The Age of the 
Antonines, Scribners. Mommsen, History of Rome, New, revised edit, 5 vols. 
Heitland, The Roman Republic, 3 vols., Cambridge University Press. Gibbon, 
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, revised by Bury, MacMillan Co. Fow- 
ler, Julius Caesar, Putnam's Sons. Strachan-Davidson, Cicero, Putnam's Sons. 

Private Life 

Nothing does more to beget and sustain an interest in the peoples of 
classical antiquity than a knowledge of the essential facts of their daily life. 
Pupils are always eager to know how the Romans lived, what their houses 
were like, what their social customs were, what they ate and wherewithal they 
were clothed. The following are good texts for the High School : Johnston, 
Private Life of the Romans, Scott, Foresman & Co. Fowler, Social Life at 
Rome in the Age of Cicero, MacMillan. Thomas, Roman Life Under the 
Caesars, Putnam's Sons. Inge, Society- in Rome Under the Caesars, Scribners. 
Pellison, Roman Life in Pliny's Time, Century Press. Dill, Roman Society from 
Nero to Marcus Aurelius, MacMillan. 

Mythology 

All of the following texts are attractive and written in an interesting 
style: Fairbanks, The Mythology of Greece and Rome, D. Appleton & Co. 



138 

Scott, Bulfinch's Age of Fable, David McKay, Philadelphia. Gayley, Classic 
Myths of English Literature, Ginn & Co. 

Antiquities 

These treatises are invaluable as books of reference. The mere habit 
of consulting them is a long step toward proficiency as a classical student. The 
best for the High School teacher and the library are: Harper's Dictionary of 
Classical Literature and Antiquities, American Book Co. Smith, Dictionary of 
Greek and Roman Antiquities, Little, Brown & Co., Boston. Sandys, A Com- 
panion to Latin Studies, Cambridge Press. Gow, Companion to School Classics, 
MacMillan & Co. Platner, Ancient Rome, Allyn & Bacon. Lanciani, The Ruins 
and Excavations of Ancient Rome, Houghton, Mifflin Co. 

Miscellaneous 

Brown, Latin Songs, Classical, Mediaeval, and Modern, with Music, Put- 
nam's Sons. Sabin, The Relation of Latin to Practical Life, Order of 
Francis E. Sabin, Oak Park, 111. Shumway, Latin Synonyms, Ginn & Co. Meis- 
ner and Auden, Latin Phrase-Book, MacMillan Co. Knowlton, Illustrated 
Topics on Ancient History, McKinley Publishing Co., Philadelphia. McKinley, 
Desk Outline Maps, small, large, double size ; McKinley Wall Outline Maps. 
Kelsey, Latin and Greek in American Education, MacMillan Co., contains reports 
of several symposia on the value of classical studies as a preparation for the 
professions and for practical life. DeBurgh, The Legacy of Greece and Rome, 
Macdonald and Evans, London. 

At the conclusion of the discussion of this paper the session ad- 
journed until 2 P. M. 

The session reassembled at 2 P. M. The program of the after- 
noon was an illustrated lecture by Professor W. A. Oldfather on 
"With Camera Through Classic Lands." It was of special interest 
because many of the views were of places rarely visited. 

By way of introduction and supplement to the illustrations shown, 
Mr. Oldfather made some remarks concerning the general character of 
the scenery of Greece, the type of the mountains, the configuration of 
the country, and the prominence in almost every landscape of the sea ; 
the climate and accomodations for travelers ; hospitality ; food and 
products of the country, and a few typical survivals of ancient usage 
and custom in the modern country. Then upwards of a hundred 
slides were shown, mostly from photographs which the speaker had 
himself taken, illustrating typical landscapes and ruins, and famous 
spots in Greece, Italy and Sicily. 

At the conclusion of the lecture, the session adjourned. 

Harriet L. Bouldin, Secretary. 



139 

Commercial Section 

The Commercial Teachers' Section of the Conference met Fri- 
day, November 20, in Room 111 Commerce Building, with Dean Kin- 
ley presiding. Dean Kinley excused himself and Dr. C. M. Thomp- 
son was chosen to preside over the morning session. 

Mr. Guy M. Pelton, of Evanston, was announced, and read a 
paper on 

"High School Bookkeeping — Whatf How Taught? How Much? 

Results?" 

Mr. Pelton's paper was as follows : 

The purpose of this paper is to bring before us, for discussion, a few ideas 
concerning High School Bookkeeping: What? How Taught? How Much? 
Results? It is needless to say, that a subject so broad and comprehensive 
as bookkeeping can merely be touched upon in a limited amount of time. 
Neither do I have the presumption to believe that it is within my power to do 
justice to it. 

However, the subject may be defined, we are told that double entry book- 
keeping deals with the following classes of operations: (a) Exchange transac- 
tions (b) Loss and Gain transactions, (c) Mixed transactions. It would seem, 
then, that one of the most important problems which we have before us, if not 
the most important one, is to teach the fundamental principles of debit and 
credit as they apply to these three classes of accounts. 

Originally, the purpose of bookkeeping was merely to show a systematic 
record of financial transactions. It is now generally recognized that it is essen- 
tial, not only to keep the records, but to keep them in such a way that one 
may be able, at any time, to obtain, as far as possible, desired facts concerning 
the progress and condition of the business. Of course there are certain ele- 
ments, such as depreciation, inventory, economic changes, and the like, which 
make it impossible to obtain, in some cases, anything but approximate answers. 

The task, then, which we have before us is to ground the student so thor- 
oughly in the basic principles, that he will be able to apply them with under- 
standing to any of the problems of debit and credit which may come before him. 

The account, therefore, must necessarily be made the center of attack. 

There are various reasons for this : 

First, because it makes the inductive method of development readily pos- 
sible. Second, because practically all accountants recognize this plan as being 
the most effective. Third, because the student is made to appreciate, more 
readily, the purpose of his work. Otherwise, there is a danger that both the 
student and the teacher will get off on a tangent, and waste time on petty de- 
tails which are of no particular value, except in that special case ; or they are 
liable to make no attempt whatsoever in the handling of the problem as a 
whole. 



140 

Irrespective of the kind of records to be kept; whether they be bound 
book, or loose leaf, cards, or a combination of these ; whether columns are ruled 
horizontally or perpendicularly; whether items are entered directly into the 
ledger, or are transferred from various original books of entry; all these are 
mere details that are secondary to the principles involved. 

They serve only as a means to an end which may be to facilitate the 
work; guard against errors and fraud; make it possible to obtain information 
more readily, and in that way secure greater efficiency. It is not my intention 
at this point to argue against the advisability and necessity of acquainting 
the student with just as much of this technic, as is consistent with the teaching 
of the basic principles, to which I have already referred. 

Even though the student should be given constant drill in debit and credit; 
though considerable attention should be paid to opening and closing work, — 
which by the way may be so easily slighted, — and to posting, taking of trial 
balances, the preparation of statements and balance sheets ; it is absolutely nec- 
essary, along with all this, that we dwell continually on the reason and where 
fore for each step taken in order to obtain satisfactory results. It is of no 
particular advantage to the student to allow him to wade aimlessly, and without 
reason or purpose, through a great mass of material. It is not entirely the 
fact that he can handle any special system or set of books, special columned 
or otherwise ; or that he has been taught the details which might apply to any 
one line of business, that makes his training truly worth while. But it is the fact 
that he understands the fundamental and underlying principles so he may be 
able to apply them to various business transactions. 

The story is told of a young man who, about fourteen years ago, went 
to work in a certain business organization. He wanted to know the whys for 
everything. 

"Why", he asked, "do you spend exactly $100,000 a year in advertising? 
Why don't you spend $105,000 or $95,000?" 

It was a simple question, but no one in the concern could answer it. He 
had hit upon a fundamental weakness in business — the rule-of-thumb method 
of gauging values. 

He approached the problem with the idea of getting the facts. He found 
that the bookkeeping system was kept in such a way that all advertising 
cost was charged directly to the general advertising account, rather than to 
various subsidiary accounts, such as billboard, newspaper, magazine and circular 
matter. These accounts were opened and charges were made directly to them. 
Then from these records he compared results to find which form of advertising 
paid the best. He keyed the advertisements so he could trace the number of 
replies from each insertion. In the course of time he learned what kind of adver- 
tising brought the most profitable returns. Under the former scheme of ac- 
counts this would not have been readily possible, and the question why could 
not have been answered. 

Evidently then the teaching of bookkeeping is not so much a matter of 
how much we do, as it is of how well we do it. 



141 

How Taught 

It is pretty generally recognized that double periods, or their equivalent, 
should be used, the first one for recitation, and the second one for laboratory 
practice. During the recitation period every problem that comes up for con- 
sideration, both as to theory and as to practice, may be covered. However, the 
subject matter should be introduced only as rapidly as the average student can 
comprehend the theory and processes involved. 

It is an advantage, during the laboratory period, to have the student work 
individually to a large extent. I have found, however, from personal experience, 
that much good can come from a certain amount of freedom. The idea is to 
get the student to be natural, and to work in a business-like manner, which 
he would find necessary if he were in a well regulated business organization. 

Better results may be obtained if all work is outlined, and attention is 
given to the smallest details. Neatness and accuracy, of course, are necessary, 
and penmanship needs constant attention. The efficiency of the student and his 
percentage of accuracy are lowered, unless the surroundings are conducive to 
good work. It is not difficult to realize the bad results that may come from 
the use of poor pen points, pencils, rulers and blotters. Erasures should not 
be allowed under any condition. 

From the very first it is well to place the student largely upon his own 
initiative. He should not be allowed to think that he may obtain information 
from the teacher with regard to each difficulty that may arise. Rather than 
this, he should be encouraged to work the problem out constructively, under 
guidance, and to think logically from premise to conclusion. 

All outside written work should also be done neatly and painstakingly 
before being accepted. To allow the student to prepare these papers in any 
other manner is a positive injury to him. 

Along with the experience and knowledge which the student receives in 
school, he should get some actual experience outside. In order to develop this 
idea, we have established an employment bureau in connection with our de- 
partment. Each student is encouraged and aided to obtain experience in busi- 
ness concerns during vacation, and partially during the school year. This em- 
ployment does not necessarily consist of keeping books, doing stenographic 
work, or both: but it may be general, and still of such nature that he will 
obtain a better understanding of business methods. 

Trips are also taken to various establishments. In this way the pupil 
develops an appreciation of business sense. Even though he should not get a 
single tangible idea from such a trip, he does receive one thing in spite of all 
odds, and that is an inspiration which comes to him unconsciously from having 
been brought in contact with a real business organization which is actually doing 
things. 

A certain business man is quoted as saying: 

"Take the teachers into your shops, your offices, and your salesrooms, and 
you will get wonderful results. If we are so smart, as we think we are, we can 
show these teachers our needs, and they in turn can impart the knowledge to 
the students." 



142 

So these trips may not only benefit the students, but the teachers as well. 

It is also a good plan to have various representative business men give 
the classes talks on general as well as specific business topics. 

We have worked out a scheme with our more advanced classes which 
seems to be beneficial. At various times the student is required to investigate, 
outside of school hours, certain smaller business organizations. He is given a 
general outline to keep in mind. The points included in this outline are some- 
thing as follows: Name and kind of concern; how organized; purpose; buying 
and selling, and records kept of each; general bookkeeping system; relationship 
of parts to the whole. 

After obtaining this information he writes a report covering those points 
which he has found in the system. This report, together with various business 
forms, serves as a basis for a talk to be given by him during the class hour. 
In this way he benefits, not only from his own work, but from that of others. 
Undoubtedly he will fail, and does fail, to reach an ideal. But it is surprising 
to see how enthusiastically he looks for the fundamental truths in the plan, and 
the reason for each step that is taken. 

The purpose, then, of having the student get actual experience ; of the 
business talks; the trips; and of the individual investigations, is to modernize 
and to vitalize the subject. 

How Much 

The problem of just exactly how much to teach is a difficult one to answer. 
Some teachers, with an average class, in a given length of time, are able to 
cover twice the amount of subject matter as can be covered by others under 
similar conditions. 

Bookkeeping is one of the most important subjects in a high school com- 
mercial curriculum. The day will come, no doubt, when the teaching of this 
subject will be standardized, as it surely should be as soon as conditions permit. 
However, there are a great many factors that effect the problem. 

A High School commercial curriculum should have two purposes ; the 
first one being to prepare the student, as far as possible, in the fundamentals 
for immediate employment in the business world ; the second one being to 
prepare him to take the more advanced work in higher Courses in Commerce. 

The subject matter taught in either case need not, and should not differ 
materially. In other words, to make bookkeeping worth while, it should not 
be given until the student is mature enough to really appreciate the content 
and benefit thereby. It would appear then, that the amount we are able to 
cover depends upon when we teach the subject. It has been my experience 
that to attempt this before the second year in high school is of no especial 
benefit. It may be an advantage to precede the subject by a year of algebra. 
Information received, however, from a questionnaire recently sent out to repre- 
sentative high schools in the country showed in fifty-eight per cent of the cases 
that commercial arithmetic is not required as a prerequisite. 

It is quite probable that a year and a half may profitably be given to 
high school bookkeeping. It requires practically a year to cover satisfactorily 
the fundamental principles involved in the problems of debit and credit, as they 



143 

apply to the various original entries, posting, closing of books, taking trial bal- 
ances and the preparation of statements and balance sheets. Due attention 
should, of course, be paid to mechanical details, reviews, and the relation of 
parts to the whole. 

In the more advanced work, the principles already learned may be applied 
to the systems employed by various corporate organizations, such as those found 
in the wholesaling, jobbing and manufacturing fields. Some time may profitably 
be spent on special column books, opening and closing entries peculiar to cor- 
porate organizations, the preparation of statements and balance sheets from 
original data, and to some of the larger problems in accounts and methods which 
a young man will meet sooner or later, in the business world of today. 

Results? 

Briefly then, the pupil having been prepared thoroughly in the funda- 
mental and underlying principles of debit and credit, may be able to apply these 
principles, not onlj^ to a special system or set of books, but also to the various 
problems, which may come before him. 

By having greater accuracy, neatness, initiative, persistence, and a better 
business sense and methods, the pupil is enabled to secure better results at 
all times. 

By having secured an appreciation of the why and wherefore for each 
thing being done, he is enabled to see relationships rather than rules, which 
will make him of greater service to himself and to society. 

The paper by Mr. Pelton was discussed at some length. Fol- 
lowing are notes of the Secretary on this discussion: 

Mr. Loring, Danville: 

In the past the clerical features of bookkeeping were empha- 
sized but recently the theory and science of accounting have received 
greater attention. Few teachers devote much time to the recitation. 
The class should be kept together in the work though the student 
should be allowed to use initiative. Two years might well be spent 
in the accounting course, my idea being to supplement the theory and 
practice of the first year with more specialized accounting and ao- 
countancy problems the second year. Outside study should be en- 
couraged but not at the expense of other teachers' assignments. 

Mr. Nichols, Austin High School, Chicago: 

There is a question as to what shall be prerequisite to the book- 
keeping. There should be a definite amount of preliminary work. 
In a measure business arithmetic should be prerequisite and yet it 
might well be continued parallel to the bookkeeping. Business arith- 
metic is not well done in the high schools of Chicago. A recent sur- 



144 

vey has shown that the work done in the grades is superior. I would 
suggest frequent contests, every day for a short preiod is not too 
often, to induce speed in calculation. 

Mr. Pelt on: 

In the teaching of shorthand and bookkeeping the student is pre- 
pared as much for citizenship as for the technical occupations of 
stenographer or bookkeeper. I believe in the four year commercial 
course. 

Mr. Gavins, Normal: 

I should like to hear suggestions as to methods of making the 
student grasp the subject of bookkeeping. 

Thereupon Mr. Pelton demonstrated the early methods of pre- 
senting the theory of debits and credits, the ledger being the key- 
stone, and followed by showing a way to develop the principles and 
location of accounts. 

Mr. Larson, Oak Park: 

I believe in beginning the course with positive rules and intro- 
ducing the historical and pictorial demonstration afterward. The 
start would be simple and definite. Later, as the student progresses, 
the more complicated situations can be defined and then illustrated. 

Mr. Scovil, of the University of Illinois, then gave a demonstra- 
tion of the origin of accounts from the standpoint of the accountant. 

The next feature of the program was a paper by Mr. Arthur L. 
Loring, of Danville, on 

The Relation of High School Commercial Courses to University 
Courses in Commerce 

Following is a copy of this paper: 

It is not customary to present one's conclusions by way of introduction. 
There are two however that might explain the absence of a number of qualities 
which might otherwise be looked for in this discussion. My first conclusion 
is this: to try to classify the ideas of any great number of commercial teachers 
on the relation of courses in commerce in high school and university would be 
a hopeless job. The few letters which I received on this subject were full of 
excellent ideas but were dissimilar and conflicting. The second conclusion nat- 
urally follows. A full discussion of the subject by every one interested is most 
necessary in order to find common ground on which to start the work of cor- 
relation. 



145 

It seems that we are dealing with somewhat similar courses but which 
have grown up independent of each other in supplementary institutions. What- 
ever this present relationship may be, it has not been planned, and the similari- 
ties seem only to have grown out of the fact that both courses are based on 
economic principles. I find little published material which bears directly on 
the subject but that little seems to be written around the idea of college en- 
trance requirements. 

The ideals or standards of the present high school commercial curriculum 
can be divided roughly into three classifications, namely, the "high school set 
standard" or the standard set by the high school and the needs of the com- 
munity in which it is placed, the "dual" standard, or those who are attempt- 
ing a college preparatory and finishing curriculum at the same time, and the 
university set standard where the work is carried out with advice and aid of 
the university. 

Among those who believe that the problem of high school commercial 
courses belongs entirely to the high school and its community is Prof. C. R. 
Mann of the University of Chicago. He says : "Let us recognize that from 
the point of view of the public high school college entrance requirements are 
like the flowers that bloom in the spring, — they have nothing to do with the case. 
The state schools owe this training to the people of the state for educational, 
moral and economic reasons that cannot be gainsaid. Should they be deterred 
from this mission because there are a few doubting Thomases who question 
whether things can be useful and cultural at the same time?" 

Now we know, all of us, that this attitude, although it may not injure 
the high school or universit>% is not one which will bring any nearer the solu- 
tion of the problem. We admit that the problem of each high school is largely 
affected by the community in which it is placed, that our first duty is to care 
for the ninety and nine who do not go to college. Suppose we train them 
thoroughly in the lines which they will use in their community, give them 
what might be commonly accepted as a good secondary education from the 
standpoint of immediate earning power, would it be the best preparation or 
even a good preparation for university work in commerce should the student 
take a notion to go on with his studies? If the following maxim is true we 
might say "yes" to such a question. "The best secondary education, considered 
in itself, is likewise the best preparation for any further education that should 
chance to follow it." This proposition might seem to imply that the judgment 
of the teacher and the judgment of the community acting thereon should be 
accepted without question by the university. 

One might draw the same conclusion from the following letter which I 
received from a high school principal in answer to several questions which I 
took the liberty to ask him on the subject. I neglected to ask the liberty of 
quoting him and consequently withhold his name. He writes : "Yes, I think 
we are working toward entrance credit in commercial subjects. It has been said 
that the dictation of the university with regard to high school courses has not 
been for the best interest of the high school student. But these vocational 
curricula are planned primarily for the boys and girls who do not go to college. 
They are planned in obedience to the demands of the community. The com- 



146 

munity wants effective training for business and for the trades, and the uni- 
versity will not have the opportunity to dictate further than to insist on a cer- 
tain quantity. The quality will be then, not because the university wishes it 
but because the community demands it. In that case it cannot be detrimental 
to the pupil for the university to give credit." 

The problem of one community is not the problem of another. The stand- 
ards and ideals of Danville might require a much more specialized clerical 
training than those of Springfield or Champaign. With each community en- 
grossed in its own vocational problem we could not hope for any semblance 
of uniformity. True it is, that we all are striving to produce the greatest possi- 
ble number of efficient workers, but in different lines. Besides, Danville's stand- 
ard might fall far short of those of Springfield. If there is not outside influence 
to pull it up who will suffer? The university cannot admit graduates from the 
two schools on the same footing. 

The consequence of present independent work on the part of each high 
school are obvious. The courses in bookkeeping include everything from sim- 
ple laboratory work in which the student does nothing but blindly follow de- 
tailed directions of some laboratory manual to half time recitations on ac- 
counting with illustrative laboratory work as a supplement. The same study 
could serve its purpose at least as well were it organized as thoroughly as 
mathematics in the high schools of Illinois today. 

Mr. H. T. Ford who is at the head of the Commercial Department at 
Hillsdale College, Michigan, wrote me as follows in regard to the present 
high school standard of bookkeeping: "The standard of bookkeeping by a few 
of our students is very inefficient and not of a character to be of use to one 
in taking up university work in the same field. Indeed, I find few students 
who come to us with sufficient training to allow them to study even so ele- 
mentary a text as Klein with intelligence." (Klein's "Elements of Accounting" 
is an excellent book on elementary accounting.) 

This I believe would be the result of leaving each community to set its 
own standard. Granted even that the work were efficiently done as was allowed 
previously in this argument, the university has no assurance that such work 
is a foundation on which to build a broader education. The college has its 
own definite work to do, and that work presumably requires a certain amount 
of more or less definite preparation. The secondary school may prepare for 
the farm, the shop, the draughting room, the office or the college, but it cannot 
make preparation for the latter by teaching office training any more than by 
giving the student a course in agriculture in preparation for such work. 

The idea that a curriculum may become at once a preparatory curriculum 
and one intended to turn out graduates for immediate employment, although 
comparatively new, seems to be gaining ground. Mr. Pelton, of Evanston, in a 
recent letter asserts that the high school commercial course has a dual pur- 
pose. "The first one" he says "is to fit the student as far as is possible for im- 
mediate employment in the business world. The second purpose is to fit him 
to go on with courses in commerce in college. In this sense the courses are 
necessarily preparatory ones. But in justice to our young men who wish to go 
on with the higher work in commerce it seems necessary and fitting that we 



147 

fulfill this requirement. I do not believe there is any question but that the 
commercial courses have their rightful place in the high school. Granted that, 
virhy should it be wrong to allow of their being preparatory courses as well as 
directly technical courses? The subject matter need be taught no differently 
necessarily. In fact, the more directly and emphatically it can be taught, the 
better in both cases. The boy who wants to be a business man should have his 
English, mathematics, history and science, but he should be studying business, 
not the things required of those interested in medicine." 

Mr. Pelton's argument is made more forceful it seems to me, by the 
following. He says further : "It is absolutely necessary that we have a larger 
number of better trained teachers in high school teaching these subjects, and 
have college trained men, who have had commerce training as well, in charge 
of these departments. The universities cannot establish a definition and expect 
it to be carried out otherwise. The viewpoint of the teachers must be correct. 
I am not concerned particularly in making, or attempting to make, our high 
school courses meet the entrance requirements of the more classically inclined 
institutions, but I do believe with all my heart that we should make them meet 
the requirements of the Middle West Universities." 

Mr. Ford, of Hillsdale (previously quoted), expresses the same thought. 
"My idea" he writes "is that the high school should fulfill two purposes, — 
first to fit a young person to follow intelligently the courses offered by the 
advanced schools of Business Administration, second to fit the student who can- 
not continue his studies beyond the high school, for a useful position." 

From one standpoint the dual standard might seem to be plausible. Cer- 
tain commercial courses might be at the same time practical in the sense that 
they might lay foundations for further study. Bookkeeping and accounting 
are cases in point. The principles of bookkeeping are few and are not difficult 
of application. The system and accuracy demanded are valuable acquisitions 
and the classifications of transactions train the power of judgment to some 
extent. If it were not for its practical value the time spent upon it could be 
better employed. No such charge can be brought against the science under- 
lying it — accounting. The principles governing this science are the principles 
of business and hence the application of economics. I can see how a complete 
training along this line might be a preparation for either business or college. 
Commercial and industrial geography, if taught by a teacher who knows his 
economics, might also fall under this class. But such courses as office practice, 
commercial arithmetic, stenography, letter writing, penmanship, and in most 
cases, commercial law are not basic sciences and hence not stepping stones to 
broader study. No doubt there are several here who have worked on a wheat 
or hay stack. A broad foundation is made and the center is filled in to make 
the whole thing level. As the stack rises in the air the big task is to keep the 
sides perpendicular and corners square and solid. Once we begin to "pull in" 
then the capping process must take place. We can't continue to build the sides 
any higher but must round it off. Failure to do this will result in disaster. 
Either the hay or wheat will slip off the sides, or the stack will begin to take 
on the appearances of a steep roofed church, the delight of a summer wind 
storm. 



148 

Any commerce courses which are not basic, and by basic I mean those on 
which further study might be based, are the "caps" to secondary education. 

To develop only courses which can be admitted for college credit is not my 
argument. Such a policy would defeat the ends for which secondary com- 
mercial work was originally established. But to insist on the university giving 
credit for any other than so called basic work is equally absurd. However, I 
believe that the future commercial work in high schools will be developed 
along the lines of the dual purpose standard. I shall discuss it further in con- 
nection with the problem from the university standpoint. 

The university set standard established in connection with other branches 
of high school work is successful. At least the present system of inspection, 
accrediting and evident cooperation seem to bear me out. No uniform method 
of accrediting commercial courses is yet in practice. The University of Michi- 
gan allows two units of commercial work. Notre Dame three, Northwestern 
five, Illinois three, and Chicago five. In all cases except Chicago the work 
offered will be allowed as entrance to the college of liberal arts. Wisconsin 
does not outline specially the number of commercial credits allowed but attempts 
to handle each school separately. The following statement appears in its cata- 
log: "Owing to the present state of development of vocational subjects in the 
high school curriculum no specific conditions are indicated for such subjects as 
domestic science, commercial work and manual arts. Acceptance of the work 
from any school for admission to the university will be based on special inspec- 
tion, and approval of courses will depend primarily upon adequate equipment 
and efficiency of instruction." 

My conclusion from an examination of these requirements is that the 
universities are willing to recognize work in this line as soon as it is organized. 

Professor Jones of the University of Michigan voiced the sentiments of 
several schoolmen in other lines with whom I talked. He writes in part, "With 
reference to high school commercial courses as a preliminary to university 
courses my idea has been, in general, that students who intend to go to college 
should not specialize in high school but stick to basic cultural and disciplinary 
courses and leave the semi-professional or special courses until later. If there 
are any things which high school commercial departments can do for students 
intending to take college courses in commerce they would seem to me to be as 
follows : 

(a) Concrete studies of industrial processes and commercial methods : — 
a sort of commercial geography, but devoted to the study of American indus- 
trial conditions rather than to foreign countries. The value of this would serve 
as a background of general knowledge for elementary economics. 

(b) Thorough drill in the elements of accounting so that the student 
could get on faster with accounting courses in college. 

(c) Shorthand and typewriting for those who are heading for some of 
the new types of secretarial work." 

Professor Jones evidently would recommend such studies as outlined above 
as electives in high school rather than for presentation for entrance credit. 
Although they might not be called cultural, such studies are at least basic in 
relation to the further work in the university for which they prepare. Under 



149 

proper conditions of instruction I can see how they might fit into a brief outline 
of commercial work which Dean Kinley has been kind enough to offer me. 
In presenting the outline the Dean wrote me as follows : 

"The ideal and purpose of the course really determines its character, and 
a course planned to conform to our ideal may not fit in the high school com- 
mercial course as well as a course planned for another ideal. For example, 
I formed an opinion some years ago after studying the commercial high schools 
and university courses in commerce in Germany, England and this country 
that they might roughly be classified as (1) those whose main aim is to turn 
out people for executive positions, and (2) those whose main aim is to turn out 
people for clerical positions. The two things are entirely different, the courses 
of study must be different and the former has a less definite and close relation to 
the ordinary high school than has the latter." 

I regret to say that I was unable to discuss the outline as fully with the 
Dean as I should have liked. I think, however, that the studies which Professor 
Jones suggests might be recommended to those whose intentions are for early 
specialization in college along the lines of the second classification. 

I do not wish to offer any plan of reorganization of commercial courses. 
However, such reorganization is bound to come. When we set to work on this 
task there are several points which we might well keep in mind. 

In the first place it must not be forgotten that the first two years of the 
college course are, as a usual thing, more closely connected with the high school 
work than with the last two years of the college course itself. To put the 
more general work in four years (two in high school and two in college) would 
not seem to be inadvisable. No intensive technical work can be done in high 
school and the sentiment of the university is not in favor of such action. Any 
such program would mean a division of the course somewhere in high school. 
Why not group such studies which evidently serve both to prepare for college 
and business in the first three years? Then in the senior year round off the 
education of the boy or girl who goes into the world with more practical courses, 
and offer the college aspirant more basic work such as economics, economic 
history, a third year in accounting and a more intensive sort of industrial 
study? In this way the course might be said to have a dual purpose until the 
senior year. 

To carry out a program along these lines we need university training 
courses for teachers, and we need those men in the profession who have had 
practical experience in business in order that they may see similarities and con- 
trasts in the requirements of the university and business. We must remember 
that we are finishing up one class of students and only laying the foundations 
of the other class. That there are courses in commerce which can be con- 
sidered fundamental and basic to both classes I have no doubt. 

If we ever come to any definite agreement on this problem both high 
school instructor and university professor will have to enter in on the task with 
a mind open to conviction and a willingness to concede points which they may 
hold important. 

Personally, I believe the university will appreciate fully the bigger local 
problem of the high school. 



150 

A discussion followed the reading of Mr. Loring's paper, the 
chief points of which were as follows : 

Mr. Nichols, Austin: 

I should like to emphasize the necessity of arranging the com- 
mercial courses to suit the needs of the community and provisions 
made to accommodate students for short courses. I do not assume 
that the courses in the city school shall be like that of the school in 
the smaller community. Provision should be made for such pupils 
as do not expect to go to the university. 

Mr. Hootman, Peoria: 

I have just returned from Kalamazoo where the Michigan State 
Teachers' Assocation held its meeting. This question of articulation 
between the university and the high school courses in commercial 
subjects came up for discussion, but, I am sorry to say, the time was 
too short for any definite results. Prof. Friday of the University of 
Michigan, read a paper on this question. He declared that the uni- 
versity and the high school both had their work to do and in a large 
degree did not have the same ideals, the university point of view be- 
ing cultural, and the high school attitude, vocational. 

Miss Van Der Veen, Joliet: 

In this discussion of the cultural aspects of commercial work, I 
think the child very often derives more thinking capacity from his 
commercial work because he feels its utilitarian value. 

Mr. A. L. Loring, of Danville, was elected as a new member of 
the executive committee of the commercial section, the retiring mem- 
ber being Mr. Boyer. 

At the afternoon session. Dean Kinley presided. 

Mr. Williams, of Normal, presented the report of the High 
School Conference Committee, of which he was chairman, on the ed- 
ucational value and content of shorthand, typewriting and commercial 
arithmetic. 

This report was extensively discussed. The discussion revealed 
a tendency to disagree with several features of the proposed content 
of the courses presented. 

In a similar manner the arguments presented as showing the ed- 
ucational value of stenography, typewriting and arithmetic came up 



151 

for criticism. It was felt by some of the speakers that the grounds 
given for valuation of these subjects were not conclusive. 

Dr. Bagley was present, and pointed out the fact that the real 
factors which go to determine values had been overlooked; that the 
men who were specialists in determining such values had evidently 
not been consulted. He showed the need of greater care in present- 
ing arguments to be considered by the University Senate in determin- 
ing whether or not University entrance credit should be granted 
these subjects on an equal footing with other subjects of the curricu- 
lum. 

On motion the report was referred back to the committee for 
such modification and elimination of arguments as to make the re- 
port more presentable. 

A motion to recommend the accrediting of subjects as outlined in 
the report was adopted. 

By a unanimous vote the Section extended its thanks to Dr. 
Bagley for his helpful criticisms. 

The session was closed by a brief talk from Dean Kinley on the 
proposed reorganization of the courses in commerce. 

County Superintendents' and Village Principals' Section 

Meeting called to order at 9 o'clock. County Superintendent B. 
C. Moore, Bloomington, presiding; County Superintendent Frank A. 
Gilbreath, Watseka, secretary. Registration taken, and instructions 
from H. A. Hollister read. Election of member of executive com- 
mittee. G. P. Chapman nominated and elected for full term, 3 years. 

Chairman gave brief explanation of object of Conference. 
Asked for suggestions for plans of future meetings. Supt. H. C. 
Rudolph, Paxton, suggested matter be taken up at close of Confer- 
ence. 

Mr. Moore further commented on causes of improper school 
conditions, especially with reference to improper relationship between 
the larger and smaller village schools. Cited State and University of 
Illinois aid in this matter as best solution. 

The topic "Relation Between Rural Schools and Village High 
Schools," given by Edwin Packard, Rural School Department, State 
Normal University, was ably presented and the interest of those 
present was manifested by the many questions asked him pertaining 
to his paper. His paper is submitted in full. 



152 

Mr. Moore suggested that the local principal idea might meet op- 
position from the fact that it would savor of centralization. Mr. 
Packard answered that this objection would never arise if only a 
sincere desire to aid child welfare prompted the work and no discon- 
certing plan or idea was allowed to interfere. 

The second topic was "The Curriculum of the Small High 
School," presented by J. Calvin Hanna, State Supervisor of High 
Schools. This paper is appended in full. Much discussion followed 
its presentation bringing out the fact that, at present, conditions as to 
program of studies in this type of schools are somewhat chaotic. 

Mr. Hanna answered many questions as to local conditions and 
gave solutions in many cases. 

Among village conditions mentioned were Hutsonville, Ogden, 
Columbia, Armstrong, etc. 

Conference closed at 12, with many desiring to take part in dis- 
cussion. 

The Graded School Principal's Relation to the Country School 

(Edgar S. Packard) 

The village high school and the country school are so closely related that 
the boundary between them is varying; sometimes it is between the eighth year 
and the ninth year, sometimes between the ninth year and the tenth year, and 
sometimes between the tenth year and the eleventh year. This close relation, 
however, is more in theory than in practice. In states where the township 
system obtains they are related in practice as well as in theory. The village 
principal is to some extent the principal of the entire township and sometimes 
calls all of the teachers together for study and conference. In much of our 
state no such custom is followed. 

While working in a denominational school in this state I learned that the 
counties of Illinois are distributed among the various schools of that denom- 
ination and each of these schools was expected to do field work in its particular 
province. Although I occupied only a very modest position in that school, 
yet I spent many a day talking to the country boy at the end of the corn row 
or to the country girl at the garden wall. And the whole point that I shall try 
to make in this paper is that I wish each country school might be assigned to 
its most convenient high school and have it clearly understood that the country 
teacher has a welcome waiting her if she wishes to come in contact with the 
dynamo of professional power that exists in the average high school, and also 
the high-school principal or his teachers may feel free to visit a country school 
or a country community without being required to secure a passport. 

In a recent address before the State Teachers' Association in the state 
of Maine, President Aley made this remark : "I desire to say that the rural 
schools need the support of all the people, the co-operation of the state, city, 



153 

and large town, and the helpful thought of the teachers and the school adminis- 
trators of every part of the system." In expressing my hearty approval of this 
remark I wish to add to it that this cooperation will not be a mere missionary 
movement on the part of the high school, but, on the contrary, there is a large 
promise of mutual helpfulness. 

The average village principal is a busy man. He is often under the lash 
of a community and a school board that have more ambition in reference to 
their high school than they have cash to support it. It is folly, therefore, to 
point out more duties for him unless such duties promise the minimum of time 
with the maximum of good results. 

We are told by the leading educators to study our respective communities. 
The units for the measurement of all sorts of values are in the home community, 
and unless we master these units we shall find ourselves handicapped in our 
effort to get definite ideas of values elsewhere. We are also told to study 
especially the people of the community. Unless we can show some interest in 
them and in their work we need not expect them to show interest in us and 
in our work. If these points in favor of the study of the community are good 
pedagogy then they become good arguments to prove that the village principal 
should take an active interest in the country schools of his community. Are 
they not in his community? And are not the people in those communities 
his people? Many of his students come from those schools and many of his 
graduates are going back to those schools to teach. I have heard principals 
declare that their best students are from the country, and anybody knows 
that the high schools are training more country teachers than all the other 
schools combined. 

A principal might be willing to accept this reasoning and to admit that 
he had obligations in this direction ; yet, it being the county superintendent's 
direct field, he would not wish to do anything that might lead to a conflict. 
I have been out with county superintendents all the time for the last ten weeks, 
and if I have read them correctly it is the sins of omission much more than it 
is the sins of commission that are bothering them. One county superintendent 
has a record of visiting twelve country schools a day and forty-seven a week. 
In making such a record it would seem that the county superintendent could do 
little more than change to low speed while passing school houses. I live in 
the county where our chairman is superintendent. He has nearly three hundred 
schools and a new car. We are thinking of placing in front of each school 
this notice, "When the county superintendent is passing this school he will 
please slow down to six miles an hour that the children may get to see him." 
Surely the principal would have ample opportunity to do all of this work he 
could find time for without much conflict with the county superintendent, indeed 
if he were at all tactful he would win the gratitude of the superintendent. 

Let us see what this work promises the principal. In the first place his 
very selfishness ought to urge him to have something to do with the elementary 
education of these bright high-school students already mentioned, and also to 
have something to do for the success of the teachers who have been graduated 
in his school. What an opportunity he would have to expand his chest while 



154 

stating that he supervised the elementary education even of his best students 
and that he had trained successful teachers ! 

One of the duties imposed on every principal is to build up his school, and 
one of the most popular ways to build up a school is to increase the attendance. 
Many a country youth is asking for an education but is unable to remove the 
barriers. As a rule the village principal holds a very exalted place in the minds 
of many country people and a few minutes of his time as a sympathetic attorney 
pleading with the parents acting as judge and their child as defendant will 
bring about a complete acquittal. This means another student for the high 
school, and more students mean a higher standing for the school and more 
pay for the principal. 

But there are higher reasons for this cooperative relation. Awaiting every 
youth are thousands of personalities that he may become but for only one of 
these has he the largest endowment of genius. In some of these personalities 
he will be a mere sot or vagabond, in others he will be only a drudge producing 
but little and getting but a meager amount of happiness out of life. Yet if 
he can reach some personality for which he has genius his production will be 
great and his happiness assured. Anyone who has opened up a factory or 
shop knows that it isn't long before he is annoyed by boys bothering around. 
Their curiosity is usually interpreted as a desire to steal something, and they 
might take something if it looked temptingly at them and they thought they 
could get away with it ; but that is not what they are prying around for. They 
are searching for this successful personality. Their life's happiness is in jeop- 
ardy as well as to some extent the prosperity of the world. I believe the time 
is coming when the high school will be more concerned in helping the youth 
to find his successful personality in exposing him, as it were, to every vocation 
until his genius is discovered, than it will be in getting him to master college 
units. It is when the child is at the high-school age that this work can best be 
carried on, and the high-school principal has the best opportunity to perform 
this great work. Lord Byron said that when the English people made George 
III king they deprived themselves of a good farmer and made for themselves 
a very poor king. These misfits are everywhere. 

To be successful in finding what a youth is good for and to put him right 
is always the work in which the teacher takes the greatest pride. 

Some time ago I went to visit the public schools in Gary, Indiana. I first 
called on the city judge. As I was waiting for him I remembered that fifteen 
years ago, with another high-school teacher, I drove out to a modest country 
home to talk to a graduate of a country school about attending a high school. 
That tow-headed boy and this judge, for whom I was waiting, were the same 
person. Could we have held up to this boy and to his parents the pictures of 
a successful judge and that of a probable second-rate farmer we might have 
gotten him into the high school with less effort. The vision of the average 
principal is accurate enough to add much to the sum total of human happiness 
and human production ; and the country youth needs this expert direction just 
as much as the city youth does. 

Some tell us that the high school educates away from the farm and there- 
fore in these times when the cost of living is so high we should not try to get 



155 

young people from the countrj- to attend a high school. A poor farmer is not 
going to augment the food supply very much, yet such a farmer may have a 
genius for manufacturing or for transportation that will help the food supply 
a thousands times more than if he remained to become a poor farmer. Some 
have complained because the road leading from the country to the city is so 
straight and so level, as to attract so many of the young people. But this is 
really an encouraging feature. The only regret it occasions is that there is not 
equally as straight and level a road leading from the city to the countn,\ There 
are misfits and drudges in the city as well as in the country. What a civiliza- 
tion we might have if the high schools could place our young people as the 
distributing part of one of these great typesetting machines places each type 
form, dropping it down into the place where it belongs. There is no greater 
work than helping people to find their best selves and out in the country where 
about the only occupations are farming and teaching school is the richest field 
for this discover^-. 

Some years ago I listened to what my informant assured me was a true 
story. A man who is very prominent in affairs in the state of Wisconsin, was, 
some thirty years ago, made principal in one of the villages in the northern 
woods. Many of the lumber jacks remained in that village during the summer 
wasting what they had made during the winter. Among these woodsmen was 
a mere lad to whom the principal took a fancy. He suggested to the boy 
that he remain that winter and attend school. This the lad thought was 
impossible because he had not saved up any money. The principal did not 
give him up. A place was found where the lad could work for his board. 
The year was full of discouragement. Many a time the boy declared that he 
would quit, but the patience of the teacher was never exhausted. Finally, 
as spring opened up, he declared positively that he had to quit. After some 
questioning the boy said he had to quit to get some money with which to 
buy tobacco. He had tried to do without tobacco but was unable to study 
at all without it. After learning that it took fifteen cents' worth a week the 
teacher told him to come to him each Friday evening and he would give him 
tobacco money. That summer the teacher organized a school for teachers 
and this boy was again enrolled. The county superintendent was enlisted 
and a school up in the woods was secured for the young man. Before entering 
on his work he spent an evening talking over his plans with his old teacher. 
One of his plans was the resolution to break the tobacco habit or die in the 
attempt. This j^oung man became a leading educator in Wisconsin and is now 
a Sunday School worker and author on the Pacific coast. At one time I had 
an assistant whom this young man found in the northern woods. In describing 
the peculiar powers of this man he said that he could drop an oracular expres- 
sion into the mind of a student that could never be forgotten. In his senior 
year this student was wasting time. The principal met him one morning and 
asked him if he expected to be graduated that year. The boy replied that 
he did. Whereupon the principal, with a look the boy declared he never 
could forget, said, "You will have to spend more time on the stairway." The 
young man said he did not pretend to know exactly what the expression 
meant, but he got enough out of it to get down to business. 



156 

There should be no chasms between the different parts of the school 
system, although there is a tendency to allow one to form between the high 
school and the country school. Great care should be exercised to keep 
such a chasm from forming. At the time of high-school commencements and 
other school activities the pupils in the country school, who may become 
high-school students, should be remembered with invitations and other atten- 
tions. Library books and supplementary readers may be exchanged to the 
advantage of both schools. The children in the country could make collections 
and investigations that would help the work of the high school. And what 
would be a more helpful exercise for a high-school student than to take some 
material or apparatus to the country school and perform some interesting 
experiment for the children? Many more of these activities will suggest them- 
selves. 

To the man with little vision, the school children, shy, indifferent, and 
without apparent purpose are nothing but kids; but kids are all we have out 
of which we are to make the men and women of tomorrow. The chief of 
artists is he who can take this crude material and carve and mold it into the 
pillars on whose shoulders will rest a better civilization than we have yet 
known. 

At one time Panama was mankind's folly. Great engines possessing vast 
potential power lay entangled in vines and formed the lurking places of vicious 
lizards and frivolous English sparrows. We annexed the ten-mile zone, put 
those great engines back on the track, and not only attacked but removed 
the great Calubra obstruction to the world's commercial progress. I hope 
that each village principal will annex the ten-mile zone that surrounds his 
school and begin the work of getting those children, who are engines of infinite 
power, but who are now entangled with the vines of ignorance and are the 
lurking places of vicious and frivolous thoughts, squarely onto the track to 
attack the great Calubra Hill that lies between us and the Pacific — the pacific 
that is big with the promise of peace and good will. 

The High School Curriculum 
(John Calvin Hanna) 

The questions included for study in the making of the high school 
curriculum are multiform. They are related to every other question and 
element of the educational field. 

The biological and psychological questions involved in a study of the 
adolescent period and the education which belongs to it; the political and social 
questions brought before us in a consideration of the history and character 
of our country and its institutions; the practical questions involved, in any 
consideration of vocational preparation and its relation to the schools; the 
pedagogical questions brought to the surface by the ploughing of all these 
fields and by an honest examination of the teacher-material furnished by our 
present and probable sources of supply; the questions of finance and of organi- 
sation involved in a discussion of the arrangement of the general school cur- 
riculum and the relations between elementary, secondary and higher education ; 



157 

the philosophical questions that arise for solution in the examination of different 
studies and their content; these and half a dozen other fields of inquiry 
must be kept in mind in agreeing upon anything worth while in the matter 
of a high school curriculum. 

There is a world of criticism, faultfinding, suggestion and discussion. The 
simple student or the practical supervisor responsible for good results with 
the rising generation in his own community finds himself nearly swamped with 
all that is uttered. Such a one not only feels himself unable to march down 
a clearly defined highway to success, but even unable to swim, wade or scramble 
to any solid ground. Destructive criticism, whether fierce or cynical, whether 
contemptuous, or patronizing, whether just or unfair, has surely had its way 
for long enough. Is it not time to agree upon a few things that should be 
done, and then to do them? 

If we are to consider here an ideal curriculum for secondary schools in 
the average community of this, a self-governing state, are we not safe in 
making certain assumptions and with these as a basis, attempting something 
that shall be really constructive, even if modestly so? Let us assume that these 
following matters are agreed upon. 

A. The aim of secondary education is three fold. 

1. The first aim is to do what is attempted in every primitive tribe, 
past and present, in the first and earliest form of organized education which 
was developed, namely, secondary education, and that is to make of the 
youth a fully equipped member of the tribe, a worthy representative thereof, 
and a capable working unit therein — or, translating this into terms of modem 
American life, to fit the boy and the girl to live well the life which is to be his, 
and to be a worthy member of a self-governing community; 

2. The aim already stated governed secondary education in all phases 
— illustrated in later years by the apprentice system, for example — until individ- 
ualism found its own, through the vitalizing influence of Greek thought. In 
this great movement a second aim was given to secondary education, — one 
which we must recognize and which we are even now recognizing, and that is, 
the furnishing of opportunity and encouragement to the powers and ambitions 
of the individual youth as distinguished from the mass of his fellows, or, as 
distinguished from the community ideal. 

This wonderful discovery gives life in the revived education of the modem 
world by means of an influence which, throughout the long centuries of the 
Christian era, struggled against the leveling, strengthening, organizing influence 
of Rome. Every Roman was but a Roman citizen ; thus did even Paul make 
his claim for protection that he was a part of Rome. The weakness of Rome 
came to manifestation when the individual became a part of the imperator 
who was the embodiment of the imperium. 

Rome's formalism overshadowed all education during the middle period, 
but there was a new influence declared even at the beginning of imperial days, 
which ultimately raised the individual to his right again and demanded that 
he be given salvation as a free soul. This, of course, was Christianity with 
which we are concerned in its effect upon education. The Hellenic influence 
which glorified the individual had succumbed to the power of Rome and of 



158 

the state, because this, the Hellenic influence, lacked the new and vitalizing 
element now given by Christianity in the setting up of the third aim of educa- 
tion and that is 

3. the development of character. The pedagogy of the Gospels clearly 
sets this forth as the dominating force that shall preserve and harmonize 
the other two aims or ideals of education; and its fulfillment, long delayed, 
is in the present age. Robert Burns was the prophet of the individual and 
preached the forgotten pedagogy of the Gospels when he startled the world 
by his now familiar utterance : — 

"A man's a man for a' that." 

If we keep before us this three-fold aim, if we really understand them and 
are loyal to them, we shall not go far wrong in the framing of a curriculum, 
nor in any other of the great problems of education. 

B. The second assumption is that the spirit of the present age in our 
own country is a spirit of honesty and of a demand that it be convinced rather 
than ruled. All things hitherto accepted are challenged and each system, each 
plan of arrangement, each definition of content, must accept the challenge and 
must make good in the white light of reality without any help from the trappings 
of antiquity or the glamour of mystery. 

These questions are asked of every proposed curriculum. Does it serve 
the community life? Does it call forth the power of the youth himself? Does 
it save and develop character? The answer must be "Yes" to all of these, 
or the course and the method must go. And the reason is not alone because 
this is right and wise, but because the imperious spirit of the age will have it 
so. Autocracy, bauble, tradition — all must go. 

C. The third assumption is that whatever stands these acid tests must 
stay. If autocracy must go, anarchy shall not come. A critic's sneer must not 
dominate more than a ruler's dictum. 

Under these assumptions it would appear safe to conclude that the world 
demands that elementary education shall be for all and shall include the essen- 
tials, the mastery of the common tools, with the stimulating necessary to lead 
the child on with joy and ambition to the training of the secondary school. 
This would imply that much of what is. now found in elementary schools shall 
be eliminated and that the fundamentals shall include a more severe and thor- 
ough training; in short, that the attention given in these later days to the 
comfort, physical well being and happiness of the child in improved teaching 
methods, in physical training and in the organizing of play, shall not be taken 
as a substitute for thorough training, in those earlier years, in the simple 
essentials that have to do with habits of thoroughness, obedience and accuracy, 
and that the peeps given in elementary studies at the world of thought and 
beauty shall not get in the way of the necessary training in simple expression, 
and in accuracy and rapidity in elementary number operations. 

The wise men keep telling us this is, or may be completed at twelve 
years and demand of us that the great change in our education from elementary 
to secondary shall come then. This seems to establish a fourth assumption 
in favor of the 6-3-3 plan instead of the 8-4 plan. 



159 

Then our lengthened high school curriculum involves a plan which 
shall accomplish the making in six years of a child into a budding man or woman, 
fitted to meet the problem of living well in his community the life which 
is to be his, prepared and encouraged to choose and go on with such develop- 
ment as is right and proper of his own individual powers, and with a character 
sufficiently formed to stand the tests that come from such independence as is 
given him thereafter. 

What are these things that shall claim his and our attention then in 
the new 7th, 8th and 9th grades, with this aim and ideal before us? 

What shall follow thereafter in the last three years — 10th, 11th and 12th 
grades? 

There ought to be these fields of study and training for the pubscent 
and adolescent of the 7th, 8th and 9th grades: 

1st. A master}' of his mother tongue, an appreciation of the best examples 
of its use, and a power to use it in writing and in speech that shall be commen- 
surate with the natural and possible maturity of his powers at the age of 
sixteen, when he is to enter the 10th grade. This will require a constant, free 
and sympathetic study of English during the whole of these three years, 
involving first, a strict grind in the few essentials of grammatical structure 
without any pretense of studying the historical or biological development of 
those forms of structure ; second, a study of sentence structure largely through 
imitation and practice set for definite actual problems, and wrought out, as 
McMurrj' shows, backward from such real problems; third, a stimulation, 
through appeal to imagination, ambition, heroism, and other legitimate and 
mediaeval virtues and powers belonging to this age, of his powers of expression, 
and a skilfully arranged introduction to the historical development of our 
literature as being that of a race expressing its struggle toward freedom of 
thought and action. 

2nd. There must be acquired in these three years a real master^' of the 
essentials and fundamentals of arithmetic, including familiarity with numerical 
and literal notations and facility, including accuracy and rapidity, in the opera- 
tions that are actually used in every day life. This would mean the omission 
of much that is included in ordinary text books and greater drill in the funda- 
mental operations, together with practice in problems taken out of actual 
life, a step in accord, I believe, with the advice of the most progressive and 
thoughtful of mathematical experts and educators. This need not include 
even elementary algebra except for those whose bent or whose future work 
leads in that direction. 

3rd. These three years of what we may for brevity call the junior high 
school, must include a study of the elementary and fundamental ideas embodied 
in American histor>- — not a profound study of constitutional and political 
development, nor a memorizing of many dates and names, but the fixing of 
a few essentials together with the awakening of patriotism in its noblest sense 
and of zeal for further study when greater maturity shall have been attained. 

4th. These three years shall include a bird's eye view of geography, 
preparatory to such thorough going laboratory study of it in a later year, as 



160 

shall make of geography a real science study in the secondary curriculum 
to rank with physics, chemistry, botany and zoology. 

Sth. Within this period there should be a year's work in general science, 
that preliminary "bird's eye view," to use again the convenient term. 

6th. There should be within these three years, a year's work in elementary 
civics, directed to the fundamentals as illustrated by the problems within a local 
environment. 

7th. There should be a continuous training in the manual arts amounting 
to two or two and one-half units, and including such work as elementary use 
of tools, drawing, free hand and mechanical. 

Sth. The other unit or half unit may be given to a statement of the 
simplest principles of accounts with some training in the responsibilities con- 
nected therewith. 

9th. With this there should be instructions in the elementary principles, 
and practice in the singing, of good music. 

Such an arrangement, if handled with well prepared and sympathetic 
teachers, with a reasonable material equipment and with a wise selection of 
content for these courses, would, in my judgment, fit the sixteen year old 
for any one of three roads that open up before him then. 

First — preparation for making his living with an apprenticeship of one 
year (or more as needed) in the work of a mechanic, a gardener or farmer, 
a clerk, or any one of the many fields of which these are types, giving him, at 
the same time, a capacity for grasping and enjoying some of the finer things 
in his leisure hours, as well as preparing him for a fairly intelligent use of 
his powers and responsibilities as a citizen. 

Second — This youth, at the age of sixteen, would be prepared for the 
work of the three years in a senior high school — leading as it should along one 
or another of the five well defined lines of vocation training so clearly and 
sensibly presented in the report of the Illinois Educational Commission. These 
it will be remembered are : 

1. A curriculum leading to the speaking and writing professions with 
language, literature and history as its main subjects. 

2. A culliculum leading to the scientific professions, especially medicine 
and surgery, and devoting its chief attention to biology, physics and 
chemistry, studies dealing with life and the conditions of life. 

3. A curriculum leading to the profession of farming with special refer- 
ence to the domesticated animals and plants, and to the soil as the sus- 
tainer of life, supported by the physical sciences and by the principles 
of accounting. 

4. A curriculum preparing for useful and artistic construction in the 
building trades and in most lines of manufacture. Here, manual 
training, mathematics, physics and art should hold the leading place. 

5. A curriculum leading to the callings of the business world, with com- 
mercial geography, economics, industrial history, commercial arithmetic, 
commercial law, book-keeping, stenography and typewriting as its 
most prominent features. 



161 

6. A curriculum dealing with the application of science and of art to the 
aflfairs of the well-ordered home. Here sewing, cooking, food values, 
marketing, serving, nursing, sanitation, textiles, home decoration and 
the laws of physical, moral and mental development in childhood are 
the special studies. 
The program of studies of the senior high school, therefore, should include 
these things : 

a. Three years of required English — needed for all lines of vocation. 

b. Two years of required history and these in my opinion should be 
1st — European history with special reference to English history and 2nd, 
American history. 

c. One unit of required science — which thus comes after the year of 
general science set for the junior high school. This should be left to the free 
and guided choice of the pupil so far as the equipment of the school will 
allow it. 

d. One unit of civics and economics, taken in the 12th year. 

e. Two units of accounts, or of household arts, or of manual training. 

f. Three units of free choice in language and history, mathematics and 
science, agriculture, manual arts or household arts. This list of free electives 
might be made four units with a corresponding reduction in item e. 

Such a senior high school training wisely guided would, for such as 
wish and need it, lead to a definite professional curriculum — legal, medical, 
engineering, architectural, and others. 

Such a senior high school training would for a very large number be 
their preparation as now for the business of life and with such guided vocational 
training would be far better than the average high school training of the 
present. 

How is all this ideal to be made real in a small high school? 

Some of it can not be carried into realization in such a school, — for 
example, what is dependent on offering a wide range of electives. 

Some of it can be realized in time, as soon as the community sees the 
advantage of a living curriculum and the value of the necessary preliminary 
investment in equipment and in well prepared teachers. 

Much of it can be put into operation immediately — next year in hundreds 
of high schools in this state — with little of jarring in the adjustment. 

The separation of junior and senior high schools need not be a prerequisite 
for such improvements. 

The elimi-nation of much of the waste material and time now found in 
the 7th, eighth and 9th grades can be carried out on short notice. 

The elimination of the traditional foreign language study and the tradi- 
tional two years of high school mathematics as prescribed work in the junior 
high school is something for which we should prepare ourselves merely by 
taking a long breath and then raising our knives and doing the surgical act. 

The insisting upon the right kind of manual training and of actual 
science study with real problems is possible with teachers who are able and 
willing to do it. 



162 

The enlivening and enriching of our English work and the making prac- 
tical of our history work, will make it possible to hold on to these nine pre- 
scribed humanity units out of the twenty-four or so of these six years and 
will prevent their being swept away along with the other humanity studies 
which the modern age is eliminating. If we reform ourselves, the reform will 
be done right. If we leave it for others, it is likely to be overdone and angrily 
done and foolishly done. 

The setting up of the two prescribed units of science, if one of them 
be general science, is the reasonable medium between the extreme proposition 
of having four years of prescribed science demanded by some narrower special- 
ists, and the other extreme of having none at all. This latter is put in practice 
by the two apparently opposite influences, viz. : the demands on the one hand 
of some of the more conservative colleges, and the effect of wide open elective 
systems with the consequent hunting for "snap" courses. 

The dignifying of advanced geography as a science course demanding its 
place among the other laboratory sciences, will prove its wisdom in many 
ways, and in none more than in preparation for commercial life. 

Well, then, what shall we do — we superintendents and principals having 
schools with three teachers or four teachers and no more? 

The answer for the present is this : adopt Plan B under the Suggested 
Programs given out by the Department of Public Instruction or any reasonable 
modification of the same. With a little care and planning this can be fitted in, 
for the few cases that demand it, with the liberalized entrance requirements of 
the State University and other universities, which either are already more 
liberal, such as the University of Chicago, or will soon become as liberal. 

The demand for fixed units of algebra, geometry and Latin is going to 
fade away, except for such vocational lines in the Universities as absolutely 
need them as preparation. This change is coming, and it will continue to come 
even more rapidly. 

It is the duty of all fair minded and broad-minded school men to make 
the changes that are demanded by modern life and we may rest assured that 
the higher institutions will adapt their requirements in all reasonable v/ays 
to these changes. 

Thousands drop out and the slowness of reform is the chief cause — 
greater than poverty, stupidity and laziness. 

Thousands of others go through wearing the harness, and turn to vent 
their wrath or contempt or grief upon the antiquated system and the antiquated 
methods and the antiquated instruction which they endured in their ignorance 
and whose harness they bore so long. 

It is our duty and just now our high privilege to remedy these faults 
so that the rapidly increasing number of the dissatisfied and the critical may 
no longer increase so rapidly nor with so abundant ground for finding fault. 

Let us push when we can — improve when he can — study our communities, 
cooperate intelligently, lay aside our own prejudices and so improve the situa- 
tion that the great boon of public secondary education, which has been created 
out of nothing in fifty years, may not be swept away in half that time, but 
may be preserved as the best means for doing these three great things — ^the 



163 

worthy aims of secondary education — fitting the individual for his place in 
community life, — opening up opportunity for his own especial powers — conserv- 
ing and developing and uplifting real character. 

Domestic Science Section 

The section vvras called to order by the chairman, Miss Isabel 
Bevier. After welcoming the section to the conference announce- 
ments were made. Miss Bevier reported that, after consultation with 
the other members of the committee, Miss Florence Harrison, Miss 
Pincomb's successor in the University faculty, was asked temporarily 
to take the work of the committee. 

A nominating committee consisting of Miss Alice Treganza of 
Bloomington, Chairman, Miss Minna C. Denton of Oak Park, and 
Miss Esther Bedker of Kenilworth was appointed. 

The report of the Executive Committee was then presented by 
Miss Florence Harrison. The report is as follows : 

Report of the Executive Committee of the Domestic Science Section of the 
High School Conference — 1914 

The work of the executive committee of the Domestic Science Section 
of the High School Conference for 1913-14 has been: first, the planning of the 
program for the present meeting ; second, the revision of the outlines of grade 
work presented by the committee of the conference in 1912. 

The committee met for conference on the outlines in Decatur, October 
seventeenth. Misses Treganza, Stone, Dunlap and Harrison were present. 
The outlines for grade work as revised and presented by the committee 
have a two-fold purpose : first, To encourage and unify the work in home 
economics below the high school ; second. To indicate the kind of work in 
household arts which can be and is successfully done by girls in the elementary 
school. In the judgment of the committee, a knowledge of the attainments 
of the child in the elementary school is a prerequisite for proper planning 
of the courses for high school, so these outlines will be helpful in the revision 
of the Syllabus for the high school. The outlines for the grade teacher, the 
committee wish to be suggestive rather than final. The teacher should feel 
free to use and modify them to suit the needs of her group. The attempt 
has been made to give a standard which shall include the basic ideals for 
which a course should stand; also suggestions of some of the kinds of exercises 
by which these ideals are to be realized. 

Since a committee of the National Education Association, i. e., the 
Home Economics Section of the Committee on the Reorganization of Second- 
ary Education, is at work outlining aims, considering the place in the curriculum 
the length of period, the total time, the sequence, all of which data is to be 
arranged in a syllabus, it seems best to defer the revision of the Syllabus until 
a detailed study of values has been made. 



164 

The committee acting on the suggestion obtained from the General Com- 
mittee on the Program of Studies, recommend to this section two subjects for 
next year's work; first, to distinguish between the fundamental and acces- 
sory elements of the present syllabus; second, the collection and organization 
of suggestions for teaching the various subjects. It is hoped that by differ- 
entiating between the fundamental and accessory materials in the content of 
food, shelter and clothing, a statement of facts and principles which are essen- 
tial to a thorough understanding of these subjects may be developed. 

The experienced teacher has many suggestions which could be of value 
to the young and inexperienced teacher. For example, what is the best way 
to teach food values, effect of heat upon food, the method of cooking tjT)es 
of food ; the form and content of the note book for the grade and high school 
girl, the method of conducting a laboratory lesson, a recitation lesson, the 
drafting of a waist, the selection of cloth for a dress, might be shown. 

The committee asks that such definite, concrete, practical and helpful sug- 
gestions be sent in order that they may be classified and criticized by the com- 
mittee and later presented to this section. 

Miss Elizabeth E. Stone of Decatur High School, in behalf of 
the Committee, presented the revised outlines for cooking and house- 
keeping in the seventh and eighth grades. The points kept in the 
mind of the Committee when suggested changes were made are as 
follows: 1. To see that the growth was gradual from the simple to 
the more complex processes. 2. To keep in touch with the girls' 
knowledge and interests and to make use of the problems that are in 
close relation to her every day home life. 3. To teach the cost of 
food as well as the effort required in the preparation of food. 

The outlines for sewing in the fifth and sixth grade as revised 
were next presented by Miss Harrison. The discussion of the report 
was opened by Miss Mabel Dunlap of Millikin University. She 
stated the object of the fifth grade work in sewing was to stimulate a 
desire for work, to create a pleasant attitude toward the work, and to 
establish a proper habit for thinking and working. The work should 
be planned to give a good foundation for the sixth grade work. 
There is the subject matter on the one hand, the child on the other, 
and the teacher is the point of contact between these two. The 
teacher should give something as attractive as possible in order to 
stimulate the child and avoid giving anything which creates the atti- 
tude that the work as done is foolish. The lessons on the wash cloth 
and bag in the fifth grade were objected to on this ground. Also, 
the colors in the wash cloth would fade when laundered and the bag 
was not attractive. The objection was made to the sixth grade work 



165 

as outlined that there was too much subject matter. The time would 
be devoted to the practical and the other important and less tangible 
part of the work would be neglected. No time was allowed for the 
exhibition of work at the end of the year, which is important for the 
comparison of each girl's work. Too much work would discourage 
the child. 

Suggestions in favor of the outlines were as follows: The fault 
of too much material could be obliterated by the teacher choosing from 
the outlines that which fits her need and time devoted to the work. 
The bags could be varied, adapted to the needs and made attractive. 
Laundry bag and its use was suggested. The work is not a means to 
an end, but when the course is completed, a good finished product is 
expected. So in cooking, a teacher may illustrate the principle of 
cooking protein and at the same time insist upon an appetizing and 
attractive product. Right habits and right attitudes of mind should 
be taught, but the pupil must also be taught to prepare palatable food, 
to know how much it costs, and get a standard of taste, food and 
time. The practice of allowing children to take sewing home to fin- 
ish was discouraged. After the discussion, a motion was made that 
these outlines be accepted as a guide to vary from and to be tried. 
The motion carried. 

The following are the first four of the lessons outlined for fifth 
grade sewing as adopted by the section : 

Fifth Grade Sewing Work 60 Minutes per Week 

to be done Technique and Reasons to be Learned 

1 . Preparation of working Bags or boxes, advantages and disadvantages 
equipment of each ; parts to be purchased ; needles, pins, 
Selection of equipment thread, tape line and thimbles ; parts made ; 

needle case and pin cushion ; material suitable 
for needle case, amount required, cost ; care 
in use of equipment ; cleanliness and neatness. 

2. Needle case Reasons for marking equipment; characteris- 
Marking of individual tics of a good needle case; use of tape line 
equipment in measuring; size of needle case; proper pro- 
Plan needle case, size, portions ; harmony of color in selections of 
shape, design thread for design ; suitable size of needle. 

3. Cross stitch design on Making cross stitch design; appearance of 
cover work on right side; appearance of work on 

wrong side ; fastening the thread for begin- 
ning; fastening the thread at ending; pleasure 
coming from work well done ; care of hands. 



166 



Blanket stitching 
Piece of flannel for 
inside of needle case 



4. Blanket stitching Purpose of blanket stitch in this case; why 

called "blanket stitch" ; comparison of work 
done in cross stitch; beginning and ending 
thread ; fiber used in making flannel ; charac- 
ter of wool, warmth, oily, non-inflamable, 
desirability of wool as used for clothing. 

The following are the first four lessons outlined for seventh grade 
cooking and housekeeping: 

Seventh Grade Cooking and Housekeeping 
One Double Period Per Week 



Work to be done 
Put kitchen in order 



2. Stew fresh and dried fruit 



Bake fruit, peach, pear, 
apple, banana 



4. Scallop tomato 



Technique and Reasons to be Learned 
Cleansing of utensils that have been stored ; 
order for utensils ; location of supplies ; need 
for cleanliness of person ; suitable dress for 
kitchen; care of towels and room. 
Economy in sorting fruit; proper cleansing 
of fruit; need for soaking dried fruit; order 
in work ; measurements needed for lesson ; 
economy in the use of gas; comparative cost 
of fresh and dried fruit. 

Fruit cored and quartered ; proper lighting 
and regulation of oven; polish silver; proxi- 
mate composition ; use of water in the diet ; 
proper and dainty service ; cost. 
Use of stale bread; preparation of crumbs; 
importance of flavor and proper seasoning; 
economy in use of utensils ; value of variety 
in preparation; serve scallops; comparison of 
fresh and canned tomatoes as to cost. 

The correlation of Drawing and Design with Domestic Arts in 
the Home Arts Course was presented by Miss Olive Lothrop Grover, 
Art teacher at New Trier Township High School, Kenilworth, and the 
discussion led by Miss Esther Bedker, Domestic Art teacher at Kenil- 
worth. The paper was as follows : 

The Correlation of Drawing and Design with Domestic Arts in the Home Arts 
Course at New Trier Township High School 

As we have come here to tell you of our work in the Home Arts Course 
at New Trier High School, it may be well to give something of the history 
of the school and the reasons for the development of this course. 

When New Trier first opened its doors to the young people of the town- 
ship in 1901, the number of pupils was fewer than eighty. At that time the 
building seemed large and roomy enough to accommodate all who might wish 



167 

to enter for some years to come. It was beautifully situated on a six-acre 
tract near Lake Michigan, almost surrounded by woods, the nearest house 
being nearly an eighth of a mile away; it was easily accessible from the cars, 
however, as there was a good sidewalk from the car tracks to the school. 

This was fourteen years ago, and now a graduate of the early days of 
the school, coming back to visit his old haunts, feels as though he must have 
made a mistake, everA-thing is so changed. The old building is still there, 
nearly entirely remodelled on the inside, but instead of standing out by itself 
as it once did, it is now the nucleus around which are grouped a number of 
one-story buildings. The beginning of all this transformation came when there 
was need for a place in which to play athletic games and carry on the work 
in manual training and the crafts; this need resulted in what was called the 
Manual Arts building, a three-story structure connected with the main building 
by a covered bridge. Now this has been remodeled into class rooms with the 
bridge forming a corridor, thus making it an east wing of the main building. 
On the third floor of the corresponding west wing, which is new, is the home 
of the draw'ing, design and handicraft department. The Manual Training shops 
are well housed in a building 50 by 200 feet, which also contains the heating 
plant, with accommodation for work at the bench and lathe, in forge and 
foundry, and machine shop. Our one little so-called "gym" has developed into 
two large gymnasiums, one for girls and one for boys, splendidly fitted up and 
connected by a natatorium, used by both the boys and the girls at alternate 
times. On the opposite side of the campus from these buildings, are the Audi- 
torium, or Assembly Hall, seating 1200 people, and a large Dining Hall which 
may be converted, at need, into a place for social entertainments and dances. 
The original six acres have been increased to fifteen, giving opportunitj^ for a 
fine athletic field with a quarter mile cinder track, base-ball diamond, tennis 
courts and experimental gardens. The woods are almost entirely gone, and in 
their place are many attractive homes. To some of the older teachers it has 
seemed almost a pity that we could not have kept our original seclusion, but 
the coming of the people has perhaps made us more an integral part of the 
community, and certainly increased the numbers of our pupils, the enrollment 
this year being over 550. 

At the opening of New Trier, no provision w^as made for drawing in the 
way of equipment or regular place for classes. One of the recitation rooms was 
used twice a week and the teacher brought her own still-life or other drawing 
requisites with her from town; the following year saw an increase in the time 
allowed and the lessons were given four days in the week, in a room set aside for 
both kinds of drawing, freehand and mechanical, supplied with hegular drawing 
tables and boards. This arrangement lasted but one year, however, as the 
interest in both kinds of work grew to such an extent that it was necessary 
for each department to have a room of its own, with classes every day of the 
school-week. Since then the work in Freehand Drawing and Design, with 
handicraft soon added, has steadily grown until now we occupy three large 
rooms, having a floor space of about forty-eight by fifty-eight feet, very fully 
equipped for drawing, designing, pottery and metal work. 



168 

In 1905, at the urgent request of a group of interested citizens, Domestic 
Science was added to the school curriculum, and two rooms were finished 
off in what had been the attic of the building, for the use of the new depart- 
ment. This work proved not to be a fad, as some had predicted, but a really 
vital part of the school course and soon outgrew its small quarters, gradually 
adding more and more space and equipment, until when the main building was 
remodelled in 1912, nearly the entire upper floor was given over to the House- 
hold Arts department, with large sewing and cooking rooms, splendidly equipped, 
a laundry and a four-room flat for experimental work in house keeping, home 
furnishing and household decoration. 

The demands of the times, and the growing needs of the school, had 
early made it necessary to depart from the regular work in drawing and design 
and to put the latter to some practical use ; to accomplish this we began our 
work in applied design; which has developed into a very essential part of the 
course in drawing. Our ideal and aim from the beginning, has been to give 
to the pupils something to use in their home and every day life, a broader out- 
look into the realms of natural beauties, a sense of good line, proportion and 
color in the home and in the clothing, some power of discrimination in the 
choosing of materials and furnishings, and withal a sound, happy realization 
of the beautiful wherever they may find it. 

Although during the early years of the school there had been little corre- 
lation in the two departments of Household Arts and Drawing, merely an occa- 
sional suggestion from the drawing teacher in the matter of design or color, 
the ideals held by both are so similar that it seemed only natural that we 
should correlate the two, so in 1912 we planned the Home Arts course covering 
four years, with five ninety minute periods a week (this is double time), three 
in the household arts department and two in drawing. Any pupil completing 
this course receives twenty credits toward the eighty required for graduation. 

The course is an elective one, although we hope sometime to make the 
first year or two required. A large proportion of our girls go to college, and 
the requirements, especially for the girls' colleges in the east, are so many 
along other lines of work, that a number who might otherwise elect the House- 
hold Arts classes are barred because of lack of time. 

Having told you something of our history and our ideals we will tell you 
how we actually carry on the plans laid out in the Home Arts course. As we 
are a township high school and our people come from several towns and villages 
where the preparation has been varied, it has seemed necessarj^ to spend at 
least a part of the first year in acquiring what one might call a working basis, 
and while this may be a partial review for some in both the drawing and House- 
hold Science, it gives all the same foundation on which to build and does not 
seem to us to be a waste of time. 

As so many of the motives for design used for embroidery and the many 
things about the home, — curtains, table-runners, pillows and the like, — are based 
on plant form, in our drawing, we begin work in the fall with the making of 
flower and fruit studies, doing this as long as we can obtain satisfactory material. 
We also get butterflies and other insects from the biology department and make 
drawings of those. All these are done with a view for use in design, and show 



169 

all possible positions of flower, bud and leaf and the stem growth. The draw- 
ings are kept from year to year, and are often used long after they are made. 
Following the nature drawings, come several sheets of different kinds of upper 
and lower case alphabets, and we use a little paper book published by Ginn 
and Co. as a text or rather copy book, practically the only book, other than 
those consulted by reference, used throughout the course. 

The first problem in sewing is a laundry bag, and on it the pupil learns 
to do machine stitching and a good many hand stitches. The art needle work 
on this article is the embroidering of an initial, designed in the drawing class, 
in some simple stitch or etching. The subject of gifts, their purpose and use- 
fulness is next discussed, followed by the problem in Christmas work. Each 
girl is given a choice from a number of simple gifts, such as a glove case or 
some other similar piece of work. These are decorated with stencils made in 
the drawing department and put together and finished in the sewing classes. 
After the holidays the girls make corset covers ; and here again the application 
of art principles is considered. The garment is made by hand and trimmed 
with lace which the pupil has learned to crochet. Good and bad designs in 
crochet-work are discussed and simple design and good workmanship sought, 
instead of elaborateness. The last problem of the year is the making of a 
muslin petticoat, on which the arrangement of tucks and other trimmings is 
carefully considered in order to make a balanced and well proportioned design. 
Before the trimming is purchased, samples are brought to class and the designs 
are criticized with the purpose of teaching the girls that good designs are ob- 
tainable in machine made embroideries if care and thought are exercised in 
their selection. 

In the drawing classes throughout the year, the work includes the making 
of abstract designs, problems in perspective and in color, some drawing of still- 
life and general preparation for the work of the following year. 

The beginning problem in sewing for the second year is a night-gown. 
The pattern for this is drafted by the girls, and the art needle work on the 
garment consists of feather stitching as a finish for the neck and sleeves and 
French embroidery on the front. The design for this is made in the drawing 
class, first on ordinary drawing paper then traced onto rice paper, painted white 
and placed on a dark mount, thus making it possible to see how the design will 
look when embroidered, and if it is not satisfactory it can be changed before it is 
transferred to the gown. The first drawing is outlined in black ink so that 
it will show through the muslin and can be traced on to the gown in pencil. 

The work in Domestic Science classes has been the studying of bacteria, 
yeasts and molds; the preservation of foods, etc., and the pupils have canned 
fruits and vegetables and made jellies and marmalades. The labels for the 
jars and glasses form one of the problems in lettering. They are done in colors 
to match the fruit and sometimes a tiny design is added. 

The gift or Christmas work is a piece of cross-stitch embroidery; this may 
be a pillow, a tray, a bag, a towel, a table cover, or some similar article. The 
design for this is made as though for outline or French embroidery and then 
worked over into a cross-stitch pattern on squared paper. 



170 

As the problem of the second semester is the designing and making of a 
cotton dress, we start soon after the hoHdays with one pose drawing. Unless 
a pupil shows some special ability in drawing features, they are generally omit- 
ted as you will see from the drawings, and the attention centered on the good 
line and proportion of the figure. Textiles are considered, and becoming color- 
schemes discussed, and conservative rather than extreme styles are chosen. 
Samples of materials are brought and the designs carried out in the same colors. 
Patterns for these dresses are drafted in the sewing classes. 

In the table-setting and serving, which comes in the second year, there 
is a wide scope for correlated work. Principles of balance, color and line find 
concrete expression in the arrangements of the covers, centre-piece decorations, 
candle-shades, nut-cups, and place-cards ; these latter being made in the drawing 
classes. Each year, in the spring, this class and the older one prepare and serve 
a dinner for twelve or fourteen people, the members of the Board of Educa- 
tion with their wives, the principal and his wife and the teachers of the depart- 
ment. The illustration shows the table ready for the guests, as it looked in 1914. 
A general color scheme is chosen and is carried out in the entire menu as well 
as in the table decorations. 

The first work for the third year in Domestic Economy, is the making of 
a wool dress. Commercial patterns are used this time, so that the girls may 
learn how to use and how to alter them. Each girl selects a design which she 
brings to class, where it is criticized by the members of the class and by the 
teacher, design, proportion and appropriateness being considered. The oppor- 
tunity for correlated work in this problem comes in the possibility for original 
design on collar and cuffs, a vest, or embroidery directly applied to the material. 

During the second semester, the girls are instructed in various forms of 
art needlework, a good deal of time being devoted to different forms of crochet 
work; use and beauty, simplicity and good craftmanship being the aim of the 
class. 

The drawing side of the third year is largely in the making of things 
which they may use in the home. In the fall, the usual flower studies are drawn 
and the design made for copper-work. First of all we have a few community 
problems which will be used in the furnishing of the flat. All of the class make 
designs for the different articles, then one of each group is chosen to be devel- 
oped in the metal, several people working on the piece. After this is completed, 
each pupil may carry out her own design, providing her materials, and that piece 
becomes her own property at the close of the school year. Some of the pieces 
being made now are a cheese plate and knife, a bowl for whipped cream, or 
mayonnaise, with a plate and spoon, and a holder for a jelly or marmalade jar, 
with spoon. In every case where food will come in direct contact with the 
utensil, that part is silver-plated; this we have done outside. One of the things 
we hope to make soon, is an inverted shade or dome of copper for the dining 
room. Later in the year each girl is expected to make a desk-set of about ten 
pieces, or a table set, approximating the same number of articles, or some other 
copper work equivalent to one of these. Toward spring, we do a little work 
in drawing house plans, but we have found that most of the girls know too 



171 

little about the planning of houses to make it satisfactory, especially as the 
time is limited. 

All of the work of these three years has been really carried out and is 
not mere theory. The correlated work of the fourth year, however, is in an 
experimental stage, and although we think we are sure what we want to do, 
the results of this coming year will show how well our plans work out. 

In the household science classes, when the fourth year is reached, the girls 
should be ready to have some individuality and originality of thought in their 
work and the aim is to bring this out as much as possible. The year is begun 
with the study of fall and winter millinery, and the making and trimming of 
a fall hat. Renovating, beautifying, and using of old materials is part of the 
work. Here, too, our aim is to have hats to suit the wearers, and not a blind 
following of fashion. The study of color and color combinations, plays an im- 
portant part in the millinery work, as well as the making of bows and flowers. 
In the spring a wire hat frame is made, covered, and trimmed. A large part 
of the theory of this year is devoted to household management and the study 
of textiles for the different rooms of the house, this is carried out in practical 
housekeeping and home decoration. 

In this fourth year the correlated work will be in the drawing of hats, 
the planning of color schemes, the study of good line and proportion in furnish- 
ings and talks on interior decorating with special reference to the choice of 
wall papers, carpets or rugs, and furniture coverings, and the hanging of pic- 
tures and draperies. 

When a girl has successfully completed her four year's course in Home 
Arts at New Trier, we feel that in whatever circumstances she is placed, she 
will show by her discrimination and choice of materials and the conscious use 
of the art principles in her every day life, that the continued application of the 
theories of one department expressed by the craft of the other, has changed 
them from the theories into an integral part of her make-up. 

Olive Lothrop Grover, 
Esther B. Bedker. 

A vote of thanks was given to Miss Grover and Miss Bedker for 
their efforts and contribution to the program. 

Miss Mary Moore, Chicago, a member of the special committee 
to confer with regard to a general science course for high schools, re- 
ported to the section. The first and only meeting of the committee 
was held in February and the advisability of a general science course 
in the high school was discussed. Some think the general science 
course would encourage pupils to take other courses in science such 
as biology and physics ; while others think it is revolutionary rather 
than evolutionary. In her own opinion a general science course in,- 
cluding training in each of the sciences as chemistry, biology, physics, 
etc., would not be revolutionary but would make a good basis for the 



172 

domestic science course. The committee decided it would endeavor 
to obtain more information concerning the general science course. 

The nominating committee next reported that Miss Bevier, by 
virtue of her position, would be a member of the committee. Miss 
Florence Harrison was nominated as a member of the faculty who 
studies the problems of both the high school and University; Miss 
Esther Bedker of Kenilworth was also nominated to represent the art 
side of the work. The report of the nominating committee was ap- 
proved and accepted. Following is the executive committee for next 
year: 

Isabel Bevier — University of Illinois. 

Florence Harrison — University of Illinois, Chairman. 

Alice Treganza — Bloomington. 

Elizabeth Stone — Decatur. 

Mabel Dunlap — Decatur. 

Esther Bedker — Kenilworth. 

Florence Harrison, Secretary. 

English Section 

(Report of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Illinois Associa- 
tion OF Teachers of English ) 

The sixth annual meeting of the Illinois Association of Teachers 
of English was called to order at 9:20 A, M., Friday, November 20th, 
in the Moot Court Room of the Law School of the University of Illi- 
nois, by the president. After the reading and approval of the min- 
utes of the previous annual meeting, the president appointed a nomi- 
nating committee consisting of D. K. Dodge, J. M. Clapp, and Miss 
Eva Mitchell. After announcements made by the secretary, the As- 
sociation proceeded to the reading and discussion of papers. 

The first paper was that of the president of the Association, Mr. 
J. M. Crowe of the University High School, Chicago. Instead of dis,- 
cussing the rather vague topic which had been assigned him, Mr. 
Crowe confined himself to advocating the adoption of some scheme 
for eliminating wasted time in the teaching of English. Feeling con- 
vinced that at least a year could be saved by avoiding the repetition of 
courses in successive years that are practically identical, or at least 
that deal with the same material, he told of an experiment recently 
tried at the University High School at Chicago which seemed to justify 
his contention. 



173 

Professor Paul then presented a report of an investigation re- 
lating to the training of teachers of English. The results of the in- 
vestigation revealed some tendency on the part of high school teachers 
to over estimate the value to them of courses dealing with the methods 
of teaching English, and a corresponding tendency to undervalue their 
preparation acquired from courses more purely cultural. Courses in 
Shakespeare, in Chaucer, and especially "teachers' courses" they seemed 
to look back upon with fervent thanksgiving, but to regard with only a 
chastened satisfaction period courses, Anglo-Saxon, and Browning. 
Such a tendency, implying as it does, at least a partial misunderstand- 
ing of the real value of a college course as a training for teaching 
English, was deplored by those who discussed the report. Miss Ruth 
Moore of Bloomington, and Miss Florence Skeffington of Charleston 
emphatically pointed out that the teachers' educational training is by 
no means analogous to the packing of a pedlar's wagon with material 
which is later to be unpacked piece by piece and retailed ; that, conse- 
quently, the course of which the material may be directly utilized may 
not be most valuable ; and that method courses as compared with those 
whose value lies in what may be called their cultural content may be 
after all, not short cuts to success, but to failure. A further contri- 
bution to the discussion was that of Mr. Lester Frailey, who main- 
tained that no training of any kind, either that derived from cultural 
courses, or from courses in method could take the place, as equipment 
for English teaching, of a real human sympathy, a virile sense of the 
joy of living, and a knowledge of the psychology of childhood and 
youth. 

Professor Clapp's paper, which followed, was entitled "The 
Speaking Voice." After an arraignment of the American voice, 
which he reminded us is a by-word and a hissing in European coun- 
tries, where even the man in the street speaks in an agreeable tone, 
and with clear enunciation, he proceeded to advocate that more atten- 
tion be given in the high school to the cultivation of a good speaking 
voice. He advocated only common-sense methods — drill in reading 
aloud, a daily exercise, in connection with composition courses, in cor- 
rect speech, insisting upon soft, clear, pleasant tones, and distinct 
enunciation. In conclusion, he asked the teachers present whether in 
their opinion anything could be accomplished by reading books upon 
the subject. Mr. Woolbert voiced the opinion of those present when 
he denied that much good could be accomplished in this way. To 



174 

most of us it seemed that the best corrective for a fault in the speak- 
ing voice is a thorough training in vocal music. Certainly there is no 
better means of acquiring the ability to vary one's inflections than a 
course in sight,-singing. 

At the afternoon session, the nominating committee reported the 
following nominations — for president, B. C. Richardson of Alton; 
secretary, E. C. Baldwin, of Urbana; treasurer, Miss Kathleen Rob- 
erts, of Urbana and as members of the executive committee the fol- 
lowing : 

1915 Miss Florence Skeffington, Charleston. 

1915 Miss Eva Mitchell, Centralia. 

1916 Miss Caroline Rice, Peoria. 
1916 Miss Ruth Moore, Bloomington. 
1916 Miss Margaret Wilson, Cairo. 
1916 Mr. Williard M. Smith, Cicero. 
1916 Mr. Z. A. Smith, Quincy. 

1915 Mr. H. G. Paul, University. 

1915 Mr. J. M. Clapp, Lake Forest. 

1915 Mr. C. H. Woolbert, University. 

Preliminary steps were taken toward the formation of local subr 
sidiary organizations of English teachers, a meeting being called for 
that purpose by Miss Eva Mitchell, and by Miss Florence Skeffington, 
of Charleston. This was part of a general plan of the executive com- 
mittee looking toward the interesting of a larger number of teachers 
through the formation of small local organizations. 

"Standards for Testing Composition Work" was the title of a 
paper read by Mr. P. M. Watson, of Chrisman. In this paper, and 
still more clearly in the discussion that followed it, the fact appeared 
that no scale so far devised has taken account of a distinction funda- 
mental to any consideration of literature. This is De Quincey's 
famous distinction between the literature of knowledge and the liter- 
ature of power. Several testified to their belief that the variations 
found in the application of the scale were due to variations in the 
teachers' own standards and aims — some grading wholly upon a basis 
of form, others, wholly on a basis of originality. Mr, Crowe pointed 
out that the formulation of a scale that would in any satisfactory way 
measure the value of originality is certainly a difficult, and probably 
an impossible task. Dr. Jones, in the following discussion, went so 
far as to raise the question whether any such attempt were not "an 



175 

abomination," tending only to rigidity, and to the substitution of 
a mechanical standard for one based upon a sympathetic understanding 
of the personality of one's students. Mr. Peterson of the Crane Tech- 
nical High School thought the grading of themes would be greatly 
simplified, if, instead of applying a scale, we confined ourselves to 
grading only one thing at a time in a given composition. He main- 
tained that the grading of written work is quite as simple as the grad- 
ing of mathematical papers. "Suppose," he said, "one is teaching 
paragraphing. The theme for that day should be graded wholly on 
that basis. If the paragraphing is right, give the pupil one hundred. 
If it is wrong give him zero. By all means fix your attention on the 
paragraphing alone, without allowing yourself to be distracted by the 
thought (if there should happen to be any) in the paper. Originality 
is the gift of God; and with the inspiration of the written work the 
teacher has no concern whatever." At the conclusion of Mr. Watson's 
paper, Professor Paul made a motion, seconded by Professor Dodge, 
that Mr. Watson be asked to continue his investigation. The motion 
was carried. 

The paper on the Teaching of the History of English Literature, 
presented by Miss Lora Henion, of Pontiac, was a thoughtful exposi' 
tion of the problem, considered from the standpoint of the practical 
teacher. The conclusions arrived at were that a text book for the 
teaching of literary history was desirable to give background and co- 
ordination to the reading, and to dignify the work. She did not hold 
that the study of literary history should ever be allowed to become 
an end in itself. It should be employed simply as an aid to the better 
understanding of masterpieces, never as a substitute for literature 
itself. 

The latter point was still further emphasized by Miss Kathleen 
Roberts in her discussion of the paper. She pointed out that the dan- 
ger of such a substitution's being made would be obviated by a thor- 
ough knowledge of literary history on the part of the teacher, and by 
a careful planning of the work by the teacher, so that the use of the 
text book would be properly subordinated, and at the same time cor- 
related, with the reading to be done by the class in the masterpieces 
themselves. 

Following this discussion, and after some further announcements 
by the secretary, the session adjourned. The general feeling was that 
the work of the conference was improving each year. The papers 



176 

this year were less academic than formerly, more vitally related to the 
actual work of the teachers who wrote them. The discussion was far 
more interesting, spontaneous, and suggestive than ever before. In- 
deed, so helpful were the discussions that the question might well be 
raised whether it would not be worth while to limit the number of 
papers still more, in order to afford time for a more extended discus- 
cussion of them. 

Edward Chauncey Baldwin, 

Secretary. 

[The four papers by Professor Paul, Professor Clapp, Mr. Wat- 
son and Miss Henion are here appended in the order of their presenta- 
tion.] 

The Preparation of High School Teachers of English 
H. G. Paul 

This present investigation of the preparation of high school teachers of 
English, undertaken by the Illinois Association, is but a part of a larger one 
which is being carried on by a number of organizations of instructors in Eng- 
lish in various parts of the United States. The New England Association has 
conducted a similar investigation ; and its results may offer some interesting 
materials for a comparison of conditions and beliefs among teachers of English 
in two widely separated sections of this country. Later, the materials which 
we have collected will be turned over to a committee of the National Council, 
where they will find a place in a report that will give us the opinions of instruct- 
ors in every section of this country concerning the preparation for prospective 
teachers of English offered by the colleges and universities. 

Before beginning our examination of these results, we may well spend a 
moment in summarizing the special work now being done by the various insti- 
tutions of higher learning in Illinois, to prepare high school teachers of English. 
From the letters received in answer to my inquiries, and from an examination of 
the catalogues, I am led to believe that many, indeed the majority, of these 
institutions are furnishing little beyond such incidental training and instruction 
as may come as a by-product from the regular class-room instruction in English. 
Lombard, Monmouth, Knox, and Milliken each offer a two-hour course in 
methods of teaching English literature and composition. Wheaton gives its 
prospective teachers drill in the practice school ; and Rockford is helping with 
a new training school just started in that city. It also offers in alternate years 
a "Teachers' Course for English in the Grades," and a "Course for English 
in the High School." Millikin "gives the student opportunity so far as it is 
practical for observation and practice teaching under supervision." 

Judging from its catalogue, I should say that Northwestern University 
now offers no course intended primarily for teachers of English; but that a 
course in the department of education, called "Methods and practice Teach- 
ing", may, and probably does, make provision for those expecting to become 



177 

teachers of English. At the University of Chicago this work is under the very 
efficient direction of Professor R. L. Lyman. In addition to courses in the 
Teaching of Composition, the Teaching of Literature, Oral English, and Eng- 
lish Grammar, that university offers work in Practice Teaching in English, open 
only to Senior College students. "Each student must teach at least fifteen les- 
sons." The University of Illinois offers a Teachers' Course in composition and 
literature, two hours a week for two semesters, and courses in Historical Gram- 
mar and Interpretative Reading, intended primarily for prospective teachers. 
It also requires candidates desiring recommendation as teachers of English to 
take an examination, including spelling, oral reading of passages of verse and 
prose, the writing of theme, the principles of composition, and the outlines of 
English and American literature. During the last years of the old University 
Academy, some of the seniors were given practice teaching in English. Such 
work has, however, been suspended, awaiting the opening of the University 
practice school. 

So much, in brief, for existing conditions. Let us now turn to the more 
immediate concerns of the present problem. 

The number of replies to the questionnaire on this problem, sent out last 
April to teachers in Illinois schools, was not so large as we might wish. Per- 
haps there would have been a more generous response if the investigation had 
been undertaken somewhat earlier in the year. As it was, I received returns 
from between sixty and seventy teachers of English in the secondary schools 
of the state. 

The first four groups of questions asked these teachers were intended 
primarily to aid in forming an ideal of the man or woman in the witness box, 
to shed some light upon his present and past condition of servitude, and to 
help in understanding the testimony offered. Some of the data collected from 
these answers may, however, be of general interest and value, especially that 
portion of it relating to the preparation of those teachers who participated in 
this investigation. Of these eleven have received normal school diplomas, 
fifty-seven have the bachelor's degree, seventeen have some higher degree, and 
four are without any such recognition of their work. As nine of those who 
hold normal school certificates have also received degrees we are justified in 
regarding this company of witnesses as practically a body of college graduates. 
Nearly all of them have taken a fairly large number of courses in college Eng- 
lish, — as a rough guess, probably three full years in the subject ; and they have 
taught on the average 12.3 years, with the further average of 9.1 years given 
to English. Taken as a whole, therefore, the witnesses whose answers we 
are to examine cannot be said to be wanting in experience or to have their 
judgments warped by an undue propinquity to their undergraduate days. Almost 
without exception they are at present engaged in teaching English literature 
and composition in the Illinois high schools ; and in the few instances where 
they are not so employed, I cannot discover that their evidence differs materially 
from that of the large majority. 

Turning now from this brief survey of the qualifications of those bearing 
testimony to a consideration of the opinions they hold, we find that in their 
answers to the request, "Mention English courses that have proved exception- 



178 

ally valuable to you in your English teaching, by furnishing material or by 
directing you in methods of instruction," many of these teachers made no dis- 
tinction between the two classes suggested. A tabulation of the courses men- 
tioned as helpful includes nearly every course in English commonly offered in 
colleges. The following table indicates the number of times that each course 
received honorable mention as having proved itself of especial worth to some 
instructor in a secondary school : 

Reported Once — Anglo-Saxon, A Survey of Sounds, Contemporary Lit- 
erature, Browning, Argumentation, A Working Use of the Dictionary. 

Twice — Eighteenth Century Literature, Period Courses, Elements of Criti- 
cism, and Public Speaking. 

Three Times — A Study of the Novel, the Drama, Chaucer. 

Four Times — Nineteenth Century Literature. 

Nine Times — Shakespeare. 

Ten Times — Teachers' Course in Literature and Composition. 

Twelve Times — General Survey Courses, American Literature. 

Seventeen Times — Courses in Composition. 

An examination of this list offers some interesting suggestions. On the 
whole, it is rather inclusive. One teacher writes, "It seems to me that all my 
work in English has been invaluable to me in my teaching;" and her testimony 
is corroborated by that of eleven others. The significance of the number men- 
tioning Public Speaking and Contemporary Literature may be left for later 
consideration, as may also the report on courses intended for teachers. Many 
of the courses less frequently mentioned are obviously of a more advanced or 
very unusual nature, courses which are less frequently offered, and when offered 
elected by a comparatively small number of students. Furthermore, certain 
courses contribute much more immediately and more frequently than do others 
to the demands made upon the high school teacher of English. It is not sur- 
prising, therefore, that a course in a General Survey should be mentioned six 
times as often as a course in the Essay. 

Those teachers who went on to enlarge upon the courses and other means 
of grace that had proved especially helpful to them in acquiring better methods, 
emphasized either one or a variety of agencies. Several of them spoke of the 
aid they had received from such books as those by Professor Moulton and by 
Professor Corson; and one teacher adds, "I got as much out of following Pro- 
fessor Clapp's experiment in Oral Composition last year as from any course I 
have ever taken." In general, however, those teachers who discussed this point 
emphasized either one or both of two kinds of help. The first of these was the 
influence and example of some professors who were, or are, excellent teachers, 
and who through their methods of presenting their materials offered admirable 
illustrations of the technique of their craft. One writer puts it thus: 

"I gained more real help from the observation and comparison of different 
instructors in composition and in literature, since, unconsciously, they taught 
methods and set standards by their actual class-room work and management." 

In much the same vein another teacher writes : 

"I have never taken any course in methods ; what I have gained on this 
point has been gained under the professors with whom I have studied, particu- 



179 

larly the late J. Scott Clark, whose methods of teaching rlietoric and analyses of 
literary style were eminently practical." 

A second and far larger group of teachers, however, emphasized the value 
of supervised teaching and of courses dealing primarily with methods of pre- 
senting the subject matter; but in so much as their testimony helps shed light 
upon topics considered later in this report, we may defer for a time any dis- 
cussion of what they have to say, beyond noting that over twenty of these 
teachers declare that they have been greatly helped by their work in such 
courses. 

In their answers to the succeeding question — "Mention any English courses 
that have proved of little worth to you as a teacher of the subject," a very 
large majority of the witnesses deny the existence of any such courses — or at least 
affirm that they have never found them. Two of these reports speak unfavor- 
ably of work which might have been surmised to be helpful — one a General 
Survey course, the other a course in the Elizabethan Lyric. The majority of 
the small number that criticize their college English, mention work that was 
either of a very advanced and technical nature, or else too purely philological 
to serve the teacher's later purposes. Among these technical and advanced 
courses were the following : one in Carlyle, "which had too much detail to be 
applicable in teaching high school work," a study of three texts of "The Vision 
of Piers Plowman," "graduate work in the textual criticism of Shakespeare," 
and part of a rhetoric course dealing with argumentation. While most of the 
teachers who commented upon their instruction in Early and Middle English 
seem to feel that it has been of value in their later work, one objects to "tech- 
nical courses in the teaching of language — the Anglo-Saxon roots ;" another 
declares that he gained little from his study of Beowulf ; and a third writes 
that his course in Chaucer was disappointing, "being almost entirely philo- 
logical." But such instances as these just cited are the exception rather than 
the rule ; and in their recital they may have received more space and time than 
they deserve ; for here, as before, most teachers take the position that nothing 
they have studied has proved useless. As one instructor puts it : "I have used 
everjdhing I ever knew." 

The answer to the next query — What courses other than English have you 
found especially valuable to you as a teacher of English, — are quite in keeping 
with what we might well expect after the replies to the preceding question. 
After a study of these answers, indeed, we are tempted to twist the old motto, 
and let the teacher of English declare that "Nihil scholastici mihi alienum." 
Fully thirty different subjects are mentioned as having proved especially helpful. 
Of course we must be careful regarding the inferences we draw from these 
answers. We have seen how pretty much everj'thing which comes into the Eng- 
lish teachers' net is fish for the freshmen ; and we must also recall that many 
teachers have not had, and naturally in four college years cannot have, training 
in each of the subjects mentioned. We must also remember that some of these 
subjects, such as the Social Sciences, are just coming to their own ; and that 
certain other subjects, such as aesthetics, are usually placed well along in the 
college course and their election restricted by prerequisites, or are of a nature 
so ill understood by the student body that they are chosen by a very small 



180 

minority indeed. As a first condition, therefore, to scientific accuracy in answer- 
ing this question, every teacher should have had training in each of the subjects 
of the curriculum. In the absence of such testimony, however, let us see what 
is revealed by the answers at our command. Grouping these thirty subjects, we 
find, as might be expected, that various physical sciences, such as zoology, geol- 
og}^ biology, and ornithology are mentioned by only one or two as having 
proved of especial value. Here, of course, as has been suggested, the scientist 
might come back at us and ask how many teachers of English have ever made 
even an elementary study of these sciences ; and by so doing he vv^ould probably 
have us on the hip. Botany was mentioned by four as especially valuable ; one 
teacher adding, "It has done much to open my eyes to the things the poets 
love." A much larger number of teachers emphasized the importance of the 
courses they had taken in the sociological and philosophical groups : political 
science, civics, sociologj', and ethics are each mentioned five or six times ; 
while psychology, education, and philosophy are noted by twelve, thirteen, and 
seventeen teachers. Still more numerous are those who have found their work 
in various foreign languages especially helpful: fifteen mention French; eigh- 
teen, German ; and twenty-six, Latin. Greek is reported by five ; and Greek 
in translation by three. It would be interesting to know just how many of those 
who participated in this investigation had ever been students of that subject. 

But making every allowance for all the conditions that limit the value 
of the answers to this question regarding the subjects teachers have found 
well worth while in their present work, we cannot escape the conclusion that 
most of them have discovered in their courses in history a very present help 
in time of need. Many of them specify ancient history, medieval, and Ameri- 
can; and a still larger number testify for English history, which several teachers 
characterize as "indispensable." More than seventy-five percent of the sixty 
teachers who answered this question mentioned historj^, either in general or 
in some one or more of its special departments. To put it in other terms, his- 
tory is included nearly twice as often as the next highest subject, which is Latin. 

Of special interest are the replies which include aesthetics and the his- 
tory of art. The former is mentioned three times; and the latter five. Here, 
again, we should like to know how many of us ever elected such courses, and 
how many of us ever had a chance to elect them. 

The answers regarding courses other than English which have proved of 
little worth to teachers of our subjects are disappointing, if we are to judge 
simply by the comparatively few replies the query evoked ; for on nearly half 
the questionnaires the space for the response was left blank. The fact, however, 
that twenty teachers replied that they had taken no such course or courses, 
probably explains in large measure this dearth of responses. Furthermore, as 
several replies indicated, many of us as college students had not expected to teach 
English, — probably had not expected to teach at all. Those who mention spe- 
cific courses usually ascribe their disappointment not to the subject matter of 
the course but to what the meteorologist would call "local conditions." Here 
is some testimony to bolster the faith of those of us who believe in exacting 
from each student at least good, honest, journeyman's labor : "I gained little 
or nothing from a 'pony-course' in the Aeneid, from some prose composition 



181 

and translation courses in German, and from the third of my four semesters 
of French, the reason being in each case that I did not work hard enough." 
And again : "The only two courses that I ever found disappointing were two 
in which the professors were so afraid of over-working the students that they 
gave nothing really new. My disappointment, therefore, was not due to the 
courses." Similarly we may see the effects of what we have characterized as 
local conditions in the following typical answer: "One course in methods of 
teaching modem foreign languages, taken with a noted phonologist, proved 
interesting from a scientific standpoint; but I derived but little practical value 
therefrom." 

Two or three of those answering stated that they had gained little or 
nothing from their courses in political science ; and six had words of censure 
for their courses in education and educational psychology. It is interesting, 
however, to note that in each of these eight or nine instances the writer blamed 
either himself, the class conditions, or the instructor, rather than the subject 
matter of the course. For example, the student was "too immature for the 
work," or, "the class was a miscellaneous mixture, including the recent graduate 
from the country grammar school, university graduates, and all between ;" or 
again, "the instructor did not know his subject." Even the strongest criticism 
ends with a word of extenuation : "Psychology and pedagogy as I studied them 
were a disappointment. I used to wonder what they had to do with teaching 
school ; but they are better taught now." 

Such are the comments. A word of caution is necessary here, perhaps. 
Most of our space, in discussing this question of fruitless work, has been given 
to criticism of various courses. We should do wrong, however, to leave this 
subject without re-emphasizing the fact that in nearly ninety percent of the 
replies no such criticism is offered ; and that, in general, whenever teachers have 
taken these courses other than English expecting to find help in teaching their 
own subject, they have not been disappointed. 

As might have been surmized, a considerable majority of our witnesses 
have never elected any pedagogical courses that required practice teaching. Of 
the twenty-five who have taken such courses, one is decidedly opposed to them. 
She writes thus : "Frankly, my practice teaching was, in my own opinion, of 
little assistance to me. Conditions in real schools and in model schools are very 
different." Of the twenty-two or twenty-three teachers who gave an unquali- 
fied approval of their experience in these practice classes some simply com- 
mented upon the work as "helpful," "very valuable," or, frequently, "indis- 
pensable." Of the answers of those who analyzed somewhat more carefully 
the worth of such experience three may be quoted as typical : 

(1) "I found these practice courses wonderful helps in aiding me to find 
myself and in learning to trust myself." 

(2) "This practice teaching was extremely valuable, both for the work 
in plans, questions, class conduct, etc., and for its criticisms and suggestions." 

(3) The course served to turn one's attitude and standpoint from that of 
the taught to that of the teacher; it opened a new field of vision." 

Many other similar answers might be quoted, if time and space permitted; 
but they are perhaps unnecessary. In a word, the evidence on this point is a 



182 

highly commendatoty and an almost unanimous approbation of practice teaching 
by those who have had such training. 

Turning next to the answers concerning the value of courses designed for 
teachers of English, we find that two voices give the negative, and that three 
express doubt as to the worth of such work. The most carefully worded of 
these opinions is the following : 

"I think that I should have been helped by such a course ; but even the 
equipment that a successful teacher of English needs is a broad, general culture 
rather than specific, practical data or suggestions. Each teacher worthy of the 
name will sooner or later have to discover a way of his own ; and he will do 
this the better if unhampered by ex cathedra, pronouncements of certain courses 
in methods, say, or what not. The one essential thing, for the teacher of Eng- 
lish in particular, is to have the Vision and a broad intellectual horizon. Eng- 
lish — and the successful teacher of it — is touched at so many points by all the 
other branches of knowledge that it is a vital mistake for the teacher of English 
to find himself, at graduation, circumscribed by the limitations of the special- 
ized courses of his particular calling." 

The caution here suggested is worthy of our very careful consideration ; but, 
nevertheless, its writer is in agreement with nearly ninety percent of those an- 
swering the question in declaring that they should have been, or have been, 
helped by such a course as that under consideration. 

In this connection an extract from a private letter of a principal of a large 
high school is quite pertinent : 

"In some quarters this question may bring to the surface that miserable 
old bone of contention concerning the value of normal school vs. college train- 
ing. Of course if I had to choose between two teachers, one loaded with 
methods and a scant knowledge of his subject matter and the other widely read 
and well versed in subject but without pedagogical training in English, I should 
unhesitatingly select the latter. But if I can get him, I shall always take the man 
who has had both. I value this training in methods because it helps the pros- 
pective teacher in getting his bearings. Frequently the college graduate has a 
sorry time in adjusting himself to conditions in secondary schools and wastes pre- 
cious months in endeavoring to practice the whole college course upon high school 
students, very much as your young Ph.D.'s are troubled when they come to teach 
composition to college freshmen. No medical school today would dispense with 
its clinic work and its intern service ; and no good law school which I know of 
would be willing to omit its moot court practice. Inexperienced teachers usually 
find themselves in time ; but it is at an appalling expense to the pupils. The 
larger high schools, paying better salaries, frequently protect themselves by 
refusing to take these young teachers till they have finished their apprenticeship 
and buried their crudities and mistakes in some small town. Naturally, too, I 
value highly — no man more highly I trust — wide culture and general scholar- 
ship ; but to demand these alone seems to me to lead to the old fallacy that 
anybody can teach English. Now to my way of thinking right methods of 
teaching English are as necessary as right methods in any other subject, and 
usually much harder to get. A good course in methods of teaching English 
awakens the student to a consideration of the question of values ; and it 



183 

leads to a discussion of those innumerable problems, such as the outlining of 
courses of study, which puzzle the most experienced of us. Furthermore, it 
enlarges the student's horizon by training him to face these problems of teaching 
English thoughtfully and intelligently. I prize most highly the inspiration 
that comes to every student from contact with a liberally educated, widely read 
man or woman ; but I feel that it is time for us to realize that the teaching of 
English is an art and a science thoroughly worthy of careful study from those 
who propose to make it their vocation." 

Passing from the question of whether there shall be such work designed 
especially for training prospective teachers of English to the consideration of 
the nature of such a course, we find that about two-thirds of our witnesses 
believe that such instruction would be equally helpful in composition and in 
literature. Of those who dissent from such an opinion six are of the belief 
that a course in literature would prove the more useful, and thirteen favor a 
course in composition. The latter seem to base their belief upon these two 
arguments: (1) "it would be easier to make a course in composition helpful;" 
(2) "the technique of that subject is the more troublesome." 

Regarding the further question as to who should give the course — a mem- 
ber of the department of English or one from the department of education — 
the vote is overwhelmingly in favor of the former (35-7). One examining the 
comments is led to infer that this large majority based its opinion upon the pri- 
mary importance in such a course of the instructor's grasp of subject matter. 
"Such a teacher," says one answer, "should be a member of the English depart- 
ment who has had training in education rather than an instructor in education 
who has had training in English." Two or three of those who discuss the 
question insist that it makes no difference who gives the course, provided the 
work be practical and well done, and that the instructor be in close touch with 
the actual needs of high-school students. Personally, if I may take the witness 
stand for a moment, I am inclined to S3TTipathize with this little group. The 
position of such a teacher is somewhat anomalous, — one foot in the department 
of English and the other in that of education ; but the difficulty of such a situa- 
tion is not unique. It is only one of a number of cases contingent upon our 
present system of departmental barriers. In so far as the vote represents a 
conviction that a thorough acquaintance with subject matter is more likely to 
be assured if the work be given by a member of the department of English, I 
am in sympathy with the majority. 

A tabulation of the answers to the succeeding query, as to whether such 
a course would prove most helpful, after, during, or before a period of actual 
teaching experience, reveals an interesting difference of opinion. Twenty favor 
such practice before actual teaching; twenty others favor it during teaching; 
and twenty-one favor it after some experience in teaching. This result may 
recall, perhaps, the somewhat similar vote of an assembly of Kentucky colonels 
who deliberated concerning the best time of day for consuming one of their 
state's most famous products. Evidently the advantages to be gained from each 
of these three periods made about equal appeal to those responding. One of 
the teachers who discriminated in values offered this brief comment : "Before 
or during, necessarily ; mere valuable, after." Another put the difference thus : 



184 

"Before, for the sake of the pupil; during or after, for the sake of the teacher." 
A third favors two courses : "One before a period of actual teaching, to inspire 
confidence ; another during actual teaching, to renew inspiration." 

That such a course should be accompanied by practice teaching is the 
almost unanimous opinion of those replying to this questionnaire ; and no in- 
considerable number of these may be said to speak with authority, for they 
have eaten of the pudding and not simply tasted the string. One of the five 
or six who dissent from this opinion of the large majority, believes that the 
teacher may secure more effective aid from visiting classes, attending conven- 
tions, and reading educational journals. Two others object to practice classes 
on the grounds that the conditions there found are very different from those of 
the ordinary school room ; and a fourth declares that organized visiting and the 
writing of lesson plans will suffice. On the whole, however, the opinion of the 
overwhelming majority is, as has been stated, strongly in favor of such prac- 
tice teaching. 

The suggestions regarding additions to the college curriculum in English 
that might prove especially valuable to teachers in secondary schools, are very 
significant. Possibly the large vote in favor of an advanced survey of English 
literary movements was due in part to the fact that such a course was sug- 
gested in the questionnaire as a typical innovation; but, from the comments 
made upon this suggestion, it seems probable that many teachers had already 
considered seriously the desirability of such a college course, to be taken some- 
where toward the close of the student's senior year. "I wish especially,," writes 
one teacher, "that we might have a course which would gather up and unify 
what the student has done." Other teachers suggest courses in the history of 
language, in advanced English grammar, constructive work in debating, a more 
advanced study of the history of American literture, extensive courses in the 
evolution of literary types, a study of social rather than of so-called literary 
movements, courses in English thought, courses in first hand criticism, intensive 
and limited in scope. "A helpful course for teachers," suggests another, "might 
be based on the English Journal." Still another teacher writes : "I should 
favor courses in the literature of agriculture, electricity, etc., or in other words 
English as it is applied to the activities of life. We confine it too much to pure 
thought and emotion ; pure literature as it were." 

Many of these suggestions, worthy of consideration as they are, represent 
the views of a single teacher. There are, however, four proposals, each of 
which has the support of a body of instructors. Some of these suggestions may 
well be incorporated here in the language of their champions. The first advocates 
a course in folk literature. 

"A study of primitive literature would be of benefit to the teacher. By 
primitive literature I mean the whole range of folk literature and the early 
epics. Such a course would fit graduates to teach literature in the elementary 
schools and would be of hardly less value to graduates who go into high school 
work. Of course very little of this material is really English. Teachers of 
English should have it, however, in some department." 

A second proposal, coming from a number of teachers, is for a course 
in comparative literature, especially for modern literature in translation. The 



185 

reasonableness of this suggestion is obvious and need not here detain us. A 
third and most insistent demand is for courses in contemporary literature. 
About twenty teachers mention such a course and urge that it be added to the 
college curriculum. One teacher puts the case thus: "The boys and girls (like 
you and me) are bound to do much of their reading in the literature which 
expresses the mood of the present ; and we should be prepared to show them 
the worthy efforts which are being made to produce such literature." 

In addition to these demands for folk lore, comparative literature, and 
contemporary literature, comes that for a course in oral reading, which, says 
one of its advocates, should be "taught by a good and ripe teacher of English 
literature who has also some technical knowledge of the voice. This is a terri 
bly needed course. Not a course in reading scraps, nor in reading declamatory 
or histrionic piffle, but one in reading important literary works — poetrj^, drama, 
fiction, belles-lettres, from Chaucer down." 

Such are some of the suggestions. Personally I believe that this Asso- 
ciation may do much by discussing this question thoroughly, going into it care- 
fully, either today or at some later meeting, and then making its recommenda- 
tions to the colleges and universities. 

For the teacher to attempt to indicate in the three or four inches of blank 
space allowed on the questionnaire what he may regard as the irreducible mini- 
mum in the equipment of the teacher of English, and what he would add to 
make that training ampler, may seem futile indeed ; and perhaps we should be 
equally guilty of rushing in where angels might fear to tread, if we attempted 
in one section of this report to discuss at length such answers as those questions 
evoked. Briefly, however, while these answers disagree regarding this irre- 
ducible minimum, which in these various replies differed from "an ability to 
use decent grammar" to "at least thirty hours of college English," they were 
fairly agreed in insisting that the high school instructor in English should have 
gained at least a bachelor's degree. Furthermore, a careful comparison of those 
replies which outlined definitely in college courses such a minimum shows a 
fair consensus of opinion. Here is a representative list : "a survey course, 
Shakespeare, American literature, Victorian literature, more than one course in 
composition, some work in public speaking." Of those answers which did not 
attempt to enumerate any specific courses the following is typical : 

"An English teacher should be able to talk and to write readily and accu- 
rately, should appreciate good literature and have a fair acquaintance with it, 
and should be able to read well enough to hold the interest of his pupils." 

When those who had patiently answered the questions propounded came 
to enumerate the courses they would add, if permitted to build a mansion for 
the English teacher's soul statlier than the low-vaulted, irreducible minimum just 
discussed, the majority of them added at least two foreign languages, a more 
extensive acquaintance with English literature, especially with the earlier periods, 
a study of the English language, a course in methods of teaching English, and 
plenty of history and philosophy. A course in bibliography, travel, and summer 
study were among the most interesting and pertinent of the other suggestions 
offered ; and one teacher adds : 



186 

"After all mere courses in training cannot make the English teacher. The 
atmosphere of a cultivated home, refined instincts and tastes, correct speech 
habits, formed in childhood, wide reading and travel, the lecture-chautauqua- 
theatre-concert habit, keen interest in politics and the big movements of the 
day, sympathy with and insight into human nature ; all these are assets which 
go to make the English teacher." 

Among these various assets which have proved of exceptional worth wje 
find more than one teacher included courses in the careful translation of some 
foreign language. Of these responses the following may be quoted as typical : 

"The study of a foreign language with a cultured and careful teacher is 
a great help to one who teaches English. Dr. Fairclough of Stanford Univer- 
sity always insisted upon excellent English in Greek and Latin translation. 
Clear, concise sentences with adjectives bringing out proper shades of meaning 
were expected. However much we labored for the perfect result, he could and 
did improve our work; and yet he gave us due credit for our efforts. His 
teaching has always been to me a valuable model." 

Different teachers emphasized the desirability of a more thorough training 
in art, philosophy, sociology, and education. The attitude of some of these 
advocates of a more extensive professional training has been forcefully ex- 
pressed in these words: 

"The point of view of high school teachers is usually wrong. They are 
very conscious of their college courses and do not know how to think in terms 
of the children's activities at all. They have little or no idea what teaching is. 
Indeed they secretly believe there is no such thing — only calling for and hearing 
lessons from books." 

Other answers emphasize in various ways the imperative need of an open 
and receptive mind and of continuous growth on the part of the teacher of 
English. Three of these are thoroughly typical and stress some ideas which 
it would be hard for us to over-emphasize : 

I. "My own view, based upon my own experience, is that no one has 
so much to discover as the teacher of English. In no other calling is it so 
essential that a man be alive and eager and receptive and sympathetic. Hence, 
courses that deliberately limit a man too soon are matters to be deliberately 
avoided. I have taken all sorts of courses in English, but my own reading 
has given me a better equipment than these courses. And, just as soon as the 
teacher of English becomes stereotyped in method or goes to seed on material, 
the time has come, for him at least, to abandon his classes to a more helpful 
and inspiring guide." 

II. "The worst thing for a teacher of English is getting into a rut, be- 
coming a cog in a machine. A teacher of English should be a mixer and should 
have an interest in some outside community activity — an amateur dramatic club, 
a singing society, a town improvement club — even if some papers are left un- 
corrected. One must look over the edge of the ditch where one is working; 
this is the solemn truth." 

III. "Preparation of the teacher of English? The trouble with all of us 
is that we do not know enough; we stop growing verj^ early in our intellectual 
youth. Just because some college has dubbed us bachelors, we think we have 



187 

advanced well into our craft, when we are really nothing but entered appren- 
tices. Most of us are pretty raw and crude; we came from homes of compara- 
tively little culture, where good books were few and far between. And now 
that we are teachers, we own but a scant and meager collection. Don't tell 
me we are underpaid ; I know it and feel it too ; but we may all afford good 
books, if we really wish them. Again, too few of us go back to the universities 
for further study; and most of us do not even realize (to look at the matter 
with sweetness and light waiting upon the pocket-book) what an advantage even 
a year's graduate work gives us over the majority of our fellow teachers. Fur- 
thermore, we ought to be more zealous as students of our subject, interested 
in solving its many problems and in making it more of a science. Let us bow 
the knee to Culture and honor her with the highest seat ; and then let us be- 
stow the next place on intelligent craftsmanship." 

What, now in conclusion, may we say in summarizing the results of this 
investigation ? 

(1) That most of the institutions of higher learning in Illinois are not 
doing a great deal toward preparing students as special teachers of English; 
and that they might well be asked to consider whether it is desirable and feasible 
for them to undertake more extensive and systematic work of this character. 

(2) That almost every thing in the teacher's college course in English 
may and very often does prove of value to him in the class room ; but that the 
greatest help has come from general survey courses, Shakespeare, American 
literature, courses for teachers, and courses in composition. 

(3) These teachers have found that among their courses other than Eng- 
lish their work in history has been of greatest value ; next, their work in foreign 
languages, especially in Latin ; and that their courses in philosophy and educa- 
tion have also proved helpful. Fewer of them testified as to the value of 
political and physical sciences. 

(4) Those who have taken courses in education requiring practice teach- 
ing have, generally speaking, found them very helpful; and a large majority of 
them favor such courses for teachers of English, to be given, preferably, by a 
member of the department of English. The majority of them also believe that 
such a course would be equally helpful in literature and in composition. There 
is no general agreement as to whether such a course would prove most helpful 
after, before, or during a period of actual teaching experience, — diflferent an- 
swers emphasizing the peculiar value of such work at various stages of progress. 

(5) Of the possible additions to the college curriculum, desirable for teach- 
ers of English, the chief demands are for five courses: (a) an advanced survey 
of English literature; (b) a course in primitive literature; (c) a course in com- 
parative literature; (d) one in contemporary- English and American literature; 
(e) a course in oral reading. 

(6) As an irreducible minimum for the teacher of English, the concensus 
of opinion favors the requirement of the bachelor's degree from some reputable 
college. The necessity of at least courses in a survey of English literature, 
in Shakespeare and American literature, in public speaking, and in something 
beyond freshman composition, is emphasized. Especially notable too is the 



188 

insistence upon an ampler training, in history, languages, philosophy, and edu- 
cation, and upon the continuous growth of whoever would succeed as a teacher 
of English. 

The Speaking Voice 
John M. Clapp 

Teachers of English are at last approaching one part of their duty which 
is most fundamental, but which they have generally shirked, the improvement 
of the speech of their pupils. The importance of correct speech — good tone 
and good enunciation as well as good grammar — can hardly be over-stated. It 
is essential to full comprehension of literature. Yet during the past genera- 
tion, at least, instruction in speech has been generally neglected in American 
schools. After the lower Grades we have assumed that instruction in speech 
is unnecessary. As a general rule we may say that neither in school nor at 
home does the young American receive any instruction in the use of his voice 
in speech, in the right way to utter the various sounds which make up his own 
language. Largely as the result of this lack of instruction in correct speech, 
the American is a byword among the nations for his unpleasant voice and his 
slovenly utterance. The other great civilized nations : England, France, Ger- 
many, Italy, pay careful attention to this matter in their schools. In England 
the average man or woman — those of the working classes, who constitute the 
greater part of the population — speaks in a pleasant tone, with clear enuncia- 
tion (and with grammatical correctness, although I am not now thinking of 
grammar). We Americans must improve our speech before our educational 
system is truly eflScient. 

This is particularly the task of a teacher of English. Our instruction in 
the higher mysteries of literary history and of style, and in elaborate forms of 
written composition, is constantly and seriously handicapped by our pupils' 
utter ignorance of the principles of spoken language. Moreover, we owe it to 
society at least to train our pupils to speak their own language aright. In the 
past some of us have assumed that instruction in speech is unnecessary, and 
others of us, while realizing the need, have been afraid to do anything, not 
knowing what to do. We need not be afraid. Much can be done in connection 
with the regular work in English. In the classes in literature we can have 
really careful work in reading aloud, a little of it every day. In the classes 
in composition we can give a little attention every day to drill in correct sepech, 
insisting on soft, clear, pleasant tones and distinct enunciation. Specila instruc- 
tion, through elective courses in Elocution, Public Speaking, Music, and outside 
stimulus through school dramatics, can do much. But constant attention in 
connection with their regular classes is the most important agency to improve 
the speech of the young people. It is the duty of the teachers of English to 
begin this work, requiring correct speech just as they require correct spelling 
and good grammar, and eventually all teachers, of all subjects, will cooperate. 
Our duty now is to find the right methods of handling the subject. 

The National Council of Teachers of English is about to take up this 
problem. One of the principal sessions of the general body is to be given to a 



189 

symposium on the Speaking Voice, and a regular committee is to be appointed 
to study the problem carefully and report, in a year, or two years, upon the 
best methods of dealing with it. It would be well if the Illinois Association, 
which has led the way on several occasions could have an active part in this 
most important forward movement. 

Standards for Testing Composition Work 
P. M. Watson 

The last decade has witnessed a growing demand that we measure more 
accurately the efficiency of the schools. It is no longer enough to say that 
the schools are very good. The public demands to be informed just how good 
they are, and in what respects they may be made better. In order to determine 
these things, definite objective standards for the measurement of educational 
results are needed. 

Within the last few years several such standards or scales have been 
constructed. We now have the Handwriting scales of Ayres and Thomdike, 
the Arithmetic tests of Courtis, a scale for Freehand Lettering by Rugg, and 
several others. Most of these have dealt with material of a formal nature. 
A few have attempted the measurement of material whose merit was more 
subtle and intangible. The recent scales for testing English Composition are 
of this type. 

The first of these, the Hilligas scale, appeared in 1912. From about 7000 
compositions a set of ten was formed into a scale according to the combined 
judgment of over 200 judges. It is intended as a scale for the measurement 
of general merit in English Composition. 

In 1904 another set of scales was published. These were worked out in 
Newton, Massachusetts, imder the direction of Harvard University experts. 
Recognizing the difficulty of measuring "general merit," the Harvard-Newton 
authorities have devised four separate scales, one each for Description, Exposi- 
tion, Argumentation, and Narration. Each scale contains six themes ranging in 
merit from 45% to 95%. Each theme is followed by comments justifying its 
position in the scale, and indicating its chief merits and defects. 

In an article recently published, Mr. S. A. Courtis, noted for his Arithmetic 
tests, announces his intention to construct a composition scale. He proposes, 
by an investigation of present practice in theme grading to determine what 
weight should be given to mistakes in spelling, writing, style, etc. 

The Hillegas scale has received much criticism since its appearance. Cour- 
tis rejects it in his investigations because he has not found it a "practical tool 
for classroom use." Professor F. W. Johnson of the University High School 
of Chicago found that teachers specially drilled in uniform grading varied as 
much as 69% in grading a theme by the Hillegas scale. His chief criticisms 
of the scale are that its material is different from that of ordinary high school 
productions, and that it ignores all material calling for originality of thought. 
He suggests a need for two scales, one for form, and one for content. 

The Harvard-Newton investigators found the Hillegas scale valuable 
chiefly as a pioneer attempt, and consider a single scale for general merit as 



190 

impossible as a single instrument for the measurement of heat, light and color. 
In attempting to avoid this defect, they have adopted the conventional rhetorical 
subdivisions of discourse. But there is a tendency today to abandon the terms 
— Narration, Description, etc., and hence there is danger that this basis of 
division may become obsolete. The Harvard-Newton scale is, however, the 
most satisfactory one for classroom use in existence. 

The Courtis Scale will apparently deal largely with errors of form. As 
such it will no doubt be of value. However, it is questionable whether present 
practice is not too confused and aimless to afford a sound basis for the con- 
struction of a scale. 

It would seem better to attempt a classification of writings upon a psy- 
chological basis — the effect produced on the mind of the reader. DeQuincy 
classifies all literature on this basis as literature of knowledge and literature of 
power. Gardiner of Harvard speaks of it as literature of thought and literature 
of feeling. 

These two types differ widely, the former is concerned with the imparting 
of exact information in a faithful, accurate, impersonal way. Any emotional 
appeal is entirely out of place in such writing. It includes statistical reports, 
scientific treatises, etc., and is the natural product of the scientifically inclined 
mind. 

The latter type has what is ordinarily called literary value. A strong emo- 
tional atmosphere is present, and the author has revealed his own personality. 
Our best poetry, orations, sermons, etc., belong to this type of discourse. It 
is the natural product of the "artistic temperament." The ability to produce 
both types should be cultivated. 

The existing scales ignore the distinction between the two types. In both 
scales samples of each type are inserted indiscriminately, and it is interesting 
to note that in general the themes of least merit have mixed the two. Hence, 
in ranking by either scale a theme in Description, for example, it must be com- 
pared with material unlike itself. 

Whether a satisfactory scale for the measurement of English composition 
can be constructed remains to be seen. It seems fair, however, to demand of 
such a scale that it make a sharp distinction between these two kinds of merit. 

In present practice, as in the existing scales, this distinction is not made. 
Too often the child does not know what kind of merit his theme is expected 
to contain. As a result, he will produce that which appeals more to him, or 
he will make a hopeless mixture of the two. The teacher when grading his 
work is very apt to ignore the kind of merit which does not appeal to her. 
Inevitably the child becomes discouraged in his work. 

When teachers have a clear understanding of the sort of merit they expect 
a theme to possess, and make the assignment so definite that the child knows 
what is expected of him, then we may hope for themes of such uniformity that 
they may be more fairly graded by the pioper kind of scale. Then we may 
reasonably expect a material reduction of failures and low grades because the 
personal whim and bias of the teacher will be in a large measure counteracted. 



191 

The Teaching of the History of Literature 
Lora Atkins Henion 

There are many reasons why a unified course in English is desirable in 
Illinois high schools, and the matter of the kind of text book in the history 
of English literature with a method of using it, seems to me of great impor- 
tance. In my varied career as a teacher of English in this state, I have run 
the gamut of text books from the diminutive primer of English literature by 
Brooks and the detached series of biographies of Painter, to the recent editions 
of texts by Halleck, Pancoast, and Long. So I feel that I may speak if not 
with authority, at least not as the Scribes and Pharisees. 

There is, indeed, a great variation in requirements in English literature. 
We have reached some conclusions about the amount of rhetoric to be given 
in high school, and the proportion of oral and written composition ; while our 
choice of reading is largely governed by the college entrance requirements; 
but the position of the study of literary history seems very indefinite, varying 
from the second year to the fourth, and from the use of the book for reference 
only, to a very careful and chronological study of the text. 

This variation certainly works a hardship on the children who come from 
the migratory families in the community, and they are of sufficient number to 
be considered. One of my juniors this year is now in her fourth high school 
and has had her English literature ; another, a senior, comes from a three-year 
high school, has had literary- history, but practically none of the reading sug- 
gested for college entrance. 

We claim, of course, that our high schools are not feeding grounds for 
the university, yet we do wish even the small percentage of our seniors who 
go to college to be well prepared, and I know that the students in English I 
in the university show great variation in their knowledge of the movements 
which characterize English literary history. 

I believe we will agree that at some time during the high school course 
it is advisable to use a text book. In the first place, the pupil needs some 
background for the study of the masterpieces. How can a pupil get the full 
value from a study of the "Fairie Queen" or of "Paradise Lost" without know- 
ing the characteristics of the Elizabethan and the Puritan periods? The enjoy- 
ment of the Spectator is enhanced by a knowledge of the truthfulness of the 
portraiture of Sir Roger de Coverley or the literary ideals of the London of 
Addison and Steele. The teaching of "Ivanhoe" is more valuable if one under- 
stands the antagonism between Norman and Saxon, and conversely-, one under- 
stands through reading "Ivanhoe" the reasons for the amalgamation of Norman 
and Saxon and the composite character of the language. 

Furthermore, a text book coordinates the work. During the two or three 
years that the pupil has been reading the various works assigned, unless the 
teacher has furnished the links between the classics studied, the student has 
no definite notion of the relation between them. In his mind there is a varied 
assortment of material, — a little of Shakespeare, Macaulay, Longfellow, Burke, 
and others, and all appear of equal importance unless the student has a particu- 
lar aversion for some particular work, due usually to the fact that it was dis- 



192 

tnembered and dissected more completely than some other work. The idea 
that one work is of more importance than another from the literary point of 
view, from its relation to other works of the same period and of later periods, 
can be made clear only by the use of the text book. 

In the average high school, the reference library is very small, and rather 
than turn the pupil loose on an encyclopedic article, which more than anything 
else, can dampen one's desire for information, a fairly scholarly text book in the 
hands of the pupil is the most available source. 

There is another reason for a text book that may sound trivial to you, but 
from the pupil's point of view looms large. The very fact that the pupil has 
a text book dignifiies the work. I am working with a senior class that for 
two years has had no text for English work either in the history of literature 
or in composition, and they tell me they have just read books before, and now 
they are studying English Literature. They will cheerfully read any literary 
work as long as they find that the text book gives space to a discussion of the 
particular writer studied, for they are taking the word of a maker of a book, 
rather than a supposed personal whim of an English teacher, who, in the nature 
of things, is supposed by the children, and sometimes by the rest of the faculty, 
to be a dreamer of dreams. 

We complain of the vagueness of the English work. The pupil thinks 
it is not so important as Latin or algebra because in the latter he is given a 
definite task to accomplish; while in the former, too often he is left to his own 
devices. The ideal English teacher, of course, gives enough helpful sugges- 
tions so that a definite result is obtained, but does the average theme-burdened, 
conference-driven teacher have the time to plan her work so carefully? Here 
the text book is an aid. Take, for instance, a class reading the prologue to 
the "Canterbury Tales." After the reading has been done and the pupils have 
thoroughly enjoyed the descriptions, would it not be a help to have a text book 
that brings together the impressions they have received, and makes them see 
that the very qualities they have discovered are the ones that Halleck and Long 
discuss in the text? 

Some one may say, "Are we desirous for our pupils to be students of lit- 
erary history or lovers of good books?" Of course the latter is our aim, but 
are the two incompatible? Can we not make them truer lovers of good books 
because they know the reason for the faith that is in them. 

We will conclude, then, that a text book is desirable to give background 
and coordination to the reading, and to dignify the work. Where should the text 
book be used, and what should be the nature of it. 

In nearly all school programs the literary history is used in the fourth or 
senior year. Has it been placed there for good and sufficient reasons? There is 
one reason for it in the fact that the pupil by that time has more historical back- 
ground, for he usually has had European or English history or is taking it at 
the same time as his English literature. I am having an opportunity this year 
to test the matter of the value of historical background. Both English HI and 
English IV are taking the literary history, as it is the purpose to introduce Amer- 
ican Literature in the fourth year after the present year. As far as the maturity 
of the pupils is concerned, they are about the same age, from sixteen to nineteen 



193 

but the seniors understand the underlying social and political conditions more 
readily than do the juniors, because they have had their English history. Inci- 
dentally, they are better able to make comparisons in the study of various 
writers, because they have had the extra year's reading. 

There has been a plan used in some high schools of correlating the literature 
and history to such an extent that the separate text in literary historj- was not 
used, but the development of literature was studied as a part of the history of 
the English people. The pupils were to read as collateral to their history work 
some of the most important historical classics, such as the historical plays of 
Shakespeare, "Ivanhoe", "Henry Esmond", "The Tale of Two Cities",etc. These 
would be read of course, as throwing light on the social life and conditions. A 
course in theme work was also recommended to be carried throughout this year, 
the subject matter of which should be drawn from the history work and thus 
make it contributory to a fuller knowledge of history. Mr. Hollister is my in- 
formant about this plan, and it was intended as a relief for the smaller high 
schools to enable them to get one year's credit in English history and three 
years' credit in English, instead of requiring four years of English for three units 
of credit. He says the plan is no longer being recommended simply because 
teachers were not able to keep up the work. It would start out strongly when in- 
itiated by a teacher who had been thoroughly instructed as to method of pro- 
cedure, but the vet}- next year perhaps another teacher would come in and the 
principal was not able fully to explain, the result being a very bad combination of 
formal study of histor\- of literature and a study of a text in English historj-. 

Mr. Hanna, the State High School Inspector, said recently that the children 
even in the first year of English should have a taste of literary historj- ; that 
they can appreciate the literary signficance of "Beowulf," "The Canterbur>' 
Tales", the ballads, and the "Idyls of the King." He would say that as a result 
of the teaching of the various masterpieces and the literary background, that the 
text in literature in the fourth year should be in the nature of a review rather 
than the taking up of an entirely new subject. 

In the first place, in the text there should be sufficient historical material 
to show the close relationship between the literature and the social and economic 
conditions — the history in the making which is so necessary to know in order 
to find the reasons why certain kinds of literature are produced at certain per- 
iods, the reasons for the dramatic impetus, the presence of the ballad and epic 
material, the revolutionary spirit, or the changes in religious views. For we 
would have the pupil know that a great book reflects not only the author's 
thought, but also the spirit of the nation's historj-. 

There must also be sufficient biographical material to show how each im- 
portant writer lived and worked, how he met success and failure, how he 
influenced his age, and how his age influenced him. This is one of the places 
where I take issue with nearly all texts for high school work. Is it neces- 
sarj-, for instance, in discussing Byron, to trace his family back to William the 
Conqueror and tell us the various degrees of rakishness in his family for three 
generations? The afi'airs in the lives of writers which we older people read, 
have no place in a high school text, unless it is impossible to understand the 
v.-riter's personality without them. 



194 

There should be an elimination of long catalogues of names and works 
of minor writers whom one never unearths unless he is an English student 
of at least graduate rank in college. Of course a text book should be a store 
house in which one finds what he wants and some good things in addition. 
In nearly every class there will be a few students who will be attracted by 
works which the rest of the class need not know, and the material for their 
study and reading should be found in the text. As an illustration of the ency- 
clopedic character of one of the most highly recommended texts, in the Eliza- 
bethan period, besides Spencer, Bacon, Marlowe, Shakespeare, and Jonson, at 
least a paragraph is given to each of twenty-three writers. 

One should find in a good text, a few definite, helpful comments on the 
style and value of important works. There should not be too much critical 
material, so that the pupil has no chance to come to any conclusion for himself. 
For instance, why should five pages be given to the "Canterbury Tales" with 
paragraphs headed The Pilgrims at the Tabard; The Pilgrims on the Road; 
Chaucer's Picture of Himself among the Pilgrims; and finally, one short para- 
graph on Chaucer's Literary Art? The energy expended in studying this ma- 
terial might be used to much better advantage in reading the prologue itself, 
where Chaucer describes the pilgrims better than do Long or Moody and 
Lovett. 

I should not like to see in this ideal text book too many extracts from 
writers that the children should study first hand. It may not be true of the 
pupils any of you teach, but I have seen some who felt that a change in type 
from the main portion of the book meant permission to skip all such material, 
and it takes much persuasion to make them understand that the fine print, 
like the postscripts to some women's letters, may contain the most important 
matter on the page. 

They get the notion also, that the work of some writers is a thing of 
shreds and patches by having only a line or two quoted rather hit or miss from 
his work. I think, too, in this connection, something might be said regarding 
the illustrations in the average book. One of the books used most commonly 
in this state seems to have a small representation of each writer done rather 
sketchily, and a picture of said writer's birthplace done still more sketchily. 
I will venture to assert that the average pupil pays little attention to that kind 
of illustration, while a few portraits, copies of famous paintings, will have 
real value for him. 

I should like to find in this high school book, a style on the part of the 
writer that will not drive a pupil away from his study. I have in mind a text 
in American literature in which some of the sentences would have been a credit 
to a Delphic oracle, and in which it was necessary to conduct a reading lesson 
to be sure that the ideas in the mind of the writer could be conveyed to the 
minds of the readers. Another text which has been recommended to me would 
make all teaching regarding coherence and sentence structure useless, for my 
teaching and the practice of the writer would be absolutely at variance. 

I have recently tried to examine with unprejudiced eye and open mind, 
the texts by Pancoast, Moody and Lovett, Halleck, and Long. I have attempted 
to put myself in the place of the average seventeen-year old high school pupil 



195 

with the mental equipment and backj^round of a senior. It is difficult to hark 
back so far into one's past, and requires a stretch of the imagination. The one 
advantage is ihat I may speak with the frankness that the high school girl 
would possess. When I took up Halleck, I looked first at the illustrations and 
found that most of the writers appeared very unattractive and commonplace, 
due, no doubt, to the small, rather indefinite pictures inserted into the printed 
page. In the second place, the necessar>' historical material cannot be found 
there and one must direct the pupil to various English histories where 
many pages must be read in order to get what the teacher wishes. Halleck 
is easier to read and undrstand than any other book I know, and that is very 
much in its favor. Even the biographies are interesting and are not packed 
full of unnecessar>- details. There is also not so much cataloging of unimpor- 
tant writers, and the book can be fairly well covered in one year. 

Pancoast, and Moody and Lovett, have a fault in common that makes 
them both difficult for high school texts. Strange as it may seem, they are too 
scholarly. That may be a virtue in a book for college students, but it is a 
stumbling block for immature minds. We do not wish the pupils to be so 
hampered by the difficulties of the phraseology that they scarcely get the 
thought back of the words. The biographies in Moody and Lovett contain 
details that are of little value to a young boy or girl. If the text of Moody 
and Lovett is called the First View of English literature, we need one called 
the A. B. C. Book to precede it. 

Long is a little voluminous for a text that is to be taken in consecutive 
pages, but the material is readable, and not beyond the comprehension of a 
high school student. If the book is used for reference and the assignments are 
carefully made, it is a suitable text. 

I wish that some person who is an English scholar and at the same time 
is familiar with the average pupils of high school age would write a text book 
for us. The trouble with nearly all of these texts is that a man dealing with 
advanced college students has done the writing and has failed because of the 
fact that he is too scholarly. The book, like any other tool, should be the 
best one for the particular task in hand. 

Now, how should the text be used? I should say, primarily for reference, 
the book not being taken in consecutive pages. Since literature is our subject, 
we should begin and end with good books. We should stand aside and let the 
great writers speak their own message. We should not impose upon pupils the 
ready made opinions of the text book until they have read the best that an age 
has produced ; have felt the power of Spencer, Shakespeare, and Milton ; and 
then they will wish to know something of the author, the times in which he 
lived, and what other people think of him. 

The amount of space given to different periods in a text book is not an 
index of the relative amount of time to be spent upon the different subjects. 
Thus, "to tell the story of Spenser's life and ideals requires as much space as 
to tell the stor>- of Tennyson; but the average class will spend its time more 
pleasantly and profitably with the latter poet than with the former." 

We will conclude, then, that a suitable text in litcrar>' history should be 
used to give background to the study of masterpieces; that the book should not 



196 

defeat its own ends by being two encyclopedic or too difficult of comprehension. 
We should take care, finally, that the text book, whatever its nature, does not 
become the end, but simply an aid to the better understanding of literary 
productions, for as Dr. Carson saj's, "Histories of literature cannot do much 
for literary education, which must come first, and which, in its true sense, is a 
spiritual education ; and this, no amount of mere literary knowledge or literary 
history, will, of itself, induce. It must be induced on the basis of what is 
permanent and eternal — of what is independent of time and place." 

Geography Section 

The meeting of the Geography Section of the Illinois High School 
Conference was held from 9 :00 to 12 :00 o'clock on Friday morning in 
Room 251, Natural History Building, Dr. John L. Rich of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois presiding. A short business session was held for 
the purpose of electing two members to the Executive Committee of 
the Section in place of Messrs. D. C. Ridgeley and J. L. Rich, whose 
terms had expired. Both were re-elected for a period of three years, 
but on Mr. Ridgeley's declining the election, Superintendent George 
White of Saybrook was chosen. 

The topic for discussion before the session was "How to Make 
Physiography Concrete." This was treated under two headings, the 
first dealing with laboratory work, the second with field work. Miss 
Marion Sykes, of Bowen High School, Chicago, presented the first 
paper, which follows: 

How I Conduct Laboratory Work in Physiography 
Marion Sykes, Bowen High School, Chicago 

The question — How make Laboratory Work in Physiography Concrete? — 
sounds indeed very like a paradox; for if the work is not concrete, how can 
it be called laboratory work? It is true that the actual subject matter of 
Physiography can not be handled in the schoolroom as can that of other 
sciences, but I believe that the work is concrete and can be made increasingly 
so. In planning laboratory work we must avoid what has been called "busy 
work" — and the "elucidation of the obvious." Real laboratory work will make 
the pupil feel that the facts are indeed his by direct experience which I under- 
stand is the meaning of the word concrete. I believe that Physiography can 
be made to touch life as the ninth grade pupil knows it, more closely than other 
subjects, but it must be made simple and as free as possible from technicalities. 
The material used in the laboratory should be, as far as can be, the every-day 
appliances. Many illustrations should be drawn from the pupil's experience 
and the experience of his friends. The meaning of each exercise, and its bear- 
ing on the general plan of the work should be brought out and emphasized 
so that the pupil will not ask himself in bewilderment — who cares? What of 



197 

it, anyway? — or think that the main object accomplished is the adding of one 
more page to his notebook which will help him towards a credit. Laboratory 
work must be such as to strengthen the attitude of mind which makes a person 
hesitate to accept what he has not arrived at himself — what he cannot verify 
for himself — what does not appeal to him as reasonable. 

We have one-half year for Physiography in Chicago. I prefer to have no 
stated days for laborator>^ work, but to do such work on text book work as 
occasion demands, spending sometimes five days a week, sometimes one day 
a week, on what may be called laboratory work. At present I begin with a 
study of the atmosphere and find that an exercise on the expansion due to heat 
is most acceptable for a beginning. It is easy for the pupil to make the matter of 
this exercise his by direct experience ; for besides the ball and ring used in 
class, most pupils can give from their own experience examples of expansion 
of solids. Expansion of liquids leads us to a consideration of the thermometer 
and the changing density of water. Expansion in gases reminds each of how 
he has plugged tightly a cold bottle and thrown it into the fire. The pleasing 
recollection of what happened adds to the work done in the laboratory in 
making the fact concrete. 

Exercises on the distribution of heat on the earth, and on the influence 
of latitude and of land and sea on temperature, necessitate the study of iso- 
therms and maps. We can not actually journey far abroad and experience 
the temperature changes for ourselves, but studying out recorded temperature 
as shown on the maps, brings the facts of temperature home to us. We can 
journey in imagination and make the conditions noted our own by descriptions 
and pictures, and by contrasting and comparing them with the conditions which 
we know. 

Constructing a barometer with the class is not enough to make its use 
and application real. If this is followed by reading the barometer daily and 
discussing briefly the changes as they occur, the barometer becomes an actual 
thing. 

The wind belts can be developed on a blackboard globe if the school pos- 
sesses one of large size. Plotting the belts on a world map, while not a first 
hand acquaintance with the winds themselves, fixes them in mind and makes 
an impression such as mere text book study can never do. The ninth grade 
pupil is a verj^ young thing and the formal feelings still appeal to him strongly. 
He is inclined to regard the drawing of the lines of a diagram as the real 
exercise, instead of looking for the interpretation of the drawing. This has 
been to me a real difficulty, and unless definite time is given to emphasizing why 
we have done the work, and what the diagram means, the pupils are inclined 
to regard the drawing of the lines as the desideratum. 

As we study the weather map, the members of the class compare recorded 
conditions with those we experienced the day before (our map reaches us at 
the end of the day, after school is over), and the boys and girls often stop 
before and after school and between classes to note the record of conditions 
which impressed them, and to see what they think the weather may be for the 
next day. 



198 

At the beginning of the stud.v of the land, individual small globes seem 
almost a necessity, for parallels, meridians, latitude, longitude are terms too 
often badlj- mixed. Indeed, they are still confused after many exercises. 

A brief and, what seems to me, a most meagre study of a few of the 
most common minerals and rocks, pleases the children, and serves as an ac- 
ceptable introduction to weathering. The pupils realize that minerals are not 
all equalh' resistant, and that rocks do not yield with the same rapidity to 
the forces which attack them. After handling pieces of the most common 
rocks and minerals, the pupils look about them more intelligently and bring 
in all sorts of things, from the lake shore, from excavations which are being 
made for buildings, from old quarries and from the most unexpected places. 

As we begin this work I realize again that lack of appreciation on the 
part of the pupil of the fact that what he reads about and what he sees around 
him are the same. He comes to think, somehow, that the discussion in the 
books must of necessity apply to places remote. He seems to have an idea 
that any statement he makes must be backed up by what he has read in a book, 
that anything else is a "bluff". It takes a conscious effort on my part to get 
most pupils into the habit of connecting what the}- read with what they see; 
e. g., they read that mantle rock is loose material such as sand, gravel, clay 
on the surface of the ground. The majority of a class of 40 will say that 
glibly enough and then all of them, boys and girls, will declare that they never 
saw any mantle rock. So with bed rock, until some one suggests that perhaps 
the rock in an old quarr>- may be bed rock, and then most of them will say 
with surprise — "Is that what they mean by bed rock?" Unless the teacher 
takes especial pains to connect what is around the pupil with what is being 
talked about ,the connection is not made, and the work in or out of the labora- 
tory' never becomes concrete. I have difficulty with the question — What rivers 
join Lake Michigan at Chicago? Some of the children are surprised to find 
out that the river on the map is the same one which they cross on the 92d 
Street bridge. 

When we take up the study of rivers, it has proved profitable to do 
considerable place geograph}', locating repeatedly the rivers, cities, states which 
we speak of, and learning the names of the states so that a fair proportion 
of the class can name them correctly on an outline map of the United States. 
The work on rivers, glaciers, shore lines, mountains is less abstract if the class 
know where the important features are. As an introduction to the study of a 
new topic as glaciers and mountains, I think it is a help to precede the work 
with a good many lantern slides. 

In the study of land forms, it seems to me that topographic maps are 
most helpful. Not detailed study of one or two, but a rapid study of as many 
as possible comparing one with another, noting the few big things that pertain 
to the topic under discussion. The maps take us to places we can not actually 
visit. 

More than one aid to understanding the meaning of a topographic map 
is useful. (l)As an introduction, an exercise with a sand island is helpful. 
Draw rapidly a line to show the outline of the shore, and successive lines to 
represent the positions of the shore line from time to time as the water is 



199 

imagined to be rising. (2) A piece of apparatus purchased some time ago, 
serves this purpose admirably. It is of wood and represents a hill or island. 
As it is made in horizontal sections, the cracks between the sections represent 
contour lines. Another part of the apparatus shows these contour lines as con- 
tinuous pieces of wire on uprights, forming a skeleton of the island. The up- 
rights on which the wire contours rest can be pushed thruogh the base, bring- 
ing to one plane the wires which thus form a contour map of the hill. (3) 
We have a set of small plaster models, one for each pupil, of a portion of the 
LaSalle street. When studied with the map these bring out its meaning ad- 
mirably. (4) At various times, pupils have made pasteboard models of various 
maps studied, which are excellent helps in seeing maps as sort of bird's eye 
views. It has seemed to me that these various devices have made it possible 
for a class to read the main features of a contour map with a fair amount of 
ease. I hope I have not been deceiving myself. After the maps can be read, 
I use them as a basis for the study of river work — the effects of glaciers — 
shore lines, mountains. Professional paper number 60 of the U. S. Geological 
Survey — "The Interpretation of Topographic Maps," by Salisbury and Atwood 
— gives splendid material for a comparison of many maps, and it is unfortunate 
that copies cannot be obtained so as to have one for every two pupils. 

In the study of stream action and shore lines, I make use of a sand table 
which clears up many points difficult for city young people to understand. 
They can see the valley and the upland. Flood plains and terraces are being 
made, and the widening of valleys by lateral cutting is rapidly taking place 
before them. I find it an advantage to be in a part of the city where in places 
paving is still a thing of the future, and where rain wash makes gullies and 
alluvial fans at the side of the street. 

I have avoided mentioning field trips, as the discussion of these is another 
part of the program. Laboratory work calls constantly for illustrations from 
near-by places, which are most valuable even when supplied by only a few 
members of the class. Lantern slides illustrate and emphasize the points made, 
and we should not neglect a study of the illustrations in the text used. With 
a little encouragement, I find the children will hunt out pictures from Railroad 
advertisements and other papers, and will bring them in as illustrations of 
forms and processes discussed. 

In general I make use of various forms of apparatus, of diagrams — of 
sand and pasteboard models, of pictures, of constant and repeated reference 
to what we see about us. If the subject is not obscured by "scientific jargon, 
pedantic and absurd" Physiography, or as I prefer to call it. High School 
Geography, is indeed concrete, and a delight to the average child. I wish that 
my pupils might leave my class feeling that whereas they were blind, now 
they see. 

In the discussion which followed this paper special attention was 
drawn to the desirability of training the child to interpret maps, dia- 
grams, models, etc., rather than merely to acquire skill in the mechani- 
cal operations involved in carrying out his studies. The need of more 



200 

thorough teaching of geography in the grades, and of continuing to 
teach place or local geography, incidentally to the other work, in the 
High School was also emphasized. The second paper dealing with 
laboratory work was read by Mr. Lewis Walker of Mahomet High 
School, Mahomet, 111. Mr. Walker's paper follows : 

How I Make Laboratory Work in Physiography Concrete 
Lewis Walker, Alahomet, Illinois 

A globe and a few wall maps make up the entire laboratory equipment 
provided by the school. The course was taught during four months' time to a 
class composed of juniors and seniors. The problem of teaching Physiography, 
making it interesting and concrete, with no apparatus, was one which presented 
a great deal of difficulty. 

Outline maps were used extensively throughout the work. Each pupil was 
required to buy a set, which was selected by the teacher. Pupils reproduced, 
on outline maps of North America and Europe, the maps in the book showing 
the continental glaciers. Arrows were drawn in the directions in which the 
glaciers extended, fixing in a helpful way their extent and direction. In this 
way the glacial centers were made plain and pupils saw more readily the ex- 
tensive efifects of glaciation. 

Ocean currents and atmospheric circulation were studied in very close 
relationship one to the other and in detail. The pamphlet, "Circulation of the 
Atmosphere," prepared by D. C. Ridgley, was in the hands of the teacher and 
was used as a supplement to the text. 

A few facts concerning the air were first mastered, viz., wind is air in 
motion, air has weight, air when warmed expands, when cool contracts, warm 
air is lighter than cold air, warm air can hold more water vapor than cold air, 
moist air is lighter than dry air. 

After these facts and examples proving them were thoroughly studied 
the pupils were ready for a complete study of the circulation of the atmosphere 
and its relation to man. 

Charts were made showing by means of flying arrows the direction in 
which the air was moving. An imaginary steam pipe was located in the center 
of the room representing the equator and the doldrum wind belt. The air 
(trade winds) moving in from either side of the room toward the steam pipe 
(doldrum belt) was warmed, expanded, moved upward toward the ceiling 
where it divided, some of it passing to either side of the room along the ceiling. 
This air represented the anti-trade winds. When this air pressed against the 
walls it moved downward toward the outer aisles on either side of the room, 
representing the horse latitude wind belts. Here we supposed the air to sep- 
arate, some of it passing out of the building to represent the westerlies, and 
some of it passing back toward the steam pipe as trade winds. 

We then applied this illustration to the earth without considering rota- 
tion. We then applied the illustration to a rotating earth. The pupils applied 
these facts and mastered the circulation of the atmosphere in a very short time. 



201 

The fact that pupils who are now in school can reproduce the illustration after 
one year and apply it to the globe is ample proof that this means of presenta- 
tion is concrete. 

Wind belts maps were drawn showing their average position and their 
Januar>- and July positions. 

The four questions which determine the rainfall of the earth followed 
the study of the atmosphere and were applied to the vegetation of the earth 
and to population. The circulation of water was presented and compared to the 
circulation of the atmosphere. This was not difficult since the atmospheric circu- 
lation was studied in such detail. A map showing ocean currents was produced. 

A tellurian was improvised by means of a board and pieces of chalk. 
The chalk was placed in the positions of the earth at the beginning of the 
different seasons. The earth's orbit was represented by a chalk mark. The 
globe at hand was so constructed that it illustrated, fairly well, the different 
positions of the earth. It thus became easy for the pupils to understand why 
the earth can be nearer the sun on September 21 and March 21 or December 
21 and yet not have hot weather nor cold weather. 

Perihelion and Aphelion were each brought out and illustrated, as well 
as could be, at this point. Jackson's Astronomical Geography was used as a 
supplement to the text in teaching this subject, which so often proves a failure 
with a class composed of high school children. Nickel's Tellurian is a cheap 
but effective instrument for the teaching of seasons. 

Maps showing land elevation in color were studied. A good atlas in the 
hands of the teacher was passed around to the class that they might be able to 
interpret land elevation by contour lines as well as by coloring. A contour map 
of the local community, if such has been published should be used whenever 
possible. Illustrations drawn by the teacher were placed upon the blackboard 
for the pupils to interpret. 

Salt and flour maps were made to show the physical features of different 
continents. These maps did not prove so helpful to the pupils as the ones in 
the book. The pupils looked upon the idea of preparing them as laborious 
and when the time came to discuss the maps, the individual interest was not 
so keen as when the maps with contour lines were discussed. 

A sun stick owned by the teacher was used to determine the altitude and 
direction of the sun in degrees and the length, in inches, of the sun's shadow. 
The sun stick is made of a pine board 8j/2"x6" with a 3"x]4" Peg placed in an 
upright position in a corner at the end of the board. A nail is driven into the 
board at the diagonal corner from the three-inch upright. To this nail is 
attached a string which has a small weight at the loose end. A quadrant is 
drawn, using the nail as the center, and is marked off in degrees. By placing 
the board in a flat position so that the three-inch piece makes a shadow, hourly 
observations were taken. This showed strikingly the change in the direction 
of the sun and its altitude hour by hour. Thus the earth's rotation w^as made 
concrete. 

To make measurements of the altitude and direction of the sun the 
quadrant was used. By placing the board on edge so that the shadow of the 
nail fell across the quadrant, the altitude was determined with a fair degree 



202 

of accuracy. To find the direction of the sun we placed the board square with 
the world and noted the number of degrees through which the shadow of the 
nail passed. This gave the pupils a clearer idea of directions. 

We next studied the weather. We wrote to the Weather Bureau Station 
at Springfield for the daily weather maps. With these we studied, so far as 
time permitted, the isotherms, and followed highs and lows on successive 
maps. Pupils noted the barometric pressure in the daily papers and compared 
the pressure of one day with another and the weather of one day with the 
weather of another. This work was very enjoyable and was taken up with 
much interest, pupils discussing the weather and making comparisons. With 
no instruments at hand except a thermometer, no special weather study could 
be made by instrumental observations. However, much is possible without 
instruments. 

To a tabulation sheet which was purchased as a part of a set of outline 
maps we added a few more items, as it was evidently designed for v/ork in 
the first eight grades. On this sheet, the date, hour, temperature in degrees, 
direction of wind, velocity of wind, condition of roads and sky, precipitation, 
kind and amount of clouds, if any, were given. This data was tabulated daily 
from November 10 until December 10, leaving out Saturdays and Sundays and 
holidays. The time of taking the observations was usually, though not neces- 
sarily, about the same each day. This work was done independent of class 
although often the day's observation was discussed in class as a guide and 
stimulus. 

Salisbury's Physiography was used as a supplement to the text in deter- 
mining the kinds of clouds. Excellent pictures of clouds are to be found in 
this book, and the pupils found little trouble in determining the kinds of clouds 
in the sky after studying carefully the pictures and the text on the subject. 
The teacher kept an observation sheet with which the records of the pupils 
were compared. 

After the work was completed a curve was drawn on co-ordinate paper 
to show the rise and fall of temperature for the month beginning November 
10, and ending December 10. A dash was used to represent a day lost. 

These are the few methods used in our school to make the laboratory 
work concrete. Each method here described tended to make the work in 
Physiography more realistic in the minds of the pupils and did away with the 
memorizing of words of the text which to many had no meaning. The ma- 
terials are inexpensive, they served their purpose for us and served it well. 
No doubt they will for you — try them. 

Mr, George White, of Saybrook, next presented a paper on 
"How I Make Field Work in Physiography Concrete." His paper 
follows : 

A field trip is an exercise that readily appeals to any and all of the stu- 
dent body. I seldom make mention of the trip until we are ready to go. It is 
an excellent thing to have agreeable surprises for our classes. The day before 
we are to take the trip, I assign such reading material as will be helpful to 
them, and in this way have them acquainted with many, perhaps all, of the 



203 

terms that will be used in our discussions, while on the trip. If these trips 
are made during the regular recitation periods, the class discussions will have 
to follow at succeeding recitations. 

The work discussed in the next few paragraphs will serve as material 
for several trips. 

Our first trip is a study of vallej-s. In this study I bring the class to a 
place where they can readily see all of the valley, which is above them. At first 
I have them see that each valley has three slopes. This will not be readily 
seen by all, but in the course of a few minutes most of them will have it 
worked out. 

The question of mantle and bed rock is discussed to some measure here, 
although most of the discussion is deferred to a later time. It is quite easy for 
us to find examples of mantle rock, for we are told that the loose material such 
as soil, clay, sand and gravel, which covers most of the land is mantle rock. 

The bed rock is not quite so easily found, but there are places where this 
may be studied very successfully. One of these is at a place where they are drill- 
ing a well. This we did, and obtained some of the material which was taken 
out. We also found out from the one in charge the diflferent kinds of mantle 
rock passed through, the distance to the bed rock, its kind and its thickness. 

Another way we make this study is to visit a quarn,', and notice the thick- 
ness and kinds of mantle rock, and the depth of the exposed bed rock. Then 
we discuss some of the uses of bed rock, e. g., for building stone, cement, etc. 
One other place I visit whenever I can in the study of mantle and bed rock, 
is a creek in which the overhanging bluffs illustrate practically the same things 
as the quarry; but which show very plainly the effect that the bed rock has 
upon the shaping of valleys, especially if it comes to the surface. The student 
at once sees that the bed rock does not come to the surface in regular and 
uniform lines, but that it crops out here and dips beneath the surface there for 
some distance, yet its influence is evident in the shaping of the valleys. 

Now since we have some knowledge of the materials, mantle rock which 
makes up the slopes, and the underlying material, bed rock, we are in a posi- 
tion to make a still further investigation. 

We have such terms as "V"-shaped and "U"-shaped valleys. These are 
discussed and the term decided upon that applies to our particular valley. Since 
most of the valleys in our part of the state are "U" shaped, I have chosen that 
kind for our particular study. 

The angle of the slope and the variation of each is next taken up. A 
very interesting exercise is the measuring of the angle of a slope at any par- 
ticular place. This can be done in this way. Take an ordinary sun board 
which is used to measure the angle of sun's rays. When the long edge of the 
board is placed horizontally, the plumb-line makes the other side of a right 
angle. Have the arc in which the plumb-line swings graduated so that 90 de- 
grees forms a right angle with the edge. Having selected the slope which we 
desire to measure, place the edge of the sun board on the ground, or better on 
a straight edge about ten feet long, which is placed on the slope. The plumb- 
line will still make the vertical line, but it will fall away from the 90 degree 
mark. Read where the plumb-line registers and this subtracted from 90 will give 



204 

us the angle of the slope. We measure each slope to find the angle and com- 
pare the side slopes with each other and with the down slope . The reasons 
for the variations in the steepness of the slope may then be discussed. The 
student can at once see why the sides of a rock cliff are not worn down to a 
slope as gentle as that on the mantle rock, while at the same time he sees that 
all mantle rock slopes are not uniform in angle. Much depends upon the tex- 
ture of the material, its covering, etc. The angle has much to do with the 
width of the valley, and its usefulness to man. The terms youth, maturity 
and old age as applied to valleys are worked out. 

The working out of contours on a field trip means much to the child. 
Take two laths, or other small boards and fasten them together so as to form 
a T. On the horizontal lath mount a common small level, and on one of the 
flat sides of the vertical lath, suspend a plumb-line from the top. This will 
answer for an instrument for taking levels. I am frank to confess that the 
work done will not be accurate, but nevertheless it will illustrate the point. 
If laths have been used, the vertical as well as the horizontal one is four feet. 
Select the place on the slope where you wish to start your contour line. Now 
adjust the upright lath so that the plumbline is parallel to the side of the lath, 
then move the lath at the top until the horizontal one is level. We are now 
ready to proceed. Since the upright lath is four feet in length and is placed 
in the ground some three or four inches ; laths will answer very nicely for stakes. 
Now sight along the top of the horizontal lath and locate the place where four 
inches below the top of another lath can just be seen. This we call station 1. 
Proceed until one contour line is established. Designate each position as sta- 
tions. The exercise is carried on until some three or four contour lines have 
been made. The pupils will see that these lines are not parallel. This work 
should be done in a valley and then the contours form semicircular lines. The 
reason for these lines being farther apart in some places than in others may 
be easily seen if the angle of the slope is measured. We are told that in some 
sections of the country the farmer plows following the contour lines. Why? 
You will readily get the answer. After this exercise I experience but very 
little trouble in having pupils understand contour maps. 

The mantle rock is the part which concerns mankind most, so it is neces- 
sary that the pupil should know more about it than about the bed rock. It 
is from the mantle rock that we get our soil. The soil in my section of the 
state is sand, clay and loam, being the southern part of the Bloomington mo- 
raine. The evidences of this moraine are striking as there are great banks of 
sand and gravel. Now of the three mentioned soils, sand is the coarsest, with 
loam next, while the particles of clay are finest. Loam is a mixture of fine 
sand and clay. Then we have the humus, which is decayed organic matter, 
usually vegetable matter, and it is this which gives the soil its dark color, as 
well as adding plant food. 

Of what benefit is the dark color to the soil? For this exercise we select 
three small plots on one of the slopes of this valley which we have previously 
studied. Each plot is about four feet square. After the ground is smoothed, 
we cover one plot with lime, the second one with yellow clay dust, and the 
third is left with its natural covering of black loam. It is best to fix these plots 



205 

on a previous trip, or at least the day before. Now with a cylindrical ther- 
mometer and an iron pin we are ready. The temperature is taken first four 
feet above the ground, then one and one-half, three, six and twelve inches re- 
spectively in each of the plots. The temperature above ground being the same 
in each case, the lime and yellow covered plots show a lower temperature than 
the loam or black covering. The effect which this has on the soil warming 
up in the spring is of great value to the farmer. 

These exercises may be carried on with differences in temperature of culti- 
vated and uncultivated, vegetated and unvegetated saturated and unsaturated soil. 

We found the temperature of a south slope to be about five degrees 
warmer than a similar north slope. 

From this we discuss the raising of fruits on the southern slopes of coun- 
tries in high altitudes. 

Since the valley which we are discussing has passed its youthful stage, 
it will have, near the stream, well defined flood plains. When this valley is 
compared with a youthful one, say a gully the child can readily see what has 
happened to bring about the more matured valley. The question of erosion is 
easily seen and understood. 

The mechanical work of erosion may be illustrated in several ways, viz. : 
When water freezes it expands about one-tenth of its volume, and thus exerts 
great force. If the water which gets into rock cavities freezes it acts like a 
wedge to pry the rock apart. This is clearly illustrated by leaving water in an 
earthen or glass vessel and exposing it to a low temperature. 

Where solid rock has no covering of loose material, as on many steep 
slopes it is heated by day and cooled by night, and the daily changes of tem- 
perature may be great. Rocks expand when heated and contract when cold, 
and under daily heating and cooling their surface parts break and scale off. 
The breaking of cold glass when touched with hot water or vice versa involves 
the same principle. This may be illustrated with rock itself, by heating the 
rock in a fire and then pouring cold water upon it. If this is repeated for a 
few times, it will be found that small pieces will scale off. These broken pieces 
illustrate what is meant by talus. 

We found a place where trees were growing in the rocks and some of 
the roots had entered the crevices. It can be seen that if the root is to increase 
in size after a time at least the crevice must enlarge. Another instance of this is 
where the roots of the trees have caused the unevenness in concrete walks. This 
we also found. 

Streams carry and move what is known as load, varying from material 
in solution to the heavy gravel rolled along its bed. Corasion as well as erosion 
may be studied here. Running water washes the material of a higher altitude 
to a lower level, and in these ways the valleys are in part reduced to their 
present form. I have not attempted the chemical changes, although they work 
in conjunction with the mehanical. 

If we dig down for a few feet in a flood plain we can see that it is 
built up of layers that have been deposited by the water in times of overflow. 
The layers may also be seen along the edge of the creek. By close examina- 
tion, we find that the coarse material is deposited near the stream, while the 



206 

finer particles are found much further out. Near the banks of some streams 
are found places that possess a slight elevation over the surrounding surface. 
This silghtly elevated place or ridge is known as a natural levee. From this 
we discuss man's aiding of nature in the building of artificial levees. 

Perhaps we had better try to get out of this valley on which your atten- 
tion has been centered for the past few minutes. As we ascend one of the 
slopes, we shall later come to the crest or divide. We shall now follow this 
divide for some distance, comparing and contrasting the slopes. 

The question of drainage would now necessarily come up for discussion, 
and since we have studied the stream, slopes and divides we are ready for 
this question. It is well if two sections may be studied at this time, one in 
which the drainage is quite perfect ,and one in which the land is too flat for 
perfect drainage, such as a slough, swamp or very flat land. The child is then 
brought face to face with the problem that in some cases the drainage is in- 
complete. At once some one says that the surface drainage is aided by under- 
ground drainage, and as evidences of this we go to the streams which are flow- 
ing, although we have had no rain for a long time, and the water in the stream 
is clear, showing that it is not water of surface drainage. Here is an excellent 
place to introduce a discussion of dredging and tiling, the tiling being an 
artificial aid to underground drainage. Where the land is well drained by a 
system of under drainage, there is less leaching of plant food as well as many 
other advantages. We do not have to go very far back into Illinois history 
to find that the prairie section of country was passed by, and that settlement 
was on the better drained wooded areas along streams. 

One other exercise is in connection with a pond or small lake. After some 
years the levee of the pond breaks and the pond is drained, and then we have 
and excellent example of a lacustrine or lake plain. Compare with the great 
lake plains. 

In addition to the things already studied we should give more of a human 
touch than we have thus far. A few questions will make this clear. 

Is the natural vegetation of the hill slopes and the flood plains the same? 

What are the effects of topography and soil on man's use of the land? 

What relation exists between the valley and the location of dwellings and 
the routes of travel? 

What effect does the character of the stream have upon its uses? 

What are the influences of the valley or stream on local activities other 
than the use of the land and stream itself? 

Give evidences of climatic influences affecting the life of the region. 

Miss Eunice Blackburn, of Armington next presented a paper on 
"How I Make Field Work in Physiography Concrete." 

The paper follows : 

My subject demands that I be personal and speak only of those things 
which I have tried and experienced. 

Among the many good reasons for field work in Physiography I mention 
three — (1) field work adds to the interest, (2) it makes the text book work 



207 

concrete, and (3) it helps the pupil to interpret the printed page. Every boy 
or girl between the ages of two and eighty loves to be out of doors, when the 
weather is pleasant; so any subject which allows him this pleasure is sure 
to be a favorite, especially when he can actually see gullies widen, alluvial fans 
deposited and waterfalls worn down. He then sees that nature is at work on 
the school grounds as well as on the mountains in Europe, and begins to realize 
that it is not necessary to go to Switzerland to see interesting things. A water- 
fall may be only a few inches high and yet show all the features (except gran- 
deur) of the Niagara. 

The fact that the human mind must work from the known to the un- 
known is well shown in the fact that the ancients, in order to represent an idea 
of a pod, either made the image of some animal or used some combination of 
animals. Similarly in the study of Physiography a child must have some 
images upon which to build, and it is much easier to make concrete compari- 
sons and draw conclusions in the field than in the class room. 

How is the average high school boy or girl, having lived all his life on 
the prairies of Illinois, to actually picture the work of running water when 
the caiions mentioned in the text are in Colorado, the oxbow lakes on the 
lower Mississippi River, the alluvial terraces in China and waterfalls in Wyo- 
ming, unless he actually sees such things in Mr. Hickey's pasture or along the 
road, — on a small scale to be sure, — but just as perfect as those mentioned 
in the text book. They may lack the beautiful surroundings, color and variety, 
but they are actual growing, moving things, which the text book pictures are not. 

Not long ago a graduate of one of our splendid colleges in this state 
said to me, "I know I am ignorant, but how does an alluvial fan look?" Now 
she had studied about them in the text book yet had been unable to picture 
the actual thing. It was after a rain and when I showed her a small one she 
said, "Well, why did not some one show me that before?" 

If high school boys and girls were able to interpret a printed page many 
of our trials would be over. How many times a day do we have to stop and 
read a seemingly simple statement over with a pupil. Many times just the 
reading with the proper emphasis and no word of explanation is sufficient. How 
many times do even grown people fail to get the meaning from a printed page? 
How many women of your acquaintance prefer to be shown how to do a pattern 
of crocheting or tatting rather than follow printed directions? If we are to 
"make ourselves useless" to our pupils or, in other words, to fit them best for 
life outside the school we must teach them to take a printed page and work 
things out for themselves. After working out some point in the field that was 
particularly hard or impossible to imagine from the text book alone, such as, 
for instance, that rivers grow in length at their sources, or, as some text books 
say, grow backwards, a pupil, on rereading the text will be better able to form 
an image from mere words. Thus he forms the habit of thinking back into his 
experience and of building the image of the unknown from the known. Many 
boys and girls find description of scenery tiresome and always skip to the con- 
versation because the description is merely a lot of words. They find nothing 
in their experience which is in any way related to this. I find that at the end 



208 

of the semester the pupils can more readily form mental pictures from word 
descriptions. 

I have never heard any objections to field work from parents or board, 
and but one of my pupils has ever complained. She objected to long walks 
and was granted permission to stay at home when the trip was to be a long 
one and hand in a paper discussing the things we went to see. I have heard 
that a few superintendents and principals object to field trips because they fear 
the discipline will not be as it should. I have never taken a class of more than 
twenty-five and have had but two problems to solve. The first was of a boy 
who wished to show ofif and attract the attention of the other pupils. The next 
time the class went on a field trip I simply left him at the school building with 
directions for writing an essay on the subject which we expected to study. I 
have never been troubled since. The second problem was with a girl who 
"adored" field trips and begged loudly for many, yet was always too tired and 
exhausted to be on time for school the next day. When this had happened 
twice, I announced the field trip on the morning I had chosen and gave usual 
instructions for the wearing of rubbers. At noon she was all smiles talking 
about the trip. I gave her a long list of references and a subject for a written, 
report and told her that I felt very sorry she was unable to accompany us, 
because we had noticed she was in too poor health to take so much exercise. 
After she had shed sufficient tears and promised to be on time the next day, 
and assured us of her excellent health she was permitted to attend, on trial, 
as we had planned she should. We had no further trouble with her. 

I have found that usually a teacher has the kind of order she permits. 
And the class soon find it out. On starting out I ask the class to stay together 
and no one is ever allowed to get more than twenty feet away from me. We 
never go until after the first week of school and by that time I have found out 
with whom to walk and whom to watch. We talk and have a quiet, good time 
until we come to the place where we are to stop and examine some particular 
thing. Then everything is as in class in the room. 

The things which can be seen to advantage vary in different communities, 
yet the work of ground water, running water, the effects of ice in ponds and 
streams, deposition of sediment by melting snow, effects of the atmosphere 
and the effects of plants and animals on the topography can be observed in 
every community. 

Our field work on the study of ground water is in noticing landslides, 
slumps and creeps, which are found most easily along the cuts and fills of the 
railroad track. We also notice the mineral matter in well water. 

The work of running water offers the greatest variety of examples. We 
note the growth of valleys, gullies, canons, divides, waterfalls, rapids, young 
and old streams, meandering streams, oxbow lakes, flood plains, valley flats, ter- 
raced valleys, deposits in the bed of streams, sand bars, alluvial fans and cones, 
and deltas. 

The work of running water can be more easily studied on a small scale 
than on a large one. It was my privilege to teach for two years on the banks 
of the Mississippi. Yet when we studied the work of running water it was 
necessary to go to the road or hillside since there we could see the work being 



209 

actually carried on fast enough for us to watch it. If the road slopes slightly 
it affords an excellent place to watch the work of running water as does any 
other place partly or wholly free from vegetation and not too hard, especially 
freshly turned soil and the banks along the railroad. Small gullies in a pasture 
afford ample illustration of the growth and deposition of rivers, especially if they 
can be visited before and after a rain. Where I am now teaching our best 
place is about a mile from the school house. We have one hour and a half for 
our trips, and if possible we take the trip the last two periods of the day so we 
do not have to be back at any certain time. We can easily go and come in 
an hour and notice the features on the way and have half an hour at the "Grand 
Canons of Mr. Rickey's Pasture" as we have named them. Excellent examples 
of all the important features in the work of running water are found there, 
although the deepest canon is not more than three feet deep or four feet 
wide at the top and the largest alluvial plain is not more than fifty feet across. 
However, it is easy to find instructive examples, for every little stream, if only 
one in the wagon track, shows the important characteristics of the large streams, 
although the boys and girls, unless some one points them out, will fail to see 
them. 

The effects of plants on physiographic features may be seen by a compari- 
son of a pasture and freshly plowed field after a rain. We note changes made 
in banks of streams by animals and make a list of animals in our country which 
change the surface of the land. 

The work of ice in streams and ponds can be studied during favorable 
winters. In studying the work of the atmosphere we note the crumbling of 
stones in buildings or on boulder and monuments in the cemetery, noting the 
difference between the polished and the rough stones as to amount of cnimbling. 

The number of field trips taken depends on the class and the field material 
available. I like to take a class on a trip the day the work on the topic illus- 
trated by the trip is assigned and before the class has recited on that subject, 
but this is not always possible since the weather and the distance of the desired 
points must be taken into consideration. Sometimes we wait and take several 
topics at once and also look forward to others soon to be handled. This saves 
time and also serves to illustrate the fact that usually more than one force of 
nature is at work in any particular place at one time. Care must be taken, 
however, not to take up too many topics on one trip. 

I find that the time spent in field work is really time saved, for a pupil 
can get in five minutes of actual observation, and that for all time, what will 
take him half an hour to gather in a hazy way from the text book. No ad- 
vanced text book assignment is made for the day after an excursion but the 
pupils are required to write a report of the trip. 

In the discussion which followed these papers, Prof. D. C. Ridge- 
ley of Normal emphasized his belief that a thorough acquaintance with 
a small area, not necessarily more than one mile square, made during 
the term and including a study of all the geographic features to be 
found within that area possessed great educational value, particularly 



210 

when accompanied by a written report at the end of the term. A 
teacher from Southern Illinois told how such topics as the work of 
ground water, the extent and character of bed rock, folding, etc., could 
be well illustrated by a visit to a mine, if one were within reach. 

The final paper on the program was a short presentation by Dr. 
John L. Rich of data showing the results of entrance examinations in 
physiography at the University of Illinois. Out of a total of 105 
students taking those examinations within the past four years, 78, or 
74 per cent., failed to pass. The average grade was 52.2% Of the 
total number the records of 44 who have since entered the University 
of Illinois could be traced. These came from schools of all classes, 
scattered widely over Illinois and other states, — a fact which showed 
clearly that no one class of schools was responsible for the seemingly 
bad showing. In the course of the investigation it appeared that prac- 
tically all of those who take entrance examinations in physiography 
have either failed to pass the subject in their high schools, or come 
from schools whose work is not accredited by the University. (Other 
students, who enter on certificate, are not required to take the exami- 
nation.) When these facts are considered the apparent poor show- 
ing proves to be what should rightly be expected under the circum- 
stances. 

Manual Arts Section 

The Manual Arts Section of the Annual High School Conference 
was held Friday, November 20, 1914. The morning session was held 
in Room 410, University Hall, from 9 to 12 M., Professor E. J. Lake 
presiding. Benj. L. Bowling was appointed secretary. The program 
was rearranged. Professor Lake opening the work of the morning 
with a paper on "Freehand Drawing." 

Professor Arthur F. Payne, of Bradley Polytechnic Institute, 
Peoria, presented a paper on the subject "The Rule and Reason Meth- 
od of Teaching Design." Many fitting and concrete figures to illus- 
trate his theme, were used. The text was substantially as follows : 

Art is generally considered by most artists and by the general public as 
being beyond explanation or definition, and the appreciation of art is claimed 
to be a matter of culture and development of taste that only the chosen few 
can ever hope to attain. 

In all art no matter what its medium or form, certain principles and rules 
are followed consciously or unconsciously, and I wish to make it clear to you 



211 

today that all art rests upon a definite scientific basis, which may be expressed 
in terms of principles and rules, also that all teachers of this subject who wish 
to follow the best practice of pedagogy must acquire a mastery of these princi- 
ples and rules as a definite part of their professional equipment. 

In advocating the "Rule and Reason Method of Teaching Design," I am 
fully aware of the fact that I am going contrary to the beliefs and theories of 
many brother artists. These people advocate and advance the appreciation idea, 
and deplore in a somewhat superior way the lamentable fact that the common 
people do not appreciate or understand art. In fact, we are lead to infer that 
they feel that the common people are not in possession of enough intelligence 
to understand art, but if we try to get at their methods, or the principles back 
of their work, or the reasons for their work, we find that they are utterly unable 
to analyse or define what they have done, or are trying to do. In fine the mat- 
ter is merely a conflict of the hazy dilletante artist manner of working, where 
they have only themselves to consider, as against the definite aim and method 
manner of the artist teacher, who must be definite to get the results he is re- 
sponsible for from a large body of students and in a very short time. These 
temperamental studio artists shut out the light of knowledge and reason, and 
leave the eager beginner to stumble along in the dark. They forget that the 
perfection of any art consists of the development and employment of a com- 
prehensive system of laws that will regulate and define the thought, and guide 
the artist in its perfect expression. We recognize this in the other arts, we 
demand law and order in literature, and music has a complex system of well 
defined rules that govern thorough bass, counterpoint and harmony, and these 
have never at any time hampered in any way the fullest expression of any type 
of emotion. Walter Crane, the great English artist, teacher and designer, 
said, "With the search after, and the desire for beauty in life, we are driven 
to study the laws of beauty in art and design." Socrates said, "If arithmetic, 
mensuration and weighing be taken out of any art, that which remains will 
not be much." 

We must understand, however, that even a thorough understanding of 
these laws and principles will not necessarily make a great artist, or enable one 
to produce a great work of art, but all the great artists use them, and no great 
work of art is produced or can be understood without them. Our great need 
at the present time is not great artists but an understanding and appreciative 
public, and I do claim that the general use of the "Rule and Reason Method" 
in the pViblic schools will do more to develop an appreciative and understanding 
public than any other single factor. Furthermore, our most important aim is 
not to make artists of our students, but to educate the public to a more refined 
taste and an understanding, appreciation and enjoyment of the finer things in art. 

We as teachers must first define, classify and then illustrate and explain 
by means of simple direct statements or rules that are easily tested, and then 
we can get a reaction from the students in better work, and in terms of reasons 
for the work presented. 

In this discussion I shall make use of three terms, art, constructive design 
and applied or decorative design, and for the sake of better understanding 
of what is to follow I shall define these. One of the important things that I 



212 

wish to present to you as teachers of design is the inviolable unity of art. It 
is too generally accepted that the fine and the craft arts are separated by a 
wide gulf, in fact, a line is drawn by many people which excludes from recog- 
nition as a work of art, any object the construction of which is based upon the 
useful ; however, I am glad to see signs of a gradual breaking down of this 
fallacy. At no time when great works of art design and craftsmanship were 
being produced was such a separation known. All the great artists were crafts- 
men. Hans Holbein, one of the greatest portrait painters, spent most of his 
time designing metal work, jewelrj-, book covers, windows and costumes. Mich- 
el Angelo was apprenticed to Domenico Ghirlandajo as a goldsmith, and from 
him he received the foundation for his later work as a painter. The ceiling 
of the Sistine Chapel, his greatest work, is more a masterpiece of design than 
of painting. This condition was common with most artists during the famous 
period of the Italian renaissance. A most notable example is the well known 
Benvenuto Cellini. Leonardo da Vinci, whose "Last Supper" and "Mona Lisa" 
are known to all, was a goldsmith and architect as well as a painter. I have 
among my treasures a copy of a sketch by Leonardo da Vinci illustrating his 
invention of the first machine to cut files. This is dated 1505. Ghiberti, famous 
alike for his frescoes, and the bronze gates in the baptistry of Florence, was 
a goldsmith, sculptor and bronze caster. Donatello was at one time more famous 
for his metal work than for his Bas-reliefs. 

Composition in fine art is the same as design in applied art. All art of 
whatever kind is designed. Design is construction as well as decoration; it 
includes the consideration of fitness for use, suitability of material, limitations 
of tools and processes. Decoration and applied design is the decoration of that 
which has already been designed constructively. 

At this point I wish to make an objection against the copying of Greek 
borders, Roman scrolls, ancient ornament or craft work of any kind and using 
them indiscriminately. We should study them, not with the idea of copying 
them, but to get hold of the spirit and method of the designer who produced 
such beautiful and lasting things to fulfill a need and produced them with the 
tools, materials and processes which nature, his religion, his civilization and 
skill had given him. Our present need is for creators of good things, not 
copyists. 

Rules, Reasons and Principles 

The first great principle of design is that "The object must be suited to 
its use." This is simply a statement of common sense, and is readily under- 
stood and agreed to by all classes. As an illustration of the method let us 
take the designing of the pen tray, first show the class a full length pencil and 
let them state how long the well should be, then let them judge and decide 
how wide and deep it should be to hold from four to six pencils, and two or 
three erasers. This brings us to the consideration of another fundamental 
principle, "That the requirements and limitations of the material, the tools and 
processes must be considered." The class will readily understand that in the 
wooden pen tray the bottom and edges must be thicker than if it was made of 
copper, and that the grain must run lengthwise. The tool used in cutting out 



213 

the well is the gouge, lead the class to see the limitations of the round shape 
of the gouge that compels us to have a well that is rounding. The result of 
this discussion will be a fundamental pen tray, that is strong and useful but 
not necessarily beautiful. (Sketch.) Exactly the same method was used in 
designing these glove boxes (Sketches). The next step necessary is to refine 
and enrich the details and parts. In the case of the pen tray the edges could be 
beveled, and the same applies to the cover and base of the glove boxes. This 
allows us to state another rule. "The methods used to refine and decorate the 
details and parts must be characteristic of the tools and materials." 

What we have been doing is constructive design, and now we are ready 
for a consideration of the decorative design. The space at the ends of the pen 
tray and the cover of the glove box may be decorated by a simple design, car- 
ried out by veining, carving or inlaying, but we must be careful to show the 
class the limitations of each process before allowing them to begin the design- 
ing of the decoration. In designing the simple decorations for elementary 
problems we make use of four rules that apply particularly to decorative 
design. The first is "That the decoration must fit the space decorated." This 
rule may be proved to the class by drawing on the blackboard designs that 
violate and some that conform to the rule. (Sketch.) The second rule is "That 
all elements and parts must be harmonious." (Sketch.) The third is, "That 
the design must have a center of interest." These centers of interest are divided 
into main centers and subordinate centers. The fourth is "That the points 
of force must be recognized and made use of." In the case of the flat glove 
box top, the natural position of which is always horizontal, the points of force 
are at the comers, and in the center. At these points the main and subordinate 
centers of interest must be located. Prove this by drawing on the board 
sketches that violate and some that conform to the rule. (Sketch.) 

To show the use of other rules of decorative design I will show their use 
in designing circular borders such as plate borders. To obtain the proportions 
of the border draw on the blackboard a circle representing the diameter of the 
plate, then outline a border that you know is too narrow for that size plate, 
then another border that you know is altogether too wide. (Sketch.) Next 
draw a border that you feel is rather narrow but that is not altogether dis- 
pleasing, also one that is rather wide but that would still do, in this way estab- 
lishing limits of narrowness and wideness that will leave room for freedom of 
choice between the limits. It will be found that the rule established will be 
"That the best proportion for a plate border is from one-fifth to one-seventh 
of the diameter of the plate." The next step is the designing of the decorative 
pattern for the border. An analysis of the plate border problem shows that 
there are five general ways in which this may be designed. These are as fol- 
lows, arranged in their order of difficulty: First, "The design radiating from 
the center outward from the center." (Sketch.) Second, "The still design 
that has no apparent motion in any direction, with the center of interest equally 
divided between the inner and outer edges." (Sketch.) Third, "Moving 
around the border from the inner to the outer edge with the center of interest 
near the outer edge." (Sketch.) Fourth, "Moving around the border from 
the outer to the inner edge with the center of interest near the inner edge." 



214 

(Sketch.) Fifth, "Radiating from the outer edge inward." (Sketch.) Sixth, 
"In designs that grow or move around the border it is best to have them move 
to the right." Elementary designs of this type are generally made up of a 
single unit repeated a number of times around the border; this brings us to 
the problem of how many times should we repeat the the unit. By experiment 
it is easy to prove that the most pleasing divisions are in this order. First, 
six divisions; second, five divisions; third, seven divisions; fourth, nine divis- 
ions. (Sketches.) A good general rule to remember is to never or seldom 
divide any space into equal halves or quarters. 

At this time I propose to show to you the method of designing units dis- 
regarding for the present any consideration as to where or on what material 
they are to be applied. Sometimes I teach this first and at other times only 
when the need for this instruction has arisen. Both methods have advantages 
and disadvantages. When designing units the first rule to keep in mind is, 
"That there must be a center of interest." There are five ways in which a 
center of interest may be forced or strengthened; they are by size, position, 
outline, shape and color. (Sketches.) The second rule to follow is, "That all 
elements and parts must be harmonious." (Sketches.) A third is to get 
"Flow of line" so that the eye will easily travel throughout the entire design. 
This will also tend to give unity to the design, that is, the unit will hang to- 
gether well. Another rule to use in unit design is "The elements of 
a unit must support each other. This is the logical place to teach the 
value of symetry, which is repetition on a central axis; in other words, both 
sides are alike. This principle of symetry is readily shown by drawing aimless 
lines and spots on the board or paper and then placing a mirror on them, the 
complete units are quickly seen and picked out ; these may then be rubbed over 
or transferred. It must be emphasized, however, that it is the principle of 
symetry that gives us the units. These units may be used as single units on 
watch fobs or paper knives, and when repeated horizontally may be used as 
borders, or repeated vertically as designs for wall papers, etc. 

The next logical step is the use of four-part symetry, that is, the design 
is the same in each quarter section. To get this type of design quickly, we may 
make use of two mirrors at right angles to each other. (Sketches.) These de- 
signs could be applied to blotter tops, box covers, page borders, etc. 

In every design course there should be given the rules of design that 
govern curves and an opportunity to teach and study the proportion, classifi- 
cation and definition of curves. In originating forms for bowls, vases and 
other similar articles there must be borne in mind the fact that the eye is 
best pleased with harmonious flowing lines, all violent changes of direction 
are to be avoided, broken and interrupted lines are disagreeable. The best 
curves start with a long curve and change to a sharp curve at the end. As a 
rule the sharper curve should take the smallest part of the line. The rules 
that govern curves are first, "A long sweeping curve with a shorter, sharper 
curve at the end is best." Second, "The best curves are in the proportion of 
one to four, one to two, one to five, and one to six, that is, the sharp curve 
should take the smallest part of the line and the bigger curve the longest part 



215 

in the proportions given. Third, "Curves that are arcs of circles or geometric 
curves should never be used, as they are stiff and mechanical." Fourth, "The 
various details of the object must be in proportion to each other and to the 
dominant curve." Fifth, "One simple well proportioned curve, such as the 
'Curve of Force,' is stronger and more dignified than any combination of 
v^eaker curves." Sixth, "Curves should have a definite flow of line, and should 
not abruptly leave the general direction of the curve." Seventh, "If breaks, 
beads or moldings are introduced into the curve to avoid monotony, the gen- 
eral flow of the curve must be maintained." (Sketches.) Illustrations of the 
well known Greek vases should be shown to the class and their curves and 
proportions analyzed. The "Curve of Force," "The Curve of Grace" and 
Hogarth's "Curve of Beauty," the "Spiral" and the "Serpentine Curve," should 
be studied and discussed. 

At the beginning of this address, I said "That composition in fine art 
was the same as design in applied art, and now I think we are in possession 
of such facts that we can prove this. This "Hosea," by Sargent, is a good 
example of center of interest. This "The Last Supper," by Leonardo da Vinci, 
is a perfect illustration of main and subordinate centers of interest. This 
"St. Catherine," by Raphael, illustrates flow of line and harmony and proportion 
of curves. Raphael's "Madonna of the Chair" is a good example of support 
of outline. This picture of "The Entrance to the Temple of Rameses" is a 
perfect illustration of support of outline, both in its general form and also 
in its decoration. This "Antique Chest" is an example of monotonous spacing 
and ornament and lack of harmony between the structural lines and the decora- 
tion. This picture of St. Mark's is a good example of harmonious elements and 
center of interest. And this picture of "Cologne Cathedral" upon analysis shows 
that it obeys all the laws of good design and composition. This picture of "St. 
Etienne Du Mont," Paris, is ugly and displeasing, because it violates them. 

I have briefly stated and illustrated about thirty-five rules and prin- 
ciples of design. There are in all nearly twice as many of more or less import- 
ance. 

By better methods of teaching, the Germans send out into the professions 
better trained men than we do and they send them out four years younger 
than we do. A few years ago our grammar grades were reduced from nine 
years to eight years, as a direct result of the efforts of a small group of men 
who analyzed, studied and presented better methods of teaching, reading, writ- 
ing and spelling. At the present time there are earnest men working on the 
problem of better methods of teaching arithmetic, mathematics and science. 
President Judson of "The University of Chicago" has gone on record as advo- 
cating the six-year grammar school, one of these years will be saved by the 
better methods of teaching. The teachers of art, design and of the manual 
arts have got to keep pace with these other investigators in other school sub- 
jects, who are doing an invaluable work. We cannot keep on with the hazy, 
indefinite studio methods, which substitute narrow personal preference for 
broad abstract judgment based on logical thinking. The rule and reason 
method of teaching design gives us something definite to work with. When 



216 

either teacher or student are asked that sometimes embarrassing question, 
"Why is it good?" or "Why is it bad?" they can answer, "Because it conforms 
to or violates this or that rule," thereby opening the way to clear sighted criti- 
cism and correction. 

Through design by this method we appeal to the interest of the student, 
the play of analysis and synthesis develops the much desired creative and active 
attitude in the student instead of the dormant receptive attitude that is so 
much to be deplored. Through it we get a definite reaction that is a pleasure 
to the student and an inspiration to the teacher, and of definite value socially 
and vocationally. 

A marked interest in the method of teaching design was mani- 
fested by the very active discussion which took place frequently dur- 
ing and immediately following its presentation. 

Miss Minnie Van Pelt, who was to appear on the program, was 
unable to be present. 

At the close of the morning session the following Executive Com- 
mittee for the Manual Arts Section was elected : 
Anna G. Brown, Jacksonville, 1915, Chairman. 
A. P. Laughlin, Peoria, 1916. 
C. E. Howell, Decatur, 1917. 
A. F. Payne, Peoria, 1917. 

The afternoon session of the Conference was held in Room 400, 
Engineering Hall, Francis M. Porter presiding. An exhibit had been 
arranged by the Architectural Department for the visiting teachers, 
who manifested great interest and pleasure in the drawings and water 
color renderings. 

The program, as previously arranged, was carried out. 

Mr. R. Winship, of Bloomington, read a paper on "Architectural 
Drawing in the High School," in which he presented an outline pre- 
pared by Mr. A. C. Newell, of Normal. This outline was as follows : 



217 



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223 

Mr. C. E. Howell, of Decatur, in his discussion of the outline, as 
presented, suggested a number of changes. He said : 

It is possible that what is of value in items 3 and 4 might be covered under 
item 5 with less loss of time. Also, in the natural sequence of things, founda- 
tion walls and footings, item 7, might more logically be taken up just previous 
to item 5 rather than following it. 

Undoubtedly Mr. Newell intended topics under the column headed : "Re- 
lation to Other Subjects," to be taken up and considered in the class room. 
The "Design, Light, Etc.," of item 6 and the "Soil, Bearing Power, Etc.," of 
item 7 bears too vital a relation to the problems listed to be divorced from them. 

His outline places Perspective Drawing as an optional. I am inclined to 
feel that a standard course such as we are proposing should contain some 
required Linear Perspective. The importance of this work cannot be over- 
looked. Any architectural course which we adopt should demand, either as 
a prerequisite, or as a sequel, such a brief preparation in Linear Perspective as 
will permit the making of one or more perspective house drawings to accompany 
the other house plans. 

There are several related problems that may well be considered in a dis- 
cussion of this kind. They are merely mentioned here and may be taken for 
what they are worth : 

1. Is a course in architectural drawing complete without some work in 
architectural lettering? 

2. Would a short preliminary course in Penetrations be advisable? 

In considering the adoption of a standard for the high schools of the 
state the time element must play an important part, as it now does in the other 
subjects of the curriculum. For present purposes, however, let us assume the 
outlining of a course in architectural drawing which will give the maximum 
number of essentials in the minimum period of time, keeping in mind the 
limited assimilating powers of the average high school boy and an ideal of 
efficiency and thoroughness which will not permit us to cast aside vital details. 

Motivation of our work as a whole should be the definite thing toward 
which we are striving. A mass of petty details which are worked merely for 
the work's sake and as necessary, although obnoxious, routine preparatory to 
the real doing should be avoided as far as possible. As a general thing instruc- 
tion in minor details should be met as the pupil sees their need and place in 
the scheme of the whole. 

This brings us to a possible deviation from Mr. Newell's outline in that 
we might select a definite, concrete task and let detail take its proper setting 
therein. 

An example of this would be the placing before a pupil at the outset of 
the motivating task of planning, let us say, an eight or nine room residence for 
some home builder ; this residence to be modern in every respect ; to occupy a lot 
of given size and frontage ; to be built at a stipulated cost and to comply with 
the building code of the pupil's home city. Such a scheme would give one 
definite problem gathering, motivating and crystallizing all details of construc- 
tion and all related subject matter involved in the ordinary routine of the 



224 

architect's office. Beyond the confines of this problem he merely the ampli- 
fications and multiplication of details evoluting into the modern business struc- 
ture, together with the facility and skill derived from practice and repetition. 
These latter the average high school cannot attempt to attain at the present 
time. 

Details and related subjects would thus be drawn into the course and 
placed in their proper setting. There would be some variation as the indi- 
vidual teacher assigned the size and style of house to be planned, but the neces- 
sary working out of essentials would bring a very close approximation to uni- 
formity in the various schools where such a standard was adopted. 

A brief outline for this project might be as follows : 

1. (a) Complete drawings, consisting of plans, elevations and details 
of construction and finish, the latter showing the dimensions, appearance and 
arrangement in general and in detail, of the building contemplated. 

(b) Optional work in the laying out of the grounds, gardens, walks, 
drives, etc. 

2. Duplicate specifications to go with the drawings, stating the kind, 
quantity and quality of materials to be used in each instance; the methods of 
erection to be followed; class of workmanship; fittings, and any additional in- 
formation of value which cannot be shown on the drawings. 

3. Contracts covering the terms of award, such as the time limits on 
the parts and on the whole ; the penalties ; plan of payments, etc. 

4. Approval of the plans by the authorities and permits for the work. 
Leaving the specific outline under consideration and taking up the more 

general phase of architectural drawing in the high schools of Illinois, one 
is led to wonder, after a more or less thorough survey, and a study of the 
courses offered, why the majority of schools seem to leave architectural draw- 
ing until the third or fourth year. Only a small minimum of advanced students 
can take it at this time. Is there anything so difficult in the drawing of floor 
plans and elevations that the beginning student should have more trouble with 
it than with problems in orthographic projection? It is largely straight line 
work and, furthermore, every boy is more or less familiar with the outlines 
of his own home, thus furnishing us with that "past experience" which psychol- 
ogists tell us is so necessarj^ if we are to instruct successfully. 

It seems a self-evident truth that a knowledge of ordinary house plans, 
elevations, plumbing, heating, lighting, etc., will be more useful to the average 
high school student and future business man, than the ability to draw conic 
sections and gear wheels. Have we reversed the proper order of things, are 
we putting the cart before the horse in our drawing classes when we place that 
which would do the most good to the greatest number, where the fewest can 
attain it, or have eliminated it altogether from our curriculum? 

The above questioning attitude first came to me through a study of the 
girl question in our high school at Decatur. We have a large proportion of girls, 
as I presume all cosmopolitan high schools have. For some time we considered 
very seriously how the manual training department could do for the girls some 
things similar to those it had been doing for the boys. It was at once evident 
that in mechanical drawing the girls, particularly those of the art and domestic 



225 

courses, would be far more interested in house plans and related subjects than 
in parabolas and epicycloids. Consequently our first idea was to offer a special 
class in architectural drawing and design for the girls. Fortunately this plan 
fell through, due to the fact that only three girls could elect the subject at 
the hour in which we could offer it. I say fortunately because, although this 
semester we have thrown our regular mechanical drawing classes open to girls 
with an initial registration of four and a hope that next semester the temerity 
of a few more will be overcome and the presence of girls in the drawing classes 
become quite the ordinary thing, all this has led me to deeper and more serious 
thinking. Now we are actually anticipating a revolution in our drawing course, 
whereby both girls and boys will start with architectural drawing and spend 
the later years of their high school career, if financial and various other reasons 
permit them to remain that long, in the more difficult fields which are embel- 
lished with conic sections, evolutions and machine design. 

Herewith is submitted a table containing some interesting data relative 
to architectural drawing in the Illinois high schools. In collecting these statis- 
tics 17 of the largest four-year high schools, 9 township high schools, and 3 
of the Chicago technical high schools were written to. Each group is listed 
alphabetically in the order above mentioned. 

A school which failed to reply is indicated by blank spaces. Those which 
answered, but do not offer architectural drawings have dashes following the 
name. To get all information on one sheet I was obliged to strike out some 
of the latter and use the space for Chicago technical schools, which you will 
find listed in the extreme right column. Whenever a question mark occurs 
it indicates a lack of absolute information, although there are good grounds 
for the figures given. 

Items to the left of the double line down the center of the page may be 
grouped under the general heading, "Time Element" ; those to the right of 
this line under" Scope of work". In the latter case the main object has been 
to indicate two distinct groups of schools: 

1. Those which offer a course in which details are taught first, as de- 
tails, and 

2. Those which set before the pupil at the beginning the task of making 
complete plans for a house and teach the details as the need arises. 

It is to be noted that some schools appear to do both, i. e., they use plan 
(1) to begin with and, after that is finished, take up plan (2). 

All time figures have been reduced to 60-minute hours and a standard 
semester of 19 weeks; assuming 38 weeks in the school jear. It is interesting 
to note the wide variation in the total hours devoted to the subject. 

Perhaps the broadest and most evident conclusion which the time ele- 
ment of the chart warrants, is that architectural drawing in the high schools 
of our state is in dire need of some kind of a uniform treatment and is sur- 
prisingly absent altogether in too many instances. 

A strong tendency is indicated to make it a third and fourth year subject, 
with the stress on the fourth year. 

An attempt has also been made to indicate those schools which teach 
perspective, architectural lettering, classic architecture, and steel and concrete. 



226 

Figures in such an investigation are, at best, liable to error due to the 
varying replies received from the schools, but are on the whole accurate enough 
so that we may be warranted in drawing some conservative conclusions from 
them. 

One of the questions which this table provokes might well be : "Which 
produces the best results, a short period each day, spread over more semesters, 
or a long period each day with fewer semesters?" 

The plan of the Harrison Technical High School of Chicago seems 
unique. You will note that they offer three distinct courses in architectural 
drawing. The one which is marked "Regular," offering 5 45-minute periods 
per week, and the "Specials," offering either 10 45-minute periods, or 15 45- 
minute periods per week. 

The Lane Technical High School was omitted from the table by error. 
They failed to reply to my inquiry. 



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228 

Mr. J. Scott Wiseman, of Kewanee, in his paper "Methods of Pre- 
senting Manual Training Instruction," offered the following: 

An Outline For a High School Course in Manual Training More in 
Accordance With Regular Shop Methods 

1. In general, an outline of the method of conducting the work is as follows: 

1. Boys are divided into groups. The members of the same group may 
be dependent or independent of each other, according to the nature 
of the work. 

2. Each group performs only one step in the process of manufacturing 
an article. 

3. Each boy holds the one responsible for the work the latter did in 
preparing the work for the former. 

4. The groups are shifted in order that each boy will get experience 
in all stages and all operations of the work. 

5. Short cuts of working, as illustrated by the templet and jig, to be 
invented and used wherever practicable. 

6. The call for speed must be a real one. 

II. A few aims of accomplishment: 

1. A conception of interdependence and its necessity. In piece work, 
each boy is always responsible to another. 

2. A conception of co-operation and its necessity. In gluing, clamping, 
etc., a number of boys work together. 

3. A habit of reacting to proper motives to work. These should spring 
from his personal ambition and artificial arrangements and more 
from real conditions outside the individual. 

4. A habit of reacting to proper stimuli to speed. A call for speed should 
be founded upon natural, not artificial, conditions. 

5. A knowledge of industrial methods and their value. The work should 
be so arranged that the boys will acquire some conception of indus- 
trial methods and ideals. 

6. The development of leaders, — Those boys showing special mechanical 
ability, or ability to lead others, are lead into positions as foremen. 

7. The habit of thinking out means to ends, that is, a habit of inventing. 

8. Some knowledge of and skill in the use of tools and machinery. 

9. The place of neatness and accuracy in the industrial shop. 

The Work of a Manual Training Shop Run According to Regular Shop 
Methods — A Few of Its Aims and Projects in Outline 

During the last few years, the gradual supplanting of the old manual 
training methods by shop methods has moved along without interruption. The 
more of the kind of work the school has done the more profitable it has seemed 
to be. A great many articles have been made according to industrial shop 
methods but only three examples of the work will be given, since that number 
will be enough to fully illustrate just what is being done. These three are ten 



229 

drafting tables for the school drafting room, fifty collapsible hurdles for the 
high school, and six shoot-the-chutes made in conjunction with the grades. 
These problems afford excellent opportunities for: 

1. Co-operative group work and work requiring the interdependence 
of pupils. 

2. Forming habits of being interested in somebody or something not 
in any direct sense connected with the pupil himself. 

3. The cultivation of proper motives to work. 

4. Speeding up the boys in their w'ork by the presence of a real need 
for speed. 

5. Doing work according to industrial shop methods. 

6. Invention in the solving of difficulties. 

7. Working on problems of real life size. 

Outlines of the three projects, the drafting table, the collapsible hurdle, 
the shoot-the-chute, are given below in the order named : 
I. Drafting table. 

1 . Cut duplicate pieces : Legs, rails, panels, tops. 

2. Plane and square on jointer and with hand plane. 

3. Cut tenons. 

4. Alark mortises by use of jigs and other time-saving devices. 

5. Cut mortises. 

6. Cut grooves in rails and legs on circular saw. 

7. Fit panels in place and assemble, by the boys in groups of two. 

8. Sandpaper. 

9. Examine work. 

10. Glueing up, by boys in groups of three. 

11. Scrape and sandpaper. 

12. Stain. 

II. Collapsible hurdle. 

1. The design of the hurdle. 

(a) The length of feet necessary to insure stability. 

(b) The quickest and strongest way to joint the feet with the cross 
pieces. 

(c) The length of the cross pieces necessary to give the required 
height, and the required breadth at the top. 

(d) A device must be invented that will be strong and will at the 
same time, provide a means of easily and quickly collapsing 
the hurdle. 

2. Figure the necessary amount of material and cost of same. 

3. Get out the required pieces. 

(a) Cut duplicate pieces in quantity on the circular saw. 

(b) Method of cutting out the joint connecting the foot with the 
cross piece. 

4. A jig must be invented that will enable the foot and cross piece to 
be placed in their proper positions quickly so that the hole for the 
bolt may be bored accurately. 



230 

5. A jig must be invented that will enable the boys to put the hurdles 
together quickly, getting the exact height each time, but without the 
trouble of measuring each piece. 
III. The Shoot-the-Chute. 

1. Bend the steamed boards to curvex. 

(a) The work must be done quickly. 

(b) Strain must be properly distributed when bending piece. 

(c) Pieces bent must be thoroughly dried before clamps are removed. 

2. Build up the curves of the side pieces out of %" lumber in order 
to obtain the greatest strength. 

(a) Illustrate the necessity of running the grain of the parallel strips 
of a built-up curve in different directions in order to get great- 
est strength. 

(b) Illustrate the strongest method of joining the ends of the two 
or more boards constituting each parallel strip. 

3. Methods of getting the correct angle of the steps of the step ladder. 

(a) From a drawing. 

(b) By the rule of thumb. 

4. Best contrivance that will enable one to close the step ladder. 

(a) Contrivance must be light and easily made. 

(b) Examine different schemes used on step ladders. 

(c) Contrivance to suit the particular case in hand. 

5. A device by which the chute can be easily removed from the ladder 
must be invented. 

6. Invention of short methods of work as that illustrated by the jig 
frequently called for. 

Mr. L. Day Perry, of Joliet, discussed "Some Essential Elements 
in Manual Training." In presenting this subject he spoke in part as 
follows : 

The problem of presenting work to classes is an all important one. After 
carefully explaining the problem as regards its use and its limitations, its 
making should be carefully demonstrated step by step, and the tools to use, 
the processes, and the dangers to avoid outlined in detail. With the images 
at hand the pupil begins his work and works well up to the point where they 
become obscure, when assistance is necessary. With the aid of a printed sheet 
of directions before him on his desk he recalls the idea and gains new ones, 
when he once more proceeds. This printed sheet correlates with and supple- 
ments previous directions. 

After the student has acquired an accurate knowledge of the use of tools, 
he should originate his own designs. Previously, however, he must have had 
instruction in design in its broadest sense. By this is meant the ability to dif- 
ferentiate between the pleasing and the ugly, and to assign a reason for his 
conclusions. He must not blindly copy or imitate catalog cuts, blue prints, 
or the article itself no matter how well designed. 



231 

Throughout a course of instruction general and detailed discussion should 
be given at proper times upon particular facts bearing upon the work at hand 
both directly and indirectly. Such facts as tools and their manufacture; logging, 
milling, tree growth ; copper, its mining, alloys ; history of printing, modern 
print shop methods; primitive pottery, its development, modern potteries, and 
so on. In large school systems it is imperative that these discussions be given 
at stated times so that each succeeding instructor may know that certain definite 
facts have been imparted, and that the class is prepared for new data. 

In any community there are many industries which may be studied at 
first hand. It is not sufficient that the boys be merely guided through such 
establishments for the sake of seeing, but while the visual images are fresh 
in their minds talks upon industry, indicating all things which did not appear 
upon the surface should be the rule, as methods of operation, kinds of spe- 
cialized labor, the pay, the promotion possible, etc. Many industries cannot 
be studied at first hand ; then an ideal way easily within reach is the use of 
the stereopticon. There are few things which will bring to a boy such interest 
and useful data, as slides depicting industrial development and manufacture 
ultimately leading to the big question of conservation. With the attending lec- 
tures he has imbedded in his mind certain data which are of invaluable conse- 
quence to him in future life. The one big factor in Manual Training which 
is being ignored is the vitalizing of the work, by enrichment of content, and 
by variety of courses for ultimate selection. 

A medium which without doubt opens up a field of direct connection with 
the outside world, with life, is the medium of reading. Current magazines 
which have ultimate relation with work at hand, every shop should have. Its 
list should contain current magazines of pronounced merit coming to the read- 
ing table every month. A boy who has finished certain work or is at a place 
in work where reading would help may then be directed to certain articles. 
He connects in terms of the printed pages, the outside world with his own. 
He obtains an insight into other channels and acquires, as a by no means minor 
consideration, a habit of reading. 

The shops in any system must be interdependent to be of maximum value. 
Not only that, but all departments of the school system should correlate with 
the shops. We cannot think of any particular shop experience but which is an 
outgrowth of some other experience, or the basis for some experience to come. 
They are interwoven as some fabric and cannot be separated without destroying 
the whole. Too much do we think only in terms of our specialty. In such a 
concrete case as foundry and pattern making where their interdependence is 
conceded they frequently run as distinct as the subjects of arithmetic and litera- 
ture. In cabinet work, and metal, for instance, where design plays such an 
important part, in the enrichment of detail and the breaking up of flat areas, 
it is incumbent that they develop together, for only then do they develop best. 
So on through all branches of the Manual Arts we must correlate, for only in 
correlation do we obtain the best and broadest from each. 

In relation to design, — we must not continue the construction of things 
ugly. It may be that the article in question is well put together and indicates 
so called craftsmanship, but is ruined through ignoring the laws of good design 



232 

in mass, line and finish. Then conversely, the project may be well proportioned 
and finished in every detail, but lacks structural rigidity. So I have a theory 
that a thing to be well designed must not only conform to the principles of 
Balance, Rhythm, and Harmony but it must be structurally sound and well fitted 
for its function. 

Using mediums in shop practices which contribute to the usefulness of 
articles and to their beauty, and instill interest and enthusiasm in the boy, is 
advisable. They are worthy of adoption. Caning, both commercial and hand, 
since its introduction in the Jacobean period, has been in fairly general use. 
Used in conjunction with wood it furnishes a means for decorative design, as 
well as constructive, and brings to the boy an appreciation of the interrelation 
of mediums toward the production of articles of beauty. 

And so with rush seating, from its coming into use in Flanders it is 
a twin with caning in its value as an interest creator. It however serves no 
more than a function, yet withal is decorative. And not least, a knowledge of 
both processes in weaving brings commercial returns, for in any community 
many chairs need reseating and rebacking, and with payment made for services 
rendered a new idea of what Manual Training experiences mean comes back 
to the boy, and he realizes that they actually reach out into the world of com- 
mercial activities. 

There should be one point on which we all agre and that is this : that 
nothing should be constructed in the shops that requires ultimate completion 
from without. If a piece of furniture needs upholstering, upholstering should 
be taught ; if a piece of pottery be permanent it must be glazed, and glazing 
should be taught; should a lamp be made that requires wiring or piping, such 
should be taught ; if a copper bowl needs silver plating, we should teach silver 
plating. Therefore, we must employ any medium that is demanded for com- 
pletion of a given article, and also any which is not inherently needed, but 
through whose use a broader conception of industry and of life is obtained. 
Such mediums have much to do with the aesthetic aspect of Manual Training 
so frequently overlooked or neglected. 

The report of the committee to formulate outlines for a second 
unit in mechanical drawing was presented by the Chairman, Mr. F. S. 
Needham, of Oak Park. 

The report reads as follows : 

Aim of the Whole Course 

To develop the pupil and through this medium train him to get control 
of his situation so that he can apply himself to any problem and by his own 
efforts and reasoning so acquaint himself with that problem that he will get 
the larger view, and become the master of the situation rather than a cog in 
the wheel that only moves when a greater force is brought to play which 
overthrows the spirit of rest. 

To teach the pupil to express himself by drawings so that he may convey to 
others by an intelligible and systematic method an idea which is contained 



233 



within his own mind and to be able to translate drawings made by others so 
that he may read a drawing understandingly and get that idea which some one 
else has endeavored to express. 

a. To teach the practical application of Orthographic projection to 
drafting. 

b. To teach the simple principles of machine construction. 

c. To teach the technics or conventions of drafting. 

In offering this course for a second unit in machine drawing we feel that it 
is incumbent upon ourselves to supplement the preceding course which has 
already been adopted for the first unit in mechanical draw'ing in the following 
manner : 

a. Suggesting that inking be made a problem in itself and not introduced 
until the pupil has become more or less familiar with the use of his drawing 
instruments, which would probably be during the last half of the year. 

b. That the pupil endeavor to learn only one style of lettering during 
the first year. 

c. That Isometric drawing or some form of pictorial representation be 
studied. 

d. That all attempts at architecture be considered under another course, 
putting more emphasis on the practical application of developments as related 
to the sheet metal industry. 

Time Required 
Not less than forty minutes daily for ten school months, or its equivalent 



Contents 



1. Machine lettering. 

2. Fastening devices. 

3. Mechanism. 

4. Interpretation. 

5. Reproduction. 

6. System. 

7. Drawing from tables. 

8. Details; stock lists. 

9. Assembly drawings. 



Subject 
I. Lettering 



II. Fastening Devices 



Outline of Course 
Content 
Purpose 
Application 
Expression 

Rivets 

Bolt 

Screw 



Problem 
Study of lettering of 
blue prints, also notes, 
titles, etc. 

Methods of riveting and 

shapes of rivets 
Machine bolts, square, 

hexagonal, round 

heads 



234 



III. Mechanism 

IV. Interpretation 

V. Reproduction 
VI. System 



Mechanical parts and 
their construction 



Translation 



Tracing 
Blue printing 



Methods 
Checking 
Filing 

VII. Drawing from ta- Use of simple formulae 
bles 



VIII. Details 



IX. Assembly d r a w- 
ings 



Distribution of parts 
Arrangement of plates 
Shop requirements 
Mechanism drawings 
Accuracy and informa- 
tion 
Stock list 

Assembly of details 



Cap screw 

Set screws, hollow, head- 
less, cup point, etc. 

Face plate 

Pulley 

Jack screw 

Water valve details 

From Isometric drawings 
or sketch of machine 
details make Ortho- 
graphic sketches with 
dimensions 

Trace and blue print 
drawings of Groups 
III, IV, VIII 

Group II 
Group III 

Couplings 
Pillow block 
Hangers, etc. 

Use sketches and draw- 
ings in Group IV 



Group VIII parts drawn 
in position 



Suggestive methods of teaching the course in machine drawing. 
Group I. I i] i H 

Good lettering is of such great importance that it would be emphasized 
throughout the entire course. The use of co-ordinate paper is of great value 
in teaching this particular branch and is recommended. The study of lettering 
may be simplified by the use of blue prints secured from some manufacturing 
firm. Observe the practical value of good lettering as to size, style and loca- 
tion, the arrangement of titles, the information there given. Importance of 
notes, good clear-cut figures, definitely marked arrow heads and intelligently 
placed dimension lines. Auxiliary views, conventions and sections. The care of 
instruments should be emphasized early in this course. 



235 

Group II. 

Make drawings of different shaped rivets in position. (Cambria or Car- 
negie Steel Co. handbook for proportions.) Draw carefully the helix, its ap- 
plication to the V and square thread, and their sections. Show by drawings 
the difference between machine bolts, cap screw, set screw with their different 
points and heads, using conventional methods for the threads. 

Group III. 

Make drawings of a face plate, pulley, jack screw, water valve, showing 
the application of the screw threads to machinery. 



Group IV. 




From i 


isometric drawings or sketches of machine details make ortho- 


graphic sketches: 


a. 


crank shaft 


b. 


coupling 


c. 


pillow block 


d. 


hangers 


e. 


vise 


f. 


emery grinder 


g- 


rod cutter 


h. 


lathe (wood) 



Group V. 

Make tracings and blue prints, using both paper and linen of the drawings 
made in Group III or VIII. 

Group VI. 

Allow pupils to check each other's sketches of Group IV, also Groups 
VII and VIII, later in the course, showing the necessity of checking, method 
and how to make corrections. Introduce a filing and indexing record. 

Group VII. 

Using catalogs containing sketches and tables, draw to scale, for different 
size shafting, pillow block, hanger, coupling, etc. (Dodge, Link Belt, Chicago 
Pulley, Crane, etc.) 

Group VIII. 

Make detailed drawings, using sketches of Group IV, emphasizing the 
principles demonstrated in Groups I and VI. Also make stock lists. 

(For schools that are able to obtain machines or models students should 
make sketches of these parts instead of sketches from Group IV.) 

Group IX. 

Use of assembly drawings, assembly sections, auxiliary views, etc. Rela- 
tion to detailed drawings. 

Pipe laj-outs from isometric center line layout, using catalogs (Crane, 
Western Gas, etc.) for fittings, etc., is a subject well within the ability of the 



236 

pupil at this time and one in which the individuality of the pupil's initiative 
may be developed. This would be a problem in which a stock list training would 
be particularly emphasized. While we do not incorporate it in this course we 
do suggest that a great deal of value might be derived from this particular 
problem under favorable conditions. 

In preparing this course for a second unit in machine drawing it has 
been our very earnest desire to extend the greatest consideration to the smaller 
high schools, which of necessity have not the equipment to compete with some 
of our larger and more modern schools, many of these latter being in a posi- 
tion to present this subject far beyond college requirements. 

The well equipped school has already the equivalent of a course such as 
we have presented and is in a position to make many deviations and elabora- 
tions that will more than satisfy the demands for college credit. 

The committee thanks you for this opportunity to assist in the formation 
and development of this course. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. S. Needham, 

W. F. WiLLARD, 

W. A. Richards. 

During the discussion following the report, the concensus of 
opinion seemed to favor considering the outline rather elastic, and to 
be a basis upon which to organize the work to be carried out in class, 
rather than adhering strictly to the outline as presented. 

Following the usual announcements the session adjourned. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Benj. L. Bowling. 

Mathematics Section 

High School Conference, University of Illinois, November 20, 
1914. 

At the morning session, Professor H. L. Rietz, University of Illi- 
nois, presided. 

Moved and carried that the chairman appoint a committee to nom- 
inate two members to serve on the Executive Committee, one for 
three years, to take the place of Mr. E. H. Taylor, whose term had 
expired, and one for one year, to take the place of Mr. C. A, Petterh 
sen, who had resigned. A nominating committee, consisting of Pro- 
fessor C. H. Sisam, University of Illinois, Mr. Alfred Davis, Joliet 
Township High School, and Professor C, E. Comstock, Bradley Poly- 
technic Institute, Peoria, was appointed and instructed to report at 
the afternoon session. 



237 

The following papers were presented and discussed : 
Professor E. J. Townsend, University of Illinois, The Funda- 
mental and Accessory Elements in High School Algebra. Mr. R. L. 
Modessit, Eastern Illinois State Normal School, Charleston, Report of 
the Committee on an Efficiency Test in Elementary Algebra. 
Abstracts of these papers and notes regarding the discussion are given 
below. 

At the afternoon session, Dr. E. B. Lytle and Professor H. L. 
Rietz presided. 

The nominating committee reported the nomination of Mr. L. C. 
Irwin, Township High School, Joliet, as a member of the Executive 
Committee to serve for three years, also the nomination of Mr. Fiske 
Allen, Eastern Illinois State Normal School, Charleston, to serve for 
one year and to act as chairman of the committee. The third memt- 
ber of the committee is Dr. E. B. Lytle, University of Illinois, who is 
to continue for two years. 

The following papers were presented and discussed : 
Professor E. R. Breslich, University High School, University of 
Chicago, Supervised Study of High School Mathematics. Mr. H. O. 
Rugg, University of Illinois, Discussion of Graphs of Grades given in 
Elementary Mathematics. An abstract of these papers, some notes 
regarding the discussion and a full account of the action taken by the 
section are given below. 

Abstract of paper on 

"The Fundamental and the Accessory Elements in High 

School Algebra" 
By E. J. Townsend 

Several jears ago this section undertook to express by means of syllabi 
what in its judgment was the most essential in the mathematical training of 
secondary school pupils. * * * * 

I take it that we had at least two distinct purposes in their preparation. 
The one that was doubtless regarded at the time as the most important was 
perhaps the desire to standardize so far as practicable the secondary school 
instruction in mathematics in the State. It is highly desirable that the content 
of the course of instruction in one high school should be substantially the 
same as that in another in order that pupils should not be placed at a serious 
disadvantage when compelled to change from one school to another, and 



238 

moreover it is equally important that those of us who have to base our work 
upon secondary school preparation should know what we may safely assume 
as known, and that students coming from the various schools of the State 
should have similar training in amount and character as a basis for their work 
in college. * * * * 

Another, and perhaps more important purpose of a syllabus is however 
to serve as a guide to the inexperienced teacher in directing his attention not 
only to what should constitute a minimum content of the course of instruction, 
but in suggesting an effective order of arrangement of the various topics, 
calling attention to what are to be especially emphasized because of their funda- 
mental importance and what accessory elements may be introduced to increase 
and to maintain the interest of the pupil, and finally to point out such common 
errors and difficulties of pupils as should be anticipated and avoided. It is in 
meeting this second purpose of the syllabus that we have perhaps failed. * * * 

In order that our discussion may be more concrete and constructive, I 
shall direct my remarks and suggestions largely to the syllabus for algebra. I 
have the added purpose in doing so that the results obtained in elementary 
algebra seem on the whole to be less satisfactory than those obtained in geom- 
etry. Moreover, it is the one mathematical subject which here in Illinois is 
commonly begun in the high school and finished in college, thus making it 
of the highest importance that the correlation between the secondary school 
work and the subsequent college work should be definitely understood. 

To be most helpful to the inexperienced teacher our syllabus should give 
more detail and be more explicit in many instances in the directions given. 
For example, under factoring we say : 

"Factoring — Special products and factors taught together as inverse oper- 
ations; meaning of quadratic expressions and factors of such expressions; prob- 
lems leading to quadratics to be solved by factoring : H. C. D. and L. C. M. by 
methods of factoring; multiplication and division of polynomials by poly- 
nominals. 

Such an outline serves to give the experienced teacher the needed informa- 
tion, and from it he can formulate his own course of instruction. I fear the 
inexperienced teacher will get but little out of it. What he wants to know is 
what type-forms of factoring should be presented, what applications should 
be made, and above all in what order of arrangement should these topics be 
presented. * * * * 

The ideal syllabus for the inexperienced teacher would in this regard 
be such as might be put into the hands of the pupils in his class, if desired, 
as an outline of a course to be given by the syllabus method. * * * * 

More might be done in pointing out the common errors that pupils are 
likely to make and recommending that special drill be given at these points. 
This feature of the syllabus might well be expanded by giving a list of refer- 
ences to the more important discussions that are to be found in the available 
literature. The syllabi which we have issued embody the opinion of our com- 
mittees and of this conference. That might be regarded as expert opinion and 
is good as far as it goes, but the value of our syllabi would be greatly increased 
if there were added liberal references to other syllabi, such, for example, as 



239 

the syllabus for geometry prepared by the National Committee of Fifteen which 
was authorized by the National Education Association and by the American 
Federation of Teachers of the Mathematical and Natural Sciences, and the 
Syllabus of Mathematics published by the Society for the Promotion of Engi- 
neering Education. The ideal syllabus should also have a reasonably complete 
list of references to the important contributions to the pedagogy of the subject, 
so that it may suggest to the inexperienced teacher the places where he may 
find the best thought of our times concerning the professional side of his sub- 
ject. Any mathematical syllabus should list among its important references 
the reports, already mentioned, of the International Commission on the Teach- 
ing of Mathematics. I think we might well go still further and include in 
our syllabi a list of mathematical books that should be in the personal library 
or at least accessible to the teacher of secondary school mathematics. Such a 
list should include those books which may be useful as source books from which 
the teacher can obtain stimulating problems for supplementary work as well as 
those which would serve as mathematical reference books in connection with 
secondary school work. * * * * 

It is with the minimum program that we are interested. * * * It is not 
my purpose to go into details in this phase of the question, for to do so would 
be to produce a syllabus, but rather to suggest some general principles that 
may guide us in deciding whether any particular topic is fundamental in char- 
acter or merely accessory in any particular case. In deciding upon these guid- 
ing principles we should keep clearly in mind the purpose for which the subject 
is taught. I shall state these principles in the order, as it seems to me, of 
decreasing importance. * * * * 

I. First of all, zve should include those topics which of themselves are 
essential or desirable in the training of an educated member of the com- 
munity. * * * * 

Without doubt the popular opinion is that the value of the study of algebra 
for practical purposes is essentially nil. The man of affairs declares that he 
has found but little use for it, and the school boy is apt to ask his teacher 
"What all this stuff is good for, anyway." We are ourselves often more than 
half convinced that it is of little use, except for the discipline it affords, unless 
the pupil expects to proceed further with the study of mathematics or antici- 
pates taking other scientific courses for which algebra is a necessary prepara- 
tion. To accept, unqualifiedly, this point of view is to lose sight of one of the 
fundamental purposes for studying the subject. Algebra should be presented 
as a continuation and generalization of arithmetic. The pupil who fails to see 
that the fundamental processes of algebra are but generalizations of the cor- 
responding processes of arithmetic, that is that algebra is a study of general 
principles and processes of which he had in arithmetic but particular illustra- 
tions, fails to get from the study of algebra one of its important lessons. 
He should see that this generalized method of treatment gives him an under- 
standing of the principles of arithmetic and a facility in solving its problems 
which he did not before possess. From this point of view the study of algebra 
has an important bearing upon the training of an educated man, provided we 
acknowledge the generally accepted conclusion that arithmetic itself is an 



240 

essential element in such a training. The boy should also be led to see that 
algebra affords a convenient means of stating briefly and precisely by means 
of formulae many of the laws and relations with which he is familiar, a point 
of view which can not fail to be of value to him even in the common affairs 
of life. * * * * 

II. We should include those topics which are necessary to furnish a 
minimum training in fundamentals of the subject as a basis for the next mathe- 
matical course in sequence. 

Whether the student intends to proceed further with the study of mathe- 
matics or not, he should be given that training which makes possible further 
study of the subject if circumstances should make that desirable. Moreover, 
there are always some in our classes who will doubtless proceed further with 
mathematics and for these such training is essential. In a way, this principle 
of selection is that which interests us in determining the essentials necessary 
to the training of the pupil who is later to specialize in mathematics, but on 
the other hand no subject can be said to be satisfactorily presented which does 
not contain a minimum development of the fundamental principles of that 
branch of science and in such a manner as to bring out clearly its logical 
development. * * * * 

I take it that we should readily agree that any topic should be introduced 
in as close connection as possible with the application to be made. The error 
which we are likely to make here is not in deciding what is scientifically funda- 
mental but what is pedagogically fundamental, that is, is not in determining 
what we shall present but rather how it shall be presented. At this point we 
can readily see the reason why the teaching of geometry seems to produce 
better results than our teaching of algebra. We have all discovered that our 
pupils like best those things that stimulate their mental activity and lead them 
to discover things for themselves. In geometrj^ we frequently give only the 
suggested steps of the proof required, leaving the pupil to fill in the details. 
We select our problems from the boy's experiences to stimulate his interest 
in appl>4ng his mathematics to things that appeal to him as worth while. In 
algebra, on the contrary, we are fond of giving the last detail in our proofs, 
leaving nothing for the boy to do but to learn the demonstration. We are too 
often content to select problems that merely illustrate the principle, but which 
have no relation to the common experience that our pupils have had in the 
past or are likelj- to have in the future. In this way we not only deaden the 
interest of our pupils, but we lose the opportunity to stimulate in them the 
spirit of inquiry and of research. In this respect, it seems to me that much 
improvement can be made, and it may be worth while to incorporate in our 
syllabus for algebra some suggestions along this line. * * * * 

III. Finally, we should include some material which zvhile perhaps not 
essential in itself to the logical development of the subject is nevertheless of 
importance in arousing and sustaining the interest of the pupil, or in showing 
the relation of the subject to other allied subjects in the curriculum. * * * * 

The boy who completes the stud}- of algebra without having his attention 
called to those applications that come within the realm of his experience, or 



241 

fails to find that it is to be of use to him in the study of aUied branches of 
science is surely the victim of inadequate teaching. * * * * 

Too often, I fear, our problems and illustrations involve a technical 
knowledge quite outside of the experience or interest of the pupil. To be 
effective, these applications should imply a knowledge of only such physical 
phenomena as is within the common experience of the class. * * * * 

While we should never give a problem merely for the sake of giving infor- 
mation, yet if a problem contains data, that data ought to be both accurate 
and valuable. It may even be of value to borrow equations from other branches 
of science, if no technical knowledge is required for their solution. * * * * 

The central purpose for the study of algebra is clearly the equation. 
* * * Those topics which do not have an important bearing upon the solution 
of equations may well be reduced to the minimum required for subsequent work. 
In this connection I wish also to urge upon the conference the importance of 
drilling the pupils in oral work of translating the English statement of a given 
relation into its algebraic equivalent and vice versa. * * * * 

Another fundamental notion in the study of mathematics which is not 
always sufficiently emphasized in elementary algebra is the notion of func- 
tionality. * * * This notion of functionality should not be merely annexed 
to the work in algebra, as though it were quite incidental to the course and 
foreign to the main purpose for teaching algebra. * * * The notion of 
functionality not only broadens the field of applications that may be made and 
therefore increases the interest of the pupil, but it paves the way naturally 
and normally for the introduction of the graph in algebraic work, which of 
itself is both of value in algebra and of importance in subsequent work in 
mathematics and the allied sciences. * * * * 

Professor C. E. Comstock opened the discussion. In reply to a 
question by Miss Audrey Dykeman, Kansas, 111., asking what parts of 
the mathematics course had not been adequately presented by high 
school teachers, he said that some of the things omitted or insuffi- 
ciently emphasized are exponents, meaning and use of the graph, the 
idea of variable (functionality), the idea of form, and the idea of 
generality. 

It was discovered, from questions raised by Dr. Lytic, that, while 
several of the members of the section present had made use of some 
syllabus, perhaps a majority of those present had never even heard 
of the syllabus adopted by this section in the year 1908. In reply to 
the question, what help the syllabus had given, Miss Bessie F. Cline, 
Urbana, said that it had helped her to discover that some parts of her 
text book were not essential and might be omitted, so as to give more 
time for material really needed. 

Mr. F. D. Bowditch, Urbana, expressed the opinion that the im- 
portance of the equation was very much over-emphasized in many 



242 

texts, and recommended a thorough preparatory drill in the funda- 
mental operations. He asked the members of the section if they 
would advise that students expecting to follow mathematical subjects 
in the University be given four years of mathematics in the high 
school. 

The opinion was expressed by several teachers that it was un- 
likely that a committee could agree upon the adoption of any particu- 
lar syllabus. 

Professor L. C. Plant, Michigan Agricultural College, said that 
if Mr, Bowditch thought the subjects should be presented in a certain 
order, he ought to use a text which presented the subject in that or- 
der; that, personally, he believed in beginning with the equation; the 
belief in a certain order makes a teacher successful in teaching that 
order. Nevertheless, a committee might very well suggest an order. 
Detailed syllabi are frequently very useful, especially for an inex- 
perienced teacher, 

Mr, Irwin expressed a belief that geometry is more satisfactorily 
taught than algebra, because so much more attention is given there 
to how we teach than to the order, that the importance of how to 
teach should be emphasized in our syllabi, and that the order of sub- 
jects depends upon the manner in which they are taught. 

In answer to a question, whether there exists a natural order, 
or whether order is a matter of individual taste, Mr. Allen replied 
that, in his opinion, a natural order had not been found, and that 
that order was best for each teacher, in which the teacher believed 
most fully. He suggested that two or three different orders be 
recommended in a syllabus. He also expressed the opinion that we 
have not yet reached the time when the content should be chosen from 
regard for utility alone. 

In reply to the question whether he would teach more in regard 
to the graph than the graphing of a simple equation. Professor Com- 
stock said that the graph was needed more than many other things 
taught in algebra, since it is a means of public expression found even 
in the most simple statistical articles and lectures on all kinds of sub- 
jects, as well as in the daily papers and popular magazines. After 
the student has been taught to read these graphs, graphs may then be 
exhibited as an expression of mathematical laws. 



243 

Professor Walter J. Risley, Millikin University, said that he be- 
lieved in continually calling the attention of his students to the simple 
daily applications of mathematics. 

Miss Jessie D. Brakensiek, Quincy, said that another half year 
of work was needed in the high school to properly prepare the 
students in the elements of mathematics. Mr, Bowditch repeated his 
question regarding the advisability of a four years course. 

Professor Rietz answered that four years of mathematics in the 
high school would probably be helpful, especially for Engineering 
students, but that the prospects of getting even two years of algebra 
was very remote, the present tendency being in the opposite direction. 
The high school is no longer regarded by the people as a preparatory 
school. 

Moved by Miss Cline and carried. That some member of the 
section, e. g., say Professor Comstock, be asked to present, as a part 
of next year's regular program, a paper on the place of the graph in 
the high school, showing just where it would be introduced and how 
it would be presented. 

Moved by Mr. Bowditch and carried, That a committee be ap- 
pointed to obtain through a questionaire, the ideas of different teach- 
ers regarding the order of topics in high school algebra, and to so- 
licit papers on this subject for presentation at the next meeting. 

Abstract of a paper on 

"An Efficiency Test in Algebra" 
By R. L. Modessit 

What I have to say is not a report of the committee appointed to formu- 
late an efficiency test in algebra. For some reason this committee was not able 
to get together, and I am not at all sure that the other members will concur 
in offering what I shall read as a report. I give it with the hope that the Con- 
ference will see fit to continue the committee until an efficiency test in algebra 
is worked out. 

I wish to express my indebtedness for many of the suggestions I shall 
make to the Committee on Results and Examinations of the Central Association 
of Science and Mathematics Teachers, and also to Edward L. Thomdike, whose 
book on "Social and Mental Measurements" has been of much help to me. In the 
attempt to see how a scientific test in algebra might be worked out, I have 
followed as closely as possible the method used by Mr. Thomdike in his "Ex- 
periment in Grading Problems in Algebra" found in "The Mathematics Teacher" 
for March, 1914. 



244 

In July, 1905, the school authorities of Breslau asked certain persons, 
among them Professor H. Ebbinghaus, to undertake an investigation of the 
fatigue-effects of the five-hour sessions common in the schools of Breslau, at 
that time. In the course of the investigation, Ebbinghaus devised what is 
knovi^n as the "Completion Method" of testing the mental ability of pupils. 
Because of the enthusiastic statements of its author, who characterized the 
method as "a real test of intelligence," the test has gained much prominence. 
* * * The test consists in determining the accuracy and time required in 
combining into a coherent whole a passage from which parts have been 
omitted. * * * * 

Mathematics as a subject in our system of education commonly has 
ascribed to it the value of leading to clear and effective thinking and of develop- 
ing the power of holding the mind firm until a desired end is reached, — the 
penalty sometimes being to do the task all over again if the mind is not thus 
finnly held. Mathematics increases the power to observe accurately, and to 
make correct inferences and generalizations. Tests have been worked out in 
algebra by the Committee on Results and Examinations (referred to above) 
for the purpose of testing some of these values. For example : 

Test I. (Time, 3 minutes.) 

Name two quantities for which each of the following expressions may 
stand : 

ab d/y 

1/x x=+y^ 

2/x+3y=5 
X — 2y=3 a* 

No doubt all of you are familiar with the tests, devised by S. A. Courtis 
of Detroit, Michigan, which have been used so extensively in standardizing arith- 
metical abilities. * * * * 

Some feel that what Mr. Courtis has done for arithmetic might be done 
also for algebra. There are certain fundamental abilities in algebra on which 
a pupil's success or failure depends. He must know, for instance, that if the 
sum of a and b is to be multiplied by c each number (a and b) must be multi- 
plied by and the two products added. On the other hand, if the product of 
a and b is to be multiplied by c, either a or b may be multiplied by c and the 
resulting product multiplied by b or a. The pupil should become so familiar 
with such fundamental principles that there will be no hesitation in their use. 
Then, there are the abilities of thinking, of reasoning, of interpreting, of trans- 
lating the written problem into algebraic language and vice versa, which the 
pupil must acquire in order to be a successful algebra student. In other words, 
the pupil must possess a knowledge of the meaning of the number symbols 
as well as the ability to manipulate them automatically. 

Many of these fundamental abilities in algebra have been suggested by 
the Committee on Results and Examinations. Some of them are as follows : 

1. Expanding by one term multiplication and removal of paren- 
thesis; e. g., c(a+b) ; 5(3x — y) 

2. Simple cases of factoring ; e. g., a" — 2ab+b'' ; 4x^ — ^y*. 



3' 


ab^ 


a+b 


abc 


a— b 


— a 


2+b 
2 


1/2 ab 



245 

3. Operations with exponents; e. g., aV; aVa; a"Va'. 

4. Solution of simple equation; e. g., ■x.+i=7 — 2x 

Tests have been prepared each of which seeks to determine the ability 
of students in one of these particular lines. I have tried some of these with 
pupils who were just completing one year's work in algebra and have been much 
interested in some of the results. 

One test, designed for the purpose of testing the ability to solve simple 
equations, consisted of six problems. The first of these, 9 — 7a = 3a+4, was 
solved incorrectly by twenty-six out of sixty-four pupils who attempted it, 
or by approximately 41 per cent. The prevailing results among those who 
failed had a "5" and a "4" in them instead of a "5" and a "10". Another equa- 
tion in the test was the general linear equation, ax+b = c. Only sixteen 
out of seventy-five pupils solved it correctly, or 21 per cent. All did not attempt 
the problem. * * * ♦ 

The chief difficulty in selecting problems for tests of the type just men- 
tioned is in finding those which require approximately the same length of time. 
If such problems could be found for pupils who had just finished one year's 
work in algebra, the difficulty in measuring the ability of these pupils would 
be reduced to finding how many of these equal units could be done in a given 
time. With this in mind one test was made in the fundamental operations 
in algebra. It consisted of two problems in addition, one in substraction, two 
in multiplication, and two in division. The time in each case was counted 
from the time of beginning to the time when half the class had indicated that 
they had finished. The first problem, one in addition, required in the four 
classes tested twenty-seven, thirty-four, thirty-three, and thirty-four seconds, 
respectively. Counting only the last three classes, the average time was very 
near thirty-four seconds. The fourth problem, one in subtraction, required 
thirty-five, thirty-five, thirty-eight, and forty seconds in each of the respective 
classes, an average of thirty-seven seconds. Still another problem in addition 
showed the almost uniform times of forty-eight, forty-nine, forty-eight and 
fifty seconds in the four classes. But the problems in multiplication and division 
were solved in such irregular lengths of time that it would seem very difficult 
to arrange a test even in the mechanics of algebra so that all of the problems 
would take equal amounts of time. 

We are not concerned with a test which has to do with the time required 
in solving problems in algebra so much as one which measures the ability to 
think in generalized numbers. Probably the greatest contribution that has been 
made recently toward an efficient test of this kind is that of Mr. Thomdike 
in his "Experiment in Grading Problems in Algebra." * * ♦ ♦ 

A full account of the experiment may be found in "Mathematics Teacher" 
for March, 1914, as stated above. It seems that an experiment of this kind 
would be of much more value if the problems used were tried out in the class 
room. Would it be advisable for us to follow the plan of Mr. Thomdike in 
making an efficiency test in algebra? * * * * 

It would be much worth while if we could devise an efficiency test in 
algebra to be used at the close of the school year. The exact nature of such 
a test is still an open question. 



246 

Professor Comstock opened the discussion with the remark that 
teachers need to test the abiHty of students both with reference to 
carrying out a mechanical process and with reference to thinking. It 
is fundamental for success in teaching algebra that some processes, 
e. g. those involved in solving the equation ax -j- b = c, become auto- 
matic. Separate tests should be devised for testing reflex actions 
and the processes involving thought, e. g. interpretation. 

Mr. Davis suggested that the student's work be weighted as fol- 
lows: for accuracy, 3; rapidity, 2; neatness, 1. They should be 
taught to check as they go along, since correct work is more valuable 
than that which is finished quickly. 

President Walter P. Morgan, Western Illinois State Normal 
School, Macomb, said that the figures regarding the difficulty of prob- 
lems, obtained in the experiment described by Professor Thorndike, 
were much more to the point than the opinion of any 200 teachers 
could possibly be. He thought that the order of the problems should 
be taken into account. The first problem is likely to be the easiest 
because it is first, and the last problem, hardest, because it is last. 

Mrs. Jane Pollock Anderson said she regretted to hear any talk 
of making mathematics more mechanical. It is mechanical work 
which leads to errors in the simplification of expressions in complex 
algebraic and trignometrical problems, "clearing of fractions," for 
example, leads to throwing away the denominator. The six funda- 
mental operations and the principle of substituting a thing for its 
equal are the only operations which it is safe for the teacher to recog- 
nize in the explanation of work. 

Mr. Rugg suggested that it was worth while to take some action 
regarding the kind of work described by Mr. Modessit. 

Professor Rietz called attention to the advantages of standariz- 
ing problems, and distinguishing between easy and more difficult 
kinds. He thought that such tests would help to do away with the 
unconscious mechanics of those teachers who give the same type 
questions on examinations year after year. 

Professor Comstock said that the relative importance of differ- 
ent kinds of ability was not the question at issue, but that teachers 
must expect their pupils to be able to do certain things. He moved 
and the motion was carried, That the Committee on Efficiency Tests 
in Elementary Algebra be instructed to continue their work. 



247 

The following paper is printed in full : 

Supervised Study in Mathematics 

E. R. Breslich 
University of Chicago High School 

One of the most pressing problems before the teaching public at the present 
time is to develop a special technique for supervising the studying done by 
pupils, and to train them in the habits of study. Although great progress has 
been made during recent years in school administration and equipment, as well 
as in the technique of teaching, we are still tied to an inefficient system of class 
instruction, commonly known as the recitation period. It is based upon the 
principle that a subject is to be taught in the same way and to the same extent 
to ever\' pupil, the class period being used partly for recitation purposes and 
partly for assigning home work. Usually the first is the more prominent. Its 
purpose is primarily to determine whether a pupil can give a satisfactory account 
of the topic which he was to prepare in his home study. It is largely devoted 
to clearing up difficulties and this gives little additional stimulus to pupils who 
have mastered the lesson and who therefore have little interest in the helpless 
efforts of their classmates trying to reproduce the assignment. As a result, 
the recitation is likely to become monotonous, especially where a slow pupil 
recites. It encourages lack of attention and divided interest. It fails to rouse 
pupils to their actual capacity of effort. If, as it happens frequently, the whole 
class period is given to recitation purposes, the assigned home work is likely 
to be on advanced work to be followed the next day by another uninspired 
reproduction, etc. 

To obtain a proper perspective view of the situation it is interesting to 
see how it has developed historically. We find that in the earliest schools the 
first method of instruction was not class instruction but individual. Pupils were 
not taught in groups but as individuals. It soon became apparent to some of the 
educators that this method of instruction was wasteful and unsatisfactory, as 
it was possible to give instruction to the pupil only during a small part of 
the school day. During the remainder he was sitting still, playing, whispering 
or making disturbance, and wasting time generally. Very slowly the simulta- 
neous or class method was adopted. Although Comenius as early as 1657 de- 
scribed the method of grouping pupils into classes for simultaneous teaching 
under one instructor, we find that as late as 1843 the individual method was 
still used in 5488 primary schools in Prussia and France. 

The method of class instruction was used successfully at the end of the 18th 
century in the schools of the Christian brethren in France; and, at the same 
time, in England the individual method was replaced by the monitorial system 
of Bell and Lancaster. 

This system was adopted in the United States in 1806 by the Free School 
Society of New York City because it was a very economical system. It finally led 
to the present graded system or class room system. Almost from the start the 
defects of the system became apparent, especially the danger of uniting pupils 
•f widely different attainments and the resulting impossibility of adapting in- 



248 

struction to the capacity of the class and the futility of much of what is called 
home study. 

Few persons, including teachers, know how great a variation in ability is 
found among pupils of the same class. Bonser tested 757 children of the 4th, 
Sth, and 6th grades by means of a series of problems and questions designed 
to exercise the most fundamental four phases of reasoning activity, namely, 
mathematical judgment, controlled association, selective judgment and that 
complex of analytic and synthetic thinking used in the intellectual interpretation 
of literature. He found that in grade 4 A the ability varied from 20 to 245 
units ; in 5 B from 35 to 255 ; in 5 A from 50 to 265 ; in 6 B from 70 to 265 ; in 
6 A from 80 to 260. Thus, a large number of pupils in 4 A can do even more 
than some of the pupils in the higher grades. Similar results are given by Thorn- 
dike, e.g., in mathematics he found that in a test in addition given to 83 sev- 
enth-grade pupils, all pupils being allowed the same time, they did from 3 to 20 
examples correctly. "The range of ability in school children of the same age," 
says Thomdike, "is such that in a majority of capacities the most gifted child 
will in comparison with the least gifted child of the same age, do over six times 
as much in the same time, or do the same amount with less than a sixth as many 
errors." 

Similar tests have been made in other places showing the same individual 
differences. In classes graded as closely as is found under the most favorable 
conditions pupils will be found able to do from 2 to 5 times as much as others, 
or to do the same amount from 2 to 5 times as well. Because of these indi- 
vidual diflferences the bright pupil has to be idle part of the time, while the slow 
pupil is being hurried, failing to get clear understanding and meeting difficulties 
for which he is not prepared. It is not surprising that they dislike the study, 
become discouraged, fail and finally drop out of school altogether. 

It is well known to parents and teachers that a very large percentage of 
children of our schools do not know how to study properly and profitably. Yet 
pupils are sent home at the end of each day to prepare tasks which many of 
them do not understand, under conditions frequently so unfavorable as to pre- 
clude the possibility of their securing the preparation. Experiments have been 
made to show that pupils generally get no very clear idea of what is required to 
prepare a lesson as ordinarily assigned by the teacher. Dr. Earhardt assigned 
to 812 sixth- and seventh-grade pupils a short section from a text book in 
geography with the following instruction : "Here is a lesson from a book such 
as you use in class. Do whatever you think you ought to do in studying this 
lesson thoroughly and then write down the diflferent things you have done in 
studying it. Do not write anything else." Seven hundred and ten of the 820 
pupils gave indefinite and unsatisfactory answers. 

Doubtless some of the teachers present today will recall from their ele- 
mentary and high school days that lessons were assigned regularly at the end 
of the class period in the form of a statement that the class should prepare 
for the next day three propositions in geometry. There was never any hint as 
to how the lesson should be prepared. Doubtless the better teachers today do 
give careful suggestions with each lesson assignment as to method of attack, 
aim, and meaning of assignment. But even that is not sufficient to enable many 



249 

pupils to do the assigned work. Even if they remember the suggestions they still 
fail to make the connection between suggestion and assignment. Some years 
ago when I began to pay attention to the way pupils did their studying and 
when I invariably assigned lessons only after most careful preparation in the 
class room, the parents of a girl in one of my classes complained that their 
daughter came home day after day without knowing how to do her home work. 
They were getting tired of doing the work for the girl and they told me that 
if some suggestions were given by the teacher, they thought that the girl would 
be able to do her work alone. This suggested to me to assign the next lesson 
with as much care as possible and to ask all pupils to begin the assigned home 
work immediately. The experiment made it apparent that some of the pupils 
were not in the habit of working alone. They simply imitated the others. They 
opened their text books when they saw the others do so. They took out paper 
to write on because the others had done it. It took them about fifteen minutes 
to go through the motions of getting started. On the whole all showed lack 
of appreciation of the value of time. Very little was accomplished in fifteen 
minutes and I could see then that I could be of great help to the whole class 
by giving them specific instruction as to the way to study. 

If these pupils were unable to go to work successfully immediately after 
the detailed instruction of the teacher, how can we expect pupils who have 
gone hurriedly from one recitation to another to go home and prepare assign- 
ments given by several teachers often with little definiteness and no preliminary 
smoothing out of difficulties? 

The recitation system in high schools is wasteful in time and energy. 
It offers little incentive to the able pupil, while the poorest pupils are strained 
to the utmost, and it is not efficient in training in good habits of study. 

A number of plans have been devised to provide for the individual differ- 
ences of pupils. Although some of them have been successful in certain locali- 
ties, so far none of them have been adopted widely. 

The individual or Pueblo plan abolishes all recitations and home study. 
The work is conducted largely by the laboratory method, each pupil working by 
himself under the direction of the teacher. Pupils are promoted according to 
the ability to do the work. The plan was used successfully in several schools 
in Colorado, Massachusetts and California, and in the Kansas City Manual 
Training High School. In other places where the system was tried, it broke 
down because of the technical difficulty which teachers found in dealing with 
so many punils, each on an individual basis. 

Various other plans have been devised to supplement the recitation by 
giving individual instruction and training, either as part of the regular class 
exercise or in special and lengthened periods. Of these, the Batavia plan is 
well known, in which an extra teacher was provided for a room to give special 
attention to pupils showing weakness. 

The application of the Batavia plan in high schools includes various types 
of adjustment. Mr. Reavis worked out a plan by which the pupils' time and 
work were so organized as to enable them to do the required home study and 
to supervise that study. In the Detroit Central High School a plan was tried to 
give weaker pupils in the ninth grade additional direction by grouping them to- 



250 

gethcr for special review -work. In the De Kalb High School study hours for 
several departments have been introduced, giving one study period per week to 
each subject. A similar plan has been tried in the Pittsburgh High Schools. 
In the Joliet Township High School a double period plan has been in use for 
several years, one period being used for recitation and the following period 
for supervised study. The plan has been successful in Joliet, but has failed 
when tried in another school, I was told, for there the Latin teacher used all 
the time for recitation and assigned more home work than usually required. 
The modem language teacher was all tired out. The English teacher could 
not use all the time, etc. The commercial teacher talked all the time. In the 
University of Missouri High School supervised study was made possible by 
reducing the recitation time to a minimum. The class hour is divided into three 
parts : Study, assignment of next day's lesson, and recitation. 

I have tried to summarize above briefly the typical experiments made to 
overcome the faults of the present system of instruction. All of these plans 
have been published at various times in more or less detail. The general testi- 
mony concerning the success of supervised study is strongly favorable. This 
has been supplemented recently by experimental proofs, some of which have 
been published, and others are to be published in the future. However, a plan 
is still to be worked out, which can be used successfuly by the ordinary teacher 
found in the ordinary high school. Even then it will be impossible to adopt 
the plan in schools in general unless it causes no great additional expense. 

In the department of Mathematics with which I am most familiar, namely, 
of the University of Chicago High School, we have been working for several 
years to find a solution of this important problem. 

Preceding the year 1910-11 very little attention was paid in the school 
to the grades given or to the percentage of failures. It was considered suflScient 
that each teacher was fully able and anxious to do all that could be done for 
his pupils. However, the percentage of failures was large. When Mr. Johnson 
became principal, he undertook a systematic study of grades given by the 
school, by each department and by the teachers in each department. As is 
usually the case, the percentage of failures in Mathematics was larger than in 
other departments. No criticism was made against the department, because of 
this, but the department felt that Mathematics was not entitled to enjoy per- 
manently the reputation of failing more pupils than any other department. It 
seemed that improvement should be made along two lines ! The course should 
be better adapted to the mental growth of the pupil and more attention should 
be paid to the individual pupil. Thus, during the year 1910-11 considerable study 
was made of the wa}' pupils prepare their home work, and of what assistance 
might be given them to help them to learn how to study; supervised study was 
introduced into the class room. This made it necessary to reduce the time 
ordinarily given to recitation purposes and hearing of lessons prepared by the 
pupil at home, in order that the time gained might be used for supervised study 
in the class room and for class work. Tc satisfy ourselves as to the possible 
loss caused by this change, an experiment was tried to measure the effect of 
home study upon class progress with two algebra classes. No home work was 
assigned in one recitation and the time usually taken up with the discussion of 



D 


E Average 


12.5 


81.4 


17.7 


5.9 70.4 



251 

home work was used for study in the class room. The method of instruction 
in both sections was the same. Both sections covered the chapter on simulta- 
neous linear equations, at the end of which the same test was given to both 
with the following results : 

A B C D E Average 

Section A — (Home work with no 

supervised study) 7.1 21.4 21.4 50. 62.8 

Section B — (Supervised study 

with no home work) 0. 6.2 37.5 25 31.2 65.5 

The low grades received in both classes may be explained by the fact 
that the test was not easy, and that no review was given in preparation for the 
test. If the time had allowed it, a second and fairer test would have been given. 

Some idea as to the relative ability of these classes can be obtained from 
the results of the departmental final examination given at the end of the pre- 
ceding semester. The grades were distributed as follows: 

ABC 

Section A 25. 25. 37.5 

Section B 29.4 23.5 23.5 

It is seen that section B, though weaker than section A, came out a little 
stronger on the average after supervised study without home work. The poorer 
students profited particularly by this method. Supervision seems to have en- 
abled pupils at least to make up for the loss due to lack of assigned home work. 
On the other hand, it is significant that the better students did not succeed as 
well under supervised instruction as without it. The average amount of time 
spent on home work in section A was one hour and fifteen minutes per lesson. 
However, when the number of problems worked in each section was counted, 
it was found that in section A the average number of problems per pupil was 
two less than in section B. These results indicate that the amount of home 
work may be reduced in high school classes, provided a method of instruction 
more effective than the common method be used. 

It was interesting to notice the progress of the class working under super- 
vision. At first the class was very slow, and it did not get along as rapidly 
as the other section. During the third lesson, however, it became evident that 
the pupils were learning to work independently. After the fourth lesson both 
classes were doing the same work, and they were kept together for the remain- 
der of the time the chapter selected was being studied. 

The section under supervision worked with more confidence and pleasure. 
This was especially true of the slow pupils. A girl who had failed during the 
first semester and was in the class on condition made a grade of 78 in the test 
on this chapter. Her grade in the final examination at the end of the first sem- 
ester had been only 40. A boy who barely received a passing grade at the end 
of the first semester, and who at first seemed to be unable to do anything under 
supervision, suddenly found that with a little greater effort he could do as well 
as his classmates. There was an immediate improvement, and one day when a 
speed test was given he surprised everybody, even himself, by leading the class. 
A girl rtuming after a week's illness, and still in a weakened condition, said 



252 

she "could not understand anything that was said," and felt greatly discouraged. 
By giving her a little more attention than other pupils she was enabled to do 
the work before the end of the recitation, and had no further difficulty. Under 
the common system of instruction very little attention can be paid to such 
cases. The teacher usually allows a certain amount of time in which the pupils 
must "catch up." Very often, in addition to the difficulties found in under- 
standing the class work, "back work" is assigned. The injustice of all this at 
times drives some pupils to use dishonest means of getting possession of all 
this required work. 

The following chapter, on "operations with fractions," was covered by 
section A working under supervision, and section B taking home work. A test 
was given to both classes as soon as the chapter was completed. The grades 
in this test were as follows: 

A B C D E Average 

Section A 31.2 25. 18.7 12.5 12.5 77.5 

Section B 52.9 23.5 5.9 11.8 5.7 86.4 

The average amount of time per lesson spent on home work was thirty-six 
minutes. The number of problems could not be computed because much oral 
work was done in section A, but there was very little difference. The power 
obtained by section B in the preceding chapter, while working under supervision, 
persisted and was strong enough to be helpful in the following chapter. 

Before any final conclusions can be drawn, evidently further experimental 
work is needed. The results of the foregoing tests, however, express the im- 
pression received during the time the study of these classes was being made. 
Both classes accomplished the same work within the regulation time, although 
section B did no home work and section A spent an hour and fifteen minutes 
daily on the assigned lessons. Section B, the weaker section at the end of 
the first semester, came out stronger than section A, after nearly three weeks of 
supervised study and proved to be still stronger during the study of the next 
chapter. In both classes progress under the new method was very slow at first, 
but there was rapid improvement. 

Following these experiments some of the instructors in the department 
were practically omitting home work because their experience showed that better 
results could be obtained by giving more time of the class period to class work 
on the part of the pupil rather than to reciting the lesson. In the final depart- 
mental examination of the first year classes, the sections in which home work 
was minimized ranked second, while in the second- and third-year courses, the 
classes doing little home work ranked first. Thus, with supervised study loss of 
home work did not retard the progress of these classes. 

Technique of supervised study in the class room. 

Teachers often do not know themselves the best methods of study. Much 
less do they know about the pupil's difficulties and helplessness when he tries 
to prepare his home work. In order, therefore, to be able to give him the best 
methods of work, the teacher must watch him at work. 



253 

Supervised study can be carried on in a 4S-minute period, but the ideal 
length of class period seems to me to be 60 minutes. With that much time on 
hand, the amount of home work could be reduced to a minimum, most of it 
being done in the class room. If 60 minutes can not be obtained, an addition 
of even as little as 5 minutes to a 45-minute period is a decided advantage. At 
the University of Chicago High School the time of the class period last year 
was lengthened from 45 to 50 minutes, and Principal Johnson is now working 
on a plan by which 10 minutes more will be added. 

In every class period three things are to be accomplished. First, the new 
lesson is to be taught. This does not need to be done at the beginning, although 
that seems to be the best time for it. Along with the development of the ad- 
vanced work goes the assignment for home work. Second, some time is to be 
spent in clearing up any difficulties found in home preparation, i. e., in hearing 
the lesson. Third, the remainder is to be used for class work and supervised 
study. Thus, pupils start in the class room the working out of the assigned 
home work. If no difficulty is found, the work may be stopped, to be completed 
at home. 

To make this supervised work go smoothly each pupil must always have 
with him the necessary equipment, i. e., text book, note book, ruler, compass, pro- 
tractor and pencil. (Complete set to be shown.) At first we had considerable 
trouble to accomplish this. Pupils would lose their rulers and compasses, or if a 
certain instrument was not used for some time, they would cease to bring it 
to the class room. The trouble was removed by putting perforations in the rulers 
making them fit into the rings of the note books. A type of compass was 
selected that could be attached to the note book ring. In a similar way the 
protractor is carried. Since then we seldom find a pupil without his equipment. 
However, each teacher's desk contains a number of sets of those instruments 
to be loaned to a pupil who happens for some unforeseen reason to appear with- 
out his instruments. 

Some of the first lessons to be taught in supervised study are : the appre- 
ciation of the value of time; not to take five minutes for something that can 
be done in 1 minute ; to begin work at once whenever asked to do so ; not to 
wait idly for assistance, but to keep busy, at least gathering the known facts 
about the problem, until the teacher can give further suggestions ; to assume 
a business-like position when working, i. e., not to lounge on the table, or to be 
fussing with the hair until every pin is in its exact place, etc. All of these are 
minor details, but are important for quick and thorough work. 

There are some things common to the study of all mathematical subjects : 
First, in every problem, algebra or geometry, there are some known facts. These 
facts must stand out clearly in the pupil's mind. Pupils must learn not to make 
the mistake of trying to start a problem in algebra by getting the equation and 
of beginning the study of a geometric problem with the proof, i. e., not to try 
to draw a conclusion, from an unknown or confused hj-pothesis. 

In teaching pupils how to study we show them that the procedure common 
to all problems in algebra should be about as follows : Read the problem care- 
fully and find out particularly what unknown number is called for, i. e., find 
the question of the problem. Denote this number by a symbol, as x. One of the 



254 

great advantages of algebra over arithmetic is that, although x is unknown, 
it can be used as if it was known. Thus, we can state the hypothesis, the known 
facts, in terms of x. This is done by translating the problem word for word into 
algebraic language. Then is the time to think about getting the equation. In 
general, the equation is obtained by translating the problem into algebraic lan- 
guage, but for certain types of problems there exists a special scheme for ob- 
taining the equation, e. g., motion problems, mixture problems, geometric prob- 
lems, clock problems, A and B can do a piece of work problems, etc. Unless 
these devices are familiar to the pupil, ever>' new motion problem will seem 
different to him from any other motion problem, compelling him to reason out 
each problem as a new problem rather than as a new problem of the same 
general type. 

Likewise some very definite rules may be laid down for the study of the 
geometric problem or theorem : First, the pupil must read the theorem until he 
understands its meaning clearly and must memorize it before undertaking the 
study of the proof. Pupils often make the mistake to think that memory work 
is not required in geometry. They must be taught not only to memorize theo- 
rems but to classify them, in order that each theorem be a new tool to be used 
in the proofs of other theorems and problems. To illustrate : Collect the 
theorems on the isosceles triangle, on the parallelogram. How can we prove 
two angles equal? Under what conditions are two lines parallel? etc. Often 
I have asked the pupil to state the theorem the proof of which he was studying, 
only to receive the answer: "I don't know the theorem, but I think I can 
prove it." Geometry means to them to prove things and everything else is con- 
sidered of no importance. When the theorem is memorized the pupil must put 
down this theorem referred to a particular figure, i. e., the hypothesis and con- 
clusion are stated. Then is the time to study the proof. He must learn that 
for certain cases a certain method is most likely to be advantageous, e. g., are 
two angles to be proved equal the method by congruent triangles should be 
considered ; are two lines to be proved parallel, he should try the method by 
analysis, i. e., ask himself the question : under what conditions are two lines 
parallel? Is the size of an angle to be determined, the algebraic method is 
likely to be promising, i. e., find some relation containing the required angle 
and others, which then have to be eliminated by algebraic processes. 

The direction given above will do much to remove the helplessness with 
which some pupils view their problems in algebra and geometry. They are, 
however, far from sufficient to guarantee a successful study of either subject. 
They will give the pupil a definite way of starting. When a pupil claims he 
can do nothing with a problem, it is frequently because he tries to see through 
the whole proof without writing the facts down. When he is asked to get his 
facts down in writing he most likely can complete the proof without further 
assistance. The teacher who tries supervised study will receive surprise after 
surprise as he sees pupils struggling with difficulties he would never expect. It 
keeps him busy to think out schemes by which pupils may be helped to overcome 
these difficulties. A few examples will illustrate this. Symbolic Notation. Let 
us assume that the pupil knows how to separate the hypothesis from the con- 
clusion. He has in his hypothesis such statements as isosceles triangle ABC, 



255 

the midpoint of AB, CD -■- EF, the vertex angle is bisected, etc., but he has 
no idea how to use these statements to prove the congruence of two triangles 
on which the proof of the theorem depends. This difficulty is easily removed 
by teaching good svinbolic notation. Thus, AB=^BC is identical with the state- 
ment that A ABC is isosceles, x=y replaces the statements that CD bisects 
angle C, AE=EB states that E is the midpoint of AB, m=n expresses that 
CD -^ EF, etc. The pupil must be trained in mental geometry. I found a 
pupil recently who had trouble to prove the following problem: If the diagonals 
of a parallelogram are equal, the parallelogram is a rectangle. His whole trou- 
ble was due to his figure. He had drawn a rhomboid and could not see how 
he could prove one of the angles to be a right angle. H he had compared by 
mental measurement his statement in the hypothesis that the diagonals were 
to be equal with the geometric picture of that statement in the figure he would 
have discovered his error at once. Another boy who was to prove that the 
interior angles formed by two parallels cut by a transversal are supplementary-, 
misunderstood the theorem and in all seriousness undertook to prove the two 
angles equal. When he was asked to estimate the size of the angles he saw 
at once that he was attemping to prove the impossible. Logical order is of im- 
portance. Very often I find that pupils have all the steps in the proof but 
fail to have them in logical order. They are fully satisfied with the following 
order: ABHCD, ADHBS; therefore <x = <x', <y = <y'; which should be 
ABnCD, therefore <x = <x', ADHBC, therefore <y = <y'. This is a com- 
paratively slight mistake in logic, but it occurs in various forms, the worst being 
the use of the conclusion in the proof of theorem. Eveiy step is there but no 
idea of logic. 

General expressions as clearing of fractions, cancellations, etc., mean little 
to many pupils. 

Some pupils have no clear notion of what it means to clear an equation 
of fractions until they go through the process themselves repeatedly under the 
supervision of the teacher. 

These are a few of the difficulties that confuse the slow pupil. Watching 
the pupil at work, the teacher is able not only to correct errors and false ideas, 
but to help the pupil to work out a scheme which will guard him against repe- 
tition of the same mistake. To do this, a considerable portion of the class 
period will be used, which means that the recitation part must be cut short. 
It has been my practice to dispose rapidly of the most serious difficulties found 
in the home work and then post the best paper of the class somewhere in the 
room where it can remain for several days for the inspection of the pupils. 
This not only enables a pupil to find his mistakes, but contributes to a general 
improvement of the written work, as it gives him a chance to compare his work 
with that of the best pupils. Written work done under supervision of the 
teacher is done in one of the following two forms : A special note book of the 
composition book style is kept for each pupil in the class room. Pupils are 
not allowed to take these books home. Thus, all work contained in them is 
done in school independently under supervision of the teacher. A good idea 
as to the pupil's ability can be obtained from them. This book is especially 



256 

good for solution of lists of problems and exercises when more or less help 
from the teacher is to be expected and to make sure that a topic is mastered 
by a class before passing on to the next subject. 

When only one problem is to be solved and explained, small paper slips 
are used (54 of a regular note book page). The teacher dictates the problem 
or theorem and pupils work it out in a limited amount of time. Pupils are then 
requested to lay down their pencils and the problem is explained, each pupil 
keeping his paper before him. After the explanation all papers are passed to 
one end of the room and collected by the instructor. This device has the fol- 
lowing advantages : Each pupil works independently. He has the problem ex- 
plained at a time when his interest is keen and when he still has it in mind. 
He has done his best with the problem because the paper is of the nature of a 
test. The teacher, in glancing over these cards, can tell at once whether the 
problem is well taught, where the most frequent mistakes are and which pupils 
need the further help. The device is economical as to time. Almost as much 
good can be obtained by the pupil from one problem as is ordinarily obtained 
from a set of problems of the same kind done by the class at the blackboard, 
the explanation of which often takes the remaining time of the class period. 

Although supervised study in the class room will do much for the slow 
pupil, it is not sufficient to enable some to do their work successfully. This 
has lead us to arrange for an additional study class after school hours. We 
began to experiment with it in the school year 1912-13 in all first year classes, 
since the largest number of failures was found among the beginners. Pupils 
taking first year work were dropped from class as soon as the instructor felt 
that they were failing. They were put into a special class, taking the same work 
as the regular classes, but receiving more individual attention because all work 
was done under supervision of the instructor. At the end of that year only 
6.1% of grades in the first year classes were failures, a good showing when com- 
pared with the 11% failures of all grades given in the department. 

During the next year we decided to give assistance to all pupils in mathe- 
matics who did not do work of passing grade because there were not enough 
first year pupils failing to make up a full section. These pupils were allowed 
to remain in their regular classes and received additional help in the afternoon 
study class. It was found that this section soon became too large for one teacher 
to handle successfully and a second study class was formed. The teachers took 
charge of these classes in turns for a length of two weeks each time. In these 
two classes we were able to give individual assistance to every slow pupil in 
mathematics. As soon as a teacher felt that a pupil's work had improved enough 
to be above passing, his presence in the study class was no longer required. 
It was found that 129 diflFerent pupils, i. e. — over 25% of all pupils taking mathe- 
matics — were regular members of these study classes at some time during the 
year. This is fairly close to the percentage of failures in mathematics in many 
high schools. The number of periods per pupil varied from 1 to 118 and were 
distributed as follows : 

No. of lessons per pupil: 1-9; 10-19; 20-20; 30-39; 40-49; 50-59; 60-69; 
70-79 ; 80-89 per pupil. 



257 

No. of pupils, 16, 38, 13, 20, 12, 6, 6, 7, 6. 

No. of lessons per pupil: 90-100, 101-109, 110-119. 

No. of pupils, 1, 0, 1. 

This year we have gone back to one study class instead of two. One 
instructor has charge of this class as part of his regular work. When the 
number of pupils increases beyond 25 or 30, other members of the department 
drop in to give assistance. This plan has been very satisfactory so far. Of the 
52 regular members 14 improved enough to raise their grade above passing. 
The average number of pupils attending voluntarily was 5. 

The technique for the conduct of this study class is about as follows: 

Attendance. Pupils taking mathematics are enrolled whenever their work 
falls below the passing mark, the teachers handing their names to the study 
teacher. Others may, if they wish, come to the study class as visitors to receive 
help. Absences. No roll call is taken in order to keep the instructor free to 
give assistance from the beginning to the end of the period, but each pupil 
hands to the instructor in charge a slip with his name on before leaving the 
class room. If a pupil is absent, he must bring a satisfactory excuse to the 
instructor of his regular class. All absences are reported by the instructor in 
charge of the study class to the other instructors. 

Excuses from study class. Excuses from study class can be obtained only 
from the instructor of the regular class. 

Conflicts. Pupils are requested to make appointments with other teachers 
of the school at times that will not be in conflict with the study class. If this 
is impossible, they will be excused from study class on alternate days, upon 
written request by the other teacher. 

Lengtii of study period. Regular members must stay from the beginning 
to the end of the period, i. e., 50 minutes. Visiting pupils are allowed to come 
and leave at any time. Pupils must enter the room quietly and begin to study 
their work as soon as they are seated. If no home work is assigned they must 
spend their time reviewing back work or reading in advance. 

Pupils are encouraged to do all work in writing. One advantage of this 
is that the study teacher can be in touch with what they are doing and direct 
their work without inquiring about it. 

A pupil must bring to the study class the necessar>^ equipment. 

A pupil must not ask questions until the teacher is at his desk. 

In general, the study period is conducted in the same way as supervised 
study in the regular class period. 

What tlie pupils say about this study class. Among pupils the study class 
is known as "bone-head class." This indicates that it is considered a disgrace 
to be a member of the class, a good incentive for getting out of it as early as 
possible. I suppose it always will be a disgrace. However, many pupils have 
expressed themselves in a way which leaves no doubt that they consider it a 
privilege to be in the class. The number of students attending voluntarily varies 
from 4 to 10 daily. Pupils who are not sure of their work frequently ask the 
instructor "if they had not better go to the study class." One boy dropped a 
favored subject to be able to be in the study class. Pupils remark frequently 
that the class is "doing them a great deal of good." One very slow boy ex- 



258 

pressed his appreciation by saying that "he generally got a start on his home 
work" 

Advantages of supervised study as conducted in the department: 

It aims to make pupils independent. Most pupils show enough improve- 
ment at intervals to be excused from the study class. During last year only 
one pupil was a permanent member. 

// cultivates the habit of study. The fact that a pupil must study daily 
during a whole period at a definite time in the presence of his teacher is bound 
to show results, even if no assistance were given to him. 

It gives help to pupils only zvhere it is needed and as long as it is needed. 

Good pupils are excluded and can spend their time to better advantage by 
working alone at their own convenience. 

// is economical. In many schools teachers meet pupils in private to give 
them special assistance. The study class does away with most of that. Where 
there are several teachers in one department, teachers can carry a study class 
easily in addition to regular work by taking turns. One teacher alone can 
take care of all the slow pupils of a number of classes. 

Pupils who have been out of school because of sickness or for other reasons 
can obtain help as long as they feel the need of it. 

Results 

By helping the slow pupils, the popularity of the subject is increased. Al- 
though only one year of Mathematics is required at our school for graduation, 
about 75% of all pupils in school are found to take courses of Mathematics. 

The Standard has been raised. Our pupils now pass entrance examinations 
to eastern colleges without trouble, at least we have had no failures for the last 
two years. (A number of our pupils have been reported to lead their classes 
in college mathematics.) Tlie number of failures in Mathematics in the high 
school is reduced. From 1911-1914 they have decreased from 16.2% to 11.1% to 
8.5%. The failures of last year are distributed as follows: 

Mathematics I — 9.5% failures as compared with 16.6% previous year. 

Math. I M. — 10.6% failures as compared with 27.7% previous year. 

Math. II — 14.2% failures as compared with 12.9% previous year. 

Math. II F — 2.0% failures as compared with 18.6% previous year. 

Math. Ill — 3.6% failures as compared with 14.1% previous year. 

Math. IV — 2.9% failures as compared with 14.9% previous year. 

The number of withdrawals has been reduced from 10.7% to 7.5%, nearly 
all of them unavoidable and not due to inability to do the work. 

Supervised study improves the teaching in the department. Teachers learn 
to know the mental processes involved in a problem, the pupil's weaknesses and 
the means by which to overcome them. Moreover, teachers become acquainted 
with each other's ways of presenting the same subject. 

In conclusion I may say that the experiment is still in the stage of develop- 
ment. We are sure that in our own school much has been accomplished. We 
hope that in time somebody will develop a technique by which supervised study 
may be easily introduced in other schools. 



259 

Mr. L. C. Irwin, of Joliet, opened the discussion with a paper 
from which we have abstracted the following: 

Different plans of supervised study have been successfully tried in different 
schools of this countrj'. I have studied the plans in use, their successes and 
failures, and am strongly convinced that the plan in use in the Joliet Town- 
ship High School is nearer the ideal than any other. 

The double period plan has been in use three years in our high school. 
The plan means that two periods of forty minutes each are set aside for first 
and second year classes. The first period is devoted to recitation work. The 
second period, which immediately follows the first, with an intermission of a 
minute or two, is given up to supervised study. The period is devoted pri- 
marily to the study of the next day's assignment, but the teacher may use it in 
clearing up individual difficulties which may have arisen during the recitation 
period, or in making up back work, or, if a mistake is noticed being made by 
several pupils, in correcting or discussing this common error. The teacher can 
observe any incorrect use of tools in geometry and can assist in securing accur- 
ac}^ and neatness. He can make a study of the individual needs and habits 
of the pupil, and aid him by suggesting questions upon topics with which the 
pupil is familiar, e. g., topics relating to his father's occupation or topics relating 
to the course the pupil is pursuing in school. The teacher can thus become 
more intimatelj- acquainted with the pupil and secure his confidence. * * * * 

Recently I passed out to 441 pupils who have supervised study slips upon 
which were written two questions: (1) Do you have a private place at home 
for study? (2) Do you prefer the longer school day with the extra period for 
study under the supervision of the teacher, or do you prefer the shorter school 
day with no supervision and the privilege of studying at home? In answer to 
the first question I found about fifty per cent had no private place for study, 
or if they had, they did not use it. A large per cent of those who did have 
private places for study have rooms whose decorations suggest many things 
which detract from study. 

In answer to the second question, I found over ninety per cent favored 
the longer day with supervision. The majority of those not favoring super- 
vision were the brighter pupils, who need no supervision, while those most en- 
thusiastic about supervision were the weaker pupils. 

When the plan of supervision was instituted, we believed that the supreme 
test of its success would not be the reduction of the per cent of failures in the 
subject having supervision, but the attitude and ability of these same pupils 
in the succeeding week. We have tried the plan for a sufficient time to con- 
clude with safety that the pupil has a better attitude toward his new work and 
is able to do more proficient work in the succeeding years than under the 
old plan. * * * * 

This table of failures will show the effects of supervision since its adoption. 

1911 1912 1913 1914 

First half, first year, Algebra 22.6% 24% 21% 14% 

Second half, first year, Algebra 16 % 18% 14% 8% 

First half, PI. Geometrj^ 28 % 29% 21% 17% 

Second half, PI. Geometry 34 % 20% 18% 8% 



260 

We have also noted a decrease in the number of pupils who leave school 
although there is an increase in the number of pupils who enter. 

The greater part of the time in ten first-year Algebra classes, the lesson 
assigned for the following day is handed in completed at the end of the second 
period, showing that the pupil has learned to concentrate. The scope of work 
covered has been increased and our standards have been raised. * * * * 

In conclusion, I believe that wise supervision of study will encourage the 
individual pupil to stay in school because he will be encouraged and led to see 
the wisdom of staying with the subject until it is mastered ; that the average 
pupil will have correct habits of study formulated ; that less time will be wasted 
by the pupil and teacher; that ability formerly dormant will be awakened; that 
the teacher will be encouraged and strengthened and will secure the confidence 
of the pupil ; that the home conditions, habits, and environments will be im- 
proved, and our schools become more efficient ; and finally, that the maximum 
success and minimum failure will follow without additional cost to the public. 

Dr. Lytle said that he was becoming more and more impressed 
with the fact that students do not know how to study. He suggested 
that thinking consists in asking a question, and keeping at it until 
that question is answered. 

Mrs. Anderson stated that for several years she has used super- 
vised study and found it most successful. Her method consists 
partly in developing the new work by putting questions to the class, 
first to the weaker students and then to the stronger. The better 
students thus do the work as original research, and the necessary re- 
view is made voluntarily and incidentally. In answer to a question 
by Dr. Lytle if supervised study would not cause the pupils to lean 
too much upon the teacher, and so to lose their self-reliance, she 
answered that not only did they not become dependent, but that the 
weaker students formed the good habit of asking questions, and of 
formulating their problems after class, so that many of them became 
stronger in power of expression than the stronger students. 

Mr. Irwin said that the amount of independence developed de- 
pends upon the teacher, who must not take final action on any ques- 
tion raised, being careful, for example, not to make corrections for 
the pupil, but only to suggest them. He said that the ideal system of 
supervised study is to have a short recitation period during the first 
year, and to increase the length of this period gradually each school 
year. 

Mr. Davis called attention again to the fact that a two hour 
period gives the teacher a chance to relate his subject more closely to 
the outside life of the pupil. 



261 

Mr. Rugg summed up the results of his investigation on grades 
as follows : 

Marking Systems with Special Reference to the Marks of Illinois High 

School and College Teachers 

By H. O. Rugg 

conclusions 

1. There has been a general assumption on the part of investigators that, 
since physical attributes and a few mental abilities distributed on the "normal 
curve," that the "abilities" of students in school subjects will also distribute 
themselves m accordance with this curve. 

2. The determination of the answer to the question, "What is measured 
by school marks?" calls for a standardization of the terminology of marking 
systems. The distinction should be made between "ability", accomplishment 
and productive efficiency or performance. It is suggested that school marks 
measure accomplishment as expressed in productive efficiency. 

3. The preponderance of evidence from investigations on marking sys- 
tems reveal High School and College grades to be decidedly skewed to the 
high end of the percentage scale ; (b) that very wide individual differences 
are found in the marking by teachers of the same students and the same sub- 
jects; (c) that the passing and exemption grades decidedly influence the shape 
of the grade-curve and play an important role in determining where the "criti- 
cal" points are to appear; (d) that multi-modal curves are verv- common; (e) that 
a five-division grouping of grades proves to be the best, — this being confirmed 
experimentally by a study on the minimum precision interval in which teachers 
can mark. 

4. The study of grades of Illinois teachers confirms practically all of the 
above points and emphasizes, 1 — the importance of the passing grade as a deter- 
miner of critical points in the curve ; 2 — that High School teachers pass a larger 
proportion of their advanced mathematics classes than of the elementary classes ; 
3 — that the mode for technical students is considerably higher in technical sub- 
jects than in mathematical and non-technical subjects. 

5. That the application of Cajori's "normal" tables results in raising the 
grades of nearly all the students in 9 classes in Descriptive Geometry by 3% 
at the high end of the percentage scale and by 12% at the low or inferior end 
of the scale. The value of such proposed systems of marking needs to be deter- 
mined by further experimentation. 

6. We need detailed evidence on many mooted points concerning the the- 
ory and practice of marking systems; e. g., the effect of individual differences 
of teachers and of "institutional" passing and exemption grades on the skewing 
of the curve of accomplishment. This conference can contribute to the solution 
of these problems by taking definite action at this time. 

Because of the importance to secondary and higher education of the various 
problems concerning marking systems, and because this section of the conference 



262 

is in a position to contribute much to the successful solution of these problems, it 
is suggested : 

1. That the study of this problem of marking systems be extended in a 
detailed manner during the present and coming semester by a committee of this 
section to be apointed by the chairman. 

2. That the cooperation of high school and college teachers of mathematics 
throughout the state be secured and the investigation so organized as to lay 
emphasis on at the least the following points : 

a. Actual grades to be secured of as manj^ separate classes and in as many 
subjects of study as possible, including the passing grade and exemption grade 
and all other like data, using for this purpose a standard printed form. 

b. That the members of this section be prepared to report (anonymously if 
desired) detailed information concerning their own methods or "systems" of 
marking and the systems of marking in use in their respective institutions or 
departments, using for this purpose a standard printed form. 

c. That the members of this section submit for trial, some one or more 
of the proposed marking systems mentioned in this report 

1. Since the scheme proposed by Dean Cajori applies consistently the 
mathematics underlying the "normal" curve, and since the curve has been assumed 
to correctly represent the true distribution of abilities in school subjects, and 
since Cajori's scheme involves a minimum of labor for the teacher, it is sug- 
gested that his proposed system be given a thorough trial during the coming 
winter. 

2. The committee could facilitate that experiment by supplying teachers 
with printed tables stating the grade (in percent) that should be given to suc- 
cessive individuals in classes of various sizes, the students having been pre- 
viously arranged in order of ability. 

3. Teachers should then report to the committee the grades given by ref- 
erence to the normal curve and the grades actually recorded. 

4. In this report a definite and detailed explanation should be made of 
reasons for accepting or rejecting the "normal" grades and their opinions of 
the value of such a system, its advantages and disadvantages. 

Professor Rietz said that, inasmuch as it appeared that the 
largest number of grades were given at the passing mark, he favored 
50 as a passing grade. 

Professor Comstock stated that a system of grading by five 
marks. A, B, C, D, E, with C average and D passing, is now in use 
at Bradley Polytechnic Institute, and that he believes it will give a 
normal curve. 

Professor Comstock moved, and the motion was carried, That a 
committee, with Mr. Rugg as chairman, be appointed to continue the 
investigation of grades. 

A discussion of the meaning of "passing grade" followed. 

W. W. Denton, 
905 S. Sixth Street. Champaign, 111. 



263 

Modern Language Section 
Morning Session 

Professor John D. Fitz-Gerald was elected as the third member 
of the committee to fill the place vacated by the retiring member, 
Professor T. E. Oliver. 

The bulletin, "Suggestions and References for Modern Language 
Teachers" was presented in manuscript form to the Conference for 
examination. This bulletin contains information on the following 
topics : 

I. The Training of the Teacher. 

A. Opportunities for Travel and Study. 

B. Books of Travel. 

C. Reference Books. 

1. Methods. 

2. Aids to Correct Pronunciation. 

3. Political Histories. 

4. Histories of Literature. 

5. Journals for the Teacher. 

6. Dictionaries. 

7. Supplementary Grammatical Aids. 

8. Miscellaneous Reference Books. 
H. The Teacher in the Classroom. 

A. Newspapers and Periodicals for Classroom Use. 

B. Illustrative Material. 

1. Maps. 

2. Illustrative Albums. 

3. Pictures and Photographs. 

4. Post Cards. 

5. Wall Chromolethographs, etc., for Conversational 
Drill. 

6. Lantern Slides. 

III. The Teacher Outside the Classroom. 

1. Songs. 

2. Games. 

3. Dramas for High School Presentation. 

4. International Correspondence between Schools. 
The bulletin was heartily approved; and it was further moved 

and seconded that the University of Illinois be requested to publish 



264 

said bulletin. [This has been done in the form of Bulletin No. 12, 
School of Education]. It was also urged that a similar bulletin on 
text-books be compiled. 

The following paper on The Demand for Spanish, was presented 
by Miss F. L. Stuart, Highland Park : 

"When the subject, "Spanish in the High School," was presented me, I inter- 
preted it to mean "Shall Spanish be taught in our High Schools," and its value 
to the student: not the method to be employed in teaching it, as this subject 
has been so thoroughly and helpfully discussed in dealing with the teaching of 
French and German, and the direct method has been so unanimously accepted. 
The same arguments offered in form of other modern languages would be equally 
applicable to Spanish so that from a pedagogic standpoint there is little new 
to be said. Knowing how full the curriculum in our schools already is, I realize 
I must prove that in urging the introduction of another modem language 
the value cultural and commercial of the new subject. Above all it must be 
proved to the student that the work is worth while. 

We think of what England has done in the spreading of civilization through 
colonization and navigation, but Spain was before her — Spain was first. Under 
Spain's aegis the Americas were discovered. The growth of the Latin-American 
republics has been so rapid, and so recent have been many of the most important 
developments that only those who have given special attention to the subject 
have any very definite knowledge of them. The completion of the Panama 
canal and the changes in commercial relations brought about by the war in 
Europe have served to call the attention of the people of the United States to 
Latin-America. These countries comprise an area three times that of the 
United States, with 70 million inhabitants and governments modeled after our 
own, while statistics show that one-tenth of all the people claiming protection 
under the American flag are Spanish speaking people. From the Bureau of 
Education, of the Department of the Interior, Mr. Claxton says, "For all these 
reasons and because of the fact that all our relations with these republics must 
soon become much more intimate than they have been in the past, I desire to 
call the attention of teachers and school officers to the importance of teaching in 
our schools and colleges, more of the geography, history, literature and life of 
the Latin- American countries than is now taught, and of offering instruction 
in the Spanish and Portuguese languages, to a much larger extent." 

The United States is the most conservative of nations in regard to world 
issues, world commerce, literature and art. England and Germany have preceded 
us many years in our appreciation of the opportunities of trade and intercourse 
offered by South American states, whose names are rarely mentioned in our 
daily papers without mockery — the contempt of ignorance. How many of us 
know that they have a literature quite as good as our own ; that Buenos Aires 
is the second Latin city, ranking after Paris, in all the world, and growing 
faster than any city in the United States except New York and Chicago: that 
the finest and most expensive structure in the world used exclusively by one 
newspaper is in this same city: that there are universities at Lima, Peru, and 



265 

at Cordolrs in Argentina whose foundations antedate Harvard and Yale. As 
Secretary Root said, "The newer civilization of North America has much to 
learn from the older civilization of South America. This is the answer to 
the question "Why have we not made more progress with our prestige and 
trade in South America in the past? We have not studied and appreciated South 
American peoples, nations, governments, habits, customs as they deserved. 
There has been a tendency to look down upon our sister republics, to patronize 
them, to assume the "holier than thou" attitude instead of giving them credit 
for their actual progress in developing stable national and municipal govern- 
ment, in promoting education and in striving under difl&cult circumstances to 
reach a higher standard of civilization. Mr. Charles L. Chandler for several 
years minister to Peru, who recently conferred with Mrs. Ella Flagg Young 
to urge the extension of the teaching of Spanish in the High Schools, says 
that South American trade is virtually dependent on a knowledge of Spanish 
and South American conditions. Naturally the difference in language and lin- 
eage has worked against us. Instead of our mastering Spanish and Portuguese 
we have expected them to understand English. We have always approached 
South America on the material side and discussed opportunities for making 
money, without endeavoring to get into closer touch along intellectual, literary 
and educational lines. We ought to take a lesson from Germany's example. 
Germany is not a neighbor of South America but her commercial agents in Latin- 
America do not grope about with their native tongue. They learn Spanish in 
Germany. The first point of salesmanship is for the salesman to understand 
his prospective customer. This he cannot do unless one of them understands 
the other's language. And when the buyer has choice of sellers he will prefer 
the seller who comes to him to the seller to whom he must go in speech. It is 
good salesmanship just now to push Spanish ahead of other modern languages, 
upon the attention of aspiring youth. Let me quote from a letter from Mr. 
C. H. McDowell of the Armour Fertilizer works, "To the south are the Latin- 
American nations. They have large places and plenty of room ; they produce 
many things we need and can use many things we make. They generally speak 
Spanish, some French and little English. They too are not linguistically inclined. 
Their disposition is to go to Europe, to trade with Europe. Europe can talk to 
them. They are a proud people with gentle manners and social graces. Their 
friendship is worth while. Their trade is important. Europe goes after it not 
through interpreters, but by direct speech. There is subtle flattery in talking to 
strangers in their native tongue. If we are to benefit by South American travel, 
if we are to interchange prosperity with these states, more of us must speak 
Spanish. It is our important foreign language socially, diplomatically, commer- 
cially ; and our students should compass it conversationally and grammatically. 
With more of us speaking Spanish we will be braver in our commerce with 
them. We will comprehend their viewpoint better. They are apt to visit us 
if we can converse with them. As they know us better and we them, their 
opinions and ours will change and mutual respect and confidence will follow." 
Some one has said that aside from the difference in language, the three 
barriers, for us to Soutk American trade are the lack of American men on the 
ground, the absence of an informed press and the lack of American banks. 



266 

There is no American bank south of Panama ; or was not in 1913. American 
banks could serve two purposes toward trade expansion, to keep us in touch 
with opportunities for investment and by having men on the spot to furnish 
information on the standing or credit rating of foreign firms. The packers are 
moving to Argentina. Already 78% of London beef comes from Argentina and 
we must turn there too. Statistics show that our supply of meat has decreased 
9% in ten years, and the increase of consumers is 21%. Shall we let many 
transactions in food supplies be controlled by our trade rivals? It is said that 
British banks have made over 80 million dollars from United States citizens 
in South America. They form regular machines with branches in all trade 
centers, whose men are interested in railroads and other enterprises. 

South America is the field for young men. As the element of personal 
relations in business is stronger in the south than in the north of our country, 
so by multiplying this difference many times one may get an idea of the im- 
portance of personal relations in business in South America. One of the most 
difficult things for the American salesman in South American states is to un- 
derstand why he should spend days in gaining a social entree before placing his 
business proposition before them. But that is the Latin way and we will have 
to appreciate our customers. I read of a salesman, eminently successful in the 
United States, who failed utterly in South America from lack of ability to con- 
verse, and whose place was filled successfully by a young man of very little expe- 
rience as a salesman, but with a fair if somewhat stilted command of Spanish, 
who was thus able to acquire a circle of friends and familiarize himself with 
the ways of the people. 

This brings me to the point "Shall Spanish be confined to the commercial 
department, made a strictly business proposition," which I answer with an 
emphatic "no." Professor de Salvio of Northwestern said that he could not 
conceive of what was meant by a commercial course in Spanish," that without the 
study of the language itself a comprehensible letter could hardly be possible. 
But with the language as a foundation, how easy it would be to acquire a few 
stereotyped phrases to comply with business formalities. Everyone to whom I 
have talked and written as well as those whose opinions I have read, have 
emphasized the need of tactful, cultured people to deal with the Latin peoples, 
and this class of people will be more apt to be found among our high school 
students than among the students of commercial schools. 

Professor Blakeslee of Clark University says, "One of our most important 
diplomatic problems is to place our South American relations on a satisfactory 
basis. How can this be accomplished? First in importance will be the sending 
of better representatives from both the Government and Commercial business 
houses. Men who speak the local language, Spanish or Portuguese, are able to 
meet the native officials and business people upon a plane of equality in their 
clubs and families, and have the courtesy to follow the dictates of the social 
code of the country where they are residing. 

Considering the study of Spanish from a cultural point of view, there 
is also much to be said. We, inclined to be a little provincial as all Anglo- 
Saxons are, need to know a world entirely different from our own. It will open 
up new interests, new sympathies and give us a broader point of view. 



267 

Spanish Literature was a mine for the Elizabethan dramatists. Romeo 
and JuHet was taken from the idea of Celestina by Rojas. Lazarillo de Tormes, 
whose author is unknown, was the original picaresque novel. It set a fashion 
that spread to all countries and finds a 19th century manifestation in the pages 
of Pickwick, Fletcher, Dryden, Fielding and Shelley who all acknowledge their 
indebtedness to Spanish literature. In France I mention a few of the best known 
examples of literary works where Spanish influence is so easy to sec "Le Cid" of 
Comeille, "Gil Bias" of Le Sage so Spanish that the Spaniards themselves were 
jealous of it and claimed that a Spaniard had written it ; "Hernani and Ruy 
Bias" of Victor Hugo, who was brought up in Spain and never lost the Spanish 
influence which was so potent in the Romantic movement. Merimee's "Car- 
men," from which Bizet took his opera ; de Musset's Contes d' Espagnes and 
Gautier's "Voyage en Espagne" still an example of what a book of travel should 
be. These are only a passing few of the many which might be mentioned to 
show the influence of the Spanish Literature on the English and French. 

Our schools and colleges are awakening to the fact that Spanish is of 
equal importance and value with other modern languages and are accepting 
it for entrance credit. This means that the preparatory schools will have to offer 
good Spanish courses, to fit their students for such institutions. In the United 
States Naval Academy of Annapolis, Spanish has been established as the for- 
eign language of paramount importance, so that hereafter students will be re- 
quired to study it during the whole four years, instead of two as heretofore. 
In the night school classes of the "City College" of Baltimore Spanish was in- 
augurated and within a few months the number of students enrolled increased 
to 250; while in the New York Evening High School for Men, there are more 
students of Spanish than of any other foreign language. For the first time in 
the histor}' of the Berlitz School of Languages in Chicago there are more pupils 
studying Spanish than study French. 

In answer to the question "How shall we make a place for Spanish in our 
curricula without crowding out some other branch, without sacrificing efficiency 
in some other branch in order to secure a teacher able to teach Spanish," it 
seems feasible to suggest that the Spanish be combined with some French or 
some Latin. In many schools, where the attendance is not large enough to call 
for two modem language teachers, German and French have been combined. 
Why would it not be infinitely more fitting that two of the Latin languages be 
combined, as Latin is equally the basis of French and Spanish. And w-e might 
reasonably expect a teacher combining two of these branches, to be successful 
in both, whereas it is difficult to find a teacher who can teach well both French 
and German. 

Spanish is now a necessity, which will become more pressing as the time 
goes by and our commercial and social relations with Latin America grow more 
extended. The merchant and manufacturer will need it to understand the wants 
of his customer; the mechanical, civil and electrical engineer to facilitate his 
work by his ability to come in closer contact with the men under him ; the 
teacher to take up work in Spanish American schools where our methods are 
admired and copied ; the trained agriculturist to meet the great want for scien- 
tific farming, fostered so eagerly by many South American governments ; the 



268 

lawyer will need it to familiarize himself with Spanish American legislation; 
the diplomat and the statesman to carry on conscientiously the work of drawing 
together the ties of mutual respect, friendship, commerce and good under- 
standing. 

In the discussion of this paper no point was questioned except 
that our acceptance of the Castilian pronunciation as a standard was 
often questioned by the Mexicans and South Americans with whom 
we had to deal. Reference was made to the bulletin, "Suggestions 
and References for Modern Language Teachers" for information as 
to opportunities for travel and study. 

Dr. C. H. Johnston, of the University, read a very suggestive 
paper on "Experiments Profitable for Language Teachers." 

In brief it was as follows: 

Dr. Johnston introduced the subject of language experimentation in sec- 
ondary schools by describing certain typical experiments carried on in the 
Horace Mann High School, New York, in the practice school at Manchester, 
England, and at the Model High School of the University of Missouri. These 
illustrations were cited as typical of the new spirit among modern language 
teachers, a spirit of experimental testing of different methods of instruction. 

Following this general introduction he outlined several results of experi- 
mentation which might profitably be done in the field of language teaching. One 
of these was the study of standardisation of vocabulary acquisition. In this 
problem it was suggested that the modem language section, through a committee, 
might formulate what is meant by the acquisition of a new word in a vocabulary, 
and upon this standard they might adopt the method of tabulating a vocabulary 
improvement by parts of speech and by different rates at different stages of 
the course. 

A second field for experimentation was that of "Units of Instruction". This 
means, briefly, the establishment of the time values in terms of recitation time, 
which might profitably be given to certain distinguishable topics within any 
given year's instruction in a language. As, for example, the time spent upon 
vocabulary, syntax, translation, etc. 

The third field for experimentation was that of investigating the possibility 
for a system of differential marking. The contention was that language in- 
struction has such entirely distinct aims — some analytical and grammatical, others 
synthetic and artistic — that ratings of progress should be distinct for the different 
sorts of processes. 

Another problem was that of the recitation types best adapted to language 
instruction. The approximate number of meetings, for example, which should 
be devoted to the lecture, the interpretation, the question and answer, the writ- 
ten, the review and other types of class meeting. 

Another field was that of the possibilities for supplementing the current 
written final examination test by other educational tests which would represent 
more adequately all the ideals aimed at in modem language teaching. In this 



269 

connection some results were reported from an analysis of many examination 
papers in Illinois township high schools. 

The speaker closed with a general statement that supervision of high school 
classroom teaching was a very live subject at the present time and that high 
school principals were rapidly adopting systems for the inspection and super- 
vision of classroom methods of technique. He pointed out that for the pro- 
tection of the teacher herself such an organization as the Modem Language 
Section of the High School Conference should set committees to work formu- 
lating these standards for adequate supervision and thus anticipate standards 
which would be formed otherwise by outside administrators. He pointed out 
further that the Committee of the Program of Studies had urged for several 
years upon each Section the possibility of scientific experimentation in the 
different fields with a view to having fundamentals and standardized procedures 
established in each of the subjects represented in the high school curriculum. 

The morning session closed M^ith an address by Mr. A. Kenngott, 
of St. Louis, Missouri, on "Supplementary Reading in Modern Lan>- 
guage Instruction." Mr. Kenngott spoke as follows: 

In the third or fourth year, in some cases already in the second year, books 
for outside reading are given to the pupils, and they are instructed to read them 
at home. There is no limitation of the time a pupil may keep the book, but 
from time to time he is to be reminded of the rule that in the third and fourth 
year of the language .study a minimum of four books a semester is required. 
The pupil may read more books if he wishes to and if he enjoys reading them, 
but he is not compelled to do so. If he reads more, however, a credit of one 
per cent for each additional book is allowed on his report card. 

It might seem at first somewhat risky to allow such an extra credit, fearing 
that poor pupils might take advantage of this opportunity and raise their low 
grade to a passing mark after having neglected their class work. Experience 
shows however that this is no real danger, for generally only good and indus- 
trious pupils read more than the required amount, and, secondly, because weak 
pupils gain so considerably through outside reading that the quality of their class 
work is decidedly improved, thereby justifying the extra credit. 

It might be well to mention here, that, while the home reading itself is 
a very helpful and most important factor in the pupil's development, a still 
greater benefit is secured if he is required to relate the contents of such books 
to the teacher, either in writing or orally, whichever he may choose. This gives 
him additional opportunity to make practical use of his more or less limited 
knowledge of the language he is striving to acquire. Time for such reports 
may be found either before or after school, at intermissions, or when free peri- 
ods of teacher and pupil coincide. 

Of course this means a sacrifice on the part of the teacher, more work per- 
haps, or, to be more exact, more time devoted to the interest of the pupils. To 
call it more work would hardly be correct, neither from the point of view of 
the teacher, nor from the point of view of the pupil. 



270 

Let us consider the latter first. This question is a very important one, and 
in cases of attacks made upon the outside reading method, the successful de- 
fense of its merits lies mainly in a clear and logical answer to the question : 
Does the pupil's work become more heavy through outside reading? 

I shall deny myself the privilege of answering this question. It is 
undoubtedly fairer and unquestionably more convincing to let the pupils them- 
selves express their opinions on the subject. To this end I have asked the third 
and fourth year classes to discuss in writing, freely and unreservedly, the matter 
of outside reading, and I did not withhold from them my intention of making 
use of their expression publicly. 

Some excerpts from these reports will follow. I cannot refrain how- 
ever from giving one of them complete, because it shows such a sound judg- 
ment, and is at the same time a well matured and frank statement of experi- 
ence: 

My Opinion of Outside Reading. 

In the last two years of our German at the High School, we are required 
to do some outside-reading. At first it seemed to me that the teacher was doing 
injustice by making us do all the reading besides the class work. 

The teacher, however knew better than I did what benefit we would de- 
rive from the readings. The reason I hated it so at first must have been either, 
that I was too young to see into the matter correctly, or that it was new to me. 
At any rate I know now that I will never hate outside-reading again. 

In glancing at the instructor's records of my readings from the last two 
years, I notice that I have read from two to three books more each semester, 
which somewhat proves the increase of interest I have taken. 

For a school librarj^ we have a considerable amount of books from which 
to choose. Students differ in their selection of books. Some like the drama, 
others the romance, history and so on. Well, there are enough books to satis- 
fy their individual taste. The instructor leaves the selection of books entirely 
to the pupil, unless he wishes to have some judgment passed on the book. I, 
for one, like the romances and historical accounts. My wish has always been 
well satisfied, and I have come to a point where I enjoy reading a German novel 
as much or even better than an English one. 

One is only required to read the small amount of four books a semester, 
but nearly every diligent pupil exceeds that amount. The more they read the 
more credit they receive, which is another inducement for pupils to read. 

If this system of outside reading could also be established in the other de- 
partments, I am almost sure that I would get along much better in the other 
languages than I do. I think it is the duty of every German pupil to be sin- 
cerely grateful for the great advantage we can enjoy. 

In the German Group of the Afternoon Session Mrs. Therese 
Dillon of the Chicago Normal College gave a very helpful talk on 
"Wastes in the Teaching of German, Their Remedy." It is with re- 
gret that we are able to publish only a bare outline of this address : 



271 

Wastes in Teaching German 

I. Attitude of Teacher. 

Subject matter held of more importance than pupil. 
Remedy : Pupil's needs to be considered first. 
II. Teacher's Lack of Preparation. 
Result, slipshod work. 

Remedy: Plan quickly but carefully, what ground to cover and how to 
cover it. 

III. Careless assignments for study. 
Unsatisfactory work the result. 

Remedy: a. Use German Recitation Period. 

b. Assign short lessons allowing time for careful thinking and 
good form. 

IV. Unwise Selection of Material. 

Use of two books, a reader and a grammar with reading matter, a 

source of waste. With two different vocabularies neither will be mas- 
tered. 

Remedy: Use a reader containing also the essentials of grammar. 

Better still, a reader and for reference use only, a grammar brief, but 

containing essentials. (Gohdes & Bushek) Der grammatische Teil des 

Sprach und Lesebuchs in deutscher Fassung. 
V. Time wasted by Pupils Memorizing Grammatical Classifications and 

Distinctions. 

These not vital for learner. 

Remedy : Teach essentials only. 
VI. Translation During First Two Years. 

Alternative: Inductive reading of simple, interesting modem prose. 
VII. Literature for Reading Not Well Chosen, of a Period too Remote. 

(Pupils more familiar with the literature of 19th and 20th centuries 

than with earlier works.) 

Remedy: Begin with literature of recent rather than remote past. 
VIII. Composition. Often Insufficient. More oral and written needed. 

Remedy : Use reading material freely as basis. 
IX. Drill on Idioms Necessary. 

Should be careful and systematic. Ready command of idiomatic expres- 
sions develops Sprachgefiihl. 
X. Examinations — Often Too Early and Too Severe. 

Results, unsatisfactory. 

Remedy : Preliminary tests. 

Discussion with pupils of the deficiencies shown in tests. 

Miss Charlotte Reichman, of Normal, reviewed some excellent 
Recent Publications. She spoke in part as follows : 

The choice of a text depends largely upon a teacher's point of view as its 
success depends upon the teacher's use of it and upon the ability of teacher and 
class. Thus you would have no confidence in my judgment if I should even 



272 

seem to assert that the two beginning books which I am bringing to you for a 
somewhat close inspection are the best of the recent publications. Indeed, I 
know that Gohdes and Bushek's Sprach and Lesebuch, Gronow's Jung Deutsch- 
land, Mosher and Jenney's Lem-und-Lesebuch, whose aptly chosen titles can give 
only a hint of their splendid contents, have already been adopted by eminent 
teachers and that they are worth serious consideration in the choice of a book for 
beginners. Walter-Krauses' Beginners' German and First German Reader need 
no word of recommendation for those who are familiar with the names of the 
leaders in the Reform movement. They work well in the hands of well trained 
teachers and I have found them admirably adapted to well conducted supervised 
study. I have chosen for consideration with you, Bagster Collins' First Book 
in German and Curme's First German Grammar, not only because I believe 
them to be the most happy recent productions, but rather because of their in- 
dividuality. Not at all like each other, both are quite different from the general 
mass of rich products of the last few years. 

The first impression of a book must be on the side of the mechanical, and 
the Bagster-CoUins book attracts one at once by its fine, full-page ilustrations 
and by the arrangement of the printed matter on the page. The Latin type is 
used through the first half of the book, the German type beginning only, and 
very appropriately, too, with the story of the very German opera. Hansel and 
Gretel. Many of the words are by that time so familiar to the student that he 
encounters no discouraging difficulties, enjoying rather the fun of reading the 
well known words in the once so mysterious symbols. The Latin type relieves 
the learner of all distracting and confusing traits in the picture of the word 
which he is struggling to pronounce. Every teacher knows how hard it is for 
the student to distinguish between S and F, U and N, M and W, the capitals 
B and V. Five pages of tiny, but clear pictures of the common objects in the 
home and schoolroom, with their names and questions concerning them are so 
skillfully arranged and so definitely purposed that the student is not only quite 
familiar after three lessons, with the names of the objects pictured but he is 
also thoroughly conscious of the three genders; he can make a simple state- 
ment which is not merely a repitition of words, he can ask a question and he 
is at home with the inverted order and the interrogative pronoun. 

Many teachers start their classes without requiring any home preparation 
for some days, making them familiar with many words and phrases before leav- 
ing them to the resources of home study. Some inventive teachers put simple 
exercises on the board for the children to copy if they feel that home work is 
absolutely essential. But there is great danger that the child will not copy 
the unfamiliar forms correctly, and even if he does so, what has been rapidly 
put on paper with lead pencil is not easy to learn. Not requiring any study at 
home may lead to habits of laziness toward the subject which must be overcome 
when industry and close application become necessary. This problem is solved 
by the picture pages. They are a delight to the young people, giving them a hold 
on the subject at once. Of course, the books are not used in the class, for the 
teacher points to the objects and the students name them and talk about them 
in response to the teacher's questions. There are, also, at the beginning of the 
book three pages of schoolroom expressions and there is no reason why some 



273 

of them should not be used from the first day, one or two new ones each day 
until the students are so conversant with them as to comprehend a command at 
once. And so, after a few days the reading lessons, with all the appended 
exercises are attacked with some feeling of surety and some sense of the exact 
relation of word to word, with ear and vocal organs trained to the new sounds. 

The reading lessons tell, in simple language, the story of a brother and 
sister who visit Germany, all interesting enough for our American boys and 
girls for whom the land beyond the sea is full of adventure. On the first 
reading lesson of six lines the writer bases twenty-one questions and each ques- 
tion is given a line, however short it may be. They are not all crowded to- 
gether as in most books. 

The grammatical notes in each lesson gather up into a clear statement 
what the student has already observed and made use of. 

To teachers who think they must begin with literature, the early reading 
lessons, together with the reading exercises — simple sentences which impress the 
vocabulary, idioms, and grammatical forms, may seem disappointing But they 
are really very rich in material for general and intimate conversation. A skillful 
teacher will make the new sounds and symbols and the combining of them 
interesting and entertaining. Of course, after the student has mastered the 
principles his interest must be maintained by the reading of something really 
worth while and for this ample provision is made in the later reading lessons. 
In none of the books are the questions and exercises for substitution so well 
worked out. 

In the early vocabularies only the nominative singular of the nouns is 
given and for a long time practically only the nominative and accusative are 
used ; so the student does not realize until he has learned many nouns that they 
are inflected and he can thus give his whole attention to the endings of the 
article. The genitive which appears only a few times is used only as a possess- 
ive, which use the student knows in his English. The nominative plural is not 
introduced until the eighth lesson and as each lesson covers nearly or fully a 
week's work the student has studied German eight weeks before he is burdened 
with all the principle parts of the noun. In this same way the verb is introduced. 
Through many lessons the infinitive only is given in the vocabulary. Only 
much later is the past tense added and later still the past participle and the tense 
auxiliary. The strongest feature of the book lies in the presentation of the 
grammatical forms which stand out clearly on the page with the important 
words and endings in boldface type. The intention of making the student think 
and speak from the very beginning in phrases and sentences that is only sug- 
gested by a few forms in most books is carried out persistently and successfully. 

The student learns : ich habe einert Vater, eine Mutter, ein Buch, du hast 
einen Vater, eine Mutter, ein Buch, etc. 

warum stehe Ich nicht auf? 

warum stehst du nicht auf? etc. 

ich werde mich anziehen. 

du wirst dich anziehen, etc. 

ich werde mir Papier kaufen. 

du wirst dir Papier kaufen, etc. 



274 

ich fahre bald ab, 

du fahrst bald ab, etc. 

To learn the cases and their primary uses he learns : 

Der Vater geht 

Das Gepack des Vaters steht schon da, 

Ein Mann hilft dem Vater mit dem Gepack, . .Wir rufen den Vater. 

He learns the personal pronouns as follows : 

Wer geht mit dem Sohn? Der Vater geht mit ihm. 

Wer geht mit der Tochter? Der Vater geht mit ihr. 

Wer ruft den Bruder? Marie ruft ihn. 

Wer ruft die Schwester? Marie ruft sie. 

This method is carried out in the finest details of form and idiom drill. 
Unconsciously the learner is acquiring many things while he is being drilled 
in one thing. 

The grammatical statements in both the beginning books under consider- 
ation are in English and I persist in thinking that wise in spite of the fact that 
very many of the new books are affecting the use of the foreign tongue for 
this purpose. Our English speaking young people are little used to a language 
so richly inflected as German and they will be placed at a great disadvantage 
if some points are not made clear to them at the very beginning. German learn- 
ers might be introduced to English and French through the foreign medium, 
but the teaching of a richly inflected language to students who are used to an 
almost uninflected language demands a different method. It seems to me that 
we have vocabulary problems enough and I do not see why we should deliber- 
ately force upon the struggling student a large number of technical words which 
can never be of any practical use to him. Besides many of the terms are Latin 
— only an added distraction. 

At the end of the book an appendix gathers up the grammar forms for 
ready reference. Perhaps the best thing I can say about the book is that the 
young people like it immensely. One of its greatest virtues is that it is well 
adapted to utter extinction during the recitation. Indeed, I consider its possi- 
bilities for disuse in the classroom a splendid test for a beginning book. There 
can be no loafing in the classroom when the books are closed, dependence upon 
others is greatly lessened, the class must be alert, above all the teacher must 
be well trained, bright and resourceful. 

The distinguishing marks of difference between Curme's First German 
Grammar and Bagster-Collins' First Book in German are suggested in their titles. 
The grammatical statements in Professor Curme's book are as clear and compre- 
hensive and important as they are fragmentary in the Bagster-Collin's book. 
In the former's work we recognize the efforts of an eminent scholar who has 
spent many years in the study of the language from the grammar side. 

If Bagster-Collins has worked out many clever devices for the teacher 
who must have a thorough knowledge of the grammar and at the same time 
be able to make it clear to the students, Professor Curme has left the devices 
largely for the teacher to work out according to his needs, but in the scholarly 
grammatical statements teacher and student have a foundation upon which they 
may build their forms. 



275 

If we need to inculcate in our young people the spirit of scholarly attain- 
ment, we should not neglect this opportunity of arousing a scientific interest 
in the language. 

Professor Curme has not omitted all the helpful devices, for there are the 
usual questions based upon each reading lesson and they have been worked out 
with unfailing attention to the psychology of the learner. 

The chapter on Pronounciation, with its phonetic symbols is very complete 
and is approached from a more scientific point of view than most chapters of 
the kind. It furnishes the student with a safe haven of reference for his 
pronounciation difficulties. 

The reading lessons begin with conversation about the persons and things 
in the schoolroom. The student is helped from the very beginning in his home 
study, for the vowels are marked until the student becomes thoroughly familiar 
with the word. The Demonstrative has the stress indicated to distinguish it 
from the article. All words whose accent may be doubtful have the stress mark 
in the reading lesson as well as in the vocabulary. Thus the student is rescued 
from the false impression which he might receive during his study hour, and 
which is often so strongly fixed by the time the teacher corrects it, that it is not 
easily effaced. He is constantly reminded of quantity and accent. In the read- 
ing lessons the grammatical points that are being emphasized, such as adjective 
endings and the verb in the subjunctive mode are printed in bold face type. 

The grammar is developed logically, not through a mass of tedious forms. 
For instance, the student is told that the demonstratives are of the Dieser type 
and the modified Der type. The limiting adjective is simply of the Der, Dieser, 
and Mein types. The Strong adjective is dismissed with the statement that it 
is like the Limiting adjective Dieser except in the one ending — es of the geni- 
tive masculine and neuter singular which is now usually replaced by — en. Below 
the statement are given only the two forms of the adjective Gut which differ 
from Dieser instead of the whole declension which must only be confusing if 
the student already knows this type. And so the verb, too, is built up by the 
student. 

The pictures are very attractive and the reading matter is well chosen and 
most happily introduced. Before each poem there is a little reading lesson about 
it, and so the student is put in a sympathetic attitude toward the poem and its 
author before reading it. There is an abundance of fairly difficult, idiomatic 
German. Indeed, the space usually devoted to distracting and confusing gram- 
matical forms is used in this book for a surprising amount and variety of good 
literature. 

One of the finest touches in the book is the appendix with the Inflection 
of Nouns with the general outline and the lists of the plural types. 

I can not hope to give an adequate conception of the value of the book. 
I do feel, however, that its use in the classroom would show up and develope 
manifold possibilities. In this book at least the great weakness of the beginning 
books which have been too radically different from the old grammars has been 
overcome, for it can be used in the second and third year as a reference book. 
The students who come to me from the high schools are utterly helpless when 
asked to look up a reference in the grammar. They are at a loss to find any- 



276 

thing clear and definite and indeed they can find nothing concise and definite in 
their books ; so they have to feel their way through the second year for their 
support of the first year fell from them when their reading took them beyond 
the beginning book. This is worth consideration in choosing a beginning book. 

I am convinced that upon a careful examination of the books you will 
agree with me that with a little more of the mechanical in the First German 
Grammar and a little more of the technical in the First Book in German we 
would have two ideal beginning books. 

We may never reach a decision as to the best means of conquering the 
elements of the language; as to the degree of facility in conversation, as to the 
amount and qualit>- of the written language there may be a long and bitter 
contention, but standardization on the side of the structural and cultral is very 
possible. The general character and aim of the excellent supplementary' texts 
with which we have been fairly flooded during the last few years reveal settled 
tendencies in this direction. I shall mention a number of them by name only, 
for the description of a few will adequately describe all. 

Aus Vergangener Zeit by Werner- Spanhoofd, is, to quote the words of the 
author, "a collection of historical sketches designed to create an interest in the 
student for the great and glorious past of a people whose language he is learn- 
ing." The selections are arranged in the order of their historical occurrence and 
have been drawn from the works of standard authors. There are questions for 
every selection. 

Deutsche Heimat, by Josefa Schrakamp makes very attractive reading 
which may be begun early. It is a description of the various regions of the 
countrj' with customs, songs, legends, and stories characteristic of each region. 
The boys are interested in the descriptions of Germany's great inventions and 
in the anecdotes told of the inventors. The appendix with its dialogue for 
travelers, its outlines of German histor>^, constitution and government, and its 
tables of German states, cities, and rulers grants an abundance of material for 
conversation and a teacher may easily conduct a series of exercises based upon 
these tables as he would conduct a lesson in history or geography in English. 
The questions must necessarily be short and the nature of the material demands 
a brief response in simple language and to the point. The student must be 
made responsible for the verity of the matter being spoken of in the foreign 
tongue and his classmates must be alert for mistakes of fact as well as for mis- 
takes in grammar. Such an exercise will beget spontaneity in the student who 
is reciting, and also in the class. Let us demand that the student gather a great 
deal of good information from short cultural sketches. Thus we will give him 
much knowledge and at the same time furnish him with a strong incentive for 
reading instead of translating merely words and phrases which he does not 
connect and give meaning to, because that is not a part of the lesson. Let us 
make the student use the language from the very beginning as a means of gain- 
ing information. He must learn the history, the literature, the geography, the 
legend of the country as well as the language. 

Kreuz and Quer, by Mezger and Mueller and Deutschland und die 
Deutschen by Decker and Markish I shall only mention as belonging to this 
type of cultural literature and as being as attractive in every way from their 



277 

beautiful covers to their last interesting illustration. Hebel's Schatzkasthein, 
edited by Stem, and Martini's First German Reader are excellently adapted for 
preparation of material at home for retelling in the class. 

Josefa Schrakamp's Emestes und Heiteres may be begun after the first 
few weeks although the selections are by the best contemporary authors. 

Manley's Ein Sommer in Deutschland is already so popular as scarcely to 
need mention. Its strength is rather on the side of the conversational where 
much may be made of it. 

Deutsches Lese — und Ubingsbuch, by Prokasch is well worth trying. It 
is a reader and exercise book with all explanations of text and grammar in 
German. It is designed for use a few weeks after the student has begun his 
study. 

I wish I had time to describe Allen's Easy German Conversation, his 
German Life and his First German Composition. We have not had anything 
like them — so fresh, original and bright and withal so dignified and scholarly. 

Every teacher should read his hints on the teaching of German Conver- 
sation. 

Roedder's Schwartzwaldleut' will attract the young people, for all the world 
loves the Black Forest and its quaint villages. The five stories are well chosen 
and make a Black Forest literary treasure. Let us hope that this idea will lead 
to more such superb collections, for every region in Germany has its charm and 
its singers. 

Mogk's Deutsche Sitten und Brauche, edited by Fossler is the treatise 
which appeared in Meyer's Das Deutsche Volkstum. Although it is a literary 
masterpiece and scholarly it is very easy to read and it should be embodied in 
every two years' course. 

There are a great many good texts which I have not time to mention and 
you know some which I have not seen. However, I think that I have looked 
over enough to gain the right to say that the efforts in supplementary texts 
are most gratifying and if my expressions of praise of what we possess and 
the indications of excellence which I have marked have resolved themselves 
into a plea for better working material, I shall be glad of the results of my 
effort and rejoice with you in the anticipation of better things. 

The French and Spanish Group held a M^ell-attended round-table 
discussion of common problems on the afternoon of Friday, Novem- 
ber 20th. 

Mr. S. O. Rorem, of Danville, presented a paper on "A Few 
Knotty Problems of French Teaching in High School" in which he 
made the following points: 

The "knotty problems" of the High School teacher of French are in a 
way the same as confront his university colleague, but they are more generally 
confined to the elementary years of instruction. These problems may be briefly 
tabulated as : 

1. To make pupils pronounce consonants sharply. 

2. To make them distinguish vowel sounds carefully. 



278 

3. To keep the class together by urging the timid pupil to attempt the 
new sound, and by discouraging the ambitious pupil from usurping all 
the class period. 

4. To overcome the parrot-memorizing habits of the grade school. 

5. To demonstrate that French is not so easy that it can be learned with- 
out effort. 

Over and above these difficulties which are more or less common to all 
language work, the greatest hindrance to the firm establishment of courses in 
French in the high schools lies in the ignorance of the school authorities, as well 
as the pupils regarding the usable qualities of French. In these it is readily 
superior to German, of which the fetish has been that it will "help in business 
life". This fetish is largely due to the prevalence of the German population 
in the middle west, and it will become less, as fast as this population becomes 
Americanized. It can readily be shown that no one can acquire a sufficient 
knowledge of German to find it useful in business in the time devoted to the 
subject by the average high school pupil. An yet this fetish dies hard. 

The school authorities and people generally in the middle west fail to appre- 
ciate the value of French as a literary language complementary to English. 
They are ignorant of the great number of English words that come from the 
French. They fail to realize the intimate literary connections of these two 
languages, which is best seen in the fact that standard English and American 
writers have a deeper acquaintance with French than with ony other modern 
tongue. They do not see that for reasons admittedly valid even if largely due 
to chronological causes the influence of French literary masters upon English 
and American writers is vastly greater than the influences of German masters 
of literature. 

This linguistic and literary connection is strikingly shown, when one com- 
pares the number of French and German "Words and Phrases frequently oc- 
curring in English literature, including Proverbs and Colloquial Expressions" 
as given in an average small dictionary. Here in the first five letters of the 
alphabet may be found 152 expressions of French origin, and only nine of Ger- 
man origin. Indeed, in the entire alphabet the present writer found only 30 
German examples. Even more striking was a similar search in the back of an 
unabridged English dictionary through the "Quotations, Words, Phrases and 
Colloquial Expressions from Greek, Latin and Modem Languages, frequently 
occurring in English books, in Periodicals and in Conversation." Here under 
the letter A were found 133 French expressions and only one German example. 

Another hindrance to the establishment of French in our high schools lies 
in the failure of the authorities to realize the complemental value of the study 
of French to the rest of the curriculum, especially to the study of English vocab- 
ulary, of English literature and to history in general. As has already been indi- 
cated this complementary value is far greater than that of German. 

A study of the "mortality" statistics of German in a representative high 
school is not without interest. In my school there are 250 pupils taking German 
in 11 classes. Of these only 20 are in classes of the third year (fifth and sixth 
semesters) ; only 40 take the third semester's work (beginning of the second 



279 

year), and only 30 take a fourth semester's work (middle of second year). 
Such statistics explode again the "business" fetish of German, since it is seen 
how few pupils continue the study long enough to acquire any large facility in 
using the language in a practical way. One sees that only three out of eight 
pupils take a second year of German, and only one out of twelve start a third 
year. 

Granted such mortality of the German side it seems reasonable to suppose 
that the time expended in German would jield more valuable results if spent in 
the study of French. It is easier to acquire a reading and working knowledge 
of French than of German in the same time, for obvious reasons. This 
knowledge will bring the student into contact with a language and literature 
more akin historically to our own tongue. 

Dr. A. R. Seymour, of the University of Illinois, presented some 
important facts concerning "Business Spanish in the High School" 
and offered the following tentative program for four years of Busi- 
ness Spanish in a high school course: 

For some months the business interests of our state have been giving at- 
tention to the need of introducing Spanish into our High School curriculum. 
Our attention has been directed toward the value of Spanish for business pur- 
poses, but as yet but little thought has been given to the literary value of Span- 
ish. I believe that the demand for a practical knowledge of Spanish should be 
met by courses in our High Schools, and at the same time the literary side of 
Spanish should not be neglected. Even with the most restricted business pur- 
poses one needs to know Spanish and Latin American literature and history in 
order to form friendships in paving the way for building up a trade in any 
line of business with our southern neighbors. 

We may well learn from our German competitors in Latin America. Un- 
til the present war began they were increasing very rapidly their commercial 
control of the Latin American countries except Mexico. If we ask how they 
did this, we find an answer in the plan of their business schools which taught 
Spanish and Portuguese, and taught not only the languages but also the history, 
social customs, commercial geography, mining and industrial possibilities of 
Latin American countries. The Germans accordingly sent salesmen to Latin 
America who spoke Spanish and Portuguese fluently, who were acquainted with 
their methods of doing business, who knew or soon found out the needs of the 
natives in any particular line of business and who above all equalled the natives 
in social courtesies. We shall do well to follow methods of preparation used by 
the Germans. 

A Spanish High School Course should not be based on French or German 
courses for Spanish needs individual consideration. The emphasis should be 
put on speaking and writing and the acquisition of a good practical vocabulary, 
with considerable knowledge of history and literature. Following I shall give 
my outline of a High School course to meet present needs: 



280 

Outline of Four Year Course in Spanish for High Schools 

First Year — Pronounciation. Practical grammar of useful Spanish. Dic- 
tation. Reading of easy Spanish short stories and of a Spanish political and 
commercial geography dealing with Latin America. Translation from hearing 
of texts studied and of simple stories related by the teacher. Simple conversa- 
tion based on everyday life, pictures and on texts read. 

Second Year — Grammar, including all the irregular verbs and syntax. Read- 
ing of novels and stories giving true ideas of life in Spain and Latin America. 
Reading of the history of Spain in Spanish. Conversation continued, including 
the retelling of stories related by the teacher. Composition based on the texts, 
and original themes on topics concerning everyday life. Translation from hear- 
ing. Elementary business correspondence. 

Third Year — Reading of Spanish and Latin American novels, plays and 
poetry. Reading of the history of Latin America. Commercial correspondence 
and business forms. Study of business conditions and requirements in Latin 
America, including the reading of government and consular reports in Spanish. 
Reading of Latin American newspapers and magazines with reports on them 
and original themes based on current events. Conversation. 

Fourth Year — Reading of selections from Don Quijote and a classic play, 
Spanish American history and Spanish American literature, including extracts 
from the leading authors of each country. Reading of periodicals, trade reports, 
and government reports with themes based on this information. Advanced 
commercial correspondence and business forms. Technical business vocabulary 
emphasized. Conversation. 

Both these topics brought forth a deal of interesting discussion, 
and developed a fine sentiment of co-operation. 

The group instructed the secretary to present to the university 
authorities its recommendation that faculty men be sent, upon invita- 
tion, to the various high schools to explain the advantages of the 
study of French and Spanish. 

Music Section 

The Music Section was called to order at 9:15 by Professor Conr- 
stance Barlow-Smith who welcomed the Supervisors and teachers of 
applied music. She said, "it was exceedingly gratifying to see how 
well the state was represented geographically." 

In the absence of Mrs. McNair, of Mattoon, Miss Ailsie Good- 
rich, of Jacksonville, was appointed secretary pro tem. 

Professor Smith gave a brief history and explained the purpose 
of the music section in the High School Conference. The secretary 
was requested to read the report as given by the committee that was 
appointed to investigate conditions of music teaching in the High 



281 

Schools of the State. Pg. 121, High School Conference Proceed- 
ings, 1911. 

The secretary then read the report of the committee on courses 
of music study that should be worthy of credits toward graduation in 
the High Schools. Pg. 184, High School Conference Proceedings, 
1912. 

Copies of the Syllabus "A Music Appreciation Course," based 
upon the adoption of the report of 1912 and prepared by the chair- 
man in accordance with the request of the conference (which was 
presented and discussed in 1913) together with an appendix contain- 
ing the reports of committees as adopted 1911-13 were distributed. 

Professor Smith said that contrary to general practices the sub- 
ject of grade work was discussed at length at the previous meeting 
and the average amount of work that might be accomplished in the 
grades was agreed upon. The report of this from the High School 
Conference Proceedings, 1913, page 241, was read. 

Professor Smith explained how the Syllabus could be used both 
with and without outside preparation. She said that an up to date 
High School with well prepared students, a competent teacher and 
adequate equipment could accomplish the work in one year with out,- 
side preparation, and that the work could be extended into a two, 
three or four year course, according to the amount of time and ma- 
terial used. She gave a brief analysis of the syllabus before calling 
for a discussion of the same. 

At this time Professor Hollister, chairman of the general con- 
ference committee, visited the section and was greeted with a rising 
salutation. He said in brief that he was deeply interested in the ef- 
fort that was being made by the supervisors to raise the standards 
of music-teaching in the High Schools of the State and that he hoped 
that the teachers who were present would be able to put their schools 
upon the accredited list in music, as the University was going to grant 
entrance credits in the subject beginning September, 1915. He ex- 
pressed the sincere hope that the quality of work of the Syllabus 
would warrant this step. 

Discussion of the Syllabus, Miss Grace V. Swan, Barry, Illinois: 

While we are discussing the Syllabus as a standard for the High Schools 
of the State it will surely be of interest to us to learn just what has been ac- 
complished in some of the High Schools of the State. I can speak of one and 
shall be interested to know what is being done in others. 



282 " 

In a school which I have in mind music is accredited hour for hour the 
same as any other High School subject and the organization of classes is as 
follows : 

Alternating classes in history of music and harmony recite five hours per 
week (with outside preparation) and are accredited accordingly. 

For chorus work the school is divided into two sections, first and second 
year students in one, third and fourth year students in the other, each of these 
choruses meets for a twenty-minute period every other day with one additional 
twenty-minute period each week to take care of those first year students who 
may not have had sufficient preparation before entering High School. One- 
fourth credit each semester is given for this work. 

Glee clubs and orchestra practice from one to three hours per week as 
may be necessary and must on demand furnish music for any High School oc- 
casion. For this work one-fourth credit is given each semester. 

With this organization and an equipment of good pianos, a victrola, good 
texts, and a few standard reference books I have covered in one year practically 
all of the work outlined in this syllabus, doing perhaps, a little more in history 
and harmony and a little less in analysis, but in the future I shall profit by these 
more evenly balanced requirements. 

When first I began teaching harmony as a part of the High School course 
in music I was doubtful of the outcome, but judging from the interest evinced 
by the pupils and the character of the work obtained it was a success, and those 
pupils who were making a study of some instrument with special teachers 
outside of school, claimed it to be the most helpful part of the entire course. 

Some teachers of music say that they are rather at a loss to know just 
how to present the history of music in such a course as this, but I have found it 
to be one of the easiest and most interesting phases of the work by correlating 
it with the pupils' work in history, literature and art. In the Syllabus you will 
find provision made for a lecture during the first month on the beginnings of 
music. All the pupils study history so in discussing the legends of prehistoric 
times and the early events of the historic age you can meet them upon a common 
ground. 

Names, dates and events already significant to them can be made to mean 
infinitely more, and so thruout the course their whole view of history may 
be broadened and enriched. 

It is just as tho you had thrown open for them the portal disclosing 
a new vista so inviting in its aspect that you have only to lead on and they 
will follow. 

When that most interesting part of the history of music is reached, the 
transition period from the classic to the romantic it can be explained, well within 
their understanding, thru the knowledge which they already have of the same 
period in literature, architecture and art. 

History of music abounds in stories more fascinating than the most absorb- 
ing fiction, and if properly presented by informal talks and with the aid of a 
few good texts and reference books, the response from the students is most 
satisfactory. 



283 

AH of this means on the part of the teacher, a vast amount of prepartion 
and a broader view of the whole field of history, literature, art and music, but 
considering the value of such a course to the boys and girls in the high schools 
it is not too much to ask. 

The discussion of the Syllabus was continued by Miss Mildred 
Miller, Harrisburg Township High School : 

In the Harrisburg Township High School I am using the Syllabus and find 
it to be a most satisfactory plan for my work. Of course certain alterations 
will have to be made because of limitations in equipment. 

I have a fifteen-minute period the first thing in the morning for assembly 
singing. At times the principal has the whole body of students march to the 
music furnished by the High School Orchestra, an exercise that is enjoyed and 
tends to arouse much enthusiasm and interest in music study. Perfect time is 
demanded and close attention is paid to the position and carriage of each pupil. 
Sometimes when the orchestra cannot be assembled in time the piano is used. 
I have two regular classes in Music Appreciation and chorus work, we follow 
the plan of the Syllabus as closely as our present equipment will permit. Be- 
tween ten and fifteen minutes of actual work is done in these classes and much 
interest is manifested. At the seventh period I have orchestra practice. This 
organization consists of twelve pieces, four first violins, two second violins, a 
first and second cornet, a clarinet, a trombone, E flat tuba, the drums and piano. 
The students read readily and play together unusually well. I have a girl's 
chorus of twenty-five voices, a girls' quartette, and a boys' quartette. These 
pupils are interested in their work and always ready and willing to be on High 
School programs when called upon. As an incentive to good chorus and solo 
singing, the cities and towns of Southern Illinois hold frequent contests. Each 
town holds a preliminary contest then a final contest at Carbondale, in February, 
at which time and place the winners of the preliminary contests compete for 
honors. 

The schools that win at Carbondale are given medals according to the 
places that they have won. All of this voice training for the solos and choruses 
of these contests has to be strictly in the hands of the music teacher and it can 
readily be seen that it gains interest for the teacher and her work from the 
pupils. 

To my mind nothing is more reasonable and beneficial to the High School 
music student than the line of work as planned out in the Syllabus, because it 
can be so easily adjusted to every kind of equipment and introduces various 
important phases of music in the most comprehensive fashion ; it provides inter- 
esting work for the inexperienced pupil and plenty of work for those who are 
prepared to do more advanced music study. I find it invaluable and hope that 
other supervisors will gain as much inspiration and help as I have from the 
Syllabus. 



284 



Open discussion 



Miss Alba Mohr, Watseka, said that she was very fortunate in 
that she found favorable conditions for her work. The pupils were 
well prepared for the work of the high school and that she had the 
sympathy and encouragement of her colleagues. She offers two forty- 
minute periods a week, and her musical history lectures are given at 
stated times. She said that while at present no credit was given for 
the work, she was encouraged to try and secure them as the interest 
in her subject on the part of students was an incentive. 

Miss Helen Parker, Chatham High School, reported a lack of 
time for specific music teaching. She has only twenty minutes a week 
for chorus singing. She has, however, a girls' glee club that meets 
after school three half hour periods a week, and she is about to or- 
ganize a boys' glee club. No credit is given for music. 

Miss Clara Renfrew, of Cerro Gordo and Bement, said she was 
following the plan of the Syllabus in the Cerro Gordo schools and 
getting good results. The classes meet twice a week and appreciation 
work is well under way; not much outside preparation. Credit is 
allowed. Miss Renfrew has regular musical organizations in both 
towns. She hopes to start a class in appreciation soon in Bement. 

Miss Ruth M. Clapp, of Urbana, said that she had been able to 
do very little music work in the High School because of the crowded 
condition of the school where only half day sessions have been held. 
She expressed the sentiment that the Syllabus "filled a long felt want 
with her." She has an orchestra that is doing good work. 

Miss Edith Mann, of Hoopeston, said that she had four forty- 
minute periods on Mondays. This plan was made so that each 
student could select the hour best suited to his or her schedule. She 
makes chorus singing the foundation of her work and prepares the 
classes to siijg well together, as she has an ensemble class once a week. 
She usually gave instruction upon the selections, but no stated plan of 
other instruction. Credit is given. 

Miss Ruth Duncan, of Mt. Sterling, has one music period each 
day. She reported she was following the plan of the Syllabus and 
extending it into a two year course and that her students were en- 
joying the work. 

Miss Laura M. Honk, assistant supervisor in Decatur, said she 
was certain that the amount of work contained in the Syllabus could 



285 

not be done in the High Schools in that city, because there was too 
much work to be done in the grades. 

Miss Marianne Miller, of Kewanee, divides her High School into 
two choruses ; first and second year students in one and third and 
fourth year students in the other. Each has two twenty minute 
periods a week and a glee club meets after school for one hour a 
week, and an orchestra for two hours a week. About 90 per cent, of 
the students elect music for which credit is given. 

Miss Guna C. Kelley, of Clinton, gives three twenty minute 
periods a week, chiefly chorus work. Glee Club and Orchestra meet 
outside of school hours. Also would like to plan for appreciation 
work. Credit is given. 

Miss Dorothy Griggs, of Lovington Township High School, gives 
a forty-five minute lesson each day. She has a girls' and a boys' glee 
club, both of which meet after school hours twice a week. Credit iy 
given for regular work. 

Principal Livingston, of Lockport Township High School, said 
that Music received a great deal of attention in his school, that he was 
trying to make it a center for the musical activities of the town. The 
supervisor gave private lessons on the violin to the pupils who wished 
to take them, and that the previous teacher gave private voice lessons 
as part of the regular school work. He was especially interested in 
building up a good orchestra. He said he thought that more sightr 
reading should be done in the High Schools. 

Assistant Professor Schwarts, of the School of Music, suggested 
that the work in "key relationship explained" be pushed forward to 
the second month and that the drill in writing triads be put in the third 
month. Professor Smith accepted the suggestion after explaining that 
much chorus singing is done in vocal harmony by the second month of 
High School work. 

Discussion closed. 

The chairman asked if the Conference wished to take action upon 
the Syllabus. Miss Grace V. Swan moved that the Syllabus be adopted 
as a standard of work for the High Schools in the State. Miss Hester 
Cameron of Lincoln seconded the motion — carried. 

Notices were read and the meeting adjourned until 2 o'clock. 

The afternoon session was called to order at two o'clock. The 
chairman explained that beginning on September 1st, 1915, the Uni- 
versity would grant two units in music for entrance. Schools desiring 



286 

such credit should follow the same plan as for other entrance credits 
and the work would be investigated in the regular way. 

The subject of Accrediting Applied Music in the High Schools 
was opened by J. Lawrence Erb, Director of the School of Music, Uni- 
versity of Illinois, who spoke as follows : 

According to the Trade Journals, the people of the United States are, 
and have been for a number of years past, the most liberal supporters of musical 
enterprises in the world. Statistics go to show that we spend much more money 
for concerts, for sheet music and music books and for music teaching than any 
other country, and some authorities are so rash as to say than any other two 
countries. The educational side of music is being exploited in this country in 
a manner which can only bring joy to music teachers. Everywhere is the call 
for teachers of music in one form or another, and it must be frankly confessed 
that in many cases the call is so insistent that the quality of the teachers does 
not always have opportunity to measure up to what might be wished for. 

Perhaps the greatest musical awakening in the past few years has been 
along the line of music in the schools. The time was not so long ago when the 
public school paid no attention to music beyond the familiar elementary sight 
reading classes, and it is in the very recent past that the introduction of the 
High School Orchestras and High School Choruses that were capable of cop- 
ing successfully with the standard choruses and even with the great oratorios 
created a sensation thruout the country. Now we find not only such work be- 
ing done in many schools, but courses in Harmony, History and Appreciation 
find their way more and more into the schools of even the smaller towns. 

All this is enough to fill one's heart with joy. There are many of us who 
are still young who would not have dared to prophesy twenty years ago that 
what has taken place would be, and we are, perhaps, still too timid in making 
forecasts. Certainly we are not yet brave enough to go into the land of our 
heritage and possess it in full. What I am particularly referring to is the most 
important and indispensable phase of music study, namely, Applied or Practical 
Music, which has as yet been introduced into the schools in only a comparative- 
ly limited number of cases. 

It is interesting to notice that whereas the constant trend of education in 
general has been from the theoretical to the practical, from the abstract to the 
concrete, from the general to the particular, in music education we are still 
to a large extent in the first stage. Of course, it is true that too much of our 
educational energy is spent in studying about things, not in studying the things 
themselves, in being told how to do things and not being made to do them. 
The multiplicity of books of the "tell how" sort indicate how eager the public 
is to get information, and also how eager too often it is to find some short 
cut that will enable it to win the fruits of labor without performing the labor 
itself. Just here is where too much of the music education, not only of the 
public schools, but in Colleges and Universities, falls short. There is a vast 
deal of learned discourse about how a thing has been done or ought to be done, 
but there is also a Imentable lack of practical training in the doing. Therefore, 



287 

I should like to call your attention for a few moments to what is, after all the 
supreme phase of all education — the education which enables men and women 
to do. Do not misunderstand me, I do not mean that the theoretical end of 
music study or any other phase of education is not of use, but it should succeed 
rather than precede the practical. The drill and discipline should insure the 
ability to perform certain set tasks. There was, after all, a deal of good sense 
underlying the Gradgrind species of education, which, after having the boy 
spell "horse" and "currj", sent him out to the barn to do it. So I would like 
to emphasize the applied, practical, perfonnance side of music study and to urge 
that its proper place is in the regular curriculum of the school boy and girl. 

Possibly there are those to whom the value of applied music is problemat- 
ical. To such I should like to direct a few observations. The true basis of ed- 
ucation is and has always been held to be largely disciplinary, — entirely aside 
from the value of the information gained or the facts acquired. The training 
of the mind and will, the muscles and senses, has ever been held of paramount 
importance. Now in all humility and kindliness, I should like to say as em- 
phatically as I can that the person who has had no experience with the serious 
study of applied music is absolutely incapable of judging with any adequacy 
whatever its educational value. Therefore, if our critics know nothing about 
practical music study at first hand, they should have the honesty and good 
grace to say so and to step aside in favor of those who do . 

Let me say then, without the slightest fear of contradiction from anyone 
who has any basis of experience upon which to judge, that I know of nothing 
which so trains the mind in quick and accurate thinking and at the same time 
co-ordinates brain and muscles in as thoro a manner as does the study of 
practical music, especially instrumental music. But I will leave the bare state- 
ment to make its own impress without taking time to go into arguments or 
marshalling proofs. For I suspect that most if not all of you are already con- 
vinced of the value of applied music. If not, I would simply remind you that 
New York, California, Massachusetts and, I think, Colorado include applied 
music among the accredited subjects, besides such cities as Minneapolis, Cin- 
cinnati, Pittsburgh and Washington, D. C. 

Leaving aside then the arguments for the study of applied music from the 
educational point of view, let me remind you of perhaps the commonest exper- 
ience which falls to the lot of the music teacher. A boy or girl begins the study 
of some instrument, usually the piano, well down in the grades. Considerations 
of health as well as of general educational policy restrict the time that may be 
devoted to the practicing, but in spite of the necessary (or supposedly necessar>) 
handicaps, the pupil progresses at a reasonable rate until the High School is 
reached. Then ensue four years of musical desert. A few of the most irre- 
pressibly musical (or with persistent parents) stick to the music study as best 
they may, but the great majority drop out at the most important period in their 
educational careers, very many never again to take up their music study, some 
to do what they can summers, and a few more, hungering and thirsting after 
musical righteousness, continuing after they get into College or business, — 
tho with the sad handicap of those four lost High School years. Just at 
the time when the educational machine is getting in its most important work. 



288 

music is forced out of the scheme of things. Do you wonder that American 
musical atmosphere and artistic attainments still fall far short of what they 
ought to be? 

Of course I realize that many will answer that there are so many necessary 
things that must be included in the curriculum that music must perforce be 
omitted. Yes, necessary — to the people interested in them. I maintain that so 
long as applied music is admittedly of high educational value and that its worth 
is so universally recognized that people everywhere are willing to pay extra and 
pay well for its inclusion in the educational equipment of their children, they 
ought at least in fair play to be given the privilege of including it under reason- 
ably favorable circumstances, so long as they are willing to pay for it. Some- 
time, if this old planet keeps on revolving and not too many Wars of the Nations 
intervene to retard the progress of civilization, we shall have Applied Music 
taught our children at the state's expense, just as they are taught Manual Train- 
ing, but I am not bold enough either to hope for or to advocate before this 
gathering such a step at this time. I should be quite sufficiently happy for one 
man if I could see Applied Music accredited in every High School in Illinois, 
no matter who pays the bill. 

But, let us suppose that all the School Boards and Superintendents in the 
State should wake up to-morrow morning, convinced by some overnight miracle 
that it was their duty to accredit applied music, the question would naturally 
arise "How can we go about it?" For in Music Teaching, tho many may 
feel themselves called, there may safely be only a few chosen, when it comes 
to applying efficiency tests. How then may a city select its accredited music 
teachers? How? How do you select a physician, a dentist, or a lawyer when 
you go into a new community and don't know whom to call? You naturally 
turn to the man with the best reputation and, if not the biggest, at least a re- 
spectable, practice. For tho there are quacks who prosper, yet in a sur- 
prisingly large percentage of cases, prosperity and outward success go to the 
man who has, if not the best, at least a good claim to his preeminence. For 
"By their fruits ye shall know them", is true of music teachers as well as of men 
in other callings. There is one further thot in connection with this matter, 
and that is, that it would scarcely be found practicable to limit the number of 
accredited music teachers to one each in Piano, Voice, Violin and so on, even 
in the small towns. The practice is, in the cities which accredit Applied Music, 
to accept the teacher whom the student selects, provided the teacher's credentials 
bear scrutiny and his record is good. It is, however, sometimes found necessary 
to insist that the student change teachers, it being the right of the High School 
Supervisor of Music to demand such change where results are not satisfactory. 

The important matters of the selection of a teacher (or teachers) having 
been attended to, the next thing that presents itself for solution is the proper 
manner of conducting the work. The usual plan is to require, for the full period 
of the school year, one hour or two half-hour lessons a week, with a definite 
amount of practice, varying from five hours a week to two hours a day, all 
missed lessons and practice time to be made up within a limited period, (usually 
a month or six weeks) and no work being accepted for credit which does not 
run thru the year. The teacher and parent (or guardian) of the pupil must 



289 

each send in a report, usually monthly, indicating the amount of work done, its 
quality and the ground covered. At the end of the year or semester an examin- 
ation is provided for by an Examiner or Board of Examiners chosen by the 
school authorities, the expense, (stipulated not to exceed $5.00 in most cases) 
to be borne by the student. The work must measure up to the standards of 
the best schools, but may be done either in conservatories or schools of music 
or by private teachers. Credit is given usually upon the same basis as for any 
class which recites daily, tho in most cases, the regular courses in Sight 
Reading, Harmony, Appreciation, History of Music, and so on, are also re- 
quired, or the Applied Music will not be credited. In some cases, the theoretical 
work may be taken in the Public Schools or elsewhere, at the option of the 
student. Practically all the cities adopting the plan of accrediting Applied Music 
insist that the students receiving credit assist whenever called upon, — with the 
consent of their teachers — in any musical exercises of the school or in illustra- 
ting any History or Appreciation Course, and, in the case of Orchestral instru- 
ments, after a year's work, when required in the School Orchestra. In Cincin- 
nati particularly this Applied Music work is encouraged by sending out to stu- 
dents of the eighth grade, toward the close of the year, a letter outlining the 
work of the course and urging such as are considering the serious study of music, 
especially professionally, to plan for this Course. 

The credit granted for Applied Music in High School varies as much as it 
does in the College and Universities. While the scale of credits is practically 
uniform, — a credit a year (or semester) upon the same basis as in a course 
with five recitation periods a week, — the total number of credits which may 
be earned varies, the highest proportion being in the schools of cities such as 
Cincinnati and Pittsburgh (in the latter, a total of eight credits may be earned 
in Appplied Music out of a total of 32 in all subjects for graduation). 

From this hasty survey it will be seen that the accrediting of Applied 
Music is rapidly becoming a fact, — or rather has become a fact in the schools 
of most of the leading cities of the country and many progressive small towns, — 
and that at least four states have already adopted the scheme officially into their 
educational system. That the work is being done upon a sound educational 
basis and with a definite end in view is apparent, as witness the insistence upon 
monthly reports, examinations, public performances when required, and so on. 
In fact, the experimental stage is past, and Applied Music is established in the 
educational systems of the more progressive communities upon a firm founda- 
tion. It will soon be as much an evidence of backwardness in a town to fail 
to accredit Applied Music as it is now to fail to include the study of music in 
any form. 

A word in closing as to the relation of the University of Illinois toward 
this matter. Those of you who are acquainted with the entrance requirements 
for 1915-16 will observe that of a total of 15 units required for entrance, two may 
be in Music, either Theoretical or Applied. This is a very fair proportion, you 
will admit, and points the way toward what the University of Illinois may 
reasonably be supposed to expect from High Schools of the State. The time 
is past when a serious College or University feels its musical obligations ful- 
filled if it offers any kind of music courses at all, no matter what their grade. 



290 

The better institutions of higher learning are all lining up for the elimination of 
what we call the Preparatory Grades of music (usually the first three years) 
and are restricting their activities more and more to the Collegiate Grades, which 
is, of course, their legitimate work. And the only reason why they have had to 
be handicapped so long with the beginners and poorly prepared students of 
piano, voice and what not, is because the High Schools have not done their 
proper work in this regard. Therefore, the University of Illinois, in common 
with all other Universities and Colleges, calls upon the High Schools to shoulder 
their responsibility and make it possible for the institutions of higher learning 
to be what they ought to be, the crowning glory of the educational system of 
the State, resting upon the Grade Schools and High Schools as their solid 
foundation. And, because no man is truly educated unless he is symmetrically 
educated, — his body and intellect, not only, but his esthetic and moral senses 
as well, — I would urge again, as a last refrain, as it were, the accrediting of 
Applied Music in the High Schools of Illinois. 

The discussion of Director Erb's paper was opened by William D. 
Armstrong, Alton. 

Mr. Armstrong's remarks were as follows: 

In considering this subject there are four departments of music available ; 
these are : — History, Theory, Vocal and Instrumental Music. 

The History of Music could be substituted for one of the major or minor 
studies in either the literary or historical branches, because it includes both; 
and is so interwoven with the development of the world from a religious or 
material standpoint, that when one comes to consider the extent of the knowledge 
obtained from this source, the subject appears to be of the first importance. 

Of course this, as in all branches of education, depends upon the text 
books used and the ability of the teacher to interest the pupil. From the first 
records we learn that — "The morning stars sang together and all the sons of 
God shouted for joy." This is music. Music was the first of the arts, to be 
followed by painting and literature. Later we find combined, music and litera- 
ture resulting in song, — then music, literature and painting, resulting in opera. 
Charlemange, in his first university included music as one of the important 
studies in the curriculum. It has always been considered one of the serious 
studies, both for mental development and recreation. 

In our high schools, one year's work in either the junior or senior years 
would be sufficient to give an outline of musical history and awaken in the 
pupil a desire for further research. So far as I can observe, there has not 
been written a practical text book on this subject ; as the field is large and the 
material voluminous. So — in this paper I shall not endeavor to specify any 
particular books, but cannot refrain from mentioning "A popular history of 
music" edited by the late W. S. B Matthews, published by Mr. Clayton F. 
Summy, of Chicago. 

In some schools harmony is already being taught and credits given for 
such work. Here again, the matter of text books presents itself; some treaties 
start out at once with Open Harmony, others Close ; some plunge at once into 



291 

difficulties without explaining previous steps ; others have no rules but flounder 
around from one subject to another, leaving the student in a quandry and won- 
dering what it is all about. Further, with one or two exceptions, our harmony 
books have been translated from the French or German and the author's mean- 
ing, in many instances is hidden. 

This situation has been threshed over by the music teachers' associations 
both National and State, and from evidences obtainable, all the teaching of 
harmony in this country has failed to produce many good harmonists or teachers 
of this subject. Mr. Stephen Emerj% late professor of harmony in the New 
England Conservatory of Music says : — "Let the fact be understood that every 
hour devoted to the study of harmony is itself an indispensable part of one's 
study in every department of music, enabling one to sing or play recognizably 
better than could otherwise be possible." Harmony is to music what grammar 
is to literature ; it defines the rules of the art, and gives the interpreter ability 
to understand and execute music correctlj'. It is an extremely interesting sub- 
ject, not difficult to comprehend as is generally supposed and should be an in- 
tegral part in the education of both amateur and professional. 

Of the two methods of conducting examinations now extant; viz — The 
subject given in the school by the music supervisor and he, or she examining the 
student ; and the local teachers preparing the students to be examined by the 
school authorities, — the first procedure is the most preferable, as it is known 
just what ground has been covered. By the latter method of examination, the 
paper has already been prepared by some other institution or individual and 
does not always include the work done by the student and therefore is more or 
less unsatisfactory to all parties concerned. 

The first test should practically not go further than the Seventh Chords 
and should occur near the close of the junior year, special attention being given 
to the Intervals, Scales, then the Major, Minor, Augmented and Diminished 
Triads and their Inversions, followed by the Dominant, Secondary and Colateral 
Seventh Chords. 

The second test of the senior year would include the Diminished Seventh 
Chords, the Augmented Sixth Chords, Suspensions, Anticipations, Modulation 
and other related subjects. 

The matter of the Syllabus has been discussed this morning and public 
school music is largely catalogued and placed. The further proposition for 
giving credits in vocal music for instruction given in or outside the school by 
local teachers seems to resolve itself into this situation : — As there are 
literary clubs formed for which the pupils receive credits, so choral clubs might 
be formed consisting of male and female sections and then a combination of 
both, the work to be so graded that the students passing successful examinations 
for work done in sight singing and interpretation, would receive proper credits. 
This of course, could only be done where there is a local supervisor of music 
to select the material and conduct the examinations. 

In regard to solo work, the students who are in our high schools are 
simply passing through the formative period and while not very much can be 
accomplished at this time, still credits could be given for work done. This 
same rule might apply to instrumental music. Students could form clubs and 



292 

give performances of classic and modern works, also could present lists of 
compositions studied under local teachers. The whole question then seems to 
assume this aspect : — The music in our public schools depends entirely upon the 
supervisor or other principals and teachers who are proficient in music. So far 
as singing and public school music are concerned, there has been a great advance 
made in the past twenty-five years, still, as yet, it is not resolved to a unit or a 
perfect system because local conditions have to be met in every case. 

It is not much of a difficulty to classify public school music and give 
credits for work done, but when these other items are to be taken into consider- 
ation, then the troubles begin to multiply. The solution of this matter will be 
in a more extensive education of our music supervisors who should not be only 
vocalists and instrumentalists, but theorists as well. This is quite a demand 
to make on one and when one fits onesself for such work, there are wider fields 
and opportunities than in our public schools, but as the subject of this paper 
indicates, if these conditions are to be complied with, the suggestions that I 
have ventured will have to be carried out. 

Mr. E. R. Lederman, Centralia, continued the discussion: 

The Illinois Music Teachers' Association, which is the greatest organiza- 
tion of musicians in our state, is in existence for the purpose of advancing 
musical knowledge and education. 

One of the principal aims of the I. M. T. A. has been to have applied 
music accredited in all the high schools of the State, and such credits to be 
accepted as part of the entrance credits in our state university in the department 
of liberal arts. The announcement made by the university authorities that 
entrance credits will be granted in music on the same basis as other studies, is 
indeed welcome news, not only to the members of our association, but to all 
those interested in musical education in our state, the number of which probably 
includes ninety per cent, of the residents of Illinois. 

Our association has advocated the granting of such credits so that all those 
who intend to make music their profession, either as teachers, artists, or com- 
posers, would be enabled to get the general education offered in a complete 
high school course, so absolutely necessary for a successful musical career, and 
also for the benefit of all other music students, who, on entering high school, 
would either have to give up the study of music, or continue it under difficulties. 

Our I. M. T. A. appreciates very highly the most excellent, unceasing ef- 
forts of Professor Constance Barlow- Smith, of the University School of Music, 
for the realization of this important aim of our association. The problem of 
accrediting music study with outside tutors has been solved very successfully 
in many high schools in all parts of the country, and there is no reason why it 
could not be put into practical operation in all schools of our state. Superin- 
tendents and boards of education in most schools favor the placing of music 
as a major study on the curriculum, but to many it seems to be a difficult task 
to make satisfactory arrangements in regard to grading the work of music 
students, and to some extent supervising the selection of outside tutors by high 
school students. ' 



293 

As a model for grading work, I would mention the requirements for music 
study and examinations in the Oak Park High School, while under Mr. Otto 
Miessner's supervision. In schools where the number of those who had musical 
instruction by private tutors is not large, it would be advisable not to set the 
standard too high, — to give less difficult work the first year so that a good 
foundation may be the result. 

Members of glee clubs, orchestras and other ensemble classes should devote 
as much time for their work in music study as those who have outside tutors, 
to earn credits granted for such work. 

Supervisors of music in high schools who have the necessarj^ education 
for such a position, who spent the same number of years in preparation for 
their work as the other teachers, will have no difficulty in making such organi- 
zations a success, and the credits given to the individual members would be 
earned. But are all our high schools so fortunate as to be able to prove that 
they have efficient music supervisors? This is the weakest spot in regard to 
accrediting music in high schools. I have listened to songs by high school 
choruses, which were sung so well that it surprised me. The director was a 
thorough musician. The result was remarkable. At other times I have heard 
singing directed by a "music supervisor", which could not be classed as music in 
any sense of the word, and those people received "credits" for their efforts. 

The remedy for such conditions is simple. The people will have to pay 
for it, but it will be money well spent. The music supervisor should measure 
up to the standards of the other high school teachers, and receive the same 
remuneration for their work, or more, because such a musical education is far 
more expensive, as it has to be paid for by the individual without assistance 
from the state. In case a school cannot engage an efficient instructor for financial 
reasons, two or three schools in a county could co-operate and secure the services 
of one for two or three days per week. If such a plan would be adopted, all 
high schools in our state would within a few years be supplied with competent 
music supervisors, and the others would be eliminated. 

In regard to supervising the selection of outside tutors by high school 
students, a number of schools have followed the plan of making a list of ap- 
proved music teachers, and advise the pupils to select their private tutors from 
that number. This plan may work well, and it may not. The ability of a music 
teacher is judged by the work of his average pupils. It would probably be 
a better plan and more just to let the pupil select his outside tutor, and if he 
cannot pass the examination in music at the end of the school year, then advise 
him to make a better selection. But very likely this advice will not even be 
necessary. 

Inasmuch as the accrediting of work done by outside teachers is an ex- 
tension of the high school faculty, the school authorities have the right to 
demand that the musician thus engaged should measure up to the standards of 
the high school teacher in every respect. Our I. M. T. A. has placed itself under 
obligation to standardize music teaching in our state, and for that purpose offers 
examinations in different branches, including public school music. The exam- 
inations will be given for three degrees, — Licentiate, Associate, and Fellow. 



294 

Our association fully realizes that the teaching of music should be stand- 
ardized on the same plan as those other subjects taught in the high schools and 
universities. By offering examinations for music supervisors, we also hope to 
increase the number of efficient music teachers in our public schools. 

In conclusion I would suggest as a good plan that the authorities of the 
Illinois University School of Music, in co-operation with the I. M. T. A. board 
of examiners, should grade the work to be done in music study in the high 
schools of our state. 

Continuing the discussion, Mr. O. V. Shaffer, of Danville, said : 

I shall speak from the viewpoint of one whose entire work has been done 
in a private studio, and whose teaching has been, almost exclusively, the piano. 
My own personal observation and experience has been that high school prin- 
cipals and teachers are doing the best possible, under present conditions, for 
the music student, and I think that it is almost universally admitted among 
school authorities that it would be a wise thing to allow credits for work done 
in applied music provided that it is done in a proper manner. Good will and 
kindly opinoin are well enough, but unfortunately, this does not help the poor 
boy or girl who has to toil over books at home every night, and who goes to 
his (or her) music lesson shamefacedly, with the ever-present excuse of lack 
of time to prepare it on account of school lessons. Public opinion must always 
precede any new departure, and as we have abundant evidence that hearty co- 
operation will be given by both school authorities and parents, I think it is 
merely a question of how credit shall be given. 

The biggest problem of all confronts us at once in the chaotic state of 
music teaching as it is at present; but (thanks to men like our esteemed friend, 
Mr. Lederman, who honors us today by being here) that problem is being solved, 
and I believe it will be a stisfactory solution. Nothing can be done, however, 
with the problem of credits until the outside teaching is standardized. Next 
May, we music teachers will have a chance to take an examination which some 
of us hope to be able to pass, and from comments I have heard, the plan is 
looked upon with much favor throughout the state. We may reasonably hope, 
then, to have within a few months a number of teachers available who can 
produce some tangible evidence of their professional standing and capabilities. 
Our problem today then is to blaze a path in the following almost unexplored 
realms. 

Entrance requirements. 

Examinations, when and by whom given. 

Whether tuition shall be private or public. 

Amount of work necessary to receive credit 

Nature of course to be given. 

How the theoretical and historical side of music study may receive best 
attention. 

I believe that no high school student should be allowed to choose piano 
as a study unless he has already attained to some proficiency. The standards 
set and the outline of such a course should preclude the possibility of one start- 
ing in at that time as a beginner. The fact that one would have to pass a 



295 

certain grade before being allowed to choose piano for study would operate to 
advantage in several ways. There are always with us, those who would never 
become players were they to keep on trying until the last trump has sounded, 
and it is a notable fact that those persons are usually the last ones to find it o it. 
I think it would be a kindly act for the high school entrance examination to put 
them out of their misen,- ( for they could be depended upon to choose piano as 
a study if that course were open to them) and possibly save much innoceit 
suffering to those who are compelled to listen to their practice. The bright 
young boy or girl who has been coming up through the grades will work harder 
at his music (possibly I am looking at it selfishly now) if he is planning to 
make the piano one of his studies in high school and his parents will see to it 
that he does practice, and get to the place where he can pass the tests required. 
The talented pupil, of course, will be the one who will benefit most by the extra 
time given her, and that is where another problem steps in. Sometimes we 
have a talented one who has reached as advanced a stage of piano study before 
arriving at high school age as others may reach only after hard work through 
a whole four years high school course. Shall we then examine and make an 
accurate survey of the starting point of each of these? I think there is no 
other alternative. It seems to me that the minimum requirement for a student 
entering for piano study should be the ability to play music of the grades of 
dementi's Sonatines Op. 36, No. 1, 2 and 3, and that they should at least know 
the major scales well enough to play them in r>thms of quarters, eighths, and 
sixteenths at a metronome marking of J=72. I shall not speak of voice, as that 
is a different problem, except to say that I should judge that a student wishing 
to study voice should also be required to study the piano (according to a much 
easier schedule) for the time required for vocal practice is necessarily much less 
than that of piano, or any instrument, and to accomplish results they should by 
all means have the piano study in conjunction with it. As to the course, a very 
fair arrangement would be to allow one credit each semester on the basis of 
one lesson per week with nine hours practice. This I would consider a rather 
low standard, but probably the best until the system would have a trial. Two 
lessons a week would bring so much better results that some incentive might 
be given to students who could take them and do additional hours of practice. 
The course should include compulsory attendance in a class Harmony and 
Musical Appreciation. This part of the work should be done in classes, and 
where access can be had to a victrola and a player-piano if possible, for the 
private teacher without equipment could not do the work as well in private les- 
sons, nor would he have the time to devote to it without seriously affecting the 
time so necessary in working out the individual problems of technique and 
interpretation. The teacher of Theory and Appreciation could be made a 
member of the faculty, and could plan her work with the outside teachers so 
that the course would have a maximum of co-related effort. This course would 
form the basis from which examinations and tests could be given, and with the 
reports of the pupils' progress, and the weekly gradings which should be re- 
quired of the private teacher, I believe a rather accurate summing-up of the 
pupil's work for the semester could be arrived at. As to the examinations, 
it seems to me that the plan adopted in Chelsea and Brookline, Massachusetts, 



296 

is a very feasible one. Their examinations are conducted by a Board of Ex- 
aminers nominated by the New England Advisory Board (which is a committee 
on music from the New England Education League), and approved by the 
local school board. Due allowance should be made for nervousness and the 
examinations should be conducted under circumstances where the pupil would 
not be under too great a strain. There are many pupils who have worked 
faithfully and should have credit for it, who, if put to a severe test before a 
strange examining board would probably fail, even though they had put many 
more hours of hard work on their music than would have been required in some 
other study to make a credit. There is a greater disparity between what differ- 
ent pupils will accomplish in applied music even with the same amount of 
practice than in any other branch of study. Sometimes in a pupil's recital the 
one we have pinned great hopes on will make a very poor showing, owing to 
physical or temperamental reasons while the pupil with plenty of "ego" and 
not half as much real knowledge will "bring down the house". This would 
all be understood, undoubtedly, by any one eligible as examiner and taken into 
account. The Examiners would, no doubt, be guided in a great measure by the 
periodical reports of the private teacher and the work done in the Harmony 
and Appreciation classes, rather than the ability at a given moment to play 
glibly the allegra movement from some sonata. The teachers' reports should be 
on file and should cover thoroughly the technical work done, compositions 
studied and progress shown from time to time. Arrangements could probably 
be made with the Illinois Music Teachers' Association or the Faculty of the 
State University to nominate examiners for any high school. The cost to a 
school of this service could be reduced by having lists of available and capable 
men and women in different parts of the state, and whose proximity would 
have something to do with their being chosen. 

The same topic v^as further discussed by Miss Minerva Hall, 
Normal. Following is substantially her contribution to the dis- 
cussion : 

Why should we credit outside study of music under private teachers during 
the high school period? 

Music is occupying an important place in the community life of our country. 
Its greatest utility in the social, domestic and religious life of the people is un- 
questioned. The influence of the musician as a leader in our cultural develop- 
ment and as an educational force is fast assuming national importance. 

The community has the right to expect the influence to be of the best and 
highest ; and, by giving the music student every possible advantage, the schools 
will be doing their part in giving the country musicians with a broad education, 
and fitted for the musical leadership of our country. 

To those who are making music their vocation, a broad training is difficult 
or impossible to attain. With the crowded curriculum, out-of-school study is 
almost impossible. As a result, students of music are generally compelled to lose 
the educational advantages of the high school, in order to keep up their music 
study. Some try to do both but, finding the task too hard, break down physi- 
cally or become superficial in both the high school work and music study. 



297 

The high school studies are grouped into courses; college, business, and 
scientific. Pupils, on entering high school, are given an opportunity to elect 
work to prepare them for their future vocation or profession. Music students 
should have equal right to special preparation. 

With the sympathy and hearty co-operation of my superintendent and 
principal, I was able to put in a Music Course in the Decatur High School, 
February, 1914, in which credit was given for applied music. The following 
may be of some interest to you : 

This is a plan for accrediting in the Decatur High School of the study 
of music outside the High School. Credit will be given to students of voice, 
pianoforte, organ and instruments of the symphonic orchestra. 

One hour of credit will be allowed for a course of one semester, under 
an approved private instructor, in which the student recites not less than thirty 
minutes per week and practices not less than five hours per week. 

The teacher must deliver reports on the student's work to the principal 
of the High School every six weeks. These reports must cover the following 
points : 

1. Number of lessons taken. 

2. Average number of hours' practice a week. 

3. Technical progress made by the pupil since preceding report. A de- 
tailed statement is desirable. 

4. List of compositions studied by pupil, with remarks concerning the 
scope and quality of the work done on each composition. 

5. A mark, on the plan used in the Decatur High School, showing the 
teacher's estimate of the standing and progress of the pupil. This mark 
will go on the pupil's monthly school report. The teacher's reports 
are to be delivered to the principal of the High School by mail or in 
person. 

An examination will be given in January and June by the High School. 

Director Erb closed the discussion and the chairman asked for an 
expression of opinion with regard to the size of the committee. Should 
it consist of three or five members? A vote was taken and it was 
decided to keep five. 

Nominations were called for and the following people were 
elected : 

William D. Armstrong, of Alton, 1916. 

E. R. Lederman, of Centralia, 1915. 

O, E. Robinson, of Chicago, 1915. 

Two of the previous list remain on the committee, Assistant 
Professor Constance Barlow-Smith, 1916, and Mrs. Elizabeth Mc- 
Nair, of Mattoon, 1916. Professor Smith, Chairman. 

Adjourned. 

Miss Ailsie Goodrich, Secretary pro tern. 



298 

Physical Science Section 

The meeting was held in the Physics Lecture Room and was pre- 
sided over by Chairman C, M. Wirick, of the Crane High School, 
Chicago. The program proved to be of special interest to the teach- 
ers present. Professor A. P. Carman of the Physics Department 
read a paper which described some of the problems under investiga- 
tion at the University and which at the same time pointed out the im- 
portant recent developments in physics. Dean Eugene Davenport, of 
the College of Agriculture, followed with an interesting discussion of 
the production of crops, showing from the standpoint of science some 
of the limiting factors. Dean W. F. Rice, of Wheaton, presented a 
method he had developed for reducing the cost of illumination in his 
college, and gave also some interesting remarks on the function of the 
teacher in laboratory work. Mr. L. A. Pinkney discussed the results 
of his experiments on falling bodies, and showed a new method for 
determining "g." The program was concluded by the demonstration 
of wave motion by Dr. F. R, Watson, of the Physics Department. 

T. M. Barger, Bloomington, was elected to fill the vacancy on the 
Executive Committee caused by dropping out of J. P. Drake. 

[The papers or abstracts of them follow in the order of their 
presentation.] 

F. R. Watson, Secretary. 

Abstract of paper by Professor A, P. Carman on: 
Some Recent Advances in Physics. 

This paper consisted of a discussion of three lines, (1) photoelectric cells, 
(2) X-ray spectra, and (3) the variation of mass with velocity. In the case 
of the photoelectric cell the importance of discovering the velocity of the emitted 
electron with the frequency of the light consists in its bearing on the whole field 
of radiation of energy. An important application of the photoelectric cell is in 
photometry of very faint light sources such as those of the stars. Recent 
experiments by Stebbins, Kunz and Schulz have shown that the photoelectric 
cell promises to be the best photometer for stellar work, and Stebbins is al- 
ready using it in the astronomical observatory at the University. The use of 
reflecting surfaces of crystals for getting X-ray spectra was described and 
some photoelectric plates were shown in which the spectrum lines of X-rays 
appear. The variation of the mass of the electron with its velocity in the 
cathode ray is important as giving us an electron theory of matter. Some 
photoelectric plates obtained in the physical laboratory of Mr. L. T. Jones show- 
ing the method by which this variation in mass with velocity is proved and meas- 



299 

ured, were shown. Other recent advances in physics were incidentally referred 
to. 

Abstract of Dean Davenport's paper on : 

The Limiting Factors in Agricultural Production. 

It has become traditional with us to accept food as a gift of nature like 
the sunshine and the rain, seldom troubling ourselves with considering how much 
human exertion goes with its production, how slender is the thread on which our 
existence depends, how narrow at all times is the margin of supply, or what 
are the conditions both controllable and uncontrolloble which determine the 
limits of production. 

We do well as individuals and as a people to inform ourselves thoroughly 
about so important an essential as food ; whence it comes and how, what are 
the limitations to the supply and why, and what can be done, if anything, to 
insure safety at this point both now and in times to come. In the matter of 
food, conditions are complicated. First of all, it is not free like air, but costly, 
requiring as it does a full third of all the people to feed themselves and the 
rest of us, and demanding more than half the time and earning power of the 
average man who buys what his family eats. Besides the human factors of 
its cost there are certain natural elemental conditions that fix an absolute limit 
to production. It is exceedingly important, therefore, that people generally 
be informed at this particular point, indeed it is a matter of public policy, for 
some of these conditions are under control and may be improved, while others 
constitute permanent and national limitations to yield. 

In general plants and animals live upon each other somewhat promiscu- 
ously but in the last analysis all life is limited to what plants can do, for no one 
of the higher animals is able to feed directly upon the crude natural supply in 
the atmosphere. We may regard vegetation, therefore, as fixing, quantitatively 
at least, the limits of life, and farming as the business of increasing and equal- 
izing the supply. 

Plants are dependent upon certain food elements, — some of which come 
from the air, others from the soil, and upon energy or power for combining 
these elements into their own definite structures, this energy coming from the 
sun. What definite form this structure shall take depends upon the seed. 

In this way we may say that all life is determined by inheritance from 
its created ancestors, through the seed, using the seed in its biblical sense, but 
that its sustenance and prosperity are conditioned upon food, which comes 
from the air and the soil, upon energy, which comes from the sun through the 
medium of plant life, and upon certain economic considerations that must be 
reckoned with. 

Security of racial and national life, therefore, depends upon successful 
management of plants in crop production, wherefore the conditions that deter- 
mine yield become objects of special interest and study. They are as follows: 

1. Air, which is everjwhere abundant and therefore from the practical 
standpoint to be ignored. 



300 

2. Water, which is widespread but variable and more than any other factor 
limits production ; controllable within but narrow limits. 

3. Temperature, which is practically uncontrollable. 

4. Sunlight, which is universal but variable ; uncontrollable. 

5. Climate, the peculiar combination of water, heat and sunlight in their 

various alternations and which we express under the general term, 
climatic conditions ; practically uncontrollable. 

6. Season, the climatic condition of a given crop year. 

7. Fertility, universal but exceedingly variable ; controllable within nar- 
row limits. 

8. Economic conditions and principles, which are controllable. 

9. Seed, under control of breeding. 

10. The farmer himself, under control by breeding, education and economic 
and social environment. 

11. Educational ideals and standards of living; fully controllable. 

If these conditions and limitations to yield are discussed in some detail, 
it will be seen how powerless is the farmer at most points and how futile are 
some of the plans proposed for our agricultural salvation. One of the most 
promising improvements lies in the education of the child, especially the chil- 
dren who are to become farmers. They can be taught the plain facts concerning 
the problems of the world's food supply. If in addition they can be inspired 
to follow high ideals in moral and physical life a great step will be taken in the 
right direction to improve the present uncertain status of our food supply. The 
responsibility of doing this lies largely with the teacher. 

The generations come and go, — each doing the best it can with the agencies 
nearest at hand and largely without much thought ahead. It is the student and 
the teacher that tie the generations together and out of it all weave the fabric 
of the race. 

Paper by Dean W. F. Rice, Wheaton, on : 
Original Devices for Teaching Chemistry and Physics in the High School. 

The subject "Original Devices" seems to invite discussion from a personal 
standpoint, therefore no apologies are offered for anything in this paper that may 
be entirely from the writer's own experience. 

In the laboratories which the writer represents there is no effort at orig- 
inality. Those laboratories have been in use for over fifty years. They have 
apparatus which can not be found figured in any recent catalog or text book, 
for example : a single plate electrical machine that stands six feet high and 
12 feet long. There is also a complete set of apparatus for carrying out the 
experimental work of one of our most modern text books in college physics 
and in chemistry the most approved forms of apparatus are in use. A five foot 
shelf of apparatus catalogs from all over the United States and from six coun- 
tries of Europe suggest a wide field for selection of additional equipment. 

With costly laboratories, built and maintained with no regard to expense 
except that they shall justify their maintenance by the results they are able to 



301 

show in the increased efficiency of the manufacturing plants with which they are 
associated, and their methods and appratus freely offered as models to schools, 
as are those of the Western Electrical Co., and of other great companies em- 
ploying highly trained men, what need of originating new devices in our sec- 
ondary schools? 

The universities and scientific societies of Europe and America have been 
engaged for seventy years and more in devising the most perfect and simple 
apparatus, in point of accuracy and of educational utility, for demonstrating 
every abstract or concrete principle of physical science. The results of their 
endeavors are freely offered to all schools for copy. Then why should a 
secondary school teacher of physical science seek to devise anything original 
in illustrative methods? 

There come to our library weekly, proofsheets from the Library of Con- 
gress naming handbooks and laboratory manuals from practical teachers' shops. 
An increasing number of periodicals in this country and in Europe are devoted 
to the description of methods and apparatus for the experimenter. Our mail 
order houses publish columns of titles of manuals of experimental mechanics 
and electricity. Committees chosen from educational societies of which some 
of us are members are publishing the results of their attempts to devise stand- 
ardized apparatus. Why, then, should the secondary teacher use his valuable 
time in competing with so varied a body of workers, the greater part of whom 
are better equipped for the work than he? 

There is little honor and less profit in being the inventor of an original 
device in this much worked field. Very seldom shall we be able to originate a 
means of demonstrating a physical principle which shall have such surpassing 
excellence as to warrant its general adoption to the exclusion of other apparatus 
already in use. The construction of apparatus in the home shop should not be 
undertaken with a view to entering the field of production. 

The writer was invited to lecture before a neighboring school a number 
of times recently, where a new equipment, purchased from a well known appar- 
atus company and devised to illustrate a justly popular text book in physics 
had just been installed. Cheapness of construction or simplicity of design 
can hardly be found more consistently developed. Home construction is not 
warranted on account of cheapness alone. 

Much of the apparatus offered in sets, much of that which has become 
classic through the enterprise of our favorite dealers is greatly lacking in 
simplicity, in durability, or in adaptability to the end for which it was designed 
but we need not buy in sets, we need not purchase the undesirable since we 
have so large a field from which to gather worthy devices. For none of these 
ends is the exercise of home talent and genius in the field of scientific instrument 
invention imperative. 

The arguments for devices which may by courtesy be called original, 
which have no known precedent in fac simile, lies elsewhere. There are such 
arguments. They are numerous. They are weighty. They are founded on 
good psychological and economical principles. 

Our laboratories are properly for the purpose of educating in physical 
science. 



302 

They exist because we believe them to be the best means of teaching some 
portions of the subjects. The methods used should be the best methods to at- 
tain the ends sought. The whole teaching process is, at its best, the mere 
production of the most suitable environment possible for bringing about the 
activities appropriate to growth in our pupils which shall culminate in the fullest 
and most efficient development. A science laboratory is the place, of all the 
school, where the pupil's whole environment is most completely determinable 
by the teacher, yet it is very often the scene of confusion and idleness. The 
trouble is that the teacher has somehow failed in making himself the principal 
and controlling part of the environment. He has failed to impress his person- 
ality on the work of the laboratory. The teacher should be the atmosphere of 
the laboratory as well as of the recitation room. 

The teacher does not expect to enter the recitation room with anything 
undetermined about the work of the day, then he keeps in close contact 
with the pupil throughout the period. It is too often not so in the laboratory. 
If he is part of the waork at all, he either destroys its character by making of it 
an illustrated lecture, or he just "butts in." He ought to be master of his 
laboratory, not of the pupil only, but of everything there. It is important that 
he shall know why his apparatus behaves as it does, what the observational er- 
rors of his pupils with any given piece may reasonably be. 

He ought to give a word of commendation when a little better work than 
usual is done, or request a redoing at once of careless work. He should not 
wait until next week, "after the note books are looked over," before he gives 
a word of needed criticism. His method should be something like that of an 
efficient foreman of a shop. He should be equally prepared to wear white 
gloves and offer the encouragement of a friendly critic when everything goes 
well, or to don the overalls and overhaul the whole machine when apparatus 
breaks down. 

Those devices produced in the laboratory may be altered or repaired in 
the laboratory without the necessary delay of sending apparatus to the factory 
or the expense of duplicating pieces of infrequent use. This is an economy of 
time and of expense, if proper limits be observed. The question of limitations 
is an important one as they are a mathematical function of the teaching force. 
If the teacher has the ability, through original means, to exercise his personality 
in arriving at true teaching ends he has a powerful tool whose uses are as varied 
as are the personalities of the users. The plea of this paper is for personality 
in the laboratory. 

Our teaching of physical science must not be cold-blooded. Through it 
the teacher has as real an avenue into the hearts, the lives, and the homes of 
the pupil as through the teaching of any other subject. 

There is more opportunity for "local color" than in most subjects. 
Reasons and methods for the doing of more every day practical things are 
possible to be taught in the laboratory of physical science than anywhere else 
about the school. This demands larger resources, more ready adaptability, 
and more sympathetic administration than is possible in following one text 
book with a stereotyped laboratory manual and a set of apparatus carefully 



303 

prepared and photographed for iUustrations to these books. Don't misunder- 
stand me. I want these things also. 

The teacher needs to be as much a student as his pupils, but not in the 
same class. The product of his study if he be a laboratory worker of any 
parts at all, will occasionally be a method of illustration of a device for doing 
something, which is better at the time than any well prepared apparatus which 
lacks the combining power of the nascent idea from a mind in the very act 
of bringing it forth. 

The high school laboratory is a place for learning how to acquire knowledge 
as well as for acquiring it. The apparatus should become only tools for doing 
things, not subjects of study, to the pupils. The more closely they are fitted to 
the hand of the user the more effective is their use. That apparatus which the 
pupil sets up for himself is more truly a tool for his use and less a machine 
of which he is often an unwilling part. It is the mere mechanical activity that 
reduces the laboratory work to another phase of text-book work, with impedi- 
menta, which the original device transforms and invigorates. The original 
device of the pupil satisfies the creative impulse, and should not be undervalued, 
though it cannot be required, and must be infrequently expected. The original 
device of the teacher is suggestive of the possibility of original investigation 
by the pupil — if it is actually an efficient device, executed in a reasonably work- 
manlike manner. 

To illustrate what has been said, we have two illustrations here present. 
This is the way we escape the rigidity of a single manual. We have a very 
great number of these pressed board cards, cut to this size, which accomodates 
two pages of an ordinary manual on one side. We buy a number of copies 
of every manual that strikes our fancy. We cut up two of them and paste the 
best exercises on cards, assigning each card a number. Each teacher and each 
assistant has a complete copy of the book. For the larger manuals we have 
a larger card. The use of different methods of doing the same thing at ad- 
joining tables enforces the principle through the pupils' own work better than 
the teachers' explanation could do. 

This second illustration is an exercise which is going forward as a labor- 
atory exercise in the economics of lighting. Actual inspection by the pupils is 
encouraged. The lighting of all our buildings is under the immediate charge 
of the physics department. Current is purchased from the Western United 
Gas and Electric Co. Each building has its own meter. Certain students of 
the College classes are given charge of the lamps in different buildings. The 
Academy Students might be given this task if thought best. It is well within 
their capacity. This chart tells its own story of some hundreds of dollars of 
saving. Each month's electricity bill gives it new interest. This board is an 
ocular illustration of the lighting power of various sorts of lamps now used 
and of those which have been displaced. Different combinations of lamps are 
inserted for the preparation of a chart of wattage, voltage, amperage, and candle 
power of the various lamps. The tests are made by the attachment of the vari- 
ous meters directly to the board. This is intended to introduce Ohm's law 
well within the pupil's environment. He applies it practically and may apply it 
as frequently again as he chooses. It is one of the devices to make the laboratory 



304 

a part of the pupil's life. We claim no originality for it, though we have never 
seen it in use elsewhere. 

Mr. L. A. Pinkney's presentation of : 

An Apparatus for the Determination of "g" 

The first experiments of value that were made in the investigation of the 
laws of falling bodies were those of Galileo. It was he who gave us the 
historic formula s=^gt", and who came to the conclusion that all bodies, 
neglecting the resistance of the air, fall in the same time irrespective of their 
size and weight. Since his time, various types of apparatus have been devised 
to show the laws of falling bodies. Among them the Atwood's machine has 
come down to us as a classic. 

There are several objections, however, to the Atwood's machine. It 
is not good pedagogically, since it does not deal with a freely falling body. 
Corrections for friction and the moment of inertia of the wheel must be 
made in order to obtain satisfactory results. Difficulty is also experienced in 
the accurate measurement of time. In a new t)fpe of Atwood's machine, manu- 
factured by the Cussons Apparatus Company of London, these difficulties have 
been largely overcome. 

In any apparatus which makes use of the direct fall of a body, two 
important problems must be solved ; first, to begin the time measurement 
simultaneously with the motion of the falling body, and second, to measure 
accurately the small time interval involved. The method usually employed in 
the first case is to use an electromagnetic release. This is inaccurate, since it 
is impossible to eliminate entirely the retardation produced by the magnet. 
In the second case, a pendulum is so adjusted that the time of fall is equal to a 
quarter of the pendulum period. This method requires considerable patience 
in making the adjustment. 

Under the direction of Professor Carman, an apparatus has been devised, 
making use of a fuse-wire release. The fuse wires (one ampere) are connected 
in series and blown by an e. m. f. of 110 volts. For the time measurement, a 
pendulum is used, but instead of adjusting it for a quarter period, the ball is 
allowed to strike where it will, marking its position by means of a carbon paper 
on another slip of paper suitably placed on a rectangular block of wood which 
forms the bob of the pendulum. If the ball strikes at the center of the block, 
then the time is equal to a quarter period. If it does not strike at the center, 
the distance x between the center and the point marked by the ball can be 
measured. The amplitude, r, is also measured and the ratio '^ gives the cosine 
of the angle which represents that portion of the path through which the 
pendulum has traveled during the time of fall. This is true when the pendulum's 
motion is regarded as uniform circular motion through a circumference, whose 
radius is equal to the amplitude r. The number of degrees corresponding to 
the ratio -- over 360° represents the fractional part of the period of the pendu- 
lum that is taken for the ball to fall. The distance fallen, S, can be measured 



305 

and then the values for t and S can be substituted in the formula S=J^gt' and 
"g" calculated. 

By a series of determinations with this apparatus, using an amplitude of 
about 6 cm. for the pendulum, and a ball of about 1.5 cm. diameter, and dis- 
tance fallen var>ung from 80 cm. to 130 cm., it was found that consistent 
results for the value of "g" vvere given within an error of about .5%. 

Social Science Section 

This Sectioti met in Room 308, Lincoln Hall. Dr. J. W. Garner 
presided over the Morning Session; Dr. Cole over the Afternoon 
Session. 

This meeting was probably the most interesting that the Section 
has ever held. The attendance was large throughout the day. All 
the papers and discussions were presented in the way they were pro- 
vided for in the official program. The papers for the most part were 
well prepared and were well met by the discussions that followed. 
All available time was taken up by others in commenting on or criti- 
cising the various papers and discussions. There was no lack of in- 
terest at any time. 

Miss Frances M. Morehouse, of the Normal University, Normal, 
opened the program with a paper on "Some Criticisms on the Custonv 
ary Form of the History Recitation." Her paper here follows in full : 

The title given this paper in the program indicates that it is far more 
destructive than it really is. The title was furnished, in fact, by an obliging 
committee because the author failed to send in her title before the program 
went to press ; and it represents a very good guess as well as a skilful general- 
ization. 

However, my criticisms of the recitation in its usual forms may be sum- 
marized very briefly; and after that, I wish to consider the possibilities of a 
method of history teaching which has received much off-hand condemnation, 
but which has been neither carefully formulated with reference to secondary 
school conditions, nor adequately tested by trained and able teachers. 

Concerning the usual form of history recitation, I think it may be said 
that under the direction of teachers adequately prepared, the discussion and 
recitation of a unit of studj', prepared from a text, usually with some supple- 
mentary reading from standard histories, or occasionally a reference to 
sources, is fairly satisfactory so far as the recitation itself is concerned. Our 
American children, when caught early and subjected to the proper kind of 
training, really develop a very praiseworthy facility in reciting. Brought up 
in the nurture and admonition of the topical method, they are usually able, 
when they reach the high school, to give a very intelligent account of what 



306 

they have read. Moreover, they are not slow in discussion, for they are 
trained to express their opinions long before those opinions begin to be 
based upon any adequate knowledge of facts. As a rule they are quite clever 
enough at thinking out the small problems which good teachers are always 
setting for children to solve. In short, the recitation is not bad, other things 
being equal. The trouble with our history work is that, while we have no 
definite information upon the subject, we feel that the work does not make 
for permanency. From the standpoint of the recitation it may pass muster, 
but from the standpoint of the final personal equipment of the high school 
graduate it falls short. Too many fourth year high school pupils, having 
.passed through the Greek history class in first or second year, stumble over 
allusions to Demosthenes and Pindar in their fourth year English. Too many 
high school graduates of a few years' standing have forgotten, when the 
question comes up in a political discussion, whether it was Thomas or Oliver 
Cromwell who "so treated his king." The ultimate effectiveness of present 
methods is, apparently, the one greatest question confronting students of history 
method ; and in the discussion which follows, it is this ultimate effectiveness, 
rather than the immediate end of a good showing in recitations, which is 
regarded as the true aim of history teaching, and the criterion by which 
methods are to be judged. 

The Attitude of Authorities 

Those who "teach teachers to teach" have condemned few things more 
wholeheartedly and consistently than they have condemned the use of the 
lecture method in secondary schools. College graduates going out to their 
first positions are especially warned to beware of the terrible lecture method. 
Village principals send to headquarters heartrending accounts of the ravages 
wrought in their schools by other college graduates who, unwarned of the 
sinister lecture method, have blithely transplanted it from its native habitat 
to the secondary school, where it has such frightful results. An examination 
of the very limited literature upon history method shows that writers either 
consider it altogether unworthy of notice, or condemn it as a matter of course. 
Bourne mentions its use in Germany, and says that there its success depends 
upon the individual teacher. In the Report of the Committee of Seven (1903) 
Prof. Lucy Salmon describes the German method, saying that it secures 
"concentration of attention, alertness of mind, quickness of apprehension, and 
an enviable ability to grasp the salient features of a subject considered as a 
whole." But, she avers, it fails to give certain results deemed necessary in 
American schools — especially the satisfaction of curiosity, and the develop- 
ment of initiative and judgment. The chapter on method, however, does not 
mention the lecture method ; nor does Hartwell, in his little manual on The 
Teaching of History (which contains more practical suggestions than any 
other book that I have found), nor the University of Indiana Report of 1909, 
refer to this way of teaching in any manner. Arnold in his School and Class 
Management, (page 105) briefly pays his respects to it by saying, rather 
dogmatically, that it is "a common form of verbalism." 



307 

All this silence can not be because no one ever heard of the use of 
the lecture method in high schools. One is driven to the conclusion that it 
must be something quite too disgraceful to talk about; something that no 
authority on the teaching of histor>' would deign to mention. Perhaps the 
practical results of its use, when transferred bodily by ingenuous imitators 
from college halls to the secondary school, have really been so bad as to warrant 
the present low estate of the lecture method in high schools. To attempt to 
teach high school boys and girls in the same way in which college professors 
instruct their classes is manifestly a very foolish proceeding. No one could 
be guilty of it, save those bachelors of arts who, without any saving salt of 
pedagogy to their credit, enter our high schools every fall to serve up knowledge 
to their younger brothers and sisters. Plainly, the lecture method has not 
justified itself as a legitimate way of teaching history in high schools. 

An Unbiased Inquiry 

But on the other hand, a lecture method for secondary schools has never 
been systematically worked out — at least, not by anyone who has given the 
results of his experimentation to the public. The college lecture method in 
high schools has been universally and rightly condemned, but a high school 
lecture method has never, so far as I know, been given a fair and extended 
trial. This paper does not champion such a method, for it is not yet proved 
a good one ; but it will attempt to set forth some possible arguments for a sane 
and appropriate adaptation of the lecture to the needs and abilities of high 
school students. It attempts to make an unbiased inquiry into the outcomes 
desired from history instruction, into the means that will secure these outcomes, 
and into the possibiHties of the lecture method, in using these means. Lastly, 
it will suggest some experiments that will enable teachers to test their own 
ability to use this method in classroom work. 

Outcomes 

It is assumed that the outcomes of history instruction in high schools 
are fairly agreed upon. They include a conventional knowledge of the past, 
sufficient to enable one to sustain one's social position — to understand what 
one's neighbors say, and to avoid making egregious blunders ; an interpretive 
knowledge of the past, enabling one to understand something of the nature 
of the institutions, customs and ideals that one encounters in today's world; 
a socializing knowledge of the past, giving one a sympathetic understanding 
of peoples and movements that, judged only in the light of our own time, 
can hardly appeal to our interest or our support; a preparation for the further 
study of history, either formallj-, in college courses, or informally through any 
of the countless means of self-culture; and, by far most important of all, an 
emotional stimulus to social service. This last, the highest and the ultimate 
aim of instruction in history, we hope may find flower in efforts for good 
government, in eflFective peace movements, in better industrial conditions, in 
higher moral standards in public and private affairs, in wisely managed social 
effort, in charities that do not blunder. 



308 

Whether the topics and the relative emphasis usually given them are 
the ones best adapted to the gaining of these ends or not, it is plain that in 
order to secure them at all the subject-matter must become a very real part 
of the mental equipment of the students. It must be well learned if it is to be 
of value. Therefore the process of realizing the outcomes which are the goal 
of history study is important; and out of this importance of the process grows 
the necessity of good method in teaching. Now the means used by teachers 
in the history-learning process may be very briefly summarized as follows : 

1. The stimulation of the imagination to the picturing-point ; the se- 
curing of a vivid mental impression of the events or movements 
included in any given unit of study. 

2. The organization of these concepts into correctly constructed sys- 
tems, so securing historical continuit}^ with regard to causal relations, 
to chronology, and to the geographical location of events. 

3. Memorization of these systems of mental pictures, these ideas. 
History proper, as we understand it, does not go farther than this, 

although the history teacher may lead his students to generalize and moralize 
as much as he thinks profitable. But history is an account of facts, and when 
those facts have been as correctly and fully learned as is suitable, the imme- 
diate end of history-teaching has been reached. The outcomes of good 
history-learning, already named, should then be attainable. 

A Reasonable Lecture Method for High Schools 

With these prospective outcomes, then, and with a process of learning 
which involves imagination, organization, and memorization, in mind, let us 
inquire whether there may be at least a theoretical justification for a lecture 
method in high school history classes. Since the recitation can never be dis- 
pensed with in the high school, and since the comparatively untrained powers 
of young people of this age require constant review ,drill, test and correction, 
it is plain that the daily lecture must be combined with daily recitation. 
Therefore the lecture must be shorter and less comprehensive than that of the 
college instructor, who depends upon occasional written tests as a check upon 
the efficiency of his instruction ; and who has, or at least usually fells less 
moral obligation to insure a certain minimum attainment in all the members 
of his class. The problematic nature of the work must not be forgotten, and 
a sensible use must be found for a good text in connection with the lectures ; 
for the value of our excellent texts is conceded by all who appreciate the 
working conditions in American schools. Considering these things, the fol- 
lowing adaptation of the lecture method is suggested as a prcticable one : 

The recitation period is divided into two approximately equal parts. In 
the second half the instructor tells the story of the advance lesson for the 
morrow, and gives an assignment of reading to cover it. He does not give 
all the details, nor does he necessarily interpret the facts for his pupils. His 
aim is rather to give a "big" view, a comprehension of the entire unit of 
advance study. Details for the most part should be left untouched, but suffi- 
ciently indicated to give many stimuli for careful reading. Besides this assign- 
ment of details to be determined, there are many lessons which are capable 



309 

of an organization upon some other basis than the one used by the teacher. 
Suppose, for instance, that the instructor has described the events of the early 
years of the reign of Charles I of England as a struggle between different 
regilious sects. The class may be required, after reading over again the 
events as narrated in the text or a standard history, to reorganize those events 
as an epoch of parliamentary history. 

Again, where there is a difference of opinion as to actual facts, at least 
part of the class should be sent to a differing authority. Incidentally this com- 
parison of authorities is worth much in developing an attitude of openmind- 
edness and suspended judgment. 

In the first half of the subsequent day's history period, the class is required 
to recite upon the unit assigned. There should be thorough discussion, test, 
and drill where it is needed. The next lesson is similarly covered in lecture 
during the latter part of the hour. 

The difference between a lecture method and one entailing a careful 
topical assignment has sometimes been said to be immaterial. There is, how- 
ever, a real and intrinsic difference. In the assignment, however long and 
detailed, the problem of discovering something unknown, through the stu- 
dent's own activity, is uppermost. Only such information is given as may be 
necessary to enable the pupil to discover for himself the main facts in the 
advance lesson. But in the lecture the main facts are told by the instructor, 
and minor points only are left to be discovered by the student's investigation. 
The lecture is affirmative, the assignment interrogative. The lecture assumes 
the ability and office of the teacher to teach ; the assignment refers the student 
to the authority of a book. 

We have next to inquire the degree to which such a method as that just 
outlined, might be expected to secure the ends in view. In the first place, the 
viva voce presentation gives an opportunity for vivid story-telling. The imag- 
ination is aroused by the spoken account as it can rarely be by a printed 
account. Most teachers have observed the sureness with which their casual 
remarks return to them on test-papers and in review recitations, when the 
text-book's most eloquent sentence is forgotten. This is because the teacher's 
remark fulfils the psychological conditions for memorization, as the printed 
statement does not. The question of the increase in the efficiency of history 
instruction is mainly a question of two specific gains; first, the improvement 
of memorization ; second, the increase of the emotional content of the material 
treated, resulting in higher ideals and more effective stimuli to action. Rela- 
tive to memorization, James says (Psychology, abridged, 1892, pg. 298) that 
all improvement of memory consists "in the improvement of one's habitual 
methods of recording facts." He gives three sets of methods — the mechanical, 
which "consist in the intensification, prolongation, and repetition of the impres- 
sion to be remembered ; — and goes on to commend those methods of teaching 
which utilize more than one sense in gaining impressions ; the judicious, which 
depend on analysis and rational systematizatiou, and the ingenious. It is 
worth while to remember that memorization is mental habit-building, its suc- 
cess depending upon the vividness of the thought-habit, and the frequency 
of its repetition. Notice that three methods emphasized by James are served 



310 

in the lecture method as outlined — the vivid, emotionalized or clarified pre- 
sentation by word of mouth, giving the maximally effective initiation ; the 
repetition, secured bj' the triple presentation in lecture, text, and recitation ; 
and the rational systematization which the instructor should and can give. 

In the second step of the history-learning process, that of organizing the 
concepts formed into correct systems, into correct ideas the student of untrained 
and immature judgment needs more help than in either the imaging or the 
memorizing of data. There is an important distinction between the organiza- 
tion possible to the teacher directly in charge of a given course, and that of 
the average textbook. That of the textbook is progressive and cumulative ; that 
of the teacher, who knows exactly what he should and wants to cover in his 
course, may be, and should be, successively detailed. The lack of working-in 
is perhaps the one greatest reason for the ineffectiveness of our history instruc- 
tion. I mean by working-in, the process of passing successively from larger to 
smaller units in the view given to the students. That is to say, it is through 
analysis rather than synthesis that clear conceptions of the nature of past 
events come to the learner. Historical synthesis is the business of the trained 
philosopher in the historical field ; it is for the learner to see clearly what has 
happened, as interpreted by the best thought obtainable, rather than to attempt 
to build up for himself a conclusion of the course and meaning of events, from 
his first simple study of those events. My own experience has been that a 
beginner understands any course better when the general trend of events, 
the chief characteristics of the successive periods treated, and the final result 
of the changes that it is proposed to study, are at the beginning briefly but 
clearly indicated. For instance, suppose that a class is to spend a semester 
in studying the history of England. The lessons as they come will be 
attacked in a much more intelligent way, if at the beginning the progress of 
England from a condition of barbarism , through many stages of successively 
higher culture, to her present estate, be clearly set forth in outline. It is not 
necessary, as many seem to think, that the succession of events be studied with 
the same absolute ignorance of what is to come next, as blinded the eyes 
of those who lived those events. It is not the purpose of history study to 
relive the events of the past as the participants of those events lived them; 
but to see them, objectively, placed properly in as large a section of their 
true fields of connected events and circumstances, as can be made conscious 
to the student. It is to give to young people of limited knowledge, this setting 
for the panorama of events, that the prelimning of the course of history by eras 
and periods, each with its briefly indicated events, tendencies, and results, is 
given by the instructor. It can not be read, but it can be told. Visualized by means 
of diagrams and outlines on the board, it is not beyond the comprehension of 
the average intelligent high school boy or girl ; although beyond doubt it is 
beyond the ability of a great many history teachers to give — for the very 
reason that they have never approached to adequate preparation for high 
school history, they will not thrill to the presentation of such an epic. Youth 
knows none of that slavery to small things which years of academic routine 
breed in older minds. Flint to our steel, youth responds to the pageantry of 
events with a quickness of imagination which we remember in ourselves in 



311 

years gone — a quickness that waits the touch of worthy tales and big con- 
ceptions. 

Aside from the advantage in analysis which the lecture method gives, 
there is afforded by it a facility of illustration by means of visualized out- 
lines, and diagramatic representations, which the printed page rarely affords. 
The value of the visualized organization, the chalk-talk, the frequent appeal to 
the eye, can not be overestimated. Conceptions of chronological relationship 
are especially clear when events can be indicated on a blackboard with a per- 
manent time-scale marked upon it. I doubt very much if the average adolescent 
student has any real conception of time-relations without some scheme of 
mental picturing. Probably few mature minds really image anything so abstract 
as the passing of time, without in some way calling up a series of mental 
pictures in the effort to think the idea. The teacher's story gains in vividness 
from the ready recourse to board and chart, always close at hand. 

Memory 

Memorization, the third step in the learning process, is materially helped 
in the double presentation by the voice and by the printed page, before the 
class discussion. A stronger initial impression can be made by an oral 
presentation than is usually given by even the most skilful text-book account; 
for no literary skill can, day in and day out, equal the living story presented 
by a speaking voice, and colored by that always-changing connotative com- 
mentary which passing events and the personality of the class dictates. More- 
over, the problematic nature of the assignment is not obscured by the need of 
mastering elementary facts ; these are covered in the lecture and as a problem 
with an immediate background is more concrete and interesting than one 
with a remoter background, there is greater motivation for the solution of the 
problems of detail and relation than there is when these must be superimposed 
upon the primary problem of ground facts. 

Necessary Conditions 

To summarize : So far as theoretical justification is concerned, the lec- 
ture method may be said to present a case which is at least strong enough 
to warrant careful and extensive trial. The objections urged are, usually, 
that this method fails to develop initiative in students ; that it substitutes 
the interpretation of he individual teacher for that of a person who, having 
"writ a book," must be an authority; that it takes too much time; that it 
robs the students of their prerogative, fondly cherished for them by American 
educators, of "expressing themselves" — that is, of talking most of the time. 
I shall not answer these objections categorically; for the double reason that 
my time is limited, and that I have no wish to steal the thunder of the people 
who may wish to discuss this paper. It may be remarked that the objections 
are grounded in pedagogical principles, that are ancient and respectable if not 
sound ; and to deny them would launch one on a sea of iconoclasm that falls 
outside the limits of this paper. 

There are two conditions, not now generally holding in our secondary 
schools, which are indispensable for the success of such a method as that 



312 

outlined. They are, however, conditions for which all history teachers hope, 
irrespective of the method of instruction employed. One is, that the time 
allotted to history be long enough to enable the instructor to assign com- 
paratively short units. No such travesty as a twelve-week's course, supposed 
to cover the history of England or of the United States could be committed, 
were such a method in vogue. It requires time for slow and thorough work. 
The time given to history and other social sciences in American high schools 
is, however, increasing steadily as their importance is increasingly recognized. 
A second condition is that the teacher who essays to teach history, — 
and the special characteristic of this method is that the teacher does teach — 
must be well-prepared, sure of himself, sure of the confiidence of students 
and patrons and of his chief in the school system. It is no method for half- 
prepared teachers. Its general use would be absolutely incongruous with 
the type of history teacher employed in schools wherein the social sciences 
are divided up among any teachers who may have some spare time. Inexperi- 
enced young girls, trj^ing out a possible ability to teach through the friendly 
toleration of an easy-going school board, could not qualify for it. No calamity 
could be greater than that it should be adopted for use in any school without the 
most painstaking selection of the instructor by whom it should be used, for 
qualities of real scholarship, of personal dignity, of imaginative sympathy with 
all sorts of people of moral worth. It appears to the writer in the light of an 
ideal, to be realized with comparative ease in many schools, where the history 
instruction is already in the hands of trained and enthusiastic men and women, 
entirely capable of realizing the greater possibilities which seem to him to 
inhere in this way of teaching; and to become practicable in those other 
schools, laboring under the disadvantage of less fortunate conditions, when the 
conditions of adequate courses and well-trained instructors are given. 

Experimentation 

I do not doubt that there are many here who have used the lec- 
ture occasionally — to supply some omission in the text, to correct a false im- 
pression, to prepare the class for some special work in the course — an indulgence 
in which the real student takes real delight. I am very anxious to know with 
what results you have dared to use the proscribed lecture method. I am de- 
sirous of gathering together such data as I may, with regard to the experience 
of teachers in its use. Also, I want to know what modifications and adaptations 
have been found necessary or advantageous, in high school practice. If the ex- 
perience of every one of us could be brought together, collated, and reported in 
such manner as easily to be understood, we should all of us feel, I am assured, 
that something in the direction of a definite and correct and maximally eflfeect- 
ive history method for American high schools, was being developed. I ask 
your cooperation in doing this; or at least in making a start at it. I ask, first, 
that you all freely give us your experience and opinions in the general discus- 
sion which will follow Mr. Trams' discussion of this paper; and, second, that 
you report to me the results of such of the experiments which I am going to 
suggest, as you may find it practicable to make. I want to know of your fail- 



313 

ures as well as of your successes; for it is well known that the advocate of a 
theory is not an altogether reliable experimenter. 

1. The full and explanatory assignment is a step in the direction of a high 
school lecture method. Note the results in oral recitations following: (a) A 
mere page assignment in the text, (b) A topical assignment, with problems 
clearly indicated, covering, say, five minutes, (c) A topical assignment, with 
a general explanation of the most important points in the advance lesson, de- 
tails for study being clearly indicated, and covering ten to fifteen minutes. 
(d) The telling of the story of the advance lesson as vividly as possible, men- 
tioning further points to be settled by study, and requiring additional reading 
for the purpose of fixing the lesson. Time, half the class period. 

2. After using each of these methods for a fortnight or more, test by 
written quizes as a check on their comparative worth in memorization. Be sure 
the amount of drill given is as nearly equal as possible. 

3. Divide a class into two sections, as nearly equal in numbers, prepara- 
tion and ability as possible. Use the high school lecture method with one and 
the text-book method with the other. Test on daily recitations and examina- 
tions. Keep the drill equal. 

4. At the end of the year, or after a lapse of several months, test again 
to ascertain the value of the two methods with regard to permanency of 
retention. 

5. Please report results to Miss Frances Morehouse, Normal, Illinois. 

Principal A. F. Trams, of Bridgeport, led in the discussion. He 
spoke substantially as follows : 

I might begin my discussion by saying "Amen". But before saying Amen 
I should like to ask how long we must wait before this Utopian desire of "long 
periods and well prepared teachers" shall obtain? And how soon will the un- 
biased inquiry bring results? When may we expect (here I quote from the 
speaker) "conventional, interpretive, socializing and preparatory knowledge of 
history" to function in "emotional stimulus to altruistic effort in government, 
peace propaganda, industry, charity and missions, etc.?" 

But meanwhile. What shall we do meanwhile? 

That is the tormenting, pragmatic thought that will not down, but rises 
like Banquo's ghost at all our Utopian feasts. 

The means, according to the plan that has been outlined, of realizing the 
desired results just mentioned is a "reasonable and practicable High School 
lecture method." This method is to consist of lectures on advance work, with 
assignments of reading on the subject matter contained in the lecture. These 
reading assignments are to be varied. The teacher is to designate the details 
to be fixed ; or she is to assign matter of reorganization upon a basis other than 
that used by the teacher. If she wishes to vary still more, she may give another 
assignment by another authority. The lecture and the assignment are to be 
thoroughly discussed and tested in class the next day. To carry this out suc- 
cessfully the advocate of the lecture method would have good long periods and 
well prepared teachers. So far, so good. But whence the long periods? How 
produced the well prepared teachers? At present we have neither. An over- 



314 

crowded curriculum precludes the one; and universities fail to produce the 
other. 

This class-room recitation that we are discussing is a present condition — 
not a theoretical possibility. And under present conditions, I think the lecture 
method in high schools is neither reasonable nor practicable. I for one, do not 
see by what route of reasoning I can arrive at a conviction that high school 
pupils will give back in the next day's discussion anything more than a garbeled 
rehash of what was told them the day before. And a test at the end of a week 
would develop about the same sort of a result that Snap-shot Harry gets in the 
funny page of the Chicago Herald. You who are listening, how many times 
have you been paralyzed by some pet phrase of yours flung back at you in a test 
paper, but so out of its original setting that you had to bump your nose on the 
desk, or sit down on a tack, or do something to convince you that you were 
awake and had read aright. That's when you feel like eloping with a moving 
picture John Bunny hero. You who have never tried the lecture method, do so. 
You will get as many thrills as you have pet phrases. They'll all come back to 
you, plus. 

But granting its reasonableness, what shall we say of its practicability? 
How about the equipment for such a method? How many high schools, where 
history is now taught, have the necessary library facilities? Among the one 
out of a hundred teachers now qualified, intellectually, to undertake the work, 
how many could make history more vivid to the pupil than it would be if he 
read it for himself? How many could keep out of a lecture personal philos- 
ophy, personal bias? It is the personal element that makes a lecture vivid. 
And it is mere nonsense to say that we should simply describe things as they 
were, for that is the very question: How were they? No interpretation, be it 
history or any other subject, is free from the personal equation. Why, then, 
should we expect the content of the lecture method to be free from the personal 
element? It may be, of course, that high school teachers in history classes 
are more vivid and less personal than my experience has led me to believe. 
But I have grave doubts. And my best judgment leads me to believe that this 
lecture method is a counsel of perfection too far in the future to be practicable 
at present. 

And what would become of the universities if this lecture method were 
carried out to its greatest efficiency? Also, what of the professors for whom 
the university exists? They would have no excuse for being. Pupils would 
learn all the history necessary in the high school, and the professor would be 
minus a position. He might, of course, go to Europe just now, and make his- 
tory instead of trying to teach it to a few on lecture method bent. But that 
could last only until the war is over. After that, oblivion. 

But levity aside. The formal lecture, as a regular means of instruction 
should have no place in the high school, no matter what the subject of instruc- 
tion may be. Personal experience, daily observation, and considerable reading 
for and against, have convinced me that invariably the lecture first liquefies 
in vague impresions, and then evaporates in "just talk". And just talk is not 
what teachers are paid for. The funnel-method of instruction is a thing that 
we once believed in. Not so now. But even if we have not discarded it entire- 



315 

ly, we at least have reversed the funnel. But more than that, I believe that "a 
subject to the development of which the pupil is not himself always contributing 
soon ceases to excite his interest." I find this so true that several times a year 
it becomes necessary to consider this matter with my teachers in some of our 
bi-weekly talk-festivals. Too often it develops that in conducting the recitation, 
the teacher has been active and the pupil passive, the teacher has been doing 
the reciting, the pupil has been listening. That sort of condition, we know, 
spells failure so far as the aim of the class period is concerned. 

This hour that pupils and teacher are together should be given to colabor- 
ation. The pupils should ask at least as many questions as the teacher. It 
should be a constant give and take affair. And I believe that about the most 
wholesome effect upon our recitation period is the legitimate questions asked 
by pupils upon topics of the day. It usually results in a harmless, but success- 
ful, operation upon the teacher for a sort of intellectual sclerosis, with which 
many of us are afflicted. 

In our school, down in Southern Illinois, we are not at all afraid to let one 
of the pupils take charge of the class while the teacher identifies himself with 
the class-group. Questions are put to him by the pupil-teacher just as if he 
were a pupil. The result upon teacher and pupil, is most satisfying. Try it. 
Watch the interest of the class grow until it overflows and extends into the 
class of the teacher to whom the pupils next report. We do this sort of thing 
in Latin, Civics, English and other classes. The experiment has worked best 
in my history classes, and my Civics. It's a splendid tonic for the teacher; 
one of the best cures for "lotus eaters" that I know of. 

Again, we are not afraid to use magazines in our work. "The World's 
Work", "The Outlook", "Review of Reviews", "The Independent", "The Sci- 
entific American", and the "Literary Digest", are all good reading. And I am 
glad that there are teachers who are not willing to sweat in the tread-mill of a 
uniform course of study, but who are willing to undertake the harder, but in- 
finitely more interesting and vital work of directing pupils to read intelligently 
matter pertaining to our present political, social, and economic welfare. To 
these hopeful heretics and willing workers, we owe much. I know of nothing 
that is better for our history classes than a systematic study of some good 
magazine. 

Just because scholastic authority has prescribed text books as fit food for 
the uneducated is not proof conclusive that the sort of nourishment so obtained 
is the best food for education. Even our present standard of education may be 
amenable to change. We don't always hold the same ideals. It may be that 
our present theor>' of teaching will in time be classed w'ith the theory of infant 
damnation, unventilated sleeping rooms, and the divine right of kings. In fact 
I think there are those in everj- community, even now, who are engaged upon 
some such a classification. 

We hear much to-day about the desirability of a closer relation between 
the school and the home. In my civics class and in my English class this de- 
sire is approaching satisfaction through our study of the Literary Digest. One 
boy told me he paralyzed his family at the dinner table the other day by ex- 
plaining the "War Tax", and the effect that the European conflict would have 



. 316 

upon the rate of interest upon permanent investments. "You bet I let them 
know we were up on such things," he said. This is much. If a school is to 
fit us for life, let's talk about live things while we're getting fitted. Let us 
abolish the ether cone, cease talking about "Text-book", "Topical" „ Source", 
and "Lecture" methods ; look ourselves full in the face, accept the accusation 
that we are more concerned about perpetuating the machinery of education than 
we are about the welfare of the child upon whom the machinery operates; and 
reform ourselves, our schools, and our methods altogether. 

In support of my own attitude let me quote a paragraph from J. N. 
Lamed. He says: 

"I assume that the general purpose and aim of the work done in our school 
rooms is not to stock the minds of the young with a provision of knowledge, 
in any department, that will sufiice them for their lives ; but rather to introduce 
them to knowledge, — prepare them to be receptive of it, — acquaint them with 
its attractions and its uses, — put them in the way of pursunig the acquisition of 
it through later life, and familiarize them with the paths of that pursuit. This 
must be so in the matter of history, if in nothing else. The service of the 
schools in this matter must simply be such as to evoke the appetite of its pupils 
for historical reading, and to prepare judgment and taste for a right choice of 
writers and books." 

So much for Mr. Larned's idea of what history teaching in the schools 
should purpose to do. I believe he is right. I also believe that none of the 
methods now generally used, nor the one advocated, will adequately accomplish 
that purpose. I should like to suggest, as a substitute in some cases, as an aid 
in others, a sort of free excursion into the fields of history. I should want to 
use a good brief text as a guide, and all the master story tellers of history (I 
emphasize the word story) together with modem magazines, to be my traveling 
companions. I believe that the journey would be enjoyable and profitable. 

In the general discussion that followed, Miss Ullrich, of New 
Trier, asserted that the History teachers of the northern part of the 
state are very much alive and are doing efficient teaching. The 
History pupils, she asserted, were as good as could be found any- 
where. She suggested a supervision of study whereby the principal 
facts of the lesson could be brought out. Professor L. M. Larson 
thought that the success of the recitation depends on the teacher. 
Some teachers have success with one method, some with another. 

"Some Observations on the Preparation of Students Entering the 
Elementary Courses of History at the University of Illinois" was the 
subject of the paper presented by Elizabeth P. Brush, of the Uni- 
versity. The speaker stated some conditions for observation in 
Freshmen classes at the University and asserted as her opinion that 
the quality and kind of instruction given in the preparatory schools 
was far more important than the number of courses taken or offered. 



317 

The kind of work done in college depends on the mental habits taught 
or encouraged in the high schools. Miss Brush quoted from statistics 
that she had taken in her History classes at the University to show 
that pupils who are doing unsatisfactory work can eventually turn out 
a fair quality of work if they will really work hard, not merely spend 
so many hours on assigned readings, and will think clearly. 

Following is a brief abstract of Miss Brush's paper: 

During several years of teaching university freshmen in our course in 
general European history, I have had abundant opportunity to observe the work 
of students and to talk with them, and I have reached some fairly definite con- 
clusions with regard to certain rather common defects in their high school 
preparation. 

The students in our course in any particular year may be divided, to use 
a very simple classification, into satisfactory and unsatisfactory students. This 
is not a stationary classification. Many who are unsatisfactory at the beginning 
of the year develop into satisfactory students in the course of a few weeks or 
months. I spend an undue amount of time in the effort to reduce the numbers 
of the unsatisfactory class, and it is necessary to do so, for the whole class is 
hampered so long as a considerable percentage of it is unable to do satisfactory 
work. 

For the purpose of this discussion I am disregarding the class of students, 
happily small, who are disqualified by the meagerness of their mental endowment. 
The deficiencies of the much larger class who have sufficient mental ability but 
are inadequately trained for university work in history, are to be attributed, I 
believe, in large measure, to the kind of instruction they have previously re- 
ceived not only in history but in other subjects. They have not been equipped 
with good mental habits. On the contrary many of them have developed habits 
so slovenly that we find it impossible to correct them, although we spend most 
of our energy during the first part of the year in the attempt. 

The habits of fundamental importance to a student are perhaps those of 
hard work and of clear thinking. Students often tell me that they have never 
had to work hard in school before, and their written and oral work too often 
testifies to the fact they have never been held to clear, accurate, systematic 
thinking. Their first year in college, difficult at best because of the inevitable 
adjustments to new liberties and new responsibilities, is made doubly hard in 
that they must acquire what the high school has already given their more for- 
tunate fellows. They must learn how to study. 

The encouraging aspect of this matter is that year by year the situation im- 
proves. The class of students who do not know the meaning of hard work, 
who have never learned to think clearly, is appreciably smaller now- than it was 
four years ago. Wih a greater percentage of our class trained to habits of in- 
dustry and accuracy we are doing more advanced work than we could do four 
years ago. But the number deficient in this sort of training is still far too large 
and I look to the high school teacher as the logical one to face the problem. 



318 

Mr. Arno Bratten opened the discussion of the topic presented by- 
Miss Brush. He spoke as follows : 

As a basis for discussing the preparation of high school graduates to do 
good work in college history, it may be of some value to state what the high 
school history course should do for pupils by way of general training. What, 
then, are the things which the teaching of history should give to the pupil as 
permanent possessions, and which may be used with equal effect either in the 
activities of life outside of school, or in the pursuance of more advanced work 
in the social sciences? First, it should give to him a reasonably extensive and ac- 
curate knowledge of useful history facts; second, it should create in him a real 
interest in man as a political and social being; third, it should develop in him 
the true student attitude ; and, fourth, it should develop in him the ability to do 
an assigned task in any field of the social sciences. 

No doubt, all will accept these as important possible contributions of the 
high school history course. But there may be no such agreement concerning 
the degree to which high school teachers are successful in their attempts to make 
these contributions the permanent possessions of their pupils. So far as the 
first point is concerned, if we are to judge by the estimate which high school 
teachers of history place upon their efforts, their pupils are well supplied with 
facts. An examination of grade books would show that a high percentage of 
pupils make their credits in history. A study of the grade cards of eighy-six 
freshmen taking history last year at the University of Illinois, shows that their 
teachers of history in high school rated them higher, on the average, than did 
their teachers of any other subject. 

On the other hand, if we are to judge of their stock of knowledge by 
the records made by high school graduates taking examinations for entrance 
to some of our colleges, we are forced to admit that our estimate of it has been 
very much exaggerated. A discussion in the History Teachers' Magazine for 
November, 1913, shows that only 38.1 per cent of the 1862 boys and girls taking 
an entrance examination, received a rating of 60 or over. Evidently something 
is seriously wrong when no better results are obtained ; and we are forced to 
admit that the boys and girls were not wholly responsible for the defects, for 
the pupils whose teachers had reported as having had "full and satisfactory 
preparation", made but little better showing than the entire group representing 
all degrees of — lack of preparation. Of those reported as fully and satisfactor- 
ily prepared in historj^ only 42.5 per cent received a rating of 60 or over. 
Therefore, the history knowledge possessed by our pupils seems to diminish 
rapidly between those two widely-different ordeals — June graduation and en- 
trance examination. 

It is of course not possible to measure definitely the results of our efforts 
to create in our pupils a real interest in man as a political and social being. Such 
results are necessarily remote in their application ; we cannot immediately check 
them up as we can the results of our efforts to teach a new principle in algebra, or 
the spelling of twenty new words. But, reasoning by analogy from the results 
of our efforts along other lines of history endeavor, it is safe to assume that 



319 

we are not revolutionizing the political or social institutions of the world to any 
marked degree ! 

But when we come to consider the results of our efforts to make of our 
pupils real students, and to develop in them the ability to do an assigned task 
in any of the social sciences, the case is somewhat different. True, we cannot 
even here fully determine the extent to which we are responsible for their suc- 
cesses or failures, but there are more or less definite means of determining an 
approximate measure of such success. 

The means with which we are now especially concerned, is the pupil's 
ability to make a creditable showing in his history work in college. With this 
in mind, I again call attention to the group of freshmen mentioned before, whose 
average in history was higher than in any other subject taken in high school. 
This average was 87.07, but the average of the same group of students in fresh- 
man college history is 77.36. The full significance of this fact is not seen un- 
til we discover that this average in history is lower than the average made in 
any other subject taken by this group of pupils. When high school teachers 
of history rate their pupils higher, and when college teachers of history rate the 
same pupils lower than thej'^ are rated by teachers of any other subject, it is 
fully apparent that something is wrong. Either the ideals of teachers of 
history in high school and college are radically different, or there are just as 
striking differences in the amount of subject matter presented, and in the 
methods of instruction used in the two types of schools. Perhaps there is 
some truth in both inferences ; but the facts indicate that most of the trouble 
is due to the reason last suggested. 

The most important, as well as the most difficult, thing that can be done in 
this discussion, is to determine why teachers of history in high schools are not 
securing better results. Then, what are the most serious faults of history 
teaching in the high school? 

First of all much of the failure is due to poor teaching. This is one of 
the tritest of trite statements. However, as much as we hear about poor his- 
tory teaching, we do not always, nor even usually, hear of it in its full signifi- 
cance. For one, I do not believe that the poor results obtained in high school 
history-, are all due to poor teaching on the part of the teachers of high school 
histor}-. Any one at all familiar with history teaching in the grades below high 
school, knows that the efforts there are just as ill-directed, and the results just 
as disappointing as they possibly could be in the high school. 

I trust that I may not be misunderstood here. I am not attempting to 
shift nor to evade responsibilitj^ but merely to state the facts as they really 
exist. Neither is it any part of my duty to discuss the mistakes made in teach- 
ing grade history, but it is perhaps in order to say that the great majority of 
pupils come into the high school with no ideals of study and with no real interest 
in history. Of course, this does not excuse us entirely for sending them on 
into college in the same condition ; but it does seem that any one acquainted 
with the psychology underlying the teaching of children in the grades, must 
confess that such conditions partially excuse us, and go far toward explaining 
the poor results obtained by us in our eflForts to teach histor>' in the high school. 
Does anyone, who has attempted the difficult task, doubt the statement that 



320 

more real skill is required to arouse and maintain real interest in the average 
Ancient History class than in any other class in the high school? 

Nor do I believe that poor teaching of history in grades and high school 
is sufficient wholly to explain the poor showing of our history students. Miser- 
ably poor teaching of another subject is largely responsible for it, and that sub- 
ject is English. Surely one of the fair measures of the teacher's success, is 
the pupil's ability to use his knowledge in the general affairs of life, and as a 
tool in acquiring further knowledge. And measured in this way, we find the 
pupil's knowledge of English woefully deficient. Many pupils fail in their ef- 
forts to master the history assignment, for no other reason than that they can- 
not read. This condition too frequently continues into and through the Uni- 
versity. The defect is sometimes explained on the ground that Latin is being 
minimized in our high schools, but surely defective teaching of the mother 
tongue is an equally valid reason for it. 

But in spite of poor history teaching in the grades, and in spite of inef- 
fective teaching of English all along the line from chart class to the senior year 
of high school, it yet remains true that much poor teaching is done by high 
school teachers of history. And as I see the matter, there are two general reasons 
for this. First, much of it is due to the teachers themselves; second, much of it 
is inherant in the very nature of the subject itself. 

So far as my first reason is concerned, we have heard so much concerning 
it, that I cannot hope to say anything new or even interesting about it. Ask 
any one for reasons for the poor showing of our history students in high school, 
and the first answer you receive is that our teachers are not adequately trained 
for this work; that any one who can read is thought by boards of education, 
and even by some high school principals, to be capable of teaching history; and 
that the history course is broken up and passed around as odds and ends to the 
teachers of other subjects, who have a little spare time, but no interest what- 
ever in history. 

No doubt there is too large an element of truth in all these indictments; 
yet, a little investigation sometimes reveals some interesting facts. I have al- 
ready referred to the grade cards of the freshmen taking history in the Univer- 
sity of Illinois for the year 1913-14. These students are representatives of a 
large number of high schools, ranging from among the smallest to among the 
largest in the state. Believing that but one phase of the problem of the special 
teacher has been emphasized, I arranged these cards into two nearly equal 
groups, one group representing the smaller schools, and the other the larger 
schools having one or more special teachers of history. Nor was I greatly 
surprised with the result of my study ; for I found that these larger schools, 
with their special teachers, did not send their group of pupils to the university 
any better prepared to do good work in history than were the pupils from the 
smaller schools. The two groups made almost the same average, not only 
in all their courses taken together, but also in history when considered alone. 
In the whole number of courses taken, the average of each of the groups is 
81.7; and the average of each of the two groups in history is about 77.36. 

I am aware of the fact that the comparatively small number of schools 
and pupils used in securing these results, does not warrant one in drawing 



321 

any general conclusion and proclaiming it to be infallible. But are not the re- 
sults at least significant, and do they not lead to the inference that all the trouble 
encountered by college teachers is not due to the fact that many of the high 
school teachers of history are not devoting all their time to the line of work 
they are attempting to do? 

In my opinion these averages do not prove at all that our old practice of 
trying to teach without equipment is sound ; neither do they prove the wisdom 
of giving the history classes to the teachers in other departments, who have a 
little time to spare, but who have no interest in the history courses. But in 
spite of the fact that they do not argue at all against the just demands for the 
special teacher of history, do they not tend to show that in actual practice the 
larger schools with their special teachers and their better equipment, are not 
getting the superior results which we might reasonably expect them to get? 

What, then, is the reason for such failure on the part of the average so- 
called special teacher? I believe that a thorough investigation of all the avail- 
able facts would show that there is almost a dead level of method used in teach- 
ing history, whether in the large school or in the small one, and that this meth- 
od is a wrong method. But it is easy enough for me to say that our methods 
of teaching high school history are defective ; it is quite another matter for me 
to point out the defects. So if I am to say anything about it at all, I am forced 
to say what is more or less stale. As a general statement, it is safe to say that 
about all the bad pedagogy used in the teaching of any other subject, is also 
used in our attempts to teach history. I shall mention but three of these mis- 
takes which seem to be prominent in our special line of work. 

First, far too much is attempted. Fewer topics should be dealt with in 
order that we may have the time to treat them fully enough to show their sig- 
nificance. This would lead to the elimination of many historj.' facts, but the 
pupil's stock of accurate usable knowledge would be increased; he would be 
led to make the proper correlation of topics, and to see how events and move- 
ments are related one to another as cause and effect ; and through such teach- 
ing a lasting interest might be aroused in the pupil. Our writers of history 
text-books could help us in this plan. I believe that far better results would 
be obtained if the average text, say in Mediaeval and Modem history, contained 
from one-third to one-half as many topics, with from three to five times as much 
interesting, well-organized information concerning each topic. At any rate this 
plan should serve as a temporary means of securing organization and correla- 
tion, until the millennium comes in history teaching, when each teacher will be 
a specialist capable of writing his own text-book! 

Next, lack of effective drill work in our teaching is one of the reasons why 
our pupils fail to make a better showing in examinations, or more favorably to 
impress their teachers of college histor>'. The need of effective drills is es- 
pecially great in history, because of the very nature of the subject matter itself. 
In mathematics the pupil is constantly forced to use and to re-use material 
passed over; so he really gets sufficient drill work in spite of poor teaching. 
In history this is not true; hence, the greater need of it under the guidance of a 
skillful drillmaster. 



322 

The last defect which I shall mention in connection with the teaching of 
the text, is closely related to drill work, — the lack of the right sort of reviews, 
I have said that reviews are closely related to drills, but I am inclined to think 
that too many teachers make no distinction at all, and that they imagine they are 
doing effective review work, when in fact they are only doing a little ineffective 
drill work. The drill is necessarily mechanical and its purpose is to make 
the facts which we teach permanent ; while the review is not so mechanical and 
its purpose is to organize and to make significant the facts which are to be made 
permanent. 

But, after all, our best service to our pupils does not consist in teaching, 
drilling, and reviewing a definite body of facts until they are properly associated 
and made their permanent possession. This is important, but more as a 
means to an end than as an end in itself. For it is even more important that we 
make of our pupils real students, able to delve into available material and to 
organize it in such a way that they may do an assigned task without the con- 
stant guidance of the teacher. And as this is our important duty, it is also 
the duty in which we are most completely failing. We are not giving our pupils 
accuracy as a habit ; we are not giving them ability to read, to interpret, and to 
organize accurately; we are not giving them an interest in good books; in short, 
we are not making students of them. And I believe that I have suggested one 
reason for this ; we are so busy stuffing them with every detail in the text, 
that we have no time left to devote to a systematic effort to give them the stu- 
dent attitude. We foolishly act as though we were trying to make scholars of 
them by a force-feed method, instead of sanely attempting to give them an 
attitude toward scholarship that might sometime lead them to its possession 
through their own efforts. 

I have stated the second general reason for poor teaching of history to be 
due to difficulties inherent in the nature of the subject itself. There is but little 
in history, as outlined in an ordinary text-book, that appeals to the natural 
interests of the average high school boy or girl. Interest must be secured by 
skilful teaching, and to assist in this we need extensive library material more 
extensively and effectively used. But above everything else we need real teachers 
of history in our high schools, not teachers who merely have a knowledge of 
history, but teachers who have enough faith in their work to be enthusiastic 
about it, — real teachers who are not "born short" in ability to perform the 
teaching act. 

But the reasons why freshmen get poor results in college history are not 
alone due to bad teaching in high schools. There is too large a gap between high 
school and college. We recall to mind that the average grade of freshmen taking 
history in the University of Illinois last year, is lower in history than in any 
other subject; yet, the average of the same pupils in high school was higher than 
in any other subject. I account for the long assignments, special reports based 
upon collateral reading, and the extensive use made of the lecture method in 
these courses. 

Then, too, there is one other reason why those taking freshman history 
make a poorer showing than those taking other courses. If I am correctly 
informed, there has been no such definite body of facts organized as a pre- 



323 

requisite for college work in history as in most other important subjects. While 
it is true that the mastery of such a body of facts is not so essential to good 
work in more advanced history as in most other subjects, it is also true that such 
requirements would do something toward narrowing the unusually wide gap 
which we have found to exist between the history work of high school and 
college. 

This plan would bring about another important result ; it would do more 
than anything else to give history its proper rating among high school teachers 
in general, and to secure for it the relative amount of time which it deserves. 
Neither of these conditions prevail at the present time in a majority of the 
high schools. Yet, no one has ever given an adequate reason, so far as I know 
why as much time and effort should not be used in securing a high school credit 
in history as in mathematics, English or any of the sciences. 

If I am correct in my conclusion here, it seems to me that the department of 
history could render no better service to high school teachers of history than to 
indicate some such minimum course, with as definite methods of teaching as it 
is possible to provide. What we need most of all just now, in addition to live 
teachers, is a clearing of the foggy atmosphere of method, and a clear, definite 
fixing of the goal toward which we should be striving. A few college credits in 
history, more or less, added to our stock of knowledge, will never get us any- 
where so long as we do not even know where we are trying to go. Most of us 
are wandering around in a hazy labarynth of doubt, Avhich at times seems to 
lead us everywhere, and consequently which finally leads us nowhere. Help us to 
find out what we ought to do, help us to find out how best to do it, and most 
of us will respond by better preparing our graduates to do successful work in 
college and university historj^ 

Miss Brush, in reply, agreed with the speaker that there is a gap 
between collegiate and secondary History, due not so much to scope 
and character of information as to mental habits expected and per- 
mitted. 

Ex tempore discussions were indulged in by Dr. Coles, Dr. 
Lybyer of the University, A. F. Trams of Bridgeport, Miss King of 
Oak Park, Miss Ullrich of New Trier, Miss Renich, Miss Brush and 
Mr. Bratten, A. S. Kingsford of We.st Aurora and Miss Olive A. 
Smith of Eastern Illinois State Normal. 

It seemed to be the consensus of opinion of those taking part in 
the discussion that too long assignments, inadequate assignments, di- 
versity in grading, assigning of history courses to any teacher to fill 
up his schedule, lack of skill in questioning and inability to induce 
pupils to organize their material are the serious causes of poor high 
school work. 

The discussions also tended to show that there is a wide diversity 
as to what courses and how much History should be offered and taken 



324 

in secondary schools. The purpose of History and what shall be 
given to further that purpose presents another problem for solution. 
If the tone of the Social Science group meant anything there is much 
yet to be done for History in Illinois. 

"The High School Text-Book in Civics" was the subject of a 
paper by E. T. Austin of the Sterling Township High School. Most 
of this paper was devoted to a brief analysis of at least ten well known 
text books. 

Following is a brief abstract of the paper: 

The High School Text Book in Civics. 
E. T. Austin. 

Place and Arrangement in the Course 

The general plan throughout the state is to place the teaching of civics in 
the fourth year, generally the last half, although some teachers prefer to carry 
it paralell with American history giving equal time to each subject. The latter 
plan permits a closer correlation with history and has the added advantage of 
keeping the class in closer touch with the movements of practical government 
throughout a longer period. If the emphasis is placed on local and state govern- 
ment it is especially desirable to have the time allotment correspond as far as 
possible with the practical government nearest at hand. Many teachers, how- 
ever, feel that the gain of the parallel plan does not equal the loss of time and 
interest due the passing from one subject to the other during the week. Both 
subjects suffer thereby and often civics is made a mere adjunct to history and 
as such takes on the nature of constitutional history. 

Aims and Limits of the Subject. 

Practically all of the books in use today require at least a half year to 
complete. There seems to be a general agreement that the time should not be 
made shorter than a half year. There is quite a diversity of opinion as to the 
ann of the subject. The titles of some recent books such as "Civics," "Civil 
Government," "Goverment of the United States," "American Citizenship," sug- 
gest the lack of agreement as to the ends to be attained. The emphasis in the 
earlier books was placed on the constitution of state and nation. If there was 
any enlargement on the text of the constitution the discussion was along the line 
of political science which was beyond the comprehension of the average high 
school student. In recent years the desire for a more practical presentation of 
the subject has led many teachers to place the emphasis on civic duty and the 
relation of the citizen of his neighborhood. Some have gone so far as to place 
Emphasis on the sanitary, aesthetic, and even moral condition of the citizens' 
surroundings. In this later form the subject is adapted to the elementary 
school and may be very profitably pursued in many schools. 



325 

The field of study for the high school lies between that of the elementary 
school and that of the college and partakes of the nature of each. It seems to 
me in the high school course the teacher should avoid the more elementary 
phases of the subject, such as street cleaning, the water and gas supply, inspec- 
tion of the plumbing, fire protection, etc. — phases which may be so well treated 
in the lower grades. Neither should the subject be treated as political science 
which is clearly the province of the college. It is doubtful if political intelli- 
gence can be developed and civic consciousness awakened before the high school 
years. It is in the high school that the great majority of the future citizens 
are to receive instruction for the very important duties of citizenship, and it is 
in the high school that sound notions of political morality, and political re- 
sponsibility are to be imparted. 

Topics and Emphasis. 

It is generally agreed that the order of topics should be local government, 
followed by state and federal. Treating the nearest at hand seems to be peda- 
gogically correct and has the further advantage that it follows the logical and 
historical order of political development. It is not so easy to apportion the 
time and emphasis upon the three divisions, — local, state, federal. Most of the 
books are written with undue emphasis on the federal government, since they 
must sell in all the states. The authors have, therefore, enlarged on the treat- 
ment of the federal government. State governments vary so widely that only 
general statements can be made about them. Such books give a wrong notion 
about the scope of government and the relation of the student to it. If we 
could have our books written expressly for the state it would be much easier 
to place the emphasis in such a way as to give the pupil right notions of the 
importance of the diflferent portions of the subject. 

To sum up briefly: — The text should furnish material for a half year 
or semester, about ninety periods of forty or forty-five minutes each ; it should 
teach local government first, then state and national ; it should devote some- 
what more than half the space to local and state government; and should be 
written with the pupils of a given state in mind. The field of the elementary 
school should be avoided, as well as the field of the college and university, con- 
fining the attention to the awakening of political intelligence and developing civic 
consciousness with the thought in view that most of the pupils will make no 
further study of the subject. As stated above, sound notions of political mor- 
ality and political responsibility are to be imparted. 

This topic, too, was the subject of much discussion. Mr. William 
Harris, of Altamont, opened the discussion. He stated that the 
course should be determined by local needs and the preparation of the 
teacher. The course should not be taught by the History teacher un- 
less he is well qualified in each subject. The "laboratory" method 
should be used, for much of the illustrative material can be found 
near home. 



326 

Mr. Schutte, of Herrin, gives one year to the subject and is strong- 
ly of the opinion that a onerhalf year course in Civics is a joke. He 
wanted the Section to go on record for a one year course in Civics, but 
his motion was not seconded. Further discussion in the section de- 
veloped the fact that more time ought to be given the subject, but 
with our present high school curricula there is no time nor place for 
an extension of the subject. 

There was a substantial agreement as to the purpose and scope of 
Civics. The speakers also emphasized the fact that it is a very vital 
subject and should never be omitted by a pupil from his course. 

The final paper on the program was presented by Supt. E. V. 
Latham, of Kinmundy, under the title, "The Use of Current, Events 
in the Study of Historical Geography." The following abstract is 
given : 

The Use of Current Events in the Study of Historical Geography 

The study of historical geography is all important, as the history of a na- 
tion is practically determined by its geography. 

In taking up the discussion of the teaching of historical geography I shall 
confine myself to the history of Western Europe, as events are taking place 
there as in no other place in the world, which may be emphasized in the teaching 
of its past history. The teacher must use great care in selecting the events. 
Only the fudamental points should be taken up. Time spent in discussing 
battles, bombardments, etc. is time wasted. Time spent in discussing the 
reasons for a certain strategic move, why certain territory is contested or why 
the races are pitted against each other is time well spent. 

The daily newspaper is indispensible to the teacher of history. Interest 
the boy or girl in reading the newspaper and you have interested him or her 
in historJ^ There is no reason why history should be dry and uninteresting. 
It is as interesting as any story that has ever been written, and should be read 
with more pleasure because it is a true story of the lives, thots, and actions of 
the human race. 

In my classes in history I have endeavored to collect all the war maps 
possible, many good ones have come out in the daily papers in the last three 
months. I have on all occasions tried to show the relation of the present crisis 
to those which have gone before. Numerous questions were asked such as, 
"what caused the war?" "why is England in it?" "which side will Italy join 
should she enter the conflict?" "Is the alliance between England, France and 
Russia a natural one?" "Why did Germany violate Belgian neutrality instead of 
attacking France from the East?" I have tried to answer these questions as 
some connection has occured in my history class. 

The war map was a constant companion when studying the Roman Em- 
pire and also when the German mercenaries under Odo captured Italy for them- 
selves. The war against the German barbarians under Charlemagne and his 



327 

final subjugation of all the provinces until all western Europe became German. 
The climate and surface conditions did not make it easy to hold so great a 
kingdom together. Gradually parts began to get away and set up independent 
duchies. Finally the divisions which formed the basis for the present kingdoms 
of France, Italy, and Germany were made by the treaty of Verdun, merely be- 
cause Louis the Pious had three sons. This was an unnatural division and has 
been a source of trouble ever since. The student can easily see why there is 
so much jealousy between France and Germany on one side, and Russia and 
Germany on the other. It is the natural sequence of the failure to have barriers 
or physical divisions between the countries. 

The student can readily see why Belgium is the battle ground of Europe. 
Belgium with its low, level plains forms a marked contrast to the higher re- 
gions of the south. Had Belgium offered no resistence, the German forces could 
have swooped down from the north and struck the heart of France in an in- 
stant. 

England makes plain her reasons for joining the war when she issues her 
proclamation to Germany concerning Belgian neutrality. She is not protecting 
Belgium for ethical reasons, but that she may prevent Germany gaining a foot- 
hold on the sea coast, and thus becoming her maritime rival. England cannot af- 
ford to have so strong a rival as Germany just across the channel. It would 
be a constant menace to her own safety and commercial supremacj\ As long 
as she can keep Germany with only the Baltic sea for a coast line she has no 
fear of a naval rival. On the other hand if Germany is to maintain her national 
existence it is absolutely necessar>' that she crush the militarism of France and 
Russia leaving her free to compete with her rival across the channel. 

The conquest of territory has affected the geography and been a constant 
menace since the time of Charles the Bald and Louis the German. They took 
the Strassburg Oaths and squeezed Lothaire out of all his kingdom except that 
south of the Alps. They then began the contest for supremacy against each 
other. Alsace and Lorraine have been contested territories since the treaty 
of Verdun when they were ceded to Lothaire. They were taken from him by 
the treaty of Mersen about 1870, and ever since that time have been contested 
territory between France and Germany. 

The student readily sees the connection between events if properly pre- 
sented. The danger lies in taking up too much time studying the present war. 
The teacher must not forget that the development must be taken up from the 
beginning and stress must only be put on present current events, that in some 
way connect them with the past. 

A good current event paper may be used in class and read by each of the 
pupils. However, the teacher must exercise wisdom in the use of these papers as 
the pupils will be .grone to read the current war news and neglect the lesson 
assignments. 

If one chooses, the world geography may be brought in by studying the 
colonial possessions of France, Germany and England. Should Turkey enter the 
conflict, both geography and religion will play an active part. The Musselman 
subjects of Great Britain may refuse to fight against their Mussulman brothers. 



328 

Egypt may revolt and try to throw off the overlordship of Great Britain, etc. 
These things are intensely interesting but can be easily over done. 

I would say to the teacher of history, use current events if the use will 
make you a better teacher of history, but be wise in their choice. Prepare the 
events to be used as you do your daily assignment. Lead your pupils to see the 
gradual unfolding and development of the nations, gradually leading them to 
see for themselves how nations have been made and unmade, thru their own 
wisdom or follies, and how geography has influenced the height to which they 
might attain. These things if properly done will in time lead the pupil to be a 
thinker for himself, able to formulate his own opinions concerning events both 
past and present. 

In the discussion that followed, Dr. Lybyer cautioned the mem- 
bers of the Section against using current events as a separate course. 
He suggested the use of events from point to point to fill up as it 
were the stream of past events. History simply explains the present. 
The war in Europe should be used only to create an interest in courses 
dealing with Europe. 

Other discussions were mainly devoted to a discussion of the part 
pupils should play in selecting current events and what magazines 
should be used or read by the pupils. 

A summary of the Section's proceedings would indicate that 
there is need for better trained History teachers in the high school; 
that History courses should be standardized so as to avoid the hap- 
hazard way of assigning the subject to teachers to fill in their teaching 
hours ; that History should have a more important place in the courses 
pursued by secondary pupils ; and, finally, that there is too great a gap 
between the grade of work done in the secondary school and that done 
in the University. 

The only business of the session was motion made by Mr. Austin, 
and seconded by Mr. Latham, That the Chairman appoint the successor 
of Mr. Silas Echols, member of the Conference Committee, for the 
Social Science Section. The motion was put and carried. Dr. Cole 
appointed Mr. Echols to succeed himself. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

THE STATE UNIVERSITY 
Urbana 

Edmund J. James, Ph. D.. LL. D., President 



THE UNIVERSITY INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING DEPARTMENTS 

The Graduate School 

The College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (Ancient and Mod- 
ern Languages and Literatures; History, Economics and 
Accountancy, Political Science, Sociology; Philosophy, 
Psychology, Education; Mathematics; Astronomy; Geol- 
ogy; Physics; Chemistry; Botany, Zoology, Entomology; 
Physiology; Art and Design; Ceramics) 

The College of Engineering (Architecture; Architectural, Civil, 
Electrical, Mechanical, Mining, Municipal and Sanitary, and 
Railway Engineering) 

The College of Agriculture (Agronomy; Animal Husbandry 
Dairy Husbandry; Horticulture and Landscape Gardening 
Veterinary Science; Agricultural Extension; Teachers 
Course; Household Science) 

The College of Law (Three years' course) 

The School of Education 

The Courses in Business (General Business; Banking; Ac- 
countancy; Railway Administration; Insurance; Secretarial; 
Commercial Teachers') 

The Course in Journalism 

The Courses in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering 

The Courses in Ceramics and Ceramic Engineering 

The School of Railway Engineering and Administration 

The School of Music (Four years' course) 

The School of Library Science (Two years' course) 

The College of Medicine (in Chicago) 

The College of Dentistry (in Chicago) 

The School of Pharmacy (in Chicago; Ph. G. and Ph. C. 
courses) 

The Summer Session (eight weeks) 

Experiment Stations: U. S. Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion; Engineering Experiment Station; State Laboratory of 
Natural History; State Entomologist's Office; Biological 
Experiment Station on Illinois River; State Water Survey; 
State Geological Survey; Mine Rescue Station 

The library collections contain (October 1, 1914) 328,000 volumes, 
including the librarj- of the State Laboratory of Natural His- 
tory (8,100 volumes), the Quine Medical Library (14,000 vol- 
umes), and the library of the School of Pharmacy (2,000 vol- 
umes). 

For catalogs and information address 

THE REGISTRAR 

Urbana, Illinois 



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