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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

BULLETIN 101 



WAR CEREMONY AND PEACE 

CEREMONY OF THE 

OSAGE INDIANS 



BY 



FRANCIS LA FLESCHE 



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-^ ' SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
BULLETIN 101 



WAR CEREMONY AND PEACE 

CEREMONY OF THE 

OSAGE INDIANS 



BY 
FRANCIS LA FLESCHE 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1939 



For Bale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. Price 35 cents 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Smithsonian Institution, 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 

Washington, D. C, July 15, 1938. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit the accompanying manuscript, 
entitled "War Ceremony and Peace Ceremony of the Osage Indians", 
by Francis La Flesche, and to recommend its pubHcation, subject to 
your approval, as a bulletin of this bureau. 
Respectfully, 

M. W, Stirling, Chief. 
Dr. C. G. Abbot, 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Ill 



CONTENTS 



Wa-8Ha'-be A-thi", or War Ceremony 

Pago 

Description of Wa-sha'-be A-thi" Wa-tsi 3 

Crawfish (Mo-^-shko") Ritual 6 

Water (Ni) Ritual 12 

Call to the People 17 

Songs of the Riders 20 

Four songs of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge (Leaders) 23 

Three songs of the Do-do^'-ho^-ga (Commanders) 26 

Songs of the Elder Kettle Carriers 30 

Ceremony of 0-tho'''-da Wa-tsi (Dance in the Center) 33 

Crying and Broken Songs (Night) 37 

Broken Songs (Day) 41 

CaU of the Criers 44 

Ceremony of Ni Da-ka-dse E-dsi-gthe (Heating the Water) 44 

Placing of the Kettle Ritual 45 

Placing of Food in the Kettle to Cook Ritual 45 

Contribution to the Fire (Pe-dse U-k'i) Wi'-gi-e 48 

Crier's Notice 51 

Fight for the Symbolic Charcoal Wi'-gi-e 55 

Song of Rushing for the Charcoal (No°-xthe I-ki"-dse Wa-tho") 68 

Dance with Loom Poles Song 61 

Pipe and Tobacco Ritual, Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no" gens 62 

Ho"'-ga Seven Fireplaces Ritual 64 

Processional Songs of No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga 68 

Ceremony of Wa-no^'-ge A-ba-gu 69 

Mythical Elk Ritual (Ho'-e-ga Wi'-gi-e) 72 

Winning (U-thu-hi-the) Ritual 72 

Weapon (Wa-pa-hi) Ritual 73 

Point of Attack Ritual 75 

Song of Sympathy and Encouragement 77 

Songs of Victory ( Wa-tse Wa-tho°) 80 

Second Victory Song 81 

Songs of Entering the House 82 

Songs of Delight 84 

Mourning Rite, from Wa-sha'-be A-thi° 86 

Origin and description 87 

Paraphrase of the Ritual 89 

Oflfering to the Fire Ritual 94 

Fire Ritual 98 

Painting (Ki'-no") Ritual 102 

The Wi'-gi-e To°-ga, Great Ritual 104 

Ceremonial songs 117 

Songs of Marching Around the Village 121 

Pointing out the Attack Ritual 126 

Initiator's (Xo'-ka) Song 128 

V 



VI CONTENTS 

Page 

Ceremony of Feasting Together (A-^i-wa-no°-bthe) 129 

Pipe (Ni-ni-ba) Ritual 130 

Song of the Killing 132 

Great Song of Victory (Wa-tse Wa-tho" To°-ga) 134 

Victory Song 135 

Song of Entering the Village 136 

Mourning for the Slain Enemy 138 

Sending Away the Spirit (Wa-no"-xe The Ga-xe) 139 

Osage version of songs and rituals 145 

Wa'-wa-tho", or Peace Ceremony 

Introduction 201 

Part I 

Opening ceremony 215 

Ceremonial Approach to the House Songs 218 

Great Gray Owl Ritual and Songs 219 

Water Song 22 1 

Success Ceremony 222 

Elk Songs 224 

Guarding the Ho^'-ga 224 

Sky Ritual 225 

Weeping Songs 232 

Name taking 234 

Part II 

Charcoal Fight 235 

Charcoal Ritual 236 

Going to the attack 239 

Victory Song 241 

Delivery of gifts 242 

Erecting the Rack Ceremony 242 

Painting Ceremony 243 

Friendship Ceremony 245 

Dance Ceremony 246 

Deer Songs 247 

The Osage form contrasted with that of other tribes 251 

Description of pipes 253 

Osage version 257 

Index 275 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Plate B 

Page 

1. Wa-xthi'-zhi 3 

2. a, Great horned owl. h, Pileated woodpecker, c, Imperial eagle 210 

3. Ceremonial pipe of the Omaha, Ponca, Otoe, and Pawnee 210 

4. a. Rattle belonging to the golden eagle, h, Rattle belonging to the 

imperial eagle 210 

5. a. The Do-do°'-hon-ga. 6, The Xo'-ka 210 

6. o, Cardinal, h, Bluejay 230 

7. Te-o'-]j;o°-ha (front and side views) 230 

8. o, White swan, h, Long-billed curlew 230 

9. a, Mallard duck, h, Scarlet tanager 230 

10. Ho°'-ga face painting 254 

11. T8e-zhi°'-ga-wa-da-i°-ga (Saucy Calf) 254 

12. Osage ceremonial pipes 254 

13. Position when holding pipe and rattle 254 

Text Figure 

1. Order of position of gentes 203 

vn 



WA-SHA'-BE A-THF, OR WAR CEREMONY 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 101 PLATE 1 




AVa-xthi'-zhi. 



WA-SHA'-BE A-THF, OR WAR CEREMONY 



By Francis La Flesche 



Description of Wa-sha'-be A-thi" Wa-tsi 

The words that compose the title of this ritual mean: Wa-sha'-be, 
a dark object; A-thi°, to possess (as here used also implies to carry the 
article possessed as a thing of value); wa-tsi, to dance. The word 
Wa-sha'-be is used in the title as a trope for no°-xthe, the powdered 
charcoal carried in a small pouch by each warrior belonging to a 
ceremonially organized war party. This charcoal is a symbol of the 
relentlessness of fire in its attack of destruction. The warrior blackens 
his face with powdered charcoal when he is about to take part in 
an attack upon the enemy. This symbolic charcoal has been made 
from the charred part of a burning brand the warrior has snatched 
from a fire ceremonially kindled. The fuel used for this sacred fire 
is of redbud wood, called Zho° Sha-be-the-liiu, dark wood. To the 
title of this ritual, Wa-sha'-be A-thi°, is added the word wa-tsi, to 
dance, because dances are given in certain parts of the ceremonies 
for the purpose of exciting the warlike emotions of the younger men 
of the tribe. These dances are regarded as of far less importance than 
the other ceremonies that exemplify the symbols employed throughout 
this ritual. 

The information here given concerning the Wa-sha'-be A-thi" 
ritual and its ceremonies is by Wa-xthi'-zhi (pi. 1) of the Puma gens. 
This gens is closely related to the Black Bear gens, and the two gentes 
have in common their version of the tribal rites. In the performance 
of the ceremonies pertaining to these rites the duties of the Sho'-ka 
or official messenger are, as between the two gentes, reciprocal. The 
description of the ceremonies of the Wa-sha'-be A-thi° given by 
Wa-xthi'-zhi may therefore be regarded as covering those of the 
Puma and the Black Bear gentes, and, in a general way, those of the 
other gentes that with them make up the Ho'^'-ga division. 

From the earliest times there was among the Osage a "house" or 
place of gathering called No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga Wa-thi° Tsi, House of the 
No^'-ho'^-zhi'^-ga. At this house the No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga met almost 
every morning, sometimes officially but more often in an informal 
way. At the informal gatherings the conversation frequently turned 
to matters of importance to the tribe, such as any practices among the 

3 



4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

people that seemed to be injurious in their effects or liable to become a 
menace to the internal peace of the tribe. Some means would then be 
sought by which to overcome these evils. On the other hand, any 
acts that tended to promote a feeling of friendliness or kindliness 
among the people found hearty expressions of approval in the sacred 
"house." 

No "house" was purposely established and maintained by the 
No'''-ho°-zhi°-ga for their gatherings. They selected for their home 
the house of a man (who might belong to any other of the various 
gentes of the tribe), but he was always one who, by his valor, gener- 
osity, and hospitality, had won the esteem and affection of all the 
people. The title given the man at whose house the No'''-ho°-zhi"-ga 
made their home was No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga Wa-thi°, Keeper of the No°'- 
ho°-zhi°-ga. The selection of a man's house for the home of the No°'- 
ho'^-zhi^-ga was regarded as conferring an honor of the highest char- 
acter upon the owner. 

It sometimes happened, in the life of the Osage people, that the 
aggressions of their enemies became intolerable, and at the same time 
there was a feeling of indifference among the warriors toward the tak- 
ing of retaliatory measures. As, for instance, women would be slain 
while planting the corn, cultivating the growing stalks, or when 
gathering the edible roots that form a part of the food supply; hunters 
would be slain or the men herding their horses would be killed and their 
animals driven away. At such times the No'^'-ho°-zhi°-ga Wa-thi° 
would suddenly call, through his Sho'-ka, the No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga to 
assemble for council. The Keeper of the No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga would take 
his place, as presiding officer, at the eastern end of the lodge. Wlien 
all had assembled and taken their places according to gentes, those of 
the Tsi'-zhu division on the north and those of the Ho^'-ga on the 
south side of the lodge, the Keeper would speak to them, saying: "O, 
Tsi'-zhu, Wa-zha'-zhe and Ho°'-ga, I have taken it upon myself to call 
you together that I may bring to your attention the conditions which 
necessitate our taking some definite action toward the prevention of 
the attacks made upon us by our enemies. There is no safety for us 
except by a common defense and retaliation against our enemies. 
The boldness and the frequency of their attacks upon those who 
attend the fields and those who hunt for game have brought about a 
state of confusion and unhappiness among the people. The time has 
come for us to look to our safety and comfort. I also take it upon 
myself to ask the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no'' (gens) to place before us the 
sacred pipe which is in his keeping." 

The Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no° gens is the keeper of the pipe used cere- 
monially at the initiation of a war movement. Upon hearing the 
request of the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga Wa-thi°, the leader of the Wa-zha'-zhe 
Wa-no° gens of the Wa-zha'-zhe part of the Ho°'-ga division, who had 
come to the gathering prepared for this request, takes out from its 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY O 

wrappings the ceremonial pipe, and also tobacco cut for smoking. 
The leader of the Ta' I-ni-ka-shi-ga (Deer People) gens of the same 
division, who had also come prepared, placed, without bidding, a 
deersldn tobacco pouch before the keeper of the pipe. The Ta' 
I-ni-ka-shi-ga gens are the keepers of the ceremony relating to the 
maldng of the sacred tobacco pouches. The keeper of the pipe then 
puts some tobacco, together with the pipe, in the deerskin pouch and 
places it near the fireplace in front of the presiding ofRcer. 

When this ceremonial act had been performed the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga 
Wa-tlii° again addresses the gathering, saying: "O, Tsi'-zhu, Wa- 
zha'-zhe, and Ho"'-ga, you will now proceed to select from among 
your members one who mil act as Do-do°'-ho°-ga (Leader) of the 
warriors to go against our enemies." 

When the No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga addressed had, after some deliberation, 
united upon a man, the Sho'-ka conducts the man chosen to the place 
where lay the tobacco pouch and pipe. The Keeper of the No°'- 
ho^-zhi'^-ga then says to the man: "My son, the Tsi'-zhu, Wa-zha'-zhe, 
and Ho'^'-ga, being determined that their warriors shall move against 
the enemies of the people, in retaliation for their persistent attacks, 
have chosen you to act as their leader. The taking up the pipe that 
lies before you is an act of the gravest responsibility, and he who thus 
accepts the office of leader should do so with a full Imowledge of all 
that it signifies. You will bear this in mind as I ask you: 'Do you 
accept this responsibility?' " The man simply answers ''Ho-we," yes; 
and the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga respond as with one voice, "How, it is well." 

Having accepted the office of leader, the man takes up the tobacco 
pouch \vith the sacred pipe, rises, addresses the No°'-ho°-zlii°-ga of 
his own gens, a man whom he knows to be familiar with the details 
of the war ceremonies, and says, "Father, I rise to ask you to act as 
Xo'-ka (Initiator) for me." Then he resumes his seat, while the 
No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga selected rises and takes his place beside the chosen 
leader, as a sign of his consent to act as Xo'-ka. 

When the Xo'-ka had taken his seat he addressed all the No'^'-ho"- 
zhi°-ga, saying: "O, Tsi'-zhu, Wa-zha'-zhe, and Ho°'-ga, this man has 
accepted the part you have assigned to him in this important move- 
ment, and I wish to say a word on his behalf, particularly to those of 
you who will have a part to perform in the ceremonies to foUow. It is 
due to him that none of the words uttered by the ancient No'''-ho°- 
zhi°-ga and transmitted to us which belong to the ceremonies be left 
unsaid and that none of the ceremonial forms be omitted. I ask for 
him all fairness, and if there be any personal prejudices against him 
that they be set aside, and that the ceremonies handed down to us be 
performed as they were transmitted. Let it not be said, should any 
mishap befall him, that we sKghted the ceremonies because of some 
personal dislike." 



6 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

Having made this plea on behalf of the candidate, the Xo'-]ka pro- 
ceeds to recite the following wi'-gi-e that tells of the finding and the 
consecrating of the four kinds of clay to be used as symbols in the war 
rites. 

CRAWFISH RITUAL 
(Osage version, p. 147) 

1. VerUy at that time and place, they said, 

2. There were a group of people known as the Ho^'-ga Possessing 

Seven Fireplaces. 

3. From among these people there arose one, 

4. Mo''-i'''-ka-zhi°-ga (Little Earth) by name. 

5. Verily, at that time, they said, it has been said in this house, 

6. He stood before the people, with fingers divided into two parts, 

as though his hands were cloven. 

7. Within his cloven hands he held a particle of the dark soil of the 

earth, they said, 

8. Which he offered to the people, 

9. Even as it was, 

10. For use as a sign, and as an expression of their desires; 

11. By the use of this sign, my younger brothers, he said to them, we 

shall with ease secure the fulfillment of our desires. 

12. The people of the Wa-zha'-zhe division, 

13. And those of the Tsi'-zhu division, 

14. Shall put this sign upon their faces, they said; 

15. Then, even before they come to the walls of their houses, as they 

go forth to offer their supplications, 

16. Their prayers shall be granted, my younger brothers. 

17. Let this sign be accepted, yet, 

18. When the people put it upon their faces, 

19. They shall not close their eyes in sleep, my younger brothers. 

20. If they close their eyes in sleep while yet the sign is upon their 

faces, 

21. The duration of their lives shall be shortened, my younger 

brothers, they said to one another. 

22. Verily, at that time and place, 

23. Mo''-i'''-^a-zhi°-ga brought forth the blue clay, 

24. And stood offering it to the people, they said, 

25. Whereupon they said to one another, O, younger brothers, 

26. Let this be accepted as a sign of our supplications. 

27. When the people use this in their supplications, 

28. As they go forth against their enemies toward the setting of the 

sun, 

29. Their prayers shall be readily granted, my younger brothers, 

30. When the people use this in their supplications. 

31. Then, even before they pass the walls of their houses as they go 

forth to offer their supplications, they said, 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 7 

32. Their prayers shall be granted, my younger brothers, they said to 

one another. 

33. Verily, at that time and place, 

34. Mo°-i'"-ka-zhi''-ga brought forth the red clay, 

35. And stood offering to the people, they said, 

36. Let this, also, they said, 

37. Be accepted for use in our supplications, my younger brothers, 

they said to one another. 

38. Let the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe division, 

39. Also those of the Tsi'-zhu division, 

40. Use this in their supplications, my younger brothers, they said 

to one another. 
4L When they use this in their supplications, 

42. Then, even before they pass the walls of their houses, as they go 

forth to offer their supplications, 

43. Their prayers shall be granted, my younger brothers, they said 

to one another. 

44. Let this sign be accepted, yet, 

45. When they put this sign upon their faces, 

46. Let them not shed tears, my younger brothers, 

47. Verily, at that time and place, they said, 

48. Mo°-i°'-ka-zhi°-ga brought forth the yellow clay, 

49. And stood offering it to the people, 

50. Saying, as he did so: "This also 
5L Shall be used by the people, 

52. By the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe division, 

53. And those of the Tsi'-zhu division, 

54. Their prayers shall be granted, my younger brothers, 

55. When they bring home a captive, 

56. They shall put it (the yellow clay) upon his face as a sign, my 

younger brothers.^ 

1 The wi'-gi-e here used is a paraphrase of the mythical story of the man with the cloven hands, given in 
the Ni'-ki-e wi'-gi-e (see lines 525-536, p. 172, Thirty-sixth Ann. Kept. Bur. Amer. Ethn.). which also tells 
of the Genesis of the Hon'-ga people. When the 0'-po° (Great Elk) had driven away the waters and made 
the earth to be habitable, the Ho^'-ga people began to explore the land. They sent forth a "younger brother" 
who returned to his "elder brother" with the report that he had come upon a man who stood with uplifted 
hands, hands that were cloven. The "elder brother," who was already imbued with warlike instincts, 
promptly declared to his "younger brother" that this man must die, no matter whose son he might be. 
The people approached the man with the cloven hands, and as they came near, he said to them: "I also 
am a Hon'-ga. My name is Mo^-in'-kazhii-ga (Little Earth), I have that for you which shall be a comfort 
to you for all time." While yet the people were listening the man offered them a particle of the dark soil 
of the earth. This they were to put upon their faces at the beginning of the day, when they go forth to 
offer their supplications. Upon it they shall shed their tears of desire, then will their prayers be granted, 
even before they reach the walls of their houses as they go forth. But he warned the people against sleep- 
ing while this sign was upon their faces, for should they yield to sleep while the sign was upon their faces 
their lives would be shortened. In like manner the man presented to them the blue clay. Then he de- 
scended into the depths of the earth and brought forth the red clay. This he also offered to the people, 
and as he gave this clay, he forbade them to shed tears when they put it upon their faces. He again de- 
scended into the earth and brought forth the yellow clay which was to be the insignia of the captive they 
brought home from their expeditions. It is explained that the "man with the cloven hands" was Mo^-shko" 
the Crawfish. 



8 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 

When the Xo'-ka has finished the recital of the wi'-gi-e the man 
chosen as leader strips liimself of his shirt, leggings, and moccasins, 
takes the tobacco pouch with the pipe in it, and puts the carrying 
strap attached to it around his neck so that the pouch hangs on his 
back between the shoulders. He places his blanket upon his arm and 
leaves the lodge. From the time of his leaving the lodge, wherein the 
No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga were sitting, he refrains from thinking of his home, 
of his personal comforts or discomforts, and aims to fix his mind 
solely upon Wa-ko'^'-da, the unseen Power, worshipped by the Osage. 
He goes forth into seclusion to seek supernatural aid for the great 
undertaldng and to secure a sign of approval from Wa-ko'^'-da. 
When he has passed beyond the frequented places of the people he 
bends over the earth, takes from it a bit of the dark soil, as a token 
of his faith that the great Wa-ko°'-da makes his abode in the earth as 
well as in the sky. Having put tliis sign upon his forehead he takes 
the pipe from its pouch, fills it with tobacco, and resumes his solitary 
wandering, always holding, as he walks, the stem of the pipe pointed 
upward as an offering to the Wa-ko^'-da of the above. He wails as 
he wanders from place to place, striving in this way to excite the pity 
of Wa-ko'^'-da so as to receive aid from him. 

The man wanders farther and farther away from his home, from his 
family, and from his companions, all of whom he has dismissed from 
his mind, so that, undisturbed, he may approach Wa-ko°'-da who 
controls all things. The sun sinks below the horizon, leaving him in 
the growing darkness. He then goes to a brook where, bending low, 
he dips his hollowed hand into the water and washes away the sign of 
fasting from his forehead. Having done tlus, he moistens his lips and 
throat with sips of the water, then seeks for a tree or a rock against 
which he may recline as he rests for the night. He must not lie 
down upon the earth when the darkness of night comes, but sit in a 
reclining position, leaning against a tree or rock, with his head toward 
the south if he be a Ho'^'-ga and toward the north if he be a Tsi'-zhu. 
In this manner he must pass the night. 

In the stillness of the night the man may hear the mournful hooting 
of an owl and in the distance he hears the equally mournful reply, but 
he aims to sit unafraid and to sweep away from his thoughts the dis- 
turbing cries of the birds. Or he may hear the voices of men not far 
away as they speak softly. Now and then he will catch a few sen- 
tences from which he gathers that the strangers in their talk regard 
him as foolish to leave his comfortable home, the association of his 
friends, to take upon himself suffering in a fruitless appeal to an 
imaginary being. As he listens he remembers the warnings of his 
Xo'-]ka against heeding the cries of nocturnal birds, or the whisperings 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAK CEREMONY 9 

of evil spirits, and with renewed effort the man turns his thoughts 
again to Wa-ko°'-da to whom he, as leader, is appealing for strength 
and guidance. Then, again, he may hear the approach of stealthy 
footsteps and a man will sit down at his side, almost touching him, 
and say: "Why do you wander about and suffer thus? There is sor- 
row in your home and a great wailing of grief." Knowing, now, that 
he is beset b}^ evil spirits bent upon turning him aside from his efforts 
to secure supernatural aid, the man will suddenly cry out in a loud 
wail, calling upon Wa-ko°'-da to pity liis sufferings and to give him 
help. He continues his cries, listening not to the calls of the birds of 
the night or to the whisperuigs of the evil spirits. Then there comes 
upon him a sudden drowsiness and he sleeps, never awakening until, 
at the approach of day, he hears the morning chirpings of the birds. 
He beholds the pale dawn reddening day and then, reachuig down, 
takes a bit of the dark soil of the earth, rubs it upon his forehead, and 
then begins his wandering and wailing. When darkness comes the 
man bathes his face, removing the sign of fasting, drinks a little water, 
rests in the same fashion, only in another place, and, it is said, gen- 
erally, undisturbed by strange sounds and beings. 

A story often told, even to this day, narrates the experience of a 
man who had been chosen to be leader of a war party and who, during 
his fasting, witnessed a night scene which he regarded to be a response 
to his supplications. It is an old story and, in its transmission, has 
become somewhat mythical in character, for to the bu'ds that figure 
prominently in it was attributed the power of speech. 

During the first night of the period of fasting, which is always 
spoken of as the time when the supreme test of courage comes to the 
faster, the man heard cries of strange animals in a fierce combat and 
was shaken by the thud of their feet as they struggled in the darkness. 
Sometimes, in their conflict, they came close to where he sat holding 
the stem of his little pipe pointed upward as an oft'ering, but with a 
stout heart he maintained his position, until he heard the sounds of 
their cries and the snapping of the twigs finally die away in the dis- 
tance. He had scarcely recovered his composure when he heard the 
whistle of a man, the response by another, their footsteps as they 
approached each other, and their voices when they met and spoke in 
low tones. He heard them coming toward him and passing by him, 
speaking to each other now in loud whispers and again in muffled 
tones. They continued to act in this manner through the night up 
to the break of the day, when they ceased to trouble the faster. The 
man, as he determined to do at the start, gathered together his 
courage and kept his place unmoved throughout the night. When the 



83773—39- 



10 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

sky in the east was reddening he took a bit of soil of the earth, put it 
upon his brow, and started to wander about and to wail. 

After the first night the man was not disturbed again by animals 
or spirits. But on the sixth night of his fasting, as he settled down for 
his rest at the foot of a tree, his back leaning against the trunk, his 
feet put together and planted upon the ground, while he still held his 
little pipe, something swept across his face so swiftly that he felt the 
air disturbed by the force. He began to wonder what it might be, 
when it swept across his face again, going in the opposite direction. 
Believing that the thing, whatever it was, would return, he lowered 
his head so that if it should pass again he could make out what it was 
by the aid of the dim light of the sky line. The thing or things did 
return and with his experienced eyes he recognized the forms of two 
birds. They sped swiftly by, one chasing the other. At times the 
pursuit was so close that the two birds appeared as one. As the 
birds passed he noticed that the larger one was in fhght and the 
smaller one hotly pursuing. Again they passed, but this time the 
smaller bird was in flight. He heard their cries in the distance, as 
one overtook the other and they fought. He recognized one as the 
cry of an owl, the other as that of a hawk. It was not long before the 
birds returned and sped by the sitting man. The whole night long 
the two birds fought and alternately put the other to flight, while the 
man marveled at the strength of their wings, for they did not at any 
time stop to rest. 

As the morning star appeared in the east the faster heard again 
the sound of the approaching combatants, like the blowing of the 
wind through the forest. They came near, then with marvelous 
quickness the hawk darted under the man's bent knee, while the owl 
sped on, clattering his mandibles in rage. The hawk spoke to the 
man, and said: "Protect me against my enemy; it need be for a little 
time only, until the break of day. The darloiess of the night puts 
me at a disadvantage, for my strength is in the broad light of the 
day. Give me protection till the pale light of dawn appears in yonder 
sky, then in your sight I shall vanquish my enemy, and I will reward 
you by giving you that dauntless courage with which I attack my foes." 

The owl returned, alighted upon the ground near the man, and 
demanded in an angry tone, "Give over to me that person, that I may 
put him to death. I also can give reward. I attack my foes in the 
darkness of night in their sleep and vanquish them. You shall have 
the same power that I have to see in the night. This I offer to you as 
a reward. Push over to me that person." 

The man moved not, for the power to attack a foe when he was 
deep in slumber did not appeal to him as the right sort of courage and 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 11 

made the man's sympathy incline toward the hawk, but he spoke not, 
neither did he move. 

Soon a pale streak of light appeared along the eastern horizon, then 
the hawk spoke to the man, saying: "You have rendered me a service. 
Now, as a reward, take from my left (the man was a Tsi'-zhu) wing the 
shortest feather there, and when you are about to attack your foe 
attach it to your left shoulder, so you wUl do to him what I am about 
to do to yonder person. I go to attack." 

The hawk, without effort, rose in the air, and when he had reached 
a certain height, he paused. At that moment the courage of the owl 
seemed to depart from him and with much flapping of his wings he 
took to fhght. Like an arrow released from a strong bow the hawk 
shot downward in attack, struck the fleeing owl in the head, severing 
it from the body. With an exultant cry the hawk soared around a 
few times in the light of the rising sun, alighted on a tree near by and 
spoke to the man: "Fail not to remember me when you attack the 
foe." 

The faster arose to go to his home, murmuring to himself, "Thus 
the power of day overcomes the power of night." It was on the 
seventh day of his fast when Wa-ko°'-da, stirred to pity by the suffer- 
ings of the man, had offered him the choice of vanquishing his enemies 
in night attacks or in attacks made ia the broad light of day, and he 
had chosen the latter as that, to him, required true courage. 

The man was successful, not only as leader lq this expedition for 
which he had been chosen but in all the subsequent expeditions of 
which he was leader, for whenever he was chosen as leader the young 
men needed no urging to join his war party. 

The duration of the fasting is limited to four days, but when no 
sign is given showing that the faster's supplications have been heard 
he may continue his fast three days longer. At dusk on the evening 
of the seventh day, when the fast must be concluded, the man, lean 
and weak from starvation, and barely able to walk, approaches the 
house of the No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga who had gathered there to await his 
return. A fire kindled within the lodge lights up the faces of the 
assembled men. As the man enters the lodge he is conducted to the 
seat he left seven days before and sits down. His Xo'-]^a at once 
comes and takes his place beside the faster. When the Xo'-^a has 
taken his seat he speaks, saying: "0, ye No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the 
Wa-zha'-zhe division have compassion upon my son that he may 
take of the water of life and live." 

Then a No°'-ho°-zlii°-ga of the Ni Zho-i-ga-tha (Water) gens of the 
Wa-zha'-zhe division, in whose keeping is the wi'-gi-e of the water of 
Ufe, begins its recitation. In this wi'-gi-e the river is personified and 
becomes a deified symbol of life. 



12 BUKEATJ OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

WATER RITUAL 

(Osage version, p. 148) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, 

2. There arose from the Wa-zha'-zhe, a people who possess seven 

sacred fireplaces, 

3. One who belonged to the Wa-zha'-zhe of the seven fireplaces, 

4. Verily, one who made the water to be liis flesh (a trope for life). 

5. Verily, at that time and place, they said, it has been said, 

6. He spake, saying, "Behold, the right side of the body of the river, 

7. That I have taken to be the right side of my body. 

8. If the little ones also take the right side of the body of the river 

to be the right side of their body, 

9. They shall remove from themselves all causes of death, my younger 

brothers, 

10. And if they make that side of the body of the river to be the means 

by which to reach old age, 

11. They shall live to see old age." 

12. "Behold, the hollow of the back (the bed) of the river, 

13. That I have made to be the hollow of my back. 

14. If the little ones also make the back of the river to be their back 

15. They shall live to see old age," he said. 

16. "Behold, the left side of the body of the river, 

17. That I have made to be the left side of my own body. 

18. If the little ones also make the left side of the body of the river to 

be the left side of their body, 

19. They shall live to see old age, my younger brothers." 

20. "Behold, the channel of the river, 

21. That I have made to be the cavity of my body. 

22. If the little ones also make the channel of the river to be the 

cavity of their body, 

23. The little ones shall remove from themselves all causes of death, 

24. And if they make it to be the means by which to reach old age, 

25. They shall live to see old age, my younger brothers." 

26. The people of the Ho'^'-ga, 

27. And those of the Tsi'-zhu, 

28. Their little ones shall live to see old age. 

After the reciting of the wi'-gi-e, water is brought in a wooden bowl 
and placed before the faster. The man removes the tobacco pouch 
and pipe from his neck and places them upon the ground at his side, 
washes the fasting sign from his forehead, and then slakes his thirst. 

When this is done his Xo'-ka again speaks; saying: "O, ye of the 
Tho'-xe gens, have compassion upon my son, that he may eat of the 
food of life and live." Then a No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Tho'-xe gens 
recites the wi'-gi-e relating to the gift of the maize to the people as a 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 13 



sacred food. This wi'-gi-e Wa-xthi'-zhi declined to recite, saying that 
it belonged to a gens not of his, the Ho°'-ga, division. 

When the maize \vi'-gi-e had been recited a bowl of very tliin corn 
gruel was brought by a man of the Tho'-xe gens who placed it before 
the faster. The man ate slowly of the food to avoid the ill effects 
that might otherwise follow. 

No questions were asked of the faster as to whether he had received 
any signs in response to his supplications and he offered no informa- 
tion on this point. Whatever communications he may have had with 
evil or benevolent spirits he kept to himself, to remain a secret with 
him always, or until there should arise some fitting occasion to men- 
tion them when the events of the war expedition had passed. 

When the faster had ceremonially partaken of food, thus termuiating 
his fast of seven days, the Xo'-ka called a herald and instructed him 
to go through the village and bid the men to remain quietly in their 
houses until further notice in the morning, for in the morning the man 
who had been sufferiag the hardships of fasting would "stand." This 
message with the use of the word "stand" is to notify the people that 
the choice made by the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga for leader is publicly made 
valid and the ceremonies pertaining to the rite are to proceed. After 
the herald had received his instructions the No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga adjourn. 

Early the next morning, at the command of the Xo'-ka, the herald 
again goes throughout the village, bidding the men of the village to go 
to the house of the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga to be present at the distribution 
of "the various things that appertain to men." This figurative 
expression refers to the appointment of officers in the war party to be 
organized and to the distribution of ceremonial paraphernalia. 

Each No'*'-ho°-zhi''-ga, as he hears the voice of the herald, at once 
prepares to go to the house of gathering by paintmg the whole of his 
face red and placing upon the crown of his head a downy feather taken 
from the under covert of the tail of an eagle. The Xo'-ka and the 
leader are the first to arrive. One by one the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga ap- 
proach the house, enter and take their places according to divisions 
and gentes, while all the men of the village assemble outside of the 
house. 

The No°'-ho°-zlii°-ga at once proceed to select two officers, each 
one to bear the title of Wa-sha'-be A-thi° Wa-zho'-wa-gthe, a title 
given to the leaders in certain of the ceremonies. One of these officers 
is selected from the Tsi'-zhu division, the other from the Ho°'-ga. 

Having selected the Wa-sha'-be A-thi'* Wa-zho'-wa-gthe the No'''- 
ho°-zhi°-ga proceed to choose eight Xthe'-ts'a-ge, an ancient title the 
exact meaning of which is lost. These eight officers form a council 
to determine the course to be pursued by the war party and they 
personally give their commands to the man. Four of these officers 
are selected from the Tsi'-zhu and four from the Ho°'-ga division. 



14 BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

Each of these two groups of four has a chief called Xthe'-ts'a-ge Wa- 
to°-ga, Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge. After these eight officers have been 
appointed each one is ceremonially conducted to a seat at the east 
end of the lodge. The four taken from the Tsi'-zhu division sit in a 
line extending toward the north side of the lodge, and the four from 
the Ho°'-ga division sit in a line extending toward the south side. 
The faster, who now bears the title Do-do°'-ho°-ga (literally The 
Sacred One of the War Party), sits at the west end of the lodge. 

A man of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° gens of the Tsi'-zhu division now 
places on the ground before the four Xthe'-ts'a-ge of the Tsi'-zhu 
division an I'-tsi° (club) and returns to his seat. Then a man from 
the Wa-ga'-be gens of the Ho^'-ga division rises and places on the 
ground befoje the four Xthe'-ts'a-ge of the Ho°'-ga division, a mo'^'-hi" 
(knife). 

The article placed before the four Xthe'-ts'a-ge of the Tsi'-zhu, 
called I'-tsi° (club), is not a club but a hatchet, a substitute that has 
a histor3^ The I'-tsi° (club) is the original weapon of the Tsi'-zhu 
division. The story of its being found and given to the people is 
recounted in the wi'-gi-e given by Xu-tha'-wa-to°-i° of the Tsi'-zhu 
Wa-no" gens. (See p. 110.) After the Osage came into contact with 
the white race their ancient club seems to have been superseded by a 
more effective weapon, the so-called battle ax, which was made by 
adding to the club a metal ax, as the Osage name of the instrument 
reveals: mo°'-hi°-9pe, iron ax; we-tsi'', club. This weapon was in 
common use while the Osage were in their hunting and war stage. 
After the disappearance of the buffalo and the settling of the tribe on 
a reservation many changes came about. Traders increased and the 
curio hunters arrived, who bought up from the Indians all their battle 
axes. A substitute was demanded, which the trader readily supplied 
by the comcmon carpenter's hatchet. This ordinary implement is used 
at the present day, but in the rites it is still referred to by its ancient 
name, I'-tsi"* (club). A change has also come to the knife which 
belonged to the Ho°'-ga division. In the early days a red stone 
knife was used in this ceremony.^ To this day children are named 
for this ancient ceremonial weapon. Under the changed conditions of 
the last century the stone knife has disappeared and is now represented 
by the trader's carving knife. The only requisite demand is that it 
must be new. 

After the placing of the I'-tsi*^ and the Mo°'-hi° before the two 
groups of Xthe'-ts'a-ge, the Xo'-ka rises and speaks to all the No°'- 
ho°-zhi°-ga, saying: "If there is any one among you who desires to 
lead a company in this war expedition let him now arise." A number 
of persons may rise, in which case each one is recognized as the leader 
of a party to be made up of warriors from his own gens and who will 
carry with them the Wa-xo'-be of their gens. Each one of these 

' For story of finding of knife see p. 207, lines 1430 to 1436, Thirty-sixth Ann. Kept. Bur. Amer. Ethn., 
Nl'-ki-e Ritual. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 15 

leaders have now to take upon themselves the No°'-zhi°-zho° (fasting) 
rite during the expedition, following the example of the Do-do°'-ho°-ga 
chosen by all the No°'-ho°-zhi'^-ga. The men of these volunteer 
Do-do°'-ho°-ga are subject to the authority of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge chosen 
by all the No^'-ho°-zhi°-ga. 

After all the volunteer leaders had been ceremonially recognized 
and each one had returned to his seat, the entire body of the No°'- 
ho°-zhi"-ga begin to sing in a rhymthic monotone, marking time with 
a clap of the hands. 

During the first twenty measures, when each "hi" is accompanied 
by a single clap of the hand, the Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge of the Xsi'-zhu 
group rises, advances to where lay the "battle ax" and "knife," takes 
the former in his right hand and the latter in his left, crosses his fore- 
arms at the wrists, so that the "battle ax" is toward the Ho°'-ga 
division and the "knife" toward the Tsi'-zhu, then, as the time of the 
song is doubled, he dances to the end of the dance measures. When 
the smgers stop he lays the articles down in the places from which he 
had taken them and returns to his seat. After he is seated all the 
No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga begin the song again, and during the first twenty 
measures the Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge of the Ho'^'-ga group rises, advances 
to where the weapons lay, takes them up and crosses his arms in the 
same manner and dances during the "Hi, hi" and the double hand- 
claps. At the close of the song he returns the articles to their places 
and goes to his seat. This dance makes a break in the general ser- 
iousness of the rite and affords the opportunity for a laugh or jest as 
the dancers pose, while keeping to the strict rhythm of the handclaps. 

The reversal of the positions of the two symbolic weapons by the 
crossing of the arms of the Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge is not without sig- 
nificance. When the people of the Tsi'zhu division found the sacred 
willow tree and made from it a ceremonial club, they said: "This 
shall the Uttle ones use for making their enemies to fall." (See lines 
196 to 198 in the wi'-gi-e given by Xu-tha'-wa-to°-i" in his descrip- 
tion of the Wa-sha'-be A-thi° Ceremony, p. 110.) The holding of the 
club toward the Ho'^'-ga division by the Tsi'-zhu Xthe'-ts'a-ge Chief, 
as he dances, means that in the dedication of the ceremonial club to 
the "Little Ones" the people of the Ho°'-ga division were included 
with those of the Tsi'-zhu. The ceremonial club is symbolic of the 
act of striking the enemy, therefore a warrior of the Tsi'-zhu or of 
the Ho°'-ga division who strikes an enemy with the bare hand, the 
foot, the bow, or a stick is entitled to an o-do°' (honor) which he may 
recount at certain ceremonies of the war rites. The holding of the 
ceremonial knife toward the Tsi'-zhu division by the Ho^'-ga Xthe'- 
ts'a-ge Chief as he dances is a dramatic reference to the finding of 
the knife by the Ho°'-ga people and their dedication of it to the 
Wa-zha'-zhe and the fsi'-zhu for "cutting." (See lines 1441 to 1446 



16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOi 

in the Ni'-ki-e Ritual given by Wa-xthi'-zhi.) The word "cutting" is 
metaphorical and refers to cutting off the heads of the enemy, there- 
fore if a warrior of the Wa-zha'-zhe, Tsi'-zhu, or Ho°'-ga cuts off the 
head of an enemy with his own knife or a borrowed one he is entitled 
to an o-do"' (honor), which he may recount at certain of the war 
ceremonies, and to receive the fees for his services in recounting his 
honors and be able to avail himself of the attending privileges. 

When the two Wa-sha'-be A-thi° Wa-zho'-wa-gthe had been 
chosen, word is sent to their families, who at once hasten to pull 
down their dwelhngs and reset them, several paces apart, at the 
western edge of the village. That belonging to the man of the Ho'^'-ga 
division is set to the north and that of the Tsi'-zhu to the south.^ 

The taldng down of the two dwelhngs of the men chosen as Wa-zho'- 
wa-gthe is a signal that all the dwellings of the village are now to be 
taken down and moved, an act preparatory to the dramatization of 
the entrance of the people upon war. 

The dance of the two Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge with the symbolic weapons 
having come to a close, the Sho'-kas advance toward the two Wa-zho'- 
wa-gthe and notify them that the village is now set in ceremonial 
order. These officers at once arise and prepare to leave the lodge. 
The one selected from the Tsi'-zhu division goes out by the door on 
the Tsi'-zhu side, followed closely by the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga belonging 
to that division; the one chosen from the Ho'^'-ga division goes out by 
the door on the Ho'^'-ga side, followed by the No°'-ho"-zhi°-ga of the 
Ho°'-ga division, and each of the Wa-zho'-wa-gthe passes on to his 
respective ceremonial house, followed by the No^'-ho'^-zhi'^-ga of his 
division. 

As the last man of each of the two divisions leaves the lodge the 
carriers of the two ceremonial weapons, who had remained in their 
seats, arise and pick up the symbolic weapons, the man from the 
Wa-ga'-be gens of the Ho'^'-ga division taking the laiife and the man 
from the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° gens of the Tsi'-zhu division taking the 
"battle ax." These two men follow the procession at some distance, 
the Wa-ga'-be man carrying the symbolic knife on his left arm and the 
Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° man the "battle ax" on his right arm. From time 
to time, as they follow, they alternately call to the people the following 
notice: 



3 In an article entitled "An Account of the War Customs of the Osages," published in the American 
Naturalist, February 1884, Rev. J. 0. Dorsey gives a diagram (fig. 1) which shows correctly the positions 
of the dwellings set up for the Wa-sha'-be A-thl" Wa-zho'-wa-gthe. In an article entitled "The Osage 
Mourning War Ceremony," by Dr. George A. Dorsey, published in the American Anthropologist, 1902, 
mention is made of the position of the ceremonial houses of the two Wa-sha'be A-tbi" Wa-zho'-wa-gthe 
but no details are given. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



17 



CALL TO THE PEOPLE 

Song 1 

(Osage version, p. 149) 



Recitative. 
r-0 1 


Slovj, with dignity 


1 1 




Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcber. 


-/^^ 


\ f^ ^ 


j \ \ \ ^ 5 1 


IC^ ^ 


m J 


s 


J 


m m m 


lii> ^ 










*j 











Tsf 



zhu a 



ka 



hi 



the 



ta, 



-t5>-^ 



Wa - dsu - ta wi^ wa - no° - xe a - dsi the tse a - ka tha, 



I 



Wa - ga - hi thi^ - ge xtsi wa - noi^ - xe a - dsi, The tse a-ki° da. 

FREE TRANSLATION 

The Tsi'-zbu have decreed that toward the setting of the sun, 
A living creature shall go to the land of spirits, 
Verily, without a weapon, to the land of spirits, 
He shall go, they have decreed. 

Song 2 

(Osage version, p. 149) 
Recitative. Slow, with dignity 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



i 



-^-^ 



4-^ 



Ho^' -ga a-ka ml hi- the ge ta, Wa -dsu- ta wi"^ wa-no°-xe a-dsi the tse a-ki'^ 



i 



¥- 



da, Wa - gi - hi thi^^-ge xtsi wa - no'^-xea-dsijThe tse a-kii^ da. 



FREE TRANSLATION 



The Ho°'-ga have decreed that toward the setting of the sun, 
A living creature shall go to the land of spirits. 
Verily, without a weapon, to the land of spirits, 
He shall go, they have decreed. 

From the time that these two carriers of the symbolic weapons make 
their announcements as they follow the procession they are addressed 
by their official title, I'-e-ki-the, freely translated, He through whom 
words are spoken. 

The word "wa-dsu'-ta" used in this announcement is applied ordi- 
narily to animals but is here used as a trope for human beings. The 
literal translation of the word is wa, things; dsu-ta, living. 

The Tsi'-zhu Wa-zho'-wa-gthe, followed by his Xthe'-ts'a-ge and 
No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of his division, enters his own house, and the Ho°'-ga 
Wa-zho'-wa-gthe, followed by his Xthe'-ts'a-ge and the No'^'-ho"- 



18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

zhi"-ga of his division, enters his own house. The two I'-e-^-the 
(criers) pass on and take their positions several paces west of the two 
houses of the Wa-zho'-wa-gthe. The Tsi'-zhu I'-e-ki-the, on the line 
with the north side of the Tsi'-zhu house, and the Ho°'-ga I'-e-ki-the 
on a line with the south side of the Ho°'-ga house, there these men 
remain standing, facing the west during the entire ceremony, for they 
are not permitted to sit down excepting at meal times. 

When the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga, together with their Xthe'-ts'a-ge, are 
seated in the respective houses of the Wa-zho'-wa-gthe the latter at 
once enter upon their duties as masters of ceremony. The Ho°'-ga 
Wa-zho'-wa-gthe summons his Sho'-ka and directs him to go after a 
certain man of the Wa-ya'-be Zhu-dse (Red Black Bear) gens of the 
Tsi'-zhu division. When the man sent for arrives at the house he is 
assigned a seat by the Wa-zho'-wa-gthe, who now instructs his 
Sho'-ka to lay before this man an article of value, with the formal 
request that he make for the Xthe'-ts'a-ge charcoal with which to 
paint themselves. Meanwhile, when the Tsi'-zhu Wa-zho'-wa-gthe, 
his Xthe'-ts'a-ge and the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Tsi'-zhu division 
were seated in the Wa-zho'-wa-gthe's ceremonial house, this officer 
directs his Sho'-ka to go after a certain man of the Wa-ga'-be (Black 
Bear) gens of the Ho^'-ga division. When this man arrives at the 
house he is assigned a seat and an article of value is placed before 
him with the formal request that he make charcoal for the Tsi'-zhu 
Xthe'-t-s'a-ge to use as paint. The two men who had been thus sum- 
moned by the two Wa-zho'-wa-gthe now send for their Sho'-kas and 
instruct these men to go after branches, either of the redbud or the 
(yellow) willow tree. Both of these trees are sacred and symbolize 
long life. When the Sho'-kas return with the branches the two men 
from the two Bear gentes proceed as requested to make the charcoal. 

The Tsi'-zhu Wa-zho'-wa-gthe, when he sent his Sho'-jka for the 
Wa-ga'-be man, also directed him to call for a certain man of the 
E-no""' Mi°-dse to° (Bow) gens. When this person arrives and is 
seated a gift is placed before him by the Sho'-ka, with the formal 
request that he make a wa-xthe'-xthe (standard) to be carried by the 
Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge of the Tsi'-zhu division, in the processions that 
form a part of the ceremonies. The task of making the standard is 
divided between the representative of the E-no°' Mi°-dse to" (Bow) 
and the Wa-ga'-be (Black Bear) gentes, for the reason that these two 
gentes hold the property right in the materials to be used in construct- 
ing the wa-xthe'-xthe (standard). This standard is a staff about 6 feet 
long with a crook at the top. It is made from a sapling and has 
attached to it a dressed deerskin. These two articles must be fur- 
nished by the E-no°' Mi°-dse to° gens and its related gens, the Ta 
I-ni-ka-shi-ga (Deer People). The Wa-ga'-be gens must furnish some 
eagle feathers and a swan skin plucked of its feathers, but the down 
must be left on. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 19 

At the same time the Wa-zho'-wa-gthe of the Ho°'-ga division for 
the same reason sends his Sho'-ka for certain men of the E-no°' 
Mi°-dse to*^ and the Wa-ga'-be gentes to make the wa-xthe'-xthe 
(standard) to be carried by the Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge of the Ho°'-ga 
division. If, however, the Wa-zho'-wa-gthe of the Ho'^'-ga division 
happens to belong to the Wa-ga'-be or to the related I"-gtho°'-ga gens 
he will not need to send for a Wa-ga'-be man, as he himself represents 
the gens. For the same reason, if he belongs to the E-no"^' Mi^-dse 
to° or to the related Ta I-ni-ka-shi-ga gens he will not need to send a 
representative of either of these gentes. 

The wa-xthe'-xthe is made in the following manner: The staff is 
first closely encased in deerskin. Holes are made in the quill ends of 
twelve eagle feathers through which thongs can be passed. These 
feathers thus prepared are divided into four bunches of three feathers 
each and are tied by their thongs about a foot apart to the front of 
the staff so as to hang freely and wave when the staff is carried ; the 
first bunch is fastened about midway of the staff, the second a foot 
higher, the third near the cross string of the crook, and the fourth at 
the tip of the crook. The swan skin is cut into one long strip and 
wound, the down side out, closely around the staff so as not to inter- 
fere with the feather pendants. A dressed deerskin is tied to the staff 
by the head end close to the lowest bunch of feathers and hangs 
loosely when the standard is carried. 

The Charcoal and the two wa-xthe'-xthe made at this stage of the 
ceremony are not regarded as Wa-ko°'-da-gi, that is, as having mystical 
or supernatural power. They are spoken of as "Wa-zha-wa A-thi° bi 
kshe," to distinguish them from two other Wa-xthe'-xthe to be made 
later in the ceremonies and which will be regarded as Wa-ko°'-da-gi. 
"Wa-zha-wa A-thi'^ bi kshe" means those carried to excite enthusiasm. 
The Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge carry these standards in the processions 
around the camp during the ceremonies in order to arouse the war- 
like emotions of the younger warriors and are more for display than 
for serious use in actual war. 

When about to make the wa-xthe'-xthe the man from the E-no""' 
Mi°-dse to" gens recites a wi'-gi-e relating to the finding of the bow 
and the arrows. Wa-xthi'-zhi declined to recite this wi'-gi-e, saying 
he did not know it. This may have been true, but it is likely that he 
respected the proprietary rights of the E-no°' Mi°-dse to° gens to the 
wi'-gi-e. The charcoal was made without reciting the wi'-gi-e. 

The men of the Wa-ga'-be and the E-no"*' Mi'^-dse to° having com- 
pleted their work upon the charcoal and the wa-xthe'-xthe, in the 
Tsi'-zhu house, send these articles by their respective Sho'-kas to the 
Wa-zho'-wa-gthe, who in turn sends them by his Sho'-ka to the Chief 
Xthe'-ts'a-ge. This official receives the articles and divides the char- 
coal equally with his fellow officers, but retains the wa-xthe'xthe 
(standard). In the ceremonial house of the Ho°'-ga division the cere- 



20 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 101 



monies relating to the work upon the charcoal, the wa-xthe'-xthe, and 
the delivering of these articles are the same as those performed in 
the Tsi'-zhu house and are completed at about the same time. 

The four Xthe'-ts'a-ge in each of the ceremonial houses at once 
begin to blacken their faces and bodies with the charcoal. The favor- 
ite horse of each of these ofiicers is brought to the house and painted 
with the charcoal and then saddled. The painting being done, the 
Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge of each group takes up his wa-xthe'-xthe and goes 
out of his ceremonial house, followed by the other three oflScers. All 
of the eight Xthe'-ts'a-ge now mount their horses and start in two 
groups for the march around the village; the group belonging to the 
Tsi'-zhu division going to the right, that of the Ho°'-ga division going 
to the left. These two groups regulate their march so as to meet and 
pass each other on the eastern side of the village at the end of the 
avenue. 

The following song is sung by the riders of each group as they slowly 
encircle the village. The words of this song are as though spoken by 
each man himself. 

SONG OF THE RIDERS 



(Osage version, p. 149) 



M.M. J^=:n& 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 




Time beats | {II I r | , 

Shi^ - to wa - sho - she ho^ - tho"^ - gi - the tho'i - ke tho, Shi° 



HL\ r 4 4 4 i 6 4 



:^^ 



^ 



r r r r r r '^ t '. r r r 

to wa- .sho - she ho^-thoi^ gi -the tho'i-ke tho, Shi'i -to wa-sho -she ho'^-tho'^- 




r ^ ' rrr r r r r 

gi-the thoii-ka do^^, I - tha shto^^ a-thi^ he tho, Ha! Do - do^ -hoi^ - ga, 




r r r r r r r , 

pa-thi^-shiii-ga wa-sho-she dsi thi^ do"^, Wa-zha-wa he-wa -wa-ka bi^ do , Shi"^ ■ 




r rrr r r rrr r 

to wa-sho-she ho^^ - thoi^-gi -the tho^^-ke tho, Shi° -to wa-sho-she ho^-tho"!- 




gi - the tho°-ke tho, Shi^^ - to wa - sho - she ho°-thoD-gi -the tho°- ke tho. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAE CEREMONY 21 



FREE TRANSLATION 

Our brave young men have found in me their leader, 

Our brave young men have found in me their leader, 

Our brave young men have found in me their leader, 

I go forth in obedience to their call, 

O! Do-do^'-ho^-ga, they are eager to meet the foe, 

To defeat and to triumph over him; 

Our brave young men have found in me their leader, 

Our brave young men have found in me their leader, 

Our brave young men have found in me their leader. 

While the Xthe'-ts'a-ge were marching around the \dllage, prepara- 
tions were being made for the return to their respective ceremonial 
houses. Two drums were brought. One was placed near the Tsi'-zhu 
house and the other near the Ho°'-ga house. The No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga 
assembled. Those belonging to the Tsi'-zhu division sat in a hne 
extending from east to west in front of the Tsi'-zhu ceremonial house 
and those belonging to the Ho°'-ga division sat in a similar manner. 
The people of the village gathered about the two houses in order to 
witness the ceremony to follow the return of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge. 

As each group of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge reach the ceremonial house to 
which it belongs the riders dismount and as the horses are led away 
the men of the Tsi'-zhu group take their seats in front of the No°'- 
ho°-zlii°-ga of that division while the men of the Ho°'-ga group take 
their seats in front of the No'''-ho°-zlii°-ga of that division. When 
the four Xthe'-ts'a-ge of each division had taken their seats the 
No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Tsi'-zhu division begin to sing: Hi, hi, hi, hi, 
accompanied by drumbeats. The Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge of the Tsi'-zhu 
division rises and dances, accentuating the rhythm of the song with 
the wa-xthe'-xthe which he carries in his hands. When the singing 
and the drumming cease the dancer resumes his seat. After a short 
pause the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Ho°'-ga division begin to sing: Hi, 
hi, hi, hi, accompanied by beats on their drums, and the Chief Xthe'- 
ts'a-ge of the Ho°'-ga division rises and dances in the same manner 
with his wa-xthe'-xthe until the singing ceases, when he takes his seat. 
After a brief silence the singing and drumming start again on the 
Tsi'-zhu side and the Xthe'-ts'a-ge sitting next to the Chief Xthe'- 
ts'a-ge receives from him his wa-xthe'-xthe, then rises and dances as 
long as the song continues, when he takes his seat. After another 
brief silence the No'*'-ho°-zlii°-ga on the Ho°'-ga side begin the song 
and the Xthe'-ts'a-ge sitting next to the Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge receives 
from him his wa-xthe'-xthe and begins to dance with it while the song 
continues, after which he takes his seat. The dance with the wa-xthe'- 
xthe continues in this manner, the two divisions alternating in singing 
and dancing until each of the eight Xthe'-ts'a-ge has performed his 
part. 



22 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

This dance is popular with the people, as the dancers are usually 
graceful and spirited in their actions and their make-up is colorful. 
The crimson deertail headdress with its upright eagle feather; the 
splotches of black upon the nude body ; the gaily embroidered flaps of 
the breechcloth; the ornamented leggings and moccasins, and the 
white standard with its fluttering eagle feathers, all made a picture 
that never failed to delight the old as well as the young. The women 
in their conversation around the fireplace took pleasure in discussing 
the skill of the dancers and in criticizing those whose movements they 
considered to be ungainly. 

The equestrian procession of the eight men around the village, their 
dance with the standards before the No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga and the people, 
are to publicly indicate the final consent of these men to act as 
Xthe'-ts'a-ge in the war expedition. Having thus signaled their 
acceptance of the ofiices the Xthe'-ts'a-ge at once begin to use the 
term "Ha! Ni-ka-wa-5a-e" when addressing the private volunteers or 
when giving them commands. This expression is archaic. It is 
never used on any other occasion and may be analyzed as follows: Ha, 
is equivalent to the interjection ho, used to demand attention; Ni-ka, 
men; wa-ga, probably an abbreviation of the word wa-gi-gi-ge, meaning 
courage and active; e, you who are: "Ho! Ye courageous and active 
men." The Omaha use the term of address when on a war expedition. 

At the close of the dance with the standards the Xthe'-ts'a-ge of 
the Tsi'-zhu division enter their ceremonial house, taking with them 
their drum, as do those of the Ho°'--ga division. Within the two 
houses the men of each group sit around the drum and begin to sing 
the following seven songs, four of which belong to the Xthe'-ts'a-ge 
and three to the Do-do°'-ho''-ga. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



23 



FOUR SONGS OF THE XTHe'-Ts'a-GE 

Song 1 
(Osage version, p. 160) 



M.M. J=116 



F^: 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



Ps# 



;ti2: 



& 



Ml 



Time beats T 

Shi^^ - to 



wa - sho 



f r r r 
I I I I 

she 



r rr 

dsi a-ba tho"^ - zha, 






hk=s^ 



^^ 



A ss d d rJ - 



^^ 



r r r rr 

She-o°-zho° tha thi°- she, 



B 



« 



r r rr r r rr 

Shi°-to wa-sho -she e - dsi a-ba tho°-zha, 

— , C5- 



^ 



1= 



S 



3tZ3t 



r r r r rrrr r r r r r r r r 

She-o°-zhoD tha thin she, , , . she-o°zho'ithathi°-she,do-do'^-ho'^-ga U-ki 



Hp^s 



S 



5 



^ 



^ 



y 



r r r r rr rrrr r r 

te wa-sho - she e - dsi a - ba e - she do°,She-on-zho° tha thi^-she, E - dsi 



P#=f 



It 



=W=^ 



rrn^ 



=? 



-A-^t- 



r r r r r r r r r 

hi Wa-ko^ - da ho^ ta bi doi* he - gio'i ta bi° da. 

FREE TRANSLATION 

Many are the valiant men abler than I to command, 

Yet it is I you have called. 

Many are the valiant men abler than I to command, 

Yet it is I you have called. It is I you have called. 

Courageous, dauntless are our foes, you say, 

Yet it is I upon whom you call. 

Wa-^o°'-da decides my fate the day I meet my foe. 

Song 2 expresses the willingness of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge to be put in 
the place of danger by the "brave young men" because in the hearts 
of his elder brothers there is no affection for him and they would not 
miss him should he be slain. The Xthe'-ts'a-ge is required not only 
to command his men while on the march but to actually lead the 
attack upon the enemy and be first to meet the foe. The words in 
line 5 of the song which imply that there is no love between brothers 
may be regarded as extravagant, for among the Osage the fraternal 
affection is strong. It is not unlikely that the song perpetuates a 
remark made by a warrior chosen to act as Xthe'-ts'a-ge who felt 
aggrieved at the inattentions of his brothers toward him and his 
words found their way into a song that has come down. 



24 



M.M. J =132 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 
Song 2 

(Osage version, p. 150) 



[Bull. lOl 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 




Timebeatsf f f f f f f f i I 

Shi° - to wa - sho-she 0"^ -gi - to'i - be ta sho° bi a - thi^ he tho, 



^TT 



J * • — * * # \ t t . — # 



fcZit 



:^ 



at ^ #- 



r r r r r r r r rrrr 

Shi° - to wa - sho-she o'^ - gi - to° - be ta sho° bi a-thi° he tho, 



—i \ 1 i I 



» S h ^ 



:^=Pn: 



^ 



'' ai a/ *-^s^ , 

r r r r rrrr r^r r 

Shin _ to wa-sho-she o^^-gi - to'^ - be ta sho° bi a-thi'i j^q . tho, Ga 



J — m — J — IIJ:!- 



Bz 



± 



5 



:fc 



i^ ^ « s 

r r r rrrr 

sho° shki do"^ he-go° tse he pshe a-thi° he 



-^ ^- 

m r r r 

tho , h e-pshe a-thi"^ he 



n^ 



9 — e— [ j-^ ^* d 9 • ^— Fr 4 ^ » 



i 



^ 



tho Wi-zhi'i-the ga-to° e-dsi a-thi° he do° tho°-dse thi-shi ba-zhi 1° 



J J J J 



4^^ 



#=|v 



J=f-4 



Frrr rrrr 

do Shi° - to wa - sho - she o°- gi - to° - be 



-"^ = ^ 9 — ^ 

r r r 

ta sho° bi a- thi° he 



2 



:^ 



^ 



3:4: 



3 



v-^ 



-2;^- 



rrrr 

tho, Ga 



r r r 

sho° shki do"^ he - go° 



n ^ : r 

tse he- pshe a-thi° he tho. 



FREE TRANSLATION 



My brave young men long to put my courage to the test, 
My brave young men long to put my courage to the test, 
My brave young men long to put my courage to the test, 
Come what may, so shall it be, I have said, I have said. 
There is no yearning for me in m}' brother's heart. 
My brave young men long to put my courage to the test, 
Come what may, so shall it be, I have said, I have said. 

Song 3 represents the Xthe'-ts'a-ge as encouraging one another to 
accept bravely the part in hfe that has fallen to them, the part that 
belongs to man and is beset with many dijfficulties. The words them- 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



25 



selves do not express the full meaning of the song, but the men who 
smg it and those who follow in the paths of danger understand well 
its burden, for the song refers to dangers to be met, hardships to be 
endured for the defense of the home, the protection of the woman who 
builds the house and within it nurtures the Kttle ones upon whom 
depends the perpetuation of the tribe. 



Song 3 
(Osage version, p. 150) 



M.M. J=:132 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 




jS: 



±: 



■■^^ 



Timebeatsr f f T f f rfff 

Wi - ko-tha ho- shko° 'go - ta be tho, 



r r r , 

Wi - ko-tha ho - shko** 



^ 



i^ 



r r rrrr r 



r r 



rrrr 



r 



'go - ta be tho, 



Ni - ka i - ta bi wa - tse - xi e - sha be tho, 




ip: 



fi: 



S d 9 — it 



;#: 



rrrr r r 

Ho-shko'* 'go- ta be tho, 






r r r r r r rrrr 

Wi-ko-tha ho-shko° 'go-ta be tho. 



^a 



-t— t- 



^^ 



4: 



r ^ ^ r r r r 

Wi-ko-tha ho-shko'* 'go - ta be tho, 



Ni-ka i - ta bi wa 



^i 



4 i g - 



5^ 



r r r rrrr 

tse - xi e - sha be tho, Ho - shko° 'go 



ta be tho. 



FREE TRANSLATION 



This, my friends, is the lot that has fallen to you and to me, 
This, my friends, is the lot that has fallen to you and to me. 
The lot that falls to man, most difficult of all. 
That lot has fallen to you and to me. 

This, my friends, is the lot that has fallen to you and to me. 
This, my friends, is the lot that has fallen to j^ou and to me. 
The lot that falls to man, most difficult of all, 
That lot has fallen to you and to me. 

Song 4 is an appeal by the Xthe'-ts'a-ge to the experienced warrior 
as an "elder brother" upon whose valor success depends. The courage 
of the "elder brother" is likened to that of the male bison who becomes 
dangerous when driven to defend himself. 

83773 — 39 3 



26 



BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Buix. 101 



Song 4 

(Osage version, p. 150) 



M.M. 



126 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



Bz 



^ 



Time beats j* ]* T ^ r r {• [• 

Be i- tha-no'»-zlii" mo° - zhi e ho-wa-ga-sho"^ e-tho 



r r r 

Be i-tha-no'^-zhi'^ mo° 



r— ^ , 


A 




A 1^ 


, 






-d^^^'n— r 


=?S=^ 


^ \ i h- 

d ^ ^ 


r ^' : 


4 


— ^ 
— • — 


-h 


—^— 


-^^;— 


tj 


_W d d J_ 


—J ^ 








' 





r r r r r 

zhi'i e liO - wa - ga - sho° e tho, 



r r r r 

Wi - zhin - the thi tse - do 



:5- 



±± 



4=#- 



Tt=at 



4^ 



r r r 

ga he - thi- go° a 

A 



^ r 

don, I 



r r '^ 

wi no° zhi^ e tho 



r r r 

Be i -tha-uo'^-zhi° mo° 



=1: 






:^ 



^^ 



4: 



r r r r r 

zhi° e ho - wa - ga - sho° e tho 



Be i - tha - no° - zhi"* mo° 



m^""^"^- 



-•-=1- 



^t 



s 



-O- 



± 



4: 



fct^ 



^ r r r r 

zhi e ho- wa-ga-sho'' e tho 



r r r r r r r r 

I I I III II 

Be i-tha-iio'^-zhi° mo'' - zhi e ho-wa-ga-sho° e tho. 



P^ 



:#=p: 



S 



4: 



a=t 



:4: 



^ 



r r r ^ 

Wi-zhiii-the thi tse- do 



r r r r 

III I 

- ga he-thi-go'^a Ao'^ 

FBEE TRANSLATION 



• r r t 

I wi no^ zhi" e tho. 



Relying alone on your valor I go forth, 

Relying alone on your valor I go forth, 

O, elder brother, courageous as the male bison, 

Upon your valor alone I depend, 

Relying alone on your valor I go forth, 

Relying alone on your valor I go forth. 

THREE SONGS OF THE DO-DON'-HON-GA 

The words of Song 1 are addressed by the Xthe'-ts'a-ge to the 
Do-do°'-ho°-ga, reminding him of the words of the fathers that the 
part of man in the struggle for life is indeed hard, but an incessant 
crying to the Supernatural never fails to bring aid to man, therefore 
he must put forth all his strength in his cry for aid. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



27 



Song 1 



(Osage version, p. ISO) 



M.M. J:r;126 



W f f r =f— f— ^ 



fi 



■I — ^ 1 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



3 



^^ 



t=t: 



Time beats j* j"|* f j" |*j* r r 

Hi"^ - da - dsi iii - ka i - ta wa - tse - xi e - sha be tho. Hi'^ - da 



'-& fi-^^^i-r^ ^ 



r r r r r r r * " 

dsi ni - ka i - ta wa - tse - xi e - sha be tho, Hi° - da 



to 



-•- -•- -•- -a 



rTTi 



4 -J- -4 



t 



*J 



r r r r r r r r r r r r 

dsi ni - ka i - ta wa-tse xie sha be tho, . . Wa-tse 



l- 



• S d 



r r r r r r r r r r r r 

xi 6 - sha be tho, Do- do°-ho° - ga, Ni - ka i - ta bi wa - tse- xi e he 




3= 



3 



-d: 



r r r r r r r r r r r 

gie - uo'^ be tho, Xa - ge wa-shko°do° ho- pshe no^ be tho. 

FREE TRANSLATION 

Hard is the lot of man, our fathers have said, 

Hard is the lot of man, our fathers have said, 

Hard is the lot of man, our fathers have said, 

Hard is the lot of man, O, Do-do°'-ho°-ga, they have said, 

Hard is the lot of man, our fathers have said, 

But ceaseless crying (to Wa-ko^'-da) fails not to bring aid. 

The burden of Song 2 is the gravity of the situation in which the 
Xthe'-ts'a-ge finds himself placed by his people. The song represents 
him as brooding over the possibility of defeat, the loss of his men, 
and the sorrow that would follow. He pictures the attacks of the 
enemy, hears the cries of the Do-do"*' -ho^-ga for supernatural aid, 
wrath stirs within him and a desire to strike the enemy, but the 
responsibility of being the actual leader in the attack gives him pause 
and he is seized with a longing to know if the thoughts of Wa-ko^'-da 
incline with favor toward him. 



28 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 101 



Song 2 

(Osage version, p. 151) 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 




rime beats [" [* j* |* 

Wa-kon - da wa - tlii-gtho" bi 



r r ^ ^ r 

ho^ - pa - the ko^i-btha 'tbi^ he, 



»#=1^ 



a 



;.«= 



5: 



r r r r 

Wa - ko°-da wa - thi-gtho" bi 



ho° - pa - the ko" -btha 'thi^ he 




Plt=f 



4^=!^ 



^ 



■5- 



r r r 

bi kon -btha 'thi*^ 



r r r r 

Wa - ko°- da he - gi - the 



rrrrr 

he, Thoe 




r r r r 

Do - do°-ho'i - ga tha - xa - ga bi 



r r ^ r r 

II II I 

doQ ho^ - ba-koii iio° tho^i-zha, 




r r 

btha 'thin \^q_ 



FREE TRANSLATION 



I crave to know the thoughts of Wa-ko°'-da, 

I crave to know the thoughts of Wa-ko°'-da, 

To know if He holds me in His favor, 

O, Do-do°'-ho°-ga, your cries stir the wrath within me, 

Yet would I know the strength of my heart. 

Would know if He holds me in His favor. 

In Song 3 the Xthe'-ts'a-ge awakens to the truth that no human 
effort can penetrate the thoughts of Wa-ko°'-da or divine His purpose. 
Man must content himself with the behef tliat by constant crying he 
will stir the compassion of Wa-ko°'-da and secure His aid. Again 
the Do-do'^'-ho^-ga is reminded of the words of the fathers that the 
lot of man in life is hard, therefore must he cry with all his might to 
Wa-ko°'-da for aid. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



29 



Song 3 

(Osage version, p. 151) 



M.M. 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 




Time beats [ (•(" [ fff f 

Wa - )s.o^ - da wa - thi - stho° bi tse be hi - ba - ho" 






W^ 



^— #- 



±. 



- n n n— r 



• S • S d d 



r r 



r 



r ^ ^ ^ ^ 



r 



3, wi-ko - tha, Wa-ko°-da wa-thi-gtho° bi tse be hi - ba - ho° 



=r 



4: 



"T -^- 



G>- -0- 

^rrrr 

tho, thoe 



r r 

tse, Xa 



r r 

wa - shko° do° 



-dr 

r r r 

ho - pshe no^ be 



g 



•^ 



P 



4: 



5-^P=^^ 



r r r r r r r r ^ r ^ r r 

Ho - pshe uo^ be tho, Do-do'^-ho'^ - ga, Ni - ka i - ta bi wa - tse 




r r r r ^ [ r f r r T ' 7 

xi he - gi - the no^ be tho, Xa - ge wa-shko° do° ho - pshe no'^ be tho. 

FREE TRANSLATION 

Who can know the thoughts of Wa-ko°'-da, O friends, 

Who can divine His purpose, 

We can but cry with all our strength to Wa-ko°'-da, 

We can but cry with all our might, O, Do-do^'-ho^-ga, 

Man's lot is hard, our fathers have said. 

But the earnest cry to Wa-ko°'-da will bring help. 

At the close of the singing of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge and Do-do'^'-ho^-ga 
songs by the eight principal officers, which was toward the middle of 
the day, water is brought by the women to these men to wash their 
faces. Food and water to drink is then placed before them. This 
being done, these officers direct two of their men to go to the Criers 
who were standing with the symbohc knife and the symboHc battle-ax 
and to conduct these men to places close to the two ceremonial houses. 
Then water and food are placed before them, of which they partook 
hastily and then returned to their former positions west of the village, 
there to stand until again called. Water and food are also sent by 
these officers to the Do-do"'-ho°-ga who sits in a small house west of 



30 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

the Wa-ga'-be ceremonial house. Before eatmg and drinking the 
Do-do°'-ho°-ga removes from his face the sign of fasting but puts it 
on again after partaking of a Httle food. 

When the Xthe'-ts'a-ge and the people of the village have eaten 
their midday meal, the Xthe'-ts'a-ge again paint themselves and their 
horses with charcoal and go forth on another procession around the 
village, followed tliis time by all the people in their gayest attire, 
the Tsi'-zhu going around by the right and the Ho'^'-ga by the left. 
Each division carries a drum. Occasional stops are made when the 
singers gather around the drum and sing the Wa-sha'-be A-thi" songs 
called I'-wa-tsi, To which the People Dance. These songs are also 
called Tse-xe-k'i'' No-'-ho'' Wa-tho°, Songs of the Elder Tse'-xe-k'i° or 
Kettle Carriers. These songs are sung without any particular order 
and the time is accentuated by the drum while the people in their 
dance keep the rhythm of the songs. 

SONGS OF THE ELDER KETTLE CARRIERS 

The first of these songs, given by Wa-xthi'-zhi, is an old one and 
relates to a time when a warrior by the name of Wa-xa'-da-i" was 
chosen to act as Do-do'^'-ho°-ga for a large war party. While the 
ceremonies were going on the friends of a young man who was pre- 
paring to join the war party tried to dissuade him from going, warning 
him of the hardships and the dangers with which he would have to 
contend. He replied to his friends that Wa-xa'-da-i°'s crying had so 
aroused Ids wrath that he was going forth to strike the enemy, that he 
would strike Wa-ko°'-da Himself if he tried to prevent him. The 
words of the boastful youth were put to song which was always sung 
at the ceremonies. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



31 



Song 1 
(Osage version, p. 151) 



M.M J- 132 



M 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



w 



#=|C 



4: 



^bit 



:t: 



Time beats f f T f f f 

Ho - wa -ga- slio° bthe tse do^ wa - no*! 



r r r r 

geo'^-tha kshi-the, Ho 



■n^^m 



^ 



:4: 



r r r r ~r r r r f r 

wa - ga - sho"* bthe tse do° wa - no° - ge o"* tha kshi-the, Ho - 




khrrr-f^ 



^* d d 



Az 



S 



^^. 



r r r r r r r r r r r r r 

wa-ga-sho"^ bthe tse do** wa-no** - peo°-tha kshi-the, Ko - tha he-go'* ta 




"^ 



:p=P= 



•- -•- -19- -0- 

r rrrrr 



r rrrrr r r r 

thin he tho tho, Wa-xa-da-i xa -gemo° thi°a-do°,Wa-ko'*-dae 




shki do^* ho - wa- tsi"* 



ta thi° he tho, Ho - wa - ga-sho° bthe tse 




4: 



3 



3^ 



r r r ^ [ ^ r r r r 

do^ wa-no^* - pe o°-tha kshi-the, ElO - tli* he-go° ta thi** he tho. 



-•- -•- -•- 

r r 



FREE TRANSLATION 

You speak to me of dangers that I may fear, 

You speak to me of dangers that I may fear, 

You speak to me of dangers that I may fear, 

But I have willed to go, my friends, 

Wa-xa'-da-i^'s crying stirs my wrath, 

I go forth to strike, even Wa-ljo°'-da, should He oppose me. 

You speak to me of dangers that I may fear. 

But I have will to go, my friends. 

The second song is of the selection of the two Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge 
who are to lead the warriors in the attack upon the enemy. In this 
song the Tse-xe-k'i° (private warriors), whose song it is, changed the 
title, Wa-to°-ga (Chief) of the two leaders, to the exalted one of 
Wa-ko°'-da, for their commands are to be obeyed as implicitly as 
those of Wa-ko°'-da by all His creatures. The Tse-xe-k'i° also 
deplores the passing of the elder brothers of Tho°-ba'-wa-]^'i° who 



32 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 101 



were noted for their success as war leaders. The efforts of the man 
chosen to appeal to the Supernatural for aid is also mentioned in the 
song. 



Song 2 

(Osage version, p. 151) 



M.M. d~ 132 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 




Time beats |* j* T |* f T 

Tse - ga wa-ko° - da o°- ga - xa be tho, Tse 



r r r 

ga wa- ko° - da o"* 




r r r r 

ga - xa be tho, Tse 



r r 

ga wa - ko° - da o° 



r r r r 

ga - xa be tho, Tse 




ga wa - ko° 



da on 



ga - xa be tho, He - wo° thi*> the wa 



3: 



Az 



t T"t^rT 



r r r r r r r r r r r 

shkoi» moll- thi° a-doi^, tho, Tho^ - ba - wa - k'i thi - shi° 




r r r r 

I I I 

the \h\^ - ga bu dsi to°, He 



be 



r r r r 

mo°-thi'i a-do'i wa-ko^^ - da o° 



-\— • •-: -+- 



t^ 



-f\- 



-•-5- 



dao^ 



r 

ga 



xa be 



r r 

tho, Tse 



r 



koD 



n j" ^ B 



i^ 



tm^- 



± 



-* at — — *-s-j — »- 

r r r r 

ga - xa be tho, He 



r r 



wo"! thi" the wa - shko" mo'i-thin a-do°. 



FREE TRANSLATION 

Again we choose the men to lead us forth, 
Again we choose the men to lead us forth, 
Again we choose the men to lead us forth, 
Again we choose the men to lead us forth, 
Moved by the efforts of our suppliant, 
Your brothers have gone, O, Tho°-ba-wa-k'i, 
There have been none to supply their places, 
Again we choose the men to lead us forth, 
Moved by the efforts of our suppliant. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 33 

There are other songs of a like character to the two Tse-xe-k'i° 
songs given above that are sung and accompanied by cUmces as the 
processions move around the village, but Wa-xthi'-zhi, when describing 
the great ceremony, gave only these two as typical of this class. The 
audacious and boastful character of the Tse'-xe-k'i° songs is in strong 
contrast to the Xthe'-ts'a-ge and Do-do^'-ho'^-ga songs; the former 
voice the uncontrolled exuberance of the younger element and the 
latter the seriousness of the older and more experienced class. 

As in the procession of the eight Xthe'-ts'a-ge early in the day, in 
this procession all the people of the two divisions regulate their mote- 
ments so as to meet and pass each other on the eastern side of the 
village, at the end of the avenue. 

Ceremony of 0-tho'''-da Wa-tsi (Dance in the Center) 

This title is descriptive of the position of the dancers and the spec- 
tators. When the two divisions meet at their starting point the 
Xthe'-ts'a-ge dismount, and as their horses are led away the officers 
take seats on the ground between the two ceremonial houses together 
with their volunteer warriors, the men of the Tsi'-zhu sitting in a 
semicircle on their side, the men of the Ho'^'-ga sitting in a semicircle 
on theirs. The people belonging to the two divisions seat themselves 
on their respective sides at the back of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge and their 
warriors. After all have taken their places one of the Chief Xthe'- 
ts'a-ge rises and recounts briefly in an excited manner his winning of 
a war honor. Then the singers strike up the first of the four songs now 
to be sung, beating their drums to accentuate the rhythm. The two 
Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge, carrying their respective standards, then begin to 
dance in a circle, followed by the other officers and the volunteer 
warriors, the Tsi'-zhu taking the outer circle and moving to the right, 
and the Ho°'-ga the inner circle and moving to the left (fig. 1). As 
the men of each division complete the circle they halt, face the center 
of the circle, and continue to dance until the singing of the song comes 
to a close, when all sit down on the ground. After a brief pause the 
other Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge rises and recounts briefly his winning of a 
war honor. The singers then strilce up the second song and the dance 
is repeated. Each one of the four songs to wliich the men dance is 
introduced by the Cliief Xthe'-ts'a-ge with the recounting of the 
winning of a war honor. The Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge alternate in recount- 
ing an honor and leading the dance. The following are the songs 
used. The first have no words, only vocables. 



34 



BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. lOl 



Song 1 

(Osage version, p. 151) 



M.M. 

:i2--xz 



138 



-^ 



P F- >— ^- 



S 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



^ 



-^ ^ 



3E^ 



^-■ 



Time beats fff fffr f 

Hiu wi tha the, hiu wi the, hiu wi the - e, Hiu wi tha the, 



4a 



^|— r 



:i: 



n 



r r 

Hiu wa hi tha i the the. 



Hiu wa hi tha the - e, 




-T- 



-» — + 



■»• ^ -^ V -li- -^ -*- V 



— I r— ^ 1— 

r r r r r r r r . r 

hiu wa hi tha i the the, Hiu wa hi the the,, ha i the 



W: 



-^-^ 






3t=lt 



:f^ 



-# — F-^—0 — •-^p — 



r r r 

the ha i the, 



M.M. J = 138 



^Zl — brJS- 



II 



r r r r r r r r 

Hiu wi the - e, hiu wi tha, hiu wi tha,the hiu wi tha. 
Song 2 



(Osage version, p. 152) 



HiS^EESEE^^ES 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



ii 



« — »— — i— i=^- 



i?^ 



in— rj 

-•-. -•- -•- -0- 



Time beats rrff ffrr 

E he tha, e ha tha i the the - e, tho i he the the, 






9—9-d 



S 



*i— ^— 1^— »— # 



1 • d ~ 



3: 



4-^ d M -it 



Ui 



r r r r r r r 

Tho e he the i the the - e, tho, e he tha i the 



r r r 

the, ha wi the 



Pu= 4 P - I 



^ 



:P^ 



jizzMz 



3=^ 



* ss s - 



m 



U. 



r r . r r r r r r r 

the Ha wi the, a he a i tha e he a i tha 



yfeniH^ 



' d d — I — 



O: 



-#— # 



:•=#: 



d — d- 



d—^-d 



-d-w—d-d- 



r r r"T r r r r r r r 

e, tho i he tha the, Tho e he the i the etho thee, hatha e the 



^i^ 



s^ 



d d dr 



^ 



^d— d d d 



r r r r 

the, ha i the the 



r r r 

Ha i the the. 






r r r - r 

I I I I 

e- he tha e he tha i tha. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



35 



M.M. J=z 120 



Song 3 
(Osage version, p. 152) 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



m^ 



5 



Time beats p rff ffr ff 

Hio wi the the, hiu wi the the, hio wi the the. 




m 



s 



s 



:t^ 



d d d 



-d — wt 



r r r r r r r r r r 

Pa-thi'^-zhi°-ga no'^-tha- pa bi"* da, U - he - ^a-zhi no°-tha-pa bi"^ da. 



m 



'^m 



ft 



^^ 



^ 



^ 



r r r r 

Hio wi the the - e, hio 



%k 



-d- -dr '^- ^ -d- -d- -d- 

r r r r r r 

wi thi the the, hio wi the the. 



^ -4- -[ — =r 

-d' Tt -m- -d- 

r r r r r r r r r 

Hio wi the the, hio wi the the, hio wi the the. 

All the lines but the second and third of Song 3 are made up of 
vocables. The words of the second and third lines seem to convey a 
taunt and may be translated as follows: 

FREE TRANSLATION 

You seem to fear the young men of the foe, 
Their courage and strength you seem to fear. 

Having forgotten the fourth song of this group, Wa-xthi'-zhi 
repeated Song 1 to make up the number. 

This dance is very popular among the people because of the pleasing 
colors of the make-up of the dancers and the graceful movements of 
the men following in single file their leaders who hold aloft as they 
dance the standards with their eagle-feather pendants swaying and 
fluttering in the breeze. 

At the close of the 0-tho°'-da Wa-tsi, toward sundown, the Xthe'- 
ts'a-ge rise and take their places in the center in front of their respec- 
tive warriors, the Tsi'-zhu on their side and the Ho'^'-ga on theirs. 
The people sing the Hi, hi song to the beating of the drums as each 
member of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge dances. 

The sun sets upon the closing of this dance of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge and 
the people move toward their homes to take their evening meal around 
fires kindled outside the house. Food is brought by the women to the 



36 BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

Xthe'-ts'a-ge and their followers, who increase in numbers as the 
ceremony progresses, all of whom partake of the feast provided, 
sitting in the light of the fires kindled in the open air between the two 
ceremonial houses. In the enjoyment of the feast the two Criers, who 
always remain standing with their faces toward the setting of the 
sun, are not forgotten. They are ceremonially conducted to a place 
close to the ceremonial houses, where they are served their share of 
the food. The Do-do°'-ho°-ga, who is shut up in his little house, 
praying ceaselessly for success, is also served food with much ceremony. 
After this evening feast the Xthe'-ts'a-ge rise to lead the male 
members of the two divisions in a procession around the village. 
Those of the Tsi'-zhu division go by the right and those of the Ho'^'-ga 
by the left. The members of each division are divided into three 
groups. The first group, composed of the older men who have had 
actual experience in war, is led by the men just entering manhood. 
The third and largest group contains all the boys. The three songs 
belonging to this procession are called Xa-ge' Wa-xo°-xo°, Crying and 
Broken Songs. Xa-ge means to cry and refers to the appeal made by 
these songs to the night, that is, to the Power that moves in the night. 
Wa-xo^-xo** means broken into many pieces. This word refers to the 
group of ownership of these songs and the manner in which they are 
sung. Each of the three groups mentioned above, composed of the 
elder men and the young men and the boys, has its own song which 
was sung simultaneously by the corresponding group in the Tsi'-zhu 
and Ho°'-ga divisions. The effect of these three distinct songs being 
sung at the same time by the three groups of the two divisions bears 
out the descriptive title of broken or divided songs. The first song 
is sung by the elder men. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



37 



M.M. J- 126 



CRYING AND BROKEN SONGS (NIGHT) 

Song 1 

(Osage version, p. 152) 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 




tef-^-^-H*— ^ f J ^ 



Time beats 



— ^ — «! — ai 1 — *- 

r r r rrrr r r r "" T frrr 

Ho^ the-tse no° Wa-ko^-da e-sha bi° da, Xa -ge wa-shko'* ba thi'^ ha, 



tefiE^ 



• d d 



3: 



^ 



S 



J- * V -J- -^- 

r r r rrrr 



* 



y 



r r r r r*T frr r 

Ho° the-tse no^ Wa-ko°-dae-sha bi° da, Xa-ge wa-shko"* ba thii» ha, 



P: 



'«= 



:5: 



^ 



^ 



r r r 

Ha! Do -don -doll 



[ [ ^ ^ [ 

Wa - ko° - da he - gi - the bi do°. 




^ 



^ 



r r r r r "*' f 

Pa - thin . zhin - ga tho - the the pshi ko° - bthe the, 



'•^rr 




fc&s 



3i 



•-•-d^d-d' 



tl 



M: 



4: 



& 



:tj 



s 



? 



rrrr 



r r rrrr rrrr r r r r r 

I : I > I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 

Ho° the-tse non"Wa-ko°-da e-sha bi° da, Xa-ge wa-shko° ba thi^ ha. 



FREE TRANSLATION 

In the night, also, Wa-ko°'-da moves, so it has been said, 

Then cry to Him with all your might. 

In the night, also, Wa-ko°'-da moves, so it has been said, 

Then cry to Him with all your might, 

O, Do-do°'-ho°-ga, may Wa-ko'^'-da favor me. 

That I may find the foe and fall upon him, 

In the night, also, Wa-ko°'-da moves, so it has been said, 

Then cry ye to Him with all your might. 

Song 2, which is sung by the young men grown to manhood, but 
who have yet to experience war, expresses their willingness to follow 
their elder brothers, the experienced warriors, through all the hard- 
ships of war, chief of which is that of thirst, that often comes during 
the marches over the waterless plains. The song prefigures the 
hardships to be met by the young warriors. 



38 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 101 



Song 2 

(Osage version, p. 152) 



M.M. 2- 100 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher, 




Time beats p |" p P P 

The - §e 0° - bi - 96 a thi° he, 



r r r r ^ ^ 

He, zhin - the, He, zhi^ - the, 



i 



EiSE 



SES 



n — ! — r% 



r r 



The - 96 on - bi - ^e a thi° he, 



On-thin . ge 


ta 


tse tho tse tho° - zha 


^ — ■■ 




n- 





^ ^ -i -i -J^ 


-i^. z=t 


:4= 


-Tl 4 ' 




FREE TRANSLATION 

Dry is my tongue from marching, 

O, my elder brother, O, my elder brother, 

Dry is my tongue from marching. 

And, lo, death draws near to me. 

Dry is my tongue from marching, 

O, my elder brother, O, my elder brother. 

Dry is my tongue from marching. 

Song 3, which the boys sing and to which they dance, as they 
follow their elders around the village, has a deeper meaning than that 
conveyed by its words as understood by their ordinary usage and 
sense. The song prefigures the success of the war party and the 
departure of the enemy to the spirit land. The lads sing: 

"O, elder brothers, a spirit makes for me a feast," 

which means, metaphorically, that the enemy has fled to the spirit 
land, leaving him to feast upon the fruits of the earth and thus to 
grow to manhood, and finally to reach old age. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



39 



Song 3 

(Osage version, p. 152) 



M.M. J -96 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 




tn-^: ^ 



S: 



0.4 



s 



± 



s 



a 



^^ 



Timebeats f f f f T f f f T f f 

The, zhi'^-the wa-no^i-xe de wa-no°-bthe o'*-kshi-tha be, He,zhin-the, 




He,zhi°-the The, zhjn-the wa-no°-xe de wa - no°-bthe o°-kshi-tha be. 



FREE TRANSLATION 



O, elder brothers, a spirit makes for me a feast, 
O, my elder brothers, O, my elder brothers, 
O, elder brothers, a spirit makes for me a feast. 

When the men and boys of the two divisions comprising the proces- 
sion meet at the starting point, all the small boys at once scatter to 
their homes while the men, old and young, follow their respective 
Xthe'-ts'a-ge, those belonging to the Tsi'-zhu to the house of that 
division and those belonging to the Ho°'-ga to their house. After 
entering their ceremonial house all the men are obliged to sit upright; 
no one is allowed to lie down until the Wa-zho'-wa-gthe of each house 
issues his command to do so ; meanwhile the men entertain themselves 
by talking over the happenings of the day, particularly those incidents 
that had excited merriment. 

Toward midnight, as the noises cease, the two Criers bearing the 
symbolic weapons start on their march around the village, the one 
Crier from the Tsi'-zhu side going by the right and the one from the 
Ho°'-ga side going by the left. As they slowly walk on their round 
they call, one after the other: "In four days the warriors will move 
against the enemy!" The people keep silent in their tents, for 
although they well know what the Criers are proclaiming, they like 
to hear these calls in the stillness of the night. The Criers pass each 
other at the end of the avenue at the east side and keep up their alter- 
nate calls until they reach their station from which they started, 
where they cease calling. After a moment of silence the Tsi'-zhu 
Wa-zho'-wa-gthe addresses the men in his ceremonial house: "E'-do° 
ha, Ni-ka-wa-ga-e. A'-thi-ko° zho°-i-ha ba thi"^ ha, Ni-ka-ge-e"; "It is 
well, O, ye men of valor. Recline ye and rest ye, O, men of valor." 
After a short pause the Ho°'-ga Wa-zho'-wa-gthe repeats the same 
command to the men witliin his ceremonial house. At once the men 
in both houses, who had been moving all day long, stretch themselves 



40 BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 

upon the ground with many a groan and grunt as they relax their 
limbs. They are, however, forbidden to lie on their backs as they 
rest but must lie on their sides. After this command in the two 
houses the entire village becomes silent in sleep. 

At break of day the two Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge arise and each blows 
a reed whistle, which he carries throughout the ceremony, as a signal 
for the warriors to rise and prepare for the morning procession. The 
young men and boys also respond to the signal and hasten to the cere- 
monial houses to make ready to take part in the ceremony. This 
morning procession, like the night procession of the previous evening, 
is divided into three groups, as already described. Each group has 
its own song for this particular ceremonial march around the village 
and all these songs are sung simultaneously. These songs, like those 
belonging to the night procession, are called Xa-ge Wa-xo°-xo°, 
Broken Songs. As the men of the first group pass along singing their 
songs many of the warriors in the procession as well as the people of 
the village cry loudly in appeal for aid to the Supernatural. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



41 



BROKEN SONGS (DAY) 

Song 1 
(Osage version, p. 152) 



M.M. Jzzl26 



Trauscribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



tt 



'-^nm 



± 



ffi; 



Time beats |* |* f f f 

Ho° the tse no° Wa - ko"^ - dae - sha 



bi" 



rrrr 

do, 




r 

shko° 



ba 



r 

thin 



-(S>- 

rrrr 

ha. 



it 



4: 



r r r 





r^J* tt 


Ho° 


the 


tse 


noil Wa - koD 


- da e 


- sha 


bi 


n da. 


y ttu"' 


" 




^ 


4y-+t-1 


^ \ 1 s 1 ^ 




^> TI ^1 




' 


m 


" 


1 






1 


J 


" 


-i 


> 


J • 


-•- 


-•- 




-I5>- 



r 

Ksho° - ga 



• 




-•- 


-•- 


-I5>- 


r 

wa 


r 

- shko° 


ba 


r 

thill 


^ f ^ c 

ha. 



fH 



-Azt 



r r r r 

Ha! Do -do^i - hoi> ga 



r I ^ r t 

Wa - ko° - da he gi tha bi do'i, 



U. 



tm 



^: 



1^ 



t: 



±-_ 



r r r ^ ^ ^ T^^t 

Pa - thi° - zhi° - ga tho - the thi^ pshi ko° - bthe tho, 



m^ 



^ 



:E 



± 



^ 



^ '. ^ ^ { ^ rrrr ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

Ho° the tse no'^ Wa-^o^i-da e-sha W^ do, Ksho'^-ga wa-shko° ba thi^i ha. 

FREE TRANSLATION 

In the night, also, Wa-ko°'-da moves, so it has been said, 
Then, younger brothers, cry to Him with all your might, 
In the night, also, Wa-ko°'-da moves, so it has been said, 
Then, younger brothers, cry to Him with all your might, 
O, Do-do°'-ho°-ga, may Wa-ko°'-da favor me. 
That I may find the foe and fall upon him. 
In the night, also, Wa-ko°'-da moves, so it has been said, 
Then, younger brothers, cry to Him with all your might. 
83773—39 4 



42 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 101 



The song sung by the young men commemorates the passing of 
Wa-thi'-gtho°-thi°-ge, a warrior noted for his successes in war-Uke 
enterprises. As in many of the Osage songs, the meaning of the words 
and phrases employed are used figuratively and cannot be ade- 
quately translated into English, In this song the singer is repre- 
sented as moving along life's pathway, weeping while he remembers 
the dead warrior, his valorous deeds, his hospitality, and his charitable 
acts. 

Song 2 



(Osage version, p. 153) 



126 




Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



±±: 



Time beats ' 
Wi 



gi 



r r r 

§i - the do° xa - ge a - thi'* 



r r r r 

he tho, "Wi - gi 



m 



2- 



4: 



itzi: 



^ 



r r r r r 

^i-the do'* xa-ge a-thi° he tho, 



r r r 

Wa-thi-gtho'» thi°- ge, 



Wt 




s^^ 



r r r 

§1 - the do° xa - ge a-thii" 



r r r r 

he tho, Wi - gi 



r r r 

9i-the do** xa-gea-thi° 



a 



=P^^ 



-g-P- 



r r r r 

he tho, Wi - gi 



9i - the do"* xa - ge a - thi"* 



r r 

he tho, 




r r 

Wa-thi-gthoii-thin -ge, Wi - gi 



r r r r 

9i - the do" xa- ge a-thii» he tho. 



FREE TRANSLATION 



I weep 
I weep 
Wa-thi 
I weep 
I weep 
I weep 
Wa-thi 
I weep 



when I remember you, 
when I remember you, 
'-gtho°-thi°-ge, 
when I remember you, 
when I remember you, 
when I remember you, 
'-gtho°-thi°-ge, 
when I remember you. 



as I travel onward, 
as I travel onward, 

as I travel onward, 
as I travel onward, 
as I travel onward, 

as I travel onward. 



The tliird song, which the boys sing, represents the boy as coming 
to his father and proudly calling upon him to see his son's face painted 
with charcoal, the symbol of fire. No one had urged the lad but he 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



43 



had seized the symbol and put it upon his face with the hope that 
some day he would become a warrior. 



Song 3 

(Osage version, p. 153) 



M.M. 



120 




Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



zmuzLiM ^ 



& 



;4: 



Time beats \ i f 

Hi^^ - da-dsi o"^- gi - to° - be 



r r r r r 

hi tho, Hi° - da - dsi 0° - gi - toi>-be 



i 



-I — » — • — « — •- 



^•i 



H*=P= 



- J d F - 



:4=t 



±1 



r 



r 



r r r r 



r 



r r 



r 



hi tho, 0°-gi-to°-be hi tho, Be ho°-gon-^e thin-ge,No°-xthei-tha- 



!|=rn= 



s s s - 



m 



^ 



l:4z±: 



#: 



r r r 

ki^-dse tho,On-gi-ton-be 



r r r r r r r 

hi tho, Hi'^-da-dsi o°-gi - to"^ - be hi tho, 




Hi°-da-dsi o'*-gi - to°- be hi tho, Hi"! -da-dsi 0°- gi - to°- be hi tho. 



FREE TRANSLATION 

Behold me, thy son, O, my father, 
Behold me, thy son, 0, my father, 
Behold me, thy son. 
Urged by no one, 
I have seized the sacred charcoal, 
Behold me, thy son, O, my father. 
Behold me, thy son, O, my father. 
Behold me, thy son, O, my father. 

On the return of the warriors the young men and the boys go to 
two ceremonial houses, the starting point, and the 0-tho°'-da Wa-tsi 
(Dance in the Center) already described on page 33 is repeated. 
At the close of this dance the women place before the warriors water 
and food for their morning meal. The women also similarly serve the 
Do-do °' -ho °-ga and the two Criers. The processions and dances that 
follow through the second day and evening are repetitions of those of 
the pre\dous day, and upon the return of the warriors to their respec- 
tive houses they are obhged to sit upright until the return of the 
Criers from making their announcement when at the command, as 
already described, the men are allowed to take their rest. About 
midnight, when the village is quiet, the two Criers set forth on their 
second march around the village, crying out, one after the other, in a 
loud singing tone, the following notice: 



44 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull, loi 

CALL OF THE CRIERS 

(Osage version, p. 153) 
Slowly, with dignity Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



Do - Ao^ - ho^ - ga, ho^ - ba ga - 90° - thi^ do° 




Ni da - ka - de ga - xe ta bi^^ da bi° 

FREE TRANSLATION 

Tomorrow at break of day the Do-do°'-ho°-ga 
Will heat the sacred water. 

All the people, even the children, remain silent listening to the calls, 
and by the time the two men have completed the circle the whole 
village slumbers as though crooned to sleep by the Criers. 

Some time during the night the Tsi Wa-ko°-da-gi, House of Mystery, 
which is in the keeping of the Wa-ga'-be gens of the Ho°'-ga subdivi- 
sion, is set up about 150 paces west of the two ceremonial houses and 
in direct line of the avenue running through the village. The frame 
is constructed in the same manner as that for the ordinary house but 
the coverings are of animal skins that have symbolic significance. 
The first used is an elk skin which is spread over the eastern end of the 
frame; the elk is one of the symbols of war. The second is the skin 
of a black bear ; this skin is spread over one side of the house ; the black 
bear is a symbol of fire which is unrelenting when it takes a destructive 
course. The third is the skin of a puma which is spread on the other 
side of the house; this animal is also a symbol of fire. The fourth is 
the skin of a swan which is spread over the top of the frame in the 
center; this bird also serves as a symbol of fire. 

At break of day the man who had been chosen to be the Do-do'^'- 
ho°-ga by the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga, the volunteer Do-do°'-ho°-ga, the 
Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge and the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga approach the house of 
mystery, enter and take their places according to gentes as at the 
meetings of the No'^'-ho°-zhi°-ga when performing the ceremonies of 
the war rite. The Xo'-ka sits at the east end of the lodge and con- 
ducts the ceremony. With him sits the Do-do°'-ho°-ga, as at a regular 
initiation into one of the seven degrees of the war rite. The Sho'-ka 
takes his place beside the fireplace on the Ho'^'-ga side of the lodge. 

Ceremony of Ni Da-ka-dse E-dsi-gthe (Heating the Water) 

When all the men are in their places the Xo'-ka directs the Sho'ka 
to arrange four stones in the fireplace, one toward each of the four 
winds. This ceremonial act having been performed by the Sho'-ka, 
the Xo'-ka directs him to place upon the stones a kettle, the cere- 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 45 

monial name of wliich is Tse'-xe Ni-ka-po. No definition of this name 
could be obtained, but it may be analyzed as follows: Tse'-xe, kettle; 
Ni-ka, abbreviation of Ni-ka-slii-ga, persons; po, modification of the 
word po-e, to burn or to set on fire. The ceremonial kettle filled with 
water by the Sho'-ka is held in readiness to be placed upon the four 
stones while the Xo'-ka recites the following wi'-gi-e. 

PLACING OF THE KETTLE RITUAL 
(Osage version, p. 153) 

1 . Verily, at that time and place, 

2. The Ho°'-ga, a people who possess seven fireplaces, 

3. Verily, a people among whom there are none that are craven, 

4. Verily, at that time and place, they said, it has been said, in this 

house, 

5. Spoke to one another, saying: "O, younger brothers, 

6. There is one useful thing lacldng, O, younger brothers." 

7. Verily, at that time and place, 

8. The Tse'-xe Ni-ka-po (Ceremonial Kettle), 

9. The younger brothers brought forth at once, 

10. Then they said to one another, "0, younger brothers, 

11. This shall serve our purpose, O, younger brothers," they said, it 

was said. 

12. Verily, at that time and place, 

13. They said to one another, "Let us put water in it to heat, O, 

younger brothers." 

14. Verily, at that time and place, 

15. They put water into the kettle to heat. 

When the ceremonial kettle had been placed upon the four stones 
the Sho'-ka takes four symbolic plants and holds them in readiness 
to be dropped into the kettle as each one is mentioned in the following 
wi'-gi-e.* 

PLACING OF FOOD IN THE SETTLE TO COOK RITUAL 

(Osage version, p. 154) 

1 

1. Verily, at that time and place, they said, 

2. "What shall we put in the kettle to cook?" 

3. Then they said to one another, "O, younger brothers, 

4. There are four kinds of foods, 

5. We have said we would use in making our enemies to fall, 

6. Those we shall put into the kettle to cook, O, younger brothers." 

7. Verily, at that time and place, 

8. They brought forth the ho'-xtho°-ta-xe (Sparganium), 

9. And said to one another: "This, O, younger brothers, 



* For the story of the finding of these plants and their dedication to ceremonial purposes see Sees. 876 to 
983 of the Ni'-]ji No^-^'o" wi'-gi-e, pp. 182-185, Thirty-sixth Ann. Kept. Bur. Amer. Ethn. 



46 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

10. We shall put into the kettle to cook, 

11. It is agreed that this shall be, 

12. But it shall not be without a purpose and something to go with it, 

O, younger brothers. 

13. Toward the setting of the sun, 

14. Where dwell our enemies, there is a youth in his adolescence, 

15. Whose life shall accompany this, O, younger brothers," they said 

to one another; 

16. "The food is that which the Wa-zha'-zhe, 

17. And the Tsi'-zhu, 

18. Shall always use in making their enemies to fall." 



19. "There is yet another one, O, younger brothers," they said to one 

another, 

20. "The 9i°'-mo°-no°-ta {Nymphaea advena), 

21. That also, 

22. We shall put into the kettle to cook, 

23. It is agreed that this shall be, 

24. But it shall not be without a purpose and something to go with 

it, O, younger brothers, 

25. Toward the setting of the sun, where dwell our enemies, 

26. There is a maiden in her adolescence, 

27. Whose Ufe shall go into the kettle with this, O, younger brothers, 

28. The food is that which the Wa-zha'-zhe, 

29. And the Tsi'-zhu, 

30. Shall always use in making their enemies to fall." 



31. Verily, at that time and place, they said, 

32. "There is yet another one, O, younger brothers." 

33. Verily, at that time and place, they said, 

34. "The gi° {Sagittaria latifolia), " 

35. We shall put into the kettle to cook, 

36. It is agreed that this shall be, 

37. But it shall not be without a purpose and something to go with it, 

O, younger brothers; 

38. Toward the setting of the sun, where dwell our enemies, 

39. There is a married man, 

40. Whose Ufe shall go into this kettle with this, 

41. The food is that which the Wa-zha'-zhe, 

42. And the Tsi'-zhu, 

43. Shall always use in making their enemies to fall." 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 47 



44. Verily, at that time and place, they said, 

45. "There is yet another one, O, younger brothers, 

46. The ho°-bthi°'-gi (Falcata comosa), 

47. That also, 

48. We shall put into the kettle to cook, 

49. It is agreed that this shall be, 

50. But it shall not be uathout a purpose and something to go with 

it, O, younger brothers, 

51. Toward the setting of the sun, where dwell our enemies, 

52. There is a woman who has given birth to her first child, 

53. It is the life of this woman that shall go into the kettle with this, 

O, younger brothers; 

54. The food is that which the Wa-zha'-zhe, 

55. And the Tsi'-zhu, 

56. Shall always use in making their enemies to fall." 

The plants above mentioned being unfit for food, were rejected by 
the Osage and are here used ironically for food to destroy the enemy. 
The wi'-gi-e of the Placing of Food in the Kettle having been recited 
and the Sho'-ka having actually, or by pantomime, put into the kettle 
the symbolic plants, the Xo'-ka proceeds to recite the wi'-gi-e called 
fe'-dse U-k'i Wi'-gi-e (Pe'-dse, fire; U-k'i, contributed to). This per- 
tains to the ceremonial kindling of the fire by which the sacred water 
is to be heated. The Sho'-ka is instructed by the Xo'-ka, when he is 
about to recite this wi'-gi-e, to go and seize a firebrand from the 
fireplace of each of four warriors designated by him for use in kind- 
ling this fire. Each of these four brands symbolizes a deer; the act 
of their seizure by the Sho'-ka without permission is to impress upon 
the mind of the warrior that it is his duty to protect the hunter and 
the deer against the warriors of strange or hostile tribes. These four 
symbolic brands having been seized, the Sho'-ka goes with his assist- 
ants, chosen by liimself, and collects from a member of each of the 
gentes of the tribe a stick of firewood to be used for this symbolic fire.' 
The title of the wi'-gi-e implies that the brands and the wood are 
voluntarily contributed by the owners, but in reality they were 
appropriated by the No'^'-ho°-zhi°-ga for use in the ceremony. As an 
act of reverence for the office of Peacemaker, members of the two 
Peace gentes of the tribe, the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta-ge and the Po°-ka 
Wa-shta-ge, are exempted from an appropriation of their wood. The 
wives of the men who were last initiated into the tattooing rite are 

• The Osage custom of collecting wood from a family belonging to each of the gentes of the tribe with 
which to make the fire required for this tribal ceremony bears resemblance to the Omaha custom of col- 
lecting tent poles from each family in the tribe to be used in constructing the ceremonial tent required for 
the tribal ceremony connected with the Sacred Pole. (See Twenty-seventh Ann. Rpt. Bur. Amer. Ethn., 
p. 237.) The Omaha and Osage customs above mentioned are probably survivals of ceremonies practiced 
by these tribes when they formed a part of one tribal organization. 



48 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOi 

also exempted from this demand, but if the collectors persist in taking 
the wood the women can exercise the right conferred upon them and 
challenge the men to recount their valorous deeds. Should they be 
unable to accept the challenge the wood will be refused. 

CONTRIBUTION TO THE FIRE Wl'-GI-E 

(Osage version, p. 155J 

1. Verily, at that time and place, 

2. At each of the four winds, 

3. They laid down one firebrand. 

4. At the east wind, 

5. They laid down one firebrand, 

6. It was not without a purpose, they said; 

7. It was with a young doe 

8. They laid down the firebrand. 

9. It was not without a purpose they laid it down, they said, 

10. They laid it there to make the animals to come. 

11. At the south wind, 

12. They laid down one firebrand, 

13. It was not without a purpose they laid it down, they said, 

14. It was with a young buck, 

15. They laid down the firebrand, 

16. They laid it there to make the animals to come. 

17. Verily, at that time and place, 

18. At the west wind, 

19. They laid down one firebrand, 

20. It was not without a purpose they laid it down; 

21. It was with a full-grown doe, 

22. They laid down the firebrand, 

23. They placed it there to make the animals to come. 

24. Verily, at that time and place, 

25. At the north wind, 

26. They laid down one firebrand, 

27. It was not without a purpose they laid it down, they said, 

28. It was with a dark-horned buck, 

29. They laid down the firebrand, 

30. They placed it there to make the animals to come. 

31. Verily, at that time and place, 

32. Behold, the swirling of the boiling water, they said. 

33. At the beginning of the day, 

34. The animals go forth, like the swirling water, to roam over the 

earth ; 

35. I make the swirling of the boiling water to represent these animals. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 49 

Behold the vapor that rises from the boilixig water, 
That also represents some movements, they said. 
At the beginning of the day, 
The little animals (the deer). 

Go forth to roam over the earth, the vapor rising from their nos- 
trils, as they breathe, 

41. It is this movement that I make the vapor rising from the boihng 

water to represent. 

42. Behold the particles that leap upward from the surface of the 

boiling water, 
At the beginning of the day, they said. 
The little animals go forth to roam over the earth, 
Joyously leaping over one another in play, 
It is this action that I make the leaping particles to represent. 

47. Verily, at that time and place, 

48. Behold the bubbles that float upon the surface of the boiling 

water, 

49. Those also represent an action, they said. 

50. The little animal stricken by the hunter, 

51. Rushes forth in flight, the blood bubbling from its wound, 

52. The bubbles floating upon the surface of the boiling water I make 

to represent the wounded animal. 

53. Behold the boiling water that rushes over the rim of the kettle, 

54. That also represents an action, they said, 

55. The little animal, 

56. That goes forth at the beginning of the day, 

57. Is stricken by the hunter, it treads upon its life blood, as it struggles 

in the throes of death. 

58. It is this action that I make the overflowing boiling water to 

represent. 

59. The httle animals also have a share in the common inheritance of 

life. 

60. Some of them must be permitted to live to enjoy the calm and 

peaceful days, 

61 . So, as we move along life's pathway, O, younger brothers, they said 

to one another, let us permit some to live in peace, 

62. In this way, also, we may, with greater ease, overcome our 

enemies, O, younger brothers, they said to one another. 

In January 1917 the manuscript of this wi'-gi-e was read, for its 
final verification, to Wa-xthi'-zhi, in the presence of Sho°'-ge-mo°-i°, 
a member of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta-ge gens and who is reputed to be 
an authority on the No'''-ho°-zhi°-ga rites. At the close of the reading 



50 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

the old man was asked by Wa-xthi'-zhi if he had given the wi'-gi-e 
correctly. 

After some reflection the old man replied: ''You have given it 
according to the present manner in which it is usually recited by the 
No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the present generation." He then went on to 
express his regret that the men of to-day had allowed themselves to 
drift from the order established by the ancient No'''-ho°-zhi°-ga. He 
explained that the ancient No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga when performing the 
Pe'-dse U-k'i ceremony followed a well-established rule which re- 
quired that when a member of the Tsi'-zhu division was conducting 
the ceremony, that the following sequence should be observed in lay- 
ing down the symbolic firebrands. First, a firebrand be laid toward 
the west; second, one toward the north; third, one toward the east; 
fourth, one toward the south. If it so happened that a member of 
the Ho°'-ga division was conducting the ceremony the rule required 
that the following sequence be observed. First, a firebrand be laid 
toward the east; second, one toward the north; third, one toward the 
west; fourth, one toward the south. 

All the names of the four cardinal points, he went on to say, refer 
to the winds. That for the north is Ta-dse Ba'-^o" dsi: the wind that 
is toward the cedars. The meaning of this term is being lost. Ba'-go"*, 
cedar, as ordinarily used, is understood to mean a certain kind of 
tree, but as used in this wi'-gi-e it means clouds, so when the No'^'-ho'*- 
zhi'^-ga says Ta-dse Ba'-go" dsi, he means the wind of the regions 
whence come clouds like the dark cedars. In the term Ta-dse A'-k'a 
dsi for the wind of the south, the word A-k'a has lost its meaning. 
The No°'-ho"-zhi°-ga of the present day have confused the names of 
the winds of the east and the winds of the west by exchanging them, 
for which there is no reasonable excuse. The correct term for the 
winds of the west is Ta-dse Ga-xpa dsi. Ga-xpa is from the word 
u-ga'-xpa-the, the falling of an object, and refers to the falling of the 
sun behind the earth. Formerly the term used to designate the west 
was Mi'-u-xpe, the falling of the sun, but this name has now become 
obsolete. The correct term for the winds of the east is Ta-dse Mi-hiu 
dsi, the winds toward the coming of the sun. The term now used is 
Ta-dse Mo°-ha dsi, in which the word Mi-hiu has become corrupted, 
through careless recitation, into Mo°-ha, thereby obscuring the mean- 
ing of the term. The older No'''-ho°-zhi°-ga have explained that the 
Mi-hiu dsi, toward the coming of the sun, was the original name of 
the east. 

During the investigation for this work the Pe'-dsi U-k'i Wi'-gi-e 
has been secured in full from three different Osage men. Two of 
them, Wa-tse'-mo°-i° of the Wa-ga'-be gens, and Wa-xthi'-zhi of the 
I°-gtho°'-ga, both men of the Hon'-ga division, gave the order of lay- 
ing down the symbolic firebrands as east, south, west, north. The 
third man, Xu-tha'-wa-to"-i° of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° gens, of the 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 51 

Tsi'-zhu division, gave the order as, east, west, north, south. All of 
these men used the names Ga-xpa for east and Mo°'-ha for west, 
which Sho°'-ge-mo°-i° showed to be incorrect. 

The information given by Ga-hi'-ge-wa-da-i°-ga, a member of the 
Xsi'-zhu division, to J. Owen Dorsey in the year 1883, concerning the 
order observed by the No'''-ho''-zhi°-ga of the two divisions, in the 
placing of the symbolic firebrands, agrees with the above statement 
made by Sho'^'-ge-mo^-i". Mr. Dorsey's informant, how^ever, like the 
rest, seems to have fallen into the confusion of the ceremonial names 
for the west and the east. (See Sixth Ann. Rept. Bur. Etiin., pp. 
380-381.) 

Just at sunrise the ceremony of kindling the fire under the kettle 
comes to a close and the Sho'-ka calls one of the Tse'-xe-k'i° Wa-to°-ga 
(Chief Kettle Carrier), to whom he gives the kettle of hot water and 
this officer carries it westward, on a line with the avenue dividing the 
village, to a spot beyond the places frequented by men and dogs, 
where he pours the water upon the ground. As the kettle of water 
is carried away the meeting adjourns, the men going to the two cere- 
monial houses of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge, while the House of Mystery is 
taken dowTi and its coverings put away. The women now bring food 
and water for the Do-do'^'-ho^-ga, the warriors, and the two Criers. 

The processions and dances that take place throughout the day 
do not differ materially from those of the day before, already described. 

At the close of the evening procession of the warriors, young men and 
boys, toward midnight the two Criers again start on their march 
around the village alternately calling out the following notice: 

THE crier's notice 

(Osage version, p. 157) 
Slowly, with dignity Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



D . 1 1 




/ 1 r ^^ u \ r~~^ 




/ t T 


1 <^ 


l^^/S' a m m ^ m ««« 


m " 






J 





Do - do"^ - ho"^ - ga, h.6^ - ba ga - gon - thi^ do'^, 



i 



i I I I J I ^ =4 



Wa - xthe - xthe ga - xe ta W da bi^ da o. 

FKEE TRANSLATION 

Tomorrow morning the Do-do°'-ho°-ga 
Will make the standards, they have said. 

Some time during the night the House of Mystery is again set up, 
this time close to the two ceremonial houses of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge, and 
on a line with the middle of the avenue dividing the village. At 
break of day the Do-do°'-ho°-ga and the Xo'-ka enter the House of 
Mystery and take their seats at the eastern end. The No^'-ho"- 



52 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOi 

zlii°-ga follow and take their accustomed places, according to gentes, 
within the lodge, those of the Tsi'-zhu division along the south side, 
and those of the Ho°'-ga along the north. 

When all have become seated a Sho'-ka of the Wa-zha'-zhe sub- 
division places before a man of the E-no°' Mi°-dse-to° (Bow) gens of 
that division, the materials for the two wa-xthe'-xthe (standards) to 
be made by him. As this officer is about to begin his task he recites 
a wi'-gi-e that tells of the symbolic significance of each article to be 
used. (Wa-xtlii'-zhJ declined to recite this wi'-gi-e, saying that he 
did not know it. The reason for his not knowing it may lie in the fact 
that the exclusive right to recite it belongs not to his gens but to the 
members of the E-no'^' Mi^-dse-to"^ gens.) 

After reciting the wi'-gi-e the officer proceeds to make the two 
standards. This does not take long, as the materials had already 
been prepared to be put together. These two standards are called 
Wa-xthe'-xthe Wa-ko°-da-gi, Mysterious Standards. They are al- 
ways made within the House of Mystery where the wi'-gi-e relating to 
their symbolism is recited with due solemnity, thus fully vesting them 
with all the mysteries of the war rite. These standards are given by 
the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga as a body to their chosen Do-do'^'-ho'^-ga, as their 
final act of conferring upon him the authority to lead the war party. 
The particular office of the Do-do°'-ho°-ga being that of an intercessor 
between the people and Wa-ko°'-da which must continue throughout 
the expedition, he being thus engaged, is obliged to delegate the 
authority of actual leadership to the two Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge. This 
he does, presenting to them the sacred standards. (These official 
standards do not differ in appearance from those made in the tw^o 
ceremonial houses of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge at an earlier stage of the cere- 
mony, as already described.) 

When the two Mysterious Standards are finished the Sho'-ka con- 
ducts the Do-do"'-ho°-ga to the E-no°' Mi°-dse-to'' gens, where the 
members formally present the standards to him. The Do-do^'-ho^-ga 
then returns to his seat, taking with him the two standards. 

As the Do-do'^'-ho^-ga takes his seat the Xo'-ka instructs a Tse'-xe- 
k'i° (Kettle Carrier), to go after the Xthe'-ts'a-ge who had remained, 
during the ceremony of maldng the standards, in the house of their 
divisions. The eight Xthe'-ts'a-ge, in two groups of four, each led by 
its Wa-zho'-wa-gthe, Master of Ceremony, also carrying the standard 
previously used, enter the House of Mystery. The Wa-zho'-wa-gthe 
from the Tsi'-zhu division takes his own place among the members of 
his gens and the Xthe'-ts'a-ge of his group sit in front of the No"'- 
ho°-zhi°-ga of the Tsi'-zhu division. The Wa-zho'-wa-gthe from the 
Ho'^'-ga di^dsion takes his own place among the members of his gens 
and the Xthe'-ts'a-ge of his group sit in front of the No°'-ho°-zlii°-ga 
of the Ho'^'-ga division. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 53 



These men having taken theu' seats, the Do-do°'-ho°-ga rises, 
approaches the Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge of the Ho'^'-ga division and places 
in his hands one of the Mysterious Standards, saying, as he does so: 
"O, Ho°'-ga, I ask of you the Ufe of a creature," meaning the life of 
an enemy against whom the war party is to move. The Do-do'^'- 
ho°-ga next approaches the Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge of the Tsi'-zhu divi- 
sion, places in his hands the other standard, makes of liim the same 
request, and then returns to his place, where he remains standing. 

The Wa-zho'-wa-gthe of the Ho°'-ga division then rises, places in 
the hands of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge sitting next to the Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge 
of that division the standard he had been carrying on entrance into 
the House of Mystery, saying: "O, Ho°'-ga, I ask of you the life of a 
creature." The Wa-zho'-wa-gthe of the Tsi'-zhu division then rises, 
places in the hands of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge sitting next to the Chief 
Xthe'-ts'a-ge the standard of that division, saying, as he does so: 
"O, Tsi'-zhu, I ask of you the life of a creature." 

The Do-do°'-ho°-ga and the two Wa-zho'-wa-gthe now sit down. 
At once all the No^'-ho^'-zhi^-ga begin to sing. Hi, hi, hi, hi, beating 
time by clapping their hands, the eight Xthe'-ts'a-ge, one after the 
other, rise and dance, following the sequence in which the standards 
were presented, until all of the eight have danced. 

At the close of this dance the warriors of each of the two divisions 
form a procession and march around the village, led by the Xthe'- 
ts'a-ge to whom had been presented the four standards, those of the 
Tsi'-zhu division going by the right and those of the Ho^'-ga by the 
left. The warriors of each group carry a drum and as they march 
beat time to their singing. As on the former processions, the two 
groups time their movements so as to pass each other at the end of the 
avenue on the eastern side of the village on their return to the two 
houses at the close of the morning's procession. The women place 
food and water as the morning meal before the warriors, the Do-do"'- 
ho°-ga, and the two Criers. 

During the forming of the procession the House of Mystery is 
taken down and the coverings put away, not to be used again until 
the war party returns successful. 

The processions and dances throughout the day are similar to those 
of the previous days. 

In the evening some of the members of the Wa-ga'-be gens gather 
wood which they divide into two parts, one of which they place a few 
paces west of the ceremonial house of the Tsi'-zhu division, arranging 
the pile so that it can be quickly kindled into a fire. The other part 
they place in the same relation to the ceremonial house of the Ho°'-ga 
division and arrange in a similar manner. Tliis wood must be of the 
redbud, a tree regarded as mysterious and sacred. These piles of 
wood when brought to the ceremonial houses become the property of 



54 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

the two Wa-zho'-wa-gthe whose duty it is to see that none of it is 
carried away and put to private use. 

Toward midnight, as the noises of the village cease, the two Criers 
set out on their last march around the village, alternately calling as 
they walk, the following notice: 

criers' notice 

(Osage version, p. 157) 
Slowly, with dignity Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 












y 








/ 






-1 _i i 1 1 


IC^ in m 


^ 


^ 




\s) f^ •»- -. -».w 


«J 









Do - doi» - hoii - ga, ho° - ba ga - §o° - thi" do^ 







y \- 1 , i"~^ i ^ 


^■^ 1 ^ 


/ _r 


1 1 J 


^^* m m m mm m ^ a 








«J 





Non - xthe Wa - kon - da - gi ga - xe ta bi" da bi'^ da o. 

FREE TRANSLATION 

Tomorrow morning, the Do-do°'-ho°-ga 

Will make the Mysterious Charcoal, they have said. 

The "Mysterious Charcoal" to be ceremonially made symbolizes 
the wild fire that is merciless when it takes a destructive course. 
Each warrior must carry with him a supply of this charcoal tied up in 
a bit of deerskin and fastened to his belt or to his necklace, together 
with his other little bundles of paints. When he is about to join an 
attack upon the enemy he must blacken his face with the "Mysterious 
Charcoal," thus indicating his determination to show no mercy 
toward the foe. Should he neglect to put upon his face this symbol 
he will not be permitted to count o-do°' (war honors), even if he were 
to perform all the deeds necessary for the winning of individual o-do"*', 
nor will he be entitled to count his share of the o-do°' won by the war 
party as a body. 

At break of day the warriors of the Ho^'-ga division, clad only in 
their loin cloth and moccasins, led by their Wa-zho'-wa-gthe, gather 
around the pile of sacred wood that the Wa-9a'-be gens had placed 
near their house the evening before. At the same time, and similarly 
clad, the warriors of the Tsi'-zhu division, led by their Wa-zho'-wa- 
gthe, gather about the pile of sacred wood that had been placed near 
their house. The Do-do^'-ho'^-ga and his Xo'-ka approach the pile 
of sacred wood on the Ho°'-ga side, the latter carrying with him the 
standard presented by the Do-do°'-ho°-ga to the Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge 
of the Ho°'-ga division. Two men of the Wa-ga'-be gens now go, one 
to each of the piles of wood, and set them on fire; as the flames leap 
upward the Xo'-ka recites the Charcoal Wi'-gi-e and sings the songs 
that follow it. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 55 

FIGHT FOR THE SYMBOLIC CHARCOAL Wl'-GI-E 
(Osage version, p. 157) 

1 

1. "What shall they make their charcoal to symbolize; they said, 

2. The male puma that lies recumbent, 

3. That shall their charcoal symbolize. 

4. Having made their charcoal to symbolize the male puma, 

5. When they set forth toward the setting of the sun, against their 

enemies, 

6. They shall put upon themselves the symbol of the male puma. 

7. When they put upon themselves the symbol of the puma, they 

said, 

8. They shall have the courage to vanquish their enemies, O, younger 

brothers. 

2 

9. What shall they make their charcoal to symbolize, 

10. The black bear that is without blemish, that lies recumbent, they 

said, 

11. That shall be their charcoal symbol. 

12. Having made their charcoal to symbolize the black bear, 

13. When they set forth toward the setting of the sun, against their 

enemies, 

14. They shall put upon themselves the symbol of the black bear; 

15. When they put upon themselves the symbol of the black bear, 

16. They shall have the courage to vanquish their enemies, O, younger 

brothers, they said to one another. 



17. What shall they make their charcoal to symbolize, 

18. The great white swan, they said, 

19. That shall their charcoal symbolize. 

20. He it is who said: "Behold, the black that is upon the soles of my 

feet; 

21. Behold, the black that is upon the tip of my mandible, 

22. That I have made to be my charcoal." 

23. When the little ones also make that to be their charcoal, 

24. "Black, indeed, shall be their charcoal, O, younger brothers," they 

said to one another. 

25. When they set forth toward the setting of the sun against their 

enemies, 

26. And put upon themselves this symbol, 

27. Black, indeed, shall be their charcoal, O, younger brothers. 



56 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 



28. What shall they make their charcoal to symbolize, 

29. The bird without a stain (the adult golden eagle), they said, 

30. That, also, shall the charcoal symbolize. 

31. He it is who said: "Behold, the black upon the soles of my feet, 

32. That I have made to be my charcoal; 

33. Behold, the black that is upon the tips of the feathers of my tail; 

34. Behold, the black that is upon my beak, 

35. That I have made to be my charcoal." 

36. "When the little ones also make that to be their charcoal, 

37. Black, indeed, shall be their charcoal, O, younger brothers. 

38. When they set forth toward the setting of the sun against their 

enemies, 

39. And put upon themselves this symbol, 

40. Black, indeed, shall be their charcoal, O, younger brothers," they 

said to one another. 

5 

41. What shall they make their charcoal to symbolize? 

42. The young buck, they said, 

43. That also, 

44. They shall make their charcoal to symbolize. 

45. He it is who said: "Behold, the black that is upon my hoofs; 

46. That I have made to be my charcoal; 

47. Behold, the black that is upon the tip of my nose, 

48. That I have made to be my charcoal. 

49. When the little ones also make that to be their charcoal, 

50. And put it upon themselves when they set forth toward the 

setting of the sun against their enemies, 

51. Black, indeed, shall be their charcoal," they said. 

52. Verily, at that time and place, 

53. He said: "I escape the dangers that often beset me, 

54. And though I am often surrounded by my enemies, 

55. Their arrows flying about in forked lines, 

56. I escape the dangers that beset me." 

57. When the little ones make of him their flesh, they said, 

58. They also shall be able to escape dangers, O, younger brothers. 

The complete mythical story of the finding of the puma, the black 
bear, and the white swan, and the adoption as emblems of fire, courage, 
and strength is given in fines 990 to 1062 of the Ni'-ki No^-k'o"* Ritual 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 57 

of the Wa-ga'-be gens, Thirty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of 
American Etlmology, pages 192 to 194. According to this story, 
when the Ho°'-ga, a people possessing Seven Fireplaces, were making 
their war rite, they became aware that it would be necessary for them 
to have emblems to represent their courage. They sent a messenger 
over the laud to find animals suitable for their needed emblems. At 
the brow of a hill he beheld a male puma and made known to him 
the wishes of the ''little ones." Thereupon the puma switched his 
tail as though in anger until every hair in it stood on end and said 
to the messenger: "1 shall be the emblem of courage for the 'little 
ones'." Again he spake, saying: "Behold the black upon the tip of 
my tail in which there is fire. It is a fire that I shall share with the 
'little ones.' A fire that shall always burn strongly for them. Behold 
the black that is upon the soles of my feet, upon the tip of my nose, 
and upon the tip of my ears; that shall be an emblem of courage to 
the 'httle ones'." 

Again the messenger was sent forth. As he was crossing an open 
prairie he suddenly came upon a black bear and to him made known 
the wishes of the "little ones," whereupon the bear arose and stood 
with claws outspread in flames of fire, saying: "Behold, my outspread 
claws. Each claw is a flamxe of fire. It is a fire that I shall share with 
the 'little ones.' It is a fire that shall always burn strongly for them. 
Behold, the black that is upon the soles of my feet; that is upon the 
tip of my nose; that is upon my body. It is my charcoal which I 
shall share with the 'little ones'." 

A third time the messenger was sent out and again on the open 
prairie he came upon the white swan, to whom he made his request 
as before. The swan in reply gave to the "little ones" the black upon 
his feet and upon the tip of his mandible for a symbol of fire which 
shall always burn strongly for them. ^Vhen the "little ones" put upon 
themselves this symbol as they go to attack their enemies they shall 
be courageous and have the strength that knows no exhaustion. 

It is said by the Osage that the swan has superior power of endurance 
and can make a longer flight than any of the large birds. 

At the close of the wi'-gi-e the Xo'-ka begins at once to sing the 
Charcoal song as he holds the standard pointed at the fire. When 
he comes to the sixth stanza he makes a motion toward the fire v.'ith 
the standard, then all the warriors rush upon the flames mth wild 
shouts, pushing each other and snatching at the burning brands 
which, in the struggle, they scatter in every direction. 



83773—39- 



58 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 101 



M.M. J 112 



SONG OF RUSHING FOR THE CHARCOAL 

(Osage version, p. 159) 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



8^ 



4: 



^ 



^ — ^ 



•-= 1^ d 4 

r r r r 

I III 

ni wa tlia te, ha tho, 



Time beats ] f 

Ni - ka 9to bi 



-*— -* — 

r r 

ha tho, 



If 



il 



3^^ 



»l^ 



■^ 



^ 



2l 



-Hi— #-iii— -# 



-4 — i^ 



r r r r r r r r r r r r r 

Ni - ka ni do°, e the he, ha tho, Ni- ka ni do°, ha we, ha tho, 



^ 



^f 



S^^^i^i 



-T— •— * 



r r r r r r r r r r r 

Ni-ka ni do°, e the he, Ni-ka^to bi ni watha te, ha tho. 

FREE TRANSLATION 
1 

Men are assembling, go join them, go join them, 

If thou art a man, go now and join them, 

If thou art a man, hasten and join them, 

If thou art a man go now, 

Men are assembling, go join them, go join them. 



They have a leader, go join them, go join them, etc. 



They have a standard, go join them, go join them, etc. 

4 
They have feathers, go join them, go join them, etc. 

5 
They have a deerskin, go join them, go join them, etc. 

6 
They have a fire, go join them, go join them, etc. 

7 
They have charcoal, go join them, go join them, etc. 

In the song given by Sho°'-ge-ino°-i" in his description of the 
No°'-zhi°-zho° Ritual of his gens and which corresponds to the fore- 
going song the struggling of the warriors for the burning brands is 
spoken of. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 59 

Wlien the fight for the firebrands is over the Xo'-ka says to the 
Wa-zho'-wa-gthe, ''Now, my sons, take some of the sacred charcoal 
and put it upon your bodies." The two men take bits of the charcoal 
and paint a black band around each ankle, a round spot in the middle 
of the chest, and blacken the whole face. 

The ceremony that follows that of the Fire and Charcoal is con- 
ducted jointly by the No'''-ho''-zhi°-ga of the Mi-k'i°' Wa-no°, the 
Ho°' I-ni-ka-shi-ga and the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi gentes. The Mi-k'i°' 
Wa-no°, who are the sun people, and the Ho°' I-ni-ka-shi-ga, the 
night people, belong to the Tsi'-zhu division, and the Ho°'-ga U-ta- 
no°-dsi, the earth people, to the Ho'^'-ga division. 

This ceremony appears to be a dramatization of the activities of 
the cosmic forces from whose combined influence, it is believed, all 
life proceeds. In the arrangement of the various groups and in the 
dance there is symbolic reference to these influences and an appeal 
to the controlling power of these forces for aid in the efforts of the 
people to protect themselves against all dangers that menace the 
onward flow of their lives. 

At the close of the Fire and Charcoal ceremony the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga 
of the Mi-k'i°' Wa-no°, Ho'^' I-ni-ka-shi-ga and Ho'^'-ga U-ta-no'^-dsi 
gentes form a line across the space between the two ceremonial 
houses of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge, the Mi-k'i°' Wa-no°, and the Ho""' I-ni- 
ka-shi-ga, together, filling one half of the space toward the Tsi'-zhu 
side and the Ho'^'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi the other half, toward the Ho°'-ga 
side, all facing the west. The leader of the Mi-k'i"' Wa-no" gens 
stands at the middle of the line with a drumstick lq his hand. At his 
left stands the leader of the Ho°' I-ni-ka-shi-ga gens and at his right 
the leader of the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi gens with a gourd rattle in 
his hand. In front of the Mi-k'i°' Wa-no° leader stands a member of 
the Ho°' I-ni-ka-shi-ga gens with a drum on his back. These two 
gentes represent day and night that perpetually pursue one another. 
The leader of the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi represents the earth which 
does its part toward the production of life. 

Immediately in front of the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga of the three gentes 
the young women come and take their places, those of the Tsi'-zhu 
division taking up one half of the space toward their side and those of 
the Ho°'-ga division taking up the other half, all facing west. Among 
the young women come a number of women of maturer years, each 
carrying with her a pole used as the upright of a loom frame. These 
are the women who have acted as official weavers at the performance 
of the ceremonies of the Rush Mat Degree of the war rite. A part 
of the rush mat, which is woven for use in making the shrine for the 
wa-xo'-be, symbolizes day and night, and the upper and under parts 
of the shrine represent the sky and the earth, between which all life 
takes form. 



60 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 

Farther to the front the young men of the two divisions take their 
places, those of the Tsi'-zhu division standing in two semicircular 
lines, ruiming lengthwise of the avenue, on their side, and those of 
the Ho°'-ga division on their side in similar formation. A space 
divides the two double lines. Each of the inner lines has two leaders 
who carry the standards that belong to their respective divisions. 

When all the various groups having part in the ceremony have 
taken their places the leader of the Ho"'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi gens recites 
a wi'-gi-e relating to the symbolic significance of the drum and rattle. 
(Wa-xthi'-zhi could not give this wi'-gi-e.) At the close of the wi'-gi-e 
the Mi-k'i"' Wa-no° leader begins to beat the drum** carried by the 
servant of the Ho"' I-ni-ka-shi-ga gens and to smg the following song, 
the words of v/hich are addressed to the young women and to the 
young men as though by a father to his daughters and sons, using 
the special parental kinship terms. After the fu"st phrase the Ho°'-ga 
U-ta-no°-dsi leader beats his rattle and m his turn starts the song 
and then all the No"'-ho°-zhi"-ga join in the singing. 

The women dance v\^ithout moving about, the official weavers 
accenting time by thrusts in the ground with the ends of their loom 
poles. The young men of each division, led by the carriers of the 
standards, dance in a circle, keeping up the double lines, those of the 
Tsi'-zhu on their side, and those of the Ho°'-ga on theirs. 

The name of this dance is the I'-ga-gthe Bo-do Wa-tsi; I'-ga-gthe, 
the supporting poles of a loom frame; Bo-do, the act of thrusting the 
poles into the ground repeatedly; Wa-tsi, dance. It refers to the 
action of the weavers as they dance. 

At the last note of the song the weavers violently throw down their 
poles to the ground, toward the west, an act which is equivalent to 
saying: "May the warriors of our enemies fall as do these poles." 

The following are the special parental kinship terms used in the 
song sung by the men representing the sun, night, and earth, and to 
which the young women and the young men of the tribe dance: 
Mi'-na, the first born daughter; Wi'-he, the second bom daughter; 
Qi'-ge, the third born daughter, and I°'-gtho°, the first born son. 

6 Wa-xthi'-zhi, in May of 1921, gives the following drum symbols of the Mi-lj;'!"' Wa-no": 1, The bellow 
of the buffalo herds; 2, The cry of the elk; 3, The gobbling of the turkey gobbler; 4, The humming of the 
cock prairie chicken (Mo^'-nc-io). 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 61 

DANCE WITH LOOM POLES SONG 

(Osage version, p. 160) 
M.M. J =z 1 52 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletclier. 



fi: 



-• ^- 



Time beats |" j" T f f f 

Mi - na she - tho a - tsi no^^ - zhii^-a no° - tsi - da, 



^ 



r r r r r r 

Mi - na she - tho a - tsi - noi^ - zhi'^-a uo° - tsi - da, 



-^# f f r^^fy p , - — p — p 



r r r r r r r 

O ho, no'^ - tsi - da, ho, uo'^ - tsi - da. 



FREE TRANSLATION 
1 



Stand yonder, Mi'-na, and dance, make a loud noise with your feet, 
Stand yonder, Mi'-na, and dance, make a loud noise with your feet, 
O ho, a loud noise with your feet, O ho, a loud noise with your feet. 



Stand yonder, Mi'-na, and dance, make a joyful sound with your feet, 
Stand yonder, Mi'-na, and dance, make a joyful sound with your feet, 
O ho, a joyful sound with your feet, O ho, a joyful sound with your feet. 

3 

Stand yonder, Wi-he, and dance, make a loud noise with your feet, etc. 

4 
Stand yonder, Wi-he, and dance, make a joyful sound with your feet, etc. 

5 
Stand yonder, Ci-ge, and dance, make a loud noise with your feet, etc. 

6 

Stand yonder, Ci-ge, and dance, make a joyful sound with your feet, etc. 

7 
Stand yonder, I°-gtho°, and dance, make a loud noise with your feet, etc. 

8 
Stand yonder, I°-gtho°, and dance, make a joyful sound with your feet, etc. 

At the close of the I'-ga-gthe Bo-do dance the No°'-ho°-zlii°-ga and 
the warriors of the two divisions march directly west, on a line with 
the avenue that divides the village, and when they have gone about 
a mile they halt. The warriors of the two divisions sit upon the 
ground in two groups facing the west, those of the Tsi'-zhu toward 



62 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

the south and those of the Ho°'-ga toward the north. In front of 
each group sit the Wa-zho'-wa-gthe and the Xthe'-ts'a-ge, also 
facing the west. Around the two groups of warriors the No°'-ho°- 
zhi°-ga stand in two semicircles, those of the Tsi'-zhu division on their 
side and those of the Ho°'-ga division on theirs. The Do-do°'-ho°-ga 
chosen by the No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga of both divisions stands at the head 
of the line of the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Ho'^'-ga division. At the 
head of the line of the Tsi'-zhu No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga stands the volunteer 
Do-do'''-ho°-ga of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° gens of the Tsi'-zhu division. 
When the various groups have taken their ceremonial positions the 
leader of the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no"* gens goes to the middle of the space 
between the two groups of warriors where he stands. From a deer- 
skin pouch he takes a pinch of tobacco. As he does so he recites the 
wi'-gi-e that tells of the finding of the tobacco and of its dedication 
to ceremonial use. (Wa-xthi'-zhi could not give this wi'-gi-e.) When 
this officer has recited the tobacco wi'-gi-e he proceeds to fill the sacred 
pipe of the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no'' gens. He then ceremonially ap- 
proaches the chosen Do-do°'-ho°-ga, making four pauses as he does 
so. At the fourth pause he is standing close to the Do-do°'-ho°-ga to 
whom he offers the filled pipe to smoke, but before the tobacco is 
lighted the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no"* recites the following wi'-gi-e that 
recounts the symbolism of the pipe. 

PIPE AND TOBACCO RITUAL 

(Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no° Gens) 

(Osage version, p. 161) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, 

2. The Wa-zha'-zhe, a people having Seven Fireplaces, 

3. Were a people among whom there were none that were craven, 

4. A people that permitted none of their enemies to live. 

5. Verily, at that time and place, they said, it was said, 

6. These people had a pipe, 

7. Which they made to be their body. 

8. Verily, at that time and place, 

9. One spake, saying: "O, Ho^'-ga, 

10. I have a pipe that I have made to be my body; 

11 . If you also make it to be your body, 

12. You shall have a body that is free from all causes of death, 

13. Behold the joint of the neck, they said, 

14. That I have made to be the joint of my own neck, O Ho'^'-ga, 

15. If you also make it to be the joint of your neck, 

16. Your neck shall be free from all causes of death, Ho°'-ga, he 

said. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 63 

17. Behold the mouth of the pipe, 

18. That I have made to be my mouth. 

19. If you also make the mouth of this pipe 

20. To be your mouth, they said, it has been said, 
Your mouth shall be free from all causes of death, O Ho°'-ga. 
Behold the right side of the pipe, 

That I have made to be the right side of my body, O Ho°'-ga, 
The right side of my own body. 

25. If you also make it to be the right side of your body, 

26. The right side of your body shall be free from all causes of death, 

O Ho°'-ga, he said. 

27. Behold the spine of the pipe, 

28. That I have made to be my own spine, O Ho"'-ga. 

29. If you also make that to be your spine, 

30. Your spine shall be free from all causes of death, O Ho°'-ga, 

31. Behold the left side of the pipe, 

32. That I have made to be the left side of my own body, O Ho^'-ga. 

33. If you make the side of my body to be the side of your own body, 

34. The side of your body shall be free from all causes of death, O 

Ho°'-ga. 

35. Behold the hollow of the pipe, 

36. That I have made to be the hollow of my own body; 

37. If you make the hollow of my body to be the hollow of your own 

body, 

38. The hollow of your body shall be free from all causes of death, O 

Ho°'-ga. 

39. Behold the thong that holds together the pipe and stem, 

40. That I have made to be my windpipe. 

41. If you also make that to be your windpipe, they said, 

42. Your windpipe shall be free from all causes of death, O Ho°'-ga. 

43. When your thoughts turn toward the setting sun, toward your 

enemies, 

44. And you use the pipe as an offering in your supplications, 

45. Your prayers shall be readily granted, O Ho°'-ga, 

46. Even when the sun has risen only to the height of the wall of your 

houses, 

47. Your prayers shall be granted, O Ho°'-ga, he said. 

The ceremonial presentation, by the leader of the Wa-zha'-zhe gens 
of the symbolic pipe of that gens, filled and ready to smoke, to the 
chosen Do-do°'-ho°-ga of the IIo"'-ga gens is a repetition of an act 
that took place at the forming of the tribal organization, and also a 
renewal of the significant promise made when the people of the 
Wa-zha'-zhe Seven Fireplaces pledged their lasting friendship and 



64 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

loyalty to the people of the Ho^'-ga Seven Fireplaces. The expres- 
sions used throughout the wi'-gi-e, being metaphorical, are unintel- 
ligible to one unfamiliar with the language used in the rituals by the 
ancient No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga. 

The preamble of this wi'-gi-e (lines 1 to 7) sets forth the aggressive 
spirit of the Wa-zha'-zhe of the Seven Fireplaces. Lines 6 and 7 tell 
that the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe consecrated a pipe to be the 
symbol of their "body," a word used as a trope for organization. 
Lines 8 to 42 speak of the offer of the symbolic pipe by the Wa-zha'-zhe 
to the Ho°'-ga as a token of a union that makes the two become as 
one person strengthened by a united power which enables him to 
overcome his enemies. Therefore, in presenting the pipe the Wa- 
zha'-zhe speak of it as a man who, being possessed of all the parts of 
his physical structure necessary to his vitality, is able to meet the 
dangers that beset him. 

While the Wa-zha'-zhe were confident in the strength of their 
organization and of their valor, they were at the same time conscious 
of a Being (lines 43 to 47) whose power is greater than that of any 
body of men, and who cannot be ignored in any human effort. To 
secure his help he must be approached with crying and with the 
offering of the sacred pipe in order to move him to compassion and 
to win his aid. The pipe was presented by the Wa-zha'-zhe to the 
Ho°'-ga so that they also could use it as a means by which to come 
into communication with this Being called Wa-ko°'-da. 

When the Wa-zha'-zhe leader had presented the pipe and recited 
his wi'-gi-e the Do-do°'-ho°-ga promptly responded by reciting to liim 
the wi'-gi-e of the people of the Ho°'-ga Seven Fireplaces. 

HO'''-GA SEVEN FIREPLACES RITUAL 
(Osage version, p. 162) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, they said, it has been said, 

2. The Ho°'-ga of the Seven Fireplaces were a people, 

3. Among whom there were none that were craven, 

4. Verily, a people who permitted none of their enemies to live. 

5. Verily, at that time and place, 

6. One spoke, saying: "O Wa-zha'-zhe, 

7. The red bowlder that sitteth upon the earth, 

8. Is what I have made to be my body, O Wa-zha'-zhe. 

9. The God of Day that sitteth in the sky, 

10. I have made to be my body, O Wa-zha'-zhe. 

11. When you also make the red bowlder 

12. To be your body, 

13. Even the gods 

14. Shall move apart and make way for you, O Wa-zha'-zhe." 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 65 

15. Verily, at that time and place, 

16. The red bowlder that sitteth upon the earth, they said, 

17. I have made to be my body, O Wa-zha'-zhe. 

18. When you also make the red bowlder to be your body, 

19. Even the gods 

20. Shall stagger and fall if they stumble against you, O Wa-zha'-zhe. 

21. Verily, at that time and place, they said, 

22. When you also make the red bowlder, 

23. To be your body, 

24. Even the gods 

25. Are not able to set teeth upon you, 

26. Even the gods 

27. Shall not be able to set teeth upon you, Wa-zha'-zhe. 

28. Verily, at that time and place, they said, 

29. When you make the red bowlder that sitteth upon the earth 

30. To be your body, 

31. Even the gods 

32. Can not attack you without injuring their teeth. 

33. When you also make the red bowlder 

34. To be your body, 

35. Even the gods 

36. Can not attack you without injuring their teeth. 

In the preamble of the Ho'^'-ga wi'-gi-e recited in response by the 
Do-do°'-ho°-ga, lines 1 to 4 set forth the warlike spirit of the Ho°'-ga 
people, using the same words as those employed by the Wa-zha'-zhe 
in the corresponding lines of their wi'-gi-e. In lines 5 to 8 the Ho°'-ga 
declare that they have made the red bowlder to be their "body." 
Lines 9 and 10 contain an incidental mention of the Sun, "the god 
of day that resides in the sky," as connected with the enduring char- 
acter of the red bowlder, which they "make to be their body." The 
remaining lines of the wi'-gi-e are taken up with figurative expressions 
referring to the "red bowlder" and to the offer of the Ho'^'-ga to share 
their "body" with the Wa-zha'-zhe. The results of the acceptance 
of this offer would be: First, that the united strength of the Ho"'-ga 
and the Wa-zha'-zhe would become so formidable that the enemy 
when seeing them, instead of making an attack, would pass on in two 
diverging lines and leave them unmolested; second, that should the 
enemy stumble against them it would cause disaster to the enemy; 
third, the weapons of the enemy would fail to be destructive; fourth, 
if the enemy should attack with all their weapons, still it would be 
to their defeat and confusion from which no power could save them. 



66 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOi 

Other tribes of the Siouan group use the rock as a symbol of enduring 
life. The rock is thus described in an Omaha ritual (Twenty-seventh 
Ann. Kept. Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 572): 

"Unmoved from time without end, verily, 
Thou sittest 

In the midst of the various paths of the coming winds, 
In the midst of the winds thou sittest, 
Aged One." 

At the close of the Ho°'-ga wi'-gi-e by the Do-do°'-ho°-ga the 
Wa-zha'-zhe leader holds the pipe for the Do-do°'-ho°-ga to smoke. 
After a few whiffs the Wa-zha'-zhe leader himself takes a few whiffs 
from the pipe and thus the friendship established in the remote past 
between the peoples of the two "Seven Fireplaces" is reaffirmed. 

At the close of this smoldng ceremony the Wa-zha'-zhe leader 
returns to his position between the two groups of warriors, cleans the 
pipe, and refills it. He then approaches the volunteer Do-do°'-ho'*-ga 
of the Tsi'-zhu division in the same manner as observed by him 
toward the chosen Do-do°'-ho°-ga and after reciting his wi'-gi-e pre- 
sents the sacred pipe. The Tsi'-zhu Do-do°'-ho°-ga makes his response 
by reciting the wi'-gi-e of his division. Wa-xthi'-zhi declined to give 
this m'-gi-e because he had not the right to do so, but he said that it 
related to the Sun which is made by the Tsi'-zhu division to be their 
"body." Later, in the course of these investigations this wi'-gi-e was 
secured from Xu-tha'-wa-to^-i", a member of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° 
gens. After reciting the wi'-gi-e the two men smoke the pipe, then 
the Wa-zha'-zhe leader returns to his place among the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga 
of his division. 

When the Wa-zha'-zhe leader has returned to his place the No"'- 
ho°-zhi°-ga of both divisions, led by their respective Do-do°'-ho°-ga, 
march in a solemn procession around the two groups of seated warriors 
and their Xthe'-ts'a-ge, singing the following song, the Tsi'-zhu 
going around by the right and the Ho°'-ga by the left. 

In this song the people of the two tribal divisions are made to 
speak as one man. The song is divided into three groups. In the 
first two lines of each stanza of the first group the man sings of going 
around the earth, bearing emblems of certain powers from which he 
expects supernatural aid in finding and vanquishing the enemy; in 
the first two lines of the stanzas of the second group he sings of going 
from place to place to find the enemy; and in the first two lines of the 
stanzas of the third group he sings of going forth to strike the foe. 

In the last line of each stanza of all the groups the man specifies 
by name the particular emblem of which he sings, thus: 

1. In the last line of the first, sixth, and eleventh stanzas he sings: 
"Bearing my mystic pipe I go," etc. This refers to the pipe conse- 



La Fleschk] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 67 

crated to use as a means of conveying to Wa-ko°'-da the supplications 
of the people. Within this pipe are placed (figuratively) not only the 
supplications but also the persons of the supplicants themselves. 
This emblem, with the wi'-gi-e relating to it, is intrusted to the keep- 
ing of the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no"^ gens and they alone have the right to 
perform the ceremonies belonging to it. These form the first and most 
important ceremonial act of the people when contemplating war, as 
through them the people invoke the aid of Wa-ko°'-da. 

2. In the last line of the second, seventh, and twelfth stanzas the 
man sings: "Bearing my mystic knife I go," etc. This line refers to 
the knives found by the I°-gtho°'-ga and Wa-ga'-be gentes and con- 
secrated by them for ceremonial use and are believed to possess mystic 
power. (For story see lines 1364-1446, pp. 206-208, Thirty-sixth 
Ann. Kept. Bur. Amer. Ethn.) 

3. In the last line of the third, eighth, and thirteenth stanzas the 
man sings: "Bearing my mystic club," etc. This refers to the mystic 
war club of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° gens. (For the story of the war club 
see lines 139-266, pp. 258-261 of the Wi'-gi-e To^'-ga, Thirty-sixth 
Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethn.) 

4. In the last line of the fourth, ninth, and fourteenth stanzas the 
man sings: "Bearing my mystic clays," etc. These are the four 
different kinds of clay used in the war rites, particularly in the fasting 
rite. They symbolize the power that is within the earth. (For myth- 
ical story of their revelation, see Mo°'-shko° (Crawfish) Wi'-gi-e, p. 6.) 

5. In the last line of the fifth, tenth, and fifteenth stanzas the man 
sings: "Bearing my mystic standards I go," etc. The line refers to 
the two mystic standards presented by the Do-do^'-ho^'-ga to his two 
leading commanders. The standards symbolize the lower prongs of 
the great mythical elk that made the earth to be habitable to all 
living creatures by exposing the dry land. (See lines 427-433, p. 169, 
of the Ni'-jki-e Wi'-gi-e, Thirty-sixth Ann. Kept. Bur. Amer. Ethn.) 
They also symbolize the fire that is unrelenting when it takes a 
destructive course. 

6. In the last line of the sixteenth stanza the man sings: "Bearing 
my mystic moccasins I go," etc. "Mystic moccasins" is here used as 
a trope and refers to the four bunches of grass upon which each war- 
rior will tread as he goes forth "toward the setting sun" and against 
his enemies. In this stanza the word "moccasins" is not only used as 
a trope but also employed in a metaphorical sense by making it refer 
to the life journey of the tribe, and to the enemies that might have to 
be vanquished in order to make clear the life pathway of the tribe. 



68 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 

PROCESSIONAL SONGS OF NON'-HON-zHIN-GA 

(Osage version, p. 164) 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



t 



^ 



I^ T-g r— ^ r ^ ^- J- :3 



tl;4=^3: 



Time beats p j" |" f f f f 

Mo° - in - ka u - thi - shoi^ a - gtha - bthii^ e - he 



-A = • wl ^-. H 



-Pi h- 






r r r r r r r r r r r 

Mo° - i" - ka u - thi - sho'^ a-gtha- bthii" e - he, a - he, 




r r . r r r r >^r r 

I - ba 'thina-do° u-thi-sho^ bthe hi° do, a - he he. 

FREE TRANSLATION 
1 

Around the earth I go, bearing my mystic emblems, 
Around the earth I go, bearing my mystic emblems, 
Bearing my mystic pipe, I go around the earth. 

2 
Bearing my mystic knife, I go around the earth. 

3 
Bearing my mystic war club, I go around the earth. 

4 
Bearing my mystic clays, I go around the earth. 

5 
Bearing my mystic standards, I go around the earth. 

6 
I go from place to place, bearing my mystic emblems, 
I go from place to place, bearing my mystic emblems. 
Bearing my mystic pipe, I go from place to place. 

7 
Bearing my mystic knife, I go from place to place. 

8 
Bearing my mystic war club, I go from place to place. 

9 
Bearing my mystic clays, I go from place to place. 

10 
Bearing my mystic standards, I go from place to place. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 69 

11 

I go forth to strike the foe, bearing my mystic emblems, 
I go forth to strike the foe, bearing my mystic emblems, 
Bearing my mystic pipe, I go to strike the foe. 

12 
Bearing my mystic knife, I go to strike the foe. 

13 
Bearing my mystic war club, I go to strike the foe. 

14 
Bearing my mystic clays, I go to strike the foe. 

15 
Bearing my mystic standards, I go to strike the foe. 

16 
Bearing my mystic moccasins, I go to strike the foe. 

The entire No'''-ho°-zlii°-ga walk around the two groups of seated 
warriors four times as they sing this song. The fourth circuit is made 
during the singing of the last stanza. At its close the two divisions 
have returned to their respective starting points, where they halt. 

Ceremony of WA-NQN'-gE A-BA-gu 

The ceremony that immediately follows the No"'-ho°-zhi°-ga 
procession around the warriors must be performed by the Chosen 
Do-do°'-ho°-ga himself. Its title is, Wa-no°'-ge A-ba-gu; Wa-no^'-ge, 
attack; A-ba-gu, to point; and refers to certain acts of the Do-do°'- 
ho°-ga when he recites the last wi'-gi-e of this particular ceremony. 
The authority to perform this ceremony is acquired in the following 
manner. A member of the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga who hopes to be chosen 
as a leader of a ceremonially organized war party, at some future time, 
strives to qualify himself to perform the Wa-no^'-ge A-ba-gu cere- 
mony. This he does by performing a certain act which his sldll in 
hunting enables him to do. When, in the hunting season, he happens 
to kill a buffalo, deer, turkey, or other game animal that is full grown, 
fat, and free from disease or old wounds, he hastens with it to the 
house of the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga by whom he wishes to be initiated in 
this particular ritual, and "lays it before him." This expression is 
figurative, as the act is never literally performed, but is used to dis- 
tinguish this formal presentation from an ordinary act of giving. 
The No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga to whom such a presentation is made accepts it 
as an honor and as a recognition of his rank in the order. If, however, 
the animal offered to him does not correspond in kind to the one pre- 
sented by himself at his initiation, he will decide not to accept it, but 
if it happens to be the proper animal the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga has it 
brought at once into the house and placed in ceremonial position on 
the ground, breast downward, with head toward the fireplace. He 



70 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

then sprinkles bits of tobacco from the head along the neck and back 
to the tail, as an offering to the spirit of the animal. Then the No°'- 
ho°-zhi°-ga himself cuts up the animal and prepares the choice parts 
for cooking. When this is done he sends his Sho'-ka to invite four 
other No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga who know the ritual to come and witness the 
conferring of the authority and to partake of the feast. When the 
invited guests arrive and have taken their places the host informs 
them of the honor shown him and then proceeds to instruct his can- 
didate in the ritual which gives him the authority to perform the 
ceremony. 

Four wi'-gi-es are recited by the Do-do°'-ho°-ga in the Wa-no°'-Qe 
A-ba-QU ceremony. 

1. The Ho'-e-ga Wi'-gi-e, which tells of the symbolism of the 
forehead of the mythical elk. 

2. The U-thu'-hi-the Wi'-gi-e, by which the Do-do°'-ho°-ga makes 
known to his warriors that the authority to perform the Wa-no^'-ge 
A-ba-gu ceremony was formally conferred upon him. The title of 
this wi'-gi-e, U-thu'-hi-the, means, By which he was made to win, 
that is, by which the initiator was obliged to win his fee by imparting 
his knowledge of the ritual to the candidate. 

3. The Wa-pa'-hi Wi'-gi-e, which tells of the making of the hawk, 
the wasp, the fly, and the raven to be symbols of effective weapons. 
The reciting of this wi'-gi-e is supposed to make the weapons of the 
warriors effective by supernatural means. The hawk belongs to the 
Ni'-ka-wa-ko°-da-gi gens and is associated with thunder; the wasp to 
the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° gens; and the fly and the raven to the Ho°'-ga 
U-ta-no"-dsi gens. These suggest the killing of the enemy by the 
hawk and the wasp and the consuming of their bodies by the fly and 
the raven. 

4. The Wa-no'^'-ge A-ba-gu Wi'-gi-e. It is with the recitation of this 
wi'-gi-e that the Do-do°'-ho°-ga points to three westerly directions 
where his warriors will surely find and vanquish their enemies. In the 
last section of this wi'-gi-e (lines 12-16) the Do-do"' -ho°-ga tells his 
warriors the theme of his constant supplications. 

After a short pause, at the close of the procession of the No°'-ho°- 
zhi°-ga, the Chosen Do-do°'-ho"-ga goes to his Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge 
and in a low tone says to him: "Ha'-go° zhi° tha, Wi-tsi-go-e," "What 
is your wish, O grandfather?" (Grandfather is here used as a cere- 
monial term.) This the Do-do '^' -ho °-ga does in deference to the 
importance a Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge attaches to the ceremony. He it is 
who is to carry the wa-xo'-be (Sacred Hawk) of the Chosen Do-do"^'- 
ho°-ga to be the actual leader of the warriors in the attack and to 
freely expose his own life. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAE CEREMONY 71 

\ The Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge repUes: "Wa-no°'-ge a-shpa-gu tse a, 
Do-do°'-ho°-ga-e," ''You shall point out the directions of attack, 
Do-do°'-ho°-ga," which is equivalent to a demand that the Wa-no^'-ge 
A-ba-gu ceremony be given. Then the Do-do^'-ho^-ga, raising his 
voice so that all can hear, says: 

E'do° ha, ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

A, wi-tsi-go a-ka, ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

A, wa-no°-5e a-pa-gu ta tse e-a-ka, ni-ka-wa-ga-e. 

FREE TRANSLATION 

It is well, O, ye valiant men. 

My grandfather says, O, ye valiant men, 

That I shall point out the directions of attack, O, ye valiant men. 

He then goes to a spot, several paces beyond the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga, 
that is in direct line with the middle of the space between the two 
groups of warriors, where he stands facing the west. 

When the Do-do°'-ho°-ga has taken his position he speaks, without 
turning his face from the west, and says: "A, tse-xe-k'i° Ho'-e-ga 
o°-kchi-xe hi-o, ni-ka-wa-ga-e ;" "Ho, tse-xe-k'i°, come and make for 
me the Ho'-e-ga, O, thou valiant man." One of the men addressed 
goes to the Do-do°'-ho°-ga, pulls the grass from the ground directly 
in front of him, leaving a bare round spot, and places the grass in a 
pile at the feet of the Do-do'^'-ho^-ga. This bare spot on the ground 
has a dual symbolism. It represents the center of the forehead of the 
mythical elk which is called Ho'-e-ga, a term for an enclosure in which 
all life takes on bodily forms never to depart therefrom except by 
death. (For the dedication of the Ho'-e-ga to ceremonial use in the 
war rite, see Ni-ki-e Wi'-gi-e, lines 421-426, p. 169, Thirty-sixth Ann. 
Kept. Bur. Amer. Ethn.) It also stands for the earth which the 
mythical elk made to be habitable by separating it from the waters. 
(For the mythical story of the elk and its symbolism, see line 291, 
p. 165, to line 311, p. 166, Thirty-sixth Ann. Kept. Bur. Amer. Ethn.) 

The word Ho'-e-ga corresponds to the Omaha word Hu'-thu-ga, a 
term which is applied to the camp of that tribe when ceremonially 
pitched. The meaning of the two words, in their deepest significance, 
is identically the same, both words having reference to the ancient 
conception of life as proceeding from the combined influences of the 
cosmic forces. (For description of the Omaha Hu'-thu-ga and the 
explanation of its meaning see Twenty-seventh Ann. Kept. Bur. Amer. 
Ethn., pp. 137-141.) 

As the Tse'-xe-k'i° returns to his seat the Do-do'''-ho''-ga begins to 
recite the following wi'-gi-e: 



72 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOi 

MYTHICAL ELK RITUAL 
(Osage version, p. 165) 

1. 0, ye valiant men, 

2. There is an animal that was made to be the Ho'-e-ga; 

3. This animal is the great elk. 

4. It is the forehead of this animal 

5. That I am authorized to use as a Ho'-e-ga for you. 

6. When I use the forehead of the great elk as a Ho'-e-ga for you, 

7. Then, even before the break of day, 

8. The enemy shall be drawn toward my Ho'-e-ga, 

9. As also in the evening, 

10. The enemy shall be drawn toward my Ho'-e-ga. 

After a moment's pause the Do-do°'-ho°-ga begins to recite the 
following wi'-gi-e, which explains the ceremonial act mentioned 
above, by whicli he acquired from liis father the authority to perform 
the Ho'-e-ga ceremony and to recite the Wa-pa'-hi Wi'-gi-e (Weapon 
Wi'-gi-e) that follows. The term father as here used by the Do-do°'- 
ho°-ga is ceremonial and not employed as implying blood relationship. 

WINNING RITUAL 

(Osage version, p. 165) 

1. O, ye valiant men, before my father, 

2. I placed for him an animal (buffalo), that had no fault; 

3. Before my father I laid down the animal, 

4. Whereupon, O, ye valiant men, my father said, 

5. That if ever I am called upon to perform tliis ceremony, 

6. I must recount this act and make it to be known. 

7. When I had thus made the act to be known, 

8. Even before the break of day, 

9. The animals (enemies to be slain) shall be drawn toward me, 

10. As also in the evening, 

11. They shall be drawn toward my Ho'-e-ga. 

12. O, ye valiant men, before my father, 

13. A small animal (deer), 

14. I laid down before him, 

15. Whereupon, O, ye valiant men, my father said to me, 

16. That if I am ever called upon to perform this ceremony, 

17. I must recount this act and make it to be known. 

18. When I had thus made the act to be known, 

19. I shall meet with success. 

20. Even before the break of day, 

21. The enemy shall be drawn toward my Ho'-e-ga, 

22. As also in the evening, 

23. They shall be drawTi toward my Ho'-e-ga. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 73 

24. O, ye valiant men, 

25. Before my father, 

26. A bird that walks between his wings ^ (male turkey), good and 

without fault, 

27. I put down for him, 

28. Whereupon, 0, ye valiant men, my father said to me, 

29. That if I am ever called upon to perform this ceremony 

30. I must recount this act and make it to be known. 

31. When I had thus made the act to be known, 

32. Even before the break of day, 

33. The enemies shall be drawn toward my Ho'-e-ga, 

34. As also in the evening, 

35. The animals (enemies) shall appear before me. 

WEAPON RITUAL 
(Osage version, p. 166) 

1. O, ye valiant men, 

2. There is a person whom they made to be their weapon, 

3. He is the great hawk, they said. 

4. My grandfather, the great hawk, is a fear-inspiring weapon, 

5. Even with a single stroke of his wing he will so disable his prey 

6. That it cannot escape beyond the brow of the nearest hill. 

7. There is another person whom they made to be their weapon, 

8. He is the wasp, O, ye valiant men, 

9. The posterior part of whose body seems ready to break away from 

the anterior part. 

10. My grandfather, the wasp, is a fear-inspiring weapon, 

11. My grandfather, O, ye valiant men, 

12. With a slight stroke of a wing (a figurative and rituahstic expres- 

sion) will disable his enemy, 

13. So that it cannot escape beyond the brow of the nearest hill. 

14. If I make him to be your weapon, 

15. When, before the break of day, 

16. We attack the enemy, your weapons shall not be ineffective; 

17. Or when we attack in the evening of the day, 

18. Your weapons shall not be ineffective. 

19. There is another person they made to be their weapon. 

20. He is the great blue fly. 

21. My grandfather, the great fly, O, ye valiant men, 

22. Is a person to whom nothing is beyond understanding. 

' In line 26 of the Osage text the archaic name of the turkey is used, a'-hi°-u-mo°-thi°, wallis between his 
wings, and is descriptive of the actions of the turkey cock when mating. This name is now obsolete but 
survives only in the Ho'-c-ga Wi'-gi-e. The modern name for turkey is fiu-lja, which is nondescriptive. 

83773—39 6 



74 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY IBuix. 101 

23. My grandfather 

24. Knows when an animal is nearing its death; 

25. Verily, he will follow it to the end. 

26. There is nothing that is beyond his understanding. 

27. It is he that 1 am bidden to give to you as a weapon; 

28. When, before the break of day, 

29. I make him to be your weapon, 

30. Your weapons shall not be ineffective. 

31. Also in the evening of the day, 

32. I am bidden to make of him a weapon for you. 

33. There is another person whom they made to be their weapon. 

34. He is the great crow (raven), O, ye valiant men. 

35. My grandfather 

36. Is a person to whom nothing is beyond understanding. 

37. He flies swiftly through and through the forests, 

38. And makes his way through the carrion upon which he feeds. 

39. When, before the break of day, 

40. I make him to be a weapon for you, 

41. Your weapons shaU not be ineffective, 

42. Or, when in the evening of the day, 

43. I make him to be a weapon for you, 

44. Your weapons shall not be ineft'ective. 

At the close of the Wa-pa'-lii Wi'-gi-e the Do-do°'-ho°-ga takes in 
his right hand a bunch of grass from a pUe that had been put at his 
feet by the tse'-xe-k'i° and, holding it up with outstretched arm 
pointed toward the right of the setting sun, recites the first section of 
the following wi'-gi-e. This is in appeal for the success of the warriors 
of the Ho°'-ga division. 

The Do-do°'-ho°-ga then points with the bunch of grass toward the 
left of the setting sun and recites the second section of the wi'-gi-e. 
This is in appeal for the success of the warriors of the Tsi'-zhu division. 

As the Do-do°'-ho°-ga recites the third section he points the bunch 
of grass directly toward the setting sun. This is in appeal for the 
success of the warriors of both divisions. 

The Do-do°'-ho°-ga then drops the bunch of grass upon the pile 
from which he had taken it and recites the fourth section of the 
wi'-gi-e which expresses the wish that his warriors will succeed in 
destroying as many of the enemy as there are blades of grass in the 
pile at his feet. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 75 

POINT OF ATTACK RITUAL 
(Osage version, p. 167) 

1 

1. O, ye valiant men, 

2. Verily, in that direction toward which I point, 

3. Are the objects of my longings and supplications, 

4. There can be no doubt that my prayers will be granted. 



5. Verily, in the direction toward which I now point, 

6. Are the objects of my longings and supplications, 

7. There can be no doubt that my prayers will be granted, 

8. My prayers shall be granted, O, ye valiant men. 



9. Verily, in the direction toward which I now point, 

10. Are the objects of my longings and supplications, 

1 1 . Surely my aim shall not miss its mark. 

4 

12. O, ye valiant men, 

13. Behold this bunch of grass, the numbers of its blades, 

14. My supplications are for the lives of enemies equal in number to 

these blades of grass, 

15. Equal to the number of blades in all these bunches. 

16. This is the theme of my constant supplication, O, ye valiant men. 

The symbols used and the acts performed in this ceremony are 
complex in meaning. The spot made bare by the plucking of the grass 
symbolizes the earth upon which life manifests itself in an infinite 
variety of forms. The earth is regarded as one of the abiding places 
of that All Controlling Power to whom the Do-do°'-ho°-ga makes his 
constant appeal. The plucked grass represents the lives of men, not 
only those against whom he is leading his warriors but also those of 
his own people whom he is striving to protect. In the ceremonial act 
which he performs with the grass he asks for the power to destroy as 
many of the enemy as there are blades in the pile of grass plucked 
from the earth and by the same act he asks for the increase of his 
own people. 

Life is regarded as ever moving in a westerly direction, even as 
the sun is ever moving from the east to the west, therefore, the Do-do°'- 
ho°-ga in making his appeal points with the symbol of Uves, the grass, 
in three westerly directions. His first ceremonial act is an appeal on 
behalf of his own people of his division, the Ho°'-ga. The ceremonial 
position of this division, when the tribe is moving westward, is at the 



76 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

north of the dividing Une which is the "path of the sun," therefore 
the Do-do'^'-ho^-ga first points with the grass toward the west on 
the north side of the "path of the sun." His second ceremonial act 
is an appeal on behalf of the people of the Tsi'-zhu division. The 
Do-do°'-ho°-ga, in this act, points toward the west on the south side 
of the "path of the sun." The position of this division, when the 
tribe is moving westward, is at the south side of the path of the sun. 
In the third act he points directly west along the path of the sun, the 
great symbol of life. In his fourth ceremonial act he points upward 
to the vault of the sky. The appeal in the last two acts is on behalf 
of all the people of the tribe. In the first three acts there is, aside 
from the symbols of the movement of life, a recognition of the seasonal 
shiftings of the setting of the sun from north to south and south to 
north. Therefore, in some of the wi'-gi-es the expression, "Toward 
the settings of the sun," is frequently used, the direction of the sunset 
being spoken of in the plural rather than in the singular number. 

When the Do-do°'-ho°-ga has dropped to the ground the last bunch 
of grass, at the end of the Wa-no'^'-ge A-ba-gu Wi'-gi-e, he takes from 
the deerskin pouch which throughout the ceremony he must con- 
tinually carry on his back, the sacred pipe of the Wa-zha'-zhe used 
for offering of smoke to Wa-ko°'-da. He also takes from the pouch 
a sharpened stick with which he at once proceeds to dig the burnt 
bits of tobacco adhering to the sides of the bowl of the pipe. As he 
digs into the bowl he holds the pipe out at arm's length so that the 
particles of tobacco may drop on the bunches of grass at his feet, and 
as he does so he repeats the words: "I give to you the sacred tobacco 
of the Wa-zha'-zhe that is pleasing and satisfying to the sense of 
smell, to compensate you for the life that you are to give up to me." 
These words are addressed to the bunches of grass, the blades in each 
of which represent the lives of animals and men to be slain by the 
war party. 

At the close of the Wa-no°'-ge A-ba-gu ceremony a Tse'-xe-k'i° goes 
to the Ho'-e-ga and divides the pile of symbolic grass into four bunches. 
These he places in a row, about a pace apart, across the cleared spot 
of earth, on a line with the path of the sun. These bunches of grass 
are now made to symbolize moccasins, one pair for the Tsi'-zhu 
division and one for the Ho°'-ga. After these four bunches of grass 
have been ceremonially arranged, the Tse'-xe-k'i° returns to his place 
and the Do-do°'-ho°-ga steps aside as the warriors of the Ho°'-ga 
division form a line and approach them. One after the other the 
Ho°'-ga warriors walk upon the bunches of grass, each man being 
careful to set forward his right foot first. When all the warriors of the 
Ho'^'-ga division had stepped on the symbolic bunches of grass the 
warriors of the Tsi'-zhu division formed a line and stepped on the 
bunches of grass in the same manner, but every man was careful to 
put forward his left foot first. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



77 



When each warrior has taken his four ceremonial steps he at once 
goes to his horse that has been brought for him already saddled, 
mounts, and is ready for the march. All the warriors now move 
toward the country of the enemy in two parallel lines, those of the 
Ho°'-ga division keeping to the right and those of the Tsi'-zhu to the 
left, in consonance with the position of the symbolic tribal man. 
The Do-do^'-ho^-ga maintains his march on the side of his division 
but he must keep at some distance from his men in order that he may 
be undisturbed by the conversations of the warriors and able to 
perform the duties of his ofiice. 

The No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga having thus ceremonially started the warriors 
on their way toward the country of the enemy, they now return to 
the village without observing any particular order. 

In the evening the older women of the tribe, those who have no 
husbands, brothers, or sons in the war party, get together and go to 
the house of each family whose relatives have gone to war. On 
arriving at one of the houses these women stand abreast in front of 
the door and sing songs called ''We'-to° Wa-o°," a name which may 
be freely translated as "Songs of Sympathy and Encouragement." 
Two or three of the women beat upon a drum carried by a man on 
his back, to accentuate the rhythm of the song which all sing in 
chorus. The members of the family hasten to present the singers 
with gifts, as a pair of moccasins, a robe, a dress, or a supply of food, 
generally corn, jerked meat, or dried squash. After a number of 
songs have been sung and gifts received the singers move on and sing 
at another house. The We'-to° songs are expressive of the wish of 
the singers for the success of the warriors who have gone to defend 
the tribe, and the relatives of the warriors accept the act and the 
songs as having some telepathic virtue that will bring about success. 
Wa-xthi'-zhi remembered only the following song: 

SONG OF SYMPATHY AND ENCOURAGEMENT 
(Osage version, p. 167) 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher 




M.M. J =120 



-*H-ai a^— ,1 — ^ _ 

Time beats fff rff rfi 

Tsi°-do xa-ge the no° thi - ba-ko*^ e-zha-mi-e the, Ga - thi^ xa- 




*=** 



|^z:^ n_j!3=^ ^ 



' r r 

thi - ba-ko° e-zha-mi-e the, 



r 



r 



r 



r 



No'i-Be - wa-the xa- ge the no° 




I ~^? r r r^ r r r r 

thi - ba-ko"! e-zha-mi-e the, Ga - thi° xa-ge thi-ba-ko° e-zha-mi-e the. 



78 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 



FREE TRANSLATION 



Thy brother goes forth weeping — thy spirit is moved, 
Thou hear'st his wailing — thy spirit is moved, 
No°-pe-wa-the goes forth weeping — thy spirit is moved, 
Thou hear'st his waiUng — thy spirit is moved. 

The words of this song are metaphorical and refer to the continuous 
appeal made by the Do-do°'-ho°-ga to Wa-ko°'-da on behalf of the 
warriors setting forth to struggle wdth the enemy, and on behalf of 
the people whom the warriors have gone forth to defend. 

Two tribes related to the Osage, the Omaha and the Ponca, practice 
this custom and their songs bore the same title, "We'-to° Wa-o°." 
Instead of using a drum to accentuate the rhythm of the song the 
Omaha and Ponca women beat time upon a piece of rawhide. (For 
examples of Omaha songs of this class, see Twenty-seventh Ann. 
Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 422 ; also pp. 130-132 of a "Study of Omaha 
Indian Music," by Alice C. Fletcher, published in 1893 by the Peabody 
Museum, Harvard University.) 

On the morning of the second day of the outward march of the 
warriors the Xthe'-ts'a-ge prepare a structure for taking a ceremonial 
vapor bath. A Tse'-xe-k'i° is ordered to take the sacred bird, which 
had been removed without ceremony from the Wa-xo'-be of the 
Do-do°'-ho°-ga, and to place it on top of the house. This particular 
kind of bath is called "I'° U-gthi"," literally "Sitting in the Stones." 
The little house set up for tliis bath is well covered with robes and in 
the center red-hot stones are placed. When all the men have entered 
the Tse'-xe-k'i° closes the open part and the sweating begins. At the 
close of the ceremony the Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge tells the men that each 
one must grasp one of the frame poles of the little house, and when 
they have done so he calls out, "I'-thi-sho° ha thi°-ge a-tha Ni-ka 
Wa-ga-e!" "There is no other way out, my valiant men!" and all 
the men, acting in concert, toss the little house upward, toward the 
setting sun. As the house tumbles to the ground the Tse'-xe-k'i° 
hurries to the sacred bird in order to examine the position in which it 
has fallen and all the Xthe'-ts'a-ge eagerly inquire, "How does it lie?" 
If the Tse'-xe-k'i° replies, "It lies breast upward," the Xthe'-ts'a-ge 
say: "It is well, it is well." This they take as a sign that the expedi- 
tion will succeed and that none of the warriors will be lost. If the 
bird is found to have fallen breast downward they receive the report 
in silence, for the bird had taken the position of a fallen warrior, a 
sign that the war party will suffer losses. 

After the augury ceremony the warriors move on, the men of the 
two divisions always maintaining their ceremonial positions while on 
the march and when pitching their camp for the night. The leader 
continues to maintain his position apart from his men, both when 
marching and when the men camp for the night, and constantly 



I 



La Flksche] OSAGE "WAR CEREMONY 79 

observes the rite of No^'-zhi^-zho". The Xthe'-ts'a-ge keep the 
scouts busy going and returning as the warriors move toward the 
country of the enemy and at night place sentinels around the camp 
within hearing distance of each other so as to guard against surprise. 
Such is the daily routine of the war party. 

After the war party enters the country of the enemy in the morning 
or evening of some day, the scouts return and report that they have 
found the enemy. If the circumstances are such that there is no 
urgent need for haste in making an attack, the Do-do°'-ho°-ga opens 
his Wa-xo'-be with songs and ceremony, takes therefrom the sacred 
hawk, places the carrjdng cord around the neck of his Chief Xthe'- 
ts'a-ge so that the bird hangs on his back, thus conferring upon him 
the full authority to command the attack. If, on the other hand, 
haste is necessary, the Do-do°'-ho°-ga opens the Wa-xo'-be without 
ceremony and puts the bird upon the Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge. While the 
Do-do'^'-ho^-ga is performing this ceremony the warriors open the little 
deerskin pouches containing the powdered charcoal symbolizing the 
relentless fire, and begin hastily to paint themselves and their horses 
with it. 

If the enemy is near, the Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge calls out the command 
to attack at once and the warriors immediately make the charge, but 
if the enemy is at a distance the Xthe'-ts'a-ge leads his men forward 
quietly until within attacking distance and then gives the command 
to charge. 

The Do-do'^'-ho^-ga and some of the Tse'-xe-k'i° remain where they 
were left by the attacking warriors, the former to continue the duties 
of his office and the latter to care for the pack horses and the camp 
utensils. 

If the attack has been successful the warriors who have taken 
scalps stretch them upon small hoops made from saplings and attach 
them to the tops of slender poles. The warriors return to their 
Do-do'^'-ho^-ga and present to him the scalps, the captives, and the 
horses, with the other booty they had taken. Then at the command 
of the Do-do°'-ho°-ga the warriors at once hasten home. 

When, on their return, the victorious warriors come within sight of 
the village, the Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge sends forward a Tse'-xe-k'i° to 
give notice to the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga that the war party is nearing home. 
Upon hearing the news all the people, men, women, and children, 
run forward to meet the warriors. The Do-do°'-ho°-ga, who up to 
this time had been carrying the scalps attached to poles, now trans- 
fers them to the Chief Tse'-xe-k'i° and, carrying only the Wa-xo'-be, 
takes his place at the head of the warriors while the officer who bears 
the scalps rides behind him. The first to greet the Do-do°'-ho°-ga as 
the people go forth to meet the warriors is the Master of Ceremonies, 
who says: "My son, have you come home?" To which the Do-do""'- 



80 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Buix. 101 



ho°-ga replies: "Yes, my father, I have come home." The Do- 
do^'-ho^-ga's horse is at once turned over to a Tse'-xe-k'i° to be cared 
for and the victorious leader then walks toward the village, followed 
closely by the officer carrying the scalps. The Master of Ceremonies 
follows, singing and dancing to the following Wa-tse' Wa-tho°, Songs 
of Victory, while the warriors and the people of the village march 
behind. 

SONGS OF VICTORY 



(Osage version, p. 168) 



M.M. 



g 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



#: 



m 



^S 



Time beats 



Moll- tiijn . ka 



r r 

thi-shtoD bi 



tho^ dse 



r 

he, 



r 

Wi 



tsi - go ho 




r r r r 

da - do°, I - mo° - ka the a - gi 



bi the, the, the, he 



r 

the, 



^ 



^= 



ba 



i - mo° 



r 

1 

ka 



the a 



^ 






bi 



r 
I 

the, 



d d d d 



^ 



r r r r r 

I - ba i - mo^-ka the a-gi bi the, 

FREE TRANSLATION 



r r r r r 

Mo^^-thin-ka thi-shto^ bi tho° dse. 



We appealed to the god of the earth, 

Behold, by the grace of our grandfather, 

Our warriors come home in triumph, the, the, the, he the, 

By the grace of the god of the sky they come home in triumph, 

By the grace of the god of the sky they come home in triumph 

We appeal to the god of the earth. 



With their sacred war club they come home in triumph. 

3 
With their sacred knife they come home in triumph. 

4 
With their sacred charcoal they come home in triumph. 

5 
With their sacred standard they come home in triumph. 

The translation of this song will serve for that of the second Victory 
song, the two songs differing only in the music. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



81 



SECOND VICTORY SONG 

(Osage version, p. 169) 



M.M. J; 



132 



|!ffi-^>-y 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 

— ^ — !^ 



-s>- 



=B= 



-#— s^ 



Time beats f ff f rrff f f ff 

Mo°-thi°-ka thi-shto^ bi tho'^ dse, Da-do'^ i irio°-ka thea-gi be, 



lizjt 



s 



a^- t:^ -- frTT 



3: 



^^^^ 



-<5^ 



r r 



r r r r rr r r r r r r r r 

Da-do"^ i-mo°-ka thea-gi be, Da-do'* i-mo°-kathea-gine, the, he the, 



t&=^ 



±^ 



s: 



E^ 



^-» — « — — • 



t 



r r r r 

ill I 

I - ba i - mo°-ka the a-gi be 



r r 
I 1 



r r r r r 

I - ba i - mo°-ka the a-gi be. 



m 



Tn I 1 —4- 



PS^^fe?^ 



£3 



^^ 



Mo°-thin-ka thi-shto° bi tho°dse. 



r r r r i- 

ill ! t 

Da-do° i-mo'^-ka the a-gi be. 



When the Do-do°'-ho°-ga arrives at the border of the village and 
approaches the "House of Mystery" he sings the following song con- 
taining twelve stanzas. The song is called ''Tsi U-thu-gi-pe Wa-tho°, 
"Songs of Entering the House." The song is expressive of the joy of 
the Do-do'^'-ho°-ga as he returns safely to the border of the village; 
he passes on and enters the village where the ground has been made 
bare by the feet of the people; he approaches the "House of Mystery" 
from which he departed bearing his message of appeal for aid to the 
"Great Mystery"; he comes to the door and enters, followed by his 
Chief Tse'-xe-k'i" and Xo'-ka; he passes to the left of the door and 
pauses for a moment; he goes to the opposite side of the room, where 
he again pauses; he goes on and pauses at the middle of the side of the 
room; he approaches the sacred fireplace; he stands opposite the fire 
pole whereon is the suspended kettle from which the people are fed; 
he looks upward through the opening in the roof, into the blue sky 
above, then the Chief Tse'-xe-k'i° with a quick movement thrusts 
the slender poles on which are suspended scalps, through the opening 
to the sky and pulls them in again, by which act the spirits of the 
slain are released. The Do-do°'-ho°-ga then sings the last stanza by 
which he tells (figuratively) of his return from the darkness of death 
to the light of day and to the joys of life. 



82 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



IBULL. 101 



SONGS OF ENTERING THE HOUSE 

(Osage version, p. 170) 
M.M. J — 88 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher, 



mt 



^ 



w 



-9 9 — • d- 



^-^ 



s s 



-E^ 



Time beats ff Tf ff 1 11 I 

Wi-e ha-gthi° do, Wi-e ha gthii^ da, Wi-e ha gthi^ do, 



^^^^^ nrnnpt^ ^^^ 



' r ' 



, , , r r r r r r r 

wi-e ha-gthi^da, Tsi u-hoQ-ge dsi ha-gthi° da, Wi-e ha-gthi°do. 

FREE TRANSLATION 
1 

It is I who now return, who now return, 
It is I who now return, who now return, 
Lo, I come to the border of the village, 
It is I who now return. 



Lo, I come to the trodden ground of the village. 

3 
Lo, I come to the House of Mystery. 

4 
Lo, I am at the door of the house. 

5 
Lo, I am in the room of the house. 

6 
Lo, I am at the left of the door. 

7 
Lo, I am at the opposite side of the room. 

8 
Lo, I am facing the door. 



Lo, I am at the sacred fireplace. 

10 
Lo, I stand before the fire pole. 

11 
Lo, I stand beneath the opening of the roof. 

12 
Lo, I stand once more in the midst of the days. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 83 

At the close of the last stanza the Do-do'^'-ho^-ga and the Xo'-ka 
take their seats at the east end of the lodge and the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga, 
who have also entered, take their accustomed places, according to 
gentes. Wlien all were seated the Xo'-ka, addressing the Tsi'-zhu 
Wa-shta-ge and the Po°-ka Wa-shta-ge gentes, says: ''My son has 
brought home a captive, O Tsi'-zhu and Wa-zha'-zhe." The leader 
of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta-ge then replies: "You have given me the 
captive, and I must say, let him live." The leader of the Po°-ka 
Wa-shta-ge makes the same reply and the Sho'-ka, who in obedience 
to the command of the Xo'-ka brings the captive in and gives him a 
seat near the sacred fireplace. Then the leader of the Wa-ga'-be or 
the I°-gtho°'-ga gens takes the sacred knife and with its sharp point 
scratches the tip of the nose of the captive, who bends over the fire 
to let the blood drip into it. The leader of the Po°'-ka Wa-shta-ge 
now directs his Sho'-ka to bring water which is placed before the 
leader, who recites the wi'-gi-e relating to the life-giving power of the 
water. (For wi'-gi-e, see p. 12.) The captive is given the water, of 
which he drinks and then cleanses his face. 

The leader of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta-ge sends his Sho'-ka to bring 
food that the captive may eat and live. The Sho'-ka goes to the 
house of the leader, for the food therein is sacred, and returns with 
com prepared for eating. The leader then recites the wi'gi-e relating 
to the life-giving power of the corn and the food is offered to the cap- 
tive. When the captive has eaten of the sacred food the Sho'-ka is 
given yellow clay and charcoal with which he ceremonially paints the 
captive. First, the captive'S'^Jace and body are painted yellow, then 
two narrow black lines are drawn from one corner of the forehead 
diagonally across the face to the jaw below the ear on the opposite 
side. If the captive was taken by a war party led by a Ho'^'-ga the 
two black lines would begin at the left corner of the forehead but if 
by a Tsi'-zhu the lines would begin at the right. One of these lines is 
for the Ho°'-ga division and the other for the Tsi'-zhu. Both shoul- 
ders of the captive are painted black, as are his breast, hands, and feet. 

When the captive has been thus painted the Xo'-ka sings the fol- 
lowing song called "We'-ki-shno° Wa-o°", Songs of Delight. The 
song expresses dehght at the possession of a captive, who must fill 
the office of Sho'-ka, the ceremonial messenger of all the people, of 
the Tsi'-zhu and of the Ho°'-ga division, in the tribal ceremonials, 
one who will run on errands, one who will fetch water, one who will 
fetch wood, a da'gthe (captive). The word "da'-gthe" used in the 
last stanza of the song originally meant captive and is here used in 
that sense. When the Osage saw the black slave of the white man 
they applied this word to these slaves, but such is not its true meaning. 
The da'-gthe becomes a member of the family of his captor and of his 
gens. He can marry within the tribe, and because of his ceremonial 



84 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 

oflBce (tribal Sho'-ka) he is respected and honored and is always wel- 
come at the "table" of every family in the tribe. He is clothed as 
well as fed by the families of the tribe and is regarded and spoken of 
as O'-xta, one who is a favored person. 

SONGS OF DELIGHT 

(Osage version, p. 171) 

M.M. J = 96 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



— . t^ . 



Time beats f f f f f f 

Sbo - ka on - ton bi the, sho - ka ©n - to^ bi the, 



:i:ziizizi = ^ — ^ J — ^ 



r r r r r r 

She - ka on - ton bi the, sho - ka on - ton bi the, 



'^m 



=&^ 



ZJl 



-e-T- 



Sho - ka on ton bi the, sho - ka o° - ton bi the, 



g 



:^ 



r r r r r r 

Sho - ka on ton bi the, sho - ka on - ton bi the. 



w a.J=^ ^^ ^^ t g^ ^^=^ |] 



r r r r r r 

Sho-kaon - ton bi the, sho - kaon - to^ bi the. 

FREE TRANSLATION 
1 

We now have a sho'-ka, we now have a sho'-ka; etc. 

2 
We now have a servant, we now have a servant; etc. 

3 
We now have one to bring water, we now have one to bring water; etc. 

4 
We now have one to bring wood, we now have one to bring wood; etc. 

5 
We now have a captive, we now have a captive; etc. 

On the following morning the Xo'-ka of the Do-do°'-ho°-ga sends 
his Sho'-ka for the leaders of the Ni'-ka Wa-ko°-da-gi gens. The 
name of this gens may be freely translated as "Men of Mystery." 



La Flksche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 85 



The sacred symbol of this gens is the Thunder Being. It was this 
gens that gave to the people the Hawk Wa-xo'-be, and therefore the 
ceremonies relating to this sacred bird must always be performed by 
members of this gens. 

Upon the arrival of the representatives of the Ni'-ka Wa-ko"-da-gi 
gens the Xo'-ka requests permission to perform the ceremony of 
dropping the sticks on the Wa-xo'-be. The members of the Ni'-ka 
Wa-ko°-da-gi gens having given their consent, the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga 
who had assembled for the ceremony now go out and sit in a line across 
the space between the two Xthe'-ts'a-ge ceremonial houses, facing the 
west, the Tsi'-zhu on the north side and the Ho"'-ga on the south. 
The Do-do°'-ho''-ga and the Xo'-ka sit side by side in the middle of 
the line. In preparation for this ceremony each member of the 
No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga paints his face in the following manner: The upper 
part of the face, from the line of the mouth, is first painted gray with 
white clay mixed with charcoal. While the paint is still moist two 
figures are drawn with the fingernails at the outer corners of the eyes. 
One figure is like a single ovate leaf with a stem, the other is like two 
ovate leaves upon a single stem; from the inner corner of each eye a 
straight line is drawn downward, suggesting falling tears; on the middle 
of the forehead is painted a round spot; the lower part of the face, 
below the mouth, is painted red, and on the crown of the head is 
spread eagle down. The Omaha and the Ponca also use the eagle 
down in this same manner in some of their religious ceremonies. 

The warriors who, at this ceremony, are to claim o-do°' that have 
been won by them in the war expedition are painted by the officer 
having charge of the painting of the sacred hawk at initiation cere- 
monies. He puts on these men only the gray paint with its designs 
and omits the red paint below the mouth, the round spot on the 
forehead, and the eagle down on the crown of the head. This officer 
receives for his services a fee from each warrior. 

As the warriors are being painted the Xo'-ka sings the songs of 
opening the Wa-xo'-be and the bringing to view the sacred bird 
belonging to the gens of the Do-do°'-ho°-ga which he had carried on 
the expedition. The Wa-xo'-be of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° gens is also 
taken out and the two birds lie upon the ground in front of the Do- 
do'''-ho''-ga and the Xo'-ka, that of the Do-do°'-ho°-ga on the Ho°'-ga 
side and that of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° on the Tsi'-zhu side. 

The first of the warriors to approach the sacred birds is the Chief 
Xthe'-ts'a-ge of the Do-do°'-ho°-ga. He is the officer who was in 
actual command of the war party and who led the warriors to battle. 
Standing in front of the Wa-xo'-be belonging to the gens of the Do- 
do°'-ho°-ga, he holds up a little stick painted red, about the size of a 
lead pencil, and addressing the bird says: ''O, Grandfather, it was you 
who gave me success, and enabled me to win the o-do°' called wa-tse' 



86 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 

[victory]. For this I place upon you this little stick." If this officer 
had won other o-do°' in the battle he could claim these also at this 
ceremony, dropping upon the bird a stick for each o-do°'. The leading 
Xthe'-ts'a-ge on the Tsi'-zhu side then rises and approaching the 
sacred bird of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° makes claim to his o-do'^' in the 
same manner. This is done by all of the eight Xthe'-ts'a-ge of the 
two divisions alternately. 

When all the Xthe'-ts'a-ge have finished making their claims the 
men of the warrior or the servant class who had struck one of the 
enemy come forward, one after the other, and make claim to the 
Wa-ga'-xthi o-do°', the striking o-do"'. Each warrior as he makes 
his claim drops a little red stick on the bird belonging to his division. 

Those who had struck one of the enemy having finished making 
their claims, the men who cut oft" the heads of the enemy then approach 
the sacred birds and make their claims to the o-do°', which was called 
fa'-wa-thu-ge, Cutting oft" the Head. 

Then follow the men who had not won any of the above o-do°', but 
could claim the honor of having taken part in the expedition and in 
the battle. This o-do°' is called Wa'-thu-xpe, a term that seems to 
have lost its meaning. The Tse'-xe-k'i" who were not present at the 
battle but who were ordered to remain behind to take care of the camp 
and pack horses are allowed to claim this o-do''' as it was not of their 
choice that they remained behind and did not take part in the attack. 

When all the men of the war party have finished making their 
claims the young men and boys who had remained at home are per- 
mitted to come and offer petitions to the sacred birds, each petition 
being represented by a little stick. Most of the petitions thus pre- 
sented are for a wife, children, a house and plenty of horses, and soon 
the birds would become buried under the piles of sticks. It sometimes 
happens that a boy, belated by play or some other reason, comes upon 
the scene, breathless from running, and, brushing aside the pile of 
sticks from the sacred bird, would say: "O, Grandfather, listen not 
to these petitions, they were made by foolish, trifling persons. Listen 
to me! I will truly strive for the things I ask of you. Give me 
health; make me grow up to be a strong man; give me long life; give 
me a good woman for wife; give us children, a house, and plenty of 
horses! I now place upon you these my sticks." 

Mourning Rite (From Wa-sha'-be A-thi'') 

Wa-xthi'-zhi states that the Wa-sha'-be A-thi" rite, the ceremonies 
of which he has described above in detail, is the original and true 
Wa-sha'-be A-thi° rite and that the Mourning Rite is of later origin, 
although it bears the same title and resembles the earlier rite in many 
of its details. The original Wa-sha'-be A-thi° relates to the organiza- 
tion of a war party to engage either in defensive or offensive warfare; 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 87 



the later ceremony is for the organization of a war party for the pur- 
pose of slaying a member of some enemy tribe in order to secure a 
spirit to accompany that of a dead Osage to the spirit land. There 
is a belief among the Osage that the path to the spirit land is a lonely 
one and he who travels upon it craves company, therefore a man who 
has lost by death his wife, son, daughter, nephew, or other loved rela- 
tive, desires to have the ceremonies of the Mourning Rite performed, 
provided he has the means to meet the expenses that arise therefrom. 

ORIGIN AND DESCRIPTION 

Sho°'-to°-5a-be tells the following story of the origin of the Mourning 
Rite: 

It has long been the Osage custom for mourners to take upon them- 
selves for a certain period of time the Fasting Rite. Many years ago 
a prominent man upon the death of a relative took upon himself the 
Fasting Rite. In order to be entirely alone in his fast he had wan- 
dered far away from home when he suddenly heard the voice of the 
relative for whom he was mourning, asking him to slay a man in order 
that he might have company while on his way to the spirit land. At 
once the mourner hastened home, organized a small war party and 
went forth against a hostile tribe. He found the enemy, attacked 
them, killing a number of the warriors. He brought back a scalp and 
fastened it to a pole which he planted at the head of the grave of liis 
relative. By this act the mourner believed that he had sent the 
spirit of the slain man to overtake and accompany on its journey the 
spirit of the relative for whom he mourned. Other members of the 
tribe followed the example of the man but the}^ ceremonially organized 
their war party, using the ceremonies of the Wa-sha'-be A-thi° rite, 
and thus it became the custom among the Osage to secure a spirit to 
accompany that of a dead member to the spirit land. 

The following detailed description of the ceremonies of the Mourn- 
ing Rite as given by Xu-tha'-wa-to°-i° of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" gens is 
placed in proximity to the account of the Wa-sha'-be A-thi°, a rite 
pertaining exclusively to defensive and offensive war, for the reason 
that the ceremonies used in the Mourning Rite are clearly borrowed 
and adapted from the war rite and afford an instructive example of 
the changing and the interweaving of ceremonies. 

Upon the death of a loved relative the mourner sends for a member 
of his gens who is famihar with the ceremonies of the Mourning Rite. 
When this man arrives he is formally told what is required of him. 
If he consents to act as Master of Ceremonies in the rite he sends for 
the Sho'-ka of the gens. The Sho'-ka, laying aside all personal affairs, 
hastens to the mourner's house. On his arrival the Master of Cere- 
monies informs him of the duties he is to perform and bids him summon 
all the No'*'-ho'*-zhi°-ga of his division to assemble at the house of 



05 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY (Bull. 101 

the mourner. (The informant belonged to the Tsi'-zhu division and 
gave their version of the rite.) 

When the No'''-ho°-zhi°-ga arrive they take their accustomed places 
in the lodge. The Master of Ceremonies then tells them in a formal 
manner that the mourner desires to have the mourning ceremonies for 
the dead performed and craves their consent and assistance. The 
No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga, having given their consent, proceed at once to name 
four men from four different gentes of the Ho°'-ga division to be candi- 
dates for the office of ceremonial mourner for the dead. The Sho'-ka 
is then sent to the gens of the man first named. If the members of the 
gens give their approval and the man himself consents to act as cere- 
monial mourner, they send the Sho'-ka of their gens to summon all 
the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Ho°'-ga division to assemble at the house 
of the man who is to act as ceremonial mourner. The members of 
tliis gens also select one of their number to act as Master of Cere- 
monies. This done, the Sho'-ka of the Tsi'-zhu division returns to 
the house of the mourner and reports that the first man named has 
consented to act as Ceremonial Mourner. 

The No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Ho°'-ga division, having duly assembled 
at the house of the Ceremonial Mourner, and having formally given 
their consent to the performance of the mourning ceremony, the 
Sho'-ka of the gens of the Ceremonial Mourner is sent with his little 
pipe, the badge of his office, to give notice to the mourner that the 
No°'-ho°-zlii°-ga of the Ho°'-ga division has assembled. The Sho'-ka 
of the mourner's gens then hastens to give notice to the Tsi'-zhu 
No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga to assemble at the house of the mourner. The 
No'''-ho°-zhi°-ga, putting upon themselves the sign of No^'-zhi^-zho", 
form in single file and march solemnly toward the house of the mourner, 
wailing as they go. 

On the arrival of the Tsi'-zhu No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga at the house of the 
mourner, two men wrap the corpse in a robe and wind around it, from 
the head to the feet, a long lariat. A pole is passed through the loops 
of the lariat and each of the two men grasp an end of the pole, lift the 
corpse, and slowly march toward the house of the Ceremonial Mourner, 
followed by the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga in single file, all wailing as they go. 
Arriving at the house of the Ceremonial Mourner, where had assem- 
bled the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Ho°'-ga division, the men carrying 
the corpse enter and lay it in the middle of the house. The No°'-ho°- 
zhi°-ga of the Tsi'-zhu division follow and take their accustomed 
places by gentes at the north side of the lodge. With the corpse a 
fine horse was brought and tethered near the house for the services 
of the Ceremonial Mourner. 

When the No"'-ho"-zhi°-ga of both sides has come to order, the 
Tsi'-zhu Master of Ceremonies directs his Sho'-ka to fill the pipe he 
has brought with him and present it to the man chosen to act as 



L/i Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 89 

Ceremonial Mourner. The Sho'-ka presents the pipe to the Cere- 
monial Mourner, saying, as he does so: "I come to ask of you an 
animal, O, grandfather!" These words are metaphorical and mean 
that the petitioner asks of the Ceremonial Mourner, as leader of a 
war party about to be organized, the life of a human being. Grand- 
father is used as a ceremonial term. 

The Ceremonial Mourner says, as he smokes the pipe offered to 
him: "Yes, it shall be so!" 

The No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Ho°'-ga division having thus solemnly 
committed themselves to comply with the wish of those of the Tsi'-zhu 
division, both divisions proceed to select two warriors from each 
division, to serve the Ceremonial Mourner, who may now be termed 
Do-do**' -ho°-ga, during the period of fasting. These four men are 
called Tse'-xe-k'i° Pa-ho°-gthe, "Leaders of the Kettle Carriers." 

The Tse'-xe-k'i° Pa-ho°-gthe are instructed by the Master of Cere- 
monies of the Ho°'-ga division to set up a little house for the Do-do°'- 
ho°-ga to be occupied by him during the period of No°'-zhi'^-zho°. 
The site selected by these men for the little house is at the west side 
of the village, just outside of the border. When the house is finished 
the four men make a forked stake, sharpened at the lower end, for the 
Do-do°'-ho°-ga to hang his tobacco pouch and ceremonial pipe upon 
when he is at rest, he being prohibited from placing these sacred 
articles on the ground. 

When the Tse'-xe-k'i° Pa-ho°-gthe return to the No'''-ho°-zhi'»-ga 
to report that the little house for the Do-do^'-ho^-ga is finished, those 
on the Ho°'-ga side say to the Tsi'-zhu: "You will now decide the 
length of time you wish the Do-do'''-ho°-ga to take the rite of No**'- 
zhi^-zho""." 

The period of fasting having been decided, the Master of Cere- 
monies conducts the Do-do°'-ho"-ga and his Tse'-xe-k'i° Pa-ho°-gthe 
to the Uttle house, where the Master of Ceremonies tells the Do-do"*'- 
ho°-ga that throughout the period of fasting he must not lie down on 
the ground to sleep, but that if he felt the need of rest he could sit on 
the ground and for support lean against something. Then, as they 
sit within the little house, the Master of Ceremonies gives to the 
Do-do^'-ho^-ga the story of the finding of the four different colored 
clays to be used in the fasting rite. This story he gives in conversa- 
tional speech and not in wi'-gi-e form, a form used only at a regular 
initiation into the mysteries of the tribal rites. The story as given 
by Xu-tha'-wa-to°-i'* is as follows: 

PARAPHRASE OF THE RITUAL 

And the people said to the Sho'-ka Wa-ba-xi (the leading Sho'-ka), 
0, younger brother, it is not possible for the little ones to live upon 
the surface of the water. Go, therefore, and bring to us four bugs 

83773—39 7 



90 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 

that dwell in the water that we may appeal to them for help. The 
Sho'-ka went forth and returned to the people with the white leech. 
To this water bug the people spake, saying: "O, grandfather, it is not 
possible for the little ones to dwell upon the surface of the water." 
Whereupon the leech sped forth, rippling the surface of the water by 
his swdft movements. The leech could give no help to the people, but 
he said to them: "Behold the ripples upon the surface of the water. 
Make of me a part of your bodies, then the little ones shall live to be 
old and have wrinkles like the ripples of the water." 

Again the Sho'-ka went forth and returned with the bug resembling 
a black bean (the whirligig). The black bug could not help the people 
but he promised to make the little ones live to be old and have wrinkles 
like the ripples on the surface of the water. 

The Sho'-ka went forth the third time and returned with the dark 
leech. The people appealed to him but he could only promise to 
make the little ones to reach old age and to have wrinkles like the 
ripples on the surface of the waters. 

For the fourth time the Sho'-ka went forth and returned with the 
spider-like bug (the water strider). The people appealed to him but 
he could only promise to make the little ones live long, become old, 
and have wrinkles like the ripples upon the surface of the waters. 

Then, in their distress, the people turned to the Ho°'-ga Wa-no° 
(the Elder Ho°'-ga) in silent appeal. The Ho°'-ga Wa-no** spake to 
the Sho'-ka Wa-ba-xi, saying: "Go again and make further search for 
help." At that very moment the people were startled by a voice that 
arose toward the rising sun. Again they heard the voice as though 
approaching. For the third time came the call, yet nearer, and the 
people turned to the Sho'-ka and with one voice said to him: "Lead 
us forth ; we will send that person to the land of spirits, it matters not 
whose son he is." The voice called again and a man stood before 
the people. They seized him to slay him when the man spake, saying: 
"Spare me, O, Tsi'-zhu, and I shall be to you a Ho°'-ga (a sacred 
person). When you go toward the setting sun against our enemies I 
shall give to you that which will bring you success, four different 
colored clays with which to paint your faces." That person was 
Ho°'-ga Zhi°'-ga (Crawfish). The Tsi'-zhu set liim free that he might 
live and be to them a Ho°'-ga. 

Still the people were in distress as it was not possible for the little 
ones to dwell on the surface of the water. So they said to the Sho'- 
ka Wa-ba-xi: "Go again and make search for help." The Sho'-ka 
went forth, always willing to obey the demands of the people. In the 
midst of an arrow-wood thicket he came upon the great elk and, 
walking side by side with him, brought him to the people who, looking 
up to him, said: "O, grandfather, it is not possible for the little ones 
to dwell on the surface of the water!" The elk made reply: "It is 
well you have come to me. I shall help you. I am 0'-po° to°-ga" 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 91 

(the Great Elk). In a loud voice the Great Elk called to the wind 
of the east, of the south, of the west, and of the north, and then 
threw himself upon the water. As he arose the waters had reached 
in depth to the middle of his sides. Again he threw himself upon the 
water and it receded in depth to his belly. A third time he threw 
himself upon the water and it receded in depth to his knee joints. 
The fourth time he threw himself upon the water it receded until land 
appeared and there was no water left except in the depressions of the 
earth. 

The people now set foot upon the land but there were other things 
for the elk to do in behalf of the little ones. He shook his great body 
and in response the black crawfish appeared from the soft earth and 
stood before the people, holding in his claws a bit of the dark soil of 
the earth; then the Great Elk said to the people: "Behold, the dark 
soil of the earth. When you go forth to fast you shall put this upon 
your faces and you shall shed tears while this sign is upon you. And 
while you fast you shall remain awake, else the length of your lives 
will be shortened." Again the Great Elk shook liimself and the red 
crawfish appeared before the people, holding in his claws a bit of red 
clay; then the Elk spake, saying: "Behold, the red clay of the earth. 
This also you shall put upon your faces, but when doing so you shall 
not shed tears, for it shall be a sign of your determination to over- 
come your enemies, who dwell toward the setting of the sun." The 
Elk shook himself again and the blue crawfish appeared from beneath 
the soil having between his great claws a bit of blue clay. Then the 
Elk spake, saying: "Behold, the blue clay of the earth. This also you 
shall put upon your faces when you go forth to fast, and shall shed 
tears when it is upon you, for it shall be a sign of your appeal for 
strength to overcome your enemies who dwell toward the setting sun." 
Once more the Elk shook liimself, and from beneath the soil the yellow 
crawfish appeared, having between his great claws a bit of yellow clay. 
Then the Great Elk spake to the people, saying: "O, Tsi'-zhu, you 
shall put this yellow clay upon your faces when you go against your 
enemies who dwell toward the setting sun, and you shall not fail to 
overcome your enemies. Behold the right side of my body, O, Tsi'- 
zhu, it is the low Ijang lands of the earth. Upon these lands you shall 
find the animals that will supply you with food. Behold my buttocks. 
They are the rolling hills of the earth, in the midst of which you shall 
find the animals that will serve you as food. Behold the base of my 
neck that represents the hilltops of the earth. Among the hilltops 
of the earth you shall find the animals that will serve you as food. 
Behold the curve of my neck, that represents the gaps of the ridges of 
the earth. Among the gaps of the ridges you shall find the animals 
that will serve you as food. Behold the lower tines of my antlers. 
They represent the branches of the rivers. Along the branches of the 
rivers you shall find the animals that will serve you as food. Behold 



92 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Buti. lOi 

the flat branches of my antlers. They represent the low-lying lands 
along the rivers. Within these lands you shall find the animals that 
will serve you as food. Behold the smaller branches of my antlers. 
They represent the small creeks of the earth. Among the creeks of 
the earth you shall find the animals that will serve you as food. 
Behold the hairs of my head. They represent the forests of the 
earth. In the forests you shall find the animals that will serve you 
as food. Then, O, Tsi'-zhu, there shall be days, peaceful and serene, 
wherein you shall find the animals that will serve you as food." 

When the Master of Ceremonies has finished telling the story of 
the gift of the four symbolic clays he leaves to themselves the Do-do°'- 
ho°-ga and his four attendants. The Do-do"'-ho°-ga at once prepares 
for his fast and departs for the hills and the forests that lie beyond 
the places frequented by men, where he wanders about making his 
appeal to Wa-ko'^'-da for aid. 

At four regular intervals, within the time named for the Do-do°'- 
ho"-ga to fast, the No°'-ho"-zhi°-ga assemble informally when they 
discuss matters relating to the ceremonies. At the fourth gathering 
of the No°'-ho"-zhi°-ga the Do-do'*'-ho°-ga returns to join them. 
The No°'-ho''-zhi''-ga then proceed to select two men, one from the 
Wa-ga'-be gens and the other from either the Mi-k'i°' or Tse-do'- 
ga-i^-dse gens, to act as ceremonial heralds. These heralds are sent 
out to give notice to the people that on the following morning the 
Do-do''' -ho°-ga would rise. This means that other men will be called 
upon to offer themselves to serve as Do-do°'-ho°-ga for their gentes. 
The heralds at once start out to cry aloud the notice, the one from 
the Wa-ga'-be gens going around the village by way of the Tsi'-zhu 
side and the other by way of the Ho°'-ga side. 

On the following morning the Master of Ceremonies instructs the 
four attendants of the Do-do''' -ho °-ga to set up a house for the No"'- 
ho°-zhi'*-ga at the west end of the village. When the ceremonial house 
had been erected all the No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga assemble there to select 
eight commanders for the war party. Four are first chosen from the 
Tsi'-zhu side and the other four from the Ho^'-ga side. When the 
commanders have been selected the Do-do°'-ho°-ga advances to each 
one, wailing as he goes, and taldng him by the arm conducts him to 
the east end of the lodge, where he assigns him to a place on the side 
of the division to which he belongs. 

Then follows the ceremonial making of four standards called Wa- 
xthe'-xthe. Two of the standards are called Wa-zha-wa A-thi° bi 
kshe, to be carried in the procession for rallying the warriors. All of 
these standards are made by the Ta I-ni-ka-shi-ga gens (Deer People) 
of the Wa-zha'-zhe subdivision of the Ho°'-ga division. 

When the standards have been finished the appointment of the two 
heralds is confirmed, and each one is given a downy eagle feather to 
wear on the crown of his head as a badge of his ofl&ce. To the one 



La FLE3CHE] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 93 



chosen from the Wa-ga'-be gens is given a knife and to the one from 
the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° or the Mi-k'i°' gens, a battle ax to be carried 
throughout the ceremonies. The two heralds are then stationed at 
the west end of the village, the one belonging to the Ho'^'-ga division 
on his own side and the one to the Tsi'-zhu on his side. 

At the close of the ceremonies relating to the selection of the Xthe'- 
ts'a-ge and the confirmation of the appointment of the two heralds 
the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga form a procession and march around the village. 
Those belonging to the Tsi'-zhu division form one part and go by way 
of the Ho^'-ga side and those of the Ho°'-ga division form another part 
and go by way of the Tsi'-zhu side. These two parts of the procession 
meet, on their return, at the west end of the village, where they arrange 
themselves in the space between the two houses which had been 
erected by the Tse'-xe-k'i'* Pa-ho°-gthe for the use of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge 
and the volunteer warriors, the Ho'^'-gaftaking their places on the 
north side and the Tsi'-zhu on the south side. When the two divisions 
had settled down, the Dance of the Valorous is performed by the four 
Tse'-xe-k'i° Pa-ho°-gthe to the accompaniment of hand clapping by 
all the No'^'-ho''-zhi°-ga. Each man, as he dances, carries in his 
right hand the rally standard belonging to his division. After the 
dance the Tse'-xe-k'i° No°-ho°, or Chief Kettle Carriers of the two 
Xthe'-ts'a-ge houses, tell their Criers to call to the women to bring 
cooked food for the warriors. The women respond with alacrity and 
the center of each house is soon crowded with kettles and bowls of 
steaming food. The name of each contributor was called loudly by a 
Crier with thanks and praise for her generosity. From this time on 
the Xthe'-ts'a-ge and their warriors have morning and afternoon 
processions for the purpose of rallying to their ranks the young 
warriors. 

In the evenings the No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga assemble in their houses to 
determine upon the ceremony to be taken up on the following day. 
When that is decided the two ceremonial heralds are directed to give 
notice to the people of the ceremony to be performed. This they do 
at midnight when the village becomes quiet. The first ceremony 
usually taken up is that of the Hot Water, Xu-tha'-wa-to°-i° did not 
give a description of this ceremony but he explained its purpose as 
follows: It sometimes happens that one or more of the men who 
volunteer to act as Do-do°'-ho°-ga for their gentes have not taken the 
Ni'-ki-e degree of the war rites, an act necessary to make them eligible 
for the position. In order to obviate this deficiency and to make each 
man eligible for the office of Do-do°'-ho°-ga the ceremonies of the 
Ni'-ki-e degree are performed in a modified or abbreviated form to 
serve as a sort of initiation to these candidates. 

On the day following the Hot Water ceremony, the ceremonial dis- 
tribution of deerskins to all the Do-do°'-ho°-ga takes place. These 
skins are to be worn on the shoulders during the ceremonies. Downy 



94 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 

eagle feathers are next distributed. These are to be worn on the 
crown of the head as a sacred insignia. These deerskins and the 
feathers are furnished by certain gentes of the Wa-zha'-zhe sub- 
division. 

The next day the ceremonies are performed that relate to the making 
of the sacred charcoal to be carried by each warrior for painting his 
face when about to attack the enemy. As these ceremonies do not 
form a part of those belonging to Xu-tha'-wa-to°-i°'s gens he did not 
go into their details. 

Before sunrise on the morning of the fourth day the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga 
assemble at the house of the Do-do''' -lio°-ga to perform the cere- 
monies connected with the cooking of certain mystic foods. When 
the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga had come to order, the Master of Ceremonies 
commands the Sho'-ka to bring in four stones and arrange them 
within the fireplace in the following order: One is put at the cast 
side, one at the west, one at the north, and one at the south side. This 
being done, the Sho'-ka is commanded to bring forth the Tse'-xe 
Ni-ka-pu, the sacred earthen pot, and to place it upon the four stones. 
The pot having been placed upon its stone supports, the Sho'-ka puts 
water into it and then drops therein the mystic foods. The common 
belief concerning the ceremonies is that by them some mysterious 
power is given to the food cooked in the sacred pot, a power that can 
reach the enemy and render them incapable of resisting the attacks 
to be made upon them. 

The office of reciting the wi'-gi-e that follows the placing of the 
Tse'-xe Ni-ka-pu containing water upon the stones, belongs to the 
Wa-ga'-be gens but a member of the Tsi'-zhu division in conducting 
the ceremony is permitted, by the courtesy of that gens, to recite it. 
The following is the wi'-gi-e as recited by Xu-tlia'-wa-to°-i" and as 
commonly given by his gens, the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no°. The title of the 
wi'-gi-e is Pe'-dse U-k'i, Wi-gi-e of the Offering to the Fire. 

OFFERING TO THE FIRE RITUAL 

(Osage version, p. 171) 



1. Verily, at that time and place, 

2. They said to one another, "Let the Sacred Vessel 

3. Be placed before us." 

4. Verily, at that time and place, 

5. They said to one another, "What shall we use to support the 

Vessel?" 

6. Verily, at that time and place, 

7. They brought forth four stones, which they placed at the four 

corners of the fireplace, 

8. To elevate the Sacred Vessel from the ground. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 95 



9. Verily, at that time and place, 

10. They brought to the fireplace a burning brand, 

11. Which they laid within the Sacred Fireplace, toward the winds 

of the east, beneath the Sacred Vessel. 

12. This burning brand which they laid beneath the Sacred Vessel 

13. Is not without a meaning, they said, 

14. For within the burning brand they placed the man who menaces 

the homes of the tribe. 

15. This is the meaning of the burning brand here laid. 

16. Verily, at that time and place, 

17. It also means that they shall not permit the animals to go astray. 



18. Within the Sacred Fireplace, toward the winds of the west, 

beneath the Sacred Vessel, 

19. They laid a burning brand, 

20. That was not without a meaning; 

21. For within the burning brand they placed a man who menaces 

the homes of the tribe, 

22. Then laid it in the Sacred Fireplace. 

23. Verily, at that time and place, 

24. It also means to them the calling of the animals, 

25. That they may not go astray. 



26. Verily, at that time and place, 

27. Within the Sacred Fireplace, toward the winds of the north, 

beneath the Sacred Vessel, 

28. They laid a burning brand, 

29. That was not without a meaning, they said; 

30. For within the burning brand they placed the man who menaces 

the homes of the tribe, 
Then laid it in the Sacred Fireplace. 
Verily, at that time and place. 
It also means to them the calling of the animals. 
That they may not go astray. 



35. Verily, at that time and place, 

36. Within the Sacred Fireplace, toward the winds of the south, 

beneath the Sacred Vessel, 

37. They laid a burning brand, 

38. That was not without a meaning, they said; 

39. For within the burning brand they placed the man who menaces 

the homes of the tribe, 



96 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

40. Then laid it in the Sacred Fireplace. 

41. It also means to them the calling of the animals, 

42. That they may not go astray, 

43. Verily, at that time and place, 

44. Then, there shall come the days, fair and serene, when the hunter 

45. Shall, without fear, pursue the animals and make them to go to 

the spirit land. 

6 

46. Verily, at that time and place, 

47. They said to one another: "Behold the vapor that arises from the 

Sacred Vessel." 

48. That also is not without a meaning, 

49. It figures the actions of the animal, 

50. That goes forth, even before the break of day, 

51. Breathing forth vapor from its mouth and nostrils, 

52. That is the figure discerned by them in the vapor rising from the 

Sacred Vessel. 

53. Verily, at that time and place, they said, 

54. It also means to them that some day they shall continue to send 

the animals to the spirit land. 



55. Verily, at that time and place, 

56. They said to one another: "Behold the swirling of the boiling 

water within the Sacred Vessel." 

57. That also is not without a meaning, 

58. It is the habit of the animals to go forth, 

59. Even before the break of day, to wander over the earth, 

60. It is this figure they discern in the swirling water within the 

Sacred Vessel, 

61. It also means to them the calling of the animals, 

62. That they may not go astray. 



63. Verily, at that time and place, 

64. They said to one another: "Behold the bubbling of the water 

within the Sacred Vessel." 

65. That also is not without a meaning, 

66. It figures the actions of the animal, 

67. As it rushes forth in flight when stricken by the hunter, even 

before the break of day, 

68. The blood bubbUng from its death wound, 

69. It is this figure they discern as the water bubbles within the 

Sacred Vessel. 

70. It also means to them the calling of the animals, 

71. That they may not go astray. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 97 

9 

72. Verily, at that time and place, 

73. They said to one another: "Behold the water leaping over the 

rim of the Sacred Vessel." 

74. That also is not without a meaning, 

75. It figures the actions of the animal, 

76. As it rushes forth in flight when stricken by the hunter, 

77. Treading upon its life blood as it flees, 

78. It is the figure they discern in the leaping of the water over the 

rim of the Sacred Vessel. 

79. It also means to them the calling of the animals, 

80. That they may not go astray. 

81. Verily, at that time and place, 

82. Then there shall come the days, fair and serene, when the hunter 

83. Shall, without fear, pursue the animals and make them to go to 

the spirit land. 

The words of the Fire Wi'-gi-e, and the ceremonial acts belonging 
to them are allegorical and this makes them difficult to be understood 
by one unfamiliar with Osage modes of ceremonial expression. Alle- 
gorical wi'-gi-es and acts are common throughout the tribal rites. 
The meanings of these expressions and ceremonial acts are discussed 
and explained by those versed in the rites at the informal gatherings 
of the No'^'-ho^-zhi^'-ga. It is in this way that a knowledge of the 
inner meanings of the words of the wi'-gi-es and their accompanying 
acts are transmitted from one generation to another. 

The story of the Tse'-xe Ni-ka-po, or Sacred Vessel, that is the 
subject of the first part of this wi'-gi-e, is given in line 1285, page 203, 
to Une 1307, page 204, Thirty-sixth Ann. Kept. Bur. Amer. Ethn., 
in the Ni'-ki No°-ko° Wi'-gi-e. 

In the Fire Wi'-gi-e, fire has two aspects; in one it is a constructive 
power, in the other a destructive force. In the "Sacred Fireplace" 
Fu-e is seen in its constructive aspect, where it serves to comfort the 
people and make edible the food necessary to their life. The fire- 
place, therefore, symbolizes the home of the people, and to guard this 
center of tribal life from enemies is the duty of the warrior. In the 
tribal war rites Fire is shown to be a relentless and destructive force, 
one that will enable the warrior to destroy the enemy who dares to 
assail the fireplace, the home of the people. 

The burning brands spoken of in sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 as being 
laid within the Sacred Fireplace, each toward one of the four cardinal 
points, are also complex in meaning. Within each burning brand is 
placed the man who threatens with destruction the fireplace, the home 
of the tribe, that for the safety of the people he may be consumed by 
the fire of the valor of the warriors. 



98 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

The "Sacred Fireplace" also stands for the seven fireplaces of the 
Tsi'-zhu division, and the seven fireplaces of each of the Ho'^'-ga and 
the Wa-zha'-zhe subdivisions of the Ho^'-ga division. Lines 1 and 2 
of the fse'-xe Ni-ka-po Wi'-gi-e of the I°-gtho"'-ga gens speaks of the 
warlike character of the seven fireplaces, and characterizes the owners 
as "a people among whom there are none that are craven." 

The act of ceremonially laying down of the burning brands in the 
Sacred Fireplace allegorically expresses the determination of the people 
to destroy their enemies who may dwell toward the winds of the east, 
the winds of the west, the winds of the north, or the winds of the 
south. This determination embraces not only the protection of the 
homes of the people but of the territory in which the needed game 
may be found in abundance. The words in the closing lines of these 
four sections, "the calling of the animals, that they may not go astray," 
mean that by the protection of the tribal hunting grounds the animals 
required for food will not fall into the hands of strange or hostile 
tribes. 

The remaining four sections give the imagery suggested to the minds 
of the ancient No°'-ho'^-zhi°-ga of hunting scenes as in the play of 
the rising vapor, the bubbling of the boiling water, the leaping of the 
water over the rim of the Sacred Vessel. Finally, there is the forward 
look to the time when the warriors shall have destro5^ed their enemies, 
and the hunter can go forth to secure food for his children without 
fear, even as on a day that is fair and serene. 

The following is the Fire Wi'-gi-e of the Wa-ga'-be gens as recited 
by Wa-tse/-mo°-i°, a member of that gens. 

FIRE RITUAL 

(Osage version, p. 174) 
1 

1. It has been said, in this house, 

2. These are the four winds. 

3. Toward the winds of the rising sun, 

4. They placed within the Sacred Fireplace a burning brand, 

5. An act that is not void of a meaning. 

6. They placed it there that by its influence the animals may return, 

7. They placed it there for the calling of the animals, 

8. That they may never go astray. 

2 

9. It has been said, in this house, 

10. That they placed toward the winds of the south, 

11. Within the sacred fireplace, a burning brand, 

12. An act that is not void of a meaning. 

13. They placed it there that by its influence the animals may return, 

14. They placed it there for the calling of the animals, 

15. That they may never go astray. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 99 

3 

It has been said, in this house, 

Toward the winds of the setting sun. 

They placed within the sacred fireplace a burning brand, 

An act that is not void of a meaning. 

20. They placed it there that by its influence the animals may return, 

21. They placed it there for the calling of the animals, 

22. That they may never go astray. 

4 

23. It has been said, in this house, 

24. Toward the winds of the north, 

25. They placed within the sacred fireplace a burning brand, 
An act that is not void of a meaning. 

They placed it there that by its influence the animals may return, 
They placed it there for the calling of the animals. 
That they may never go astray. 



30. It has been said, in this house, 

31. They said to one another: Behold, the vapor arising from the 

Sacred Vessel, 

32. To which, also, they attached a meaning. 

33. Even at the break of day, 

34. The animals go forth, as is their ha])it, 

35. To wander over the earth, the vapor arising from their mouths and 

nostrils, 

36. It is this movement of the animals that they see in the vapor 

arising from the Sacred Vessel. 

37. It is that which will stir the people to a determination to overcome 

their enemies, 

38. And put into them the courage to overcome their enemies. 

6 

39. It has been said, in this house, 

40. They said to one another: Behold, the swirling of the boiling water 

within the Sacred Vessel, 

41. To that, also, they attached a meaning. 

42. Even at the break of day, 

43. The animals go forth, as is their habit, 

44. To roam over the earth in circles. 

45. It is this movement of the animals that they see in the whirling 

of the boiling water within the Sacred Vessel, 

46. It is that which will always move the people to a determination 

to overcome their enemies. 



100 BUBEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 



47. It has been said, in this house, 

48. They said to one another: Behold, the bubbUng of the boiling 

water within the Sacred Vessel, 

49. To which, also, they said, 

50. They attached a meaning. 

51. Even at the break of day, 

52. The animal, stricken by the hunter, 

53. Rushes forth in flight, the blood bubbling from its wound. 

54. It is this movement of the hunter and the animal they see in the 

bubbling of the boiling water within the Sacred Vessel. 

55. It is that which will stir the people to a determination to overcome 

their enemies, 

56. And put into them the courage to successfully overcome their 

enemies. 

8 

57. It has been said, in this house, 

58. They said to one another: Behold, the particles leaping upward 

from the boiling water within the Sacred Vessel, 

59. To which, also, they attached a meaning. 

60. Even at the break of day, 

61. The animals go forth, as is their habit, 

62. Leaping upon each other in play as they wander over the earth. 

63. It is this movement of the animals they see in the particles leaping 

upward from the boiling water, within the Sacred Vessel. 

64. It is that which will stir the people to a determination to overcome 

their enemies, 

65. And put into them the courage to successfully overcome their 

enemies. 

9 

66. It has been said, in this house, 

67. They said to one another: Behold, the boiling water leaping over 

the rim of the Sacred Vessel, 

68. To which, also, they attached a meaning. 

69. The animal, stricken by the hunter, 

70. Even at the break of day, 

71. Rushes forth in flight, treading upon its lifeblood as it flees. 

72. It is this movement of the hunter and the animal they see in the 

leaping of the boiling water over the rim of the Sacred Vessel. 

73. It is that which will stir the people to a determination to overcome 

their enemies, 

74. And put into them the courage to successfully overcome their 

enemies. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 101 



10 



75. It has been said, in this house, 

76. They said to one another: Let us consider the vahie of the animals, 

77. Also the days that are fair and peaceful, 

78. And let those that chance to escape, 

79. Live to enjoy life and the days that are fair and peaceful. 

The Fire Wi'-gi-e is spoken of as belonging to all the gentes of the 
two great tribal divisions and as being one. The truth of this asser- 
tion is evidenced by the fact that in certain rites all the different 
gentes make use of a version of the Fire Wi'-gi-e; that the complex 
symbols of the Firebrand persists in all known forms of the wi'-gi-e 
and that the fundamental ideas expressed and the duties demanded of 
the warrior are always the same. Existing versions of the Fire Wi'-gi-e, 
three of which are given above, all bear witness to this fundamental 
unity in ideas and teachings and suggest that the difference between 
the versions probably came about through generations of verbal 
transmissions made under varying circumstances. 

In the Fire Wi'-gi-e recited by Wa-xthi'-zhi (p. 48) each of the four 
Firebrands is made to embody a deer, the first a young doe; the 
second, a young buck; the third, a full-grown doe; and the fourth, 
a matured dark-horned buck. The pairing of these animals according 
to sex and their arrangement with reference to age are expressive of 
the desire of the ancient No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga that the deer shall continue 
to increase in order that they may continually supply the needs of the 
people. This "animal" has an important place in the ceremonial and 
secular life of the people. It is one of the animals that can be depended 
upon for food and, therefore, to be protected against strange or 
unfriendly tribes and from waste by the people themselves. 

In the Fire Wi'-gi-e recited by Xu-tha'-wa-to^-i"^ (p. 94) each of the 
four Firebrands is made to embody a man of the enemy against whom 
the lives of the people, their homes, and the animals depended upon 
for food must be protected. 

In the Fire Wi'-gi-e recited by Wa-tse'-mo°-i° (p. 98) neither the 
deer nor the man is mentioned in connection with the four Firebrands. 

The closing lines, however, of each of the four sections of the three 
versions of the Fire Wi'-gi-e are alike in metaphorical expression and 
meaning; they all refer to the aim of the No^'-ho^'-zhi'^-ga to provide 
for the protection of the little "animal" that occupies a large place in 
the life of the people. 

The actions of the animals pictured in the vapor arising from the 
sacred vessel, in the movements of the boiling water within the vessel, 
are substantially the same in all the three versions. 

Both Xu-tha'-wa-to°-i° and Wa-tse'-mo°-i° omit that part of the 
wi'-gi-e relating to the four mystic foods dropped into the sacred 



102 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

vessel. These foods are to embody four persons of the enemy, 
namely: the youth in his adolescence; the maiden in her adolescence; 
the married man; and the woman who has given birth to her first 
child, thus covering the destruction of both the present and prospec- 
tive life of the enemy. 

In the evening, when the camp became silent, the two ceremonial 
heralds go around the village calling to the people: "Tomorrow the 
Mo°'-sha-ko'' Wa-ko°-da-gi (the Mysterious Burden Straps) will be 
made." These straps are to be made for the Do-do°'-ho°-gas to use 
in tying the captives, should any be taken. The name Mo'^'-sha-ko° 
Wa-ko°-da-gi refers to the finding of the first buffalo and the dedica- 
tion of a certain part of its skin to ceremonial uses. Because of this 
dedication, that part of the skin was believed to become Wa-ko'*-da-gi, 
that is, imbued with mystical powers. It was from this first con- 
secrated part of the sldn that the Mysterious Burden Straps were 
made. These burden straps have another name, "Mo°'-sha-ko° 
Zhu-dse" (Red Burden Straps), a name descriptive of the color put 
upon the straps. This name is not used by the heralds when making 
their announcement because it does not refer to the mythical story 
of the consecration. 

On the following morning the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga assemble at a pri- 
vate dwelUng to prepare to go to the ceremonial house. When all 
have taken their accustomed places a member of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no", 
the gens to which belongs the duty of conducting the Burden-strap 
ceremonies, recites the following wi'-gi-e: 

PAINTING RITUAL 

(Osage version, p. 176) 

1. Verily, at that time and place, 

2. They said to one another: What shall the little ones use for the 

painting of their bodies? 

3. Verily, at that time and place, they said, 

4. They brought forth four stones, 

6. Which they arranged in a pile, leaning one against the other. 

6 Verily, at that time and place, 

7 They gathered together the small dead branches of the trees that 

stood all around, 

8. Making a din of crackling sounds as they moved about. 

9. Verily, at that time and place, 

10. They placed beneath the pile of stones and in the spaces between 

them the dry branches. 

11. Verily, at that time and place, 

12. They set fire to the dead branches placed within and about the 

pile of stones, 

13. And the flames leaped into the air with vibrating motions, 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 103 



14. Making the walls of the heavens 

15. To redden with a crimson glow. 

16. Verily, at that time and place, 

17. They said to one another: Let the reflection of this fire on yonder 

skies be for the painting of the bodies of the little ones. 

18. Verily, at that time and place, 

19. The bodies of the people of the Tsi'-zhu Seven Fireplaces 

20. Became stricken with the red of the fire, leaving no spot un- 

touched. 

21. Verily, at that time and place, 

22. They said to one another: What shall we make this fire to bring 

forth? 

23. Verily, at that time and place, 

24. The Red Shield, they said, 

25. Let it bring forth. 

26. If we make it to bring forth the Red Shield, 

27. Then, when we go toward the setting of the sun, 

28. And are met by our enemies with weapons innumerable, 

29. Their weapons shall fail to penetrate the Red Shield. 

30. If we make the fire, 

31. To bring forth the Red Shield, 

32. Then, when we go toward the setting of the sun, 

33. And are met by the enemy, with weapons innumerable, 

34. Their weapons shall glance away against the Red Shield. 

35. If we make the fire, 

36. To bring forth the Red Shield, 

37. Then, when we go toward the setting of the sun, 

38. And are met by the enemy, with weapons innumerable, 

39. Their weapons shall glance away from either side of the Red 

Shield. 

40. If we make the fire, they said, 

41. To bring forth the Red Shield, 

42. Then, when we go toward the setting sun, 

43. And are met by the enemy, with weapons innumerable, 

44. Their weapons shall become harmless to us. 

45. Verily, at that time and place, 

46. They said to one another: What other power shall we make the 

fire to bring forth? 

47. Verily, at that time and place, 

48. The god of day (the sun), 

49. Let it bring forth, 

50. If we make the fire, 

51. To bring forth the god of day to our aid, 

52. We shall always be feared by the other gods. 



104 BUREAU OP AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY (Boll. lOl 

53. If we make the fire, 

54. To bring forth the god of day, to our aid, 

55. None of the other gods, they said, 

56. Can stare us in the face with insolence. 

At the close of the recitation of the Ki'-no° Wi'-gi-e the No^'-ho"- 
zhi°-ga begin to paint themselves. The members of the Tsi'-zhu 
Wa-no° gens paint the entire face and body red. This manner of 
painting at the ceremony of the Wa-sha'-be A-thi'* belongs exclusively 
to the members of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° gens. It is commemorative 
of the event given in the wi'-gi-e and bears particularly to 

The bodies of the people of the Tsi-zhu Seven Fireplaces 
Became stricken with red of the Fire, leaving no spot untouched. 

The members of the other gentes paint only their faces red. Before 
the advent of traders red color was used for symbolic painting; since 
this contact vermilion has been used. 

Each member of the order wore upon the crown of his head a white 
downy feather taken from the under part of the tail or wings of the 
eagle. This feather symbolizes the sun, and is worn as a badge of 
membersliip in the order. 

The No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga, having thus adorned themselves with the 
color of the sacred fire and the symbol of the sun, march solenmly 
to the ceremonial house. The members of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no°, the 
gens whose duty it is to preside at the ceremony, enter first and take 
their places at the east end of the lodge, facing west. The members 
of the other gentes follow and take their accustomed places, according 
to gentes, along the sides of the lodge. Wlien all have become settled 
the leader of the presiding gens recites the following wi'-gi-e that 
relates to the descent of the people from the sky to the earth; their 
search for and the finding of a tree suitable for the making of a war 
club for ceremonial use ; their search for and the finding of the buffalo 
and their killing it by supernatural means and the dedication of certain 
parts of it to ceremonial use: 

THE GREAT RITUAL 

(Osage version, p. 178) 



1. Verily, at that time and place, 

2. The people of the Tsi'-zhu Seven Fireplaces spake to one another, 

saymg: 

3. O, younger brothers, 

•i. It is not possible for us to go below (to the earth), 

5. Let search be made for a way by which we may descend. 

G. Verily, at that time and place, 

7. They spake to the leading Sho'-lj:a, saying: 



La FlescheJ OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 105 

8. O, younger brother, 

9. Is it not possible for us to go below, they said to him, 

10. Go thou and make search for a way by which we may descend. 

11. Verily, at that time and place, 

12. The bird without a stain (the dark eagle) that lay in its purity, 

13. He brought to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, saying: 

14. O, my elder brothers, 

15. It is this bird that shall be the means by which we shaU descend. 

16. That is satisfying to us, the elder brothers replied. 

17. Verily, at that time and place, 

18. By means of the stainless bird that lay in its purity, 

19. They descended toward the earth. 

20. The bird made four wide circuits within the vault of the sky as 

it descended. 

21. At the first circuit they did not take form as persons, 

22. At the second circuit they did not take form as persons, 

23. At the third circuit they still did not take form as persons, 

24. At the fourth circuit then it was that they became persons. 



25. Verily, at that time and place, 

26. The people spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

27. Let us descend to the earth. 

28. Verily, at that time and place, 

29. They moved forth, 

30. And made four pauses as they moved onward. 

31. Agaiu they went forth, 

32. And came to the top of seven trees, 

33. Upon which they alighted. 

34. They went forth again, 

35. And water was beneath them. 

36. They moved forth again, 

37. And water was still beneath them. 

38. They went forth for the third time, 

39. And again water was beneath them. 



40. Verily, at that time and place, 

41. They went forth once more, 

42. And came to a great white rock, 

43. Where they paused and stood for a while. 

44. They went forth again, 

45. And came to a valley, 

46. Within which stood the willow tree that never dies. 

47. By the side of this tree they paused and stood. 

83773—39 8 



106 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 



48. Again they moved forth, 

49. And came to the top of the sky, 

50. Where they paused and stood for a while. 

51. Verily, at that time and place, 

52. They spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

53. In this unorganized state, 

54. It will be impossible for us to set forth in life as a body. 

55. Let a way be sought by which we can confidently move onward 

as a body. 

56. Then to the leading Sho'-ka they spake, saying: 

57. O, younger brother, 

58. In our unorganized state, 

59. It will be impossible for us to set forth in life as a body. 

60. Then the leading Sho'-ka 

61. Went forth in eager haste, 

62. And the red rock 

63. He brought to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, saying: 

64. O, my elder brothers, 

65. Let this red rock be to the little ones as a foot by which they 

can go forth. 

66. So shall it be, O, younger brother, they replied; the red rock 

shall be as a foot to the little ones. 

67. When the little ones make the red rock to be their foot, 

68. Their foot shall not be wounded by the thorns that may be in 

their life's pathway; 

69. The little ones shall be free from all causes of death, 

70. They shall be able to trample down the hurtful grasses. 



71. Verily, at that time and place, 

72. The leading Sho'-ka 

73. Went forth in eager haste, 

74. And the black rock 

75. He brought to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, saying: 

76. O, my elder brothers, 

77. Let this black rock be to the little ones as their foot. 

78. So shall it be, O, younger brother, they replied; 

79. When the little ones make the black rock to be their foot, 

80. They shall be free from all causes of death. 

81. Their foot shall not be wounded by the thorns that may be in 

their life's pathway, 

82. They shall be able to trample down the hurtful grasses. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 107 



83. Verily, at that time and place, 

84. The leading Sho'-ka 

85. Went forth in eager haste, 

86. And the white rock 

87. He brought to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, saying: 

88. O, my elder brothers, 

89. Let this white rock be to the little ones as their foot. 

90. So shall it be, O, younger brother, they replied. 

91. When the little ones make the white rock to be their foot, 

92. Their foot shall not be wounded by the thorns that may be in 

their life's pathway. 

93. They shall be free from all causes of death, 

94. They shall be able to trample down the hurtful grasses. 



95. Verily, at that time and place, 

96. The people spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

97. The mysterious wa-xo'-be 

98. Lacks a necessary implement. 

99. Then to the leading Sho'-ka they spake, saying: 

100. Go thou and make search for the implement. 

101. With eager haste the Sho'-ka went forth, 

102. And the red flint 

103. He hastily brought to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, 

saying: 

104. O, my elder brothers, 

105. Let the little ones make from this a knife for their use. 

106. It is not fit for a knife for the httle ones, O, younger brother, 

107. It is wholly unfit for use as a knife, O, younger brother, 

108. Go forth again and make search for the implement. 

8 

109. The leading Sho'-ka 

110. Went forth in eager haste, 

111. And the blue flint 

112. He hastily brought to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, 

saying: 

113. O, my elder brothers, 

114. Let the httle ones make from this a knife for their use. 

115. It is not fit for a knife for the little ones, O, younger brother, 

116. It is wholly unfit for use as a knife, they said to him, 

117. Go forth again and make search. 



108 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 



118. Verily, at that time and place, 

119. The Sho'-ka went forth in eager haste, 

120. And the black flint 

121. He hastily brought to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, 

saying: 

122. O, elder brothers, he said to them, 

123. Let the little ones make from this a knife for their use. 

124. It is not fit for a knife for the little ones, O, younger brother, 

125. It is wholly unfit for use as a knife, they said to him, 

126. Go thou again and make search. 

10 

127. Verily, at that time and place, 

128. The Sho'-ka went forth in eager haste, 

129. And a round-handled knife 

130. He brought in haste to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, 

sajang: 

131. O, my elder brothers, 

132. Let this be the knife for the little ones. 

133. That is satisfying to us, they repUed; 

134. That has been the object of your search, O, younger brother, 

135. This shall be the knife for the little ones to use in all time. 

136. When the little ones make of this their knife, 

137. They shall have a knife that will always remain sharp, 

138. A knife that will never fail to cut. 

11 

139. Verily, at that time and place, 

140. They spake to the leading Sho'-ka, saying: 

141. O, younger brother, 

142. The mysterious wa-xo'-be 

143. Is without another necessary article. 

144. Go thou and make search for it. 

145. The Sho'-ka went forth in eager haste, 

146. And the young hickory tree 

147. He brought in haste to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, 

saymg: 

148. O, my elder brothers, he said to them, 

149. Let the little ones make of this a weapon for striking. 

150. It is not fit for the little ones to use as a weapon, O, younger 

brother, 

151. Go forth again and make search. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 109 

12 

152. Verily, at that time and place, 

153. The Sho'-ka went forth in eager haste, 

154. And the full-grown hickory tree 

155. He brought in haste to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, 

saying: 

156. O, my elder brothers, 

157. Let the little ones make of this a weapon with which to make 

their enemies to fall. 

158. It is whoUy unfit for a weapon, they replied, 

159. It is not for the little ones to use as a weapon for striking, 

160. Go forth again and make search. 

13 

161. Verily, at that time and place, 

162. The Sho'-ka went forth in eager haste, 

163. And the bitter hickory tree 

164. He brought in haste to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, 

saying: 

165. O, my elder brothers, 

166. Let the httle ones make of this a weapon with which to make 

their enemies to fall. 

167. It is not fit for the little ones to use as a weapon to make their 

enemies to fall. 

168. Go thou again and make search. 

14 

169. The Sho'-ka went forth in eager haste, 

170. And the redwood tree (red oak) 

171. He brought in haste to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, 

saying: 

172. O, my elder brothers, 

173. Let the little ones make of this a weapon with which to make 

their enemies to fall. 

174. It is not fit for the little ones to use as a weapon to make their 

enemies to fall. 

175. Go thou again and make search. 

15 

176. Verily, at that time and place, 

177. The Sho'-ka went forth in eager haste, 

178. And the redbud tree 

179. He brought in haste to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, 

saying: 



110 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

180. O, my elder brothers, 

181. Let the little ones make of this a weapon with which to make 

their enemies to fall. 

182. It is not fit for the little ones to use as a weapon, 

183. It is wholly unfit for a weapon. 

184. Go thou again and make search. 

16 

185. The Sho'-ka went forth in eager haste, 

186. And the yellow willow tree 

187. He brought in haste to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, 

saying: 

188. O, my elder brothers, 

189. Let the little ones make of this a weapon with which to make 

their enemies to fall. 

190. It is not fit for the little ones to use as a weapon. 

191. Go thou forth again and make search. 

17 

192. The Sho'-ka went forth in eager haste, 

193. And the willow tree that never dies 

194. He brought in haste to his elder brothers, to whom he spake, 

saying: 

195. O, my elder brothers, 

196. Let the little ones make of this a weapon with which to make 

their enemies to fall. 

197. That has been the object of your search, O, younger brother, 

they said, 

198. The little ones shall make of the tree a weapon with which to 

make their enemies to fall. 

18 

199. Verily, at that time and place, 

200. Their round-handled knife 

201. They brought forth, 

202. And thrust with it the body of the never-dying willow tree, 

203. Making a wound from which blood gushed forth. 

204. Then, in eager haste, they shaved from the body of the tree its 

bark, 

205. Taking first the sides toward the four winds, 

206. Then they cut from the body of the tree a piece, 

207. Which they carved into the shape they desired, 

208. Then a club resembling the back of a fish, 

209. They produced in due time. 

210. From end to end they painted the club red, 

211. Which work they also finished in due time. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 111 

19 

212. Verily, at that time and place, 

213. The club resemblmg the back of a fish, 

214. They turned from side to side for view in all its parts, 

215. They repeatedly pressed between the palms of their hands, 

216. At which the weapon uttered thrilling cries. 

217. Then in tones of awe they spake, saying: It is a fear-inspiring 

weapon, 

218. Verily, it is a mysterious weapon. 

20 

219. Verily, at that time and place, 

220. They spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

221. The mysterious wa-xo'-be of ours 

222. Is without the necessary articles for its completion. 

223. Let search be made for these articles. 

224. Verily, at that time and place, 

225. The leading Sho'-ka 

226. Went forth in eager haste, 

227. Then, in the evening of the day, 

228. The elder brothers suddenly exclaimed: Behold, our younger 

brother is returning, 

229. Let us go and speak to him, they said to one another. 

230. O, my younger brother, 

231. What has befallen you, 

232. It has never been your wont to show such weariness. 

233. Verily, at that time and place, 

234. The Sho'-ka replied, saying: O, my elder brothers, 

235. I went forth in accordance with your wish and came to a valley, 

236. And, verily, nothing came to my notice, he said to them. 

237. Then the elder brothers said to him: Go forth again and make 

search. 

21 

238. Verily, at that time and place, 

239. The Sho'-ka went forth again in eager haste, 

240. Then, in the evening of the day, 

241. The elder brothers suddenly exclaimed: Behold, our younger 

brother is returning, 

242. Let us go and speak to him. 

243. O, my younger brother, 

244. What has befallen you; it has never been your wont to show 

such weariness. 

245. The Sho'-ka then replied: O, my elder brothers, 

246. I went forth as you desired, passed one valley and came to 

another, 

247. And, verily, nothing came to my notice. 



112 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull, loi 

22 

248. Verily, at that time and place, 

249. The elder brothers spake to the Sho'-ka, saying: O, younger 

brother, 

250. Go forth again and make search. 

251. The Sho'-ka went forth again in eager haste, 

252. As day began to dawn. 

253. Far in the distance they saw his figure swinging from side to 

side, as he sped onward. 

254. Then, in the evening of the same day, 

255. The elder brothers suddenly exclaimed: Behold, our younger 

brother is returning, 

256. His movements betoken his happy mood. 

257. Verily, at that time and place, 

258. The elder brothers spake to the Sho'-ka, saying: O, younger 

brother, 

259. What has befallen you; it has never been your wont to show such 

weariness. 

260. The Sho'-ka replied, saying: O, my elder brothers, 

261. I went forth as you desired, passed two valleys and came to a 

third, 

262. And there I saw upon the ground the signs of a man. 

263. What were those signs, the elder brothers asked. 

264. The Sho'-ka then replied: O, my elder brothers, 

265. They were his footprints and the grasses he had crushed beneath 

his feet. 

266. Verily, the prints upon the ground showed the feet of this man 

to be cloven. 

267. Then spake the elder brothers to the Sho'-ka, saying: That is 

for whom you have been searching, O, younger brother, 

268. Go forth again and make search. 

23 

269. As the day began to dawn, 

270. The Sho'-ka went forth in eager haste, 

271. Then, in the evening of the same day, 

272. The elder brothers suddenly exlaimed: Behold, our younger 

brother is returning, 

273. His movements betoken his happy moods, 

274. Let us go and speak to him, they said to one another. 

275. O, younger brother, 

276. What has befallen you, 

277. It has never been your wont to show such weariness. 

278. The Sho'-ka then replied: O, my elder brothers, 

279. I went forth as you desired, passed three valleys and came to a 

fourth, 

280. And there beheld the man whose signs I saw upon the ground. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 113 

24 

281. Verily, at that time and place, 

282. The elder brothers spake, saying: O, younger brothers, 

283. Hasten and make ready, 

284. We are the Tsi'-zhu of the Seven Fireplaces, 

285. A people among whom there are none that are craven; 

286. Whatever animal this may be, 

287. It shall go to the spirit land, 

288. Whatever man he may be, 

289. He shall go to the spirit land, 

290. Even though he be a man who walketh upright, 

291. He shall go to the spirit land. 

25 

Verily, at that time and place, 

They spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

Hasten and make ready. 

Verily, at that time and place, 

They marched forth, 

297. In a single line, making a single path. 

298. Four times they paused on their way. 

299. As they paused for the third time, 

300. They arranged themselves in a line and stood abreast. 

301. Then the Sho'-ka spake, saying: O, my elder brothers, 

302. The man whom I beheld at the fourth valley of my journey is 

still there. 
What is he like in form, the elder brothers asked. 
The Sho'-ka spake in quick response: He hath weapons, 
That mark him as a person that can surely kill. 
He has small horns on his head, 
Verily, his looks betoken an angry and dangerous disposition. 

26 

Verily, at that time and place. 

The elder brothers then spake, saying: O, younger brothers. 

Hasten and make ready, they said to them, 

That animal shall go to the spirit land. 

Verily, at that time and place, 

313. The club resembling the back of a fish, 

314. They hastily brought forth, 

315. They repeatedly pressed it between the palms of their hands, 

316. At which the weapon uttered thrilling cries. 



114 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Buxl. 101 

27 

317. Verily, at that time and place, 

318. They spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

319. Hasten and make ready, they said to one another, 

320. Then the club resembling the back of a fish, 

321. They swung into the air as though in the act of striking, 

322. And our grandfather (the buffalo) fell stunned to the ground but 

rose again. 

323. Then, a second time, 

324. The club that resembled the back of a fish, 

325. They swung in the air as though in the act of striking, 

326. And our grandfather fell forward as though in mortal hurt. 

327. Then, a third time, 

328. The club that resembled the back of a fish, 

329. They swung in the air as though in the act of striking, 

330. And our grandfather dropped upon the knees of his forelegs as 

though in mortal hurt. 

331. Then, a fourth time, 

332. The club that resembled a fish, 

333. They swung in the air as though in the act of striking, 

334. Then, with his head rearward, 

335. With blood gushing from his mouth, our grandfather fell and lay 

dead. 

28 

336. Verily, at that time and place, 

337. They spake to one another, saying: O, younger brothers, 

338. Hasten and make ready. 

339. The younger brothers then placed their hands upon the animal, 

340. And the left hind leg 

341. They started to carve with their sacred knife, 

342. And fat protruded from the incision made with the sacred knife. 

343. The younger brothers tasted of the fat, then spake to the elder 

brothers, saying: 

344. O, elder brothers, they said, 

345. Verily, it is satisfying to the taste and appetite, 

346. Then all the brothers said to one another: This shall be food for 

the little ones. 

347. When the little ones make of this their food, 

348. They shall dip it into boiling water to prepare it to eat, 

349. It shall strengthen their arms and make them grow in length. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 115 

29 

350. Verily, at that time and place, 

351. The skin of the left leg 

352. They began to cut with the sacred knife, 

353. Then the younger brothers spake, saying: O, elder brothers, 

354. Verily, the skin makes a strong strap, 

355. We shall dedicate it to sacred uses. 

356. Out of the skin of the left side, 

357. Seven strips shall be taken and each shall be painted red on 

both sides. 

358. Among the people of the Tsi'-zhu Seven Fireplaces, 

359. These shall be distributed, one for each fireplace. 

360. Then other strips painted only on one side shall be made for all 

the other fireplaces. 

361. When the little ones go against their enemies toward the setting 

of the sun, 

362. They shall use these straps for overcoming their enemies. 

363. Verily, at that time and place, 

364. They said to one another: Behold the bladder of the buffalo, 

365. It shall be dedicated to sacred uses, they said. 

366. Behold, the heart^sack, 

367. It shall be dedicated to sacred uses. 

368. The tail, also, they said, 

369. Shall be dedicated to sacred uses. 

370. The hair of the head, also, 

371. Shall be dedicated to sacred uses, they said. 

372. Behold, the left horn of the buffalo, 

373. That also shall be dedicated to sacred uses. 

374. Behold, the beard of the buffalo, 

375. That also shall be dedicated to sacred uses.* 

This wi'-gi-e belongs to the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no"^ version of the Ni'-ki-e 
degree of the tribal rites. It is called Wi'-gi-e To'^-ga, Great Wi'-gi-e. 
The ritual of this degree relates to the genesis of the people, to their 
life as an organized body, and to their sacred life symbols. Therefore 
when reciting it at the Ni'-ki-e ceremonies the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga must 
give it in full and without any modifications. But when the wi'-gi-e 
is recited at the Burden Strap ceremony of the Wa-sha'-be A-thi" rite, 
which deals with war directly, some slight modifications are used in 
order to have it conform strictly to the purposes of the rite. For 
instance, the personal gentile names specifically mentioned in the 



Certain omissions have been made in the free translation, owing to frequent repetitions. 



116 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 

original wi'-gi-e, and regarded as sacred, because they have reference 
to certain life symbols, are omitted when the wi'-gi-e is recited at the 
Wa-sha'-be A-thi° ceremony, for the reason that the Ni'-ki-e degree 
dwells upon the prolongation of the tribal life, while the Wa-sha'-be 
A-thi° rite is confined to war, a movement which is always hazardous 
to life and uncertain in its consequences. 

That part of the Wi'-gi-e To°-ga (sec. 29) which relates specially 
to the Mo'^'-sha-ko" Wa-ko°-da-gi, Mysterious Burden Strap, or Mo""'- 
sha-ko° Zhu-dse, red Burden Strap, and which forms the theme of 
the Burden Strap ceremony, could be separated and used by itself 
but the No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° gens made it a rule 
that the wi'-gi-e must be recited in full when used in the Wa-sha'-be 
A-thi'', but with the modifications mentioned above. 

At the close of the recital of the wi'-gi-e the left half of a buffalo 
hide is placed before the leader of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° gens, who, in 
accordance with lines 357 to 359 of the wi'-gi-e, proceeds to cut from 
the hind leg seven narrow straps, one for each of the "Seven Fire- 
places" of the Tsi'-zhu division. Each of these straps is painted red. 
After making the seven red straps others are cut from the hide for dis- 
tribution among the Do-do°'-ho°-gas of the warriors of the other 
gentes. These straps are painted red only on one side in accordance 
with line 360 of the wi'-gi-e. Each strap is carefully folded and 
placed in a buffalo bladder or heart-sac pouch to which is fastened 
a strap for convenience of carrying. The Do-do^'-ho'^-ga to whom a 
strap is given carries it on his back, the carrying strap going around 
his neck. The buffalo bladder and heart sacs are dedicated to sacred 
uses. (See lines 363 to 367 of this wi'-gi-e.) In many of the wa-xo'- 
bes are to be found two or three empty pouches of buffalo bladder or 
heart sac. 

When the desired number of straps have been made the man con- 
ducting the ceremony begins to make the Tse-ha'-wa-gthe Zhu-dse, 
Red Shields, out of the remaining part of the hide, using as a measure 
for the size his thumb and index fingers held in such manner as to form 
a ring. These diminutive shields are painted red, the color of the 
reflection of the sacred fire against the darkened heavens, referred to 
in lines 1 to 20 of the Ki'-no° Wi'-gi-e. They are supposed to be thus 
imbued with supernatural power drawn from the sky by the fire 
(see lines 21 to 44) and also from the sun (see lines 45 to 56). These 
powers will make not only the Do-do'^'-ho^-ga, but also the warriors 
whom he leads to the attack, invulnerable to the arrows of the enemy. 
The Do-do°'-ho°-ga to whom one of these little red shields is given 
wears it upon his breast, suspended by a slender thong that passes 
around his neck. 



La FlescheI 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



117 



When the mysterious straps and the shield have been completed 
and distributed among the Do-do°'-ho°-gas, the man conducting the 
ceremony sings the following songs. 

In song 1 the first and third lines in all four stanzas are the same, 
but the second line is changed in each stanza. 



CEREMONIAL SONGS 

Song 1. 

(Osage version, p. 189) 



M.M. Jrz96 



i 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 

A A 



1% 



iS 



Time beats T f f f 

"Wi - tsi - go thu-e ta 



bi 



r 

don 



r r 

ho - o, 



r r 

ho - o. 



T^t 



Mo° - zho" the 



r r 

?e u - tho - e 



r 

ta 



ba 



I 
doll 



r 

ha, 



r V. -J r 



r r r 

"Wi - tsi - go thu - 6 



r r r 

ta bi do"* 



r 

ho 



FREE TRANSLATION 
1 



To our grandfathers alone belong the right to speak, 

To say through what lands we shall pass, 

To our grandfathers alone belong the right to speak. 



To say what paths we shall follow. 

3 
To say through what forests we shall pass. 

4 
To say what valleys we shall follow. 

The words ''our grandfathers" in lines 1 and 3 of each stanza refer 
to the eight men chosen as commanders, four from the Tsi'-zhu 
division and four from the Ho°'-ga division. 

In song 2, the first, second, and fifth lines are alike in all the stanzas, 
the third and fourth are alike but changed in each stanza. 



118 



M.M. J =96 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 

Song 2 

(Osage version, p. 189) 
Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



EiS? 



'^ 



^^ 



±1 



Time beats p |* f f f f 

Wi - tsi - go tho - e vao^ - thi° be, Wi - tse - go tho - e 



^ 



^^^=3^ 



^ 



r r r r^ r r 

mo°-tliin be, Mo° - zho'^ the- geu-tho - e mo"i-thP be. Mo"* 



b-r*^ 



^ • — •- 



-p^ 



£ 



r r — r r 

zho'> the-ge u tho - e mo^-thi"^ be. 



EB JT^r-g 



iM!: 



-= — •— sr 



r r r r 

Wi- tsi - go tho-e mo'^-thii^ be. 



FREE TRANSLATION 



1 



Our grandfathers alone shall speak, 
Our grandfathers alone shall speak, 
To say through what lands we shall pass, 
To say through what lands we shall pass, 
Our grandfathers alone shall speak. 



To say what paths we shall follow. 

3 
To say through what forests we shall pass. 



To say what valleys we shall follow. 

The words of song 3 refer to the supernatural power with which 
the burden strap and the Uttle shields are supposed to be imbued, 
and when sung in the Wa-sha'-be A-thi° ceremony the song refers 
only to these two particular sacred articles. The music of this song 
is the same as that used in the Ni'-ki-e ceremony, but when used in 
it refers to all ceremonial articles belonging to the gens. 

All the lines of this song being the same, the translation of one 
will be sufficient. 



La Flesche] 



M.M. j: 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 
Song 3 

(Osage version, p. 189) 



119 



92 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



f^ 



^ 



& 



-1^—^- 



JT"— ^— 



4: 



Tlme beats f T f f f 

He no'i hi^- ga - (^'ko^-the a-tho'^-ka, 



r r r r^- 

He - no° hi - ga-^ko'i-the a - 



i 



*k 



^ 



4: 



r r r r 

tho^ - ka, He - no° 



-fc=: 



^ ^ r 

hi - ga - ^ko^-the a- tho'i-ka, 



-^- -•- -i- -al- 

r r r r 

he - a he - a, 



=1-^ 









r r ^ r r r r r r r r r 

He-ga-9ko°-the a-tho'^-ka, Heuo° hi-ga-^ko^-the a-tho'^-ka he-e he-e. 

FREE TRANSLATION 

Behold, they are about to test the supernatural power of these things. 

The words of the fourth song, the first, second, and fourth Hnes are 
the same in all the stanzas. The third and fifth lines are alike but 
changed in each stanza. 

Song 4 



(Osage version, p. 190) 



M.M. 



132 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 




Time beats T 



r r r r r 

Wi - tsi - go hi - thi-gtho° ta bi the the e 



Wi - tsi 



r 

go hi 



=^a= 






4 S, 1 — 1 



I^ 



:P=?: 



-•-r^ 



i^ 



^ 



r r r r ^ r r r r 

thi-gtho^ ta bi the, Mo°-zho° the - ge hi-thi-gthoQ ta bi 



f 



^^±=^ 



t^ 



^ 



J t; =1 



r r 

the the 



he the. 



r r r r r r 

Wi - tsi - go hi - thi-gtho° ta bi the, 




Mo°-zhon the - 



hi - thi - gtho° ta bi the the he 



r 

1 

the. 



120 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Buix. 101 

FREE TRANSLATION 
1 

Our grandfathers shall control, 

Our grandfathers shall control, 

The lands through which we shall pass, 

Our grandfathers shall control, 

The lands through which we shall pass. 

2 
The forests through which we shall pass. 

3 
The valleys through which we shall pass. 

When the ceremonies relating to the making of the burden straps 
and the red shields have been concluded the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga and 
the warriors move in a body toward the west. When they have 
gone about a mile they halt and take their ceremonial places. The 
warriors sit upon the ground in two groups, facing the west; those of 
the Tsi'-zhu division sit toward the south and those of the Ho°'-ga 
sit toward the north. Around the two groups of warriors stand the 
No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga, those of the Tsi'-zhu division on the south side and 
those of the Ho°'-ga on the north. 

When all have taken their places the leader of the Wa-zha'-zhe 
Wa-no° gens goes to the middle of the space between the two groups 
of warriors and fills with tobacco the ceremonial pipe in the keeping 
of that gens. This done, he takes the pipe to the leader of the Ho^'-ga 
U-ta-no°-dsi gens and offers it to him, reciting as he does so a wi'-gi-e. 
At its close the representative of the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi gens smokes 
the pipe, the Wa-zha'-zhe takes four whifTs and then returns to his 
place between the two groups of warriors. The Wa-zha'-zhe again 
fills the pipe and this time carries it to the leader of the Tsi'-zhu 
Wa-no° gens, who declines to accept it but refers the Wa-zha'-zhe to 
the representative of the Mi-k'i°' Wa-no° gens, who smokes the pipe. 
After the Wa-zha'-zhe has taken four whiffs he returns to his place 
between the two groups of warriors. He fills the pipe again and takes 
it to the leader of the Tsi'-zhu gens, who now accepts the pipe and 
smokes it. The Wa-zha'-zhe after taldng his four whiffs goes to his 
place in the line of the Wa-zha'-zhe No°'-ho°-zhi"-ga, Xu-tha'-wa- 
to°-i° declined to give the wi'-gi-e recited by the Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-no° 
at the smoking ceremony because it belonged exclusivelj'' to that gens. 

At the close of the ceremony of smoking the ceremonial pipe the 
No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga slowly march around the two groups of sitting 
warriors, the Tsi'-zhu going around by the Ho°'-ga side and the Ho°'-ga 
by the Tsi'-zhu side. The following songs are sung by the No°'-ho°- 
zhi°-ga as they move and as the leaders meet at the opposite side of 
the place from which they started the leader of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° 



La Flesche) 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



121 



recites a wi'-gi-e to the Ho°'-ga and Wa-zha'-zhe subdivisions. These 
songs have the title of Hi°'-no°-xpe Ga-xe Wa-tho°, Songs of Making 
a Nest, or Tsiu'-i-btha U-thi-sho° Wa-tho°, Songs of the March 
Around the Village. Xu-tha'-wa-to°-i° said that this ceremony- 
belongs to the Ho'^'-ga Wa-no" gens. 

In song 1 the first and second stanzas do not follow the same form; 
in the third and fourth stanzas only the second line is changed. 
Between the fourth and fifth stanzas a wi'-gi-e is introduced. 

SONGS OF MARCHING AROUND THE VILLAGE 

Song 1 

(Osage version, p. 190) 
M.M. J = 80 8 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



a 



t^ 



-4-»=J 



:3=P 



m 



4z-^ 



Time beats [" P j* ' f T f 

Moo-thi^-ka u - thi - sho° a - tha - bi e - he 



Moi-thin-ka u-thi^sho° a - 




thabie-he, e 



he Da-do^i a-thi° a-do° u-thi-sho'^ a -tha bi e-he, he. 



FREE TRANSLATION 
1 



Around the earth our warriors shall go, 
Around the earth our warriors shall go, 
Bearing the mystic emblems our warriors shall go. 



Around the earth our warriors shall go, 
Bearing the mystic club our warriors shall go, 
Around the earth our warriors shall go. 



Around the earth our warriors shall go, 
Bearing the mystic pipe our warriors shall go, 
Around the earth our warriors shall go. 



Around the earth our warriors shall go, 

Bearing the mystic deerskins our warriors shall go. 

Around the earth our warriors shall go. 

The first stanza of this song speaks collectively of all the consecrated 
articles used in the Wa-sha'-be A-thi° ceremonies; the second, to the 
mystic club of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no" gens, the symbol of the weapons 
of the warriors; the third, to the ceremonial pipe which the people 
must offer to Wa-ko'^'-da when calling upon Him for aid; the fourth, 
to the deerskin attached to each of the wa-xthe'-xthe, or standards; 
the fifth, which is sung at the close of the wi'-gi-e, to the standards 
themselves. 

83773—39 9 



122 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bm-t. 101 

Wl'-GI-E 

(Osage version, p. 190) 

1. (The Tsi'-zhu speaks.) O, Ho^'-ga and Wa-zha'-zhe, 

2. Verily, I am a person wlio has made a god to be his body, 

3. The god of day, 

4. I have made to be my body, 

5. By which I have made myself to be difficult to overcome by death. 

6. O, Ho°'-ga and Wa-zha'-zhe, 

7. If you also make that god to be your body, 

8. You shall be difficult to be overcome by death. 



(Osage version, p. 191) 
FREE TRANSLATION 

Around the earth our warriors shall go, 
Bearing the mystic standards they shall go, 
Around the earth our warriors shall go. 

The next song represents the two groups of warriors speaking ab 
one man. This man speaks of his moving forward as about to travel 
around the earth as the great cat (the puma) in search of the enemy. 
The puma has a dual symbolism: 1, courage; 2, fire, with its destructive 
force. 

This song has six stanzas. Between the first and second, the third 
and fourth, the fifth and sixth stanzas, a wi'-gi-e is recited. The 
second stanza, which refers to the mystic standards, is repeated as 
the fourth and sixth stanzas. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



123 



Song 1 

(Osage version, p. 191) 



M.M. J =92 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



i 



^ 



^ 



^ 



EMi 



A: 



Time beats r T 

Moll . tiiin - ka u - thi 



shoii bthe a - thi^ 



he 



r 

no. 



r 

ho 



=s 



^3E 



^ 



r r r 

Mod - thin . ka u - thi - sho^ bthe a - thin 

3 



he 



r 

no. 



r 

ho, 




i 



r r r r r r r r 

I^ - gthon-to° - ga wia -doQ bthea-thi^ he no, ho, Bthe a - do^ 

i^ 3 



H ) i h 

■ — -• s s 



r r r r r 

bthe a-ihin he no, I^ - gtho^ - to° - ga wi a - do^ bthe a-thi^ he no. 














^- # 


:/ 


^ 


r 






r 




r 

1 


r 


r 
I 


Men 


- thin 


- kau 


- thi 


- sho" 


bthe a - thi^ 


he 


no 



FREE TRANSLATION 



Behold, I go forth to move around the earth, 
Behold, I go forth to move around the earth, 
I go forth as the puma that is great in courage, 
To move onward I go forth, 

I go forth as the puma that is great in courage, 
Behold, I go forth to move around the earth. 

Wl'-GI-E 

(Osage version, p. 191) 

1. O, Ho'"-ga and Wa-zha'-zhe, 

2. Verily, I am a person who has made a god to be his body, 

3. The god of night, 

4. I have made to be my body, 

5. Therefore I am difficult to be overcome by death. 

6. O, Ho°'-ga and Wa-zha'-zhe, 

7. If you also make that god to be your body, 

8. You also shall be free from all causes of death. 



124 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOi 



(Osage version, p. 191) 

Behold, I go forth to move around the earth, 
Behold, I go forth to move around the earth. 
Bearing my mystic standards I go forth. 
To move onward I go forth, 
Bearing my mystic standards I go forth. 
Behold, I go forth to move around the earth. 

The standards that form the theme of this stanza are made of the 
skin of the swan, feathers of the eagle, and the skin of the deer, crea- 
tures symboHzing the destructive fires. (See sees. 3, 4, and 5 of the 
No°-xthe I-ki°-dse (Fight for Symbohc Charcoal) wi'-gi-e. 

3 

(Osage version, p. 191) 

Behold, I go forth to move around the earth. 

Behold, I go forth to move around the earth, 

I go forth as the great black bear that is great in courage, 

To move onward I go forth, 

I go forth as the great black bear that is great in courage, 

Behold, I go forth to move around the earth. 

The black bear is also a symbol of courage and of the destructive 
fire. 

Wl'-GI-E 

(Osage version, p. 192) 

1. O, Ho°'-ga and Wa-zha'-zhe, 

2. There is a mysterious club 

3. That I as a person have, verily, made to be my body, 

4. A weapon that I carry as I go toward the setting of the sun, 

5. Even as a half of the tribe, 

6. With which to make my enemies to fall. 

7. O, Ho°'-ga and Wa-zha'-zhe, 

8. If you also make that weapon to be your body, 

9. You also can go toward the setting of the sun, 

10. Even as a half of the tribe, 

11. And with this weapon make your enemies to fall. 

The fourth stanza of this song is a repetition of the second stanza 
and is not necessary to be given again. 



(Osage version, p. 192) 

Behold, I go forth to move around the earth, 

Behold, I go forth to move around the earth, 

Bearing my mystic knife I go forth, 

To move onward I go forth. 

Bearing my mystic knife I go forth. 

Behold, I go forth to move around the earth. 



La Fleschk] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 125 

The mystic loiife, the theme of this stanza, is the one found by the 
fsi'-zhu Wa-no"^ gens and consecrated to ceremonial use. (See Wi'- 
gi-e To°-ga (Great Wi'-gi-e), pp. 108-109, sees. 9 to 12.) This mystic 
knife was used in cutting the willow tree out of which the mystic club 
was made and fashioned. (See same wi'-gi-e, sees. 13 to 21, pp. 109-1 11.) 

Wi'-gi-e 

(Osage version, p. 192) 

1. O, Ho°'-ga and Wa-zha'-zhe they said, 

2. There is a mysterious animal (the buffalo), 

3. That I as a person have, verily, made to be my body. 

4. An animal (the red shields and straps) that I take with me as I go 

toward the setting of the sun, 

5. Even as one half of the tribe, 

6. To make my enemies to fall, 

7. O, Ho^'-ga and Wa-zha'-zhe. 

8. This mysterious animal 

9. Shall be your body, also, for all time to come, 

10. And when you go toward the setting of the sun, 

1 1 . You also shall be able, by its mystic power, to make your enemies 

to fall, O, Ho°'-ga, 

12. Even as a body composing one half of the tribe, 

13. You shall be able to make your enemies to fall, O, Ho°'-ga. 

The sixth stanza of this song is a repetition of the second and 
fourth stanzas. 

In the four wi'-gi-es that are recited in connection with the Hi°'- 
no°-xpe Ga-xe, or Tsiu-i-btha U-thi-sho" Wa-tho°, the offer is made 
by the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° gens to confer a share in the mystic power of 
their life symbols upon the Ho°'-ga and Wa-zha'-zhe subdivisions of 
the Ho'^'-ga tribal division. These life symbols are: 1, The god of 
day that has power over all life; 2, the god of night that also has 
power over all life; 3, the mystic war club, the symbol of all the weapons 
of defense of the warriors of the tribe; 4, the red shields that are 
imbued with the mystic power of the sun (see Painting (Ki-no°) 
Wi'-gi-e, p. 103, lines 21 to 56), and the seven red burden straps (Great 
(To'^-ga) Wi-gi-e, p. 104). 

The Wa-no°'-5e A-BA-gu Ceremony 

At the close of the Hi'''-no°-xpe Ga-xe Ceremony, the Do-do°'- 
ho°-ga approaches his Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge who sits at the head of his 
group of warriors and says to him in a low tone: "O, grandfather, 
what is your wish?" And the Xthe'-ts'a-ge replies: "O, Do-do°'-ho°-ga, 
you shall point out the directions of attack." The Do-do^'-ho'^-ga 
then, rising to a standing position, addresses all present, saying: 
"My grandfather wishes me to point out the direction of attack." 



126 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

He then goes to a place in the line of march, a few paces beyond the 
ring of standing No°'-ho''-zhi''-ga, and without looking backward, 
calls to a Tse'-xe-k'i" (Kettle Carrier) to come and make for him the 
ho'-e-ga. A Tse'-xe-k'i"^ rises and going to the Do-do'^'-do^-ga clears 
the grass from the ground in front of him, leaving a bare round spot, 
and then returns to his seat. 

When the ho'-e-ga has been made, the Do-do"' -ho°-ga proceeds to 
recite the following wi'-gi-e relating to the elk, the animal that is 
symbolized by the ho'-e-ga; to the puma, the animal that symbolizes 
the fire that shall endure forever in the home; the four insects, the 
honey bee, the small black ant, the black wasp, and the large black 
ant that symbolize the unerring weapons to be used by the warriors 
in defending the sacred fireplace. 

POINTING OUT THE ATTACK RITUAL 

(Osage version, p. 193) 

1. O, ye valiant men, 

2. My father, 

3. Following, no doubt, the words of my grandfathers, 

4. He said: There is one (animal) whom they made to be their 

ho'-e-ga. 

5. It was the 0-po° to"-ga, the Great Elk, 

6. The center of whose forehead they made to be their ho'-e-ga, 

7. The forehead of the elk my father said I was to make a ho'-e-ga 

of for you. 

8. That if I make of the forehead of the elk a ho'-e-ga for you, O, ye 

valiant men, 

9. I shall make for you a ho'-e-ga that will make you free from all 

causes of death. 

10. O, ye valiant men, 

11. He has said, that even before the break of day, 

12. The enemy shall be drawn toward my ho'-e-ga, 

13. As also in the evening of the day, 

14. The enemy shall be drawn toward my ho'-e-ga. 

15. O, ye valiant men, 

16. There is also another (animal), 

17. My father has said. 

18. Following, no doubt, the words of my grandfathers, 

19. That it is I°-gtho'''-to°-ga, the Great Cat, they made to be their 

fire. 

20. That if I made of him a fire for you, 

21. I shall build a fire for you that will never burn down. 

22. And my father has said that even before the break of day, 

23. My enemies shall be drawn toward this fire and be in my power. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 127 



24. O, ye valiant men, 

25. There is a person they have made to be their weapon, 

26. My father has said. 

27. Following, no doubt, the words of my grandfathers, 

28. It is the bee, he said, 

29. He that makes his home in a hollow tree, 

30. Of whom I shall make for you a weapon, 

31. That you may have a weapon that will be effective and not glance 

harmlessly away. 

32. O, ye valiant men, 

33. There is another person, he said, 

34. The small ant, 

35. The black ant, 

36. Of whom I shall make for you a weapon, 

37. That you may have a weapon that will be effective and not glance 

harmlessly away. 

38. O, ye valiant men, 

39. There is still another person, he said, 

40. It is the wasp, 

41. The black wasp. 

42. Our grandfather has a fear-inspiring weapon, 

43. If I make of him a weapon for you, 

44. He hath said that I shall make for you a weapon that will surely 

be effective and not glance harmlessly away. 

45. O, ye valiant men, 

46. There is yet another person, 

47. It is the ant, 

48. The large black ant. 

49. Our grandfather has a fear-inspiring weapon, 

50. If I make of him a weapon for you, 

51. He hath said that, then, I shall make for you a weapon that will 

surely be effective and not glance harmlessly away. 

52. O, ye valiant men,^ 

55. In this very direction, 

56. Are the people that I seek, 

57. How can it be possible for me to miss my aim, 

58. I shall surely succeed in striking them, O, ye valiant men. 

Wlien the Do-do°'-ho°-ga had recited the wi'-gi-e, he divided the 
heap of grass in four bunches which he arranged in a line, a pace 
apart, and pointing toward the setting sun. This done, the Xo'-ka 
sings the following song. 

» Lines 53 and 54 cannot be translated for the reasons explained by remarks in the corresponding lines of 
the wi'-gi-e written in Osage. 



128 



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[Bull. 101 



The words of the first, second, fourth, and sixth lines are alike. 
The third and fifth are the same but are changed in each stanza. 



INITIATOR S SONG 
(Osage version, p. 194) 



M.M. J = 



Transcribed by Alice 0. Fletcher. 






E^ 



Time beats |*|" fff ff ff 

Qi - wi'^ bthe ta 'tbi° he no - o Q\ wi°bthe ta 'thin j^g ^o, A 



#=^ 



-4^ 



-N-^- 



iziat 



535FS 



-J 1 -tZ 



^Zt 



^zd: 



^ 



T/— ^ — ^ 



r r r r 



r r 



r 



r 



r r r 



thin he no- o, a -thin he no-o Qi wi^bthe ta'thi^ he no-e A 




4^:^ 



±±:tL 



§5|; ^=£l^t^ 



r r r r r r 

thi^-he no - o, a-thi^ he no-e Qi 



r r r 



wi^bthe ta-' thin he ^q^ 



FREE TRANSLATION 
1 

Behold, I am about to go forth as one foot, 
Behold, I am about to go forth as one foot, 
I am about to go forth, I am about to go forth. 
Behold, I am about to go forth as one foot, 
I am about to go forth, I am about to go forth, 
Behold, I am about to go forth as one foot. 



Behold, I am about to go forth as one leg, etc. 

3 
Behold, I am about to go forth as one body, etc. 

4 
Behold, I am about to go forth as one arm, etc. 

5 
Behold, I am about to go forth as one head, etc. 

The words of this song are figurative and represent the people of 
each of the two great tribal divisions as speaking of their part of the 
symbolic man representing the unity of the two divisions as one body. 
At the close of the song the warriors walk over the four bunches of 
grass, one after the other, those of the Tsi'-zhu division taking the 
lead. Each Tsi'-zhu warrior puts forth his left foot first as he begins 
his march over the four bunches of grass, and each warrior of the 
Ho^'-ga division puts forth his right, thus representing the two great 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 129 

bodies as going forth as one man and with a single purpose, that of 
preserving the tribal unity and life. 

When the last man has taken his four ceremonial steps the warriors 
hastily mount their horses that had been brought for them by their 
relatives and friends. Before marching, the leaders of the two divi- 
sions agree upon meeting at a given point at sunset to rest together 
for the night. This arrangement being understood by all, the war- 
riors of the two divisions march forth in scattered groups, those of the 
Ho'^'-ga to the north and those of the Tsi'-zhu to the south, all moving 
in the direction of the place of meeting. In this way game is secured 
for sustenance of the warriors and, incidentally, a hunter of the enemy 
tribe is caught and slain. The o-do°' won by the striking of an enemy 
thus caught is called "Mo°-zho° dsi Ga-xthi, A Strike in the Open 
Country." 

On arriving at the designated camping place the names of the men 
who had secured game, such as buffalo, deer, antelope, or elk, are an- 
nounced by a Crier in grateful acknowledgment. The first animal 
that was secured is placed on its breast before the Do-do"' -ho°-ga, 
who takes from the deerskin pouch he continually carries a pinch of 
the sacred tobacco which he sprinkles on the head and then recites 
the following words, addressing the animal: "To compensate you for 
the sacrifice of your life, I put upon you the fragrant tobacco that is 
sacred to Wa-zha'-zhe." 

At the close of this ceremony the men of the two divisions busy 
themselves with the kindling of fires and the dressing of the game for 
cooking for the evening meal. A choice part of the animal consecrated 
is given to a Tse'-xe-k'i° who thrusts through it a skewer and carefully 
roasts the meat by a separate fire. When the meat is thoroughly 
roasted the Tse'-xe-k'i° places it before the Do-do°'-ho°-ga, thrusting 
the lower end of the skewer into the ground so that it stands upright 
and firm. The Do-do°'-ho°ga then calls all of the subordinate Do- 
do'''-ho°-gas together. These form two parallel lines running west- 
ward, having between them the roast on its skewer. Then begins the 
ceremony called 

Ceremony of Feasting Together 

The first stanza of a song is sung and then the Tsi'-zhu Do-do°'- 
ho°-ga standing at the east end of the line approaches the roast meat, 
cuts off a mouthful for himself and then returns to his place at the 
head of the line. The second stanza of the song is sung and the 
Ho°'-ga Do-do°'-ho°-ga standing at the east end of the line approaches 
the roast meat, cuts from it a mouthful for himself, and returns to 
his place. This cutting of a morsel of the meat continues alternately 
between the two lines of Do-do'''-ho''-gas until each has tasted of the 
sacred meat. The Do-do°'-ho°-gas then go to their various groups 
of men and the Tse'-xe-k'i° place before each his share of the prepared 
food and he then apportions it among his warriors. 



130 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 

On the evening of the next day, when the men of the two divisions 
meet to camp for the night, the Do-do°'-ho°-ga addresses them, say- 
ing: "O, ye vaUant men, you have now come to a country where the 
soul is pure, and the grasses and the winds are undisturbed by men 
or beasts. We will, therefore, here cleanse our sacred pipe with due 
solemnity as did our fathers at such times as this." 

The Do-do^'-ho'^-ga then goes a short distance away and calls to 
him a Tse'-xe-k'i'' to whom he gives the sacred pipe. The man care- 
fully cleanses the orifices of both bowl and stem and returns the pipe 
to the Do-do'^'-ho^'-ga around whom the warriors now gather, when 
he proceeds to recite the following wi'-gi-e. 

PIPE RITUAL 

(Osage version, p. 195) 

1. O, ye valiant men, 

2. My father, 

3. Following the words of my grandfathers, 

4. Has said that I shall make the hollow of this pipestem 

5. To be the hollow of your own bodies. 

6. If I make the hollow of this pipestem to be the hollow of your 

own bodies, 

7. All causes of death shall be removed from the hollow of your 

bodies. 

8. O, ye valiant men, 

9. Behold the breast of the pipestem, 

10. My father has said that I shall make the breast of this pipestem 

to be your breast. 

11. If I make the breast of this pipestem to be your breast, 

12. All causes of death shall be removed from your breasts. 

13. O, ye valiant men, 

14. Behold the hip of this pipe, 

15. If I make the liip of this pipe to be your hip, 

16. All causes of death shall be removed from your hips. 

17. O, ye valiant men, 

18. Behold the sides of this pipestem, 

19. My father has said that I shall make the sides of this pipestem to 

be your sides. 

20. If I make the sides of this pipestem to be your sides, 

21. All causes of death shall be removed from your sides. 

22. O, ye valiant men, 

23. Behold the spine of this pipestem, 

24. It is not without a meaning, 

25. My father has said that I shall make the spine of this pipestem 

to be your spine. 

26. If I make the spine of this pipestem to be your spine, 

27. All causes of death shall be removed from your spines. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 131 

28. O, ye valiant men, 

29. Behold the bowl of this pipe, 

30. And the tip that joins the stem to the bowl, 

31. It is the neck of the pipe which my father has said I shall make 

to be your neck. 

32. If I make the neck of this pipe to be your neck, 

33. All causes of death shall be removed from your necks. 

34. O, ye valiant men, 

35. Behold the joint of the bowl and the stem of the pipe. 

36. If I make that to be the joint of your spine and head, 

37. All causes of death shall be removed from the joints of your 

necks. 

38. O, ye valiant men, 

39. Behold the cavity of the bowl of the pipe, 

40. My father has said that I shall make that to be the cavity of youi 

mouths. 

41. If I make that to be the cavity of your mouths, 

42. All causes of death shall be removed from the cavity of your 

mouths. 

The next day as the warriors break camp and resume their march, 
selected men are sent out to scour the land in search of the enemy. 
This search is continued day after day while the warriors are moving 
in the enemy's country. When the scouts are seen returning in haste 
the Do-do°'-ho°-ga runs to meet them to receive their report. The 
warriors also hasten forward and gather around the Do-do'^'-ho^-ga, 
who says to them: "O, ye valiant men, our little grandfathers have 
been found. Make haste and prepare for the attack." The Do-do°'- 
ho°-ga at once puts the sacred hawk of his gens on his Chief Xthe'- 
ts'a-ge. The men blacken their faces with the mystic charcoal, then 
at a signal given by the Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge all the party, except the 
Do-do°'-ho°-ga and the servants, rush forward to the attack. 

When the warriors have slain some of the enemy, have taken the 
scalps and severed the heads from their bodies, the Chief Xthe'-ts'a-ge 
thrusts into the body of one of the slain his mystic standard and leaves 
it standing there. Each of the Do-do'''-ho°-gas who had taken part 
in the attack now plants the forked stake he has been carrying to 
hang his wa-xo'-be upon, near one of the slain and hangs upon it the 
burden strap given him at the ceremony of making the straps. A 
Do-do°'-ho°-ga, however, may attach a bit of a scalp taken from one 
of the slain to his own mystic strap and carry it home with him encased 
in the buffalo bladder or heart sac in which the strap has been carried 
during the journey. 

The prescribed acts relating to the standard and the mystic straps 
having been performed, the warriors hasten back to their Do-do"'- 



132 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 101 



ho°-ga to whom they present the scalps and whatever booty they may 
have captured in the attack. The Do-do°'-ho°-ga, as he receives the 
scalps and the booty, exclaims in a loud voice: "O, ye valiant men, 
this is what I have declared I would do to the enemy!" If he is not 
confused by the excitement and remembers his prescribed duty, he 
will now sing the following song: 



M.M. 



138 



SONG OF THE KILLING 

(Osage version, p. 196) 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



13: 



4: 



:4zt 



Time beats T p 

ho 



r r r 

1 I I 

ga - gi wa - mo° a-thi° he 



r r 

no°, Wi - e 



^- 



r r r r r r rr ^ r rr r r 

wa - mo° a-thi^i he no^ A he the, A he the the, ho 




mQi* a - thi° he no°, 



r r ^ rr 


r ^\ 


1 


, A he the, 


A he the 


the 


FREE TRANSLATION 






1 







ho, it is I who serves them thus, 

1 who brought these deeds to pass, 
A he the, A he the the, 

ho, it is I who fell upon them unawares, 

1 who brought these deeds to pass, 
A he the, A he the the. 

2 

O ho, it is I who lay them low, etc. 

3 
O ho, it is I who lay them reddened on the earth, etc. 

4 
O ho, it is I who lay them blackening on the earth, etc. 

6 
O ho, it is I who lay their bones to bleach on the earth, etc. 



I 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 133 

6 

O ho, it is I who lay them yellowing on the earth, etc. 

7 
O ho, it is I who lay them darkening on the earth, etc. 

8 
O ho, it is I who snatch from them their remaining days, etc. 

At the close of the song the Do-do°'-ho'*-ga recites the following 
lines: 

1. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

2. A', wi-tsi-go zhi°-ga, ni-lja-wa-ga e, 

3. A', ho°-ba u-ga-ki-ba u-hi-zhi pa-xe ta a-thi° he a, ni-ka-wa-ga e. 

FREE TRANSLATION 

1. O, ye valiant men, 

2. Our little grandfathers, O, ye valiant men, 

3. I have cut oflf from the divisions of the future days. 

The exultant utterances of the Do-do°'-ho°-ga as he receives the 
scalps and booty from his warriors; in the lines of the song that he 
sings; and in the three-lined wi'-gi-e that follows are not personal. 
They are a part of the ritual and uttered, as it were, by the symbolic 
man who represents the unity of the people of the two great tribal 
divisions to be as one person. The words are not intended as a boast 
but as a declaration that the will and the determination of the people 
to defend and to maintain their life as an organized body has now 
been put into execution. 

When this little ceremony that was hurriedly performed comes to a 
close the Do-do°'-ho°-ga and his warriors hasten homeward, always 
guarding against a surprise from the enemies who might be in pursuit. 
As the warriors approach the village, the inhabitants, old and young, 
run in the wildest excitement to meet them. The Xo'-ka greets the 
Do-do°'-ho°-ga and sings and dances to the song called Wa-tse' 
Wa-tho° To°-ga, The Great Song of Victory, as he accompanies bim 
on the march toward the village. 



134 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. lOl 



M.M. J;= 100 



GREAT SONG OF VICTORY 

(Osage version, p. 197) 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



i 



* 



i^ 



Time beats ]* j* |* j* f T f' 

Mo° - thin . ka thi - shtoi^ bi thoi^ dse the he, Wi - tsi 




r r r r r 

go, ho da - do^, I - moQ - ka the a- gi bi the, the the he, 




, i , r 

We- tsi^ i - mo'i - ka the a - gi bi the. 



r r r 

We- tsi° i - mo° -ka the a ■ 



m 



^ — --t- 



=}: 



pf 



gi 



r ^^ r r r r 

bi the, Mo° - thi^ - ka thi - shto^ bi thoi dse the he. 



FREE TRANSLATION 
1 

We appealed to the Power within the earth, 
And, lo, my grandfathers return in triumph, 
They return in triumph with the mystic war club, 
They return in triumph with the mystic war club, 
We appealed to the Power within the earth. 

2 

They return in triumph with the mystic pipe, etc. 

3 
They return in triumph with the mystic deerskins, etc. 

4 
They return in triumph with the mystic buffalo hair, etc. 

5 
They return in triumph with the mystic standards, etc. 

The term grandfathers, in the second line of each stanza, refers to 
the eight commanders, called Xthe'-ts'a-ge, chosen to lead the war- 
riors, four for the Tsi'-zhu warriors, and four for the Ho°'-ga. 

As in the Hi°'-no°-xpe Ga-xe Wa-tho°, Songs for Making a Nest, 
Xu-tha'-wa-to°-i° places the stanza in which is mentioned the mys- 
tic club before that relating to the mystic pipe. The reason for 
this is, the 'mystic club is the most sacred of the various articles 
consecrated by the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° gens, of which he is a member, 
to ceremonial use. The various gentes of the Ho'^'-ga division invari- 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



135 



ably place the pipe first, as do the Tho'-xe gens who belong to the 
Tsi'-zhu division. 

When the Xo'-ka has finished his song the Do-do°'-ho°-ga himself 
sings the following song in which he makes his aclvnowledgments to 
Wa-ko"'-da, to whom he appealed for aid, for the success granted him. 
The first two stanzas refer to the persons slain by his warriors, and as 
to whether the slain are men or women. If the slain were both men 
and women the Do-do°'-ho°-ga may sing both stanzas, but if only a 
man or a woman is slain he must sing but one. 

The warriors who have won o-do°' also sing the same song, mention- 
ing in the fourth line the particular kind of o-do°' granted to him by 
the Mysterious Power. 

VICTORY SONG 



(Osage version, p. 197) 






M.M. j=100 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



m 



Time beats f f 

I - na the 



he 



r r 

da - do^ 'tha - k'i 



the 



he, 




r r r r r r r r r r f "" f 

I-na the he da-do°'tha-k'i the he, I - na the he da-do° 'tha-k'i the he, 




!l - na Mi-gao°-tha-k'i the he, I-na the he da -do^ 'tha- k'i the he. 



-=1: 



the 



=3? 

r 

ha. 



r 

the 



r 



r 

do"! 



ki 



he da - do"^ 'tha 

FREE TRANSLATION 
1 

Mother, the tokens of thy response to my cry, 
Mother, the tokens of thy response to my cry, 
Mother, the tokens of thy response to my cry, 
Mother, thou hast given me the spirit of a woman, 
Mother, the tokens of thy response to my cry, 
Mother, the tokens of thy response to my cry. 



Mother, thou hast given me the spirit of a man, etc. 

3 

Mother, thou hast favored me with success, etc. 

4 
Mother, thou hast made effective my weapons, etc. 



136 



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[Bull. lOi 



Wa-xthi'-zbi, in his description of the Wa-sha'-be A-thi° ceremony 
omits the Do-do^'-ho^-ga's songs of thanks. He offered no reason 
for this omission but he gives the song in liis description of the Wa-do'- 
ka We-ko degree, the sixth of the seven degrees of the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga 
rites. 

When nearing the borders of the village the Do-do°'-ho°-ga sings 
the following song, of which there are twelve stanzas. This song is 
expressive of the warrior's joy: 1. When, on his return from the war 
expedition, he arrives at the familiar scenes around the village; 2. 
When he sets foot upon the border of the village; 3. When he passes 
over the foot-worn soil of the interior of the village; 4. The feeling 
of reverence as he approaches the back part of the sacred house from 
which he set forth on his expedition; 5. When he marches around one 
end of the sacred house to approach it from the front; 6. As he ap- 
proaches the door; 7. As he enters and pauses within the room; 8. 
As he comes to the kettle pole that bends over the fireplace; 9. As he 
pauses at the sacred fireplace; 10. As he arrives, in liis ceremonial 
movements, at the opposite side of the fireplace, where he pauses; 
11, As he stands directly beneath the smoke vent at the top of the 
house, when he thrusts through the vent the tops of the bunch of 
slender saplings to which are attached the scalps of the enemy and 
quickly withdraws them; 12. The feeling of joy as he realizes that his 
hazardous task is ended and he stands again in the light of day, in 
the certainty of life, in the midst of the joys of his home. The title 
of the song is: 

SONG OF ENTERING THE VILLAGE 



M.M. J=76 



(Osage version, p. 198) 




Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 

ASA 



Time beats p {* P f j" |* 

A - gthi the ho, a - gthi the ho, a - gthi the ho, 



r# 



=^ 



4— »^ 



r r r 

Wi no° mo'*-zho'* ge dsi 



r r r r 

a - gthi the ho-o, ho. 



FREE TRANSLATION 
1 

I am home, I am home, I am home, 

I have now come to the land that is home. 



I have now come to the border of the village. 



La Flesche) OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 137 

3 

I have now come to the foot-worn soil of the village. 

4 
I have now come to the rear of the sacred house. 

5 
I have now come to the end of the sacred house. 

6 
I have now come to the door of the sacred house. 

7 
I have now come inside of the sacred house. 

8 
I have now come to the kettle pole of the sacred house. 

9 

I have now come to the fireplace of the sacred house. 

10 
I have now come to the middle of the sacred house. 

11 
I have now come to the smoke vent of the sacred house. 

12 
I have now come into the midst of the light of day. 

A bit of the scalp of the slain enemy and the mystic standard 
brought home by the Do-do''' -ho°-ga are presented to the chief 
mourner, who plants them at the head of the grave of the person for 
whom the Wa-sha'-be A-thi'' rite was performed, one at the foot and 
the other at the head. This act concludes the ceremony as far as it 
concerns the Chief Mourner. 

There is a disagreement in the statements made by Sho°'-ge-mo"-i° 
and Wa-xthi'-zlii regarding the disposition of the two mystic standards 
at the successful conclusion of the war expedition. The former says 
that both of the ceremonial articles are left with the slain enemy 
while the latter states that only one is left and the other is brought 
home to be planted at the grave of the person mourned. It would 
seem from these conflicting statements that some confusion may have 
arisen when this ceremony was put to use as a mourning rite, for these 
conflicting statements suggest that in ancient days the ceremony was 
given purely as a war measure and that the two standards were left 
with the slain, there being no reason for bringing either of them home, 
but later when the Wa-sha'-be A-thi° became a mourning ceremony 
one was left with the dead enemy and the other brought to be planted 
at the grave of the person for whom the ceremony was performed. 

83773—39 10 



138 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

The practice of disposing of the two standards, when they had served 
their purpose, would indicate that no special importance was attached 
to them as far as they related to the person mourned, for it appears 
not to be an invariable rule to bring one of them home to be placed 
at the grave. The symbol that must, without fail, be placed at the 
head of the grave of the person mourned is a bit of the scalp of the 
enemy, attached to a slender pole as it represents the soul of the man 
sent forth to overtake that of the dead in order to accompany it on its 
journey to the realm of spirits. 

In speaking of this custom of leaving the mystic standards with the 
slain enemy, old Sho°'-ge-mo°-i° made the further statement that, 
sometimes, on the return of a successful war party, the Tse'-xe-k'i"* 
No^-ho" (Chief Kettle Carriers) get together and have two standards 
made informally. Then they invite the women of the village to the 
Wa-xthe'-xthe Wa-tsi (Standard Dance). These officers plant the 
two imitation standards side by side in the center of a level spot in 
the village and they sit to one side of them with a drum and sing while 
their guests dance around the standards to the rhythm of the songs. 
At the intermissions of the dance a woman who feels inclined would 
go to the standards, snatch one of them up, throw it toward the 
"Setting Sun" and then make a present to the Tse'-xe-k'i'' No°-ho°. 
Afterwards the standard would be put back in its place by one of the 
singers and the dance continued. At the close of this dance one of 
the Tse'-xe-k'i° No^-ho"" would plant the two standards at the grave of 
the dead man in whose honor the Wa-sha'-be A-thi° had been per- 
formed. This dance, which was given only on rare occasions, was not 
regarded as a necessary part of the rite. 

Mourning for the Slain Enemy 

Wa-tse'-mo'^-i", one of the few men of the tribe well versed in the 
No'^'-ho^-zhi'^-ga rites, in speaking of the mourning ceremony of the 
Wa-sha'-be A-thi", said: "In ancient times the man chosen to act as 
ceremonial mourner for a deceased member of one of the two great 
tribal divisions endured great hardships throughout the entire cere- 
mony, but the act which was regarded as the most difficult for the 
ceremonial mourner to perform was that called Mourning for the 
Slain Enemy." 

When the chosen mourner had performed the final war ceremony, 
happy with the thought that he had brought home his men without 
disaster, he was solemnly told by the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga that as he had 
wept for his own dead, he must now weep for the persons he had 
slain, the men and women who, perhaps, at the moment of their 
destruction had contemplated no evil or acts of violence, but who were 
busy with their daily occupations. 

The difficulty of complying with this requirement was not so much 
in the physical hardship it entailed on the ceremonial mourner as in 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 139 



the mental effort he must make m order to bring himself into sympa- 
thetic touch with the slain strangers. When mourning for the de- 
ceased member of the tribe he had shed tears of heartfelt sorrow, 
having brought himself into close sympathy with the chief mourner 
by meditating upon the cause of his grief, upon the kindly deeds of 
the deceased that had won for him the affection of his people, and upon 
those tribal ties that unite all the people and make them as one; 
whereas between himself and the strangers whom he was credited with 
slaying there existed no personal intimacy, no common ties of senti- 
ment that could stir his heart, there was nothing but the naked, com- 
mon bond of human sympathy that could save him from maldng a 
mockery of this final ceremony; nevertheless, the man, without any 
show of reluctance, always went forth again to fast and to suffer the 
pangs of hunger and thirst for a period of seven days during the cere- 
mony of Mourning for the Slain Enemy. 

Sending Away the Spirit 
(Wa-no»'-xe The Ga-xe) 

According to Wa-xthi'-zhi there are two ceremonies performed for 
a warrior who is lost by death during a war expedition. These two 
ceremonies bear in common the name Wa-no'^'-xe The Ga-xe, freely 
translated, The Sending Away of the Spirit. Each of these ceremonies 
is a drama in which is symbolically set forth the belief of the people 
relative to death. The first ceremony is performed by the warriors 
themselves not long after the death of the man; the second, which 
takes place after the return of the war party to the village, partakes 
of a tribal character; both, however, as their common name implies, 
are employed for the same purpose, the taking of a formal leave of 
the Spirit of the Slain Warrior. 

The first ceremony takes place the fourth day after the death of 
the warrior. On the morning of that day the Do-do^'-ho^-ga assembles 
his men at early dawn and says to them: "This is the beginning of the 
fourth day since our companion fell and his spirit has continued to 
linger with us, but the time has now come when, for his own good as 
well as for ours, we must perform the ancient rite handed down by 
our fathers and formally dismiss him from our midst. For this purpose, 
let a Tse'-xe-k'i° go forth to find a tree that is perfect in form, pleasing 
to look upon, and which shall stand as a symbol of our Grandfather" 
(the god of day). A Tse'-xe-k'i'' at once goes forth in the pale light 
of the early dawn to select the tree. WTien it is found he returns to 
the waiting men, goes to the Do-do"' -ho°-ga, takes him by the arm 
and leads him to the chosen tree, all the warriors following in solemn 
procession. Standing before the tree, on the east side, the Do-do°'- 
ho°-ga lifts his right hand as far as he can reach and with the knife 
shaves a strip of the bark down the tnmk to its roots. This act he 



140 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull, ini 

repeats at the south, the west, and the north sides of the tree. Follow- 
ing this act of the Do-do°'-ho°-ga, each warrior takes his turn in 
cutting a strip of the bark from the trunk of the tree until it stands 
bare before them all. Then, standing in a massed group, the warriors 
lift their open hands toward the reddening dawn, and as the rays of 
the sun appear above the horizon they turn to the tree and stain its 
naked trunk with red paint. By this symbolic act of baring the inner 
body of the tree and painting it red, the warriors send forth the spirit 
of their companion to travel with the God of Day on its endless 
journey. 

The second ceremony which takes place on the return of the warriors 
occurs on the outside of the village proper. When the war party 
arrives within sight and sound of their village they halt, sit down in 
a wide circle, and begin to wail for their dead companion. The people 
of the village hearing the wailing hasten to the warriors and gather 
about them on the outside of the circle. Meanwhile two No°'-ho°- 
zhi'^-ga, one belonging to the 0'-po° (Elk) gens and the other to the 
I'-ba-tse (Wind) gens who hold the office belonging to their gentes in 
the ceremony hurriedly paint themselves, put on their ceremonial 
attire, and proceed in a certain prescribed form to the place where the 
war party are sitting. During their formal approach they pause four 
times, as at the ceremonies of the war rites, and at each stop recite a 
wi'-gi-e, and thus finally make their way to the center of the space 
around which the warriors sit. The man of the 0'-po° (Elk) gens 
steps forward a little and in a loud voice calls, in appeal, to the Four 
Winds: first to the East wind, then to the South, to the West, and to 
the North winds. This dramatic appeal to the Ife-bearing winds by 
the man of the Elk gens is made in accordance with the myth of the 
genesis of the people. In response to this appeal the man from the 
I'-ba-t'Se (Wind) gens steps forward, holding in his hand a sldn pouch. 
The Sho'-ka of the Elk gens now starts a fire in the center of the space. 
As the flames arise the No°'-ho'^-zhi°-ga from the I'-ba-tse gens takes 
from his pouch a pinch of fronds from the cedar, the tree of unfailing 
life, and going to the fire throws them in, first on the East side; he 
then passes around to the South of the fire and there drops a pinch; 
next he goes to the West and drops some of the fronds; and lastly to 
the North side, where he drops a pinch of the fronds. By this act of 
the representatives of the Four Winds, the spirit of the dead warrior 
is symbolically endowed with new life as he is beUeved to be borne 
away by the Winds to the Spirit Land. The I'-ba-tse No"'-ho°-zhi°-ga 
now ignites at the fire a bundle of cedar fronds and carries the burning 
bunch to each warrior, who inhales the smoke and is thereby sym- 
bolically cleansed from the touch of death. After this ceremony the 
warriors strip themselves of their clothing and place thejn, together 



I 

La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 141 

with their weapons, shields, etc., in a pile. Their horses and saddles 
are also brought to the same place, and all are smoked with the cedar 
fronds by the I'-ba-tse No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga, after which these offerings 
become the property of the two men who have officiated at the cere- 
mony. ^° At the close of the purification rite the warriors put on new 
clothing which their relatives and friends have brought for them. 
Should, however, a warrior hold, for sentimental reasons, any article 
as of special value he can withdraw it, but he must substitute some- 
thing else of equal value. 

To°-wo°-i-lii' Zhi°-ga (now dead) said that representatives of the 
Tho'-xe, Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta-ge, and Po°-ka Wa-shta-ge gentes took 
part in the purification ceremony and shared in the distribution of the 
property discarded by the warriors. He also said that before the 
warriors are permitted to enter the village the No°'-ho"-zhi°-ga of the 
I'-ba-tse gens form a procession and pass around the entire village, 
thus making a path over which the spirit of death will be unable to 
cross in order to enter the village. When the circle around the village 
has been completed by the I'-ba-tse, the warriors arise, enter their 
homes wdth their friends, and the people go on with their usual 
activities as though nothing strange had happened. 

Since the early part of the last century the Osage people have been 
forced by circumstances to make many changes in their mode of life, 
changes that have affected their ancient form of government, their 
social customs, and even some of their ceremonial practices. Concern- 
ing the latter they have been obliged to adopt substitutes for many of 
the materials and objects originally used as symbols in their cere- 
monials to express their religious conceptions. But none of these 
changes, none of these substitutes, however incongruous, has cut so 
pathetic a figure as the change that had to be made in the essential 
feature of the Mourning Wa-sha'-be A-thi'* rite, namely, the securing 
of a spirit to accompany that of the person mourned on its journey 
to the realm of spirits. 

This (Mourning Wa-sha'-be A-thi°) rite as performed in May, 1873, 
may be regarded as the last to be given with its main feature un- 
changed. The preliminary ceremonies were performed as described 
in the preceding pages and the officers who were to lead the warriors 
were chosen according to prescribed rules. The men who filled the 
offices on that occasion were: 



1" Tn an article entitled "An Account of the War Customs of the Osage," published in the American Nat. 
uralist. February 4, 1884, pp. 123-127, J. Owen Dorsey very briefly mentions these two ceremonies without 
giving their title or explaining their significance. He states, in the paragraph relating to the second cere- 
mony, that "The principal man of the Kansas gens" officiates in the ceremony. It is evident that Mr. 
Dorsey, from this statement, confuses the I'-ba-tse gens with the Omaha Kansas gens. The Osage gens 
representing the four winds is always spoken of as "I'-ba-tse Ta-dse'," sometimes as Ho^'-ga 0-tho-ha-ge 
(last in order of the Ho^'-ga), or Ho^'-ga ZW'ga (Little Ho°'-ga), but never as Kansas. 



142 BUKEAU OF AMEEICAN ETHNOLOGY [BtJiL. 101 



Xthe'-ts'a-ge (Commanders) _ . 



Do-do^'-ho^-ga (Leader) O-tha'-ga-bi. 

Tha'-bthi'^-wa-xthi, 
Wa-lio'-to°-the-wa-no°-she, 
Wa-zha'-zhe wa-da-i°-ga, 
, Wa'-tse-to"-ga. 

iXa-ge'-wa-the, 
Ka-wa-xo-dse a-gthi° 
Co°-dse u'-mo°-i'' 
Wa-zha'-zhe-wa-go^-dse. 

From the number of officers it would appear that this war party 
belonged to the class called Tsi'-ga-xa Do-do°. The preliminary cere- 
monies having been duly performed, the war party set out "toward 
the setting sun." The warriors traveled westward toward that part 
of the country now known as Oklahoma which, at that time, was 
practically unsettled by the white race, and where the buffalo were 
still plentiful. After several days of travel the war party came to 
the buffalo region. One morning the Xthe'-ts'a-ge dispatched two of 
the Tse'-xe-ki° No^-ho" (according to one of these two officers who 
told the incident to the writer) to go and shoot buffalo in order to 
supply the needed provision of meat for the party which continued to 
move on. As the warriors reached the top of a slight rise in the prairie 
they suddenly came upon an Indian who was cutting up a buffalo 
he had just shot. The stranger was quickly surrounded and killed 
and the war party at once hastened toward home, taking with them the 
scalp of the hunter and also his horse. 

Not long after the return of the war party some thirty or forty 
Wichitas appeared at the Osage Agency to demand satisfaction for the 
killing of their chief by the Osage war party. The Osage men gathered 
together, collected money, horses, blankets, and other goods, amount- 
ing in value to about fifteen hundred dollars, all of which they offered 
to the Wichitas as compensation for their loss and grief. The Wichitas 
accepted these gifts as a settlement of their claim and returned to 
their homes. Later the authorities at Washington took official notice 
of the killing of the Wichita Indian by the Osage war party, with the 
result that a realizing sense was brought to the people of the tribe that 
it would not be safe for them to continue the ceremonial killing of 
innocent strangers. 

The Osage, however, continue to perform the Mourning Wa-sha'-be 
A-thi° whenever the relatives of a deceased member demand it, but 
in a modified form. The rite as thus practiced is described as follows 
by some of the Osages who have not only witnessed but have actually 
taken part in it: Various sections of the ceremony are performed in 
the ancient order, with all the usual ardor and excitement, and occupy 
four or five days of continuous activity. Meanwhile a group of men, 
chosen for the purpose, go from place to place in search of a white 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 143 

man who, for money consideration, would be willing to take a certain 
part in the performance. The committee are usually successful in 
finding a man to fill this necessary and important part. The man is 
shown a place where, at a certain time, he is to be found as though by 
accident. On the morning of the fourth or fifth day the final section 
of the ceremony, the Wa-no^'-ge A-ba-gu, is performed. The warriors 
now blacken their faces with charcoal, mount their best horses, and 
gallop "toward the setting sun." Suddenly they come upon the white 
man, charge upon him with war cries, and he runs as though for his 
life, but he is quickly overtaken, given some harmless blows, and at 
the firing of a few shots falls to the ground as though killed. The 
warriors at once dismount and with their knives cut a few locks from 
the crown of his head, if he has any hair there, and if not, from his 
flowing beard. 

The Wa-sha'-be A-thi°, Mourning rite, still survives, but only as a 
travesty. 



OSAGE VERSION 



145 



I 



MO^'-SHKO" Wl'-GI-E 

Crawfish Ritual 

(Free translation, p. 6) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Ho°'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. Ho°'-ga wi'* a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Mo°'-thi°-ka zhi°-ga, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, \si ga, 

6. No°'-be zha-ta ga-xe to" a', a bi"" da, tsi ga, 

7. Mo°'-tlii°-ka sha-be thi°-kslie a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. Ba'-ha tsi no°-zhi'' to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. He' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. We'-go"-tha 'thi" mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi", da, tsi ga, 

11. We'-go"-tha gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-90"-ga', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Wa'-zha-zlie a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. Tsi'-zhu e-tlio"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

14. I"'-dse-ha ga-xa bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Tho"'-dse ba-be 'to" ha no" shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

16. We'-go°-tha gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-QO°-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. E'-tho"-zha, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. I"-dse-ha ga-xa bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. I"'-shta-ha, 'ga-gta zhi ta tse-a, wi-Qo"-ga, e-ki-a bi a' a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

20. I"-shta-ha 'ga-gta do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Ni'-ka no" da-pa ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi-a' wi-Qo"-ga, e-lji-a bi-a' 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

22. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Mo"'-thi"-ka to-ho thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Ba'-ha tsi-no"-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. The', wi-go"-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. We'-go"-tha 'thi" mo"-thi" ta bi-a' wi-9o"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

27. We'-go"-tha 'thi" mo "-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. We'-go"-tha gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi-a', wi-5o"-ga. 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. We'-go°-tha 'thi" mo"-thi" bi do" shki-a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

31. Tho"'-dse ba-he 'to" ha no"-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. We'-go"-tha gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi-a' wi-5o"-ga, 

e'-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

147 



148 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

33. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

34. Mo°'-thi°-ka zhu-dse thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

35. Ba'-lia 'tsi-no°-zhi° to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

36. The' shki do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

37. We'-go°-tha 'thi° mo°-tW ta bi-a', wi-go^-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

38. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a W da, tsi ga, 

39. Tsi'-zhu e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

40. We'-go°-tha 'thi mo°-tlii° ta bi-a', wi-go^-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

41. We-go°-tha 'thi° mo°-thi" bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. Tho°'-dse ba-he 'to° ha no° shki do'' a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. We-go°-tha gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi-a', wi-go°-ga, e-ki-a 

bi a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

44. E'-tho°-zha, a bi"" da, tsi ga, 

45. I^'-des ha ga-xe bi do° a', a bi'' da, tsi ga, 

46. P'-shta-bthi a-ga-xto" a-zhi ta tse-a', wi-go°-ga. e-ki-a bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga. 

47. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. Mo'"-thi''-ka gi tW-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. Ba'-ha tsi no^-zhi" to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. The' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. We'-go"-tha 'thi" mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Wa'-zha-zhe a'- a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Tsi'-zhu e-tho°-ba'- a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. We'-go"-tha gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo "-thi" ta bi-a'- wi-5o"-ga, e'- 

ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Da'-gthe o"k'o-pi a-tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. I"'-dse-ha kshi-the mo"-thi" ta bi-a", wi-go"-ga, e'-ki-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga. 

Nl Wl'-GI-E 
Water Ritual 

(Free translation, p. 12) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a'- a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-zha-zhe u-dse-the pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Wa'-zha-zhe wi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Ni' zhu-i-ga the xtsi ni-ka-shi ga to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. He'-dsi xtsi a' a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Ni thi-u-ba-he isdu-ge ga-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. Thi u-ba-he a-gi-the a-to" hi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Zhi"-ga thi u-ba-he the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

9. Thi u-ba-he i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi-a', wi-5o"-ga, 

e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. U'-no" tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. U'-no" a bi 'the ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi-a', zhi"-ga e-to" a', a bi" da 

tsi ga. 






La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 149 

12. No^'-ka o°-he ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga 

13. No°'-ka oMie a-gi-the a-thi°lii° da, e-to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. Zlii°-ga no"-ka o°-lie the mo°-tbi° hi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. U'no° a bi 'the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi-a, zhi°-ga, e to° a', a bi° da 

tsi ga. 

16. Ni thi u'-ba-he tha-ta ga-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. Thi u'-ba-he a-gi-the a-thi° hi° da, e to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

18. Zhi°'-ga thi u-ba-he the mo°-thi° bi do° shld a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. U'-no" a bi 'the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi-a', wi-go^-ga, e-ki-a bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga. 

20. Ni u'-ga-gi ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

21. Tlii u-thi-xtho-k'a 'gi the a-thi° hi'' da e to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. Zhi'^'-ga thi u-ttd-xtho-k'a gi the mo°-thi° bi do° shki a', a bi° da 

tsi ga, 

23. Thi u-thi-xtho k'a i-ts'a thi°-ge ki-the moMhi" ta bi tse-a, zhi"- 

ga e to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

24. U'-no° tha bi do° shkia', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. U'-no° a bi 'the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', \vi-go°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Ho°'-ga, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

27. Tsi'-zhii e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

28. U'-no" a bi 'the ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi-a', zhi°-ga, e to° a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga. 

Tsi'-ZHU I-E-KI-THE 

Song 1 

(Free translation, p. 17) 
Tsi'-zhu a-ka mi hi-the ge ta 
Wa-dsu-ta wi° wa-no°-xe a-dsi the tse a-ka tha, 
Wa-pa-hi thi^-ge xtsi wa-no°-xe a-dsi, 
The tse a-ki" da. 

HO'^'-GA I-E-KI-THE 

Song 2 

(Free translation, p. 17) 
Ho°-ga a-ka mi hi-the ge ta, 
Wa-dsu-ta wi" wa-no°-xe a-dsi the tse a-ki° da, 
Wa-pi-hi thi"-ge xtsi wa-no°-xe a-dsi, 
The tse a-ki° da. 

Song of the Riders 

(Free translation, p. 20) 
Shi°-to wa-sho-she ho°-tho''-gi-the tho°-ke tho, 
Shi°-to wa-sho-she ho°-tho°-gi-the thc-ke tho, 
Shi°-to wa-sho-she ho°-tho°-gi-the tho"-ka do°, 
I-tha-shto° a-thi° he tho. 

Ha! Do-do°-ho"-ga, Pa-thi°-zhi°-ga wa-sho-she dsi thi" do°, 
Wa-zha-wa he-wa-wa-ka bi" do, 
Shi°-to wa-sho-she ho^-tho^-gi-the tho°-ke tho, 
Shi'^-to wa-sho-she ho°-tho°-gi-the tho"-ke tho. 
Shi°-to wa-sho-she ho°-tho°-gi-the tho°-ke tho. 



150 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

Xthe-ts'a-ge Wa-tho'* 

OflBcers Songs 

Song 1 

(Free translation, p. 23) 

Shi°-to wa-sho-she e-dsi a-ba tho°-zha, 

She-o"-zho° tha thi°-she, 

Shi°-to wa-sho-she e-dsi a-ba tho°-zha, 

She-o°-zho° tha thi°-she, she-o^-zho" tha thi°-she, do-do^-ho^-ga, 

U-ki-te wa-sho-she e-dsi a-ba e-she do", 

She-o°-zho° tha thi°-she, 

E-dsi hi Wa-l^o°-da ho" ta bi do° he-gio° ta bi° da. 

Song 2 

(Free translation, p. 24) 

Shi°-to wa-sho-she o°-gi-to°-be ta sho° bi a-thi" he tho, 

Shi°-to wa-sho-she o°-gi-to°-be ta sho" bi a-thi" he tho, 

Shi°-to wa-sho-she o^-gi-to^-be ta sho" bi a-thi° he tho, 

Ga sho° shki do° he-go° tse he pshe a-thi° he tho, he-pshe a-thi° he tho, 

Wi-zhi°-the ga-to" e-dsi a-thi° he do" tho°-dse thi-shi ba-zhi i° do, 

Shi"-to wa-sho-she o°-gi-to°-be ta sho° bi a-thi° he tho, 

Ga sho° shki do" he-go" tse he-pshe a-thi° he tho. 

Song 3 

(Free translation, p. 25) 

Wi-ko-tha ho-shko" 'go-ta be tho, 
Wi-ko-tha ho-shko" 'go-ta be tho, 
Ni-ka i-ta bi wa-tse-xi e-sha be tho, 
Ho-shko" 'go-ta be tho, 
Wi-ljo-tha ho-shko" 'go-ta be tho, 
Wi-ko-tha ho-shko" 'go-ta be tho, 
Ho-shko" 'go-ta be tho. 

Song 4 

(Free translation, p. 26) 

Be i-tha-no°-zhi" mo"-zhi e ho-wa-ga-sho° e tho. 
Be i-tha-no°-zhi° mo°-zhi e ho-wa-ga-sho° e tho, 
Wi-zhi"-the thi tse-do-ga he-thi-go° a-do". 
Be i-tha-no"-zhi° nio"-zhi e ho-wa-ga-sho" e tho. 
Be i-tha-no"-zhi" mo"-zhi e ho-wa-ga-sho" e tho. 

Do-DO*''-HO''-GA Wa-THO*' 
Song 1 

(Free translation, p. 27) 

Hi"-da-dsi ni-ka i-ta wa-tse-xi e-sha be tho, 
Hi"-da-dsi ni-ka i-ta wa-tse-xi e-sha be tho, 
Hi"-da-dsi ni-ka i-ta wa-tse-xi e-sha be tho, 
Wa-tse-xi e-sha be tho, Do-do°-ho°-ga, 
Ni-lja i-ta bi wa-tse-xi he-gi-e no° be tho, 
Xa-ge wa-shko" do" ho-pshe no° be tho. 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 151 

Song 2 

(Free translation, p. 28) 

Wa-ko°-da wa-thi-gtho° bi ho°-pa-the ko°-btha 'thi° he, 
Wa-ko°-da wa-thi-gtho° bi ho°-pa-the lco°-btha 'thi" he, 
Wa-ko^-da he-gi-tha bi lj;o°-btha 'thi° he, 
Do-dc-ho^-ga tha-xa-ga bi do° ho°-ba-^o° no" tho°-zha, 
Tho°-dse wi-ta ho°-pa-the ko°-btha 'thi° he, 
Wa-ko°-da he-gi-tha bi ko°-btha 'thi° he. 

Song 3 

(Free translation, p. 29) 

Wa-t^o°-da wa-thi-gtho° bi tse be hi-ba-ho° tse, wi-lfo-tha 

Wa-ko°-da wa-thi-gtho" bi tse be hi-ba-ho° tse, 

Xa-ge wa-shko° do° ho-pshe no° be tho, 

Ho-pshe no° be tho, Do-do°-ho"-ga, 

Ni-ka i-ta wa-tse-xi he-gi-the no° be tho, 

Xa-ge wa-shko» do" ho-pshe no° be tho. 

Tse-xe-k'i*' No'^-ho'* Wa-tho'^ 

Kettle Carriers Elder Songs 

Song 1 

(Free translation, p. 31) 

Ho-wa-ga-sho° bthe tse do° wa-no°-pe o°-tha kshi-the, 
Ho-wa-ga-sho" bthe tse do° wa-no°-pe o°-tha kshi-the, 
Ho-wa-ga-sho" bthe tse do° wa-no°-pe o°-tha kshi-the, 
Ko-tha he-go" ta thi" he tho tho, 
Wa-xa-da-i xa-ge mo°-thi" a-do", 
Wa-lj:o"-da e-shki do" ho-wa-tsi" ta thi" he tho, 
Ho-wa-ga-sho" bthe tse do" wa-no"-pe o"-tha kshi-the, 
Ko-tha he-go" ta thi" he tho. 

Song 2 

(Free translation, p. 32) 

Tse-ga wa-ko°-da o"-ga-xa be tho, 

Tse-ga wa-^o°-da o°-ga-xa be tho, 

Tse-ga wa-^o°-da o"-ga-xa be tho, 

Tse-ga wa-lj;o°-da o"-ga-xa be tho, 

He-wo° thi" the wa-shko" mo"-thi" a-do", e tho, 

Tho^-ba-wa-lj'i thi-shi"-the thi"-ga bu dsi to". 

He-be mo"-thi" a-do° wa-ko°-da o"-ga-xa be tho, 

Tse-ga wa-li:o"-da o"-ga-xa be tho, 

He-wo" thi" the wa-shko" mo"-thi° a-do" e. 

0-THO*''-DA Wa-TSI Wa-THO" 

In the Center] Dance Songs 

Song 1 

(Free translation, p. 34) 

Hiu wi tha the, hiu wi the, hiu wi the-e, 

Hiu wi tha the, hiu wi the, hiu wi the-e, 

Hiu wa hi tha the-e, hiu wa hi tha i the the, 

Hiu wa hi the the, ha i the the, ha i the, 

Hiu wi the-e, hiu wi tha, hiu wi tha, the hiu wi tha. 



152 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

Song 2 

(Free translation, p. 34) 
E he tha, e he tha i the the-e, tho i he the the, 
Tho e he the i the the-e, tho e he tha i the the, ha wi the the 
Ha wi the, e he a i tha, e he a i tha-e, tho i he tha the, 
Tho e he the i the the-e, tho e he tha i the the, ha i the the 
Ha i the the, e he tha, e he tha i tha. 

SoNCx 3 
(Free translation, p. 35) 
Hio wi the the, hio wi the the, hio wi the the, 
Pa-thi^-zhi^-ga no^-tha-pa bi° da, 
U-he-ga-zhi no^-tha-pa bi° da, 
Hio wi the the-e, hio wi hi the the, hio wi the the, 
Hio wi the the, hio wi the the, hio wi the the. 

Xa-ge Wa-xo^-xo'' Wa-tho'* 

Crying Broken Songs 

Song 1 

(Free translation, p. 37) 
Ho° the-tse no° Wa-kon-da e-eha bi° da, 
Xa-ge wa-shko° b a thi" ha, 
Ho" the-tse no" Wa-ko°-da e-sha bi° da, 
Xa-ge wa-shko° ba thi° ha, 
Ha! Do-do^-ho^-ga Wa-ko°-da he-gi-tha bi do° 
Pa-thi°-zhi°-ga tho-the the pshi ]^o°-bthe tho, 
Ho" the-tse no" Wa-lj;o°-da e-sha bi° da, 
Xa-ge wa-shko° ba thi° ha. 

Song 2 

(Free translation, p. 38) 
The-ge o^-bi-ge a-thi° he, 
He, zhi°-the, He, zhi°-the, 
The-ge c-bi-ge a-thi° he, 
0°-thi°-ge ta tse tho tse tho"-zha, 
The-ge o"-bi-ge a-thi° he, 
He, zhi^-the. He zhi^-the, 
The-ge o°-bi-ge a-thi" he. 

Song 3 

(Free translation, p. 39) 
The, zhi°-the wa-no°-xe de wa-no°-bthe o°-kshi-tha be, 
He, zhi°-the. He, zhi°-the. 
The, zhi^-the wa-no^-xe de wa-nc-bthe o°-kshi-tha be. 

Xa-ge' Wa-xo'^-xo*' 

Broken Songs 

Song 1 
(Free translation, p. 41) 
Ho° the tse no" Wa-ko°-da e-sha bi° da 
Ksho°-ga wa-shko" ba thi" ha, 
Ho° the tse no° Wa-ko"-da e-sha bi° da, 
Kshon-ga wa-shko° ba thi" ha, 
Ha' Do-do "-ho °-ga Wa-ko^-da he gi tha bi do" 
Pa-thi°-zhi°-ga tho-the thi° pshi ]^o°-bthe tho, 
Ho° the tse no° Wa-]j:o''-da e-sha bi° do, 
Ksho°-ga wa-shko° ba thi° ha. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 153 

Song 2 

(Free translation, p. 42) 

Wi-gi-gi-the do° xa-ge a-thi° he tho, 

Wi-gi-gi-the do° xa-ge a-thi° he tho, 

Wa-thi-gtho"-thi°-ge, 

Wi-gi-gi-the do° xa-ge a-thi° he tho, 

Wi-gi-gi-the do° xa-ge a-thi° he tho, 

Wi-gi-gi-the do° xa-ge a-thi° he tho, 

Wa-thi-gtho°-thi°-ge, 

Wi-gi-gi-the do° xa-ge a-thi" he tho. 

Song 3 

(Free translation, p. 43) 

Hi°-da-d8i o°-gi-to°-be hi tho, 
Hin-da-dsi o°-gi-to°-be hi tho, 
0°-gi-to°-be hi tho, 
Be ho''-go°-5e thi"-ge, 
No°-xthe i-tha-]ii°-dse tho, 
0°-gi-to°-be hi tho, 
Hi°-da-dsi o°-gi-to°-be hi tho, 
Hi^-da-dsi o"-gi-to°-be hi tho, 
Hi^-da-dsi o^-gi-to^-be hi tho. 

I'-E-KI-THE Wa-THO" 

The'Criers Song (call) 

(Free translation, p. 44) 

Do-do°-ho°-ga, ho"-ba ga-gc-thi" do", 
Ni da-]^a-de ga-xe ta bi° da bi° da o. 

Tse'-xe Ni-ka-?o Wi'-gi-e 

Kettle Placing Ritual 

(Free translation, p. 45) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Ho°'-ga u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do° a', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

3. Xtha'-xtha thi°-ge xtsi ni-ka-sbi-ga tho°-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Ha! wi-QO°-ga, e-ki-e no°-zbi° bi a' a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. We'-ki-k'o° wi" thi°-ge a-tha, wi-go^-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. Tse'-xe ni-ka-po e-go"* to" no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi e do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Wi'-go°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

11. The we-ki-k'o° o°-gi-the ta bi a, wi-QO°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

12. He'-dsi xtsi a' a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. Ni'-da-ka-dse e-dsi o"-gthe ta bi a', wi-go°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

14. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15. Ni'-da-ka-dse e-dsi-gtha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

83773—39 11 



154 BUEEAU OF AMEEICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

Wa-no^'-bthe U-ho^ U-pa-ha Wi'-gi-e 

Food Placed in Kettle to Cook Ritual 

(Free translation, p. 46) 

1 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Da'-do° u-ho° u-pa-ha i-the o°-the ta ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. Wi'-50°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi"" da, tsi ga, 

4. No^'-bthe do-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. We'-ki i-he-the tse o°-tho'' bi a', wi-go°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

6. U'-lio° u-pa-ha i-the-o'^-the ta bi a', wi-go^-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

7. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

8. Ho'-xtho°-ta-xe thi°-kshe no'' a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. The', wi-go°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. U'-ho" u-pa-ha i-the-o°-the ta bi a', wi-90°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

11. E'-tho''-zha', a bi° da, tsi ga 

12. Wa'-thi-e-gka u-pa-ha i-the-o°-tha ba zhi tse a', wi-yo^-ga, e-^i-a 

bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. Shi°'-to ho btho°-xe do° a', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

15. E'-ki-tho°-ba xtsi u-pa-ha i-the-op-the ta bi a', wi-go^-ga, e-]j;i-a 

bi a', a bi°-da, tsi ga, 

16. Wa-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Tsi'-zhu e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

18. We'-ki i-he-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



19. Shi wi" thi"-ge a-tha, wi-Qo"-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Ci"'-mo"-no"-ta-hi thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. E' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. U'-ho" u-pa-ha i-the-o"-the ta bi a', wi-QO°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

23. E' tho"-zha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Wa'-thi"-e-gka u-pa-ha i-the o"-tha ba zhi tse a', wi-Qo"-ga, e-ki-a 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Mi'hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Shi'-mi ho btho"-xe do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. E'-ki-tho"-ba xtsi u-pa-ha i-the o"-the ta bi a', wi-Qo"-ga, e-^-a 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Tsi-zhu e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. We'-ki i-he-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 155 

3 

31. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

32. Shi wi" tlii°-ga a-tha, wi-go°-ga, e-kia bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

33. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

34. Ci°' thi°-kshe no'' a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

35. The' u-ho° u-pa-ha t-the o°-the ta bi a', wi-go^-ga, e-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. E'tho°-zha', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

37. Wa'-thi°-e-gka u-pa-ha i-the o°-tha ba zhi tse a', wi-go^-ga, e-^i-a 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Mi'hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

39. Ni'-ka wa-k'o o-tha-ha kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

40. E'-ki-tho^-ba xtsi u-pa-ha i-the o°-the ta bi a', wi-go^-ga, e-^i-a 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Wa-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Tsi'-zhu e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. We'-ki i-he the mo°-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

44. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Shi wi"' thi" ge a-tha, wi-Qo"-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Ho"'-bthi"-5U thi "-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. E' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. U'-ho" u-pa-ha i-the o"-the ta bi a', wi-Qo"-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da 

tsi ga, 

49. E'-tho"-zha', a^bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Wa'-thi"-e-9ka u-pa-ha i-the o"-tha ba zhi tse a', wi-go"-ga, e-ki-a 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

51. Mi'-hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Wa'-k'o wo" we-da-the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. E'-ki-tho"-ba xtsi u-pa-ha i-the o"-the ta bi a', wi-9o"-ga, e-ki-a, 

bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. Wa'-zha-zhe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. Tsi'-zhu e-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. We'-ki i-he-the mo "-thi" ta i-tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

Pe'-dse U-:^'i Wi'-gi-e 

Fire Contributing to Ritual 
(Free translation, p. 48) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Ta'-dse we-do-ba thi" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

3. Da'-\vi"-xe wi"-u-tsi i-he-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Ta'-dse ga-xpa dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

5. Da-wi"-xe wi"-u-tsi i-he-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Wa'-thi"-e-9ka shki i-he-tha ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

7. Ta' wo"-ge zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. E'-ki-tho"-ba xtsi i-he-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Wa-thi^-e-gka shki i-he-tha ba zhi k, a bi"' da, tsi ga, 
10. Wa'-dsu-ta gi ga-xe a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



156 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

11. Ta'-dse a-^'a dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. Da'-wi°-u-tsi i-he-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. Wa'-thi^-e-gka shki i-he-tha ba zhi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. Ta' tse-he xo-dse do'' a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. E'-ki-tho°-ba xtsi i-he-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. Wa'-dsu-ta gi ga-xe a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi'' da, tsi ga, 

18. Ta'-dse mo"-ha dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. Da'-wi''-xe wi''-ii-tsi i-he-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. Wa'-thi"-e-9ka shki i-he-tha ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Ta wo"-ge he a-gtha zhi xtsi to"-ga do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. E'-ki-tho"-ba xtsi i-he-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Wa'-dsu-ta gi ga-xe a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

24. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Ta'-dse ba-go" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Da'-wi"-xe wi°-u-tsi i-he-tha bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Wa'-thi"-e-gka shki i-he-tha ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Ta he sha-be do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. E'-ki-tho"-ba xtsi i-he-tha bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Wa'-dsu-ta gi ga-xe a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

31. He'-dsi xtsi a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

32. U'-ho" u-ba-wi"-xe ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Wa'-dsu-ta u-ba-wi"-xe the no" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

36. U'-ho" p'u-tho" ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. E'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Wa'-dsu-ta zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. I'u-p'u-tho" the no" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

42. U'-ho" da-gi-gi-ge ga ge a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

43. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Wa'-dsu-ta zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. A'-ki-wi-gi-gi the the no" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Sho"' xtsi pa-xe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

47. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. U'-ho" ba-da-da-zhe ga-ge a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. E'-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Wa'-dsu-ta zhi"-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. U'wa-bi" ba-da-da-zhe hi the no" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Sho"'-xtsi pa-xe i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 157 

53. U'-ho° da-shu-shu-e ga ge a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

54. E'shld do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

55. Wa'-dsu-ta zlii°-ga', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. Ho°'-ba i-ta-xe tho° dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. I'wa-bi° a-gi-no''-zlii''-zhi° the the no° no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

58. Sho°' xtsi pa-xe i"* da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

59. Wa'-dsu-ta zhi°-ga', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

60. Ho°'-ba tha-gtW u-hi ta thi'' shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

61. Ho'^'-ba tha-gthi° u-hi o°-ga-xe, o°-mo°-thi° ta bi a', wi-QO°-ga, 

e-ki-e no°-zhi° bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

62. We'-ki i-he-the shki wo-ts'e-ga o"-ki-the o''-mo''-thi° ta bi a', 

wi-90°-ga, e-ki-e no°-zhi° bi d, a bi" da, tsi ga. 

I'-E-KI-THE Wa-THO^ 

The Criers' Song (call) 

(Free translation, p. 51) 
Do-do°'-ho°-ga, ho°-ba ga-gc-thi" do", 
Wa-xthe-xthe ga-xe ta bi° da bi" da da-o. 

I'-E-KI-THE Wa-THO'' 

The Criers' Song (last call) 

(Free translation, p. 54) 
Do-do°-ha°-ga, ho°-ba ga-go^-thi^-do", 
Nc-xthe Wa-ljo°-da-gi ga-xe ta bi° da bi" da-o. 

NO'^-XTHE I-KI^'-DSE Wl'-GI-E 
Charcoal Rush Ritual 

(Free translation, p. 55) 
1 

1. Da'-do° no°-xthe gi-the mo°-thi° ta ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. I°'-gtho°-ga do-ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. Ga' no°-xthe gi-the mo°-thi'' bi a', a bi"" da, tsi ga, 

4. No°'-xthe gi-the mo°-thi'' bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. Mi' lii-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. No°'-xthe gi-ga-be ki-the mo''-thi° ta bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. No'^'-xthe gi-the mo''-thi° bi do"* shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. We'-ki i-he-the gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', wi-go^-ga, 

e-ki-a, bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2 

9. Da'-do° no°-xthe gi-the mo°-thi° ta ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. Wa'-ga-be u-ga-ka thi°-ge kshe uo° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. Ga' no°-xthe gi-the mo°-thi° bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. No°-xthe gi-the mo°-thi° bi do'' shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. Mi' hi-e ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. No'^'-xthe gi-ga-be ki-the mo°-thi" ta i tsi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi"" da, tsi ga, 

16. We'-ki i-he-the gi-wa-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', wi-go°-ga, 

e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 



158 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 



17. Da'-do" no^-xthe gi-the mo'^-thi" \a, ba do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

18. Mi'-xa gka to°-ga thi'^-kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. Ga'-no°-xthe gi-the mo°-thi° bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. Qi'-ha u-sha-be ga thi°-kslie shki a', a bi"^ da, tsi ga, 

21. Pa'-zhu-zhe i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

22. No'^'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° he i° da', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

23. Zhi°'-ga no°-xthe gi-the mo''-thi'' bi do° a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

24. No'^'-xthe gi-ga-be ki-the mo°-thi° t^ bi a', wi-go^-ga, e-ki-a bi a' 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi"" da, tsi ga, 

26. No°'-xthe gi-tha bi do° shki a', a W da, tsi ga, 

27. No'^'-xthe gi-ga-be ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi a', wi-go^-ga, e-ki-a bi a', 

a bi"" da, tsi ga. 

4 

28. Da'-do'' no°-xthe gi-the mo^-thi" ta ba do"^ a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

29. Wa'-zhi°-ga wa-tha-xthi thi°-ge thi'^-kshe no" a' a bi° da, tsi ga, 

30. E' shki do'' a', a bi'' da, tsi ga, 

31. Qi'-ha u-sha-be ga thi^-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. No^'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. I"'-be i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Pa'-zhu-zhe i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Zhi"'-ga no"-xthe gi-tha bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. No"'-xthe gi-ga-be ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-go"-ga, e-^a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Mi'-hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. No"'-xthe gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. No"'-xthe gi-ga-be ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi a', wi-go"-ga, e-ki-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

5 

41. Da'-do" no"-xthe gi-the mo"-thi" ta ba do" a' a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Ta' tse-he-xo-dse do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. E' shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. No"'-xthe gi-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Qi'-ha u-sha-be ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. Pa'-zhu-zhe i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi"-kshe shld a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

48. No"'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

49. Zhi"'-ga no"'-xthe gi-the mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

50. Mi' hi-e ge ta, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

51. No"'-xthe gi-ga-be ki-the mo"-thi" ta i tsi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

53. Tse'-xi a-shi-be a-thi" he no" i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 159 



54. Xthi' bi u-thi-go^-ha a-thi" he shki do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

55. Wa'-pa-hi o^-bu-zha-zha-ta bi a-thi° he shki do° a', a W da, tsi ga, 

56. Tse'-xi a-shi-be a-thi°-he no° i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

57. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga tha bi do'' a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

58. Tse'-xi ga-shi-be lii-the mo°-thi° \n bi a', wi-QO^-ga, e-ki-a bi a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga. 

No'^'-XTHE I-]k:i''-dse Wa-tho" 

Charcoal Rush Songs 

(Free translation, p. 58) 



Ni-lj;a gto bi ni wa tha te, ha tho, ha tho, 

Ni-lja ni do°, e the he, ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do", ha we, ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do°, e the he, 

Ni-lja gto bi ni wa tha te, ha tho. 



Ho"-ga to° bi ni wa tha te, ha tho, ha tho, 

Ni-lja ni do°, e-the he, ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do°, ha we, ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do°, e the he, 

Ho°-ga to" ni ni wa tha te, ha tho. 



Wa-xtha to° bi ni wa tha te, ha tho, ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do°, e the he, ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do°, ha we, ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do°, e the he, 

Wa-xtha to° bi ni wa tha te, ha tho. 



Mo°-sho" to° bi ni wa tha te, ha tho, ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do°, e the he, ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do°, ha we, ha tho, 

Ni-lja ni do°, e the he, 

Mo°-sho° to" bi ni wa tha te, ha tho. 



Ta-ha to" bi ni wa tha te, ha tho, ha tho, 

Ni-lja ni do°, e the he, ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do°, ha we, ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do", e the he, 

Ta-ha to" bi ni wa tha te, ha tho. 

6 

Pe-dse to" bi ni wa tha te, ha tho, ha tho, 

Ni-lja ni do", e the he, ha tho, 

Ni-lia ni do", ha we, ha tho, 

Ni-ka ni do", e the he, 

Pe-dse to" bi ni wa tha te, ha t^o. 



160 BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Botl. 101 



No°-xthe to" bi ni wa tha te, ha tho, ha tho, 

Ni-]ia ni do", e the he, ha tho, 

Ni-lj;a ni do°, ha we, ha tho, 

Ni-lja ni do", e the he, 

No°-xthe to° bi ni wa tha te, ha tho. 

I'-gA-GTHE Bo-DO Wa-tsi Wa-tho" 

Loom Poles Thrast Dance Song 

(Free translation, p. 61) 



Mi-na she-tho a-tsi no°-zhi°-a no°-tsi-da, 
Mi-na she-tho a-tsi-no°-zhi°-a no°-tsi-da, 
ho, no°-t8i-da, O ho, no^-tsi-da. 



Mi-na she-tho a-tsi no°-zhi°-a no"-zha-wa, 
Mi-na she-tho a-tsi no°-zhi"-a no°-zha-wa, 
O ho, no°-zha-wa, o ho, no°-zha-wa. 



Wi-he she-tho a-tsi no°-zhi°-a no°-tsi-da, 
Wi-he she-tho a-tsi no°-zhi"-a no°-tsi-da, 
O ho, no°-tsi-da, O ho, no°-tsi-da. 



Wi-he she-tho a-tsi no°-zhi°-a no°-zha-wa, 
Wi-he she-tho a-tsi no°-zhi°-a no°-zha-wa, 
O ho, no°-zha-wa, O, ho, no°-zha-wa. 



Ci-ge she-tho a-tsi no°-zhi"-a no^-tsi-da, 
Ci-ge she-tho a-tsi no"-zhi''-a no°-tsi-da, 
O, ho, no''-tsi-da, O ho, no°-tsi-da. 

6 

Ci-ge she-tho a-tsi no°-zhi°-a no^-zha-wa, 
Ci-ge she-tho a-tsi no°-zhi°-a no°-zha-wa, 
O ho, no"-zha-wa, O ho, no°-zha-wa. 



I°-gtho° she-tho a-tsi no"-zhi°-a no^-tsi-da, 
I°-gtho° she-tho a-tsi no^-zhi^-a no°-tsi-da, 
O ho, no°-tsi-da, O ho, no°-tsi-da. 

8 

I^-gtho" she-tho a-tsi no°-zhi°-a no°-zha-wa, 
I°-gtho" she-tho a-tsi no°»zhi°-a no"-zha-wa, 
O ho, no°-zha-wa, O ho, no^-zha-wa. 



La FlescheI OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 161 

Nl-NI-BA Nl-NI Wl'-GIE 

Pipe Tobacro Ritual 

(Wa-7ha'-zhe Wa-no" Gens) 

(Free translation, p. 62) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-zha-zhe u-dse-the pe-tho°-ba rd-ka-shi-ga ba do° a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Xtha'-xtha thi°-ge xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga tho''-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Da' ni-the tlii''-ge xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga tho''-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. No'''-ni-o''-ba wi° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga thoMva', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. Ha', Ho^'-ga e, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. No°'-ni-o°-ba wi'' zhu-i-ga a-the a-thi° he a', Ho°'-ga e', e-tsi-the 

a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. Zhu'-i-ga tha the tha thi^she do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. Zhu'-i-ga i-ts'a thi°-ge tha thi°-she \a, tse-a', Ho°-ga-e', e-tsi-the 

a, a bi"" da, tsi ga, 

13. Pa' u-sho°-sho° ga thi"-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. Pa' u-sho°-sho" a-gi-the a-thi° he-a', Ho°'-ga-e', e to°-a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga 

15. Pa' u-sho°-sho° tha the do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. Pa' u-sho°-sho'' i-ts'a thi°-ge tha ki-the tha thi°she \si tse-a', 

Ho'^'-ga-e', e to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

17. U'-thu-ga ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

18. I'-u-thu-ga a-gi-the a-thi° he-a', Ho'^'-ga-e, e to° a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

19. No°'-ni-o''-ba ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. I'-thu-ga tha the tha thi°-she do** shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

21. I'-thu-ga i-ts'a thi°-ge tha thi°-she ta tse-a', Ho°-ga-e, e to"* a' a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. Thi'-u-ba-he i-shde-ga ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. Thi'-u-ba-he a-gi-the a-thi" he-a', Ho°'-ga-e, e to° a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

24. Thi'-u-ba-he i-shdu-ge kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. Thi'-u-ba-he tha gi-the tha thi°-she do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

26. Thi' u-ba-he i-ts'a thi°-ge tha thi°-she ta tse a', Ho°-ga-e', e 

toV, a bi° da, tsi ga. 



162 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 

27. No°'-ka o"-he ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

28. No'^'-ka o'^-he a-gi-the a-thi° he a', Ho°-ga-e', e to'' a', a bi'' da, 

tsi ga, 

29. No°'-ka o^-he tha the tha thi°-kshe do"" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

30. No°'-ka o°-he i-ts'a thi'^-ge tha thi°-she ta tse a', Ho°-ga-e', e to" 

a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Thi' u-ba-he tha-ta ga kshe a', a bi^ da, tsi ga, 

32. Thi' u-ba-he a-gi-the a-thi° he a', Ho°-ga-e', e to° a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

33. Thi' u-ba-he o°-tha-the tha thi'^-she do"* shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

34. Thi' u-ba-he i-ts'a thi°-ge tha thi°-she ta tse a', Ho°-ga-e, e to° a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

35. U'-xtho-k'a ga kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

36. Thi' u-thi-xtho-k'a a-gi-the a-thi° he-a tha, e to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

37. Thi' u-thi-xtho-k'a o°-tha-the tha thi'' she do° shki a', a hi" da, 

tsi ga, 

38. Thi' u-thi-xtho-k'a i-ts'a thi^-ge tha thi^-she ta tse a', Ho°-ga-e, 

e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

39. We'-thi" zhi^-ga i-tlii-do" ga kshe shki a', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

40. Ni'-a-ko^-gthe a-gi-the a-thi" he a tha, e to'' a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Ni'-a-ko^-gthe tha gi-the tha thi "-she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Ni'-a-ko" i-ts'a thi^-ge tha thi"she ta tse a', Ho^-ga-e', to" a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. We'-go"-tha a-hni tha thi"she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. We'-go"-tha thi-wa-ts'i-ga tha ki-the tha thi"-she ta tse a', Ho"- 

ga-e, e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

46. Tho"-dse ba-he e-to"-ha no" shki do" a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

47. We' -go"- tha thi-u-nio"-ka tha ki-the tha tlii"-she ta tse a', Ho"- 

ga-e e to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

Ho*''-GA U-DSE-THE Pe-THO'^-BA Wi'-GIE 

Ho"'-ga Fireplaces Seven Eitual 

(Free translation, p. 64) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

2. Ho"'-ga U-dse-the Pe-tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

3. Xtha'-xtha thi"-ge xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

4. Da' ni-the thi°-ge xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga tho"-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 163 

5. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

6. Ha', Wa-zha'-zhe, e tsi-the a', a bi° da, t-si ga, 

7. I°'-zhu-dse thiMcshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga a-to° he a', Wa-zha'-zhe, e to° a' 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

9. Wa'-ko'^-da Ho°-ba do° thiMvshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. Zhu'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga a-to° he a, Wa-zha'-zhe, e to° a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. I°'-zhu-dse thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

12. Zhu'-i-ga tha the tha thi°-she do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. Wa'-ko°-da e-shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. A'-ki-tha-zha-ta bi tha ki-the tha thi°-she \a, tse a', Wa-zha'-zhe, 

e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga 

16. I"*' xhu-dse thi°-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

17. Zhu'-i-ga xtsi a-n-ka-shi-ga a-thi° he a, Wa-zha'-zhe, e to° a', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

18. Zhu'-i-ga tha the tha thi°-she do" shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. Wa'-ko°-da e-shld do" a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

20. A'-ta-kshi" bi tha ki-the tha thi°-she ta tse a', Wa-zha-zhe', 

e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. I"' zhu-dse thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. Zhu'-i-ga tha the tha thi°-she do" shld a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

25. Be' hi o"-gtha mo"-zhi i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga 

26. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Be' hi a-gtha ba zhi tha ki-the tha thi"-she t& tse a', Wa-zha-zhe, 

e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

28. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. I"' zhu-dse thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Zhu'-i-ga tha the tha thi"-she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Wa'-ko"-da e-shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Hi' o"-ki-tha-sho" bi a-thi" he i" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. I"' zhu-dee thi"-kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Zhu'-i-ga tha the tha thi"-she do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Wa'-ko"-da e-shkie do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Hi' a-]ki-tha-sho" bi tha ki-the tha thi"-she ta tse a', Wa-zha-zhe', 

e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



164 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 

Processional Song 

(Free translation, p. 68) 

1 

Mc-i^-ka u-thi-sho° a-gtha-bthi° e-he, 
Mc-i^-ka u-thi-sho° a-gtha-bthi° e-he, a-he, 
I-ba 'thi° a-do" u-thi-sho° bthe hi° do, a-he he. 

2 
Mo°-hi° a-thi° a-do" u-thi-sho" bthe hi° do, a-he he. 

3 
We-tsi° a-thi° a-do° u-thi-sho" bthe hi" do, a-he he. 

4 
Ki-no" a-thi" a-do° u-thi-sho° bthe hi" do, a-he he. 

5 
Wa-xthe a-thi" a-do° u-thi-sho" bthe hi° do, a-he he. 

6 

Mo°-i°-ka op-she a-gtha-bthl" e-he 
Mo°-i°-ka o°-she a-gtha-bthi" e-he, a-he, 
I-ba 'thi°-a-do° o^-she bthe hi" do, a-he he. 

7 

Mo°-hi° a-thi° a-do° o°-she bthe hi° do, a-he he, 

8 
We-tsi" a-thi° a-do° o°-she bthe hi" do, a-he he. 

9 
Ki-no° a-thi° a-do° o"-she bthe hi" do, a-he he. 

10 
Wa-xthe a-thi" a-do" o"-she bthe hi" do, a-he he. 

11 
Mo"-i"-ka ga-gi-xe a-gtha-bthi" e-he, 

12 
Mo"-hi" a-thi" a-do° ga-gi-xe bthe hi" do, a-he he. 

13 
We-tsi" a-thi" a-do° ga-gi-xe bthe hi" do, a-he he. 

14 
Ki-no° a-thi" a-do" ga-gi-xe bthe hi" do, a-he he. 

15 
Wa-xthe a-thi" a-do" ga-gi-xe bthe hi" do, a-he he. 

16 
Ho"-be a-thi" a-do° ga-gi-xe bthe hi" do, a-he he. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



165 



Ho'-E-GA Wl'-GI-E 

Mythical Elk Ritual 

(Free translation, p. 72) 

1. A, ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

2. A, Ho-e-ga gi-tha bi wi° e-dsi the a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

3. A, 0-po°-to°-ga a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

4. A, pe-o-to° thi°-kshe, ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

5. A, Ho-e-ga wi-kshi-tlia bi a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

6. A, Ho-e-ga wi-kshi tha bi a-thi" he tho° shki, ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

7. A, o-ga-go"-thi° xtsi thi°-ge, ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

8. A, ho-e-ga o°-ta-pa bi a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

9. A, o-pa-ge tho°-dsi shld, ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

10. A, Ho-e-ga o°-ta-pa bi a-thi" he ta tse a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga-e. 

U-THU-HI-THE Wl'-GI-E 
Winning Ritual 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 



(Free translation, p. 72) 

i°-da-dsi; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wa-dsu-ta tha-gthi°, ho°-i°-ka thi°-ge wi''; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

i'^-da-dsi e-dsi i-he a-kshi-the a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

i°-da-dsi a-ka; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

the-go° a-thi° he tho° shki; ni-ka-ka-ga-e, 

i-e o-wa-gtha-ge a-thi° he ta-tse a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

i-e o-wa-gtha-ge a-thi° he tho° shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

o-ga-go°-thi° xtsi thi°-ge; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wa-dsu-ta o°-ta-pa dsi shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

o-pa-ge tho° dsi shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

Ho'-e-ga o°-ta-pa bi a-thi° he ta tse a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e. 

i°-da-dsi a-ka; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wa-dsu-ta zhi°-ga wi°; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

e-dsi i-he a-wa-kshi-the a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

i°-da-dsi a-ka; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

the-go° a-thi*^ he tho"^ shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

i-e o-wa-gtha-ge a-thi° he ta tse a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

i-e o-wa-gthe-ge a-thi° tho° shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

o°-wo°-pshe a-thi° he ta tse a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

o-ga-go°-thi° xtsi thi"-ge; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

Ho-e-ga o°-ta-pa bi a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

o-pa-ge tho° dsi shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

Ho-e-ga o°-ta-pa bi a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga-e. 



24. A, ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

25. A, i°-da-dsi a-ka; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

26. A, a-hi'^-u-mo'^-thi" do-ga tha-gthi° ho°-i°-ka thi° ge wi°; ni-ka- 

wa-ga-e, 

27. A, e-dsi i-no° a-kshi-the a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 



166 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 101 



28. A, i°-da-dsi a-ka; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

29. A, the-go° a-thi° he tho** shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

30. A, i-e o-wa-gtha-ge a-tlii° he ta tse a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

31. A, i-e o-wa-gtha-ge a-thi° he tho° shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

32. A, o-ga-go^-thi" xtsi thi°-ge; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

33. A, Ho-e-ga oMa-pa bi a-thi° he ta tse a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

34. A, o-pa-ge tho° dsi shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

35. A, wa-dsu-ta o°-hi-tho°-be a-thi° he ta tse a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e. 



1. A 

2. A 

3. A 

4. A 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 

17. 

18. 

19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 

31. 
32. 



A 
A 

A 
A 
A 
A 
A 
A 
A 
A 
A 
A 

A 
A 

A 
A 
A 
A 
A 
A 
A 
A 
A 
A 
A 
A 

A 
A 



Wa-pa'-hi Wi'-gi-e 

Weapon Ritual 

(Free translation, p. 73) 

ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wa-pa-hi gi-tha bi wi° e-dsi the a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

gthe-do° to°-ga a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wi-tsi-go wa-pa-hi no°-pe-wa-the thi° a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

a-hi°-u-ha-ge no° shki i-tse wa-the do°; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

a-thi° da-ge wa-thi° tha zhi no'' thi"* a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

shi wi° e-dsi thi° a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

ki-gtho'^-xeu-mo" thi'' a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

ni-dse ge tse e-go"^ the no° e-wa-ka bi e-gko°; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wi-tsi-go wa-pa-hi no°-pe-wa-the thi° a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wi-tsi-go; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

a-hi°-u-ha-ge no° shki i-tse wa-the do"; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

a-thi° da-ge wa-ty tha zhi thi° a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wa-pa-hi wi-kshi-tha bi a-thi° he tho° shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

o-ga-go°-thi° xtsi thi°-ge; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wa-pa-hi gi-k'a zhi wi-gi-tha bi a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, ni-ka- 
wa-ga-e, 

o-pa-ge tho'' dsi shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wa-pa-hi gi-k'a zhi xtsi wi-gi-tha bi a-thi°-he ta tse a bi a ni- 
ka-wa-ga-e, 

shi wi° e-dsi tW a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

ho°-tse-ga to°-ga a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wi-tsi-go; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

da-do° no°-thi° a-zhi xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga thi° a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wi-tsi-go; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wa-dsu-ta ts'e ta thi° shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

i-tha-gthe the xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga thi° a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

da-do** no°-thi° a-zhi xtsi thi° a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wa-pa-hi wi-kshi-tha bi a-thi° he ta tse a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

o-ga-go^-thi"* xtsi thi°-ge; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wa-pa-hi wi-kshi-tha bi a-thi° he tho° shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wa-pa-hi gi-k'a zhi xtsi wi-gi-tha bi a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, 
ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

o-pa-ge tho° dsi shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

wa-pa-hi wi-skhi-tha bi a-thi° he ta tse a bi a; ni-^a-wa-ga-e. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 167 

33. A, shi wi° e-dsi thi° a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

34. A, ka-xe-to°-ga a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

35. A, wi-tsi-go; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

36. A, da-do° no°-thi° a-zhi xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga thi" a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

37. A, zho° u-ko° gi ko-gi-gi i-tha-tha e-go° no°; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

38. A, wa-dsu-ta thi-u-thi-xtlio-k'a ta ko-gi-gi i-tha-tha i-ga-gko°-the 

thi° a bi a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

39. A, o-ga-go°-tlii° xtsi thi°-ge; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

40. A, wa-pa-hi wi-kshi-tha bi a-thi'* he tho° shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

41. A, wa-pa-hi gi-k'a zhi xtsi wi-gi-tha bi a-thi° he ta tse a bi a; 

ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

42. A, o-pa-ge tho° dsi shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

43. A, wa-pa-hi wi-kshi-tha bi a-thi° he tho° shki; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

44. A, wa-pa-hi gi-k'a zhi xtsi wi-gi-tha bi a-thi° he ta tse a bi a; 

ni-ka-wa-ga-e. 

WA-NO'''-gE A-BA-gu Wi'-gi-e 

Attack Point Ritual 

(Free translation, p. 75) 

1 

1. A, ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

2. A, the ga o-tho-to° xtsi; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

3. A, wa-ko°-btha a-thi" he a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

4. A, ho°-e o°-wo'*-pa mo°-zhi tse a, hi°; ni-ka-wa-ga-e. 



5. A, the ga o-tho-to° xtsi; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

6. A, wa-ko^-btha a-thi° he a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

7. A, ho"-e o°-wo°-pa mo°-zhi t-se a hi"; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

8. A, o°-wo°-pa ta a-to° he a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e. 



9. A, the ga o-tho-to° xtsi; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

10. A, wa-ko°-btha a-thi° he a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

11. A, tho-to° xtsi hi a-the ta a-to"* he a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e. 

4 

12. A, ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

13. A, ga tse e-no° xtsi; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

14. A, wa-ko°-btha a-thi° he a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

15. A, wa-shi-shi ga tse e-no° xtsi; ni-ka-wa-ga-e, 

16. A, a-wa-da a-thi° he a; ni-ka-wa-ga-e. 

We'-to"^ Wa-o"* 

(Free translation, p. 77) 

T8i°-do xa-ge the no° thi-ba-ljo° e-zha-mi-e the, 
Ga-thi° xa-ge thi-ba-to° e-zha-mi-e the, 
No°-pe-wa-the xa-ge the no° thi-ba-^o° e-zha-mi-e the, 
Ga-thi° xa-ge thi-ba-ko° e-zha-mi-e the. 



168 BUKEAU OP AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY IBull. loi 



Wa-tse Wa-tho'* 

Victory Song 

(Free translation, p. 80) 

Song 1 



Mo^-thi^-ka thi-shto° bi tho° dse he, 

Wi-tsi-go ho da-do°, 

I-mo°-ka the a-gi bi the, the, the, he the, 

I-ba i-mo°-ka the a-gi bi the, 

I-ba i-mo"-ka the a-gi bi the, 

Mo^-thi^-ka thi-shto° bi tho° dse. 



Mo°-thi°-ka thi-shto" bi tho" dse he, 
Wi-tsi-go ho da-do", 

I-mo''-ka the a-gi bi the, the, the, he the, 
We-tsi° i-mo'^ka the a-gi bi the, 
We-tsi° i-mo°-ka the a-gi bi the, 
Mo°-thi°-ka thi-shto° bi tho° dse. 



Mo°-thi°-ka thi-shto° bi tho" dse he, 
Wi-tsi-go ho da-do", 

I-mo°-ka the a-gi bi the, the, the, he the, 
Mo°-hi" i-mo°-l<:a the a-gi bi the, 
Mo°-hi" i-mo"-ka the a-gi bi the, 
Mo^-thi^-ka thi-shto° bi tho° dse. 



Mo°-thi°-ka thi-shto° bi tho° dse he, 
Wi-tsi-go ho da-do°, 

I-mo°-ka the a-gi bi the, the, the, he the, 
Ki-no" i-mo°-ka the a-gi bi the, 
^Ci-no" i-mo°-ka the a-gi bi the, 
Mo°-thi°-ka thi-shto" bi tho° dse. 



Mo^-thi^-ka thi-shto° bi tho° dse he, 
Wi-tsi-go ho da-do°, 

I-mo°-ka the a-gi bi the, the, the, he the, 
Wa-xthe i-ino°-ka the a-gi bi the, 
Wa-xthe i-mo°-ka the a-gi bi the, 
Mo^-thi^-ka thi-shto° bi tho" dse. 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 169 

Song 2 

(Free translation, p. 81) 

1 

Mo°-thi°-ka thi-shto" bi tho° dse, 
Da-do" i-mo°-ka the a-gi be, 
Da-do° i-mo°-ka the a-gi be, 
Da-do" i-mo°-ka the a-gi be, the, he the, 
I-ba i-mo°-ka the a-gi be, 
1-ba i-mo°-ka the a-gi be, 
Mo^-thi^-ka thi-shto° bi tho" dse, 
Da-do° i-mo°-lj;a the a-gi be. 



Mo^-thi^-ka thi-shto° bi tho° dse^ 
Da-do° i-mo°-ka the a-gi be. 
Da-do" i-mo°-ka the a-gi be. 
Da-do" i-mo"-ka the a-g; be the, he the, 
We-tsi" i-mo^-ka the a-gi be, 
We-tsi° i-mo°-ka the a-gi be, 
Mo°-thi°-ka thi-shto° bi tho" dse, 
Da-do° i-mo"-ka the a-gi be. 



Mo°-thi°-ka thi-shto" bi tho" dse, 
Da-do" i-mo°-ka the a-gi be. 
Da-do" i-mo"-ka the a-gi be, 
Da-do° i-mo"-ka the a-gi be the, he the, 
Mo"-hi" i-mo"-ka the a-gi be, 
Mo"-hi° i-mo"-ka the a-gi be, 
Mo"-thi°-ka thi-shto" bi tho" dse. 
Da-do" i-mo"-ka the a-gi be. 

4 

Mo°-thi"-ka thi-shto" bi tho" dse. 
Da-do" i-mo"-ka the a-gi be, 
Da-do" i-mo°-ka the a-gi be, 
Ki-no° i-mo"-ka the a-gi be, 
Ki-no" i-mo"-ka the a-gi be, 
Mo"-thi"-ka thi-shto" bi tho" dse, 
Da-do" i-mo"-lj;a the a-gi be. 



Mo"-thi"-ka thi-shto" bi tho" dse. 
Da-do" i-mo°-ka the a-gi be, 
Da-do" i-mo"-ka the a-gi be, 
Da-do" i-mo"-ka the a-gi be the, he the, 
Wa-xthe i-mo°-ka the a-gi be 
Wa-xthe i-mo°-ka the a-gi be, 
Mo"-thi"-ka thi-shto" bi tho" dse. 
Da-do" i-mo°-lj:a the a-gi be. 



83773—39 12 



170 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

TSI U-THU-GI-PE Wa-THO*' 

House Entering Song 

(Free translation, p. 82) 

1 

Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi" da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi» do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
Tsi u-ho°-ge dsi ha-gthi° da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi" da. 

2 

Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
Tsi u-sda ge dsi ha-gthi" da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi" da. 



Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
Tsi-da-ge dsi ha-gthi° da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° da. 



Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi" da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
Tsi-zhe-be dsi ha-gthi° da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° da. 



Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi" da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
Tsi-u-thu-ga dsi ha-gthi" da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi" da. 

6 

Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e lia-gthi° da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
Tsi-xi° dse dsi ha-gthi° da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi" da. 



Wi-e ha-gthi" do, wi-e ha-gthi" da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
Thi u-ba-he dsi ha-gthi° da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi" da. 

8 
Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi" da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
0-^o°-Qka dsi ha-gthi° da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° da. 

9 
Wi-e ha-gthi" do, wi-e ha-gthi" da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
U-zhe-tsi dsi ha-gthi° da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° da. 



La Flksche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 171 

10 

Wi-e ha-gthi" do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
Thiu-xpe to° dsi ha-gthi° da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° da. 

11 
Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
Tsi-hu-^o°-dsi ha-gthi° da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi" da. 

12 
Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° do, wi-e ha-gthi° da, 
Ho°-ba ge dsi ha-gthi° da, 
Wi-e ha-gthi° da. 

We'-ki-shno** Wa-tho'' 

Delight Songs 

(Free translation, p. 84) 
1 
Sho-ka o°-to° bi the, sho-ka o°-to°-bi the, 
Sho-J^a o°-to°-bi the, sho-ka o°-to°-bi the, 
Sho-ka o°-to° bi the, sho-ka o°-to° bi the, 
Sho-ka o°-to° bi the, sho-ka o°-to° bi the, 
Sho-ka o°-to° bi the, sho-ka o°-to° bi the, 

2 
Wa-shi o^-to" bi the, wa-shi o°-to° bi the, etc. 

3 
Ni a-gi o°-to° bi the, ni a-gi o°-to° bi the, etc. 

4 
Zho° a-gi o°-to° bi the, zho° a-gi o°-to° bi the, etc. 

5 
Da-gthe o°-to° bi the, da-gthe o°-to° bi the; etc. 

Pe'-dse U-k'i Wi'-gi-e 

Fire Oflering Ritual 
(Free translation, p. 94) 

1 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Tse'-xe ni-ka-pu zhi°-ga tse no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. E'-dsi i-tse-the tse a-tha e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. Da'-do i-ga-ho°-gthe o°-kshi-the ta ba do° e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

6. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. 1'°' zhi^-ga do-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. I'-ga-ho°-gthe to° kshi the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga. 



172 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 



9. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

10. Da'-wi°-xe wi° u-tsi i-he-tha bi do° a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. Ta'-dse ga-xpa dsi a', a bi'' da, tsi ga, 

12. Da'-wi°-xe wi° u-tsi i-he-tha bi no" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. Wa'-thi°-e-gka tsi i-he-tha zhi a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. Ni'-ka-shi' e-ki-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. U'-tsi i-he-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. Wa'-dsu-ta ha-gi tha zhi kshi-the mo°-thi° ta ba sho° a-ka', a bi° 

da, tsi ga. 

3 

18. Ta'-dse mo°-ha dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. Da'-wi°-xe wi° u-tsi i-he-tha bi no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. Wa'-thi°-e-Qka tsi i-he-tha zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

21. Ni'-ka-shi' e-ki-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. U'-tsi i-he-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

24. Wa'-dsu-ta i-gi-bo°-ho° mo°-thi" td ba sho" a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. Wa'-dsu-ta ha-gi tha zlii mo°-thi° ta ba sho° a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga. 



26. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

27. Ta'-dse ba-go" dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2<S. Da'-wi°-xe wi° u-tsi i-he-tha bi kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Wa'-thi"-e-gka tsi i-he-tha zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. Ni'-ki-shi' e-ki-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. U'-tsi i-he-tha bi kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Wa'-dsu-ta i-gi-bo°-ho" mo"-thi" ta ba sho" a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Wa'-dsu-ta ha-gi tha zhi mo"-thi" ta ba sho" a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



35. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

36. Ta'-dse a-k'a dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

37. Da'-wi"-xe wi° u-tsi i-he-tha bi kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Wa'-thi"-e-gka tsi i-he-tha zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

39. Ni'-ka-shi' e-ki-tbo"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. U'-tsi i-he-tha bi kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Wa'-dsu-ta i-gi-bo"-ho" mo"-thi" ta ba sho" a-ka', a hi" da, tsi ga, 

42. Wa'-dsu-ta ha-gi tha zhi mo"-thi" ta ba sho" a-ka, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

43. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

44. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

45. Wa'-dsu-ta wa-no"-xe a-ta i-the mo"-thi" ta ba she" a-ka, a bi" da, 

tsi ga. 



La FlescheI OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 173 



46. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

47. U'-ho° ii-p'u-tho° ga tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

48. Wa'-thi'^-e-gka she-mo° mo°-zhi i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

49. Wa'-dsu-ta, a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

50. U'-ga-go°-thi° tbi"-ge a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

51. I'-ii-p'u-p'ii-tho° the no° no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

52. Sho°' xtsi ga-xa bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

53. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

54. Wa'-dsu-ta wa-no°-xe a-ta i-the mo°-thi° ta ba sho'' a-ka', a bi° da, 

tsi ga. 

7 

55. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

56. U'-ho° u-ba-wi°-xe ga thi"-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

57. Wa'-thi^-e-gka sho° ba zhi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

58. U'-ga-go°-thi° xtsi thi°-ge a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

59. Wa'-dsu-ta u-ba-wi°-xe the no° no° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. Sho°' xtsi ga-xe a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

61. Wa'-dsu-ta i-gi-bo°-ho° mo°-thi" ta ba sho'' a-ka, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

62. Wa'-dsu-ta ha-gi tha zhi mo°-thi° ta ba sho° a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

8 

63. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. U'-ho° ba-da-zhe ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

65. Wa'-thi°-e-Qka sho" ba zhi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

66. Wa'-dsu-ta, a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

67. U'-ga-5o°-xtsi thi^-ge a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

68. U'-wa-bi° ba-da-da-zhe the no° no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

69. Sho"' xtsi ga-xe a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

70. Wa'-dsu-ta i-gi-bo°-ho° mo°-thi° ta ba sho° a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. Wa'-dsu-ta ha-gi tha zhi mo"-thi" ta ba sho° a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

9 

72. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. U'-ho" a-xto" ga tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. Wa'-thi"-e-gka sho" ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

75. Wa'-dsu-ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

76. U'-ga-50"-thi"-xtsi thi"-ge a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

77. I' wa-bi" a-gi-gi-no°-zhi" the no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

78. Sho"' xtsi ga-xe a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

79. Wa'-dsu-ta i-gi-go"-ho° mo"-thi" ta ba sho" a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

80. Wa'-dsu-ta ha-gi tha zhi mo"-thi" ta ba sho" a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

81. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

82. Ho"'-ba tha-gthi" xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

83. Wa'-dsu-ta wa-no"-xe a-ta i-the mo°-thi" ta ba sho" a-ka', a bi" 

da, tsi ga. 



174 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

]Pe'-dse Wi'-gi-e 

Fire Ritual 

(Wa-5a'-be Gens) 
(Free translation, p. 98) 

1 

1. Da' a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

2. Ta'-dse we-do-ba the tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. Ta'-dse ga-spa dsi a', a bi'' da, tsi ga, 

4. Da'-wi°-xe wi° u-tsi i-he-tha bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. Wa'-thi°-e-gka sliki i-he-tha ba zhi i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. Wa'-dsu-ta i-gi ga-xe a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. Wa'-dsu-ta i-gi-bo°-ho° mo°-thi° ta ba sho° a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

8. Wa'-dsu-ta ha-gi tha zhi mo°-thi° \a, ba sho° a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

2 

9. Da' a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. Ta'-dse a-k'a dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. Da'-wi°-xe wi° u-tsi i-he-tha bi° da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

12. Wa'-thi°-e-Qka shki i-he-tha ba zhi i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. Wa'-dsu-ta ga-xe a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. Wa'-dsu-ta i-gi-bo°-ho° mo^-thi" ta ba sho° a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. Wa'-dsu-ta ha-gi tha zhi mo°-thi" ta ba sho'' a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

3 

16. Da' a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. Ta'-dse mo°-ha dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

18. Da'-wi°-xe wi° u-tsi i-he-tha bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. Wa'-thi^-e-gka shki i-he-tha ba zhi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. Wa'-dsu-ta i-gi ga-xe a-ka', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

21. Wa'-dsu-ta i-gi-bo°-ho" mo°-thi° ta ba sho° a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. Wa'-dsu-ta ha-gi tha zhi mo°-thi° ta ba sho° a-ka',a bi° da, tsi ga. 

4 

23. Da' a bi° da, tsi ga, 

24. Ta'-dse ba-go'' dsi a', a bi'' da, tsi ga, 

25. Da'-wi°-xe wi° u-tsi i-he-tha bi° da', a bi*^ da, tsi ga, 

26. Wa'-thi^-e-gka shki i-he-tha ba zhi i° da', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

27. Wa'-dsu-ta i-gi ga-xe a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. Wa'-dsu-ta i-gi-bo°-ho° mo°-thi° ta ba sho° a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

29. Wa'-dsu-ta ha-gi tha zhi mo°-thi° ta ba sho° a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

5 

30. Da' a bi° da, tsi ga, 

31. U'-ho° u-p'u-tho" ga tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

32. Wa'-thi°-e-gka sho** ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. 0°'-ba i-ta-xe tho° dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

34. Wa'-dsu-ta, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

35. r u-p'u-tho° the no° no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 



La FlescheI OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 175 

36. Sho°' xtsi ga-xa bi° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

37. I'-thi-hi-dse mo°-tlii° bi do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

38. I'-thi-hi-dse gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi° \si bi"* da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

6 

39. Da' a bi" da, tsi ga, 

40. U'-ho° u-ba-wi°-xe ga thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

41. E' shki wa-thi^-e-gka sho° ba zhi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. 0°'-ba i-ta-xe tho° dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. Wa'-dsu-ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

44. U'-ba-wi°-xe the no'' no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

45. Sho"*' xtsi ga-xa bi'* da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

46. I'-thi-hi-dse mo°-thi° bi do'' gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the mo°-thi° ta i tsi° 

da', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

7 

47. Da' a bi° da, tsi ga, 

48. U'-ho° ba-da-da-zhe ga tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

49. E' shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

50. Wa'-thi"-e-5ka sho"^ ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga 

51. 0"'-ba i-ta-xe tho° dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

52. Wa'-dsu-ta, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

53. U' ba-da-da-zhe the no" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. Sho"' xtsi ga-xa bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

55. I'-thi-hi-dse mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. I'-thi-hi-dse gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi"-da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



57. Da' a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. U'-ho" da-gi-ge ga tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. E' shki wa-thi" e-gka sho" ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. 0"'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Wa'-dsu-ta, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. A'-ki-wi-gi-gi the no" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. Sho"' xtsi ga-xa bi" da, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. I'-thi-hi-dse mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. I'-thi-hi-dse gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da, a bi" da, tsi ga. 

9 

66. Da' a bi" da, tsi ga, 

67. U'-ho" a-xto" ga tse a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. Wa'-thi"-e-Qka sho" ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Wa'-dsu-ta, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. 0°'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

71. r wa bi" a-gino"-zhi"-zhi" the no" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

72. Sho"' xtsi ga-xa bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

73. I'-thi-hi-dse mo"-thi" bi do" shki a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

74. I'-thi-hi-dse gi-o-ts'e-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



176 BUREAU OP AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY (Buix. lOl 

10 

75. Da' a bi° da, tsi ga, 

76. Wa'-dsu-t-a, a bi** da, tsi ga, 

77. 0°'-ba tha-gthi"* shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

78. U'-hi ta thi° shki do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

79. 0°'-ba tha-gthi° shki ii-hi ga-xe mo°-thi° ta ba sho° a-ka', a bi" 

da, tsi ga. 

Kl'-NO" Wl'-GI-E 

Painting Ritual 

(Free translation, p. 102) 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Zhi°'-ga da-do° ki-no° gi-the ta ba do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. 1'°' zhi'^-ga do-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. A'-ki-ko° i-tse-the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi"" da, tsi ga, 

7. Ca' zhi°-ga ha-tho^-gka ha do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. Thi'-btho°-btho°-xe a-tsi a-the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. U'-ba-mo°-xe i-tse-the a-ka', a bi'^ da, tsi ga, 

11. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. Da'-k'o i-the ga-xe a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

13. O'-da-bthu i-the ga-xe a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. Mo°'-xe a-tha k'a-be do"* a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. Da'-zhu-dse i-no°-the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. Zhi°'-ga ki-no" gi-the tse a-tha e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

18. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

19. Tsi'-zhu U-dse-the Pe-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. U'-ga-ka thi°-ge i-he-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

21. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

22. Da'-do° i-tha-thu-ge tse do° e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

23. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi\da, tsi ga, 

24. Tse'-ha-wa-gthe zhu-dse thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

25. I'-tha-thu-ge tse a-tha e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

26. I'-tha-thu-ge kshi-tha biMo" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

27. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

28. Wa'-pa-hi u-ki-a-sha thi°-ge a-thi° a-hi bi shki do° a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

29. Wa'-pa-hi a-gtha ba zhi ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi tsi° da e tsi-the, a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAK CEREMONY 177 



30. Tse'-ha-wa-gthe zhu-dse thi^-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

31. I'-tha-thu-ge o°-gi-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

32. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

33. Wa'-pa-hi a-ki-a-sha thi°-ge a-thi" a-hi bi skhi do° a', a bi° da, 

tsiga, 

34. Wa'-pa-hi a-bu-zha-ge bi ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi tsi° da e-tsi-the a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga. 

35. Tse'-ha-wa-gthe zhu-dse thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

36. T-tha-thu-ge o^-gi-tha bi do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

37. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

38. Wa'-pa-hi u-ki-sha thi°-ge a thi° a-hi bi shki do° a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

39. Wa'-pa-hi a-ki-zha-ta bi ki-the mo"-thi° ta bi tsi° da e' tsi-the a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

40. Tse'-ha-wa-gthe zhu-dse thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

41. I'-tha-thu-ge o°-gi-tha bi do"* a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. Wa'-pa-hi u-ki-a-sha thi°-ge a-thi° a-hi bi shki do° a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

44. Wa'-pa-hi ge-go° bi o°-ki-the o°-mo°-thi'' ta bi tsi° da e-tsi-the a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga. 

45. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

46. Sho°' da-do° i-tha-thu-^e tse do° e-ki-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

47. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

48. Wa'-ko°-da Ho°-ba do° thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

49. I'-tha-thu-ge tse a-tha e-ki-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

50. Wa'-ko°-da Ho°-ba do° thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

51. I'-tha-thu-^e o°-gi-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

52. Wa'-ko°-da no°-wa-pa bi o°-mo°-thi° ta bi tsi" da e-tsi-the a", a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

53. Wa'-ko^-da Ho°-ba do° thi"-kshe a' a bi° da, tsi ga, 

54. I'-tha-thug-e o°-gi-tha bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

55. Wa'-ko°-da e-shki do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. I°'-dse u"-wa-ki-a-ta ba zhi o°-mo°-thi" ta bi tsi" da e-tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 



178 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY (Boll. 101 

Wl'-GI-E TO'^-GA 

Ritual Great 

(Free translation, p. 104) 
1 

1. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Tsi'-zhu U-dse-the Pe-tho°-ba ni-ka-shi-ga a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. Wi'-go°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Wo°'-da hiu-dse o°-ga-tha ba tho° ta zhi i° da, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

5. U'-to°-be ga-xe tse a-tha, e-ki-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. Wi'-50°-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. Wo°'-da hiu-dse ta o°-ga-tha ba tho° ta zhi i° da, e gi-a bi a', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi° ha, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

12. Wa'-zhi°-ga wa-tha-xthi thi°-ge kshe no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. Zho'-gthe gi e do'* a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

14. Wi'-zhi°-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

15. The' i-hiu-dse o°-ga-the ta bi a-tha, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

16. She' sho" e tho, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

17. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

18. Wa'-zhi°-ga wa-tha-xthi thi°-ge kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

19. I'-hiu-dse a-hiu bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

20. U'-ga-wi"-xe do-ba ga-xe no°-zhi" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

21. U'-ga-wi"-xe wi° ni-ka-shi-ga zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

22. U'-ga-wi"-xe tho"-ba ni-ka-shi-ga ba zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

23. U'-ga-wi°-xe tha-bthi" ni-ka-shi-ga zhi a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

24. U'-ga-wi"-xe do-ba ni-^a-shi"-ga bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



25. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

26. Wi'-5o"-ga, e-ki-a, bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

27. Hiu'-dse o"-ga-the ta bi a-tha, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

28. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

29. Qi'-thu-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

30. 0'-ba-no°-the do-ba ga-xe a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

31. Qi'-thu-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

32. Zho"'-pa-9e pe-tho"-ba', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

33. Ga' a-to" a-ti a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

34. Qi'-thii-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

35. Ni' a-hi-no"-zhi" bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



La Flkschk) OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 179 

36. Qi'-thu-ga ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

37. Ni' a-hi-no°-zhi° a-ka', a bi'' da, tsi ga, 

38. Ci'-tbu-ga ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

39. Shi' ni a-hi-no°-zhi° bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 



40. He'-dsi xtsi a/, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

41. Qi'-thu-ga ba do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

42. I"*' pa-9i ha-tho°-9ka do'' a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

43. He'-dsi xtsi hi no^-zhi" a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

44. Qi'-thu-^a ba do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

45. U'-k'u-be ha-tho°-Qka do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

46. Thiu'-xe ts'a-zhi to° no"* a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

47. E'-dsi xtsi hi no^-zhi"* a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga. 



48. Qi'-thu-Qa ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

49. Mo'^'-xe kshe a-ga-ha', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

50. Hi' no°-zhi° a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

51. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

52. Wi'-go°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

53. Wo "'-da ga-ni-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

54. QV o"-thu-Qa ba tho" ta zhi a, wi'-co"-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

55. 0'-to"-be ga-xe tse a-tha, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

56. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

57. Wi'-Q0°-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

58. Wo"'-da ga-ni-tha', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

59. Qi o"-thu-Qa ba tho" ta zhi i" da, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

60. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

61. Thu-e' xtsi the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

62. I"-zhu-dse thi"-kshe no" a' a bi" da, tsi ga, 

63. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

64. Wi'-zhi"-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

65. The' zhi "-ga ^i-u-ko" tha ba tho" tse i" da, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

66. Zhi"'-ga gi-u-ko" the ta bi tse a, wi-90°-ga, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

67. Zhi"'-ga gi-u-ko" the mo"-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

68. Qi' ba-xthu-ga zhi ^i-the mo"-thi" ta bi tsi" da, e-tsi-the a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

69. Ci-u' i ki i-ts'a thi"-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi tsi" da, e-tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

70. Xa'-dse no"-sha-tha-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi tsi" da, e-tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 



180 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

5 

71. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

72. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

73. Thu-e' xtsi the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

74. I"*' ga-be thi°-kshe no'' a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

75. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi e-do° a', a bi'' da, tsi ga, 

76. Wi'-zhi°-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

77. The' zhi^-ga gi-u-ko° tha ba tho° tse i° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

78. Zhi°'-ga gi-u-ko" the ta bi tse a, wi-go°-ga, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

79. Zhi°'-ga g.i-ii-ko" the mo°-thi° bi do° a', a bi'^ da, tsi ga, 

80. Qi-u' i-ki i-ts'a thi°-ge ki-the mo°-thi'' ta bi tsi° da, e-tsi-the a' 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

81. Qi' ba-xtho-ga zhi ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi tsi° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

82. Xa'-dse no°-sha-tha-ge ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi tsi° da, e-tsi-the a', 

a bi° da, tsi ga. 

6 

83. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

84. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

85. Thu-e' xtsi the do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

86. I'"'-zhu-gka thi"-kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

87. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

88. Wi'-zhi"-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

89. The' zhi"-ga gi-u-ko" tha ba tho" tse i" da, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 
90 . Zhi"'-ga gi-u-ko" the ta bi tse a', wi-go"-ga, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, 
tsi ga, 

91. Zhi"'-ga gi-u-ko" the mop-thi" bi do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

92. Qi' ba-xtho-ga zhi ki-the mo°-thi" ta bi tsi" da, e-tsi-the a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

93. Qi-u' ki i-ts'a thi°-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi tsi" da, e-tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

94. Xa'-dse no°-sha-tha-ge ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi tsi" da, e-tsi-the a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga. 

7 

95. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

96. Wi'-go"-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

97. Wa'-xo-be pi-zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

98. We'-ki-k'o" thi"-ge i" da, e-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

99. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

100. 0'-to"-be ga-xe thi" ha, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

101. Thu-e' xtsi the do" a, a bi" da, tsi ga. 



La Flesche) OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 181 

102. Mo'''-hi°-9i zhu-dse thi'^-kshe no° a', a bi^ da, tsi ga, 

103. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi'' gi e do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

104. Wi'-zhi°-the, e-tsi-the a°, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

105. The' zhi^-ga mo^-y tha ba tho"" tse i** da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

106. Zhi°'-ga mo°-hi° tha ba tho° ta zhi a, wi-go^-ga, e-gi-e a-ka', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

107. E'-zhi gka u-to°-ga xtsi° da, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

108. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi° ha, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga. 



109. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

110. Thu-e' xtsi the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

111. Mo°-hi''-Qi to-ho thi°-kshe iio° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

112. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi e do° a, a bi° da, tsi ga, 

113. Wi'-zhi°-the, e-tsi-the a'- a bi° da, tsi ga, 

114. The' zhi°-ga mo°-hi° tha ba tho° tse i° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

115. ZW'-ga mo°-bi° tha ba tho° ta zhi, a wi-go°-ga, e-gi-e a-ka', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

116. E'-zhi gka u-to°-ga xtsi" da, e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

117. O'-to^-be ga-xa thi" ha, e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 



118. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

119. Thu-e' xtsi the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

120. Mo°'-hi°-5i ^a-be thi"-kshe no'* a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

121. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi e do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

122. Wi'-zhi°-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi'' da, tsi ga, 

123. The' zhi°-ga mo°-hi° tha ba tho° tse i" da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

124. Zhi°'-ga moMii" tha ba tho° ta zhi a, wi-go^-ga, e-gi-e a-ka, a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

125. E'-zhi gka u-to°-ga xtsi" da, e-gi-e bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

126. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi° ha, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

10 

127. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

128. Thu-e' xtsi the do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

129. Mo"'-hi" i-ba btho-ga kshe no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

130. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

131. Wi' -zhi "-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

132. The' zhi"-ga mo°-hi" tha ba tho" tse i" da, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da 

tsi ga, 

133. She' sho e tho, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



182 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

134. She e'shno" u-tha-dse tha to"* she a', wi-go'^-ga, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

135. Zhi°'-ga mo°-hi" tha ba tho" tse i° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

136. Zhi°'-ga mo°-hi'' the mo°-thi'' bi do'' a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

137. Mo°'-hi'' gi-pa-hi ki-the mo"-thi'' ta bi tsi° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

138. Da' i-ba-kshi"* da zhi ki-the ta bi tsi" da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga. 

11 

139. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

140. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

141. Wi'-Qo"-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da ,tsi ga, 

142. Wa'-xo-be pi-zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

143. We'-ki-k'o" thi"-ge i" da, e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

144. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi" ha, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

145. Thu-e' xtsi the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

146. Po"-to"-ga hi zhi"-ga to" no" a,' a bi" da, tsi ga, 

147. E'-dsi xtsi a- thi" gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

148. Wi'-zhi"-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

149. The' zhi"-ga we-ga-tho"-9a ba tho" tse i" da, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

150. Zhi"'-ga we-ga-tho"-5a ba tho" ta zhi a', wi-5o"-ga, e-gi-e a-ka, 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

151. 0'-to"-be ga-xa thi" ha, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

12 

152. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

153. Thu-e' xtsi the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

154. Po"-to"-ga hi to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

155. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

156. Wi'-zhi°-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

157. The' zhi"-ga we-ki i-he-tha ba tho" tse i" da, e-tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

158. E'-zhi gka u-to"-ga xtsi" da, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

159. Zlii"'-ga we-ga-tho°-9a ba tho" ta zhi i" da, e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsi ga, 

160. 0'-to"-be ga-xa thi" ha, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

13 

161. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

162. Thu-e', xtsi the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

163. Po"' to"-ga t'o-xe to" no" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

164. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi" gi e do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

165. Wi'-zhi"-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

166. The' zhi"-ga we-ki i-he-tha ba tho" tse i" da, e-tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

167. Zhi"'-ga we-ki i-he-tha ba tho" ta zhi a', wi-Qo"-ga, e-gi-a bi a', 

a bi" da, tsi ga, 

168. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi" ha, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 183 

14 

169. Thu-e' xtsi the do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

170. Zho''' zhi-hi to" no'' a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

171. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi e do° a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

172. Wi'-zhi°-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

173. The' zhi°-ga we-ki i-he-tha ba tho"* tse i° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

174. Zhi°'-ga we-ki i-he-tha ba tho° ta zhi a, tha e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

175. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi° ha, e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

15 

176. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

177. Thu-e' xtsi the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

178. Zho'^' sha-be to° no'* a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

179. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi e do** a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

180. Wi'-zhi°-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

181. The' zhi°-ga we-ki i-he-tha ba tho" tse i° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

182. Zhi°'-ga we-ki i-he-tha ba tho° ta zhi° da, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

183. E'-zhi gka u-to°-ga xtsi i" da, e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

184. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi° ha, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

16 

185. Thu-e' xtsi the do° a', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

186. Thiu' xe ^i to° no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

187. He'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi e do"* a', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

188. Wi'-zhi°-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

189. The' zhi°-ga we-ki i-he-tha ba tho° tse i° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

190. Zhi°'-ga we-ki i-he-tha ba tho° ta zhi a, wi-QO°-ga, e-gi-e a-ka', 

a bi° da, tsi ga, 

191. 0'-to°-be ga-xa thi" ha, e-gi-e, a-ka' a bi" da, tsi ga. 

17 

192. Thu-e' xtsi the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

193. Tliiu'-xe ts'a-zhi to° no° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

194. E'-dsi xtsi a-thi° gi e do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

195. Wi'-zhi°-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

196. The' zhi°-ga we-ki i-he-tha ba tho° tse i° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

197. She' e shno° u-tha-dse tha to" she a, wi-go^-ga, e-gi-e a-ka', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

198. Zhi"'-ga we-ki i-he-the mo°-thi° ta bi tsi° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga. 



184 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

18 

199. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

200. Mo°'-hi° i-ba btho-ga do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

201. Gthu'-ge a-tsi-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

202. I'-ba-Qpo'' a-tsi-a-tha ba do" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

203. Wa-bi" ba-dsu-zhe gthe to° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

204. Ba'-zha-be a-tsi-a-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

205. Ta'-dse the-tse e-no°-ha kshi the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

206. Ba'-xo° a-tsi-a-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

207. Ba'-ge-be a-tsi-a-the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

208. We'-tsi° ho-no°-ka e-go'' kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

209. Gthi'-shto° a-tsi-a-the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

210. Zhu'-dse the a-sti-a-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

211. Gthu'-shto° a-tsi-a-tha bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

19 

212. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

213. We'-tsi° ho-no°-ka e-go° ke a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

214. Gthi'-50°-go°-tha ba do'' a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

215. No'^'-be u-bi zhu-zhu the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

216. Bi'-hu-to° u-ha-ha a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

217. We'-tsi° no°-pe-wa-the xtsi" da, e-ki-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

218. We'-tsi° wa-ko°-da xtsi" da, e-ki-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

20 

219. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

220. Wi'-50°-ga, e-l^i-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

221. Wa'-xo-be pi-zhi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

222. We'-ki-k'o" thi"-ge i" da, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

223. 0'-to"-be ga-xe tse a-tha, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

224. He' dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

225. Sho'-ka wa-ba-xi to" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

226. Thu-e' xtsi the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

227. U'-pa-ge tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

228. Wi'-go"-ga she gi thi" da, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

229. U'-gi-ki-a ba thi" ha, e-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

230. Wi'-go"-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

231. Ha'-ta-ha xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

232. Wa'-xpa-tlii" tha-thi" sha zhi no", e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

233. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

234. Wi'-zhi°-the, e-tsi,the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

235. U'-k'ii-be wi" pshi a tha, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

236. 0"'-ha-go" mo"-zhi xtsi" da, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

237. U'-to"-be ga-xa thi" ha, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



La FlescheI OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 185 

21 

238. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

239. Thu-e' xtsi the do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

240. U-pa-ge tho° dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

241. Wi'-QO^-ga she gi thi° da, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

242. U'-gi-ki-a ba thi" ha, e-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

243. Wi'-QO°-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

244. Ha'-ta-ha xtsi, wa-xpa-thi" tha thi° sha no°, e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

245. Wi'-zhi°-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

246. U'-k'u-be tho°-ba° shi a tha, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

247. 0"'-ha-go° mo°-zhi xtsi" da, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

22 

248. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

249. Wi'-50"-ga, e-gi-a a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

250. 0'-to"-be ga-xa thi" ha, e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

251. Thu-e' xtsi the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

252. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

253. Ga'-gi-gi-dse hi the no"-zhi" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

254. U'-pa-ge tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

255. Wi'-5o"-ga she gi thi" da, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

256. I'-zhu-zhii-ba xtsi gi thi" we-to"-i" da, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

257. He' -dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

258. Wi'-Q0"-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

259. Ha'-ta-ha xtsi, wa-xpa-thi" tha thi" sha zhi no", e-gi-a bi a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

260. Wi'-zhi"-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

261. U'-k'u-be tha-bthi" "shi a-tha, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

262. Ni'-ka wi" u-shko" bi tse a-tha, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

263. U'-shko" ho" to" a a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

264. Wi'-zhi"-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

265. Xa'-dse no"-xtho"-zhe i-tse-tha bi tse a-tha, e-tsi-the a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

266. Ci'-pa zha-ta xtsi bi tse a, wi-zhi"-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

267. She' e shno" u-tha-dse tha-to" she a', wi-go"-ga, e-gi-e a-ka', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

268. U'-to"-be ga-xa thi" ha, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

23 

289. Ho"'-ba i-ta-xe tho" dsi a' a bi" da, tsi ga, 

270. Thu-e' xtsi the do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

271. U'-pa-ge tho" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

272. Wi'-go"-ga she gi thi" da, e-ki a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

83773—39 13 



186 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

273. I'-zhu-zhu-ba xtsi gi thi° we-to°-i° da, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

274. U'-gi-ki-a ba thi" ha, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

275. Wi'-go°-ga, e-gi-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

276. Ha'-ta-ha xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

277. Wa'-xpa-thi° tha thi°-sha zhi no°, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

278. Wi'-zhi'^-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

279. U'-k'u-be do-ba pshi a-tha, e-tsi-the a', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

280. Ni'-ka wi° u-shko° bi tse e-pshe no", e-dsi a-ka', wi-zhi°-the, e-tsi- 

the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

24 

281. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

282. Wi'-50°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

283. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba thi" ha, e-ki-a, bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

284. Tsi'-zhu U-dse-the Pe-tho"-ba wi-e-bthi" da, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, 

tsiga, 

285. Xtha'-xtha thi"-ge ni-ka-shi-ga o°-ga to" i° da, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" 

da, tsi ga, 

286. Wa'-dsu-ta wi"-o"-wo" thi", e shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

287. Wa'-no"-xe a-ta i-the \a, tsi" da, e-ki-e a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

288. Ni'-ka wi"-o"-wo" thi" e shld do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

289. Wa'-no"-xe a-ta i-the ta tsi" da, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

290. To'-ka no°-zhi° wi"-o"-wo" thi" e shki do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

291. Wa'-no"-xe a-ta i-the ta tsi" da, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

25 

292. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

293. Wi'-QO"-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

294. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba thi" ha, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

295. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

296. Qi'-thu-ga ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

297. U'-zho"-ge wi"-a-ha u-gi-thu-ge a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

298. U'-ba-no"-the do-ba kshi-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

299. We'-tha-bthi"-o" tse dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

300. I'-ga-dsi-o" i-he-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

301. Wi'-zhi"-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

302. Ni'-ka wi" e-dsi a-ka e-pshe no", e-dsi a-ka' tha, e-tsi-the a', a 

bi" da, tsi ga, 

303. U'-shko" ho" to", e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

304. Wa'-ka-hi to" a-ka tha, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

305. Da' ni-the thi°-ge ni-ka-shi-ga to" a tha, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, 
tsi ga, 

306. He' zhi°-ga to" a tha, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

307. Wa'-zhi" pi-zhi xtsi bi a tha, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 187 

26 

308. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

309. Wi'-go°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

310. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba thi'' ha, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

311. V/a'-no°-xe a-ta i-the i° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

312. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

313. We'-tsi° ho-no°-ka e-go° kshe a', a bi"^ da, tsi ga, 

314. Gthe'-ge a-tsi-a-tha ba do° a', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

315. No'^'-be u-bi-zhu-zhu a-ka', a bi'^ da, tsi ga, 

316. Bi'-hu-to° u-ha-ha a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

27 

317. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

318. Wi'-go°-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

319. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba thi'' ha, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

320. We'-tsi° ho-no°-ka e-go'' kshe a', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

321. Gthi'-u-bthi" a-tsi-a-tha ba do"* a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

322. Wi'-tsi go ga-ho-sho"^ ha zho° kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

323. I'-tho°-bi-o° tse dsi a', a bi'' da, tsi ga, 

324. We'-tsi° ho-no°-ka e-go'' kshe a', a bi"* da, tsi ga, 

325. Gthi'-ii-bthi° a-tsi-a-tha ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

326. Wi'-tsi-go ga-ta-kshi° i-the-tha bi to" a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

327. We'-tha-bthi°-o° tse dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

328. We'-tsi'' ho-no°-ka e-go° kshe a', a bi'' da, tsi ga, 

329. Gthi'-u-bthi° a-tsi-a-tha ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

330. Wi'-tsi-go ni-dse a-ta mo°-gthe thi"* kshe ga-xe a-ka', a bi"" da, 

tsi ga, 

331. We'-do-bi-o° tse dsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

332. We'-tsi"* ho-no°-ka e-go'' kshe a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

333. Gthi'-u-bthi" a-tsi-a-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

334. Ha'-shi pa-gthe xtsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

335. I' wa-bi" ga-ta-the i-he-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga. 

28 

336. He dsi xtsi a, a bi" da, tsi ga, 

337. Wi'-go"-ga, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

338. Thi'-to-ge gtha ba thi" ha, e-ki-a bi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

339. A'-bi-ta a-tsi-a-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

340. Zhe'-ga tha-ta thi" dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

341. Ga'-wi" a-tsi-a-tha ba do" a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

342. Wa'-shi" u-ba-zhi" tsi he ga-xe a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

343. r-u-tha-btho"-ge a-tsi-a-the a-ka', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

344. Wi'-zhi"-the, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

345. r-u-wa-no"-be sxtis da, e-tsi-the a', a bi" da, tsi ga. 



188 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

346. Zhi°'-ga no°-bthe the mo°-thi° ta bi tsi" da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

347. Zhi°'-ga no°-bthe the mo'^-thi'' bi do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

348. Ni' da-ka-dse u-bi-do° mo"-thi° ta bi tsi° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° 

da, tsi ga, 

349. A'-dsu-ta i-ga-^i-ge Id-the mo°-thi° ta bi tsi"* da, e-tsi-the a', a 

bi° da, tsi ga. 

29 

350. E'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

351. Zhe'-ga tha-ta dsi a', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

352. Ga'-wi° a tsi-a-tha ba do° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

353. Wi'-zhi°-the, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

354. We'-thi° ga-gi xtsi° da, e-ki-a bi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

355. Wa'-xo-be o°-gi-the ta bi tsi° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

356. Thi'-u-ba-he tha-ta ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

357. Btho'-ga zhu-dse pe-tho'^-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

358. Tsi'-zhu U-dse-the Pe-tho'^-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

359. E'-no°-ha kshi-the a-ka', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

360. Mo°'-go°-thi° gthe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

361. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi" da, tsi ga, 

362. We'-ki i-he-the mo°-thi" ta bi tsi° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 

363. He'-dsi xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

364. Tse'-dse-xe ga thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

365. Wa'-xo-be o°-gi-the ta bi tsi° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

366. Tho°'-dse-u-thi-xi'' ga thi°-kshe shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

367. Wa'-xo-be o°-gi-the ta bi tsi° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

368. Ci°-dse ga kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

369. Wa'-xo-be o°-gi-the ta bi tsi° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

370. Pa'-xi" ga thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

371. Wa'-xo-be o°-gi-the ta bi tsi° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

372. He' tha-ta ga tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

373. Wa'-xo-be o°-gi-the ta bi tsi"* da, e-tsi-the a', a bi** da, tsi ga, 

374. I'-ki ga-thi°-kshe shld a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

375. Wa'-xo-be o°-gi-the ta bi tsi° da, e-tsi-the a', a bi° da, tsi ga. 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 189 

Ceremonial Songs 

Song 1 

(Free translation, p. 117) 

1 

Wi-tsi-go thu-e ta bi do° e ho-o, ho-o 
Mc-zho" the-ge u-tho-e ta ba do" e he, 
Wi-tsi-go thu-e ta bi do° ho-o. 

2 
Zho°-ge the-ge u-tho-e ta ba do° e he. 

3 

Xtha-be the-ge u-tho-e ta ba do° e he. 

4 

K'u-be the-ge u-tho-e ta ba do° e he. 

Song 2 

(Free translation, p. 118) 
1 

Wi-tsi-go tho-e mo°-thi° be 
Wi-tsi-go tho-e mo°-thi" be, 
Mo°-zho° the-ge u-tho-e mo° thi° be, 
Mo°-zho° the-ge u-tho-e mo°-thi° be, 
Wi-tsi-go tho-e mo°-thi° be. 

2 
Zho°-ge the-ge u-tho-e mo^-thi" be. 

3 

Xtha-be the-ge u-tho-e mo°-thi° be. 

4 
K'u-be the-ge u-tho-e mo" thi" be. 

Song 3 

(Free translation, p. 119) 

He-no" hi-ga-gko^-the a-tho°-ka, 

He-no° hi-ga-5ko°-the a-tho^-ka 

He-no" hi-ga-5ko"-the a-tho"-ka 

He-no" hi-ga-5ko°-the a-tho°-ka he-e he-e 

He-ga-5ko°-the a-tho"-ka. 

He-no" hi-ga-5ko°-the a-tho°-ka he-e he-e. 



190 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

Song 4 

(Free translation, p. 119) 

1 

Wi-tsi-go hi-thi-gtho° ta bi the the e 

Wi-tsi-go hi-thi-gtho° ta bi the, 

Mc-zho" the-ge hi-thi-gtho° ta bi the the he the, 

Wi-tsi-go hi-thi-gtho° ta bi the. 

2 

Xtha-be the-ge hi-thi-gtho" ta bi the the he the, 

3 
^'u-be the-ge hi-thi-gtho" ta bi the the he the. 

TSIU'-I-BTHA U-THI-SHO'' Wa-THO*' 

Marching around the Village Song 

(Free translation, p. 121) 



Mo°-thi°-ka u-thi-sho° a-tha bi e-he, 
Mo"-thi°-ka u-thi-sho" a-tha bi e-he, e-he, 
Da-do° a-thi° a-do° u-thi-sho° a-tha bi e-he, he. 



Mo°-thi°-ka u-thi-sho° a-tha bi e-he, 

We-tsi" a-thi" a-do° u-thi-sho° a-tha bi e-he, e-he, 

Mo"-thi"-Ifa u-thi-sho" a-tha bi e-he, he. 



Mo''-thi''-lj;a u-thi-sho" a-tha bi e-he, 

I-ba 'thi° a-do° u-thi-sho" a-tha bi e-he, e-he, 

Mc-thi"-]? au-thi-sho° a-tha bi e-he, he. 



Mo°-thi°-Qa u-thi-sho° a-tha bi e-he, 

Ta-ha *thi° a-do° u-thi-sho° a-tha bi e-he, e-he, 

Mc-thi^-ka u-thi-sho° a-tha ti e-he, he. 

Wl'-GI-E 

(Free translation, p. 122) 

1. Ho°'-ga, Wa-zha-zhe e-tho°-ba' a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-ko°-da wi° zhi-i-ga-the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga a-thi° he i° da', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. Wa'-ko°-da ho^-ba do° thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Zho'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga a-thi° he i° da", a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. Ts'e wa-tse-xi a-thi° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. Ho°'-ga, Wa-zha-zhe e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. Zho'-i-ga the tha thi°-she do" skhi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. Ts'e wa-tse-xi tha thi°-she ta tse a', Ho°-ga e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, 

tsi ga. 



La Flesche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 191 

5 

(Free translation, p. 122) 

Mc-thi^-^a u-thi-sho° a-tha bi e-he, 

Wa-xthe a-thi° a-do" u-thi-sho" a-tha bi e-he, e-he, 

Mo°-thi°-ta u-thi-sho° a-tha bi e-he, he. 

Song 1 

(Free translation, p. 123) 

1 

Mo°-thi°-^a u-thi-sho° bthe a-thi° he no, ho, 
Mo°-thi°-ka u-thi-sho" bthe a-thi° he no, ho, 
I°-gtho°-to"-ga wi a-do° bthe a-thi" he no, ho, 
Bthe a-do° bthe a-thi° he no, 
I°-tho"-to°-ga wi a-do° bthe a-thi° he no, 
Mo"-thi°-ta u-thi-sho° bthe a-thi° he no. 

Wl'-GI-E 

(Free translation, p. 123) 

1. Ho°'-ga, Wa-zha-zhe e-tlio°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-ko°-(ia wi° zho-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga a-thi° he i° cia', a 

bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. Wa'-ko°-da ho° do° thi°-kshe a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Zho'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga a-thi° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. Xs'e' wa-tse-xi a-thi° ho i° da', a bi*" da, tsi ga, 

6. Ho°'-ga, Wa-zha-zhe e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. Zho'-i-ga the tha-thi°-she do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. I'-ts'a thi°-ge tha-thi°-she ta tse a', Ho°'-ga e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, 

tsi ga. 

2 

(Free translation, p. 124) 

Mo°-thi°-ka u-thi-sho° bthe a-thi° he no, ho, 
Mo"-thi°-ka u-thi-sho° bthe a-thi° he no, ho, 
Mo°-thi°-ka u-thi-sho" bthe a-thi° he no, ho, 
Wa-xthe a-gtha-thi" bthe a-do° bthe a-thi° hi° do, ho, 
Bthe a-do° bthe a-thi° hi" do, 
Wa-xthe a-gtha-thi° bthe a-do° bthe a-thi" hi° do, 
Mo°-thi°-ka u-thi-sho° bthe a-thi° hi° do. 

3 

(Free translation, p. 124) 

Mo°-thi°-^a u-thi°-sho° bthe a-thi° hi° do, ho, 
Mo°-thi°-ka u-thi-sho° bthe a-thi° hi° do, ho, 
Qa-be to°-ga bthi° a-do° bthe a-thi° hi° do, ho, 
Bthe a-do° bthe a-thi° hi° do, 
Qa-be to°-ga bthi° a-do° bthe a-thi° hi" do, 
Mo°-thi°-ka u-thi-sho° bthe a-thi" hi° do. 



192 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

Wl'-GI-E 

(Free translation, p. 124) 

1. Ho°'-ga Wa-zha-zhe e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. We'-tsi° pe-zhi wi° a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. Zho'-i-ga the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi~ga a-thi° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi"^ da, tsi ga, 

5. Mo^'-go^-thi" gthe xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. We'-ki i-he a-the a-thi° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. Ho°'-ga Wa-zha-zhe e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

8. Zho'-i-ga the tha-thi°-she do° shki a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. Mi' -hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. Mo°'-Qo''-thi° gthe xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. We'-ki i-he-the tha thi°-she ta tse a', Ho''-ga, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, 

tsi ga. 

4 

(Free translation, p. 124) 

Mo°-thi°-ka u-thi-sho" bthe a-thi° hi" do, ho, 
Mo''-thi°-lja u-thi-sho° bthe a-thi° hi° do, ho, 
Mo°-hi" ho°-ga 'bthi" a-do" bthe a-thi° hi" do, ho, 
Bthe a-do° bthe a-thi» hi° do, 
Mo^-hi"* ho°-ga 'bthi° a-do° bthe a-thi° hi° do, 
Mo°-thi°-ka u-thi-sho" bthe a-thi° hi° do. 

Wl'-GI-E 

(Free translation, p. 125) 

1. Ho°-ga Wa-zha-zhe e-tho°-ba', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

2. Wa'-dsu-ta pe-zhi wi"* a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

3. Zho'-i-ga the xtsi a ni-ka-shi-ga a-thi° he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

4. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

5. Mo°'-QO°-thi° gthe xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

6. We'-he-mo" a-thi"' he i° da', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

7. Ho°'-ga Wa-zha-zhe e-tho°-ba', a hi'' da, tsi ga, 

8. Wa'-dsu-ta pe-zhi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

9. Zho'-i-ga the tha thi°-she ta tse a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

10. Mi' hi-e ge ta', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

11. We'-ki i-he-the tha thi°-she ta tse a, Ho°-ga, e-gi-e a-ka', a bi° da, 

tsi ga, 

12. Mo°'-go°-thi° gthe xtsi a', a bi° da, tsi ga, 

13. We'-he-zho" tha-thi'^-she ta tse a, Ho°-ga e-gi-e a-ka, a bi° da, 

tsi ga. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 



193 



WA-NO^-gE A-BA-gu Wi'-gi-e 

Attack Pointing Out Ritual 

(Free translation, p. 126) 

1. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

2. A', i°-da-dsi a-ka, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

3. A', wi-tsi-go e-gi-tho° ba do° sha bi e-gko°, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

4. A', ho-e-ga gi-the bi wi° e-dsi thi° a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

5. A', 0-po°-to°-ga a bi a ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

6. A', pe-o-to° thi°-kshe, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

7. A', ho-e-ga wi-kshi-the a-thi'^-he ta tse a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

8. A', ho-e-ga wi-kshi-the a-thi° he tho° shki, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

9. A', ho-e-ga i-^s'a thi°-ge wi-gi-the a-tlii'' he ta tse a bi a- ni-ka- 

wa-ga e, 

10. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

11. A', u-ga-go°-thi'' xtsi thi°-ge, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

12. A', ho-e-ga o°-ta-pa bi a-thi° he ta tse a-bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

13. A', o-pa-ge tho" dsi shki, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

14. A', ho-e-ga o°-ta-pa bi a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e. 

15. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

16. A', pe-dse gi-tha bi wi° e-dsi thi° a, a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

17. A', i°-da-dsi a-ka, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

18. A', wi-tsi-go e-gi-tho° ba do° sha bi e-gko", ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

19. A', i°-gtho°-to°-ga a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

20. A', pe-dse wi-kshi-the a-thi" he do° shld, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

21. A', u-dse-the o°-gi-xi-tha mo°-zhi° a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, ni-ka- 

wa-ga e, 

22. A', u-ga-go°-thi° xtsi thi°-ge, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

23. A', u-dse-the o°-ta-pa a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e. 

24. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

25. A', wa-pa-hi gi-tha bi wi° e-dsi thi'' a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

26. A', i°-da-dsi a-ka, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

27. A', wi-tsi-go e-gi-tho° ba do° sha bi e-gko°, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

28. A', ki-gtho°-xe-u-mo° thi° a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

29. A', zho° u-tsi a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

30. A', wa-pa-hi wi-kshi-the a thi"" he tho° shki, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

31. A', wa-pa-hi gi-k'a zhi xtsi wi-gi-tha bi a-tlii° he ta tse a bi a, ni- 

ka-wa-ga e. 

32. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

33. A', shi wi° e-dsi this a bi a, ni-ka-wagca e, 

34. A', zha-biu-gka a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

35. A', ga-be a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

36. A', wa-pa-hi wi-kshi the a-thi° he tho° shld, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

37. A', wa-pa-hi gi-k'a zhi xtsi wi-gi-the a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, ni- 

ka-wa-ga e. 



194 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 101 



38. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

39. A', shi wi"^ e-dsi thi" a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

40. A', ki-gtho°-xe u-mo° thi" a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

41. A', ga-be a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

42. Wi'-tsi-go wa-pa-hi no°-pe-wa-the thi° a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

43. A', wa-pa-hi wi-gi-the a-thi° he tho° shki, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

44. A', wa-pa-hi gi-k'a zhi xtsi wi-gi-the a-thi° he ta rse a bi a, ni- 

j|j;a-wa-ga e. 

45. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

46. A', shi wi° e-dsi thi° a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

47. A', zha-biu-gka a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

48. A', ga-be a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

49. Wi'-tsi-go wa-pa-hi no°-pe-wa-the thi° a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

50. A', wa-pa-hi wi-gi-the a-thi° he tho" shki- ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

51. A', wa-pa-hi gi-k'a zhi xtsi wi-gi-the a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, ni- 

ka-wa-ga e. 

52. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e/ 

55. A', the ga a-tho°-to° xtsi, ni-!^a-wa-ga e, 

56. A', wa-ko°-btha a-thi° he a, ni-^a-wa-ga e, 

57. A', ho° a-do° pa-kshi-dse tse a hi°, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

58. A', tho-to° hi a-the ta a-to° he a, ni-ka-wa-ga-e. 

Xo'-KA Wa-tho" 

Initiator Song 

(Free translation, p. 128) 



Qi wi° bthe ta 'thi° he no-o 
Qi wi° bthe ta 'thi" he no, 
A-thi° he no-o, a-thi" he no-o 
Qi wi" bthe ta 'thi° he no-o, 
A-thi" he no-o, a-thi" he no-o 
Qi wi" bthe ta '-thi" he no. 



Hi wi° bthe ta 'thi° he no-o, etc. 



Zho wi° bthe ta 'thi° he no-o, etc. 



A wi" bthe ta 'thi° he no-o, etc. 

5 
Pa wi° bthe ta 'thi" he no-o, etc. 



' Lines 53 and 54 are indistinct and unintelligible on the record. At the time the records of this ritual 
were made Xu-tha'-wa-fo^-in was about to leave for his home and there was no time for him to make the 
corrections. The old man died before the next visit could be made to him, therefore, these two lines 
remain uncorrected. 



La Flksche] OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 195 

Nl-NI-BA Wl'-GI-E 

Pipe Ritual 

(Free translation, p. 130) 

1. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

2. A', i°-da-dsi a-ka, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

3. A', wi-tsi-go e-gi-tho"^ ba do° sha bi e-gko°, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

4. A', no°-ni-o°-ba zho" xtho-k'a ga kshe, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

5. A', thi-u-thi-xtho-k'a wi-gi-the a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

6. A', thi-u-thi-xtho-k'a wi-gi-the a-thi° he do° shki, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

7. A', thi-u-xtho-k'a i-ts'a thi°-ge wi-gi-the a-thi° he ta tse a, bi a, 

ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

8. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

9. A', mo°-ge-o°-he ga kshe, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

10. A', mo'^-ge-o°-he wi-kshi-the a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

11. Mo"'-ge-he wi-kshi-the a-thi° he do° shki, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

12. A', mo"-ge-o°-he i-ts'a thi°-ge wi-gi-the a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, 

ni-ka-wa-ga e. 

13. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

14. A', ni-dse-u-thi-ge ga thi°-kshe, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

15. Ni'-dse-u-thi-ge wi-gi-tha bi a-thi° he tho" shki, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

16. Ni'-dse-u-thi-ge i-ts'a thi°-ge wi-gi-the a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, 

ni-^:a-wa-ga e. 

17. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

18. A', thi-u-ba-he ga-kshe, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

19. A', thi-u-ba-he wi-gi-the a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

20. A', thi-u-ba-he wi-gi-the a-thi° he tho° shki, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

21. A', thi-u-ba-he i-ts'a thi°-ge wi-gi-the a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, 

ni-ka-wa-ga e. 

22. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

23. A', no''-ka-o'^-he ga kshe, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

24. A', wa-thi°-e-gka sho° ba zhi bi° da, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

25. A', no°-ka-o°-he wi-gi-the he ta tse a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

26. A', no°-ka-o°-he wi-gi-the a-thi° he do° shki, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

27. No°'-ka-o°-he i-ts'a thi°-ge wi-gi-the a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, ni- 

ka-wa-ga e 

28. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

29. A', no°-ni-o°-ba ga thi°-kshe, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

30. A', ba-gki-da ge, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

31. A', ta-hi-u-k'a-be m-gi-tha bi a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, ni-lka-wa-ga e, 

32. Ta'-hi-u-k'a-be wi-gi-tha bi a-thi° he do** shki, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

33. Ta'-hi-u-k'a-be i-ts'a thi°-ge wi-gi-the a-thi° he ta tse a bi a, ni- 

ka-wa-ga e. 



196 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

34. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

35. A', no^-ni-o^-ba u-sho°-sho°, ga tse, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

36. A', pa-u-sho"-sho° wi-gi-the a-thi° he tho° shki, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

37. Pa' u-sho°-sho'' i-ts'a thi°-ge wi-gi-the a-thi" he ta tse a bi a, ni- 

ka-wa-ga e. 

38. A', ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

39. No°'-ni-o°-ba u-thu-ga ga thi" kshe, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

40. A', i-u-thu-ga wi-gi-the a-thi° he \a, tse a bi a, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

41. A', i-u-thu-ga wi-gi-the a-thi° he do" shki, ni-ka-wa-ga e, 

42. A', i-u-thu-ga i-ts'a thi"-ge wi-gi-the a-thi° he Xa tse a bi a, ni- 

ka-wa-ga e. 

Wa-ts'e-the Wa-tho'' 

Killing Song 

(Free translation, p. 132) 

1 

O ho ga-gi wa-mo° a-thi° he no°, 

Wi-e wa-mo" a-thi° he no°, 

A he the, A he the the, 

O ho da-§e, a-wa-the a-thi° he no", 

Wi-e wa-mo° a-thi° he no", 

A he the, A he the the. 

2 
O ho ki-he a-wa-the a-thi° he no°, etc. 

3 

O ho zhu-dse a-wa-the a-thi° he no°, etc. 

4 
O ho ga-be a-wa-the a-thi° he no", etc. 

5 

O ho go"-ho" a-wa-the a-thi° he no°, etc. 

6 
O ho gi-hi a-wa-the a-thi" he no", etc. 

7 
O ho sha-be a-wa-the a-thi° he no°, etc. 

8 

O ho ho"-ba e-no°-she a-thi" he no°, etc. 



La FlescheI OSAGE WAR CEREMONY 197 

Wa-tse' Wa-tho'* To'*-ga 

Victory Song Great 

(Free translation, p. 134) 

1 

Mc-thi^-ka thi-shto" bi tho" dse the he, 
Wi-tsi-go, ho da-do°, 
I-mo°-lj;a the a-gi bi the, the the he, 
We-tsi° i-mo°-lja the a-gi bi the, 
We-tsi° i-mo°-ka the a-gi bi the, 
Mo°-thi°-Ij:a thi-shto° bi tho° dse the he. 

2 
I-ba i-mo°-ka the a-gi bi the, etc. 

3 

Ta-ha i-mo"-:ta the a-gi bi the, etc. 

4 

Tse-hi" i-mo°-lja the a-gi bi the, etc. 

5 

Wa-xthe i°-mo°-ta the a-gi bi the, etc. 

Wa-tse' Wa-tho^ 

Victory Song 

(Free translation, p. 135) 

1 

I-na the he da-do° 'tha-k'i the he, 
I-na the be da-do° 'tha-lj'i the he, 
I-na the he da-do° 'tha-k'i the he, 
I-na Mi-ga c-tha-k'i the he, 
I-na the he da-do° 'tha-k'i the he, 
I-na the he da-do° 'tha-lc'i the he. 

2 

I-na Ni-^a o''-tha-l5:'i the he, etc. 

3 

T-na wa-k'o° 'tha-k'i the he, etc. 

4 
I-na wa-pa o'-tha-k'i the he, etc. 



198 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

TSI-U-THU-GI-PE Wa-THO'' 

Village Entering Song 

(Free translation, p. 136) 

1 

A-gthi the ho, a-gthi the ho, a gthi the ho, 
Wi no° mo°-zho° ge dsi a-gthi the ho-o, ho. 

2 

Wi no° tsi u-ho°-ge dsi a-gthi the ho-o, ho. 

3 
Wi no° tsi u-sda ge dsi a-gthi the ho-o, ho. 

4 
Wi no° tsi da-ge dsi a-gthi the ho-o, ho. 

5 
Wi no" tsi-xi°-dse dsi a-gthi the ho-o, ho. 

6 
Wi no" tsi-zhe-be dsi a-gthi the ho-o, ho. 

7 
Wi no° tsi ta ge dsi a-gthi the ho-o, ho. 

8 
Wi no° tse-xe i-ko°-the dsi a-gthi the ho-o, ho. 

9 
Wi no° o-zhe-tsi dsi a-gthi the ho-o, ho. 

10 
Wi no° o-ckc-gka dsi a-gthi the ho-o, ho. 

11 
Wi no° tsi-ho-ko" dsi a-gthi the ho-o, ho. 

12 
Wi no° ho°-ba ge dsi a-gthi the ho-o, ho. 



WA'-WA-THO^, OR PEACE CEREMONY 



199 



WA'-WA-THO^, OR PEACE CEREMONY 



By Francis La Flesche 



INTRODUCTION 

For an indefinite period in the past the people of the Wa-zha'-zhe or 
the Osage tribe have lived in three separate villages, each village mov- 
ing from place to place. The largest of the village group is called 
Pa-gi'-u-gthi°, Dwellers on the hilltop ; at the present time these people 
are living in and around the town of Gray Horse, Okla. The village 
next in size is Qo°-dse'-u-gthi°, Dwellers in the hillside forest; these 
people are now living in and around the town of Hominy, Okla. 
The smallest of these villages is Wa-xa'-ga-u-gthi'', Dwellers in the 
thorny thicket; these people are today living near the town of Paw- 
huska, Okla. There are two small village groups but they have 
merged with the larger villages. One of these small villages was 
called Tho°'-tse-wa-Qpe, Hearts contented. The people of this village 
were so called because they were content to dwell in one particular 
spot, always returning there after their hunts. The other small 
village was called U-tse'-ta, Dwellers below, at the foot of the hill. 

According to tradition, the Wa-zha'-zhe once dwelt beside a large 
river when a flood came upon them from which they fled, some to a 
hilltop where they erected their wigwams, hence the name, Dwellers 
on the hilltop. A forest covering a hill is called go^-dse' as distin- 
guished from a forest along a river, and so the people who fled to the 
forest covering the hill were called Dwellers in the hillside forest. 
Some of the fleeing people happened to push their way into a thicket 
of thorny trees where they set up their wigwams and so were called 
Dwellers in the thorny thicket. Tradition is silent as to the identity 
of the river where the flood took place. The first historic location of 
the Osage is that given on Marquette's map of 1673, placing them on 
the Osage River. It is not probable that the Osage River is the one 
referred to in the tradition, for the memory of an event so momentous 
to the tribe could not have become completely lost in so short a time 
as 250 years, particularly as the people have not moved far away from 
that part of the country. 

The tribal organization seems not to have suft'ered from this per- 
manent separation of the tribe into village groups, as was the case in 

201 

83773—39 14 



202 BUEEAU OF AMEEICAN ETHNOLOGY [Buix. 101 

earlier separations in the Siouan linguistic family. The only change 
that has taken place is found in certain localisms of speech, to be 
observed in the pronunciation of some words and the use of new 
terms incident to contact with the white race. In each of these 
village groups the gentile system continued undisturbed, for in each 
one there remained sufficient numbers of the gentes to give full repre- 
sentation required in the tribal ceremonies. Frequently the villages 
united in their annual buffalo hunts and at such times the members 
of the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga (a tribal order) from each gens took part in 
the great tribal ceremonies. In consequence of this mingling of the 
people on the tribal hunts none of the essential parts of the tribal 
rites have become lost owing to the breaking up of the tribe into 
villages. When at home there were annual ceremonial visits between 
the three villages, at wliich time some of the members of the tribe 
took occasion to have tribal ceremonies performed, such as the 
Wa'-wa-tho°. 

At no time has there been a confusion in the gentile system and 
there is no tradition pointing to the extinction of any one of the gentes. 
This is mainly due to the fact that in the division of the tribe into 
gentes each gens was entrusted with a certain part in the religious 
rites of the tribe and no ceremony could be performed unless all its 
parts were represented. While there was a rule that the representa- 
tive of a gens must be one who had been initiated into the order of 
the No'*'-ho°-zhi°-ga, yet in the absence of such a representative, in 
order to have the ceremony proceed, a member of the gens, even if 
uninitiated, would be called upon to represent the gens, and so secure 
the full complement. Furthermore, each gens has its permanent 
position in the place of meeting, whether this be in a dwelling or out- 
of-doors, and this position cannot be changed or shifted There is 
one exception, and that is that the gens to which the person belongs 
who is instrumental in having the ceremony performed must tem- 
porarily occupy the eastern end of the dwelUng or the space set apart 
for the ceremony, while all the other gentes remain in their fixed 
location. 

The conception of the ancient No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the cosmical 
forces which has an important place in the religious rites of the tribe 
has also come down to the present time without any material loss. 
This conception is expressed in the great tribal rites and also in the 
gentile system. It is shown in the two great tribal divisions. One, 
the Tsi'-zhu, representing the sky; its position is always at the north. 
The other, the Ho°'-ga, representing the earth; its position is always 
at the south. In the Tsi'-zhu (sky) division there are gentes with 
rites pertaining to the sky by day and to the sky by night. In the 
Ho°'-ga (earth) division there are gentes whose rites are concerned 
with the dry land and others whose ceremonies related to the water. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 



203 



The diagram here given (fig. 1) shows the position of the two great 
divisions and also of their gentes at the place of meeting when the 
tribal ceremonies are performed. 

The order and position of the gentes on the diagram is that given 
by Wa-xthi'-zhi (pi. 1) and fe'-dse-mo^-i", who said the Ho°'-ga 
U-t-a-no^-dsi should be by itself, but is counted as the seventh in the 
Ho"'-ga group. In all the ceremonies the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi is 
always the first to be mentioned. 



/VOfiTH 




r3f-ZHU OUAL OIV/StON 



r/ffepi/^ce 



r/ft£-pi/\C£ 
-64 DUAL DIV/S/OfV 



iV^-ZHA-ZHB 



3 2 I 




e/\sT 



SOUTH 

Figure 1. — Order of position of gentes 



2. Wa-ca'-be (Black Bear people). 

3. In-gthon'-ga (Puma people). 

4. 0'-po° (Elk people). 

5. Mo°'-shko° or Little Ho°'-ga (Crawfish people). 

6. I'-ba-tse (Wind people). 

7. Hc'-ga U-ta-no^-dsi (Earth people). 

Wa-zha'-zhe group 

1. Ke'-lj'i (Turtle Carriers). 

2. Wa-fse-tsi (Meteor people). 
Wa-zha'-zhe fka (Pure Wa-zha'-zhe). 
fon-ka Wa-shta-ge (Peace gens). 

Ni (Water people). 
Ml-ke'-the-ste-dse (Cattail people). 

3. Non'-po^-da (Deer people). 

4. E-no°'-min-d.<;e-to° (Keepers cf the bow). 

5. Eo" I-ni-i:a-shi-ga (Night or Fish people). 
0. Ta I-ni-^a-shi-ga (Deer people). 

7. Ba'-cu (Hail people). 



North Side 
Tzi'-zhu Division 

1. Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° or Wa-ko° -da No°-pa-bi (Sun 

people). 

2. Tse-do'-ga-i°-dse (Buffalo Face people). 

3. Mi-lf'i°' Wa-no" (Elder Sun Carriers). 
Mi-ka'-^'e (Star people). 
Mi'-o"-ba (Moon people). 

4. Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta'-ge (Dawn people), Peace gens. 

5. Ho^'-I-ni-lja-shi-ga (Night people). 
Wa-ca-be (Red Bear people). 
Pe'-dse (Fire people). 

6. Ni'-lja Wa-lfC-da-gi (Men of Mystery). 
Tsi Ha'-shi (Those who came last). 
Gthon'-i" (Thunder people). 

7. Tho'-xe Pa-thi-ho" (Buffalo Bull people). 

South Side 

Ho°'-ga Division 

Hon'-ga group 

1. Hon'-ga A-hiu-to° (Winged Ho°'-ga or Eagle 

people). 

Wa'-wa-tho'''^ is the term applied by the Osage to the rite incor- 
rectly spoken of by some writers as "the Calumet dance," or "the 
Pipe dance." The meaning of the Osage term is practically the same 
as that used by the Omaha (Wa'-wa°), which is, to sing to or for some 
one. It is true that there are certain rhythmic movements like dancing 
in a part of the ceremony, but that does not seem to have been regarded 
as of sufficient importance to warrant the use of the term dance as a 
name for the rite. The ceremonies of this rite consist of songs, rit- 
uals, and ceremonial forms that set forth its teachings. These songs, 

> A number of the early writers in their narratives concerning the Indians with whom they came in contact 
speak of the Wa'-wa-tho° Ceremony, or Calumet dance, as they usually styled it, but none of them at- 
tempted to give a detailed account of it, excepting Marquette (1673), Charlevoix (1721), and Le Petit (1730). 
The later writers who have given lengthy accounts of this ceremony are Long (1823), J. 0. Dorsey (1881), 
Alice C. Fletcher (1900), and Fletcher and La Flesche (1911). 



204 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [BtrLL. 101 

rituals, and forms are collectively spoken of as Wa-tho"' or songs, 
because of which these two related tribes, the Osage and the Omaha, 
fell naturally into the use of the terms Wa'-wa-tho'* and Wa'-wa° in 
spealdng of the rite. The Yankton, a tribe of the Dakota group, 
Siouan linguistic family, who practice this ceremony, call it by a name 
having a similar significance, Ho°'-ga 0-do°-wo°, Ho°'-ga songs. 

The vital principle of the Wa'-wa-tho° rite is the promotion of 
peace and friendly relations, not only between the various gentes 
within the tribe, but it has a wider purpose, in that it aims to bring 
about similar relations between the Osage and other tribes. The 
Osage, Omaha, Ponca, Kaw, Oto, and Pawnee tribes, all of whom 
practice this rite, never lose sight of its ceremonial forms as used by 
them. 

The Osage people have a profound reverence for the Wa'-wa-tho" 
rite, which has for its object peace, happiness, and the rearing of 
their "little ones" in safety. The belief that the man who formulated 
the rite had received supernatural aid gave rise to this profound 
reverence, for it is said, "When the men of ancient times took upon 
themselves that task they sought divine aid through the rite No°'- 
zhi-zho^" 

As with other tribal rites, the transmission of the Wa'-wa-tho" was 
through individuals who had accepted it when it was offered to them 
and for whom all the ceremony had been performed. When an indi- 
vidual had done his part, that is, made suitable gifts either by himself 
alone or with the aid of his relations and friends, to the person per- 
forming the ceremony, he won the right to make use of the ceremony 
for his own benefit and also to hold the title of Ni'-ka Do°'he, good 
(honorable) man. The right to perform the ceremony carried with it 
the privilege of employing a Xo'-ka, or prompter, consequently the 
man who had that privilege was not required to commit to memory 
the ceremony in all its details, but the ceremony had to be performed 
four times, once every year for four consecutive years, before the 
person for whom it was given could claim the right to perform it. 

Upon the acceptance of the rite by the person to whom it was 
offered an artificial relationship of father and son was instituted 
between himself and the man offering it. This relationship was based 
upon the belief that no man would ofl'er harm to his own son and that 
no one could be better fitted than a father to instruct his son in 
matters of importance, consequently, all through the four years the 
two men addressed each other as father and son, as did also their 
respective adherents. The duties and obligations that naturally 
obtain between an actual father and son were strictly observed by 
these two men, and, as will be shown later, the tribe lends its sanction 
and assistance to the "father", thus giving to the obligations that he 
takes upon himself in performing the ceremony a sanctity which he 
cannot profane without incurring supernatural punishment. 



La Flesche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 205 

The Wa'-wa-tho° held an important place in the great tribal cere- 
monies of the Osage. Through its influence friendly relations have 
been maintained between the many gentes composing the tribe. It 
was also the means by which friendship was established and kept with 
other unrelated tribes. Some of the early French travelers mention 
this ceremony as being performed by the Osage among one of the 
tribes of the Illinois confederacy during the second decade of the 
eighteenth century. From Wa-xthi'-zhi, one of the two surviving men 
who know most about the details of the ceremony and who used to 
take part in its performance, the following information concerning 
the Wa'-wa-tho° has been obtained: 

When a man decides to perform the ceremony of the Wa'-wa-tho"^ 
rite he first collects the following materials to be used in making the 
two arrow shafts or pipestems and other symbolic articles. 

1. The skins of the heads of two pileated or ivory-billed wood- 
peckers, both with the maxilla left attached. 

2. The tail feathers of the golden and imperial eagles. 

Before enumerating the various symbolic articles used in making 
the two ceremonial pipes it may be well to make a brief statement 
concerning the eagle feathers required for the fan-shaped pendants 
attached to the two pipes. 

When Wa-xthi'-zhi was identifying the birds known to the Osage 
from the mounted specimens in the U. S. National Museum he pointed 
out an eagle that was labeled "Imperial eagle" as being the Ho^'-ga, 
or Sacred eagle. Upon inquiry, it was ascertained that the Imperial 
eagle is a European bird and not to be found in this country. 

There are two kinds of eagle feathers used by the Osage and cognate 
tribes as well as by the Pawnee for the fan-shaped pendants of the 
ceremonial pipes belonging to the Wa'-wa-tho°. 

1. The tail feathers of the eagle the Osage call Xiu-tha Ho"'-ga, 
sacred eagle. These feathers are peculiarly marked and closely 
resemble the markings on the tail feathers of the Imperial eagle 
(pi. 2, c). The Xiu-tha Ho°'-ga is regarded as sacred by the Osage, 
because it was this bird, according to the myths, that led the people 
from the sky to the earth. 

2. The tail feathers of the eagle called by the Osage Wa-zhi°-ga 
Wa-tha-xthi thi°-ge, the bird without stains. The tail feathers of 
this bird are white with black tips. The charcoal used by the war- 
riors to paint themselves when going to battle symbolizes the black 
tips of these feathers. The pipe to which these feathers are attached 
(pi. 3) is sometimes used as a war symbol and even carried on the 
war path. This usage also obtains among the Pawnee. 

The Osage and the other tribes mentioned above consider that these 
two kinds of feathers belong to eagles of different species, each one of 
which has a distinct name; but ornithologists say that all these feathers 



206 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

belong to the Golden eagle. The Indians say that the two birds from 
which these different appearing feathers are taken are the same as to 
size and the tail feathers are always the same as to length. 

There being no distinct English name for the immature Golden 
eagle, the term Imperial eagle will here be used to indicate the pipe 
having attached to it the fan-shaped pendant of mottled eagle feathers. 

3. Two large downy feathers taken from the undertail covert of 
the eagle. 

4. A forked stick. 

5. A bit of fat taken from the back of the buffalo. 

6. Two large downy feathers taken from the undertail covert of 
the i°'-be-Qi-ga or yellow-tailed hawk. 

7. Leaves of the cat-tail {Typha latifolia). 

8. Two straight sticks for the arrowshafts or pipestems. 

9. Owl feathers.^ 

When the articles have been collected and the man is ready to 
proceed with the ceremony he chooses from among his friends the 
following persons who form the official part of his company: 

1. A Xo'-ka or prompter, one who knows the songs, rituals, and 
forms of the ceremony. 

2. Two Xthe'-ts'a-ge, or commanders. 

3. A Tse'-xe~k'i° No°-ho°, chief kettle carrier or servant. 

4. Two Tse'-xe-k'i", kettle carriers or servants. 

Upon the completion of this organization of the Wa'-wa-tho° party, 
one of the subordinate Tse'-xe-k'i°, or servants, is sent by the Xo'-ka, 
who now becomes master of ceremonies, to call together the members 
of the No°'-ho''-zhi"-ga. 

The Wa'-wa-tho" rite, Uke that of the Wa-xo'-be, another great 
tribal rite, is composite in character, and each component part is in 
the keeping of some one of the tribal divisions, a gens or subgens. 
During the preparatory acts or the performance of the ceremony 
itself each of these keepers must be either present or represented, as 
none can act independently of the others. A person who has been 
initiated into either the Wa'-wa-tho° or the Wa-xo'-be rite is vested 
with authority to call together the members of the order of No°'-ho°- 
zhi°-ga from the gentes having in their keeping the component parts 
of the rite which he may wish to perform for his own benefit. The 
No'''-ho°-zhi"-ga who receives such a call regards it as a tribal duty to 
attend the assembly. No actual penalty is prescribed for the neglect 
of this duty, yet so strong is the fear of a supernatural visitation for 
such negligence that the No'''-ho''-zhi°-ga who has received a sum- 
mons makes every effort to attend. 



> The skin of the neck of the mallard duck is not mentioned by Wa-xthi'-zhi in this list of ceremonial 
articles, although the bird is given a place in the ritual preceding the "Sky influencing Songs". The neck 
of the duck is attached to the pipe, secured from Wa-thi-gtho" thi^-ge. 



La Flesche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 207 

The act of summoning the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga to assemble, for either 
the Wa'-wa-tho° or Wa-xo'-be ceremony, is called "U'-thii-dse 
U-tha-ge", a term which may be freely translated as ''the notice (to 
the No"'-ho°-zhi°-ga) to come and partake". According to an estab- 
lished custom, the person issuing the summons provides food supplied 
for the comfort of the No^'-ho'^-zhi^-ga and their families during the 
performance of the ceremony, which takes from three to four days, 
and it is the apportionment of these supplies to which the term refers. 

The Xo'-ka in issuing the call acts for the man who is to perform 
the ceremony. The response to the call by the No°'-ho"-zhi°-ga and 
the ceremonial making of the symbolic articles to be used in the 
coming ceremony is a tribal recognition of the right of the man to 
call them to his assistance because of his having been himself made, 
at some previous time, a Ho°'-ga or "son." 

When the No°'-ho''-zlii°-ga arrive they enter the house to which 
they have been summoned in the same order as that observed at the 
ceremony of the Wa-xo'-be and all the gentes occupy the same relative 
position, excepting the gens to which the man belongs who is to give 
the ceremony. The members of his gens act with him as host, and 
their place is at the east. 

After all are seated the Tse'-xe-k'i" No°-ho°, Cliief Kettle Carrier, 
places before the Xo'-ka all the materials to be used in making the 
pipes and various other symbolic objects for the ceremony. The 
Xo'-ka then proceeds with the ceremony of Wa-the'-the, a term which 
means the act of sending. Each symbolic article is handed by the 
Xo'-ka to the Tse'-xe-k'i° No°-ho" with directions to take it to a No°'- 
ho'^-zhi^-ga belonging to the gens that has the keeping of the ritual 
which pertains to its symbolic use. A blanket or some other article 
of value is sent with each object as a fee for the person who is to recite 
the ritual. Should the person to whom the object is sent feel that he 
is not sufficiently versed in the ritual to accurately recite it he may 
pass it on with the fee to another man of the gens who can perform the 
service. 

If the Wa'-wa-tho° party happens to be made up of members of a 
gens belonging to the Tsi'-zhu side of the two great tribal divisions, 
the Xo'-ka, as a matter of etiquette, will begin the distribution on 
the Ho'^'-ga side; he will send the next object to a gens on the Tsi'-zhu 
side, thus sending to each side, alternately, until he has finished If 
the party was made up from the Ho'^'-ga side, the first object would be 
sent to the Tsi'-zhu side, and the distribution would proceed in the 
same alternating manner as follows: 

1, Tsi'-zhu Wa-no°, Elder Tsi'-zhu, (Tsi-zhu great division,) 
Wa-zhi"'-ga-pa, literal translation, bird heads. These are the skins 
of the heads of two pileated or ivory-billed woodpeckers, each with 
the maxilla left attached. 



208 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

2. Ho^'-ga A-hiu-to'*,the Winged Ho'^'-ga. (Ho°'-ga great division.) 
The tail feathers of the Wa-zhi°'-ga Wa'-tha-xthi Thi°-ge, or the bird 
without stains, that is the golden eagle. The tail feathers of the 
Ho"'-ga, or sacred bird, that is the imperial eagle. 

3. Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta-ge, the Gentle Tsi'-zhu. (Tsi'-zhu great 
division. Dawn people gens.) Two ^ka-'gthe Zhu-dse, white headed, 
decorations red; white fluffy feathers dyed red, taken from the tail 
covert of an eagle. 

4. Mo'^'-shko", Crawfish or Ho°'-ga-zhi°-ga, Little Ho^'-ga. (Ho°'- 
ga great division.) The forked stick upon which the symbolic arrows 
or pipes are to recline during the intermission of the ceremony. 

5. Tho'-xe Pa-thi-ho", Buffalo bull people. (Tsi'-zhu great divi- 
sion.) Tho'-xe is said to be the archaic name for the buft'alo. The 
modern name is Tse or Tse-do'-ga. Tho'-xe is sometimes confused 
with the name for willow, Thiu-xe; this gens has charge of the we- 
gda-the, to grease with; fat taken from the muscles in the back of 
the buft"alo for ceremonial uses. 

6. Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi, the Isolated Ho°'-ga. (Ho°'-ga great 
division.) Two large white fluffy feathers taken from the undertail 
coverts of the i°'-be-gi-ga or yellow-tailed hawk. 

7. Wa-ke'-the-ste-dse, Cattail. (Ho'^'-ga great division.) Leaves of 
the cattail {Tyjjha latifolia) to be woven into wreaths. 

8. E-no'^'-mi°-dse-to°, Only Possessors of the Bow. (Ho°'-ga great 
division.) Two straight sticks for use in making the arrow shafts or 
pipestems. 

9. Ta'-i-ni-ka-shi-ga, Deer People, or Ta-tha'-xi, Deer Lungs. 
(Ho°'-ga great division.) Owl feathers used as symbols for the lungs 
of the deer. 

Each symbolic article having been placed on the ground in front 
of the No°'-ho°-zhi''-ga who is to recite the ritual which treats of its 
emblematic use, the Tse'-xe-k'i° No°-ho° returns to his place among the 
Wa'-wa-tho° party and then, as though by a given signal, each No"*'- 
ho°-zhi°-ga begins to recite his ritual. None of the nine rituals are 
alike, and when they are recited at the same time, with all the force 
of the human voice, the noise is distressing, yet every man is so com- 
pletely absorbed in his own part that he goes on to the end, apparently 
unmindful of what the others are doing. It takes about fifteen min- 
utes to recite some of these rituals. Wa-xthi'-zhi likened the noise 
of the recitations to that of a swarm of "ba-the," or locusts. 

It was not possible to secure the rituals belonging to and explaining 
the symbols of each of the nine symbolic articles enumerated above, 
for the reason that the men who knew them are all dead. It has 
been said by Wa-xthi'-zhi that some of these rituals appear in the 
war rites, but when recited at the Wa'-wa-tho'' ceremony they were 
modified in such manner as to avoid all those parts that relate to 
war and to the shedding of blood. 



La FlescheI OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 209 

A sham attack on the Ho°'-ga forms a part of the Wa'-wa-tho" 
ceremony. During the preparation for this part charcoal is cere- 
monially made for the men who are to make the attack. The ritual 
recited at the making of the charcoal is a modified form of that 
belonging to the Wa-sha'-be A-thi°. 

The recital of the rituals having come to a close, the Tse'-xe-k'i° 
No°-ho'* goes to the No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga before whom he has placed the 
forked stick and the two pipestems, and gathering these up he brings 
them to the Xo'-ka, placing them on the ground before him. The 
Xo'-ka takes them up, holding them in a bunch in his hands, and 
gives them to the Tse-xe-k'i° No°-ho° with instructions to place them 
before the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Tho'-xe gens to whom has been 
sent the bit of buffalo fat. This No'''-ho°-zhi°-ga, taking up the sticks 
one by one, reverently anoints each with the buffalo fat. 

"V\Tien the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Tho'-xe gens has finished anointing 
the sticks and laid them down, the Tse'-xe-k'i° No°-ho° gathers them 
up and takes them to the No°'-ho'*-zhi'^-ga of the Mo°'-shko° gens, 
who paints all three sticks red.^ 

The Mo^'-shko"* gens was the keeper of the rite that pertains to the 
forked stick upon which were to be suspended the wa-xo'-be at the 
war ceremony, and upon wliich the symbolic pipes were to lean when 
at ceremonial rest, during the performance of the Wa'-wa-tho'^ cere- 
mony. This gens was also the keeper of the rite having to do with the 
various colored earths consecrated to ceremonial uses. 

The Mo°'-shko° No^'-ho'^-zhi^-ga lia\'ing painted the forked stick 
and the pipestems and laid them down, the Tse'-xe-k'i° No °-ho° gathers 
them up and carries them back to the Xo'-ka, who directs the Tse'-xe- 
k'i" NoMio" to carry them on to the No^'-ho^-zhi^'-ga of the Tsi'-zhu 
Wa-no"* gens, to whom had been sent the skins of the heads of the 
pileated or ivory-billed woodpeckers. The No'^'-ho'^-zlii^-ga takes up 
one of the pipestems and fastens close to the mouthpiece one of the 
skins of the woodpecker heads. This he does by pulling the skin 
lengthwise on the stem and tying down to the stem with a deerskin 
thong the maxilla which is pointed toward the mouthpiece; he then 
wraps around the stem a bit of the skin taken from the neck of a male 
mallard duck so that it laps over a portion of the woodpecker sldn 
and ties it to the stem with a deerskin thong. The Osage manner of 
putting the woodpecker's head on the stem is different from that of 
the Omaha and Pawnee (pi. 3). The other stem is prepared in the 
same way and then both are laid on the ground. 

The Tse'-xe-k'i° No°-ho° now picks them up together with the forked 
stick and carries them to the No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga of the Ho"'-ga A-hiu-to° 
gens, to whom had been sent the tail feathers of the golden and 
imperial eagles. This is one of the eagle gentes wliich represent the 

' Te-o-ko-ha, an Omaha, gave the information that before the introduction of European paints by traders 
the Omahas colored their pipestems with wa-fe'-zhi-de ni-ka (red ochre) and ni-xthi' (algae) for the green. 



210 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

eagles that led the people down from the sky to the earth in four 
soarings. 

During the time that the pipestems and the forked sticks are being 
taken from one gens to another the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Ho°'-ga 
A-hiii-to° gens worked upon the eagle feathers, preparing them to be 
fastened to the pipestems. This he did by piercing with an awl the 
end of each quill of the golden eagle feathers and drawing a slender 
deerskin thong through the hole. Then in the same way a hole was 
made through the shaft of each feather at about half its length, through 
w^hich was drawn another deerskin thong. In this way all the feathers 
were strung together. By pulling the thong that ran through the 
ends of the quills the feathers were brought together in such a way as 
to give them a fan-shaped form. He treated the feathers of the 
imperial eagle in the same way, after which these pendants were ready 
to be attached to the pipestems, and his work was done. 

The Tse'-xe-k'i° No°-ho° now carries the pipestems and the forked 
stick to the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta-ge gens (the 
Dawn people), to whom had been sent the large feathers taken from 
the undertail covert of an eagle. These had been dyed red. The rite 
pertaining to peace is in the keeping of this gens, its name, Tsi'-zhu 
Wa-shta-ge, signifjdng a household of gentle people, to whom human 
blood is sacred and not to be profaned. They recognize the sanctity 
of all forms of life; even the caterpillar that happens to come into the 
house of one of them, instead of being killed, is gently urged out into 
the open air and to freedom. If a murderer takes refuge in the house 
of one of these people he is protected, or if a warrior of a hostile tribe 
steals into the camp intent on doing harm and is detected and pur- 
sued, should he by chance flee into the house of one of these people 
he is saved. The red dawn that promises a clear and calm day is 
emblematic of peace to this gens. For ceremonial purposes this red 
dawn was symbolized by a feather taken from the undertail covert of 
an eagle and dyed red. It is tliis symbolic object that the No°'-ho°- 
zhi°-ga attaches to each of the pipes of peace when they are brought 
to him, tying the feather to the lower end of one of the slender thongs 
upon which were strung the feathers of the golden and imperial eagle. 

After this the Tse'-xe-k'i° No^-ho'' carries the pipes and the forked 
stick to the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi gens to whom 
had been sent the large white feathers taken from the undertail covert 
of an i°'-be-gi-ga or red-tailed hawk. This bird is one of the sacred 
symbols of the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no'*-dsi gens. The No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga ties 
a feather to the lower end of one of the thongs upon which were strung 
the golden and imperial eagle feathers, as was done by the No^'-ho"- 
zhi°-ga of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no° gens with the red feathers. 

The pipes and the forked stick are now carried to the No°'-ho°- 
zhi°-ga of the Ta I-ni-!^a-shi-ga, Deer people, sometimes spoken of as 
Ta-tha'-xi, Deer's lung people of the Wa-zha'-zhe tribal subdivision, 








^■;^^fj 




BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 101 PLATE 3 




Ceremonial pipe of the Omaha, Ponca, Otoe, and Pawnee. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 101 PLATE 4 




a, Rattle belonging to the golden eagle. 
6, Rattle belonging to the imperial eagle. 



La Flesche] OSAGE PEACE CEEEMONY 211 

to whom had been sent the owl feathers. The No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga spHt 
all the feathers the full length and removed the pith, so that when they 
are arranged around the pipes in a bunch they will give a fluffy appear- 
ance. To each of the pipestems, at about the length of a span from 
the lower end, the No°'-ho°-zhi'*-ga fastened a bunch of these feathers 
by tying the quills to the stem with a deerskin thong in such a way as 
to have the tops of the feathers point toward the mouthpiece of the 
stem. When the owl feathers had been attached to the stem the cere- 
monial making of the symbolic pipes was complete. 

All the time during which the pipes and forked stick were passing 
from one gens to the other eight wreaths were being woven by the 
No°'-ho''-zhi°-ga of the Mi-ke'-the-ste-dse, cattail subgens, of the 
Wa-zha'-zhe, Qka gens of the Wa-zha'-zhe group, from the leaves that 
had been sent to him. The cattail (Typha latifolia) is the sacred 
symbol of this subgens. These wreaths are to be worn by the members 
of the Wa'-wa-tho° party and the person for whom the ceremony is to 
be performed. 

When these v/reaths have been finished the Tse'-xe-k'i° No°-ho° 
carries them to the Ho"-ga A-hiu-to° gens. Then some of the No°'- 
ho°-zhi°-ga of this gens fasten to the knot of each wreath, where it 
joins, a white feather taken from the undertail covert of the golden 
eagle. This fluffy feather stands erect from the knot that is placed 
at the middle of the forehead when the wreath is worn. The decorator 
of the eight wreaths with the white eagle feathers completes the cere- 
monial making of all the various symbolic articles belonging to the 
Wa'-wa-tho° rite. 

The Tse'-xe-k'i'' No°-ho° gathers together the wreaths, the pipes, 
and the forked stick, and places them before the Xo'-ka, who then 
addresses the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Ho°'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi gens, say- 
ing: "Ho! Ho°'-ga, I wish to make use of your gourd rattles in this 
ceremony." The No^'-ho^-zhi^-ga who is addressed recites a ritual 
and then paints the rattle with white clay. He draws upon the 
middle of the one that is to accompany the pipe having the tail 
feathers of the golden eagle a narrow white line from which, on either 
side, he draws a line running down to the handle (pi. 4, a). This 
painting is made to correspond to that wliich will later be put 
upon the Ho°'-ga or "son". On the rattle to accompany the pipe 
having the tail feathers of the imperial eagle he draws seven white 
narrow lines from the top down to the handle (pi. 4, 6). Then he 
hands the two rattles to the Tse'-xe-k'i°, who delivers them to the 
Xo'-]j:a. 

There remains one more ceremonial act to be performed by the 
No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga before the symbolic articles of the Wa'-wa-tho° can 
be finally turned over to the person who is to perform the ceremony, 
and that is the act of offering smoke to the sacred articles, including 
the rattles borrowed from the Ho"'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi gens. These 
symbolic articles, when made with all the established ceremonial 



212 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull lOl 

forms, become sacred, imbued with supernatural power, and believed 
by the people to be capable of hearing supplications and receiving 
offerings. With this in mind the Xo'-ka fills a pipe, hands it to the 
Tse'-xe-k'i° No''-ho° and directs him to take it first to the No'^'-ho"- 
zhi°-ga of the Mi-ke'-the-ste-dse gens, together with the sacred 
articles. The Tse'-xe-k'i'' No°-ho° places the articles on the ground 
before the No'''-ho°-zhi°-ga and then offers him the pipe, holding for 
him the fire brand as he lights it. He then blows four whiffs of the 
smoke upon the sacred articles, and says to them: "We offer you smoke, 
and ask that you grant success to him who is to make use of you in 
this ceremony." The Tse'-xe-k'i° No^-ho"* then carries the pipe and 
the sacred articles to each of the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the other gentes 
who had taken part in their ceremonial making, each of whom makes 
a similar smoke offering and the same supplication. At the conclusion 
of the ceremony the Tse'-xe-k'i° No°-ho° carries the Wa'-wa-tho" 
pipes, the forked stick, and the wreaths back to the Xo'-ka and places 
them before him. Then the No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga of the Mo°'-shko° or 
Ho"'-ga Zhi°-ga gens addresses the person who is to perform the 
ceremony, saying: "Ho! Ho°'-ga, the Tsi'-zhu (great division) and the 
Ho°'-ga (great division) have done for you their part in this ceremony. 
It remains for you to do your part." 

When the No°'-ho°-zhi"-ga of the Mo°'-shko'* or Ho'^'-ga Zlu°-ga 
gens has given formal notice to the Wa'-wa-tlio° part of the comple- 
tion of the sacred articles he sends to the members by the Tse'-xe-k'i° 
No°-lio° red and white clay with wliich to paint their faces. The man 
who is to perform the ceremony, the Do-do''' -ho°-ga, paints all of his 
face red, then draws a narrow white line from the middle of one cheek 
up to the side of the forehead, across the forehead to the opposite 
side, and down to the middle of the other cheek (pi. 5, a). The Xo'-ka 
paints all of his face red and draws seven white narrow lines up and 
down the face (pi. 5, b). The Xthe'-ts'a-ge and all the three Tse'-xe- 
k'i'' paint their faces in the same manner as the Xo'-ka. Then each 
one of the seven officials puts on his head a ceremonial wreath. 

The No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga not only make the pipes and other symbolic 
articles for the man who desires to perform the Wa'-wa-tho° rite but 
they also assist him in finding a person worthy of the tribal honor 
that is to be conferred by the ceremony. This is done in the following 
manner: The No°'-ho°-zhi"-ga of the Ho°'-ga great division nominate 
for the honor four individuals from their own people and the No"*'- 
ho°-zhi°-ga of the Tsi'-zhu great division nominate an equal number 
from their people, making in all eight individuals from which one is to 
be selected. The No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of each great division make the 
nomination by passing around four sticks, each of which is given the 
name of the person nominated. The person nominated must be one 
who by his hospitality and Idndliness has won many friends in the 
tribe and the love and esteem of his own family and kin. 



La Flesche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 213 

When the nominations have been made by the two great divisions 
the two sets of sticks are brought separately by the Tse'-xe-k'i° 
No°-ho° to the Xo'-ka, who arranges them in a row^ before him, taking 
care to keep the tw^o sets of four apart. This done, the Tse'-xe-k'i° 
No°-ho° by the direction of the Xo'-ka brings before him the wife of 
the man who is to perform the ceremony. The Xo'-ka, addressing 
the woman by a term of relationsiiip, bids her select one stick from 
among the eight. The person represented by that stick becomes the 
Ho°'-ga, the ceremonial "son" of the woman and her husband who 
now assumes the title of Do-do°'-ho°-ga, or leader in the ceremony. 

After the selection of the Ho°'-ga, as above described, the Do-do°'- 
ho°-ga takes in his left hand the pipe having the tail feathers of the 
imperial eagle and in his right hand the rattle that goes with it. The 
Xo'-ka in the same manner takes the other pipe and its rattle, then 
both rise and stand side by side. At the left the Do-do'^'-ho^-ga, one 
of the Xthe'-ts'a-ge, or commanders, takes his place and the other 
stands at the right of the Xo'-ka. Behind these four men stand the 
three Tse'-xe-k'i° with the tse'-xe-ni drum. All of the songs of the 
ceremony, which now begins, are led by the Xo'-ka and the Do-do"*'- 
ho°-ga, and the three tse'-xe-k'i° join in the singing. The Do-do°'- 
ho°-ga and the Xo'-ka accentuate the time of the songs by up-and- 
down strokes of the rattles and at the same time wave the pipes from 
side to side, keeping in strict accord with the rhythm of the music 
and the strokes of the drum. 

The songs of the Wa'-wa-tho° ceremony are divided into groups or 
sets. Each set has a name which refers to the object or theme of the 
songs composing the set. Sometimes there is only a single song and 
again there may be several songs in a set. 

The man performing the Wa'-wa-tho°, or his Xo'-ka, is in duty 
bound to give, in their established sequence, all the sets of songs in 
the ceremony. This he is required to do as a mark of his reverence 
for the sacred teachings of the ceremony and of his respect for the 
person whom he is to initiate. 

In order to meet this obligation the man has had to memorize the 
title of each set of songs, being careful to keep each set in its proper 
place, and also the number of songs in each given set. To aid him in 
this task he makes use of two mechanical devices, both of which are 
called zho°'-xa wa-zhu; zho°'-xa, rods; wa-zhu to place upon; as 
though the rods were placed upon the songs. 

One of these devices is a flat stick, about 1 inch in width and from 
16 to 18 inches in length. Across the width of one side of this stick, 
from one end to the other, lines are cut, each line representing a song. 
The lines are single or in groups, according to the number of songs in 
each set. One side of this flat stick represents Part I of the cere- 
mony, which is divided into two great divisions. The reverse side 
of the stick, marked in a similar manner, represents Part 11. If the 



214 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 

man has thoroughly memorized this index he may be able to go through 
the ceremony without referring to the stick. But if his memory is 
poor he will use the stick in the following manner: He grasps the 
lower end of the stick in his left hand, with Part I side toward him, 
and presses the edge of the thumbnail in the first lower line while he 
sings the song for which it stands. He then presses liis thumbnail on 
the next hne as he sings the songs it represents, and so on to the top 
of the stick. When he has reached the top of the stick he turns that 
end downward, thus bringing the reverse side toward him, and begins 
to sing the songs of Part II, This index stick is really a permanent 
record of the number of songs in the ceremony and is, figuratively, 
spoken of as zho'^'-xa wa-zhu, because each line stands for a counting 
rod as well as for a song. 

The other device is a bundle of rods, each one of which is about the 
size of an ordinary lead pencil and is from 16 to 18 inches in length. 
This bundle of rods, which is also called zho'^'-xa wa-zhu, is used by 
the man for keeping tally of the sets of songs while performing the 
ceremony. It is also used when instructing a candidate in the titles 
of the sets of songs and the number contained in each set. The rods, 
which number about 70, when not in use are arranged in a bundle. 
This is held together with thongs and tied at both ends and at the 
middle. 

Zho"'-xa Wa-zhu, the name of the two mechanical devices described 
above, is also applied to the list of names of the sets of songs used in 
this ceremony. 

The following is the list or index of Wa'-wa-tho"* songs as given by 
Wa-xthi'-zhi: 

PART I 

1. Mo'^'-sho" Ga-sdu-dse, Wa-tho°, rods 4. 

2. Tsi Ta-pe Wa-tho^ rods 2. 

3. Wa-po'-ga Wa-tho°, rods 2. 

4. Ni'-dsi Wa-tho°, rod 1. 

5. O'-po'' Wa-tho°, rods 2. 

G. Ho°'-ga A-ki-tse Wa-tho"*, rods 4. 

7. Mo"'-xe Thi-hi-dse Wa-tho°, rods 2, 

8. Xa-ge' Wa-tho°, rods 2. 

PART II 

9. No°-xthe' I-ki^-dse Wa-tho", rod 1. 

10. No'^-xthe' Wa-tse Wa-tho°, rod 1. 

11. Wa-ko°-tha The-the Wa-tho°, rod 1. 

12. Wa-tse' Wa-tho°, rod 1, 

13. Ki'-no° Wa-tho°, rods 2. 

14. I-ko'-tha Ki-ka-xe Wa-tho°, rod 1. 

15. Ta Wa'-tho", rods 4. 

16. Ho'-e-ga Gi-pshe Wa-tho°, rod 1. 



Part I 



Opening Ceremony 
Mo'''-SHo'' Wa-tho" 

Feather Songs 

Song 1 
(Osage version, p. 261) 




Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



-N-^ 



A 



-25*- 



ni da, 



r r r r r r 

Ha hi - tha - the ha, 



^ 



i 



i^f^^*?^^^f=ff 



r r rr 

hi - tha - the ha. 



r r r r r r r r r r r r 

Hi-tha - the ha, Ho°-ga, Ha, hi-tha - the, Ho'^-ga. 



The literal translation of the words does not and can not carry the 
true meaning of the song, which is really an expression of joy that a 
"little one", a child of the people, has been found worthy of the 
tribal honor given through the Wa'-wa-tho° rite. The song is ad- 
dressed to the people, saying: "I have found among you a 'little 
one', a child who is a Ho°'-ga". This song is sung four times. 

Song 2 
(Osage version, p. 261) 
M.M. J =z 76 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 

^M— c~ — f^^ — < — '■ — ^ '^-^ — -^ 



II 



^ 



:4: 



? 



Time beats f f f f 

Zhiii - ga ga - the the ha - ne. 



r r r r 

hi - tha Ho° - ga 



i 



w 



Ese4: 



#-ih 



rn — ^=1- 



m 



e=a 



7- 



-»'-# 



m 



:3t=Mzzi 



4: 



r r r r 

Zhin.ga ga-the the ha-ne. 



-0. .^. 

rr r r r 

A hi-tha Ho'^-ga 



r r r r 

Zhi°-ga ga-the the ha-ne. 

The first song refers to the finding of the "httle one" who is worthy 
of the tribal honor. The second song asks for the "little one" to be 
made the Ho°'-ga. 

215 



216 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Boll. 101 



Song 3 

(Osage version, p. 261) 



M.M. J-80 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



i ^x:a 



± 



-• a<- 



• id- 



q — r^, — u — n — ^ 1 — r 



Time beats 



r r r r r r r 



r r 
I I 



r 



Zhi° - ga ho - wa, ho - wa, Zhi^-ga ho-wa, ho - wa, Zhi° - ga ho ■ 



W. 



^^- 



4: 



d d d 



±1 



-•- 
r r r 

wa, ho- wa,ZhiD-ga ho - wa, ho-wa, ho 



S^ 



• d 



d -d- -d 



r r r r 



r r r r r 

wa ho - wa Zhi°-ga ho - 




-d-^-d- 



e 



:|!^=n: 



4: 



±1 



J- — L -J- 



n 



m 



-•^y- ' ' -dr -d-d^ 

r r rr r 



-^. --j- -^- -^- 
-•- 



r r rr r r r rr r r r r r r r r 

wa, ho-wa,Zhi'i-ga ho-wa, ho - wa. Zhi°-ga ho - wa, ho-wa ho-wa, ho-wa. 

The translation of one phrase will be a translation of all of the 
song. Zhi"-ga ho-wa, where is the child. Tliis song is sung four 

times. 

Song 4 
(Osage version, p. 261) 

M.M. J = 76 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



fc^ 



r* 



Time beats (* 

Zhin - ga 



r r r 

ho - wa - the, ho - wa 



I" 
I 

da 



we, 



:B: 



^ 



:^ 




r r r r r r 

Zhi'^ - ga ho- wa- the,ho-wa-ne i° da we. 



r r r 

Zhi°-ga ho-wa- the ho-wa-ne i° 



iiz. 



S 



^ 



*r r r r r r r r r r 

da ho° - ga Zhi^ -ga ho - wa - the ho-wa-nei° da we. 

The translation of the first line will be a translation of the second: 
Zhi°-ga ho-wa-the, ho-wa-ne i° da we, Wliere is he, I am searching 
for him. This song is also sung four times. 

During the singing of this song the Do-do°'-ho°-ga and the Xo'-ka 
change the manner of holding the pipes. They take the mouthpieces 
between the tips of the fingers and thumb, letting the stem hang 
downward, and only the rattles now accentuate the time and rhythm. 
At the last note the pipes are allowed to slip from the fingers, but 
before they touch the ground they are caught up by the two Xthe'- 



La Flesche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 217 

ts'a-ge who, holding the pipes, rush with them out of the house and 
run to that of the person chosen to be Ho°'-ga to apprise him of the 
honor that has now come to him. 

This song completes the group of songs in which conception and 
gestation and birth are figuratively presented. It was the wife of 
the Do-do"' -ho"-ga, who stands "father" to the "son", who selected 
the "little one" or Ho°'-ga. The songs that follow her act voice the 
expectancy of the child, and the "letting slip" of the stems is the 
birth.* 

In this ceremony as practiced by the Omaha, Ponca, and Oto, the 
"little one" or Ho'^'-ga typifies peace and innocence, for the child is 
one incapable of harboring malice. The Ho°'-ga also stands for the 
uninterrupted continuity of the race. In the Osage rite the latter 
aspect of the "little one" is given greater prominence. 

The people of the camp who, upon hearing the first songs, had 
hastened out of their homes, all eager to know who was chosen for 
Ho°'-ga, now stand watching the Xthe'-ts'a-ge as they run, holding 
aloft the symbolic pipes. The two men enter the house of the man 
chosen and give the formal notice of the selection. The honor is 
promptly accepted for the man by his relatives, whereupon the two 
Xthe'-ts'a-ge at once begin in a loud voice to recount their o-do"' 
(war honors), for only men who have won such honors can be chosen 
for the Xthe'-ts'a-ge at the Wa'-wa-tho° ceremony. 

At the conclusion of the recounting the two men hastily leave with 
cries of triumph, and still having the pipestems, they run toward the 
house of the Do-do'^'-ho^-ga who, on their approach, goes forth to 
meet them. All three men reenter the house, take their respective 
places, plant the forked stick in the ground, lay the mouthpieces of 
the pipes in the crotch and let the lower ends of the stem rest on the 
ground. This act is the signal for the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga to rise and go 
to their homes. This they do, saying: "It is done, it is done! It is 
well!" as they pass out of the house and leave the Do-do''' -ho°-ga and 
his men to themselves. Meanwhile the village is busy talking over 
the wisdom of the choice that has been made and discussing the 
worthiness of the person selected to be Ho°'-ga. 

Soon after the departure of the No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga the Do-do°'-ho°-ga 
and the Xo'-ka take up the pipes and rattles, rise and go out of the 
door, followed by the Xthe'-ts'a-ge and the Tse'-xe-k'i°. Standing 
side by side near the door, with their followers behind them, the 
Xo'-ka and the Do-do°'-ho°-ga sing the first of the songs of ceremonial 
approach to the house of the Ho°'-ga, where the ceremony is to take 

* During a case of protracted and diflBcult childbirth this part of the Wa'-wa-tho" ceremony is appealed 
to and the third song is sung, accompanied by the movements of the pipes and rattles in order to bring about 
the desired birth. In this connection it should be remembered that the preparation of the symbolic pipes 
was accompanied by ceremonies fraught with reverent feeling and that through these ceremonial proceed- 
ings it was believed that these symbolic articles had become imbued with a supernatural power and were 
therefore able to bring benefits to the people. 

83773—39 15 



218 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 101 



place. Four stops are made by the procession, beginning with the 
stop just outside of the door of the Do-do°'-ho°-ga's house and ending 
with one made near the door of the house of the Ho°'-ga. At each 
stop one of the songs of approach is sung, of which there are only two. 
First one is sung and then the other up to the final stop at the door 
of the Ho°'-ga. 

Wa-sho'-she, another Osage who was present when Wa-xthi'-zhi 
was describing the Wa'-wa-tho°, spoke of this part of the ceremony as 
being very impressive. All the people of the camp turned out to see 
it, for the men of the Wa'-wa-tho° party were "o-ta'-^a", meaning that 
they made an appearance pleasing and satisfying to the eye. 

Ceremonial Approach to the House Songs 



M.M. J=66 



Song 1 
(Osage version, p. 261) 



^ 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



Ha -we the ha - we, ha - we the ha- we, Ha - we the ha - we, 




—I 1 — ' — 1 1 



-1^- -i^- ij: li: -^- -^ -^- ."i: 

ha- we the ha- we, Ha-we the ha -we theHo'^-ga Ha -we the ha -we. 



-\ — -I I \ -f^i — [ " ■ n I ^-1 1— I 1 1 i 1- 

■•-•--•-•••-•- • • -•- -•- -•- -•- -•- -•- 

ha- we the ha- we, Ha-we the ha - we, ha - we the ha - we the Ho° - ga. 

Words of this song can not be literally translated; the prolongation 
of the last syllable of the word "ha-we" is to accommodate the music; 
the meaning and refrain of this song is "greeting to the Ho°'-ga." 

Song 2 

(Osago version, p. 262) 

M.M. J = 69 Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 

3 » o 



ms. 



' J — i 




3t3t 



itZlt 



i 



^ 



Ha, the Hon. 



ter 



^ 



^S 



the Ho°-ga Ho'^ -ga, the Ho° - ga, the Ho°-ga, 

8 3 



tfct 



^ 



Hoi^-ga, the Ho° - ga, the Ho°- ga, Ho°-ga, the Ho°-ga, the Ho°-ga, 



t&^ 



Ho° - ga, the 



Ho° - ga. 



-1^ j^ -a* 

the Ho° - ga. 



La Flesche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 219 

The word Ho°'-ga used in this song has a broader meaning. It is 
applied to a person, an object, or a collection of objects or ceremonial 
forms consecrated to religious uses. The refrain, "Ha the Ho°'-ga, 
the Ho"'-ga," "Ho! this is the Ho"'-ga, this is the Ho'^'-ga," refers to 
ever}^ part of the ceremony and text collectively, including persons, 
sacred objects, and ceremonial forms. The song is in praise of the 
rite, of its fundamental principle, which is to bring peace and good 
will between the men of the tribe. 

After the ceremony of approach the Do-do"' -ho°-ga, the Xo'-ka, 
and their followers enter the house of the Ho°'-ga and take their 
places at the east. The two fireplaces of the long house and the earth 
floor have been cleaned for this occasion and blankets and robes 
spread upon the ground for the Wa'-wa-tho° party and guests who 
will be in\dted to take part. 

The Wa'-wa-tho° party arriving at the place assigned to it, the 
Xthe'-ts'a-ge and Tse'-xe-k'i° sit down while the Do-do"' -ho°-ga and 
the Xo'-ka stand side by side with the pipes and rattles still m their 
hands. The Xo'-ka now recites the following wi'-gi-e: 

The Great Gray Owl Ritual and Songs 

(Osage version, p. 262) 
1 

1. Ho! little ones, he was heard to say, off in the distance, 

2. He, the male great gray owl, lifted his voice and spoke, 

3. He, whom we call grandfather. 

4. At a time when the god of night was at his greatest strength, 

5. He, whom we call grandfather, 

6. With repeated calls, prolonged, lifted up his voice and spoke, 

saymg: 

7. I am one whose cries are ever hstened to by Wa-ko"'-da. 

8. Wlien the little ones make me a part of themselves, 

9. Their cries, also, shall always be heard by Wa-ko"'-da. 

10. When the little ones make me a part of themselves, 

11. They shall be enabled throughout their life's journey to be heard 

by Wa-ko°'-da. 

2 

12. At that time and place another voice was heard, off in the distance, 

13. It was that of the female great gray owl, lifting her voice to speak, 

14. At a time when the god of night was at his greatest strength, 

15. With repeated calls, prolonged, she spoke, saying: 

16. I am one whose cries are ever listened to by Wa-ko"'-da. 

17. When the little ones make of me a part of themselves, 

18. They shall be enabled, throughout their life's journey, to be heard 

by Wa-ko"'-da. 



220 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. lOl 



19. At that very time and place she was again heard to speak, 

20. Of all the creatures, I only, live in a house, spacious and secure. 

21. I am a person whose children are born in safety, one after the 

other. 

22. When the little ones make of me a part of themselves, 

23. They also shall give birth to their children in safety, one after the 

other. 

24. And if they also make of me the means by which to reach old age, 

25. Their craving, throughout their life's journey, to reach old age 

shall be satisfied. 

Song 1 



(Osage version, p. 263) 



M.M. j: 



72 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



1 — fh-b , i'*^ — r 






-yn? 4— J \ \ i r— n — i — 


-^ \ 


J 1 


f"S i J • J J 


'I 1 1 




%■/ ■+ ^ J ^ O 


-^*^ zir^ 


1 — « — — • u 



Time beats ^ 
Ko 



ko 



r 

we 



tha 



r 

ne, 



r 

ko - ko 



r 


-•- 

r 


r 


r 


.ha 


ne 


A 


■ ho, 



4 — r-*.- 



e 



^ 



r-rn— HM 



4zt 



:#: 



-•- 
r r 



ko - ko we tha ne, 



r r r r r r r r 

III I I I II 

A - ho, ko- ko we tha ne, ko-ko we tha ne 



The music of this song appears among the Oto Wa-wo° songs col- 
lected by Alice C. Fletcher and Francis La Flesche in February 1895. 

The translation of two phrases will be a translation of all the words, 
Ko-ko is said to be the archaic name for Wa-po-ga, the great gray 
owl; we tha ne, you have; a ho, behold now. This is sung four times. 



Song 2 

(Osage version, p. 263) 



M.M. J=z92 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



t-^ 







A ho, ko-ko we, 



ho, ko - ko 



E tha ha ha - ne. 



3: 



4=*: 



s 



^ 



m 



a ho, ko- ko 



-•- -€- 

tha ha 



ha - ne, 



a ho, ko- ko we. 



The translation of two phrases of this song will be a translation of 
all the words. Aho, behold now; ko-ko, owl; we, an; e-tha-ha, 
behold; ha-ne, you have. This song also is sung four times. 

In the wi'-gi-e (ritual) a teaching is set forth in the form of a parable 
so that none who listen can mistake its meaning. The songs that 



La Flesche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 221 

follow are expressions of the emotion of joy awakened by the parable. 
The words are few and fragmentary for in Indian songs the words 
are of secondary importance and are sparingly used. The Indian 
prefers musical tones as a means by which to express his happiness 
and his reverent feeling. 

Rituals and songs that go together are collectively spoken of as 
wa-tho"* or songs. The title of this ritual and accompanying songs 
is Wa-po'-ga, the great gra}^ owl; Wa-tho°, songs. This ritual and 
accompanying songs are a supplication for success in bringing about, 
through the Wa'-wa-tho° rite, peace and good will between the differ- 
ent groups and tribes, for, not until this end has been attained can the 
people rear their "little ones" in safety and without fear. The same 
care is craved from Wa-ko°'-da as that bestowed upon the Wa-po'-ga 
who can give birth to their "little ones" one after the other and rear 
them in entire safety and without fear. The mysterious calls of these 
birds which are often heard "when the god of night was at his greatest 
strength," the building of their houses in hollow trees, and the success- 
ful rearing of their "little ones" in security inspired the ancient 
No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga with the thought that these birds were specially 
favored by Wa-ko°'-da, so this supplication has been handed down 
through successive ages that "Wa-ko°'-da give to us the same thought- 
ful care as that bestowed upon the Wa-po'-ga, so that we also may rear 
our young in safety and start them on the path toward a good old age." 

Nl'-DSI Wa-tho'' 

Water Song 

The Wa-po'-ga song is followed by the Ni'-dsi Wa-tho°, water song, 
which is sung to the beating of the rattles and the waving of the pipes 
when one of the subordinates, a Tse'-xe-k'i°, is sent to bring water 
for the people to drink. Going to the brook for water is a common 
and simple act, yet in this ceremony it is performed with a reverent 
thought of Wa-ko'^'-da, whose aid is continually invoked throughout 
this rite. In this song, as in the song of the Wa-po'-ga, a supplication 
is made ; in this instance the otter is thought of, although no mention 
is made of its name in the song, for this little animal, it was believed, 
has the same peculiar care of Wa-ko'^'-da as the owl. The otter's 
home is as much in the water as it is on the land. This dual nature 
of the otter seems to have excited the wonder of the ancient No"^'- 
ho°-zhi°-ga, and the apparent safety with which it rears its young 
gave rise to the belief that it is one of the creatures having the special 
favor of Wa-ko°'-da. This song is, therefore, sometimes called the 
otter song. 



222 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. lOl 



Water Song 

(Osage version, p. 263) 




Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher, 



N-^ 



it 



? 



" • r 

r r r 

ha dse wa - ge 



Time beats T 

He - dsi 



r r 

he - dsi wa 




•^ -*- ^ 



r r r r 

He-dsi ui a ha dse wa 



± 



rr rr 

he, he 



^ 



j-r^ 



r r r r 

He-dsi ni a he - dse wa 




a=j=-t 



ES 



^ ^^-J^J^jH^ 



:#: 







• • 


T^ 


• •. V 


^ 


r r 


r 

1 


r r r r 

1 1 1 1 


r 
1 


r r 


r 

1 


he-dsi wa 


■ ge, 


He-dsi ni a ha dse wa 


-ge, 


he-dsi wa - 


ge. 



The meaning of this song is, Go to the brook and bring water. It 
is sung four times. After the singing of the Ni'-dsi Wa-tho'' the pipes 
■ire ceremonially set down to rest and an intermission follows. 

Success Ceremony 
wa-dsu'-ta i-hi-tho'*-be 

Animals made to appear 

For the purpose of having the Wa-dsu'-ta I-hi-tho°-be ceremony 
performed, the Tse'-xe-k'i° No^-ho"* is sent out to summon all within 
reach who have had the Wa'-wa-tho° ceremony performed. The 
literal translation of the title of this ceremony is: Wa-dsu'-ta, animals; 
I, by which; hi-tho^-be, appear. In the Ni'-ki No^-k'o" rite there is a 
ritual which, if ceremonially recited, it is believed, will give success 
to a hunter by causing the animals to appear before him. When the 
invited guests arrive and are seated, all who know the Wa-dsu'-ta 
I-hi-tho°-be ritual are asked to recite it. This ritual, it is said, is a 
modified form of the one in the Ni-ki No^-k'o"* rite, and is recited for 
the purpose of bringing success to the party performing the Wa'-wa- 
tho°. During this ceremony there is an U'-thu-dse, in which all the 
invited guests have a share. 

After the recital of the Wa-dsu -ta I-hi-tho°-be rites a Wa-sha'-be 
A-thi° Wa-zho'-wa-gthe or ceremonial war leader is chosen by the 
invited guests to be a leader of a sham attack to be made upon the 
Ho°'-ga at a certain part of the Wa'-wa-tho" ceremony. The leader 



La Flksche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 223 

who has been chosen now goes to his house to prepare for the war 
ceremony. The Wa'-wa-tho° party and the invited guests follow. 
Arrived at the house of the war leader, the Wa'-wa-tho° party take 
their place at the east end and the invited guests arrange themselves 
according to their respective gentes as at the ceremonial gatherings 
of the No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga. 

While the Wa'-wa-tho° party and the invited guests are on their 
way the ceremonial war leader sends for the Sho'-ka or official mes- 
senger of his gens. The Sho'-ka now appears for the first time in the 
Wa'-wa-tho° ceremony, as his services belong exclusively to cere- 
monies that pertain to war. Upon the arrival of the Sho'-ka the war 
leader sends him out to get some zho°'-sha-be-the-hi, or redbud wood, 
with which the charcoal paint for the war leader is to be made. Wlien 
the sacred wood has been brought in by the Sho'-ka, a No°'-ho°- 
zhi°-ga of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta-ge gens prepares the fireplace and 
recites, in a modified form, the ritual relating to fire and charcoal. 
Sometimes the Wa'-wa-tho° pipes are taken on the war path in place 
of the wa-xthe-xthe. On such occasions a No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the 
Black Bear or the Puma gens prepares the fireplace and makes the 
charcoal. A No'^'-hon-zhi^-ga of one of these gentes may officiate at 
the charcoal-making ceremony in the Wa'-wa-tho°. At such times 
he can recite only the White Swan ritual and omit the parts that 
relate to the Black Bear and the Puma, as these are recited only at 
war ceremonies. 

The No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta-ge having finished 
the making of the charcoal, the war leader paints himself with it in 
the following manner: He makes a black band across the mouth, 
running from the lower part of one ear to the other, including the 
chin; a round spot is put on each shoulder, and one over the heart, 
also below the knee and both hands. When the leader has painted 
himself \\'ith the sacred charcoal the organization of the war party 
proceeds as at a regular ceremony. 

While the Wa-sha'-be A-thi°, or Charcoal ceremony, with its dances 
and processions, is in progress, the Do-do "'-ho^-ga and Xo'-ka go on 
with the Wa'-wa-tho''. The next songs they sing are the 0'-po° 
Wa-tho° or Elk songs. These songs belong to the gens that has for 
its zho'-i-ga-tha or "body" the elk who gave to the people the ho'-e-ga 
and the wa-xthe'-xthe, sacred symbols by which they could easily 
overcome their enemies. It also gave to the people by its subgens, 
the Mo°'-shko° (Crawfish), the forked stick to give success in war. 
This forked stick is also contributed to the Wa'-wa-tho" to give suc- 
cess in its aim to bring about peace and good will among men. 



224 



bureau of american ethnology 

Elk Songs 
Song 1 



[Bull. 101 



(Osage version, p. 263) 



M.M. 



84 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



'^f^^= n=^ ^ r-f-F - 



— =r-3r- 

-•- -•- 

Ho° - ga the - hi tha, Hon - ga the - hi tha 



=f^ 



ho 



o 



teiS 



2e: 



:4rit 



iji ^T -— i- 
Ho"-ga the - hi tha 



^ 



:± 



5=^ 
-•- -•- 

Ho° - ga, 



- 4 1 T 



-•--^—d- 



^=^t 



Ho'^-ga the - hi tha the - hi tha 



S 



^ 



* 






^ 



g 



-I- 

-•- -•- 

HoJi - ga. 



ho - o, Ho° - ga the - hi tha 

The translation of a phrase in tliis song will be sufficient for the 
entire song: Ho^'-ga thi a-hd a tha, The honor of Ho°'-ga has alighted 
upon you. This song is sung four times. 



M.M. Jr^80 



Song 2 

(Osage version, p. 263) 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 




rfl: 



Ho°-ga da - we, Ho°-ga da -we Ho'^-ga da- we-e Ho'^ - ga 



J i. ^i d-^ -J- -^" 3: "^7s 



-^ — It 

A wi-tha ha - ne - 



A wi - tha ha - ne 



e Ho^i - ga 




Ho"^ - ga da - we, Ho° - 



da - we, Ho"^ - ga da - we - e Ho° - ga. 



The words of the second line of this song, A wi-tha ha-ne-e, etc., 
can not be translated separately, but the meaning of the line is "You 
are the one, you are the one." 

Guarding the Ho'*'-ga 

ho'''-ga a-ki-tse 

Watching over the Hon'-ga 

The next songs in order are the Ho°'-ga A-ki-tse Wa-tho°, four in 
number, but Wa-xthi'-zhi said he could not remember them. 



La Flesche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 225 

Sky Ritual 
mo'^'-xe thi-hi-dse wa-tho^ 

Sky Controlling Songs 

Mo°'-xe Thi-hi-dse Wa-tho° is the title of the songs that are next in 
order in the Wa'-wa-tho° rite Although there is with these two 
songs a ritual of six chapters, all are spoken of collectively as songs. 
Sky Controlling Songs is a translation of the title that is the nearest 
approach to its real meaning as used with reference to the interest and 
purpose of the rite. Mo'"-xe, sky; Thi-hi-dse, controlling; Wa-tho"*, 
songs. 

In its ordinary use the meaning of the word Tlii-hi-dse is pranks, 
such as are played by one brother-in-law upon another, or to tease, 
as when a cliild teases a pup. 

Sometimes when a steady rain comes during the performance of 
the Wa'-wa-tho° ceremonies the ritual of the Mo°'-xe Thi-hi-dse 
Wa-tho° is recited and the songs are sung to make it stop raining by 
their supposed magical influence, or a hunter who has the right to 
use the Wa'-wa-tho° wdll recite the ritual and sing the songs to bring 
clear weather when he is kept indoors by a long-continued rain. The 
use of the rite, in a magical way, came about as much from a mis- 
conception of the ideal which the Ancient No'^'-ho^-zhi^-ga endeavored 
to set forth by ritual and song as from the belief that a rite that has 
been divinely inspired must have some supernatural quality. 

The sky mentioned in the ritual here given, of the Ancient No°'- 
ho''-zhi°-ga, is not the material sky that surrounds us but the sky 
of conduct of men toward one another, a sky which might be overcast 
with dangerous and destructive clouds of war, but which could be 
influenced by men, through self-restraint, self-denial, and good will, 
which alone can avert the storms of hatred and malice, and make the 
sky of conduct clear and serene. 

THE Wl'-GI-E (RITUAL) 

(Osage version, p. 263) 
1 

1. Ho! little one, he was heard to say, in the distance, 

2. When he, in appeal, spoke to him in this wise: The little ones 

have no means by which to control the sky. 

3. At that very time and place he was heard in the distance to make 

reply. 

4. He, the bird, who sits as though he had been struck with a tinge 

of red, 

5. Was heard to make reply, in the distance, even from the open 

prairies. 

6. When, in appeal, the little ones spoke to him, thus: "Ho! grand- 

father. 



226 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

7. The little ones have no means by which to control the sky," 

8. At that very time and place, he was heard to make reply far in 

the distance, 

9. "You have said the little ones have no means by which to control 

the sky. 

10. I shall be the means by which the little ones can control the sky. 

11. Behold my body which is as though it had been struck with a 

tinge of red, 

12. And behold the god who lies in the upper region, 

13. Whose body is as though struck, here and there, with a tinge of 

red, 

14. Verily, I am a person who has made himself to resemble this god, 

15. And when the little ones make of me the means to control the sky, 

16. This god who lies in the upper region, 

17. They shall be able, as a people, to control at will through their 

life's journey," he was heard to say. 

2 

18. At that very time and place, 

19. He, the ki-ta-ni-ka, the bluejay, was heard to say in the distance, 

20. Wlien, in appeal, he was addressed in this wise, "Ho! grand- 

father, 

21. The little ones have no means by which to control the sk}^" 

22. Then, at that very time and place, he was heard to make reply, 

23. "You have said the little ones have no means by which to control 

the sky, 

24. I shall be the means by which the little ones can control the sky, 

25. Behold, my body which is colored with blue, 

26. And behold, the god who lies in the upper region, 

27. Whose body is, here and there, colored with blue, 

28. Verily, I am a person who has made himself to resemble this god, 

29. And when the little ones make of me the means by which to control 

the sky, 

30. This god, who lies in the upper region, 

31. They shall be able, as a people, to control at will, through their 

life's journey." 

3 

32. Verily, at that time and place, 

33. He, the redbird, the scarlet tanager, 

34. Was heard to say, in the distance, at the beginning of the day, 

35. "Behold, the god who is ever the first to appear, 

36. The god, who is as though struck with a color of red, 

37. And behold the color of my own body, which is red, 

38. Verily, I am a person who has made himself to resemble that god, 



La Flesche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 227 

39. And when the little ones make of me the means by which to con- 

trol the sky, 

40. They shall be able, through their life's journey, to make that 

god appear, clothed in red, and leading forth a tranquil day." 



41. Verily, at that time and place, 

42. He, the spotted duck, was heard to say in the distance, 

43. When, in appeal, he was called to, in this wise, "Ho! grandfather, 

44. The little ones have no means by which to control the sky." 

45. Verily, at that time and place, he was heard in the distance to 

make reply: 

46. "You have said, the little ones have no means by which to control 

the sky. 

47. Behold, the spot with which my body is crossed, 

48. And behold, the god who lies in the upper region, 

49. Whose body, also, is covered with spots, 

50. Verily, I am a person who has made himself to resemble that god. 

51. When the little ones make of me the means by which to control 

the sky, 

52. This god who lies in the upper region, 

53. They as a people, through their life's journey, shall be able at will 

to control him." 

5 

54. At that very time and place, 

55. He, the great curlew, was heard in the distance, 

56. When, in appeal, he was called to, in this wise: "Ho! grandfather, 

57. The Uttle ones have no means by which to control the sky." 

58. He was heard in the far distance to make reply, saying, "You 

have said the little ones have no means by which to control 
the sky. 

59. I shall be the means by which the little ones can control the sky." 

60. Then, at a time, when the night had not yet turned toward the 

morrow 

61. He arose and breathed forth a loud call; 

62. Then he was heard to say, in the distance: "This is my call, 

63. With the force of which I strike in the very center, the god of the 

upper region, 

64. And thus I have ever cleared away the harmful clouds from him. 

65. When the little ones make of me the means by which to control 

the sky, 

66. In Uke manner they shall strike in the very center, the god of the 

upper region, 

67. And ever be able, through their life's journey, to clear away the 

angry clouds from him" 



228 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

6 

68. At that very time and place, 

69. He, the great white swan, was heard to &ay, 

70. When, in appeal, he was called to, in this wise: "Ho! grandfather, 

71. The little ones have no means by which to control the sky." 

72. Then, in the distance he was heard to make reply, saying: "Ho! 

little ones, 

73. You have said the little ones have no means by which to control 

the sky. 

74. I shall be the means by which the little ones can control the sky. 

75. Behold, the whiteness of my body, 

76. And behold the whiteness, the purity of the sky, 

77. Verily, I am a person who has made himself to resemble the sky 

in purity. 

78. When the little ones make of me the means by which to control 

the sky 

79. They shall be able, through their life's journey, to make the god 

of the upper region 

80. To lie in perfect purity," 

From the ritual of the Mo°'-xe Thi-hi-dse it can be seen that the 
ancient No'-ho°~zhi°-ga gave much thought to the ever-changing 
mood of the sky which has an important place in the religious con- 
cepts of the Osage. The dark clouds that bring lightning, hail, and 
destructive \vinds inspired them with awe and they associated them 
with the terrible actions of men in their strife with each other. In 
the ceremonies that relate to war many of the rituals and songs refer 
to the dark clouds, the lightning, and the winds, and their destruc- 
tive character is dramatized in ceremonial form. War was regarded 
by these ancient teachers as a necessary evil, but necessary only for 
self-preservation, therefore, the honor awarded a warrior for the per- 
formance of heroic deeds in defending the village and the fields is 
counted as higher than any that might be won in aggressive warfare. 
This rule existed among the Omaha. (See Twenty-seventh Ann. 
Kept. Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 43.) No o-do°' (war honor) can be 
recounted in the Wa-xo'-be ceremony by a warrior unless he can 
also count an honor awarded him for a heroic deed performed in 
defending the village, and particularl}^ the field where women work. 
War was not thought of by the No'^'-ho'^-zhi^-ga as desirable, for while 
the warriors of the tribe might triumph over their enemies in a single 
encounter or in a number of battles the fear of attack in retaliation 
would always follow them while engaged in hunting the deer or chas- 
ing the buffalo, and the women would be in constant dread while 
worldng in the fields. War meant to them only malice, hatred, and 
death. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 



229 



When the No'''-ho°-zlu°-ga directed their thoughts toward peace 
they discerned in it all that was desirable, mutual friendship and love, 
not only among the people within the tribe but also among the people 
of all other tribes; in it they saw a liberation from the restraints of 
fear. Like other teachings that touch closely the life and welfare of 
the people, the teaching of peace could not be preserved or transmitted 
in any other way than by rites, with rituals and songs that were more 
or less allegorical in character, of which the Mo°'-xe Thi-hi-dse ritual 
and songs are an example. The No°'-ho°-zlii°-ga, in this ritual, chose 
the sky and the variety of changes it assumes when in a peaceful 
mood, and the activity of the birds at such times, to illustrate and 
set forth their teaching of peace. "The bird who sits as though he 
had been struck with a tinge of red" (cardinal, pi. 6, a) is associated 
with the soft morning clouds that are struck with a tinge of red by 
the rising sun, and which promise a calm day. The bluejay (pi. 6, b), 
with the sky, which although clouded, is serene and shows its color of 
blue through intervening spaces; the scarlet tanager, with the red 
dawn that is an unfailing sign of a bright day; the spotted duck, with 
the sky flecked with harmless blue clouds; the "great curlew," with 
the sunny day, the coming of which he predicts by his cry, even before 
dawn; and lastly, the white swan, with the sky that is perfect in 
purity and peace. 

These songs which follow the recital of the wi'-gi-e voice the emotion 
of the people. 

Song 1 ^ 



M.M. J -80 



!^ 



-T- 



(Osage version, p. 266) 
N I -^ 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



-Jt 



Az 



± 



Ho"^ - ga thi hi tlia, ha - we, da we, Ho° - ga thi hi tha, 



i: 



^ 



ha -we, da we, 



■± 



a^— ih 



^ 



:2: 



Hoii-gathi hi 



tha, ha -we, da we. 



Hoii-gathi hi 



#: 



B^ 



^i^ 



-^^ 



:dr 



3-f 



-4- -4 

Ho°-ga thi hi 



& -m- • ^ ^ 

tha, ha -we, da we, 



tha, ha - we, da we. 



This song is sung four times, during which the pipes are not moved 
and only rattles are used to accompany the voice. The song is 
addressed to the clear sky, the most important of all the symbols of 
peace. During the first singing the pipes are held toward the east at 
right angles to the extended arm and on a level with the face. During 

» The music of this song is a variant of an Oto Wa-wo" collected by Alice C. Fletcher and Francis 
La Flesche in 1896. The Oto song has been transcribed but not yet published, 



230 



BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



(Bull. lOl 



the second singing the pipes are held in the same manner toward the 
north on a Hne with the top of the head. At the third singing they 
are similarly held only a little higher and toward the west. \Vhile 
singing the song for the fourth time they are held in the same way 
high above the head and toward the north as though offering them 
to the sky. 

Song 2 



(Osage version, p. 266) 



M.M 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 




ko- we 



Ko-we 



mo°-sho° a-thii» a-do°,Ko 



Wlien singing this song the Do-do°'-ho°-ga and the Xo'-ka beat 
time with the rattles and wave the pipes to the rhythm of the song, 
which is a call to the sky of peace to come and unfold itself over the 
people and over the land, to bring with it the peace and happiness that 
is symbolized by the various objects used in the Wa'-wa-tho° rite, the 
feather pendants of the pipes, the symbolic face painting, the fluffy 
feathers, all of which refer to the bringing of the day of peace to all 
men. 

In the month of August 1914, Te-o'-ko°-ha (pi. 7) gave to the 
writer the following list of the birds used by the Omahas as symbols 
of a clear and serene sky. He also stated that sometimes the Omaha 
makers of the Wa-wo° pipes put little black marks upon that part of 
the stem covered by the neck and head of the mallard duck, to repre- 
sent the necks and throats of these sacred birds. Te-o'-ko°-ha be- 
longs to the Ni-ni'-bato° gens of the Omaha I°-shta-go°-da gens and 
is well informed on the symbolisms of the Omaha Wa-wo° pipes, he 
having often assisted in making them. 

1. Ki'-ko°-to°-ga, long-billed curlew (pi. 8, 6). This bird clears 
away the clouds from the sky with the magical power of its voice. The 
personal name Ki'-ko°-to°-ga appears in the P-ke'-ga-be gens of the 
Omaha tribe as a Ni'-ki-e name. 

2. To°-i°, curlew. The song of this bird is distinctly heard in the 
sunshine that follows a rainstorm and the hearts of the people are 
gladdened because they know from the song that the storm is over 
and that a clear and tranquil sky is coming. 

3. Te'-i"-shta-tha-xu-be, probably the Savannah sparrow. This 
bird in building its nest makes a hole in the ground which it lines with 
the fiber of the milkweed and the silky hairs of the seeds. The site 
chosen for the nest is always under a bunch of grass which not only 
shelters it from the rains and the winds but also hides it from harmful 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 101 PLATE 8 




a, White swan. 




6, Long-billed curlew. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 101 PLATE 9 




a. Mallard duck. 





X 


.'!, 


i^Ly \ 


^ 


^^m^d 


■■^^M 


■^I \^^1 ^m(. Jt 




"^^■^< 




^^; ' ^ 




i^^ '- 



b, Scarlet tanager. 



La Flksche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 231 

animals. After a rain this little bird perches itself on a stalk of the 
gum weed, throws up its head and tail and joyously greets, with its 
thrilling song, the sunshine and the blue sky. The bird is not much 
larger than a man's thumb but it has a voice that is sweet and far- 
reaching. When the people hear the song of this bird they also rejoice 
and welcome the sunshine and the unclouded sky. The song of this 
bird is always taken by the people as a sure sign that the storm has 
finally passed away. 

4. Ta-gka'-gka, spotted thrush. This bird has a beautiful voice. 
When it sings it throws its head upward as though singing to the sky 
and twitches its tail in an excited manner. When the song of this 
bird is heard at the coming of day the people say: "The ta-gka'-gka 
sings; it will be clear and peaceful to-day," and thus this bird secured 
a place among the sacred birds. 

5. Pa'-hi-tu, mallard duck (pi. 9, a). When the call of this bird is 
heard along the streams and lakes at break of day, the persons first 
hearing the call would say: "A-ho! I hear the call of the pa'-hi-tu; a 
clear and peaceful day is coming." The skin of the neck and breast 
of this bird is put upon the Wa-wo° pipes of the Omaha, Osage, and 
Pawnee tribes. 

6. Wa-zhi°'-ga-pa, pUeatd woodpecker (pi. 2, b). Unlike the birds 
of its kind, the wa-zhi°'-ga-pa is wild and difficult to approach. It very 
seldom calls throughout the day and its whereabouts can be known 
only by the sounds of its loud knocking on the dead branches of a 
tree. But its call and knocking may sometimes be heard at dawn 
when those hearing the sounds would say, "A-ho! the wa-zhi^'-ga-pa 
calls and knocks; it knows that the day will be clear and gentle." 
The skin of the head of this bird with the maxUla attached is fas- 
tened to the stem of the Omaha, Osage, and Pawnee pipes. The red 
on the head symbolizes persistency and perseverance. 

7. Pa'-nu-hu, owl (pi. 2, a). When the hooting and the cries of the 
owl are heard just about the break of day it is said that the coming 
day wUl be clear and mild. The feathers of this bird are put upon 
the Omaha, Osage, and Pawnee pipes. 

The Do-do"' -ho°-ga, before rising with his Xo'-ka to sing the next 
set of songs, addresses the members of the Ho^'-ga U-ta-no^-dsi, a 
war-like gens, and those of the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no°, a gens of peace, say- 
ing: "Ho! Ho"'-ga U-ta-no°-dsi and Tsi'-zhu Wa-no", it has always 
been the custom for you to assist in this part of the ceremony and, 
appealing to your sympathy, I now ask of you the assistance which 
you have never refused to give." 

Then those present who belong to these gentes hasten to select two 
men from their members to act out a little comedy that takes place 
soon after the singing of the songs next in order. These two men, as 
soon as they have been chosen, go to their homes, dress and paint 



232 



BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 101 



themselves like the men of strange tribes, then, mounted on their 
best horses, ride side by side in and around the camp while the Weep- 
ing Songs which form the next set are being sung. 

Weeping Songs 

Toward evening, after an intermission following the singing of the 
Sky Controlling Songs, the Do-do°'-ho°-ga and the Xo'-ka rise with 
the pipes and rattles to sing the Weeping Songs. Before the singing 
is started the Do-do°'-ho°-ga addresses the people who have come to 
witness the ceremony, saying: "A ni-ka-shi-ga, A' wi° ge tha-k'e 
o°-tha gi-the do° tha-no^-zhi"^ ta tse a bi° da, ni-ka-wa-ga e," which 
may be translated in this wise: "Oh! brethren, it has been said that 
if any one has any compassion for me at the performance of this part 
of the ceremony he will rise." To a stranger who is unfamiliar with 
the customs of the Osage this address would be meaningless, but to 
one who has been born and bred in this ceremonial life it means that 
all who are in mourning are asked to terminate their period of mourn- 
ing with the Wa'-wa-tho° ceremony, which means the granting of 
life and happiness to all men, instead of carrying out their intentions 
of giving the Wa-sha'-be A-thi° ceremony, which brings no comfort 
but death and sorrow to others. 

At the starting of the songs all who are in mourning willingly rise 
and begin to weep as a final shedding of tears for the dead. 

Song 1 
(Osage version, p. 267) 



M.M. 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 




Time beats ^ — »»■'-*- -#- -J- 

r rr r rr r r r r 

The xa - ge, the xa - ge, the xa - ge the Xa - ge the Ho° 



't- 



tr 



i. 4 r^ 4 



^ 



3? 



-•- '«- -0- -»-' 

rr r r r r r r r r r r 

ga, the Ho"^ - ga, the Xa - ge, The xa - ge, the xa 




r r r rr r r r r 

ge, the xa - ge the Ho° - ga The xa - ge, the xa 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 



233 



Song 2 

(Osage version, p. 267) 



M.M. J =76 



Sl^ 



* 



Transcrlbad by Alice C. Fletcher. 
— 3 



3 



The Xa - 



Ho'i - ga 



Xa - ge - Ho° - ga, 




? 



1*: 



xa - ge Ho° - ga 



Xa - ge Hqii - ga, 



Xa - ge Ho^ - ga. 



After this ceremony the mourners throw away the ragged blankets 
they have been wearing as a sign of mourning and tlie men mourners 
cut their hair and paint their faces as when not in mourning, and all 
forget their sorrow. 

Wlien the singing of the Weeping Songs comes to a close the two 
Pa'-thi°, or make-believe strangers, ride to the door of the house of 
the Wa'-wa-tho"" party. One of the Tse'-xe-k'i° meets them and con- 
ducts them into the house, where they are assigned to places near the 
Do-do^'-ho^-ga and the Xo'-ka. Then food is brought and placed 
before them, as are also presents of blankets. They eat quietly but 
hastily, as though suffering from hunger, while the members of the 
Wa'-wa-tho° party and their other guests make remarks among them- 
selves about the strangers, such as, "They must have come from a 
long distance; they seem to be pretty hungry. The one sitting nearest 
to the Do-do'^'-ho^-ga looks as though he might be a Ho°'-ga U-ta- 
no°-dsi and the other a Tsi'-zhu Wa-no°," at which there would be a 
general nudging with the elbows, followed by smiles and laughter. 

Without a smile or the slightest notice of these remarks the strangers 
go on with their eating; then, when they have finished and indicated 
by signs and flourishing gestures the satisfaction of their hunger, the 
Xo'-ka speaks to them, by signs, saying, "Where did you come from?" 
After some gibberish between the two, both strangers reply by stretch- 
ing out their right arms and pointing to the west, then drawing in 
the hands, with the index finger point upward. This occasions further 
remarks among the Wa'-wa-tho° party and their other guests, meant 
to be very amusing, at the expense of the strangers, particularly the 
representative of the Ho'^'-ga U-ta-no^-dsi gens whose symbol is the 
striped skunk. 

Although enjoying the jokes of their hosts, the strangers give no 
outward signs of understanding them. 

When all have had their fun and have quieted down the strangers 
inform their hosts, by a series of graceful manual signs, that the 
warriors of two hostile tribes were approaching to attack their camp. 
The strangers, being friendly to the tribe, had come to give timely 

83773—39 16 



234 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. lOl 

warning to their friends so that they may prepare themselves for the 
attack. 

When the visitors have given their friendly warning they take leave 
of their hosts to depart, first thanking them for their hospitality and 
generous gifts. 

The little comedy is enacted for the purpose of introducing the 
ceremonies connected with the sham attack to be made upon the 
Ho°'-ga on the following morning. The pleasantries in this play of 
the two strangers, as well as in the Name Taking ceremony, to be 
next described, are for the purpose of emphasizing the idea of the 
friendly feeling and relations which the people aim to bring about 
through the influence of the Wa'-wa-tho'' ceremony. 

When the two make-believe strangers have gone the Wa'-wa-tho° 
party choose an I'-e-ki-the, crier, from the Black Bear gens or from 
its subgens, the Puma. If they can not get one from either of these 
gentes they select one from the Tsi'-zhu Wa-no°. This crier is then 
sent out to give warning throughout the camp, saying: "Ho! two 
great w^ar parties are reported to be advancing to attack the village 
and the young warriors are bidden to prepare to meet them," 

Name Taking 

The fun-loving young men and boys who are eager to take part in 
the attack hasten to their maternal uncles, as soon as they hear the 
voice of the crier, each carrying a pair of moccasins, a pair of leggings, 
a blanket, or some other article of value. Each youth lays his present 
before his uncle and says: "Uncle, I want you to give me a name to 
use to-morrow morning, if I should win an honor in the attack." 
"Ho!" the uncle would reply, "your name shall be, He-who-is-always- 
last-to-get-up-in-the-morning." Another might say to his young 
nephew who is just beginning to make himself attractive to the 
maidens, "Ho! my nephew, I have a name for you, it is, 'He-who-is- 
always-being-jilted'." Or one would say, "Ah, my nephew, you have 
given me a beautiful present. In return I will give you a fine name; 
you shall be 'Sore-back'." This refers to the inattention of the lad 
to the discomforts of his pony. 

Thus the early part of the night would be spent in merriment and 
laughter at the expense of the nephews, who take good-naturedly these 
thiTists at their faults or peculiarities, made by their uncles, who never 
joke with their nephews except on this occasion. The nephews go 
about the camp loudly proclaiming their new names, meeting shouts 
of laughter, until at last a "smoky" feeling in their eyes drives them 
to seek their resting places. 



Part II 

Charcoal Fight 

No°-xthe I-ki°-dse Wa-tho° is the title of the ritual and songs to 
be next recited and sung. The literal translation of the title is: 
No°-xthe, charcoal; I, for; ki°-dse, fight; Wa-tho°, songs; Fight for 
the Charcoal Songs. 

Before the break of day a small house is set apart by the Tse'-xe- 
k'i°', near the dwelling occupied by the Wa'-wa-tho" party, in prepara- 
tion for the dramatic attack to be made upon the Ho'^'-ga. For this 
part of the ceremony the Ho°'-ga is dressed with a new blanket, 
ornamented leggings, moccasins, jacket, and ear ornaments. When he 
is dressed and painted (pi. 10) he is ceremonially conducted to his little 
house with the pile of blankets and other articles of clothing, brought 
by the Wa'-wa-tho° party for distribution to the winners of honors 
in the dramatic attack. Then the two Xthe'-ts'a-ge stand guard over 
the Ho°'-ga's house to protect it against the young men who, while 
preparing for the attack, and waiting for the preliminary ceremonies, 
will try to steal past them and enter it to get the ceremonial clothing. 
Should one succeed in entering he will be entitled, not only to the 
pile of blankets, but also to the clothing and ornaments worn by the 
Ho°'-ga, thus bringing to a premature close the dramatic attack. 

When the Ho'^'-ga is seated in his little house the Sho'-ka kindles 
the sacred fire in the open air near the dwelling occupied by the Wa'- 
wa-tho° party and the Ho°'-ga's house. As the flames of the fire, 
which is built of sacred wood, begin to roar and to leap upward, the 
Do-do°'-ho"-ga and the Xo'-ka rise with the pipes and the rattles and 
ceremonially approach the fire. At the same time the Wa-sha'-be 
A-thi° Wa-zho-wa-gthe and all the young men and boys who are to 
take part in the dramatic attack gather around the fire in a great ring. 
Then standing in the glare of the flames as the sky reddens with the 
approach of dawn, the Xo'-ka begins to recite the Charcoal Wi'-gi-e or 
Ritual, while he and the Do-do°'-ho"-ga hold the pipes pointed toward 
the fire. 

235 



236 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. lOl 

Charcoal Ritual 

(Osage version, p. 267) 
1 

1. Far in the distance one was heard to say: "Ho! little ones, 

2. What shall the little ones use as a symbol for their charcoal?" 

3. Then, far in the distance there came the reply, "There is a bird 

without stain, 

4. Let the little ones use this bird as a symbol for the charcoal." 

5. Then, verily, at that time and place the bird without a stain was 

heard to speak, far in the distance, 

6. Saying: "Behold, how dark is the skin of my feet, 

7. I have made that, always, to be my charcoal. 

8. When the little ones also m.ake of it their charcoal, 

9. Black indeed shall be the charcoal they make for themselves 

throughout their life's journey. 

10. Behold, how dark are the tips of my tail feathers, 

11. Which I have made always to be my charcoal. 

12. When the little ones also make of them their charcoal, 

13. Black indeed shall be the charcoal they make for themselves 

throughout their life's journey." 

14. Verily, at that time and place he was heard to speak in the 

distance, 

15. Saying: "Behold, the black part of my body also, 

16. Wliich I have made always to be my charcoal. 

17. When the little ones also make of them their charcoal, 

18. Black indeed shall be the charcoal they make for themselves. 

19. Behold, how black is the tip of my beak, 

20. That also I have made, always, to be my charcoal. 

21. Wlien the little ones also make of it their charcoal, 

22. Black indeed shall be the charcoal they make for themselves 

throughout their life's journey." 



23. Verily, at that time and place, one was heard to speak in the 

distance, 

24. Saying: "What shall the little ones use as a symbol for their 

charcoal?" 

25. Then the great white swan was heard to speak in the distance, 

26. When, in appeal, he was addressed, in this Mase: "Ho! grandfather, 

27. The little ones have nothing to use as a symbol for their charcoal." 

28. Verily, at that time and place he was heard to reply in the 

distance, 



La Flesche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 237 

29. "You have said, The Httle ones have nothing to use for their 

charcoal, 

30. I shall be charcoal for the little ones," he was heard to say. 

31. "Behold, how dark is the skin of my feet, 

32. Which I have made always to be my charcoal. 

33. When the little ones also make of it their charcoal, 

34. Black indeed shall be the charcoal they make for themselves 

throughout their Ufe's journey. 

35. Behold, how dark is the tip of my beak, 

36. That also, 

37. I have made always to be my charcoal. 

38. When the little ones also make of it their charcoal, 

39. Black indeed shall be the charcoal they make for themselves." 

With the exception of certain omissions, this ritual is the same as 
the Charcoal Ritual used in the war rite. The war Charcoal Ritual, 
from which this one was taken, is divided into five parts, each of 
which mentions an animal as the giver of the charcoal symbolic insig- 
nia, namely: 1, the puma; 2, the black bear; 3, the white swan; 4, the 
golden eagle; and 5, the deer. The parts relating to the puma, the 
black bear, and the deer are omitted altogether from the Charcoal 
Ritual of the Wa-wa'-tho"*, for the reason that these symbols are 
expressly dedicated to war, as stated in the closing lines of each part. 
The two parts relating to the white swan and the golden eagle are used 
for the Wa'-wa-tho° charcoal ceremony because the words employed 
in dedicating them to war were not so definite as those used for the 
puma, the black bear, and the deer. 

A further omission or modification is made in the two parts taken 
for use in the Wa'-wa-tho° charcoal ceremony. Instead of the words 
"A bi° da, tsi ga," "it has been said in this house," an expression that 
occurs at the end of each line of the war Charcoal Ritual, only the 
words "a be tho," it has been said, are used at the end of each line of 
the Wa-wa-tho° Ritual, for the reason that the words "in this house" 
in the war ritual refer to the house that is set apart solely for the war 
ceremonies. 

The line that frequently occurs in both these rituals, "no°-xthe 
gi-ga-be ki-the moMhi"* ta bi*" da," "Black, indeed, shall be the char- 
coal they make for themselves, throughout their life's journey," is 
understood to mean that only by a united effort and the use of one 
insignia could people be sure of success in overcoming their enemies 
or bringing about peace and good will between all men. 



238 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 101 



Charcoal Song 

(Osage version, p. 268) 



M.M.J -96 




Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



B^^ 



EEa az^^j j ^=^5 =^=j=j 



-^ 



Ni - ka ^to bi ni wa tha tse, 



E tha we 







"» — ^ 
tha ne, he tha we tha ne, He tha we tha ne, he tha we 




• — •-. — • — •-£-- -4^0 — ^ 



-# -#- -1^ ^ 

tha - a, ha - a, Ni - ka ^to bi 



— -i^ — 1 ^.- 



ni - wa tha tse. 



At the end of the sixth stanza the Do-do°'-ho°-ga and the Xo-ka 
pomt to the sacred fire with the pipes. At that instant the Wa-sha'-be 
A-thi° Wa-zho'-wa-gthe, his Xthe'-ts'a-ge and Tse'-xe-k'i°, together 
with the young men and the boys, rush from all sides upon the blazing 
fire, kicking the brands and live coals in every direction, uttering yells 
and war cries, pushing each other in an attempt to secure a brand or a 
handful of the coals. Without a pause, amid this tumult, the Do-do'^'- 
ho°-ga and the Xo'-ka go on to the next stanza, keeping perfect time 
in their movements with the music, and unmindful of the discordant 
yells and cries. 

The first stanza of this song sings of the gathering of the men of the 
tribe to take part in an act of importance. The second stanza sings 
of the joining of the Wa'-wa-tho" party with the men of the tribe in 
the performance of the act. The third stanza sings of the aged men 
who have come to do their share in the performance of the act. The 
fourth stanza sings of the sacred pipes which have brought the people 
together to perform the ceremony of peace. The fifth stanza sings of 
the sacred fire around which all have gathered for the act of impor- 
tance. The sixth stanza sings of the charcoal from the burning fire 
which shall be the insignia of the people who unite to bring to pass 
the important act. The seventh stanza sings of the accomplishment 
through which the aim and purpose of the ceremony is made to stand 
in the broad light of day. 

The rush for the charcoal is done so quickly that the "fight" is over 
almost before the last stanza of the song is finished. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 



239 



M.M. 



126 



Touching the Charcoal Song 

Nc-ithe Wa-tse Wa-tho" 

(Osage version, p. 269) 

Transcribed by Alice 0. Fletcher. 




Ni - ka 9to bi ui wa tha tse, he he he 



A we he tha ha ha 



3= 



1 — q- 



i*— ir 



-li — ^- 



ne tha ha Ni - ka ^to bi ni wa tha tse, he he. 



This song refers to the securing of some of the charcoal, the symbohc 
insignia, by each one of the participants in the "fight." During the 
singing of this song the Wa-sha'-be A-thi° Wa-zho'-wa-gthe, his officers 
and the young men and boys, hurriedly paint their faces and bodies 
and also their horses with the charcoal, in preparation for the dramatic 
attack on the Ho°'-ga. 

This and the preceding song are aUke except the tune and vocables 
occurring in each. The vocables that make up the third Une of each 
stanza of this song do not suggest any meaning, but when the symbolic 
pipes were to be taken on a war expedition, which used to be done 
sometimes, and the charcoal ceremony referred to war, the following 
words take the place of the vocables: U-wi-hi, I have won from you 
the game. War is here likened to a game of chance which may be 
won by a well-organized force. 

Going to the Attack 

When all who are to take part in the dramatic attack have painted 
themselves and their horses with the sacred charcoal, and the sun 
has risen, the Wa-ko°'-tha The'-the Wa-tho°, The Song of Going to 
the Attack, is started by the Do-do°'-ho°-ga and the Xo'-ka. Then 
the Wa-sha'-be A-thi° Wa-zho'-wa-gthe, his Xthe'-ts'a-ge and Tse-xe- 
k'i"", the young men and boys, mount their horses, go to the end of a 
smooth course, about "a running distance of horses" (a mile). There 
they arrange themselves in a hne and at a signal given by the Wa- 
zho'-wa-gthe, urge their horses to their utmost and with wild shouts 
and war cries make for the little house of the Ho°'-ga. 



240 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. lOl 



M.M. 



76 



Song of Going to the Attack 

(Osage version, p. 269) 

Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher, 



i 



^ 



^^1^ 



^ 



Ko we 



tha, 



ko we 



tha, 



Da - doii a- thin a-do^ 




Ko we 



Mo^-sho'i a-thi^ a-do^ Ko we tha. 



The words that make up the first, third, and fifth lines of each 
stanza, Ko we tha, are archaic and now obsolete. It is said that they 
mean "Come hither" or "Come ye." 

In the second line of each stanza is the word Da-do°, things. This 
refers to all of the various articles used as symbols in the Wa'-wa- 
tho° ceremony. This, however, does not mean the articles themselves, 
but peace and happiness, of which they are symbols. 

The word Mo°-sho°, feathers, in the fourth line of the first stanza 
refers to the pipes, wliich also symbolize peace and happiness for all 
men, the theme of the Wa'-wa-tho° rite. 

As in the first stanza, the fourth line in each of the following stanzas 
makes a particular reference to one of the various articles used as 
symbols of peace and happiness in the ceremony. 

That of the second stanza craves the peace and happiness sym- 
bolized by the Ki-no° — symbolic face pamting of the persons taking 
part in the performance of the ceremony. 

In the third stanza it is the Wa-gthe or fluffy feathers worn by 
each person taking part in the Wa'-wa-tho° ceremony. 

In the fourth stanza the word Wa-pa, a weapon, here refers to the 
rod carried by each one of the men and boys who take part in the 
dramatic attack upon the Ho'^'-ga, a weapon that bring gifts, peace, 
and happiness, instead of death and grief. 

Ho°'-ba, day, in the fifth stanza refers to the day when through the 
influence of the Wa'-wa-tho" rite all men will finally live in peace and 
rear their young without fear. 

Wa-xthi'-zhi declined to give the meaning of this song. Later, 
Wa-no°-zhe-zhi°-ga, who has taken part a number of times in the 
performance of the Wa'-wa-tho"* ceremony, and whose father was 
familiar with the meaning of each part of the rite, stated that his 
father had said that the song is addressed to the mild and gentle 
winds that are themselves used as symbols in the rite calling them to 
bring the peace and happiness sought through the influence of the 
ceremony. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 



241 



Victory Song 

Wa-tse Wa-tho° 

The title of this song may be Hterally translated as Wa-tse, touching, 
from I'-tse, to touch; Wa-tho°, song. The word wa-tse, however, as 
used here in the Wa-tse Wa-tho° of the war rites has a different 
meaning, that is, victory. The organization of the Osage people as 
a military body, or bodies, is typified by the hawks that form the 
central figure of the elaborate ceremonies pertaining to war. It is to 
these emblems that all the military achievements of the warriors are 
accredited and in the victory songs these birds are addressed by name, 
"Thou blackbird, thou gray bird, thou little hawk, the victory is thine, 
or thou hast won a victory." This victory song of the Wa'-wa-tho" 
which corresponds to those of war ceremonies when the men and boys 
with glad shouts rush by the little house in wliich the Ho°'-ga sits, 
giving it a stroke with his rod, as though giving an enemy in battle a 
stroke. This scene, wliich symbolizes the triumph of peace, is wit- 
nessed by all the people of the village with a feeling of friendliness and 
good will toward one another, the attainment of which is accredited to 
the symbols of peace by the song. 

Song 1 
(Osage version, p. 270) 




120 



Transcribed by AllceC. Fletcher. 



^=^ 



Time beats [* i^ |* 

Ah ha, ni wa ha, 



ha 



r 

tha 



r r r r 

tse he, 



l«S 






ffi 



iS: 



^ 



^=1■ 



I 



i=t:t 



J 



■^:i=^ 



^:^:J=i 



r r r r r 



-!»- -)S>- 

rrrr 



r r r 



r r 



Ah ha, ni wa ha, ni wa ha tha tee he, Mo^-sho"^ ha ha, tha tee. 

The first and second lines of each stanza are alike and may be 
translated thus: ah ha, behold; ni wa ha, modified form of thi-e,(|||hou; 
tha-tse, have touched or won a victory; he, vocable. 

In the third line of the first stanza, mo''-sho°, feathers or pipes; 
ha ha, modified form of "a," word sign of an address to a person. 

In the third line of the second stanza the ki'-no° or symbolic face 
painting of the persons taking part in the performance of the ceremony 
are similarly addressed. 

So too, in the third line of the third stanza the Wa'-gthe or fluffy 
feather worn by each member of the Wa'-wa-tho° party. 

The word Wa-k'o°' in the third line of the fourth stanza refers to 
the effort to bring about peace and good will between men through 
the influence of the Wa'-wa-tho° Ceremony. 



242 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

In the third Hne of the fifth and last stanza the Ho°'-ba, day, is 
addressed, which witnesses the success of the effort. 

Delivery of Gifts 

After the attack the Ho°'-ga is taken back to the house of the 
Wa-sha'-be A-thi" Wa-zho'-wa-gthe, together with the blankets and 
other articles of clothing to be distributed among the men and boys 
who took part in the attack, and the goods and the Ho°'-ga are placed 
before the men and boys, who select two or three men of their number 
to make the distribution. These men look over the blankets and other 
articles and grade them according to quality and value and proceed 
to distribute them, beginning with the one who was first to strike the 
Ho°'-ga's house. When all the blankets and other articles have been 
exhausted the distributers strip from the Ho'^'-ga the clothing worn 
by him, as well as ornaments, bracelets, armlets, and silver earrings, 
which they divide among those who received none of the other goods. 
When the distributers have finished each man and boy gives his share 
to the Wa-sha'-be A-thi° Wa-zho'-wa-gthe, who receives the offerings 
of the men with thanks, but when the boys come to him with their 
gifts he asks each one his new name given to him by his uncle the pre- 
ceding night. This he now loudly calls out, at the same time thanking 
the lad. Upon hearing a name as "Sore-back" or "He-who-is-always- 
last-to-get-up-in-the-morning" the people set up shouts of laughter. 
These foolish names are soon forgotten. The Wa-zho'-wa-gthe shares 
the blankets and other things with his Xthe'-ts'a-ge and Tse'-xe-k'i°. 

Erecting the Rack Ceremony 

Wa'-dsi-zhu 

At the close of the distribution of the gifts to the Wa-zho'-wa-gthe 
and his officers, the Tse'-xe-k'i° of the Wa'-wa-tho" party proceed to 
erect a rack about 7 feet high and 30 feet long, in preparation for the 
ceremony called Wa'-dsi-zhu. This rack consists of forked posts 
planted firmly in the ground about 10 or 12 feet apart and poles placed 
hori#ntally in the forks of the posts. The name Wa'-dsi-zhu, which 
may be freely translated as placing things upon, refers to the hanging 
of the blankets upon the rack and the hitching to the upright posts of 
the horses to be brought as gifts to the Wa'-wa-tho° party. Near 
the end of this rack is planted a forked post about 6 feet high, upon 
which a shield is suspended by its strap. 

The Ni'-ka Wa-gi-gi-ge, or honored warriors, are the first to bring 
the gifts they intend to present to the Wa'-wa-tho" party. The war- 
rior wears all his regaUa. He either goes before or follows his wife, 
who always leads the horses and carries in a bundle the blankets or 
other articles to be given away. The woman is thus publicly recog- 
nized as the home maker whom every warrior is bound in duty to 



La Flesche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 243 

protect. While the woman stands near the rack with the gifts the 
warrior goes to the post on which the shield is hung. There he pauses 
and in a loud voice recounts his valorous deeds,^ performed when 
defending the women and the village. He gesticulates with the stick 
or war club that he carries in his hand, and at the close of the recital 
of each deed he gives the shield a whack, in imitation of the stroke 
he gave the enemy. When he has finished the recounting of his 
valorous deeds his wife ties the horses to the long rack and hangs the 
blankets or other articles on the horizontal poles. 

In the meantime the Wa-dse'-pa-i" men and women go from house 
to house and ask for presents for the Wa'-wa-tho° party. The Wa-dse'- 
pa-i° give liberally of their possessions, consequently their request is 
almost equivalent to a demand. The position of Wa-dse'-pa-i° is 
held for life and is a peculiar one. A person holding the position is 
a servant to all of the people and can be sent on errands of any kind, 
even to the carrying of secret messages between lovers, which they 
keep inviolate. 

In the Wa'-wa-tho° ceremony the part taken by the Wa-dse'-pa-i° 
is a feature which all enjoy and find delight in witnessing. When 
going from house to house to solicit gifts for the Wa'-wa-tho° party, 
the Wa-dse'-pa-i° act out, in a ridiculous manner, the quarrels and 
fights that had taken place in the tribe during the year, such as 
scenes of wife beating or husband beating through jealousy, and 
scenes where grown people have taken part in fisticuft's of children. 
No one resents the thrusts made by the Wa-dse'-pa-i° in their buffoon- 
ery, for they are privileged characters and are fully protected by the 
usages of the tribe. 

During an intermission in the delivering of the presents by the 
Ni'-ka Wa-gi-gi-ge, the Wa-dse'-pa-i° come loaded with bundles of 
blankets and some leading horses. These they bring to the rack and 
the shield where both men and women recount their generous deeds 
when the Wa'-wa-tho"" ceremony was performed at some time in the 
past. They also strike the shield at each count and cause much 
merriment by the jokes they make, often at their own expense. 

Painting Ceremony 

At the conclusion of the ceremony of dehvering the gifts to the 
Wa'-wa-tho° party, the Ho°'-ga is conducted by the Do-do°'-ho°-ga 
and the Xo'-ka to his house, where the Ki'-no°, painting ceremony, is 
performed. First the Ho°'-ga's face is painted red, which is the sym- 
bol of the sun, after wliich a narrow blue line is drawn from the middle 



« Some of the early writers, among them Le Petit and Charlevoix, in describing the "calumet dance" as 
practiced by the tribes with whom they came in contact, make particular mention of this feature of the 
ceremony. It is not practiced by the Ponca, Oto, Omaha, and Pawnee, although in certain parts of the 
ceremony warriors recount their valorous deeds, but without striking a post or shield. Of the later writers, 
Long (1823) states that it was practiced among the Omaha, but among the older people having a full knowl- 
edge of all the rites none could be found to confirm his statement. 



244 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



(Bull. lOl 



of one clieek to the side of the forehead, across the forehead to the 

opposite side, down to the middle of the other cheek. This blue line, 

which runs partly around the face of the Ho°'-ga, is called Ho'-e-ga, 

which means an enclosure into which life enters and appears in various 

forms; in other words, it is the symbol of the earth. During the 

symbolic painting of the Ho°'-ga, the Ki'-no° Wa-tho°, painting songs, 

are sung. After the painting the Ho"'-ga is clothed again with a new 

pair of moccasins, leggings, jacket and blanket, also neck and ear 

ornaments are put upon him, and the wreath of cattail leaves placed 

on his head. 

Song 1 



M.M. J=76 



(Osage version, p. 270) 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



^g^ 



1==: 



Mi - ki - no° thi hi tha, 



tha 



-•- 
ha - ni 



-6>- 

da, 



^ 




^ -25I-. 

tha ha - ni da, 



A - ni da, 



tha ha - ni da. 



All the words in this song except the first one of each of the five 
stanzas are the same, therefore the translation of the first stanza 
covers all the others, save the first word: Mi, sun; ki-no°, painting 
(symbolic); thi hi tha, has descended upon you; E tha, behold; ha-ni 
da, it is thine. The next and last line is: a ni-da, it is thine; e-tha, 
behold; ha ni da, it is thine. In the second stanza the first word, 
Zhi'^-ga, little one or child; third stanza, Ho^'-ga, is the title of a person 
or object consecrated to religious use; fourth stanza, Wa-pa, the head; 
fifth stanza, Ho'^'-ba, day, referring to the final accomplishment of an 
act and its standing in the broad light of day. 



M.M. gi = 80 



Song 2 

(Osage version, p. 271) 



^ 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



^! -^t^ ' J gj jjzzxg j E^=^ 



Time beats ff f f fTf f 

E, mi wi° no'i ki-no*^ tse E, mi wi° no° 



r r r 

ki- no° tse tha, 



J-^ ^i — s^ 



#* 



1=: 



^, 



r r r r 

E - e, ki - no° tse tha, 



r r 



r 



r • 



r 



E, mi wi"^ iiQii ki - no" tse tha. 



La Flesche) OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 245 

The translation of the first line of each stanza is a translation of all 
the other lines. The word "tha" at the end of each of the other lines 
is a word sign showing that the sentence is complete, but is left out 
of the first line to accommodate the rhythm of the music. 

FREE TRANSLATION 
1 

Ho! let him be painted with the symbol of the sun (Mi). 

2 
Hoi let him be painted with the symbol of the little one (zhi"'-ga) . 

3 
Hoi let him be painted with the symbol of the sacred one (Ho°'-ga). 

4 
Ho! let him be painted with the symbol of the head (wa-pa). 

5 
Ho! let him be painted with the symbol of the day (ho^-ba). 

Friendship Ceremony 

After the ceremony of putting upon the face of the Ho°'-ga the 
symbolic paintings of the sun and the earth, dressing him in new 
clothing and decorating him with new ornaments, the Xo'-ka send 
the Tse'-xe-k'i"" No°-ho° to the brook to get some mud and some 
mo^-hi^-ts'a-zhi — mo°-hi°, grass; ts'a, dies; zhi, not. (Carex, species 
of sedges.) This grass grows along the edges of the little streams, 
remains green all the year, so it is called by the Osage "the grass that 
never dies," and is used by them as a symbol of unending life. 

When the Tse'-xe-k'i" No°-lio° brings in the mud and the grass the 
Xo'-ka divides the mud into four parts, each of which he rolls into a 
ball. These four balls of mud the Xo'-ka arranges in squares, in front 
of the pipes, placing them about the distance of a footstep apart. 
Then he puts upon each one of the balls a bunch of the mo°-hi°- 
ts'a-zhi. When this is done the Do-do^'-ho^-ga addresses the Ho'^'-ga, 
saying: "Friend, you will now arise." The Tse-xe-k'i'' No°-ho° steps 
forward and taking the Ho°'-ga by the left arm, helps him to rise. 
The Do-do°'-ho°-ga and the Xo'-ka sing the I-ko'-tha Ki-ka-xe 
Wa-tho° — I-ko'-tha, friend; ki-ka-xe, make each other; Wa-tho°, 
song — which may be freely translated as The Friendship Song. 

During the singing of the song the Tse'-xe-k'i"^ No'^-ho" helps the 
Ho°'-ga to take his four steps into the new life, which is symbolized 
by the four balls of mud and the "grass that never dies." The 
Ho^'-ga places a foot upon each ball, beginning with the right, going 
from left to right and ending with the left, when he takes his seat. 



246 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. lOl 



The Friendship Song ^ 
(Osage version, p. 272) 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 




Ha-ni da, ha-ni da, 



Ho^ - ga, Zhii»-ga- zhin. ga in - da - ko - tha 



:P^ 



ha - iii da, Ha - ni 



da, 



-•- -•- ■ 

ha - ni 



f=i= 



i =rj. ; ^ 



da. 



ha - ni da. 



There is but one stanza to this song. In it the Do-do"' -ho °-ga 
addresses the Ho°'-ga and refers to the three steps by which their 
present relation to one another has been reached. First, by his part 
in the ceremony which gives him the title of Ho°'-ga or Sacred One, 
the symbol of peace. Second, through the rite they were made father 
and son. Third, the establishment by means of the ceremony of a 
friendship sacred in character. 

The words ha-ni da, that are repeated five times in the first and 
second lines, mean thou art; the word Ho°'-ga, at the end of the second 
line, means Sacred One. The words in the third line, My child thou 
art my friend. The last line is the same as the first. 

This song is sung four times, as are all songs of one stanza. 

Dance Ceremony 

The group of songs that follow the Friendship Ceremonies is termed 
I'-no°-tse Wa-tho°; I, at which; no°-tse, dance; Wa-tho", songs; 
meaning that at this part of the ceremony there is a dance by the 
Wa'-wa-tho° party. This dance corresponds to the final dance of the 
Omaha, Ponca, Oto, and Pawnee in their version of this ceremony. 
This dance is always a joyous one, indicative of the satisfaction felt 
by both parties at the successful conclusion of the ceremony. 

The first three songs of this group are called Ta Wa-tho°; Ta, deer; 
Wa-tho°, songs. These songs are fast in time, different in this respect 
from the ceremonial and processional songs, which are slow and dig- 
nified. At this part of the ceremony the Do-do^'-ho^-ga and the 
Xo'-ka give the pipes and rattles to the two subordinate Tse xe-k'i° 
and take a drum that is set before them. Beating time with the drum, 
the Do-do°'-ho°-ga and the Xo'-ka sing and the two Tse'-xe-k'i° 
dance with the pipes and the rattles. 

' The music of this song is a variant of an Oto Wa-wo° song that refers to bunting, collected by Alice C, 
Fletcher and Francis La Flesche in 1895. 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 



247 



Deer Songs 
Song 1 

(Osage version, p. 272) 



M.M. J=r96 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 




I - ho° u - gi - dse gi - ba - dse, I - ho'* u - gi - dse gi - ba - dse, 



S 



.-C — m •- 



=^ 



^ 



4: 



I-ho° u - gi ■ 



gi - ba - dse, A 



hi tha, hi tha gi ba dse 




I ho"^ u - gi - dsi gi ba 



Effi 



P^=?^ 



zC 



I- ho"* u - gi - dse gi ba dse, A 

J — — • — 9~ — -#■ 



N— s- 



hi tha, hi tha gi ba dse, I-ho'^u - gi-dse gi ba dse. 

This song is to the young deer seeking for its mother. The transla- 
tion of the words of the first line will cover all the rest except the fourth 
and seventh: I-ho'', mother; u-gi-dse, seeldng for its; gi-ba-dse, come 
hither. 

The words "A hi tha, hi tha" of the fourth and seventh lines are 
vocables, and the words "gi-ba-dse" at the end of each are, come 
hither. There being but one stanza to the song, it is sung four times. 

Song 2 

(Osage version, p. 272) 



M.M. J- 100 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



g 



-^ 



1 q- 



I i -I 1 ^P-^ f 



Ta gthe- zhe, ta gthe-zhe, ta gthe-zhe the, Ta gthe-zhe, ta gthe - zhe 



^ 



I 



Tt. 



-7^- 



ta gthe - zhe Ta gthe-zhe the, ta gthe-zhe, ta gthe - zhe. 

The translation of the first two words of the first lines of each 
stanza of the song will cover all of the rest: 

First: Ta, deer; gthe-she, spotted: Spotted deer. 

Second: Ta, deer; zhi^-ga, young: Young deer. 

Third: Ta, deer; wo°-ga, archaic for female: Female deer. 

Fourth: Ta, deer; to^-ga, great; This is the term used for the full- 
grown male deer. 



248 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 101 



Song 3 

(Osage version, p. 273) 



M.M. J=104 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 

P^=»^ 



^4: 



E, mo° - hi» wa 



E, 



mo° - hi"^ wa 



ga, 



d2: 



'A=it=Mz 



:r^==^^ 



^ 



4: 



± 



^ 



? 



He-dsi xtsi mo'^-hiii wa 



He - dsi mo° - hi° wa - ga 




^:^=hU 



u 



^ -|^- T^- -|^-. -^- -j^- 1^- —■ - 

He - dsi xtsi mo°-hi'i wa-ga, E, mo°-hii» wa-ga, E, mon-hiiiwa - ga. 




tTV 



S5 



-•-• " -•- -•- -^. -^- -•-. -•- ' -m- -•- 

He - dsi xtsi mo"^ - hS^ wa - ga, He - dsi mo° - lii° wa - ga, 

r"? I 



:^ 



^=J=5 



II 



^: 



4 



^ -i^- 



He - dsi xtsi mo° - lii° wa - ga, 



E, mo° - lii° wa - ga. 



This song refers to the butchering, in the field, of the deer by the 
hunter and to the curing of the meat for future use. The words are 
disconnected and do not make sense, but they suggest the story. 
The title of the song is Wa-pa'-dse, butchering; Wa-tho°, song. The 
song having but one stanza is sung four times. 

First line: E, an exclamation; Mo°-hi°, knife; wa-ga, slicing the 
meat for curing. 

Second line: He-dsi, at the place of Idlling; Xtsi, very; mo°-hi°, 
knife; wa-ga, slicing the meat for curing. 

Third line: He-dsi, at the place of killing; mo°-hi°, knife; wa-ga, 
slicing the meat for curing. 

Fourth line, same as the second. 

Fifth line, same as the first. 

Symbol of the Earth Song 

The title of this song is Ho'-e-ga, a symbol of the earth. This 
refers to the four balls of mud on which the Ho°'-ga took four foot- 
steps at the Friendship Ceremony. The arrangement of these balls 
of mud is here referred to as Ho'-e-ga, a symbol of the earth ; Gi'-pshe, 
walking over, referring to the dance of the two Tse'-xe-k'i° on the 



La Flesche] 



OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 



249 



four balls at this song; Wa-tho°, song. In this song the four balls 
of mud become symbols of the houses of the otter and the beaver, 
both land and water animals. 

Walking Over the Symbols of Earth Song 
(Osage version, p. 273) 



M.M. 



100 



TranBcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 



w 



^- 



:r^ 






To - hno'^ tsi - he wa- no° - tse, tsi - he wa - noi^ tse, 



To 



g 



W- 



^^ 



T 



:^i^=Cn: 



-*— * 



! S i - 



st- 



t 



¥ 



hno° tsi - he wa-no° - tse, tsi - he wa-no"^ tse, Tsi - he wa-no^ tse, To 



^— f- 



d d . d 



S 



^ 



S 



— d—d—"^ — ' 
hno° tsi- he -wa-no'^ - tse, Tsi- he wa - 110° tse, tsi - he wa - no° - tse. 

There are two stanzas to this song, one referring to the otter and the 
other to the beaver. The translation of the first Une of each stanza 
will cover all the other lines. 

First line: To-hno°, otters; tsi-he, nests or houses; wa-no°-tse, I am 
dancing on, etc. 

Second line: Zha-be, beavers; tsi-he, nests or houses; wa-no°-tse, I 

am dancing on, etc. 

Carrying Song 

This is the fourth deer song belonging to this group of songs and its 
title is Wa-k'i°, carrying; Wa-tho°, song. It refers to the finishing of 
the work of the hunter of slicing the meat for curing and carrying it 
home. There is nothing in the words of the song to indicate this, but 
the explanation of its meaning is gathered from the words of the 
title. 

The Ho'-e-ga Gi'-pshe Wa-tho° is placed before this song because 
in former days these last two songs were used in the war ceremonies 
when the pipes were taken to war, and on such occasions they referred 
to the capturing of the houses of the enemy and the bringing home of 
the spoils and other war trophies. The words tsi-he wa-no°-tse, I am 
dancing on their houses, in the Ho'-e-ga Gi'-pshe Wa-tho°, when the 
song was sung as part of the war ceremony, were changed to tsi-he, 
houses of the enemy; a-wa-no°-she, I have captured from them their 
houses. 



83773—39- 



-17 



250 



BUKEAU OF AMEKICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 101 



Song 4 
(Osage version, p. 273) 



M.M. J= 100 

3 — f- 



5^5^ 



Transcribed by Alice C. Fletcher. 

-E^ S 



-P-!1- 



±1 



-•—d 



±=Mi 



He - dsi xtsi wa - ga, he - dsi wa - 

1 — Q-^ r- 3 '-- - 


ga, 


He - dsi xtsi wa - ga, 
__ „ a , 


/^ ^^ 


-a-^— i \ N^ 


-7H--I 1 —\ 


hM h- 


^)4 CI \ [- 


"4^^ — d — d—\~* — J 


4--»- 


• . d — H 


k--J — 1 — d— 


^^^^^-d-d . _J. 4 ' 


^, . ^ 




* — d-^ 


^- -^ 



he-dsi wa - ga, He - dsi xtsi wa 



he-dsi wa-ga, He-dsi xtsi 



3: 



^i^rs 



±jt 



^ 



w= 



4^0-0—1^ 



wa - ga, 



He-dsi wa - ga. He - dsi xtsi wa - ga, 



hie-dsi wa - ga. 



The translation of the words of the first line will cover the words of 
all the other Unes: He-dsi, at the place of Idlling; xtsi, verily; wa-ga, 
sUcing the meat for curing. 

There being only one stanza to this song, it is sung four times. 

After the singing of the Wa-k'i° Wa-tho°, the pipes are laid down, 
then the Xo'-ka directs the Tse'-xe-ki° to bring four grains of corn, a 
bunch of cedar fronds, a wisp of sedge grass, and a wooden bowl filled 
with water. The Tse'-xe-k'i° having had these articles in readiness, 
quickly places them before the Xo'-ka, who puts the bunch of cedar 
fronds and the wisp of grass in the water. 

The Xo'-ka then rises and lifting the bowl high over the head of 
the Ho°'-ga makes a circle with it in the air and says: "0-ga'-wi°-xe 
wi° xtsi," one circle. A second time he makes the circle, bringing the 
bowl toward the head of the Ho°'-ga, and says: "0-ga'-wi°-xe tho'^-ba," 
two circles. He makes a third circle with the bowl, lowering it still 
a little more, and says: "0-ga'-wi°-xe tha-bthi°," three circles. Then 
he makes a fourth circle, bringing the bowl down close to the head of 
the Ho°'-ga, and says: "0-ga'-wi°-xe do-ba," four circles. "It was 
thus that the Ho°'-ga, the sacred (Imperial) eagle came from above, 
in four circles, aUghting upon the earth, to make it his abode. In 
like manner you have come from above to make the earth your 
abode." He sets the bowl down and removes the wreath of cattail 
leaves from the head of the Ho'^'-ga and bids him to rise. Then taking 
the wisp of sedge grass from the bowl, the Xo'-ka places it upon the 
crown of the head of the Ho'^'-ga, brings it down the side of the head 
to the right arm, and on to the foot. Placing the grass again on the 
crown of the Ho°'-ga's head, the Xo'-ka brings it down his face, his 
breast, and down to his feet. He goes through the same motions with 
the grass on the left side of the Ho°'-ga and finally on the back part 
of his body and says: "Never ending is the life of the plant with 



La Flesche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 251 

which I have blessed you. So may your life be never ending, ever 
continuing." The Xo'-ka then takes up the bunch of cedar fronds 
and goes through the same motions and repeats the same words. 
Putting down the bunch of cedar fronds the Xo'-ka takes up the four 
grains of corn, puts them into the mouth of Ho°'-ga, bidding him to 
eat of the sacred food so that his body may be nourished and his life 
strengthened. This concludes the Wa'-wa-tho° ceremony of the 
Osage. 

The Osage Foem Contrasted With That of Other Tribes 

The ceremony of blessing the Ho^'-ga with the sedge grass and the 
cedar fronds corresponds to the closing ceremony of the Omaha, 
Ponca, and Oto, differing only in the symbols used to represent long 
life. Among the Omaha this ceremony is performed behind closed 
doors. The pipes, wrapped within the wild-cat skin, are placed in the 
arms of the Ho°'-ga; then he is made to face the east, the south, the 
west, and the north. 

In the month of August 1909, the Ponca performed the Wa'-wa- 
tho"" ceremony among the Omaha. Mo°-chu'-hi°-xte, Hairy Bear, at 
the blessing of the Ho°'-ga had the Ho'^'-ga rise and face the east. 
Wrapping the two pipes within the wild-cat skin, he took hold of the 
lower end with his right hand, the upper end with his left, then lifting 
the bundle as high as he could, brought it down upon the head of the 
child, then down his breast to his feet, when the pipes were laid down 
on the ground in front of the child. This action was repeated on the 
right side of the body of the child, at his back, and lastly at his left. 
Then the pipes were placed in the arms of the child, who was made to 
take four steps toward the east. (See Twenty-seventh Ann. Kept. 
Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 401.) 

In August 1913, the Oto performed the Wa'-wo° ceremony among 
the Omaha. When about to perform the blessing of the Ho°'-ga the 
man giving the ceremony addressed the audience, saying: "This 
ceremony is usually performed in a house with the door closed, but 
if it is the wish of any of those who took part in receiving us, it can 
be performed openly." One man asked that it be given openly so 
that all might see it. The Ho'^'-ga was asked to rise, then the leader 
of the Wa'-wo° party wrapped up the pipes wathin the wild-cat skin 
and approached the child from the north side, or at his left as he stood 
facing the east. Then grasping the pipes at the lower end with his 
right hand and the upper end with his left, he raised them as high 
as he could reach and brought them down on the head of the child, 
then down his side to his feet, and let the pipes rest for a moment on 
the ground. As the man brought down the pipes he uttered a magical 
cry, "Hi, hi," the tone diminishing and dying out in a faint breath 
when he brought the pipes to the ground. Picking up the pipes, he 



252 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bxnx. 101 

approached the Ho°'-ga from the west and repeated the motion with 
the same cry; he did the same thing from the south and from the east. 
He then put the pipes in the arms of the child and made him take 
four steps toward the rising sun. 

The ceremony as given by Hairy Bear was received with expressions 
of approval from all sides, but after the Oto ceremony the audience 
remained silent while the leader stood with an embarrassed and 
inquiring expression. An Omaha relieved the situation by asking 
why the leader reverses the order and did not "follow the sun"? 
According to the Omaha belief "going against the sun" when turning 
with child meant death to the Ho°'-ga. Almost in one voice all the 
Oto replied: "It is our way of performing the ceremony; we do it 
this way for our own children." Then from all sides there arose an 
expression of satisfaction among the Omaha. 

With these three tribes, the sun, the sky, and the earth are the 
symbols of enduring life. The little red groove that runs the full 
length of each pipe symbolizes the path of the sun and also the path of 
Ufe; the blue color that is put upon one of the stems symbolizes the 
sky; the green put upon the other, the verdure of the earth. The 
beasts of the earth and the birds of the air are represented, so that 
when the child takes the pipes in his arms he embraces the universe 
and shares with it a never-ending life. 

No satisfactory information could be obtained as to the date when 
the Wa'-wa-tho° ceremony was last performed by the Osage. Wa- 
xthi'-zhi and Tse-zhi'^'-ga-wa-da-i°-ga (Saucy Calf) both said that a 
number of years ago they, together, performed the ceremony, but 
neither could give the exact date. Tse-zhi'^'-ga-wa-da-i^-ga (pi. 11) 
was kUled in the month of February, 1912. 

On March 10, 1898, Sho^'-to^-ga-be, Black Dog, gave the following 
information concerning the Osage Wa'-wa-tho° ceremony. 

"The Wa-zha'-zhe (Real), Ho°'-ga, 0'-po°, Wa-zha'-zhe gka, Tsi'- 
zhu Wa-shta-ge, and the Tho'-xe (Buffalo Bull) are the keepers of the 
rituals relating to the various symbolic articles used in making the 
ceremonial Wa'-wa-tho° pipes. 

"The Wa-zha'-zhe (Real) recite the ritual and make the wreaths of 
Wa-ke'-the-ste-dse, cattail leaves, to be worn by the persons per- 
forming the ceremony. The Ho°'-ga put together the pendants made 
of the tail feathers of the golden and imperial eagles. The Wa-zha'- 
zhe 9ka recite the ritual relating to the two stems. The 0'-po°, elk, 
recite the ritual relating to the crotched stick for the support of the 
pipes when at ceremonial rest. The crotched stick symbolizes the 
horns of the elk.* 

• The information here given by Black Dog does not agree in some of its details with that obtained from 
Wa-xthi'-zhi, but a closer study of the Osage rites shows that his knowledge was that of a layman, while 
Wa-xthi'-zhi is a recognized authority on this as well as on other ceremonies. It is evident that Black Dog 
confused two symbolic articles when he said that the crotched stick for the support of the pipes symbolized 
the horns of the elk. It is the ceremonial war staff that symbolizes the horns of the elk. The crotched 
stick of the Wa'-wa-tho° ceremony symbolizes the cloven claws of the Mo^-shko" or crawfish. 



La Fleschz] OSAGE PEACE CEEEMONY 253 

"Tsi'-zhu Qi^-dse-a-gthe recite the ritual relating to the ivory-billed 
or pileated woodpecker heads. The Tsi'-zhu Wa-shta-ge (Red Eagle) 
give the ritual of the red fluffy feathers. The Tho'-xe (Bufl'alo Bull) 
recite the ritual relating to the fat used for anointing the two pipe- 
stems, the crotched stick, and the hair and body of the Ho'^'-ga. 

"The face of the Ho°'-ga is painted red with a blue band around his 
face. He is given one of the cattail wreaths with a feather to wear 
on his head. 

"When the rituals have been recited and the ceremonial pipes are 
finished, the men who are to perform the ceremony put on their 
heads the wreaths of cattail leaves and then send the pipes to the 
man chosen to be the Ho°'-ga. The man may decline or accept the 
honor as he chooses. If the pipes are refused, on the return of the 
party they are taken apart and the various symboUc articles are sent 
back to their respective keepers. After the lapse of four years, and 
not before, the pipes may again be made up ceremonially and offered 
to the man who had refused to accept them. 

"There are lengthy rituals connected with the pipes. These are 
recited when the pipes are in the process of making. 

"If it should rain at any time during the ceremony it could be 
made to stop by the singing of certain songs and waving of the pipes." 

In May 1911, an Osage Wa'-wa-tho° pipe (pi. 12, a, b) was 
secured from Wa-thi'-gtho°-i''-ge, perhaps the only one in existence. 
It was, according to Wa-thi'-gtho°-i°-ge, ceremonially made for Hi°- 
sha'-to°-a or Wa-zha'-zhe Wa-da-i°-ga at a time when the Osage used 
to receive annuities of only $3 each from the Government, a period 
from which the Osage calculate time. This was before 1870. 

In the United States National Museum there is a pipe assigned to 
the Smithsonian Institution in 1874 as part of a collection made in 
1842. This specimen, No. 14845, resembles in every detail the cere- 
monial pipe of the Osage referred to above, except that the specimen 
has a groove along its full length painted red and the pipe is perforated. 

Description of Pipes 

1. The stem is of ash, painted green. There is no sign of a groove 
running its full length, to be seen on the Omaha, Ponca, Oto, and 
Pawnee pipes, which is a symbol of the path of the sun and of life. 
(Twenty-second Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethn., p. 38.) There is no 
perforation or the suggestion of one, as in the pipes of these other 
tribes. The upper end is cut so as to resemble, in a rough way, the 
mouthpiece of a pipestem. 

2. The skin of the head of a pileated woodpecker, with the maxilla 
left attached, is tied to the stem, about 2 inches from the mouth- 
piece, as on the Omaha pipe, an illustration of which is here given 



254 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Btnx. 101 

(pi. 3). The maxilla is not turned back over the skin as the 
woodpecker head of the Omaha and Pawnee pipes, but is laid flat 
on the stem, under side down, with the maxilla pointed toward the 
mouthpiece, and tied to the stem with a bit of deerskin thong. 

3. A part of the skin from the neck of a mallard duck is put around 
the stem so as to lap partly over the woodpecker skin. This duck's 
skin is put on the stem under side downward, and tied on with a bit 
of deerskin thong. In the Omaha and Pawnee pipes the mallard 
duck skin is put on the lower end of the stem and has intact the 
mandibles, head, neck, and a part of the breast (pi. 3). 

4. Streamers of horse hair, dyed red, and strips of some white 
woolen cloth are tied on the Osage pipestems, close to the mouth- 
piece, with bits of deerskin thong. On the Omaha and Pawnee pipes 
three streamers of red horsehair are put on at different places from 
the middle to the top. The strips of red cloth are put on in two 
places at the lower end. There is nothing on the Osage pipe to cor- 
respond to the bunches of cotton twine put on the Omaha pipestem 
at three places. Before the introduction of manufactured articles 
among the Indians by traders, strips of the skin of the breast of the 
rabbit were put on the pipes, but in recent times the cotton twine 
was used because it was easier to procure. 

5. As with the Omaha, the Osage pipe is feathered with three wing 
feathers of the eagle in the same manner as arrows are feathered. 
These wing feathers are split the full length of the shaft and the pith 
removed so that they can be conveniently glued on the stem. It is 
in reference to this feathering of the pipes that the Osage sometimes 
call the pipestems "mo^'-ga," arrowshafts, that is before they are 
feathered, and when in the finished state, mo°, arrow. The act of 
feathering the pipestems is called by both the Osage and Omaha, 
A'-tha, the same as the act of feathering arrows. In the Osage pipe 
the wing feathers are tied down at the ends to the stem with deerskin 
thongs; in the Omaha and Pawnee pipes they are held down with 
glued sinew. 

6. A bunch of owl feathers, which are said to symbolize deer's 
lungs, are tied to the Osage pipes, about 6 or 7 inches from the lower 
end. These feathers are split the fuU length of the shaft and the 
pith removed so as to render them pliable. To the tops of these 
feathers are fastened bits of other feathers, dyed red. These owl 
feathers are tied at the lower end to the pipestem with a bit of deerskin 
thong, 

7. This Osage pipe happens to be the one having for its pendant 
seven tail feathers of the golden eagle, as on one of the Omaha pipes. 
The manner of putting these tail feathers together so as to give them 
a fan-shaped appearance and the fastening of them as a pendant to 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 101 PLATE 10 




Hc'-ga face painting. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 101 PLATE 11 




Tse»zhi'''-ga-\va-(ia-i°-ga (Saucy Calf). 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 101 PLATE 13 




Position when holding pipe and rattle. 



La Flesche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 255 

the stem is described on page 210. Each feather is supported and orna- 
mented on the under side with a little flattened stick from the middle 
to the top and fastened on at both ends with sinew to the shaft. 
These braces are painted with little red stripes crosswise and to each 
end a little feather is fastened (pi. 12, b). 

8. To the loose end of one of the thongs upon which the golden 
eagle tail feathers are strung is fastened a feather taken from the under 
tail covert of the eagle. This feather is dyed red and hangs down 
on the thong from the pendant. 

9. The other deerskin thong upon which are strung the golden eagle 
feathers has two loose ends which hang down about 6 or 8 inches. To 
each of these ends is fastened a white feather taken from the under 
tail covert of the eagle. These feathers correspond to those on the 
Omaha pipe which are said to symbolize the dropping of the immature 
feathers of the eagle as it rises to take its flight in full strength and 
maturity. The childish prejudices and animosities that keep men in 
constant turmoil are here likened to the immature feathers of the 
eagle that are dropped as the bird makes its flight in its full vigor of 
maturity, to which are also likened the thought that inspired men to 
rise and reach out for the relationship which alone could bring happi- 
ness and peace to all. 

Contrasted mth the Omaha pipes, that of the Osage looks crude as 
to finish, but the appearance of these symbolic articles bears no special 
significance, for it is the spirit of the ceremony and its aim that has 
the most important place in the minds of the people. An Omaha 
said to Miss Fletcher, when she was studying the Wa-wo° ceremony 
in 1883, "So great is the affection and respect we feel for these pipes 
that were we to see them imitated in corn husk we would show them 
honor." ^ By this he meant that it is the teachings of the rite and 
not the actual pipes, which are employed as symbols, that are rever- 
enced by the people. At a time when the Omahas lived in villages in 
the early seventies, O'^'-po'^-no^-zhi", who was too poor to secure the 
proper materials out of which to make the pipes, made them out of 
dried weed stalks and corn husks and with them performed the cere- 
mony for Thi-gthi'-ge-no^-thi", another Omaha, who accepted the 
honor on being satisfied that it was offered with all sincerity. 

The Osage in performing the Wa'-wa-tho° ceremony hold the pipes 
and rattles in the same manner as the Omaha and Pawnee (pi. 13) 
except when singing the fourth song (p. 216), and while singing the first 
song of the last set. 

• Alice C. Fletcher, Personal Studies of Indian Life. Century Magazine, vol. xlv (n. s. xxii), no. 3, p. 
453, New York, 1893. 



OSAGE VERSION 



257 



KEY TO PRONUNCIATION 

a as in father. 

b as in bad. 

5 as in thin, thong. 

d as in dog. 

e as in prey. 

'e - exploded e. 

g as in go. 

h as in he. 

i as in pierce. 

'i exploded i. 

i" nasalized i. 

'i° nasalized exploded i. 

k as in kin, kind. 

]f as medial k (between k and g) . 

m as in men, mine. 

n as in no, nap. 

hn The sound of the initial letter is expelled 

from the nostrils and is scarcely 

audible. 

o as in note. 

'o exploded o. 

o° nasalized o. 

p as in pipe. 

p as medial p (between p and b) . 

s as in sit, sing. 

sh as in shun. 

t as in ten. 

t a medial t (between t and d) . 

u as in rule. 

'u exploded u. 

w as in wet, win. 

X rough German ch. 

zh as in azure, 

259 



Part I 

MO'^'-SHO'' Wa-tho'' 

Feather Songs 

Song 1 

(Music, p. 215) 

Zhi°-ga ga-the ha-ni da, 

Ha hi-tha-the ha, hi,tha-the he, 

Hi-tha-the ha, Ho°-ga, 

Ha, hi-tha-the, Ho°-ga. 

Song 2 

(Music, p. 215) 

Zhi°-ga ga-the the ha-ne, 
A hi-tha Ho°-ga 
Zhi°-ga ga-the the ha-ne, 
A hi-tha Ho°-ga 
Zhi°-ga ga-the the ha-ne. 

Song 3 

(Music, p. 216) 

Zhi°-ga ho-wa, ho-wa, Zhi^-ga ho-wa' ho-wa 

Zhi°-ga ho-wa, ho-wa, Zhi°-ga, ho-wa, ho-wa, ho-wa, ho-wa 

Zhi°-ga ho-wa, ho-wa, Zhi^-ga ho-wa, ho-wa. 

Zhi°-ga ho-wa, ho-wa, ho-wa, ho-wa. 

Song 4 

(Music, p. 216) 

Zhi'i-ga ho-wa-the' ho-wa-ne 1° da we, 
Zhi^-ha ho-wa-the, ho-wa-ne 1° da, Ho^-ga 
Zhi°-ga ho-wa-the ho-wa-ne i" da we. 

Tsi Ta-pe Wa-tho'* 

House Approach Song 

Song 1 

(Music, p. 218) 

Ha-we the ha-we, ha-we the ha-we, 

Ha-we the ha-we, ha-we the ha-we, 

Ha-we the ha-we, ha-we the ha-we the Ho°'-ga 

Ha-we the ha-we, ha-we the ha-we, 

Ha-we the ha-we, ha-we the ha-we the Ho°-ga. 

261 



262 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

Song 2 

(Mtisic, p. 218) 

Ha, the Ho°-ga, the Ho°-ga 
Hc-ga, the Ho°-ga, the Ho"-ga, 
Ho"-ga, the Ho°-ga, the Ho°-ga, 
Ho°-ga, the Ho°-ga, the Ho"-ga, 
Ho^-ga the Ho°-ga-e, the Hc-ga. 

Wa-po-ga Do-ga To*'-ga Wi'-gi-e 

Gray Owl Male ' Great Ritual 

(Free translation, p. 219) 

1 

1. Ha! Zhi°-ga, e tsi-gthe a' be the', 

2. Wa'-po-ga do-ga thi^-kshe tsi-gthe, a be the. 

3. Wi'-tsi-go e tsi-gthe, a be tho, 

4. W'-ko°-da ho'' u-to°-ga xtsi thi^-kshe dsi e' tsi-gthe, a be tho, 

5. Wi'-tsi-go e' tsi-gthe, a be tho, 

6. Tha'-po° u-ha-ha thi°-kshe tsi-gthe, a be tho, 

7. Wa'-ko°-da ho a-no°-k'o° bi a-thi hi° da e tsi-gthe, a be tho, 

8. Zhi'^'-ga zhu-i-ga o^-tha bi do"* e tsi-gthe, a be tho, 

9. Wa'-ko'^-da ho a-no°-k'o'' bi ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi tsi° da e' tsi- 

gthe, a be tho, 

10. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha bi do° e' tsi-gthe, a be tho, 

11. Wa'-ko°-da ho a-no'^-k'o'' bi ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi a', zhi°-ga, e 

tsi-gthe, a be tho, 

2 

12. He' -dsi xtsi e tsi-gthe a be tho' 

13. Wa'-po-ga mi-ga thi°-kshe mo° e tsi-gthe a be tho, 

14. Wa'-ko°-da ho° u-to°-ga xtsi thi°-kshe dsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

15. Tha'-po° u-ha-ha thi°-kshe' tsi-gthe a be tho 

16. Wa'-ko°-da ho a-no°-k'o° bi a -thi° hi° da e tsi-gthe a be tho, 

17. Zhi^'-ga zhu-i-ga o^-tha' bi do° e' tsi-gthe a' be tho", 

18. Wa'-ko°-da ho a-no'^-k'o"' bi ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi tsi" da e' tsi-gthe 

a' be tho, 

19. He'-dsi xtsi e tsi-gthe a be tho, 

20. Wi' shno° tsi u-thu-ga tha-gthi"* xtsi u-wa-gthi° mi-kshl° da e' 

tsi-gthe, a be tho 

21. Zhi'^'-ga u-ki-wa-wa a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi-kshi° da e tsi-gthe, a be tho, 

22. Zhi°'-ga zhu-i-ga o°-tha' bi do° e' tsi-gthe a' be tho, 

23. Zhi^'-ga u-ki-wa-wa- the xtsi 'the ki-the mo°-thi° ta tsi° da e tsi- 

gthe, a be tho, 

24. U'-no° o'^-tha bi do° shld e' tsi-gthe a' be tho'. 

25. Zhi°'-ga u^'-no" a bi 'the ki-the mo^-thi" ta bi tsi" da e' tsi-gthe a 

be tho'. 



La Flesche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 263 

Wa-po-ga Wa-tho" 

Owl Songs 

Song 1 

(Music, p. 220)i 

5o-k;o we tha ne, ]jo-ko we tha ne 

A ho, ]jo-]i:o we tha ne, 

A ho, Ifo-l^o we tha ne, Ijo-lfo we tha ne. 

SONQ 2 
(Music, p. 220) 

A ho, ^:o-]j:o we, a ho, Ijo-ljo we, 
E tha ha ha-ne, a ho, ^o-]j;o we, 
E tha ha ha-ne, a ho, ^o-]j:o-we. 

Nl'-DSI Wa-tho"* 

Water Song 

(Music, p. 222) 

He-dsi ni a ha dse wa-ge, he-dsi wa-ge, 
He-dsi ni a ha dse wa-gehe, he 
He-dsi ni a ha dse wa-ge, he-dsi wa-ge, 
He-dsi ni a ha dse wa-ge, he-dsi wa-ge. 

O'-Po*' Wa-tho'* 

Elk Songs 

SoNa 1 

(Music, p. 224) 

Ho°-ga the-hi tha, Ho^'-ga the-hi tha ho-o 
Ho°-ga the-hi tha Ho"-ga, 
Ho°-ga the-hi tha the-hi tha ho-o 
Ho^-ga the-hi tha Ho°-ga. 

Song 2 

(Music, p. 224) 

Ho"-ga da-we, Ho°-ga da-we, Ho°-ga da-we-e Ho°-ga 

A wi-tha ha-ne-e, A wi-tha ha-ne Ho"-ga 

Ho°-ga da-we, Ho°-ga da-we, Ho°-ga da-we-e Ho''-ga. 

Mo'^'-XE Thi-hi-dse Wa-tho'' 

Sky Controlling Songs 

The Wi'-gi-b 
(Free translation, p. 226) 



264 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Boll. 101 

1 

1. Ha', zhi°-ga e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

2. Zhi'^'-ga mo^-xe thi-hi-dse ha tho'' a zhi a-tha e'-gi-a bi e' tsi-gthe 

a' be tho', 

3. He'-dsi xtsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

4. Wa'-zhi°-ga u-zhi-hi thi°-kshe no'^-e' tsi-gthe a' be the', 

5. Tse'-xe xtsi ge dsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho' 

6. Ha', wi-tsi-go e' tsi-gthe a' be tho'. 

7. Zhi°'-ga mo'^-xe thi-hi-dse ba tho" ta zhi a-tha e'-gi-a bi e' tsi-gthe 

a' be tho', 

8. He'-dsi xtsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

9. Zhi°'-ga mo°-xe thi-hi-dse ba tho" ta zhi e' she do" e' tsi-gthe a' 

be tho', 

10. Zhi"'-ga mo"-xe i-thi-hi-dse o"-tha ba tho"-ta mi kshi° da e' tsi- 

gthe a' be tho', 

11. Zhu-i'-ga zhi-hi ga kshe' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

12. Wa'-ko"-da Mo"-shi ta ga-kshe' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

13. Zhi'-ni ge no" no" e tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

14. I'-tha-ga-5ko"-the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi kshi" da e' tsi-gthe a' 

be tho', 

15. Zhi"-ga mo"-xe i-thi-hi-dse o"-tha bi tho°-shki e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

16. Wa'-ko"-da mo"-shi ta ga kshe' tsi-gthe a' bo tho', 

17. Ho"' xtsi o" xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da e' tsi-gthe 

a' be tho. 

2 

18. He'-dsi xtsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

19. Ki'-da-ni-ka thi"-kshe no" e tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

20. Ha', wi-tsi-go e'-gi-a bi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

21. Zhi"'-ga mo"-xe thi-hi-dse ba tho" ta zhi a-tha e'-gi-a bi e' tsi-gthe 

a' be tho', 

22. He'-dsi xtsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho' 

23. Zhi"'-ga mo"-xe thi-hi-dse ba tho" ta zhi e'-she do" e' tsi-gthe a' 

be tho', 

24. Zhi"'-ga mo"-xe i-thi-hi-dse o"-tha ba tho" ta mi kshi" da e' tsi- 

gthe a' be tho' 

25. Zhu'-i-ga to-ho ga kshe' tsi-gthe a' be tho' 

26. Wa'-]ko"-da mo"-shi ta ga kshe' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

27. To'-ho ge no" no" e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

28. I'-tha-ga-5ko"-the xtsi a ni-^a-shi-ga mi kshi" da e' tsi-gthe a' be 

tho', 

29. Zhi"'-ga mo"-xe i-thi-hi-dse o"-tha bi tho" shki e' tsi-gthe a' be 

tho', 

30. Wa'-ko"-da mo"-shi ta ga kshe' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

31. Ho" xtsi o" xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo"-thi" ta bi" da e' tsi-gthe 

a' be tho'. 



La Flesche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 265 

3 

32. He'-dsi xtsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

33. Wa'-zhi°-g-a zhu-dse thi-kshe no" e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

34. 0°'-ba i-ta-xe tho° dsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

35. Wa'-ko°-da tse-ga xtsi i-tho^-be hi no° bi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

36. Wa'-ko''-da u-ga-zhu-dse zhi-hi no° no" e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

37. Zhu'-i-ga zhu-dse ga-kshe' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

38. I'-tha-ga gko°-the xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi kshi"" da e' tsi-gthe a' be 

tho', 

39. Zhi°-ga mo°-xe i-tlii-hi-dse o°-tha bi tho" shki e' tsi-gthe a' be 

tho' 

40. Wa'-ko°-da u-ga-zhu-dse i-he-the mo°-thi'' ta bi tsi° da e' tsi-gthe 

a' be tho'. 

4 

41. He'-dsi xtsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

42. Mi'-xa gthe-zhe thi°-kshe no" e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

43. Ha', wi-tsi-go e'-gi-a bi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

44. Zhi°'-ga mo°-xe thi-hi-dse ba tho° ta zhi a-tha e'-gi-a bi e' tsi- 

gthe a' be tho', 

45. He'-dsixtsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

46. Zhi°'-ga mo°-xe thi-hi-dse ba tho° ta zhi e'-she do° e' tsi-gthe a' 

be tho', 

47. Zhu'-i-ga gthe-zhe ga-kshe' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

48. Wa'-ko°-da mo°-shi-ta ga-kshe' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

49. Gthe'-zhe kshe no" no° e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

50. I'-tha-ga-^ko^-the xtsi a-ni-ka shi-ga mi-kshi° da e' tsi-gthe a' be 

tho', 

51. Zhi°'-ga mo°-xe i-thi-hi-dse o°-tha bi tho° shki e' tsi-gthe a' be 

tho, 

52. Wa'-ko^-da mo°-shi ta ga-kshe' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

53. Ho°' xtsi 0° xtsi ni-ka-shi-ga ki-the mo'^-thi ta bi° da e' tsi-gthe a 

be tho'. 

5 

54. He'-dsi xtsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

55. To"*'-i° to°-ga thi°-kshe no"* e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

56. Ha', wi-tsi-go e' gi-a bi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

57. Zhi'^'-ga mo^-xe thi°hi-dse ba tho" ta zhi a-tha e'-gi-a bi e' tsi- 

gthe a' be tho', 

58. Zhi°'-ga mo°-xe thi-hi-dse ba tho° ta zhi e'-shi do° e' tsi-gthe a' 

be tho', 

59. Zhi°'-ga mo°-xe i-thi-hi-dse ba tho° ta mi-kshi° da e' tsi-gthe a' 

be tho', 

60. U'-ga-50°-thi° xtsi thi^-ge' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

83773—39 18 



266 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Buix. 101 

61. Niu' the-the to'' e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

62. Niu' wi-ta e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

63. Wa'-ko°-da u-gko^-gka xtsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

64. U'-tha-ko"" i-no"-a-the a-thi° hi° da e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

65. Zhi°'-ga mo°-xe i-thi-hi-dse o°-tha bi tho° shki e' tsi-gthe a' be 

tho', 

66. Wa'-ko°-da u-gko^-gka xtsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

67. U'-tha-ko° i-no°-the mo°-thi° ta bi tsi'^ da e' tsi-gthe a' be tho'. 

6 

68. He'-dsi xtsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

69. Mi'-xa gka to°-ga thi°-kshe no° e' tsi-gthe a' be tho' 

70. Ha', wi-tsi-go-e' gi-a bi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

71. Zhi°'-ga mo^-xe thi-hi-dse ba tho" ta zhi a-tha e'-gi-a bi e' tsi'- 

gthe a' be tho', 

72. Ha', Zhi°-ga e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

73. Zhi'^'-ga mo°-xe thi-hi-dse ba tho"* ta zhi e-she do" e' tsi-gthe a' 

be tho', 

74. Zhi°'-ga mo°-xe i-thi-hi-dse o°-tha ba tho° ta nii kshi da e' tsi- 

gthe a' be tho', 

75. Zhii'-i-ga gka ga kshe' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

76. Mo°'-xe gka ga kshe' tsi-gthe a' be tho' 

77. I'-tha-ga-gkoMhe xtsi a-ni-ka-shi-ga mi kshi° da e' tsi-gthe a' be 

tho', 

78. Zhi°'-ga mo°-xe i-thi-hi-dse o°-tha bi tho° shki e' tsi-gthe a' be 

tho', 

79. Wa'-ko°-da mo°-shi-ta ga-khse' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

80. U'-xthi thi°-ge i-he-the mo°-thi° ta bi" da', zhi°-ga, e' tsi-gthe a' 

be tho'. 

Song 1 

(Music, p. 229) 

Ho°-ga thi hi tha, ha-we, da we, 
Ho°-ga thi hi tha, ha-we, da we, 
Ho°-ga thi hi tha, ha-we, da we, 
Ho°-ga thi hi tha, ha-we, da we, 
Ho°-ga thi hi tha, ha-we, da we. 

Song 2 

(Music, p. 230) 

Ko-we tha, ko-we tha, 
Da-do» a-thi° a-do" ko-we tha, 
!Ko-we tha mc-sho" a-thi" a-do°, 
Ko-we tha. 

!KIo-we tha, ko-we tha, 
Da-do" a-thi" a-do° ]jo-we tha, 
Ko-we tha ki-no° a-thi" a-do°, 
Ko-we tha. 



La Flesche] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 267 

Ko-we tha, ]fo-we tha, 
Da-do° a-thi" do° Ijo-we tha, 
|Co-we tha wa-gthe a-thi° a-do°, 
Ko-we tha. 

Ko-we tha, ko-we tha, 
Da-do° a-thi° a-do° lj:o-we tha, 
l^o-we tha ho°-ba thi° a-do", 
Ko-we tha. 

Xa-ge Wa-tho'' 

Weeping Songs 

Song 1 

(Music, p. 232) 

The xa-ge, the xa-ge, the xa-ge, the 
Xa-ge the Ho°'-ga, the Ho°-ga the xa-ge. 
The xa-ge, the xa-ge, the xa-ge the Ho°-ga 
The xa-ge, the xa-ge. 

Song 2 

(Music, p. 233) 

The xa-ge, xa-ge ho°-ga 
Xa-ge Ho°-ga, xa-ge Ho°-ga 
Xa-ge Ho°-ga, xa-ge Ho°-ga 
Xa-ge Ho°-ga, xa-ge Ho°-ga. 

The xa-ge, the xa-ge. 
The xa-ge, xa-ge Ho°-ga 
Xa-ge Ho°-ga, xa-ge Ho°-ga. 

No*'-xthe' I-ki^'-dse Wi'gi-e 

Charcoal Fight for Ritual 

(Free translation, p. 236) 



1. Ha!' zhi°-ga e tsi-gthe a! be tho', 

2. Zhi'^'-ga da-do'' no^-xthe the mo''-thi° ta ba do° e' tsi-gthe a' be 

tho', 

3. Wa'-zhi°-ga wa-tha-xthi thi°-ge do" e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

4. Zhi'^'-ga no°-xthe gi-the mo°-thi° ta bi a-tha e' tsi-gthe a' be tho' 

5. He'-dsi txsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

6. Qi'-ha u-sha-be ga thi°-kshe skhi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

7. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° hi° da e' tsi-gthe a' be tho' 

8. Zhi°'-ga no°-xthe gi-the mo°-thi° bi do° e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

9. No°-xthe gi-ga-be ki-the mo°-thi'' ta bi° da e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

10. I'^'-be i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi°-kshe shki e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

11. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi'' hi"* da e' tsi-gthe a' be tho"*, 

12. Zy'-ga no'^-xthe gi-the mo'^-thi'* bi do" e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

13. No°'-xthe gi-5a-be ki-the moMhi" ta bi° tsi" da e' tsi-gthe a' be 

tho', 

14. He'-dsi xtsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

15. Zhu'-i-ga ga-be ga ge shki e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

16. No°'-xthe a gi-the a-thi° hi da e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 



268 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Buu.. lOl 

17. Zhi^'-ga no"-xthe gi the mo^-tiii'' bi do° e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

18. No°'-xthe gi-ga-be ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi" da e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

19. Pa'-zhu-zhe i-ta-xe sha-be ga thi"-kshe shki e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

20. No°'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° hi° da e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

21. Zhi°'-ga no°-xthe gi-the mo''-thi° bi do° e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

22. No'^'-xthe gi-ga-be Jki-the mo°-thi° ta bi° da e' tsi-gthe a' be tho'. 



23. He'-dsi xtsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

24. Da'-do° no^-xthe tha bi go° no° shku a hi"" a' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

25. Mi'-xa gka to'^-ga thi'^-kshe no° e' tsi-gthe a' be tho' 

26. Ha!' wi-tsi-go-e' gi-a bi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

27. Zhi"'-ga no^-xthe bi thi°-ge a-tha, wi-tsi-go-e' gi a bi e' thi-gthe 

a be tho', 

28. He'-dsi xtsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

29. Zy'-ga no°-xthe gi-tha bi thi°-ge she do ' e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

30. Zhi^'-ga iio°-xthe o^-gi-tha ba tho° ta mi-kshe° da e' tsi-gthe a' 

be tho' 

31. Qi'-ha u-sha-be ga thi°-kshe shki e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

32. No'^'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi° hi"* da e' tsi-gthe a' be tho' 

33. Zhi^'-ga no°-xthe gi-the mo°-thi'' ta bi° da e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

34. No^'-xthe gi-ga-be ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi° e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

35. Pa'-zhu-zhe i-ta-xe sha-be ga-thi°-kshe shki e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

36. He'-dsi xtsi e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

37. No'^'-xthe a-gi-the a-thi'' hi° da e' tsi-gthe a' be tho' 

38. Zhi°'-ga no°-xthe gi-the mo°-thi° bi do" e' tsi-gthe a' be tho', 

39. No°'-xthe gi-ga-be ki-the mo°-thi° ta bi** da e' tsi-gthe a' be tho'. 

N0'*-XTHE I-Kl'^-DSE Wa-THO'* 
Charcoal Rush for Song 

(Music, p. 238) 



Ni-lia 5to bi ni wa tha tse, 

E tha we tha ne, he tha we tha ne, 

He tha we tha ne, he tha we tha-a, ha-a, 

Ni-lca 5to bi ni-wa tha tse. 



Ho^-ga 5to bi ni wa tha tse, 

E tha we tha ne, he tha we tha ne, 

He tha we tha ne, he tha we tha-a, ha-a. 

Ho°-ga 5to bi ni wa-tha-tse. 



Ts'a-ge gto bi ni wa-tha-tse, 

E tha we tha ne, he tha we tha ne, 

He tha we tha ne, he tha we tha-a, ha-a 

TTs'a-ge 5to bi ni wa-tha-tse. 



La Flbschb] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 269 



Mo°-sho° 5to bi ni wa-tha-tse, 

E tha we tha ne, he tha we tha ne, 

He tha we tha ne, ha tha we tha-a, Ho°-ga 

Mo°-sho° gto bi ni wa-tha-tse. 



Pe-dse 5to bi ni wa-tha-tse 

E tha we tha ne, he tha we tha ne. 

He tha we tha ne, he tha we tha ne, 

He tha we tha ne, he tha we tha-a, Ho°-ga 

Pe-dse gto bi ni wa-tha-tse. 



No°-xthe gto bi ni wa-tha tse, 

E tha we tha ni, he tha we tha ne. 

He tha we tha ni, he tha we tha-a, ha-a, 

Nc-xthe gto bi ni wa-tha-tse. 



Ho°-ba 5to bi ni wa-tha-tse, 

E tha we tha ne, he tha we tha ne. 

He tha we tha ne, he tha we tha-a, Ho°-ga 

Ho°-ba gto bi ni wa-tha-tse. 

No'^-xTHE Wa-tse Wa-tho'* 

Charcoal Touching Song 

Music, (p. 239) 

Words same as preceding song. 

Wa-:?o'''-tha The-the Wa-tho'* 

Attack Going to Song 

(Music, p. 240) 



1^0 we tha, ]k:o we tha, 
Da-do° a-thi" a-do° 
^^o we tha, l?o we tha, 
Mo°-sho° a-thi" a-do° 
J<io we tha. 



1^0 we tha, ko we tha, 
Da-do° a-thi° a-do° 
I^o we tha, lj;o we tha, 
]Ki-no" a-thi° a-do" 
^0 we tha. 

3 

1^0 we tha, ^o we tha. 
Da-do" a-thi° a-do°, 
1^0 we tha, Ijo we tha, 
Wa-gthe a-thi° a-do° 
1S.0 we tha. 



270 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY (Boll. 101 



Ko we tha, l?o we tha, 
Da-do° a-thi" a-do° 
}^o we tha, ^o we tha, 
Wa-pa 'thi" a-do° 
Ko we tha. 



Ko we tha, Ijo we tha. 
Da-do" a-thi° a-do°, 
1^0 we tha, Ijo we tha, 
Ho^-ba 'thi° a-do°, 
Ko we tha, 

Wa-tse Wa-tho'' 

Victory Song 

(Music, p. 241) 



Ah ha, ni wa ha, ni wa ha tha tee he, 
Ah ha, ni wa ha, ni wa ha tha tse he, 
Mo"-shon ha ha, tha tee. 



Ah ha, ni wa ha, ni wa ha, tha tse he. 
Ah ha, ni wa ha, ni wa ha tha tse he, 
|^i-no° ha ha tha tse. 



Ah ha, ni wa ha, ni wa ha tha tse he, 
Ah ha, ni wa ha, ni wa ha tha tse he 
Wa-gthe ha ha, tha tse. 



A ha, ni wa ha, ni wa ha tha tse he 
A ha, ni wa ha, ni wa ha tha tse he, 
Wa-!t'o° ha ha tha tse. 



Ah ha, ni wa ha, ni wa ha tha tse he, 
Ah ha, ni wa ha, ni wa ha tha tse he, 
Ho^-ba ha ha, tha tse. 

Kl'-NO'' Wa-tho'' 

Painting Songs 

Song 1 
(Music, p. 244) 

1 

Mi-ti-no° thi hi tha, 

E tha ha-ni da, E tha ha-ni da, 

A-ni da, E tha ha-ni da. 



La Fleschk] OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 271 



Zhi°-ga Iji-no" thi-hi tha, 

E tha ha-ni da, E tha ha-ni da, 

A-ni da, E tha ha-ni da. 



Ho°'-ga ^i-no" thi-hi tha, 

E tha ha-ni da, E tha ha-ni da, 

A-ni da, E tha ha-ni da. 



Wa-pa ^;i-no° thi hi tha, 

E tha ha-ni da, E tha ha-ni da, 

A-ni da, E tha ha-ni da. 



Ho"-ba ki-no° thi-hi tha, 

E tha ha-ni da, E tha ha-ni da, 

A-ni da, E tha ha-ni da. 

Song 2 

(Music, p. 244) 
1 

E, mi wi° no" l^i-no" tse, 
E, mi wi" no° y-no° tse tha, 
E-e, lji-no° tse tha, 
E, mi wi° no" ki-no" tse tha. 

2 
E, zhi°-ga wi" ki-no" tse, 
E, zhi°-ga wi° ]ji-no" tse tha, 
E-e, ki-no" tse tha, 
E, zhi°-ga wi" ki-no" tse tha. 

3 

E, Ho"-ga wi" y-no" tse, 
E, Ho°-ga wi" ki-no" tse tha, 
E-e, Iji-no" tse tha, 
E, Ho"-ga wi" Iji-no" tse tha. 

4 

E, wa-pa wi" ki-no" tse, 

E, wa-pa wi" ki-no" tse tha, 

E-e, ^i-no" tse tha, 

E, wa-pa wi" ]j;i-no" tse tha. 

5 

E, ho"-ba wi" ^i-no" tse, 
E, ho"-ba wi" Iji-no" tse tha, 
E-e, ^i-no" tse tha, 
E, ho"-ba wi" ^-no" tse tha. 



272 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 101 

I-:?:o'-THA Kl-KA-XE Wa-tho'' 

Friend Make Each Other Song 

(Music, p. 246) 

Ha-ni da, ha-ni da, ha-ni da, 
Ha-ni da, ha-ni da, Ho°-ga, 
Zhi°-ga-zhi°-ga i°-da-to-tha ha-ni da, 
Ha-ni da, ha-ni da, ha-ni da, 

Ta Wa-tho" 

Deer Songs 

Song 1 

(Music, p. 247) 

I-ho° u-gi-dse gi-ba-dse, 
I-ho" u-gi-dse gi-ba-dse, 
I-ho° Urgi-dse gi-ba-dse, 

A hi tha, hi tha gi ba dse 
I-ho° u-gi-dse gi ba dse, 
I-ho° u-gi-dse gi ba dse, 
A hi tha, hi tha gi ba dse, 
I-ho" u-gi-dse gi ba dse. 

Song 2 

(Music, p. 247) 
1 

Ta gthe-zhe, ta gthe-zhe, ta gthe-zhe the, 
Ta gthe-zhe, ta gthe-zhe, ta gthe-zhe the, 
Ta gthe-zhe the, Ta gthe-zhe, ta gthe-zhe. 

2 

Ta zhi°-ga, ta zhi"-ga ta zhi°-ga, 
Ta zhi°-ga, ta zhi^-ga, ta zhi^-ga, 
Ta zhi°-ga the, ta zhi^-ga, ta zhi°-ga. 

3 

Ta wo°-ga, ta wo°-ga, ta wo°-ga, 
Ta wo°-ga, ta wo°-ga, ta wo°-ga, 
Ta wo°-ga, ta wo°-ga, ta wo°-ga. 

4 

Ta to°-ga, ta to°-ga, ta to°-ga, 
Ta to°-ga, ta to°-ga, ta to°-ga, 
Ta to°-ga, ta to°-ga, ta to''-ga. 



La Flescee] 



OSAGE PEACE CEREMONY 



273 



Wa-pa'-dse Wa-tho" 

Butchering Song 

Song 3 

(Music, p. 248) 

E, mo°-hi° wa-ga, E, mc-hi" wa-ga, 
He-dsi xtsi mo°-hi" wa-ga, 
He-dsi mo°-hi° wa-ga, 
He-dsi xtsi mo°-hi° wa-ga, 
E, mo^-hi" wa-ga. 

Ho'-E-GA Gl-PSHE Wa-THO'* 

Symt)ols of earth walking over song 

(Music, p. 249) 

1 

TTo-hno" tsi-he wa-no°-tse, tsi-he wa-no° tse, 
To-hno° tsi-he wa-no°-tse, tsi-he wa-no" tse, 
fo-hno" tsi-he wa-no°-tse, tsi-he wa-no" tse, 
fsi-he wa-no°-t8e, tsi-he wa-nc-tse. 

2 

Zha-be tsi-he wa-no"-tse, tsi-he wa-no°-tse, 
Zha-be tsi-he wa-no°-tse, tsi-he wa-no°-tse, 
Xsi-he wa-no°-tse, Zha-be tsi-he wa-nc-tse, 
'J'si-he wa-no°-tse, tsi-he wa-no°-tse. 

Wa-k'i^ Wa-tho'* 

Carrying Song 

Song 4 

(Music, p. 250) 

He-dsi xtsi wa-ga, he-dsi wa-ga, 
He-dsi xtsi wa-ga, he-dsi wa-ga, 
He-dsi xtsi wa-ga, he-dsi wa-ga, 
He-dsi xtsi wa-ga, he-dsi wa-ga, 
He-dsi xtsi wa-ga, he-dsi wa-ga. 



INDEX 



Page 
Approach to the House, songs 

of 218,261-262 

Attack, on the Ho°'-ga 239 

Attack, song of: 

music of 240 

Osage words of 269-270 

Beliefs: 

concerning birds 230-231 

concerning childbirth 217 

concerning peace 229 

concerning the dead__ 87, 138, 140 

concerning the otter 221 

Birds: 

as symbols of clear sky 230 

association of, with the sky_ 229 
sacred, ceremony connected 

with 85-86 

Black Bear gens, relation of, to 

Puma gens 3 

Black Dog, information fur- 
nished by 252 

Broken songs: 

music of 41-43 

Osage words of 1 52-1 53 

Burden straps. Mysterious, 

making of 102,116 

Butchering song: 

in Osage language 273 

music of 248 

Call of the Criers 44 

Call to the People, songs of-. 17 
Calumet Dance, discussion of 

the term 203 

Captives: 

ceremony concerning 83 

status of 83-84 

Cardinal points, named for the 

winds 50 

Carrying song: 

meaning of 249 

music of 250 

Osage words of 273 

Center Dance songs: 

in Osage language 151-152 

music of 34,35 



Page 
Ceremonial Mourner, selec- 
tion and duties of 88-89 

Ceremonial practices, neces- 
sary changes in 141 

Ceremonial songs: 

in Osage language 189-190 

music of 117-119 

Ceremonies: 

dramatizing cosmic forces. _ 59 

Erecting the Rack 242-243 

Feasting 129 

Friendship 245 

Hot water 93 

Name taking 234 

of heating the water 44-45 

of smoking the pipe 66 

of success 222-223 

of the "Dance in the Cen- 
ter" 33-36 

of Wa-no°'-Qe A-ba-QU 69-70 

Charcoal, ceremonial: 

division and use of 19-20,30 

making of 53-54 

recitation of fight for 65-56 

struggle for 57 

symbolism of 3 

trees used in making 18 

Charcoal Fight: 

ceremony of 235-239 

ritual of.. 55-56, 236-237, 267-268 
Charcoal Rush' ritual, in Osage 

language 157-159 

Charcoal Rush songs: 

music of 58,238-239 

Osage words of.. 159-160, 268-269 
Childbirth, protracted, use of 

songs in 217 

Clay, symbolic: 

ritual concerning 6-7 

story of finding of 89-92 

Club, ceremonial, symbolism 

of 15 

Comedy, enactment of 233 

275 



276 



INDEX 



Page 

Contribution to the Fire, 

ritual of 48-49 

Cooking, ceremonial, of mystic 

foods 94 

Costume of the dancers 22 

Council: 

calling of 4 

of war 14-16 

Crawfish ritual: 

in Osage language 147 

recitation of 6-7 

Criers, notice called by 44, 51, 54 

Criers' songs: 

music of 51,54 

Osage words of 153,157 

Crying and Broken songs: 

meaning of 36 

music of 37-39 

Osage words of 152 

Curlew, belief concerning 230 

Curlew, long-billed, belief 

concerning 230 

Dance ceremony, songs of-. 246-250 

Dances: 

accompanied by handclap- 
ping 15,53 

"Dance in the Center" 33-36 

of the Valorous 93 

relative importance of 3 

with loom poles 59-60 

with standards 21 

with symbolic weapons 15 

Deer, place of, in ceremonial 
life 101 

Deer songs: 

in Osage language 272 

music of 247-250 

Delight songs: 

in Osage language 171 

music of 84 

Divisions of the Osage 202 

Doesey, J. Owen, reference to_- 51, 

141, 203 

Duck, mallard, call of, as an 
omen 231 

Dwellings, ceremonial removal 
of 16 

Eagle feathers. See Feath- 
ers, EAGLE. 

Earth song: 

in Osage language 273 

music of 249 



Page 

Elk songs: 

in Osage language 263 

music of 224 

"Entering the House" song: 

music of 82 

Osage words of 170-171 

"Entering the Village" song: 

explanation of 136 

music of 136 

Osage words of 198 

Face and body painting: 

at the Success ceremony 223 

symbolic 104 

Facial painting: 

for ceremony 212 

of captives 83 

of the Ho°'-ga 243-244 

of the No°'-ho°-zhi°-ga 85 

of warriors 85 

See also Face and body 
painting. 

Fasting: 

of the Ceremonial Mourner, 92 
of war leader 9-11 

Feast, serving of 35-36 

Feasting Together, ceremony 

called 129 

Feather songs: 

figurative meaning of 217 

in Osage language 261 

musicof 215-216 

Feathers, eagle: 

discussion of use of 205-206 

preparation of , for use 209-210 

symbolic use of 104 

symbohsm of 210 

use of, on ceremonial objects. 208, 

254 

Feathers, hawk, ceremonial 

useof 210 

Feathers, owl, ceremonial use 

of 211 

Fight for symbolic charcoal. . 55-56 

Fire, symbolic: 

collection of wood for 47 

making of 47 

two aspects of 97 

Fire Offering ritual: 

in Osage language 171-173 

recitation of 94-97 

Fire ritual; 

in Osage language 174-176 

recitation of 98-101 



INDEX 



277 



Page 

Firebrands, symbolism of 47 

Fletcher, Alice C, cited 78, 

203, 229, 255 

Flood, Osage tradition of 201 

Food ritual: 

in Osage language 154-155 

recitationof 45-47 

Friendship CEREMONY 245 

Friendship song: 

in Osage language 272 

music of 246 

Game, offering of tobacco to 129 

Gentes, Osage: 

names of 203 

position of , in ceremonies 203 

Gifts, distribution of 242 

Grass, symbolic, meaning of cer- 
emony with 75-76 

Great Gray Owl: 

ritual of 219-220,262 

songsof 220,263 

Great Ritual: 

comments on 115-116 

English version of 104-115 

Osage version of 178-188 

Great Song of Victory: 

music of 134 

Osage words of 197 

Guarding the Ho^'-ga, mention 

of songs of 224 

Handclapping, dances accom- 
panied by 15, 93 

Hatchet, Osage, history of 14 

HoN'-ga: 

ceremonial approach to 

houseof 217-218 

selection of 217 

House, ceremonial, return to-_ 21 

House of Ho^'-ga, ceremonial 

approach to 217-218 

House of Mystery, ceremony 

in 51-52,81-83 

"House" OP the Osage, use of.- 3 

Hunting, ceremony for aid in. 222-223 

Initiator's song: 

in Osage language 194 

music of 128 

Kaw tribe. Peace ceremony prac- 
ticed by 204 

Kettle Carrier's songs: 

music of 30-33 

Osage words of 151 



Page 

Kettle Placing ritual: 

in Osage language 153 

recitation of 45 

Killing song: 

in Osage language 196 

music of 132 

Knife, ceremonial, symbolism 

of 15-16 

Knife, stone: 

children named for 14 

substitute for 14 

Life, sanctity of, among Osage. 210 

Loom Pole Dance song: 

in Osage language 160 

music of 61 

Maize, reference to ritual of 12-13 

March, ceremonial, song of 
riders in 20, 149 

"Marching around Village" 
song: 

in Osage language 190 

music of 121 

"Men of Mystery" gens, sym- 
bol of 84-85 

Mnemonic devices, use of, for 
songs 213-214 

Mourning rite: 

changes made in 141 

description of 86-89 

for slain enemy 138-139 

last performance of 141 

modern modification of 142-143 

origin of 87 

Murder, compensation for 142 

Mythical Elk ritual 70, 72, 165 

Name Taking CEREMONY 234 

Names, joking, bestowal of 234 

Nominations for Peace cere- 
mony 212 

Officers' songs: 

in Osage language 150-151 

music of 23-29 

Omahas: 

Peace ceremony practiced 

by 204 

symboUc use of birds by 230 

Osage tribe: 

location of 201 

two great divisions of 202-203 

villages of 201 

Oto tribe, Peace ceremony 

practiced by 204 



278 



INDEX 



Page 

Otter, belief concerning 221 

Owl, hooting of, as an omen 231 

Owl feathers, use of, on pipes. _ 254 

Owl songs. See Great Gray 
Owl. 

Painting: 

materials used for 209 

See also Facial painting. 

Painting ceremony 243-245 

Painting ritual: 

in Osage language 176-177 

recitation of 102-104 

Painting songs: 

in Osage language 270-271 

music of 244-245 

Pawnee tribe. Peace ceremony- 
practiced by 204 

Peace, teaching of 229 

Peace ceremony: 

account of 199-273 

attendance at 206 

distribution of materials 

used in 207-208 

Omaha form of 251,252 

opening of 215-218 

Osage form of, compared 

with others 251 

Otoformof 251 

Ponca form of 251 

preparation for 205-206 

reverence for 204 

songs of 213 

transmission of 204 

tribes practicing 204 

vital principle of 204 

Pipe and Tobacco ritual: 

in Osage language 161-162 

recitation of 62-63 

Pipe ritual: 

in Osage language 195-196 

recitation of 130-131 

Pipes, ceremonial: 

description of 253-255 

Omaha, compared with 

Osage 255 

smoking of 120 

symbolic decoration of 251, 252 

use of, at war council - 4-5 

PiPESTEMS; ceremonial, decora- 

tion of 209 

Plants, symbolic use of 47 

Point of Attack ritual: 

explanation of 75-76 

Osage words of 167 



Page 
Pointing out the Attack, 

ritual of 126-127, 193-194 

Ponca tribe, Peace ceremony 

practiced by 204 

Procession: 

around the village 36,40,53 

equestrian, meaning of 22 

Processional song: 

explanation of 66-67 

in Osage language 164 

music of 68 

Puma gens, relation of, to Black 

Bear gens 3 

Purification rite 140-141 

Rituals: 

Contribution to the Fire 48-49, 

155-157 

Crawfish 6-7,147 

Fire 98-101, 174-176 

Great 104-115,178-188 

Great Gray Owl 219-220, 262 

Mythical Elk 70, 72, 165 

of Placing Food in Kettle.. 45-47, 
154-155 

of Placing the Kettle 45, 153 

OflFering to the Fire. 94-97, 171-173 

Painting 102-104, 176-177 

Pipe 130-131, 195-196 

Pipe and Tobacco. 62-63, 161-162 

Point of Attack 75-76,167 

Pointing out the Attack. 126-127, 

193-194 

Seven Fireplaces.. 64-65,162-163 

Sky 225-228,263-266 

Water 12,148-149 

Weapon 70, 73-74, 166-167 

Winning 70, 72-73, 165-166 

River, symbolism of 11 

Rock, symbolism of, among 

Siouan Indians 65-66 

"Sacred Fireplace," discussion 

of the term 97 

Savannah sparrow, song of, as 

an omen 230 

Scalps, graves marked by 87, 138 

Seven Fireplaces ritual: 

in Osage language 162-163 

recitation of 64-65 

Shields, Red, supernatural 

power of 116 

Sky Controlling songs: 

music of 229,230 

Osage version of 266 



INDEX 



279 



Page 
Sky ritual: 

Osage words of 263-266 

recitation of 225-228 

songs of 229,230,266 

use and symbolism of 225 

Smoke, offering of 211-212 

Songs: 

Broken 41-43,152-153 

Butchering 248,273 

CaU to the People 17 

Carrying 249-250, 273 

Ceremonial 117-120, 189-190 

Charcoal 238-239 

Criers' 51, 54, 153, 157 

Crying and Broken 36-39, 152 

Deer 247-250,272 

difl5culty of translating 42 

Earth 249,273 

Elk 224,263 

Feather 215-217,261 

Friendship 246,272 

Great, of Victory 134, 197 

Initiator's 128, 194 

Loom Pole dance 61,160 

of Attack 240,269-270 

of Ceremonial Approach 218, 

261-262 

of Delight 84,171 

of Entering the House 82, 

170-171 

of Entering the Village 136- 

137, 198 
of Marching Around the 

Village 121-122 

of Peace Ceremony, discus- 
sion of 213 

of Sympathy and Encour- 
agement 77-78 

of the "Dance in the 

Center" 34-35 

of the Do-do°'-ho°-ga 26-29 

of the Elder Kettle Car- 
riers 30-33,151 

of the Great Gray Owl 220 

of the Killing 132-133, 196 

of the Riders 20,149 

of the War Leaders. 23-26, 150-151 

of Victory 80-81, 

134, 135, 168-169, 197, 241, 270 

Officers' 23-29, 150-151 

Painting 244-245, 270-271 

Processional 66-69, 164 

Symbol of the Earth. 248-249, 273 



Page 

Songs — Continued. 

to the Sky 229-230, 266 

Victory 80-81, 134r-135, 

168-169, 197,241,270 

Water 222,263 

Weeping 232-233, 267 

Spirit, warrior's: 

farewell to 139 

murder committed for 142 

Spotted thrush, song of, as an 

omen 231 

Standards: 

ceremonial making of 18-19, 

52,92 
discussion of disposition of. . 137- 

138 

Story: 

connected with fasting rite. 82-92 
of animals as emblems 56-57 

Success ceremony, description 

of 222-223 

Tradition, Osage, of flood 201 

Tribal organization of the 

Osage 201-202 

United States National Mu- 
seum, specimen pipe in 253 

Vapor baths, ceremonial 78 

Victory songs: 

explanation of 241 

in Osage language 168-169, 

197, 270 
music of 80,81,134,135,241 

Village, setting of, in ceremonial 

order 16 

Village Entering song: 

in Osage language 198 

music of 136 

Villages of the Osage 201 

War club, change from, to 

hatchet 14 

War honors: 

claiming of 86 

rule concerning 228 

War leader: 

breaking of fast of 13 

songs of 23-26,150-151 

supernatural aid sought by. 8 

War movement, initiation of 4 

War party: 

march of 78 

return of 79-80, 133 

selection of officers in 5,13 

start of 77 



280 



INDEX 



Page 

Warriors: 

attack of, on the enemy 131 

slain, ceremony for 139-141 

valorous deeds recounted by. 243 

Water ritual: 

Osage version of 148-149 

recitation of 1 1-12 

Water song: 

in Osage language 263 

music of 222 

Weapon ritual: 

in Osage language 166-167 

recitation of 73-74 

symbolism of 70 

Weapons, symbolic: 

discussion of 14,15-16 

~ march with 39 



Page 
Weeping songs: 

explanation of 232 

in Osage language 267 

music of 232-233 

Wichita Indian, murder of, by 

Osage 142 

Winds, Four, appeal to, for the 

dead 140 

Winning ritual: 

explanation of 70,72 

in Osage language 165-166 

recitation of 72-73 

Woodpecker, call of, as an 

omen 231 



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