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Bernice Pauahi Bishop 
Museum, Honolulu 


no. ^ 



no. 4 






Bernice P. Bishop Museum 


1 ■ HUM 


The Bernice P. Bishop Museum is a memorial to the Princess 
Pauahi (1831-1884), last of the Kamehameha family of the Chiefs 
of Hawaii. It was founded in 1889 by her husband, Charles Reed 
Bishop (1822-1915), who for nearly 50 years took a prominent 
part in the business and public affairs of Hawaii. 

The Museum is devoted to the subjects of "Polynesian and 
kindred antiquities, ethnology, and natural history/' The collec- 
tions of the Museum include exhibition and study material from 
Polynesia and from other Pacific islands, but the Hawaiian collec- 
tions are the largest and the most important. 

The Museum staff is engaged in caring for the collections, 
and in investigating scientific problems which come within the 
scope of its activities. When funds are available, expeditions 
are sent out to various parts of the Pacific. 






Bernice P. Bishop Museum , . 



Pi blishEd v>\ Tin: Mi SEUM 



Si- ST. STS~ 



Albert F. Judd, President 
E. Faxon Bishop, Vice-President J. M. Treasurer 

Henry Holmes William O. Smith 

Richard H. Trent William Williamson, Secretary 

Herbert E. Gregory, Ph.D. ----____ Director 

William T. Brighvm Se D - - n; M „* ^ 

Wttha,, u n.„ ™Tn - - - Director Emeritus 

William H Dale, Ph.D ----.. Consulting Naturalist 
n L rT*u- Q MERRILL \^ S - - " " " Consulting Botanis 

R 1 w SWEZEY p^ S - Consulting Entomologist 

Clark Wissler, Ph.D. Consulting Anthropologist 

EE^&fiS / / .- . Re - rchA =?o t c E or^ 

Forest B. H. Brown, Ph.D ... ' C " Ml C °i^ "* 

ir E .! UISTB r^ Ph ' D ' - - ^search Associate in Boteiy 
P M ?• " r *' JR -t B -o'u l hB - - Assistant Entomologist 

£*™ p A r' E CoOKE ' J R - Ph - D - ------ Malacolo|ist 

Henry E. Cramptox, Ph.D. - Research Associate in Zoology 

Charles H. Edmondson, Ph.D. - - - . . . Zoologist 

Kenneth P. Emory, B.S. Assistant Ethnologist 

Henry W. Fowler ----.._ Bishop Museum Fellow 
Ruth H. Greixer. A.B. - - . . _ Bisho Musevm Fellow 

E. S. Craighill Handy, Ph.D. ----... Ethnologist 

Willovvdean C Handy - - - Associate in Polynesian Folkways 
Elizabeth B. Higgins ----._ Librarian and Editor 

X. E. A. Hinds, A.B. -----_ Bishop Museum Fellow 

Hans G. Hornbostel -------- Collector 

J. F. Illingworth, Ph.D - - Research Associate in Entomology 
Bertha Metzger ----------- Assistant to Director 

George C. Munro ------ Associate in Ornithology 

Marie C. Neal, A.B. ------ Assistant MalacolOgist 

Carl Skottsberg, Ph.D. - Bishop Museum Fellow 

F. L. Stevens. Ph.D. ------ Bishop Museum Fellow 

John F. G. Stokes ---------- Ethnologisl 

Louis R. Sullivan, M.A. - - Research Associate in Anthropology 
John W. Thompson ----..... Preparator 

THOMAS G. Thrum - Associate in Hawaiian Folklore 

Stephen S. Visiier, Ph.D ----- Bishop Museum Fellow 

Luiilahi Webb ------------- G u {fe to Exhibits 

Gerrit P. Wilder -------- Associate in Botany 

Anna Ho -------.._ janitor and Guide 

Hong Chi Ho --------- 1 . . T anitor 

Report of the Director for 1922 


The Director, Herbert E. Gregory, has given attention to the work of 
field parties, to editorial supervision, and to plans for organization and de- 
velopment. Brief trips were made to the islands of Lanai and Maui and 
the Napali coast of Kauai was explored with a view to later studv. The 
month of January was spent on the Atlantic coast and in Canada in con- 
ference with government officials and with scientists interested in Pacific 
problems. Six weeks in August and September were given to geological 
work in southern Utah ; and to fulfill obligations of the co-operative agree- 
ment between the Museum and Yale University, the time from September 
20th to the end of the year was devoted to classroom work at New Haven. 

The Director has continued his work as Chairman of the Committee 
on Pacific Investigations of the National Research Council, which is actively 
engaged in perfecting international arrangements for exploration and for 
conservation of marine life, and in assisting the Australian National Re- 
search Council in the organization of a Pan-Pacific Scientific Congress to 
be held at Melbourne and Sydney, August 13 to September 2, 1923. 

In addition to public lectures and papers read before scientific socie- 
ties, three articles and nine reviews have been prepared for publication and 
progress has been made on a manuscript which is to form part of a volume 
on the history of Hawaii. 

William T. Brigham, Director Emeritus, reports progress in the prep- 
aration of a series of essays on Hawaiian ethnology. 

William H. Dall, Consulting Naturalist, has completed his study of 
collections comprising more than twelve hundred species and varieties of 
Mollusca and has submitted an extensive manuscript on the marine shell- 
bearing Mollusca and Brachiopoda of Hawaii. 

In connection with the work of the Philippine Bureau of Science, 
Elmer D. Merrill, Consulting Botanist, has identified large collections of 
plants from Samoa and Tahiti and has devoted considerable time to the 
preparation of a bibliography of Polynesian botany and to a card index of 
references to systematic literature. Dr. Merrill has added to the herbar- 
ium about four hundred sheets of Philippine plants and assisted in the 
identification of the Polynesian collections. He has generously offered to 
supply the Museum with a duplicate set of his index cards. 

[n addition to his exacting duties as entomologist of the Hawaiian 
Sugar Planters' Experimental Station, Otto H. Swezey, Consulting Ento- 
mologist, has generously given much time and thought to increasing the 

6 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

value of the rapidly growing collections of insects. Much progress has 
been made in working up and arranging material accumulated during the 
past years. In the identification of species, the friendly assistance of Ha- 
waiian entomologists has been enlisted and arrangements have been made 
for reports on beetles of the genus Apterocyclus by Prof. E. C. Van Dyke 
of the University of California ; on Dermaptera and Orthoptera by Dr. 
Morgan Hebard of the Philadelphia Academy of Science (p. 13) ; on 
Cixiidae by W. M. Giffard ; on Heteroptera by E. P. Van Duzee of the 
California Academy of Sciences ; on Jassidae by Prof. Hebert Osborn of 
Ohio State University. Special studies have been made by Mr. Swezey on 
the Hawaiian Lepidoptera. 

By correspondence and personal interviews, Clark Wissler, Consult- 
ing Anthropologist, has rendered important service as a sympathetic critic 
of the Museum's administrative plans, personnel, and program of work. 
His desire to enlarge the usefulness of the Museum has resulted in 
strengthening the helpful co-operative relations with the American Museum 
of Natural History, particularly in providing the services of Louis R. Sulli- 
van. (See p. 11). 

Robert T. Aitken, Research Associate in Ethnology, returned on 
August 8 from a two years' field trip in the Austral Islands as a member 
of the Bayard Dominick Expedition. A few days were spent at Raivavae 
and brief visits were made to islands in the Society and Paumotu groups. 
The remainder of the time available for field work was devoted to investi- 
gations on the island of Tubuai. At the end of the year his manuscript 
on the ethnology of Tubuai was near completion. During October Mr. 
Aitken addressed the Social Science Club and also the Natural Science 
Club on the "Natives of Tubuai in the Austral Islands." 

In addition to his work as Curator of Collections, Stanley C. Ball 
served as Acting Director from January 1 to February 7, and from August 
12 to the end of the year. He also devoted time to plans for buildings and 
equipment. Accompanied by Charles H. Edmondson, Mr. Ball made a 
collecting trip to Molokai in February (p. 7), and during July and August 
made an expedition to Fanning island (p. 19). An abstract of Mr. Ball's 
Annual Report is printed on page 26. 

Forest B. H. Brown, Botanist, returned to Honolulu on December 16, 
1922, after a period of two years spent in the Marquesas and neighboring 
parts of the Pacific as a member of the Bayard Dominick Expedition. 
His work has resulted in filling a conspicuous gap in the knowledge of 
Pacific flora and should lead to the preparation of a standard treatise based 
on his collections, which comprise 9000 sheets of material and 395 photo- 
graphs. During the year a paper by Mr. Brown on "The secondary xylem 

Report of the Director for 1922 7 

of Hawaiian trees" (Occasional Papers. Vol. VIII, No. 6) was issued 
by the Museum. 

Elizabeth Wuist Brown. Research Associate in Botany, was a member 
of the Marquesas party of the Bayard Dominick Expedition for the years 
1920-21 and 1921-22. Her attention was given chiefly to investigation of 
the cryptogamic flora. 

The time of Edwin H. Bryan. Jr.. Assistant Entomologist, has been 
given partly to the care and study of the collections of insects and partly 
to general Museum duties. Considerable progress has been made in the 
preparation of a paper on Hawaiian Diptera. which includes descriptions 
of all species recorded in the Territory, and also on a card catalog of the 
entomological literature in Honolulu. For collecting insects trips were 
made to the Napali region on Kauai and to parts of Oahu. 

C. Montague Cooke. Jr., Malacologist. spent the first half of the year 
at the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences in dissecting specimens 
of Endodontidae and Zonitidae. preparatory to the preparation of a mono- 
graph on these families. In the Museum laboratory the most important 
work accomplished was the cataloging of the Wilder collection of 48,291 
specimens, one of the largest and most valuable collections of Oahuan 
Achatinellidae. Field trips were made to the Waianae Mountains. Oahu, 
and to the islands of Kauai, Maui and Molokai. Through the efforts of 
Mr. Cooke much valuable shell material has been received during the year. 

Henry E. Crampton, Research Associate in Zoology, has continued 
his investigation of the collections of Partula obtained in 1920 from Guam 
and the Marianas Islands. The statistical analysis of the material has 
been entirely completed, and substantial progress has been made in the 
writing of a monograph. 

Charles H. Edmondson, Zoologist, has been engaged in the classifica- 
tion and arrangement of the zoological material stored in the Museum 
buildings. His field work during the year included collection trips to 
Molokai and Fanning islands (pp. 6, 19) and investigations of marine 
fauna at Kahana Bay, Kawailoa, and Waikiki on the island of Oahu. He 
has arranged for exchanges of identified material with the Australian 
Museum and the Zoological Survey of India. For the identification of 
Hawaiian collections, he has enlisted the generous assistance of Dr. Her- 
bert L. Clark of the Museum of Comparative Anatomy, Dr. Henry A. 
Pilsbry of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Science, Dr. A. A. Tread- 
well of Vassar College, and also of Miss Mary T. Rathburn, Dr. Waldo L. 
Schmitt, Clarence R. Shoemaker and Dr. Paid Bartsch of the National 

8 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

The work of Mr. Edmondson at the Marine Biological laboratory of 
the University of Hawaii is briefly described as follows : 

In October a year's record of the daily plankton hauls over a known area on 
the reef was completed and the materials collected were made available for examina- 
tion. Studies of the embrynic stages and the life histories of reef organisms have 
been continued. Advanced students are pursuing studies on the hermit crabs of the 
Hawaiian islands and on the reaction of corals to extremes of temperature, to sun- 
light, to silt, to density of water, and to other environmental factors. Records of the 
growth of corals planted during 1921 were tabulated and provision was made for a 
continuation of this work until the rate of growth of as many local specimens of 
corals as possible has been determined. Co-operating with the Department of 
Botany of the University of Hawaii and with Miss Marie Neal as graduate student 
of that department, a more thorough biological investigation of the reef at Waikiki 
has been undertaken. Squares are being laid out from the shore line to the edge 
of the reef or as far as possible, and intensive studies of plants and animals and the 
relations of plants' to animals will be made within these squares. 

The course of twelve semi-popular lectures on phases of marine zoo- 
logy, begun in 1921, was continued. 

Kenneth P. Emory, Assistant Ethnologist, spent the first half of the 
year in the preparation of a manuscript on the archaeology and ethnology 
of the island of Lanai. In connection with this work, field trips were made 
to Kaupo and Lahaina, Maui, and to Molokai. On July 27 Mr. Emory 
left Honolulu on a year's leave of absence to pursue graduate studies at 
Harvard University. 

Henry W. Fowler, Ichthyologist of the Philadelphia Academy of 
Science and Bishop Museum Fellow for 1922-1923, devoted his attention 
to the study, identification and labeling of the Museum collection of fish, 
which he reports as "embracing upwards of 12,000 specimens and forming 
the most representative lot of fishes from Oceania that I know of." A 
preliminary paper descriptive of new forms was prepared for publication 
and progress made on a more comprehensive study. 

Before leaving for the mainland in August, Ruth H. Greiner, Bishop 
Museum Fellow for 1921-1922, submitted manuscript on Polynesian designs 
which comprises an extensive study of Hawaiian, Samoan, Tongan, and 
Maori decorative elements and comparisons with art as developed in other 
parts of Polynesia and in selected islands of Melanesia. 

The time of E. S. Craighill Handy, Ethnologist, was given largely 
to the preparation of manuscript resulting from his field work in the 
Marquesas during 1920 and 1921 as a member of the Bayard Dominick 
Expedition. At the close of the year his papers on "The native culture 

Report of the Director for 1922 9 

of the Marquesas" and "Rediscoveries in Polynesia" were ready for the 
press; and a manuscript entitled "An interpretative study of the religion 
of the Polynesian people" was practically finished. A course of lectures 
on ethnology was delivered by Mr. Handy at the University of Hawaii. 

Willowdean C. Handy, Associate in Polynesian Folkways and Volun- 
teer Assistant with the Bayard Dominick Expedition, completed a manu- 
script on "Tattooing in the Marquesas" (p. 13) and made considerable 
progress with her studies of Polynesian string figures. Her paper on "The 
Marquesans : fact vs. fiction" appeared in the Vale Review for July. 

Early in April Lieut. Hans G. Hornbostel began his work as Collec- 
tor and has been unusually successful in obtaining anthropological material 
from Guam and neighboring islands. (See p. 21 and p. 331. 

Elizabeth B. Higgins, Librarian and Editor, has continued to care for 
the needs of the library and to share the burden of editing mansucript, 
proof reading, and of distributing publications. During the year a history 
of the library has been prepared for the Museum files and progress has 
been made in making a much needed inventory. Excerpts from the report 
by Miss Higgins appear on pages 36-38. 

Norman E. A. Hinds, Instructor in Geology, Harvard University and 
Bishop Museum Fellow for 1922-23, spent six months on Kauai, continu- 
ing his work of the previous year on the geology of that island. A brief 
abstract of his forthcoming report appeared in the Bulletin of the Geo- 
logical Society of America volume 33. number t. 1922. 

J. F. Illingworth, Research Associate in Entomology, has given gener- 
ously of his time in furthering the interests of the Museum. During the 
year five papers on economic phases of entomology were prepared for the 
Hawaiian Entomological Society and one for the United States Department 
of Agriculture. A manuscript on early references to Hawaiian entomology 
was submitted to the Museum. In a report submitted to the Director. 
Mr. Illingworth makes the following interesting observations; 

The indications are that the Hawaiian fauna, insects as well as men, are immi- 
grants from the south and west. With this idea in mind, I have taken the oppor- 
tunity to make a comparative study of the insect fauna of Hawaii with that of other 
parts of the Pacific. For this investigation I have used the vast amount of material 
collected by me in Fiji and in Australia during four years' residence in Queensland, 
the well-known Helms collection and other materials in the Bishop Museum, the 
collections of Mr. D. T. Fullaway loaned by the United States Experiment Station, 
and collections made by Mr. F. Muir from countries bordering the Pacific loaned 
by the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Experiment Station. 

A study of Hies throws some interesting side lights upon the origin of man 
in Hawaii. House flies have ever been closely associated witli human beings. Tn 
fact so much so that they are not found on uninhabited islands, and the United 
States Exploring Expedition, in 1840. reported that Hies were a sure indication of 


Bemice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

the presence of natives on an island. I found that the common house fly of Hawaii 
was not that of Europe and the United States, as formerly supposed, but a variety 
of a distinctly different species, appearing along the western shores of the Pacific. 
Since it is known that these flies' will follow man, even in small boats, and since 
there is evidence that house flies were in Hawaii when Captain Cook arrived, one 
may fairly conclude that they came with the natives along their lines of migration. 
It is interesting to note that our evidence of the migration of these insects exactly 
coincides with what is now presumed to have been the line of migration of the 
earliest peoples reaching the shores of the Hawaiian islands. 

In addition to her routine duties, Bertha Metzger, Assistant to the 
Director, has acted as critic of papers submitted for publication. Assisted 
by Lahilahi Webb, Thomas G. Thrum, C. F. Gessler, and other members 
of the staff, she assumed the difficult task of editing the manuscript and 
reading the proof of the Hawaiian Dictionary. Miss Metzger wrote an 
article, "Sayings of the South Seas," which was published in the Paradise 
of the Pacific, December, 1922. 

George C. Munro, Associate in Ornithology, has continued his success- 
ful search for rare birds. He observes that the native forest birds of 
Hawaii are still thriving and some of the species, at least, appear to be 
increasing in number. 

Marie C. Neal, Assistant Malacologist, continued her laboratory work 
of preparing material for study and of arranging specimens for exchange. 
Much time was given to cataloging the Wilder collection of Hawaiian land 
shells. The field work of Miss Neal included collecting trips to Hawaii 
and to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. In connection with her investi- 
gations, graduate work was done in the University of Hawaii. 

Carl Skottsberg, Director Botanical Garden, Gothenburg, Sweden, 
and Bishop Museum Fellow for 1922-23, spent four months in a study 
of indigenous Hawaiian plants with reference to the general subject 
of plant distribution in the Pacific. Collections of mosses, hepatics, and 
lichens were made and distributed among specialists for determination. 
Dr. Skottsberg prepared a memorandum on the present condition of the 
herbarium and on the plans for its development. 

F. L. Stephens, Professor of Botany, University of Illinois, and Bish- 
op Museum Fellow for 1921-22, reports the practical completion of a manu- 
script resulting from field study of fungi on the islands of Hawaii, Kauai. 
Oahu, and Maui. 

John F. G. Stokes, Ethnologist, returned to Honolulu in November, 
after a two years' absence in the Austral Islands as a member of the Bayard 
Dominick Expedition. His particular field was the islands of Rapa. 
Rurutu, and Raivavae, where the material culture and archaelogy were 
studied and anthropometrical data collected. Some time was also given to 

Report of the Director for IQ22 n 

Tahiti, Rimatara, and islands in the eastern Tuamotus. Abstracts of 
selected parts of the preliminary report of Mr. Stokes follow : 

In Rurutu the dialect seems phonetically to be the most emasculated among 
the Polynesians. The consonants 'k,' 'ng,' and the aspirates are lacking. 

In Rapa the mortuary customs have some interesting features in connection 
with the drying of bodies. The sepulchers yielded specimens of garments, one of 
which, a fragment of the early Rapa dress, is in technique identical with the Maori 
rain cloak. The hill forts or fortified villages, analogous to the Maori pa, show 
primitive engineering features. Stone fish weirs are common and one of the old 
marae (temples) remains. The clans of former times still exist, but with much 
intermixture. Land is communal with the clan. The Rapa customs are interesting 
on account of the absence of certain Polynesian features. It is said that there 
were no tattooing, no awa drinking, no fish-poisoning, no mat-making, no feather- 
work, no pigs' and no dogs. Other Polynesian characteristics but slightly developed 
were temples, priestcraft, veneration for chiefs, knowledge of great Polynesian 
heroes, and stone platforms for houses. The original dialect retained the k' and 
'ng,' but dropped the 'h.' 

Raivavae has a population of 380 and presents an appearance of great pros- 
perity, in strong contrast with Rapa. The material culture has changed to a greater 
extent than elsewhere in the Austral Group. The island has a special interest on 
account of its archaeology. Many large stone images hewn out of red tufa remained 
until the decade 1890-1900, when they were cut into building blocks for a church 
structure. More than sixty images or fragments of images were found, the largest 
of which stood eight and a half feet above ground. About sixty temples were noted 
and it is not improbable that about one hundred of these establishments were for- 
merly maintained. War retreats in the mountains were also found. The Raivavae 
genealogies indicate a common origin of the chiefs of the Austral Group. In the 
original dialect the Polynesian "k' had been dropped, the 'ng' was in process of 
changing to 'n,' and the 'r' was pronounced as '1,' 'gh,' or 'g.' 

Physical measxirements of 335 people were obtained — 133 in Rurutu, 113 in 
Rapa, and 89 in Raivavae. 

The customs of the Austral Islanders have been greatly modified through their 
conversion to Christianity by native missionaries from the Society Group. The 
latter, themselves Polynesians, imposed upon the people a Tahitian civilization partly 
modified by the secular teachings of the white missionaries from England. In the 
process, which has been under way since 1821, a complex has been formed which 
makes it extremely difficult to differentiate Austral Island ethnology from that of 
the Society Group. (See also Annual Report of the Director for 1921 ; Occ. Papers 
Vol. VIII, No. 5, pp. 206-207, 1922.) 

Louis R. Sullivan, Research Associate in Anthropology, in co-opera- 
tion with the American Museum of Natural History, has continued his 
investigations of the physical characteristics of the Pacific races. During 
the year the results of his studies on Tongan somatology were published. 
(See p. 13.) A manuscript on Marquesan somatology was submitted 
for publication and considerable progress made on a study of Hawaiian 
racial relations. A popular article, "New light on Polynesian races." was 

12 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

prepared for the January (1923) number of Asia. In speaking of Mr. 
Sullivan's work with the Bayard Dominick Expedition, Charles B. Daven- 
port, Director of the Department of Genetics, Carnegie Institute of Wash- 
ington, remarks, "I feel that Sullivan's two contributions to Polynesian 
somatology have advanced the subject more in one year than all the other 
researches of the past twenty-five years." 

John W. Thompson, Preparator, has modeled eighteen fishes, painted 
thirteen fishes and three eels and has prepared and painted crabs and sea- 
weed accessories for use in a projected marine group. The years of con- 
tact which Mr. Thompson has had with the markets while selecting fishes 
for the collections have placed him in a position to aid Mr. Fowler very 
considerably in his studies on the fish collections. It is largely to his 
credit that the Hawaiian fish fauna is so remarkably well represented in 
the Museum's preserved material, as well as in the excellent series of 

Thomas G. Thrum, Associate in Hawaiian Folklore, completed the 
"Geographic place names" for the revision of Andrews' Hawaiian Dic- 
tionary. (See p. 25.) He also made a critical analysis of the forty-two 
manuscripts in the Poepoe Collection and a translation of Kamakau's his- 
tory of Kamahemeha, which appeared originally in the Ka Nupepa Kuokoa 
in 1 866- 1 87 1. Progress was made in a study of the star lore of the ancient 
Hawaiians, especially with reference to navigation. 

Stephen S. Visher, Bishop Museum Fellow for 1921-22, returned to 
his duties as Professor of Geography, University of Indiana, after a field 
trip to Honolulu, Fiji, Manila, Hongkong, Shanghai, Kobe, and Tokyo. 
Progress was made in the preparation of a monograph on the tropical 
cyclones of the Pacific and their effects. Two Papers — "Tropical cyclones 
in Australia and the South Pacific and Indian Oceans" and "Tropical 
cyclones in the Northeast Pacific between Hawaii and Mexico," were pub- 
lished in the Monthly Weather Review (Vol. 50, 1922 pp. 288-297). 

In addition to her work as Guide to Exhibits and hostess to an even 
larger number of visitors than in 1921, Mrs. Lahilahi Webb gave lectures 
to many classes of school children. She was of invaluable service in edit- 
ing the Hawaiian Dictionary and to members of the staff in their studies 
of Hawaiian lore. In the exhibition halls she has been ably assisted by 
Miss Anna Ho. 

Gerrit P. Wilder, Associate in Botany, has added valuable specimens 
to the Museum collection and continued his work of providing correct 
labels for the casts of fruits in the exhibition halls. His knowledge of 
the Hawaiian Bird Reservation has been utilized in planning an expedi- 
tion for the coming year. 

Report of the Director for 1922 13 


During 1922 the following publications were issued : 

Memoirs Volume VIII, Number 3. The grasses of Hawaii, by A. S. Hitchcock, 
137 pages, 5 plates, no figures. 

A description of 50 genera of native and introduced grasses. 

Memoirs Volume VIII, Number 4. A contribution to Tongan somatology, by Louis 
R. Sullivan, 35 pages, 4 plates, 2 figures. 

Describes the physical characteristics of 225 Tongans, and discusses the 
relation of Tongans to Samoans and to Melanesians. 

Occasional Papers Volume VII, NUMBER 14. Dermaptera and Orthoptera of Ha- 
waii, by Morgan Hebard, 76 pages, 2 plates, 1 figure. 

A study based on 688 specimens representing 40 of the 41 genera and all 
but two of the adventive species recorded for Hawaii. 

Occasional Papers Volume VIII, Number 2. Hawaiian Dromiidae, by Charles 
Howard Edmondson, 10 pages, 2 plates. 

Discussion of the taxonomic position, characteristics, and distribution of the 
Dromiidae of Hawaiian waters. One new subspecies is described. 

Occasional Papers Volume VIII, Number 3. The proverbial sayings of the Ton- 
gans, by E. E. V. Collocott and John Havea, 115 pages. 

An epitome of Tongan mental reactions as expressed in 633 proverbs given 
in the Tongan dialect with translation and comment in English. 

Occasional Papers Volume VIII, Number 4. Tongan astronomy and calendar, by 
E. E. V. Collocott, 17 pages. 

A study of the astronomy and calendar of the early Tongans, and defini- 
tion of native names and phrases. 

Occasional Papers Volume VIII, Number 5. Report of the Director for 1921, by 

Herbert E. Gregory, 39 pages. 
Occasional Papers Volume VIII, No. 6. The secondary xylem of Hawaiian trees, 

by Forest Buffen Harkness Brown, 157 pages, 11 figures, 1922. 

A treatise of the systematic anatomy of Hawaiian woody plants, with a 

short preface on the origin of the Hawaiian flora. 

Bulletin i. Tattooing in the Marquesas, by Willowdean Chatterton Handy, 32 
pages, 38 plates. 

A study of the art of tattooing, the designs employed, and the nomen- 

A paper on archaelogical work in Hawaii, by Gerard Fowke, pub 
lished by the Bureau of American Ethnology (Bull. 76, 1922, 21 pp., 8 
plates) is a description of ancient Hawaiian structures, particularly on the 
island of Molokai. The Museum accepted the opportunity of assisting 
Mr. Fowke in his field investigation. 

The following publications are in press : 

Memoirs Volume IN, NUMBER I. The Moriori of Chatham Islands, l>y li. I >. 
Skinner, 1923. 

Describes the material culture of Moriori of Chatham Islands. 

Occasional Papers Volume VIII. Number 7. New or little-known Hawaiian fishes, 
by Henry W. Fowler, 20 pages, 1923. 

Preliminary descriptions of new species of lish in the collections of Bishop 
Museum, and a list of nanus of those already described elsewhere 

14 Bemice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Bulletin The native culture in the Marquesas, by E. S. Craghill Handy, 


A study of the native culture in the Marquesas based on original research 

during a nine months' residence, supplemented by knowledge derived from 

printed sources and unpublished manuscripts. 
A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language, by Lorrin Andrews, Revised by Henry 

H. Parker. Published for the Board of Commissioners of Public Archives. 

(See p. 25.) 
Table of Contents and Index for Occasional Papers, Volume VIII. 

The following papers are in the hands of the Publication Committee 
or of the Editor: 

The material culture of the natives of the Marquesas Islands, by Ralph Linton 

Tongan Myths and Tales, by Edward Winslow Giffard 

Tongan Place Names, by Edward Winslow Giffard 

Polynesian design elements, by Ruth H. Greiner 

Early references to Hawaiian Entomology, by J. F. Illingworth 

Hawaiian legends, by William H. Rice 

Papers in preparation include the following : 

An archaelogical and ethnological survey of Lanai, by Kenneth P. Emory 

The marine shell-bearing Mollusca and Brachipoda of the Hawaiian Islands, by 

William Healey Dall 
An interpretative study of the religion of the Polynesian people, by E. S. Craighill 

Tongan society and religion, by Edward Winslow Giffard 
Tongan material culture and archaeology, by W. C. McKern 
Studies in Hawaiian anthropology, by Louis R. Sullivan 
Hawaiian fungi, by F. L. Stevens 
A statistical analysis of Partula of Guam and Marianas' islands, by Henry E. 

Geology of Kauai, by Norman E. A. Hinds 
A study of Hawaiian plants with reference to plant distribution in the Pacific, by 

Carl Skottsberg 
A study of Hawaiian fishes, by Henry W. Fowler 
Flora of the Marquesas Islands', by Forest B. H. Brown 
Ethnology of Tubuai, by Robert T. Aitken 
A study of Hawaiian Diptera, by Edwin H. Bryan, Jr. 
An ethnological survey of Rapa, by John F. G. Stokes 
Report of the Director for 1922 

In the Museum publications three changes have been made : ( 1 ) the 
books and pamphlets heretofore listed as Miscellaneous Publications have 
become Special Publications, (2) the series of Occasional papers will be 
discontinued after the completion of Volume VIII, (3) a new series to be 
known as Bulletins has been established. No change is contemplated in 
the Memoirs. 

During the year, 1894 numbers of the Memoirs were distributed, in- 
cluding 30 complete sets; of Occasional Papers 3782, including 13 com- 
plete sets ; of Special Publications 903, including 22 complete sets of 
Fauna Hawaiiensis. The regular distribution of publications at time of 
issue has varied from 317 to 461. 

Report of the Director for 1922 15 

To the regular exchange list which now numbers 184 the following 
names have been added : Academy of Science of St. Louis ; Mr. Percy 
S. Allen, Editor of Pacific Islands Handbook ; Asia Publishing Company ; 
Auckland Public Library. Art Gallery and Old Colonists' Museum ; 
Australian Central Weather Bureau; Botanical Survey of South Africa; 
Colorado College ; Dove Marine Laboratory ; Folk-Lore Society ; For- 
mosan Government Research Institute ; Matson Navigation Company ; 
Mexico Direccion de Estudios Biologices ; Pacific Biological Station: 
Philippine Bureau of Agriculture; Pomona College; Princeton University 
Library ; Royal Geographical Society : Royal Society of London ; Royal 
Society of Tasmania ; Scripps Institution for Biological Research ; So- 
ciedade Brasileira de Sciencias ; Transvaal Museum ; Library. U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. 

The contract to print the publications of the Museum, which termi- 
nated April 1, has been re-awarded to the Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Limited. 

By vote of the Trustees the Museum staff has undertaken the prepara- 
tion of a Handbook descriptive of the collections in the exhibition halls and 
of a pamphlet containing a sketch of the history, scope, and policy of the 



During the first ten years of the Museum activities, no systematic field 
exploration appears to have been undertaken by the staff. The Trustees, 
however, early recognized the desirability of building up extensive collec- 
tions which might serve as basis for scientific study. Their liberal financial 
>upport was given for a comprehensive study of the land fauna of Hawaii 
(1892-1901) — a series of investigations which resulted in the publication of 
Fauna Hawaiiensis, notable alike for its scientific value and for its demon- 
stration of the advantage of co-operation. 

In his report for 1899 the Director expressed the hope that studies 
similar to those represented by Fauna Hawaiiensis might be extended to 
regions outside of the Hawaiian Islands. In response to this suggestion 
provision was made in 1900 for a study of the birds and fishes of Guam 
by Alvin Seale, which resulted in large additions to the Museum collec- 
tions (See Report of a mission to Guam: Occ. Papers, Vol. I, p. 17-128). 
During 1902 William Alanson Bryan spent one week on the little known 
Marcus Island and two days on Midway Tsland making collections which 
led to the publication of " \ monograph of Marcus Island" (Occ. Papers 
II, No. 1, p. 77-139. 1903) and "A report of a visit to Midway Island" 
(Occ. Papers II, No. 4, pp. 37-45. 1906). On Mr. Seale's return from 
Guam his services were again obtained for an expedition to the South 

x6 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Pacific, which had for its primary purpose the collection of fishes. During 
the period November 9, 1900 to September 21, 1903, visits were made by 
Mr. Seale to the Society, Marquesas, Tuamotu, Gambier, Austral, New 
Hebrides and Solomon island groups and 1550 specimens representing 375 
species of fishes were obtained. (See Fishes of the South Pacific: Occ. 
Papers, Vol. IV, No. 1, pp. 3-89. 1906). 

During each year of the period 1909-1913 Charles N. Forbes, Bota- 
nist, devoted approximately three consecutive months to systematic ex- 
ploration on Kauai (1909), Maui (191a), Hawaii (1911), Molokai (1912), 
and Lanai (1913) ; and in 1913 Mr. Cooke made an excursion to Palmyra 
Island. With these exceptions, field work during the period 1903-1919 
appears to have consisted of short trips by members of the staff for the 
purpose of increasing the collections and to procure data needed in the 
preparation of manuscript for publication. 

In general, the records show that the collections belonging to the 
Museum have been acquired chiefly by gift and purchase and that much 
of the valuable material contributed by members of the staff has been 
gathered incidentally and not infrequently in vacation periods and at the 
expense of the collector. 

It seems unlikely that materials adequate for scientific investigation 
are to be continuously obtained through the methods heretofore utilized. 
Gifts of valuable small collections will doubtless increase with the increase 
in the number of the friends of the Museum; but most of the desirable 
private collections have already found a permanent place in the halls of 
scientific institutions, and miscellaneous collections resulting from brief 
field trips will not serve the needs of investigators dealing with the ex- 
panding problems within the scope of the activities of the Museum. 
Future enlargement of the collections for study and for exhibition must 
come chiefly from definitely organized field work by the staff, from ex- 
changes, and from institutions associated with the Museum in co-operative 

With these ideas in mind the policy has been adopted of making 
systematic field surveys in anthropology, botany, and zoology, under ar- 
rangements which provide time and funds for the completion of the 
project in hand. (See Report of the Director for 1919: Occ. Papers, 
Vol. VII, No. 8, 1920.) The results have been satisfactory. During 1919 
a botanical survey of east Maui and a study of the ancient asylum of 
refuge at Honaunau were completed. During 1920 an ethnological survey 
of Haleakela was completed, and the field work of the Bayard Dominick 
Expedition began — a series of investigations which, continued through 

Report of the Director for 1922 17 

192 1 and 1922, constitute doubtless the most important anthropological 
study so far made in Polynesia. (See p. 21 ). During 192 1 the land shell 
fauna of Guam and Saipan were studied, the fungi of Hawaii were sys- 
tematically collected and an ethnological survey of Lanai was completed — 
the first such survey of any Hawaiian island. During 1922 a geological 
survey of Kauai and a botanical survey of the Marquesas were completed, 
an expedition was sent to Fanning Island, and remarkably large collections 
were made in Guam. 

Plans for 1923 include a systematic scientific survey of Johnston 
Island, Wake Island and of fifteen islands and reefs lying between Niihau 
and Ocean islands ; an ethnological expedition to Tahiti ; and a collecting 
expedition to the Marianas and to the Caroline Islands. All these expedi- 
tions serve not only to enlarge and to fill gaps in the collections now on 
hand, but also to meet the needs of other institutions and to furnish data 
for increasing the value of the Museum publications. 

Survey of the Hawaiian Bird Reservation 

Preliminary arrangements have been made for a scientific survey of 
the scattered islands included within the roughly defined Hawaiian Bird 
Reservation (Latitudes 22°-28°N, Longitude i6i°-i75° W). Conferences 
with officials in Washington and at Pearl Harbor indicate the pr< 'It- 
ability that the Navy Department will provide a ship for conducting re- 
searches during the months of April, May, and June, 1923, under the 
auspices of the United States Biological Survey and the Bishop Museum. 
The position of these islands, the large differences in their topograph}, 
shores, and surrounding waters, and the interesting zoological, botanical, 
and ethnological materials so far obtained from them suggest that the pro- 
posed expedition may yield important contributions to science. 

The Whitney South Seas Expedition 

A generous gift of Mr. Harry Payne Whitney has enabled the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History to organize a zoological expedition on an 
unusually comprehensive scale. Under the direction of a committee of 
eminent ornithologists — Dr. Leonard C. Sanford, Dr. Frank M. Chapman 
and Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy — the field party, in charge of Mr. Rollo 
H. Beck, established headquarters at Papeete late in 1920. During 1921 
extensive collections were made in Tahiti and other islands of the Society 
group, at Christmas Island, at the Marquesas, and on several islets of the 
Tuamotu group. During 1922 the schooner "France," purchased by the 
expedition, was used for continuing investigations in the Marquesas, 
Austral, and Gambier island groups and at Pitcairn. Henderson, Oeno, 
Elizabeth and Ducie islands. 

18 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

The committee in charge of the expedition has formulated its plans 
and conducted its field operations with a view solely to the advancement 
of scientific research in the Pacific. To quote from the report of Dr. 
Murphy : 

While the expedition is primarily ornithological, no opportunity has been lost 
to obtain desirable material and data in other branches of science, particularly at 
the many Polynesian islands where the native peoples and fauna are rapidly dying 
out or are altering materially with changing conditions. With this object in mind, 
the Museum has co-operated in all possible ways with other institutions that are 
carrying on research in the Pacific. The Bernice P. Bishop Museum of Honolulu, 
for example, is now a center of Pacific investigations, coordinated under the ad- 
ministration of Professor Herbert E. Gregory, who is serving as Director. The 
Committee of the Whitney Expedition has been from the beginning in close touch 
with Professor Gregory and has sought his advice on many details. The members 
of the Expedition have been instructed to undertake special lines of collecting 
which do not interfere with their main objects, to offer transportation whenever 
possible to the field workers of the Bishop Museum and of other scientific organiza- 
tions, and in general to further the cause of Pacific investigation by selecting fields 
of endeavor which lead toward cooperation rather than competition. It has been 
decided, for instance, to leave the ornithological investigation of the Hawaiian 
islands and of certain neighboring groups, such as Midway, Johnston, Palmyra and 
Washington islands, to the Bishop Museum, and to confine the efforts of the Whitney 
Expedition, for the present at least, to the southerly and easterly islands' of Poly- 
nesia, from Samoa and the Marquesas southward and eastward to the Austral group 
and Easter Island. In order that the American Museum of Natural History may 
obtain a full representation of the avian fauna of the Pacific Basin, however, a com- 
prehensive exchange of material has been arranged, and the Museum has already 
received from Honolulu an important collection of Hawaiian birds, which gives it 
a very nearly complete series of the scarce or extinct Drepanididae as well as other 
interesting and peculiar birds of the archipelago. 

The first two years of the Whitney South Sea Expedition indicate the 
remarkable zoological and geographical results to be anticipated. More 
than three thousand bird skins with representative collections of nests, eggs 
and stomachs have been obtained ; botanical, zoological and ethnological 
material has been gathered at many islands ; and a mass of geographic in- 
formation has been recorded. 

The collections show that the birds of the South Pacific trade wind 
belt are for the most part specifically and generically distinct from those in 
the southern "horse latitudes" and that each large insular group and 
even some small islets have distinctive species. Several of the species of 
birds collected have been heretofore listed as extinct. 

Investigations in the Society Islands 

Extensive researches in the Marquesas and the Austral Islands, and 
reconnaissance studies in Tahiti indicate the need of fuller knowledge of 

Report of the Director for jqjj 19 

the islands lying westward. From the Society Islands in particular more 
precise information is needed of the physical characters of the people, of 
the sequence of the overlapping immigrations and the cultural differences 
in the native populations of various islands of the group. 

To meet this need provision has been made for undertaking an ethno- 
logical survey by a party consisting of E. S. Craighill Handy, Ethnologist ; 
Willowdean C. Handy, Associate in Polynesian Folkways ; and Miss Jane 
Winne, Volunteer Assistant, who will devote her time to recording native 
music. Local field assistants will be added to the party. For compara- 
tive studies Mr. Handy will visit the islands of Upolu, Yavau, Haapai, 
Xukuolofa, and the Maori settlements in Xew Zealand. 

Fanning Island Expedition 

Studies now in progress on the distribution and relationship of cer- 
tain organisms have made it desirable to investigate the fauna and flora 
of Fanning Island which lies in Latitude 3°-54' North. The island lies 
outside of the routes of commercial steamship lines, but is visited at inter- 
vals by copra schooners and by the supply ship of the Pacific Cable Board. 

With the approval of Mr. J. Milward, Pacific Manager of the Pacific 
Cable Board, an invitation was received from Captain M. Menmuir to 
make use of his ship, the "Tangaroa." for transporting men and equip- 
ment to Fanning Island. The invitation was gratefully accepted and 
Stanley C. Ball and Charles H. Edmondson were chosen to represent the 

While on the island, Mr. Ball and Mr. Edmondson enjoyed the hos- 
pitality of the Fanning Island Station of the Cable Board and of the 
copra company. Fanning Island Limited. At the station, Superintendent 
T. R. Blackley, Deputy Commissioner Mr. Johnson, Mr. Walker, Mr. and 
Mrs. Sherlock, Mr. Kemp, Dr. Kinney, Mr. Chapman, Mr. Wood and 
others rendered generous assistance. Superintendent A. R. Foster of the 
copra company and his assistant, Mr. Ward, provided boats and men and 
equipment. Mr. William Greig served a- host and with Mr. Hugh Greig 
furnished a native boat crew including the intelligent guide, Kotuku. 
Their intimate knowledge of the island and of Polynesian languages and 
customs was the source of valuable information regarding the names and 
distribution of plants and animals. 

The collections obtained at Fanning Island include marine and ter- 
restrail crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms, insects, and other invertebrates 
and also skins of land and sea birds and a representative series of plants. 
Many of the zoological specimens constitute new records for that part of 
the Pacific. 

20 Bemice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Supplementing the researches at Fanning Island, the Museum has 
profited through the generosity of Mr. L. A. Thurston who, in company 
with Mr. David Thaanum and Mr. Yasconcellos, conducted a survey of 
Palmyra Island, lying three hundred miles northwest of Fanning Island. 
Among the fishes and crabs collected are several not heretofore recorded 
from the Palmyra region ; some are new to science. 

Reconnaissance of the Napali Coast, Kauai 

The Napali district on the island of Kauai, including the valleys of 
Nualolo, Awawapuhi, and Honopu, is peculiarly difficult of access. Its 
seaward margin is formed by precepitious wave-cut cliffs and inland the 
area is sharply dissected into box-headed canyons and "knife-edge" ridges. 

Each of the three ways of access — a "hand hold" trail up the sea cliff 
at Honopu, the Kamaile cliff trail, and the rope ladder at Nualolo beach 
— is available only to experienced climbers. 

Information obtained from Hawaiians and from the few white men 
who have visited these valleys indicated that, the irrigation systems, house 
platforms, burial caves and other evidences of former occupation have been 
undisturbed and that an unusual opportunity was afforded for a study 
of ancient Hawaiian life. Arrangements were therefore made for a pre- 
liminary exploration of Nualolo. Awawapuhi. Honopu and Kalalau val- 
leys — a ten day's reconnaissance — which has revealed much of interest 
in archaelogy and natural history. By selecting feasible trails and recon- 
structing the ancient rope ladder, the way has been prepared for a 
systematic investigation of this little known region. 

This exploring expedition was made possible through the skill and 
enthusiastic interest of Lindsay A. Faye. Lorrin P. Thurston, Herman 
Von Holt, and Ronald Von Holt. 

Collections From Guam 

The existence of monolithic ruins on the island of Tinian has been 
known for a century, and similar objects have from time to time been 
reported from Rota and from Guam, but the few sling stones and other 
artifacts which have found their way to museums and the brief descrip- 
tions scattered through the literature have given little indication of the 
richness of those islands as fields for archealogical study. Through the 
generosity of Commander J. C. Thompson, of the United States Naval 
Hospital, Lt. H. G. Hornbostel of the Museum staff was given the op- 
portunity to undertake a systematic exploration of Guam, with a view to 
obtaining information regarding an ancient people whose position in the 
group of Pacific races remains to be determined. As the result of this 

Report of the Director for 1922 21 

work the Museum is in possession of maps, diagrams, and descriptive 
notes of ancient burial grounds, house sites, fishing grounds, and caves, 
and has added to its collections some 2,000 specimens, including mortars, 
lamps, adzes, knives and much skeletal material. In the collection is a 
burial monument with capital weighing about two and a quarter tons. 

In carrying on his work Mr. Hornbostel has had the experienced 
advice of Commander Thompson, and the generous co-operation of the 
Navy officials who assisted in excavations and in making collections, and 
assumed the responsibility of transporting the material to Honolulu. 

It is planned to extend field work in this region to include the south- 
ern islands of the Marianas group and parts of the Carolines. 

Bayard Dominick Expedition 

At the end of the year the work of the Bayard Dominick Expedition 
had reached the following stage : the field work had been completed ; most 
of the collections, maps, manuscripts, photographs, and field notes had 
been arranged for study ; three papers had been published ; two papers 
were in press, four papers had been submitted for publication and sub- 
stantial progress had been made in the preparation of six other papers. 

The systematic investigation of the origin, migration, and culture of 
the Polynesian peoples, which constitutes the program of the Bayard 
Dominick Expedition, was made possible by a generous gift of Bayard 
Dominick, Jr., of New York — funds given to Yale University and placed 
by the University at the disposal of Bishop Museum. During the summer 
of 192a four field parties began their work — the first in Tonga, the second 
in the Marquesas, the third in Rurutu, Raivavai, Tubuai and Rapa of 
the Austral Islands, the fourth in islands of the Hawaiian group. Through 
co-operative arrangements with scientists of New Zealand, physical 
measurements of the Maori and a complete survey of the Moriori of 
Chatham Islands form part of the program. 

In formulating the plans for the expedition, it was recognized that 
the origin and migrations of a people constitute a problem made up of many 
diverse elements — a problem which involves contributions not only from 
physical anthropology, material culture, archaeology, philology and legends, 
but also from economic botany, geography and zoology. A profit- 
able search for Polynesian origins obviously involves fundamental re- 
search in two distinct fields: (1) the source of the physical racial 
characteristics which have combined to make the different Polynesian 
types; (2) the source of the original element- in the customs, habits and 
beliefs — in a word, the culture of the Polynesians. The problem of origin 


Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

approaches solution to the extent that original physical characteristics may 
be correlated with original cultural elements. 

Although the results obtained by the members of the Bayard Dominick 
Expedition have not as yet been subjected to critical analysis and com- 
parison, some interesting general conclusions have been reached. 

The Polynesian population consists of at least two basic elements 
and the failure to recognize them appears to account for the wide diversity 
of opinion regarding origin and affinities of the Pacific races. 

Type A, which may be considered Polynesian proper, is a Caucasoid 
element with physical characteristics intermediate between some Causasians 
and some Mongols. It may prove to be a very primitive Causasian type 
related to the earliest inhabitants of Micronesia, Melanesia, Indonesia, and 
to the Aino of Japan and to some primitive Americans. It is probably 
the oldest type in central and eastern Pacific and occupied all the Poly- 
nesian islands. At present it is strongest in southern Polynesia. 

The characteristic features of Type A are (i) tall stature, (2) 
moderately long heads, (3) relatively high, narrow faces, (4) relatively 
high, narrow noses, (5) straight or wavy black hair of medium texture, 
(6) well-developed moustache and moderate beard on the chin, (7) 
moderate amount of hair on the body and limbs. (8) light brown skin, (9 ) 
incisor rim present occasionally, (10) femur flattened, (11) tibia flattened, 
(12) ulna flattened, (13) lips above average in thickness. 

Type B is the Indonesian element typically developed in the region 
of the Celebes. It is a Mongoloid type but unlike the Malay, is strongly 
divergent in the direction of the Xegro. Hybrids of Type A and Type B 
are much more Mongoloid in appearance than is either of the parental 
types. Type B is strongest in northern and central Polynesia. 

The essential physical characteristics of Type B are : ( 1 ) shorter 
stature, (2) shorter heads, (3) low, broad faces, (4) low, broad noses. 
(5) wavier hair, (6) undeveloped beard, (7) body hair rare except on 
the legs, (8) darker brown skin, (9) incisor rim rare, (10), (n), (12) 
femur, tibia and ulna less flattened (data meager, results inferred), (131 
lips well above the average in thickness. 

Type A, Polynesian, and Type B, Indonesian, are not closely related 
in a physical sense. ■ 

A third element in the Polynesian population is characterized by 
extremely short heads, narrow faces, narrow noses, light skin and well 
developed beard and body hair. Representatives of this element have 
not been found in Polynesia in sufficient numbers to justify specific des- 
cription. When studied in a region where it is well represented, this 
element may prove of sufficient importance to be recognized as Type C. 

Report of the Director for 1922 23 

This element has probably contributed some of the Caucasoicl traits to 

There is a basic Polynesian culture for the present termed Culture 
"A" over which has been superposed a later culture (Culture "B"). 
The most important elements of Culture "A" are : ( 1 ) a rectangular 
house with end posts and bed space; (2) a canoe made of five parts; 
(3) a tanged adze; (4) cooking by means of heated stones in ground 
ovens; (5) the use of stone pestles for pounding food; (6) the use of 
wood, gourd, and coconut shell, rather than pottery, for containers; (7) 
skillful woodworking and carving; (8) tattooing; (9) the making of 
tapa, or bark cloth; (10) a characteristic relationship system; (11) the 
custom of adopting and betrothing children; (12) systematic agriculture 
and fishing, taro and potato cultures; (13) professional craftsmanship 
and leadership in industry ; ( 14) tribal government of simple patriarchal 
communism; (15) preserving heads of enemies as trophies, and cannibal- 
ism; (16) ancestor worship, the preservation of genealogies, and the 
hiding of skeletal remains; (17) inspirational diviners; (18) a speculative 
creation mythology conceived on the principle of dualism, expressed in 
terms of male and female agencies. Culture "A" is distributed through- 
out Polynesia, but is most clearly distinguished in New Zealand and the 
Marquesas — marginal regions little affected by later influences. 

As compared with Culture "A," Culture "B" is characterized by a 
higher social and religious development rather than a higher technical 
development, and is dominent in northern and central Polynesia. It is 
considered not as the culture of a race unrelated to the Polynesians, but 
as the culture of a second migrating wave of a people closely related to 
those represented by Culture "A." In addition to the elements listed for 
Culture "A," Culture "B" is characterized by other elements among which 
are: (19) the oval house; (20) wooden head rests; (21) utensils with 
legs; (22) organized government; (23) a rigid social classification; (24) 
complicated systems of land division and ownership; (25) great sacred- 
ness of chiefs and elaborate etiquette; (26) organized dancing as a social 
and religious institution; (27) organized religious ceremonial and priest- 
hood; (28) a generation cult and seasonal rites; (29) haruspication. 

It is interesting to note that the basal Polynesian physical type (Type 
A i is universally distributed, but strongest in the south, and that the 
original culture (Culture "A", also universally distributed, is clearest in 
the south (New Zealand) and in (he east (the Marquesas). Also physical 
Type B is strongest in north and central Polynesia, the same region in 
which elements in Culture "B" are dominant. This demonstrated parallel- 
ism of racial types and cultural stratification rests on conclusions arrived 

24 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

at independently by members of the Museum staff working in widely 
separated fields with no opportunity for consultation. 'It is regarded as a 
very important contribution to the method of attack on the Polynesian 
problem. Another contribution is the definition of characteristics and 
elements belonging to the respective types and cultures — a prerequisite to 
comparative studies. 

The archaeological work of the Bayard Dominick Expedition reveals 
no very ancient human habitation in the central and south Pacific. 
For the Polynesian settlement the evidence serves to substantiate the con- 
clusions of William Churchill, based on linguistic and cultural study. The 
following dates are considered reasonable estimates : A.D. o, the first 
important Polynesian migratory movement ; A.D. 600, second migration ; 
and A.D. 1000, a period of great Polynesian expansion. 

As regards the sources of these racial types and cultural elements 
and the routes by which they came to Polynesia, the evidence in hand 
indicates the region of the Malay archiperago (Indonesia) and southeast 
Asia as that from which the Polynesian ancestors began their eastward 
drift. There is no evidence of definite migrations to or from the Ameri- 
can continents. 

The Bayard Dominick Expedition is the most comprehensive investi- 
gation so far made of any Pacific people ; it has filled in gaps and expanded 
the boundaries of the knowledge of the Polynesian race. It is believed 
that the publications resulting from the two years of intensive study will 
serve as a basis for intelligent criticism of the observations and theories of 
previous workers and a guide for later detailed studies. 

Hawaiian Proverbs 

The paper by E. E. Collocott, "Proverbial sayings of the Tongans" 
(Occ. Papers, Vol. VIII, No. 3, 1922) has proved to be of interest not 
only for its intrinsic merit, but also as a demonstration of a method of 
presenting the philosophy and guiding thoughts of a people. It has 
seemed, therefore, desirable to arrange for the preparation of similar 
papers based on material from other groups of the Polynesian race. 

For Hawaiian proverbs a nucleus exists in a manuscript by the late 
Dr. N. B. Emerson, presented to the Museum by Mrs. Sarah B. Emerson. 
A considerable number of proverbs has been supplied through the generous 
co-operation of Mr. Theodore Kelsey and his co-workers. Other proverbs 
and connundrums have been supplied by Mrs. E. A. Nawahi, Mrs. Lahi- 
lahi Webb, and Mr. Albert Judd. It is hoped that the Museum will re- 
ceive contributions from many other sources. 

Report of the Director for 1922 25 

Study of Pacific Languages 

During the days of active missionary expansion, 1820-1860, much at- 
tention was given to preparing word lists and generalized grammars of 
various Pacific dialects, and the theories of language relation expounded 
by Max Muller appear to have led some scholars to undertake philological 
researches in the language of Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia. For 
Polynesia the Maori Comparative Dictionary by Tregear (1891). the 
Maori Dictionary by Williams (1892), the Tongan Vocabulary and 
Grammar, by Rev. Shirley Baker (1897); the Samoan Grammar and 
Dictionary, by Rev. George Pratt (revised edition 1911) ; A Dictionary 
of the Hawaiian Language, by Lorrin Andrews (1865, revised 1922) ; the 
Polynesian Wanderings and Easter Island Rapanui Speech, by William 
Churchill ; and the dictionaries for the dialects of French Oceania, com- 
piled by the Catholic fathers, are standard works. Studies by S. Percy 
Smith, Sidney Ray and other contributors to the journal of the Polynesian 
Society have served to elucidate many doubtful points. But increase in 
the knowledge of the Polynesian and related languages has not kept 
pace with researches in other branches of anthropology, and the death of 
William Churchill in 1920 and of S. Percy Smith in 1922 has removed 
two of the most distinguished students of Polynesian philology. 

As anthropological work proceeds, the call becomes insistant for a 
court of final appeal for spelling, meaning, and origin of words and 
phrases that inclose within themselves a picture of the migrating ideas and 
give significance to words which at present represent merely groups of 
letters or sounds. There is need for trained scholars who will devote a 
lifetime of effort to fundamental researches in philology of the Polynesian 

Perhaps the first work of such a scholar would be to edit the several 
dictionaries and the grammars now in manuscript form. Similar studies 
could then be made of native dialects for which no adequate word lists are 
in existence. 

Since the inadequacy of philological research is felt by all institutions 
interested in Pacific work, it is not improbable that support could be ob- 
tained through some co-operative arrangement. 

Hawaiian- Dictionary 

In 191 3 the Legislature of the Territory of Hawaii made provision 
for the "compiling, printing, binding, and publishing in book form a 
Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language" to replace Andrews' Dictionary, 
which had long been out of print. Supported by legislative grants in 
I 9 I 3- l 9U' I 9 I 9' amounting to $25,000, revision lias been in progress 

26 Bemicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

since 1915, under the direction of the Board of Commissioners of Public 
Archives, who placed Rev. Henry H. Parker in charge of the work. 

Early in 192 1 the manuscript cards were transmitted by the Board 
of Archives to the Bishop Museum, which consented to do the editorial 
work necessary to prepare the volume for the press and also agreed to 
furnish a list of Hawaiian geographical names with pronunciation and 
definition. To cover the cost of printing, the Board placed at the dis- 
posal of the Museum the unexpended balance of $4,500'. 

As the editorial work proceeded it was found that the manuscript 
was incomplete in several essential features, thus demanding an unexpected 
amount of work on the part of the Museum staff and of Mr. Joseph S. 
Emerson, Mr. Stephen Mabaulu, Mr. L. A. Dickey, Mr. Thomas C. White, 
and Mr. Theodore Kelsey, who gave freely of their store of knowledge. 

The Dictionary is substantially a reprint of the work compiled by 
Mr. Lorrin Andrews in 1865. The value of the older volume has been 
increased by incorporating the scholarly studies of Lorenzo Lyons, by the 
addition of diacritical marks, by the elimination of irrelevant matter, and 
by the rearrangement of words and definitions. The revised Dictionary is 
obviously incomplete and the way is open for the preparation of a volume 
that will draw material from all available sources. 

The Curator of Collections, Stanley C. Ball, has submitted the fol- 
lowing report : 

Accessions 1922 
anthropological material 

Additions to the collections representing Hawaiian physical anthropology in- 
clude material from Molokai, presented by Mr. F. A. Danforth ; from Oahu, pre- 
sented by Mrs. E. A. Fennel and by Mr. C. A. McWayne ; from Kauai, collected 
by Herbert E. Gregory and Gerrit P. Wilder ; and from Lanai, presented by Mr. 
Hector Munro. Four skulls and other bones were collected in the Austral Islands 
by John F. G. Stokes and more than a hundred skeletons from Guam were col- 
lected and presented to the Museum by Dr. J. C. Thompson and Hans G. Horn- 

The ethnological collections have been increased by gifts as follows : Mr. 
Spencer Bickerton, stone hatchet from Australia ; Captain V. A. Brisson, pestle from 
Rimatara, adz from Pitcairn ; Lieutenant Fish, musical bow from Guam ; Mrs. W. M. 
Giffard, Samoan mat ; Mrs. Margaret C. Jackson, Russian harness ; Mr. A. F. Judd, 
portion of a Hawaiian bone ornament; Mr. Ernest Kaai, guitar from India and 
Koran bible from Java ; Mr. Kaemona through Mr. Lindsay Faye, stone scraper from 
Kauai ; The Liliuokalani Estate, 3 ancient royal kahilis taken from the Mausoleum ; 
Dr. H. F. Lyon, dancing wand from Solomon Islands; Mr. Joseph Marciel, 2 adz 
heads from Maui ; Miss Mary Y. Moore, metal vase from Java ; Mr. G. C. Munro, 
piece of plaster from Hawaiian oven, Lanai; Mr. William Weinrich, wooden tool 
for stripping fiber, Mexico; Mrs. Lilly West, Hawaiian tobaccco pipe. 

Report of the Director for 1922 27 

The following persons have loaned specimens to the Museum: Mr. D. Wesley 
Garber, fish net, sinker and 29 stone adz heads from Samoa ; Dr. George Herbert, 
helmet, 2 spears, 2 wooden bowls and a phallic stone from Hawaii; Mr. Frank 
Marciel, Hawaiian adz head and polishing stone; Mr. X. G. Smith, kukui lei, brooch 
and earrings; Mr. William Wagener, Hawaiian stone image. 

Ethnological material purchased during 1922 includes the valuable collection of 
Mrs. Victoria Buffandeau which embraces 8 feather leis, 10 kapas, \q wooden bowls, 
2 cuspidors, finger bowl, pig platter, tobacco pipe, 3 ivory leis, 2 makaloa mats, 
poi pounder, net for suspending calabash (all Hawaiian), 2 Samoan mats, 12 co- 
conut bowls, a poi pounder and a gourd bowl from Tahiti; from E. Block, n war 
clubs from Samoa and Fiji, sword from Caroline Islands, 3 dishes and a bowl 
from Fiji, mat dress from Samoa, 3 tapa beaters of which one is triangular in 
section (locality unknown) and a piece of bark cloth from Uganda, Africa; from 
the Emma Dreier Estate, a large wooden Hawaiian plate ; from Mr. Maihui, net for 
suspending calabash ; from Mr. Nam Ja Sung, collection of Hawaiian stone imple- 
ments ; from Mrs. Helen Widemann, 4 Hawaiian calabashes. 

Members of the staff have increased the collections as follows : R. T. Aitken, 
180 specimens of native implements, tapas, baskets and materials collected in Tu- 
buai and Raivavae, Austral Islands (see notes on collections) ; John F. G. Stokes, 
a large number of artifacts collected chiefly in Rurutu, Raivavae and Rapa (re- 
served for description in the 1923 Report) ; Kenneth P. Emory, collected on Lanai. 
T. H., during 1921, 421 specimens among which may be mentioned several pieces of 
wood from old houses and canoes, tapa anvil and beater, poi pounders, 5 lamps 
and a pillow of stone. 19 anchors, 30 sinkers, 8 grindstones, 8 whetstones, 35 bowling 
stones, 34 adz heads, 37 polishing stones. 4 stones bearing petroglyphs of great age, 
33 stone hammers', stone dish, stone for cooking birds, 3 bath rubbing stones and a 
stone knife. Mr. Emory also collected in 1922 on Molokai a stone hammer. 3 
bowling stones, 3 sling stones, 2 adzes, a net sinker and a cowry lure. 

Hans G. Hornbostel has had remarkable success in obtaining valuable specimens 
illustrating the material culture of the Chamorros. The material already received 
from Guam includes hundreds of sling stones, large numbers of adzes and chisels, 
hammers, pestles, whetstones, several stone vessels', knives, ornaments, fishing 
equipment and other artifacts, as well as specimens of the massive stone capitals 
from the tops of pillars marking burial sites (see p. 21). Au exploring party consist- 
ing of Herbert E. Gregory, Edwin H. Bryan, Jr., of the Museum staff and Herman 
Von Holt, Ronard K. Von Holt, Lindsay Faye, and Lorrin P. Thurston, volunteer 
assistants, brought back from the Xepali coast of Kauai 5 poi pounders, 2 poi 
boards, 6 cowry lures, 2 sinkers, adz head, stone knife, polishing stone and canoe 
fragments. C. Montague Cooke and party consisting of C. M. Cooke III, Harrison 
Cooke and Benjamin Oliveira secured a number of stone and shell implements on 
the western end of Molokai. 

By exchange the Museum has received from Baron X T . Kanda of Japan a col- 
lection of adzes, arrowheads, pieces of pottery, snow shoes, and 2 stone ornaments 
( Magatama and Kudatama), illustrating the culture of the ancestors of the presenl 
Japanese race, and several adzes and other artifacts from Formosa ; from Mr. E. 
L. Moseley a series of North American Indian relics. 

1 1 1 RDS 

Specimens have been added to the ornithological collection by members of the 
staff as follows: Stanley C. Ball and Charles H. Edmondson, man-o'-war bird 
(Fregata aquila), booby (Sula cyanops), nestling and 2 e^.us of the latter. 3 terns 
( Procelstcrna cerulea), bristlc-thighed curlew (Nutnenius tahitiensis) , 3 warblers 
(Conopoderas pistor), nest of the latter, 11 paroquets (I'iui kuhli) collected on 

28 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Fanning Island; E. W. Giffard, 3 shearwaters (Puff inns chororhynchus) collected 
in Tonga ; John F. G. Stokes, rail obtained in Austral Islands. 

Birds have been presented to the Museum as follows: from Mr. G. P. Cooke, Jr.. 
an apapane (Himotione sanguined) found dead on Molokai ; Mr. Hung Lum Chung. 
3 finches (Carpodacus mexicanus obscurus) shot at Experiment Station; Mr. H. S. 
Hayward, feathers of red-tailed tropic bird and others; Mr. W. H. Smith, dark- 
rumped petrel (Aestrelata phaeopygia). 


The report of Edwin H. Bryan, Jr.. Assistant Entomologist, records the acces- 
sion of 8445 insects, 5140 of which came from the Hawaiian islands, a larger pro- 
portion than during 1921. 

Collections by members of the Museum staff include 265 specimens from Fan- 
ning Island collected by Stanley C. Ball and Charles H. Edmondson, 923 specimens 
collected on Kauai by Edwin H. Bryan, Jr.. approximately 900 insects obtained from 
the Austral Islands through John F. G. Stokes, and 298 flies collected in various 
parts of Hawaii by Otto H. Swezey. 

Specimens received in exchange came from the following sources: Mr. E. W. 
Ferguson, 11 Australian Tabanidae ; Mr. E. L. Moseley, 78 insects from Ohio; Mr. 
\Y. S. Patton, 47 Muscidae ; Mr. A. J. Turner, 67 Australian moths. 

The following donations have been gratefully received: 6 specimens from Hale- 
akala, Maui, given by Miss A. M. Alexander; 329 North American and Tahitian in- 
sects from Charles H. Edmondson ; 41 Hawaiian Diptera, and 35 Hawaiian Bruchi- 
dae from the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Experiment Station; 122 Hawaiian Diptera 
and 39 other insects from Mr. Walter M. Giffard; 295 Australian specimens from 
Mr. G. F. Hill ; 70 Hawaiian insects from Mr. W. H. Meinecke ; 21 North American 
Drosophilidae from Mr. A. H. Sturtevant ; 53 specimens collected for the Museum 
on Palmyra island by Mr. L. A. Thurston ; 68 Hawaiian Diptera from the University 
of Hawaii. 

An important collection of insects has been received from J. F. Illingworth. 
partly as a gift and partly as a deposit. It embraces 1240 insects collected in Fiji 
by Mr. Illingworth and determined by him with the aid of other specialists. This 
collection promises to be of great value in further research in the oceanic field. 

The Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station has lent to the Museum 605 in- 
sects collected in Guam by Mr. David T. Fullaway. 

Mr. Bryan further reports : 

"Besides these accessions, as listed, considerable local material, totaling 3537 
specimens, has been collected and turned in by the following members of the staff 
and friends of the Museum: Stanley C. Ball. Spencer Bickerton, Edwin H. Bryan, 
Jr., B. Clarke, A. G. Clarke. C. Montague Cooke. Jr., Ruth H. Greiner. Anne Gregory. 
J. F. Illingworth, A. F.Judd, W. H. Meinecke, E. L. Moseley. Marie C. Neal. Otto 
H. Swezey. John W. Thompson. Gerrit P. Wilder." 


Approximately 40,000 specimens have been added to the botanical collections 
during the year. Of Hawaiian plants gifts have been received as follows : From 
Mr. E. L. Caum, type specimens of Pritchardia kahanae and P. mantioides; Mr. 
Henry Davis, fruit of the "Waialua" orange; Mr. A. D. Hitchcock, set of mounted 
grasses; Mr. A. F. Judd. fungi from Molokai and a mounted specimen of the 
fungas, Meliola juddiana Stevens; Dr. J. R. Judd, a set of ferns collected by Mrs. 
Stewart Dodge in 1874; Mr. W. H. Meinecke, a specimen of silver-sword from 

Report of the Director for 1922 29 

Hawaiian plants received from members of the staff include a large number of 
rusts and other fungi collected and determined by F. L. Stevens, specimens of 
Abutilon collected by Otto H. Swezey, and three plants collected on Hawaii by 
Gerrit P. Wilder. 

The large and important collection of approximately 28,000 specimens brought 
together at the Station of the Board of Agriculture and Forestrj and at the Uni- 
versity of Hawaii by J. F. Rock was transferred to the Museum by arrangement 
with these institutions. 

From the Austral Islands, Robert T. Aitken and John F. G. Stokes, members 
of the Bayard Dominick Expendition, brought back approximately 1.600 dried plants 
and 120 wood samples. A. J. Eames obtained about 1.000 sheets of specimens dur- 
ing his short stay in Samoa in 1920. By far the largest accession is that of 9,000 
specimens of dried plants and 120 wood samples collected by Forest B. H. Brown 
and Elizabetb Wuist Brown during two years of field work in the Marquesas, Tua- 
motu archipelago and New Zealand. 

Collections of plants procured outside of Hawaii include also several hundred 
specimens collected in southern Polynesia by the Whitney South Seas Expedition 
and received in exchange from the American Museum of Natural History; 80 
specimens collected on Fanning Island by Stanley C. Ball and Charles H. Edmond- 
son of the' Bishop Museum staff: 274 plants from Borneo purchased from their 
collector, Mr. A. E. D. Elmer: 300 specimens collected and donated by Mr. D. 
Wesley Garber of Samoa, 390 Philippine specimens given by Mr. E. D. Merrill, and 
131 Samoan plants collected and presented by Professor W. A. Setchell of the Uni- 
versity of California. 


From the report of C. Montague Cooke, Jr.. Malacologist, the following notes 
on accessions have been abstracted : 

Exchanges have been arranged with the Philadelphia Academy of Natural 
Sciences, the American Museum of Natural History and the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology. From the Philadelphia Academy specimens of Pacific zonitoids and 
endodonts and paratypes of two species of tornatellids were received. From the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, 135 lots of shells were received, among them the 
paratypes of species established by Pease. Gulick, and Newcomb. The type speci- 
mens of Planamastra prostrata and P. deprcssiformis found in the collection of this 
Museum proved to be non-Hawaiian species. (See Nautilus, vol. XXXVI, 1922V 
Mr. W. F. Clapp, Curator of Mollusca. contributed additional material. 

From the American Museum 16 lots of shells were received. Probably the rarest 
species acquired is the Carelia hyattiana, of which but seven specimens are known. 
The one we received has been carefully compared with the type specimen in the 
collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and there is no doubt 
that the identification is correct. Other important species from the American 
Museum are Amastra petricola and pusilla. The former, as far as I know, has not 
been collected since Newcomb, in 1850 or 1851, found his original lot, and as these 
specimens were received by the American Museum from Newcomb, they may be 
considered as paratypes. The Boston Society of Natural History gave to the 
Museum a small but very valuable series of Endodontidae, which contains a single 
specimen of Thaumatodon stellula from the Mayo collection. 

Collections were made by Marie C. Neal on Kauai, and on Hawaii, in Kohala 
district and near the Volcano House. The material from Kauai included a new 
genus of operculate land shells. Collecting expeditions were made by C. Montague 
Cooke, Jr.. to Kauai. Maui, and to the Waianae Mountains. Oahu. Mr. Cooke 
reports : 


Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

"A trip to the eastern end of the Waianae Mountains by Miss Xeal and myself, 
made possible by the kindness of Mr. and Mrs. Von Holt, yielded quite a large 
number of shells. We were fortunate in finding specimens of Leptachatina ompha- 
lodcs. Only four specimens of this species had even been taken, two of which are 
unfortunately lost, the remaining two coming to our Museum in the Ancey col- 
lection. About 60 specimens of this extremely interesting and rare species were 
collected, all of them dead ; but with the clue to their habitat living specimens may 
be expected to be found." 

On Kauai several new fossil beds were found, and probably one of the most 
important results of the trip was the rediscovery of Carelia cochlea. 

Mr. A. Gouveia has found on the island of Hawaii living examples of Amastra 
pagodula, a species which had formerly been known only as a fossil. 

Among the uncatalogued material in the Museum is' a very small but important 
collection from the Austral Islands, received through John F. G. Stokes of the 
Bayard Dominick Expedition. Among the specimens is what is probably a type 
species of the genus Microcystis. As a number of our Hawaiian Zonitidae were 
formerly placed in this genus and later separated by Skyes into the genus Philonesia, 
the relationship of our Hawaiian forms to the central Pacific genus can now be 
accurately determined. Interesting specimens of Tornatellinidae were also collected 
on Rapa. 

The most valuable uncatalogued acquisition is the Baldwin collection obtained 
by purchase. For a number of years Mr. D. D. Baldwin was an authority on Ha- 
waiian shells' and contributed a few . papers describing a number of species. His 
collection contains paratypes of nearly all his species and his identification of the 
species of other authors. 

Other uncatalogued material has been received from Miss A. M. Alexander 
(Maui), Stanley C. Ball and Charles H. Edmondson (Molokai, Fanning Islands). 
H. F. Bergman, and D. Larnach (Oahu), E. H. Bryan, Jr. (Oahu), C. M. Cooke. 
Jr. (Oahu, Molokai, Kauai), F. A. Danforth (Molokai), K. P. Emory (Lanai). 
D. W. Garber (Samoa), A. Gouveia (Hawaii), A. F. Judd (Oahu and Molokai), 
C. S. Judd (Oahu), W. H. Meinecke (Oahu and Hawaii), M. C. Neal (Oahu and 
Hawaii), Commander Picking (Wake Island), Otto Swezey (Kauai), D. Thaanum 
(Palmyra), J. C. Thompson (Guam), J. W. Thompson (Oahu), E. D. Baldwin 
(Oahu and Maui). 

The source and the amount of the cataloged material is as follows. 

W. D. Wilder Estate 

C. M.Cooke, Jr. 

(L. L. Cooke, L- Mac- 

farlane, R. Von Holt, 

M. Neal) 
M. C. Neal, 

K. Davis, B. Metzger, 

E. Day) 
O. Sorenson 
E. W. Thwing 
Museum of Compa- 

time Zoology 

I). Thaanum 


Oahu, Molokai, 
Lanai, Maui, 
Hawaii, Niihau 
Oahu, Maui 

Kauai, Hawaii 

Kauai, Oahu, 
Maui, Molokai 
Hawaii, Jamaica 
Oahu, Molokai 
Maui, Hawaii 


By purchase 48,291 1,792 

Collected 14.731 4^5 

Collected 2,139 89 

By gift 1,285 8 

By gift 294 11 

By exchange 287 135 

By gift for naming... 179 5o 

Report of the Director for 1922 


A. F. Judd 


K. P. Emory 


Academy of Natural 
Sciences of 

Kauai, Oahu, 
Molokai, Hawaii, 

Arthur Greenwell 


American Museum of 
Natural History 

Kauai, Oahu, Molokai 
Maui, Lanai 

Boston Society of 
Natural History 


H. E. Gregory 


C. S. Judd 


L. A. Thurston 


\V. II. Meinecke 


I,. A. Thurston or 
D. Thaanum 


By gift 


By exchange and 

By gift 

By exchange 

By gift 


By gift 

By gift for naming 

By gift 

By gift for naming. 





Charles H. Edmondson, Zoologist, reports that in connection with his work at 
Kahana Bay, Kawailoa and Waikiki, Oahu, he has collected 314 specimens of crus- 
taceans, 100 specimens of worms, 25 specimens of echinoderms and a number of 
coelenterates and fishes. 

Concerning material secured bj three expeditions he writ.- as follows: 

"In February Stanley C. Ball, and 1 made a short trip to Molokai, during which 

zoological material was collected on land and on the reef, including insects, lizard-. 

crustaceans, mollusks, and echinoderms. Among the 128 specimens of marine 

crustaceans are some very rare forms and some new records for this part of the 


"Zoological collections in the Museum have been considerably increased during 
the year as a result of an expedition to Palmyra Island by L> A. Thurston and 
D. Thaanum of Honolulu. Approximately 190 specimens of crustaceans, some of 
which are new species, about 100 specimens of echinoderms and 80 specimens of 
fishes besides some specimens of lizards, worms, corals, mollusks, insects and spiders 
are included in the material presented to the Museum. 

•• During July and August Stanley C. Ball and I made a general biological sur- 
vey of Fanning Island. A considerable amount of biological material, both plant- and 
animals, was collected on the land in the lagoon and on the outer reef. The animal 
forms taken included birds, lizards, myriapods, earthworms, crustaceans, molhi 
echinoderms, fishes, and a few other marine organisms. Approximately 800 5] 
mens of marine crustaceans, nearly 200 specimens of echinoderms and 1000 sped 
mens of shells of marine mollusks are included in the collections from Fanning 

Island. . . 

"The lagoon at Fanning Island was dredged for bottom deposits, the material 
of which has been submitted to Dr. J. A. Cushman for the determination of I 
minifera. ' Much tow material was taken from the surface waters of the lagoon. 
The microorganisms of this material have not yet been determined." 

Zoological specimens have been collected by members of the Museum stafl ■ 
follows: Edwin H. Bryan, Jr., shell of green turtle (Chelone mydas) ; C. Montague 
Cooke, Jr., 9 parasitic isopods (Cymothoa) from tongue of fish; C. 
Cooke, Jr., C. M. Cooke, III, and Henry W. Fowler, several fishes from 
Oahu: Hawaiian Electric Company, nudibranch mollusk (Doris); J F. Ming 
worth, skin of Rattus rattus; John F. G. Stokes, rat-, lizards, scorpions, and 
from Austral Islands; O. II Swezey, planarians from Moanalua Valley, Oahu; 

32 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

John W. Thompson, crabs and sponges from Honolulu harbor and Pearl Harbor; 
Gerrit P. Wilder, a crab (Charybdis erythrodactyla) and a small fish from shores 
of Oahu. 

John W. Thompson purchased in the Honolulu markets and presented to the 
Museum 17 Hawaiian fishes and 1 from Palmyra, 5 crustaceans, and 1 echinoderm. 
He has given also a piece of fossil coral and 2 mollusks from China. In behalf of 
the Museum he has purchased 9 fishes and has been instrumental in obtaining others. 

Donations' to the zoological collections have been made as follows : Captain 
V. A. Brisson, coral from Mangareva ; Mr. E. M. Ehrhorn, coconut crab (Birgus 
latro) from Palmyra: Kamehameha School students, 3 fishes; Mr. T. Kawaguchi, 
fish from Palmyra; Mr. Orlando Lyman, porcupine fish (Diodon histrix) ; Com- 
mander Picking, mollusk, corals, and hermit crabs from Wake Island ; Mr. H. L. 
Kelley, a frog-fish (Antennarius) ; Mr. Matsujiro Otani, a trigger fish from Pal- 
myra : Mr. J. P. Ponte, crab (Dromia rumphii) caught at Waianae, Oahu; Mr. 
C. A. Reeves, fish (Caranx kuhli) caught off Oahu; Mr. L. A. Thurston, crab 
(Ranina serrata) from Honolulu market; Mr. Manuel Vasconcellos, large eel skin 
from Palmyra; Mr. J. M. Westgate, an eel caught off Diamond Head, Oahu. 

Mr. Edmondson further reports that "As a result of the exchange policy there 
were added to the crustacean collection 104 specimens from the Australian Museum, 
and 123 specimens from the Zoological Survey of India. The Museum recipro- 
cated by presenting these institutions with collections of Hawaiian Crustacea from 
our exchange material." 

Other material received in exchange includes 50 lizards, collected by the Whit- 
ney South Seas Expedition, given by the American Museum of Natural History; 
several skins of birds' and small mammals, alcoholic specimens of amphibians and 
mollusks from Eastern North America, and a piece of mammoth skin from Rus- 
sia given by Mr. E. L. Mosely. 

From Mr. Matsujiro Otani the Museum purchased a fine specimen of the 
moon-fish (Lampris hina) caught off Waianae, Oahu. 


To the collections of miscellaneous material, gifts have been made by various 
persons as follows : 

Mr. R. W. Atkinson, rock fragments containing crystals of olivene ; Mr. Arthur 
Coyne, royal standard and house flag of the Hawaiian Monarchy; Mr. C. P. 
Iaukea, daguerreotype of Mr. Gorham D. Gilman, 1861 ; Dr. E. K. Johnstone, oil 
painting by Princess Kaiulani ; Mr. William Wagener, boulder containing prisms 
of basalt; Mr. William Weinrich, collection of fiber samples and products from 
many parts of the world; Mrs. Lilly West, wooden cane; Mr. H. M. Whitney, 
block and die for Hawaiian and United States 13-cent postage stamp, 1854. 

By exchange the Museum received from Mr. Spencer Bickerton a Copley 
medal given by the Royal Society of London to Rt. Hon. Sir J. Banks, and one 
given to Captain James Cook; from Mr. E. L. Moseley, rock specimens from Ohio 
and vicinity. 

Eight drawings and water color paintings done by J. Webber, artist of the 
last voyage of Captain James Cook (1776-80), were purchased in London. Each 
illustrates an event or subject witnessed in Hawaii by Webber. Some of them are 
reproduced in the atlas accompanying the account of Cook's voyages. Three of 

Report of the Director for 1922 33 

them are unfinished, the sketch lines indicating perhaps that the artist had in- 
tended fuller treatment. The titles of the pictures are as follows : 

Young woman of the Sandwich Islands (reproduced in atlas, Bishop Museum Library) 

Canoe of the Sandwich Islands, the rowers masked (reproduced in atlas) 

Sandwich islander — half of face tattooed (unpublished) 

Men of the Sandwich Islands dancing (one figure reproduced in atlas) 

Sailing canoe, Sandwich Islands (unpublished) 

Boxing match between Sandwich Islanders before Captain Cook (unpublished) 

Tereboo, King of Owyhee, bringing presents to Captain Cook; (reproduced in atlas) 

An offering before Captain Cook, in the Sandwich Islands; (reproduced in atlas). 


Attention may be drawn to the large and important collections resulting from 
the Bayard Dominick Expedition. In addition to the material recorded in the 
Report of the Curator of Collections for 1921, collections have been received during 
1922 from Robert T. Aitken, John F. G. Stokes, Forest B. H. Brown, Elizabeth 
Wuist Brown, and A. J. Eames — all members of the expedition. 

The material brought back by Robert T. Aitken from Tubuai includes a sec- 
tion of a house post carved with a striking design of circular and stellate figures, 
some remarkable wooden planks carved in bold herringbone pattern, five wooden 
bowls of characteristic oval form, baskets, hats, fans, canoe parts, fishhooks and 
sandals. An instructive feature is a series showing stages in the manufacture of 
sennit from coconut husk to finished product. Among the numerous stone imple- 
ments are adz heads, chisels, polishing stones and food pounders. The tapa in- 
dustry is illustrated by a series of tapa beaters of casuarina wood and partly pre- 
pared bark of the paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyri f era). At Raivavae Mr. 
Aitken obtained several adzes, tapa beaters, and 13 food pounders showing as many 
different shapes of handles. In addition to ethnological material, dried specimens 
of native flora including a series of wood samples were collected. 

The large ethnological collections brought by John F. G. Stokes from Rurutu, 
Raivavae, and Rapa must await special record in the Annual Report for 1923, but 
mention may be made of approximately 1600 plant specimens and wood samples and 
Other natural history specimens. 

The Museum has received a collection of 1000 plants obtained by A. J. Eames 
in Samoa in 1920. 

The largest addition to the botanical collections made by the Bayard Dominick 
Expedition naturally was contributed by Forest B. H. and Elizabeth Wuist Brown, 
who had devoted two years almost entirely to a study of tin- endemic and intro- 
duced plants of the Marquesas. While en route Mr. and Mrs. Brown made col- 
lections at the Tuamotus, Tahiti, Rarotonga, and New Zealand. The entire col- 
lection ambraces about 9000 specimens'. 

The Museum has been fortunate in the interest displayed in its activities by 
men in other occupations. Commander J. C. Thompson, stationed at the I". S. 
Naval Hospital in Guam, lias been untiring in his efforts to obtain specimens -1 
the native culture of the Marianas Islands. Through his influence the interest and 
energy of Mr. and Mrs. H. G. Hornbostal have been enlisted. Mr. Hornbostel 
became a member of the Museum staff and with the aid of Dr. Thompson and 
many friends has collected an enormous amounl of anthropological material from 
Guam. This includes over a hundred more or less complete skeletons of a people 
whose large stature is striking. Several instances of patholo.uie effects are evident 
Among the artifacts mention may be made of 3 large hemispherical stone capitals 

^ 4 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

which once crowned the tops of pillars in the native burial grounds. Excavations 
at their feet uncovered quantities of stone and shell adzes, chisels, sling stones and 
other implements. Several stone dishes are noteworthy, while many objects of more 
recent origin serve to illustrate methods of by-gone times. Further contributions 
from this field are anticipated with interest. 

The botanical collections in the Museum have been enriched from several 
sources. Mr. D. Wesley Garber, in carrying out his generous offer to procure for 
the Museum such specimens' and data as his duties at the Naval Hospital in Apia 
will allow, has already sent in about 300 preserved plants from Samoa. From still 
farther westward have come two collections that should prove valuable in tracing 
the origin of the Polynesian flora. Of these, one, consisting of nearly 400 Philippine 
plants, is a gift from Mr. E. D. Merrill, Director of the Bureau of Science in 
Manila. The other, purchased from Mr. A. E. D. Elmer, gives our herbarium 274 
representative plants from Borneo. 

Supplementing the botanical collection made by members of the Bayard Domi- 
nick Expedition are several large lots of specimens collected in southern Poly- 
nesia by the Whitney South Seas Expedition and forwarded to the Bishop Museum 
by the American Museum of Natural History in New York. After determination by 
Forest B. H. Brown the names will be sent to the American Museum, which has 
retained a duplicate set of the plants. 

In the transfer of the J. F. Rock collection from the University of Hawaii, 
the Museum became the custodian of approximately 2800 well labeled native plants. 
The importance of this herbarium cannot be too strongly emphasized. 

The purchase of the Victoria Buffandeau collection of ethnological material 
added many old Hawaiian specimens, which are valued both for their quality and 
for their association with the Kamehameha and Sumner families'. Included with 
these are several objects that once belonged to the royal Pomare line of Tahiti. 
Attention may be called to the considerable number of zoological specimens 
collected and presented by Mr. L. A. Thurston and Mr. David Thaanum. A large 
proportion of these came from the little-studied island of Palmyra and its sur- 
rounding waters. C. Montague Cooke, Jr. has dwelt upon the importance of the 
D. D. and E. D. Baldwin collection of Hawaiian land and marine shells' which was 
purchased for the Museum. (See p. 30.) 


While progress in the exhibition halls has not during the year reached the 
stage anticipated, some encouragement has been derived from the continued op- 
portunities for studying the impressions made upon visitors' by the exhibits as they 
are. Many have been glad on request to express their estimates of the halls as a 
whole and to point out in particular those features which met their approval. A 
few have been willing to explain wherein they have felt that from their stand- 
point modifications would bring added comfort and ease of comprehension. 

In a number of instances the experience of members of the Museum staff, 
corroborated by teachers who have brought classes of students, has made evident 
the desirability of changing the location of specimens so as to bring them into 
closer relation to others with which they might well be associated. In this way 
certain topics could be more clearly presented, not only to school classes but to 
the general visitor as well. Something toward this end has' already been done. 

Report of the Director for 1922 35 

In order to test its fitness as a background for ethnological specimens the 
interior of one exhibition case in Hawaiian vestibule was painted cream buff. Be- 
sides lending a warmer atmosphere to the environment this treatment promises to 
provide a fortunate setting for the majority of specimens and to render less 
troublesome the shadows at the tops and ends of the cases. 

Among the fish models' added during the year to the large series on display 
may be mentioned that of the brilliant moonfish, Lampris lumi. The original was 
caught in local waters in February. After being on exhibition at Aala Market for 
several days it was brought to the Museum. Mr. Thompson's reproduction shows 
the vivid crimson of the fins and the characteristic mottling of silver. As far as 
can be learned, this specimen is the second caught in Hawaii, its predecessor having 
been captured about twenty-five years ago. Another notable model is that of a true 
swordfish, Xiphias gladius, cast from a small specimen taken by local fishermen in 

The Victoria Buffandeau collection of Hawaiian and Tahitian ethnological 
material described on page 27 was placed on exhibition. A representative group 
of implements, weapons, vessels and other artifacts received from Guam was in- 
stalled temporarily in Hawaiian Vestibule. In a nearby case the eight original 
drawings of Hawaiian subjects made by J. Webber, artist on Captain Cook's third 
voyage (1776-80) have been on view. Two of the royal kahilis given by the Liliuo- 
kalani Estate made an appropriate addition to the throne exhibit in the upper 
gallery of Hawaiian Hall. 

A special effort to entertain the members of the Pan-Pacific Commercial Con- 
ference was made on the occasion of their visit in November. During the year a 
number of distinguished visitors have been conducted through the Exhibition 
Halls. The use of a book in which the names of visitors were recorded was dis- 
continued at the beginning of the year. 


Lahilahi Webb, Guide to Exhibits, reports the attendance of 33,303 visitors to 
the exhibition halls during 1922 — an increase of 2,061 over 1921 and the largest in 
the history of the Museum. Among the visitors were 5,156 school children, a vers 
satisfactory record compared with the figures for 1921 (1.625) — a result which ap- 
pears to be due to the effort of the Museum and of the school authorities to make 
the exhibits of greater usefulness in education. 

Distributed among the races the figures for attendance are as follows: Whites 
1 including Portuguese) 17,899 (53.7 percent); Japanese, 6,445 (19.3 percent); 
Hawaiians, 5,567 (16.7 percent); Chinese, 2,644 (7.9 percent); others 748 (3.2 
percent), showing for each race an increase over the corresponding figures for 
1921 which were respectively: 16.993; 5,696; 4,847; 2,148; and 629. 

For the first time an attempt has been made to distinguish the tourist from 
the local attendance, excluding school pupils. The numbers recorded, 6,365 and 
21,782, are doubtless fairly approximate. 

^6 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 


From the report of the Librarian, Miss Elizabeth B. Higgins, the 
following records have been taken: 



Special mention should be made of a few of the gifts. Among the manu- 
scripts were the Lawson, MS, relating to the Marquesas, and the Andrews' Compara- 
tive Vocabulary of Hawaiian Words, both the gift of Mr. Arthur Alexander. A 
collection of Hawaiian proverbs, compiled by Dr. Nathaniel Emerson and given by 
Mrs. Emerson and her son, is an especially valuable acquisition. Through the 
courtesy of Mr. R. B. Doom of Tahiti, the Museum was' granted the privilege of 
making a copy of the manuscript "History of the Island of Borabora" by Tati 
Salmon. Among the maps were 13 advance sheets of surveys of the Hawaiian 
islands, showing the position of artifacts on Hawaii, Maui, and Molokai. The gifts 
of photographs include 25 views of New Zealand scenery and natives-the gift of 
Dr. W. T. Brigham; 59 portraits of Honolulu residents (taken about 1870)— the 
gift of Mrs. Walter Giffard; 59 portraits of about the same date— the gift of Mr. 
\lbert F. Judd; 14 Hawaiian photographs of ethnological interest— the gift of 
Mr Theodore Kelsey ; 12 views of Wake Island— the gift of Commander Picking 
of the U. S. subtender "Beaver" ; 14 portraits of early residents of Hawaii— the gift 
of Col. C. P. Iaukea ; 48 portraits and views in an album— the gift of Mrs. L. Webb. 

The gifts of pamphlets included 128 separates and papers on subjects within 
the Museum field— the gift of the Director; 103 papers on entomology— the gift of 
J. F. Illingworth; 8 entomological papers (author's separates)— the gift of Mr. 
Gerald Hill; 12 papers on marine zoology— the gift of Mr. James Hornell ; and 
22 author's separates, papers on insects of Australia— the gift of Mr. Eustace W. 


The gifts of books included a complete set of the Proceedings of the Wash- 
ington Academy of Sciences— the gift of the Smithsonian Institution and a glos- 
sary of the Rarotongan language— gift of the Carnegie Institution. 

For valuable gifts of books, pamphlets, photographs and manuscripts' the 
Museum is indebted to the following: 

Mr. A. C. Alexander, 2 manuscripts; Argentine Republic Government, 1 
pamphlet; Australian Government, 5 volumes; Australian Museum. 6 volumes, 5 
pamphlets, and 1 manuscript; Mr. Frank C. Baker. 8 separates; Mr. Elsdon Best, 4 
separates; Bishop Estate office, 1 manuscript; Dr. W. T. Brigham, 3 pamphlets 
and 25 photographs; Mr. Edwin H. Bryan, Jr., 19 pamphlets; California State 
Library, 4 pamphlets; Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1 volume; Carnegie 
Institution of Washington— Geophysical Laboratory, 8 pamphlets; Mr. Frederick 
Chapman, 5 separates; Dr. Charles Chilton, 1 volume; Chosen Government, 1 vol- 
ume; Cincinnati Museum, 1 pamphlet; Colombo Museum, 1 volume; Dr. C. 
Montague Cooke, Jr., 1 separate; Czechoslovak Republic, 6 volumes and 7 pamphlets: 
Mr. Hans Damm, 1 separate; Detroit Institute of Arts, 5 pamphlets; Mr. R. B. 
Doom, 1 manuscript; Dr. Charles H. Edmondson, 1 separate; Mrs. Sarah E. and 
Mr. Arthur W. Emerson, 1 manuscript; Mr. Carl Elschner, 1 pamphlet; Mr. Ken- 
neth P. Emory, 3 pamphlets; Mr. Johannes Felix, 2 separates; Mr. Eustace W. 

Report of the Director for 1922 37 

Ferguson, 22 separates; Mr. Frederic W. Goding, 3 pamphlets; Mrs". Walter M. 
Giffard, 60 photographs; Mr. George K. Greene, 3 pamphlets and 1 volume; Dr. 
H. E. Gregory, 128 pamphlets and 1 map; Miss Ruth Greiner, 7 maps; Hawaiian 
Government, 1 pamphlet; Mr. Gerald F. Hill, 8 separates; Mr. James Hornell, 2 
volumes and 12 pamphlets; Colonel C. P. laukea, 1 pamphlet, 4 manuscripts, and 
14 photographs; Dr. J. F. lllingworth, 103 pamphlets, 1 hook, and 1 manuscript; 
Commodore A. C. James, 1 volume; Japan Imperial Earthquake Investigation 
Committee, 3 pamphlets; Japan National Research Council, 6 pamphlets; Mr. 
V V . Judd, 59 photographs; .Mr. C. S. Judd, 2 photographs'; Mr. Theodore Kel- 
sey, 14 photographs; Library of Hawaii, 1 volume; Louisiana Museum, 1 pam- 
phlet; Dr. H. L. Lyon, 15 pamphlets; Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station, 
3 pamphlets; Mr. M. D. Monsarrat, 2 manuscripts and 1 pamphlet; National Re- 
search Council, 2 pamphlets; New Bedford Library, 1 pamphlet; New York Zoo- 
logical Society, 11 pamphlets; New Zealand Government Statistician, 4 volumes; 
Norwich Castle Museum, 1 pamphlet ; Messrs. M. and H. H. Peach, 1 pamphlet ; 
Dr. R. C. L. Perkins, 2 separates; Commander Picking, 12 photographs; Portland 
Society of Natural History, i pamphlet; Rochdale Literary Society, 1 volume; 
Royal Ontario Museum, 1 pamphlet; .Mr. Otto Schlagenhaufen, 1 pamphlet; Dr. 
Carl Skottsberg, 7 pamphlets; Mr. \Y. J. Smithies, 1 photograph; Smithsonian 
Institution, 11 volumes and 4 pamphlets; Mr. Thomas Thomsen, 2 pamphlets; 
Mr. Stephen Tabcr, 1 separate; Mr. Thomas G. Thrum, 2 volumes and 1 separate; 
.Mr. Alfredo J. Torcelli, 1 volume; United States Geological Survey, 6 pamphlets 
and 13 maps; Mr. Henry Lorenz Viereck, 1 volume; Mr. Max Weber and Dr. L. F. 
deBeaufort, 1 volume ; Yale University, 4 pamphlets. 


In addition to the current volumes regularly received from institutions on an 
exchange basis, a number of sets, more or less complete, have been received from 
the institutions added to the Museum exchange list during the year and during 
1921. Among these sets were 2"/ volumes of the Biological Bulletin of the Marine 
Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole ; 8 volumes of Hayata's Icones plantarum 
Formosanarum from the Formosan Government; 19 volumes of the University 
Studies of the University of Nebraska ; 25 volumes of the Bulletin of the Paris 
Museum of Natural History — a complete set to date; 10 volumes each of the two 
series of the Review of Applied Entomology — complete set ; 12 early volumes from 
the Vienna Natural History Museum to complete the set of Annalen ; 8 volumes of 
.Memoires of the Brussels Royal Museum of Natural History — a complete set; 27 
volumes from The Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali de Milan; and 10 volumes 
of the Journal of Zoology from Pomona College, California. 

The number of serial publications to be currently received has been increased 
by 23 by reason of the new exchanges. Classified by subjects the new serials are: 
geography and history 5; natural history, 7; botany, 3; zoology. 7; folk-lore, 1. 
The list of new exchanges may be found on page 15 

Besides the volumes and parts received as regular exchanges from societies 
and institutions, a considerable number of accessions have come in by special ex- 
change — that is to say, by special arrangement for special items. For example 
the Editor of Stewart's Handbook of the Pacific Islands has sent a number of the 
handbooks in return for Museum publications that In- desired. Special exchanges 

Parts and 

















^8 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

of this sort have also been made with Mr. Spencer Bickerton for photographs and 
books relating to the Pacific, with Prof. C. A. Kofoid for zoological books, and 
with Mr. Cyril Smith for a set of Wilkes' Exploring Expedition. Other similar 
exchanges have been made. 


The books acquired by purchase in 1922 have been chiefly of general reference, 
maps, atlases, a gazetteer, and zoological books and pamphlets. The atlases have 
been much needed. The scientific journals currently received by subscription are 
22, including 13 American and 9 foreign periodicals. The subjects represented are 
general science 3, anthropology and archaeology 3, botany 7, geography 2, library 
science I, zoology 6. 

A summary of accessions in 1922 is shown in the following table : 


Exchange 35 1 

Purchase 65 

Gift 33 



In 1921 Mr. A. F. Judd placed on deposit at the Museum his collection 
of Hawaiiana. A card index has been made of 280 of the books. These are now 
available for use. Mrs. Victoria Buffandeau has placed on deposit a number of 
manuscripts relating to the history of the Sumner family. 

A valuable loan was received from the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 
manuscripts, papers', maps, literary notes and other materials including 38 items 
bequeathed to the Carnegie Institution by Mr. William Churchill. One item of this 
loan is 30 boxes of cards representing the progress Mr. Churchill had made toward 
the preparation of a Samoan-English Dictionary. The manuscript dictionary is 
considered by the Carnegie Institution the most valuable portion of the bequest. 


The number of books taken out of the library for use by the members of the 
staff and others has largely increased in the past two years. Several Museum 
associates living on the mainland and elsewhere have had the use of books for long 
periods and books have been borrowed by Honolulu libraries. In 1922 the zoo- 
logical books and the accounts of voyages were most in use. 

The publications of 


include : 

MEMOIRS, Volumes I- VIII. 

A descriptive list of publications with prices will be mailed on 
application to the Librarian. 

no. k 

Bernice Pauahi Bishop 
Museum, Honolulu