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^/ ' JBULLETIN NO. 12 -• - 

Departments of Geology aud Glieiniskry . 

The Occurrence, Chemistry, 

Metallurgy and Uses 

of Tungsten 

With Special Reference to the Black Hills 
of South Dakota 




A Bibliography of Tungsten 



September, 1918 



South Dakota School of Mines, 
Rapid City, March 15, 1918. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith a paper by Professor J. J. 
Runner of our Department of Mineralogy and Petrography and Professor 
M. L. Hartmann of our Department of Chemistry, entitled "The Occur- 
rence, Chemistry, Metallurgy and Uses of Tungsten with Special Reference 
to the Black Hills of South Dakota" including "A Bibliography of 
Tungsten" by Professor M. L. Hartmann. The paper is an important one 
and should prove of value to all who may be interested in the occurrence 
and uses of tungsten. 

I submit the paper with the recommendation that it be published as 
Bulletin No. 1 2 of the South Dakota State School of Mines. 

CLEOPHAS C. O'HARRA, President. 


President Regents of Education. 


PART I. — Geological occurrence of tungsten with special reference to 
the Black Hills, by J. J. Runner. 
CHAPTER I. The geological occurrence of tungsten. 
Tungsten minerals. 

Minerals for which tungsten ores are frequently mistaken. 
Mineral associates of tungsten in the ores. 
Rocks associated with tungsten ores. 
Types of deposits. 

Segregation deposits. 



Replacement deposits. 

Contact metamorphic deposits. 

Persistence of tungsten ores in depth. 
Important tungsten deposits of the United States. 
Foreign occurrences. 

CHAPTER II. Geology of the Black Hills. 

General geologic relations. 
Pre-Cambrian formations and history. 

Rocks of sedimentary origin. 

Intrusive Igneous rocks. 

Structure p.nd metamorphism. 

Pre-Cambrian history. 
Post-Algonkian sedimentary formations. 
Structure of the post-Algonkian sedimentary rocks. 
Tertiary igneous intrusives. 

Structural relations of the Tertiary igneous intrusives. 
Post-Algonkian history. 

CHAPTER III. The tungsten deposits of the Black Hills. 

Location of deposits. 
Types of deposits. 
Deposits of the Harney Peak area. 
Deposits of the Nigger Hill area. 
Summary of characteristics of the tungsten deposits in pre- 

Cambrian rocks. 
Origin of the tungsten deposits in the pre-Cambriau rocks. 
The deposits of the Lead-Deadwood area. 

General geology of the district. 

Location of the deposits. 

Deposits of the Homestake Mining Company. 

Deposits of Wasp No. 2 Mining Company. 
Deposits at the Etta Mine. (Lawrence Co.) 
Deposits at Deadwood. 
Deposits on the Denis Renault claims. 
Deposits on upper Two Bit Creek. 

Origin of the tungsten deposits of the Lead-Deadwood 

CHAPTER IV. Concentration and production of ore. 
Concenti'ation of the ores. 
Statistics of production. 

PART II. Chemistry, Metallurgy and Uses of Tungsten by M. L. 

CHAPTER V. Historical. 

CHAPTER VI. Preparation of metallic tungsten and ferro- 

Decomposition of wolframite. 

Sodium carbonate fusion method. 

Soda solution method. 

Aqua Regia method. 

Carbon tetrachloride method. 

Bisulphate method. 
Decomposition of scheelite. 
Acid method. 
Alkali fluoride method. 
Reduction of tungstic oxide to a metal. 

By carbon in crucibles. 

By carbon in the electric furnace. 

Reduction by aluminum. 

Reduction by Silicon carbide. 

Reduction by Boron and silicon. 

Reduction by zinc. 

Reduction by gases. 
Preparation of ductile tungsten. 
Manufacture of ferro-tungsten. 

By reduction with carbon in crucibles. 

By the alumino-thermic method. 

By the silico-thermic method. 

By direct reduction in electric furnace. 
Decarburization of ferro-tungsten and cast tungsten. 
Dephosphorization of ferro-tungsten. 
Quality of ore demanded by users. 
Chemical treatment of impure ores. 

CHAPTER VII. Properties of the metal. 
Physical properties. 

Chemical behavior. 
Atomic weight. 

CHAPTER VIII. Uses for the metal. 
In iron alloys. 


History of use in steel. 

Manufacture of alloy steel. 

Heat treatment of alloy steel. 

Theory of high speed steels. 
In non-ferrous alloys. 
In metal filament lamps. 
Miscellaneous uses. 

CHAPTER IX. Compounds of tungsten and their uses. 

Tungsten and halogens. 
Tungsten and sulfur. 
Tungsten and nitrogen. 
Tungsten and phosphorus. 
Tungsten and arsenic. 
Tungsten and boron. 
Tungsten and carbon. 
Tungsten and silicon. 
Organic salts of tungsten. 

CHAPTER X. Analytical chemistry. 
Qualitative detection of tungsten. 
Quantitative determination of tungsten. 
Specific gravity methods. 


Plate I. 

Topographical map Black Hills. 
Plate 11 A, 

Wolframite — Hill City. 
Plate II B. 

Tungsten Ore — Robinson claim. Spokane, S. D. 
Plate III A. 

Granular Wolframite replacing dolomite. Homestake Mine, Lead, S. D. 
Plate IIIB. 

Wedge shaped crystals of wolframite grown in open cavities. Home- 
stake Mine, Lead, S. D. 

Plate IV A. 

Radiating group, of bladed crystals of hubernite. Two Bit Creek, 
Lawrence County, S. D. 

Plate I\ B, 

Crystalline wolframite in cavities and seams of rhyolito porphyry. 
Henault claim, near Lead, S. D. 

Plate V. 

The Harney Range from the west. 
Plate VI A. 

Harney Peak from the west. 
Plate VI B. 

Harney Peak from the south. 
Plate VII. 

Topographical map of Harney Peak area showing location of prin- 
cipal tungsten deposits. 

Plate VIII. 

Topographical map of Lead-Deadwood region showing location of 
principal tung-sten deposits. 

Plate IX A. 

Nortliern Hills near Homestake wolframite deposits. 
Plate IX B. 

W^asp No. 2 open cut. 
Plate X A. 

Homestake tungsten mine, Lead, S. D. 
Plate X B. 

Homestake tungsten mill. Lead, S. D. 
Plate XI A. 

Wasp No. 2 mill. 
Plate XI B. 

Elkhorn Tungsten Co.'s plant. 
Fig. 1. 

Columnar section of the Black Hills region. 
Fig. 3. 

Diagram illustrating occurrence of tung'sten ores in cambrian dolo- 
mite. Homestake mine. Lead, S. D. (After A. J. M. Ross) 


For some time past and especially during the last three 
years, the South Dakota State School of Mines has received 
numerous requests from citizens of the state, and from many 
others, for information regarding tungsten and tungsten de- 
posits. These inquiries have been for data upon a wide 
range of subjects, including the chemistry, metallurgy, uses, 
minerals, and geologic occurrence of tungsten in other locali- 
ties, as well as in the Black Hills. The general field was par- 
tially covered by brief articles on various phases of the sub- 
ject, published in the Tungsten Number of the School of 
Mines Magazine, The Pahasapa Quarterly, in February 1916, 
but the limited supply of this publication was soon exhausted. 
The issue of this number of the magazine has resulted in 
stimulating the demand for more information. 

This bulletin is written in the attempt to bring together 
pertinent information concerning the general subject of 
tungsten. Some of this material has already appeared in the 
literature, but is not readily accessible to many persons in- 
terested in the subject. Other parts, especially those relating 
to the deposits of the Black Hills, are the result of field 
work and laboratory research by the authors. 

It was the original intention to make the chapter on the 
geologic occurrence of tungsten very complete, but the ap- 
pearance last year of an excellent treatment of this sub- 
ject in U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 652, on Tungsten 
Minerals and Deposits by Mr. Frank L. Hess, seems to ren- 
der a thorough treatment of this subject quite superfluous. In 
Chapter 1, however, some data have been included not found 
in Hess' bulletin, that may prove to be of value to many 
readers. In this chapter the data presented by Hess have 
been freely used in order that they might be available to 
some not in possesssion of his publication. 

The authors wish to express their thanks to ex-Supt. 
Richard Blackstone, and to Supt. Bruce C. Yates of the Home- 
stake Mining Company, and to Messrs. A. J. Clark, W. J. 

Sharwood, A. J. M. Ross, and Patrick Hayes, of the same 
company for information regarding the Homestake deposits; 
to Mr. Ed Manion for information regarding the Wasp No. 2 
and Bismarck deposits; and to Mr. Otto Ellerman, and Mr. 
George Coats for data on various properties. 

We wish also to express our appreciation of the generous 
services rendered by Miss Delia M. Haft and Messrs. W. C. 
Bochert, and W. W. Waldschmidt in preparing the manu- 
script, and in various other ways. 

Finally we desire to record our gratitude to Pres. C. C. 
O'Harra and to the Regents of Education for making possible 
the publication of this report, and to Pres. O'Harra also, for 
his hearty co-operation and his valued suggestions upon 
numerous phases of the work. 


About the middle of 1915, after the war had been in 
progress for nearly a year, the war industries awoke to the 
fact that no rapid tool steel was to be obtained because Ger- 
many had forseen the situation and had secured a monopoly 
on the tungsten ore production. A violent sepeculative rise 
in the price of tungsten stimulated intensive search for new 
sources of the ores, and as a result many new deposits were 
opened, and increased production was reported from nearly 
all fields. 

Dr. C. G. Fink says that every age has had its "key" 
substance, on the existence of which its civilization has large- 
ly depended. In the stone age the tribe which controlled the 
best flint deposits had the upper hand until some other tribe 
discovered bronze. Bronze as "key metal" was displaced by 
steel, which in turn gave place to lead for use in bullets. Still 
later, copper became the key, because it made possible the 
percussion cap. Tungsten is the key metal of today, because 
by the use of tungsten steel, modern manufacturing methods 
have been revolutionized. "To deprive a nation of tungsten 
is to cripple its military power in time of war, and its indus- 
trial power in time of peace. Without high speed steels, ma- 
chine tools could not be produced nor operated in sufficient 
quantity to make the 'seventy-five' and its thousands of 
shells, the rifle and machine gun and its millions of cart- 
ridges. Nor could automobiles, farm machinery, ships, or en- 
gines be replenished after the sword has been happily sheath- 
ed — it may some day well be said that cnngsten made demo- 
cracy possible." 

Popular interest in tungsten has also been developed by 
its common use in incandescent electric lights, which with 
an efficiency over five times as great as the old carbon fila- 
ment lamps, have added much to the comfort, convenience 
and welfare of man. 

In 1916, the United States produced more tungsten than 


any other country. Burma ranked second and Portugal third. 
Then followed Australia, Bolivia and Argentina. 

In the United States, Colorado is the largest producer, 
followed closely by California, with Nevada and Arizona about 
even for third place, then in order. South Dakota, Idaho, 
Utah and Missouri. 

The Black Hills of South Dakota have already produced 
over a million dollars worth of tungsten ores, and many of 
the deposits are as yet not thoroughly developed. There is 
considerable promise of increased production in the future. 







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In nature tungsten has not been found as a metal, but 
always in combination with other elements. It is certainly 
known combined with other elements, in but eleven minerals, 
a relatively small number when compared with the number of 
minerals in which many of the other metals occur. It is, 
however, the chief constituents, by weight, of nearly all of 
the tungsten-bearing minerals. Many metals, such as iron 
and calcium, occur in traces as impurities in a large number 
of minerals; tungsten on the other hand, has been identified 
in relatively few minerals, even among those with which it is 
commonly associated in pegmatites and quartz veins. In its 
natural occurrences the element is not a base forming one, 
and therefore does not act as a true metal in any of its 
mineral compounds. 

In certain types of ore deposits, tungsten minerals are of 
frequent occurrence and have a wide distribution, but in the 
aggregate, the amount of the metal present is usually small. 
It might be said, therefore, to occupy the apparently para- 
doxical position of being a somewhat rare metal of compara- 
tively common occurrence. 

Tungsten Minerals. 

The following are the known tungsten minerals: 

The wolframite series — 

Ferberite (80 '< to 100% FeWOJ (20 "^ to 0% MnWOJ 
Wolframite (80% to 20% FeWOJ (20% to 80% MnWO,) 
Hubnerite (20- to 0% FeWO,) (80 '^ to 100% MnWOJ 

Scheelite CaWO,. 

Powellite Ca(Mo,W)0,. 

Stolzite PbWO,. (Tetragonal) 

Raspite PbWO,. (Monoclinic) 

Cuprotungstite. CuW0,.2H,0. 

Tungstite WO,.H,0 (Tungstic ocher) 

Ferritungstite Fe,0,.W0,.6H,0. 

Tungstenite WS... 


Reinite (FeWO^) is given by Dana as a separate species, 
but is now regarded as ferberite pseudonmorphous after 

The wolframites have been shown by Hess* to form a 
complete series, with an infinite number of members from 
FeWO^ to MnWO^ so that he has proposed the following 
definition : 

"Ferberite should be considered as an iron tungstate 
(FeWOJ contaminated by not more than 20 per cent MnWO^, 
a proportion equivalent to 4.69 per cent MnO, or 3.63 percent 
Mn, in the pure tungsten mineral." 

Hubnerite should be considered as manganese tungstate 
(MnWOJ contaminated by not more than 20 per cent FeWO^, 
a proportion equivalent to 4.74 percent FeO, or 3.69 percent 

Wolframite should cover the ground between the limits 
above indicated. That is, wolframite should be considered a 
mixture of iron and manganese tungstates containing not less 
than 20 per cent nor more than 80 per cent of either." 

Hess further states: 

"Except the light colored hubnerites, most of these mix- 
tures cannot be distinguished by the eye or by simple tests, 
and in the absence of analyses it is therefore convenient to 
refer to the dark minerals of the series as wolframites." 

Ferberite and wolframites when pure are black. When 
partly oxidized they may appear brownish, from the presence 
of iron oxide. Hubnerite is characteristically brown. Some 
specimens are yellowish, others reddish, while some are near- 
ly black. 

The members of the wolframite series are all monoclinic 
in form and the crystallographic constants of the end mem- 
bers have not been found to show any characteristic differen- 
ces. Ferberite, however, seems to show a greater tendency to 
form well defined crystals than do the other members. Crys- 
tals of ferberite and wolframite are frequently wedge shaped 
and usually small. Such forms are common in ores where 
the crystals have grown in open cavities. Such crystals are 
shown in Plate HIB. Boulder county, Colorado, ferberite, 

= U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 652. page 22. 


often crystallizes in cuboid and elongated rhombic forms. In 
quartz veins wolframite seldom shows good crystal bound- 
aries, but occurs in tabular or irregular masses. (See Plate 
II A.) Hubnerite exhibits a strong tendency to form radia- 
ting groups of thin, bladed crystals, such as the hubnerite 
from Two Bit Creek, Lawrence Co., S. D., shown in Plate IVA. 
Dense, fine-grained aggregates of closely packed crystals that 
have interfered with each other in growth, and show only 
irregular boundaries, frequently occur. When such masses 
are broken they may exhibit small shiny, cleavage surfaces, 
which may be mistaken for crystal faces. An example of 
such an occurrence may be seen in Plate III A. 

In hardness, all members of the wolframite are a little 
over 5, and can be scratched with the point of a knife. Their 
specific gravities range from 7.2 or 7.3 in hubnerite, to 7.5 in 
ferberite, with wolframite intermediate. 

Crystals of all members of the series split readily along 
very perfect planes in one direction. The plane of cleavage is 
at right angles to the plane of elongation in the tabular 
forms. This relation of cleavage to the form of the mineral 
is well shown in Plate II A. On newly broken cleavage sur- 
faces of the unweathered mineral, the luster is brilliant 
metallic. Crystal faces are usually duller and their luster 
ranges from sub-metallic to dull. When the mineral is crush- 
ed fine, or is drawn over a surface of rough porcelain a 
powder is produced that diff"ers somewhat from the color of 
the mineral. This powder, or the streak of the mineral, as 
it is frequently called, is dark brown to nearly black in the 
case of ferberite, dark brown to reddish brown for wolf- 
ramite, and is brownish red or even greenish yellow in 

Scheelite is calcium tungstate, or is sometimes spoken of 
as lime tungstate. In color scheelite is usually white, light 
gray, or honey yellow. Less commonly it is bright yellow, 
greenish yellow, brown or reddish brown. Its luster is often 
greasy, or may be simply glassy. Frequently specimens are 
found that are slightly translucent, but seldom are clear 
transparent ones seen. 

Good crystals of scheelite are very rare. It is commonly 


found in granular masses, or irregular lumps of a coarser 
texture. In the Black Hills it is frequently seen coating 
wolframite in small botryoidal masses resembling drops of 

The hardness of scheelite is a little less than 5, so that it 
may be scratched easily with the point of a knife blade. Its 
specific gravity is approximately 6, which is less than that of 
the members of the wolframite series. It possesses four di- 
rections of fairly good cleavage, that may be seen in freshly 
broken massive specimens. 

Scheelite frequently occurs as a secondary mineral, 
while the wolframites apparently, rarely do. Scheelite oc- 
curs in small quantities in nearly all wolframite veins, while 
wolframites are rare in the scheelite veins. 

Tungstite (WO.H.O) or tungstic ocher, is a bright yel- 
low powdery mineral, formed by the decomposition of the 
other tungsten minerals. It commonly occurs associated with 
oxides of iron or manganese, coating surfaces or filling 
cracks in scheelite or the wolframites. It is very rarely 
found in sufficient quantities to be of commercial importance. 
Powellite, stolzite, raspite, cuprotungstite, ferritungstite 
and tungstenite, are very rare, and hence of little economic 
importance, therefore seem to merit no description here. For 
information regarding them the reader is referred to the 
standard texts on mineralogy. 
Minerals For Which Tungsten Ores are Frequently Mistaken 

Among minerals which have been frequently mistaken 
for the wolframites may be mentioned ; specular hematite, 
magnetite, cassiterite, columbite, spahalerite, tourmaline, 
manganese dioxide, and even graphite. In one instance that 
came to the author's attention, a prospector had mined and 
hand sorted several tons of quartz containing black tourma- 
line. In another case a large mass of black sphalerite was 
exhibited and placarded as assaying TO'/'c WO... In the 
field, "especially rich ore" has been seen that was mostly 
graphite. Numerous specimens of the other minerals listed 
above have been received at the South Dakota State School 
of Mines to be assayed for tungsten. Such mistakes are, of 
course, natural among prospectors in new fields, and in fact 



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are not unknown among technically trained mining men. 
Some of the larger companies have shown a very commend- 
able spirit in furnishing specimens of their ore to the pros- 
pectors for comparisons. It is to be highly recommended to 
the man unacquainted with tungsten minerals, that he collect 
specimens for study before doing much prospecting, even 
should he be able to get determinations of his mineral finds 
made free of charge. 

Magnetite, cassiterite, columbite, tourmaline, and man- 
ganese dioxide, can usually be readily distinguished from the 
wolframites by their lack of good cleavage, which the tungs- 
ten minerals possess to a high degree. The cleavage of the 
wolframites may be readily recognized by their flat, shiny 
surfaces produced upon breaking the minerals. Micaceous 
hematite flakes off in thin, shiny leaves, that may be mis- 
taken for the cleavage of wolframite. Its reddish brown 
streak, furthermore, is not unlike that of some of the wolf- 
ramites. Its color, however is more of a steel blue, while that 
of the wolframites is dark brown or black, and the cleavage 
flakes of the micaceous hematite are usually very much thin- 
ner than can readily be obtained from any of the tungsten 
minerals. Tourmaline lacks cleavage, is much harder than 
any of the tungsten minerals, and has more of a glassy than 
a metallic luster. It is, furthermore, commonly in long, slen- 
der crystals, with a rounded triangular cross section. 
Graphite is so soft that it soils the fingers. Sphalerite, tour- 
maline, graphite and manganese dioxide differ from the wolf- 
ramites in being much lighter in weight and can with a little 
practice be readily distinguished by this property. 

Cases in which scheelite has been mistaken for other 
minerals, or in which a variety of other minerals have been 
thought to be scheelite have come to the author's attention. 
The more common errors have been in connection with cal- 
cite, garnet, quartz, apatite, amblygonite, barite, and felds- 
par. Of these minerals, quartz, and garnet are much harder 
and will readily scratch glass, whereas scheelite can be 
easily scratched with the point of a knife blade. Feldspars 
are scratched with great difficulty with a knife and further- 
more always cleave readily along smooth planes, while 


scheelite does not show good cleavage surfaces, barite has a 
superior cleavage and is much softer than scheelite. Ambly- 
gonite has a perfect cleavage in one direction and is with 
difficulty scratched with a knife. Calcite has three perfect 
cleavages and is much softer than scheelite. Apatite, as well 
as all the other minerals here mentioned, has a specific grav- 
ity decidedly less than that of scheelite and in a majority of 
cases, can be distinguished from it because of this fact. 

Tungstite and yellow, hydrous iron oxide are often con- 
fused. The most satisfactory method of distinguishing these 
minerals, and it might be added, the most conclusive test for 
any of the tungsten minerals, is a chemical one. 

A simple, and usually a very satisfactory test is to boil 
the finely powdered mineral in hydrochloric acid, when if 
tungsten is present, a bright yellow powder (WO.) will be 
formed. Upon the addition of metallic zine or tin the yellow 
powder will be changed to a blue and finally to brown. 

In case the yellow powder and blue color do not appear, 
when treated as given above, fuse the finely powdered mineral 
with sodium carbonate, or sodium bicarbonate and then dis- 
solve the fused mass in hydrochloric acid, and add tin or 
zinc. If any tungsten is present the indigo color will appear. 

Mineral Associates of Tungsten in the Ores 

Inasmuch as tungsten ores most commonly occur in 
veins, closely associated with granites, acid porphyries and 
pegmatites, a list of the minerals most commonly associated 
with tungsten ores in reality, becomes a partial list of acid 
pegmatites and deep vein minerals. Upon reviewing the 
literature describing the most important deposits of the 
United States and foreign countries, the author has found 
the following to be the more common associates of tungsten ; 
quartz, muscovite, cassiterite, molybdenite, pyrite, arsenopy- 
rite, topaz, tourmaline, fluorite, chalcopyrite, gold and silver; 
and to a lesser extent feldspars, biotite, beryl, apatite, bis- 
muth, bismuthinite, sphalerite, columbite, graphite, sylvanite, 
and many less common ones. 

In general there seems to be a greater variety of 

minerals in the wolframite veins than in the scheelite veins, 
Scheelite veins are, perhaps, more commonly associated with 
gold ores than with ores of silver or the base metals. Minerals 
of copper, lead, zinc, tin, silver, nickel,cobalt, arsenic, anti- 
mony, and bismuth, are apparently more common in wolf- 
ramite veins than in scheelite veins. 

Rocks Associated With Tungsten Ores 

Among rocks, granites, acid pegmatites, and acid por- 
phyries, are by far the most common igneous associates of 
tungsten deposits. These rocks are all characterized by an 
excess of silica, that has crystallized in the form of quartz, 
and quartz is easily the most common mineral associate of 
the tungsten ores. In some cases the ore bodies lie wholly 
within the igneous rocks, in other cases they extend into 
slates, quartzites and other rocks at the sides, or lie at the 
contact of the igneous rocks and sedimentaries, but in a 
great majority of cases igneous rocks of the acidic type are 
to be found nearby. Tungsten deposits are frequently with- 
in, or in close proximity to metamorphic rocks, such as slates, 
schists, or crystalline limestones, for the very intrusion of 
the igneous rocks themselves have in many cases brought 
about the metamorphism. 

Types of Deposits 

The known deposits of tungsten of the world may be 
conveniently classified according to their mode of occur- 
rence as follows: (1) segregation deposits; (2) pegmatites; 
(3) veins; (4) replacement deposits; (5) contact metamor- 
phic deposits; (6) placers. Of these types the vein and 
placer deposits have furnished much the greater part of the 

(Segregation Deposits.) During the crystallization of an 
igneous magma it sometimes occurs that minerals of one kind 
will be concentrated within a limited space and there separate 
out in greater amounts than are in the average of the rock 
as a whole. In the Whetstone Mts., Cochise County, Arizona, 
is an occurrence of this kind where wolframite occurs in por- 
tions of a granite in quantities sufficient for a small produc- 
tion. In the Renault property near Lead, South Dak., crys- 


tals of wolframite have been found intergrown with the 
feldspar and quartz, of a rhyolite porphyry, that has appar- 
ently segregated out from the magma and concentrated near 
the margin of the dike. 

(Pegmatites.) As a molten mass of igneous material 
from below the outer crust of the earth rises, it comes into 
contact with relatively colder rock and begins to solidify. 
Those materials least soluble under the existing conditions of 
temperature, pressure and concentration separate first, leav- 
ing a solution that continually becomes richer in the more 
fluid materials. The fluidity of the residual solutions is 
greatly increased by the presence of certain substances 
known as mineralizers, or as one might say, fluxes. Among 
the mineralizing agents, are water; boric, hydrochloric, and 
hydrofluoric acid ; and compounds of phosphorus, sulphur, 
arsenic, lithium, beryllium, cerium, niobium, tantalum, and 
tungsten. During a later stage of the solidification of the 
parent magma, the liquid portions find avenues of escape out- 
ward through the cracks, formed as a result of the shrink- 
age of the solidified portions as they crystallized and cooled, 
and are forced into these openings and even out into the 
surrounding rock along planes of weakness, where they final- 
ly solidify in dikes, sills, or pipe-like masses. The resulting 
rocks in the case of a parent, acid magma, are characterized 
by quartz, alkali feldspars, muscovite, biotite, lepidolite, 
topaz, tourmaline, fluorite, apatite, beryl, columbite, cassi- 
terite, spodumene, amblygonite, tungsten minerals, monazite, 
and frequently a small amount of arsenides and sulphides of 
the base metals. Such rocks are the acid pegmatites. In 
case the tungsten content of the original magma were suflFi- 
ciently high the pegmatite forms an ore-body from which the 
tungsten may be profitably recovered. Such pegmatites are 
always associated with deep seated rocks of the acid type and 
often may be traced into granites by insensible gradations. 
From their mode of origin it may be readily seen that the 
pegmatites will frequently be found at the outer margins of 
the granite masses. Often, however, they have differentia- 
ted in place and may be found in irregular masses within the 
granite, and not separated from it by sharp boundaries. 


On the whole the pegmatites are more commonly found 
in dikes, but frequently they occur in sills and irregular pipe- 
like forms. Whether in dikes, sills or pipes, their forms and 
sizes are extremely variable. Few of them maintain a uni- 
form thickness and direction for more than short distances. 
The distribution of the minerals within is likewise very 
erratic. Rich spots of ore intervene with barren stretches, 
suddenly and frequently, and there seems to be no method of 
predicting the character of the body a few feet distant from 
the exposed portion. In general the pegmatites seem to be 
less favorable for ores of tungsten than the veins. 

The deposits of Cornwall, England, Torrington, N. S. W., 
and some of the Queensland deposits are perhaps the most 
important occurrences of tungsten in pegmatites. Tungsten 
bearing pegmatites occur near Hill City in the Black Hills of 
South Dakota, 

(Veins.) The relations of the quartz-tungsten veins to 
the pegmatites, or to other acidic rocks, is very similar to the 
relation of the pegmatites to the granite rock, i. e, they are 
products of the separation and solidification of the more solu- 
ble parts of the original solution. In the pegmatites of the 
Black Hills the author has noted numerous cases of the oc- 
currence of wolframite in the quartz-rich portions of the 
pegmatite. In some cases these quartz-rich portions are in 
the form of local segregations of irregular form, in others 
they are in the form of veins. Some of the veins have ex- 
tended beyond the pegmatites and into the surrounding 
schists, and it is in these veins that the richest ores exist. 
So that it is true that the more promising deposits occur 
in vein area beyond the pegmatites just as many of the 
richer pegmatites lie at the border of the granite area. Tung- 
sten minerals and quartz, perhaps in aqueous solution, appear 
in this case to have been the most fluid portions of the origi- 
nal magma and to have separated most completely and to 
have travelled farthest. Cassiterite appears to have been 
less soluble and crystallized more commonly in the pegma- 

On the whole the minerals of the quartz-tungsten veins 
are very similar to those of the pegmatites. They, however, 


contain a much smaller percentage of silicates, except per- 
haps tourmaline and muscovite ; phosphates ; columbates 
and tantalates; lithia minerals; and a greater percentage of 
native metals ; sulphides of iron, copper, zinc, lead, molybden- 
um, silver, and antimony ; arsenic minerals ; and tungsten 
minerals. Furthermore the veins frequently contain carbon- 
ates which are not found in the pegmatites. 

Tungsten veins may occur singly, or in zones of rock 
permeated by many parallel or anastomosing veins. Veins 
frequently branch, pinch and swell. Some are lense shaped, 
others thin, sheet-like forms, and some are thick, plug-like 
masses. The greater number cannot be traced far along the 
strike or dip, but some persist for great distances and are 
remarkably uniform in thickness. Sudden changes in direc- 
tion are common. The mineral content is as variable as the 
other physical features. 

The veins are the chief source of tungsten at the pres- 
ent time. The ferberite veins of Boulder County, Colorado ; 
the scheelite veins of California; the wolframite veins of 
Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Portugal, and South America, 
have furnished much the greatest part of the world's produc- 
tion of tungsten, and bid fair to continue their output for 
years to come. 

(Replacement Deposits.) Where ore bearing solutions 
encounter soluble rocks, they may react with them removing 
the original material, and leaving in its place the silica and 
ore minerals of the solution. In many cases the intimate 
structure of the original rocks is preserved, although com- 
pletely changed in composition. In the act of solution cavi- 
ties are frequently formed that later may be lined with 
crystals of the ore. Carbonate rocks are especially favorable 
for replacement, apparently on account of their greater solu- 

Perhaps the best known and most important deposits of 
this type occur in the Northern Black Hills of South Dakota, 
where a dolomitic limestone has been partially replaced by 
silica and wolframite. The ore solutions ascended through 
vertical cracks in the dolomite until they reached an imper- 


vious shale and were forced to spread laterally, and here 
formed horizontal lenses of rich ore. 

(Contact Metamorphic Deposits.) Where molten mag- 
mas come into contact with other rocks the high tempera- 
ture, and the solutions and gases emanating from the magma, 
frequently cause intense mineral changes. Especially is this 
true in the carbonate rocks. The carbon dioxide is driven off 
and the lime, magnesia, and iron of the carbonates, reacts 
with silica, alumina, and other materials of the magmatic 
solution, causing the destruction of the original rock, and the 
development in its place of an aggregate of new minerals, 
chiefly silicates of calcium, magnesium and iron. Among the 
minerals characteristic of contact metamorphism are, gar- 
net, vesuvianite, epidote, tremolite, actinolite, wollastonite, 
diopside, axinite, and many others. The magmatic solutions, 
as in the case of veins and replacement deposits, frequently 
bear metallic ores and these are precipitated in the zone of 

The tungsten deposits near Bishop, Inyo County, Cali- 
fornia, are of this type. A description of this occurrence will 
be found below. 

(Placers.) As the chemical and mechanical agents of 
weathering act upon an ore body exposed at the surface, it is 
gradually disintegrated and carried away. The materials 
easily dissolved are removed in solution, while the more re- 
sistant ones are washed down by running water, or may be 
gradually removed by gravity to stream beds, where they are 
sorted by the stream. The heavier materials of the gravel 
bed gradually work toward the bottom and there become con- 
centrated. Tungsten minerals, for the most part are resist- 
ant to chemical weathering, and on account of their high 
specific gravity readily concentrate in rich placers. 

Deposits of this type have furnished a large amount of 
the tungsten production of Burma and the Malay Peninsula. 
Placer production in the United States has been small, but 
locally some rich gravels have been worked in California, 
Arizona, and Nevada. 


Persistence of Tungsten Deposits in Depth 

The persistence of tungsten deposits in depth, and the 
maintenance of values, are questions of vital importance to 
those interested. Unfortunately but few deposits have been 
developed far enough to determine their true nature, so that 
we have not a sufficient amount of real data upon which to 
base definite conclusions. 

Geologists are fairly well agreed that granites are rocks 
formed at considerable depth below the surface of the earth. 
The association of tungsten deposits with granite and their 
occurrence in veins and pegmatites with such minerals as 
tourmaline, topaz, beryl, muscovite, and others believed to be 
formed only at high temperatures, seems to point fairly clear- 
ly to the formation of most tungsten deposits at considerable 
depths. This would seem to imply conditions of more or less 
uniformity, within a comparatively large zone bordering the 
granitic mass, so that although tungsten veins might not 
form everywhere, they are likely to form anywhere, within 
this zone. The evidence seems clearly to indicate that a great 
number of pegmatites and associated quartz veins, were sud- 
denly and under great pressure forced into the surrounding 
rocks. Such a mode of origin would likely produce irregular- 
ity in their forms. 

Among tungsten deposits we frequently find veins of 
very limited extent vertically as well as horizontally with ir- 
regular swelling and pinchings, and yet some are known, such 
as the Boulder County, Colorado, veins, that seem to persist 
for considerable distances along the strike and for at least 
900 feet vertically. In one of the Atolia mines the greatest 
quantity of ore was found below a depth of 400 feet, and the 
mine has good ore at a depth of over 500 feet, which is over 
1000 feet along the dip of the vein. A deposit of scheelite in 
Halifax County, Nova Scotia, is reported to have been follow- 
ed three miles along the strike of the vein. The deposits of 
scheelite and the genetically related gold reefs of Hillgrove, 
N. S. W. are believed to persist vertically for upward of 1500 

It would seem therefore, that despite the characteristic 
bunchiness of so many tungsten bearing lodes and of their 


sudden termination, there are lodes that maintain their 
values over a considerable distance along the strike and along 
the dip. The development of one vein of limited extent 
might easily lead to the discovery of others, and the opening 
of these to still others. At least it seems that other lodes 
are likely to be found within the zone of known deposits. 

No authenticated case of secondary enrichment to any 
important extent, in tungsten deposits, has yet been describ- 
ed. It appears improbable, furthermore, that any of the 
wolframite, hubnerite, or ferberite in the more important de- 
posits are secondary, so that there is no apparent reason for 
believing that some of the rich deposits have become so be- 
cause of secondary enrichment, and that for this reason would 
grow poor in depth. 

Below is given a brief description of some of the more 
important deposits of tungsten in the United States and in 
foreign countries. A description of the important deposits of 
Japan and of some other countries, as well as some within the 
United States, that otherwise would have been included, were 
omitted because of the meager information on them obtain- 
able in the literature. 

Important Tungsten Deposits of the United States 

(Colorado.) The principal tungsten producing district 
of Colorado occupies a strip approximately 4x20 miles in 
southwestern Boulder County and northern Gilpin County. 
The rocks of the district comprise sedimentary gneiss and 
schist, and intrustive gneissic-granite of pre-Cambrian age ; 
all of which are cut by later dikes ranging in composition 
from limburgite to granite pegmatite. On the northwest and 
southwest sides of the tungsten area are gold and silver bear- 
ing veins having the same trend as the tungsten veins. These 
are believed to be a continuation of the gold belt of Clear 
Creek and Gilpin Counties. The tungsten veins are in many 
ways similar to the gold veins of the district and seem to 
have a close connection with them in genesis. The gold veins 
bear sylvanite, pyrite, molybdenite, roscoelite, barite, adul- 
aria, and chalcedony. The mineralogy of the tungsten veins, 
is similar to that of the gold veins, but they carry 


in addition several other minerals. Both gold and 
tungsten veins occupy sheeted zones characterized in 
places by brecciation. A close relationship between the tung- 
sten veins and the pitchblend veins of Gilpin County lying 
in the same belt, has also been noted. 

The tungsten bearing veins are to be found largely in the 
pre-Cambrian granite, in the sedimentary gneiss and at the 
contact of the two. The schistose parts of the gneiss have 
proven less favorable for ore bodies. In places veins follow 
dikes of granite pegmatites, and occur both within them, and 
at their borders. In other places veins are to be found in 
the dikes and masses of the later fine grained granite. In 
places the veins turn sharply from the dikes of pegmatite and 
granite and enter the surrounding rocks. In general the ore 
bodies seem to follow no regular system, but in the Neder- 
land-Beaver Creek area they follow approximately the direc- 
tion of trend of the tungsten bearing area as a whole. The 
veins dip for the most part steeply, and rarely as low as 45'. 
In width the lodes vary from a fraction of an inch to as much 
as 14 feet, averaging perhaps, between 2 and 4 feet. In 
length, width, direction of strike, persistence in depth, and 
quality, the veins vary considerably. 

In physical characteristics the ores are of three types: 
(1) crystals of ferberite occur in crusts, vugs, and open brec- 
cias ; (2) fine grained and massive ore filling the seams in the 
wider and less brecciated portion of the vein; and (3) highly 
siliceous ores in which fine grained ferberite occurs in various 
quantities, scattered through chalcedonic silica. In associa- 
tion with the ferberite, which is the principal ore mineral, are 
to be found some wolframite and scheelite, also sphalerite, 
galena, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, pyrite, sylvanite, magne- 
tite, hematite, adularia, hamlinite, chalcedony, quartz, silver, 
and gold. The ores are notable for their lack of cassiterite 
and tourmaline and the very small percentage of quartz. 

(California.) The most important tungsten prooducing 
district of California extends from near Atolia in north- 
western San Bernardino County, to near Ransburg in eastern 
Kern County. A second area of considerable importance lies 
in Inyo County near Bishop in Owen's Valley, 


The Atolia-Randsburg district occupies an area approxi- 
mately 2^2x10 miles in extent. The country rock is largely 
a gnessic grano-diorite cutting hornblend and mica schists. 
In the grano-diorite, intrusive igneous dikes occur in places. 
Adjacent to the grano-diorite occur also limestones, quartz- 
ites and slates. The ores consist of scheelite in quartz veins, 
chiefly in the grano-diorite ; but also cutting the schists ; at 
the margins of the intrusive dikes ; and to some extent at the 
contact of limestones and schist. The veins follow zones of 
shearing, and in general are well defined. Some are mere 
lenses, while others are persistent over a considerable range, 
both along the strike and along the dip, and have been follow- 
ed to depths of over 500 feet. In places they have a thickness 
of three feet or more. The material of the veins consists of 
crushed grano-diorite, that is in places partially replaced by 
silica; quartz; calcite; siderite; scheelite; and a little wolf- 
ramite. Some of the veins are gold bearing. Placers of 
scheelite derived from the veins have proved very profitable 

In the Inyo County tungsten area the rocks are granite, 
inclosing masses of various sediments including limestone. 
The principal ore bodies follow the bedding of the sedimen- 
tary strata inclosed in the granite and contain scheelite, gar- 
net, epidote, quartz, calcite, hornblend, pyroxene, apatite, 
magnetite, and traces of various sulphides. Other ores occur 
with a considerable amount of phlogopite mica. The WO3 con- 
tent of the ores varies on the average, from 1.5 to 2 per cent. 
The ore bodies are known to have a vertical range of at least 
700 feet. This occurrence is of considerable scientific inter- 
est inasmuch as it is a contact metamorphic type of deposit, 
which is not a common one among tungsten deposits. 

(Arizona.) Tungsten deposits are of very wide distribu- 
tion in Arizona. The most important deposits in this state 
are, perhaps those of the Dragoon and Whetstone Mountains 
in Cochise County; of the Guijas Mountains in Pima 
County; of the Acquarius and Yucca districts of Mohave 
County; and of Eureka, Tip Top, and Tule Creek districts in 
Yavapai County. 

In the Dragoon Mountains numerous quartz veins occur 

cutting granite, that bear hubnerite, scheelite, pyrite, chal- 
copyrite, and fluorite. Many of the veins have proved rich 
but of rather limited extent. Rich placer deposits derived 
from the veins have proved rich. 

In the Whetstone Mountains wolframite and scheelite as- 
sociated with pyrite, bornite, chalcopyrite, and mica occur in 
quartz veins cutting granite, and on the contact of granite 
and schist. Wolframite also occurs in the granite as a pri- 
mary constituent. 

At Arivaca in the Guijas Mountains of Pima County, 
hubnerite, wolframite and scheelite occur in quartz veins 
cutting granodiorite, and acid porphyry dikes. In places the 
veins occur singly, in others the lodes are composed of verti- 
cal zones of country rock permeated by a great number of 
thin seams of quartz. Associated with the tungsten minerals 
are chalcopyrite, pyrite, galena, and gold. 

In the Acquaris district of Mohave County wolframite 
occurs in quartz veins cutting granite. Some of the lodes are 
fissure veins from 1 to 3 feet thick and have been followed 
for upward of 2000 feet along the strike. In the Yucca dis- 
trict of the same county wolframite and scheelite occur in 
quartz veins in schist, at the contact of limestone and schist, 
and at the contact of limestone and granite. Associated with 
the tungsten minerals are molybdenite and copper sulphide. 

In the Eureka, Tip Top and Tule Creek districts of Yava- 
pai County hubnerite and wolframite occur in quartz veins 
associated with granite. Some of the veins were formerly 
worked for their rich silver content and the tungsten 
minerals discarded as worthless. In recent times many of 
the old mine dumps have been worked for their tungsten con- 
tent with good results. 

(Nevada.) The tungsten production of Nevada has come 
largely from the deposits in the Snake Range of eastern 
White Pine County. The rocks of the tungsten area are 
Cambrian quartzites and argyllites and intrusive granite por- 
phyry. Hubnerite and a little scheelite occur in quartz veins 
with pyrite, fluorite, gold and silver. The veins range from a 
few inches to three feet in thicknesss and dip steeply. The 
ore minerals occur irregularly scattered through the vein 


material, in fine disseminated grains and in irregular masses. 
In places the hubnerite has been concentrated along the vein 

Foreign Occurrences 

(Burma, Siam, and the Federated Malay States.) From 
the southern Shan States of Eastern Burma there extends an 
area of metamorphic rocks and intrusive granites southward 
through Lower Burma, the Siamese Malay States, and the 
Federated Malay States to the extremity of the Malay Penin- 
sula. A continuation of the same granite appears on the is- 
lands to the south as far as Banka and Billiton. This area 
furnished the majority of the world's tin and has been, for a 
number of years a region of foremost importance in the pro- 
duction of tungsten. The geologic conditions under which the 
tungsten occurs throughout this great area, are sufficiently 
uniform to permit of a general description of the deposits 
rather than to necessitate a considerable number of more de- 
tailed ones. Both tin and tungsten are obtained from lode 
as well as placer deposits, closely associated with the granite 
in distribution and genesis. 

The granite is a coarse rock commonly bearing feldspar, 
quartz, biotite, tourmaline, and in places, some cassiterite. At 
contacts with the schists, granite is frequently porphyritic. 
In the granite, at the contact of granite and schists, and, to 
some extent, in the schists, occur quartz veins bearing wolf- 
ramite, cassiterite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, molyb- 
denite, bismuthinite, muscovite, and tourmaline. In places 
the veins are richer in wolframite in the schists and richer in 
cassiterite within the granite, as though the cassiterite had 
been precipitated at a higher temperature than the wolfram- 
ite. In the veins the muscovite is often concentrated along 
the walls. The wolframite is very unevenly distributed. It 
occurs in places in bunches of massive ore, and again in fine 
needles and small crystals with intervening barren spaces. 
The lodes are composed of single veins, of zones of parallel 
veins and of stockworks, and are variable in extent and thick- 
ness. Some quartz veins bearing scheelite in association with 
fluorite, have been found near areas of limestone. 

For the most part, the mining has been in the oxidized 


zone, where the ores were easily removed and Httle know- 
ledge has been gained as to the continuity of the lodes in 

In the valleys below the lodes occur rich placers from 
which a considerable percentage of the production has been 

(Portugal.) In Portugal, the largest of the European 
producers of tungsten, the greater part of the output comes 
from the northern provinces of Tres-Os-Montes and Beira 
Baixa. The area is underlain largely by a granite that oc- 
curs extensively over western Spain and northern Portugal. 
In the province of Tres-Os-Montes the ore occurs in quartz 
veins in the granite or at the contact of the granite with 
sedimentary rocks. The veins are very irregular and the dis- 
tribution of the wolframite within them is very erratic. In 
some veins cassiterite accompanies the wolframite, but there 
is a general lack of other minerals than quartz in most of the 
veins. In the Panapqueira district of Beira Baixa the ore oc- 
curs in quartz veins, in schists. Associated with wolframite in 
the veins are pyrite, arsenopyrite, cassiterite, mica, and car- 
bonates of copper. No igneous rock occurs in association 
with the ores but granites outcrop at a distance of about 11 

(Bolivia.) In Bolivia tungsten comes largely from the 
departments of Oruro, LaPaz, and Potosi, where it is closely 
associated with ores of tin, and occasionally with silver. Wolf- 
ramite occurs in quartz veins cutting sedimentary rocks for 
the most part, in the neighborhood of rhyolites, and trachy- 
tes that are believed to have given rise to the ores. Associa- 
ted with wolframite in the veins are arsenopyrite, chalcopy- 
rite, bismuth, cassiterite, and sometimes silver, niobium and 
tantulum minerals. Some of the veins are extensive and rich 
and have produced a large amount of ore. 

(Argentina.) Among the most important deposits of 
tungsten in Argentina are those of the Cerro del Morro in 
the province of San Luis, and those of the Sierra de Cordoba. 
In the Sierra del Morro granites have invaded and metamor- 
phosel sediments of Silurian age. Later followed intrusions 
of andesite. The acid intrusives comprise aplite, pegmatite, 


and micaceous quartz-veins, some of which bear tourmaline. 
The tungsten occurs in wolframite in the quartz veins and is 
frequently accompanied by apatite and fluorite. Some of the 
pegmatites carry a considerable amount of magnetite, and 
hematite pseudomorphous after magnetite. The tungsten 
veins are from 2 to 4 feet wide and in them the wolframite 
occurs irregularly, the richer portions rarely exceeding a 
length of 12 feet along the vein. In the Sierra de Cordoba, 
quartz veins bearing wolframite and secondary scheelite oc- 
cur cutting granites and crystalline schists. Associated with 
the tungsten minerals are copper sulphides, molybdenite, seri- 
cite, apatite, fluorite, tourmaline, and a little topaz. 

(Peru.) The chief deposits of Peru are located in the de- 
partments of Ancachs and La Libertad. Wolframite and hub- 
nerite occur in quartz veins on the contact of granite with 
slates and quartzites and within the sedimentary rocks. The 
tungsten ores are associated with others of copper and silver. 

(England.) For a number of years a few hundred tons 
of tungsten concentrates have annually been produced from 
the celebrated mines of Cornwall, England, best known for 
their tin and copper ores. 

On the Cornish Peninsula occur sedimentary strata of 
Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian age, that were 
intruded by granite, probably during late Carboniferous times. 
The granite appears in five large, and several small bosses 
that are probably connected below, inasmuch as the granite 
surfaces extend downward at low angles and have been en- 
countered at many places below the sediments. The granites 
have pronounced metamorphic effects on the surrounding 
sedimentary formations near their contacts. From the gran- 
ites extend apophyses of quartz and felsite porphyry, known 
as "elvans." The elvans vary in thickness from 1 to 100 
meters, and some have been followed along the strike for a 
distance of 20 kilometers. The lodes occur along the margins 
of the elvans, partly within the granite itself, and partly in 
the surrounding metamorphosed slates. Some ore bodies oc- 
curring at the surface of the slates have been followed down- 
ward into the granite. The lodes in places follow joint planes 
in the granite, forming impregnated zones and stockworks, 


also they occupy tectonic zones characterized by brecciated 
structure. The ore minerals are chiefly cassiterite and some 
stannite; chalcopyrite, boronite, and chalcocite; wolframite 
and scheelite; arsenopyrite and other arsenic minerals. Of 
lesser importance are tetrahedrite ; sphalerite; bismuthinite; 
silver, cobalt, and nickel minerals; pitchblende; and various 
secondary minerals of iron, manganese, copper, and lead. As 
gangue minerals quartz, chlorite, tourmaline, fluorite, and 
kaolin are abundant, while topaz and axinite occur sparingly. 
The copper ores prevail near the surface, while the tin and 
tungsten ores occur chiefly at greater depths, and often are 
confined to lodes in the granite. 

(Queensland.) In Queensland the important tungsten 
deposits are uniformly associated with granite but occur also 
in greisen, felsite, quartz porphyry, schist, slate, and quartz- 
ite. The deposits are of various types, consisting chiefly of 
fine quartz veinlets; large masses and lenticular bodies of 
quartz; irregular masses of quartz, chlorite, and mica; and 
impregnations of granite and greisen. The lodes are irregu- 
lar in form and size and exhibit a marked tendency toward 
suddenly pinching out. The mineral associates of the wolf- 
ramite are molybdenite, and minerals of bismuth, tin, copper, 
uranium, cerium, iron, manganese, zinc, and lead. The chief 
gangue minerals are quartz, topaz, fluorite, tourmaline, beryl, 
muscovite and biotite. 

(New South Wales.) In New South Wales the most im- 
portant tungsten deposits are the wolframite deposits of the 
Mole Tableland, or Torrington district and the scheelite de- 
posits of the Hillgrove district. 

In the Torrington district clay slates have been invaded 
by granites and pegmatites, causing silicification and indura- 
tion of the host rock. Wolframite occurs in the pegmatites 
and in quartz veins in the granite and metamorphosed slate, 
Associated with the wolframite are bismuth, molybdenite, 
chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, cassiterite, ilmenite, monazite, 
fluorite, topaz, beryl, smaltite, and lithia-mica, A large 
number of deposits have proved erratic in form, size and in 
tungsten content. 

In the Hillgrove district quartz veins bearing scheelite 


cut granite and slates. Accompanying the veins are dikes 
of granite porphyry and diorite. Some of the veins appear to 
be true fissure veins while others occupy contraction joints 
in the granite. The tungsten lodes or "reefs" accompany 
gold reefs, and in places valuable ores of gold have been mined 
in conjunction with the scheelite. In places a considerable 
amount of stibnite accompanies the scheelite. Many of the 
veins have proved very thin and the ore irregular in its oc- 
currence, yet some are known to be persistent over a verti- 
cal distance of 1600 feet. 

(New Zealand.) In New Zealand valuable scheelite de- 
posits occur, accompanied in the majority of cases by gold 
ores. The veins traverse schists for the most part, where 
they are, in some cases, of the bedded type, and in others oi 
the fissure type. The scheelite occurs irregularly in pockets 
and in lenticles in quartz, and is accompanied by pyrite and 




Topography. The Black Hills occupy an area, elliptical 
in outline, having a length of about 100 miles from north- 
west to southeast and a maximum width of about 50 miles. 
The hills rise rather abruptly from the surrounding plains 
to elevations of more than 7,000 feet above the sea. The 
central area may be compared to an elevated basin, elong- 
ated from north to south, and with a plateau rim of varying 
width. Rising above the floor of the basin are ranges of 
hills attaining for the most part, altitudes slightly less than 
that of the rim, but containing one elevation, Harney Peak, 
that is the highest point in the entire hills area. The larger 
streams, that drain the central basin, head near its western 
margin and flow eastward through broad park-like valleys 
until they reach the central, or the eastern portion of the ba- 
sin, where they enter narrower depressions, and finally find 
their way northward, eastward, and southward through the 
plateau and flanking' ridges, by way of deep canyons. The 
plateau surrounding the central area is broad on the west, 
where the dip of the rocks is gentle, and narrow on the eastern 
side where the formations dip more steeply. Its surface con- 
forms to that of the massive, resistant Pahasapa limestone. In 
it streams have carved numerous deep gorges, flanked by near- 
ly vertical walls of gray limestone. On the outer flanks of 
the limestone plateau occurs the Red Valley, a race-track 
like depression, completely encircling the main hills area. 
The slopes of the Red Valley on the inner side toward the 
limestone plateau, are paved with the gently-dipping, hard 
Minnekahta limestone. On its outer margin it faces the 
steep, truncated edges of the outward-dipping, resistant 
sandstones of the Lakota and Dakota formations, .that 
form the prominent hog-back ridge on the outskirts of the 
hills. The outer slopes of the hog-back ridge descend gently 


with the surface of the Dakota sandstone to the plains, that 
present broad expanses of rolling prairies. 

General Geologic Relations. Occupying the central area 
are crystalline metamorphic rocks and granites of pre-Cam- 
brian age. Surrounding them, occur in sequence outward, the 
formations of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic groups, and finally 
the Cenozoic formations. The latter formations overlap in 
places the upturned and eroded edges of the older rocks but 
mostly lie at the surface of the plains beyond. In the north- 
ern portion of the area are numerous dikes, sills, and lacco- 
liths of early Tertiary age, intrusive into the pre-Cambrian, 
Paleozoic, and Mesozoic formations. Structurally the Black 
Hills uplift is a somewhat elongated dome. The sedimentary 
formations dip outward in all directions from the central 
axis and disappear beneath the younger formations of the 

Pre-Cambrian Formations and History. — (Rocks of Sedi- 
mentary Origin.) The oldest formations exposed within 
the Black Hills Uplift consist for the most part of a group 
of alternating beds of schists, slates, gneisses, quartzites, 
and lesser amounts of quartzite conglomerate, limestones, 
and iron formations of sedimentary origin. These sedimen- 
tary rocks are believed by the author to belong to two sys- 
tems separated by an unconformity that appears along the 
eastern margin of the crystalline area in the vicinity of 
Nemo on Box Elder Creek, 

The older system covers much of the larger part of the 
area of crystalline rocks in the central region of the hills. In 
it rocks originally argillaceous are perhaps in greater abun- 
dance, while arenaceous beds are of slightly less importance. 
In places, much of the argillaceous rock is also calcareous 
and in other places graphitic. As a result of the great 
pressure accompanying the folding of these rocks they have 
been changed to slates and phyllites. Near granite intrusions 
they have been metamorphosed to garnetiferous, staurolitic, 
and tourmalinic-mica schists. Arenaceous rocks have been 
metamorphosed to quartz-mica schists and where less pure, 
to gneisses and graywackes. Of less importance quantita- 
tively but of great value in deciphering the pre-Cambrian 


history are rocks once dominantly calcareous. These present 
material for exceedingly interesting studies in metamorphism 
on account of the great variety of rocks that have been 
derived from them. Near Nemo the original limestones have, 
in places, been dolomitized and today remain as normal dolo- 
mites while in other places the dolomites have been altered 
to talcose schists. Some of the original limestones in the 
same region have been silicified so completely as to resemble 
normal quartzites, while others have been replaced partly by 
iron oxide and partly by silica forming banded quartz- 
hematite, and quartz-magnetite rocks. In contact with the 
intrusive granites, near Custer, the original limestones have 
been altered to an aggregate of actinolite and phlogopite 
which grades away from the contact into crystalline dolo- 
mitic marble. Near Rochford and Lead, where affected pre- 
sumably by thermal solutions bearing silica and iron, and 
probably of igneous origin, calcareous rocks have been par- 
tially recrystallized with the production of quartz and cum- 
mingtonite at the expense of the original carbonates, garnet, 
chlorite and mica. This hydro-thermal metamorphism followed 
the period of dynamic metamorphism by pressure which had 
resulted in a development of garnet and of flakes of mica 
and chlorite in parallel position and had given the rock a 
fair cleavage. The crystals of cummingtonite developed dur- 
ing the second period of metamorphism penetrate the origi- 
nal cleavage in radiating groups but themselves show no 
tendency toward parallel orientation. Calcareous shales and 
possibly other rocks in the Lead and Rochford areas have 
been metamorphosed to chlorite and mica schists. 

The exact delimitations of the younger system and the 
trend of the unconformable contact are, as yet, matters of 
some doubt so that no exact description can be made of this 
system. So far as interpreted, however, the younger system 
comprises a thick basal conglomerate containing pebbles and 
boulders of the iron formation and quartzite with which it is 
in contact, and a siliceous and ferruginous dolomite similar 
to those of the older system. The evidences for the uncon- 
formity will furnish the subject of a paper to be published at 
a later date and will not be discussed here. 


Although repeated by folding to an unknown extent, the 
total thickness of the pre-Cambrian sedimentary systems is 
probably very great and is to be measured by several tens 
of thousands, and perhaps many tens of thousands of feet 
rather than in units of a lesser order. 

(Intrusive Igneous Rocks.) Into the sedimentary forma- 
tions were intruded at different times, but largely before, or 
during, the period of principal dynamic metamorphism, nu- 
merous basic igneous rocks in the forms of sills, dikes, and 
possibly laccoliths. These different intrusives show varying 
amounts of dynamic metamorphism but universally exhibit 
a certain amount of parallelism of biotite, chlorite and am- 
phibole crystals that produces a fair cleavage parallel to the 
cleavage of the deformed sediments. The amount of con- 
tact metamorphism produced by these rocks seems to have 
been small on the whole. In places w^here in contact with cal- 
careous rocks, little or no changes have resulted. The basic 
intrusives are widely distributed throughout the pre-Cam- 
brian sediments and their total mass must be very great. 

In the valley of Little Elk Creek in the northeastern 
part of the crystalline area, outcrops a considerable mass of 
granitic gneiss. This rock is very probably a flow-granite 
and probably was intruded after the main deformation of 
the pre-Cambrian sediments had been accomplished. The 
gneissic banding parallels the direction of dominant cleavage 
in the neighboring schists. This gneiss may be a phase of 
the Harney Peak granite described below. 

In the southern part of the area, centering about Har- 
ney Peak, occurs a mass of coarse pegmatitic granite, that is 
intrusive into the sediments and basic igneous rocks of the 
pre-Cambrian. Within an area four miles in length from 
north to south and perhaps half as wide, granite containing 
numerous inclusions of schist is the predominant rock. Pass- 
ing outward from the central granite area the scists become 
more abundant, until finally they predominate, but contain 
numerous dikes of granite and pegmatite lying for the most 
part, in directions nearly parallel to the strike of the original 
folds in the sediments (approximately N.-S.) the area with- 
in which the granite occurs is an elliptical one, probably ex- 


ceeding by a little a total length of 25 miles from north to 
south and a width of 15 miles from east to west. 

It is thought likely that the Harney Peak granite may 
underlie a large portion of the Black Hills area, for rock of 
precisely similar character has been brought to the surface 
by the Tertiary intrusives, in the vicinity of Whitewood 
Peak, three miles east of Deadwood, and again in the Nigger 
Hill uplift, fifteen miles west of Lead, and in the Bear Lodge 
Mountains twenty miles farther to the northwest. The 
metamorphism of calcareous rocks to form cummingtonite 
and chlorite schists in the Lead and Rochford regions further- 
more, point to the presence beneath, of some agent of hydro- 
thermal alteration. In the Lead area intrusive igneous rocks 
of Tertiary age occur in considerable abundance but are be- 
lieved not to be the agents of the metamorphism that pro- 
duced the schists, for the Cambrian dolomites show no such 
changes and hence the alteration is thought to h^ve been 
produced in pre-Cambrian times. In the Nemo region the 
pre-Cambrian basic intrusives are in places in contact with 
dolomites that show no such alteration, while in the Rochford 
district, where cummingtonite rocks are so prevalent, there 
is no apparent relation between the basic intrusives and the 
cummingtonite. Cummingtonite rocks have developed 
throughout this area wherever calcareous rocks occur, but 
basic intrusives, although abundant, are by no means found 
where the calcareous rock exists, and furthermore, exhibit 
only a very inconsiderable tendency to produce metamorphic 
effects at contacts. It would seem more probable, therefore, 
that the Harney Peak granite is of wide extent below the 
surface and is part of a large batholith. 

Mineralogically the Harney Peak granite consists in 
general of orthoclase, anorthoclase, albite, and oligoclase; 
quartz, biotite or muscovite, tourmaline, and small amounts 
of garnet, apatite, and other minor accessories. Much of the 
rock shows a coarse graphic intergrowth of quartz and feld- 
spar and a perthitic intergrowth of orthoclase and oligoclase. 
The texture even at the border of the central mass is very 
coarse. Feldspar masses weighing several pounds, mica 
plates as large as one's hand and tourmaline crystals two or 


three inches long are not at all uncommon. In some of the 
dikes the texture is much finer, while in those dikes and 
masses containing lithia minerals, such as spodumene and 
amblygonite, the texture is very coarse. These pegmatites 
will be described further in another place. 

(Structure and Metamorphism.) The pre-Cambrian group 
of sediments has been closely compressed throughout into a 
number of steeply pitching isoclinal folds. The axial planes 
of the folds as well as the beds strike in general about N. 20° 
-40° W. and dip eastward at high angles of 75 -90\ The 
most notable exceptions to this general rule are to be found 
in the region of the Harney Peak granite, where low dips in 
all directions have been noted. At points along the limbs 
near the apexes of the folds, strikes in other directions than 
northwest naturally occur. The only folds of this type known 
to the author on anything more than a very minor scale, 
occur in the Lead, the Nemo, and the Rochford areas. The 
folding in the Lead area is referred to by Jaggar, Irving, and 
Emmons,* and the Nemo fold in a paper read before the 
Geological Society of America in 1916 by Sidney Paige. The 
folding in the Rochford area was also referred to by Paige in 
the same paper but had subsequently been independently dis- 
covered and announced by the author in the summer of 1915. 
Small drag folds are common and have from the first been 
recognized, but the larger units have remained unknown or 
at least unannounced until recent years. 

Sidney Paige has described two major faults, one lying 
just west of and parallel to the Homestake ore body at Lead 
and a second in the Nemo district. Numerous small faults, 
especially well marked in quartzites where closely folded, 
have been observed by the author in various places and very 
probably are quite common. 

The pre-Cambrian sedimentary rocks and much of the 
basic intrusives, throughout the hills show a good cleavage 
parallel to the bedding except where small folds exist, or, in 
the neighborhood of the Harney Peak granite. From this 
fact it would seem that the pre-Cambrian of this area rep- 

*U. S. G. S. Professional Paper No. 26, (1903). 


resents but a portion of a much larger structural unit. In 
the vicinity of Harney Peak the slates, limestones and 
quartzites that were invaded by the granite were subjected 
to great pressures, exerted in a direction normal to the 
granite surface, and in them has been developed a secondary 
cleavage parallel to the granite contact. If the directions of 
the micaceous cleavage of the scists thus developed were to 
be followed it would lead one to completely encircle the 

(Pre-Cambrian History.) The earliest period of which we 
have any record was a long one, during which many thou- 
sands of feet of muds, sands and limes were laid down and 
later compacted and cemented into solid rock. These rocks 
were then folded into a series of anticlines and synclines and 
raised to such an elevation that erosion cut deeply into them 
before they were depressed and a second system of rocks, 
largely conglomerates and sandstones, was deposited over 
them. Both systems were then intruded by masses of basic 
igneous material in the form of thick sills and dikes which 
was accompanied by, or closely followed by, a period of most 
extreme compression, deforming the rocks into a more com- 
plex series of folds and perhaps faulting them. Following this 
deformation, after an unknown interval, occurred the intru- 
sion of the Harney Peak granite which caused further 
changes in structure, especially near to its surface. From 
the granite, thermal solutions penetrated the rocks at the 
sides and above, resulting in important changes in mineral 
composition in the rocks, both by reactions between rock and 
solutions, and by the preciptation of materials injected under 
pressure, forming veins. Veins of quartz, tungsten, and 
gold were formed in this way in the neighborhood of the 
granite and perhaps at considerable distances from it. 

After the intrusion of the Harney Peak granite and be- 
fore Middle Cambrian times the rocks of the region were 
deeply eroded and the granites and pegmatites were exposed 
at the surface. 

In age, the pre-Cambrian sediments are probably the 
equivalents of one of the Huronians or the Animikean of the 
Lake Superior District. 




Q PLEISTOCENE g^jL'Jiii'^ ' " ' 





















Post-Algonkian Sedimentary Formations. The follow- 
ing table and columnar section give the principal characteris- 
tics of the sedimentary formations of the Black Hills area. 
Those of importance in connection with the tungsten de- 
posits are described in more detail in Chapter III. 

System Formation Prineinal Characters Thickness 

Pleistocene No Name... Conglomerate, gravels 

^,. I ,,., .. T3:,. Conglomerate, sandstone, shale, vol- 

Ohgocene ; W hite Rix.. ^^^^^ ^g,^ ..600 Ft. 

/Laramie. . . . Sandstone, shale, lignite 2,500 Ft. 

IFox Hills.. Sandstone, shale 250 Ft. 

]Pierre Dark-gray shale 1,400 Ft. 

Cretaceous /Niobrara.... Impure chalk, calcareous shale 175 Ft. 

iCarlile Gray shale with concretions 700 Ft. 

(Graneros... Dark shale, some sandstone 1,000 Ft. 

Dakota Buff sandstone with iron concretions . 100 Ft. 


( Fuson Massive shale 50 Ft. 

"/Dakota Coarse, cross bedded sandstone 200 Ft. 

i Morrison ... . Massive greenish-gray shale 120 Ft. 

Jurassic -'Unkpapa. . .. Massive gray sandstone 75 Ft. 

(Sundance... Gray shale, buff sandstone 275 Ft. 

Triassic Spearfish... Red sandy, shale witli gypsum beds.. 600 Ft. 


Pennsylvanian Minnelusa.. Buff and red sandstone and limestone 500 Ft. 


Ordovician Whitewood. INIassive buff limestone 80 Ft. 

iMinnekahta. Gray limestone 40 Ft. 

1 Opeche Red sandstone, sandy shale 80 Ft. 

( Pahasapa. . . Massive gray limestone 500 Ft. 

(Englewood. Pink slabby limestone 50 Ft. 

( Conglomerate, sandstone. greenish- 

Cambrian -^Deadwood.. gray shales and dolomitic lime- 

( stone 400 Ft. 

41e-onkian -K'o Xame Slates, schists, gneisses, crystalline 
Aigonkian -^:so Aame... Hmestones Very Great 

Structure of the Post-Algonkian Sedimentary Rocks. 

The major structure is that of a dome, somewhat elongated 
in a northwest — southeast direction. Were the sediments 
that have been eroded away from the central area to be re- 
placed, their upper surface would lie more than 8,000 feet 
above the present surface of the crystalline rocks of the cen- 
tral hills. Near the axis of the uplift the dip of the Cam- 
brian and other sediments that remain is low. On the west- 
ern flank of the uplift, dips are gentle, while on the east they 


are much steeper. On the flanks of the dome are several 
minor flexures. Notable among these subordinate folds is 
one extending northward from Crow Peak, another lying near 
Whitewood, a third south of Belle Fourche, a fourth west of 
Edgemont and two near Hot Springs. These flexures are 
characterized by gentle dips to the east and steeper dips to 
the west. They run out under the plains with declining pitch. 
Faults in general are uncommon except where the sediments 
have been intruded by igneous rocks. Local doming of the 
sediments caused by laccolithic intrusions are numerous in 
the northern portions of the area. 

Tertiary Igneous Intrusives. In the northern portion of the 
area on the flanks of the uplift as well as near the central 
axis occurs a remarkable series of intrusive igneous rocks 
varying in texture from even grained and porphyritic apha- 
nites to medium coarse phanerites, and in composition from 
thoroughly acid thyolites to alkaline phonolites, and types as 
basic as diorite. Irving has distinguished the following 

Grorudite family. — Alkaline rocks containing orthoclase, 
quartz, aegerite-augite, and aegerite, with some albite, micro- 
cline and biotite. 

Phonolite family. — Soda rich rocks composed of or- 
thoclase, anorthoclase, microcline, aegerite-augite, nephelite, 
noselite, with accessory hauynite, biotite, magnetite, titanite, 
and garnet. 

Rhyolite family. — Rocks of this type vary in texture and 
are characterized by a fine ground mass of quartz and feld- 
spar with phenocrysts of orthoclase, plagioclase and quartz. 
Small amounts of hornblende and biotite occur. Silica varies 
from 65% to 78%. 

Andesite family. — Rocks of moderately dense but mark- 
edly phorphyritic texture and basic character. They show a 
fine ground mass of plagioclase with accessory quartz and 
chlorite and phenocrysts of plagioclase, orthoclase, horn- 
blende and biotite. Silica averages about 55'/; . 

Dacite family. — Consists of a fine ground mass of quartz 

*Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., Vol. 12, No. 9, page 224 et seq. 


and orthoclase in which phenocrysts of plagioclase, ortho- 
clase and quartz occur. Titanite, magnetite, and biotite are 
common accessories. 

Diorite family. — Gray rocks composed of horn- 
blende, plagioclase, quartz, biotite, and accessory orthoclase 
and having a granitoid texture. 

Lamprophyres, — Contain fine automorphic crystals of 
augite and feldspar with accessory hornblende and magnetite. 

Structural Relations of the Tertiary Igneous Rocks. The 

structural relations and dynamics of intrusion of the Tertiary 
igneous rocks have been admirably described by Jaggar,* 
Irving,** and Paige.*** For fuller information on this sub- 
ject the reader is referred to these publications. In the 
central part of the Black Hills the Tertiary eruptives have 
invaded the older rocks in three horizons, viz., the pre-Cam- 
brian schists and slates, the Deadwood formation, and the 
Pahasapa limestone. The form of the intrusion has been 
governed in no small degree by the character of the invaded 

In the pre-Cambrian rocks where the bedding and cleav- 
age are nearly vertical, the intrusives take the form of dikes 
parallel to the bedding except where the mass is large or 
where apparently intruded under great pressure, and even in 
these cases the general trend of the intrusion conforms to 
the structural lines of weakness. At the lower surface of the 
nearly horizontal Cambrian beds, however, the intrusives ex- 
hibit a marked tendency toward lateral spreading. The joint- 
ed character of the Cambrian sandstone and the compressi- 
bility of the shale has allowed fractures to form and the 
magma was able to rise to higher horizons at various points 
where it might spread out in the form of a sheet. Where the 
magma was large in volume or the force of intrusion great, 
the overlying rocks were in many cases bowed up, producing 

♦Laccoliths of the Black Hills, U. S. G. S., 21st. Ann. Rep. Pt. 3, 
Economic Resources of the Northern Black Hills, Professional Paper, 
U. S. G. S., No. 26, pp. 22-23. 

♦♦Economic Resources of the Northern Black Hills, Professional 
Paper 26, pp. 22-23. 

***Journal of Geology, Vol. 2 9, pp. .'J41. 


laccoliths. Within, and at the base of the Cambrian, sills 
are numerous, especially below shale horizons which are 
thought to have acted as cushions, and were compressed. 
The more competent Pahasapa limestone was not so easily 
compressed and furthermore was capable of supporting a 
greater load when arched so that beneath it we find the larger 
laccoliths. In places the limestone was fractured and the 
igneous rock was able to move to a higher horizon, but the 
increased viscosity of the magma did not permit a free move- 
ment and we find more irregular, steep sided masses within 
the formation, as subordinate laccoliths. The unsymmetrical 
laccoliths are a result of initial dip of strata or a sloping con- 
duit. Breccias were formed of fragments of the host rock, 
probably by the force of intrusion. There is no evidence of 
the existence of any volcanoes in the region at the time of the 
intrusion of the sills and laccoliths. In places rhyolites cut 
phonolites, in others, the reverse is true, so that no clearly 
defined sequence of intrusion has been worked out for the 
various rock types. There is good evidence for believing that 
there had been some deformation of the strata before the 
intrusion and there was certainly a great deal in connection 
with it, so that the uplift probably began before the intru- 
sions, but was largely coeval with them. In as much as beds 
of Laramie age are affected by the deformation and Oligo- 
cene and conglomerates contain pebbles of the intrusive por- 
phyries, the intrusion and hence the Black Hills uplift, is 
believed to have taken place during the early Eocene, 

Post Algonkian History. The interval of time between 
the formation of the latest pre-Cambrian and the earliest 
Paleozoic rocks, was an exceedingly long one, during which 
erosion had levelled high mountain ranges, leaving their 
cores or crystalline rock exposed on a surface of moderate 
relief, probably near sea level. 

During much of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Eras the 
present site of the Black Hills was covered by shallow marine 
waters, or by detached epicontinental seas in which deposits 
of clastic sediments washed down from the surrounding lands, 
or limestones from the accumulation of animal remains, were 


forming. The Cenozoic Era has been largely a time of ero- 
sion of the area uplifted at the end of the Mesozoic. 

The Paleozoic Era in the Black Hills area was a time 
when conditions varied from those of rapid deposition in 
agitated waters, to deposition in rather quiet, clear waters 
where limestone might accumulate, and conditions of emer- 
gence, following withdrawals of the sea, when erosion of the 
deposits already formed, took place. Shallow marine waters 
lay over the area during the Middle Cambrian and Ordovician 
times, and to an unknown extent, during the Silurian and 
Devonian. The latter part of the Devonian surely, and very 
probably much of the interval between the Ordovician and 
Mississippian periods, was a time or erosion. During the 
Mississippian Period, again the area was the site of a warm, 
clear epicontinental sea. The closing periods of the Paleozoic 
were marked by more variable conditions when the formation 
of beds of sandstones, shales, and limestones, more rapidly 
alternated with times of erosion. The seas were shallow 
and the climatic conditions more severe. 

The early Mesozoic was a time of arid climate, when the 
area was covered probably by a detached arm of the sea. 
Later the waters disappeared and erosion ensued, followed 
in turn by a readvance of marine waters in late Jurassic 
times. Still later in the Jurassic Period the waters again 
withdrew and deposits were formed in fresh waters. The 
Cretaceous Period was marked by the advance of a great sea 
from the south, in which thousands of feet of sands and muds 
were deposited. Upon the retreat of this sea, in late Creta- 
ceous times marshes and lakes abounded in which were de- 
posited sands and muds and the plant remains that formed 
the coal beds of the Laramie. Following the Laramie occur- 
red the principal uplift of the Black Hills, accompanied by 
the intrusion of a considerable amount of igneous material 
into the rocks of the Northern Hills. 

The early Cenozoic, following the uplift, was a time when 
erosion cut deeply into the formations, developing a surface 
of gentle relief, probably at a comparatively low elevation. 
During the Oligocene, deposits again formed in parts of the 
area, in swamps, along river plains, and possibly in lakes. 


Since the Oligocene the area has been elevated at various 
times but no great amount of deformation has taken place. 
It has been during this recent period that the Black Hills 
have taken on their present topographic form, described in 
the first paragraph of this chapter. 




Historical. The presence of tungsten minerals in the 
pegmatites and quartz veins in the southern Black Hills and 
in the Nigger Hill district has been known practically since 
the development of those districts for tin which began in the 
early eighties. Up to the year 1916 little development or 
even prospecting for tungsten was done in these areas and 
the total production was very small. In 1906 the Reinbold 
Metallurgical Co. mined and shipped about 100 tons of tung- 
sten ore to Germany from its mine on Sunday Gulch south of 
Hill City. In 1907 the American Tungsten Co. was organized 
and erected a small shaft house, hoist, power plant and con- 
centrating mill on their claims four miles east of Hill City. 
A shaft was sunk to a depth of 100 feet and drifts and cross- 
cuts run. Some excellent ore was obtained and stored. Sub- 
sequently the property has remained idle. In 1913 the Black 
Hills Tungsten Mining and Milling Co. was organized. On 
the property four miles east of Hill City, shaft houses, hoists, 
a power plant and a small mill were erected and several hun- 
dred tons of ore were mined, concentrated and marketed. For 
a time the property remained idle, but was operated again in 
1916 for a short time. Since that time the ownership of the 
property has been changed to the Elkhorn Tungsten Co. 
At present the property is idle. During 1916 and 1917, while 
attempting to work tin ores in the vicinity of Hill City the 
Hill City Producer's Co. concentrated at the old Harney Peak 
Tin Co.'s mill, and sold several tons of tungsten ores obtained 
from leased claims. This property is also now idle. 

There seems to be some doubt as to the exact date of 
discovery of tungsten in the Northern Hills. It is claimed 
by some that Prof. Jenney made the discovery of a tungsten 
mineral at the Comstock mine, now the property of Mr. S. 
R. Smith, 4 miles southeast of Deadwood, on one of his early 
expeditions to the Black Hills. The author, however, could 


find no mention of this occurrence in any of the early reports 
by Prof. Jenney. In the edition of 1893 of Dana's Descriptive 
Mineralogy, however, the mention of Black Hills hubnerite 
is made, the source of which is said to be the Comstock Mine, 
but the collector's name is not given. This is the first re- 
ference to tungsten occuring in the Black Hills that the 
author was able to locate. Headden gives an analysis of hub- 
nerite from the same mine in volume HI of the Proceedings 
of the Colorado Scientific Society published in 1906, and 
states that the presence of the mineral at this place was 
known in the early eighties. It is fairly clear then, that the 
hubnerite at the Comstock mine was the earliest known oc- 
currence of tungsten in the Northern Hills but evidence is 
lacking that this discovery was made prior to the discovery 
of wolframite in the Southern Hills mentioned by Blake as 
early as 1883* and again by the same author in 1885**. 

In 1899 was made the discovery of tungsten minerals in 
the vicinity of Lead in the Northern Hills. For some years 
what had been known as "black iron" had been mined with 
the refractory siliceous gold ores from the vicinity of Lead 
and on Yellow Creek. Most of this material contained such 
low values in gold that it was sorted from the gold ores and 
used as waste to fill old workings. Some of it had been ship- 
ped to the smelters for extraction of gold, with no knowledge 
of the true nature of the black material. Its great weight, 
however, attracted the attention of Mr. O. A. Ritz, a teacher 
in the Lead High School, who investigated its character and 
found it to be wolframite. The announcement of this dis- 
covery attracted the attention of manufacturers of tungsten 
steel and during the early part of 1899 some seventeen tons 
of ore containing about 53% tungstic acid were shipped to 
the East by Mr. S. W. Deininger of Phoenixville, Penn. This 
was the first shipment of tungsten ore from the hills. From 
1899 to 1915 small amounts of the ore were mined along 
with the siliceous gold ores of the Cambrian dolomites and 
were shipped from time to time, but no serious attempts were 

*Am. Jour. Sci. 3rd Series Vol. 2G, page 235. 
**Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Vol. 13, page 694. 


Plnte VI A. 


IMate VI B. 

HAHM-n I'KAK KHCMI 'llll', SOI 111 



^^S- ^' 



^- Vy^ 

SlllP©^:- ■ J^^^f 

^r^(^, <^^, 

< r. 



made to produce the metal until the great advance in price-? 
due to the European War made the industry an exceedingly 
profitable one. Since 1915 the production in the Northern 
Hills has progressed steadily. More details of productions 
will be given in another place. 

Location of Deposits. The tungsten deposits of the 
Black Hills, so far as known, are confined to three distinct 
districts. The largest area is in the vicinity of Harney Peak, 
largely in the western, northwestern, and northern parts of 
the granite area. One occurrence is known at Spokane 7 
miles east of Harney Peak and at least one near Keystone, 
6 miles northeast of the peak. A second area lies in the vicin- 
ity of Lead and Deadwood in the Northern Hills and a third 
area in the Nigger Hill district, 15 miles west of Lead. 

Types of Deposits. The deposits may conveniently be 
classified into five rather distinct groups according to their 
geological mode of occurrence, viz., (1) pegamites; (2) quartz 
veins; (3) replacement deposits; (4) segregation deposits; 
and (5) placers. Types 1, 2 and 5 are confined to the Harney 
Peak and Nigger Hill districts and types 2 and 4 to the Lead- 
Deadwood district. 

Deposits of the Harney Peak Area. The deposits of the 
Harney Peak district are closely associated in distribution as 
well as in genesis with the pegmatitic phases of the Harney 
Peak granite. They occur both within the pegmatites and 
genetically related quartz veins and within the schists de- 
veloped by the metamorphic action of the granite. The 
granites and schists have been briefly described in the section 
on pre-Cambrian rocks. The pegmatites and quartz veins 
merit a more detailed description. 

Ziegler* recognizes in the Harney Peak granite and as- 
sociated permatites and quartz veins seven types of differenti- 
ation products. For the purposes of adequate discussion of 
the tungsten deposits it seems best to somewhat modify his 
classification and to recognize the following types: 1, the 
granite; 2, lithia bearing pegmatites; 3, pegmatites contain- 

*Economic Geology, Vol. IX, pp. 264-277. 


ing little or no lithium minerals ; 4, tin veins ; and 5, quartz 
veins ; some of which carry tungsten minerals. 

From a mineralogical standpoint the lithia bearing peg- 
matites are perhaps the most remarkable, and therefore, 
most interesting, both on account of the great number of dis- 
tinct mineral species found in them and because of the large 
dimensions attained by some of the crystals. In the Etta 
pegmatite near Keystone, the number of species and the 
dimensions of crystals reach a maximum. No less than 48 
minerals have been reported from this one mass, while in it 
a crystal spodumene is known to have attained a length of at 
least 42 feet and others to have a diameter of fully five feet. 
The Etta has produced a few specimens of wolframite and 
some scheelite but neither in anything like commercial 
quantities. The lithia bearing pegmatites do not appear, on 
the whole, to be favorite hosts for tungsten minerals. The 
most important minerals of the lithia bearing pegmatites as 
a group are orthoclase, microcline, albite, oligoclase, musco- 
vite, lepidolite, biotite, quartz, tourmaline, spodumene, ambly- 
gonite, beryl, apatite, triphyllite, lithiophylite, columbo- 
tantalite, with lesser amounts of garnet, struverite, andalu- 
site, and various sulphides. 

In the pegmatites that are not lithia bearing, the miner- 
alogy is much simpler. The important species in these rocks 
are the feldspars mentioned above, quartz, muscovite, biotite, 
tourmaline, garnet, and in places a little pyrite. In this phase 
tungsten minerals are more common, especially in the parts 
rich in quartz. 

In the tin veins we find cassiterite associated chiefly 
with feldspars, quartz, muscovite, and in places small amounts 
of columbite and wolframite. 

In the quartz veins the chief minerals besides quartz are 
muscovite and graphite both of which show a tendency to- 
ward concentration along the walls of the vein. This type is 
the most important one of the granite differentiates as a 
source of tungsten. 

The following brief description of the tungsten properties 
in the Harney Peak region gives the important geological 
characteristics of each. The number at the head of each 


paragraph will assist in locating the property on the ac- 
companying topographic map. It is possible that some mis- 
takes have been made in names and that some claims may 
have been omitted from the descriptions. The data here pre- 
sented are all that the author was able to gain in the 
time that he was in the field. 

1. Downing's Claim, 7 miles southwest of Hill City. On 
the principal claim coarse and fine crystals of black tungsten 
minerals occur with pyrite, muscovite and biotite in a quartz 
vein. The micas are especially well developed along the bor- 
ders of the vein. The vein pinches and swells and has a 
maximum width of about 14 inches. The strike is N. 60°W. 
and the dip steep to the southwest. The development con- 
sists of prospect cuts for 50 feet along the strike and for a 
maximum depth of 15 feet below the surface. Nearby is a 
pegmatite containing some wolframite. 

Two other claims belonging to Wright and Virtue and 
to Mr. H. H. Francis are reported to contain tungsten min- 
erals in this vicinity. These were not visited. 

2. Reinbold Claim, 5 miles south of Hill City. The 
tungsten ores are located mostly on the contact between 
small veins of pegmatite and schist, also in the pegmatites, 
and in seams in the schist. The schists are penetrated by 
small kidneys, lenses, and veinlets of pegmatite containing 
quartz, biotite, muscovite, feldspar and tourmaline, and by 
quartz veins carrying some muscovite. The quartz and peg- 
matite have in places cemented brecciated masses of schist. 
The width of the main lead probably does not exceed 5 feet 
on the surface. It seems to be a vertical zone more or less 
impregnated with fine veinlets, rather than a continuous, 
uniform mass. The mineralized zone runs N. 35' W. and 
from the direction of an inclined shaft apparently dips steeply 
to the southwest. To the west of the main vein lies a small 
quartz mica vein containing some tungsten and manganese 
minerals, of unknown extent. The tungsten mineral is hub- 
nerite occurring in slender crystals of from V2 to 2 inches in 
length. An analysis by Headden* shows the mineral to be 
composed of 92.S'/r MnWO^ and 7.2', FeWO,. The surface 
material is much weathered and the hubnerite is covered 

*Colo. Sci. Soc. Proc, Vol. 8, Page 176. 


with brown iron oxide and black oxide of manganese. De- 
velopment work on the property consists of 6 small prospect 
cuts and 1 inclined shaft 100 ft. in depth. 

3. Tungsten Lode (Wehrlick, Faust and Gowan), 6 
miles south of Hill City on the western flank of Harney Peak. 
The tungsten minerals occur in a coarse pegmatite containing 
feldspar, quartz and muscovite, about 30 feet in thickness 
with an apparent length of about 350 feet, dipping westward 
with the schists. The wolframite is most abundant in parts 
rich in quartz and muscovite. In places tourmaline occurs 
in streaks through the pegmatite and on the contact with 
the schist. Garnet also is abundant in places. The pegmatite 
has included fragments of schist. 

4. McKinnon and Millers Claim, 41/2 miles southeast of 
Hill City. Crystals of wolframite are found in quartz segreg- 
ations and veinlets in a pegmatite sill from 1 ft. to 3 ft. in 
thickness that dips 75 to the west. The pegmatite contains 
rather fine quartz, muscovite, feldspar, pink garnet and 
green tourmaline. The wolframite is in places closely associ- 
ated with garnet. In places there is considerable secondary 
manganese dioxide. The outcropping edge of the pegmatite 
has been opened up in numerous places for about 200 feet 
along the strike. The wolframite is especially abundant along 
the north end. An analysis of the mineral was calculated by 
Hess** to contain 71.4% FeWO, and 28.6',^ MnWO, and is 
therefore wolframite. A second sill 50 feet west of the one 
described, and paralleling it, outcrops for 100 feet along the 
surface. This vein is thin but richer in spots than the other. 

5. Michigan Placer Ground (Nelson), 41/2 miles south- 
east of Hill City on Palmer Gulch. Wolframite occurs in a 
sill of pegmatite containing quartz, feldspar, muscovite, gar- 
net and tourmaline, and in a quartz vein from 3 inches to 2 
feet in thickness. The veins are exposed for 20 feet along 
the surface and dip with the schist 15° to the northwest. The 
crystals of wolframite are small. Muscovite is concentrated 
along the vein walls. 

6. Pettit and Pfander's Claim, 3 miles southeast of Hill 

**U. S. Geol. Surv. Bui. 583, page 30. 


City. Tungsten minerals, wolframite and scheelite occur 
along the walls of a tissue filled with gouge consisting of 
clay, brown chalcedony, limonite and manganese oxide, cut- 
ting a coarse pegmatite dike 30 or more feet in thickness and 
dipping steeply westward. The tungsten minerals occur on 
the pegmatite surfaces and penetrate the gouge and are crys- 
tallized in druses. The crystals are considerably weathered 
and are stained with brown limonite and black manganese ox- 
ide. The scheelite coats the wolframite in honey like drops. 
The width of the fissure is from 3 inches to 1 foot and the 
strike is northwest. The pegmatite is coarse, containing 
feldspar, quartz, muscovite and tourmaline. On top of the dike 
20 feet north of the main vein, a small cut exposes other fis- 
sures of the same sort. The dev-elopment consists of a shaft 
20 feet in depth, and a cut into the face of the dike 25 feet 
long and 10 feet vertically, parallel to the main vein. 

7. The High Lode (Canfield) on the east side of Summit 
Peak, 3 miles southeast of Hill City. The wolframite occurs 
in good crystals in four quartz veins from 1 to 12 inches in 
width, cutting a pegmatite composed of quartz, feldspar and 

8. Vida May (Pettit and Nash) 414 miles southeast of 
Hill City. 

This property was not visited. The description here 
given is that of Hess. 

"The vein ***** jg visible for less than 100 feet 
along the surface and is irregular in thickness, strike and 
dip. The dip is 30' and more southward. 

The dike occupies a fissure along an overthrust fault of 
unknown throw. At some points it reaches 10 inches in 
thickness and at others it pinches out. In the thicker part 
wolframite occurs in chunks, some of which are several inches 
thick. In places the dike pinches to half an inch and is 
almost wholly made up of wolframite. Some muscovite is 
present through the vein and shows a tendency to form in 
lines that give the vein a somewhat banded appearance. 

One of the most remarkable features of the vein is a 
layer of impure graphite on each side from half an inch to 
2V2 inches thick. Muscovite occurs in this layer also and 


shows thin lines of minute flakes parallel to the vein. No 
structure of the graphite can be definitely made out. The 
graphite is undoubtedly segregated from the graphitic 
schists through the agency of the vein-forming materials. 
Smaller amounts of graphite have been noted at a number of 
places as included in the pegmatite dikes, but it seems signifi- 
cant that along quartz veins, the magmatic segregation which 
was probably most watery at the time of its intrusion, the 
most graphite should have been deposited. The same phe- 
nomenon was noted in Slaughterhouse Gulch. It is strongly 
suggested by these occurrences that the graphite is brought 
into solution by the hot waters accompanying the intrusion." 

9. Blackbird Claim (Canfield, Hicks, and Roush), 41/2 
miles southeast of Hill City. A quartz vein of variable thick- 
ness is exposed in a prospect trench for a distance of 75 feet 
along the strike and in a vertical shaft perhaps 40 feet in 
depth. The strike of the vein is N. 45- W. and its dip nearly 
vertical. It cuts schists dipping northwest at a low angle. 
The vein was not well exposed and its extent and size are un- 
known, but it is small, at the surface. Some specimens of 
fairly good ore were found on the dump. 

10. Martha Washington (C. H. Kammon), 41/2 miles 
southeast of Hill City. A quartz vein containing muscovite 
and some high grade wolframite is exposed in a prospect 
trench for 100 feet along the strike. The vein strikes N. 65° 
E. and at the surface dips southward at a low angle. Near 
its eastern end small veins of quartz cut the main vein and 
extend for short distances into the schists. The main vein 
cuts the schists both along the dip and along the strike at 
high angles. Southwest from this vein occurs a second one 
exposed in a prospect cut for a distance of 25 feet along the 
strike. The latter vein is from 6 to 12 inches thick, has a 
variable strike from west to northwest, and dips southward 
at a low angle. Very little tungsten was exposed in the vein 
at the time of visit. 

11. Property of the Elkhorn Tungsten Company, 41/2 
miles southeast of Hill City. On this property are exposed at 
least five, apparently distinct veins of tungsten bearing 



quartz, cutting garnetiferous, mica schists, that are in places 

The westernmost vein was developed by an inclined 
shaft along the dip, and at the time of the visit had apparent- 
ly been largely worked out, for no ore was found in place. 
The vein had a strike of N. 45" W. and a dip of 75 to the 
southwest. In form the vein was apparently lens shaped and 
was observed to have pinched out laterally, along the strike. 
The vein material had evidently been quartz with a little mus- 
covite and possibly graphite. On the dump were found 
masses of schists penetrated by veinlets of garnetiferous 
pegmatite, showing, in places, segregations of quartz, especi- 
ally along the margins. None of these were observed to bear 
any tungsten. Garnets were more abundant in the host 
rock near the vein contact and had evidently been developed 
as a result of reaction with the vein material. Specimens 
of good ore were obtained that had come from this vein. 

400 feet east of this vein, one and perhaps two veins, 
occur near the power house. One vein of quartz, containing 
muscovite, graphite, and wolframite, averaging one foot in 
thickness, is exposed for 50 feet along the strike in an open 
cut, and in an inclined shaft along the dip for perhaps 40 feet. 
At the surface the vein swells and narrows very perceptibly. 
The vein exhibits a rude banding parallel to its length in 
consequence of segregations of mica, graphite, and wolframite 
in planes. Graphite and mica are especially abundant at the 

75 feet northwest of this second vein outcrops what is 
apparently a separate vein that strikes N. 35 W. and dips 
steeply to the southwest. This vein varies considerably in 
the direction of its trend and in its thickness at the surface. 
It is said to persist to a depth of at least 90 feet in the shaft 
and to continue for a considerable distance along the strike, 
in the underground workings. Its width where seen at the 
surface averaged perhaps 24 inches. The vein is developed 
by a shaft and underground drifts and raises. Some ore has 
been stoped out from the vein, milled and marketed. Speci- 
mens of the ore obtained were of good quality. 

Another vein lying perhaps 150 feet northeast of the 


power house, was exposed in a prospect trench for 100 feet 
along the strike. The vein varies in thickness and direction 
of strike. It contains quartz with some muscovite and wolf- 

200 yards south of the power house is another vein of 
quartz, containing small amounts of muscovite and wolf- 
ramite. The vein is exposed in prospect cuts, and in a small 
shaft of unknown depth. The trend of the vein is N. 75° 
W. and the dip steep toward the southwest. At the surface 
its width is from 8 to 24 inches. 

On the property are a power plant, hoist, and a small 
well equipped concentrating mill. Some ore was mined and 
milled by the Black Hills Tungsten Mining and Milling Com- 
pany in 1916. Since that time the property has mostly re- 
mained idle. 

12. Success Claim (Amer. Tungsten Co.), 4 miles east 
of Hill City. Wolframite occurs in a quartz vein, cutting 
graphitic schists, with muscovite well developed along the 
border and in seams in the quartz. Wolframite occurs in 
bladed aggregates up to a length of 2V2 inches and in places 
is especially rich along the borders of the vein. The vein 
varies from 8 to 18 inches in thickness. It strikes N. 45° W. 
and dips steeply northeast. It is exposed along the strike 
for 75 feet in prospect cuts and in a small shaft 25 feet in 

13. Good Luck Claim (American Tungsten Company), 
4 miles east of Hill City. Wolframite, ferberite and a little 
scheelite occur in a quartz vein cutting graphite mica schist. 
The trend of the vein is parallel to the strike of the schists 
and is about N. 30° W. The dip is variable, but averages 
about 60° to the southwest. The width of the vein is from 
18 to 30 inches, averaging throughout its known extent per- 
haps 24 inches. The vein is exposed in the main shaft to 
the 40 foot level ; and at that depth in a drift for 97 feet 
along the strike ; again in a small shaft 47 feet southeast of 
the main shaft to the 40 foot level ; and also in a winze sunk 
from the 40 foot level, near the main shaft, to a depth of 30 
feet. On the 40 foot level the vein is ore-bearing for at least 
50 feet of its length, and in the winze, to the bottom. 


The quartz shows minute cavities in lines parallel to the 
walls of the vein. It contains a little muscovite in cracks near 
the margin of the vein which in places is mixed with gra- 
phite. The wolframite occurs in tabular masses, roughly 
paralleling the vein walls. Some of these masses attain a 
weight of 8 or 10 pounds, and single cleavage blades have 
been found with a length of over 8 inches. A little green 
scheelite that is almost surely original has been found in the 
quartz. Where weathering has affected the tungsten min- 
eral pitted surfaces filled with iron oxide occur. Some 
scheelite, also occurs as an alteration product of the wolf- 
ramite. An analysis of the concentrate, reported by C. H. 
Fulton in a private mine report has been calculated as 
representing a mineral with 86.5 "/f FeWO^ and 13.5% 
MnWO^ which would be classed as ferberite. An analysis by 
M. L. Hartmann, of the black mineral, shows it to contain 
69.1% FeWO, and 30.9% MnWO,, and hence the specimen 
was wolframite. 

The development work consists of a 100 foot, two com- 
partment shaft, fully timbered to within 2 sets of the bottom ; 
97 feet of drifts on the 40 foot level; a 30 foot winze from 
the 40 foot level ; a 28 foot crosscut from the bottom of the 
main shaft; and a second small shaft 47 feet down the hill 
side and 12 feet below the collar of the main shaft, cutting 
the drift on the 40 foot level at a depth from the surface of 
18 feet. 

The equipment comprises a power plant, shaft house, 
hoist, mine tools and mill well equipped for concentration. 

In an ore bin near the shaft house are stored about 40 
tons of good ore that was stoped out from above the 40 foot 
level. At the house of Mr. A. H. Wabel, the owner, the 
author has seen several specimens of ore weighing from 50 
to 100 pounds that he would estimate to contain 15% or more 

14. Cleveland Lode (American Tungsten Co.), 4. miles 
east of Hill City. Wolframite occurs in crystals up to 2iA 
inches in length with a little muscovite in a vein of glassy 
quartz. The vein strikes N. 30- W. and dips steeply to the 
northeast. Its width averages about 8 inches at the surface. 


In places the vein is much fractured. The vein cuts 
garnetiferous schist that dips westward at a low angle. The 
ore is exposed in prospect holes for a distance of 40 feet 
along the strike of the vein. 

15. Champion Lode (Pennington and Smith), 41/2 miles 
east of Hill City. Wolframite occurs in the quartz and mus- 
covite rich parts of a coarse pegmatite that contains also 
feldspar and tourmaline. The pegmatite is banded parallel to 
the walls. The dike is from 3 to 6 feet in thickness and is in 
places split by schist horses. The dike strikes northeast 
parallel to the schist and dips 45'' to the northwest, more 
steeply than the schist except at the south end where it be- 
comes a sill. The dike is opened up by several cuts to a depth 
of 20 feet for a distance of 600 feet along the strike. Across 
the road from the south end of the Champion Lode peg- 
matite, occurs a quartz vein from 1 to 2 feet in thickness con- 
taining good crystals of wolframite. The vein has been 
opened up by a 15 foot prospect hole. 

16. Gireau's Claim, 41/9 miles northeast of Hill City. 
The tungsten vein is exposed in a shaft 30 feet in depth. The 
shaft was not accessible at the time of the visit, but from 
specimens on the dump wolframite apparently occurs in a 
quartz vein. 

17. Edna Hazel, 41/2 miles northeast of Hill City. Wolf- 
ramite crystals from 1/2 to 2 inches in length occur in a vein 
of clear glassy quartz from a few inches to 2 feet in width, 
cutting schist. In places the vein is very rich. Its direction 
is N. 20" W. and its dip is vertical. An analysis by M. L. 
Hartmann showed the mineral to be composed of 69.7% 
FeWO^ and 30.7^ MnWO^, and hence to be wolframite. 

18. Rundle, Mills, and Casler Claim, 2 miles southeast 
of Hill City. Black tungsten mineral occurs on the contact 
of the schists with a small quartz vein containing tourmaline, 
mica and some graphite. The vein is exposed for a hundred 
feet along the strike (N. 10° E.) 

19. Dyke Claim, 1/2 mile east of Hill City. Black tung- 
sten mineral occurs in a thick dike of pegmatite containing 
quartz, feldspar, muscovite, tourmaline and graphite. The 
dike strikes N. 50 ' W, and dips steeply westward. The dike 


is exposed for a total length of 350 feet and is developed by 
prospect holes and a small shaft. 

20. Black Metal Claims, 1 mile north of Hill City. 

The excellent descriptions of the occurrences of tungsten 
bearing veins on this property, given by Hess* v^ill be quoted 
here, for without a claim map the author was unable to check 
a number of locations on the claims described. On the more 
important geological relationships of the principal occur- 
rences the author is in essential agreement with Hess. 

"About 400 feet from the south end of the group, on the 
center line of Black Metal claim No. 3, which lies on the 
west side of China Gulch, is a quartz vein 6 to 8 inches wide 
striking N. 23° W., dipping steeply to the east, but almost 
vertical, and about 30 feet long. It cuts a gray fine-grained 
quartzose mica schist which strikes N. 75° W., with a dip of 
35° N. 15° E. The walls are loose and show the effects of 
some slipping. The wolframite is of a bright, shining black 
color in irregular masses as much as an inch in thickness and 
several inches in length. So far as developed at the time, it 
was probably not rich enough to pay for mining. There is a 
small amount of muscovite mica, apparently following cracks 
in and thus later than the quartz. Thin seams of pyrites 
also follow cracks in the quartz. The wolframite decays, 
leaving in places a little scheelite, but generally only iron 
oxide. A similar vein, striking N. 88° W., with a steep dip 
to the north, though almost vertical, lies 42 feet farther 
south. This vein has been followed on the surface for 60 
feet. It is faulted about 3 feet at the shaft. From the bot- 
tom of the shaft, w^hich is 47 feet deep, the quartz showed 
pyrites along cracks and some that was possibly original. 

Wolframite extends into the quartz from the sides of the 
vein in blades up to one-eight of an inch thick and 2 inches 
long, which must have been formed either before or con- 
temporaneously with the quartz. Like the other vein, this 
one is only a prospect, but it is one which encourages further 

Farther north, on the west side of China Gulch, on Black 

= U. S. Geol. Surv., Bui. 380. pp. 152-153. 


Metal claim No. 5, is a quartz vein 9 to 12 inches thick, which 
is exposed in two prospect holes. The vein strikes N. 50^-55° 
E., dips 45° N. 35°-40° W., and has been followed for 
about 125 feet. It carries considerable black tourmaline in 
crystals an inch or more in length by one-sixteenth to one- 
eight of an inch in thickness. Some wolframite is found 
mixed with light-colored cassiterite in masses up to 2 pounds 
in weight. The color of the cassiterite is in places hidden by 
stains of iron oxide. During the tin excitement this ground 
was held as a tin claim. 

On Black Metal claim No, 6, near the north end of the 
group, is a quartz vein 6 to 8 inches thick, striking N. 5° W. 
and standing nearly vertical. A vertical shaft about 4 feet 
wide has been sunk, with the vein in the middle at the top. 
At a depth of 65 feet the vein is in the east wall of the shaft. 
The vein is generally free, but is in places "frozen" to the 
walls. The country rock, as in the other claims of the grouj, 
is quartzose mica schist, in places graphitic and here and 
there, near the vein, impregnated with small needles of black 

The vein carries wolframite intimately intergrown with 
light-gray cassiterite, some of which is almost colorless. 
These minerals form tabular masses reaching II/2 inches in 
thickness and probably 8 to 10 inches in breadth. They oc- 
cur near the middle of the vein, and C, G, Todd, in charge 
for the Black Metal Mining Company, stated that none had 
been seen on the sides of the vein, A granitic dike a few 
inches in width is said to lie along the vein in places, and at 
such points the vein is richest, 

A small shaft house has been erected and drifts have 
been carried on the vein for about 30 feet each way at a 
depth of 65 feet. The vein is said to be widening a little 
toward the north. What seems to be the same vein is seen 
several hundred feet farther north, but it shows neither wol- 
framite nor cassiterite at that point. 

Southwest of this vein, on the same claim, is a quartz 
vein 4 to 8 inches thick, with a strike of N. 55° E, and a 
variable dip. It carries some wolframite, slender needles of 
black tourmaline, and some muscovite. In places thin 


branch veins enter the schist, which is here graphitic, and at 
some points bunches of wolframite occupy the whole width 
of the vein, so that the wolframite is said to be in the 
"slate," the name by which the schists are generally known 
in the locality. The vein is traced for only a short distance. 
On Black Metal claim No. 7 a thin quartz vein carries 
wolframite, small pieces of green and white scheelite, brown 
cassiterite, pyrites, and a little mica. On Black Metal claim 
No. 8 is an irregular quartz vein that carries some wolframite 
and small particles of scheelite, original in the vein. Part of 
the scheelite is of a delicate green color. There is some 
cassiterite, which, where free from iron-oxide stains, is light 
gray in color, and some pyrites." 

21. Hayes Claim, 200 yards northeast of Burlington 
railroad station Hill City. Small, dull crystals of wolframite 
occur in a pegmatite, containing feldspar, muscovite and 
quartz. The dike strikes N. 25° W. and the dip is vertical at 
the south end, but westerly farther north. The dike is 3 
feet thick near the south end and thickens to the north. The 
dike cuts slates dipping to the southwest and striking to the 
northwest. In its neighborhood are a number of small 
stringers of pegmatite and quartz lenses and "blowouts". The 
dike has been prospected by cuts for total length of 200 feet. 
An analysis by M. L. Hartmann shows the mineral to be 
composed of 36.3 ^c FeWO, and 63.7% MnWO, and hence to 
be wolframite. 

22. The Annie, I/2 mile west of Hill City on Slaughter- 
House Gulch. Wolframite occurs in a quartz vein from 4 to 6 
feet wide in places with graphite and muscovite especially 
along the vein walls. A little cassiterite and bismuth also 
occur in the vein. On the surface the vein shows numerous 
pittings containing iron oxide from which wolframite has 
probably weathered. The vein strikes N. 20= W., and dips 
steeply eastward. 50 feet east of this vein a second occurs 
wider than the first. It strikes N. 10= E. and dips 35^ W. 
A small amount of wolframite occurs in this vein. Associated 
with the first vein is a pegmatite dike, from which the vein 
is probably a segregation. The dike contains quartz, feldspar, 
muscovite and cassiterite, and has been one of the more im- 


portant tin prospects of the region. The quartz vein has pro- 
duced some tungsten. 

23. The Wolfram Lode (Mills) on the south side of 
Slaughter House Gulch 600 feet southeast of the Annie. 
Wolframite in small crystals occurs in a quartz vein con- 
taining graphite, biotite* and muscovite along the border. The 
vein has a width of from 2 to 3 feet. It strikes N. 10° W. 
and dips 80° to the northeast. The vein cuts graphitic 
schist whose strike is parallel to the strike of the vein but 
which dips southwest. 

24. Coates Claim, 1 mile southwest of Hill City. This 
claim the author was not able to locate in the field, but from 
descriptions by the owner, is a typical pegmatite containing 
small amounts of wolframite. 

25. Mills Brothers' Prospect, 1 mile south of Hill City 
on the east side of Spring Creek valley 250 feet above the 
railroad. On a northeast extending ridge are exposed num- 
erous quartz veins and bunches of milky quartz. The wolf- 
ramite bearing vein contains some muscovite and graphite 
both along the walls and inclosed in the quartz. The in- 
closing rock is a graphitic slate which evidently has furnished 
the graphite contained in the quartz. The trend of the vein 
is 20° W. Its dip was not determined. The wolframite is 
exposed only at the north end for a few feet where a shaft 
had been sunk to a depth of 25 feet. At the north end where 
the wolframite occurs the vein apparently does not exceed 
1 foot in thickness but widens to 3 feet farther south where 
it is barren on the surface. 

26. Fern Cliff (F. G. Robertson) 1/2 mile north of 
Spokane, 7 miles east of Harney Peak. This occurrence is 
of especial interest for two reasons, first; it lies in a region 
near the lithia bearing pegmatites, where with but two minor 
exceptions tungsten is unknown, second ; it is the only known 
occurrence in the Black Hills of primary scheelite in im- 
portant quantities. 

On the property two quartz veins occur that apparently 
apex to the north. The western vein strikes approximately 
N.-S., and the eastern one N. 30° W. The western vein is 
from IV2 feet to 4 feet in thickness and the eastern one is 


about 2 feet thick. Both were observed to pinch and swell 
along the strike and in the direction of dip. At the point 
where they seemed to apex the vein is easily 4 feet thick. 
Both veins are apparently vertical. The eastern vein is ex- 
posed for 100 feet along the surface and the western one for 
perhaps 50 feet. At the apex the veins are exposed in a 
shaft to a depth of 30 feet, and from the bottom of this 
shaft in a drift along the east vein for a distance of 30 feet, 
A short distance from the main shaft is a smaller one on the 
west vein that has been sunk to a depth of 24 feet. 

The ore minerals scheelite and wolframite occur inti- 
mately intergrown, and separately, in irregular masses, some 
of which measure 3 or 4 inches in diameter, in a glassy 
quartz matrix. With the tungsten minerals and separately 
in the quartz, occurs a considerable amount of pyrite. Seams 
of pyrite in the quartz as much as 1/2 inch in thickness were 
observed. No graphite or muscovite were seen either at the 
margin or in the quartz vein, although the inclosing schists 
are graphitic. The greater part, at least, of the scheelite is 
unquestionably primary and was precipitated simultaneous- 
ly with the wolframite and pyrite in the quartz. A photo- 
graphic reproduction of a specimen of the ore may be seen 
in plate II B. In amount, the scheelite probably exceeds the 
wolframite. At the surface the tungsten minerals and py- 
rite have disintegrated and much of the quartz is stained 
red from iron oxide. Two pegmatite dikes occur to the east 
of the tungsten veins at distances of 200 feet and 400 feet 
respectively, and one to the west at a distance of perhaps 
150 feet. 

In places the ore is very high grade and should the 
veins prove persistent for considerable distances and main- 
tain throughout the tungsten content th-ey show at the sur- 
face, the property ought to be a valuable one. 

28. Reinbold Claim, 1/2 rnile northwest of Spokane. 
Tungsten minerals occur in seams of quartz from 1 to 18 in- 
ches in width cutting a pegmatite. The property is develop- 
ed by a shaft 50 feet in depth and by several prospect cuts. 

29. The Etta (The Standard Essence Co.), 2 miles 


south of Keystone. The Etta has been described briefly 
above. As a producer of tungsten it is not important. 

A small amount of wolframite and possibly scheelite 
have been found in placers in the Harney Peak district, but 
the commercial importance of this type of deposit is probably 

The Deposits of the Nigger Hill Area. The Nigger Hill 
or Tinton district lies approximately 15 miles west of Lead 
near the Wyoming-South Dakota line. Nigger Hill is the 
center of a laccolithic intrusion of monzonite and syenite 
porphyries, of early Tertiary age. Within the laccolith 
are areas of schist, pegmatites and other intrusives 
of Algonkian age. The pre-Cambrian rocks are either 
detached masses of the underlying rocks that have been 
floated up on the intrusive porphyries or are islands in the 
surrounding younger rocks that still maintain connections 
with the other pre-Cambrian rocks below. The pegmatite 
dikes are of the same general composition as the tin bearing 
dikes of the Southern Black Hills. They contain quartz, feld- 
spar, muscovite, tourmaline, and small amounts of pyrite, 
cassiterite, columbite, and wolframite. These dikes have 
been worked for their tin content but tungsten minerals have 
not been found in sufficient amounts to attract much atten- 

An insignificant amount of wolframite has been found 
in placers. 

Summary of Characteristics of the Tungsten Deposits in 
Pre-Cambrian Rocks. Wolframite is the most important of 
the tungsten bearing minerals. Primary scheelite, hubnerite, 
and ferberite are relatively rare but in some deposits scheel- 
ite, and in others hubnerite, are the dominant ore minerals. 
Secondary scheelite in small quantities is not uncommon. 

The tungsten minerals occur in pegmatites with quartz, 
feldspar, muscovite, tourmaline, garnet, and smaller amounts 
of pyrite, cassiterite, and biotite. In- the pegmatites the 
crystals of tungsten minerals are commonly small and many 
are dull in luster. The tungsten bearing pegmatites are 
commonly coarse in texture, but not so coarse as the lithia 
bearing pegmatites. In general the tungsten minerals are 


Plate \ 111. 
TOI'0<;UAPHI( AI, ^lAI' OF MO \ IJ-DKA nA\ (K>l) Hi:(;i(>\ SH<>\\I\(; 

!><)< A ri<>\ OK J'in\< H'Ai, 'rr\<;sri;\ uki'osits 


Plate IX A. 


AVASP NO. :: oPE> cut 

Plate 1\" n. 

more abundant in the parts of the pegmatite rich in quartz, 
and in many cases are, in fact, in veinlets of quartz within 
the pegmatite. After quartz, muscovite is the closest as- 
sociate of tungsten in the pegmatites. The pegmatites have 
in many places exerted a strong metamorphic action upon the 
inclosing schists, accompanied by the development of mica, 
tourmaline and garnet, at and near the contact. On the 
whole the tungsten minerals are less commonly found in the 
pegmatites and the crystals are of smaller size than in the 
quartz veins. Probably it is also true that the tungsten 
bearing pegmatites are not as rich as the tungsten bearing 
quartz veins. 

The strike of the pegmatite dikes conforms closely to 
the strike of the schists, in dip, they are both parallel to, and 
cut across the bedding planes of the schist. The pegmatites 
are variable in thickness along the strike and dip and, in 
general, cannot be followed for great distances along the 
surface. Some are dike-like in form, while others more close- 
ly resemble the form of plugs. 

The quartz veins are closely related to the pegmatites in 
distribution and genesis. Pegmatites may be found near 
most of the well developed quartz veins. Quartz veins may 
be traced into pegmatites both along the strike and along the 
dip. Many quartz veins are found in the pegmatites. Beside 
quartz, muscovite is easily the most common mineral of the 
veins. Much tourmaline and graphite also occur in places 
and frequently exhibit a tendency toward segregation along 
the vein walls and in planes parallel to the vein walls. The 
graphite is, so far as observations have extended, confined to 
those veins cutting graphitic rocks, and hence is believed to 
have been assimilated from the surrounding rocks. In places 
the host rock appears to have been somewhat altered near 
the veins, but the metamorphic effect of the quartz veins is 
less common and less intense than that of the pegmatites. 

The quartz veins vary in width from the thinnest vein- 
lets to thicknesses of four feet, and perhaps more. The veins 
exhibit a strong tendency to pinch, swell, and branch. Many 
veins lie parallel to the bedding of the schists, while others 
intersect the schists at high angles. Probably a majority of 


the veins lie nearly parallel to the direction of strike of the 
schists, especially where the schists dip steeply. Many veins 
change abruptly in direction of strike and in angle of dip. 
There are zones in which veins are very abundant that can 
be traced for more than a mile but within these zones no in- 
dividual vein has been traced uninterruptedly, on the surface, 
for more than a few hundred feet. In places quartz veinlets 
of minute size have impregnated considerable masses of 
schist, but form no well defined vein. The veins in places 
occupy zones of weakness, clearly formed by movements in 
the host rock. In most cases the materials seem to have 
been injected under pressure and to have forced a passage. 

The occurrence of the tungsten minerals within the 
veins is as erratic as the veins themselves. The crystals vary 
greatly in size, form and distribution. In places the minerals 
are concentrated along the vein walls and in other places, in 
shoots of irregular form and size. Rich spots occur both in 
the thin parts of the vein and in the thicker parts. 

Tungsten-bearing quartz veins appear to be much more 
numerous near the outer margin of the pegmatite area than 
near the central mass of Harney Peak granite. A small area 
from 4 to 41/2 miles east and southeast of Hill City contains 
more ore-bearing veins than any other equal area within the 
district. That there may be some connection between a con- 
siderable number of the veins in this area seems highly 

So little development work has been done that there are 
few data on the depth to which individual veins persist. 
Judging, however, from the lack of persistence of many of 
the veins in lateral extent, and their variability in size with- 
in the shallow zone of observation, it is doubtful that many 
of them extend downward for any great distance. However, 
there seems to be no good reason for thinking that a system 
of veins, or the zone in which veins may be found, does not 
extend to great depths. 

Origin of Tungsten Deposits in Pre-Cambrian Rocks. 
The source of the ores is undoubtedly the Harney Peak 
granite. During its crystallization the minerals most soluble 
under the existing conditions, remained in solution after a 



part had solidified and were then injected along the planes of 
weakness into the granite and surrounding schists. The last 
minerals to crystallize in many cases, were the quartz, mus- 
covite, wolframite and scheelite. These form the quartz- 
tungsten veins. In some cases no such separation took place, 
and the wolframite crystallized with the feldspars, quartz and 
mica in pegmatites. 

The Deposits of the Lead-Deadwood Area. — (General 
Geology of the District.) The rocks of the Lead-Deadwood 
area of importance in connection with the tungsten deposits 
consist of a folded and metamorphosed series of sedimentary 
and intrusive, basic-igneous rocks, and a small amount 
of coarse grained granite, of pre-Cambrian age; a 
series of conglomerates, sandstones, and impure dolomites, 
limestones and shales of Cambrian age ; thin Ordovician lime- 
stones; a series of thin bedded and massive pink and gray 
Mississippian limestones ; and numerous intrusive dikes, sills, 
and laccoliths of Tertiary rhyolite porphyry. 

The pre-Cambrian rocks are exposed within an elongated 
area eight or nine miles in length, from southeast to north- 
west, surrounded and partly covered by Paleozoic sediments. 
Within this area also are considerable masses of Tertiary in- 
trusive rocks, which break the continuity of the pre-Cam- 
brian rocks, and in many places cover them. The pre-Cam- 
brian comprises a thick series of quartzites, garnetiferous 
and biotite schists, and calcareous and normal clay slates. 
These rocks form two distinct groups. The one lying to the 
west of Lead consists chiefly of clay slates and various 
quartzite layers striking N. 20--30- W. and the second chiefly 
of calcareous slates, garnetiferous and biotite schists and 
quartzite, striking slightly east of north. The line of junc- 
tion between these divergent groups of rocks is considered 
by Sidney Paige* to represent the line of a fault. The sup- 
posed fault lies very close to a line joining the tungsten area 
of the Homestake with the Etta, Bismarck and Wasp No. 2 
mines. Paige regards the fault as forming the western 
boundary of the Homestake gold ore body. 

*Bul. of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 24, pp. 293-300. 


As a whole the rocks are closely folded, in general with 
a steep isoclinal dip eastward. Near the supposed fault the 
western group is folded into a steeply northwest pitching 
anticline, and the eastern group into a complex anticline with 
a subordinate syncline on its western flank. This syncline 
plunges southward and is an important structural feature of 
the Homestake gold ore body. 

The pre-Cambrian rocks of the Homestake mine show the 
effects of hydro-thermal metamorphism, that probably ac- 
companied the introduction of the ores. This metamorphism 
resulted in the development of iron and magnesium silicates, 
such as cummingtonite and chlorite, in the calcareous series 
that had previously been intricately folded and compressed. 

Pre-Cambrian igneous rocks comprise numerous dikes of 
amphibolites and an isolated occurrence on the western flank 
of Whitewood Peak of a coarse pegmatitic granite. The lat- 
ter consists mainly of quartz and alkali feldspar in graphic 
intergrowth, muscovite, tourmaline and garnet, similar in 
every respect to the granites of Harney Peak. The total mass 
of exposed granite is very small, but it is of great significance 
in as much as it proves conclusively the presence of granite 
in the pre-Cambrian of the Northern Hills. This granite has 
evidently been floated up upon an intrusive mass of porphyry 
of Tertiary age. With it is a mass of dark basic schist 
probably of igneous origin, into which the granite is intrusive. 

Rocks of the Cambrian System, locally known as the 
Deadwood Formation, overlie unconformably the upturned 
and truncated edges of the pre-Cambrian beds on a relative- 
ly mature erosion surface of slight relief. The basal mem- 
ber of the Deadwood Formation is commonly a massive, red- 
dish-brown quartzitic sandstone. In most places the basal 
sandstone is more or less conglomeratic and in many it gives 
place entirely to a coarse conglomerate with pebbles several 
inches in diameter. The materials are largely derived from 
quartz veins in the pre-Cambrian and are of local origin. The 
basal conglomerate is, in places, as much as 25 feet thick 
but averages perhaps 5 or 6 feet. The conglomerates are in 
places auriferous and form the so called "fossil placers," 
which in former years were an important source of revenue. 


The total thickness of quartzite and conglomerate rarely ex- 
ceeds 30 feet. Resting upon the basal quartzite member, or, 
where this is absent, directly upon the pre-Cambrian forma- 
tion is normally to be found about 200 feet of impure gray 
flaggy dolomites and limestone conglomerates interbedded 
with layers of green shale, grading downward into soft brown 
shales and calcareous red sandstone. The dolomitic beds 
where fresh contain a considerable amount of glauconite. 
Much of the original dolomite has been replaced by silica and 
contains well formed rhombohedrons of quartz as pseudo- 
morphs after the carbonate. Where much weathered this 
rock passes into a soft "sand rock" heavily impregnated with 
oxides of iron and in places with oxides of manganese, yet 
exhibiting a marked stratification due to thin layers of shale. 
Above the dolomitic beds lie, upward of 100 feet of red sand- 
stone with interbedded glauconitic sandstones and shales and 
finally a thin layer of soft green shales. 

The Ordovician System is represented in the northern 
portion of the Black Hills by the Whitewood Formation. 
This formation comprises about 80 feet of massive, buff lime- 
stone, in places with a few feet of greenish shale at the top. 
Its hardness and massive character cause it to form benches 
in canyons, where exposed. 

Overlying the Whitewood formation in the Northern 
Hills, in apparent structural conformity, occur beds of the 
Mississippian System and locally known as the Englewood 
formation. This formation consists chiefly of about 60 feet 
of thin-bedded, pinkish-buff limestone, with in places, some 
shale. The Englewood formation grades upward into the 
Pahasapa formation also of Mississippian age. The Pahasapa 
formation is a gray to buff massive limestone about 500 feet 
in thickness. It outcrops conspicuously in precipitious cliffs 
or forms the surface of board flat plateaus. Ores of gold and 
silver occur in the Pahasapa formation in the Ragged Top 
district and ores of lead and silver in the Carbonate district. 

Dikes and sills of rhyolite porphyry of Tertiary age oc- 
cur near or in immediate contact with all known occurrences of 
tungsten in the Northern Hills. The porphyry is a thorough- 
ly acid rock, with a dense almost aphanitic texture and a gray- 


ish white color. Small phenochrysts occur sparingly. Frac- 
tured surfaces are in many places coated with black den- 
drites of manganese dioxide and brownish red stains of iron 
oxide. Under the microscope the ground mass is resolved 
into a fine aggregate of orthoclase and quartz and a little 
alkali plagioclase. Phenochrysts of quartz and orthoclose oc- 
cur. Very little if any ferro-magnesian mineral is present. 

(Location of Deposits.) Tungsten is known to occur (1) 
on the property of the Homestake Mining Co. on the divide 
between Gold Run and Deadwood Creek to the west of the 
Homestake open cuts, just north of Lead ; (2) on the divide 
between Yellow and Whitewood Creeks, at the Etta Mine V2 
mile southwest of Kirk; and again on the same divide near 
Flatiron on the properties of the (3) Bismarck and (4) Wasp 
No. 2 Mining Companies, V/-? miles farther south; (5) on 
west Strawberry Creek 1 mile south of Pluma; (6) on upper 
Two Bit Creek, 4 miles south-southeast of Deadwood ; and 
(7) within the city limits of Deadwood, on the north side of 
Deadwood Gulch on the divide between City and Spring 

The numbers given above correspond with those on the 
accompanying topographic map (Plate VIII) and will assist 
in the location of the deposits. 

Deposits of the Homestake Mining Company. Tungsten 
ores have been mined from the Harrison, Durango, Golden 
Summit, St. John, Reddy, Grant, Towa, St. Patrick and Golden 
Crown claims of the Homestake Company. The deposits are 
all near the base of the flat lying Deadwood Formation and 
are found intermittently over a total area of perhaps 15 acres. 
The formation within this area consists of a thin basal con- 
glomerate and quartzite, on the average less than 5 feet in 
thickness, lying upon the vertical schists. The quartzite is 
overlain by, from 30 to 36 inches of impure partially silicified 
dolomite, containing thin shale layers and this by calcareous 
shales. In places the quartzite and conglomerate are absent 
and the dolomites lie directly upon the schists. Upon the 
shales near by lies a thick sill of intrusive rhyolite porphyry 
and some of the middle Deadwood Formation but in the area 
of the tungsten deposits the igneous rock as well as the 


medial and upper beds of the Deadwood Formation have been 
eroded away. 

The tungsten ores occur chiefly as replacement deposits 
in the lower dolomite but to a small extent also in thin shale 
layers within the dolomite also in the quartzite and as cement 
in the conglomerate. In the shale, quartzite and conglomer- 
ate the tungsten minerals have probably replaced only the 
calcareous portions. No tungsten has been found at this 
point in the pre-Cambrian rocks, nor in the Deadwood For- 
mation above the lower dolomite. 

In form the ores are largely irregular, tabular masses 
from a fraction of an inch to 2 feet in thickness and with a 
width parallel to the bedding, of from an inch to as much as 
53 feet. The ore bodies branch, pinch and swell and in places 
appear on the breast of the stopes as isolated kidney and 
lens shaped masses of varying width and thickness. Within 
a single dolomite layer 30 inches in thickness as many as 4 or 
5 horizontal ore bodies occur, separated in some cases by thin 
shale members. In the calcareous shale members of the dolo- 
mite beds, in places some replacement has taken place, but the 
form and general nature is not essentially different from the 
bodies occurring in the dolomite proper and are in most cases 
merely extensions of the latter. Within the quartzite the 
tungsten occurs much less commonly and in masses of much 
smaller extent than in the dolomite but in general take the 
same forms. Only a very few occurrences of tungsten have 
been found in the conglomerates where it fills the spaces be- 
tween the pebbles that probably had been previously occu- 
pied by calcareous cement. The shapes of these bodies are 
very irregular and their total volume very small. The ores 
follow lines of fracture called verticals and extend laterally 
from them as a center. The verticals are perhaps more nu- 
merous parallel to the underlying schist layers than in other 
directions. One vertical in the Harrison Mine was followed 
for a distance of fully 500 feet, along which mineralization 
had taken place for an average width of about 30 feet 
throughout its entire length. In most cases the mineraliza- 
tion is as variable in extent along the strike of the verticals 
as the laterals are variable in width and thickness and it is 


very difficult to give anything like an average for the length, 
width, thickness or number of ore bodies within a single dolo- 
mite layer. 

The tungsten ores in the Homestake property are every 
where intimately associated with silicious gold ores of the 
Deadwood Formation but there is by no means tungsten ore 
where ever gold ores occur. Irving* regards the tungsten 
as merely a basic phase of the gold ores and not as a separate 
and distinct deposit. The gold ores where unweathered con- 
sist of a hard, brittle, gray rock composed largely of silica, 
carrying pyrite, barite, fluorite and gypsum. It is largely 
within these siliceous ore bodies and to a lesser extent around 
their margins and as cappings over them that the tungsten 
ores occur. The general relations are shown in the accom- 
panying cut, figure 2. 

In the tungsten areas the siliceous gold ores are largely 
oxidized and are stained brown with oxide of iron and in 
places black manganese dioxide. In striking contrast to these 
soft brown oxidized gold ores, the portions bearing tungsten 
show very little effect of weathering and are practically 
everywhere hard, brittle, bright, sharply defined masses. 
Where the siliceous gold ores are unoxidized the line of separ- 
ation betwen the tungsten bearing portions and the gold ores 
are in places sharp, while elsewhere they grade by impercep- 
tible variations into each other. 

The ore varies from a dense heavy black rock with a fine 
texture to nearly solid wolframite grains, to a gray quartzose 
rock containing small black, shiny specks of the mineral. The 
wolframite in these phases does not commonly exhibit crystal 
boundaries but shows small flat metallic cleavage surfaces. 
Individual grains are rarely more than one thirty-second of 
an inch in diameter but recently ores have been found that 
contain individual curved cleavage surfaces of more than 
an inch in diameter. The mineral in uniformly jet black 
aand exhibits a brilliant metallic luster on cleavage faces. 
A considerable amount of black manganese dioxide in 
places has impregnated the rock and has often been 

*Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. XXXI, page 689. 




vo rx K/a 

TO : rvfMAj, 




/ / / 





WOLFPAMIT£ ^|] COHOLOMEHAie [^ OL-A/?7-2-/r£- [^ SC/y/STJ 

Fig. 2. 

A. J. M. ROSS) 

HO-MESTAKE :»II\E. l.EAIJ. S. U. (After 

mistaken for ore. It is easily distinguished from the 
wolframite by its dull luster, its lack of cleavage, and 
its lighter weight. Barite in well formed tabular crys- 
tals, grouped in interpenetrating and in radiating aggregates, 
is a prominent feature in places. Cavities of various sizes and 
forms lined with well formed wolframite crystals and others 
lined with druses of barite or quartz are not uncommon. 
The wolframite crystals show knife like edges and somewhat 
resemble the form of axinite. For the most part the crystals 
are very small, the largest attaining a diameter of scarcely 
more than 14 inch. Small rounded aggregates of scheelite 
crystals resembling drops of honey in form and color fre- 
quently occur on the wolframite druses. This scheelite is 
regarded as most probably secondary. Thin seams occur en- 
tirely filled with well formed ingrowing crystals of wolfra- 
mite. In the weathered ore drusy surfaces occur that are 
coated with yellowish material that has often been mistaken 
for tungstite but which in the specimens examined by the 
author proved to be jarosite. It is probable however, that 
some tungstite may occur in this form. 

Under the microscope the leaner ores from the dolo- 
mites show well formed wolframite crystals occurring in a 
matrix of quartz much of which exhibits the form of the 
dolomite rhombohedron. In sections from the ore bearing 
quartzite the wolframite occurs in the irregular interstitial 
spaces between the rounded quartz grains. In both types 
scheelite may be seen intercrystallized with the wolframite 
and much of this is believed to be primary scheelite. The 
dense ore under the microscope, is opaque except where 
small masses of quartz occur. 

According to W. J. Sharwood (personal communication) 
all analyses of the ore have shown the ore minerals to be 
wolframite low in manganese with small amounts of scheelite. 
Thus a typical carload of concentrate containing 60-61% WO., 
would probably carry between 3 and 4% manganese, with 
about 17't iron and 1% calcium, a minute amount of phos- 
phorus, and not more than a trace of tin or copper. The follow- 
propositions of the principal minerals of a specimen of the 
ore have been calculated formerly from analyses by W. F. 


Hillebrand.* These results show perhaps more scheelite 
than is contained in the average ore. 

Per cent 

Wolframite (FeMn) WO, 75.60 

Quartz SiO, 12.54 

Scheelite CaWO, 4.77 

Barite BaSO, 06 

Ferric Oxide Fe,0, 3.85 

Water H,0 20 

Arsenic Oxide 1.25 

Residual Clay (kaolin) 1.34 

In the Homestake ore tin, copper and antimony, occur 
only in traces; while in the Wasp No. 2 ore antimony fre- 
quently occurs, and occasionally appreciable amounts of cop- 
per. Tin is almost universally present in the southern Hills 
concentrate. In some parts of the Homestake Mine porous 
oxide of manganese (psilomelane) occurs at considerable 
depth, filling small fissures in porphyry (rhyolite). This has 
been found to contain a small amount — about 1% — of tungs- 
tic oxide. 

The ore concentrated at the mill for the past years has 
averaged nearly 3 per cent WO,, and $4.00 in gold per ton. 
The gold values recovered have been sufficient to pay most 
of the costs of mining and milling. 

(Deposits of the Wasp No. 2 Mining Company.) The de- 
posits of tungsten on the property of the Wasp No. 2 Min- 
ing Company are in all essential respects similar to the de- 
posits at the Homestake, so that the above description may 
very well serve for both after a few minor differences have 
been noted. At the Wasp No, 2 a greater percentage of ore 
has been obtained from the basal quartzite member of the 
Deadwood Formation than at the Homestake. At the Wasp, 
basal quartzite is in places 20 feet thick and has proved ore 
bearing to an important extent. In this property rhyolite 
porphyry occurs in numerous dikes, sills, and irregular 
masses which have caused faulting in several places in the 
Deadwood Formation. The rhyolite occurs in intimate as- 

*U. S. G. S. Prof. Paper 26, page 167. 


sociation with the g9ld ores and to some extent with the 
tungsten ores. An interesting mineral ocurrence in connec- 
tion with the wolframite in the Wasp mine that has not been 
reported from the Homestake is that of stibnite in long radi- 
ating acicular crystals. Small amounts of malachite have al- 
so been found. An analysis of the ore by Hillebrand has 
been calculated to represent the following minerals: 

Per cent 

Wolframite (FeMn) WO, 51.58 

Quartz SiO, 9.60 

Scheelite CaWO, 27.68 

This analysis, as in the case of the Homestake ore given 
above, probably represents one containing more scheelite than 
the average. 

The total area over which wolframite has been found to 
occur is perhaps 12 to 14 acres. 

(Deposits of the Bismarck Mining Company.) On the 
property of the Bismarck Company lying adjacent to and 
north of the Wasp No. 2 Mine, wolframite deposits occur with 
gold ores as replacements in the lower dolomites and to some 
extent in the basal quartzite of the Deadwood Formation, as 
in the Wasp and Homestake. Numerous dikes and a 30 foot 
sill of rhyolite porphyry that has caused faulting in the ore 
beds, occur in association with the ores. The deposits have 
not produced more than a very small quantity of tungsten 
ore but ore is known to occur in places over an area of 6 or 8 

(Deposits at the Etta Mine.) At the time the author 
learned of the occurrence of tungsten in this mine he was 
unable to make a visit to the property on account of the 
deep snow. From descriptions furnished by various parties 
that have visited the property it would apear that the geolo- 
gic relations are very similar to those existing at the Wasp 
No. 2 and Bismarck. The property lies north-northwest of 
the latter at a distance of about % of a mile. Rhyolite por- 
phyry is said to occur in dikes and sills and to have caused 
considerable displacement of the lower beds of the Deadwood 
Formation probably along faults. Ores of gold as well as 
the tungsten ores occur in intimate association with the por- 


phyry. Specimens obtained from the property contain wol- 
framite in important quantities and appear similar in every 
respect to average samples from the Wasp, Bismarck and 

(Deposits at Deadwood) During the early days of 1916 
when tungsten ore was selling at record prices, an interest- 
ing discovery of its occurrence was made within the city of 
Deadwood in rocks that had been widely prospected for gold 
in years past. The ore had lain unnoticed for years although 
within plain view of everyone. The rock had been quarried 
for the foundations of several houses in the vicinity, and in 
that of a house which had burned, the author found numer- 
ous blocks that in sufficient quantities would prove valuable 
ore. One block, perhaps one cubic foot in volume, was esti- 
mated to carry 15 per cent WO... 

This occurrence lies directly above the town on the north 
upper slope of Deadwood gulch between City and Spring 
Creeks. The ore has been found in many places over a total 
area of perhaps 12 acres. The tungsten occurrences noted 
were in the basal quartzite of the Deadwood Formation which 
at this place is about 20 feet thick. The dolomite has been 
apparently eroded away from most of the area and the 
quartzite forms the surface capping of the upper valley slope, 
where it is exposed in numerous steep cliffs. To the north, 
pre-Cambrian garnetiferous schists and a quartzite, heavily 
impregnated with iron, locally known as the Great Iron Dike, 
appear at the surface. Farther north as well as in the south 
side of Deadwood Gulch at this place occurs a thick sill of 
rhyolite that probably once extended across the tungsten 
area above the ore horizon. 

The ore occurs in thin seams and in lenses of from 2 to 
6 inches in thickness and from a few inches to a few feet in 
length, as replacements in what probably were calcareous 
portions of the quartzite. In places elongated cavities occur, 
along the margins of which the tungsten mineral occurs in 
thin sheets, but no crystals were seen lining the cavities. The 
ore appears in all essential respects like the average ore from 
the Homestake. No ore masses noted were very large nor 
were there more than a few of them found at any one point, 


although large masses may well occur. Most of the ore ob- 
served was of low grade but a few boulders were found which 
contained important amounts, some perhaps upward of 15 
per cent WO.^. Very little development has been done in con- 
nection with the tungsten and the value and extent of the 
ores is purely problematical. 

(Deposits on The Denis Renault Claims.) The occurrence 
of tungsten on the property of Denis Renault on lower West 
Strawberry Creek are of especial interest because of their 
geological relationships and the light they may throw on the 
rhyolite as a source of the tungsten rather than for their 
known economic importance. Black tungsten mineral, prob- 
ably wolframite, occurs at two separate points. One occur- 
rence is on the west facing slope of West Strawberry Creek 
100 feet north and 50 feet above the Renault cabin. The 
tungsten is exposed in a small prospect hole of about 6 feet 
in diameter and of about the same depth, in a dike of rhy- 
olite porphyry. The dike trends in an east west direction and 
can be followed for several hundred feet along the valley^ 
slope. Its width is perhaps 50 feet. Cutting this dike near 
the tungsten occurrence, is what appeared to be a second 
dike of tinguaite porphyry. The extent of the latter and its 
exact relationships are unknown for at the time of the 
author's visit it was largely covered with snow. The rhyolite 
is a light gray rock with numerous phenocrysts of quartz 
from 1-16 to 1-4 inch in diameter with a dense ground mass 
of quartz and orthoclase. 

The wolframite occurs apparently intergrown with the 
quartz and feldspar of the rhyolite; in small bladed crystals 
filling thin seams in the rock; and in druses with quartz 
crystals, lining small open cavities. In the latter the crystals 
of wolframite are very small and thin resembling minute axe 
blades probably in no case exceeding the length of V;! inch. 
In some cases the open spaces strongly resemble mairolitic 
cavities while in some cases the connection of the cavities 
with the small veinlets seems to favor their origin as a result 
of solution along cracks in the fractured rock. Had, however, 
the crystals of wolframite found intergrown with the quartz 
and feldspar, been introduced by replacement after the rhy- 


olite had solidified it would seem that the solutions in which 
the tungsten was carried should have affected the rock in 
the vicinity of these crystals to some extent. The rhyolite 
in contact with th^ tungsten appears in no way different 
from that found at a distance from it. It seems more likely 
then, that the wolframite was a part of the rhyolite magma 
and that some of it was crystallized with the quartz and 
feldspar and some at a later period of crystallization, in 
spaces formed by shrinkage of the rock on solidification. 
More data are needed before this important problem can be 
conclusively settled. A photographic reproduction of a speci- 
men illustrating this type of occurrence may be seen in plate. 
IV B. 

About 20 feet below the wolframite occurrence the dike 
lias been opened up by means of a tunnel for a distance of 
over 30 feet. While no tungsten occurs at this point the 
rhyolite contains a considerable amount of pyrite and sphaler- 
ite, in small grains intergrown with the other rock constitu- 
ents, and in thin veinlets sphalerite and calcite occur. The rock 
in both exposures is said to be gold bearing, in fact the dis- 
covery of the .tungsten was made while the rock was being 
prospected for gold. Zinc ore is being sought in the lower 
tunnel. The places of occurrence of the tungsten and of the 
sphalerite and pyrite are both below the basal Cambrian beds 
at this point. 

The second occurrence of tungsten on this property lies 
about 100 feet above and 500 feet north of the one described. 
At this place a dike of rhyolite has penetrated the pre-Cam- 
brian schists. Along the contact a breccia has been develop- 
ed composed of schist fragments bound together apparently 
by infiltered rhyolite. The breccia grades on one side into 
rhyolite inclosing schist fragments and on the other into 
schist penetrated by minute veinlets of porphyry. At the 
contact of the rhyolite is very dense and contains minute 
crystals of pyrite. The wolframite occurs in small bladed 
crystals in thin seams in the rhyolite and with quartz crys- 
tals lining small irregular cavities in the breccia. Here again 
gold is said to occur in association with the tungsten. 

A tunnel has been run in parallel to the contact for a dis- 


tance of about 30 feet, along which the tungsten occurs for 
the entire distance. The total amount of development on the 
property is so small that no estimates are possible as to the 
extent or grade of the ore. In neither occurrence is there 
any indication of a tungsten ore body of any considerable 
magnitude and all the samples obtained were of low grade. 

(Deposits on Upper Two Bit Creek.) On a branch of upper 
Two Bit Creek lying parallel to and about one half mile west 
of the Galena-Deadwood road, tungsten has been found at two 
distinct but closely contiguous points. The northernmost of 
the two occurrences is of historic interest inasmuch as it is 
said to be the first known tungsten occurrence in the North- 
ern Hills. In the early eighties, specimens of hubnerite are 
reported to have been collected and recognized as a tungsten 
mineral. The property at that time was known as the Com- 
stock mine. It is now the property of Mr. S. R. Smith. The 
tungsten ore has been obtained from a tunnel on the east side 
of the valley a few feet above the creek level. 

So much of the bed rock in the vicinity is covered with 
soil and so small an amount of ore was exposed in the tunnel 
that it is difficult to give an adequate description of the 
geological relations. The ore occurs in what is apparently 
the lower part of the dolomite, near the base of the Deadwood 
Formation. Above the tungsten bearing formation, the dolo- 
mite is highly siliceous and in places highly impregnated with 
pyrite. Much of the dolomite rock is porous and vugs fre- 
quently occur lined with well developed quartz crystals. 
Shales overlie the dolomite rock, and above them, higher up 
the valley side, with a covered area intervening, occurs a 
thick sill of rhyolite porphyry. It appears more likely that the 
tungsten occurs in solution cavities in the dolomite than that 
it has intimately replaced the dolomite or that it occurs in a 
true vein. However, some of the ore has the appearance of a 
vein deposit. The hubnerite occurs chiefly in irregular 
masses of various sizes of closely aggregated, divergent 
groups of bladed crystals, here and there interspersed with 
masses and crystals of glassy quartz. The mineral evidently 
was precipitated in open spaces, for crystal aggregates fre- 
quently occur that have grown unhindered to lengths of 3 or 


4 inches (see plate IV A), Many drusy surfaces are to be 
found covered with quartz crystals, A considerable amount 
of the ore has been oxidized and earthy manganese dioxide 
occurs in considerable quantities. Manganite was observed in 
mats of beautiful steel gray, wire like aggregates, also a num- 
ber of exceedingly perfect pseudomorphs of manganese di- 
oxide after dolomite rhombohedrons, as large as one inch 
across the face. An analysis of the tungsten mineral by M. 
L. Hartmann shows it to be composed of 96.8% MnWO^ and 
3.2% FeWO^ and an analysis by Headden* of a sample from 
the same mine was calculated by Hess and Schaller to con- 
tain 94 per cent MnWO^ and 6 per cent FeWO^. The mineral 
is therefore to be classed as hubernite. 

So far as was noted the tungsten occurred only in the 
floor of the tunnel and no good exposures of it were seen in 
place so that little idea was gained of its total extent. Speci- 
mens obtained, and most of the ore sacked in the mine, were 
of very high grade. One specimen weighing perhaps 40 
pounds was estimated to contain perhaps 40% WO^. About 
1600 pounds of high grade hand picked ore were mined and 
marketed in 1916. 

The southernmost of the occurrences on upper Two Bit 
Creek lies on the west side of the valley about 200 yards 
south of the Smith property. This claim is the property of 
Mr. Martin Bresnahan. 

At this point the vertical pre-Cambrian schists are ex- 
posed in a small cut overalin by about 10 feet of the based 
quartzite of the Deadwood Formation. Upon the quartzite 
lies silicified dolomite perhaps three feet in thickness and 
upon it a sill of intrusive rhyolite the thickness of which was 
undetermined because of cover. About 30 feet above the 
lower dolomite are numerous angular boulders of mineralized 
dolomite in the soil, that are very probably derived from rock 
in place at this immediate point. If so dolomite lies above the 
porphyry sill. Farther up the valley side another sill of por- 
phyry of unknown extent is exposed. 

The rhyolite porphyry is a dense grayish white rock with 

♦Proceedings of Colorado Scientific Society, Vol. VIII, page 175. 


IMate X A. 


Plate X B, 

HOMESTAKE Tl \<;STE\ ^IIM,, l,E.\l). S. I>. 

Plate XI A. 


Plate A I n. 

loi.KiioHN 11 \(;sri:\ co.-s pi.w 

a fine grained ground mass of quartz, orthoclase and a little 
alkali plagioclase containing phenocrysts of orthoclase and 
quartz. Under the microscope titanite was seen to occur but 
no ferro-magnesian minerals were noted. In various sections 
minute black specks, possibly wolframite, occur. Specimens 
of the silicified dolomite taken from near the porphyry con- 
tact and viewed under the microscope show a high percent- 
age of quartz, a considerable amount of which occurs in clear- 
ly defined rhombohedrons as pseudomorphs after dolomite. A 
few^ minute bladed crystals of dark green, slightly pleochroic 
amphibole were detected in one section. 

The tungsten occurs chiefly in the dolomite both above 
and below the porphyry sill in well formed bladed crystals 
intergrown with quartz, also in crystals with quartz lining 
open cavities and to some extent apparently as replacements 
of the dolomite. A lesser amount occurs in minute bladed 
crystals in thin seams in the quartzite. From the porous na- 
ture of the ore, the well formed crystals of hubnerite and 
quartz, and from the high percentage of clear vein quartz 
in the ores it appears that the minerals have grown freely in 
open spaces of considerable size. Whether or not the ores 
follow a vein system could not be determined as only a small 
amount of the ore was exposed in place. It is highly more 
probable however that it has been formed largely in solution 
cavities in the dolomite. The richest specimens and the most 
persistent mineralization were found at or very near the con- 
tact of rhyolite and dolomite. No tungsten was positively 
identified in the rhyolite although well formed crystals of hu- 
bernite were found coating surfaces of the igneous rock at 
the lower surface. The occurrence above the rhyolite were 
not found in place but the large number of angular fragments 
of considerable size, their uniformity, the lack of rock frag- 
ments of other kinds in more than very small quantities and 
the depth (3 feet or more) at which they were found in the 
soil points strongly to the occurrence of the ores in place 
above the porphyry. 

No analyses of the tungsten mineral were made but 
from its similarity to the hubnerite found 200 yards down 
the gulch it is believed to be the same mineral. Slender blad- 


ed crystals of hubnerite from 2 to 3 inches in length, inter- 
grown with quartz crystals, occur in places in radiating and 
interpenetrating groups. Crystals Y) inch in length extend- 
ing inward from what were the sides of elongated cavities, 
but which now are filled with quartz, are common. Within 
solid masses of quartz many crystals occur lying in various 
positions. One surface was found from which tabular wedge 
shaped crystals in parallel growth V4. inch thick, one half inch 
wide and fully one inch in length, had grown. The hubnerite 
is a dark brownish black and shows brilliant metallic cleavage 
faces. Where weathered, it is frequently dull black or brown 
with oxides of manganese or iron. A considerable amount of 
manganese dioxide is found coating rock surfaces. No scheel- 
ite or tungstite were observed. The dolomites are said to be 
gold bearing at this place. 

The development work on the property is small, consist- 
ing of three small prospect cuts, one of which has not even 
pentrated rock in place. From the meagre data it is im- 
possible to say anything definite regarding the likelihood of 
a profitable ore body. The ore samples obtained were of a 
good grade and if found in sufficient quantities could doubt- 
less be mined at a profit. 

(Origin of the Tungsten Deposits of the Lead-Deadwood 
Area.) In a paper presented before The American Institute of 
Mining Engineers in 1901 J. D. Irving* describes the tungsten 
deposits at Lead now belonging to the Homestake Company, 
and the deposits of the Wasp No. 2 Company on Yellow 
Creek, and said regarding their origin: 

"That they are formed through the gradual replacement 
of the country rock by wolframite seems to the writer to be 
clearly indicated by the character of the ore, the nature of the 
beds in which it is found, and the metasomatic origin of the 
ores with which it is inseparably connected. First, the wol- 
framite itself is filled with cavities of irregular form and dis- 
tribution such as are almost always to be observed in ores 
formed by replacements where the aggregate volume of the 

^Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. 31, 1901, pp. 694-695. 


mineral introduced is smaller than that of the original rock ; 
secondly, the beds in which the ore occurs are composed 
chiefly of magnesian limestone, often quite impure, it is true, 
but of a prevailingly soluble character; thirdly, wolframite is 
an integral part of shoots of siliceous gold-ore, the metaso- 
matic origin of which has been conclusively proved by care- 
ful microscopic study. 

As regards the source from which the tungsten minerals 
have been derived, no positive conclusions can be formed ; but 
the relation of the deposits to the geology and to the other 
ore bodies of the neighborhood seems to furnish some evi- 
dence as to their derivation. They are found at two rather 
widely separated localities on the west side of the outcrop of 
the Homestake ore-body. Along this line there has taken 
place, first, the heavy mineralization of the Algonkian rocks, 
which has produced that well known ore-body; secondly, the 
mineralization of the Cambrian above resulting in the forma- 
tion of siliceous gold ores, which are richer and contain a 
more varied assortment of secondary character than ores of a 
similar character away from the Homestake lode; and, third- 
ly, the formation of the wolframite-ores themselves. It 
seems, then, that the line of strike of the Homestake lode is 
also a line along which mineralization has been both varied 
and unusually intense. During this extensive mineralization, 
the circulation of waters capable of dissolving the metallic 
contents of the surrounding rocks must have been active. 
That these waters were, in the case of the siliceous ores, and 
hence in the case of the wolframite, ascending waters is prov- 
ed by the concentration of these deposits beneath impervious 
beds. It is therefore not unreasonable to suppose that if 
wolframite occurred in the Algonkian rocks at some point be- 
low the deposits now worked, just as it occurs in its normal 
relations at other points within the Hills, the action of ascend- 
ing thermal waters upon this material should have given rise 
to the mineral bearing solutions which carried the wolframite 
up to its present position, and, there encountering rock suffi- 
ciently soluble to admit of metasomatic interchange, should 
have redeposited their metallic contents." 

Regarding the source of wolframite in the siliceous gold 


ores of the northern Black Hills Irving* in 1903 said in part : 

"Wolframite occurs in considerable quantities in rocks of 
the Algonkian associated with tin deposits, both in Nigger 
Hill and in the Southern Hills. Its occurrence suggests that 
similar deposits and bodies of eruptive granite may exist be- 
low the schist in the vicinity of the tungsten deposits near 
Lead and if so they may readily be supposed to have sup- 
plied this mineral to ascending thermal waters. It is, of 
course, possible that tungsten is present in the eruptive rocks, 
but if so, it is yet undetected. In the light of the evidence 
of the direction of flow of mineral solutions no such assump- 
tion is essential." 

In 1909 Hess** described the then known occurrences of 
tungsten in the Black Hills and after presenting Irving's 
theory of the origin of the Northern Hills ores, says regard- 
ing the relation of the deposits of the Harney Peak and Lead 
areas : 

"To the present writer it seems more likely that the 
ores of the two areas are more closely related genetically, 
than this hypothesis allows. It has been shown that in the 
Southern Hills wolframite occurs with ordinary pegmatites 
and with the later phases of such dikes that are seen in 
quartz veins. In the Lead region there are many rhyolite 
dikes, closely related in composition to the pegmatite dikes 
farther south. It is probable that either from them or from 
other intrusions closely related to a granitic magma watery 
solutions separated, holding a more tenuous solution than 
that which made the quartz veins of the Hill City and Key- 
stone region, so that veins were not formed, but instead solu- 
ble carbonates were removed and replaced by quartz, wol- 
framite, scheelite, pyrite, gold, and other minerals held in 

That Irving's theory of the source of the tungsten has 
much in its favor is evidenced by the data he presents and 
further by the fact that pre-Cambrian granite is now known 
to occur in the Northern Hills on the west flank of White- 
wood Peak. The author has presented other evidences of its 

*U. S. Geol. Survey, Professional Paper, No. 26, page 158. 
**U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 380, page 


presence below the Lead area in a portion of the previous 
chapter deahng with the pre-Cambrian. The presence of 
tungsten in the Etta Mine southwest of Kirk, was unknown 
to Irving. This discovery adds one more occurrence to those 
he mentions along the line of mineralization parallel and ad- 
jacent to the Homestake ore body. And if, as Sidney Paige 
believes, this is the line of a fault along which solutions 
traveled, the idea would seem to have gained further 
strength. This theory then, must receive serious considera- 
tion until other evidence of a positive nature is presented for 
the origin of the ores from some other source. 

The theory presented by Hess that the rhyolites are 
probably the source of the tungsten is apparently based on 
the fact that "in the Lead region there are many rhyolite 
dikes closely related in composition to the pegmatite dikes 
farther south." This is good enough for the rhyolites as a 
possible source of the tungsten, since acidic magmas are pre- 
dominantly the parents of tungsten ores but it is not evidence 
that they furnish the ores in this region. 

The occurrence of the tungsten at Deadwood, on Two Bit 
Creek and on west Strawberry Creek are, of course, not re- 
lated to the line of mineralization of the Homestake ore body. 
A line drawn between no two of these occurrences is parallel 
to either the strike of the pre-Cambrian schists nor does it 
coincide with any known line of mineralization. The direction 
of strike of the pre-Cambrian rocks in all three of these lo- 
calities is north-northeast. The "Great Iron Dike" in the 
pre-Cambrian that outcrops just north of the Deadwood 
tungsten area can be easily traced to a point just south of 
Lead where it meets a northwest striking series of quartzites 
that lie just west of the Homestake ore body. 

Sills and dikes of rhyolite are in intimate association 
with the tungsten ores in the Etta, Bismarck, Wasp No. 2, 
Henault, and Breshnahan and Smith properties. The evi- 
dence is good that rhyolite sills once extended over the 
Homestake and Deadwood areas of tungsten and is certainly 
now to be found near by. Mineralization of the dolomites 
has occurred in contact with the rhyolite sills in the Bresna- 
han claim and tungsten mineral ther^ occurs at the immediate 


lower surface of the rhyolite and probably very near to its 
upper surface. Tungsten minerals occur in cavities in the 
rhyolite and almost certainly also were crystallized with the 
feldspar and quartz of this rock on the Henault prop- 
erty. A considerable number of cases of gold ore associated 
with pyrite are known in the rhyolites. From these evidences 
it seems highly probable to the author that it was from the 
rhyolites or as Hess suggests "from other intrusions closely 
related to the granitic magma" that the solutions bearing the 
tungsten emanated. It appears significant that outside the 
areas of acid intrusives no tungsten is known to occur in the 
Northern Hills. 

In regard to the age of mineralization Irving* says : 
"Mineralization along fractures that are cut by eruptives 
has always exercised an influence on the porphyry either by 
producing a slight silicification at the point of contact or by 
the extension of the more powerful of the mineralizers, like 
fluorite, beyond the ore into the minute crevices of the 
eruptive rock. Eruptives have never been observed to con- 
tain angular fragments of ore, which would probably have 
been the case had magmas broken through such an extremely 
brittle material. These conditions have been observed to hold 
good for all of the varieties of eruptive rock. The minerali- 
zation is, therefore, later than the igneous activity." 

Admitting this, it would seem then, that except in the 
one case where tungsten minerals evidently crystallized with 
the magma and possibly where the tungsten formed at the 
contact of the rhyolite and dolomite, the portions of the rhyo- 
lite that were intruded into the ore bearing rocks were not 
necessarily the sources of the ore. The igneous rocks that 
reached into the Deadwood and overlying formations may 
have been the first to crystallize, or, to state it in other 
terms, they may have been the first diff'erentiation products 
of the parent magma. As is the rule in a great majority of 
cases in the Harney Peak and other areas, among the most 
soluble materials of the magma are the silica and tungsten. 
The differentiation may have taken place at a considerable 

= U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper No. 26, page 154. 


depth below the present surface and in larger bodies of the 
magma than appear in the dikes and sills intruded into the 
Deadwood and overlying formations. As the less soluble ma- 
terial separated out, the silica, wolframite, gold, pyrite, a 
little fluorite, and some other materials remained in a liquid 
form. These it is thought, followed upward in aqueous solu- 
tions through crevices opened up by the earlier invasions of 
magma and were precipitated in the easily replaceable dolo- 
mites. The evidence that the ores are replacements, as Irving 
points out, is indisputable. The supposed fault at the western 
border of the Homestake ore body may have been a con- 
venient avenue along which solutions might travel and have 
caused the localization of a number of deposits. 

Scheelite occurs in cavities crystallized upon the wol- 
framite, and interstitially with the wolframite in some of the 
ores of the Homestake and Wasp No. 2. If some of this 
scheelite is secondary, as is believed to be the case, it prob- 
ably has been dissolved, at least in part, from ores lying 
above and precipitated in its present position. In so far as 
this is true the ores containing secondary scheelite may be 
regarded as having been secondarily inriched. The extent to 
which this action has taken place is unknown, but probably 

If the porphyries are the source of the tungsten they 
are probably also the source of the gold, for gold occurs in 
considerable quantities in several of the tungsten deposits 
and is said to occur at least in small quantities in all of the 




Concentration of the Ores 

Up to the year 1915 practically all of the Black Hills 
tungsten ore sold, was marketed in the form of hand picked 
ore. Since that time by far the greater part of the product 
has been concentrated. Inasmuch as the degree of success 
of the milling operation has contributed in no small way to 
the profitableness of the industry it seems advisable to de- 
scribe briefly the methods employed by the two principal 

At the Homestake tungsten mill, during 1917, 254 tons 
of concentrates of various grades were produced from ap- 
proximately 7200 tons of ore, that averaged from 29© to 31/2 
per cent WO,. The percentage of tungsten recovered ap- 
proximated 73f/r. In addition to its tungsten content the ore 
carried on the average between $4.00 and $5.00 per ton in 
gold, which when extracted was sufficient to pay for the 
treatment of the ore. 

The ore is delivered to the mill in ore wagons, teamed 
from the mine some distance away. At the mill it is dumped 
into bins, from which it passes to a 5K gyratory crusher. 
The discharge from the crusher is carried by means of a 
belt conveyor to the battery bin. 

5 900-pound stamps and 2 small ball-mills complete the 
crushing and fine grinding equipment. The stamps, similar to 
those in the company's gold mill, have a crushing capacity of 
approximately 20 tons per 24 hours. These crush the ore to 
pass a screen — 2 mesh by 12, giving opening 0.023 by 
0.052 inches. The pulp from the battery on passing through 
the screen flows over a 4-foot amalgamation plate, to recover 
any free gold present in the ore. 

The concentrating equipment consists of one Wilfley 
sand table and three Deister sliming tables. The discharge 
from the plates passes to a classifying cone, from which 

the coarse product is sent direct to the Wilfley table. The 
following products are made by the Wilfley; (1) a 70'y WO., 
concentrate, (2) a bO^/c WO., concentrate, (3) middlings and 
(4) tailings. The middlings are sent to two small ball-mills 
for regrinding. 

The overflow from the classifying cone is treated in two 
dewatering cones, and the thickened product is treated on the 
first Deister Slimer, where a 60% WO, concentrate, middlings 
and tailings are produced. The middlings together with the 
reground product from the ball-mills are treated on the two 
remaining Deister tables. These last tables make a 35% WO3 
concentrate, a middling and a tailing product. The middling 
product is then returned to the ball-mills. 

The tailings from all the tables are sent to the com- 
pany's gold mill where it joins the gold ore tailings and passes 
with them over amalgamation plates, through the regrind 
plant, cyanide plant, etc., effecting thereby the recovery of a 
large per cent of the remaining gold. 

The four grades of concentrates, produced in the tungs- 
ten mill are separately dried on steam driers and sacked for 

For the milling practice at the Wasp No. 2 mine the 
author quotes from an article by Supt. Ed. Manion:* 

"The ore after being mined is taken to the ore house 
and there sorted and cobbed. It is then crushed to about one 
half inch and sampled and then sold to the highest bidder. .." 

"We have recently constructed a concentrating plant to 
treat our low grade ores. This ore is crushed to one-eighth 
inch mesh by rolls and from there through a trommel screen, 
sixteen mesh. The oversize goes to the jig and from there 
to a small set of rolls, returning to the trommel screen. The 
through product from the screens goes to a cone classifier 
from which the agitated slimes go to canvas tables and the 
sands to Wilfley tables. The sand from the Wilfleys goes to 
a 4x5 ball-mill, discharging into an 8 inch elevator which 
elevates and returns the reground sand to the classifier. The 
slimes go from the classifier to nine 4x60 feet canvas tables 

♦Pahasapa Quarterly. February, 1916. 


which catch the concentrates, the slimes passing through a 
launder at the end of the tables and from there to an eight- 
inch elevator which deposits the treated slimes into a 420-ton 
tank as tails. Here the tails which carry high . in gold are 
treated by cyanide. 

"We are making three grades of concentrates, the first 
grade about 65% WO,, the second grade about 45% WO3, 
and the third, which are slimes from the canvas tables, run 
about 35% WO3." ' 

The old mill of the Harney Peak Tin Company at Hill 
City was used in 1916 and 1917 by the Hill City Producer's 
Company to concentrate both tin and tungsten ores. Other 
mills in the Southern Hills that have concentrated small 
amounts of ore are those of the American Tungsten Com- 
pany and the Elkhorn Tungsten Company near Hill City. All 
of these mills contain standard types of crushing, fine grad- 
ing and concentrating machinery. None of them are oper- 
ating at the present time. 

Statistics of Production 

During the past three and one half years, January 1915 
to June 1918 inclusive, the total value of tungsten ore pro- 
duced in the Northern Black Hills has exceeded one million 
dollars. During the same period the Southern Hills have pro- 
duced ores, the value of which probably did not exceed 

In these days of high prices and increased production 
one is inclined to concentrate attention upon the fields with 
outputs of first rank and forget the conditions existing in 
the same fields before the war, and to overlook the fields of 
lesser importance. In this regard some interesting facts may 
be learned by a comparison of the average value of the annual 
production of the Boulder County, Colorado district, for the 
ten pre-war years, 1904-1914 inch, and the value of the Black 
Hills ores produced in the past three years. During the ten 
year period mentioned, the average value of the annual pro- 
duction of the Boulder field was $345,000, and the industry 
was regarded as a very profitable one except for the year 
1908. Now when we consider that the 1915 production in 


the Black Hills was practically all obtained during the latter 
half of that year, the production can be figured as amount- 
ing to approximately $335,000 per year, for the three year 
period ending July 1st, 1918. This $335,000 per year un- 
doubtedly furnished a much higher percentage of profit to 
the producer, than did the $345,000 of the Boulder deposits, 
for, enough gold was recovered from the Black Hills ores 
nearly, if not fully, to pay costs of mining and milling, not to 
mention the probability that the tonnage of ore treated in 
the Black Hills was considerably less. 

Estimating the Homestake production for the first half 
of 1918 at the same rate that was maintained throughout 
1917 and the first four months of 1918, this company will 
have produced by July 1st 1918 tungsten ore to a value of 
nearly $750,000.00. The total production of the Wasp No. 2 
company has exceeded a value of $265,000.00. The amount 
of production of the Hidden Fortune Company, former own- 
ers of the Homestake tungsten property, probably did not ex- 
ceed 150 tons of high grade ore and concentrate. The Smith 
and Bresnahan properties have produced a few hundred 

In the Southern Hills the Black Hills Tungsten Com- 
pany and the Hill City Tungsten Producer's Company have 
probably furnished the majority of the output, which is very 
small. From practically all of the claims in the Hill City dis- 
trict, described in this bulletin a few hundred pounds of ore 
have been obtained. The great majority of these properties 
are in the prospect rather than in the producing stage of 
their history. 

The following table is believed accurate for the larger 
productions but may be somewhat in error for the smaller 


Prior to 1915 

Cone, or 
Producer — High Grd. Value 

Homestake *§150 tons $ 

Wasp No. 2 25 tons 

Black Hills Tungsten Co. 

Miscellaneous -.. §125 tons 

Total - §300 tons §$ 25,000 


Cone, or 
Producer — High Grd. Value 

Homestake 25 tons $ 31,331 

Wasp No. 2 187 tons 147,730 

Black Hills Tungsten Co. 

Miscellaneous .-.. 1 ton 1,425 

Total 213 tons $180,486 


Cone, or 

Producer — High Grd. Value 

Homestake 250 tons $281,982 

Wasp No. 2 36 tons 97,869 

Black Hills Tungsten Co 5 tons 10,000 

Miscellaneous 2 tons 2,000 

Total ; 293 tons $391,851 


Cone, or 
Producer — High Grd. Value 

Homestake 254 tons $299,447 

Wasp No. 2 12 tons 19,561 

Black Hills Tungsten Co. 

Miscellaneous 1 tons 1,000 

Total 26 7 tons $319,00 8 

1918 to July 1st. 

Cone, or 
Producer — High Grd. Value 

Homestake §125 tons §$135,000 

Wasp No. 2 

Black Hills Tungsten Co 


Total 125 tons $135,000 

*Includes production of Hidden Fortune Co. prior to 1915. 


At the present time the production from the Homestake 
deposits is being maintained at the rate of about 25 tons of 
concentrates of all grades per month, and bids fair to main- 
tain this rate for some time to come. The Bismarck mine 
has recently been leased by Mr. Ed Manion, the former oper- 
ator of the Wasp No. 2 mine. It is the intention to concen- 
trate the tungsten ores and to cyanide the tailings for gold, 
as is being done at Homestake and as was done at the Wasp 
No. 2. It is possible that the operation of the Bismarck may 
cause the production of tungsten in the Black Hills to in- 
crease in the year 1918. 

As to future production, it appeals to the author that 
there is good reason for believing that the present output 
may be maintained for a considerable number of years and 
even, that it might be increased. Resumption of normal 
conditions may see the Wasp No. 2 again producing, the 
Homestake and Bismarck continuing, and a number of pros- 
pects opened up. 

If, as is believed to be the case, the rhyolites are the 
source of the tungsten, it would seem more than likely that 
new discoveries may be made within the areas in which they 
occur. It seems entirely possible that tungsten ores might be 
found in the Pahasapa limestone as is the case with gold, 
silver, and lead ores. Perhaps scheelite is more likely to form 
in the Pahasapa limestone and might remain undetected for a 
long time, on account of its light color. 

In the Southern Hills good ores occur in quite a number 
of the prospects. The important question regarding their 
value is the extent of the deposits. As was stated in the 
chapter in which these deposits were described ore bodies of 
this type are characteristically "bunchy," and likely to ter- 
minate suddenly, but certainly valuable deposits of precise- 
ly this type occur in many parts of the world, and it seems 
entirely possible that out of the many well known occurren- 
ces one or more may prove profitable. It would be a rash as- 
sertion to say that the present amount of development has 
either proved or disproved the existence of a deposit of con- 
siderable magnitude in this region. 










The element tungsten has probably had more names than 
any other element. In literature it has been designated by 
the words "wolfram", "woolfram", "wolframium", "wolferan", 
"wolfart", "wolfort", "wolfrig", ''scheelium", "tungsteen", 
and "tungsten". Even today the metal is called by the names 
wolfram and tungsten, altho the latter is preferred. 

The minerals of tungsten, especially those associated 
with tin ores, were known many years before the element nad 
been discovered. The Cornish tin miners knew wolframite as an 
"obnoxious" ore because "it eats up the tin as the wolf eats 
up the sheep." (A. Gurlt, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. 22, 
236, 1893.) The minerals were also known in the tin mines 
of Saxony and Bohemia. The Germans named it "wolfert", 
"wolfart" or "wolfrig", from which the present name of the 
mineral is derived. 

The name "tungsten" is of Swedish origin, meaning 
"heavy stone". It was originally applied to calcium tungstate 
(our scheelite), on account of its high specific gravity. 

The discovery of the metal has been claimed for both 
Scheele, the famous Swedish chemist, and for the Spanish 
d'Elhuyar brothers. Scheele undoubtedly first discovered (in 
1781) that the mineral then known as "tungstein" (scheelite) 
contained a new element. According to the published ac- 
counts, the d'Elhuyar brothers were the first to isolate the 
metal. However there is good evidence to show that the work 
of these Spanish chemists was along lines laid down by 
Scheele, for they undoubtedly worked under the direction of 
Scheele and Bergan for several years. In fact they made no 
claim in the published account of being the discoverers of the 
metal, which indicates further that Scheele had probably al- 
ready prepared the metal. They made the metal by reducing 

the oxide with carbon. They also described some alloys of 
tungsten with gold, silver and lead. 

Tungsten was considered a rare element with no practi- 
cal use until about 1850, when some investigations were made 
to determine its commercial utilization, especially in steel al- 
loys. Some tungsten s.teel was made and used, but it was 
not until Hadfield, in 1903, reported the results of extensive 
tests of tungsten steel, that the industry developed to any 
great extent. 

The use of tungsten in metal filament lamps brought the 
element before the public, although the amount of tungsten 
used for this purpose is very small compared to the quantity 
used in alloy steel. The history of the development of the 
tungsten steel and the tungsten lamp industries will be dis- 
cussed more fully under those titles. 





Most of the tungsten used in the industries is made 
either in the form of tungsten powder or as an iron alloy con- 
taining a high percentage of tungsten (ferro-tungsten). In 
recent years about 90 per cent of the tungsten has been used 
as ferro-tungsten and 10 per cent as tungsten powder. 

Working details of the processes at present used for 
making tungsten powder and ferro-tungsten are not available 
in the literature, and much of the information is carefully 
guarded at the plants. It is therefore impossible to give a 
detailed account of the methods. However certain general 
facts are well known concerning the various operations. 

Decomposition of Wolframite 
Sodium Carbonate Fusion Method. The process of de- 
composing the ores most generally used in making tungsten 
metal and tungsten compounds is the sodium carbonate fusion 
method. This was patented in 1847 by Oxland and is still 
used with only slight changes. The ore or concentrate — 
usually wolframite (The term wolframite will be used here 
for iron-manganese tungstates) is finely pulverized and 
mixed with soda ash (sodium carbonate) and a small amount 
of sodium nitrate. The mixture is charged into reverberatory 
furnaces on a hearth of dolomite. After the mass is sintered 
(not fused) it is drawn out and crushed. In some plants it is 
sintered again, in order to make the extraction of tungsten 
more nearly complete. The sintered mass in either case is 
leached with hot water in filter tanks. The tungsten dissolves 
as sodium tungstate (Na.WO,) while the iron, calcium and 
most of the manganese remain insoluble. Some silicic acid 
and phosphoric acid also dissolve in the form of the complex 
silico-tungstates and phospho-tungstates. Some sodium man- 
ganate is formed in the presence of the nitrate during the 


fusion, and this also dissolves, but its presence is not objec- 
tionable in most cases. The manganese may be easily remov- 
ed at a later stage in the process. 

The silica and phosphorus are removed by converting the 
normal sodium tungstate into sodium para-tungstate. This is 
accomplished by adding to the boiling solution of the normal 
tungstate (Na^WOJ (which contains an excess of alkali car- 
bonate) enough hydrochloric acid to give a neutral solution. 
On cooling, large tri-clinic crystals of sodium para-tungstate 
(NajoWi.Oii28H.O) precipitate out. These crystals are known 
in commerce as "tungstate of sOda." The silico-tungstates 
and phosphotungstates of sodium are more soluble and remain 
in the mother liquor. To recover the tungstic acid remaining 
in the solution calcium carbonate is added, which gives a pre- 
cipitate of calcium tunstate. This precipitate can then 
be treated as scheelite by one of the methods described be- 

The para-tungstate can be transformed back into the nor- 
mal tungstate by the addition of sodium hydroxide solution. 
Tungstic acid can be obtained from the boiling solution by 
adding to it hydrochloric acid. It is important to pour the 
tungstate solution into the acid rather than the acid into the 
tungstate. In the latter case, there will be formed para-tung- 
state which is only decomposed into the free tungstic acid by 
long boiling with hydrocloric acid. The tungstic acid is sep- 
arated by filtration, washed, and ignited to tungsten trioxide 
(WO3) and is then ready for reduction to the metal. 

Soda Solution Method. The tungsten factory at Lutin, 
England (in 1915) decomposed the wolframite by boiling the 
finely ground ore with a solution of soda, whereby sodium 
tungstate is formed. The tungstic acid is precipitated by 
hydrochloric acid, and the oxide formed by ignition of the 
dried tungstic acid. (The only description of this process 
found in the the literature is in Mineral Industry 1915, page 

The Aqua Regia Method. The ore, if very finely ground, 
may be decomposed by boiling with nitric and hydrochloric 
acids (aqua regia) and evaporating to dryness. This gives 


insoluble tungstic acid (or the trioxide depending upon the 
temperature of drying) , and most of the impurities are in the 
form of insoluble salts, except silica, columbic, tantalic and 
metastannic acids. The soluble salts are washed out and the 
residue treated with ammonia, which dissolves all of the 
tungsten as ammonium tungstate and part of the columbium, 
tantalum and tin as ammonium columbate, tantalate and stan- 
nate. On concentrating the solution, ammonium tungstate 
crystals separate out and on igniting, are decomposed into 
ammonia and tungstic oxide. The small quantities of colum- 
bium and tantalum are usually not harmful, at least in metal- 
lurgical operations, but they may be removed if desired by 
treating the oxides with ammonium sulfide, which dissolves 
the tungsten but not the columbium and tantalum. The 
tungstic oxide is then recovered by making the sulfide solu- 
tion acid with hydrochloric acid and igniting the precipitated 
tungstic acid. 

Carbon-Tetrachloride Method. A process for the de- 
composition of tungsten ores by means of carbon tetrachloride 
was patented in 1914 by Jannasch and Leiste (German Pat. 
266,973). The ore is heated in a current of carbon tetra- 
chloride vapor and the tungsten chlorides distilling over ore 
decomposed by means of mineral acids. 

Bi-sulfate Method (especially for tin-bearing ores.) 
When tin is present in appreciable quantities, it must be re- 
moved because of the brittleness which it imparts to steel. If 
present in large quantities, it is of course valuable for itself^ 
and in this case it must be free from tungsten. Magnetic 
separation of the wolframite from the . cassiterite has been 
used quite successfully, but rarely gives a separation with, 
less than one per cent tin oxide with the wolframite. 

The tin bisulfate method (1233) described below has 
been successfully used for the decomposition of tin-bearing 
tungsten ores. 

The ore is decomposed in a mufi'le furnace, the hearth of 
which is made with silica agglomerated with pitch. Potas- 
sium acid sulfate is fused in the furnace with the doors clos- 
ed. After complete fusion, the finely ground ore is thrown in,, 
the mass stirred continually and the temperature gradually 


increased until the mass is fluid enough to run out of the 
furnace. After solidification, the fusion is ground up and 
treated with water which dissolves the soluble sulfates and 
phosphoric acid and leaves insoluble potassium acid tungs- 
tate as a white amorphous precipitate. The compound is in- 
soluble only in the presence of an excess of acid, so that about 
50 per cent excess of bisulfate over that theoretically re- 
quired, is used to decompose the ore. The insoluble portion 
contains besides the tungsten compound also silica, cassiterite 
and the insoluble sulfates. It is dried and treated with a 
warm solution containing ammonium carbonate, or with cold 
water into which is passed ammonia and carbon dioxide. Un- 
der these conditions, the potassium acid tungstate dissolves, 
leaving the silica, and cassiterite and the insoluble sulfates. 
The solution is evaporated to crystallization, which gives am- 
monium tungstate 5(NHJ.0.12WO.,.nH.O where "n" is from 
11 to 5 according to the temperature of evaporation. When 
heated in contact with air, the salt gives off ammonia and 
water leaving tungstic oxide. 

If a purer tungstic acid is required as for chemical uses, 
the ammoniacal solution is treated with hydrogen sulfide, to 
form ammonium sulfo-tungstate. This salt is only slightly 
soluble in cold water and deposits as orange red crystals. On 
heating, the trisulfide (WS3) is formed, which changes to the 
trioxide on roasting. 

If sodium bisulfate with an excess of sulfuric acid is used 
in place of the potassium salt, a solution of sodium acid 
tungstate is obtained. This solution contains the soluble sul- 
fates of the other metals present. These may be precipitated 
by electrolysis. The resulting solution is evaporated, the 
sodium sulfate separates and is removed. The tungstic acid 
is then precipitated by hydrochloric acid, and this on ignition 
gives the trioxide. This process was patented in Germany 
in 1902. (149,556). 

Decomposition of Scheelite 
Acid Method. Scheelite is easily decomposed by heating 
with concentrated hydrochloric acid or nitric acid giving cal- 
cium chloride or nitrate and tungstic acid. This, after wash- 


ing and heating, gives crude tungstic oxide. If a purer oxide 
is desired, the washed but not ignited precipitate, is dissolved 
in ammonia and ammonium carbonate solution. The ammon- 
ium tungstate may be crystallized out. Ignition of these 
crystals gives tungstic oxide. 

Alkali-Fluoride Method. (1233) Scheelite may be fused 
in a reverberatory furnace with potassium fluoride, produc- 
ing soluble potassium tungstate and insoluble calcium fluor- 
ide, which are easily separated. The solution of tungstate is 
then decomposed with hydrochloric acid, and the tungstic 
oxide obtained by ignition. 

Reduction of Tungstic Oxide to the Metal 
By Carbon in Crucibles. The yellow oxide of tungsten 
(WO.) can be reduced by heating with carbon or carbona- 
ceous materials in crucibles. Slightly less than the propor- 
tion of carbon (coke, anthracite coal or charcoal) theoreti- 
cally required for the reduction of the metal with the forma- 
tion of carbon monoxide, is intimately mixed with the powder- 
ed tungstic oxide. The crucibles are then covered and heated 
to high temperature, which causes the reduction to metallic 
tungsten. On account of the very high melting point of 
tungsten, the metal does not fuse but remains as a fine gray 
powder mixed with coarser crystals and some unreduced or 
partly reduced oxide. The coarse crystals are separated by 
washing out the fine particles which are added to the next 

By careful control of operations this process can be used 
quite successfully. A number of plants in the U. S. are using 
it, with possibly some modifications. High Speed Steel Alloys, 
Limited, at Widnes, the English company which was organ- 
ized to supply the English steel works with tungsten after the 
outbreak of the war, uses this method. The tungstic oxide 
powder, produced by the sodium carbonate fusion method, is 
ground with anthracite coal and charged into crucibles, which 
are then heated in coke and producer gas furnaces for 24 
hours. The crucibles are allowed to cool for 12 hours before 
opening in order to prevent oxidation. The product is a 
heavy chocolate colored powder, running about 98 V2 Per cent 


tungsten metal. This is claimed to be at least one per cent 
better than the tungsten powder supplied by German pro- 
ducers before the war (77). 

By Carbon in the Electric Furnace. The oxide can be re- 
duced directly in the electric furnace by means of carbon. 
This was the method used by Moissan (40) (46) (49). The 
metal is readily obtained in the melted form but Moissan 
found that it could be produced free from carbon if the heat 
was not allowed to actually melt it. According to Gin, fused 
tungsten containing not over two per cent carbon can be 
made in the electric furnace by using a little less carbon than 
is required for the production of carbon monoxide with the 
oxygen of the tungstic oxide. An intermediate electrode con- 
sisting of a trough filled with tungsten is used between the 
two main electrodes. There is formed at the contact of the 
fused slag of tungstic oxide with the metal an upper reduc- 
tion zone and a lower oxidation zone, which gives better 
purification. Considerable loss is caused by volatilization of 
the oxide of tungsten at the high temperature. This may be 
recovered in the flue dust along with any fine particles car- 
ried over mechanically by the gases. 

If the metal is produced in melted condition in the 
ordinary electric furnace, it can be decarburized by the 
methods given later, producing high grade ferro-tungsten. 

Reduction by Aluminum. Powdered aluminum easily 
reduces tungstic oxide. The method of Goldschmidt (53) is 
quite simple. An intimate mixture of the oxide and powdered 
aluminum is charged into a crucible, and ignited by a fuse 
of sodium or barium peroxide mixed with some aluminum 
powder. On account of the excess heat of formation of 
aluminum oxide over that of tungsten oxide, the aluminum 
takes the oxygen from the tungsten and liberates the free 
metal. A slight excess of tungsten oxide is used because 
otherwise some aluminum tungsten alloy forms and dissolves 
in the metallic tungsten and impairs its value for metallur- 
gical work. The slight excess of tungstic oxide forms an 
aluminum tungstate of unknown composition, which goes 
into the slag. 


A modification of the Goldschmidt aluminum reduction 
process has been made by Voigtlaender (French Patent, 
455,313 [1914] ). The mixture of tungstic oxide and alum- 
inum is brought to high temperature by external heat, so 
that after the reduction reaction, the temperature will be 
high enough to melt the tungsten produced. 

While the aluminum process is easy to carry out, its 
use is limited by the high cost of the aluminum. Theoreti- 
cally 184 parts by weight of tungsten require 54 parts of 
aluminum, and at the present price of aluminum, the carbon 
and electric furnace methods are very much cheaper. In ad- 
dition, the losses of tungsten in the slag are said to be ex- 

Reduction by Silicon Carbide. This process was patented 
by F. M. Becket in 1907. The process involves the reduction 
in two stages, the first by carbon and the second by silicon 
carbide. The first charge is heated in an electric furnace 
with carbon and reduced to a lower oxide. Silicon carbide 
is then added and complete reduction is effected. Metallic 
tungsten with low carbon content is thus obtained. (U. S. 
Pat. 858,329). 

Reduction by Boron and Silicon. Becket has also patent- 
ed a process for reducing tungstic oxide by means of metallic 
silicon and metallic boron in an electric furnace. The product 
is said to be very low in carbon. (U. S. Pat. 854,018 ; 930,027 ; 

Reduction by Zinc. Tungstic oxide can be reduced by 
heating with metallic zinc in an inert atmosphere. The ex- 
cess zinc is removed by volatilization and the zinc oxide dis- 
solved out with a solution of sodium hydroxide. The method 
is not used commercially. 

Reduction by Gases. Very pure tungsten powder can 
be produced by reducing the purified oxide by hydrogen, 
carbon monoxide, or other reducing gases. Hydrogen is con- 
sidered the best and this method is used for production of 
tungsten metal for electric lamp filaments. This process 
will be described in detail in the following section on the 
manufacture of ductile tungsten. 


Preparation of Ductile Tungsten. 

Until about 1909, tungsten was known and described 
as a hard, brittle metal which could not be mechanically 
worked into shape. In connection with the manufacture of 
the tungsten electric lamp filaments, search was made for a 
method of producing tungsten in a ductile form so that it 
could be drawn into wires. It was found that by properly 
heating and working, tungsten loses its crystalline character 
and can be drawn into the finest wires. 

For this purpose, a very pure tungsten powder must 
be produced. The tungstic oxide as made by any of the above 
described processes contains too many impurities from the 
ore, such as iron, manganese, silica, molybdenum, phosphorus, 
arsenic and sodium salts. Two methods of purification are 
used, either (1) the solution of the oxide in ammonia and 
the precipitation of tungstic oxide with hydrochloric acid, or 
(2) the solution of the oxide in ammonium and recrystalliza- 
tion and decomposition of ammonium paratungstate. Still 
greater purity can be obtained by using a combination of the 
two methods. 

The pure tungsten oxide then obtained is reduced usually 
by hydrogen. Carbon may be used, but the process is dif- 
ficult to control. The physical state of the powdered tung- 
sten produced is quite important as a factor in the ductiliza- 
tion of the metal. The powder must also be free from carbon 
or oxygen. 

The reduction by hydrogen is most generally used be- 
cause the process is easily controlled. Electric resistance 
tube furnaces are used for the reduction. The powdered 
oxide is placed in boats and the current of pure, dry hydrogen 
passed thru the tube at a regulated rate. The temperature is 
gradually brought up to about 1100" C. The rate of heating 
and the rate of hydrogen flow effect the properties of the 
reduced metal. If properly regulated, the product is a gray, 
amorphous powder. 

The dry tungsten powder, without a binder of any kind, 
is placed evenly in a heavy mould and pressed under very 
great pressure into a bar about 0.5x0.5x15 centimeters. This 
fragile bar is placed in an electric resistance furnace and 


heated to about 1300' C, which causes a slight sintering of 
the tungsten particles. 

The bar, which can now be handled without danger of 
breakage, is clamped between two water-cooled clamps, and a 
water-cooled cover is placed over it, • in order to main- 
tain an atmosphere of hydrogen around the bar. A 
heavy electric current is passed through the bar for 
a few minutes, which heats it almost to the melting 
point (3200- C). The bar is now thoroly sintered, 
but it is not ductile. The bar is next heated to 1500" in a 
resistance furnace thru which hydrogen is flowing. It is 
then rapidly transferred to the swaging machine, hammered 
a few times, reheated and swaged until a bar long enough 
to be fed thru the machine by rolls is obtained. After this it 
is drawn thru a gas furnace to heat it before going into the 
machine. The temperature is gradually decreased and when 
the diameter of the wire is about one millimeter (30 mils) 
the tungsten has become ductile at ordinary temperatures. 

From this size down to the fine wires used in tungsten 
lamp filaments, the wire is drawn thru diamond dies. At 
first the temperature is kept at about 600° C, gradually de- 
creasing as the wire becomes smaller. The steps between the 
dies are gradually decreased from one mil between thirty and 
fifteen mils, to one-twentieth mil decrease per step below fif- 
teen mils. Wire as small as .0004 inches in diameter has 
been drawn. This is about one seventh of the diameter of a 
human hair (.003 inch) and only about twice the diameter of 
a strand of spider's silk (.0002 inch). 

It has been found that a small amount of thorium oxide 
(less than 1 %) added to the tungsten oxide before reduction, 
causes the product to be much more ductile. This is prob- 
ably related in some way to the use of metallic thorium in 
tungsten filaments to prevent recrystallization. 

The effect of the thorium oxide in increasing the duc- 
tility of tungsten is not thoroly understood. According to the 
theory advanced by Jeffries and Fahrenwald, (327, 328, 329) 
from their studies of crystal growth in metals, the thorium 
oxide accumulates at the boundaries of the crystals of tung- 
sten during their formation, and prevents their growth. In 


most cases the presence of a foreign substance would produce 
weakness in the mass, but in the case of tungsten, the tho- 
rium oxide seems to be in such form that it not only prevents 
crystal growth, but also maintains the strength of the mass. 

The operation of hot forging also tends to reduce the 
size of the crystals, thus changing the brittle, coarsely crys- 
talline material to ductile, very finely crystallized tungsten. 

The ductile and malleable tungsten can be made into 
other forms by hot forging. Such articles cannot be shaped 
by machining when cold because of the hardness of the cold 
metal. Tungsten can be melted and cast into shape, but 
under these conditions it is very hard and brittle, and is 
limited in its applications. 

Manufacture of Ferro-Tungsten 

Ninety percent of the tungsten extracted from the ores 
goes into high tungsten alloys with iron, which are known as 
ferro-tungsten. The proportion of tungsten in these alloys 
varies from 50 to 85 percent. 

Ferro-tungsten before the War was produced almost en- 
tirely in Germany. Since then the number of ferro-tungsten 
plants in the U. S. and in England has increased greatly. 
"The Hudson Reduction Co. at Latrobe, Pa., operated in 1916 
33 electric furnaces for making the alloy and the metal. The 
Primos Chemical Co., greatly increased its capacity; the 
Chemical Products Co., completed a large reduction plant 
near Washington, designed particularly for the treatment of 
lower-grade concentrates; The Tungsten Products Company 
of Maryland began operating a new plant early in January 
1917 for making ferro-tungsten — using small electric fur- 
naces ; The Manhattan Reduction Co., also produced metal. 
In France there are important works, e. g. those of Girod^ 
Schneiders, Chamoux, Keller, and Leeux, and the Froges and 
Giffre works. In England, the Thermo-Electric Co., at Luton, 
the High-speed Steel alloys, Ltd., at Widnes, the Continuous 
Reaction Co., at Hyde, the British Thermit Co., at Yarston, 
and a number of others." (C. G. Fink, Mineral Industry 1916, 
p. 742). 


Production of Ferro-tungsten by Reduction With Carbon 
in Crucibles. One method which has been used to some 
extent for making ferro-tungsten is the reduction of tungsten 
ores by carbon in crucibles. The concentrated ore is placed 
in a clay-lined crucible, together with a suitable flux and 
coke or charcoal and the whole heated in a gas fired furnace, 
together with the correct proportion of iron or steel scrap. 
For a thirty percent tungsten alloy, the crucibles will last 
about three heats, but for a 65 to 75 percent product, they 
last but one heat. Most of the ferro-tungsten was made by 
reducing tungstic oxide and iron in crucibles up until the in- 
troduction of the electric furnace about 1900. This method 
is still used to a small extent. (275). 

Production of Ferro-tungsten by Alumino-thermic 
Method. Ferro-tungsten can be made by reduction of wolf- 
ramite, ferberite or scheelite with aluminum. Rossi (207) 
reduced ferberite with aluminum in a Sieman's type electric 
furnace, and obtained an alloy containing 75.9 percent tung- 
sten, 21.4 percent iron, 1.6 percent silicon, .08 percent sulfur 
and .9 percent carbon. 

The ores and tungsten trioxide may also be reduced by 
the use of aluminum as the reducing and heating agent, as in 
the regular "Thermite" reaction. The oxygen for the burn- 
ing of the aluminum is furnished by the oxides of the metals 
in the ore. The requisite amounts of tungstic oxide or con- 
centrates and aluminum powder are mixed in a magnesia 
crucible and ignited in the usual way by a fuse of sodium or 
barium peroxide and aluminum powder. The ferro-tungsten 
which is formed is almost free from carbon, but may contain 
aluminum, unless there is a slight excess of ore or tungsten 
oxide. The percentage of tungsten in the ferro-tungsten 
produced depends upon the amount of iron .present, either in 
the ore or as added hammer scales. The product will contain 
any other reducible metals such as copper, manganese etc. 
which may be present in the ore. 

Preparation of Ferro-tungsten by the Silico-thermic 
Method. Gin has produced ferro-tungsten by the reduction 
of scheelite or artificial calcium tungstate by 20 percent ferro- 
silicon, in an electric furnace, with two contiguous hearths in 


series, having ferro-silicon electrodes and an intermediate 
electrode of fused ferro-silicon. Upon the melted bath of 
ferro-silicon is placed scheelite, which melts, the silicon oxi- 
dizes at the expense of the tungstic oxide and forms a slag 
of calcium silicate, while the iron unites with the tungsten to 
form ferro-tungsten. A small amount of silicon goes into the 
alloys, (1233) 

Direct Reduction of Tungsten Ores in the Electric Fur- 
nace. The most common method for the production of ferro- 
tungsten is by the reduction of tungsten ore concentrates in 
the electric furnace with carbon as a reducing agent. This 
product usually contains more carbon than is desired for the 
manufacture of alloy steels, and must be decarburized (see 
below). Ferberite, wolframite and huebnerite are easily re- 
duced by this method, but scheelite is more difficult, because 
of sticky, basic slags. Manganese is either volatilized or goes 
into the slag. (275) 

The furnaces used are usually of the intermittent tilting 
type. The reduced charge is tapped from the furnace and 
cast in molds or allowed to solidify and then broken out of 
the furnace. (275) 

In experiments conducted by Keeney, (269) (275) a 
flux of lime and fluorspar was used with Colorado ferberite 
and iron ore. After the reduction reaction was complete a 
decarburizing slag of iron ore lime and fluorspar was added 
to the furnace and allowed to act for ten to twenty minutes. 
The percentage of carbon in this product was kept below 2 
percent, and the amounts of phosphorus, silicon, manganese, 
and sulfur which went into the ferro-tungsten were small. 
Four to eight percent tungsten was lost in the slags. 

Ferro-tungsten as made in the electric furnace, contains 
from 50 to 80 percent tungsten. One dealer in ferro-tung- 
sten guarantees his product to contain 72-78 percent tung- 
sten, and not over .07 percent sulfur, 0.06 percent phos- 
phorus, 1.0 percent carbon, .75 percent silicon. 

In 1912, it was reported (264) that the Ampere Company 
of Berlin was employing a process of reducing scheelite di- 
rectly from the ore in the electric furnace with sulfide of iron 
as flux and carbon as the reducing agent. Ferro-tungsten 


with low carbon content was produced. The silica contained 
in the scheelite was fluxed by the addition of lime. The slag 
was easily fusible. Further information concerning the pro- 
cess seems not to be available. 

Decarburization of Ferro-tungsten and Cast Tungsten. 
As stated above, the carbon content of ferro-tungsten must 
be kept as low as possible for the manufacture of alloy steels. 
As made by reduction with carbon, either in crucibles or 
directly in the electric furnace, both ferro-tungsten and me- 
tallic tungsten usually contain more than the desired quantity 
of carbon. The common practice seems to be to reduce the 
carbon content in the electric furnace after reduction has 
taken place, by means of a decarburizing slag as explained 

Tungsten metal produced by the carbon reduction in the 
electric furnaces may be high in carbon. The carbon content 
can be reduced by adding either tungstic trioxide, tungstic 
dioxide, hammer scale, or iron oxide. It is necessary in the 
case of tungsten metal to add metallic iron before decarburiz- 
ing. Using iron oxide, the carbon content can be reduced as 
low as 0.15 percent. (275) (278 [a]) 

The electric furnace with melted electrodes may also be 
used. The carburized tungsten is cast into electrodes which 
are used in the furnace with contiguous hearths, using a soft 
steel intermediate electrode. The bath above the metal is of 
tungsten dioxide and magnesium aluminate. The electrodes 
melt and their carbon is burned out by the tungsten dioxide. 
The resulting alloy will contain not more than 0.15 to 0.25 
percent carbon. The oxidation of the carbon by oxide of iron 
results is the formation of tungstate of iron which entails 
losses; the amount thus formed may be reduced by adding 
silica, in order to form ferrous silicate. (1233) 

(Dephosphorization of ferro-tungsten.) Ferro-tungsten 
can be dephosphorized by the method of Becket (U. S. Pat. 
1,081,569). The solid ferro-tungsten in finely divided form 
is fed onto the surface of molten basic oxidizing bath, for 
example of scheelite and lime, maintained at a temperature 
equal to or higher than the melting point of the ferro-tung- 


(Quality of ore demanded by users.) The following quo- 
tation from bulletin No. 652 of the United States Geological 
Survey "Tungsten Minerals and Deposits" by Frank L. Hess 
gives the results of his extensive inquiry into the quality of 
tungsten ores demanded by the consumers in the United 

Inquiries were addressed by the Geological Survey to firms known 
to be reducing tungsten ores, asking what, for their purposes, was 
the relative desirability of the tungsten ore minerals, the impurities 
most hurtful, and the limiting percentages of impurities that would 
be accepted. 

Eight firms courteously gave the desired information in con- 
.siderable detail, and another with less detail. 

Of these Arms, one reduces its ores by sodium carbonate (Na^ 
CO ), leaching with water separating tungsten trioxide by hydro- 
chloric acid, and reducing the trioxide to a metallic powder; two 
reduce the ores by other wet chemical processes; two use both the 
sodium carbonate fusion process and direct reduction in an electric 
furnace; two use an electric furnace only; one uses processes in 
-which the ores are first treated with wet chemicals and reduction is 
then completed in an electric furnace. Another firm, the Crucible 
Steel Company, has in use a number of processes, part of which are 
covered by the Johnson patents. 

By the sodium carbonate fusion process, only powdered metallic 
tungsten is obtained. One of the other wet chemical processes pro- 
duces powdered tungsten, and another makes powdered ferro tung- 
sten. The electric furnaces produce only ferro-tungsten. 

Most of the processes used for reducing tungsten from its ores 
also partly or wholly reduce nearly all the metallic and some other 
impurities in the ores, and these impurities are carried with the 
tungsten into the steel to which it is added. For such use iron makes 
no difference, but a number of other elements are not wanted, 
either because like copper and phosphorus, they are detrimental to 
the steel, or because, like manganese, if they are wished in the 
steel, they can be added more advantageously in some other way. 
Objectionable impurities found in tungsten ores are antimony, arse- 
nic, bismuth, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, tin, zinc, phosphorus and 
sulfur. Few of these occur in large quantity in ores found in this 
country. Copper is perhaps the commonest hurtful impurity, and there- 
fore most is said about it, but ores from some foreign countries con- 
tain nearly all the impurities mentioned. During the early part of 
1916 tungsten ores were so eagerly sought that nearly all offered 
were bought with little objection to impurities, but under more 
normal conditions consumers are much more particular. 

The wet chemical processes give more opportunity to get rid of 


most impurities than the electrolytic process so that companies 
using wet chemical processes are, as a rule, though not uniformly, 
least particular about the ores they buy. Two of the firms that use 
wet chemical processes buy tungsten ores almost without regard to 
the impurities present, but one objects to more than two percent 
copper, and both buy ores containing as little as twenty percent 
tungstic oxide. 

Only the one firm mentioned is known that does not object to 
copper in any grade of ore. Another will take cupriferous ore if 
"the content of WO^ is sufficiently high". The others either will not 
take copper bearing ore, when other ores are to be obtained or set 
limits of 0.2 to 2.0 percent copper, and not less than 50 percent 
WO. , except that one firm will take ores that carry five percent or 
more copper, for such a percentage will pay for separation. 

Two companies take ores without regard to impurities other 
than copper, provided the content of WO, is sufficiently high. Most 
of the companies object to tin, sulfur, phosphorus, antimony, arsenic, 
bismuth, lead, and zinc, two of them object to manganese, and one 
to nickel. The last company referred to set extreme limits of 0.25 
percent for phosphorus, 0.25 percent for nickel, 6.0 percent for 
manganese, and a trace of arsenic. 

As to the different tungsten ore minerals — ferberite, wolframite, 
huebnerite, and scheelite — two companies using wet chemical pro- 
cesses reported that they made no discrimination; a company using 
both processes reported that it made no discrimination if the ores 
carried more than 60 percent WO ; one company uses ferberite and 
scheelite and will not use wolframite or huebnerite; another prefers 
scheelite but will take any tungsten ore mineral; a user who does 
not make steel and whose product does not enter into steel also 
prefers scheelite. Three others gave their estimates of the com- 
parative values as follows (the estimate being stated in the same 
order) : if ferberite can be bought at $7 per unit then wolframite is 
worth $7, $6.30, $6.25; Huebnerite, $6.50, $5.60, $6.25; scheelite $6, 
$6.60, $6.50. 

So far OS can now be learned, the foreign buyers are quite as 
various in their demands as the domestic users, and are in general 
more strict in the limits set, and they also demand a purity of 65 to 
70 percent WO , which means loss in concentration, for ores cannot 
ordinarily be concentrated to so high a percentage without great 
waste in slimes. 

Brokers are naturally ruled by the consumers to whom they 
sell and make the same restrictions as to quality of the ores 

From the very different ways in which the ores are valued by 
different buyers, it will be seen that in general, a seller should 
know the market well, especially what the different buyers will 
pay before disposing of his product. (915a) 


(Chemical Treatment of Impure Ores.) Several pro- 
cesses have been devised and patented for decreasing the 
quantity of the objectionable impurities in ores from certain 

Wolframite concentrates from parts of Arizona and Bo- 
livia contain impurities which are severely penalized by ore 
buyers. Baughman (76) has used chemical treatment to re- 
move these objectionable impurities. The concentrate is 
digested in strong hydrochloric acid containing nitric acid for 
four hours, or until manganese and iron are in solution, using 
steam for heating and agitation. The solution is filtered off 
and the gold and bismuth precipitated by passing in hydrogen 
sulfide gas. The solution is then evaporated to dryness in a 
retort into which is charged solid ferrous chloride collecting 
the hydrochloric and nitric acid distillate in a coke tower. 
The residue is leached with strong sodium chloride solution 
to dissolve silver, and the silver precipitated by passing the 
solution over scrap iron. The residue in the digester is 
washed with hot water, the tungstic acid dissolved in am- 
monia, and the solution evaporated to obtain ammonium 
tungstate which is 99 percent pure. The cost of the treat- 
ment is claimed to be considerably less than the difference 
in market value of the pure and impure products. 

Becket has patented several processes particularly for 
removing phosphorus and manganese from tungsten ore. The 
ore or concentrate is first subjected to a reducing action by 
heating with carbon, hydrogen carbon monoxide, producer 
gas, or other reducing gas below the melting point of the 
product. This reduced product is treated for the removal of 
some manganese and phosphorus by adding an excess of 
sulfuric acid (1.2 sp. gr.) and allowing to stand for 24 hours, 
with frequent stirring. The solution is drained off and used 
for further treatment of ores. Seventy percent of the man- 
ganese is removed and also much iron and phosphorus, and a 
corresponding concentration of the tungsten. The product is 
now melted in an electric furnace with or without carbon or 
reducing agent, depending on the completeness of the first 
reduction, giving directly a commercially available metal or 


Certain ores may be treated directly with concentrated 
sulfuric acid. The ore is first ground to 100 mesh and 
treated with excess of acid. Thirty to ninety percent of the 
phosphorus and less than one percent of tungsten goes into 
solution. High phosphorus ores do not respond to this simple 
treatment. These ores are first given an oxidizing roast 
and then reduced and treated as above. Good results are 

Mixed acids and oxidizing solutions are also used. If the 
ore is deposited near an inert anode (for example, lead in 
sulfuric acid), the solvent action is improved. If the purified 
ores are smelted in the electric furnace with silicon as a re- 
ducing agent, the product is low in both carbon and phos- 
phorus. (U. S. patents 1,081,568; 1,081,570; 1,081,571; 1914). 

In a later patent, Becket recommends treating the ore 
(in this case scheelite) with concentrated sulfuric acid at 
red heat, whereby phosphorus goes into solution, and tung- 
sten remains insoluble. (U. S. Patent 1,153,594; 1915). 




Tungsten is ordinarily obtained as a powder or semi- 
fused crystalline, brittle metal harder than glass and having 
a specific gravity between 16 and 17. That obtained by 
Moissan in the electric furnace has a specific gravity of 18.7 
and was softer than glass. 

The properties of pure ductile tungsten are entirely dif- 
ferent from those of the powdered or cast metal. The hard- 
ness varies from 4.5 to 8 (razor steel is about 6), depending 
on the manner of working. The hardest will readily scratch 
topaz. The density of the pure wrought tungsten ranges 
from 19.3 to 21.4, depending on the mechanical treatment of 
the metal. For comparison, aluminum has a density of 2.7 ; 
iron 7.8; lead 11.4; gold 19.3. Only three other metals have 
a higher specific gravity, platinum 21.5, iridium 22,4, and 
osmium 22.5. 

The melting point is higher than that of any other metal 
Langmuir gives it as 3267° C. (5913° F.) while Worthing 
determined it as 3357° C. The boiling point has been esti- 
mated at 3700' C, but this has not been determined directly. 
The vapour pressure of tungsten at 2000° C. is 6.45x10 — 12 
mm. (of mercury) and 1.14x10 — 3 mm. at 3100° C. 

At 1227° C. the conductivity was found to be 0.98 watts 
per cm. per degree centigrade. The specific heat was 0.04 to 
0.05 between 1600 and 2200° C. (114) 

The following table compiled by C. G. Fink (Mineral 
Industry 1914) gives a number of the physical properties of 
the common metals and tungsten. 


Physical Properties of Alaminnin. Copper, Nickel, Iron anti Tungrsten. 



•i-i"^ t( ,c 

, , 

O (V o 


rN .^ 


o to 



Ol ^ o c* 

E-i m C to 

g QJ p. aj 

21.8 by 10-" 


10 by 10-" 

15.9 by 10-" 


19 by 10-« 

12.7 by 10-" 


29 by lO-" 

11.2 by 10-« 


30 by 10-« 

3.5 by 10-« 


60 by 10-" 

cS O 

S !» 


Iron . . . . 








Note. — The figures given for iron in the third and fourth columns are 
for high tensile strengtn steel. Of the figures for tungsten those showing 
specific heat are given by Honda, those showing the melting point by 
Langmuii'; the others were determined by Pink. 

Tungsten becomes more ductile and malleable after being 
heated and hammered. It increases in tensile strength dur- 
ing the process. When properly treated, it can be drawn into 
wires, having a diameter of only .0004 inch or about one- 
fifth of the average diameter of a human hair. 

Chemical Behavior 

Tungsten is unaffected by air or oxygen at ordinary 
temperatures. At red heat, it burns with incandescence in 
air or oxygen. Likewise water does not attack it below red 
heat, but above red heat the water is decomposed and the 
metal oxidized. It does not combine directly with nitrogen. 
Molten phosphorus and sulfur attack it slowly, and their 
vapors much more readily at red heat. When heated with 
carbon, silicon or boron in the electric furnace, it forms car- 
bides, silicides and borides, which are bright metallic sub- 
stances with great hardness. Fluorine attacks it at ordinary 
temperatures, with incandescence. Chlorine attacks it very 
slowly at ordinary temperatures, and quite readily above 250° 
C. The fine black powder dissolves readily in a mixture of 
ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. (149) 

W. E. Ruder gives the following experimental re- 
sults on the solubility of ductile and malleable tungsten. 
Tests were made on disks about 18 mm. in diameter and 2.5 
mm. in thickness. The surface area was 650 sq. mm. on 
the average. The weight, according to thickness, varied 
from nine to twelve grams. 


Solubility in Hydrochloric Acid. Wrought tungsten is insoluble 
in hydrochloric acid of any concentration at room temperature and 
only very slightly so at 110° C. After 4 5 hours the hot concen- 
trated acid (sp. gr. 1.15) showed no effect upon the tungsten. After 
175 hours, however, a black coating of oxide formed and the metal 
lost 0.5 percent in weight. 

In dilute acid, at 110° C, it lost 0.05 percent after 22 hours 
but showed no further loss after 50 hours. After 175 hours the 
metal was coated with tungstic oxide and there was a gain in weight 
of one percent due to oxidation. This oxide formed an adherent 
coating and protected the metal against further loss. 

Solubility in Sulfuric Acid. At room temperature this acid has 
no effect upon wrought tungsten nor has the dilute acid at 110° C. 
Concentrated acid attacks it very slowly at 110° C, the loss in 
weight being 0.1 percent after eighteen hours, 0.16 percent after 40 
hours, and 0.63 percent after 175 hours. Increased temperature 
hastens the action for at 200° C. 0.62 percent was lost in four 
hours. In another experiment 1.18 percent dissolved in 8 hours. 

Solubility in Nitric Acid. Concentrated nitric acid at 110° C. 
showed no action on tungsten after 4 8 hours other than a slight 
dulling of the bright, metallic surface. The dilute acid, however, 
produces the yellow oxide on the surface. There is a slight gain in 
weight after 15 hours and then no further change even after 175 
hours' immeraion. 

Solubility in Aqua Regla. Aqua regia, at room temperatures, 
oxidizes the surface to tungstic oxide. After 215 hours the loss in 
weight was 0.31 percent. At 110° C. the chlorine was all driven off 
in about four hours and the tungsten disk had lost 0.1 percent and 
it was covered by a tough, greenish yellow deposit. If this coating 
of oxide was allowed to remain, continued boiling in fresh aqua 
regia had no further effect upon the metal. 

Solubility in Hydrofluoric Acid. . The acid, hot or cold, did not 
attack tungsten, not even to the extent of dulling the surface, during 
numerous evaporations of the acid. 

Solubility in Potassium Hydroxide. Potassium hydroxide solu- 
tion, of any concentration, does not attack wrought tungsten, but the 
fused alkali attacks the metal slowly. In this case there was 31 percent 
loss in weight after 15 hours, and in about 40 hours the disk had all 

Solubility in Alkaline Carbonate. In fused sodium carbonate, 
potassium carbonate, or mixtures of the two, tungsten dissolves 
slowly. About 2.5 percent loss was noted in four hours. The addi- 
tion of potassium nitrate hastens the solutions considerably. In this 
experiment 3 2 percent dissolved in six hours. 

Other Experiments. A saturated sodium hypochlorite solution 
was found to attack tungsten at the rate of 4.2 7 percent in twenty 


hours. A mixture of sulfuric acid and chromic anhydride did not 
act upon the metal. A mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids dis- 
solves tungsten very rapidly with the evolution of nitric oxide and 
the production of tungstic oxide. 

Atomic Weight of Tungsten.* 

The anatomic weight of tungsten has been determined by 
numerous investigators. Schneider (152a) by the reduction of 
tungsten trioxide to the metal and oxidation of the metal to the 
trioxide found the average value IS 4.11, while Marchand (153b) 
found an almost identical value. Roscoe (527) by the same method 
obtained the number 183.48, and by the analysis of the hexa- 
chloride the number 184.02, while Waddell (155) by the reduction 
of the trioxide found the higher number 184.33. More recently 
Pennington and Smith and Desi (157) have found the still higher 
number 184.8 by Schneider's method, but their results have been 
criticised by Schneider (157a) as untrustworthy. The investigations 
carried out by Smith and Exner (163) who converted the hexa- 
chloride into the trioxide by the action of water and synthesized 
the trioxide from the metal, gave an average value for the atomic 
weight of 184.06. (1245) The accepted value at the present time 
is 184.0. 

*From Roscoe and Schorlermeyer, "Treatise on Chemistry." 




In Iron Alloys 

Introduction. By far the greatest use of tungsten is as 
a constituent in steel alloys, especially in those known as 
high-speed steels. High-speed steels have revolutionized 
modern manufacturing industries. By means of tungsten 
steels (and other alloy steels) machines and lathes can be 
run at much higher speed, thus saving in both machines and 
men. The saving amounts to many millions of dollars a year. 

As an illustration of the efficiency of high-speed steel 
and its effect on the price of a familiar product, it was stated 
by Mr. Ellwood Haynes of the Haynes Automobile Company 
that his company would be compelled to increase the selling 
price of each automobile about $200.00 if they should have 
to use carbon steel in place of high speed steel tools. The 
efficiency is from three to five times that of carbon steel for 
cutting tools. 

The value of high speed steel not only depends upon the 
greater hardness, but also upon the fact that the tools can 
be used for cutting other metals at such a rate that friction 
raises the cutting point to over 500 C. (red heat) without 

Historical. It is a curious fact that the old Damascus 
steel, always celebrated for its retention of temper, has been 
found to contain both tungsten and chromium, altho probably 
not intentionally added. 

The first attempts to produce tungsten steel were prob- 
ably made in 1855 by Jacobs and Koeller in Austria. They 
obtained patents in France for its production. They noted 
the fine silky grain produced by tungsten upon iron in the 
presence of carbon. 

Mayr in Styria is also credited with producing tungsten 
steel about this time on a commercial scale and it was claim- 
ed that his steel was equal to Krupp's steel. 


Oxland in England took out patents in 1857 for the pro- 
duction of tungsten steel. In the same year Mushet patented 
several methods for producing it. Mushet did more than any 
one else to perfect tungsten steel. He manufactured tool 
steel for many years under the name "Mushet's metal", keep- 
ing his manufacturing methods secret. He must have over- 
come great difficulties for the alloys needed were obtained 
.with great difficulty and were of uncertain composition. His 
steel contained from 7 to 12 percent of tungsten, from 1.5 to 
2 percent carbon and about 2 percent manganese. 

Other investigators worked on tungsten steel. In France 
in 1865, tungsten steel springs were made for railway cars 
but they did not possess any remarkable advantages. In 
1868, steel rails were manufactured containing a small per- 
centage of tungsten, but an unfavorable report was made on 
their use. 

In 1886, Heppe, in Germany recommended tungsten 
steels for cutting tools of all kinds, as well as for rails, loco- 
motive tires, axles, etc. 

In 1900, high speed tool steels containing tungsten and 
chromium manufactured by Taylor and White at the works 
of the Bethlehem Steel Company were exhibited at the Paris 
Exhibition, and created a great sensation among those fami- 
liar with metal working. These tools, by suitable heat treat- 
ment, could be used for cutting up to a temperature of 300° 
C. without losing their cutting edge. This temperature 
would ruin any carbon steel tool. It was stated that a young 
machinist had lighted a cigarette with a newly cut chip, 
which was almost unbelievable at that time. 

In 1903, Hadfield published the results of very extensive 
investigations of the properties of tungsten steels. Since 
then the investigation of alloy steels has added many varie- 
ties for many different uses. 

Manufacture of Tungsten Steel. 

The following extract from Bulletin No. 100, United 
States Bureau of Mines "Manufacture and Uses of Alloy 
Steels" by Henry D. Hibbard, gives an excellent account of 


the manufacture and uses of simple tungsten steels, and 
high speed tungsten steels. 

Simple Tungsten Steel. Tungsten steel is generally, if not al- 
ways, made by the crucible process. The pots are charged cold by 
packing in the materials, the tungsten being placed at the top to 
counteract in a measure its tendency to settle because of its high 
specific gravity. If this tendency operated unchecked there might 
be at the bottom of the pot a rather infusible mush of high-tungsten 
alloy, which would not pour out, and if it did the ingot would have 
an irregular composition because of the uneven distribution of the 

The steel is melted and then "killed" in the crucibles by holding 
them in the furnace for 30 to 40 minutes after the charge has melted, 
until the steel ceases to bubble or work and lies dead in the pot. 

The pots are sometimes cast singly or doubly by hand pouring 
or collectively by means of a ladle into which all of the pots of a 
furnace charge are emptied. Good tungsten steel makes remarkably 
sound solid ingots, except for the pipe, tho tungsten itself is not con- 
sidered to aid in removing or controlling either the oxides or the 
gases. It is added solely for its effect on the finished and treated 

This lack of power of tungsten to deal with oxides and gases 
arises no doubt from its low calorific power, its heat of combustion 
being given (with qualification) as about 1000 calories, whereas iron 
burned to Fe O gives 1,612 calories. 

3 4 

Method of AVorking. Simple tungsten steels of commercial 
grade are heated, forged and rolled in much the same manner as 
other high carbon steels, presenting no special problems or dif- 

Properties and Uses, Simple tungsten steel is at present chiefly 
used in permanent magnets for electric meters, in small dynamos and 
hand use, for which it has been used for thirty to forty years. The 
consumption in 1913 is thought to have been between 5000 and 6000 
tons. This steel contains about 0.6 percent carbon and 6 percent of 
tungsten. Some has been made in recent years containing 0.2 to 0.3 
percent of vanadium, chromium, or molybdenum, which were con- 
sidered at the time to give greater retentivity to the steel, but those 
ingredients are now generally held to be of no practical value, adding 
nothing to the fitness of the steel for its purpose. 

Some buyers of magnet steel do not specify composition but 
only performance, that is, what magnetic properties the steel must 

To make permanent magnets retain their magnetism as much as 
possible they are made very hard by heating and quenching. They 
are then magnetized, and if they are to be used for electric meters 


they are seasoned by a treatment involving protracted heating to 100° 
C. (212° F.) to make their magnetism as nearly constant as 

A variety of tungsten steel containing about 1 per cent of 
carbon and 3 to 4 per cent of tungsten is made and used as a tool 
steel for taking finishing cuts on iron and steel in the machine shop. 
It acts more like a simple steel than a self-hardening steel, as it 
requires to be hardened by quenching in water and then drawn in 
the same general way that simple steels have been drawn, pre- 
sumably for thousands of years. It will cut at a higher speed than 
a simple steel, say 40 feet per minute on steel having a tensile 
strength of 80,000 pounds per square inch, and is also more durable. 

The presence of tungsten in steel is generally stated to lower 
the fusion point of the steel. Mars (272) gives a table of fusion 
points of tungsten steels with contents of tungsten ranging from 0.5 
to 17 per cent, from which he concludes that tungsten lowers the 
fusion point. However, when his results are corrected for the lower- 
ing effects of the contained carbon, silicon, and manganese doubt 
arises as to the correctness of his conclusion. Thus, a steel con- 
taining 0.66 per cent C, 0.03 per cent Si, 0.04 per cent Mn, and 
3.11 per cent W fused at 1,488° C. The carbon would lower the 
fusion point about 60° C, and the silicon and manganese slightly, 
so that the plain iron-tungsten alloy should have a fusion point a 
little above 1,548° C, which is about 20° C. above that of pure iron. 
Seemingly this is the effect of 3.11 percent tungsten. 

The erosion of the bore of cannon by the powder gases is held 
to depend largely on the fusion point of the metal of the tube or 
liner, the higher the point, the greater being the resistance to ero- 
sion. So it has been found that the nearer the metal comes of being 
pure iron, the higher its fusion temperature and the better it resists 
erosion, but the strength required compels a certain amount of 
hardening and strengthening elements to be present in the steel. 
Tungsten raises the strength and possibly the temperature of fusion 
and so has been employed for the tubes of cannon, particularly by the 
Government of Austria. Arnold and Read (280) found that steel with 
0.71 percent carbon and 5.4 percent tungsten had in the annealed 
state the tensility of 88,900 pounds per square inch, an elastic 
limit of 60,200 pounds, an elongation of 20 percent, and a concen- 
tration of area of 34.7 percent, values 'that compare favorably with 
those of the steels usually employed in the manufacture of cannon. 

They give data regarded a series of annealed tungsten steels 
as follows: 


Dnta Regarding- Annenled Tungsten Steels 


Tensile Properties 















+.1 o 



Condition wlien 








0.11 I 
0.11 I 

0.04 I 

0.03 I 

0.06 j 

0.06 I 





*" ' 










,— i 















I I I 

20.5 I 31.5 I Moderately tough. 

20.0 I 34.7 



Tough, (see note) 


22.1 I Very tough. 

43.3 I Very tough. 

39.2 I Very tough and 
I slightly hard. 

11.4 I Ditto. 

Note: — Tough means that the lathe chips curled off in spirals. 

The strength and hardness of these steels may be greatly in- 
creased by heat treatment, involving quenching and with only rela- 
tively small decrease in ductility. 

Theory of Tungsten Steel. Arnold and Read concluded that 
the carbon in the steels they examined was combined with iron 
when the tungsten was low, but that the higher the tungsten the more 
of the carbon was combined with it until in steel containing 11.5 
percent of tungsten, none of the carbon was combined with iron, but 
all of it with tungsten. With still higher tungsten content the excess 
of tungsten was combined with iron. 

High-Speed Tool Steels. High-speed tool steels, also called 
rapid steels have in the past fifteen years worked a remarkable revo- 
lution in the machine shop business of the whole world, affording 
largely increased outputs and commensurate lower costs. As a con- 
sequence they are now being used very generally and in some shops 
almost exclusively for machining iron and steel as well as some 
others by cutting operations by machine tools. 

The revolutionary feature wherein tools made of these steels 
differ from and exceed in service the tools formerly used in their 
ability to maintain a sharp strong cutting edge while heated to a 
temperature far above that which would at once destroy the cutting 
ability of simple steel tool. Because of this property a tool made of 
high-speed tool steel can be made to cut continuously at speeds 
three to five times as great as that practicable with other tools, and 
when, as the result of the friction of the chip on the tool, it may be 
red hot at the point on top where the chip rubs hardest, and the 
chip itself may, by its friction on the tool and the internal work 
done on it by upsetting it, be heated to a blue heat of 296° C. 
(565° F.) or even hotter to perhaps 340'= C. (644'= F.) 


This property of red-hardness or ability to retain hardness at a 
red heat may be imparted to steels of suitable composition, com- 
prising chromium and tungsten, by the unique heat treatment to 
which they may be subjected. This treatment, described later, was 
introduced by F. \V. Taylor and Maunsel White, as has been described 
by Taylor, (236) at the works of the Bethlehem Steel Co., in 1S99, 
and the tools so treated were shown at the Paris Exposition in 
1900, where they naturally created a sensation among those familiar 
with the machining of metals. 

In this country in 1913 about 7000 tons of highspeed or rapid 
tool steel was made by some fifteen makers, that output requiring 
about 8000 tons of ingots. 

Manufacture of High-Speed Tool Steels. High-speed tool steels 
are all made by the crucible or electric furnace process. Except 
at one works, the crucibles or pots are made of graphite. The 
average life of the crucibles or pots varies in different works from six 
to nine melts. Some makers use clay lined graphite pots in melting 
this steel to prevent or hinder the absorption of carbon from the pot. 
The clay lining is only one-eighth to three-sixteenth of an inch 
thick, and is sometimes cut through on the second or third melt; in 
that event the molten steel may absorb too much carbon. Other 
makers use a graphite pot twice — first for melting other kinds of 
steel and then for rapid steel when the inner surface of the pot is 
somewhat slagged over, because of which the absorption of carbon 
is much less that when the pot was new. 

The large producers use gas-fired melting furnaces for heating 
the pots, which are charged into the furnace at the top. Each 
melting hole contains six pots and each pot takes a charge of 90 to 
100 pounds. The charge is melted and then "killed" in the usual 
way by being held 3 to 40 minutes. Such procedure, together 
with the presence of the large amount of alloy, regularly gives sound 
piping steel. If run continuously a furnace full of pots Avill be 
melted about every four hours. 

In packing a pot with the charge for rapid steel the tungsten 
must be placed on top of the charge — as with simple tungsten steel 
- — to guard as far as possible against the tendency of the tungsten 
to settle because of its high specific gravity. That tendency seems 
to be less Avith the rapid steels than with the simple tungsten steels. 
Whether the chromium of the former influences or hinders the 
settle of the tungsten is conjectural. 

The smaller ingots, which are made from one pot of steel, vary 
from 3.5 to 5 inches square. The steel is sometimes teemed directly 
into the mold by hand pouring, but in some works clay funnels are 
placed on top of the mold to direct the stream down the center of 
the mold to avoid cutting its wall, as might happen if the stream 
impinged directly on it. li'unnel pouring is also advantageous when 


two pots are to be combined to make a larger ingot, as the steel can 
be poured into the funnel from opposite sides at the same time, a 
procedure that will mix the liquid steel and give a more uniform 
ingot than when one pot follows another, as in hand pouring when 
no funnel is used. 

Some of the larger producers of rapid steels use for casting 
a large bottom-pouring ladle into which the steel is poured from the 
pots of one or more furnaces, and from which the ingots are top- 
cast; that is the molds are filled from the top. This method pre- 
sents the advantages that (1) the product is more uniform; (2) 
the individual pot charges which might not be of the prescribed com- 
position or might be otherwise unsatisfactory, are merged with the 
others without detriment to the whole; (3) large ingots are easily 
made; (4) one analysis serves for the whole number of pots; (5) 
one test serves for the whole ladleful of steel. It is a matter of 
experience that complaints from customers become much less 
frequent after the introduction of the ladle for casting this steel. 

The strong tendency of rapid steel to pipe is checked consider- 
ably in most plants by the use on each ingot of a hot "dozzler", 
which is a clay ring preheated red hot, that is placed on the ingot 
top and filled with molten steel. This arrangement keeps the 
top of the ingot molten long enough so that the pipe is of dimin- 
ished size and nearly or quite all contained within the part of the 
ingot surrounded by the "dozzler". The proportion of the ingot to 
be rejected on account of the pipe is therefore much decreased. The 
molds are usually closed at the bottom end and are either made wuth 
parallel walls or tapered so that the ingot is larger at the top than 
at the bottom. The molds must be split when the walls are parallel 
and are sometimes split when the ingots are tapered. 

High-speed tool steel as cast has a coarse structure and dark 
color, as compared with the structure and color of simple steels 
of the same carbon content. A corner is broken from the top of 
each ingot to show the grain and the ingots when hand poured direct- 
ly from the pots are classified by the eye as in the production of 
simple crucible steels. If the ingots are cast from the large ladle 
a test is taken for analysis which determines the disposition of the 
whole ladleful of steel. 

As a rule the ingots show a strong columnar structure or ar- 
rangement of crystals, whose axes are normal to the cooling surface. 
Some makers refer to the structure as a "lemon structure", the 
crystals of the metal being thought to resemble the cells forming 
the pulp of a lemon. If the casting temperature is lower than usual, 
this "lemon" structure may be absent, and in that case the interior 
of the ingot will have a much finer grain than the ingots cast at 
the usual higher temperature. The subsequent heating and working 
of the steel entirely destroys the crystalline structure of the ingot, 


and the worked steel, on a fresh fracture, shows a most beautiful 
porcelanic structure. 

The ingots run from 3.5x3.5 inches to 16x16 inches but most 
of them are from 5x5 inches to 9x9 inches. For hot working they 
are heated in the furnace chamber having a temperature of about 
1,180° C. (2,156° F.) At this high heat the steel may be worked 
satisfactorily under the hammer or press and may be quickly worked 
down to the dimensions desired. 

Composition of High-speed Tool Steels. The tendency of the 
makers is toward a somewhat uniform composition as regards the 
contents of the alloying elements, whose benefits have become fairly 
well known, and whose use as a consequence may be considered as 
established. Specifically, these alloying elements are tungsten and 
chromium. The addition of vanadium and cobalt in important pro- 
portions is considered by some makers to give distinct improvement 
to high-speed steel, and some vanadium is almost always present. 

The following analyses are of steels recently made, most of which 
are considered to be good commercial steels: 

Results of Analyses of High-Speed Steels 31ade in 1013 or 1914. 



















' .03 

' '.02 

4.75 17.50 
































4 82 


In 38 







. . . . 




D-3 .. .. 


D-4 .... 


E-1 .... 

4.00 14.26 
4.08 14.50 
3 90 17.27 


E-2 .... 


E-3 .... 


E-4 .... 







H-1 .... 

H-2 .... 



J-2 .... 


K-2 .... 


■ .18 


Xote: — Sample A to I represent American steels, the numerals in- 
dicating different samples from the same maker; Sample J represented 
an English steel; Sample K represented a German steel. 

Samples D-1 and E-1 gave excellent results in a competitive 
test, whereas D-2, 0-3, E-2, and E-3, manufactured by the same 
makers, gave distinctly inferior results in the same shop. 


The occurrence of nickel in four of the samples may have been 
accidental, having been clue to nickel in some of the scrap steel used 
in the charge. Most makers now put in vanadium and steel like 
that represented by sample G, which had the highest vanadium con- 
tent of all the samples represented in the table, was the winner in 
a recent competitive test. 

The average specific gravity of the steels represented in the table 
was about 8.8, the increase over the specific gravity of iron being 
due chiefly to the tungsten content. 

There are so many factors beside the ultimate composition that 
affect the value of rapid tool steels, that no conclusion can be 
drawn from the analyses alone. The melting, hot-working, and heat 
treatment all must be done correctly or the final result will not 
conform to expectations. 

Carbon in High-speed Tool Steel. The proportion of carbon 
aimed at in high-speed tool steels is about 0.65 percent, which in a 
simple steel would not be enough to give the maximum hardness 
even if the steel were heated above the critical point and quenched 
in water, and still less so when the steel is cooled as slowly as these 
steels are in their treatment. This shows that the carbon acts in a 
different way from what it does in simple steels, as is discussed later. 

Tungsten in High-speed Tool Steel. Tungsten is well established 
as the most important if not indespensible ingredient of commercial 
tool steels, being almost or quite universally used in quantity 
therein. The best proportion of tungsten, all things considered, 
seems to lie between 16 and 20 percent, the tungsten content in 9 5 
percent of all the American steel coming within these limits. Some 
published analyses of European high-speed tool steels shows a 
higher content of tungsten than this, but American makers generally 
agree that any tungsten in excess of twenty percent adds nothing to 
the usefulness of the steel, and they therefore make that proportion 
the upper limit of the amount added. One effect of the tungsten 
is that the best percentage of carbon in rapid steels is but about 
half that required in simple tool steels intended for the same kind 
of service. 

Chromium in High-speed Tool Steels. The effect of chromium 
in high-speed tool steel, as in other steels, is undoubtedly as a 
hardener, entering into double carbide of tungsten and chromium 
which gives or causes the proper cutting edge. Although the pro- 
portion of this element present in these steels varies considerably, 
it is always large, perhaps never less than 2 percent or more than 
6 percent in American steels, and in European steels the upper 
limit is at least 9 percent. 

The Heat Treatment of High-speed Tools. The heat treatment 
given to high-speed steels for the commoner uses as lathe and 
planer tools has generally been simplified to heating to incipient 


fusion and quenching in oil. Cooling by an air blast and double 
treatment, which were formerly recommended, are now not common, 
except that a second (drawing) heating is given to milling cutters 
and similar tools, the temperature imparted to the tool depending on 
the material to be cut. 

The treatment is usually done by the blacksmith, who heats the 
tool in his forge fire and then immerses it in a tank containing 
enough oil so that its temperature does not rise materially. Ten 
gallons of oil is a common quantity to use when the size and number 
of the tools is moderate, as in most shops. The fire is a deep com- 
pact coal fire, the coal in the center where the tool is heated being 
pretty thoroly coked, that is, most of its volatile matter distilled 
out. This manner of heating has the advantage that free oxygen 
does not get at the tool to oxidize it, but its environment is non- 
oxidizing, or even reducing, owing to the presence of an excess of 
burning carbon surrounding the tool. Any flame is more or less 
oxidizing, at least unless heavily charged with smoke or free carbon, 
and a piece of steel heated directly by a flame as in the ordinary 
heating chamber of a furnace is likely to be somewhat oxidized on 
its surface, the depth to which the oxygen penetrates varying ac- 
cording to the conditions, particularly the temperature, the access 
of air, and the length of time. Heating in a muffle will also result 
in oxidizing the steel unless extraordinary precautions are taken to 
keep out oxygen or to consume all that enters. The temperature of 
quenching usually about 1,260° C. (3,300° C), is determined by 
the fusion of the scale and its visible collection into drops or beads 
on the surface of the tool. 

Quenching is done by quickly plunging the heated tool into the 
oil as soon as it has reached the desired temperature and moving it 
about in the oil until cold. Cooling in oil is thought by some to 
give a better tool than cooling in the air blast, one reason seemingly 
being the protection of the steel from free oxygen while it is hot 
enough to be oxidized thereby. The oxygen of the air blast forms a 
scale of oxide on the hot steel and the ojfygen probably penetrates 
the metal below the scale to some extent, injuring the quality as 
deep as it goes. A tool on its second grinding when the oxidized 
metal is removed may then give better service than on the first, 
unless the first grinding has for that reason been heavy enough to 
remove the oxidized metal. 

In some shops, however, the original treatment recommended by 
Taylor (236) and White is given, the cutting edge of the tool being 
heated to incipient fusion and then immersed in a bath of melted 
lead at about 565° C. (1050° F.). The heating is done in a small 
furnace over a deep coke fire, blown by an air blast so that the 
environment of the tool while being heated is substantially non- 
oxidizing. Flames of carbonic oxide play out of the openings thru 
which the tools are inserted indicating little if any free oxygen 


within. In these shops however, milling cutters and other tools 
that are machined to a particular form are treated by heating them 
to a slightly lower temperature, in order not to damage the cutting 
edges and then plunging them into cold oil. 

When cooled to the temperature of the lead, it is taken out and 
placed in an air blast to complete the cooling. Some tools desired 
to be especially tough so as not to break in service are given a 
second heating to 565° C. and then cooled in the open air or air 
blast if saving time is important. 

Rapid steel when well annealed will bend considerably v.-ithout 
breaking even in as large a section as 2.5 by 1.25 inches, the bending 
being edgewise, as in a tool at work. 

Gledhill (226) found that one of these steels after having been 
annealed twelve to eighteen hours at 760° C. (1400° F. ) had a 
tensility of 129,200 pounds per square inch, an elastic lisnit of 
89,600 pounds per square inch, an elongation of 18 percent in two 
inches and a contraction of area of 3 5 percent. The ductility is 
rather high and would enable a tool to be bent considerably without 
breaking. Such annealed steel may be easily machined for making 
milling cutters and other shapes that require machining. 

Carpenter (225) found that the higher the temperature from 
which rapid steel is cooled the more it resisted etching for metallo- 
graphic work. He also found that no tempering change occurred 
when it was reheated at a temperature of less than 550° C. (1022° 
F.) to a visible red in the dark, indicating a stability that is 
doubtless the cause of its property of red hardness. 

Whether a rapid steel is made harder by the heat treatment 
given it depends somewhat on the conditions of the bar before treat- 
ment. If it has previously been annealed, the treatment hardens it, 
whereas heat treatment may not harden a piece in the natural state. 
Taylor (236) found that some tools having useful red hardness 
could be filed rather readily. Edwards (243) on the other hand 
found treated high-speed steels to be exceedingly hard — as hard as 
any steel could be made by quenching. Gledhill (226) found that 
high-speed steel was good for turning chilled rolls which are ex- 
tremely hard and require to cut them the hardest kind of tool. 

Trials on window glass of a number of different rapid steels 
showed that the cutting edge of some but not of all would scratch 
it. The same was true of the untreated ends of the same tools, as 
some would and some would not scratch the window pane. 

The hardness of the steel when cold is not the determining 
factor of usefulness in any case. It is the hardness when heated 
under conditions of work. 

The cutting edge of a rapid steel tool at work is probably never 
as "hot as the metal just back of it, where the heating caused by the 
friction of the chip as it is deflected and rubs hard on the tool, is 


most intense. The edge itself is kept relatively cool by the cold 
metal flowing upon it. 

Theory of High Speed Steels. Carpenter found the heating 
and cooling curves of a rapid steel to be radically different from 
each other, and also that the cooling curve when the steel was 
cooled from 930° C. (1706° F.) was greatly different from that when 
the steel was cooled from 1250° C. (2282° F.). When the steel was 
cooled from 930° C. the curve had an abrupt jog, which showed a 
great retardation in rate of cooling, occurring between 700° C. and 
750° C. (1292° F. to 1382° F.). The jog did not occur when the 
steel was cooled from 1250° C, 320° higher, the line repres- 
enting variations in rate of cooling being nearly straight. The rate 
of cooling to get these curves was slow or at least not accelerated, 
and one cannot say what the curve would be like if the rate of 
cooling were hastened, as in quenching, but the curves obtained seem 
to show much light on the question. The property of red hardness 
seems to be connected with the elimination of the great retardation 

The following explanation, based on the work of Carpenter 
(225) and Edwards, (243) of the properties of high-speed steels, 
seems to be helpful or even satisfactory: 

Their researches on the heating and cooling of these steels have 
shown that such steels have an extraordinary stability of composition 
after they have been heated to 1,200° C. (2,193° F.) or more, and 
that a second heating of 550° C. (1,022° F.) has no softening or 
drawing effect. It seems fairly evident that red hardness depends 
on or is the natural result of these facts. 

At a temperature higher than 1,200° C. (2,192° F.) a double 
carbide of chromium and tungsten is formed, which persists largely 
even when the steel is cooled slowly as in the open air, and more so 
when cooling is accelerated. This double carbide imparts to the 
steel the high degree of hardness and is stable at all temperatures up 
to 550° C. (1,022° F.) or somewhat higher. At 550° C. the steel 
has a low red color visible in the dark. 

If the above theory be true, then at a temperature of 1,200°C. 
(2,192° F.) the chromium and tungsten must have a stronger 
affinity for carbon than iron has w,hereas at lower temperatures say 
from around 930° C. down to the critical point the affinity of carbon 
for iron is slightly stronger than that of either chromium or tung- 
sten or both, and the carbon then exists wholly or in part as carbide 
of iron, or a complex carbide of iron with one or both of the other 

Carbide of iron or hardening carbon which causes the hard 
condition of iron in simple steel that has been quenched from a 
temperature higher than the critical point, is unstable at even slight 
elevations of temperature above atmospheric temperature, its un- 
stableness increasing with the degree of heat though not being pro- 


portional thereto. Boynton (236a) has shown that between 400"^ C. 
(752° F.) and 500= C. (952° F.) the amount of change and con- 
sequent softening is much greater than at other temperatures, either 
lower or higher. 

The proportion of carbon in rapid steel should perhaps be only 
as much as will combine with the chromium and tungsten at 1,200° 
C. (2,192° F.) and leave none to exist as unstable hardening carbon 
of hardened simple steel. 

Uses of Tungsten in Non-Ferrous Alloys. 

Tungsten alloys readily with nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, 
uranium, chromium, iron, manganese, vanadium and tita- 
nium, and less easily with most of the other metals. Alloys 
of tungsten of many kinds and for many purposes have been 
invented but in numerous cases the cost of the alloy is alto- 
gether out of proportion to its usefulness. Only the more 
recent important alloys will be discussed here. 

"Stellite", invented by Haynes, (321) is one of the chief 
competitors of high-speed steel. It is an alloy of about 75 
percent cobalt, 20 percent chromium and 5 percent tungsten. 
Other elements are sometimes added. The alloy has some 
very valuable properties for cutting tools. 

"Partinium" is an alloy of aluminum and tungsten which 
is very light and strong. It has been used in automobile 
construction. Tin, copper, magnesium and other metals are 
sometimes added. 

"Duralium" is another alloy of aluminum containing 2 to 
3 percent tungsten. It is much harder than aluminum metal. 
An aluminum alloy containing 10 percent copper and ten per- 
cent tungsten has been patented by de Buigne for type metal. 
An alloy with copper and aluminum is used in the manufac- 
ture of propeller blades. 

Numerous patents have been taken out for alloys of 
tungsten and small amounts of thorium. (323) The thorium 
has the property of making the tungsten ductile, and this 
alloy is used in making drawn tungsten wire. An alloy of 
one percent thorium and 0.2 percent platinum with tungsten 
makes a tough ductile alloy (U. S. Pat. 1,167,827). 

"Tungsten-nickel" containing varying amounts of the 
two elements was used at one time in making metal fila- 


ments for electric lamps because it is a ductile alloy. (See 
following sesction. Irmann (325) found that the 18 percent 
tungsten alloy with nickel is ductile and very resistant to 
dilute sulfuric acid. 

"Chrome-tungsten" is made by reduction of chromic 
tungstate with tungsten silicide (Gin) (1233). The chrom- 
ium tungstate is made by mixing solutions of chromium sul- 
fate and sodium tungstate. This alloy is used in the manu- 
facture of high-speed steel. 

Tungsten-molybdenum alloys varying in composition from 
pure tungsten to pure molybdenum have been studied by 
Fahrenwald and Jeffries. (327, 328, 329). The alloys are 
made in the same way as ductile tungsten. The tungsten 
molybdenum alloys are all ductile and malleable. They are 
being used as substitutes for platinum in dentistry, 

E. Weintraub has patented an alloy of 20 to 60 percent 
tungsten and 80 to 40 percent platinum for use in electrical 
contacts, jewelry, etc. (U. S. Pat. 1,096,655.) 

Uses of Tungsten in Metal Filament Lamps.* 

Tungsten has become a household word thru the intro- 
duction of the drawn tungsten filament lamps. Briefly sum- 
marized, the transition from the carbon filament lamp to the 
present day gas filled tungsten lamp was as follows. The 
carbon filament lamp had an efficiency of three watts per 
candle power. It was succeeded by the "metallized" carbon 
filament, (that is, a carbon filament on which had been de- 
posited a hard, lustrous coating of carbon by heating elec- 
trically in an atmosphere of ligroin or benzine) which used 
2.5 watts per candle power. Then came the drawn tantalum 
filament lamps which were used extensively from 1905 to 
1911. Their efficiency was 1.7 watts per candle power. The 
"squirted" tungsten filaments were next used, with an effi- 
ciency of 1.25 watts per candle power. The chief disadvant- 
ages of these filaments were their fragility. This defect was 
corrected in the drawn tungsten filaments and the efficiency 

♦Material for this section was taken largely from S. T. John- 
stone, "The Rare Earth Industry", London, 1915. 


was also increased, i. e. 1 watt per candle power. More 
recently the gas filled drawn tungsten filament lamp has been 
developed with the remarkable efficiency of 0.5 watts per 
candle power. 

The savings which have resulted from the introduction of 
the tungsten filament lamps amount to millions of dollars per 
year. Not only has the cost per candle power been reduced, 
but the number of consumers has increased greatly, and 
offsets any loss to the producer of electric current by the in- 
creased efficiency of the lamps. Furthermore, the low cost 
allows otherwise impossible extension of artificial lighting, 
with the resulting benefit and pleasure of man. 

The high melting point of tungsten (3200° C) suggested 
it as a possible metal for filaments. It has been shown by 
Waidner and Burgess (89) that the light emitted by an in- 
candescent metal varies as the twelfth power of the tempera- 
ture, while the energy required varies as the fifth power of 
the temperature. It can be seen that a high melting point is 
an important advantage. Tungsten, as it was known at the 
time of its introduction in electric lamps (1904-5), was a 
hard, brittle metal, which it was impossible to draw into wires. 
The filaments were therefore produced by a "squirting" pro- 
cess, or by producing a coating of tungsten on a core of car- 
bon or other refractory substance. The many processes 
which have been employed up to the present time may be 
classified as follows: 

(1) Substitution; (2) amalgamation; (3) squirting a 
paste containing tungsten powder; (4) squirting colloidal 
tungsten; (5)) drawn wire; (6) alloy processes. 

In the first process, a filament of carbon is made by 
"squirting" as was the usual method of carbon filaments. 
This carbon filament was then heated in an atmosphere con- 
taining a volatile compound of tungsten, such as the oxy- 
chloride, and a small amount of hydrogen. When the filament 
was heated to redness by passing an electric current thru it, 
the tungsten displaced the carbon. 

In the amalgamation process, a mixture of metallic tung- 
sten powder and an amalgam of cadmium and mercury was 
"squirted" thru small die in the usual way. The cadmium 


and mercury in the filament thus produced were volatilized 
by heat. The tungsten filament thus formed was very brit- 
tle, but after moderate heating it became pliable and could 
be bent into shape. 

Many modifications of the paste squirting process were 
invented. The binder may be such that it volatilizes on 
heating, leaving a carbonaceous residue and reduces or partly 
reduces the tungsten. Substances used were gum, sugar, 
gelatine, or nitrocellulose dissolved in amyl acetate. It is dif- 
ficult to remove the last traces of carbon from the filament. 
A binder might also be used which would hold the material 
together, but would not leave a carbonaceous residue after 
heating, such as paraffin, wax, camphor, and pinene hydro- 
chloride. In this latter case, the heating of the pressed fila- 
ment is done in hydrogen in order to reduce the tungsten 
compound used with the binder. 

In some processes, metallic tungsten powder was made 
into a paste with a non-carbonizing binder, squirted into 
threads and heated to dry the binder, and ignited by passing 
an electric current thru them in an atmosphere of hydrogen. 

Plastic tungstic acid can be made for production of 
squirted filaments without binders. Hydrated tungstic oxide 
is boiled with ammonia until crystallization occurs. The 
crystals are heated to 250° and then boiled with water until 
the mass changes to a viscous plastic mass, which is then 
ready for squirting into filaments (French Patent 379,069 

Plastic tungsten acid for this purpose can also be made 
by treating the hydrated oxide with ammonia at — 20° C. 

Some claim that the lower oxides, either the brown di- 
oxide or the violet pentoxide are better than the yellow tri- 
oxide for squirted filaments. 

The colloid tungsten process for making filaments was 
one of the most successful and interesting processes. The 
advantages are that no binder is required and there is no 
carbon to remove. The process is covered by several patents 
granted to Dr. Kuzel about 1904. Other metals beside tung- 
sten have been made into colloidal form and can be made 
into filaments. 


The colloidal tungsten is prepared by allowing an electric 
arc to form between electrodes of tungsten under water. The 
finely divided tungsten can be separated from the water by 
slow evaporation and the plastic product squirted into fila- 
ments. The filaments as first prepared are not good con- 
ductors of electric current, but after heating to 60' C. they 
conduct well enough to allow final drying and sintering of the 
particles by the electric current. Sometimes a voltage of 
400-1000' is used for the drying and sintering. (English 
Pat. 12,968) 1908. 

In order to avoid irregularities in the filament the heat- 
ing is conducted in an inert or reducing atmosphere and the 
pressure kept down to 150 mm. or less. During this process 
a continuous current of gas, consisting of 80 'c nitrogen and 
20% hydrogen is passed thru the apparatus. 

Drawn wire tungsten filaments were developed in the 
highly organized research laboratory of the General Electric 
Company. The general principles of the method used for 
preparing the ductile tungsten for drawing into filaments 
has been described (see page ). 

The bars of ductile tungsten are drawn usually thru 
draw plates. The dies are of diamond or ruby. The succes- 
sive dies used vary only slightly in diameter, thus starting 
with a wire of 0.65 mm. diameter, they decrease about 0.0125 
mm. as far as 0.35 mm. diameter. From this size down to 0.1 
mm. the interval is .0065 mm. and from 0.1 to .075 mm. the 
interval is .03 mm. From 0.075 to 0.0375 mm. it is .0025 mm. 
and finally from .0375 down to the smallest wires drawn .01 
mm. the size of the dies change by only .00125. Over a 
hundred dies are required for drawn lamp filaments. The 
filaments in the regular lamps are probably the finest wire 
ever produced by straight drawing. 

The draw plate is lubricated by deflocculated graphite 
and water. To point the wires, in order to start them thru 
the next smaller die, they are immersed in melted potassium 
nitrate until they are reduced to the proper size. If the wires 
are already small in diameter they may be reduced by mak- 
ing them anodes in a solution of potassium cyanide. 

During the drawing the wire is protected from oxidation 


by an inert or reducing atmosphere. They may also be pro- 
tected from oxidation by plating with gold, silver or copper 
(Eng. Pat. 21,513 [1916]). 

The drawn tungsten filaments are very much stronger 
than squirted filaments and have practically entirely replaced 

When pure tungsten is used, no matter by what process, 
the filaments become brittle, after being used a short time. 
This defect is due to crystallization of the tungsten. This is 
obviated to a large extent by the addition of thorium oxide 
to the tungsten oxide before reduction. 

Numerous alloys of tungsten with other elements have 
been invented for use in filaments. In some of these, the 
foreign element is removed in the finished filament, while in 
others, it remains. 

An example of the first type is the process of Siemens 
Brothers of London. An alloy of tungsten with nickel is 
quite ductile and can be drawn into fine wires. Thus an alloy 
was made by mixing nickel tungstate with tungstic acid and 
heating to 1650 in hydrogen. The 12% nickel alloy was 
usually made. After the filaments are made, the nickel was 
volatilized by heating in a vacuum. On account of blacken- 
ing of the bulb, this process has been discontinued. 

The other type process is illustrated by the tungstic 
thorium filament. This process consists in producing a fila- 
ment composed of tungsten alloyed with thorium and other 
rare earth metals. The filament thus produced is said to be 
very ductile, even in the cold and remains in this condition 
even after being used for some time. Different processes 
for making the tungsten thorium alloy have been devised. 
The mixture of colloidal metals may be used, or the mixture 
of oxides may be reduced in hydrogen. 

Gas filled tungsten lamps have been developed in the last 
few years. The account of the invention was first published 
by I. Langmuir and T. A. Orange (376). While investigat- 
ing the cause of blackening of metallic filament lamps, they 
found that this was due to volatilization of the metal fila- 
ment and that it was lessened by putting an inert gas into 
the bulb. Nitrogen was first used because the loss of heat by 


convection was much less than with hydrogen. It was 
found that the loss in efficiency of a tungsten filament in an 
atmosphere of inert gas was greater for wires of small diam- 
eter (.002 inch) than for large wires (over .005 inch). This 
lead to the practice of coiling the fine wires into tightly 
wound helices. The helex is supported on a "spider". Such 
lamps have the advantage of giving a maximum of light in 
the horizontal plane. Gas filled lamps are also much more 
efficient than evacuated lamps, consuming only about 0.5 
watts per candle power. The light is of a penetrating charac- 
ter and is better adapted for replacing arc lamps than for 
lighting small interiors. They are furnished in capacities up 
to 2000 candle power. 

Miscellaneous Uses. 

The unique properties of tungsten make it very valuable 
for other purposes than for alloy steel and electric lamp fila- 
ments. Its melting point is higher than that of any other 
known metal ; its tensile strength exceeds that of iron and 
nickel; it is para magnetic; it can be drawn to smaller sized 
wires than any other metal ; and its specific gravity is 70 per 
cent higher than that of lead. 

One of the most important uses for tungsten is in re- 
placing platinum and platinum iridium alloys for contact 
points in spark coils, voltage regulators, telegraph instru- 
ments and other electrical devices. It is better than plati- 
num, due to its greater hardness, higher heat conductivity 
and lower vapor pressure. 

Great savings in platinum have been made by the sub- 
stitution of gold coated tungsten dental pins in the last few 

Electric furnaces (laboratory) with resisters of tungsten 
are also used. In some of these tungsten wire is wound 
around a suitable refractory shell and protected from oxida- 
tion by an atmosphere of hydrogen. Other furnaces use a 
tungsten metal tube to take the place of the helical carbon 
resister in vacuum furnaces. 

Tungsten gauze is acid and alkali resisting and is useful 
for separating solids from liquids. The gauze has been used 


in some of the apparatus designed by Cottrell for the elec- 
trastatic precipitation of fumes. 

Wrought tungsten targets for X-Ray tubes are now 
generally used. The great advantage is the high density of 
the metal. The targets are sometimes made with a surface 
of tungsten on a backing of some other metal, as silver and 
copper which conduct the heat away more rapidly. 

Finely divided tungsten is said to be an excellent cata- 
lytic agent in the production of ammonium from nitrogen 
and hydrogen. 

Besides these, many other applications have been sug- 
gested. Owing to its chemical stability, and the fact that it 
can be drawn down to .0004 inches in diameter, it would be 
useful for galvanometer suspension and cross hairs for 
telescopes. It also has been suggested to use thin wires in 
surgical operations in place of the coarser gold and silver 
wires. Laboratory apparatus has been made from wrought 
tungsten and is useful for certain purposes. Since it is para- 
magnetic and elastic, it has been tried out in electrical meters 
and watch springs, which can never be magnetized. Many 
of the possible uses of tungsten will probably never be made 
commercially, because of its cost. On the other hand, many 
new uses are being found for the metal, and its field of use- 
fulness is not yet fully explored. 



Oxides. Tungsten is said to form a number of oxides the sepa- 
rate existence of which is not definitely settled. Thus, when sul- 
phuric acid acts on metallic tungsten under varying conditions, the 
blue oxides, WO, WO, WO, WO, are formed; sulphurous acid 
acts on tungsten forming the oxide W.O , and a beautiful purple 
oxide with a yellow metallic lustre, WO, Is obtained by heating am- 
monium metatungstate to a bright red heat or by fusing tungstic 
acid with potassium iodide. 44 9 

The hydroxide W^O , HO, a dark blue powder with a purple 
lustre, is formed when tungstic acid is reduced with stannous chloride 
and hydrochloric acid, or by heating the acid with hydrogen iodide 
in a sealed tube at 200°. With ammonia it yields ammonium tung- 
state and the hydroxide, W.O^, H.^0. (454) 

The only oxides which are definitely known are WO^, W_0 , 

Tungsten dioxide, WO,, may be prepared by the reduction of the 
trioxide or an alkaline metatungstate with zinc and hydrochloric 
acid, (594) or by heating the trioxide to dull redness in hydrogen. 
(459a) (35) It may be obtained crystalline by reducing lithium 
paratungstate with hydrogen. (471c) 

Tungsten dioxide may be formed by heating an intimate mixture 
of tungsten trioxide and 1/5-1/10 its weight of glycerol, ethylene 
glycol or similar hydroxyl compound, to a bright red heat for some 
hours. (Eng. Pat. 18,922; 1907; J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 1908, 22) 

Tungsten dioxide, prepared in fhe wet way is of a copper red 
color, prepared in the dry way it is a brown powder. It is readily 
oxidized to the trioxide; heated in chlorine it yields a yellow oxy- 
chloride WO, CI,. When amorphous it is soluble in hydrochloric and 
in sulphuric acid, but it is quite unacted on when crystalline. 

Blue tungstic, oxide W^O , formed when tungsten trioxide is 
reduced with hydrogen at 250°-300°, (26) or by electrolysing fused 
sodium tungstate (439) is readily oxidised to the trioxide. 

Tungsten trioxide, WO., occurs naturally as wolframite and as 
tungstite or meymacite, (899) also in the form of tungstates in 
wolfram and scheelite. It may be prepared by calcining in contact 
with air, the lower oxides, the metal, a sulphide or its hydrate (tung- 
stic acid). 

*Quoted from Thorpe's Dictionary of Applied Chemistry, 1913 


Tungsten trioxide forms a yellow powder which may be ob- 
tained crystalline by heating the amorphous metal to a very high 
temperature in air or by fusion of tungstic acid with borax in a 
porcelain vessel; (864) or by passing hydrogen chloride over tungstic 
acid or a mixture of sodium tungstate and sodium carbonate at a 
white heat. (43 7a) Its sp. gr., when amorphous, varies between 
5.27-7.13. when crystalline between 6.30-6.38. It is fusible with 
difficulty and is insoluble in water. When heated in hydrogen it 
gives the blue oxide at 250°, the dioxide at a red heat, and the 
metal if the latter action is prolonged. It is also reduced wheu 
heated with zinc and certain other metals. (59) "When heated with 
chlorine or sulphur monochloride, it is converted into a volatile oxy- 
chloride and in the former case also into the hexachloride. (451) 
(603) (779) 

The oxide is soluble in hydrofluoric acid, but not in hydro- 
chloric or nitric acids or in aqua regia. (142) 

Plastic masses of tungsten oxide for incandescent lamp filaments 
may be prepared by treating the oxide or hydrated tungstic acid 
with ammonia at -20° or below, or when in alcoholic suspension 
with gaseous ammonia. (Eng. Pat. 14S50; J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 1908 
1198, 1104) 

Tungstic Acids. Tungsten trioxide forms two well character- 
ized acids, WO , H O or H WO and (WO ) H O or H W O .In ad- 

3 2 2 4 :-! 4 2 2 4 IS 

dition the salts of a number of polytungstic acids are known. (509) 
Tungstic acid H WO may be obtained by precipitating a solution 
of a tungstate with excess of hot acid. If cold acid is used, the 
white hydrate H^WO ,H O is formed, from which the acid may be 
obtained by boiling. It is prepared by digesting a tungsten mineral 
with hydrochloric acid, then with aqua regia until the brown powder 
has become yellow, when the iron and manganese have been dissolved 
out. The residue is well washed and then shaken with ammonia 
which dissolves the free tungstic acid. On filtration and evaporation 
the tungstic acid crystallises out. The finely powdered mineral 
may be fused with calcium chloride or with alkali carbonates or 
sodium chloride. The melt is lixiviated and the calcium or other 
metallic tungstate residue is then decomposed with nitric or hydro- 
chloric acid. 

Tungstic acid may be prepared from wolfram or other minerals 
containing tungsten, by heating the mineral under pressure with a 
concentrated solution of potassium hydroxide, lime or baryta being 
added to form insoluble compounds with some of the impurities. 

The tungstic acid is then separated from the solution either by 
fractional precipitation with acid, the impurities separating first, or 
the whole of the precipitate formed by adding sufficient acid, is 
fractionally redissolved by alkali. The process is said to be econo- 


mical, convenient, and to give very pure acid. (Fr. Pat. 389040; 
1908; J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 1908, 93 9) 

Tungstic acid may be purified by treating tungsten trioxide with 
carbon tetrachloride vapour at a red heat. The resulting volatile 
chlorine compound is sublimed, condensed and treated with aqua 
regia; the tungstic acid formed is then further purified by solution in 
ammonia and reprecipitation with dilute nitric acid. (U. S. Pat. 926,- 
984; J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 1909, 794) 

Tungstic acid is a yellow powder insoluble in water and almost 
so in all acids except hydrofluoric acid, in which it dissolves to the 
extent of 44.7 p. c. at 25°, 55.3 at 50°, using 50 p. c. hydrofluoric 
acid. (476) It is readily soluble in alkalies. 

Freshly prepared tungstic acid dissolves in aqueous solutions of 
most aliphatic amines forming substituted ammonium tungstates 
such as (NMeH^) W.O^ ,6H^O, which crystallise on evaporation. 
When heated they are decomposed forming the amine, tungstic acid 
and the blue oxide of tungsten. (567) It also gives crystalline pre- 
cipitates with pyridine and quinoline. (476) 

Colloidal tungstic acid may be prepared by adding hydrochloric 
acid to concentrated sodium tungstate solution until it has an acid 
reaction. The white gelatinous precipitate formed, protected from 
currents of air, is washed by decantation several times at 0° to 5°; 
15 parts of the acid are then dissolved in 1 part of concentrated 
oxalic acid by gently warming, and the liquid is subjected to dialysis. 
If the outer water is changed frequently, the oxalic acid may be 
completely removed. (4716) (474a) 

Colloidal tungstic acid may be obtained by dissolving 5 grms. of 
tungsten tetrachloride in about 50 c. c. of a mixture containing equal 
volumes of ethyl alcohol and ether; the filtered solution is diluted 
to 2 50 c. c. with alcohol and then mixed with an equal volume of 
water. The colloidal solution thus obtained behaves as a positive 
colloid; it may be kept for some days without appreciable opalescence 
being observed, but coagulation occurs more quickly by adding a 
larger quantity of water, and immediately when small quantities of 
neutral salts, hydroxides, or strong acids are added. Weak organic 
acids or rise in temperature exert no effect. If an electric current 
is passed through, a deep blue precipitate separates at the cathode. 
^480) (478) (69) 

The colloidal acid is also prepared by dialysing a 5 p. c. solu- 
tion of sodium tungstate to which sufficient hydrochloric acid has 
been added to combine with the sodium. Colloidal tungstic acid 
forms a gum-like mass which may be heated at 200° without becoming 
insoluble and which at a red heat is converted into the trioxide. 
The colloidal acid has, probably, the constitution of the meta acid. 

Tungstic acid and sodium tungstate are used in the production 
of color resists for aniline black. 200 grms. sodium tungstate dis- 
solved in 1 litre of gum tragacanth paste constitutes a white resist 


which may be rendered more lustrous and opaque by passing the 
printed tissue, after steaming, through a solution of barium chloride. 
The compound thus formed may be colored by pigments, such as ver- 
milion, ultramarine blue and chrome green, a series of pale resist 
colors being formed, along with which the usual albumin and tannic 
acid color mixtures may be printed. (472) 

Tungstic acid may also be employed in the production of resist 
effects upon p-nitraniline red and of discharge effects upon indigo- 
dyed tissues. In the latter case, the tissue dyed with the indigo 
is padded in a solution of sodium tungstate, dried and printed with 
a steam discharge mixture containing barium chlorate, potassium 
ferro-cyanide and a basic dyestuff able to withstand the oxidizing 
action, such as rhodamine 6 G, ultramarine, or chrome yellow. The 
colors are rendered faster by the addition of albumin together with 
an alkali citrate or tartrate. 

Metatungstic acid H W O ,7H O, first isolated by Scheibled,(488) 

2 4 13 2 

may be prepared by decomposing the lead salt with hydrogen sulphide 
or the barium salt with dilute sulphuric acid. It crystallizes in small 
yellow octahedra, very soluble in water, giving a bitter solution and 
loses its water of crystallization at 100°. For its behavior on elec- 
trolysis see Leiser. (475) 

Paratungstic acid, the acid corresponding to the salts of the for- 
mula 12W0 ,5M O, Aq. has been prepared in dilute solution by mix- 
ing barium paratungstate with a quantity of dilute sulphuric acid 
not quite sufficient for complete decomposition. The solution cannot 
be concentrated even in vacuo without decomposition, and when 
boiled it yields tungstic acid. (472a) 

Tuiigstates. The alkaline tungstates, M^WO Aq, are prepared 
by fusing a naturally occurring tungstate with sodium or potassium 
hydroxide or carbonate, preferably with the addition of a silicious or 
other flux. The alkali tungstate falls to the bottom and may be 
tapped off, or, after cooling, the slag may be removed. (Eng. Pat. 
30053, 1897; 6045, 1900) 

The sodium salt crystallizes in thin prisms, soluble in 4 parts of 
cold, in 2 parts of hot water, the solution having a bitter taste and 
and alkaline reaction. It has m. p. 698°. (513) 

The potassium salt forms large prismatic crystals. The am- 
monium salt is very unstable. 

Calcium tungstate, CaWO , occurs native as scheelite and may 
be prepared artificially by the interaction of calcium chloride and a 
normal tungstate. If the amorphous white precipitate so obtained is 
mixed with lime and heated in a current of hydrogen chloride, it is 
obtained crystalline. The corresponding barium tungstate was pre- 
pared by Rousseau for use instead of white lead. (505 [a]) 

Lead tungstate occurs native as stolzite and crystallizes in red 
tetragonal pyramids. 


Ferrous tungstate occurs as wolfram (FEMn)WO forming dark 
grey or brownish-black prisms. 

Manganese tungstate is found as hubnerite. Granger has pro- 
posed the employment of the tungstates in the ceramic industry. 
(450) (457) 

Ammonia copper tungstate CuWO ,4NH , deep blue crystals, are 
readily decomposed. A similar zinc salt is also known. (508a) 

The copper compound CuO,4WO ,6NH ,8H O, has been obtained 
by the interaction of an ammoniacal solution of copper sulphate 
and ammonium tungstate. It forms small blue needles. (508a) 

Sodium paratungstate Na W O ,Aq is known commercially as 

° 10 12 41 

tungstate of soda and may be prepared on a large scale by roasting 
wolfram with soda ash and lixiviating the fused mass. The boiling 
solution is then nearly neutralized with hydrochloric acid and allow- 
ed to crystallize when large tricline crystals of the salt separate. It 
is sometimes used as a mordant instead of sodium stannate in dyeing 
.and calico printing. It also renders cotton, linen, etc., non-inflam- 
mable. The corresponding potassium salt is formed in glistening 
scales when normal potassium tungstate is boiled with a little 

For various paratungstates see Hallopeau. (505) (507) 
Metatungstates Mi^W O ,Aq were discovered by Margueritte. 
(522) The alkali salts are readily formed when the normal tung- 
states are boiled with tungstic acid until the filtrate no longer gives 
a precipitate on addition of hydrochloric acid. The other meta- 
tungstates are best prepared by double decomposition of the barium 
isalt with the required sulphate or carbonate. The metatungstates 
have a bitter taste, are generally readily soluble in water and de- 
posit tungstic acid on prolonged boiling. A large number of them 
are known but there is considerable difference of opinion as to their 
constitution. (511) (513a) (514a) (514b) (508) 

Pertungstates MiWO ,Aq are formed by boiling a paratungstate 
with hydrogen peroxide; (493a) or by electrolysing a slightly acid 
solution of sodium tungstate. (504) More highly oxidized compounds 
are formed by treating the pertungstates with hydrogen peroxide. 
,(500a) (506a) 

Tungsten Bronzes are compounds of the alkali metals with tung- 
sten and oxygen, which, owing to their color and insolubility in acids 
and alkalis have been employed as substitutes for bronze powders. 
Their exact constitution is not known, although they are generally 
regarded as compounds of the tungstates with tungsten dioxide. 
They may be obtained by the reduction of the tungstates heated to 
redness with hydrogen, coal gas, zinc, iron or tin. 

Tungsten bronzes may be prepared electrolytically by fusing 
tungstic acid with the calculated amount of metallic carbonate and 
electrolysing the mass. A series of brightly colored mixed alkali 


and alkaline earth tungsten bronzes of various compositions are 
described by Engels. (524a) (509) 

Four tungsten sodium bronzes are known, Na^W .0 of a golden 
yellow color, Na WO of a blue color, Na WO of a purple red 

•^ 2 fi 15 2 3 

color, and Na W^O ^ which forms red-yellow cubes and yields a 
brown-yellow powder. (523) 

Potassium forms one bronze, K W O . (524) 

2 4 12 ^ 

Blue lithium bronzes are described by Hallopeau. (471c) 

Tungstates of the rare earths are described by Hitchcock. (496) 

Tungsten and the Halogens. Tungsten hexachloride WCI is 
prepared by heating metallic tungsten in excess of pure dry chlorine, 
particular care being taken to exclude all traces of air and moisture 
in order to avoid the formation of the oxychloride. (527) A small 
quantity of the latter is formed at the beginning of the reaction, 
however, in spite of all precautions. It should be driven off beyond 
the portion of the tube where the chloride is to be collected. Tung- 
sten hexachloride forms dark violet opaque crystals, which are very 
stable when pure but are readily decomposed by moist air or water, 
if the slightest trace of the oxychloride is present. It has m. p. 
275°, b. p. 346.7°/759.5 mm. 

Tungsten pentachloride WC1_ is formed by the incomplete re- 
duction of the hexachloride in a current of hydrogen. It is volatile 
and when redistilled forms long, pure black shining crystals, m. p. 
248°, b. p. 275.6°. It is hygroscopic and dissolves in water forming 
an olive-green solution, but most of it decomposes into the blue 
oxide and hydrochloric acid. (527) 

Tungsten tetrachloride WCI forms the non-volatile residue in 
the production of the pentachloride. It may also be prepared by the 
distillation of the latter or of the hexachloride or better, a mixture of 
the two chlorides in a current of hydrogen. It forms a greyish-brown 
crystalline powder. (527) It is hygroscopic, infusible, is partially 
decomposed by water and is reduced by hydrogen to the metal. 

Tungsten dichloride WCl^ is best prepared by heating the tetra- 
chloride in a current of carbon dioxide at the temperature of a 
moderately hot zinc bath. It is a grey non-volatile powder partly de- 
composed and partly dissolved by water forming a brown solution. 

Tungsten dioxydichloride W0_C1_, obtained by passing chlorine 
over the dioxide, forms light lemon-yellow scales. Heated with am- 
monia it forms the compound W O N H . (529a) 

4 14 2 

Tungsten oxytetrachloride, beautiful red needle-shaped crystals, 
m. p. 210.4°, b. p. 227.5° is formed by the interaction of the trioxide 
and phosphorus pentachloride; (528) or by passing the vapor of the 
hexachloride over the heated trioxide. 

Tungsten hexabromide, WBr , obtained by heating tungsten with 
dry bromine vapor in an atmosphere of nitrogen, forms blue-black 


needles which decompose when heated to a high temperature, give a 
colorless solutioon in aqueous ammonia, fume in air and give a royal 
blue oxide when treated with water. (529f) 

Tungsten pentabromide, prepared by passing dry hydrogen bro- 
mide over tungsten hexachloride at 300°, or betted by the action of 
excess of bromine on tungsten, forms fern-like aggregates of dark 
needles with green reflex, m. p. 276°, b. p. 33 3°. It is very hygro- 
scopic, yields the blue oxide when treated with water and diluta 
acids and is decomposed by alkalies, alkali nitrates, carbonates and 
bisulphates. (529h) 

Tungsten oxybromides WO.^Br^,WOBr and the compounds WCl - 
Br , WCl , 3WBr are also knownl" (529g^) 

Tungsten tetriodide WI , obtained by the action of an excess of 
liquid hydrogen iodide on tungsten hexachloride at 110°, is a black 
crystalline substance of sp. gr. 5.2 at 18°, decomposed by water, 
alkali-hydroxides and carbonates. Soluble in absolute alcohol. 

Tungsten diiodide, WI^, obtained by the action of hydrogen 
iodide on tungsten hexachloride at 400°, is an amorphous, insoluble, 
infusible, non-volatile brown powder of sp. gr. 6.9 at 18°. (529e) 

Tungsten hexafluoride WF may be obtained by the interaction 
of tungsten hexachloride with anhydrous hydrofluoric acid or with 
arsenic trifluoride, or, best of all, antimony pentafluoride. It has 
m. p. 2.5° and b. p. 19.5°. Is readily soluble in alkalies, attacks 
glass and most metals and forms double salts with alkali fluorides. 
When acted on by water it yields tungstic acid. (530) 

Tungsten oxytetrafluoride WOF , obtained by the interaction of 
the oxytetrachloride and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, forms small 
colorless hygroscopic plates, m. p. 110°, b. p. 185°-190o, is decom- 
posed by water forming tungstic acid and absorbs large quantities of 
ammonia in the cold. (530) 

Tungsten dioxydifluoride is known in an impure state. For 
various double fluorides see Marignac, (489) (529b) (529c) (5291) 

Tungsten and sulphur. Tungsten disulphide WS^ may be pre- 
pared by passing hydrogen sulphide over tungsten hexachloride at 
375°-550°, or by fusing an intimate mixture of pure dry potassium 
carbonate, flowers of sulphur and tungsten trioxide. It is a grey- 
black crystalline powder, insoluble in water, fairly stable, and has sp. 
gr. 7.5 at 10°. (532d) 

Tungsten trisulphide WS , best obtained by treating a sulpho- 
tungstate with excess of acid, is a brown powder which becomes 
black when dried, is slightly soluble in cold water, more so in hot 
water, and readily in alkali hydroxides and carbonates. (532b) It 
has been obtained in the colloidal state by Mimsinger. (53 2c) 

The compounds, WCl , 3WS and WO S (532c) and a number 
of metallic sulpho- or trio-tungstates, M_^WS (53 2b) have been 


described. A di— and tri-selenide (53 2a) and a tri-telluride are 
also known. 

Tungsten nitrides W. N^.W^N. , a number of oxynitrides, nitre- 
tamido and oxynitretamido compounds, and also a hydroxylamine 
tungstate have been obtained. (534) (564) (449) (454) (533a) 

Tungsten and Phosphorus. Tungsten combines directly with 
phosphorus when heated to redness, forming a dark green phos- 
phide W P . 

Tungsten diphosphide WP, produced by heating tungsten hexa- 
chloride at 450° in a current of hydrogen phosphide forms a black 
crystalline mass insoluble in water, sp. gr. 5.8. The phosphorus is 
readily displaced by the. halogens and by sulphur and nitrogen at 
high temperatures. It may be reduced by heating with hydrogen, 
zinc or copper. (543a) 

If tungsten diphosphide is heated with a large excess of copper 
phosphide in a graphite crucible in a wind furnace and the product 
treated with dilute nitric acid, it yields the monophosphide WP, grey 
lustrous prismatic crystals, sp. gr. 8.5. (5 43b) 

Another phosphide W^P is formed by reducing a mixture of 
phosphorus pentoxide (2 mols) and tungsten trioxide (1 mol.) in a 
charcoal crucible at a high temperature. (542a) 

Phosphotungstic acid. Tungstic acid combines with phosphoric 
and also with arsenic, antimonic and vanadic acids to form complex 
compounds of varying composition, M^0.:W0^ = 1:7 to 1:24 ana- 
lagous to the molybdates. Phosphotungstic acid is used as a reagent 
for the precipitation of alkaloids, proteins and some of their pro- 
ducts of hydrolysis, also for the detection of potassium and am- 
monium salts with which it gives insoluble precipitates. It may be 
prepared by acidifying a solution of 4 parts of sodium tungstate and 
1 part of sodium phosphate with sulphuric acid and extracting the 
phosphotungstic acid with ether. (543) 

Literature on phosphotungstic acids and the phosphotungstates. 
(542c) (542b) (543c) 

Tungsten and Arsenic. Tungsten arsenide WAs, prepared by 
heating tungsten hexachloride in a current of hydrogen arsenide at 
150°-360°, is a black crystalline insoluble powder of sp. gr. 6.9 at 

Tungsten chloroarsenide W._AsCl^, obtained by heating the 
above' substances in a sealed tube at 60°-70°, forms hygroscopic 
bluish-black crystals, decomposed by water and acids. (543b) 

For arsenictungstic acids and tungstates see Kehrmann and 
Ruttimann. (545d) 

Vanadotungstates (545a) (545e) (543c); antimoniotungstates 
(545c); zirconetungstates (545b); alumino- and alumino-phospho 
and arsenotungstates (545f) 


Tungsten boritle WB^, prepared by fusing the two elements to- 
gether in an electric furnace, crystallizes in hard octahedra, sp. gr. 
9.6. (550a) 

Tung.steu and Carbon. When tungsten trioxide is fused with 
calcium carbide in an electric furnace, it forms an iron-grey carbide, 
CW^, which is harder than corundum and has sp. gr. 16.06 at 18°. 
In the presence of a large excess of iron, the carbide CW, an iron- 
grey crystalline powder of sp. gr. 15.7 at 18°, is formed. (553) 

Chromium tungsten carbide CW.^,3C^Cr is formed by heating 
a mixture of chromic oxide, tungstic acid and carbon in a carbon 
crucible in an electric furnace for five minutes with a current of 
40 amperes at 7 5 volts and treating the product with warm hydro- 
chloric acid, then with concentrated ammonia solution. It forms 
small hard stable crystalline grains of sp. gr. 8.41 at 22°. By the 
addition of tungsten to chromium steels, the formation of this stable 
hard carbide might give rise to the production of new steels with spe- 
cial qualities. (555) 

Iron tungsten carbide 3W C,2Fe C, a magnetic substance, sp. 
gr. 13.4 at 18°, has also been prepared. (554) (554b) 

Tungsten and Silicon. Tungsten silicide WSi^ has been pre- 
pared by heating copper silicide with amorphous tungsten in an 
electric furnace, using a current of 800-900 amperes and 50 volts, 
the resulting product is then washed successively with nitric acid, 
caustic potash, warm hydrofluoric acid and water. It may also be 
prepared by reducing a mixture of silica and tungstic anhydride 
with sulphur and alumina. It forms brilliant, grey crystals, of sp. 
gr. 9.4, which are not magnetic and are very stable. (560) (559a) 

The silicide W^Si is obtained by heating the trioxide with 
silicon in the electric furnace, after which the mass is suspended in 
dilute hydrochloric acid (1 in 10) and electrolysed. The excess of 
metal dissolves and the silicide is removed, washed with aqua regia, 
then with ammonia, and is finally separated from carbon silicide 
gravimetrically by suspension in methyl iodide. (559) It forms 
beautiful steel grey crystals with a metallic lustre, sp. gr. 10.9. 

Tungsten aluminum silicide forms black hexagonal crj^stals. 

Silicotungstic acids of the formulae, H^W^^^SiO^^.SH.^O; H^W^.,- 
SiO ,20H O, H W SiO ,29H O etc. were discovered bv "" Ma- 

42 2 S 12 42 2 

rignac. (558) The acid corresponding to the last formula is formed by 
precipitating its salts with mercurous nitrate and decomposing the 
mercury salt with hot hydrochloric acid. It crystallizes in largo 
tetragonal prisms, is readily soluble in water, alcohol, and ether, 
and forms a valuable reagent for alkaloids. The salts, most of 


which are soluble in water, are prepared by boiling gelatinous silicic 
acid with metallic polytungstates. (545e) (558a) 

Organic Salts of Tungsten. Esters of tungstic acid aro de- 
scribed by Smith and Dugan; (565) alkali tungsten tartrates by 
Henderson and Barr, (5 64b) citrates by Henderson, (565a) Orr and 
Whitehead; tungsten oxalates by Rosenheim (564a). 

Tungsten forms ozosalts which are readily soluble and difficult 
to obtain free from the normal salts used in their preparation. The 
following have been described: 

Sodium ozotungsten oxalate NaC O WO ,5H O and also the corre- 

2 4 4 2 

spending ammonium and calcium salts which have only 1 mol. of 
water of crystallization. (566) 

Complex compounds of the tungstic acids with organic acids 
have been obtained by Grossmann and Kramer; (565c) and by Maz- 
zuschelli and Borghi; (568) and additive compounds of the tetra, 
penta, and hexachloride with organic esters by Rosenheim and 
Loewenstamm. (565b) 



Qualitative Detection of Tungsten. In minerals. (593) 
Tungsten may ordinarily be detected in minerals by boiling 
the finely powdered material with concentrated hydrochloric 
acid until insoluble yellow tungstic acid is formed. Zinc or 
tin is then added and if tungsten is present in appreciable 
amounts a blue color forms in the solution or the yellow 
residue turns blue, due to reduction by the nascent hydrogen. 

If only small amounts of tungsten are present, a larger 
portion (about half a gram) of the finely powdered material 
may be thoroughly mixed with four grams of sodium car- 
bonate and fused. The fused or well sintered mass is dis- 
solved by boiling water in the crucible. The aqueous solution 
is next ecidified with an equal volume of concentrated hydro- 
chloric acid, a small piece of tin added, and the solution 
warmed gently if necessary. The volume of the solution 
should not be over 10-20 cc. A fine blue color in the solution 
or a blue residue indicates the presence of tungsten. In 
either case, if reduction is continued long enough, a brown 
color is obtained. 

These tests, if properly used, will show the presence of 
tungsten in materials as low as two per cent, and by using 
special precautions, will detect tungsten in even lower grade 
materials. Tin is preferred to zinc for the reducing action, 
because if only a small quantity of tungsten is present, the 
zinc reduces it very quickly to the brown oxide, and the blue 
color may be unnoticed. The action of tin is slower but 
much more certain. If much tungsten is present, either tin or 
zinc gives good results. 

Columbium is the only element at all likely to give a 
blue color followed by a brown color under the conditions 
of this test. The columbium blue is not so brilliant, and can 
be distinguished from the blue of tungsten oxides by the 
fact that it disappears when the blue solution is diluted with 
water. Vanadium also gives a blue color when solutions of 
its salts are reduced, but tartaric acid also will cause this 


reduction, whereas it will not reduce tungstic oxide. Molyb- 
denum on reduction goes thru a series of color changes from 
violet to blue to black. Titanium gives a violet color. No 
other elements will originally interfere with the reduction 
test for tungsten. 

The following procedure (617) will remove the above 
elements which if present may obscure the tungsten blue 
color. The solution obtained by extracting the sample after 
fusion with sodium carbonate (or caustic alkali) is acidified 
with hydrochloric acid and boiled. The precipitate, which 
may contain antimony, molybdenum, columbium, silica, tan- 
talum, tin and tungsten, is filtered off and the moist resi- 
due treated with a solution of yellow ammonium sulfide. An- 
timony, molybdenum, tin and tungsten pass into the filtrate, 
columbium and tantalum remain on the filter. The ammoni- 
cal sulfide extract is acidified with hydrochloric acid and 
boiled. The precipitate is filtered and washed with a little 
hydrochloric and nitric acid. Antimony, molybdenum and tin 
pass into the filtrate, while sulfur and tungsten, as tungstic 
acid, remain on the filter. Tungsten is now confirmed as 
follows, portions of the precipitate being taken : 

1. The residue is suspended in dilute hydrochloric acid 
and a piece of zinc, aluminum or tin placed on the solution, 
A blue colored precipitate or solution indicates tungsten. 

2. A portion of the precipitate is warmed with ammo- 
nium hydroxide and the extract absorbed with strips of filter 
paper. A strip of this paper is moistened with dilute hydro- 
chloric acid and warmed. A yellow coloration is produced in 
the presence of tungsten. Another strip is moistened with a 
solution of stannous chloride, which produces a blue color 
in presence of tungsten. A third strip dipped into cold am- 
monium sulfide remains unchanged until warmed, when the 
paper turns green or blue if tungsten is present. 

The following test for tungsten in steel is given by 
Johnson (692) : 

Dissolve 0.2 gram of the sample with '> cc. sulfuric acid (1 to3 ) 
in a test tube ***** if the steel has .100 to 0.3 per cent of 
tungsten, a black insoluble residue will be found in the bottom of 
the tube. This black sediment forms also with small amounts of 
molybdenum and phosphorus. But on addition of 1 c. c. of nitric 


acid (1.20 sp. gr.) to such a solution the black entirely disappears if 
due to the presence of the two last named elements. The black pre- 
cipitate, if caused by a small quantity of tungsten, on addition of the 
nitric acid, changes to a yellow. If the amount of the latter is 
small, it is better to put the test tube back on the water bath and 
permit the tungstic acid to settle for two hours, when it can be 
seen plainly as a yellow spiral thread rising up thru the solution 
by giving the test tube a rotary motion. 

Other qualitative tests are known, but the above will suf- 
fice for nearly all cases, if properly carried out. 

Quantitative Determination. The methods for the quan- 
titative determination of tungsten in ores and other ma- 
terials are quite varied and in recent years, on account of the 
high price of tungsten, there has been much dispute con- 
cerning the proper methods of obtaining the true tungsten 
content. The U. S. Bureau of Standards, under the direc- 
tion of Dr. W. F. Hillebrand is now making a careful study 
of the methods of analysis of tungsten materials, with the 
idea of developing a standard method. In view of this fact, 
a comprehensive discussion of methods will not be made at 
this time. There are given herewith several well known 
methods which are now in common use for the determination 
of tungsten. 

Ammonia Method for Tungstic Oxide in Ores and Concen- 
trates. (Ledoux and Company, New York) * 

The sample for analysis should be ground impalpably fine; half 
an hour's work with an agate mortar will save time in the end. 

Weigh 1 gram into a 2 50 c. c. beaker and treat it with 40 c. c. 
HCl, (1.20 S. G.) digest for half an hour on a steam bath and add 
5 to 10 cc. HNO.^ (1.42 S. G.). Stir well to break up crusts .of 
tungstic oxide and evaporate to dryness, stirring from time to time. 
(In this and subsequent evaporations it is important that the tempera- 
ture of a steam bath, that is 85° to 95° C, shall not be exceeded, es- 
pecially when the mass is nearing dryness; otherwise the tungstic 
oxide may become rather insoluble in ammonia.) Add 20 c. c. more 
HCl, stir thoroughly to break up all incrustations on the bottom of 
the beaker, add 3 c. c. of HNO, and again evaporate to dryness. 
Add 5 c. c. more HCl and again evaporate to dryness. The object of 
the final evaporation with HCl is to expel all HNO . 

To the dry residue add 1 c. c. of HCl, warm for a moment to 
dissolve Fe, Mn and Ca chlorides, then add 150 c. c. of water and 

♦Private communication, 1916. 


boil. There is a slight tendency toward bumping, but it is not 
serious. To the hot solution add 2 c. c. of a 10 '{ solution of cin- 
chonin (in 1-1 HCl) and let stand over night. Filter using a little 
paper pulp in the apex of the filter paper and wash the residue, con- 
sisting of tungstic acid in insoluble matter with 2'/^, HCl solution. 
Wash the residue in the filter back into the beaker with a fine jet 
of water, using as little water as possible, add about 10 c. c. of 
strong (NH )0H, warm until the tungstic acid dissolves and filter 
through the same filter as before into a platinum dish, wash with 
dilute (NH )OH (lOf;/, strong ammonia 90 <^, water) to entirely re- 
move tungstic acid from the filter. 

Set the ammonia solution to evaporate and in the meantime pro- 
ceed with the examination of the insoluble silicious residue, which in 
some ores may still contain a little tungsten. Ignite it in a platinum 
crucible, cool, add 5 c. c. HF and 2 drops H SO^ and slowly evaporate 
to dryness to expel silica. Add 2 or 3 grams of Na.^Co^ to the 
crucible and fuse well. Cool, dissolve fusion in water and filter. The 
aqueous solution contains as sodium tungstate whatever tungsten 
may have been in the insoluble residue. Acidulate it with HCl, add 
2 or 3 c. c. of cinchonine solution and let stand at a temperature of 
50° C. or thereabouts for two or three hours. If any tungsten pre- 
cipitate appears, filter it off, wash with very dilute cinchonine solu- 
tion, dissolve in ammonia and add this solution to the main solution 
in the platinum dish which has now been evaporated to dryness, or 
nearly so. Continue the evaporation to dryness and heat the residue 
gently over a bunsen flame until ammonia salts are decomposed, 
finally heat strongly for a minute, leaving a residue of tungstic 
oxide which also may contain a little silica and traces of other 
impurities. Treat the residue in the dish with 2 c. c. of HF and 2 
drops HSO bringing the solution into contact with all of the residue, 
evaporate to dryness and ignite gently at first, and finally at the 
full heat of a good bunsen burner for five minutes, cool in dessicator 
and weigh. Fuse the residue in the dish with 4-5 grams Na^CO.^ and 
dissolve the fusion in hot water. The small amount of insoluble 
matter may consist of traces of iron, manganese or lime, filter it off, 
wash thoroughly with hot water, ignite the residue in the platinum 
dish and weigh again. The difference between this weight and the 
first weight of dish and tungstic oxide is pure WO... 

Hydrofluoric Difference Method for Tungstic Oxide in Ores 
and Concentrates. (Ledoux and Company, New York)* 

Treat one gram of the finely ground ore in a platinum dish with 
10 c. c. hydrofluoric acid, 25 c. c. concentrated hydrochloric acid, and 
10 c. c. of 25% sulfuric acid. Heat gently until solution is complete, 
adding more of each acid except sulfuric, if necessary. Evaporate to 

♦Private Communication, 191G. 


fumes of SO , dilute with water, transfer to 400 c. c. beaker, and ad^ 
100 c. c. aqua regia. The WO.^ can usually be completely removed 
from the platinum dish by rubbing with a finger cot, but if any 
stain adheres it can be removed with ammonia and added to the 
solution. The aqua regia solution is evaporated to 20 c. c, diluted 
to 250 c. c. with cold water, 10 c. c. cinchonine solution added and 
the beaker set aside for two hours to allow the precipitate to settle. 
Filter, wash with water containing cinchonine, and ignite residue at 
dull red. Treat with hydrofluoric and sulfuric acid and ignite to 
constant weight. Fuse the residue in the crucible with sodium 
carbonate, dissolve in water, and filter, washing thoroughly with 
hot water. The residue is ignited in the same crucible, and weighed, 
the difference in weight being taken as WO,. 

The filtrate from the last carbonate fusion of the WO,, is tested 
for a possible Al, Ta, Nb, Sn. etc., contamination as follows: 

Make filtrate acid with hydrochloric, add 5 grams ammonium 
chloride, and then add ammonia water until just alkaline, followed 
by an excess of about 5 c. c. Heat to 60° or until precipitate 
coagulates, filter, ignite and weigh. The weight of any precipitate 
thus obtained should, of course, be deducted from the WO previously 

Determination of Tungstic Oxide in Ores. (A. H. Low, Tech- 
nical Methods of Ore Analysis, 1914) 

The following method is in regular use in my laboratory: 
In all cases the substance should be ground to the finest possible 
powder in an agate mortar. 

Ores and silicious material. — Weigh 1 gram into an 8-oz. copper 
flask. Add 4 grams of dry sodium sulphate and 4 cc. of strong sul- 
phuric acid. Heat over a free flame, with the flask in a holder, 
until the free sulphuric acid has been expelled and a nearly or quite 
red-hot melt is obtained. Rotate the flask in cooling so as to dis- 
tribute the melt over the sides. When cold, add 2 5 c. c. of strong 
hydrochloric acid and 10 cc. of strong nitric acid. Boil down to 
about 20 c. c, add 50 c. c. of hot water, heat to boiling, and then 
allow to stand on the hot-plate until well settled. Filter through a 
9-cm. filter and wash ten times with hot, dilute hydrochloric acid, 
(1:10). Reserve the filtrate. Dissolve the tungstic acid on the 
filter with a mixture of 2 volumes wood alcohol and 1 volume strong 
ammonia, and also any adhering tungstsic acid in the flask. Wash 
with the above mixture at least ten times. Receive the filtrate in a 
small beaker. Reserve the washed residue. Transfer the filtrate to 
a platinum dish, evaporate to dryness on a water-bath and ignite the 
residue. Burn the reserved filter and washed residue in platinum 
or porcelain and warm the ash for a short time with a little strong 
sodium hydroxide solution. Dilute sufficiently, filter into a beaker 
and wash with hot water. Acidify the filtrate with hydrochloric 


acid. Add to this solution 5-6 cc. of a solution of 25 grams of cin- 
chonine in 200 cc. of 1:1 hydrochloric acid, heat nearly to boiling 
and then allow to stand on the hot-plate and settle for some time. 
All these operations may be conducted while the main solution is 
evaporating. Filter through an 11-cm. ashless filter and wash at 
least ten times with warm, dilute cinchonine solution (6cc. of the 
above cinchonine solution to 100 cc. of water). Add, filter and 
precipitate to the ignited tungstic acid in the platinum dish and 
again ignite until all the carbon is burned off. The total tungstic 
acid obtained will usually contain a little silica. Add a few cc. of 
hydrofluoric acid and evaporate to dryness on a water-bath. Again 
ignite strongly and weigh as WO... 

In most cases the residual silica will amount to only about 
0.0008 gram. It will therefore frequently suffice to dispense with 
the platinum dish and hydrofluoric acid, making the evaporation in a 
large porcelain crucible and allowing for the above correction. 

Determination of Tungstic Oxide in Steels and Alloys. (W. W. 

Scott, Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis, 1917) 

Low tungsten steel may be decomposed with hydrochloric or 
dilute sulphuric acid, the greater part of the iron being removed in 
solution and tungsten remaining behind as metal with a small 
amount of iron. The residue is then fused with sodium carbonate, 
the tungstate extracted with water, and tungsten determined gravi- 
metrically. Bearley and Ibbotson recommended the following 

Five grams of the sample are digested with 50 to 100 cc. of 
concentrated hydrochloric acid just short of the boiling point. The 
iron is easily attacked, but tungsten is not. On adding a few drops 
of concentrated nitric acid the ferrous chloride changes to the ferric 
form and tungsten is visibly acted upon until the clear orange- 
colored ferric chloride blackens again, showing that some ferrous 
chloride has reformed. By repeating the addition of nitric acid as 
required, for converting all of the iron to the ferric state and adding 
a slight excess the sample completely passes into solution in a few 
minutes. The essential points of the process consist in the presence 
of sufficient hydrochloric acid to keep the tungstic oxide in solution 
until decomposition is complete, and maintaining the strength of the 
acid during the decomposition. The smaller the excess of acid over 
necessary requirements, the greater the economy of material, and of 
time occupied in the subsequent evaporation. No more oxidant is 
used than is necessary to completely oxidize the iron and tungsten. 
If the acid solution of the metal is boiled until the tungstic acid 
begins to separate out, and then diluted with at least twice its 
volume of hot water and again boiled, all the oxide is precipitated 
except 2 or 3 milligrams. The oxide, WO. , is generally contaminated 
with silica, which may be removed by volatilization with hydro- 


fluoric acid and it contains traces of ferric iron, which may be 
estimated by fusion of the residue with sodium carbonate and ex- 
tracting the tungsten with hot water; the iron remaining may be 
ignited and weighed and the weight subtracted from that of the 
previously weighed oxides WO and Fe^O. . 

In tungsten-molybdenum steels 90 cc. of strong hydrochloric 
acid and 10 cc. of concentrated nitric acid are recommended. The 
solution is evaporated to pastiness and then taken up and boiled with 
dilute hydrochloric acid (1:4), tungsten and silica remaining un- 
dissolved and molybdenum and iron passing into the filtrate. 

Steel containing a high percentage of tungsten is extremely 
hard, so that it is practically impossible to get filings or borings 
without contaminating the sample with material from the cntiinj 
tool. The substance is best prepared by hammering into a coarse 
powder in a steel mortar. These coarse particles are not readily 
decomposed by the usual acid treatment or by the alkali carbonate 
and nitrate fusion. Opening up of the material may be easily ac- 
complished by fusion with potassium acid sulphate. 

About 0.5 gram of the coarse powder is heated with ten times 
its weight of KHSO over a low flame, with covered crucible, the 
flame being removed if the action becomes violent. The melt is 
cooled slightly and an additional 5 grams of bisulphate added ;-ind 
the treatment repeated. Finally a third 5 gram portion of the acid 
sulphate is added and the material heated to a cherry redness for a 
few minues. About fifteen or twenty minutes are sufficient to de- 
compose the material. The heating should be conducted cautiously 
so that only a gentle evolution of gas occurs, and the mass kept in a 
molten state until the black particles of steel have entirely dissolved. 
The mass is now cooled, the crucible and cover placed in 50 to 75 c. 
c. of water and boiled to disintegrate the fused mass. The liquid is 
treated with 20 cc. of concentrated hydrochloric acid until the precipi- 
tated tungstic acid is yellow. After settling, the precipitate is filtered 
off and washed with 10 r A- ammonium nitrate solution. The residue 
is then dissolved in hot dilute ammonium hydroxide, the ammonium 
tungstate then evaporated in a weighed platinum crucible to dryness, 
then covered with a watchglass and the residue heated to decompose 
completely the ammonium salt. Tungstic oxide, WO,^, remains and is 
so weighed. 

Should silica be present in the sample it will contaminate the 
oxide, WO . It is removed by volatilization with hydrofluoric acid. 
A small amount of tungsten passes into the filtrate from the acid 
treatment, which is recovered by repeated evaporation with hydro- 
chloric acid. 

Ferro-Tun^.sten Alloys may be dissolved by 'covering 1 to 2 grams 
of the alloy placed in a platinum dish with hydrofluoric acid and 
adding nitric acid in small portions, the dish being kept covered 
during the intervals between the additions. When the energetic ac- 


tion subsides 10 to 15 cc. of strong sulphuric acid are added and the 
material digested until the decomposition is complete. The mixture 
is now evaporated to SO. fumes over low flame. (Air blown over 
the solution assists evaporation.) The residue is collected on a 
filter and washed well, then ignited and weighed as WO^. 

Specific Gravity Methods for Ores. It is frequently de- 
sirable to know the approximate percentage of tungsten or 
tungsten trioxide in an ore, when a chemical laboratory or an 
analyst are not available. The method of estimating the 
approximate tungsten content by determination of the spe- 
cific gravity of the ores has been much used in various tung- 
sten districts. The method much used in the Boulder field, 
as described by Hess 915(a) is given below. 

The Wolf Tongue Mining Co. originated a method which has 
been used by it and others on the ferberite ores of the Boulder field 
with excellent results, and the constants used there have been found 
serviceable in other fields. The mode of operation is as follows: 

The articles needed are a flask holding about 1500 cubic centi- 
meters of water and scales weighing in grams up to 3 or 4 kilos. The 
flask is counterbalanced, then 1,500 grams of water is weighed into 
it and the height marked on the neck. 

For determinations, 1,300 grams of water is weighed into the 
flask and then dry ore is poured in until the water Is raised to the 
1,500 gram (c. c.) mark. This means, of course, that the ore oc- 
cupies 200 cubic centimeters and that an equal bulk of water weighs 
200 grams. 

The weight of water in the flask, 1,3 00 grams, is subtracted from 
the total weight, and the difference, which is the weight of the ore, 
is divided by 200 grams, the weight of the water displaced, thus 
giving the specific gravity, which is compared with a table giving 
the equivalent percentage of WO^. 

At the Wolf Tongue mill the table has been elaborated so that 
weights may be directly read into percentages by referring to the 
table, as shown below. 

The figures given are, of course, not exact specific gravities but 
are approximations close enough to give valuable data as to the 
probable metallic content of the ore. Such a method is applicable 
wherever there are no other heavy minerals in the ore and wherever 
the gangue is of fairly constant composition. Corrections would 
have to be made for the use with particular ores. For example, the 
specific gravity of the Boulder ferberite is 7.499, or say, 7.5, and the 
specific gravity of scheelite is about 6, so that for equally high per- 
centage the scheelite ore, if free from heavy minerals, such as 
galena, pyrite, and hematite, will have a somewhat lower specific 




o^ ' 

a; xii 

Oj On 

> c o 
^ <ij „ 
t^ > «i 

in- ? 

o c 

^ si S 


8 70. 


2.750 I 
225 I 
250 I 
275 I 
300 I 
3.325 I 
3.350 I 
375 I 
400 I 
425 I 
450 I 
475 I 
500 I 
525 I 
550 I 
575 I 
600 I 
625 I 
3.650 I 
3.675 I 
3.700 I 
3.775 1 
























2.979 I 

3.007 I 

3.035 I 

3.063 I 

3.096 I 
3.129 I 


































165. . . 
170. . . 
175. . . 
180. . . 
185. . . 
190. . . 
195. . . 
200. . . 
205. . . 
210. . . 
215. . . 
200. . . 
225. . . 
230. . . 
235. . . 
240.. . 
245. . . 
250. . . 
255. . . 
260. . . 
265. . . 
270. . . 
275. . . 
280. . . 
285. . . 
290. . . 
295. . . 
300. . . 
305. . . 
310. . . 
315. . . 
320. . . 
325. . . 
330. . . 
335. . . 
340. . . 
345. . . 
350. . . 
355. . . 
360. . . 
365. . . 
370.. . 
375. . . 
380. . . 
385. . . 
390. . . 
400. . . 
405. . . 
410. . . 
415. . . 
420. . . 
425. . . 
430. . . 
435. . . 
440. . . 
445. . . 
450. . . 
455. . . 
460. . . 
465. . . 
470. . . 
475. . . 
480. . . 
485. . . 
490. . . 
495. . . 
500. . . 
505. . . 
510. . . 









































The details of a similar method used in the Atolia field 
are given as follows: 915(a) 

The apparatus used by me in making these specific gravity de- 
terminations was a small scale for weighing out from 1 to 4 kilos 
of the scheelite ore. I had a 2,000 cubic centimeter glass graduate 
which was about 18 or 20 inches in height and some 2 i^ inches in di- 
ameter. I filled this with water, generally for convenience to the 
1,000 cubic centimeter mark, and then introduced the charge of 1 or 
more kilos. The displacement of the ore was noted and the specific 
gravity calculated from it. Then by reference to my chart, which was 
being made more accurate all the time by reason of the various 
analyses to check the specific gravity, I was able to get at an ex- 
tremely close idea of the content — so close in fact, that I latterly 
came to rely more on it than on analyses, more particularly for the 
reason that at that time many chemists used different schemes and 
there were many discrepancies between them for a time. 

Later I made also the accompanying table of specific gravity as 
against WO content and did not then have to refer to the chart. 

It may be of interest to note that I always required scheelite ores 
to be clean- — that is, with the usually accompanying magnetite re- 
moved, as it is quite evident that otherwise my specific gravity de- 
terminations would have been vitiated. 

The table compiled by Mr. Draper and Mr. F. H. Lerchen is as 







'o > 

W bn 





'5 > 

M Si 




















1 21.20 





1 5.62 



1 24.50 





; 5.63 



1 28.00 





1 5.64 






i 5.24 





1 34.00 
























1 42.20 
































1 51.60 








1 54.00 
























































1 57.60 








































































1 59.50 








1 59.80 






















7.7 . 22 




67.00 . 









1 5.54 
























j 5.57 





1 61.20 



1 5.58 







' 67.80 

I 5,59 










1 • 



Runner (652) (915a) has drawn curves showing the re- 
lation of specific gravity and tungstic oxide content for wolf- 
ramite from a number of localities. The results from, these 
curves are not as accurate as from the tables worked out for 
particular deposits, as in the preceding methods. 

The following equation given by Runner can be applied to 
the ore from any particular field and tables or curves of spe- 
cific gravity and tungstic oxide content can be worked out. 

Assuming the density (d) of the gang to be 2.65, of wolframite 
to be 7.35, of scheelite to be 6.0 and the WO content of wolframite 



74.58 <;;<, and of scheelite 80 7f, the WO content of ores is computed 
by means of the following formulas: 

(xXdj^j) (100— X) 100X(do— d^j) 

dQ = '"('^G'^ ) '^^ ^~ 

100 100 (^M"~^G^ 

where x/100=:% by vol. of mineral in ore; dQ = sp. gr. of the ore; 
djyj = sp. gr. of the pure ore-mineral; dQ = sp. gr. of the gang; 
xXd^j/do=:7c by wt. of mineral in ore (W) ; WX%WO^ in ore. 
minerals = 7c W O in ore. The WO^ content of 18 

ores as detd. by chemical analysis and by the com- 
putation method are reported in a table, showing a mean dif- 
ference (except in the presence of SnO) of 0.65%. The method is 
not applicable to ores containing cassiterite, unless the content of the 
latter is constant and can be figured with the gangue. Runner re- 
commends that the density be determined by means of a pycnometer, 
using rather coarsely ground ore, freshly boiled HO, and removing 
air under the pump. An ordinary flask with a mark on neck may 
be used for less accurate determinations. Curves may be drawn 
showing the ratio of density of tungsten minerals to the richness in 
WO . The method is recommended for rapidly obtaining approximate 

In all of these specific gravity methods the assumption 
is made that either the gangue material is quartz, or rock 
of low specific gravity, and that it remains somewhat con- 
stant. The presence of heavy minerals such as cassiterite, 
barite and so forth, will of course, vitiate the results. It is 
said (915a) that one dealer was ruined in 1916 by purchasing 
ore on the specific gravity basis which had been "salted" 
with barite. 



By Miner Louis Hartmann 


The phenomenal rise in importance of tungsten in the 
last few years has created a demand for reliable information 
concerning this metal. The literature of the subject is widely 
scattered thru the technical periodicals and much that has 
been written is merely a brief restatement of facts taken 
from older, more complete descriptions. In making a special 
study of the subject of tungsten during the last three years 
the author has felt the need of a bibliography, and in the fol- 
lowing pages is presented as complete a list of references as 
is permitted by the library facilities available. 

The subject has been divided into ten general sections, 
with sub-divisions as follows: 

I. Early References. 

(a) Earliest references to wolfram. 

(b) Important early references. 

II. Preparation of tungsten metal and its important com- 

mercial compounds. 

III. Properties of tungsten. 

(a) Physical properties of the metal. 

(b) Chemical behavior of the metal. 

(c) Atomic weight. 

IV. Uses of metallic tungsten. 

(a) Uses of tungsten in iron alloys. 

(b) Uses of tungsten in non-ferrous alloys. 

(c) Uses of tungsten in incandescent lighting. 

(d) Uses and preparation of ductile tungsten. 

(e) General and miscellaneous uses of tungsten. 


V. Compounds of tungsten. 

(a) Oxides. 

(b) Acids. 

(c) Tungstates. 

(d) Bronzes. 

(e) Tungsten with the halogens. 

(f) Tungsten and sulfur. 

(g) Tungsten and nitrogen, 
(h) Tungsten and hydrogen, 
(i) Tungsten and phosphorus, 
(j) Tungsten and arsenic. 

(k) Tungsten and zirconium. 

(1) Tungsten and aluminum, 

(m) Tungsten and boron. 

(n) Tungsten and carbon, 

(o) Tungsten and silicon 

(p) Organic compounds. 

VI. Analytical chemistry of tungsten. 

(a) Qualitative detection. 

(b) Quantitative detection. 

(c) Quantitative determination of tungsten in ores. 

(d) Quantitative determination of tungsten in steel and 
other alloys. 

(e) Analysis of metallic tungsten and tungsten com- 

(f) Tungsten compounds as reagents. 

(g) Quantitative separation of tungsten from other 

1. Arsenic and phosphorus. 

2. Silicon. 

3. Tin. 

4. Molybdenum. 

5. Vanadium. 

6. Columbium and tantalum. 

7. Titanium. 

8. Antimony. 

9. Manganese, 

10. Miscellaneous Separations. 


VII. Mineralogy of tungsten. 

VIII. Geological occurrence of tungsten minerals. 

(a) United States. 

(1) Alaska. 

(2) Arizona. 

(3) California. 

(4) Colorado. 

(5) Connecticut. 

(6) Idaho. 

(7) Missouri. 

(8) Montana. 

(9) Nevada. 

(10) New Mexico. 

(11) Oregon. 

(12) South Dakota. 

(13) Texas. 

(14) Washington. 

(b) Foreign. 

(1) Australia. 

(2) Bohemia. 

(3) Burma. 

(4) Canada. 

(5) China and Japan. 
. (6) England. 

(7) France. 

(8) Germany. 

(9) Greenland. 

(10) Italy. 

(11) Malay States. 

(12) New Zealand. 

(13) Portugal. 

(14) Russia. 

(15) South Africa. 

(16) South America. 

(17) Spain. 

(18) Sweden. 

(c) Miscellaneous geological references. 

IX. Mining and milling tungsten ores. 


X. Miscellaneous. 

(a) General reviews. 

(b) Miscellaneous references concerning tungsten, 

(c) Tungsten production and markets. 

The abbreviations for periodicals are, as far as possible, 
the same as those used in "Chemical Abstracts" (See Chemi- 
cal Abstracts 11, pp. VII-XXV, 1917). The volume number is 
given first in bold face type, followed by the page numbers, 
and the year in parenthesis. In case the series is given, it is 
placed in paranthesis, preceding the volume number; parts of 
volume in Roman numerals follow the volume number. In 
some cases where the exact title was not known the contents 
have been indicated in place of the title. 

The classification of references has necessarily been 
made largely from the titles rather than from the contents, 
but as far as possible, cross references to different sections 
have been given when the article was known to contain in- 
formation relative to more than one section. Certain refer- 
ences have been repeated when they were considered very im- 
portant in more than a single section. 

The patent literature has been omitted entirely, largely 
because of incomplete library facilities. It seemed best not 
to publish any patent references unless the list was known to 
be fairly complete. 

The author will appreciate any corrections or additions 
to the following list of references to the literature of tung- 

Rapid City, South Dakota, 
May, 1918. 




1. Ercker, Lazarus, "Fleta Minor." 1574 (German treatise on as- 

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73. Anon. Progress in the metallurgy of tungsten... Elektrochem. 

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74. Kremer, D. Tungsten. Engineering. 102, 6 23 (1916). 

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95. Coblentz, W. W. The thermo-electric properties of tungsten 

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107. Lohse, Ultraviolet spectrum of tungsten. Publik. Astro- 

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108. Worthing, A. G. The variation from Lambert's cosine law of 

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109. Northrup, E. F. Tungsten and molybdenum — their thermal 

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111. Pirani, M. von. Specific resistance and ab.sorptiv.e power of 

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114. Worthing, A. G. The themal conductivities of tungsten, tan- 

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115. Herweg, J. The X-Ray spectrum of tung.sten. Verh. deut. 

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116. Worthing, A. G. Thomson effects in tungsten, tantalum and 

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117. Smith, K. K. Negative thermionic currents from tungsten. 

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126. Sieg, L. P. The torsional elasticity of drawn tungsten Avire. 

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127. Moeller, and Hoffmann, The heat of combustion of tungsten. 

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128. Hyde, E. P., Cady, F. E. and Forsythe, W. E. Color tempera- 

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129. Hull, A. W. and Rice, M. The liigh frequency .spectrum of 

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131. Gorton, W. S. The X-Ray spectrum of tungsten. Phys. Rev. 

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132. Dodge, H. L. The effect of temperature on the elasticity of 

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133. Dershem, E. The tungsten X-Ray si>ectrum. Iowa Acad. Sci. 



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13 5. Luckey, G. P. The tungsten arc under pressure. Phys. Rev. 
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136. Ledoux-Lebard, R. and Dauvillier, A. The K series spectra of 
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13 7. Ledoux-Lebard, R. and Dauvillier, A. The li series spectra of 
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See also under I. 



140. Smith, E. F. On the reactions of metallic molybdenum and 

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141. Smith, E. F. and Oberholtzer, A. The action of gasses on 

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142. Ehrenfeld, C. H. Study of the chemical behavior of tungsten 

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143. Delepine, M. and Hallopeau, L. A. On the heat of oxidation of 

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144. Sackur, O. Passivity of tungsten. Chem. Zt. 28, 954 (1904). 

145. Muthmann, W. Passivity of tungsten. Z. Elektrochem. 10, 

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14 6. Muthmann, W. and Fraunberger, F. Passitivity of tungsten. 
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147. Matignon, C. and Desplantes, G. Oxidation of metals in the 

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148. LeBlanc, M. and Byers. H. G. Anodic behavior of tungsten. 

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150. Fischer, A. Electrochemistry of tungsten and uranium. Z. 

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151. Koerner, W. E. The electrolytic behavior of tungsten. Met. 

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152. Koerner, W. E. The electrolytic behavior of tungsten. Met. 

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See also under I. and V. 



153. Wohler, F. The equivalent weight of tungsten. Am. 77, 

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153a. Schneider, J. prakt. chem. 50, 152 (1850). 
153b. Marchand, Ann. 77, 261 (1851). 

154. Dumas, M. J. The equivalent of tungsten. Ann. chim. Phys. 

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15 5. Waddell, J. Investigations on the atomic weight of tungsten. 

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156. Waddell, J. Atomic weight of tungsten. Trans. Roy. Soc. 

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157. Smith, E. F. and Desi, E. D. Z. anorg. Chem. 8, 205 (1895). 
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158. Shinn, O. L. Thesis, Univ. of Pa. (1896); J. Am. Chem. Soc 

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159. Hardin, W. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 19, 657 (1897). 

160. Smith, E. F. and Hardin, W. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 21, 

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161. Thomas, G. E. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 21, 373 (1899); Thesis, 

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162. Taylor, T. M. Thesis, Univ. of Pa. (1901). 

163. Smith, E. F. and Exner, F. F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 26, 1082; 

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16 4. Clark, F. W. A realculation of the atomic weights. Smith- 

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168. Le Guen. Tung-sten iron. Compt. rend. 56, 593 (18 63). 

169. Percy, J. Metallurgy of Ii-on and Steel. Book, London, 1864. 

170. Le Guen. Influence of tungsten on the properties of cast iron. 

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171. Le Guen. Tungsten .steel as ordnance material. Ann. chem. 

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172. Le Guen. Tung.sten steel. Compt. rend. 61, 593 (1866). 

173. Le Guen. Tungsten Bessemer .steel. Compt. rend. 64, 619 

173a. Caron. (Tungsten-iron alloy) Ann. chim. phys. (3) 58, 
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174. Forbes, D. (Analysis of Mushet's steel)). J. Iron Steel Instl 

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175. Kellermann. Tungsten steel. Deut. Ind. Ztg. 1872, 127. 

176. Kick. Tung.sten steel. Deut. Ind. Ztg. 1872, 3 46. 

177. Clark, J. Properties of Tungsten steel. Deut. Ind. Ztg. 1873, 


178. Gruner. Mushet's special steel. Bull. soc. encour. ind. nat. 

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179. Levallois. Properties of tungsten steel. Deut. Ind. Ztg. 

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180. Heeren. (Tungsten in st-eel). Digler's Polytch. J. 214, 477 


181. Firming. Tungsten steel. Oesterr. Z. Berg-Huttenw. 32, 3 90 


182. Schneider, L. Manufacture of tungsten and iron alloys. 

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183. Metcalf, W. Effect of tungsten on steel rails. Am. Inst. Min. 

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184. Cox. The tungsten industry as applied to steel and other 

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18 5. Pietruska, K. Tungsten steel. Chem. Z. 4, 243 (1881). 

186. Heppe, G. Industrial uses of tungsten. Oest.-ung. Mont. u. 

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187. Osmond, F. Influence of tungsten on iron and steel. Compt. 

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18S. Heppe, G. Industrial uses of tungsten. Polyt. Notizbl. 41, 
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189. Osmond, F. The citical points of iron and steel. J. Iron Steel 

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190. Osmond, F. Influence of tungsten on iron and steel. Compt. 

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191. Poleck, T. and Grutzner, B. Crj'stallized iron-tungsten alloy. 

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192. Wahl, W. Fen-o-tungsten. Proc. Frankl. Inst. 134, 470 


193. Langley, J. W. The properties of steel (including tungsten 

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194. Bedford, J. On tungsten. Book, Sheffield (1893). 

195. De Benneville, J. S. Some alloys of iron with molyhdenum, 

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196. Blair, T. Tungsten iUloys. Paper before Sheffield Society of 

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198. Van Linge. (Tunsten steel). Z. anal. Chem. 33, 513 

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43 S. Michaelis. (Action of phosphorus tricliloride on tungsten 

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450. Granger. A. On the production of tungsten blue on porce- 

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459a. Greenwood. (Preparation of tungsten dioxide) Trans. 

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460. Hertwig. (Tungsten in glass coloring). Keramische Rund- 

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See also II. 

V (b). ACIDS. 

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466. Schafarik, A. Some tungsten and vanadium compounds. 

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47 9. Muller. J. H. Action of salicylic acid upon metallic acids. 

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480. Muller, A. Preparation of bydrosol of tungstic acid. Z. 

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481. Vasil'ev, A. Th. Photocbemical behavior of colloidal tungstic 

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48 2. Lottermoser, A. Optical investigation of the precipitation of 

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See also II; V (i) (j) (m) (n). 


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485. Sacc. Barium tungstate as paint material. Les Mondes. 1!>, 

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485a. Manross. (Tung.states) Ann. 81, 243 (1852). 
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486. Christ, K. Preparation of sodium tungstate. Dinglers Poly- 

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490. Hautefeuille. (Use of potassium tungstate in preparation of 

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490c. Lefort. (Tungstates) Ann. chim. phys. 22, 234 (1883). 
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490g. von Knorre. (Tungstates) Ber. 19, 821 (1886). 
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493. Bernstein and Kohan. Physiological action of sotlium tung- 

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494. Smith, E. F. and Dieck, H. L. A crystalline chromium tung- 

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495. Merti and Luchsiner. Pliysiological action of sodium tung- 

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4 96. Hitchcock, F. R. M. The tungstates and molybdates of the 
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4 97. Nievenglowski. Photograpliic properties of tungsten com- 
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49 8. Knecht, E. Tungsten (.sodium tungstate) as- a wool mordant. 
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499. Hallopeau, L. A. Antimonio-tungstates and the separation of 

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500. Radiguet. (Use of calcium tungstate for Roentgen screens). 

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500a. Melikoff and Pissarjewsky. (Pertungstates) Ber. 31, 632 

501. Granger, A. Production of blue glaze by reduction of tung- 

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502. Scheurer, A. Metallic tungstates employed with barium 

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506. Cmith, E. F. and Exner, F. F. Ammonium venedo-tungstates. 

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520. Carnot, A. Cobaltammino molybdate, tungstate and vanadate. 

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See also V(d) (Bronzes). 

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915. Anon. Solubility of tungsten minerals. Min. Sci. Press 115, 

298 (1917). 
915a. Hess, F. L. (Tungsten minerals and deposits) U. S. Geol. 

Surv. Bull. 652 (1917). 
915b. Wells, R. C. and Butter, B. S. Tungstenite, a new mineral. 

J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 7, (20) 596-99 (1917). 
See also I and VIII. 





916. Knopf, A. The mineral deposit of the Lost River and 

Brooks Mountain Region, Seward Peninsula, Alaska. U. S. 
Geol. Surv. Bull. 345, (1908). 

917. Knopf, A. Geology of the Seward Peninsula tin deposits. U. 

S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 358, (1908). 

918. Knopf, A. AVolframite-topaz ore from Alaska. Science. New 

series. 27, 924 (1908). 

919. Johnson, B. L. Occurrence of wolframite and cassiterite in 

the gold placers of Deadwood Creek. Birch Creek district, 
Alaska. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 442, 246 (1910). 

920. Brooks, A. H. Geologic features of Alaskan Metalliferous 

lodes. U. S. Geol. Surv. 480, 8 8-90 (1911). 

921. Bateman, A. M. A tungsten deposit near Fairbanks, Alaska. 

Econ. Geol. 13, 112-15 (1918). 

VIII (a). 2. ARIZONA. 

922. Blake, W. P. Hubnerite in Arizona. Trans. Am. Inst. 

Min. Eng. 28, 543-6 (1898). 

923. Blake, W. P. OccuiTence and production of wolframite in 

Arizona. Mineral Industry. 7, 720-22 (1898). 

924. Blake, W. P. Wolframite in Arizona. Eng. Min. J. 65, 608 


925. Church, J. A. The Tombstone, Arizona Mining District. 

Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. 33, 3 (1903). 

926. Rickard, F. Notes on the tungsten deposits of Arizona. Eng. 

Min. J. 78, 263-5 (1904). 

927. Kellogg, L. O. Sketch of the geology and ore deposits of the 

Cochise Mining districts, Arizona. Econ. Geol. 1, 6 5 4-5 

928. Surr, G. Tungsten in Arizona. Am. Min. Rev. 22, Nov. 23 

9 29. Richards, R. W. The Dragoon, Arizona tungsten depo.sits. 

Min. Sci. 57, 93-4 (1908). 
93 0. Schrader, F. C. The mineral deposits of the Cerbat Range, 
Black Mountains and Grand "Wash Cliffs, Mohave County, 

Arizona. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 340, 53-83 (1908). 
931. Hill, J. M, Note on the occurrence of tungsten minerals 

near Calabasas, Arizona. L". S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 340, 

164-6 (1909). 


932. Hess, F. L. Notes on a wolframite deposits in the AVheat- 

stone 3Iountains, Arizona. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 380, 
164-5 (1909). 

933. Guild, F. N. The mineralogy of Arizona. Book. 1910. 

934. Anon. A tung.sten deposit in AVestern Arizona. Eng. Min. 

J. 90, 1103 (1911). 
93.5. Rubel, A. C. Tungsten (in Arizona). University of Arizona, 
Bur. of Mines. Bull No. 11 (1916). 


93 G. Hanks, H. G. The minerals of California. Reports State 

Mineraligist. 1SS4. 
93 7. Surr, G. Tungsten near Randsburg. Am. Min. Rev. 22, Nov. 

9 (1907). 

935. Hess. F. L. Note on a tungsten-bearing vein near Raymond, 

California. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 340, 2 71 (1908). 

93 9. Surr, G. Tungsten at Victorville. Am. :\Iin. Rev. 24, July 

11. (1908). 

940. Williams. J. H. Tungsten deposits near Ivanspah, San Ber- 
nardino County, California. Min. Rev. Oct. 30, (1909). 

9 41. Dolbear, S. H. Occurrence of tungsten in the Rand District, 
California. Eng. Min. J. 90, 904-5 (1910). 

942. 'Williams, J. H. Tungsten deposits of San Bernardina County, 

California. Min. Sci. Press. 103, 54 5 (1911). 

943. Nevius, J. N. Notes on the Randsburg tungsten di-strict, Cali- 

fornia, Mining and Oil Bull. May 1916. 

944. Storms, W. H. New scheelite discovery. Min. Sci. Press. 

113, 768 (1916). 

945. Hutchinson. C. T. The tungsten mines of Atolia. Min. Sci. 

Press. May 27, 1916. 

946. Glasgow, J. AV. Tungsten mining at Atolia, California. ^lin. 

and Oil Bull. Jan. 1916. 
9 47. Anon. Tungsten mines of Inyo County, California. Min. Sci. 

Press. 115, 95 (1917). 
9 48. Knopf. A. Tungsten deposits of northwestern Inyo County, 

California. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 640 L, 229-49 (1917). 


94 9. Comstock, T. B. The distribution of San Juan ores. Eng. 

Min. J. 38, 29, 45, 98, 200, 315, 328 (1885). 

950. Cooper, C. A. The tungsten ores of San Juan County, Colo- 

rado. Eng. Min. J. 67, 499 (1899). 

951. Lee, H. A. Tungsten ores in Colorado. Eng. Min. J. 71, 

466 (1900). 

952. Lee, H. A. Tungsten ores. Mining Bureau of Colorado. Bull. 

4, 12, 1901; Bull. 5, 20 (1902). 


9 53. Ransome, F. L. Report on the economic geology of the Sil- 
vertcii Quadrangle, Colo. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 182, 

9.54. Anon. Tungsten at Cripple Creek. ]\Iln. Reporter. 51, 133 

95 5. Thomas, K. The Boulder County Coloriido tungsten deposits. 

Min. World. 23, (1905). 
9 56. Anon. The tungsten industry of Boulder County, Colorado. 

Min. Reporter. 51, 5 (1905). 
957. Moses, A. J. Crystallized wolframite from Boulder, Colo- 
rado. Am. J. Sci. (4) 20, 281 (1905). 
9 58. Lindgren, W. and Ransome, F. L. Geology- and gold deposits 

of the Cripple Creek district, Colorado. U. S. Geol. Surv. 

Prof. Paper 54, 127 (1906). 
9 5 9. Greenawalt, W. E. The tungsten deposits of Boulder County, 

Colorado. Eng. Min. J. 83, 951-2 (1907). 
9 6 0. Lindgren, AV. Some gold and tung.sten depo.sits of Boulder 

County, (\>lorado. Econ. Geol. 2, 453-63 (1907). 
961. George, R. D. and Crawford, R. D. The main tungsten area 

of Boulder County, Colorado. Colo. Geol. Surv. First 

report, 1908. 

96 2. George, R. D. and Crawford, R. D. The main tungsten area 

of Boulder County, Colorado. Proc. Colo. Sci. Soc. J), 

181-216 (1909). 
96 3. Von Wagenen, H. R. Tung.sten in Colorado. Quart. Colo. 

School of Mines, April, 1909; Bull. Colo. Sch. Mines, 

3, 138. 
96 4. Prosser, W. C. Tungsten in San Juan County, Colorado. 

Eng. Min. J. 90, 320 (1910). 
96 5. Wood, J. R. Rare metals in Boulder County, Colorado. 

Min. Sci. 62, 11 (1910). 
96 6. Ackermann, E. Production of tungsten in Colorado. Rev. 

de chim. Ind. April 1911. 
96 7. Carl, P. H. Tungsten, Colorado and el.sewhere. Min. Sci. 63, 

92-4 (1911). 
968. Dalzell, T. J. Tungsten. Biennial Report Colo. State Bureau 

of Mines. 1911, 21-23 
96 9. Dalzell, T. J. Deep mining for tungsten in Colorado. Min. 

Sci. 63, 498-9 (1911). 
9 70. Greenawalt, W. E. The tungsten deposits of Boulder County, 

Colo. Cornell Civ. Eng. 20, 197-202 (1912). 
9 71. Tomblin, M. B. Tung.sten: History, occurrence, uses. Facts 

concerning tungsten mining in world's greatest field, 

Boulder County, Colo. Boulder County Metal Mining Assoc. 

Bull. No. 3, 1912. 

972. Anon. Tungsten in Colorado. Min. and Eng. Rev. Sept. 5, 


9 73. George. R. D. TuiiRsten in Colorado. Eng. Miu. J. {)5, 

186 (1913). 
974. Palmer, L. A. Tungsten in Boulder County, Colo. Eng. 

Mill. J. 96, 99-105 (1913). 
9 75. Bastin, E. S. Ores of Gilpin County, (^olorado. Ec. Geol. 

», 262-96 (1915). 
9 76. Bastin, E. S. Preliminary report on the economic seolt>R.v 

of Gilpin (\>unty, Colorado. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 620 


977. Kirk, C. T. Tungsten district of Boulder County, (\)lorado. 

Min. Sci. Press. 112, 791-5 (1916). 

978. Wolf, H. J. and Barbour, P. P. The Boulder County tung- 

sten di.strict. Eng. Min. J. 102, (1916). 


9 7 9. Gurlt. A. On a remarkable deposit of wolfram ore in the 
United States. Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. 22, 236-42 

980. Hobbs, W. H. The old tungsten mine at Trumbull, Connecti- 

cut. U. S. Geol. Surv. 22nd. Annual Report, part 2, 7-22 

981. Hobbs, W. H. Tungsten mining at Trumbull, Connecticut. 

U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 213, 98 (1903). 

VIII (a). 6. IDAHO. 

9 82. Auerbach, H. S. Tungsten ore deposits of the Couer d'- 
Alene. Eng. Min. J. 86, 1146-8 (1908). 

983. Rowe, G. P. The Couer d'Alene Mining district, Idaho. 

Min. World. 29, 739, 777, 843, (1908); 30, 11, 89. 117. 
318, 357, 428 (1909). 

984. Lind J. G. Geology and tungsten deposits of the Patterson 

Creek district, Idaho. Private report, p. 8, 1912 (See 
Hess, U S Geol. Surv. Bull. 652). 

985. Umpleby, J. B. Geology and ore deposits of Uemhi County, 

Idaho. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 528, (1913). 


986. Haworth, E. A contribution to the Ardiean geology of Mis- 

souri. Am. Geol. 1, 294-5 (1888). 

VIII (a). 8. MONTANA. 

987. Pearce, R. The association of minerals in the Gagnon v«'iii, 

Butte City, Montana. Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. 16, 6 4 

988. Goodale. C. W. and Ackers, W. A. Notes on the geology of 

the Flint Creek Mining district. Trans. Am. Inst. Min. 
Eng. 18, 248 (1890). 


989. Tomek, F. Tungsten in 3Iontana. Min. World.. 28, 63 


990. Weed, W. H. Geology and ore deposits of Butte District, 

3Iontana. U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper, 74, 80 (1912). 
991. Morris, C. E. Tungsten in Montana. Eng. Min. J. 92, 784 
9 92. Winchell, A. N. The mining districts of the Dillon Quadran- 
gle. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 574, 123 (1914). 

VIII (a). 9. NEVADA. 

993. Weeks, F. B. An occurrence of tungsten ore in Eastern 

Nevada. U. S. Geol. Surv. 21st. Annual Report, part 6, 
319-20 (1901). 

994. Smith, F. B. Tlie Osceola, Nevada tungsten depo.sits. Eng. 

Min. J. 73, 304-5 (1902). 
9 9 5. Weeks, F. B. An occurrence of tungsten ore in Eastern Ne- 
vada. Eng. Min. J. 72, 8 (1902). 
9 96. Weeks, F. B. Tungsten ore in Eastern Nevada. U. S. Geol. 

Surv. Bull. 213, (1903). 
99 7. Weeks, F. B. Tungsten deposits in the Snake Range, AVhite 

Pine County, Eastern Nevada. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 340, 

263-70 (1908). 
998. Burgess, J. A. (Hubnerite and scheelite at Tonopah). Econ. 

Geol. 6, 22 (1911). 
99 9. Eakle, A. S. The minerals of Tonopah, Nevada. California 

Univ. Dept. of Geol. Bull. 7, 1-20 (1912). 
10 00. Hess, F. L. and Hunt, W. F. Triplite (with hubnerite) from 

Eastern Nevada. Am. J. Sci. (4) 36, 51-4 (1913). 

Vni (a). 10. NEW MEXICO. 

1001. Llndgren, W., Graton, L. C. and Gorden, C. H. The ore de- 

posits of New Mexico. U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 68, 
180, 292, 336 (1910). 

VIII (a). 11. OREGON. 

1002. Lindgren, W. The gold belt of the Blue Mountains of Ore- 

goA. U. S. Geol. Surv. 22nd. Annual Report II, 644 


1003. Anon. (Discovery of tungsten in Black Hills). Black Hills 

Min. Rev. Jan. 16, (1899). 

1004. Forsyth, A. (Discovery of tung-sten near Lead). Black Hills 

Min. Rev. 5, No. 32 (1899). 

1005. Irving, J. D. Some recently exploited deposits of wolframite 

in the Black Hills, of South Dakota. Trans. Am. Inst. 
Min. Eng. 31, 083-95 (1901). 


1006. Raymond, R. W. Discussion of paper by Ii-A^ing on wolfram- 

ite in Black Hills of South Dakota. Trans. Am. Inst. 
Min. Eng. 31, 1025-6 (1901). 

1007. OHarra, C. C. The mineral wealth of the Black Hills. S. 

D. Geol. Surv. Bull. Xo. 3; S. Dak. School of Mines Bull. C, 
11 (1902). 

1008. Simmons, J. Tungsten ores of the Black Hills. Min. Rep. 

50, 217-8 (1904). 

1009. Irving. J. D. Ore deposits of the Northern Black Hills. 

Rpt. of Proc. Am. Fg. Cong. 6th Am. Sess. 1904, p. 38-55. 

1010. Irving, J. D. The ore deposits of the Northern Black Hills. 

U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 225, 123-40 (1904). 

1011. Anon. Tungsten ores in the Black Hills. Min. Repl 50, 

217 (1904). 

1012. Irving, J. D. The ore deposits of the northern Black Hills. 

Min, Rep. 50, 430-1 (1904). 

1013. Irving, J. D. Economic resources of the northern Black 

Hills. U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper, 26, 43-222 (1904). 

1014. Hess, F. L. Tin, tung.sten and tantalum deposits of South 

Dakota. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 380, 131-161 (1909). 

1015. Quinney, E. H. Tungsten in the Black Hills and methods for 

its determination. Min. Sci. P. 65, 45-6 (1913). 

1016. Ziegler, V. The minerals of the Black HiUs. S. Dak. School 

of Mines Bull. 10, 218, 222 (1914). 

1017. Ziegler, V. The mineral resources of the Harney Peak peg- 

matites. Min. Sci. Press. 108, 604-8, 654-6 (1914). 

1018. Simmons, J. The Black Hills of South Dakota as a good pro- 

ducer of tungsten. Min. World, Nov. 20 (1915). 

VIII (a). 13. TEXAS. 

1019. Comstock. T. B. Report on the Geology and mineral resources 

of the central mineral region of Texas. Report of Geol. 
Survey of Texas. 1890, 597-600. 

1020. Simonds, F. W. The minerals and mineral localities of 

Texas. Texas Univ. Min. Surv. Bull. 5, 3-95 (1902); 
Science. 14, 796 (1902). 
10 21. Hess, F. L. Minerals of the rare earth metals at Baringer 
Hill. Llano County, Texas. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 340, 286- 
294 (1908). 

Mil (a). 14. WASHINGTON. 

1022. Thyng. W. S. Tungsten deposits in AVashington. Eng. 

Min. J. 73, 418 (1902). 
10 23. Joseph, M. H. Tungsten ore in Washington. Eng. Min. J. 

81, 409 (1906). 
10 24. Bancroft, H. Notes on tungsten depo.sits near Deer Park, 

Wa.shington. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 430. 214-16 (1910). 


1025. Wolf, A. Tungsten ore in Washington. INIines & Minerals. 

31, 307 (1910). 

1026. Anon. A Tungsten in Stevens County, Washington. Erz- 

bergbau. 1J)10, 343. 

1027. Bancroft, H. The ore deposits of northeastern Washington. 

U. S. Geol. gurv. Bull. 550, (1914). 



1028. Liversldge, A. The minerals of New Soutli Wales, 1888. 

p. 85. 

1029. Carne, J. E. Tungsten ores in New Soutli Wales. Aust. 

Min. Stand. Jan. 6 and 13 (1898). 

1030. Carne, J. E. Notes on the occurrence of tungsten ores in 

New South Wales. N. S. W. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 2, 

1031. Pittmann, E. F. The mineral resources of New Soutli Wales. 

N. S. W. Geol. Surv. 1901, 294-303. 

1032. Waller, G. A. AVolfram near Pieman Heads (Tasmania). 

Aust. Min. Stand. Nov. 14 (1901). 

1033. Cameron, W. E. Wolfram, molybdenite and bismuth mining 

at AVolfram Camp, Hodgkinson Goldfield. Queens. Gov. 

Min. J. July 15, 1903. 
103 4. Cameron, W. E. Wolfram and molybdenite mining in 

Queensland. Queens. Gov. Min. J. Feb. 15. 1904; Queens. 

Geol. Surv. Rep. 188, 13 (1904). 
103 5. Plummer, J. Australian tungsten. Min. World. Dec. 3, 

103 6. Andrews, E. C. The geology of the New Kngland Phiteau. 

N. S. W. Geol. Surv. 8, 138-141 (1905). 
1037. Dunstan, B. Wolfram in Queensland. Queens. Gov. Min. J. 

6, 334 (1905); Undersecretary for Mines. Annual Rep. for 

1903, p. 151 (1904). 
103 8. Conder, H. The wolfram deposits of New England, New 

South AVales. Eng. Min. J. 78, 170-1 (1905). 

1039. Anon. Tungsten in Au.stralia. Eng. Min. J. 78, 900 (1905). 

1040. Simpson, E. S. and Gibson, C. G. The distribution and occur- 

rence of the baser metals in AVestern Australia Bull. West. 
Aust. Geol. Survey No. 30, p. 15 5-317 (1907). 

1041. Twelvetrees, W. H. Report on the Bill Mount and Middlesex 

district, Ta.smania. Tasm. Geol. Surv. Rept. 1007, 1-30. 

1042. Cherry, F. J. Mining for wolfram and copper on Noble 

I.sland. Queens. Gov. Min. J. 9, 263 (1908). 

1043. Anon. AA'olfram mining in North Queensland. Queens. Gov. 

Min. J. 9, 226 (1908). 
10 4 4. Playford, E. C. Goldfields and Mining. Chief Warden's Re- 
port on the Northern Territory, 1907; Adelaide, 1908, 28, 
30, 31, 41. 


1045. IMacdonalcl. A. R. The Queensland Mining- Industry. Queens. 

Gov. Min. J. 12, 110 (1911). 

1046. Ball, L. C. Woll'rani and molybdenite in Queen-iland. Queens. 

Gov. Min. J. 12, (1911). 

1047. Carne. J. E. The tungsten mining; industry of New Soutli 

Wales. Bull. Imp. Inst. 10, 688 (1912). 
10 48. Ball, L. C. A resume of recent field studies on tung.sten ore. 

Queens. Gov. Min. J. Jan. 15 (1913). 
1049. Ball, L. C. Wolfram mines at Mount Carbine. Queens. Gov. 

Min. J. 14, 70 (1913). 
10 50. Ball, L. C. The wolfram, molybdenite and bismuth mines of 

Bamford, Xortli Queensland. Queens. Gov. Min. J. No. 14, 

10 51. Anon. Molybdenite and wolframite in New South Wales. 

Iron Coal Trades Rev. 88, 914 (1914). 

1052. Hills, L. and Waterhouse, L. L. Tungsten and molybdenum 

in Tasmania, 1!)16. Tasmania Geol. Survey (1916). 

1053. Gray, G. J. and Winters, R. J. Report on Yenberrie wolfram 

and molybdenite field. Northern Territory of Australia 

Bull. 15A, 3 (1916). 
10 54. Saint-Smith, E. C. Devon wolfram mine, near Coolgarra, 

Queensland. Queens. Gov. Min. J. Feb. 15, 1916. 
10 54a. Gudgeon, C. W. (The scheelite deposits of Otago Province, 

South Island, Au.stralia) Proc. Aust. Inst. Min. Eng. 21, 

1916; Min. Mag. 15, 103 (1916). 
1054b. Anon. (Tungsten deposit near Booroowa, N. S. W.) Min. 

Journ. March 10 (1917); Min. Journ. 114, 597. 


1055. Weidinger, G. Analysis of wolframite crystals from Zinnwald. 

Zeit. Pharm. 7, 73 (1855). 

1056. Rammelsberg, C. F. Wolframite from Bohemia. Handb. der 

Mineral. Chem. p. 309 (1860). 

1057. Krenner, J. A. Wolframite from the trachyte of 

Min. pet. Mitt. 5, 9 (1875). 

1058. Sandberger, F. (Tungsten in Northern Bohemia). K. bayer. 

Akad. Munchen. Math. phys. Classe. Sitzber. 1888, 4 23. 

1059. Helmhacker, R. Wolfram ore. Eng. Min. J. 62, 153 (1896). 

VIH (b). 3. BURMA. 

1060. Fermor, L. L. Note on an occurrence of wolfram in Nagpur 

district Central Provinces. Records, Geol. Surv. India. 3(>, 
IV, 301-11 (1908). 

1061. Bleeck, A. W. G. On some occurrences of wolframite lodes 

and deposits in the Tavey district of lower Burma. Records, 
Geol. Survey of India. Vol. 431, 48-74 (1913). 
106 2. Anon. Minerals in Burma. Rangoon Gazette, May 28, 1913 
(Quoted by Hess, U. S. G. S. Alin. Resources 1012, p. 9 96). 


1063. Anon. Tungsten in India. Geol. Surv. India. 45 III, (1915). 
10 64. Maxwell-Lefroy, E. AVolframite in lower Burma. Bull. Inst. 

Min. Met. London, Dec. 1915; Eng. Min. J. 99, 6 84 (1915). 
106 5. Charter, C. W. Tin and wolfram mining in Burma. Iron and 

Coal Trades Rev. 90, 8 80 (1915). 

1066. Page; J. J. A. Remarks on E. Maxwell-LeFroj 's "Wolframite 

Mining in the Tavoy District." Inst. Min. Met. Bull. 138, 47 

1067. Jones, W. R. Tin and tung.'iten lodes (Burma), Min. ]\Iag. 

17, 230 (1917). 
106 8. Griffiths, H. D. The wolfram depo.sits of Burma. Min. :\Iag. 
17, 60 (1917). 

VIII (b). 4. CANADA. 

1069. Johnson, R. A. A. Hubnerite. Can. Geol. Surv. Rept. .11, 

lOR (1898). 

1070. Ross, A. C. Tungsten ores in Cape Breton. Eng. Min. J. 08, 

370 (1899). 

1071. Johnson, R. A. A. (Tungsten occurrences in Canada). Can. 

Geol. Surv. Min. Res. (1904). 

1072. Atkin, A. J. R. An occurrence of scheelite near Baskerville, 

British Columbia. Geol. Mag. 2, 116-7 (1905). 

1073. McCallum, A. L. An interesting occurrence of scheel'te iu 

Nova Scotia. Can. Min. J. 29, 456-7 (1908). 

1074. Walker, T. L. The occurrence of tungsten ores in Canada. 

Can. Min. J. 29, 302-3 (1908); Can. Min. Inst. Journ. lA, 
367-71 (1908). 

1075. Walker, T. L. Report on the tungsten ores of Canada. Can. 

Dept. Mines Report, No. 25 (1909). 

1076. Walker, T. L. Tungsten ores in Canada. Min. World. 30, 

747 (1909). 
10 7 7. Hayward, A. A. Tungsten and the 3Ioose River schcelite 
veins. J. Min. Soc. Nova Scotia. 15, 65-78 (1909). 

1078. Faribault, E. R. Southern part of Kings and Ea.stern part 

of Lunenburg counties. Nova Scotia, Canada. Can. Geol. 
Surv. Sum. Rep. 1908, 150-8 (1909). 

1079. Faribault, ^. R. Tung.sten deposits of Moos& River, Nova 

Scotia. Can. Geol. Surv. Sum. Rep. 1909, 228-234 (1910); 
Can. Min. J. 31, 428-30 (1910). 

10 80. Young, G. A. A descriptive sketch of the geologj- and econo- 
mic minerals of Canada, Can. Geol. Surv. (1909); Abstract 
Can. Min. J. 30, 6 8 4-5 (1909). 

10 81. Anon. Scheelite, a new tungsten camp in Nova Scotia. Can. 
Min. J. Sept. 15, 19^0. 

1082. Faribault, E. R. Structure of tungsten deposits of Moose 
River, Nova Scotia. J. Min. Soc. Nova Scotia. 15, 15 9-6 4 
(1910); Industrial Advocate, April (1910); Min. World. 33, 
659-70 (1910). 


1083. Anon. The tungsten ores of Canada. Eng. Min. J. 88, 729 

10 S 4. Walker, T. L. Recently discovered wolframite deposits in 

New Brunswick. Econ. Geol. 6, 397 (1911). 

108 5. McCallum, A. L. Scheelite in Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia Inst. 

Sci. Proc. and Trans. 12, III, 250-2 (1912). 

1086. Hills, V. G. A tungsten mine in Nova Scotia. Min. Sci. Press. 

106, 448-50 (1913). 

1087. Walker, T. L. Report on the tungsten ores of Canada. Ot- 

tawa Bureau of Mines, 1914. 


loss. Jeremejew, P. On the Avolframite from Demidow copper mine 

in the neighborhood of Kolywan mine, Altai. Russ. mineral. 

ges. Verh. 31, 404 (1894). 
1089. Wada, T. Minerals of Japan. (translated by T. Ogawa) p. 

77 (1904). 
10 90. Anon. Tungsten deposits of the Kurasawa mine. Province 

Kai. Bull. Geol. Surv. Japan, 17, 23. 
1090a. Hansen, C. C. Daily Cons. Tr. Kept. October 26 (1914). 
1090b. Curtice, R. S. Daily Cons. Tr. Rept. September 21 (1914). 
1090c. Kirjassoff, M. D. Comm. Rept. August 26 (1916) and Feb. 

1090d. Arnold, J. R. Comm. Rept. March 27 (1917). 
1090e. Hansen, C. C. Comm. Rept. March 24 (1917). 

1091. Anon. "Wolframite in South China. Min. Sci. Press. 116, 84 



1092. Collins, J. H. Notes on some of the less common metals of 

the West of England. Eng. Min. J. 81, 1225 (1906). 

1093. Finlayson, A. M. The ore bearing pegmatite of Carrock Fell, 

Cumberland, and genetical importance of tungsten ores. 
Geol. Mag. 7, 19-28 (1910). 

109 4. Collins, J. H. Tin and tung.sten in the West of England. IMin. 

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1095. Dewey, H., Bromehead, C. E. N. and Corruthers , R. G. 

Tungsten and manganese ores in Graet Britain. Geol. Surv. 
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1096. Terrell. E. Tungsten in AVest of England. Min. Mag. Nov. 

109 7. Abraham, G. D. The most valuable mine of today. Autocar, 
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VIII (b). 7. FRANCE. 
1098. Damour, A. Tantaliferous tungsten minerals from the Haute- 
Vienne department. Soc. Geol. France. Bull. (2) 5, 108 


1099. Bertrand, E. On the hubnerite of the Pyrenees. Soc. Min. 

de France. Bull. 5, 90 (1882). 

1100. La Croix, A. Wolframite in France. ..Mineral. France et 

Colonics. 4 I, 293 (1910). 

VIII (b). 8. GERMANY. 

1101. Schneider, R. AVolframite from Hartz Mountains. Pogg. 

Ann. (4) 3, 474 (1854). 
110 2. Beck, R. A recently opened tungsten ore deposit and other 
new exposures in Saxon tungsten mines. Z. prakt. Geol. 15, 
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1103. Boggild, O. B. Minerals of Greenland. Mineral and Geol. 

Mus. Univ. Copenhagen. Contrib. to mineral. No. 6, 
p. 182 (1905). 

1104. Boggild, O. B. Minerals of Greenland. Meddelelsen om 

Greenland, No. 32, p. 179 (1905). 

Vin (b). 10. ITALY. 

1105. Lovisato, D. The tungsten minerals of Genna Gui'en, Italy. 

Atti. Accad. Lincei. (5) 16, I, 632-8 (1907). 

1106. Granigg, B. and Koritschoner, J. H. The tourmaline-bearing 

copper-scheelite deposits of Mount Mulatto near Predazzo. 
Z. prakt. Geol. 21, 484 (1913). 


1107. Berlich, H. Mining in Trengganu (Malay). Min. Mag. 13, 

263 (1915). 

1108. Anon. Tungsten ores in the Federated Malay States. Min. 

Mag. 14, 347 (1916). 
1108a. Scrivenor, J. B. Report on the occurrence of tungsten in 
the Federated Malay States) Min. Journ. 114, 384, 406, 
433 (1916); Min. Mag. 14, 348 (1916). 


110 9. McKay, A. On the geology of Stewart Island and the tin 
deposits of Port Pegasus district. New Zeal. Col. Mus. 
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1110. Finlayson, A. M. The scheelite of Otago. New Zeal. Inst. 

Trans. Proc. 40, 112 (1908). 

1111. Gudgeon, C. W. Scheelite mining in New Zealand. Aust. 

Min. Stand. Nov. 13 (1913). 

1112. Gudgeon, C. W. The scheelite-gold mines of Otago, New Zea- 

land. Proc. Australian Inst. Min. Eng. Nov. 21 (1916); 
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VIII (b). 13. PORTUGAL. 

1113. Preus, "\V. The Panasqucira tungsten district, Portugal. 

Eng. Mill. J. 83, 843 (1907). 

1114. Bronckart, F. Tungsten in Portugal. Ann. See. Geol. Belg. 

1908, B. 182 (1909). 

1115. von Bonhourst, C. Tungsten and iron in Portugal. Chem. 

Ztg. 1912, 689; Min. Sci. Press. Dec. 14 (1912). 

1116. Dorpenhouse, W. T. The tin, tungsten and uranium mines 

of the Atlantic coast ranges of the Iberian Peninsula. Metal 
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1117. Down, T. A. Tin and tungsten in Portugal. Min. Mag. 14, 

19-24 (1916). 

VIII (b). 14. RUSSIA. 

1118. von Koulibin, N. Hubnerite from the Bajewsk deposits in the 

Urals. Russ. Mineral ges. Verh. (2) 3, (1868). 

1119. Beck, W. and Teich, N. On wolframite and scheellte from 

Fundorten, Russia. Russ. Mineral, ges. St. P. Verh. (2) 4, 
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1120. Johnson, J. P. The ore deposits of South Africa. Book. 

1908. p. 40. 

1121. Rumbold, W. R. The South African tin deposits. Trans. Am. 

Inst. Min. Eng. 39, 783 (1909). 
1121a. Anon. (Tungsten in British South Africa) So. Afri. Min. 
Journ. 1915, 344. 

1122. Anon. The tungsten deposits of Essexvale, Southern Rho- 

desia. Roy. Soe. Arts. Aug. 31, (1917); Bulawayo Chro- 
nicle, May 18, 1917; Abstract, Chem. News, 116, 291-3 
1122a. Anon. (Tungsten in German Southwest Africa) So. Africa 
Min. Journ. July 1, 1916. 

1123. Zealley, A. E. V. Tungsten at Essexvale, Rhodesia. Rhocl. 

Geol. Surv. 1917; Abst. Min. Mag. 17, 92 (1917). 

Vin (b). 16. SOUTH AMERICA. 

1124. Bogenbender, G. The tungsten mines from Sierre Cordoba, 

Argentina. Z. prakt. Geol. Nov. (1894), p. 409. 
112 5. von Keyserling. Wolfram deposits in the Argentina Republic. 
Z. prakt. Geol. 17, 156 (1909). 

1126. Weckwarth, E. The occurrence of the rare metals in Peru. 

Digest translation. Min. Jour. April 24 )1909). 

1127. Anon. Discovery of tungsten deposits in Chile. Chem. Ind. 

33, 792 (1911). 

1128. Tarnawiecki, H. C. The Huaura wilfram mines (Peru). Min. 

Journ. July 8, 1911. 


1129. Wepfer, G. W. Tungsten in Bolivia. Eng Min. J. June 20, 


1130. de Habech, T. A. V. Tungsten in Peru. Bull. 11, Peruvian 

Corps of Mining Engineers. 
113 0a. Bliek, P. P. and Soehnlein, M. G. F. (Tungsten deposits of 

Bolivia) Eng. Min. J. 101, 173 (1916). 
1130b. Hale, A. H. (Tungsten in Peru) Min. Eng. World 302 


1131. Beder, R. Wolframite in Argentina. Director General of 

Mines, Bull. 3, (1917); Abstrast Min. Sci. Press. 116, 
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VIII (b). 17. SPAIN. 

1132. McBride, H. A. Tungsten mines of Spain. Monthly Con- 

sular and Trade Rept. June 1910. No. 357, p. 159-161. 

1133. Anon. Wolfram deposits of Bodajoz, Spain. Eng. Min. J. 

Jan. 3, (1914). 

1134. Carbonell, A. and Figueroa, T. Tungsten in the Provence of 

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VIII (b). 18. SWEDEN. 

113 5. Anon. Tungsten in Sweden. Min. Wld. Dec. 3, 1904. 
1136. Doss, B. A new tungsten ore deposit in Saxon Vogtland. Z. 
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113 9. Sushchinskii, P. P. Geological structure of some new de- 

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Petrograd. 1917, 507-20; 567-90. 


1138. Merrill, G. P. Guide to, the study of the collections in the 

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1139. Spurr, J. E. (Tungsten in .silicious rocks). Trans. Am. 

Inst. Min. Eng. 33, 322 (1902). 

1140. Merrill, G. P. The non-metaJlic minerals. Book. New 

York 1904. 

1141. Launay. Distribution of tungsten over the earth. Compt. 

rend. 138, 712 (1904). 

1142. Bogenrieder, C. AVolfram ores, occurrences and uses. Aust. 

Min. Stand. 40, 557 ff. (1905). 

1143. Ries, H. Economic geology. Book. New York, 1905. 

1144. Ohly, J. Rare metals and others. Min. Rep. May 18, 1905. 

114 5. Lindgren, W. Relation of ore deposition to physical con- 

(Utions. Econ. Geol. 2, 453-463 (1906). 

1146. Bogenrieder, C. Wolfram ores, occurrences and uses. Aust. 

Min. Stand. Nov. 18 (1908). 

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Min. Woicl ;?1, 547-8 (1909 1. 
Steinhart, O. J. Classification, occurrence, identification and 

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World. 30, 19-20 (1909). 
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list of references if F. L. and Eva Hess, "Bibliography of 

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Quarterly. 5, 13-22 (1916). 
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molybdenite. Eng. Min. J. 104, 336 (1917). 
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Surv. Bull. 623, 427-432 (1917). 
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Eng. Min. J. 105, 780 (1918). 
See also I and VII. 



1164. Skewes, E. Magnetic separation of tin and wolfram at Gun- 
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116 5. von Wagenen, H. R. Concentration of Colorado tungsten 
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1166. Walker, E. Tin ore dressing. East Pool, Cornwall. Eng. 
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116 7. Treloar, A. and Johnson, G. The separation of tin oxide 
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116 8. Dietzsch, P. (Concentration of tin and tungsten in Corn- 
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1169. Terrell, S. L. The final stages of tin and wolfram dressing. 

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1170. Goe. H. H. and French, S. W. Magnetic versus hydraulic 

concentration of tungsten ores. Min. Sci. July 2, 1908. 

1171. Anon. Tungsten mining in California. Eng. Min. J. 86, 573 


1172. Wood, H. E. Notes on the magnetic separation of tungsten 

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1173. Hills, V. G. Tungsten mining and milling. Proc. Colo. Sci. 

Soc. 9, 135-153 (1909); Min. World. 30, 1021-4 (1909); 
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1174. George, R. D. Tungsten industry of Boulder County, Colora- 

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1175. Paddock, C. H. Tungsten mining in Boulder County, Colo- 

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1177. Parmelee, H. C. The problems of tungsten concentration. 

Met. Chem. Eng. 9, 341-2; 409-11 (1911); Can. Min. J. 
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1178. Mennicke, H. Separation of tungsten from tin ores and tin 

slags. Monograph of applied electrochemistry. 39, 138 

1179. Longbottom, W. A. Scheelite mining in New South AVales. 

Aust. Min. Eng. Rev. 3, 200 (1911). 

1180. Freise, F. Mill and laboratory' practice in dressing of gold 

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1181. Russell, IM. Schcelite mining: in New Zealand. Queens. 

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1182. Pickings, H. B. Tungsten milling; practice of Nova Scotia. 

Min. Eng. World. 37, 60 (1912). 

1183. Hills, V. G. Tung-.sten mining in Nova Scotia, Proc. Colo. 

Sci. Soc. 10, 203-10 (1912). 

1184. Anon. AVolfrani mining in New South Wales. Min. Mag. 6, 

44 (1912). 
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1186. Falkenberg, O. Treatment of tinstone and wolframite. Min. 

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1187. Ackermann, E. The concentration of tungsten ores. J. 

Mines Met. 1, 16 2-3 (1913). 

118 8. Anon. Cornwall (methods of concentration). Min. Mag. 8, 

165 (1913). 

1189. Freise, F. Experiments in concentrating monazite and wol- 

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1190. Gudgeon, C. W. Treatment of gold bearing scheelite. Aust. 

Min. Stand. 50, 409; Min. Eng. World. 40, 49 (1914). 

1191. Vogel, F. A. Magnetic separation of tin-wolfram-bismuth 

ores. Eng. Min. J. 99, 287 (1915). 

1192. Taylor, M. T. Separation of Avolfram from tin. Min. Mag. 

12, 351 (1915). 

1193. ]\Iaxwell-Lefroy, E. Wolframite mining in the Tavoy di.strict. 

Lower Burma. Trans. Inst. Min. Met. 25, 82-120 (1915). 
1193a. Savage, F. A. (Mining and concentrating tungsten ore in 
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1194. Anon. Mining in Peru. Mex. Min. J. March, 1915. 

119 5. Anon. Wolfram mining in Burma. Min. Jour. 1915, 532. 
119 6. Scott. W. A. Concentrating tungsten ores, Boulder County, 

Colorado. Min. Eng. World. -15, 697-701 (1916). 

1197. Robertson, A. J. On concentration tests of tungsten-molyb- 

denum ores from Callie Creek, Poona, Murchison Goldiields. 
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1198. Parmelee, H. C. Recent practice in concentrating Colorado 

tungsten ores. Met. Chem. Eng. 14, 301 (1916). 

1199. Miner, F. L. The new milling plant for the Nevada tungsten 

property. Min. Eng. World. 44, 1078 (1916). 

1200. I\Iiner, F. L. Tungsten camps of AVhite Pine County, Nevada. 

Salt Lake Min. Rev. May 30, 1916. 

1201. McDonald, P. B. Scheelite mining and grading. Min. Sci. 

Press. 112, 40 (1916). 

1202. McDonald, P. B. Tungsten mining in the West. Min. Sci. 

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1203. Magee. J. F. The milling of tungsten ores (Colorado). 

Eng. Min. J. 101, 717-8 (1916). 


1204. Hill, J. M. Notes on some mining districts in Eastern Ne- 
vada. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 648, 62-3 (1916). 

120 5. Leslie, E. H. Tungsten in the Boulder County district. 
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120 6. Hibbs, J. G. Boulder County tungsten district as it is today. 
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1207. Grossberg, A. Separating wolframite from tin. Eng. Min. J. 

102, 139-40 (1916). 

1208. Fleck, H. Concentration of tungsten ore. Min. Sci. P. 112, 

166 (1916). 

1209. Bochert, W. C. Review of mining operations in the Northern 

Black HUls (S. Dak.) Pahasapa Quart. June 1916. 

1210. Bland, J. Tin and tungsten in South Dakota. Min. Sci. 

Press. 114, 441 (1916). 

1211. Anon. Boulder County milling practice. Met. Chem. Eng. 

14, 559-65 (1916). 

1213. Goodrich, R. R. and Holden, H. E. Experiments in the re- 

covery of tungsten and gold in the Murray district, Idaho. 
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1214. Fischer, S. Modern concentration of Colorado tungsten ores. 

II. Met. Chem. Eng. 16, 559 (1917). 

1215. Fischer, S. Modern concentration of Colorado tungsten ores. 

Met. Chem. Eng. 17, 73-S (1917). 

1216. Anon. Boidder Colorado milling practice. Met. Chem. Eng. 

17, 207 (1917). 

1217. Anon. Boulder Colorado milling practice. Met. Chem. Eng. 

17, 73 (1917). 

1218. Anon. Tungsten mining in Eastern Nevada. Eng. Min. J. 

104, 741 (1917). 

1219. Anon. Tungsten and molybdenite in North Queensland, 

Australia. Eng. Min. J. 104, 16 2 (1917). 

1220. Anon. Flow sheet of Round Valley (California) tungsten 

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1221. Joly, A. Niobium, tantalum, tungsten. In. E. Fremy, Ency- 

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1222. -Dammer, O. Handbuch tier cliem. Technologic. 5, 1895-8; 

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1223. Castner, J. Tungsten and its significance in industry. Stahl 

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1225. Defacqz, E. Contribution to the study of tungsten and its- 

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1226. Truchot, P. The rare metals. Book, Paris, 1904. 

1227. Anon. Tungsten, its use and value. Eng. Min. J. 78, 750 


1228. Ohly, J. Rare metals. Book. London, 1905. 

1229. von Wagenen, H. R. Tungsten in Colorado, Frenzel Prize 

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123 0. Anon. Tungsten in the United States. Chem. Ztg. 1907, 

1231. Riebe, E. C. The rare minerals, their pre.sent industrial 

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1236. Escard, J. G. The special metals and their industrial com- 

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1237. Leiser, I. H. Tung.sten. Book, Leipzig, 1910. 

1238. Leiser, I. H. The industrialization of tung.sten. Chem. Ztg. 

35, 665-6 (1911). 
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1242. Mennicke, H. Metallurgie des Wolframs. Book. 416 pp. 

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1251. Hartmann, M. L. The chemistry and metallurgy of tungsten. 

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1254. Meyer, R. J. Separation of scandium from the wolframite of 

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1263. Foote, W. M. Unit and content prices of tungsten and other 

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1264. Anon. Good times for tungsten mills. Min. Amer. Jan. 29 

126 5. Anon. Boulder Tungsten Production Co., Min. Amer. Feb. 19, 

126 6. Anon. Demand for protective tariff. Eng. Min. J. Dec. 23 

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1267. Anon. Tungsten ores. Engineering. 104, 12 8-30 (1917). 


1268. Day, D. T. U. .S. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 1883-4, 574-5. 

1269. Day, D. T. U. S. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 1886, 218-9. 

1270. Anon. Min Ind. 2, 615-8 (1893). 

1271. Anon. Min. Ind. 3, 484 (1894). 

1272. Anon. Min. Ind. 4, 579-80 (1895). 

1273. Anon. Min. Ind. 5, 471 (1896). 

1274. Anon. Min. Ind. 6, 651-2 (1897). 

1275. Anon. Min. Ind. 7, 719 (1898). 

1276. Borchers, W. Min. Ind. 8, 632-4 (1899). 

1277. Anon. Min. Ind. 9, 657-8 (1900). 

1278. Pratt, J. H. U. S. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 1900, 257-9. 

1279. Anon. Min. Ind. 10, 647-8 (1901). 

1280. Pratt, J. H. U. S. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 1901, 261-5. 

1281. Anon. Min. Ind. 11, 598 (1902). 

1282. Pratt, J. H. U. S. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 1902, 285-6. 

1283. Pratt, J. H. U. S. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 1903, 304-7. 

1284. Pratt, J. H. U. S. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 1904, 326-38. 

1285. Selwyn-Brown, A. Min. Ind. 13, 409-11 (1904). 

1286. Meeks, R. Min. Ind. 14, 557-61 (1905). 

1287. Pratt, J. H. U. S. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 1905, 410-12. 

1288. Meeks, R. Min. Ind. 15, 744-9 (1906). 

1289. Hess, F. X. U. S. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 1906, 522-4. 

1290. Anon. Min Ind. 16, 888-90 (1907). 

1291. Hess, F. L. U. S. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 1907 I, 711-22. 

1292. Anon. American Production of Tungsten Elec. World, 50, 

757 (1907). 

1293. Thomas, K. Mining in Colorado 1907. Min. World 28, 164 


1294. Anon. Min. Ind. 17, 827-35 (1908). 

1295. Hess, F. L. U. S. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 1908 I, 726-30. 

1296. Fleming, W. L. Min Ind. 18, 687-94 (1909). 

1297. Hess, F. L. U. S. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 1909 I, 577-9. 

1298. Anon. Min. Ind. 19, 662-3 (1910). 

1299. Hess, F. L. U. S. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 1910 I, 725-767. 

1300. Anon. Min Ind. 20, 724-31 (1911). 

1301. Hess, F. L. U. S. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 1911 I, 941-8. 


1302. Anon. Min. Incl.21, 842-51 (1912). 

1303. Hess, F. L. U. S. Geol. Surv. Min. Res. 1912 I, 987-1001. 

1304. Anon. The tungsten industry. Eng. Min. J. 93, 39 (1912). 

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(The figures refer to the bibliographic number) 

Abraham, G. D 1097 

Ackermann, E 966, 1187, 1260 

Ackers, W. A 988 

Aeffers 836 

Aiken 19b 

Albinus, P 2 

Allen, E. T 454 

Allen 19b 

Anderson, C 895 

Anderson, R. J 301 

Andrews, E. C 1036 

Annabl, H. W 628 

Anonymous 1054b, 1121a, 1122a 

Anonymous 72, 73, 75, 77, 208, 209, 253, 264, 281, 282, 294, 

295, 296, 297, 303, 344,348,356,365,394,401,405, 
411, 421, 436, 660, 709, 777, 915, 934, 497, 954, 
956, 972 1003, 1011, 1026, 1039, 1043, 1051, 
1062, 1063, 1081, 1083, 1090, 1091, 1108, 1122, 
1127, 1133, 1135, 1149, 1153, 1161, 1171. 
1176, 1184, 1188, 1194, 1195 1211, 1216, 
1217, 1218, 1219, 1220, 1227, 1230, 1255, 1259, 
1264, 1265, 1266, 1267, 1270, 1271, 1272, 1273, 
1274, 1275, 1277, 1279, 1281, 1290, 1292, 1294, 
1298, 1300, 1302, 1304, 1314, 1315, 1316, 1317, 
1321, 1322, 1323, 1327, 1328. 

Anthon, E. F 465, 483, 484, 521 

Angenot, H 631, 632, 777 

Armstrong-, G. T 276 

Arnold, H 613, 710 

Arnold, J. 280 

Arnold. J. R 1090d 

Arrivant, G 61, 319 

Arzruni, A 874 

Aston 320a 

Atkin, A. J. R 1072 

Auchy, G 241, 670, 982 

Auerbach, H. S 982 


Bagley 672a 

Bailey 622 

Bainville, A 341 

Ball, L. C 1046, 1048, 1049, 1050 

Ball. S. H 1160 

Bancroft, H 1024, 1027 


Barber 743 

Barbour, P. P 978 

Barham, G. B .-...369, 1156 

Barnes. J 121 

Barret, E. A 565 

Bartlett, E. P 118 

Barr 564b 

Barret, W. F 312 

Bartonec, H 685 

Baskerville, C 379, 900, 1235, 1244 

Bastin. E. S 975, 976 

Batemann, A. M 921 

Bauer 872 

Bauermaun, H '. 878 

Baughman, W : 76 

Baumhauer, H. F 420, 1240 

Beard, X 815 

Beck, R 1102 

Beck, W 1119 

Becker, D. M 254 

Beder, R 1131 

Bedford, J 194 

Bedford, von Hume 818 

Beellis, A. E 298 

Behrens 665c 

Berg-, C. P 255 

Bergner, E 541 

Berlich, H 1107 

Berminger 346 

Bernegan 308, 346 

Bernhardi-Grisson 476 

Bernoull, A. L 36, 92 

Bernoulli, F. A 36, 302, 862 

Bernstein 493 

Berthier 25a 

Bertraand, E 1099 

Bertrand, G 713, 722 

Berzelius. J. J 19a 

Berzelius, J. J 20, 21, 24, 25 

Bettges, W 601, 799, 841 

Bielher, P . ■ 452, 473 

Biltz, W 455, 456, 458 

Bischoff 674a 

Blair, T 196 

Blake, W. P 901, 922, 923, 924 

Bland, J 1210 

Bleeck, A. W. G 1061 

Bleyer, B 66 

Bliek, P. F 1130a 

Blomstrand, C. W .525, 526 

Blondel, A 340 

Bochert, W. C 1209 

Boehm, C. R 335, 337, 385 

Boerder, A 289 

Bogenbender, G 1124 

Bogenreider, C 1142, 1146 

Boggild, O. B 1103, 1104 

Bohler 211 

Borchers, W 55, 1276 


Borghi, M 568 

Borntragrer, H 625, 755 

Borteaux, G 705 

Bottger, 'W 402 

Bottomley, J. T 30 i 

Bourion, F 603, 639, 646, 768 

Bourielly 3GI 

Boynton, H. C 236a 

Bradbury, H 50S 

Brauner 801 

Bray, W. C 584 

Brayshaw, S. X 'i'il 

Brearley, H 672a 

Brearley, H 263, 600, 671, 701, 702, 703, 75G, 774, 794, 

795, 828, 837, 838. 

Bredig, G 313 

Briggs 508a 

Brislee, F. J 377 

Broglie, M. de see de Broglie 

Bromehead, C. E. X 1095 

Bronchart, F 112 4 

Brooks, A. H 920 

Brown. J. C 913 

Brown, W 312 

Browne, DeC. B 293, 299 

Browning 313 

Brunck, O 533 

Brunner 704 

Bryant. W. W 428 

Buckholz 39a 

Buckholz 18 

BuUnheimer, F C- '* 

Bunsen. W 571 

Burgass S35 

Burgess 320a 

Burger, A ''2 

Burgess, J. A yS*^ 

Burgess, G. K ^^ 

Burghardt, C. A 620 

Burley, G. W .274 

Butler, B. S 915b 

Byers, H. G 148 


Cady, F. E 128 

Campbell, W 316 

Cameron, W. E 1033, 1034 

Campredon 676 

Carbonell, A 1134 

Carl, P. H 967 

Carne, J. E 1029. 1030, 1047 

Carnot, A 520, 806, 821, 875 

Carnot, A 554b, 669a 

Caron 173a 

Carpenter, H. C. H 225, 232, 240, 242 

Castner, J 201, 1223 

Cervello, C 721 

Cesaro, G 893 


Chapman, S 428 

Charter, C. W 1065 

Chase, E. E 1157 

Cheneveau 345 

Cherry, F. J 1042 

Chesnau, G 646 

Christ, K 486 

Church, J. A 925 

Clarage, E. T 230 

Clark, P. W 164 

Clark, J 177 

Cobenzl 739, 824, 830 

Coblentz. W. W 94, 95, 102 

Collins, J. H 1092, 1094 

Compton, A. H 123, 125 

Comstock, T. B 949, 1019 

Conder, H 1038 

Coolidg-e, W. D 350, 404, 415, 418, 419, 425 

Cooper, C. A 950 

Copaux, H 513a 

Copaux, H 511, 515, 516, 551, 552, 562, 7T»5 

Corbino, O. M 105 

Corleis •. 532b 

Coruthers, R. G 1095 

Cox 184 

Crawford, R. D 961, 962 

Cramer, J. A 5 

Cremer, F 621 

Cross, W 879 

Cullen, J. F 278a 

Cumenge 891 

Curtice, R. S 1090b 


Dailey, E. J 396 

Dalzell, T. J 968, 969 

Dammer, 1222 

Damour, A 1098 

Dana, J. D. and E. S 903 

Daniels 545f 

Dauber '. . . : 861 

Dauvillier, A 136, 137 

David, L 731 

Day, D. T 1268, 1269 

De Benneville, J. S 195, 199, 200, 666, 754 

De Boisbaudran 831 

Debray 785 

Debray 437a 

De Broglie, M 112, 134 

De Elhujar 11, 14 

Defacqz, E 50, 86, 561, 775, 779, 820, 1225 

Defacqz, E 529e, 529f, 529g-, 529h, 532d, 543a, 543b, 559c 

Degan, C 565 

de Habech, T. A. V 1130 

Dehn, E 539, 540 

de Lamercodie, G 339 

De la Rive a Marcet 26b 

Delepine, M 59, 143 

de Luyres, Due 166 


Delvaux de Penneffe 167 

Dem'Yanovskii, S 730 

Denis, W 592 

Dennstedt, M 706 

de Rhoden, C 911 

Dershem, E 133, 138 

Descloizeaux, A 858, 871 

Desi, E. D 157, 449, 793 

Desplantes, E 1-J7 

Desprez • 28a 

Desvergnes, L 602 

Deutch, A ■ 45 

Dewar, W 748 

Dewey, H 1095 

Dickenson, H. P ; 1234 

Dieck, H. L 494 

Dieckmann, T 686, 745, 746 

Dietzsch, F 1168 

Dittler, E 781 

Divani, M 609 

Dodge, H. L 132 

Dodge, J. M "87 

Dolbear, S. H 941 

Domeyko, 1 856, 870, 887 

Donath, E 80, 633, 772, 778 

Dorpenhouse, W. T 1116 

Doss, B 1136 

Down, T. A 1117 

Dufet 4901 

Duhamel du Monceau, H.. L 15 

Dumas, M. J 154 

Dunstan, B 580. 1037 

Duschnitz, B 352, 393 

Dushman, S 429 


Eakle, A. S 999 

Ebelman, J. J 855 

Eberhard 904 

Eder, J. M 98 

Edwards, C. A 243, 286 

Edwards, E. T 265 

Ehrenfeld, C. H 142, 447 

Eisenmann 471 

Eisler, C 400 

Eisner, F 530 

Ekeley, J. B 567, 636, 902 

Emich, F 535 

Emmons, J. V 279, 285 

Emmons, W. H 1162 

Engels, W 69, 586 

Engels, "W 524a 

Ephraim 529i 

Ercker, Lazarus 1 

Erhard, G 71 

Escard, J. G 320, 380, 1236 

Exner. F. F ...163, 506, 800 



Fahrenwald, F. A 328, 329, 330, 435 

Faktor 581 

Falkenberg-, O 1186 

Faribault, B. R 1078, 1079, 1082 

Fenton, H. J 585 

Feree, J 309 

Ferguson, C. V , 433 

Fermor, L,. L 1060 

Fernez, A 731 

Fettweiss, F 693 

Feit 523b 

Fieber, R 673, 691 

Fielding, W 67 

Figuero, T 1134 

Filsinger 42 

Fink, C. G 403, 417, 424, 1305, 1307, 1309, 1318 

Finlayson, A. M 1093, 1110 

Firming 181 

Fischer, A 150. 569 

Fischer, F 363, 41'i 

Fischer, S 1214, 1215 

Fischer 811 

Fitch. R. S 912 

Fleck, H 451, 1208, 1248 

Fleming, W. L 1296 

Florence, W 894 

Flurscheim 761 

Flurscheim 559a2 

Foerster 667a 

Folin, 590, 592 

Foote, F. W 656. 1326 

Foote, W. M 1263 

Forbes, D 174 

Forcher 525a 

Forsberg : 36a 

Forsythe, A 1004 

Forsythe. W. E ' 128 

Fowler, G. J 441 

Frabot 582 

Frankel, L. K " 832 

Fraunberger F 146 

Freidheim, C 545a, 545e 

Freiherr, L 323 

Freise, F 1180, 1189 

Freman, E 124 

French, S. W 1170 

Frenzel. A. B 1241 

Frery 34,5 

Fresenius. R 661 

Friedheim. C 742, 764, 787, 808, 810 

Frilley 563a 

Fritchie, O. P 627 

Furman, X. H 852 


Gardner. J. H 434 

Garrison, L. F 306 


Geibel, W 458 

Genth, F. A 882, 885 

George, R. D 961, 962, 973, 1174 

Gerber 1253 

Geuther 36a 

Gibbs, W 469, 740, 805, 812 

Gibson. C. G 1040 

Gimins'ham, E. A 398 

Gin, G 51a 

Gin, G 63, 1233 

Girod, P 256 

Glascow, J. W 946 

Glazbi-ook. R. F 392 

Gledhill, J. M 226 

Gmelin-Kraut 1239 

Goe, H. H 1170 

Goecke, O 99 

Goldschmidt, H 52, 53, 578 

Gonzalez 490h 

Gooch, A. M 73S 

Gooch, F. A 514 

Goodale, C. W 988 

Goodman 813 

Goodrich, R. R 1213 

Gordon, C. H 1001 

Gorton, W. S 131 

Gottschalk, V. H 454 

Goutal 821 

Graham, T , 467 

Granger, A 450, 457, 501 

Granger 889, 897 

Granigg, B 1106 

Grant, J 441 

Graton, Ij. C 1001 

Grau 354 

Gray, G. J 1053 

Greenawalt, W. E 959, 970 

Greenwood 459a 

Grey 800 

Griffiths, H. D 1068 

Grodspeed, A. W 83 

Grossberg, A 1207 

Grossman 565c 

Groth, P 459, 869, 874, 87R 

Gruner 178 

Grutzner 665a 

Grutzner, B 191 

Gudgeon, C. W 1054a 

Gudgeon, C. W 1111, HOO, 1112 

Guerithault, B 724 

Guglialmelli, L 546, 547, 548, 549, 653, 733, 734, 735, 736 

Guichard, M 86 

Guild, F. N 933 

Guillemard 723 

Guillet, L 219, 220, 221, 222, 231, 313 

Gurlt, A 9, 979 

Gutbier, A 614 



Hadfield. R. A 210, 312 

Haenig. A 257, 267, 1232 

Hale, A. H 1130b 

Hall. C 565 

Hall, R. D 716 

Hollopeau, L. A 54, 143, 499, 503, 505, 825 

Hallopeau, L. A 54, 143, 499, 503, 505, 825 

Hamburger, L 397 

Hamilton, L. P 314 

Hammond, E. K 266 

Handy 668, 834 

Hanks, H. G 936 

Hansen, C. C 1090a, 1090e 

Harcourt, H 239 

Hardin, W, L 159, 160 

Hardy, C 1324, 1325 

Hardy, T. W 298 

Hartmann, M. L 593, 650, 1251 

Hasselberg 87 

Haushofer 576, 596 

Hautefeuille 490 

Haynes, E 321, 326 

Hayward, A. A 1077 

Haworth, E 986 

Headden, W. P 898 

Heawatsch, C 888 

Hecht 18 

Heeren 180 

Heller, W 530 

Helmhacker, R 204, 623, 1059 

Hempel, W 577 

Henckel. J. F 6 

Henderson 764 

Henderson *. 545e, 564b, 565a 

Heppe, G .' 186, 188 

Herbert, E. G 249, 268 

Hermann, H 644, 647, 769 

Hermann, S 563b 

Herting, 674, 758 

Hertwig 460 

Herweg. J 115 

Hess, F. L, 915a 

Hess, F. L 587, 908, 932, 938, 1000, 1014, 1021, 1246, 1289, 

1291, 1295, 1297, 1299, 1301, 1303, 1306, 1308, 


Heymann 5291 

Hibbard, H. D 284 

Hibbert, E 608 

Hibbs, J. G 1206 

Hill, J. B 532 

Hill, J. M 931, 1204 

Hillebrand, W. F 879 

Hills, L 1052 

Hills, Y. G 1086, 1173, 1183, 1185 

Hilpert, S 556, 745, 748 

Hinricksen, F. W 679, 683, 686, 687, 690, 844 

Hintz 661 

Hitchcock, F. R. M 496, 791 


Hobbs, W. H 980, 981 

Hodkinson, D 440 

Hoffman 127 

Holilen, H. E 1213 

Holloway, G. T 58, 1257, 1243 

Hommel, W 797 

Honda, K " 103, 290, 300 

Honigschmidt, O 560 

Hordh, U 653 

Horner, C 573 

Horst. C 463 

HouKh. A. J 732 

Howe, H. M 233 

Howell, J. W 349, 350, 391 

Hull, A. W 129, 130 

Hunrtshagen, F 599 

Hunt, T. S 863 

Hunt, W. F 1000 

Huntington, A. K 43, 470 

Hutchins, H. W 638, 643, 654, 1252 

Hutchinson, C. T 945 

Hutchinson, R. W 366 

Hyde, E. P 128 


Ibbotson, F 671, 701, 702. 703, 756, 774, 795, 828, 837, 838 

Illingsworth. C. B 694 

Inghliere. C 566 

Irman, R 325 

Irving, J. D 1005, 1009, 1010, 1012, 1013 


Jack, R 97 

Jacobs. W. A 726 

Jacobsohn 509a 

Jannasch, P 601, 719, 799, 836, 840, 841, 843, 847 

Jardine, R 427 

Javillier, M 563, 722, 724, 727 

Jean 41 

Jeffries, Z 327 

Jeremijew, P 873, 1088 

Jervis 674b 

Jimbo, K 890, 910 

John 770, 783, 823 

Johnson, B. L. 919 

Johnson, C. M 692, 708 

Johnson, G 1167 

Johnson, J. P 1120 

Johnson, R. A. A 1069, 1071 

Johnstone, S. J 1249 

Joly, A 1221 

Jones, H. C 518 

Jones, W. R 1067 

Joseph, M. H 1023 

Juno 32 

Just, A 508 



Kafka, B 588, 611 

Kancher, V. K 322, 517, 612, 615 

Kantschew, W 610 

Keeney, L. H 270 

Keeney, R. M ■ 258, 269, 275 

Keeney, R. M 278a 

Kehrniann 542b, 545d 

Kehimann 741, 761 

Kellermann 175 

Kelley. G. L 694 

Kellog-g-, L. 927 

Kendall, G. D 636 

Kenery, P 667 

Kern, S 205, 658 

Kernda, T 857 

Kick 176 

Kieser, A. J 762, 763 

Kikkawa, H 286 

Killing, C 332 

Kirjassoff, M. D 1090c 

Kirk, C. T 977 

Kirwan. R 12 

Klaproth, M. H 17 

Klein 490d, 55a 

Klunder, T 706 

Knecht E 498, 608 

Knopf, A 916, 917, 918, 948 

Knox, X. B 914 

Koerner, "W. E 151, 152 

Kohan 493 

Korff, F. H 292 

Koritschoner, J. H 1106 

Kramer : 565c 

Kremer, D 74 

Krenner, J. A 1057 

Krieg 46a 

Kruger, R 423 

Kruh, O 408 

Kuczynski, T .- 689 

Kuklin, E . .675 

Kupelweieser, F 56 

Kuzel, H 386 

Kuzirian. S. B ' 514. 737 

Kuznetzow, A 317, 555 

LaCroix, A 1100 

Lake, H. ^" 58 

Landolt 597 

Langley. J. W 193 

Langmuir, 1 106, 113, 119, 120, 193, 376, 399, 461. 535 

Lantsberry, F. C. A. H 291 

Laring. G 343 

Laug-hlin, G. F 912 

Launay 1141 

Laurent, A 26a, 27b 

Laurent, A 28 


Lavender, F. H. R 347 

LeBlanc, U 148 

Ledebur, A 216 

Lederer, A 383 

Ledoux-Lebard, R 136, 137 

Lee, G. M 258 

Lee. H. A 951, 952 

Leepin, A' 202 

LeGuen 168, 170, 171, 172, 173 

Lehalleur, J. P 684 

Lebeau 559a 

Lefort 489b, 490a, 490b, 490c, 658a 

Leiser, H 475 

Leiser, I. H 1237, 1238 

Leslie, E. H 1205 

Lettsom 860 

Levallois 179 

Levers, H 850. 

Liebe, K. L. T 865 

Liesingang- 468 

Limb, C 413 

Lind, J. G 984 

Lind, S. C 678 

Lindgren, W 958, 960, 1001, 1002, 1145 

Lipp 662 

Liversidge, A 1028 

Lockyer 79 

Lohse 107 

Longbottom, W. A 1179 

Loring, G 343 

Lottermoser, A 338, 478, 482 

Lotz, W 487 

Lovisato, D 1105 

Low, A. H 648, 655 

Loewenstamm 565b 

Lowndes, F. K 440 

Luchsiner 495 

Luckey, G. P •. 135 

Luedecke, 877 

Lukens, H. S 1262 

Luninier 375 

Lyon, D. A 278a 


Mccallum. A. B 590 

Macdonald, A. R 1045 

Mackay, G. M. J. 390, 433 

Mackenzie G. L 630 

Magee, J. F 1203 

Malaguti, M. J 26 

Mallet 574 

Manchot 762 

Manross 485a, 485b 

Marchand 28c, 153b 

Marchetti 529b 

Marbaker, E. E 801 

Margueritte. M 23, 522 

Margueritte 27a 

Marignac, M. C 489, 558 


Markham, E. A 224 

Mars, G 251, 272 

Martin, A 64, 68, 640 

Maschke 490a2 

Matigon, C 147 

Matthews. J. A 206, 277, 316 

Maxwell-Lefroy, E 1064, 1193, 1313 

May, C. E 729 

Mayerhofer 80 

Mazzucchelli, A 566, 568 

McBride, H. A 1132 

McCallum, A. L 1073, 1085 

McDonald, P. B 651, 1201, 1202 

McKay, A 1109 

McKay, L. R. W 852 

McKenna, A. G 626, 672, 757, 760 

McKenna, R. C 283, 1312 

Meeks, R 1286, 1288 

Meikle, G. S 432 

Melikoff 500a 

Mellor, J. ^V 843 

Melville, TV'. H 883 

Mennicke, H 616, 1178, 1242 

Merrill, G. S 364 

Merrill, G. P 1138, 1140 

Merti 4i^5 

Metcalf, W 183 

Metzger, F. J 759 ' 

Metzger, K 550 

Mey, K •' 374 

Meyer 84 

Meyer, A. R 104, 381, 395 

Meyer, G. C 718 

Meyer. .1. F 362 

Meyer, R. B 353 

Meyer, R 787 

Meyer, R. J ' 1254, 1256 

Michael, L 569 

Michael 301a 

Michaeli.s 438, 742 

Miller, W. H 355 

Miller 842 

Miner, F. L, 1199, 1200 

Mioloti 529c 

Miolati. A 544 

Mitscherllch, E 27 

Moeller 127 

Moi.ssan, H 40, 46, 49, 88, 317, 553, 555 

Montpellier, J. A 360 

Moody 550b 

Moore, R. W 409 

Moreigne, H 717 

Morgan, J. J 665 

Morphy, B. H 431 

Morris, C. E 991 

Morris, H. C 1261 

Moses, A. J 957 

Mourlon, C 368 

MuUard, S. R 398, 431 

Mueller, X. L 389, 407 


Muller ' 197 

Muller, A 70, 384, 388, ISO 

Muller, F 772 

Muller, J. H 17!) 

Mulhmann, W 145, 146 

Myers, F. B 691 

Mylius 715 

Xamias 664, 753 

Neumann 246 

Xevius, J. M 943 

Newborn, S 227 

Nicolardot, P 65, 646, 767 

Nicolson, J. T 223 

Nieveng-lowski 497 

NordenskjoUl 864 

Xordmeyer, P 92 

Xorthrup, E. E 109 

Norton, T. H 203 

Noyes, A. A 583, 584 


Oberholtzer, A 141, 790 

Oberholtzer 529a3 

Oehler, A. G 359 

Ogley, O. H 373 

O'Harra, C. C 1007, 1320 

Ohly, J. s 212, 579, 1144, 1224, 1228 

Olsson, 462, 537. 538 

Orange, J. A 376 

Ornstein, M 556 

Orr 565a 

Osmond, F 187, 189, 190 


Paddock, C. H 1175 

Page, J. J. A 1066 

Paige, A. E 288 

Palmer, L. A 974 

Palmer, W. S 1163 

Pappada, N 474a 

Parker, G. M 629 

Parmelee, H. C 1177, 1198 

Parravano, N 513 

Parry, J 665 

Patterson, C. C 392 

Pearce, R 987 

Pechard 788 

Pechard 493a 

Pendlebury, C 217 

Penfield, S. L. 884, 885 

Pennington, M. L 792 

Percy, J 169 

Perillon, A 662a 

Perillon, M 659, 749 

Perrey 491 

Persoz, M. J 31, 37 

Pfaff 784 


Philipp, J ; 523, 700 

Pickings, H. B 1182 

Pieck, M 519 

Pietruska, K 185 

Pinazel 764 

Pinegal 559b 

Pinsker, J 519 

Pirani, M. von see von Pirani 

Pissarjewsky 500a, 506a 

Pittman, E. F : 1031 

Pizzighelli .....' 544 

Eoleck, T 191 

Pollock 91 

Pollock 665a 

Playford, E. C 1044 

Plummer, J 1035 

Pozzi-Escot, E 589, 605 

Pra&er, W 464 

Prandti, W 66 

Pratt, J. H 213, 1278, 1280, 1282, 1283, 1284, 1287 

Pratt, L. R 259 

Preus, W 1113 

Preusser, J 750, 773 

Pring, J. N 67 

Prosser, W. C 964 

Pryce, W 7 


Quantin 529a 

Quinney, E. H ...1015 


Radiguet 500 

Rammelsberg, C. F 867, 1056 

Ransome, F. L 953, 958 

Ransom, R. S 656 

Rauter, G .' 442 

Raymond, R. W .' 1006 

Read, A. A 280, 445 

Regnault 77a, 77c 

Reichard, C 60, 776, 798, 814, 817, 822, 826, 839 

Reeve, A. B -. 372 

R. E. N 358 

Rice, M 129 

Richard, M. G 342 

Richards, J. W 318 

Richards, R. W 929 

Richards, T. W 118 

Richardson, O. W 110 

Richardson, T 854 

Riche, A 35 

Richter, J. B 16 

Rickard, F 926 

Riddle, R. N 44 

Rideal 534a 

Riebe, B. C 1231 

Ries, H 1143 

Rindl, M 545 

Rinman, S 8 

Ripper, W 274 


Roberts-Austen, W. C 307 

Robertson, A. J 1197 

Robinson, V. A 635 

Robson 512 

Rogers 5 43c 

Roscoe, H. E 527, 1245 

Rosenheim, A 476, 477, 519, 531, 539, 540, 807, 810 

Rosenheim 509a, 514a, 514b, 564a, 565b 

Ross 575 

Ross, A. C 1070 

Rossi, A. J 207 

Rossi D 529c 

Rossler, B *4 

Rostosky 843 

Rothenbach, P ■ 492, 809 

Routals, O 847 

Rovve, G. P 983 

Rubel, A. C t 935, 1250 

Ruben 765 

Rudder, W. D .- 149 

Rueg-enberg-, M. J. 796, 816 

Ruff, 99, 406, 530, 557 

Rumbold, W. R 1121 

Rumschottel, O 324 

Ruprecht 16a 

Runner, J. J 652, 1158 

Rusag-, K 618 

Russell, A. S 1249 

Russell, M 1181 

Russel, R. E 437 

Ruttimann 545d 

Rydbert 85 

Rzehulka, A 642 


Sabaneef 471b 

Sabatier, P 443, 444, 446, 448 

Sacc 485 

Sackur, 144 

Safarik 802 

Saint-Smith, E. C 1054 

Sandberger, F 1058 

Sargent, C. L 311 

Savage, F. A 1193a 

Schaffer, E 509, 524 

Schaffer 529d 

Schafarik, A 466 

Schaller. W. T 906, 908 

Schapiro, A 846, 848 

Schar 712 

Scheef , E 637a 

Scheele, C. W 10, 13 

Scheibler 488 

Scheurer, A 453, 472, 502 

Schiff, H 528 

Schlesinger, G 273 

Schmidt 44a 

Schmidt, H 595 

Schneider 28b, 153a, 157a 


Schneider, L, 182 

Schneider 662 

Schneider, R 859, 1101 

Schnitzler 523a 

Schoen 550a 

Schoffel, K 657 

Scholl, G. P 371 

Schroder 78a 

Schroeder, H 362 

Schrader, F. C 930 

Schorlemeyer 1245 

Schuchard, E 315 

Schultze 488a 

Schulz, H 331 

Schulze 529 

Schuster 346 

Scott, C. F 350 

Scott, W. A , 1196 

Scott, W. W 617 

Scrivenor, J. B 1108a 

Seidl, 511a 

Seligrnann, G 881 

Selwyn-Brown, A 1285 

Senderens, J. B 443, 444, 446, 448 

Serivenor, J. B 1108a 

Setlik , 773a 

Setlik, B 619, 751 

Seubert 44a 

Sheda, E. J. 7 649 

Sheldon, S .' 305 

Shepard, C. V 866, 868 

Shinn 529a2 

Shinn, O. L 158 

Sieg:, L. P 126 

Siegbahn, M 124 

Siemans, A 382 

Siemans, C. W 43 

Sieverts, A 541 

Silliman, B 853 

Simmons, J 1008, 1018 

Simmonds,- F. W 1020 

Simpson, E. S - 1040 

Sipoez, Ij 880 

Skewes, E 1164 

Skey, W 572 

Skinner, R. P 422 

Smith 439 

Smith, E. F 529a2, 529a3, 529d 

Smith, E. F 83, 140, 141, 157, 160, 163, 165, 314, 451, 494, 

506, 565, 598 716, 790, 792, 796, 800, 816, 819. 

827, 832, 833. 

Smith, F. B 994 

Smith, G. 1311 

Smith, K. K 117 

Smith, W. G 260 

Soboneff 542c 

Soehnlein, M. G. F 1130a 

Spallino, R 728 

Spencer, L. J 896 


Spuller 665b 

Spurr, J. E 1133 

"St." 410 

Stagg-, H. J 277 

Stansfield, A 238 

Stassano, E 244 

Stavenhagen, A 57, 310, 315 

Steinhart, O. J 234, 235, 1151, 1247 

Stephen 840 

Sternberg', A 45 

Stimmelmayr, A 68 

Stock, J 96 

Storms, W. H 944 

Street, E. A. G 48 

Sullivan, W. B 262, 271 

Surr, G 928, 937, 939, 1147, 1148, 1152, 1154 

Sushchinskli, P. P 1139 

Svensson, C 681 

Sweeney, O. R V47 

Swinden, T 237, 250, 252 


Taft, H. H 1159 

Tag:gaf t, W. T 827 

Takagi, H ; 290 

Talbot 771 

Tarnau 214 

Tarnawiecki, H. C 1128 

Tawara, K 290 

Taylor, P. W 236, 247 

Taylor, M. T 1192 

Taylor, T. M 162, 507 

Teich, N 1119 

Terrell, E 1096 

Terrell, S. L 1169 

Thalin 78 

Tiede, E 414 

Thomas, G. E 161, 504 

Thomas, K 955, 1293 

Thyng", W. S 1022 

Tomblin, M. B 971 

Tomek, F 989 

Tonks. F. J 638 

Toropsian, G 591 

Tram 752 

Traube, M 82, 789 

Trautmann, W 645, 707 

Travers 782 

Treadwell, W. D 780, 851 

Treloar, A 1167 

Tronquoy, R 907 

Trowbridge, J 305 

Truchot, P 1226 

Trueblood, B. C 678 

Tschilikin, M 606 

Tsuchiya, 1 720 

Tucker 550b 

Turner, E. E 570 

Turner, T 228 

Twelvetrees, W. H 1041 



Uelsmann 532a 

Ullik 489a 

Ulzer 677a 

Umpleby, J. B 985 

Uppenborn 334 

Uslar 39 


Valenta, E 98 

A'alentine, A. L -• 248 

Vallet, C 357 

van Duin, C. F 695 

van Linge 198 

Van Linge 665c 

Various 1155 

Vasmaer 663a 

Vasil'ev, A. Th 481 

A^asselin, R 416, 426 

Vauquelin 15a 

Vauquelin, L. N 18 

Vautin, C 52 

Venator 245 

Vigourou, E 215, 229, 559 

Vogel, F. A 1191 

Vogel 81 

von Bonhourst, C 1115 

von Borch 30 

von der fordten, O. F 59 4 

von Graffenried, A "781 

von Hauer 803 

A'on Knorre 490e, 490f, 490g, 670a 

von Keyserling 1125 

von Knorre, G 524, 604, 607, 637, 677, 682, 744, 829, 845 

von Koulidin, X 1118 

von Pirani , 378, 395, 101, 104, 111 

von Schonberg, A 3 

von Wagenen, H. R 963, 1165, 1229 

von Wartenberg, H 90, 100 

Vosmaer 663a 

Voss -• 336 


Wada, T 1089 

Waddell, J 155, 156, 786 

Wahl, W 192 

Waidner, C. W 89 

Wallace, D. L 833 

Waller, G. A 1032 

Walls, H. L 759 

Walker, T. L 899, 1074, 1075, 1076, 1084, 1087, 1150 

Walker, E 1166 

Walker, L. H 412 

Warren, C. H 892 

Warren, H. X 47, 51 

Watkins, C • • 518 

Waterhouse, L. I^ 1052 

Watts, H. F 634, 641, 766 


Wdowiszewski, A 669 

Weber, C. H 387 

Wechsler, E 725 

Weckwarth, E 1126 

Weclekind, E 463 

Weed, W. H 090 

Weeks, F. B 993, 995, 996, 997 

Weidenger, G 1055 

Weise, G. L 614 

Weiss, L. 68, 640 

Wells, R. C 510 

Wells, R. C 9 1 5b 

Wepfer, G. W 1129 

Werner 711 

Wherry, E. T 909 

Whitehead ... 565a 

Willcox, F. W 351 

Williams, P 22 7a, 554a 

Williams, P 554 

Williams, G. H 886 

Williams, J. H 940, 942 

Willis, C. F 1319 

Wilson, M ■ 430 

Winchell, A. X 905, 992 

Winn singer 532c 

Winter, H 1256, 1258 

Winters, R. J 1053 

Winterstein, E 543 

Wittstein 34 

Wohler, F 28d, 301a. 533a. 542a 

Wohler, F 22, 29, 33, 153, 534, 542, 564 

Wohler, L 69, 464, 586 

Wolf, A 1025 

Wolf, H. J 978 

WoRer, L 683, 688 

Wood, H. E 1172 

Wood, J. R 965 

Wormer, E 714 

Worthing, A. G 108, 114, 116, 122, 139 

Wright 32a 

Wunder, M 846, 848 

M'unsch, R 557 

Wyman, L. P 474 

Wyrouboff 558a 

Wysor, R. J 278 


Young, G. A lOSO 


Zealley, A. E. V 1123 

Zeeman, P 93 

Zettnow 38 

Zettnow 77b 

Ziegenberg, R 370 

Ziegler, V '663 

Ziegler, A' 664a 

Ziegler, Victor 1016, 1017 

Zinberg, S 680 

Zinck 326 


Index to Part I 



Acquarius District Arizona, tungsten in 38 

Algonklan formations 49 

Amblygonite, resemblance of, to scheelite 17, 18 

American Tungsten Co., claims of 56, 58 

milling of tungsten ore 90 

production of tungsten 47 

Andesite, description of 42 

Annie tungsten claim 61 

Antimony, association of, with wolframite 19 

Apatite, association of, with tungsten 18 

resemblance of, to scheelite 18 

Argentina, tungsten deposits of 30 

Arivaca District, Arizona, tungsten in 28 

Arizona, tungsten in 27—28 

Arsenic, association of, with wolframite 19 

Arsenopyrite, association of, with tungsten 18 

Atolia-Randsburg District, Calif., tungsten deposits of 26-27 


Barite, resemblance of, to scheelite 17, 18 

Beryl, association of, with tungsten 18 

Biotite, association of, with tungsten 18 

Bismark Mining Co., tungsten deposits of 75 

Bismuth, association of, with tungsten 18 

Bismuthinite, association of, with tungsten 18 

Black Metal tungsten claim 54 

Blake, W. P., on Black Hills tungsten deposits 48 

Bolivia, tungsten deposits of 30 

Boulder Co., Colorado, tungsten deposits of 25-26 

Bresnahan, Martin, tungsten property of 80 

Burma, tungsten deposits of 29 


Calcite, resemblance of, to scheelite 17, 18 

California, tungsten deposits of . 26-27 

Cambrian Formations 41, 68 

Carlile Formation 41 

Cassiterite, association of, with tungsten 18, 21 

resemblance of, to tungsten minerals 16, 17 

Cenozoic Era, geologic history during 45 

Chalcopyrite, association of, with tungsten 18 

Champion Lode, tungsten claim 58 

Cleavland Lode tungsten claim 57 

Coates tungsten claim 62 

Cobalt, association of, with wolframite 19 

Colorado, tungsten deposits of 25-26 

Columbite, association of, with tungsten 18 

resemblance of, to tungsten minerals 16, 17 

Comanchean formations 41 

Comstock Mine 48, 79 



Contact Metamorphic Deposits, formation of 23 

minerals of 23 

tungsten in 23 

Copper, association of, with wolframite 19 

Cornwall, England, tungsten deposits of 31 

Cretaceous formations 41 

Cuprotungstite, composition of 13 


Dacite, formation of 42 

Dakota Formation 41 

Deadwood Formation 41, 68 

Deadwood, tungsten deposits at 76 

Diorite, description of 42 

Downing tungsten claim 51 

Dragoon Mts., Ariz., tungsten deposits of 27 

Dyke tungsten claim 58 


Edna Hazel tungsten claim 58 

Elkhorn Tungsten Co., milling of tungsten ores 97 

property of 54 

England, tungsten deposits of 31 

Englewood Formation 41, 69 

Enrichment, secondary, of tungsten deposits 25, 87 

Etta Mine (Keystone), tungsten in 63 

Etta Mine (Lead) , tungsten in 75 

Eureka District, Arizona, tungsten deposits of 28 


Feldspar, association of, with tungsten deposits 18 

resemblance of, to scheelite 17, 18 

Ferberite, composition of 14 

physical properties of 14-15 

Fern Cliff, tungsten claim 62-63 

Ferritungstite, composition of 13 

Fluorite. association of, with tungsten 18 

Fox Hills Formation 41 

Fulton, C. H., on analysis of ferberite 57 

Fuson Formation 41 


Garnet, resemblance of, to scheelite 17, 18 

Gireau tungsten claim 58 

Gneiss, Little Elk Creek, description of 3 7 

Gold, association of, with tungsten 18, 87 

association of, with wolframite 19 

Good Luck tungsten claim 56 

Graneros Formation 41 

Granite, Bear Lodge Mountain, description of 38 

Harney Peak, description of 38 

Nigger Hills, description of 38 

Whitewood Peak, description of 38, 68 

Graphite, association of, with tungsten 18 

resemblance of, to tungsten minerals 16, 17 

Grorudite, description of 42 


Harney Peak area, tungsten deposits of 49 

Hartmann, M. L., on analysis of wolframite 57, 58, 61 



on analysis of hubnerite 80 

Hayes tungsten claim • 61 

Headden, W. P., on chemical analysis of tungsten ore 48 

on analysis of huberite 51, 80 

Hematite, resemblance of, to tungsten minerals 16, 17 

Henault, Denis, tungsten claims of 77 

Hess, F. L., on analysis of wolframite 52 

on origin of Northern Hills tungsten ores 84 

Hess, F. L. and Schaller, W. T., on analysis of hubnerite 80 

Hidden Fortune Company, tungsten production of 92 

High Lode tungsten claim 53 

Hill City Tungsten Producer's Company, milling of tungsten ore. . 90 

production of tungsten 47, 91, 92 

Hillebrand, W. F., on analysis of Homestake tungsten ore 73 

on analysis of Wasp No. 2 tungsten ore 74 

History, geologic, pre-Cambrian 40 

post-Algonkian 44 

of tungsten industry in Black Hills 47 

Homestake Mining Company, deposits of tungsten 70 

milling of tungsten ores 88-89 

production of tungsten 90—93 

Hubnerite, composition of 14 

physical properties of 14—15 


Inyo County California, tungsten deposits of 27 

Irving, J. D., on origin of Northern Hills tungsten ores. . . .82-83, 84 

on relation of tungsten to gold ores 72 

on Tertiary igneous rocks 42, 43 


Jaggar, T. A., on Tertiary igneous rocks 43 

Jurassic formations 41 


Lakota Formation 41 

Lamprophyre in Black Hills, description of 43 

Laramie Formation 41 

Lead, association of with wolframite 19 

Lead-Deadwood area, general geology of 67 

tungsten deposits of 67 


McKinnon and Miller tungsten claim 52 

Magnetite, resemblance of to tungsten minerals 16, 17 

Malay States, tungsten deposits of 29 

Manganese dioxide, resemblance of to tungsten minerals 16, 17 

Manion, Ed., on tungsten milling at Wasp No. 2 mine 8 9 

Martha Washington tungsten claim .' 54 

Mesozoic Era, geologic history during 45 

Metamorphism of Black Hills pre-Cambrian rocks 36-3 9 

Michigan Placer tungsten claim 52 

Mill Brothers tungsten claim 62 

Minerals associated with tungsten 18 

Minerals similar in appearance to tungsten ores 16 

Minnekhata Formation 41 

Minnelusa Formation 41 

Mississippian Formations 41, 69 

Molybdenite, association of, with tungsten 18 

Morrison Formation 41 


Muscovite, association of, with tungsten 18 


Nevada, tungsten deposits of 28 

New South Wales, tungsten deposits of 32—33 

New Zealand, tungsten deposits of 33 

Nickel, association of, with wolframite 19 

Nigger Hill District, tungsten deposits of . 6 4 

Niobrara Formation 41 


Oligocene formations 41 

Opeche Formation 41 

Ordovician formations 41, 69 

Origin of tungsten orea, Southern Black Hills 6 6—6 7 

Northern Black Hills 82-87 


Pahasapa Formation 41, 69 

Paige, Sidney, on folds and faults in the Black Hills pre-Cambrian 39 

Paige, Sidney, on Homestake fault 67 

on Tertiary igneous rocks 43 

Paleozoic Era. geologic history during 45 

Pegmatites, formation of 20—21 

Harney Peak, description of 49 

minerals of 20 

physical characters of 20—21 

relation of to granites 20 

tungsten in 21 

Pennsylvania formations 41 

Permian formations 41 

Pettit and Pfander tungsten claim 52 

Phonolite, description of 42 

Pierre Formation 41 

Placers, formation of 23 

tungsten in 23 

Placer tungsten deposits of Harney Peak District 64 

Pleistocene formations 41 

Portugal, tungsten deposits of 30 

Post-Algonkian sedimentary formations 41 

Powellite, composition of 13 

Pre-Cambrian, igneous rocks of Black Hills, description of 37, 68 

rocks of Black Hills, metamorphism of 39 

rocks of Black Hills, structure of 36—39 

sedimentary formations of Black Hills, description of 35 

Production of tungsten in Black Hills, statistics of 90-93 

Pyrite, association of with tungsten 18 


Quartz, association of with tungsten 18 

resemblance of to scheelite 17, 18 

veins of Harney Peak, description of 50 

Queensland, tungsten deposits of 32 


Raspite, composition of 13 

Reinbold Metallurgical Company, tungsten production of 47 

Reinbold tungsten claim near Hill City 51 

near Spokane 63 

Replacement deposits, formation of 22 



tungsten in 22 

Rhyolite, description of 42, 69, 70 

tungsten in 74, 77 

Rock associates of tungsten ores 19 

Rundel, Mills and Casler tungsten claim 58 

Scheelite, chemical and physical properties of 15-16 

mineral associates of 19 

Secondary enrichment of tungsten ores. . 25, 87 

Segregation deposits, formation of 19 

tungsten in 19-20 

Sharwood, W. J., on analysis of Homstake tungsten ore 73 

Siam, tungsten deposits of 29 

Silver, association of with scheelite 19 

association of with tungsten 18 

Smith, S. R., tungsten property of 79 

Spearfish Formation 41 

Sphalerite, association of with tungsten 18 

resemblance of to tungsten minerals 16, 17 

Stolzite, composition of 13 

Structure of Black Hills pre-Cambrian rocks 39 

of post-Algonkian formations 41 

of Tertiary igneous rocks 43 

Success tungsten claim 56 

Sundance Formation 41 

Sylvanite, association with tungsten 18 


Tertiary igneous intrusives, description of 42, 69 

Test, chemical for tungsten 18 

Tin, association of, with wolframite 19 

Topaz, association of, with tungsten 18 

Topography of Black Hills, description of 34 

Tourmaline, association of, with tungsten 18 

resemblance of, to tungsten minerals 16, 17 

Triassic formations 41 

Tungsten, in veins, Harney Peak, description of 50 

minerals, chemical and physical properties of 13—16 

ores, milling of at Homestake mill 88—89 

ores, milling of at Wasp No. 2 mill 89 

production of in Black Hills 90-93 

Tungsten deposits, of Black Hills, types of 49 

depth of . .• 24 

of Harney Peak District 25 

of Lead-Deadwood 25,67 

of Nigger Hill District 64 

of U. S., description of 25 

relation of to acidic rocks 19, 24 

types of 19 

Tungsten Lode claim 52 

Tungstenite, composition of 13 

Tungstite, chemical and physical properties of 16 

Two Bit Creek, tungsten deposits of 79 


Unkpapa Formation 41 


Veins, tungsten, formation of 21 



minerals of 21-22 

physical characters of 21-22 

relation of to pegmatites 21 

Vida May tungsten claim 53 


Wasp No. 2 Mining Company, tungsten deposits of 74 

tungsten production of 90—93 

Whetstone Mountains, Arizona, tungsten deposits of 28 

Whitepine County, Nevada, tungsten deposits of 28 

White River Formation 41 

Whitewood Formation RQ 

Wolframite, composition of 14 

mineral associates of 19 

physical properties of 1 4—1 5 

Wolfram Lode tungsten claim 62 

Wright and Virtue tungsten claim 51 


Yavapai County, Arizona, tungsten deposits of 28 


Ziegler, V., on Harney Peak granite 49 

Zinc, association of, with wolframite 19 

Index to Part II 



Alloys, determination of tungstic oxide in 153-155 

Ammonia method for determination of tungstic oxide 150-151 

Arsenic, compounds of, with tungsten 145 


Boron and tungsten, compounds of . 146 

Bronze, tungsten, preparation of 142-143 


Carbon, compounds of, with tungsten 146 

Carbon in high-speed steels 126 

Chromium in high-speed steels 126 


Ferro-tungsten alloys, determination of tungstic oxide in 154-155 

Ferro-tungsten, decarburization of 109 

manufacture of 106—109 

production of, by alumino-thermic method 107 

by reduction with carbon in crucibles 107 

by reduction of ores in electric furnace 108 

by silico-thermic method 107 


Halogens, compounds of, with tungsten 143-144 

Hydrofluoric acid method for determination of tungstic oxide 151-152 




Lamps, tungsten filament 131-136 

Low, A. H., method for determination of tungstic oxide described 

by 152-153 

Nitrogen, compounds of, with tungsten 145 


Ores, tungsten, determination of, by specific gravity methods 155-157 

direct reduction of, in electric furnace 108 

quality demanded 110 

treatment of impure 112 

Oxides of tungsten, preparation, composition and uses of 138 


Phosphorus, compounds of, with tungsten QRT 


Scheelite, production of tungstic oxide from 100-101 

Silicon, compounds of, with tungsten 146 

Specific gravity methods for determination of tungsten in ores . . 


Steels, determination of tungstic oxide in 153—154 

Steels, high-speed tool 122 

carbon in 126 

chromium in 126 

composition of 125 

theory of . . • • • • 129 

tungsten in . . . , 126 

Steel, tungsten, manufacture of . . . 119, 120, 123 

theory of 122 

Sulphur, compounds of, with tungsten 144-145 


Tools, high-speed, heat treatment of 126 

Tungstates, preparation, composition and uses of 141-143 

Tungsten, atomic weight of 117 

chemical behavior of 115 

compounds of, with arsenic 145 

with carbon 146 

with the halogens 143-144 

Tungsten, compounds of, with phosphorus 145 

with silicon 146 

with sulphur 144-145 

in high-speed tool steels 126 

organic salts of 147 

qualitative detection of 148_150 

quantitative determination of 150-157 

solubility of. in alkaline carbonates 116 

in aqua regia 116 

in hydrochloric acid 116 

in hydrofluoric acid 116 

in nitric acid 116 

in potassuim hydroxide 116 

in sulphuric acid 116 

boride 146 

bronzes 142-143 

cast 109 

ductile 104-106 



metal, chemical behavior of 115 

physical properties of 114 

uses for, in metal filament lamps 131—136 

in iron alloys 11 8—1 1 9 

miscellaneous 136—137 

in non-ferrous alloys 130—131 

nitrides, composition of 145 

ores, direct reduction of, in electric furnace 108 

quality demanded 110 

quantitative determination of by specific gravity. . . .155-157 
treatment of, impure 112 

oxides of, preparation, composition and uses of 138 

Tungsten steels, manufacture of 119, 120, 123 

theory of 122 

Tungstic acids, preparation, composition and uses of 139-141 

oxide, determination of, by ammonia method 150-151 

by hydrofluoric acid method 151-152 

by method described by A. H. Low 152-153 

in steels and alloys 153—155 

production of, from ores, acid method 100 

alkali-fluoride method 101 

aqua regia method 98 

bi-sulphate method 99 

carbon tetrachloride method 99 

soda method 98 

sodium carbonate method 97 

from scheelite •. 100-101 

from wolframite 97-100 

reduction of, to metal by aluminum 102 

by boron and silicon 103 

by carbon, in crucible 101 

in electric furnace 102 

by gases 103 

by silicon carbide 103 

by zinc 103 


Wolframite, production of tungstic oxide from 97-100 


Page 14, line 25, "wolframites" should read "wolframite." 

Page 15, line 13, insert "series" after "wolframite." 

Page 16, line 29, "spahalerite" should read "sphalerite." 

Page 20, line 20, "has" should read "have." 

Page 22, line 10, "lense" should read "lens." 

Page 28, line 3. omit "rich." 

Page 42, line 7, "thyolites" should read "rhyolites." 

Page 43, line 14, "central part" should read "north central part. 

Page 44, line 32, "or" should read "of." 

Page 49, line 20, "types 2 and 4" should read "types 3 and 4." 

Page 80, line 27, "based" should read "basal." 



South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin No. 13 



Cleophas C O'Harra, Ph. D.. LL. D., 
President and Professor of Geology 
South Dakota State School of Mines 

Rapid City, South Dakota 
November, 1920 


(A revised reprint of South Dakota State School 
of Mines Bulletin No. 9, The Badland 
Formations of the Black Hills Region) 

Publication authorized by Regents 
of Education, October 2, 1919. 
Members at date of authorization: 

T. W. Dwight, President 

J. W. Campbell 

August Frieberg 

F. A. Spafford 

The picture which geology holds up to our view of North America 
during the Tertiary ages are in all respects, but one, more attractive 
and interesting than could be drawn from its present aspects. Then a 
warm and genial climate prevailed from the Gulf to the Arctic Sea; 
the Canadian highlands were higher, but the Rocky Mountains lower 
and less broad. Most of the continent exhibited an undulating sur- 
face, rounded hills and broad valleys covered with forests grander 
than any of the present day, or wide expanses of rich savannah, over 
which roamed countless herds of animals, many of gigantic size, of 
which our present meager fauna retains but a few dwarfed represen- 
tatives. Noble rivers flowed through plains and valleys, and sea-like 
lakes, broader and more numerous than those the continent now 
bears, diversified the scenery. Through unnumbered ages the seasons 
ran their ceaseless course, the sun rose and set, moons waxed and 
waned over this fair land, but no human eye was there to mark its 
beauty, nor human intellect to control and use its exuberant fertility. 
Flowers opened their many-colored petals on meadow and hill-side, 
and filled the air with their perfumes, but only for the delectation of 
the wandering bee. Fruits ripened in the sun, but there was no 
hand there to pluck, nor any speaking tongue to taste. Birds sang 
in the trees, but for no ears but their own. The surface of lake or 
river whitened by no sail, nor furrowed by any prow but the beast 
of the water-foul; and the far-reaching shores echoed no sound but 
the dash of the waves and the lowing of the herds that slacked their 
thirst in the crystal waters. J. S. NEWBERRY. 


Is it of interest to jou that the White River Badlands 
are the most famous deposits of the kind in the world? Do 
you know that aside from their picturesque topography they 
tell a marvelous nature story; a story of strange climate, 
strange geography, and strange animals; of jungles, and 
marshes, and tranquil rivers, of fierce contests for food, and 
life, and supremacy; of a varied series of events through 
ages and ages of time showing the working-out of well-laid 
plans with no human being to help or interfere? Most peo- 
ple know something of these things but generally it is in an 
indefinite piecemeal way. Except to scientific men the 
Badlands, instead of affording the intellectual delight that 
they should, are commonly little else than a sterile wonder. 

This book is written in order that the intellectually 
alert, the indifferent thinker, the old and the young, irre- 
spective of educational advantage or technical training may 
have opportunity to get a clearer and more comprehensive 
idea of this wonderful part of nature's handiwork. 

The landscape views given herein, have never been sur- 
passed, it is believed, for clearness of expression or for de- 
tail of configuration and the reproductions of the animals, 
made by the best vertebrate paleontologists of America, are 
marvels of beauty and accuracy. Among the pictures of 
animals both in fossil form and restored to life and activity 
as they were in their ancient White river home are : Bronto- 
therium, the huge thunderbeast ; Metamynodon, the bulky 
rhinoceros; Moropus, the grotesque chalicothere; Mesohip- 
pus, the three toed horse; Oreodon, the ruminating hog; 
Poebrotherium, the ancestral camel; Protoceras, the six- 
horned herbivore; Hoplophoneus, the savage-tooth tiger; 
Stylemys, the large dry land tortoise; Crocodilus, the old- 
time crocodile; and many others long since vanished from 
earth's activity. The book indicates why the camel of that 
time had no pads on his feet and the deer no antlers on his 
head, why the saber-tooth had his enormously vicious teeth, 
why dogs had retractile claws like the cat, why the horse 

had three toes on each foot instead of one, and many other 
things of like kind. 

Geologists and paleontologists have been engaged for 
three-quarters of a century in unravelling the intricate 
story of these strange lands and I have drawn liberally 
from the published works of these men. My gratitude for 
this material is hereby most gratefully acknowledged. Some 
of the more important publications consulted are listed 
under the heading, Bibliography. Those wishing a more 
complete record of papers with annotations on the same 
should consult my Bibliography of the Geology and Mining 
Interests of the Black Hills Kegion, published as South 
Dakota School of Mines Bulletin Xo. 11, 1917. I have 
endeavored in the text or in the figures and plate descrip- 
tions to indicate in proper way the source of material used. 

It is an especial pleasure to record here the favors ex- 
tended by Professor Henry F. Osborn of the American 
Museum of Natural History, by Professor W. B. Scott of 
Princeton University, and by The Macmillan Company of 
New York City in permitting the use of many excellent 
figures and plates from the two great books, Osborn's Age 
of Mammals in Europe, Asia, and North America, and 
Scott's History of Land Mammals in the Western Hemis- 
phere. These books deserve a large audience. They should 
be consulted by all who wish acquaintance with mammalian 
progress, and particularly by those interested in our White 
River Badlands, the classic vertebrate fossil ground of 

The subject is of absorbing interest but I have en- 
deavored to treat it without exaggeration, sensation or 
cheapness. The present book while following somewhat 
closely the plan and wording of the earlier publication is 
arranged with a little more consideration for the general 
reader. The revised form freed from technical references 
and faunal lists in the body of the book and with a more 
generous use of figures and plates should be readily and 
entirely assimilated. It is believed especially that the gen- 
eral reader and teachers and high school students interested 
in natural history subjects should find the information val- 
uable and inspirational. 

November 4, 1920. 



Importance and Distribution of the Badlands 19 

History of Exploration 23 

Classification and Correlation of the Deposits 31 

Nature of the Deposits 36 

Oligocene 38 

The Chadron Formation 38 

The Brule Formation 38 

The Oreodon Beds 40 

The Protoceras Beds 42 

Lower Miocene 42 

The Arikaree Formation 42 

The Monroe Creek Beds 44 

The Harrison Beds 44 

The Rosebud Beds 45 

Middle Miocene 47 

The Sheep Creek Beds 47 

Upper Miocene 47 

The Nebraska Beds 47 

Pliocene 47 

Manner of Deposition 49 

Geologic History 50 

Physiographic Development 51 

Concretions, Sand crystals, Dikes, Veins and Geodes .... 56 

Devils Corkscrews (Daemonelix) 59 

Economic Mineral Products 61 

Fossils 64 

Extinction, Evolution and Distribution of Animals .... 65 

Collecting and Mounting of Fossil Bones 70 

Classification and Naming of Extinct Animals 72 

Carnivores 77 

Creodonta 78 

Canidae 78 

Felidae 83 

Mustelidae 87 

Insectivores 88 

Rodents 88 


Ungulates (Herbivores) 90 

Perissodactyls 90 

Rhinocerotoidea 91 

Lophiodontidae 96 

Chalicotheridae 96 

Tapiridae 99 

Equidae 100 

Titanotheridae 110 

Artiodactyls 118 

Elotheridae and Dicotylidae 118 

Anthracotheridae 122 

Oreodontidae 123 

Hypertragulidae 128 

Camelidae 132 

Cervidae 138 

Remains of Animals other than Mammals 139 

Turtles 140 

Crocodiles 142 

Birds' Eggs 143 

Badland Life of Today 144 

Recent History 145 

How to see the Badlands 147 

List of the Fossil Mammals Found in the Badlands .... 149 

Names of Vertebrates other than Mammals 160 

Bibliography 161 

Index 175 


FiGUEE 1. The first fossil discovered in the White River Badlands. 

" 2. The earliest Badland fossil described by Joseph Leidy. 

" 3. The White River Badland formations as exposed in South 

Dakota, Northwestern Nebraska and Eastern Wyoming. 

" 4. The Agate Spring fossil quarries. 

" 5. Paleogeography of North America during Pierre deposition. 

" 6. North America in the Tertiary period. 

" 7. The Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Pleistocene formations of the 

western states. 

" 8. The Tertiary formations of the Rocky Mountain Region. 

" 9. Birds-eye view of the Big Badlands. 

" 10. Section from Round Top to Adelia (Nebraska). 

" 11. Section along the Nebraska-Wyoming line. 

" 12. Section from Hat Creek to Wind Springs. 

" 13. Section from Porcupine Butte toward White River. 

" 14. Section showing the conjectural Daemonelix series. 

" 15. Steneofiber barbouri in daemonelix rhizome. 

" 16. Land areas of the world during Late Cretaceous and Basal 

Eocene time. 

" 17. Land areas of the world during Oligocene time. 

" 18. Land areas of the world during Miocene time. 

" 19. Land areas of the world during Pliocene time. 

" 20. Group of Promerycochoerus skeletons as found. 

" 21. Fine group of ancestral camels as found in the Carnegie 

Museum Stenomylus quarry. 

" 22. Skeleton of Hyaenodon cruentus. 

" 23. Hind foot and fore foot of Daphoenodon superbus. 

" 24. Skull of Daphoenodon superbus. 

" 25. Skeleton of Daphoenodon superbus. 

" 26. Skull of Cynodictis gregarius. 

" 27. Skeleton of Cynodictis gregarius. 

" 28. Skull of Dinictis squalidens. 

" 29. Heads of Dinictis squalidens and Hoplophoneus primaevus 

showing manner of attack. 

" 30. Fore foot and hind foot of Hoplophoneus primaevus. 

" 31. Skeleton of Hoplophoneus primaevus. 

" 32. Skeleton of Dinictis squalidens. 

" 33. Skeleton of Steneofiber fossor. 

" 34. Skull of Metamynodon planifrons. 

" 35. Skull of Caenopus tridactylus. 

" 36. Skeleton of Hyracodon nebrascensis. 

" 37. Skeleton of Metamynodon planifrons. 

" 38. Skeleton of Caenopus tridactylus. 

" 39. Skeleton of Moropus cooki. 

" 40. Skeleton of Mesohippus bairdi. 

FiGUBE 41. 

































































Skeleton of Neohipparion whitneyi. 

Hind foot and fore foot of MesoMppus intermedius. 

Evolution of the foot in the Horse family. 

Fore foot of the earliest known one-toed horse. 

Skull of Parahippus nebrascensis. 

Skull of PlioMppus lullianus. 

Phylogeny of the Horses. 

Evolution of the Horse. 

Skull of Megacerops marshi. 

Skull of Brontotherium platyceras. 

Male and female skulls of TitanotJierium elatum. 

Skeleton of Megacerops rohustus. 

Skeleton of Titanotherium prouti. 

First and last known stages in the evolution of the Titan- 

Skull and lower jaws of Dinohytis hollandi. 
Palatal view of skull of Dinohyus hollandi. 
Skeleton of Elotherium (Entelodon) ingens. 
Skeleton of Dinohyus hollandi. 
Upper and lower jaws of Desmathyus (Thinohyus) Sioux- 

Skull of Hyopotamus (Ancodus) Irachyrhynchus. 
Skeleton of Hyopotamus (Ancodus) irachyrhynchus. 
Skeleton of Agriochoerus latifrons. 
Skeleton of Promerycochoerus carrikeri. 
Skeleton of Leptauchenia decora. 
Skeleton of Leptomeryx evansi. 
Fore and hind foot of Protoceras. 
Skull of Syndyoceras cooki. 
Skull of Poehrotherium wilsoni. 
Skeleton of Oxydactylus longipes. 
Phylogeny of the Camels. 
The Evolution of the Camel. 
Skeleton of Blastomeryx advena. 
Head of Stylemys nebrascensis. 
Part of the head of Crocodilus prenasalis. 
Head of Caimanoides visheri. 

The Gateway, School of Mines Canyon. 

Map of the "White River Badland Formations of the Black 

Hills Region. 
Columnar section of the Black Hills Region. 
Earliest published view of the White River Badlands. 
Hayden's early view of the Big Badlands. 
Hayden's earliest geological map of the Upper Missouri 

Hayden's second geological map of the Upper Missouri 



Plate 8, Some of the men who have studied the White River Badlands. 
" 9. Section showing divisions of the Age of Mammals. 
" 10. A. and B. Rock slabs showing fossil bones in place. 
" 11. A. Head of Hoplophoneus primaevits. 

B. Head of Syndyoceras cooki. 
" 12. A. Restoration of head of Megacerops. 

B. Restoration of head of Smilodon. 
" 13. A. Head of Daphoenus felinus. 

B. Heads of fossil rodents. 
" 14. A. Head of Hyracodon nebrascensis. 

B. Head of Protapirus validus. 
" 15. Skull of Caenopus (Aceratherium) oceidentalis. 
" 16. A. Head of Mesohippus hairdi. 

B. Head of Mesohippus bairdi compared with that of Eqiiv,s- 
" 17. A. Right hind foot of Moropus elatus. 

B. Fore foot of Moropus elatus. 
18. A. Right hind foot of Titanothere. 

B. Right fore foot of Titanothere. 

C. Right hind leg of Titanothere. 
" 19. A. Upper teeth of Titanothere. 

B. Lower jaw of Titanothere. 
" 20. Skull of Titanotlierium ingens. 
" 21. A. Head of Merycoidodon (Oreodon) gracile. 

B. Head of Merycoidodon (Oreodon) culbertsoni. 
" 22. A. Skull of Eporeodon major. 

B. Left half of skull of Eporeodon major. 

C. Right half of skull of Eporeodon major. 
" 23. A. Head of Protoceras celer. 

B. Skull of Protoceras celer (From above). 

C. Skull of Protoceras celer (From below). 
" 24. A. Skeleton of Neohipparion whitneyi. 

B. Skeleton of Merycoidodon (Oredon) culbertsoni. 
" 25. A. Restoration of Hyaenodon. 

B. Animals of the Fayum, Egypt. 
" 26. A. Restoration of Diceratherium cooki. 

B. Restoration of Daphoenodon superbus. 
" 27. Skeleton of Hoplophoneus primaevus. 
" 28. Restoration of Hoplophoneus primaevus. 
" 29. Restoration of Metamynodon planijrons. 

" 30. Group restoration of Metamynodon, Hydracodon, and Dinictia. 
" 31. A. Skeleton of Hyracodon nebrascensis. 

B. Restoration of Moropus cooki. 
" 32. Restoration of Moropus Elatus. 
" S3. Restoration of Mesohippus bairdi. 
" 34. Restoration of Neohipparion whitneyi. 
" 35. Restoration of Titanotherium (Brontops). 
" 36. Restoration of Brontotherium gigas. 

Plate 37. A. Restoration of Archaeotherium ingens. 

B. Restoration of Dinohyus hollandi. 
" 38. Restoration of Elotherium (Entelodon) imperator. 
" 39. Skeleton of Merycoidodon (Oreodon) gracilis. 
" 40. Restoration of Merycoidodon (Oreodon) culbertsoni. 
" 41. A. Restoration of Agriochoerus antiguus. 

B. Restoration of Leptauchenia nitida. 
" 42. A. Restoration of Promerycochoerus carrikeri. 

B. Restoration of Blastomeryx advena. 
" 43. Skeleton of Protoceras celer. 
" 44. Restoration of Protoceras celer. 
" 45. Restoration of Syndyoceras cooki. 
" 46. Restoration of Poebrotherium labiatum. 
" 47. A. Daemonelix and Daemonelix Beds. 

B. Head of Crocodilus prenasalis. 
" 48. A. A petrified birds egg. 

B. The turtle, Stylemys nebrascensis. 
" 49. Types of Sioux Indians. 

" 50. Hall of Fossil Mammals American Museum Natural History. 
" 51. Geological Museum, South Dakota State School of Mines. 
" 52. Sand-calcite crystals from Devils Hill. 
" 53. A. White River near Interior. 

B. Cheyenne River near mouth of Sage Creek. 
" 54. A. Suncracked surface of an alluvial flat. 

B. Spongy surface of disintegrating Titanotherium clay. 
" 55. A. The early day postoffice of Interior. 

B. An early day cowboy home in Corral Draw. 
" 56. A. A ranch home near the Great Wall. 

B. The beginning of a farm near the Great Wall. 
" 57. A. Detail of the Great Wall, near Interior. 

B. The Great Wall at Cedar Pass. 
" 58. A. Cattle in the Badlands. 

B. The 6L Ranch near Imlay. 
" 59. A. Geology class in Indian Creek Basin. 

B. Geology class at top of Sheep Mountain. 
" 60. A. The water canteen. 

B. The steep road near the Hines ranch. 
" 61. A. A resistant clay dike. 

B. An erosion pinnacle. 
" 62. A. Geology class in School of Mines canyon. 

B. Midway down School of Mines Canyon. 
" 63. A. The Great Wall near Big Foot Pass. 

B. South side of Sheep Mountain. 

C. Steep walled canyon near Sheep Mountain. 
" 64. A. Early day School of Mines camping ground. 

B. School of Mines students on Sheep Mountain Table, 
" 65. A. Balanced rock on the Great Wall. 

B. Balanced rock near head of Indian Draw. 


Plate 66. A. Oreodon Beds near Big Foot Pass. 
B. Erosion forms in Corral Draw. 

67. A. Titanotherium Beds near Big Foot Pass. 
B. Oreodon Beds in Indian Draw. 

68. A. Erosion forms north of the Great Wall near Cedar Pass. 
B. Erosion forms north of the Great Wall near Big Foot 


69. A. Erosion forms near Sheep Mountain. 
B. Erosion forms in Corral Draw. 

70. A. Great Wall north of Interior. 
B. Great Wall north of Interior. 

71. A. Clay balls in small ravine. 
B. Conglomerate dike in Indian Draw. 

72. A. General view of Titanotherium Beds. 
B. General view of Oredon Beds. 

73. A. Protoceras Beds near Sheep Mountain. 
B. Protoceras Beds near Sheep Mountain. 

74. A. Oredon Beds of Indian Draw — Corral Draw divide. 
B. Erosion detail in School of Mines canyon. 

75. A. and B. Agate Spring fossil quarries. 

76. A. General view of Slim Buttes. 
B. Fort Union Sandstone of the Cave Hills. 

77. North face of Pine Ridge. 

78. Students studying concretions in Indian Draw. 

79. School of Mines party near top of Sheep Mountain. 

80. Protoceras Beds of Sheep Mountain. 

81. Steep-walled canyons of Sheep Mountain. 

82. Climbing among the precipices of Sheep Mountain. 

83. View across the eastern slope of Sheep Mountain. 

84. View from Sheep Mountain toward White River. 

85. Erosion forms north of the Great Wall near Interior. 

86. Panoramic view South of Sheep Mountain. 

87. Panoramic view of the Great Wall near Saddle Pass. 

88. Roadway through Cedar Pass. 

89. Approaching the top of Sheep Mountain. 

90. General view of School of Mines camping ground. 

91. Midway down School of Mines Canyon. 

92. Near the Gateway, School of Mines Canyon. 

93. Detail of the Great Wall north of Interior. 

94. Protoceras Beds and Oreodon Beds of School of Mines 

95. Geological party descending School of Mines Canyon. 

96. A guardian of the Gateway, School of Mines Canyon. 


o s 
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O P-( 












The White River Badlands 


The White River Badlands constitute the most im- 
portant badland area of the world. They lie chiefly in 
southwestern South Dakota but a prominent arm known as 
Pine Ridge extends through northwestern Nebraska into 
eastern Wyoming. Most of the drainage is by way of White 
river, hence the name. The area is very irregular and there 
are many outliers particularly to the west and northwest of 
the central portion. Southward geological formations 
similar to those of White river extend over much of Ne- 
braska and eastern Colorado but here, except along the forks 
of the Platte the badland feature is not prominent. 

Originally the badland formations made up a vast earth 
blanket stretching for hundreds of miles north and south 
along the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountain front. Their 
greatest plainsward extension cannot now be definitely de- 
termined, but in South Dakota they reach beyond the Mis- 
souri to near the James river valley. They seem to have en- 
tirely surrounded the Black Hills and of this uplift only 
the higher portions remained uncovered. From these re- 
stricted areas and from the rising Rocky Mountains detrital 
materials had opportunity throughout a long period to add 
their volume to the deposits of the bordering lowlands. 
Later this vast series of sediments was elevated and was 
gradually trenched by innumerable streams and most of the 
material washed away. Along with these changes the bad- 
land topography developed and has continued to develop to 
the present time. 

The Badlands do not readily lend themselves to ac- 
curate definition nor to brief description. They are in con- 
sequence a much misunderstood portion of American terri- 
tory. The name is a literal translation of the Manvaises 
Terres of the early French Canadian trappers who had in 
turn appropriated the still earlier MalxO Sica (mako, land; 
sicha, bad) of the Dakota Indians. It signifies a country 
difficult to travel through chiefly because of the rugged sur- 


face features and the general lack of good water. The 
term is unduly detractive although apt enough in frontier 
days when hardships of travel were rigorous even under the 
best of circumstances. 

Much the greater portion of the area within the badland 
region as commonly understood is level and fertile and is 
covered with rich wild grasses and recent occupation by 
thousands of settlers has brought out the fact that over 
large tracts, especially on the higher tables, good refreshing 
water may be obtained by sinking shallow wells in the soil 
and gravel mantle that lies rather widespread on the sur- 
face. The country has in years gone by been of much value 
as an open range for the grazing of cattle and horses. Now 
that it has been made accessible by railway the land has 
largely passed from the government to private ownership 
and farming and dairying on an extensive scale are being 
carried on. Within little more than a stone's throw of 
where the early explorers spoke of the region as an inferno 
for heat and drought men have built homes for themselves 
and their families and are now raising good crops of 
vegetables, tame grasses and staple grains. 

But the purpose of this book is more particularly to 
indicate the value of the Badlands as an educational asset. 
Nowhere in the world can the influences of erosion be more 
advantageoufely studied or more certainly or quickly under- 
stood. Nowhere does the progress of mammalian life reveal 
itself with greater impressiveness or clearness. Nowhere 
do long ago days connect themselves more intimately with 
the present or leave more helpful answers to our wondering 
questions as to the nature and import of the earth's later 

The most picturesque portion of the White River Bad- 
lands lies between White river and Cheyenne river south- 
east of the Black Hills. This is known as the Big Badlands, 
and the chief topographic features. Sheep Mountain and the 
Great Wall, high remnants of an extensive tableland now 
reduced to a narrow watershed, are flanked by a marvelous 
network of rounded hillocks, wedge slopes, grassy flats, and 
sheer declivites. (For illustrations of these see the views in 
the plate section). The Great Wall viewed from White river 
valley presents a particularly rugged aspect and, like the 
great wall that it is, stretches for many miles in a nearly 


east-west direction, disclosing for much of the distance a 
continuous serrated skyline series of towers, pinnacles and 
precipitous gulches. Sheep Mountain, the cedar covered top 
of which overlooks all of the surrounding country, presents 
a view that is hopelessly indescribable. One side leads 
gently down to a high intricately etched grass-covered flat 
covering a few cramped square miles. In all other direc- 
tions everything is strange and wierd in the extreme. Far 
away cattle or horses may be seen feeding on levels of green 
and here and there distant dots in ruffled squares indicate 
the abodes of happy homesteaders. Immediately about all 
is still. Until recently the sharp eye could occasionally 
detect a remnant bunch of mountain sheep, once numerous 
in this locality, but quickly and quietly they would steal to 
cover among the intricate recesses of the crumbling preci- 
pices. Song birds are present but they are prone to respect 
the solitude. Only an occasional eagle screams out a word 
of curiosity or deflance as he sails majestically across the 
maze of projecting points and bottomless pits. Magniflcent 
ruins of a great silent city painted in delicate shades of 
cream and pink and bufl! and green! Domes, towers, min- 
arets, and spires decorate gorgeous cathedrals and palaces 
and present dimensions little dreamed of by the architects of 
the ancients. 

At first as one looks over the strange landscape there 
may come a feeling of the incongruous or grotesque but 
studying more closely the meaning of every feature the 
spirit of this marvelous handiwork of the Great Creator 
develops and vistas of beauty appear. Here on Sheep 
Mountain or on the higher points of the Great Wall the 
contemplative mind weaves its way into the long geologic 
ages. There are visions of Cretaceous time. A vast salt 
sea stretches as a broad band from the Gulf of Mexico to the 
Arctic regions and slowly deposits sediments that are des- 
tined to form much of the great western plains of the con- 
tinent. Strange reptiles sport along the shores of this sea 
and myriads of beautiful shellfish live and die in its mud 
laden rush-fringed bays. Changes recur, the salt becomes 
less pronounced, the sea shallows, brackish conditions pre- 
vail but the animals and plants with many alterations and 
much advancement live on. Deep rumblings in the neighbor- 
ing Black Hills and in the Rocky Mountains with accom- 


panying intrusions of igneous rocks portend widespread 
changes, the shallowing sea slips away and fresh water 
marsh-lands and deltas prevail. The Tertiary comes and 
with the close of its earlier divisions the White Eiver bad- 
land formations begin to be deposited. Barriers somewhere 
are let down and a great horde of animals higher in type 
than any known before begins to appear. Here in the fore- 
ground gently flowing streams push their muddy way 
through reedy marshlands and vigorous forests and furnish 
a lazy playground for countless turtles and occasional 
crocodiles. In favored recesses groups of rhinoceroses may 
be seen, some heavy of bulk and water loving, others grace- 
ful and preferring dry land. Little fleet-footed ancestral 
horses with names as long as their legs nibble the grass on 
the hillsides or, by means of their spreading three-toed feet, 
trot unhindered across the muddy flats, the nearest restrain- 
ing rider being more than a million years away. Here and 
there we see a group of predaceous dogs and not infrequent- 
ly do we get a glimpse of a ferocious tiger-like cat. On the 
higher ridges, even far within the distant hills and moun- 
tains six horned herbivores reveal their inquisitive pose 
and perhaps anon, like the antelope, show their puffs of 
white as they scamper from the nearing presence of some 
stealthy foe. But the "reigning plutocrat" is the titan- 
othere. In great numbers we see his majestice form as he 
moves among his kin and crops at his leisure the coarse 
grasses of the lowlands. Here and there are beavers and 
gophers and squirrels busy with their toil and their play, and 
hedgehogs and moles and swine and deer and tapirs and 
camels, and many other creatures too strange to mention 
without definition. Although the Badlands as we now 
know them were until recently little frequented by man ex- 
cept in favored places, do not think the country was in the 
ages gone by a barren waste or a place of solitude. To all 
these animals it was home. Here they fought for food and 
life and supremacy. To them the sun shone, the showers 
came, the birds sang, the flowers bloomed, and stately trees 
gave convenient shade to the rollicking young of many a 

But "everlasting hills' have their day and rivers do not 
flow on forever. These animals, under a Guiding Provi- 
dence, having inherited the more essential characters of 



their ancestors, in turn transmitted to later individuals the 
features best fitted to serve their purpose in the winning of 
life's great race. Cue by one, group by group, they died, 
the bodies of most of them quickly feeding the surrounding 
elements but a chosen few, tucked away by the kindly hand 
of nature, remaining as unique monuments of the dawning 
time of the great mammalian races, are now being revealed 
as gently by nature again in these the days of man. 


Our first knowledge of the White River badlands 
worthy of record dates from 1847. Early in this year Dr. 
Hiram A. Prout of St. Louis described in the American 

Figure 1 — Fragment of the lower jaw of a Titanothere, the first fossil 
discovered in the Big Badlands. Described by Dr. H. A. Prout of 
St. Louis, 1846-47. 

Journal of Science a fragment of the lower jaw of the great 
Titanothere, he calling it a Paleotherium. A few months 
later Dr. Joseph Leidy described in the Proceedings of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia a fairly well 
preserved head of what he termed a Poebrotherium. The 
name implies belief in the ruminating nature of the animal 
and later investigation, strange as it may seem, showed it to 
be an ancestral camel. The two specimens referred to were 
obtained from representatives of the American Fur Com- 
pany. Their exact locality is not known but it is believed to 
be somewhere between the present towns of Scenic and 



The descriptions of these specimens aroused much in- 
terest among men of science and in 1849, Dr. John Evans in 
the employ of the government under the direction of David 
Dale Owen of the Owen Geological Survey, visited the 
region for the purpose of studying its peculiar features and 
of collecting additional fossils in order to determine the age 
of the strata. This visit was of the greatest importance and 
the results were early published in a most careful scientific 
manner. The report, chiefly the work of Dr. Leidy, who 
described the fossils and Mr. Evans who through Mr. Owen 
reported upon the geography and geology, gave to the world 
the first authentic description of the nature of the badland 
country. (Plate 4). Thaddeus A. Culbertson visited the 
region during the following year, 1850, and obtained at the 
request of the Smithsonian Institution a small but import- 

Figure 2 — Head of an ancestral camel, PoehrotheriuTn, the earliest 
Badland fossil described by Dr. Joseph Leidy, of Philadelphia, 

ant series of specimens. F. V. Hayden (Plate 8) of the 
United States Geological Survey of the Territories made 
several explanatory trips particularly in 1853, '55, '57 and 
'GG. Often in grave danger and hindered by varied 
hardships he nevertheless succeeded in unraveling in large 
measure the main geologic features of the country. Plates 5, 
G and 7). All of these parties collected vertebrate fossils of 
the greatest scientific value and Dr. Leidy (Plate 8) whom I 
have already mentioned, being recognized as the best fitted 
man in America to determine the nature of such fossils, 
was called upon to write their description. Important 
papers rapidly issued from his pen and each new description 
served to point out the need of further exploration. He pub- 
lished in 1869 in the Journal of the Academy of Natural 




Arraased by Cleopbaa C. O'Hirri 

Rapid City, South Dtkota 


Middle M."'r:°!: ^-^^^^ to contain 

R.^ Moatly Lower 

t^^-^ Middle Min„^,- ,. "" ""^ i:omain 

^=^ >»ceae °°' """^ "">"■■». P"ocene. and PlelB- 

■"""eMlaled 01ie„ce„e 

(Chlotly Chadron formation). 

Lower Oiigocene. Chadron Formation (Tltanottierlum 


Sciences of Philadelphia his mouuineutal work ''The Extinct 
Mammalian Fauna of Dakota and Nebraska." In this large 
volume he brought together the accumulated information of 
more than twenty years and in consummate manner estab- 
lished the White River badlands as one of the great fossil 
vertebrate repositories of the world. 

A new epoch in the investigation followed. New men 
entered the field and institutions not hitherto represented 
began to send out exploratory and collecting expeditions. 
Among the institutions were Yale Universitj^, University of 
Princeton, United States Geological Survey, American 
Museum of Natural History, University of Nebraska, Uni- 
versity of South Dakota, Carnegie Museum, Amherst Col- 
lege, Field Columbian Museum and the South Dakota State 
School of Mines. 

The first Yale party, under direction of Professor O. C. 
Marsh ( Plate 8 ) visited the region in 1870. Professor Marsh, 
not satisfied with the crude methods of collecting with which 
the earliest investigators had to content themselves, under- 
took extensive quarrying for the fossils, and developed also 
more refined methods of utilizing detached and broken 
pieces. In this way a number of well-preserved, complete, 
or nearly complete, skeletons were obtained where before the 
material was weathered and fragmentary. Complete re- 
storations of skeletons disclose structural features much 
more readily than detached bones and imperfect fragments, 
and Prof. Marsh first extensively developed this feature for 
the fossil vertebrates of the White River and other western 
badlands. He was thus able to emphasize more easily the 
nature of these animals and to point out more clearly their 
profoundly significant relation to present-day life. Prof. 
Marsh continued field work for many years, the collecting 
being done sometimes by expeditions directly from Yale, 
some times by collectors hired for the purpose. Following 
the first Yale expedition of 1870, other Yale expeditions were 
in the region in 1871, '73, '74 and hired collectors in 1886, 
'87, '88, '89, '90, '94, '95, '97, '98. The institution was repre- 
sented in northwestern Nebraska also in 1908. 

In this connection it may be stated that during the 
years 1886-'90, much of the field work directed by Professor 
Marsh was done under the auspices of the United States 
Geological Survey, the materials collected being later trans- 



ferred to the National Museum. Much of this collecting, 
particularly during the years 1886, '87, '88, was in imme- 
diate charge of Mr. J. B. Hatcher, one of the most original 
and successful collectors that has ever worked in the bad- 

The University of Princeton was first represented by an 
expedition under direction of Professor W. B. Scott in 1882. 
Another expedition directed by Prof. Scott came in 1890. 
A third came in 1893, directed as before by Prof. Scott, with 
whom was associated Mr. J. B. Hatcher. A fourth party 
came in 1894, this time under the full direction of Mr. 
Hatcher. (Plate 8). The results of these expeditions were of 
very great importance. The abundant fossil remains collected 
enabled Prof, Scott to describe in most complete manner a 
number of the more noted extinct animals and to indicate 
with more certainty their proper classification and rela- 

The American Museum of Natural History entering the 
field in 1892, ^as favored from the very first by important 
discoveries. Since the first expedition, several parties have 

Figure 3 — Areal distribution of Oligocene and Miocene exposures in 
South Dakota, Northwestern Nebraska, and Eastern Wyonaing. 
N. H. Darton, modified by Matthew and Thomson, 19 09. 


represented this institution in its field investigations. 
Backed by abundant means and made up of capable investi- 
gators, they have been able to carry home a large amount 
of extraordinarily valuable material. This has given op- 
portunity to establish more accurately the details of 
stratigraphy and correlation and to indicate with greater 
certainty the characteristics and habits of the various 
animals while in the living state. The years in which par- 
ties have been in the field, either in South Dakota or north- 
western Nebraska are 1892, '93, '94, '97, '03, '06, '08, '11, '12, 
'13, '14, '16. Under the direction of Prof. H. F. Osborn, (Plate 
8), Curator of the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, 
earlier a co-worker with Prof. Scott in the Princeton investi- 
gations, many of the best preserved skeletons complete in 
practically every detail and mounted with the greatest skill, 
have been clothed with flesh, life and activity. Reproduc- 
tions of a number of these, reference to which is made on 
other pages, are given in this book. 

The University of Nebraska sent expeditions into the 
field, the parties being under direction of Prof. E. H. Bar- 
bour in 1892, '94, '95, and '97, '05, '07, '08 and later. Much of 
their collecting was done in northwestern Nebraska, but a 
considerable part of it in South Dakota and Wyoming. Prof. 
J. E. Todd of the University of South Dakota, spent a brief 
time in the field in 1894. He made a second visit, accom- 
panied by several students in 1896. The University has 
more recently carried on additional investigations but the 
publications issued have been largely in connection with 
the fauna and flora of the present day. 

New impetus was given the geological and paleontolo- 
gical work, particularly among the Miocene formations of 
northwestern Nebraska and eastern Wyoming, by the in- 
auguration in 1902 of explorations by the Carnegie Museum 
of Pittsburg. This has continued to the present time. Mr. 
Hatcher directed much of the earlier work, while later, Mr. 
O. A. Peterson has had charge of it. This museum, as in the 
case of the American Museum, has been particularly success- 
ful, and many new and strange species have been discovered 
and described. A discovery of special note is that of the 
rich and important bone deposits near Agate Springs found 
in 1904. 



Amherst College sent a party into the region under 
directon of Prof. F. B. Loomis in 1903 and another in 1907. 
Field Columbian Museum was represented by a party under 
Curator O. C. Farrington in 1901. The United States Geolo- 
gical Survey renewing its investigations in 1897 under Mr. 
N. H. Darton continued work in the region for several years, 
the chief purpose being to study the various geological for- 
mations with reference to underground water resources. 

Reference has been made to the fact that the South 
Dakota badlands extend across the southern boundary of the 
state through northwestern Nebraska into eastern Wyom- 
ing. The northwestern Nebraska area has in recent years 

Figure 4 — The Agate Spring fossil quarries, Sioux county, Nebraska, 
and their related topography. Holland and Peterson, 1914. A, First 
excavation, B, Carnegie hill, C, University hill. Amherst hill lies 
about two miles east of this. 


attracted much attention, due in large measure to the extra- 
ordinary deposits found on the James Cook ranch near 
Agate Springs on the Niobrara river approximately forty 
miles south of Ardmore, South Dakota. Osborn states that 
they are the most remarkable deposits of mamalian remains 
of Tertiary age that have ever been found in any part of 
the world. It is in connection with these deposits that most 
of the later White River badland work of the museums and 
other educational institutions has been done. The bones 
are not only extremely abundant and well preserved but 
complete or nearly complete skeletons are fairly common 
and in several instances considerable groups of good skele- 
tons have been found in little disturbed condition. Three 
small hills in which quarries have been worked in the 
search for bones have been designated as Carnegie Hill, 
University Hill and Amherst Hill, these having been first 
opened, in the order given, by representatives of the respec- 
tive institutions, Carnegie Museum, University of Nebraska, 
and Amherst College. 

The South Dakota State School of Mines has nearly 
every year, beginning with 1899, sent a party into the bad- 
lands either to Sheep Mountain or to some place along the 
Great Wall. Aside from the publication by the institution 
in 1910 of a summary description under the title "The Bad- 
land Formations of the Black Hills Region" the chief pur- 
pose of these visits, covering generally only a few days, has 
been to give students an opportunity to study physiographic 
processes and topographic types. The visits have served to 
give name to what is perhaps the ruggedest drainage feature 
of all the White River badlands, namely, School of Mines 
canyou. (See Plates 1, 91, 92, 91, 95, 9G, and others). This 
cuts a deep gash into the highest part of Sheep Mountain 
and connects through a picturesque gateway with Indian 
creek an affluent of Cheyenne river. 

In addition to the expeditions equipped by the several 
institutions, private collectors have obtained large quantities 
of valuable material and these specimens, either directly or 
through dealers, have found their way into the best mus- 
eums, both at home and abroad. Now that access to every 
part of the White River badlands is readily gained, investi- 
gators are constantly visiting the region and activity in the 
development of knowledge concerning these wonderful de- 



posits has perhaps never been more vigorous nor better 
planned than it is at the present time. Each succeeding 
year enhances the quality and importance of the investiga- 
tion and doubtless this will continue for many years to 

Figure 5 — North America during the time when the Pierre (Cretac- 
eous) shales in the form of mud were being laid down in the 
sea. Schuchert, 1908. White represents land areas; diagonal 
lines Pacific and Atlantic ocean areas; horizontal lines Arctic 
conditions; vertical lines Gulf conditions; black represents for- 
mation outcrops. 




The history of the earth since the advent of life on its 
surface is commonly divided into certain time-divisions 
called eras. Beginning with the oldest, these are the 
Archeozoic, the Proterozoic, the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic, and 
the Cenozoic* Each of these eras is divided into shorter 
time-divisions known as periods, varying somewhat among 
authors. For example the Paleozoic may be divided into the 
Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Mississipian, 
Pennsylvanian, and Permian periods; the Mesozoic into 
Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous; the Cenozoic into the 
Tertiary and Quaternary. The periods may in turn be 
divided into epochs, as for example, the Tertiary into the 
Paleocene, the Eocene, the Oligocene, the Miocene, and the 
Pliocene epochs; the Quaternary into the Pleistocene, or 
Glacial epoch, and the Recent or Human epoch. The rocks 
laid down during the various epochs or periods are spoken 
of as being grouped into formations (not to be confused 
with the ill-defined expressions often used for any natural 
oddity) the name of each formation being usually derived 
from some town, stream, tribe of people, or other feature of 
local interest where the formation was first carefully studied 
and described. The Black Hills and the Badlands together 
form a nearly continuous series from very old rocks to the 
very youngest. The following section in order of deposi- 
tion, the oldest being at the bottom shows the various for- 
mations of this part of the country : 

*I regret the apparent advisability of following conservative 
classification rather than joining present events with anticipated con- 
ditions and adding the beautifully expressive term "Psychozoic Era," 
the Age of Man, introduced by Prof. Joseph LeConte many years ago 
and used by him in the various editions of his elements of Geology. 




Table of Geologic Divisions for Western South Dakota 







f Recent alluvial (flood 
I plain) deposits. 
i Older high - level 
I gravels, sands and 
L clays. 



Oligocene ] 

( Not sub- 

I divided. 

f Nebraska 

] Beds 

I Sheep Creek 

I Beds 

I Arikaree 
Ft. Union 

? Lance Formation 


Fox Hills 











7 J Unkpapa 
■ I Sundance 

? Spearflsh 










i Minnekahta 
< Opeche 


« Pahasapa 
( Englewood 
[Not represented?] 

[Not represented?] 


Not yet differentiated 
[Not represented] 




















z z 


o 2-jz z 


I- =!y=!< =! 

Q. mLtou o 



> u 

J 3l 

Ul J 

d Q 

J < 

o u 











": (0 



y o 










en H 








J < 



o u 




13 J 





























































< 2 < 



l-Z* !- 



ooy o 



5f«)^ ^ 

it^ z 


<3Z < 




















^ u 



Table of Geologic Divisions for Western South Dakota 



f Recent alluvial (flood 
I plain) deposits. 
■! Older hi g h - level 
gravels, sands and 
L clays. 


Not sub- 
















.j . ' 



[Not represented] 



The rock formations of the White Kiver badlands repre- 
sent a late time in geologic history. From the earliest days 
of their exploration they have been recognized as of Tertiary 
age and of non-marine character. The particular horizon 
within the Tertiary to which the various subdivisions should 
be referred have been less easy to determine. Leidy in his 

Figure 6 — Map of North America in the Tertiary period, Black areas 
represent known exposures of marine Tertiary; lined areas, sea; 
dotted areas, non marine formations. Scott. 

earliest studies of the extinct animals considered the beds 
as Eocene. Fuller study indicated to him and others a 
wider range in age than was first suspected and many fea- 
tures showed a later Tertiary character. As a result they 
became designated as Miocene and Pliocene, then as Lower 
Miocene and Pliocene, the Miocene (or lower Miocene) be- 



ing often referred to as the White Kiver group. Later as 
the methods of correlation became more refined and as 
representative fossils came more abundantly and in better 
condition from the hands of the collectors, giving better 
opportunity for comparison with similiar fossils in other 
parts of the world, the lower beds were found to be equi- 
valent to the Oligocene and the upper beds to the Miocene, 
chiefly Lower Miocene. This is now the accepted correla- 
tion. Pliocene deposits are know to occur along and to the 




_- - r ---r z - -- - - ^-^ :£t-R.Tfffi R^_- - . 

Figure 7 — Diagram showing the chronological and stratigraphic suc- 
cession of the Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Pleistocene formations 
of the western states, in which fossil mammals are found. Osborn. 




south of the South Dakota-Nebraska boundary line and 
Pleistocene gravels are found in occasional places. 

Figure 8 — Diagram showing the successive and overlapping Tertiary- 
formations of the Rocky Mountain region, with names of the im- 
portant life zones. Osborn. 1909. 

An important work of investigators has been to further 
subdivide the deposits and to correlate in so far as possible 
the resulting subdivisions. Hayden early attempted a sub- 



division and with marked success so far as information 
then at hand would allow. Later workers with better means 
at their command have made corrections and added new 
features until now the main history is fairly well outlined. 

The present classification shown of some local and con- 
flicting peculiarities is given herewith and this is followed 
by an idealized birdseye view of the Big Badlands by Os- 
born in which the thickness of the beds and the chief char- 
acteristics are given. 



Upper Miocene- 
50-200 ft. 

Middle Miocent 

Little White River Beds Hlpparion Zone 

Nebraska Beds 
Sheep Creek Beds 

Harrison Beds 

Lower Miocene — ) Arikaree 
600-900 ft. ( Formation 

Procamelus Zone 

(Merycochoerus Zone 

J. with Daemonelix 
( Sandstone. 

Monroe Creek Beds 

(Chiefly P 
■( oerus Zon 
( Gering Sa 

Upper Oligocene- 
150-250 ft. 

Middle Oligocene— 
200-400 ft. 

Lower Oligocene 
0-180 ft. 


g Sandstone. 

f Leptauchenia Zone 
(Plains fauna) with 
Protoceras Beds ■! Protoceras sandstone 
(Forest and Fluviatile 


fOreodon Zone (Plains 
J fauna) with Metamyno- 
I don sandstone (Forest 
[and Fluviatile fauna.) 

Oreodon Beds 

Chadron Titanotherium Beds Titanotherium Zone 


The rock materials of the White River badlands vary in 
different localities and in the different beds. The older de- 
posits are chiefly fine partially consolidated clays interlaid 
with occasional irregular beds of coarse argillaceous sands 
and gravels. Concretions are abundant and they often 
grade into fairly continuous sandstone. Clay dikes occur 
frequently and are widely distributed. In certain localities 
thin veins of hard bluish-gray chalacedony check the softer 
sediments in great profusion. Limestones are not common 
but among some of the marginal outcrops particularly those 
toward the Black Hills they reach importance. Likewise 
near the Black Hills conglomerates are occasionally of con- 



Figure 9 — Idealized birds-eye view of the Big Badlands, showing 
channel and overflow deposits in the Oligocene and Lower Mio- 
cene. Looking southeast from the Black Hills. Osborn, 1909. 


sequence. Volcanic ash occurs at certain horizons and one 
or two beds in the later formations cover considerable areas. 
The several geological formations have particular char- 
acteristics that serve to distinguish them in the field. In 
view of the importance of these formations the makeup of 
each is here described in some detail beginning with the 
Chadron which is the oldest. The others follow in the order 
of their age. 

The Chadron Formation 

The Chadron formation, better known by the much 
older term, the Titanotherium beds, from the name of the 
large extinct animals, whose bones occur in it so abundantly, 
receives its name from the town of Chadron in northwestern 
Nebraska. The formation is best developed and has been 
most studied in and near the Big Badlands of South Dakota, 
but is of importance along the northerly facing escarpment 
of Pine Ridge in South Dakota, Nebraska and Wyoming. 
Owing to the slight dip of the strata away from the Black 
Hills, the Pine Ridge outcrop, lying as it does at the base of 
the high escarpment, passes quickly beneath younger for- 
mations and leaves only a long narrow east-west band for 
observation. In and near the Big Badlands the White and 
Cheyenne rivers and their tributaries have cut deeply into 
and across the deposits, and there the Chadron is exposed 
over a large territory. The beds are known to underlie an 
extensive area of later formations within and beyond the 
Black Hills region and are well exposed in the valley of 
North Platte river in western Nebraska, and of South Platte 
river in northeastern Colorado. 

The formation is made up chiefly of a sandy clay of 
light greenish-gray color, with generally coarser sandy ma- 
terials at or near the bottom, including sometimes deposits 
of gravel or conglomerate several feet thick. The beds im- 
mediately above the gravels are often of a yellowish, pinkish, 
reddish, or brownish color, and Mr. Darton states that in 
northwestern Nebraska, near Adelia, the red color is espe- 
cially prominent. Aside from this the color in the main is 
a greenish white, the green showing as a very delicate tinge 
on weathered slopes, but a distinctly deeper olive green in 
fresh exposures. The clays sometimes partake of the nature 


of fullers' earth, but generally they contain more or less 
sand. In most of the beds little cementing material is pres- 
ent, although the clays are often quite compact Occasion- 
ally thin persistent bands of knotty, grayish limestone or 
lime clay concretions are found. These weather to a chalky 
white, and although seldom prominent individual bands may 
sometimes be traced over considerable areas. Concerning 
the sandy layers within the Big Badlands, Hatcher says: 

"The sandstones are never entirely continuous, and 
never more than a few feet thick. They present every de- 
gree of compactness, from loose beds of sand to the most 
solid sandstones. They are composed of quartz, feldspar, 
and mica, and are evidently of granitic origin. When soli- 
dified the cementing substance is carbonate of lime. 

"The conglomerates, like the sandstones, are not con- 
stant, are of very limited vertical extent, never more than a 
few feet thick. They are usually quite hard, being firmly 
held together by carbonate of lime. A section of the beds 
taken at any point and showing the relative position and 
thickness of the sandstones, clays and conglomerates is of 
little value, since these vary much at different and quite 
adjacent localities."* 

The total thickness of the formation within the Big 
Badlands is approximately 180 feet. Hatcher and others 
subdivide the formation in that locality as follows : Lower, 
50 feet ; Middle, 100 feet ; Upper, 30 feet. The sub-divisions 
are based on the nature of the Titanotheres found at the 
various horizons. Along Pine Ridge the formation is much 
thinner. Darton gives it as approximately 30 to 60 feet. 


The Brule formation, like the underlying Chadron for- 
mation, outcrops chiefly in the Big Badlands and along the 
northward facing escarpment of Pine Ridge. As now com- 
monly understood, it may for the Big Badlands be best con- 
sidered under its two subdivisions, namely, the Oreodon 
Beds, constituting the lower part, and the Protoceras Beds, 
constituting the upper part. 

♦Hatcher, J. B. The Titanotherium Beds. Am. Nat., Vol. 27, 
1893, pp. 204-221. 



Gray sands with pipy con- 

Loose gray sands with gray 
and pebbly streaks 

Stratified and cross-bedded 


Volcanic ash 

Pink clays 

Volcanic ash 

Light buff-gray shales . . . 

Greenish sands and sandy 

Greenish sands 

Pierre shale? 

Figure 10 — Section from Round Top to Adelia, Sioux county, Ne- 
braska. Above the Pierre shale to 3725 is Chadron formation, 
3725 to 4275 is Brule, 4275 to 4390 is Gering, 4390 to 4525 is 
Arikaree. Darton, 1905. 

The Oreodon Beds. The Oreodon beds, so named be- 
cause of the abundant remains of Oreodons found in them, 
are made up chiefly of massive arenaceous clays, lenticular 
sandstones, and thin layers of nodules. A particular feature 
of the beds is the color banding. The general color is a gray 
or faint yellow, but this is often much obliterated by hori- 
zontal bands showing some shade of pink, red or brown. 
They are present in greater or less prominence over large 
areas, particularly in the Big Badlands, and in places be- 


come a rather striking feature. Their thickness varies from 
an inch or less to occasionally several feet. Sometimes they 
are repeated in rapid succession without great contrasts in 
color. More often a few bands stand out with prominence, 
especially if moistened by recent rains and, seen from some 
commanding point, may be traced for long distances. 

The sandstones being of a lenticular nature are often 
absent or of little consequence, but in many localities they 
reach considerable thicknesses. One series near the middle 
of the bed is of particular importance. It reaches in the 
Big Badlands a thickness of twenty feet or more, and ac- 
cording to Wortman, covers an area approximately twelve 
miles in length and a mile or a mile and a half in width. 
It contains fossil remains in abundance of the ancestral 
rhinoceros, Metamynodon, hence is commonly known as the 
Metamynodon sandstone. 

Of the nodular layers, one just above the Metamynodon 
sandstone is of paramount importance. For description of 
this I quote from Mr. Wortman, 1893 : "There is one layer 
found in the Oreodon Beds which is highly characteristic and 
is perhaps more constant and widely distributed than any 
other single stratum in the whole White River (Oligocene) 
formation. This is a buff-colored clay carrying numerous 
calcareous nodules in which are imbedded remains of turtles 
and oreodons. The fossils are almost invariably covered 
with a scale of ferruginous oxide when first removed from 
the matrix, and are of decidedly reddish cast. Upon this 
account this stratum is known to the collector as the 'red- 
layer.' It is situated somewhere between 40 and 50 feet 
above the top of the Titanotherium beds and can almost 
always be easily identified. It varies in thickness from 10 to 
20 feet, and in some rare instances it is replaced by sand- 
stone. I have also found it without the nodules in places, 
but this is also quite a rare occurrence." 

Another tolerably constant fossiliferous nodular layer 
occurs at from 75 to 100 feet above the nodular layer just 
described. This higher horizon was provisionally con- 
sidered as marking the top of the Oreodon beds. The pres- 
ent tendency is to extend the Oreodon beds upward so as to 
include the series of non-fossiliferous clays about 100 feet 
thick, lying just above the upper nodular layer. The total 
thickness of the beds in the vicinity of Sheep Mountain is 


from 250 to 300 feet. The stratigraphy iii Piiie Ridge dif- 
fers in some important respects lithologically from that of 
the Big Badlands and the exact equivalent there of the 
Oreodon beds does not yet seem clear. 

The Protoceras Beds. The Protoceras beds, earlier con- 
sidered as part of the Oreodon beds, were first differen- 
tiated by J. L. Wortman as a result of field work done 
during the summer of 1892 for the American Museum of 
Natural History, The name is derived from the character- 
istic and highly interesting extinct animal, the Protoceras, 
which occurs in the sandstones of these beds in considerable 

Lithologically the beds are made up of isolated patches 
of coarse, lenticular sandstones, fine-grained clays, and 
nodular layers. The sandstones occur in different levels and 
are usually fossiliferous. They are seldom continuous for 
any great distance and often change abruptly into fine- 
grained barren clays. Immediately overlying the sand- 
stones there is a pinkish colored nodule-bearing clay, con- 
taining abundant remains of Lepthauchenia and other forms, 
hence the name Leptauchenia zone often used in connection 
with these beds. The Protoceras beds have been clearly 
differentiated only in the Big Badlands. Elsewhere the 
lithologic conditions do not generally serve to indicate their 
presence, hence if they occur outside of the Big Badlands, 
the determination of their areal distribution must in a large 
measure await the study of the paleontologist. The total 
thickness of the beds, including with them the Leptauchenia 
clays, is approximately 150 to 175 feet. 
The ArUx-aree Formation 

The Arikaree formation, first designated as such by 
Darton, receives its name from the Arikaree Indians, who 
were at one time identified with the area in which it is most 
largely developed. Its greatest development is in Pine 
Ridge and southward. It is of Lower Miocene age and lies 
uncomformably on the Brule and in places overlaps the 
margins of that formation. 

The Arikaree is largely a soft sandstone, varying in 
color from white to light gray. Calcareous concretions 
occur throughout the formation in abundance. They are 
usually of cylindrical form and are often more or less con- 



nected into irregular sheets. It is to this feature especially 
that the Pine Ridge escarpment and other prominent topo- 
graphic features of that part of the country are due. For 
the manner of development of these concretionary forms, the 
reader is referred to the discussion of concretions and sand- 
calcite crystals elsewhere in this paper. 

Figure 11 — Diagramatic section of the Arikaree on the Nebraska- 
Wyoming line west of Harrison. Osborn, modified from Peter- 
son, 1906-09. 

The Arikaree has not been carefully defined for all the 
area where it has been found, and owing to the variable 
nature of the formation in different localities a number of 
terms in this connection need to be referred to and defined. 
Darton in his studies in western Nebraska some years ago, 
differentiated certain sands and standstones, lying below 
the Arikaree deposits, as the Gering formation. More re- 
cent study seems to show that much of this material is little 
more than non-continuous river sandstones and conglomer- 
ates that traverse the lower Arikaree claj^s and occupy in 
places irregular channels in the partly eroded upper Brule 
formation, the relation to the Arikaree clays being in such 
places much as that of the Titanotherium, Metamynodon 
and Protoceras sandstones to the clays in which they 
severally occur. The general tendency at present seems to 
be to consider them as a special depositional phase of the 
lower part of the Arikaree. According to Hatcher, the 
Arikaree in Sioux County, Nebraska, and Converse County, 
Wyoming, is lithologically and faunally divisible into two 
easily distinguishable horizons, namely, the Monroe Creek 
beds, below, and the Harrison beds above. 



The Monroe Creek Beds. The Monroe Creek beds, 
Hatcher states, are well shown in the northern face of Pine 
Ridge at the mouth of Monroe Creek Canyon, five miles 
north of Harrison, where they overlie the Gering sand- 
stones, and are composed of 300 feet of very light colored, 
fine-grained, not very hard, but firm and massive sandstones. 
The thickness decreases rapidly to the east and increases to 
the west. The beds are generally non-fossiliferous, though 
remains of Promerycochoerus are found in it, hence the 
name Promerycochoerus zone. 

The Harrison Beds. The Harrison beds receive their 
name from Harrison, in the vicinity of which town the beds 
are well exposed. As stated by Hatcher, they are composed 
of about 200 feet of fine-grained, rather incoherent sand- 
stones, permeated by great numbers of siliceous tubes ar- 
ranged vertically rather than horizontally. They are further 
characterized by the presence, often in great abundance, of 

Figure 12 — Section from Hat creek south through Sioux county to 
Wind Springs, a distance of approximately fifty miles. Cook, 1915. 

those peculiar and interesting, but as yet not well under- 
stood, fossils known as Daemonelix, (hence called Dae- 
monelix beds by Barbour, who first studied them), and by 
a considerable variety of fossil mammals belonging to 
characteristic Miocene genera. 

Later investigation has shown that in some places the 
division is not readily made on lithologic features alone, 
but that the formation can in all places be separated 
faunistically into lower and upper levels as indicated. The 
section by Osborn, modified from Peterson, shows the rela- 


tions of the Nebraska-Wyoming line west of Harrison. 
(Figure 15). 

The Rosebud Beds. The Arikaree has been studied 
with much care near Porcupine Butte and farther east on 
White river by representatives of the American Museum of 
Natural History. Matthew and Gidley, who first collected 
fossils there, designated the series of strata as the Rosebud 
beds. These beds are believed to be approximately equi- 
valent to the Arikaree formation as the latter is now 
coming to be understood, but exact relations have not yet 
been fully determined over any very large section of the 
country. Matthew describes the beds in their typical 
eastern locality as follows: "The western part of the 
formation attains a thickness estimated at 500 feet on Por- 
cupine creek, a southern tributary of White river. The base 
is taken at a heavy white stratum which appears to be 
identical with the stratum capping the White River for- 
mation on Sheep Mountain in the Big Badlands. This 
stratum can be seen extending interruptedly across the river 
to Sheep Mountain, about twenty miles distant, capping 
several intervening buttes and projecting points of the 
underlying formation. The Rosebud beds at the bottom 
approximate the rather hard clays of the upper Leptauchenia 
beds, but become progressively softer and sandier towards 
the top, and are capped at Porcupine Butte by a layer of 
hard quarzitic sandstone. Several white flinty, calcareous 
layers cover the beds, one of which, about half way up, was 
used to divide them into Upper and Lower. The strati- 
fication is very variable and inconstant, lenses and beds of 
soft fine-grained sandstone and harder and softer clayey 
layers alternating with frequent channels filled with sand- 
stones and mud-conglomerates, all very irregular and of 
limited extent. The hard calcareous layers are more con- 
stant. A bed of volcanic ash lies near the top of the for- 
mation, and there may be a considerable percentage of vol- 
canic material in some of the layers further down. These 
volcanic ash beds should in theory be of wide extent, and 
may be of considerable use in the correlation of the scattered 
exposures on the heads of the different creeks — a very dif- 
ficult matter without their aid. 



Porcupine Butte 
Volcanic ash layer 












Merych/us (abundant) 





imestone layers 


(very dbun dan t 

and characteristic) 





Parahippus (small sp) 

(near base) 


Figure 13 — Columnar section from Porcupine Butte northward to- 
ward White river as observed by Matthew and Thomson in 1906. 
Osborn, 1912. 

The beds form the upper part of the series of bluffs 
south of White river on the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reser- 
vations, and are exposed in the upper part of the various 
tributary creeks."* 

For a section of these beds see Figure 13, from U. S. 
Geol. Survey Bulletin No. 361, p. 70, Cenozoic Mammal 
Horizons of Western North America, etc., by Osborn and 

*Matthew, W. D. A Lower Miocene Fauna from South Dakota. 
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., Vol. 23, 1907, pp. 169-219. 



The Middle Miocene, so far as I am aware, has not been 
identified within the area covered by the Black Hills map, 
except in the southern part, chiefly in Nebraska. Strata of 
this age have been studied fifteen or twenty miles south- 
southwest of Agate Springs, and they have there yielded a 
limited fauna. Matthew and Cook designate them as the 
i^hccp Creek beds, and describe them briefly, as follows: 
''They consist of soft fine-grained sandy 'clays' of a light 
buff color, free from pebbles, and containing harder cal- 
careous layers. Their thickness is estimated at 100 feet. 
Near the top is a layer of dark-gray volcanic ash, two feet 


The Nebraska Beds. The Nebraska beds, Nebraska 
formation as designated by Scott, are represented in various 
areas not yet carefully mapped along the Niobrara river, 
where, as widely scattered river channel and flood plain 
deposits, they immediately overlie the Harrison beds. Fur- 
ther south they pass beneath or blend into the Oglalla for- 
mation, which covers so much of western and southwestern 
Nebraska. They have been studied by Hatcher and by 
Peterson. Hatcher describes them as consisting of a series 
of buff colored sandstones of varying degrees of hardness 
and unknown thickness, with occasional layers of siliceous 
grits, which protrude as hard undulating or shelving masses 
from the underlying and overlying softer materials. Peter- 
son states that the thickness cannot be greater than 150 or 
200 feet, and he gives a section near the Nebraska- Wyoming 
line showing only 70 feet. The beds have afforded many in- 
teresting fossils of vertebrates, some of which are described 
elsewhere in this publication. 


Pliocene strata are found irregularly distributed on the 
eroded surfaces of Upper Miocene beds bordering Little 
White river valley and the valley of the Niobrara. They 
contain important fossils but the beds have not been care- 
fully mapped. As a consequence local names have been 
used to designate the beds in the several localities where 
fossil hunting has been carried on. Among these names 



are Snake Creek, Oak Creek, Little White River, Niobrara 
Eiver and Spoon Butte. 

The beds are of Lower Pliocene age and are of especial 
stratigraphic value in that Pliocene mammals are not well 
known in North America and the mammalian fauna which 
the beds have yielded has helped materially in filling in the 


Approximate estimate thick- 
ness of the beds 

Characteristic Species and General 
Nature of the Rock 

Protoceras Beds • 

100 feet 

50-75 feet 

I Leptauchenia layer; nodule-bearing, 
< pink-colored clays widely distribu- 
I ted. 

Coarse sandstones, occupying different 
levels, not continuous. 

Oreodon Beds ■< 

100 feet 

75-100 feet 

10-20 feet 

ro feet 

Lig-ht colored clays. Few fossils. 

f Nodulous clay stratum. Bones white. 

I Sandstones and clays. Bones rusty 
L colored. 

Oreodon layer; nodule-bearing, very 
constant and widely distributed. Nu- 
merous Oreodons and turtles im- 
bedded in nodules. Bones always 
covered with scale of ferruginous 
oxide. "Red layer" of collectors. 

Metamynodon layer; sandstones, some- 
times replaced by light colored bar- 
ren clays. Bones usually rusty col- 

Reddish gritty clay, sometimes bluish, 
Bones white. 


rSO feet 

100 feet 

50 feet 

Clays, sandstones and conglomerates. 

f Clays, toward the base often reddish, 
or variegated. The prevailing color, 
I however, is a delicate greenish 
\ white. Bones are always light col- 
ored or white, sometimes rusty. 
Clays and sands, sometimes fullers 



Geologists who first studied the badland formations of 
the western plains early formulated the theory that the 
deposits were collected by streams from the highlands of 
the Rocky Mountains and the Black Hills and were laid 
down as sediment in great fresh water lakes. These lakes 
were thought to have varied in position and extent in the 
different periods of time during which the several forma- 
tions were being deposited. They were believed in general 
to have had their origin in certain structural changes, 
either a slight depression along the western side or the 
elevation of some drainage barrier on the east, and to have 
been obliterated by the development of new drainage chan- 
nels accompanied possibly by general uplift, and by the 
progressive aridity of the climate. 

More recently doubts began to be entertained as to the 
accuracy of this attractive lacustrine theory, more detailed 
study disclosing many facts at variance with the usual 
conditions of lake deposition, both with reference to the 
physical character of the deposits and to the nature, con- 
dition, and distribution of the fossil remains found in them. 
There now seems to be abundant evidence for the belief that 
the deposits were of combined lagoon, fluviatile, floodplain 
and possibly eolian origin instead of having been laid down 
over the bottom of great and continuous bodies of standing 
water as was first supposed. 

The lacustrine theory originated in the earlier accepted 
idea that all horizontally bedded sedimentary rocks were 
deposited in bodies of comparatively still water, either 
marine, brackish, or fresh. It was believed that the fine- 
grained banded clays were deposited in the quiet deeper 
waters of the lake, that the sandstones and conglomerates 
were deposited along the shores and about the mouths of 
tributary streams, and that the wide distribution of the 
animals now found as fossils was accomplished by the drift- 
ing about in the lake of the decaying bodies washed down 
by the inflowing streams. The fossils obtained by the 
earlier students of the region showed a general lack of an 
aquatic fauna. As a result the idea developed that the 
waters of this great lake although receiving the drifting 
bodies of land animals were themselves of such a saline or 
alkaline nature that they were incapable of supporting life. 


It has more recently been shown that the waters were not 
only not saline, but that they were eminently fitted for the 
support of aquatic life and in fact in some localities did 
support such life, both plant and animal in great abundance. 
It seems that the topography of the plains region dur- 
ing deposition of the badland materials was nearly level, 
the slope then as now being very gentle from the Rocky 
Mountains and the Black Hills. Broad streams found 
their way slowly across this great tract and developed upon 
it a net work of changing channels, backwaters, lagoons 
and shallow lakes interspread here and there with reed- 
bearing marshes and grass-covered flats. Climatic changes 
gradually brought about conditions of aridity, the rivers and 
other water bodies dwindled and wind-driven materials be- 
gan to assert their prominence. Thus the clays, sandstones, 
conglomerates, fullers earth, eolian-sands and even the 
volcanic dust, wind-borne from far away craters in the 
Rocky Mountains or the Black Hills, are all accounted for 
and the life conditions of the time are in reasonable measure 
made plain. 


The rocks of the earth's crust retain to a marked ex- 
tent a record of their history. Sometimes this is indicated 
by composition, sometimes by manner of erosion, some- 
times by relation to one another, sometimes by fossil con- 
tents, et cetera. Often several such characters are avail- 
able in the same formation. In such cases the history may 
be unraveled with much fulness. 

A detailed history of the Tertiary of the Black Hills 
region may not be entered upon here, but a brief review of 
the general physical changes is desirable in order that the 
setting of conditions and activities discussed elsewhere 
laay be better understood. 

Preceding the deposition of the Tertiary rocks, that is 
during the Cretaceous period, the Black Hills region had 
for a long time been surrounded and largely if not wholly 
covered by a great sea. In this sea countless marine or- 
ganisms flourished and died. The sea from time to time, 
and particularly near the close of the period, tended 
through a brackish to a fresh water nature. Approximately 
coincident with the full development of fresh water con- 
ditions the Black Hills region was subjected to disturbance, 


profound elevation took place and a more active erosion 
was inaugurated. The history here for a time is not well 
disclosed but beginning with the Oligocene the conditions 
become more evident. By that time the streams had be- 
come sluggish and muddy and by meandering had developed 
vast flood plains across which they shifted their lazy way 
and deposited and redeposited the debris obtained from the 
higher lauds to the west- Following the Oligocene there was 
further uplifting and erosion was correspondingly quick- 
ened but the general history continued much as before. 

The climate for a considerable time in the history of 
the deposition seems to have been moist to a marked degree. 
Later a more arid condition prevailed and it was then that 
transportation and deposition by wind became a feature of 

The great disturbances in the early part of the Tertiary 
resulting in the pronounced doming of the Black Hills 
region and the uplifting of the Rocky Mountain front were 
accompanied and followed by profound igneous intrusion. 
The White River region was influenced only in a general 
way by the disturbances and no volcanic outbursts occurred 
there. However some of the igneous material within the 
Rockies and possibly some also in the northern Black Hills 
connecting with the throats of vigorous volcanoes was from 
time to time hurled high above the surface. Here favorable 
winds, catching up the finely divided fragments, bore them 
far to the eastward and there gently dropped them as thin 
widespread ashen blankets to become an integral and in- 
teresting portion of the general badland deposits. 

Subsequent to the Pleiocene the history of the White 
River badlands is largely one of rapid weathering and 
vigorous erosion. 

The White River badlands are the result of erosion, 
controlled in part by climatic conditions and in part by the 
stratigraphic and lithologic nature of the deposits. There 
is a too frequent lack of appreciation of the work of com- 
mon disintegrating and carrying agents and many an in- 
dividual speculates upon the mighty upheavals and the 
terrific volcanic forces that to him have produced the won- 
derful ruggedness of the badlands, when the real work, so 


far at least as immediate topography is concerned, wholly 
apart from the forces of vulcanism, have been performed 
under a kindly sun and through benevolent combination by 
ordinary winds and frosts and rains, and to a lesser degree 
by plants and animals. What the earliest beginning may 
have been is not known. Suffice it to say that then, as now, 
the sun shone, the winds blew, and the rains came, and such 
irregularities as may have existed influenced in some de- 
gree the earliest run off. Season by season the elements 
weakened the uplifted sediments, and little by little the 
growing streams cut the yielding surface. In time lateral 
tributaries pushed their way into the interstream areas and 
these tributaries in turn developed smaller branches, the 
series continuing with ever increasing complexity to the 
delicate etching at the very top of the highest levels. All 
the important streams give indications of an eventful his- 
tory, but for this there is little opportunity for discussion 
here. Cheyenne river and White river are the chief factors 
today in the production and continuation of the badland 
features, and of these, White river clings most closely to its 
task. The Cheyenne has already cleared its valley of the 
badland deposits except in the important locality southeast 
of the Black Hills and in the western Pine Ridge area be- 
yond the headwaters of White river and even in these areas 
the main stream has cut entirely through the formations 
and in most places deeply into the underlying black Cre- 
taceous shales. White river, on the other hand, for more 
than fifty miles of its middle course, meanders across a wide 
alluvial bottom, underlain by badland sediments, while its 
many branched head and all of the larger tributaries from 
the south and many from the north continue to gnaw vig- 
orously into deposits that retain much of their original 

Among the innumerable tributaries within the badlands 
proper, few are of great length, but many are of note in the 
physiography of the region, in the history of early day 
travel, and in the yielding of important specimens to the 
fossil hunter. Of those leading from the Badlands to the 
Cheyenne river, the following are important and often 
referred to in the scientific literature: Bull creek, Crooked 
creek. Sage creek, Hay creek. Bear creek, Spring crek, In- 
dian creek. Little Corral draw, Big Corral draw, Quinn 


draw, and Cedar draw. Nearer the head of the river are 
Hat creek, Old Woman creek. Lance creek, and others. 
Three streams rising east of the Big Badlands and north of 
the Great Wall flow eastward between Cheyenne river and 
White river and form the head of Bad river. These are 
Cottonwood, White Water and Buffalo creeks. The White 
river tributaries from the north are short, and of these Cain 
creek, Cottonwood creek, and Spring creek rising near the 
heart of the Big Badlands are the most important. The 
White river tributaries on the south are numerous, and of 
considerable size. Well known ones within the Pine Ridge 
Indian reservation, are: Pass creek. Eagle Nest creek. 
Bear in the Ledge creek. Corn creek, Pumpkin creek, Yel- 
low Medicine creek. Medicine Root creek. Porcupine creek. 
Wounded Knee creek, and White Clay creek. Little White 
river is the most important of all the streams flowing into 
White river. It rises west of Manderson in the southern 
part of Pine Ridge reservation and flows eastward and 
northward into and through the Rosebud Indian reserva- 
tion. Many valuable fossils have been found among the 
outcrops exposed along its valley. 

The southern slopes of Pine Ridge are drained by Nio- 
brara river. This river rises in Wyoming and flowing east- 
ward approximately parallels Pine Ridge and the South 
Dakota-Nebraska state line. It may for our purpose here 
serve to mark the southern limit of the area described. 

In addition to the streams certain features need men- 
tion because of their commanding position. These are Pine 
Ridge, Porcupine Butte, Eagle Nest Butte, Sheep Mountain, 
and The Wall," the latter being more fully designated by 
the various local names: Sage creek wall, White Water 
wall, and Big Foot wall. Besides these, the following passes 
or natural roadways, well known to all the travelers within 
the Big Badlands, are of historic importance and of physi- 
ographic significance: Sage Creek pass. Big Foot pass. 
Cedar pass. Chamberlain pass, et cetera. 

Less noted in the literature, but of much importance, 
are the numerous mesas or tables. They stand at various 
heights up to three hundred feet or more above the basins or 
valleys. Some of these are of large size and those east of 
the Cheyenne river have been given individual names by the 


people who have settled upon them. The larger ones are 
Sheep Mountain table, about six miles south-southwest of 
Scenic; Hart table, between Indian creek and Spring 
creek ; Kube table, between Spring creek and Bear creek ; 
Seventy-one table, between Bear creek and Hay creek ; Quinn 
table, between Hay creek and Sage creek; Crooked Creek 
table, between Sage creek and Bull creek ; Lake Flat between 
Bull creek and the headwaters of Cottonwood creek; White 
Kiver table, at head of Quinn draw. The last named lies 
within the Pine Ridge Indian reservation and is of historic 
interest in that it was used as a fortress by the Indians dur- 
ing the Indian outbreak of 1891. 

The chief factors in badland development are these: 
first, a climate with a low rainfall more or less concen- 
trated into heavy showers; second, scarcity of deep rooted 
vegetation; third, slightly consolidated nearly homogenous 
fine-grained sediments lying at a considerable height above 
the main drainage channels, the occasional hard layers or 
beds that may be present being thin and in horizontal posi- 
tion. All of these favor rapid, steep, and diversified sculp- 
turing. As already stated, the White and the Cheyenne 
rivers, not far separated from each other, serve as the main 
drainage channels for the Badlands and, having cut far be- 
low the topmost mesas or tables, afford abundant oppor- 
tunity for rapid run off. The vegetation is scanty. Rich, 
short grasses are abundant over large areas, but these have 
not sufficient root-strength to prevent cutting. The gnarled 
cedars of the higher points also lack such strength, for even 
these often wage a losing fight and especially in the elongat- 
ing gulches and on the narrowing tables they progress to- 
ward inevitable destruction. 

The rock material is largely an excessively fine clay, 
not thoroughly indurated, sometimes massive, sometimes 
laminated. Sandstones occur locally in some abundance, 
especially in the upper beds, but never of great thickness 
and seldom of much lateral extent. Concretions are com- 
mon and these as well as the sandstones accentuate the 
irregularity of erosion. The bare clay slopes under the 
influence of occasional rains and the beating suns, generally 
show a spongy surface, the loosening porous clay often ex- 
tending to a depth of several inches. This feature is com- 


mon on the sloping surface of the Oreodou beds and is 
especially characteristic of the rounded hillocks of the 
Titanotherium beds. This preliminary loosening of the 
clay, explains perhaps more than any other one feature, the 
surpassing ease with which the countless tiny channels are 
formed and how it is that the streams become turbid with 
every passing shower. 

Any hard layer that may be present tends to resist 
erosion and this at once initiates surface irregularities. 
The unconsolidated clays being more rapidly removed, the 
harder stratum soon stands out in distinct relief and later 
by undercutting, a precipice develops. Joints often ac- 
celerate the erosion along certain vertical planes and the 
result is the development sometimes of cave-like excavations 
and sometimes of columnar masses. Columns are likely to 
develop also in connection with hard strata made up of 
concretionary masses. They are especially abundant in the 
Protoceras beds, where concretionary masses and jointed 
sandstones are both abundant. 

Generally the transportation lags perceptibly behind 
the disintegration and as a consequence a thin fan of sedi- 
ment clings to the base of every pillar, mound or table. 
The full extent of these alluvial fans is often not fully dis- 
cerned. Being formed by the conjoint action of many little 
streams and made up of excessively fine sediment, their 
surface slope is low and one readily confuses the alluvial 
materials with the undisturbed beds on which they lie. 
As may be readily inferred, there is much transient carry- 
ing of sediments and much meandering of maturer streams. 
A single season or even a single freshet often makes im- 
portant changes in a stream's position and there is a de- 
cided tendency in the medium sized streams to quickly 
develop box-like trenches. Cheyenne river and White river 
are active throughout the year, and during the rainy season 
they flow in large volume, but the tributary streams coming 
from the badlands are dry much of the time. Some are able 
to struggle along in continuous flow for a little while after 
the rainy reason, but later in most of them little is left but 
dusty sands and stingy pools of water, the latter clear if 
strongly alkaline, otherwise turbid to the consistency of 
mud porridge. 



Concretions. A concretion is a spherical, cylindrical, 
elliptical, or nodular body produced by the tendency of cer- 
tain mineral constituents to orderly aggregate about a 
common center within an embedding rock mass. The dis- 
covery in the White River badlands several years ago of 
what are known as sand or sand-calcite crystals has added 
much to our knowledge of concretionary development and 
has served well to indicate the local conditions with refer- 
ence to these abundant and interesting forms. 

Concretions vary greatly in size, shape, composition, 
manner of distribution and method of growth. They are 
common in the Great plains formations. In some of the 
Cretaceous and Tertiary beds they may be found in prodi- 
gious numbers. They occur in many places and in various 
horizons and of all sizes up to several feet in diameter. Any 
horizon which contains the concretions at all is likely to 
contain many of them and often they coalesce horizontally 
and form continuous strata. More frequently they are 
separate and, being harder than the surrounding material, 
they often tend under the influence of erosion to become 
the caps of earth pillars. The material of which they are 
made is generally an arenaceous clay with calcium car- 
bonate as a cementing material, but iron oxide is often 
times present in considerable quantity. 

Sand Crystals. The sand crystals are made up of ap- 
proximately sixty per cent of sand and about forty per 
cent of calcium carbonate. The former occurs as an in- 
clusion, while the latter, the mineralizing agent, is the 
crystal proper. The size varies in length from a quarter of 
an inch or less to fifteen inches. They occur chiefly in the 
Arikaree formation, which is largely a soft sandstone. 
Much of the rock is concretionary, and not a little of it is in 
cylindrical or pipe-like masses, often many feet or yards in 
length. These often disclose evidence of some internal 
molecular or crystalline arrangement and weathered speci- 
mens not infrequently show a radiate or rosetted structure, 
due to the tendency of lime-salts to crystallize according to 
the laws governing calcite as far as the interference in the 
part of the sand grains will allow. (Plate 52). 


The first discovered and most noted locality is on Pine 
Kidge Keservation at Devils Hill, near Corn creek, about 
twenty miles south of White river. Concerning their oc- 
currence here, Prof. Barbour, who has visited the locality, 
says : "The mode of occurrence of these crystals seems most 
unusual and remarkable. In a bed of sand scarcely three 
feet thick, and so soft as to resemble the sand on the sea- 
shore, occur these crystals in numbers which can best be 
figured in tons. We dug them out with our bare hands. 
They are mostly single crystals, with numerous doublets, 
triplets, quadruplets and multiplets. In other words every 
form from solitary crystals to crowded bunches and per- 
fect radiating concretions were obtained. It was a matter of 
special interest in the field to note that at the bottom of the 
layer the bulk of these sand- lime crystals are solitary; one 
foot higher there is an evident doubling of the crystals, 
until within another foot they are in loosely crowded 
clusters, a little higher in closely crowded continuous 
clusters, pried out in blocks with difficulty; still higher they 
occur in closely crowded concretions in contact with one 
another, making nearly a solid rock. A little higher this 
mineralizing process culminates in pipes, compound pipes 
and solid rocks composed wholly of crystals but 
so solidified that their identity is lost, and is detected 
only by a certain reflection of light, which differentiates the 
otherwise invisible units by showing glistening hexagonal 
sections. There could not have been a more gradual and 
beautiful transition, and all confined to a bed six or eight 
feet in thickness." 

The relation of the crystals to concretions, as indicated 
above, discloses an important step in the development of 
concretions in general, and doubtless to some such cause as 
this crystallographic tendency is due the development of 
all of the concretions of the Badland strata. 

Dikes and Veins. Dikes and veins are ordinarily 
elongate, vertical, or nearly vertical rock or mineral masses 
occupying fissures in a pre-existing rock. The filling body, 
if intruded as an igneous rock while in the molten condi- 
tion, is commonly referred to as a dike. If filled in by a slow 
process of deposition from aqueous solution it is known 
as a vein. It is now recognized that fissures sometimes 
become filled with broken (clastic) material derived from 


adjacent or nearby rock masses without any immediate in* 
lluence either of heat or of solvent action. These clastic 
bodies are known as dikes also. 

Many writers have commented upon the nature and 
abundance of the dikes and veins in the Badlands. Al- 
though constituting minor features of the landscape they 
are nevertheless extremely abundant in places and not 
infrequently they display themselves in an interesting 
and complicated manner. The dikes are made up generally 
of a soft greenish sand or sandy clay. This usually wears 
away a little more readily than the enclosing strata but 
sometimes it resists weathering better and then the dike 
projects above the general surface. The prevailing attitude 
is nearly perpendicular and the dike outcropping in a 
straight line may occasionally be traced across gulches and 
draws and over ridge and pinnacle and mound for a mile or 
more. The thickness is commonly not more than a few 
inches but it sometimes reaches two or three feet. The 
dikes are supposed to occupy preexisting cracks, the ma- 
terial having been forced in from below by hydrostatic 
pressure or by the weight of the superincumbent strata. 
It is possible that in some cases the material may have 
come from above. 

The veins are chiefly chalcedony. They resemble the 
dikes so far as concerns position and form and, aside from 
the fact that they were deposited from solution, are believed 
to have much the same history. They average thinner than 
the dikes, are much harder, and are in many places more 
abundant. They resist weathering much better than the 
enclosing clays, hence commonly present a jagged line above 
the surface. As the supporting clay becomes loosened and 
is carried away the thin chalcedony breaks into platy 
angular fragments and these falling upon the surrounding 
surface protect it from further erosion much as would a 
shingle roof. 

Geodes. Geodes are spheroidal masses of mineral mat- 
ter formed by deposition of crystals from some mineral 
solution on the walls of a rock cavity. The growth is con- 
stantly inward toward the center. If the process of deposi- 
tion has continued sufficiently long, the crystals reach 
across the depositional space, interlock with each other, and 
the geode becomes solid. Often the crystals project only 


part way, leaving a considerable cavity and then the geode 
when broken presents a crystal lining of much beauty and 
interest. Commonly the geodes are more or less siliceous, 
especially in the outer portions and, resisting weathering 
better than the enclosing rock mass, may often be found 
freed from the matrix lying on the disintegrating surface. 
Not infrequently crystal fragments become detached within 
the shell, and these, striking against the inner walls when 
the geode is shaken, serve to make a sound. For this reason 
the geodes are often referred to locally as rattle stones. 

Many geodes have been collected from the Big Bad- 
lands. The diameter varies from one inch or less to several 
inches. The prettiest ones of rather small size are found 
near Imlay. They have commonly an irregular shell of 
chalcedony more or less filled with bright clear-cut white 
or colorless quartz crystals, the latter varying from micro- 
scopic size to one-half inch or more in length. The finer 
white crystals much resemble white sugar, hence the name 
sugar geodes. Selenite (crystalized gypsum) is occasion- 
ally present. The origin of the geodes is doubtless closely 
connected with the origin of the chalcedony veins described 


Among the interesting materials of the badland de- 
posits few have given rise to more speculations as to their 
origin than what are known as the Devil's Corkscrews of 
the Harrison beds. Devil's Corkscrews, or Daemonelix, as 
they are technically called, have been known by the early 
residents of northwestern Nebraska for many years but it 
was not until 1891 when Prof. Barbour made a collecting 
trip to Harrison and the Badlands that these strange ob- 
jects were brought to the attention of scientific men. What 
they really represent or how they were formed is still a 
matter of conjecture. The more typical forms are upright 
tapering spirals and they twist to the right or to the left 
indiscriminately. The spiral sometimes encloses a cylin- 
drical body known as the axis but it is more often without 
the axis. Sometimes the spiral ends abruptly below but 
more often there projects from the lower part one or two 
obliquely ascending bodies placed much as the rhizomes of 
certain plants. The size of the well developed form varies 



considerably. The height of the corkscrew portion often 
exceeds the height of a man while the rhizome portion is 
ordinarily about the size of one's body. 

They are known to occur especially between the head 
waters of White and Niobrara rivers chiefly in Sioux 
county, Nebraska, but extend westward to Lusk, Wyoming, 
and eastward to Eagle Nest Butte, South Dakota. The 
vertical range of strata carrying them is approximately 
200 feet. In certain localities they are found in the greatest 
profusion, sometimes stretching like a forest over many 
acres and sometimes so closely placed that they are inex- 
tricably entangled and fused together. (Plate 47). 

Daemonelix regular. 
40 to 45 meters. 

Daemonelix irreg^tlar, 
6 to 8 meters. 

Daemonelix cigars or fingers, 6 to 8 
meters and upward. 
Daemonelix balls, 8 meters 

Daemonelix cakes. 8 meters. 
Daemonelix fibers. 

Figure 14 — Diagramatic section showing the relative positions of the 
several forms in the Daemonelix series according to Barbour, 

Prof. Barbour who has given these interesting forms 
most study considers them as representing some kind of 
plant life and has apparently found much to corroborate 
this view. Some have considered that they represent low 
plant organisms such as algae, others that they may be 
remains of higher plants, in which all has decayed away ex- 
cept the cortical layer. Still others and these with much 
reason have considered them as casts of well preserved 
burrows of animals. Among the earliest to suggest the latter 
idea were Dr. Theodore Fuchs of Germany and Prof. Cope. 
More recently Mr. O. A. Peterson emphasized the latter 
view as a result of the finding of numerous fossils of bur- 


rowing rodents within the corkscrews. ( See Figures 15 and 

Figure 15 — Field sketch of a weathered rhizome containing the type 
specimen of the burrowing rodent, Steneofiber barbouri. Peter- 
son, 1905. 


The White River badlands have not attracted par- 
ticular attention as a source of mineral wealth. Sand- 
stones and limestones are found in various places but they 
seldom meet the requirements of a high grade building 
stone. They are nearly always thin-bedded and generally 
are more or less argillaceous. The sandstones are often of 
coarse or irregular texture and poorly cemented. 

Clays occur in unlimited abundance and analyses show 
that they could be utilized if desired, in various ways, par- 
ticularly in the manufacture of brick and cement. Some 
of the clays especially those near the bottom of the Titan- 
otherium beds have the property of decolorizing or clarify- 
ing oils, hence are known as fullers earth. 

Prof. Heinrich Ries of Cornell University, gives the 
following analyses for the localities mentioned, analyses 1, 
2, 3, 6 being of material from near Fairburn, and analyses 4 
and 5 of material from near Argyle, 


Analyses of Fullers' Earth From the Titanotherium Beds. 



Silica (SiOJ 

Alumina (Al O ) .... 

2 3 

Ferrous oxide (FeO) . 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) .... 
Loss on ignition 


' a — Fe O 

Per cent 

Per cent 







Per cent 



a 1.26 



IV 11.45 




b — H O. 




Per cent 


Silica (SiO ) 

Per cent 

Per cent 

58. 72 

Alumina (Al ) 


Ferrous oxide (FeO) 


Lime (CaO) 

4 06 

Magnesia (MgO) 


Loss on ignition 

8 10 










Volcanic ash has been mentioned in the description of 
the deposits. It occurs rather widely distributed over the 
country. A prominent bed lies near the top of Sheep 
mountain and extends outward from it for many miles along 
the walls and the remnant buttes that are high enough to 
retain it. Other beds are found near and within the 
neighboring Black Hills and here some effort has been made 
to place the material upon the market. Deposits of a 
similar nature in Nebraska have been worked for many 
years. The ash when not mingled with other sediment is 
nothing more than minute angular fragments of natural 
glass and these having sharp cutting edges give to the ash 
a value as a polishing powder or in the prepared state is an 
important constitutent of abrasive soaps. 



The fossil bones found in the badland deposits, like the 
bones of present day animals, generally contain much 
phosphate. There is little reason, however, to believe that 
the phosphate can be utilized commercially. Men speak of 
the abundance of the fossil bones, but it should be stated 
that this is more particularly from the viewpoint of the 
scientist interested in their educational value rather than 
that of the manufacturer of commercial bone products. 
There seems never to have been any very great tendency for 
the phosphate to leach out from the bones and concentrate 
into beds. 

For those interested in the chemical nature of the bones, 
I give the following analyses made many years ago by Dr. 
Francis V. Greene from material collected by the Owen 
Survey and published in the American Journal of Science, 
1853, also analyses made recently in the State School of 
Mines laboratories by Mr. George Enos. 

Analyses of Badland Fossils (Greene) 






Phosphoric Acid (P^O ) 

Silica (SiOJ .'. . . 

Ferric Oxide (Fe^O^) . . 

Fluorine (F) . ." 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Lime (CaO) 

Per cent 

Per cent 



Per cent 



Per cent 







50. .83 

Potash (K 0) 

Soda (Na 6) 


Baryta (BaO) 

Chlorine (CI) 



Sulphuric Anhydride 

(SO ) 





Carbonic Acid (CO J . . 
Water (H,0) ...".... 
Organic Matter 








In the above anaylses, No. 1 is that of a Titanothere 
bone. No. 2 of a Titanothere tooth (enamel), No. 3 of a 
Titanothere tooth (dentine). No. 4 of an Archaeotherium 
(Elotherium) bone. 


Analyses of Badland Fossils (Enos) 






Silica (SiO ) 

Per cent 









Per cent 







Per cent; 





Per cent 

Phosphoric Anhydride 
(P ) 


^2 5^ 

Iron and Aluminum 



Lime (CaO) 


Magnesia (MgO) 

Soda (Na 0) 


Potash (K^O) 

Baryta (BaO) 

Chlorine (CI) 

TTlnnrinp (W\ 


Sulphuric Anhydride 

(SO ) 







Carbon Dioxide (CO^) . . 
Water at 110°C ...."... 
Organic Matter 







Remarks: — 

No. 1 is part of the upper tooth of a brontothere. 

No. 2 is part of lower tooth of a young titanothere. 

No. 3 is part of lower jaw with teeth (oreodon) and matrix. 

No. 4 is a coarse sandstone with clay pebbles and bone frag- 
ments from Protoceras beds. 

The above specimens are all from the Big Badlands of South 


Fossils as generally understood are the parts of ani- 
mals and plants living before the present era that have 
been buried in the rocks and preserved by natural causes. 
The manner and degree of preservation vary greatly. The 
essential thing is the sealing up of the remains in the rocks 
so that destruction and decay may be prevented. Animals 
such as the ice-entombed mammals of Siberia and the 
amber enclosed insects of the Baltic, are practically perfect 
as the day they were buried, but they are exceptional. Gen- 
erally only the hard parts, such as bones or teeth, or shells 
remain. Not infrequently these are replaced particle by 


particle by new mineral matter of some kind, particularly 
silica or pyrite, then they become petrifactions. Sometimes 
only the form, or the impression of the original parts are 
preserved, hence the terms molds and casts. Occasionally 
the relics are limited to footprints, or trails, or burrows, or 
borings or eggs. 

Animals living in the water or frequenting marshy 
places for food and drink are more easily and more quickly 
buried beneath sediments, hence their fossils are usually 
more abundant. The bodies of dry land animals are subjected 
to the vicissitudes of sun and rain and wind, and frost, and 
are often feasted upon by scavenger birds and beasts and 
insects. Furthermore their burial is commonly brought 
about only during flood season. All of these tend to the 
destruction or dismemberment of the various parts. Again, 
even if once nicely buried, they may later be obliterated by 
metamorphism or be destroyed by disintegrating and de- 
nuding agencies. As a result of all this, the history of cer- 
tain groups of animals is meagre in the extreme and doubt- 
less hordes of species have left no worthy evidence of their 
ever having lived. 



The progress of animal organisms is constantly directed 
toward the goal of perfection. Each individual shares in 
the improvement but the perfection to be attained consists 
not so much in the exquisite relation the various organs 
bear to one another as it does in the harmony that the ani- 
mal in all its characters shows to its environment. 

When life began, and how, no one knows. It is evident 
that in the beginning it was represented by very simple 
forms. These, because of varying conditions, were followed 
in orderly sequence by creatures of growing com|)lexity. 
All animals pass through innumerable vicissitudes- and 
existence is a constant struggle. Those best fitted to meet 
difficulties tend to survive and leave posterity. It thus 
happens that advantageous variations are perpetuated and 
those of less use are eliminated. In this way changes oc- 
cur, characters are modified, and life forms sooner or later 
take on an appearance and a nature quite different from 
their ancestors. 



Just as individuals suffer distress and destruction so, 
sometimes, entire animal groups* battling for position in 
life's long race and gaining for a time supremacy in their 
field are in turn oppressed and in the end obliterated by the 
contending forces. Of the animals described in this book 
several groups are wholly extinct, no relatives of any rea- 
sonable nearness being found living today. Notable among 
such are the Titanotheres, the Oreodons and the Moropus. 
Reference to the extinction of others is given in connection 
with their description. 

Often extinction is apparent rather than real and the 
seeming obliteration may be only the normal expression of 
constant change. For example, in the horse, camel, rhin- 
oceros and other families the consecutive changes may be 
traced through a long continued series of replacements by 
the process of gradual development. Again the seeming 
extinction may be only a migration from the locality in 

Figure 16 — Land areas of the world during Late Cretaceous and 
Basal Eocene time. Period of extinction of the great Reptilia. 
A time of elevation, favoring an interchange of archaic life be- 
tween South and North America, also between North America 
and Europe. South America probably united with Australia via 
Antarctica, allowing an interchange of carnivorous and herbi- 
vorous marsupials. A partial community of fauna between 
North America and Eurasia with Africa. Rearranged from W. 
D. Matthew, 1908. H. F. Osborn: The Age of Mammals in 
Europe, Asia, and North America, 1910. Published by The Mac- 
millan Company. Reprinted by permission. 



question and in the new environment activity may continue 
as favorable as before. 

In case of actual extinction it is often not possible to 
ascertain the immediate causes. Sometimes the extinction 
is due wholly to conditions external to the animals them- 
selves, such as unfavorable climate, alteration of food sup- 

Figure 17 — Land areas of the world during Oligocene time. A period 
of continental elevation and reunion followed by the reestablish- 
ment of connections between the life of the New and Old Worlds. 
Central Europe submerged or partly archipelagic. African mam- 
mals and birds partly similar to those of Europe. Madigascar 
united with Africa. South America entirely separated, its mam- 
mals developing independently. Australia entirely separated. 
Closing the Oligocene, another long interval of separation be- 
tween North America and Europe. Rearranged after W. D. 
Matthew, 1908. H. F. Osborn. The Age of Mammals in Europe, 
Asia and North America, 1910. Published by the Macmillan 
Company. Reprinted by permission. 

ply, ravages of disease, encroachment of hostile species, in- 
sect pests, et cetera. Again extinction may be due largely 
to lack of internal adaption or adaptability, for example, 
the teeth may be fitted for too little variation of food, or the 
brain may be deficient in size or quality so that the animal 
lacks resourcefulness, alertness and enterprise. 



The distribution of animals is closely related to their 
development and has been in large measure controlled by 
geographical conditions. A study of paleogeography shows 
that the several continents have had a varied career. 
Changes have taken place in them through all the ages and 
migration roads and barriers, in long procession, have 

Figure 18 — Land areas of the world during Miocene time. A period 
of continental elevation and emergence, consequently of re- 
newed land connections and migrations. Africa broadly united 
with Europe across the Arabic peninsula, and a typical Asiatic 
fauna roaming westward into Europe and Africa. Asia connect- 
ed with the East Indies and the Philippine Islands. Florida 
elevated at the close of the Miocene. South America divided into 
northern and southern halves by a broad gulf, the northern half 
perhaps connected with North America. Australia entirely sep- 
arated from Asia. Rearranged after W. D. Matthew, 1908. H. 
F. Osborn: The Age of Mammals in Europe, Asia and North 
America, 1910. Published by The Macmillan Company. Re- 
printed t)y permission. 

formed and disappeared. With the advent of mammalian 
life interest in these physiographic changes increases and 
their interpretation is made with greater assurance of 

Life in the older geologic time was simple. The forms 
increased in complexity as the ages came and passed. Primi- 
tive mammals appeared during the Mesozoic but not until the 



Cenozoic did they reach importance. They then became the 
ruling type and the Cenozoic, for this reason is often called 
The Age of Mammals. (See Plate 9). 

In early Tertiary time North America was apparently 
not connected by land with South America. It was, how- 
ever, connected with Asia by way of Alaska and with 
Europe by way of Greenland and Iceland. These land 
bridges and the Panama region are known to have changed 
greatly during and subsequent to the Tertiary and a fair 
understanding of their influence will explain many per- 
plexing features of animal and plant distribution. 

Figure 19 — Land areas of the world during Pliocene time. A period 
of continued continental elevation especially in Europe and East- 
ern North America. Seasons of aridity or summer drought, in- 
creased aridity of the Great Plains of North America. South 
America connected with North America by migration routes 
which allowed free interchange of mammals. Australia still 
united with New Guinea and Tasmania. Rearranged after Mat- 
thew, 1909. H. F. Osborn. The Age of Mammals in Europe, 
Asia and North America, 1910. Published by The Macmillan 
Company. Reprinted by permission. 





In the earliest explorations in the Badlands little care- 
ful effort was made to secure complete skeletons, the ex- 
plorer apparently contenting himself with securing only 
the better heads or other fragments lying on or near the 
surface. Later extensive digging was resorted to, but for 
some years this was done in a crude way. The bones are 
generally more or less broken and disarticulated and when 
once the fragments become separated the proper assembling 
of the pieces again becomes a difficult task. In course of 
time a method of bandaging developed. Now the fragments 

Figure 20 — Group of three Promerycochoerus carrikeri skeletons in 
position as found. Showing the disturbed conditions of the 
specimens even when the bones are well preserved and the skele- 
tons fairly complete. Peterson, 1914. 

while being excavated are kept together by laying on with 
flour paste strips of muslin or burlap or other coarse, loose- 
woven cloth. Plaster of paris may also be used especially 
where heavy pieces are involved or where extreme care is 
necessary. Soft bones are treated with some preparation 
of shellac or gum to harden them for transportation- Exact 
location of the skeleton and the relative position of every 
bone in the skeleton is of the greatest importance. Sketches 
and photographs are made as the work progresses and all 
pieces removed are carefully labelled. A knowledge of the 
stratigraphical horizon is essential to determining much of 
the relationship and life history of the animal and the 
proper location of each bone with reference to neighboring 
bones of the same excavation may serve greatly in the 



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mounting of the restored skeleton. Often considerable 
masses of the enclosing earth or stone are quarried out and 
shipped to the museum where time and proper instruments 
will permit a more satisfactory extraction of the bones. ( See 
Plate 10 and Figures 20 and 21). 

Reaching the preparator's laboratory the bandages are 
carefully removed, all useless matrix cleared away and the 
bone fragments assembled and cemented together. Injured 
bones are then repaired and missing bones reproduced in 
some suitable artificial preparation. The mounting is often 
facilitated by study of the living relatives of the fossil form. 
Where there is no living animal nearly related, recourse is 
had to the studies of the rugosities of the bones where the 
main muscles were attached in life, the facettes of the joints 
and the general shape and character of the various bones. 

All this work, if properly done, requires much patience 
and skill in manipulation as well as intelligent insight into 
the general nature of the animal to be mounted. Many 
weeks or months may be required in the laboratory work 
alone, the expense of preparation usually far exceeding the 
time and money spefit in collecting the specimens in the 
field. It may be readily inferred that the money value, to 
say nothing of the educational importance of the completed 
skeleton, particularly if it is the type specimen of a new 
series, is often very great. (Plate 50). 



The naming of animals, both living and extinct is 
closely interwoven with their classification. Classification 
is a process of comparison. Its object is to bring together 
the like forms and to separate the unlike. This is best ac- 
complished by comparing the various characters which are 
the most constant. The natural result is the arrangement 
of groups within groups in a continuous manner, the various 
groups being given particular names, as. Kingdom, Sub- 
kingdom, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species, et cetera. 
The scientific name by which any animal is indicated is 
formed by combining the generic and specific names much 
as we combine our own family and Christian name except 
that in the scientific nomenclature the specific term comes 
last. To illustrate: The scientific name of the domestic 


dog is Canis familiaris Linnaeus, Canis being the name of 
the genus and familiaris the name of the species. The third 
non-italicized portion may be considered a part of the name 
although this really refers only to the naturalist who first 
carefully described and properly named the creature. It is 
often omitted, especially in the case of fairly common or 
well known animals or w^here there is no mistaking the in- 
dividual who gave the name. In scientific literature, how- 
ever, and particularly in paleontology where, on account of 
imperfect material, there is liability of error in determina- 
tion this is usually given as it not infrequently becomes 
essential for clearness in referring to the species. Omitting 
it from the name for the time being, the complete classifica- 
tion of the dog may be represented as follows: 

Kingdom, Animalia. 

Sub-kingdom, Vertebrata. 
Class, Mammalia. 

Sub-class, Eutheria. 

Infra-class, Monodelphia. 
Cohort, Unguiculata. 
Order, Carnivora. 

Sub-order, Fissipedia. 
Family, Canidae. 
Genus, Canis. 

Species, Familiaris. 
Variety, "Shepherd." 
Individual, "Shep." 

Continuing the illustration the scientific name of the 
tiger is Felis tigris Linnaeus; of the ox, Bos taurus Linnaeus; 
of man, Homo sapiens Linnaeus. These names are simple 
enough when once understood and indeed many names we 
now look upon as common have been transferred bodily 
from the scientific generic nomenclature, as for example, 
rhinoceros, hippopotamus, bison, and mastodon. 

It is well known that the common names by which ani- 
mals now living are designated are often not sufficiently 
accurate. The name in order to be properly useful must be 
sufficiently distinctive to indicate clearly the animal to which 
reference is made. For example, there are five existing 
species of rhinoceroses, the clear definition of which by com- 
mon names is perhaps difficult enough, to say nothing of the 


score or more of fossil forms besides a still larger number 
of extinct animals closely allied to the rhinoceroses and 
falling under the general Class, Khinocerotoidae. Again 
sometimes the common name is deceptive. For example the 
well known pronghorn antelope, Antilocapra americana, of 
our western plains is considered by some zoologists as not 
being an antelope at all. On the other hand our Eocky 
Mountain goat Oreanus Montanus is a member of the true 
antelope family. True antelopes at the present day inhabit 
chiefly Europe, Asia and Africa. They include many 
species, the better known ones being designated in common 
speech as hartebeests, gnus, elands, gazelles, klipspringers, 
gemsbocks, springboks, waterbucks, duickerboks, saigas, 
etc. Several of these are subdivided. For example the 
duickerboks alone are credited with thirty-eight species. If, 
therefore, we are going to name animals in conformity with 
their recognized distinctions, and for clearness of concep- 
tion there is generally no alternative, then the various 
duickerbok species must each be given a name — thirty-eight 
in all. Thus antelope being in reality a misnomer here in 
this country and losing much of its distinctive significance 
even in the old world, becomes little more than a loose ex- 
pression for a great group of animals, some of them no 
larger than a jack-rabbit, and others comparable in size to 
a horse. 

Generally, in designating the species, the words of the 
scientific name refer to some important character, or they 
express some relationship or resemblance, or indicate some 
fact of distribution or discovery. Sometimes the meaning 
Is obscure in which case it may be necessary to consult the 
work of the original author for the interpretation. Often, 
however, the name needs little explanation other than that 
given by a good comprehensive dictionary. 

The generic names are usually of classic origin, most of 
them being Latinized forms of Greek names. They may be 
either simple or compound words and they often have 
modifying or descriptive prefixes or suffixes. The specific 
names show a somewhat wider latitude of origin than the 
generic names. Sometimes they are geographical, sometimes 
personal, oftentimes descriptive. The following names of 
badland fossils may serve to illustrate the principle: 
Procamelus occidentalis Leidy, an ancestral camel of the 


new world, described by Leidy; Magacerops brachycephalus 
Osborn, a short headed animal with a great-horned appear- 
ance, described by Osborn; Ncohipparion whitneyi Gidley, 
a new world, small horse described by Gidley and named in 
honor of W. C. Whitney; Protoceras celcr Marsh, a fleet- 
footed first-horned animal described by Marsh; Protosorex 
crassus Scott, a large sized primitive shrew, described by 

It would lead us too far away to go into the full details 
of this nomenclature. One additional feature, however, de- 
serves notice in view of its not infrequent perplexity. The 
individual who first describes a new species is supposed to 
give it a name which must not conflict with any name used 
previously for another species. According to the rules gov- 
erning the matter the name by reason of its priority can not 
be changed subsequently except for cause. Often in paleon- 
tological work where poor or insufficient or aberrant ma- 
terial has been first studied later discoveries have shown 
errors of description or improper identification in which 
case a new name may become necessary. The new name, 
if properly given becomes the accepted name while the old 
name is referred to as a synonymn. In not a few cases there 
are several synonyms and not infrequently it is a matter of 
some conjecture as to just which is the most appropriate 
under the circumstances. 

With rare exceptions the animal life of the White 
River badlands is restricted to the Vertebrata — the back- 
boned animals. Aside from turtles of which there are many, 
and a few crocodiles, lizards, and birds eggs, all of the 
fossil remains of the vertebrates thus far found within the 
area belong to the great class "Mammalia." The term 
"Mammalia" includes all hair-clad, vertebrated animals, 
the females of which are provided with glands for secreting 
milk for the early nourishment of the offspring. They are 
the highest of the vertebrates, possessing that happy com- 
bination of anatomical and physiological simplicity and 
complexity tending toward highest efficiency as organisms. 
They are not only the most important animals of today, 
but they have been the rulers of the animal world since 
early Tertiary time. Continuing back in geological history 
with ever increasing simplicity toward a generalized, omni- 
vorous, allotherian ancestry they may be traced with cer- 


tainty to Triassic time. Since their beginning multitudinous 
changes have taken place in the structure and activity of 
the many species that have originated, developed and died 
and, as a result, the expression of relationship must often 
be indefinite or uncertain. 

Following the custom of many authors three main 
subclasses of the Mammalia may be recognized, namely, the 
Prototheria or primitive mammals, the Metatheria or 
pouched mammals and the Eutheria or perfect mammals. 

The Prototherian mammals are restricted to a few 
simple forms such as the Echidna (Australian Ant Eater) 
and the Ornithorynchus (Duck-billed Platypus) which lay 
large yolked eggs much after the fashion of reptiles and 
birds. They are not represented in the White River bad- 
lands either living or fossil, hence need no further consider- 
ation here. 

The Metatheria are those intermediate, marsupial 
mammals which, having only a rudimentary or primitive 
placental structure, bring forth their young in a very im- 
mature state and carry them for a considerable time in a 
pouch provided for the purpose. The opossum, the kanga- 
roo and the Tasmanian "wolf" are well known representa- 
tives. Like the Prototheria the Metatheria are not found 
in the White River badlands. 

The Eutheria include a vast assemblage of forms of all 
sorts of perfection of development from lowly primitive 
creatures to man. These are grouped somewhat differently 
by different authors but all of the fossil forms obtained 
from the region under discussion fall naturally into four 
main divisions, namely, the Insectivora (insect eaters) the 
Carnivora (flesh eaters), the Rodentia (gnawers), and the 
Ungulata (hoofed mammals), the Ungulata (Herbivora) j 
being represented by two orders, the Perissodactyla (ererr- atil^ 
toed mammals) and the Artiodactyla (©4d-toe^ mammals). 

The Insectivores include moles, hedgehogs, shrews and 
other small animals of antiquated structure. They are 
generally plantigrade (walking upon the sole of the foot), 
the snout is often prolonged into a short proboscis, and 
their chief food is insects. The Carnivores include animals 
whose chief food is flesh. They may be terrestrial, arboreal, 


or aquatic. They have a simple stomach, a well developed 
brain, toes provided usually with long, sharp claws, and 
generally they have a body capable of much agility in the 
capture of prey. They walk either upon the entire sole of 
the foot or upon the under surface of the toes but never 
upon the tips of the toes as do the Ungulata. The carni- 
vorous structure is common to all of the class but the 
carnivorous habit, though general is not universal. Living 
representatives vary in size from the little active ermine to 
the powerful grizzly bear. The Rodents include a group of 
small to moderately large animals the most prominent and 
universal character of which is their dentition. Canine 
teeth are absent. The deeply set incisors, separated by a 
considerable vacant interval from the molars, are long and 
flat edged and are of paramount importance. Since they 
lengthen by persistent growth they serve admirably for 
vigorous chisel-like cutting of hard materials, hence the 
name "gnawers." The animals are usually plantigrade, 
often burrowing, not infrequently arboreal, and occasionally 
acquatic. They are today represented by the squirrels, 
prairie dogs, rabbits, rats, mice, beavers, porcupines, and a 
host of others. The Ungulates (Herbivores) are plant- 
feeding animals with hoofs rather than claws or nails, and 
with limbs perfected for running and not for climbing and 
grasping. Viewed from the point of usefulness to man they 
are the most important of all animals in that they furnish 
him with food, clothing and working assistance. 


The Carnivora may be conveniently divided into three 
sub-divisions (sub-orders), namely, the Creodonta or primi- 
tive carnivores, the Fissipedia or true carnivores, and the 
Pinnipedia or aquatic carnivores. Of these the Creodonts 
are found only in the fossil state; the Fissipedes include our 
common carnivorous animals such as the Canidae (dogs or 
dog-like creatures) and the Felidae (cat family), and are 
both fossil and living. They are found in large numbers 
among the fossils of the badlands. The Pinnipedes include 
the aberrant animals, the seals and walruses. The Creodonts 
are represented in the White River badlands by but one 
family, the Hyaenodonts. The Pinnipedes are not found 
there at all. 



The Cerodonts originated in the earliest Tertiary and 
were evidently the predatory flesh eaters of their time. 
They were the primitive ancestors of the true carnivores 
and they held a position relative to contemporary animals 
similar to that which the true carnivores hold among the 
animals of today. 

Figure 22 — Skeleton of the Oligocene creodont Hyaenodon cruentus 
Scott. 1895. 

There w^ere numerous families but of all these only 
the Hyaenodons, the latest and most specialized are found 
in the White River badlands. (See Plate 25). The indi- 
vidual fossils are not abundant although several species are 
represented. The skull of the largest Hyaendon horridus in- 
dicates an animal of wolf-like appearance approaching in 
size the present day black bear. The life habits of these 
animals are not entirely clear. It is not even known whether 
they were digitigrade or plantigrade. They may have been 
semi-plantigrade. It has been suggested that they were 
semi-acquatic but this is quite uncertain. The Hyaenodons, 
unlike most of the class, seem to have lived on carrion. 


The Canidae are abundantly represented in the White 
River badlands. More than tw^enty species are known. The 
earliest North American Canidae recognized as such are 
found in the Upper Eocene. They first appeared in Europe 


at about this time also and were abundant in both Europe 
and North America during Oligocene and Miocene times. 
They are known to have reached India by the early part of 
the Pliocene and seem to have migrated along the Isthmus 
of Panama to South America as soon as it emerged from 
the sea at the dawn of Pliocene time. It is of interest to 
note in this connection that the nearest living allies of the 

Figure 23 — Dorsal view of the hind foot and the fore foot of 
Daphoenodon superbus. Peterson, 1910. 

White River Oligocene and Miocene forms are certain foxes 
now inhabiting South America. 

According to Cope, the Canidae, so far as concerns 
structure, occupy a position intermediate between the gen- 
eralized carnivores, such as the raccoons, and the highest 
specialized forms, the cats; but in brain character they dis- 
play superiority to all of the other carnivore families. The 



chief difference between the Tertiary and the living forms 
lie in the higher specialization of the latter, particularly as 
regards foot structure and brain character. 

The Canidae seem almost certainly to have descended 
directly from the early Eocene Creodonta, but so undoubt- 
edly did the Felidae. During the Oligocene time the two 
families were much generalized and had many characters in 

Figure 24 — Skull of DapJioenoclon superbus. Peterson, 1906. 









common, particularly in the dentition, the structure of the 
skull, the vertebrae, the limbs, and the feet. One feature of 
surprising interest, first indicated by Prof, Scott, is that 
some at least of the Canidae had sharp pointed, high, com- 
pressed, hooded claws, as in the cats, instead of curved, 
cylindrical cones, as in the dogs, and had the unmistakable 
ability of retracting the claws to a greater or less extent. 

Figure 26 — Skull of Cynodictis gregarius. Scott, 1898. 

Although many specimens of the Canidae have been 
found in the White River badlands, few complete skeletons 
have been obtained. Until recent jears little had been col- 
lected but heads. Of the several species Cynodictis gregar- 
ius, Daphoeniis felinus and Daphoenus superbus are the 
best known. Cynodictis gregarius was most abundant and 
as the name implies seems to have roved the country in 
packs. It was smaller than the common red fox of the 
eastern states. Daphoenus felinus reached approximately 
the size of the coyote, while Daphoenus superhus was as 
large as a full grown gray wolf. (See Plate 20). One 
species, Ischyrocyon hyacnodus, includes individuals of 
larger size. Partial remains of a young individual seem to 
indicate that the full grown animal would compare favor- 
ably with the modern grizzly bear. 

Daphoenus seems to represent in pretty fair manner 
the ancestral stage of the present-day wolf. Cynodictis has 
many characters resembling those of the modern fox but 
close relationship has not been proven. A small brain was 
characteristic of all of the Canidae and this was particu- 
larly true of Daphoenus. 



Figure 27 — Skeleton of the Oligocene dog, Cynodictis gregarius. 
Matthew, 1901. 


The cat family is well represented in fossil form in the 
White River region, although neither the species nor the 
individuals were so numerous as were the Canidae. Two 
genera are of particular prominence, namel^^, Hoplophoneus 
and Dinictis. These are early forms of what are commonly 
known as saber-tooth cats or tigers (Machaerodonts), a 
name given them by reason of two great sword or saber-like 
canine teeth of the upper jaw. They were not so large as 
certain later forms of this great group, nevertheless they 
were vicious creatures and Hoplophoneus, the larger of the 

■Ju. Fr. 

Figure 28 — Skull of the Saber-tooth tiger, Dinictis squalidens. 
Matthew, 1905. 



two, was doubtless fully as large as the present day leopard 
and apparently much more powerful. (Plates 27 and 28). 
The two represent well separated stages in the evolution of 
saber-tooth cats, and while Dinictis seems to have reached 
as high a stage of specialization as Hoplophoneus, it was evi- 
dently fitted to a somewhat different life. 

An important feature of the lower jaw is the extreme 
downward projection of its anterior portion. This seems to 
be a co-incident feature necessitated by the unprecedented 
development of the powerful canine teeth already mentioned. 

Figure 29 — Heads of White River Saber-tooth tigers showing open 
jaws ready for attack, (a) Hoplophoneus primaevus (b) Dinictis 
sgualidens. Matthew. 

These upper canine teeth curve forward and downward 
nearly parallel with each other, and passing behind the 
much smaller lower canines, continue approximately to the 
lowest portion of the anterior downward prolongation of the 
chin. In general they are laterally compressed and the 
edges are more or less serrulated. They are implanted by a 
strong fang and reach two and one-half or three inches in 
length. In Hoplophoneus, these fangs were very long and 
slender and the protecting jaw flange was correspondingly 
deep. Dinictis had shorter canines and a less prominent 
jaw flange. 



The cause of the development of the abnormally power- 
ful upper canines and the uses to which they were put have 
been the cause of nuich speculation. (Plates 11 and 12.) 
W. D. jMatthew of the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory in discussing this indicates that in his opinion there 
is definite evidence of the adaptation of the canines to 
a particular method of attack. The head is so shaped 
that good attachment is allowed for strong muscles, en- 
abling the animal to strike downward with its saber teeth 
with enormous power and the changes in the cranial por- 

Figure 30 — Dorsal view of the fore foot and the hind foot of Hop- 
lophoneus primaevus. Adams 1896. 

tion allowing for the attachment for the increasingly pow- 
erful muscles were in strict correlation with the develop- 
ment of the saber-teeth. Along with these changes was 
the degeneration and change in shape of the lower jaw, 
allowing the mouth to be opened to an unusual extent so as 
to give greatest freedom to the saber-teeth in stabbing the 
prey. Hoplophoneus in addition to his terrible teeth had a 
strong body, stout neck and legs and highly developed strong 
retractile claws. His food must have been in large measure 
the thick skinned rhinoceroses, elotheres, oreodonts, and 
other similar animals of the time. The lighter proportioned 




Dinictis, with its less powerful canines, doubtless preyed 
more successfully on the smaller swift-footed animals, the 
securing of which demanded superior speed and endurance. 

Figure 32 — Skeleton of the Oligocene saber-tooth tiger Dinictis 
squalidens. Matthew, 1901. 

The White Kiver badlands furnished the earliest dis- 
covered remains of Saber-tooth cats in America. Leidy who 
described the first species gave it the name Macliaerodus 
primacvus. Later this was changed to Depranodon prim- 
aevus, and still later to Uoplophoneus primaevus^ the name 
it now bears. From time to time other species have been 
discovered until now about a dozen are known. They were 
all most terrible beasts of prey and one of them Eusmilus da- 
kotensis, approaching the size of the African lion was the 
largest carnivore of its time. 


The Mustelidae of the present day include such animals 
as the badgers, minks, martens, weasels, ermines, skunks, 
otters, and ratels- Fossil members of the family have been 
found in some abundance. The more ancestral forms con- 
tinue back to Eocene time, but no clearly defined species 
have as yet been identified in the White River badlands in 
rocks older than the Miocene. 

None of the remains discovered are complete, and nearly 
all are more or less mutilated. Those of MegaUctis ferox, 
however, are sufficiently characteristic to indicate much of 
the nature of the animal. They represent a very large mus- 
teline. The head is short, wide, and massive, brain small, 


tail long and powerful, limbs short and stout, feet planti- 
grade, number of toes five, claws large and non-retractile. 
The animal is characterized as a gigantic wolverine, equal- 
ling a jaguar or a black bear in size, but in proportion more 
like the ratel. It was evidently predaceous like the wolver- 
ine, but seems to have been to some degree of burrowing dis- 


Remains of insectivorous animals are recognized as far 
back as earliest Tertiary time, but the fossils are not 
abundant. The White River badlands have yielded several 
species, but they are fragmentary. They belong to several 
families, particularly the hedgehogs, the shrews and the 
golden moles. The identification of fossil remains of the 
golden mole in South Dakota brought up certain important 
questions and speculations. True moles (Talpidae) are now 
found in the subarctic or temperate zones of all the northern 
continents, but not in or south of the tropics. However, in 
the south temperate zone, there are animals which have 
adopted mole-like habits and superficially resemble the true 
moles to a greater or less degree. The Chrysochloridae or 
golden moles of South Africa are of this nature. A similar 
animal in fossil form has been found in the Upper Miocene of 
southern South America. The peculiar geographical dis- 
tribution of certain animals and plants of southern lands 
has long been a source of speculation and study and this 
finding of a fossil golden mole in South Dakota so far re- 
moved from its present day and fossil relatives, adds a new 
feature of interest. 


The rodents or gnawers as regards numbers are over- 
whelmingly predominant among living mammals. Their 
most prominent and universal character, the dentition, shows 
the absence of canine teeth and the paramount importance 
of front teeth or incisors. They appear to have originated 
in North America in early Eocene time and to have been 
rather rapidly distributed to the other great land masses of 
the earth. In the White River region they appear first in 
the Middle Oligocene, ancestral squirrels, rabbits, beavers, 
and rats, being represented. The beavers or beaver-like 



animals coutiiiue into the Upper Oiigocene, the Lower Mio- 
cene and the Upper Miocene. They are particularly 
abundant in the Lower Miocene. Babbits occur also in the 
Lower Miocene as well as certain poorly preserved forms 
supposed to be related to pocket gophers. 

The number of specimens found indicates a consider- 
able abundance of rodents in the region during Tertiary 
time, and the number of species adds emphasis to this. It 
happens, however, that but few complete skeletons have 
been obtained, the best material consisting largely of skulls 
and lower jaws, and in several of the species named, the 
description has been based on still more fragmentary ma- 

The earliest specimens of the rodents obtained were 
found by Hayden in the Big Badlands, and described by 
Leidy. With the exception of two other species described 
many years ago by Cope, little further information became 
available until the last few years, during which time Mr. 
Peterson of the Carnegie Museum, and Mr. Matthew of the 
American Museum of Natural History, each described a 
number of species. The Carnegie Museum material has 
come chiefly from northwestern Nebraska and eastern Wyom- 
ing, the American Museum material from Little White river. 

Figure 33 — Skeleton of the Lower Miocene burrowing rodent Steneo- 
fiber fossor. Peterson, 1905. 

The commonest fossil is Steneoflber. This is especially 
abundant in the Lower Bosebud beds of Little White river 
and in the Harrison (Daemonelix) beds in northwestern 
Nebraska and in eastern Wyoming. Entoptychus, the 
gopher-like rodent, seems to be fairly common in the Little 
White river area also. Peterson found many specimens of 


Steneofiber fossor in close association with the Devil's Cork- 
screws of the Harrison beds and, as referred to elsewhere, 
suggests the reason for the association. This animal was 
smaller generally than the present day beaver. Its skull is 
comparatively large, the lower jaws heavy, neck short, limbs 
and feet powerful, tail round, rather heavy and of moderate 
length. Peterson states that the limb presents a striking 
similarity to that of other burrowing rodents and ap- 
proaches that of the mole in its position. The elongated and 
narrow scapula of the mole, the heavy clavicle, the strongly 
built humerus, and the broad foot with the long and power- 
ful unguals, is rather suggestive of the habits of this animal, 
which was probably burrowing to a considerable degree. The 
animal is related to the beaver, but is evidently not in the 
direct line of ancestry. 


The order Ungulata ( Herbivores ) as now constituted in- 
cludes the mammals once loosely classed as Ruminants, and 
Pachyderms. The earliest known forms much resemble the 
primitive Carnivores. The ancestors of both seem to have 
been omnivorous. 

For some reason there appeared very early among the 
Ungulates a tendency to develop the herbivorous type of 
tooth and the digitigrade foot (walking upon the tips of the 
toes). The change in the foot from the five toed plantigrade 
form progressed along two different lines and thus there 
were produced two very different types, ,namely, the odd-toed 
type and the even-toed type. In the odd-toed type the axis 
of the foot is in the third or middle digit (mesaxonic). 
Animals of this type are known as Perissodactyls. In the 
even-toed types the axis of the foot is between the third and 
fourth digits (paraxonic). Animals of this type are known 
as Artiodactyls. The horse, the tapir, and the rhinoceros 
are well known representatives of the perissodactyls. Among 
Artiodactyls are the camel, lama, deer, giraffe, antelope, ox, 
sheep, goat, and bison. 


Perissodactyls, as above stated, have the axis of the foot 
in the third or middle digit. They are generally odd toed, 
the third toe being the largest and sometimes the only func- 


tional one. The tapir, an anatomically unprogressive crea- 
ture, is a partial exception in that it has four toes on the 
front foot and three toes on the hind foot. Similar excep- 
tions or seeming exceptions occasionally existed in the evolu- 
tionary development of other perissodaetyls, nevertheless the 
bisection of the third toe by the median plane of the foot 
early asserted itself and has continued with firm persistence. 

Existing perissodaetyls include animals of greatly dif- 
fering appearance and habits but their skeletal characters 
indicate with certaintly their relationship and skeletal 
characters indicate also the wide gap between them and 
other hoof-bearing creatures. 

The perissodaetyls constitute a restricted group and 
although many prehistoric forms are known — in all about 
five hundred species — living species are confined to the three 
well known families, rhinoceroses, tapirs, and horses. Of 
fossil forms the following families are represented in the 
White river badlands : Titanotheridae, Equidae, Tapiridae, 
Lophiodontidae, Hyracodontidae, Amynodoutidae, and Rhin- 

The living forms so far as concerns their present 
natural habitat, with the exception of the American tapirs, 
are all confined to the Old World. Gidley calls attention to 
the fact that this is the more interesting since North America 
seems to have been the birth place or at least the stage for 
the development, not only of the early representatives of all 
the living Perissodaetyls, but of most of the extinct groups 
of the order as well and that half the total number of 
perissodactyl species described have been founded on speci- 
mens from the Tertiary and Quaternary formations of this 


The finding of fossil bones of true rhinoceroses in the 
Big Badlands by Alexander Culbertson in 1850, and their 
prompt and accurate identification by Leidy, constitute one 
of the most interesting, unexpected, and instructive paleon- 
tological discoveries of America. 

Existing rhinoceroses are confined to Africa, the Indian 
Archipelago and the southern parts of Asia. These form 
but a small representation of the numerous ancestry that 
abounded in North America from Middle Eocene to late 



Figure 34 — Skull of Metamynodon planifrons. Osborn, 1896. 

Miocene time and in Europe from Eocene to Pliocene time. 
There is much reason for believing that the rhinoceros 
family originated in North America and subsequently spread 
to the old world but this has not as yet been proven. 

All rhinoceroses, living and extinct, are divided by Os- 
born into three subdivisions, as follows. The Hyracodonti- 
dae or cursorial (upland) rhinoceroses; the Amynodontidae 
(aquatic) rhinoceroses, and the Rhinocerotidao or true (low- 
land) rhinoceroses. Of these the first two are found onlv in 

Figure 35 — Skull of Caenopus tridactylus. Osborn, 1898. 



the fossil state, the third is found both fossil and living. In 
America, the cursorial rhinoceroses are found first in the 
Middle Eocene, the aquatic rhinoceroses in the Upper 
Eocene, and the true rhinoceroses in the Lower Oligocene. 
The first two became extinct here in the Oligocene, but the 
true rhinoceroses endured until after the close of the Mio- 
cene. All three occur in fossil form within the area described 
in this paper, the cursorial and aquatic species in the Oligo- 
cene, chiefly in the Middle Oligocene, the true rhinoceroses 
throughout both the Oligocene and the Miocene. 

The three families differed greatly from one another, 
both in exterior form and in dental and skeletal structure. 
The Hyracodonts were small, light chested, swift footed, 

Figure 36 — Skeleton of the small, swiftfooted Oligocene rhinoceros, 
Hyracodon nebrascensis. Osborn, 1898. 

hoofed, hornless creatures, much resembling the Miocene 
horses and evidently well-fitted for living on the grass- 
covered higher lands. (Plates 30 and 38). The Amyno- 
donts were heavily built, short-bodied, hornless animals, 
with spreading padded feet, four functional toes in front, 
eyes and nostrils much elevated supposedly for convenience 
in swimming, canine teeth enlarged into recurved tusks, 
and a prehensile upper lip, apparently tending toward 
proboscoid development. (Plates 29 and 30). The ani- 
mal evidently much resembled the present day hippo- 
potamus, both in build and in habit. One adult skeleton, 



that of Metamyiiodon planifrons in the American Museum of 
Natural History, measures nine and one-half feet long and 
four and one-half feet high at the shoulders. The true rhin- 
oceroses began as light limbed, hornless animals, interme- 
diate in proportion between the two just mentioned, and in 
size and structure were not greatly unlike modern tapirs. 
During much of their early life history they, like the more 
primitive Hyracodonts and Amynodonts, were entirely with- 
out horns. 

Figure 37 — Skeleton of the heavy, marsh loving Oligocene rhinoceros, 
Metamynodon pJanijrons. Osborn, 1898. 

The true rhinoceroses constitute in many respects the 
most important of the three subdivisions and to the paleonto- 
logist are of profound interest. They lived in great num- 
bers in the region of the Black Hills during Oligocene and 
Miocene time, and their skeletons in certain favored local- 
ities, particularly in the Big Badlands and in Sioux County, 
northwestern Nebraska, have been collected in abundance. 
The Oligocene forms are especially characterized as being 
without horns, hence the old name Acerathere. (Plate 15). 
The Miocene forms have generally, but not always, a rudi- 
mentary or fairly well developed pair of horns placed 
transversely across the anterior part of the head, hence 
the name Dicerathere. (Plate 26). Present day rhino- 
ceroses, it should be remembered, have either no horn or 
one or two horns, but the arrangement when horns are 
present is always medial, never transverse. It is of in- 




terest to note also that while all living rhinoceroses have 
feet that are functionally tridactyl, some of the ancestral 
true rhinoceroses, at least so far as concerns the front feet, 
were functionally tetradactyl. This is known to be true of 
Trigonias oshorni and is suspected of others. This lessening 
of the number of functional toes corresponds to similar alter- 
ations in other animals and indicates progressive change. 
Indeed, the rhinoceroses show in many ways gradual trans- 
formations, particularly with reference to the feet, the teeth, 
and the development of horn cores. 

Among the Aceratheres Cacnopus mitis was the small- 
est, its height at the shoulders being approximately twenty- 
eight inches. Among the Diceratheres Dicer atherium schiffi 
was the smallest. It was also most specialized. The largest 
of the Aceratheres, in fact the largest of all the true rhin- 
oceroses, seems to have been Caenopiis platycephalus. It 
considerably surpassed the present day Sumatran rhinoceros. 
Among the others Caenopus copei was about the size of the 
American tapir and Caenopus tridactylus, measuring seven 
feet, nine inches in length, and four feet high to top of the 
rump, was nearly as large as the Sumatran rhinoceros. 


The lophiodonts, closely related to the ancestral tapirs, 
are the most generalized of all known perissodactyls. The 
fossils that have been found are in general very fragmentary 
but they indicate a group of animals of great interest. Much 
uncertainty prevails as to the exact relationship of the 
Lophiodonts, but they are known to have many of the primi- 
tive characters of the tapir, the hyracodont, and the horse. 


The study of fossil bones has oftentimes brought out 
very unexpected information. The unravelling of the story 
of the Chalicotheres is a good illustration of this in that it 
presents a pronounced exception to Cuvier's law of correla- 
tion. Certain peculiar foot bones found at Eppelsheim, 
nearly one hundred years ago were pronounced by 
Cuvier to be those of a gigantic pangolin (an edentate). 
These were described by Lartet under the name Macrother- 
ium (Big Beast). Later some skull fragments with teeth 
found in the same Eppelsheim locality were described under 





the name Chalicotherium (Beast of the Gravel). The teeth 
were somewhat similar to those of the rhinoceros hence these 
head parts were regarded as belonging to one of the un- 
gulates. Some paleontologists believed at first that they 
represented the artiodactyles but later they were generally 
considered as representing the perissodactyls. The foot 
bones continued to be regarded as belonging to the Edentates. 
Filhol, a French paleontologist, in 1887 reflecting upon 
the fact that Macrotherium foot bones were not uncommon 
and that Chalicotherium teeth were pretty well known but 
that no one had discovered feet of the latter nor head 
of the former, began to suspect that the two represented 
the same creature. The discovery a little later of nearly 
complete skeletons under favorable conditions definitely 
established the correctness of this supposition. It is of 
interest that in more recent years American discoveries 
have added greatly to our knowledge of these strange 
creatures. Several localities have afforded remains of 
which the most important has been the famous Agate 
Springs locality in northwestern Nebraska. The de- 
posits are known as the Harrison beds. Director W. J. 
Holland and Mr. O. A. Peterson of the Carneige Museum in 
1909 described in elaborate manner some of the best Agate 
Springs material found up to that time and summarized in 
good form the descriptions given in the publications of 
other investigators. Later the American Museum of Natural 
History made important discoveries in the Agate Springs 
locality and in their five summers (1911-1914, 1916) of exca- 
vation unearthed there within an area of about thirty-six 
feet square nearly complete skulls of ten individuals and 
skeletal parts of seventeen individuals. This material added 
new information of importance until now the size and na- 
ture of the animal are known to a high degree of certainty. 

All of the chalicotheres found in the Agate Springs 
quarries have been designated as belonging to the genus 
Moropus. Several species have been described. The largest 
is Moropus elatus, an animal as large or larger than the 
African rhinoceros. (Plate 31). Others are considerably 

Moropus in life was evidently very grotesque in appear 
ance. The head resembles not a little that of the .*ior«e, or 
the primitive rhinoceros. The neck is heavier than that of 


the horse although very similar in shape, while the body has 
some resemblance in general outline to the rhinoceros. Tlie 
head is small but the body is heavy and is supported by heavy 
limbs and feet. The fore limbs are larger than the hind 
limbs and this gives to the animal a corresponding pose. 
The feet, terminating in bifid, clawlike bones are especially 
distinctive, combining in peculiar manner characteristics of 
the ungulates and apt>arent characteristics of the Carni- 
vores, and of animals accustomed to digging. (Plates 17 
and 32). Osborn says, '^Moropus may be characterized as a 
forest-loving, slow moving animal, not improbably fre- 
quently rather swampy ground. The small head, relatively 
long neck, high fore quarters, short, downwardly sloping 
back, straight and elongated limbs, suggest a profile contour 
only paralleled by the forest-loving okapi among existing 
mammals. The foot structure, of course, is radically dif- 
ferent from that of the okapi, but we should not regard it 
as fossorial, or of the digging type, because it is not corre- 
lated with a fossorial type of fore limb. It would appear 
that these great fore claws, in which the phalanges were 
sharply flexed, were used in pulling down the branches of 
trees and also as powerful weapons of defense." The illu- 
strations give a better idea of the animal than can readily 
be obtained by simple description. 


The present day tapirs, like the horse, are the descend- 
ants of a very ancient family. Unlike the horse, however, 
specialization in the tapir has not advanced to a high degree, 
and so far as foot structure is concerned, and to a consider- 
able extent tooth structure also, the modern representatives 
of the tapir are in much the same condition as the early 
ancestral horses. They are very similar to the Lophiodonts 
just mentioned. Indeed, these animals and the ancestral 
tapirs show so many characteristics of such decided similar- 
ity or of such a vague nature as to render their separation 
and classification a matter of difficulty and some uncer- 

Fossil remians of the Tapiridae are comparatively rare. 
They, however, have had a wide geographical distribution 
and are known to be present in rocks of nearly every period 
since earliest Tertiary time. Three species, described from 


the Big Badlands, all belonging to the genus Protapirus, are 
believed to be in the direct line of ancestry from the modern 
tapirs. (Plate 14). All of the specimens secured have 
come from within or near the Big Badlands. The material 
is not abundant and consists chiefly of skulls, lower jaws, 
and certain limb bones. 

Prof. Scott suggests that the scarcity of the remains is 
probably because tapirs have always been forest-haunting 
animals, hence their habits must have kept them in places 
remote from areas where the accumulation of sediments was 
in progress and thus only occasional stragglers were buried 
and preserved. 


Of all the fossils of the White River badlands perhaps 
none have elicited more genuine interest than those of the 
Equidae, or horse family. The ancestry of the horse is in 
full harmony with the proud position he holds among present 
day animals. No other mammal displays such a lengthy, 
well connected lineage, nor discloses a more beautiful handi- 
work in the well-ordered development of structure and habits. 
For perhaps three million years or more, members of the 
family have roamed the hills and dales of the earth, molding 
their nature to an ever changing environment, discarding 
many things inherited from their evident Cretaceous five- 
toed progenitors, and taking on new features leading to the 
exquisite relation of organs and actions in the finely-built 
horse of today. 

The earliest known members of the family is the little 
Hyracotherium, or Eohippus of the Eocene, less than one 
foot in height, with four well developed toes on each front 
foot, and three on each hind foot. Splint bones indicate the 
earlier presence of five toes on the front foot and four on the 
hind foot, and there is good reason for believing that at some 
still earlier stage the pentadactyl nature was complete. In 
connection with the progressive enlargement of the middle 
toe, profound alteration also took place in other parts of 
the anatomy, particularly the lengthening of the jaws, in- 
creasing complexity of the teeth, pronounced elongation of 
the lower part of the limbs, and the degeneration of the 
ulna and fibula. 





The phjlogeny of the horse was first suggested by the 
great French paleontologist, Cuvier. The earliest attempt 
at its expreession was made by Kowalevsky, the Russian. He 
was followed in succesive order by Huxley of England, 
Marsh, Cope, Wortman and Scott of America, and Schlosser 
of Germany, and more recently by Osborn and others. Inter- 
pretation by the earlier men showed inconsistencies and 
omissions, but with increasing collections of well-preserved 
material it has been possible to eliminate aberrant forms and 
to add needful material, until now the genealogical series 
is fairly complete. In the unraveling of the relationships 
the monophyletic origin theory has seemed to lose much of 
its earlier supposed significance as supported by Marsh. 

Figure 41 — Skeleton of the beautifully preserved Upper Miocene 
three-toed horse. Neohippariqn whitneyi. Original now in the 
Anaerican Museum of Natural History. W. B. Scott, A History 
of Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere, 1913. Published 
by The Macmillan Company. Reprinted by permission. 

Later paleontologists, particularly those following the work 
of Osborn in his study of the Titanotheres and Khinoceroses 
and Osborn and Gidley in their study of the Equidae in- 
clined to the polyphyletic theory, that is, that the representa- 
tives of a family instead of being necessarily derived from a 
single Eocene ancestor may be representative of several 
contemporaneous phyla represented by as many distinct 
types of the Eocene. For a diagrammatic representation of 
the more important evolutionary changes see Figure 48. 

Fortunately the fossils representing the extinct horses 
are abundant and often well preserved. For some years the 
Peabodv Museum of Yale Universitv excelled all others in 



the exieJir and imp^oriaiiee of its collections, but more re- 
cently the American Museum of Natural History has stir- 
passed it. Gidley stated in 1907 that the latter collection 
then contained several thousand specimens — Eocene to Plei- 
stocene, inclusive. Granger. 190S. says that the Hyraco- 
theres « Eocene • alone were represented by several hundred 
specimens. Matthew and Cook. 1909, add the information 
that in their recent work in the Pliocene of northwestern 
i^ebraska, they collecte*! some hundreds of incomplete jaws 
and ab«3ut ten thousand sejiarate teeth, besides great numbers 
of limbs and foot bones. While it should be borne in mind 
that the al>ove collections represent to a lai^e extent frag- 
mentary material. Ost»om states, that in all the museums of 
the world there were in 1904 only eight complete mounted 
skeletons of fossil horses, but that of these, five were in the 
American Musetim. 

Figure 42 — Rigbt hind foot and lefi fore foot of the three-toed horaew 
Mesohippu* interme^iiti. front and side riews. Osbm& and 
Wortman. 1S95. 



The abundance of the fossil remains and their wide- 
spread distribution geologically and geographically, clearly 
indicate that for ages members of the horse family ranged 
over the country in countless numbers. They were numerous 
in both North America and South America, Beginning, as 
they evidently did, in the earliest Tertiary or late Cretaceous 
in some generalized form of small height, probably no great- 
er, according to Marsh, than a rabbit, they continued in 
increasing size to individuals larger than the largest draft 
horses of the present day. The earliest and the latest known 
members of the familj^ do not occur in the deposits described 
in this paper, but intermediate forms are found in consider- 
able numbers. These intermediate forms merit our chief at- 



Figure 43 — Illustration to show evolution of the fore foot in the 
Horse family. Osborn. 

With one exception all horses of the White River bad- 
lands had three toes on each foot. Those of the older for- 
mations, particularly of the Oligocene, stand approximately 
midway in the genealogical line and show characters of ab- 
sorbing interest. 

It may be noted here that Eocene horses are four 
toed, with short crowned teeth; Oligocene horses are three 



toed with short crowned teeth; Miocene horses are three 
toed with progressively long-crowned teeth; Pliocene horses 
are sometimes three toed and sometimes one toed, with long 
crowned teeth ; and Pleistocene horses are one toed with very 

long crowned teeth. 

Figure 44 — Right fore foot of the earliest known one-toed horse, 
Pliohippus lullianus. Front, side and back views. Troxell, 1916. 

The earliest one toed horse of which we have knowledge 
is Pliohippus lulUanus Troxell, a ten months old colt, a con- 
siderable part of the skeleton of which was found in the 
summer of 1916 in the valley of Little White river near the 
town of Mission in the eastern part of the Rosebud Indian 
Reservation. Remains of another monodactyl species 
Pliohippus pcrni.r found somewhere on the Niobrara river 
was described in 1874 by Marsh. 



Of the many species discovered, the commonest and 
most noted one is Mesohippus Bairdi of the Middle Olio- 
cene. (Plates 16 and 33). In consequence of the fact that 
all of the earlier skeletons found were much broken and 
poorly preserved, and only the best bones saved, for forty 
years little was known of this animal except what could 
be learned from the foot bones and the head. Since 1890 
several well preserved, nearly complete sketletons have 
been found and some of these have been dscribed in much 
detail. The adult animal averaged about eighteen inches in 
height, approximately the height of the coyote. It was a 
slender-limbed creature, very well adapted for speed. The 
hind limbs were much longer than the fore limbs, more so 
proportionately than in the present day horse, and the spines 
of the lumbar vertebrae were nearly if not quite as high as 
those of the dorsal region, so that, according to Farr, the 
rump must have been much elevated above the withers if 
the different parts of the limbs were not very much more 

Figure 45 — Skull of the browsing three-toed horse Parahippus ne- 
brascensis. Osborn 1918. (Lower Miocene.) 



flexed on each other than would seem justifiable, judging 
from recent animals. Scott states that the obliquity of the 
faces of the dorsal and lumbar vertebrae show that the back 
was decidedly arched. 

The skull was about seven inches in length. The brain 
was large and apparentl}^ well convoluted. It weighed about 
one-third as much as the brain of the average present day 
horse. The number of teeth was forty-four, the arrangement 
on each side, above and below, as follows: Incisors, three; 

Figure 46 — Skull of the earliest known one-toed horse PUohippus 
lullianus. (A colt ten months old.) Named by Troxell and 
found near Mission, on the Rosebud Indian Reservation, South 
Dakota in beds of probably Lower Pliocene age. Osborn, 1918. 



canines, one; pre^molars, four; molars, three. Thej were of 
the crested or lophiodont type and show the intermediate 
stage in the conversion of the short, round-knobbed and 
enamel covered crown, into the long, sharp-crested crown 
of cement, dentine, and enamel, as in the present day horse, 
so arranged that the unequal density of these tissues pro- 
duces a hard, uneven grinding surface at all stages of wear. 







,. . , 






















iij ..^ 1 











IllppnrfqH ^^ 




























Figure 47 — Phylogeny of the Horses. R. S. Lull Organic Evolution, 
1917. Published by The Macmillan Company. Reprinted by 

The animal, unlike its present day representative evidently 
had to limit its food to soft vegetable tissue. Indeed it is of 
interest that the magnificent tooth battery of the horse 
developed pretty much in unison with the incoming of the 
hard grasses. 

The most striking feature is the tridactyl nature of the 
feet. There were three well-developed toes on each foot, fore 




and hind. These represent the second, third and fourth toes 
of five-toed animals. In addition to these, a splint bone on 
each fore foot represents the fifth toe, and a small nodule of 
bone is recognized as being the last lingering remnant of the 
first toe. The middle or third toe is longer and larger than 
the lateral ones and terminates in an enlarged, somewhat 
triangular bone, corresponding to the hoof bone of the pres- 
ent horse. 

Among the later horses from the badland formations, 
Neohippario7i whitneyi of the Upper Miocene is noteworthy. 
The type specimen found on Little White river by Mr. H. F. 
Wells of the American Museum expedition in 1902, and 
described by Mr. Gidley in 1903, is the most perfect fossil 
horse skeleton ever discovered. (Plates 24 and 34) The 
preservation of the skeleton is extraordinary, even the rib 
cartilages being found in place as well as the tip of the tail. 
The skeleton, approximately forty inches high, was that of a 
mare, and was found in association with the incomplete 
skeletons of five colts. It was proportioned like the Virginia 
deer, "delicate and extremely fleet-footed, surpassing the 
most highly bred modern race-horse in its speed mechanism, 
and with a frame fashioned to outstrip any type of modern 
hunting horse, if not thoroughbred." 

Notwithstanding the highly developed nature of its 
skeleton Neohipparion represents a side branch of the horse 
family and for some reason, like Hypohippus, the "forest 
horse" and Parahippus, became extinct. Protohippus, an 
animal of about the same size as Neohipparion, survived and 
established for itself, as did the earlier Mesohippus, a de- 
finite place in the genealogical line leading to Equus of to- 


The Titanotheres are the largest animals found in the 
White River badlands. With the exception of turtles and 
Oreodons they are also the most abundant. The family was 
a comparatively short-lived one but it has proven to be one of 
the most interesting known to vertebrate paleontology. 

Dr. Hiram A. Prout of St. Louis, in 1846 and 1847, 
described briefly in the American Journal of Science a por- 
tion of the lower jaw of one of these animals, the first speci- 
men ever obtained from the White River badlands, and called 



Figure 49 — Skull of the Titanothere Megacerops marshi. Osborn, 1902. 

it a Paleotherium. Later the true character of the specimen 
was recognized, a new name was necessitated, and Titan- 
otherium (Titanbeast) suggested by Dr. Leidy in 1852, 
came into use. Since the finding of the earliest specimen 
many species have been described. The following White 
River phyla are now recognized: Menodus, Allops, Bront- 
ops, Megacerops, Brontotherium. They are distinguished 
from one another by differences in tooth and horn structure, 
the shape of the head, and the relative length and massive- 
ness of the limbs. They are all included under the general 
term Titanotheres. Of these the Brontotheres were the lat- 
est and the largest. 

Figure 50 — Skull of the Titanothere Brontotherium platyceras. Os- 
born, 1896. 

Mr. Hatcher in 1880, while searching for Titanothere 
remains in South Dakota and northwestern Nebraska, dis- 
covered that certain forms of the skulls of the Titanotheres 



are charactertistic of certain horizons in the beds, and this 
indicated to him the importance of keeping an exact record 
of the horizon from which each skull or skeleton was taken. 
Continued search showed that a regular and systematic de- 
velopment took place in these animals from the base to the 
top of the beds. The most notable change was a gradual and 
pronounced increase in size. Hatcher says: "This increase 

Figure 51 — Skulls of Titanotherium elatum. Upper skull, male; lower 
skull, female. Osborn, 1896. 

in size from the base to the summit of the beds was attended 
by a very marked development in certain portions of the 
skeleton, noticeable among which are the following : A varia- 
tion in shape and an increase in the size and length of the 
horncores as compared with the size of the skulls was at- 
tended, near the summit of the beds at least, by a decided 
shortening of the nasals. There were also changes taking 
place in the dentition of these animals, especially in the 
number of incisors and in the structure of the last, upper, 
true molar. The number of incisors, though probably never 
constant, even in the same species, shows a tendency to 
decrease in skulls found near the summit of the beds. 




At the base of the beds the number of incisors is 
from one to three on a side, while at the top there are 
never more than two on a side, often only one, sometimes 
none. In skulls from the very lowest beds the incisors have 
already become so rudimentary as to be no longer func- 
tional. As would be expected, the number of incisors de- 
creased after they became of no functional value. In the 
matter of incisors the Titanotheridae at the time of their 
extermination, were in a fair way to accomplish just what 
the somewhat related, but more persistent, Rhinocerotidae 
have nearly succeeded in doing, namely: the elimination of 
the incisor dentition. In view of this weak frontal dentition 
it would seem that for the securing of its food, the animal 
must have been provided with a long tongue and a prehensile 

The Titanothers had their origin in early Eocene time, 
were of considerable importance throughout the Bridger and 
Uinta periods, reached their culmination during Lower Oli- 
gocene time, and became wholly extinct at the close of the 
latter period. (See Fig. 53). They present one of the most 
interesting illustrations known of rapid evolution in size and 
special characters followed by quick extinction. They de- 
veloped slowly at first, and although they may be traced for 
perhaps half a million years, they seem to have left abso- 
lutely no descendants. Outside of North America the Titan- 
otheres have been recognized only in Hungary and Bulgaria, 
these latter localities have but one representative each. 

During the time of their greatest development the Titan- 
otheres were the largest of all the mammals in the localities 
where they lived. They were well prepared by size and of- 
fensive weapons for combating the attacks of predaceous ani- 
mals and they were possessors of perhaps the most efficient 
dental equipment ever developed for masticating coarse vege- 
table food, such as evidently flourished in abundance in the 
region at that time. Their size was comparable to that of 
the present day elephant, averaging slightly smaller. One of 
the best known skeletons, that of Megacerops rohustus found 
in Corral Canyon and restored in 1895 by Osborn and Wort- 
man of the American Museum of Natural History measures 
thirteen feet, eight inches in length, seven feet, seven 
inches in height, and breadth across the pelvis three feet, ten 




inches. This would indicate an animal fourteen feet or 
more in length and fully eight feet high. 

In general appearance the Titanothere showed some 
resemblance to the rhinoceros, particularly as to the head. 
The limbs are stouter than in the rhinoceros, the fore limbs 
especially so. The limbs have some likeness to those of an 
elephant, but are shorter and apparently more supple. There 
are four short thick hoofed toes on the front foot correspond- 
ing to the second, third, fourth and fifth of five toed animals. 
(Plate 18). On the hind foot only the second, third, and 
fourth are present. The hodj of the animal is short, as in 
the elephant, and the shoulder is conspicuously high, much 
as in the bison, (Plates 35 and 36). This is caused 
by the great elongation of the spinous process of the an- 
terior dorsal vertebrae. The projecting parts have well 
roughened extremities and doubtless served to support in 
great measure the stout muscles required to manipulate the 
powerful head in feeding and to give opportunity for its 
aggressive use. 

The skull is particularly grotesque and noteworthy. It 
is a long, low, saddle-shapped affair, with remarkable nasal 
prominences at the extreme end, bearing in most species, 
(Plate 20) especially the later ones, powerful bony protu- 
berances. These protuberances are commonly spoken of as 
horns or horn cores, but there is much doubt as to their ever 
having been sheathed in horn. The skull varies much in the 
different genera and species, considerably in the different 
sexes, and individual variation is not uncommon. Its full 
length in some of the larger species reaches as much as three 
feet or even more. The width is generally less than two 
feet, although in occasional skulls, especially of Bronto- 
therium, it may reach more than thirty inches. (Plate 36). 

The horn-cores are more or less cellular at the base and 
are placed transversely and project upward and outward. 
Their size, shape and position, like other parts of the skull, 
vary much with species and sex. The ears are placed far to 
the rear, while the eyes are surprisingly near the front. The 
brain, like the brain of nearly all early mammalian types, 
was very small. It was scarcely as large as a man's fist, and 
the living animal was evidently a very stupid creature. The 



teeth, usually thirty-eight, were large. This is particularly 
true of the grinders in the upper jaw. (Plate 19 ) , Not infre- 
quently in the larger species the well-fanged, nearly square 
upper molars measui-ed more than four inches in diameter. 
The neck was short and stout and the head in ordinary posi- 
tion was evidently held declined. The Titanothere was a 
perissodactyl and a pachyderm. The nature of its thick skin 
is not positively known, but relying on skeletal characters 
common to thick-skinned animals, the restorations that have 
been made are believed upon considerable evidence to be 
within reasonable limits of accuracy. (Plates 35, 36). 


Figure 54 — First and last known stages in the evolution of the Titan- 
otheres. (a) Eotitanops. (b) Brontops robustus. Believed to 
be the most accurately restored Titanotheres published. Osborn, 

Titanothere remains are abundant and several hundred 
heads have been found but complete skeletons are rare. 
Hatcher in 1902, gives the total number in the whole country 
as four, as follows : One in the Carnegie Museum, from War 
Bonnet creek, northwestern Nebraska one at Yale Univer- 
sity, from near Chadron; one in the American Museum of 
Natural History, from the Big Badlands; and one in Prince- 
ton Museum from the Big Badlands. Of these the Carnegie 
Museum skeleton is from the Lower Titanotherium beds, the 
other three from the Upper Titanotherium beds. 




As previously indicated the artiodactyls include those 
herbivores in which the axis of the foot is between the third 
and fourth digits. They nearly always have an even number 
of toes on each foot, either two or four. None have less than 
two. Occasionally three or five are present but this is dis- 
tinctly exceptional. 

Artiodactyls have a long time constituted the domin- 
ant ungulate order. They include a great assemblage of crea- 
tures of many types but with marked unity of structure, the 
size varying from the little chevrotain to the huge hippopo- 
tamus. They have always been most abundant in the old 
world, nevertheless they have had from near their beginning 
a good representation in North America and the White River 
badlands have disclosed a remarkably interesting series. 
Practically all of these White River forms are described in 
the following pages. 


Few fossil animals of the White River badlands have 
afforded more real puzzling features than the ancestral swine 
(giant pigs). Several genera and a number of species have 
been identified, including several classed as ancestral pec- 
caries, but usually the material is fragmentary and con- 
fined mostly to the head and lower jaws. Elotherium is the 
best known genus, its skeleton being represented by consider- 
able material. It was evidently a very grotesque animal. 

Figure 55 — Skull and lower jaws of Dinohyus Jiollandi. Peterson, 



Considered as indirectly ancestral to present day swine, it 
nevertheless showed few of the distinct siiilline characters. 
In not a few respects it resembled the hippopotamus. Its 
size varied considerably, ranging in some species to near the 

Figure 56 — Palatal view of skull of Dinohyus hoUandi. 


size of the present day rhinoceros, the head alone reaching 
sometimes more than three feet in length. Dinohi/us hoi- 
landi, a nearly related gemis. had a skull whose length, ac- 
cording to Peterson, reached more than thirty-five inches. 
(Plates 37 and 39 i. The Elothere skull is remarkable in 
many ways. The muzzle is long and slender, the eyes 

Figure 57 — Skeleton of the giant Oligocene pig Elotherium (Entelodon) 
ingens. Peterson, 1909. 




o o 




L u 



shifted far back, the cranium short, brain cavity absurdly 
small, the sagittal crest high and thin and the zygo- 
matic arches enormously developed. Other odd fea- 
tures are the pendant compressed plates given off from 
the ventral surface of the jugals and two pairs of knob- 
like processes on the ventral borders of the lower jaw. In 
young individuals the knob-like processes are only rough 
elevations, in some adults, especially the smaller species, they 
are little more than rounded knobs, but in the larger forms 
they become greatly elongated and club-shaped. Their use 
seems to be wholly unknown. The dentition above and be- 
low on each side is as follows: Incisors, three; canines, one; 

Figure 59 — Anterior portions of the upper and lower jaws of the 
ancestral peccary. Desmathyus {Thinohyus) Siouxensis. Peter- 
son, 1905. 

pre-molars, four; molars, three; total, fourty-four. The 
canines both above and below are large and powerful. They 
do not appear to be of any sexual significance as the females 
developed them as fully as the males. Their use seems to 
have been that of digging up roots, in view of the fact that 
certain well preserved specimens show deep grooves on the 
posterior side of the lower teeth near the gums, grooves that 
could not have been caused by the attrition of the other 
teeth. The neck is short and massive and well arranged for 
the attachment of strong muscles necessitated by the great 
length and weight of the head. The limbs are long, par- 


ticulaiiy the fore limb, and this in connection with the high 
shoulder prominence, gives to the animal a peculiar stilted 
appearance. The foot, fore and hind, has two functional toes 
corresponding to the third and fourth of five toed animals. 
The second and fifth are present, but only in rudimentary 
form. Much that has been said in regard to the structural 
features of the Elotheres applies also in a general way to the 
Dicotylidae, but the latter represent a later development and 
tend more definitely toward the modern peccaries. 

Figure 60 — Skull of Hyopotamus (Ancodus) brachyrhynchus. Scott, 

Concerning all of the forms, it may be said that they 
with the Suidae were apparently derived from a common 
Eocene ancestry. According to Matthew and Gidley the 
peccaries originated in the new world and have always re- 
mained here, while the true pigs (suinae) originated in the 
old world and never of their own accord reached the new 
world, their presence here now of the latter being due solely 
to introduction by man since the discovery of America by 


The Anthracotheridae include species of an extinct 
family of stoutly built, generalized, primitive animals, evi- 
dently resembling to some extent the present day pig but 
having some characters possessed by the hippopotamus. Their 
nearest important relatives of White River time were ap- 
parently the Oreodontidae. These they resembled very 
closely. Scott states that the likeness as shown in the skull, 


teeth, vertebrae, limbs, and feet, is fundamental and indi- 
cates a common pentadactyl ancestry of perhaps middle 
Eocene time. 

Fossils representing various species of the family are 
widely distributed over the earth, more particularly in the 
old world. The name Anthracotherium (Coal-beast) arises 
from the fact that their remains were first discovered in coal 

Figure 61 — Skeleton of the Oligocene Anthracothere, Hyopotamiis 
(Ancodus) trachyrliynclius. Scott, 1895. 

deposits, — the brown-coal deposits of Savoy. A few nearly 
complete skeletons of Bothriodon the commonest Oligocene 
form have been obtained from the channel sandstones of the 
Big badlands. 


The Oreodontidae include the commonest fossil mam- 
mals of the White River badlands. Representatives of the 
family are found only in North America. They originated 
in the Eocene, ranged through the Oligocene and Miocene 
and became extinct in Lower Pliocene. They are dis- 
tinguished by many primitive characters and according to 
Cope they constitute one of the best marked types of Mam- 
malia the world has seen. They occupy a position some- 
what intermediate between the ruminants (cud-chewing 
animals) and the suilline pachyderms (pig-like thick- 
skinned animals). 


The skull has to some extent the form of the present 
day peccary. The cranial portion is much like that of the 
camel. The skeleton as a whole more nearly resembles that 
of the pig, but the number, general proportions, relative 
position and plan of construction of the teeth are more 
nearly those of the ruminants and it is this relationship to 
the ruminants that has governed the classification of the 
family. Leidy in his description of the Oreodon suggested 
that it might very appropriately be called a "ruminating 
hog." One remarkable feature is the highly developed 
canine teeth in both jaws. These teeth or tusks are three 
sided with round borders, the upper pair curving forward, 
downward and slightly outward, the lower pair nearly or 
quite straight and pointing upward, forward and outward. 
They give to the jaws something of the appearance of the 
wolf's jaws but it is only a resemblance and does not indi- 
cate any close relationship. (Plates 21 and 22). As in the 
pigs the eyes were small, the neck and legs short. With the 
exception of the older forms all of the Oreodontidae had 
four toes on each foot. These represent the second, third, 
fourth, and fifth of five toed animals. Agriochoerus and the 

Figure 62 — Skeleton of the Oligocene Oreodont, Agriochoerus latifrons. 
Wortman, 1896. 

far commoner Oreodon had five on the front feet. The tail 
was long and slender. The animals varied considerably in 
size but the common forms were about the size of the 
peccary. Promerycochoerus, the largest, was about the size 
of the wild boar. 

Of the several genera, Oreodon, Leptauchena, Agrio- 
choerus, and Promerycochoerus are the best known. Oreo- 
don is by far the most abundant but the others are found 
in considerable numbers. (Plates 40 and 41). They seem to 




have ranged in great herds over the Oligocene and Mio- 
cene lands of South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming, 
Montana and North Dakota. It is interesting in this con- 
nection to note that the Oreodontidae, in addition to 
giving their name to the Oreodon beds of the Middle Oligo- 
cene furnished names also for three of the zones above the 
Middle Oligocene, namely, the Laptauchenia zone, the 
Promerychocrus zone, and the Merycochoerus zone. 

Leptauchenia was founded on fossil remains obtained by 
Prof. Hayden in 1855 from near Eagle Nest butte. This ani- 
mal is of interest in that its structure seems to indicate an 
acquatic habit. (Plate 42 j. The teeth resemble somewhat 
those of the llama (Auchenia) hence the name Leptauchenia. 
Agriochoerus, is remarkable in that its toes were apparently 
armed with claws instead of hoofs and the first toe (thumb) 
of the fore foot seems to have been opposable. Aside from 
its foot structure the animal was much like the Oreodon. 
(Plate 42). It was approximately three feet long not includ- 
ing the rather long tail. Mesoreodon is likewise remarkable 
in that the thyroid cartilage of the larynx was ossified much 
as in the howling monkey and according to Prof. Scott it 
must have had most unusual powers of voice. 

Promerycochoerus, a larger and heavier animal than 
those of the earlier genera, has been found in considerable 
numbers in northwestern Nebraska and eastern Wyoming. 
The restored skeleton of Promerycochoerus carrikeri is 
more than five and one-half feet long and evidently indicates 
a large bodied slow moving animal, the habits of which as 
has been suggested were perhaps somewhat the same as 
those of the hippopotamus. Peterson described the animal 
briefly as having a massive head, a short, robust neck, dorsal 
vertebrae, provided with prominent spines, lumbar vertebrae 
heavv, thoracic cavity capacious, and the feet large. (Plate 

The Oreodons are found in the Lower and Middle Oli- 
gocene and are particularly common in what is known as 
the "lower nodular layer" (red layer) of the Middle Oligo- 
cene fifteen or twenty feet above the Titanotherium beds. 
It is on account of the abundance of these fossils and their 
early discovery in the Middle Oligocene that this division 
of the badland formations was by Hayden given the name 
of Oreodon beds. Leidv tells us that as earlv as 1869 he 




had observed fossils of approximately five hundred indi- 
viduals among the collections sent him for study. Few 
general badland collections fail to show specimens of these 
interesting creatures, but most of the material is made up of 
skulls and detached bones. Few complete skeletons have 
been obtained and until recent years little attempt was made 
at restoration. The dentition is remarkably complete, the 
total number of permanent teeth being forty-four arranged 
in nearly unbroken series in both jaws. Of the Oreodons 
Oreodon cluhertsoni is by far the most common, Leidy says 
that of the five hundred he had observed about four hundred 
and fifty were of this species. Oreodon gracilis, about two- 
thirds as large as Oreodon culbertsoni was perhaps the next 
in abundance. Its skull was about the size of the red fox 
and a skeleton mounted by Mr. C. W. Gilmore of the U. S. 
National Museum measured twenty-seven inches in length 
and is twelve and one-half inches high at the shoulders. 
Eporeodon major, earlier called Oreodon major is still rarer. 
It is about one-fifth larger than Oreodon culbertsoni or 
nearly twice as large as Oreodon gracilis. 

The Hypertragulidae include some of the most interest- 
ing fossil mammals ever discovered. They are ancient 
selenodonts (ruminants) resembling in a way the little 
chevrotain or "deerlet" of India and the musk deer of the 
Asiatic highlands but they are in reality not closely related 
to either. They seem to represent an independent offshoot 
of the primitive ruminant stock but near relatives, either 
ancestral or descendent are not known. 

They are distinguished from all other American rumin- 
ants by the combination of functionally tetradactyl front 
feet with didactyl hind feet. Of the seven genera thus far 
recognized from the White River region, Protoceras is the 
most interesting and the best known. ( Plate 43 ) . It is found 
only in the Upper Oligocene and because of its importance 
the strata containing it are known as the Protoceras beds. 
Of the other genera Leptomeryx has been most carefully de- 
scribed but with the exception of one find of twenty-six 
skeletons in one associated group and described by Riggs, 
Bull. G. S. A., vol. 25, p. 145, the materials available have 
not been so abundant nor so complete as in the case of 


The first Protoceras specimen was obtained by Mr. J. 
B. Hatcher in 1890. It, like all subsequent material of this 
kind, was found near the highest part of the Big Badlands, 
where the Protoceras beds are well exposed. In January, 
1891, Prof. Marsh described the animal in the American 
Journal of Science under the name Protoceras celer in al- 
lusion to the early appearance of horns in this fleet-footed 
group of artiodactyls. Before this discovery no horned 
artiodactyls were known to have lived earlier than Pliocene 
time. Marsh states it as an important fact that while all 
existing mammals with horns in pairs are artiodactyls and 
none of the recent perissodactyls are thus provided, the re- 
verse of this was true among the early forms of these 

The head is especially unique. (Plate 23). It displays 
in many ways the modernized type of structure, and shows 

Figure 65 — Skeleton of the Oligocene ruminant, Leptomeryx evansi. 
Scott, 1891. 

sexual differences unparalleled among the ancient artio- 
dactyls. The most obvious characters are the bony protu- 
berances from various parts of the head in the male. 
In the female these are only faintly indicated. In the 
male a pair of protuberances project upwards from the 
rear part of the head in much the same position as the 
horns of the present day pronghorn antelope. Near the 
anterior end of the face there is a second pair, laterally 
compressed and more prominent than the first pair. Over 



the eyes there is a third pair serving as a sort of pro- 
tective awning for the eyes. In front of these and slightly 
nearer the median line of the face there is a fourth pair. 
These are much less prominent than the others mentioned 
but their presence is clearly indicated. Finally a fifth 
pair, slightly more prominent than the last, but less promin- 
ent and especially less horn-like than the others, is placed 
at the side of the face nearly above the anterior molar tooth. 

Figure 66 — Fore and hind foot of Protoceras, the six-horned ruminant 
of the Upper Oligocene, Scott, 1895. 

The head is long and narrow, tapering rapidly toward 
the anterior end, where the muzzle becomes extremely 
slender. The cranium is capacious and well formed. The 
brain case is of good size and indicates a brain fairly well 
convoluted, in fact the brain development of Protoceras 
seems to have been more advanced than any other animals 



of the time. The nasals are remarkable in that they indi- 
cate a long flexible nose if not a true proboscis. Among 
recent ruminants such a proboscidiform muzzle is found 
only in the saiga antelope and to a less extent in the moose. 
The four toes of the front foot are functional and corre- 
spond to the second, third, fourth, and fifth, of five-toed 
animals. The hind foot shows onlv two toes, the third and 
fourth. Small short splint-like processes disclose, however, 
the rudimentary second and fifth. The hind limb compared 
with the fore limb, is large and long. The tail is larger and 
better developed than in the present day deer. 

Figure 67 — Skull of the ruminant Syndyoceras cooki of ttie Lower 
Miocene. Barbour, 190 5. 

The size of Protoceras is practically that of the sheep, 
but the general build seems to have corresponded more 
nearly to that of the pronghorn antelope. (Plate 44). The 
animal is, however, not very closely related to either. 
Syndyoceras had a head that in the male was as fantastic as 
that of Protoceras. There were two pairs of horns or horn- 
like outgrowths, — one pair situated above the eyes and 
curving toward each other, like those of the present day 
cow and one pair arising anteriorily nearly midway between 
the eyes and nostrils and curving outward away from each 
other. (Plate 45, 




The camel originated in North America. The earliest 
and most primitive ancestors are found here and the evi- 
dence shows that the family had traveled far on its road to- 
ward modern camels before conditions became favorable 
for their migation to other continents. 

At present the family consists of but two phyla, 
Camelus and Llama. Of the camels proper there are but 
two species, Camelus dromedarius or Arabian (one-hump- 
ed) camel, and Camelus hactrianus or Bactrian (two- 
humped) camel. They inhabit the desert regions of North- 
ern Africa, Arabia, and Central Asia. The llamas, includ- 
ing alpacas, guanacos, and vicunas, live only in the arid 
highlands of South America. 

Figure 68 — Skull of the Oligocene camel, Poebrotherium wilsoni. 
Wortman, 1898. 

The camels are among the earliest domesticated ani- 
mals of which we have knowledge and since the dawn of 
human history they seem not to have been known in the 
truly wild state. We lose ourselves in meditation as we 
think of the position these stupid ungainly creatures have 
made for themselves in the history of old world transporta- 
tion but let us not fail to reflect that their earliest ancestral 
history lies at our own door-way. Ages before Joseph was 
sold by his brethren to the Ishmaelitic caravan from Gilead 
the forerunners of these useful beasts of burden were roam- 
ing in great numbers the wilds of what we now know as 
South Dakota and neighboring states seeking the comforts 
of a primitive living and looking forward in some mysterious 
way to the convenience of elastic pads for their feet, fleshy 
humps for their backs and water pockets for their stomachs. 
Concerning their distribution Scott says: 




"Under modern conditions, no mammals could seem 
more completely foreign to North America than those of the 
camel family, which, now restricted to two well-defined 
genera, inhabit central Asia and the colder parts of South 
America. Yet, as a matter of fact, this family passed 
through nearly the whole of its development in North 
America and did not emigrate to the other continents be- 
fore the late Miocene or early Pliocene, and it is this North 
American origin of the family which explains its otherwise 
inexplicable distribution at the present time. To all appear- 
ances, the whole family had completely disappeared from 
this continent in the later Pleistocene, but in the middle and 
earlier portions of that epoch both true camels and large 
llama-like animals were very abundant. * * * 

"The most ancient known camels of the Old World are 
found in the Pliocene of India, and the first llamas recorded 
in South America are also Pliocene. Since both camels and 
llamas existed together in North America, it may be reason- 
ably asked why only one phylum migrated to Asia and 
only the other to South America. Why did not each con- 
tinent receive migrants of both kinds? Without knowing 
more than we are ever likely to learn about the details of 
these migrations, it will not be possible to answer these 
questions, though plausible solutions of the problem suggest 
themselves. It is to be noted, in the first place, that a mi- 
gration from the central portion of North America to Asia 
was by way of the far north and thus involved very different 
climatic conditions from those which must have been en- 
countered in passing through the tropics to South America. 
It is perfectly possible that animals which lived together in 
temperate North America should have had very different 
powers of adaptation to heat and cold respectively, and the 
northern route may have been impassable to one and the 
southern route to the other. To this it might perhaps be 
objected that llamas are cold-country animals, but this is 
true only of the existing species, for fossil forms are found 
abundantly in the Pleistocene of Ecuador, Brazil and Ar- 
gentina. Another possibility is that both phyla did actually 
migrate to both continents and that only the camels suc- 
ceeded in permanently establishing themselves in Asia and 
only the llamas in South America, though for this solution 
the fossils afford no evidence." 



Within the area described in this book, a number of 
ancestral species have been identified, some from the Oligo- 
cene and some from the Miocene. These are preceded else- 
where by still older forms, the oldest of all so far as yet 
known being ProtijJopus peter soni a little four toed creature 
scarcely larger than a jackrabbit, found a few years ago in 
the Upper Eocene beds of the Washaki basin, Wyoming, and 


Protomeryx (Gazelle-camel) 






Figure 70 — Phylogeny of the Camels. R. S. Lull; Organic Evolution, 
1917. Published by the Macmillan Company. Reprinted by 

described by Mr. W. B. Matthew of the American Museum 
of Natural History. 

The best known South Dakota species, the one first dis- 
covered, and the one that has received the most merited 
recognition is Poehrotherium icilsoni. (Plate 46). The col- 
lection of Big Badland material given by Mr. Alexander Cul- 


bertson in 1847 to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phil- 
adelphia contained a broken skull of this animal and Dr. 
Leidy in describing the specimen, the first of the many South 
Dakota badland fossible vertebrates studied by him, gave it 
the name it bears. (See Figure 2). He first regarded the 
animal as allied to the musk deer but later indicated its 
cameloid nature. Since the description of this earliest 
Poebrotherium skull abundant other remains have been 
found but generally they have not been complete. In 1890 
the Princeton expedition was fortunate in securing a very 
excellent skeleton of Poebrotherium wilsoni almost entire 
and Prof. Scott has described this in a most careful man- 
ner. It is not possible, nor would it be profitable to go into 
the details of this description here. Briefly it may be said 
that the animal was a lightly built, graceful creature with 
apparently some external likeness to the llama but of about 
the size and build of the existing gazelle. It shows its 
relationship in many features of its skeleton but as in many 
extinct animals the bones show a primitive or generalized 
nature, and its connection with the llamas is perhaps as 
close as with the true camels. The eyes are farther back 
than in the present day camel, the ribs are more slender, 
and the foot, armed with small pointed hoofs was 
apparently without a pad. Like the existing camel 
the foot has only two toes, the third and fourth, but 
traces of the second and fifth remain as evidenced by the 
metapodial nodules. The metatarsal bones are separate but 
pressed closely together and plainly anticipate the definite 
union into a "cannon bone" during the subsequent Miocene. 
The animals varied considerably in size, the larger indi- 
viduals reaching a height of twenty-four inches. 

Among the Miocene forms Procamelus has long been 
known. This genus is of interest in that the camels and 
llamas of today seem to have descended directly from it. 
The gazelle camel, Stenomylus, and the giraffe camel, Oxy- 
dactylus, were discovered later but they have received full 
description. Their remains have been found in particular 
abundance in northwestern Nebraska. Several dozen skele- 
tons of Stenomylus, were obtained from one excavation near 
Agate Springs. Peterson says it is seldom that the complete 
knowledge of the osteology of a genus has been acquired so 
rapidly after its discovery as that of Stenomylus and that 




















Mesozoic or Age of Reptiles 

Hypothetical five -toed Ancestor 

Figure 71 — The evolution of the camel as indicated by the skull, feet 
and teeth. (Modified from Scott) R. S. Lull: Organic Evolution, 
1817. Published by The Macmillan Company. Reprinted by 


more complete remains of this genus have been found than 
that of any other Miocene camel. The accompanying sketch 
by Peterson, page 71, shows a number of the skeletons 
as they were found in the quarry. These graceful llama-like 
little camels lived apparently in herds in an upland country 
where hard grasses constituted their chief food. In general 
it may be said that the Miocene forms became increasingly 
more cameloid in that they are larger, the side toes disappear, 
the metatarsal bones become more fully united and rugosi- 
ties of the hoof bones indicate the presence of a small foot 

With the close of the Miocene important geographical 
changes came about including the raising of the isthmus of 
Panama above sea level and the forming of a land connec- 
tion across Behring Strait. In this way widespread migra- 
tion became possible. The camels during and immediately 
subsequent to the development of these land bridges were 
especially abundant and diversified throughout North 
America, hence readily took advantage of the opportunity 
to enter South America in the one direction and Asia and 
thence to Europe and Africa in the other. Later during 
Pleistocene time by reason of unfavorable climate or other 
conditions the North American branches of the family all 
died out while some at least of the more favorably situated 
foreign members lived on. Thus in the light of their an- 
cestral history the wide separation of such nearly related 
animals as the camel and the llama, so long a perplexing 
question, is readily understood. 


Until 1904 nothing was known of the ancestral deer 
within the region of the White River badlands. In that 
year Mr. Matthew described a fragmentary jaw, Blasto- 
meryx wellsi from the Upper Miocene. Since then several 
other species have been noted. 

The earliest material obtained gave little information 
as to the definite relation of Blastomeryx to present rumin- 
ants but in the study of the later collections Mr. Matthew 
discovered it to be a primitive deer approximately ances- 
tral to the American Cervidae and derivable in its turn 
from the Oligocene genus Leptomeryx whose relation to the 
Cervidae had not before been suspected. Its nearest relative 



structurally among the present day Cervidae is the musk 
deer. The general proportion of the skull is much as in the 
musk deer and like that animal it has no trace of horns or 
antlers such as gradually developed in later times and the 
upper canines are in the form of long, slender, recurved 
tusks. The skeleton as a whole has many primitive char- 
acters but the various species all show the general cervid 
affinities. The animal in life stood from one to one and a 
half feet high at the shoulders. 

Figure 72 — Skeleton of the primitive Lower Miocene deer, Blasto- 
meryx advena. Matthew, 1908. 


As indicated elsewhere fossil remains of backboned 
animals other than mammals in the Badlands are in general 
of little numerical consequence. Only in the case of tur- 
tles is there a decided exception. Occasional fragmentary 
remains of lizards and crocodiles are found and a few petri- 
fied birds eggs have been picked up but these are all that 
are worthy of mention. Shelled animals lived in the region 
but their remains are generally rare and of little conse- 
quence except from the standpoint of refined science. The 
beautiful and well known invertebrate shells from south- 
western South Dakota so often seen in museums are from 
older geological formations. Coming chiefly from the Chey- 
enne river and its tributaries they are erroneously supposed 
by many to be of the same age as the mammal-bearing beds 
of the Tertiary. 


Interest naturally attaches to the turtles, crocodiles 
and birds eggs, the first because of their size and abundance, 
and the second because of their having lived in this latitude 
and the third because of the general rarity of fossil eggs. 
These may be briefly described. 


Few Badland fossils are more abundant or more widely 
distributed or better preserved than the turtles. The size 
of the individuals varies from a few inches in length to 
more than two feet. Specimens three feet long are oc- 
casionally obsen^ed. These large sized Tertiary forms 
should not be confused with the far larger Cretaceous tur- 
tles found in the black Pierre shales near the Big Badlands. 
These Cretaceous turtles became veritable monsters and 
reached a greater size than any others yet found anywhere 
in the world, either living or fossil. The type specimen, 
found near Railroad Buttes, southeast of the Black Hills 
and described by Mr. Wieland in 1896, had a total length 
of approximately eleven feet, and fragmentary portions of 
a still larger individual showed a length of forty inches for 
the head alone. 

From the various Badland formations in the White 
River region ten species of turtles have been described. Of 
all these only Stylemys nehrascensis occurs in abundance. 
(Plate 48). So far as I have learned each of the other 
species is known by only one or two specimens. Published 
reference to these latter is meagre and confined in the main 
to brief scientific description. 

Stylemys nehrascensis, the common form, was first de- 
scribed in 1851 by Dr. Joseph Leidy, and is the earliest dis- 
covered fossil turtle in America. The first specimens were 
obtained by Dr. John Evans of the Owen Geological Survey 
in 1849 and since then hundreds of specimens have found 
their way into the museums of the world. The visitor in 
the Badlands can scarcely fail to find them if he walks 
along the outcrops of the containing strata and in favorable 
localities he may see them with surprising frequency. I 
myself have observed many dozens of them in a few hours 
walk in Indian draw and there are other places where they 
seem to be as abundant. They are found particularly in the 
Oreodon beds but occur in the Protoceras beds also. As yet 
none have been found in the Titanotherium beds. 



The shell body is often preserved with remarkable per- 
fection but owing to the fact that weathering readily sep- 
arates the bones, specimens exposed on the surface are 
usually more or less disintegrated. The head and feet are 
rarely found. Dr. Leidy, who first described the species 
stated that he had seen hundreds of shells but no skull. 
Even today there is record of only two skulls. One of these 
in the Carnegie Museum of Pittsburg is accompanied by the 
shell. The other is in the Princeton Museum but the body 
to which it belonged was not found. The general absence 
of the head is due perhaps to the fact that Stylemys was 
a dry land tortoise and any freshet that might be able to 
carry or roll the heavy decaying body into water where 
deposition was taking place would wrench the head away. 
This, separate from the body, would be inconspicuous and 
hence fail of ready detection. 

Several fossil turtle eggs have been found in the Bad- 
lands and thev are regarded as belonging to the common 

Figure 73 — Head of the abundant Oligocene dryland tortoise, 
Stylemys nebrascensis. Natural size, (a) view of right side; (b) 
view from above; (c) view from below. Hay, 1906. 

species just described. Hay states that they are slightly 
elongated but he indicates that this is perhaps due to de- 
formation by pressure from an original globular form. They 



are a little less than two inches in diameter. They were 
formerly in the James Hall collection but are now in the 
American Museum of Natural History, 

Two species of crocodiles have been described from the 
White River badlands. These were found near Sheep 
mountain. Fragments of others have been obtained from 
the Finney breaks near Folsom. All of the specimens are 
from the Titanotherium beds. Besides other parts each 
species is represented by a considerable portion of the head. 

Figure 74 — Anterior portion of head of the Oligocene crocodile, 
Crocodilus prenasalis found in Indian draw, (a) view from 
above; (b) view from below. Loomis, 1904. 

The author found the first of these, Crocodilus pre- 
nasalis, in 1899. (Plate 47). In this the nasal opening is 
placed forward hence the specific name. The part of the 
head that is preserved is broad. and short and contains the 
root portions of eighteen teeth, two of which retain the 
nearly complete crowns. These are conical and slightly 
recurved and the longest is approximately one half inch in 
length. The portion of the head preserved shows a width of 

Figure 75 — Head of the Oligocene crocodile Caimanoides visheri. 
Mehl, 1916. 


two and five-eights inches within two inches of the nasal 
end. The animal in life was perhaps six feet long. The 
second species, Caimanoidea vishcri, found in 1911, shows 
characters tending toward the alligators. Its length in life 
was about five and one half feet. 

These fossils are of interest in showing in striking 
manner the Floridian character of the climate in the White 
River region during early Oligocene time and they add to 
other evidence that the country was then a land of inunda- 


Several fossil birds eggs have been found in or near the 
Big Badlands. Unlike eggs found elsewhere as fossils the 
badland birds eggs are distinctly petrified, that is they show 
a practically complete replacement of the original matter by 
mineral material. Soft animal tissues quickly decay and 
only exceptional conditions allow for their preservation or 
petrefaction. Turtle eggs are occasionally found filled with 
hardened mud and eggs of certain extinct birds have been 
preserved by reason of the thickness of their shells but the 
Badland birds eggs show not only the thickness of the 
original shell but apparently also the position of the white 
and the yolk of the egg. 

One of the Badland eggs found by Mr. Kelly Robinson 
in 1896 has been carefully described by Dr. O. C. Farring- 
ton of the Field Museum. The shell portion is made up of 
dark colored chalcedony, the color being due to organic 
matter. The portion representing the white of the egg is 
gray translucent chalcedony with occasional black blotches 
the exact nature of which was not determined. The yolk is 
replaced by opal in two portions of about equal size but 
with different texture. The egg measures 2.03 inches by 
1.49 inches, long and short diameters, conforming in size 
and general shape to that of the present day Florida duck 
{Anas fulvigula). Plate 48.) 

Since the publication of the paper by Mr. Farrington 
other birds eggs from the Badlands, perfect in outline and 
similar in size and shape to the one described have been 
found. One of these is now in the geological museum of the 
South Dakota State School of Mines. 



Conditions for present day animal and plant life in the 
Badlands are fairly favorable. The average annual rainfall 
is approximately seventeen inches. Of this amount about 
thirteen inches comes during the five crop growing months, 
April, May, June, July and August. The average annual 
temperature is about 44 deg. Fahrenheit. 

The soil varies considerably. Much of the flatter coun- 
try is covered by a silty or sandy loam which nourishes rich, 
native grasses and it has proven under cultivation to be 
favorable for the growing of vegetables and grains. 

The native plants incline toward the hardy semi-arid 
types. Annuals are conspicuous in many places especially 
where moisture lingers longest. Pubescent-leaved peren- 
nials with their well-anchored roots are widely distributed. 
There is a surprising abundance of flowers and they appear 
in tenaceous succession through the summer. Grasses are 
the predominant plants over much of the country. Chief 
among the many species are buffalo grass, grama grass, 
wheat grass, needle or spear grass, blue stem and wire 
grass. Of these the buffalo grass and grama grass have 
been of the greatest value in making of the region a great 
cattle range. Cacti and yuccas among the gorgeously 
blooming plants and sage brush among the woody shrubs 
are abundant and conspicuous but they are by no means 
uniformly distributed. The chief wild fruits are plums, 
chokecherries, sandcherries, buffalo berries, gooseberries, 
currants, wild grapes, raspberries and service berries. 

Trees are abundant in places but well wooded areas 
are greatly restricted. Cottonwoods are common along 
some of the alluvial flats and red cedar and the western 
yellow pine form considerable of a forest growth among the 
higher breaks. Pine Ridge, a prominent irregularly etched 
escarpment and an integral part of the area under discus- 
sion owes much of its picturesque nature to the presence of 
the pines and cedars scattered so promiscuously among its 
otherwise nearly bare slopes and precipices. In addition to 
these there are in much less abundance the box elder, ash, 
elm, hackberry, stunted oak, and willow. 

There are or were until recently more than forty native 
mammals frequenting the Badlands. Approximately three 


hundred species of birds have also been found visiting or 
making their homes in the region- The commonest of the 
birds are the cliff swallow, the rock wren, the meadow lark 
and the chikadee but others may be found in considerable 
numbers. Mammals once occupying the country in an im- 
portant manner but now nearly or wholly dispersed are the 
bison, elk, deer, bear, antelope, mountain sheep and puma. 
Among those that are yet to be found in abundance or in 
considerable numbers are the following: Coyote, gray wolf, 
gopher, jack rabbit, cottontail rabbit, prairie dog, badger, 
skunk, porcupine, raccoon, bobcat, kitfox, weasel, mice and 

The history of the White River Badlands in so far as 
it relates to man before the advent of the white settler has 
to do chiefly with the Teton Indians. When white men first 
penetrated the region they found Indians frequenting the 
country and calling it a part of their possessions. In the 
earliest days the Crows, (Absarokas) controlled the coun- 
try and later the Cheyennes but sometime before the close 
of the eighteenth century the lands passed into the possession 
of the Tetons of the Dakota Sioux. The claims of the sev- 
eral Teton tribes shifted from time to time, the Brules and 
the Minneconjous for a while occupying much of the country 
but later the Oglalas assumed a large control. (Plate 49). 

The earliest white men to see the Badlands were traders 
and trappers in search of furs. Their coming led in due 
course to military and exploratory expeditions. Conflicts of 
diverse kinds occurred between the Indians and the new- 
comers and for a number of years an irritating warfare pre- 
vailed. However, most of the actual fighting took place 
outside the region under consideration. The severest con- 
flict in the Badlands proper occurred during the Messiah 
Craze of 1890. This is commonly known as the Wounded 
Knee affair. It was an unfortunate clash between federal 
troops and the Indians in which 200 Indians, men, women, 
and children, and sixty soldiers were killed. 

During the last quarter of a century, with the growing 
preponderance of white people the Indians have progressed 
toward civilization and many of their homes show semblance 
of comfort, stability and wealth. The traveller finds them 


today kind and considerate and many a white settler has 
reason to rejoice in their friendship. The fathers and 
mothers, notwithstanding their disadvantages, have gen- 
erally a fair knowledge of English and most of the children 
are receiving training in good elementary and industrial 
schools. The expansive reservations established years ago 
have nearly disappeared. In opening up these reservations 
the Indians first receive liberal individual allotments of 
land, then that which remains is available for settlement by 
the whites. Opportunity for good financial returns from a 
large part of the Badlands, notwithstanding their detractive 
name, has been abundantly proven and with better under- 
standing of conditions, the wealth of the region will greatly 




The White Eiver Badlands are readily accessible. 
Many of their features may be observed with pleasure and 
satisfaction from a Pullman window. Well-travelled wagon 
roads connect the better known passes and these give 
opportunity through much of the year for delightful auto- 
mobile drives. 0£f-the-road places may be reached by saddle 
or in pedestrian boots. 

Railroads cross the country in several places and give 
abundant opportunity to visit almost any desired locality. 
The Pierre, Eapid City and Northwestern railroad now 
merged with the Chicago and Northwestern system, going 
up Bad River valley and thence over into the Cheyenne 
valley crosses a narrow northerly projecting arm at the 
town of Wall, South Dakota. The Chicago and Northwestern 
railroad from Omaha crosses Pine Ridge from southeast to 
northwest at Chadron, Nebraska. The connecting Chadron- 
Lander line, following up the head of White River cuts 
Pine Ridge from northeast to southwest near Crawford and 
again farther west in a nearly east-west direction in Con- 
verse county (now Converse and Albany counties) W^yom- 
ing. The Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroad from 
Lincoln traverses the Crawford locality from southeast to 
northwest, it being nearly at right angles to the Chadron- 
Lander connection of the Chicago and Northwestern. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul railroad gives to 
the car window sightseer the best and most abundant op- 
portunity to view the general ruggedness of the Badlands 
and affords also a very good opportunity to study close at 
hand, though in hasty manner, many things of interest. For 
many miles this railroad winds its way up White River 
valley along the southern face of the Great Wall, then 
plunges into the very heart of the picturesque Big Badlands 
the culminating feature of all the area included under the 
name. White River Badlands. From near Kadoka to Scenic 
there is a never ceasing array of those topographic pecular- 
ities that make the region famous and, in the Big Badlands, 
they are placed together in most fantastic manner. Sheep 
Mountain (Cedar Point), the most famous locality of all 


this wonderful country lies a few miles south of Scenic. It 
may be seen from the car window but its strange grandeur 
can be understood only by a special visit and its chief fea- 
ture — School of Mines canyon — should be traversed only 
with proper equipment and guide. Those wishing to study 
the Great Wall will find it accessible from any of the near- 
by railway towns. Interior is the largest and in some re- 
spects the most convenient place from which to drive or 
walk but there are facilities at every station and at some of 
them they are nearly or quite as good as at Interior. 

Those desiring to visit remote areas either in south- 
western South Dakota, northwestern Nebraska or south- 
eastern Wyoming will have little difficult}^ in obtaining 
direction and suggestion. The people generally will be 
found accommodating to the point of urgent hospitality. 
One needs of course to bear in mind that much of the coun- 
try is still sparsely settled and that as in any other place 
annoying weather conditions may at times prevail but the 
real lover of the great out-of-doors, man or woman, will 
usually find little of real hardship. He who has oppor- 
tunity to ramble over this strange country in the bright 
mornings of early summer when the short grasses are bril- 
liant green or who in the on-coming autumn can camp near 
some good spring and enjoy the beauty of the prairie even- 
ing and the stillness of the arid night is blest with a golden 

The Badlands are strange, and inspirational and good. 
For many years only those technically trained in nature's 
ways could appreciate them but now in these days of wider 
opportunity with railway facilities, good roads, numerous 
settlers and the omnipresent automobile every one can 
cultivate a growing comprehension of their meaning. Even 
the name is rapidly losing its forbidding aspect. Until 
recently the country was to the causal visitor but a gro- 
tesque quarry for dry bones. It should be to all men a 
living storehouse of wonderful works. 


A List of the Fossil Mammals Found in the White River 



Carnivora (Fissipedia). 

Daphoenus dodgei Scott. Am. Phil. Soc, Trans., voL 19, 
1898, p. 362. Nw. Neb. 

Dinicitis fortis Adams. 


Trigonias obsborni Lucas. U. S. Nat. Mus., Proc, vol. 23, 

1900, pp. 221-223. So. Dak. 
Leptaceratherium trigondum Osborn and Wortman. Am. 
Mus. Nat. His., Bull., vol. 6, 1894, pp. 201-203, (Acera- 
therium). So. Dak. 
Caenopus cf. platycephalus Osborn and Wortman. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 6, 1894, p. 206, (Aceratherium). 
So. Dak. 
Caenopus mitis Cope. 

Colodon (Mesotapirus) occidentalis Leidy. 

Mesohippus proteulophus Osborn. 
Mesohippus hypostylus. 

Mesohippus celer Marsh. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 7, 1874, p. 
251, (Anchitherium). Nw. Neb. 
Titanotheridae (Brontotheridae). 
Titanotherium prouti Leidy. 
Titanotherium helocerus (Cope). 
Titanotherium trigonoceras (Cope). 

Megacerops dispar (Marsh). Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 34, 1887, 
p. 328, (Brontops). So. Dak. 

•Fossil forms too poorly preserved to admit of careful description and 
naming have been omitted from this list. In compiling- the list I have 
made extensive use of Matthew's Paunal Lists of the Tertiary Mammalia 
of the West as given in U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin No. 361, 1909. I 
have made no effort on my own part to indicate the relative value of 
synonyms where synonyms exist, but have endeavored to follow closely 
the nomenclature as given by Matthew and by later authors. For addi- 
tional convenient helpful literature the reader is referred to Hay's Biblio- 
graphy and Catalogue of tlie Fossil Vertebrata of North America, U. S. 
Geological Survey Bulletin No. 179, 1902, and to Palmer's Index Generum 
Mammalium; a list of the Genera and Families of Mammals, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, Division of Biological Survey, 1904. 

Effort has been made to indicate the scientific paper in which each 
form was first described and named, its year of publication, also the ap- 
proximate locality within the area covered by the accompanying map of 
the Black Hills region where the earliest or type specimen was found. 
Such reference is omitted in a few instances where I have not had op- 
portunity to examine the original publication. In a few instances fossils 
found south of the Niobrara-Platte river divide and fossils found near 
and to the east of Ft. Niobrara are included but generally such forms 
are not considered as coming within the scope of this paper. So. Dak| 
means in all cases the southwestern part of the state. Mauv. Terrea 
where used corresponds fairly well to the Big Badlands, hence refers gen- 
erally to fossils from South Dakota. 


Megacerops tichoceras Scott and Osborn. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

Bull., vol. 13, 1887, pp. 159-160, (Menodus). So. Dak. 
Megacerops robustus (Marsh). Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 34, 

1887, pp. 326-327, (Brontops). Nw. Neb. 
Megacerops brachycephalus Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

Bull., vol. 16, 1902, pp. 97-98. So. Dak.? 
Megacerops bicornutus Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 16, 1902, p. 99. So. Dak.? 
Megacerops marshi Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 

16, 1902, pp. 100-101. So. Dak.? 
Allops serotinus Marsh. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 3 4, 1887, p. 

331. So. Dak. 
Allops crassicornis Marsh. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 42, 1891, 

pp. 268-269. So. Dak. 
Allops amplus (Marsh). Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 39, 1890, pp. 

523-524, (Diploclonus). So. Dak. 
Symborodon montanus (Marsh). Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 9, 

1875, p. 246, (Anisacodon). Nw. Neb. 
Symborodon copei Osborn, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 24, 

1908, pp. 616-617. So. Dak. 
Brontotherium ramosum (Osborn). 
Brontotherium dolichoceras (Scott and Osborn). Mus. Comp, 

Zool., Bull., vol. 13, 1887, pp. 160-161, (Menodus). So. 

Brontotherium leidyi Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 16, 1902, pp. 105-106. So. Dak. 
Brontotherium hatcheri Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 24, 1908, pp. 615-616. So. Dak. 


Elotheridae (Entelodontidae). 

Elotherium (Entelodon) crassum Marsh. Am. Jour. Sci., 
vol. 5, 1873, pp. 487-488. 

Hyopotamus (Ancodon) americanus Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Phila., Proc, vol. 8, 1856, p. 59. So. Dak. 
Oreodontidae (Agriochoeridae). 

Oreodon (Merycoidodon) hybridus Leidy. Ext. Mam. of 

Dak. and Neb., 1869, pp. 105-106. Mauv. Terres. 
Oreodon (Merycoidodon) af finis Leidy. Ext. Mam. of Dak. 

and Neb., 1869, p. 105. Mauv. Terres. 
Oreodon (Merycoidodon) bullatus Leidy. Ext. Mam. of Dak. 
and Neb., 1869, p. 106. Mauv. Terres. 

Heteromeryx dispar Matthew. 


Carnivora (Creodonta). 

Hyaenodon horridus Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, 

vol. 6, 1853, pp. 392-393. Mauv. Terres. 
Hyaenodon cruentus Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, 

vol. 6, 1853, p. 393. Mauv. Terres. 
Hyaenodon crucians Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc. 

vol. 6, 1853, p. 393. Mauv. Terres. 
Hyaenodon paucidens Osborn and Wortman. Am. Mus. Nat 

Hist., Bull., vol. 6, 1894, pp. 223-224. So. Dak. 


Hyaenodon leptocephalus Scott and Osborn. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., Bull., vol. 13, 1887, p. 152. 
Hyaenodon mustelinus Scott. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Jour., 

vol. 9, 1894, pp. 499-500. So. Dak. 
Carnivora (Flssipedia). 

Daphoenus vetus Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, vol. 

6, 1853, p. 393, Mauv. Terres. 
Daphoenus hartshornianus (Cope). 
Daphoenus felinus Scott. Am. Philos. Soc, Trans., vol. 19, 

1898, pp. 361-362. Nw. Neb. 
Daphoenus nebrascensis (Hatcher). Carnegie Mus., Mem., 

vol. 1, 1902, pp. 95-99, (Proamphicyon) . Nw. Neb. 
Daphoenus inflatus (Hatcher). Carnegie Mus., Mem., vol. 

1, 1902, pp. 99-104, (Protemnocyon). Nw. Neb. 
Cynodictis gregarius (Cope). 
Cynodictis lippincottianus (Cope). 


Dinictis felina Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, vol. 8, 

1856, p. 91, Mauv. Terres. 
Dinictis squalidens (Cope). 
Dinictis paucidens Riggs. 
Hoplophoneus primaevus (Leidy). 
Hoplophoneus occidentalis (Leidy). Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 

Jour., vol. 7, 1869, pp. 63-64, (Depranodon). Mauv. 

Hoplophoneus oreodontis Cope. 
Hoplophoneus marshi Thorpe. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 50, 1920, 

pp. 211-214. Nw. Neb. 
Hoplophoneus molossus Thorpe. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 50, 

1920, pp. 220-224. Nw. Neb. 


Proterix loomisi Matthew. 

Leptictis haydeni Leidy. 
Ictops dakotensis Leidy. 
Ictops bullatus Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 

12, 1899, p. 55. So. Dak. 
Ictops porcinus (Leidy). 

Protosorex crassus Scott. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, 

1894, pp. 446-448. So. Dak. 



Eutypomys thomsoni Matthew. 

Ischyromys typus Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, vol. 
8, 1856, p. 89, Mauv. Terres. 

Eumys elegans Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, vol. 8, 
1856. p. 90, Mauv. Terres. 

Palaeolagus haydeni Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, 
vol. 8, 1856, pp. 89-90, Mauv. Terres. 
Palaeolagus turgidus Cope. 




Hyracodon nebrascensis Leidy. 

Hyracodon major Scott and Osborn. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
Bull., vol. 13, 1887, p. 170. So. Dak.? 

Metamynodon planifrons Scott and Osborn. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., Bull., vol. 13, 1887, pp. 165-169. So. Dak. 


Caenopus (Subhyracodon) occidentalis Leidy. 

Caenopus (Subhyracodon) copei Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., Mem., vol. 1, 1898, pp. 146-150, (Aceratherium). 

So. Dak. 
Caenopus (Subhyracodon) simplicidens Cope. 
Leptaceratherium trigonodum (Osborn and Wortman). 
"Hyracodon" planiceps Scott and Osborn. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., Bull., vol. 13, 1887, pp. 170-171. So. Dak. 

Colodon (Mesotapirus) procuspidatus Osborn and Wortman. 

Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 7, 1895, pp. 362-364. So. 

Colodon (Mesotapirus) dakotensis Osborn and Wortman. 

Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 7, 1895, pp. 362-364. 

So. Dak. 
Colodon (Mesotapirus) longipes Osborn and Wortman. Am. 

Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 7, 1895, p. 366. So. Dak. 

Protapirus simplex Wortman and Earle. Am. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., Bull., vol. 5, 1893, pp. 168-169. So. Dak. 

Mesohippus bairdi Leidy. 

Mesohippus obliquidens Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 20, 1904, p. 173. So. Dak. 
Mesohippus trigonostylus Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

Mem., vol. 2, pt. 1, (new series) 1918, pp. 47-48. So. Dak. 


Elotheridae (Entelodontidae). 

Elotherium (Enteloden) mortoni Leidy. 

Elotherium (Entelodon) ingens Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sol., 
Phila., Proc, vol. 8, 1856, pp. 164-165. Mauv. Terras. 
Dicotylidae (Tagassuidae). 

Perchoerus probus Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, 

vol. 8, 1856, p. 165. Mauv. Terres. 
Perchoerus nanus (Marsh). Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 48, 1894, 
p. 271, (Thinohyus). So. Dak. 

Anthracotherium curtum (Marsh). Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 47, 

1894, p. 409, Heptacodon. So. Dak. 
Hyopotamus (Ancodon) rostratus Scott. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Phila., Jour., vol. 9, 1894, Appendix, p. 536. So. Dak. 

Leptochoerus spectabilis Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 

Proc, vol. 8, 1856, p. 88. Mauv. Terres. 
Lepthochoerus gracilis Marsh. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 48, 1894, 
pp. 271-273. So. Dak. 


Stibarus quadricuspis (Hatcher). Carnegie Mus., Ann., vol. 

1, 1901, pp. 131-134, (Leptochoerus). 
Oreodontidae (Agriochoeridae). 
Agriochoerus antiquus Leidy. 
Agriochoerus latifrons Leidy. Ext. Mam. of Dak. and Neb., 

1869, pp. 135-141. Mauv. Terres. 
Oreodon (Merycoidodon) culbertsoni (Leidy). 
Oreodon (Merycoidodon) gracilis Leidy. 
Oreodon (Merycoidodon) sp. cf. bullatus Leidy. 

Hypertragulus calcaratus Cope. 

Leptomeryx evansi Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, vol. 

6, 1853, p. 394. Mauv. Terres. 
Hypisodus minimus Cope. 
Hypisodus alacer Troxell. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 49, 1920, pp. 


Poebrotherium wilsoni Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, 

vol. 3, 1847, pp. 322-326. Mauv. Terres. 
Poebrotherium labiatum Cope. 
Poebrotherium eximium Hay. U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. No. 

179, 1902, p. 67. This was first described by Wortman 

as Poebrotherium wilsoni Leidy. See Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

Bull., vol. 10, 1898, pp. 111-112. So. Dak. 
Poebrotherium andersoni Troxell. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 43, 

1917, pp. 381-389. 
Paratylopus primaevus Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 20, 1904, pp. 211-213. So. Dak. 


(Protoceras and Lower Leptauchenia Zones.) 

Carnivora (Fissipedia). 

Cynodictis temnodon Wortman and Matthew. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 12, 1899, p. 130. 

Dinictis bombifrons Adams. 

Hoplophoneus insolens Adams. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 1, 1896, 

p. 429. So. Dak. 
Eusmilus dakotensis Hatcher. Am. Nat., vol. 29, 1895, pp. 
1091-1093. So. Dak. 



Steneoflber nebrascensis (Leidy). Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 
Proc, vol. 8, p. 89. Mauv. Terres. 


Caenopus tridactylus Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull.. 

vol. 5, 1893, pp. 85-89, (Aceratherium) . So. Dak. 
Caenopus platycephalus Osborn and Wortman. 

Protapirus obliquidens Wortman and Earle. Am. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., Bull., vol. 5. 1893, pp. 162-169. So. Dak. 
Protapirus validus Hatcher. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 1, 1896, 
pp. 162-168. So. Dak. 



Mesohippus intermedius Osborn and Wortman. Am. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 7, 1895, pp. 334-356. So. Dak. 
Mesohippus meteulophus Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull., 

vol. 20, 1904, pp. 174-175. So. Dak. 
Mesohippus brachystylus Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

Bull., vol. 20, 1904, pp. 175-176. So. Dak. 
Miohippus validus Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 

20, 1904, p. 177. So. Dak. 
Miohippus gidleyi Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 20, 

1904, p. 178. So. Dak. 
Miohippus crassicuspis Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bui., 

vol. 20, 1904, pp. 178-179. So. Dak. 
Colodon copei Osborn and "Wortman. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

Bull., vol. 7, pp. 356-358, 1895. So. Dak. 
Parahippus cognatus Leidy. Acd. Nat. Sci., Phila., Jour., 

vol. 7, p. 314, 1869. Nw. Neb. 


Elotheridae (Entelodontidae). 

Elotherium (Entelodon) cf. ingens Leidy. 
Elotherium (Entelodon)? crassus Marsh. 
Elotherium (Entelodon) bathrodon Marsh. Am. Jour. Sci., 

vol. 7, 1874, p. 534. So. Dak. 
Dicotylidae (Tagassuidae). 

Perchoerus robustus (Marsh). Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 48, 

1894, p. 94, (Thinohyus). 
Perchoerus platyops (Cope). Hayden Surv., Bull., vol. 6, 

pp. 174-175, (Palaeochoerus). So. Dak. 

Anthracotherium karense Osborn and Wortman. Am. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 6, 1894, pp. 222-223. So. Dak. 
Hyopotamus (Ancodon) brachyrhynchus Osborn and Wort- 
man. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 6, 1894, pp. 220- 
221. So. Dak. 

Oreodontidae (Agriochoeridae). 

Agriochoerus major Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, 

vol. 8, 1856, p. 164. Mauv. Terres. 
Agriochoerus gaudryi (Osborn and Wortman). Am. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 5, 1893, pp. 5-13, (Artionyx). So. 

Agriochoerus migrans (Marsh). Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 48, 

1894, pp. 270-271, (Agriomeryx) . So. Dak. 
Eporeodon ( ?Eucrotaphus) major (Leidy). Smithson. 

Contr. to KnowL, vol. 6, p. 55, (Oreodon). So. Dak. 
Eucrotaphus jacksoni Leidy. 

81-82. So. Dak. 
Protoceras comptus Marsh. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 48, 1894, 

pp. 93-94. So. Dak. 
Protoceras nasutus Marsh. 
Galops cristatus Marsh. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 48, 1894, p. 

94. So. Dak. 
Galops consors March. 

Pseudolabis dakotensis Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 20, 1904, p. 211. So. Dak. 



Nothocyon gregorii Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., BuIL, 

VOL 23, 1907, p. 183. So. Dak. 
Nothocyon vulpinus Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 23, 1907, pp. 183-184. So. Dak. 
Nothocyon annectens Peterson. Carnegie Mus., Ann., vol. 

4, 1908, pp. 53-54. Nw. Neb. 
Nothocyon? lemur Cope. 
Daphoenodon superbus Peterson. Carnegie Mus., Ann. 

vol. 4, 1908, pp. 51-53. Nw. Neb. 
Daphoenodon periculosus Cook. Neb. Geol. Surv., vol. 3, 

1909, pp. 268-270. Nw. Neb. 

Mesocyon robustus Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 23, 1907, p. 185. So. Dak. 
Enhydrocyon crassidens Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

Bull., vol. 23, 1907, pp. 190-193. So. Dak. 
Cynodesmus thomsoni Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 23, 1907, pp. 186-188. So. Dak. 
Cynodesmus minor Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull., 

vol. 23, 1907, p. 189. So. Dak. 
Temnocyon venator Cook. Neb. Geol. Surv., vol. 3, 1909, 

pp. 262-266. Nw. Neb. 
Temnocyon percussor Cook. Neb. Geol. Surv., vol. 3, 1909, 

p. 266. Nw. Neb. 
Borocyon robustum Peterson. Carnegie Mus., Mem., vol. 4, 

1910, pp. 263-267. Nw. Neb. 

Paroligobunis simplicidens Peterson. Carnegie Mus., Mem., 
vol. 4, 1910, pp. 269-278. Nw. Neb. 


?Brachypsalis simplicidens Peterson. Carnegie Mus., Ann., 

vol. 4, 1908, pp. 44-46. Nw. Neb. 
Oligobunis lepidus Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 23, 1907, pp. 194-195. So. Dak. 
Megalictis ferox Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., voL 
23, 1907, pp. 197-204. So. Dak. 
Aelurocyon brevifacies Peterson. Carnegie Mus., Ann., vol. 

4, 1908, 68-72. Nw. Neb. 

Nimravus sectator Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 23, 1907, pp. 204-205. So. Dak. 



Arctoryctes terrenus Matthew. 


Euhapsis brachyceps Peterson. Carnegie Mus., Mem., vol. 

2, 1905, pp. 179-184, (platyceps). Nw. Neb. 
Euhapsis gaulodon Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 23, 1907, pp. 208-210. So. Dak. 
Steneoflber? pansus Cope. 
Steneofiber fossor Peterson. Carnegie Mus., Mem., vol. 2, 

1905, pp. 140-166. Nw. Neb. 
Steneofiber barbouri Peterson. Carnegie Mus. Mem., vol. 
2, 1905, pp. 166-171. Nw. Neb. 


Steneofiber simplicidens Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

Bull., vol. 23, 1907, pp. 205-207. So. Dak. 
Steneofiber sciuroides Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 23, 1907, p. 207. So. Dak. 
Steneofiber brachyceps Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 23, 1907, p. 208. So. Dak. 

Entoptychus formosus Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 23, 1907, pp. 212-213. So. Dak. 
Entoptychus curtus Matthew. Anm. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 23, 1907, pp. 213-214. So. Dak. 

Lepus primigenius Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 23, 1907, p. 216. So. Dak. 
Lepus macrocephalus Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 

23, 1907, pp. 214-216. So. Dak. 


Diceratherium cooki Peterson. Science, vol. 24, 1906, pp. 

282-283. Nw. Neb. 
Diceratherium niobrarense Peterson. Science, vol. 24, 1906, 

pp. 281-28 2. Nw. Neb. 
Diceratherium arikarense Barbour. 
Diceratherium petersoni Loomis. 
Diceratherium schiffi Loomis. 
Metacaenopus egregius Cook. Neb. Geol. Surv., vol. 3, 

pp. 245-247. Nw. Neb. 
Metacaenopus stigeri Loomis. 
Epaiphelops virgasectus Cook. 

1908, pp. 245-247. Nw. Neb. 

Moropus? elatus Marsh. Am. Jour., Sci., vol. 14, 1877, pp. 

250-251. So. Dak. 
Moropus cooki Barbour. Neb. Geol. Surv., vol. 3, 1908, 

(Considered by Holland and Peterson as Moropus elatus). 

Nw. Neb. 
Moropus petersoni Holland. Science, vol. 28, 1908, p. 810. 

Nw. Neb. 
Moropus hollandi Peterson. Science, vol. 38, 1913, p. 673. 

Nw. Neb. 
Moropus matthewi Holland and Peterson. Carnegie Mus., 

Mem., vol. 3, 1914, pp. 230-231. Ne. Colo. 
Moropus parvus Barbour. 

Miohippus equinanus Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Mem., 

vol. 2, pt. 1 (new series), 1918, pp. 65-66. So. Dak. 
Miohippus gemmarosae Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Mem. 

vol. 2, pt. 1 (new series), 1918, pp. 66-68. So. Dak. 
Parahippus pristinus Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Men. 

vol. 2, pt. 1 (new series), 1918, pp. 76-77. So. Dak. 
Parahippus pawniensis atavus Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

Mem. vol. 2, pt. 1 (new series), 1918, pp. 79-80. Nw. Neb. 
Parahippus nebrascensis primus Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., Mem. vol. 2, pt. 1 (new series), 1918, pp. 80-82. 

Nw. Neb. 
Parahippus aff crenidens Scott. 


Parahippus nebrascensis Peterson. Carnegie Mus. Ann., 

vol. 4, 1908, pp. 57-60. Nw. Neb. 
Parahippus tyleri Loomis. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 26, 1908, pp. 

163-164. Nw. Neb. 
Kalobatippus agatensis Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Mem. 

vol. 2, pt. 1 (new series), 1918, pp. 71-73. Nw. Neb. 

Gomphotherium conodon Cook. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 28, 

1909, pp. 183-184. Nw. Neb. 


Elotheridae, ( Entelodontidae ) . 

Dinohyus hollandi Peterson. Science, vol. 22, 1905, pp. 

Dicotylidae (Tagassuidae). 

Desmathyus siouxensis (Peterson). Carnegie Mus., Mem., 

vol. 2, 1906, pp. 308-320, (Thinohyus). Nw. Neb. 
Desmathyus pinensis Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 23, 1907, pp. 217-218. 

Ancondon (?Bothodon) leptodus Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., Bull., vol. 26, pp. 1-7. So. Dak. 
Oreodontidae, (Agriochoeridae). 

Mesoreodon megalodon Peterson. Carnegie Mus. Ann., vol. 

4, 1908, pp. 24-26. Nw. Neb. 
Promerychochoerus carrikeri Peterson. Carnegie Mus., 

Ann., vol. 4, 1908, pp. 26-29. Nw. Neb. 
Promerychochoerus vantasselensis Peterson. Carnegie Mus. 

Ann., vol. 4, 1908, pp. 36-37. Nw. Neb. 
Phenacocoelus typus Peterson. Carnegie Mus., Ann., vol. 4, 

1908, pp. 29-32. Nw. Neb. 
"Merychyus elegans Leidy." 
"Merychyus" harrisonensis Peterson. Carnegie Mus., Ann., 

vol. 4, 1908, pp. 37-40. Converse Co., Wyo. 
Merychyus minimus Peterson. Carnegie Mus., Ann., vol. 4, 

1908. pp. 41-44. Nw. Neb. 
Leptauchenia decora Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, 

vol. 8, 1856, p. 88. So. Dak. 
Leptauchenia major Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, 

vol. 8, 1856, pp. 163-164. Mauv. Terres. 
Leptauchenia nitida Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Jour., 

vol. 7, 1869, pp. 129-131. So. Dak. 

Stenomylus gracilis Peterson. Carnegie Mus., Ann., vol. 4, 

1908, pp. 41-44. Nw. Neb. 
Stenomylus hitchcocki Loomis. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, 

1910, pp. 298-318. Nw. Neb. 

Stenomylus crassipes Loomis. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, 

1910, pp. 319-323. Nw. Neb. 
Protomeryx halli Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc., vol. 

8, 1856, p. 164. So. Dak. 
Protomerj^x leonardi Loomis. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 31, 1911, 

pp. 68-70. S. E. Wyo. 
Protomeryx?cedrensis Matthew. 
Oxydactylus longipes Peterson. Carnegie Mus., Ann., vol. 

2, 1904, pp. 434-468. Nw. Neb. 



Oxydactylus brachyceps eterson. Carnegie Mus., Ann., vol. 

2, 1904, pp. 469-471, (brachyodontus) . Nw. Neb. 
Oxydactylus longii'ostris Peterson. Carnegie Mus., Ann., 

vol. 7, 1911, pp. 260-266. Nw. Neb. 
Oxydactylus lulli Loomis. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 31, 1911, 

pp. 66-68. S. E. Wyo. 
Oxydactylus gibbi Loomis Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 31, 1911, pp. 

67-68. S. E. Wyo. 
Oxydactylus campestris Cook, Am. Nat., vol. 43, 1909, pp. 

Oxydactylus brachyodontus Peterson. 

Syndyoceras cooki Barbour. Science, 1905, vol. 33, pp. 797- 

Hypertragulus "calcaratus Cope." 


Blastomeryx advena Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 23, 1907, p. 219. So. Dak. 
Blastomeryx primus Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 24, 1908, p. 543. So. Dak. 
Blastomeryx olcotti Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 24, 1908, p. 543. So. Dak. 


Aelurodon saevus (Leidy). Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, 

1858, p. 21. Nw. Neb. 
Aelurodon haydeni (Leidy). Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, 

1858, p. 21. Nw. Neb. 
Ischyrocyon hyaendus Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Bull., vol. 20, 1904, pp. 246-249. So. Dak. 


Potamotherium lacota Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 20, 1904, pp. 254-255. So. Dak. 
Lutra pristina Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 20, 
1904, pp. 256-257. So. Dak. 



Eucastor (Dipoides) tortus Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 
Proc, 1858, p. 23. Nw. Neb. 

Mylagaulus monodon Cope. 



?Aphelops brachyodus Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 
vol. 20, 1904, p. 322. So. Dak. 


Hypohippus affinis Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, 

1858, p. 26. Nw. Neb. 
Protohippus perditus Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, 

1858, p. 26. Nw. Neb. 
Protohippus placidus Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Jour., 

vol. 7, 1869, pp. 277-279. Nw. Neb. 


Protohippus supremus Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Jour., 

vol. 7, 1869, p. 328. Nw. Neb. 
Protohippus pernix (Marsh). Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 7, 1874, 

pp. 252-253. Nw. Neb. 
Protohippus simus Gidley. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 

22, 1906, pp. 139-140. 
Neohipparion whitneyi Gidley. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 19, 1903, pp. 467-476. So. Dak. 
Neohipparion occidentale (Leidy). Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 

Proc, vol. 8, 1856, p. 59, (Hipparion). So. Dak. 
Neohipparion dolichops Gidley. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 

vol. 22, 1906, pp. 148-151. So. Dak. 


Dicotylidae (Tagassuidae). 

Prosthemnops crassigenis Gidley. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Bull., vol. 20, 1904, pp. 265-267. So. Dak. 

Procamelus occidentalis Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 

Proc, 1858, pp. 23-24. Nw. Neb. 
Procamelus robustus Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, 
1858, p. 89. Nw. Neb. 

Blastomeryx wellsi Matthew. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 
vol. 20, 1904, pp. 125-126. So. Dak. 
Blastomeryx marshi Lull. Am. Jour., Sci., vol. 50. 1920, pp. 
125-130. Nw. Neb. 
Aletomeryx gracilis Lull. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 50, 1920. pp. 
85-124. Nw. Neb. 


Pliohippus lullianus Troxell. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 24, 1916, 

pp. 335-348. So. Dak. 
Pliohippus pernix Marsh. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 7, 1874, pp. 

252-253. Nw. Neb. 
Pliohippus robustus Marsh. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 7, 1874, 

p. 253. Nw. Neb. 
Pliohippus leidyanus Osborn. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Mem., 
vol. 2, pt. 1 (new series), 1918, p. 162. Nw. Neb. 

♦For a faunal list of beds of this age found in Southern Sioux 
County, Nebraska, see: Matthew, W. D. and Cook, H. J. A Pliocene 
Fauna from Western Nebraska. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 26, 
pp. 361-414, 1909. 


A List of Fossil Vertebrates Otlier Than Mammals Found in 
the White River Badlands. 


Graptemys inornata Loomis. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 18, 1904, p. 429. 

So. Dak. 
Testudo brontops Marsh. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 40, 1890, p. 179. So. 

Xenochelys formosa Hay. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 22, 1906, 

p. 29. So. Dak. 


Stylemys nebrascensis Leidy Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, vol. 5, 

1851, p. 172. So. Dak. 
Testudo laticunea Cope. 
Testudo thomsoni Hay. Hay's Fossil Turtles of North America, 1908, 

pp. 400-401. So. Dak. 

Testudo arenivaga Hay. Carnegie Mus. Ann., vol. 4, 1906, pp. 16-17, 

Nw. Neb. 
Testudo emiliae Hay. Hay's Fossil Turtles of North America, 1908, 

pp. 419-420. So. Dak. 


Testudo edae Hay. Carnegie Mus., Ann., vol. 4, 1906, p. 19. Nw. 

Testudo hollandi Hay. Carnegie Mus., Ann., vol. 4, 1906, p. 18. Nw. 

Testudo niobrarensis Leidy. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Proc, 1858, p. 

29, Nw. Neb. 

Aciprion formosum Cope. 

Rhineura hatcheri Bauer. Am. Nat., vol. 27, 1893, p. 998. 
Hyporhina antigua Bauer. Am. Nat., vol. 27, 1893, p. 998. 


Crocodllus prenasalis Loomis. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 18, 1904, pp. 427- 

429. L. Olig. of So. Dak. 
Caimanoidea visheri Mehl Jour. Geol., vol. 24, 1916, pp. 47-56. So. 



Birds egg (Anatidae?) Farrington. Field Mus., Geol. Ser., vol. 1, 
1899, pp. 193-200. L. Olig. of So. Dak. 

♦The nomenclature here given for the turtles is that of O. P. 
Hay in his work, The Fossil Turtles of North America, 1908. 



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Leidy^ Joseph. On a New Genus and Species of Fossil 
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CuLBERTSON^ Thaddeus A. Joumal of an Expedition 
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Bull., 361, 1909, 138 pp. 

Peterson^ O. A. A. Revision of the Entelodontidae. 
Carnegie Mus. Mem., vol. 4, pp. 41-156, 80 figs, pis. 54-59, 

LooMis, F. B. Osteology and Affinities of the Genus 
Stenomvlus. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 297-323, 30 figs., 

Matthew, W. D. The Phylogeny of the Felidae. Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist, Bull., vol. 28, pp. 289-316, 15 figs., 1910. 

O'Harra, Cleophas C. The Badland Formations of 
the Black Hills Region. So. Dak. State Sch. of Mines, Bull. 
No. 9, 152 pp., 20 figs., 50 pis., 1910. 

Osborn, H. F. Correlation of the Cenozoic Through Its 
Mammalian Life. Jour, of Geol., vol. 18, 1910, pp. 201-215. 

Osborn, H. F. The Ase of Mammals in Europe, Asia, 
and North America. 8 vo., 635 pp. 220 figs.. New York, 1910. 

Osborn, H. F. Correlation of the Cenozoic Through 
Its Mammalian Life. Jour, of Geol., vol. 18, pp. 201-215, 4 
figs., 1910. 

Peterson, O. A. Description of New Carnivores From 
the Miocene of Western Nebraska. Carnegie Mus. Mem., 
vol. 4, No. 5, pp. 205-278, 69 fig., 12 pis., 1910. 

Bassler^ R. S. (Secretary). Symposium on Ten 
Years Progress in Vertebrate Paleontology. Geol. Soc. Am., 
Bull., vol. 23, pp. 155-266, 1912. 

Cook, H. J. Faunal Lists of the Tertiary Formations 
of Sioux Countv, Nebraska. Neb. Geol. Surv., vol. 7, pt. 5, 
pp. 33-45, 1912."^ 

Knipe, Henry R. Evolution in the Past. 242 pp., 
many plates, London, 1912. 


Perisho, E. C. and Fisher, S. S. A Preliminary Re- 
port Upon the Geography, Geology, and Biology of Mellette, 
Washabaugh, Bennett, and Todd Counties, South Dakota. 
So. Dak. State Geol. and Biol. Survey. Bull. No. 5, 152 pp., 
50 pis., and maps, 1912. 

O'Harra, Cleophas C. O'Harra's Handbook of the 
Black Hills, 159 pp. Many illustrations, Kapid City, So. 
Dak., 1913. 

Scott, W. B. A History of Land Mammals in the 
Western Hemisphere. 8 vo., 693 pp., 304 figs., New York, 

Holland, W. J. and Peterson, O. A. The Osteology of 
the Chalieotheroidea, with special reference to a mounted 
skeleton of Moropus Elatus Marsh, now installed in the 
Carnegie Museum. Carnegie Mus. Mem., vol. 3, pp. 189- 
406, 115 figs., pis. 48-77, 1914. 

Peterson, O. A. The Osteology of Promerycochoerus. 
Carnegie Mus. Annals., vol. 9, pp. 149-219, 41 figs., 10 pis., 

Cook, H. J. Notes on the Geology of Sioux County, 
Nebraska and Vicinity. Neb. Geol. Surv., vol. 7, pt. 11, 
pp. 59-75, 1 pi., 7 figs., 1915. 

Matthew, W. D. The Tertiary Sedimentary Record 
and Its Problems. Problems American Geology, 8 vo., pp. 
377-478, 40 figs. Yale University, 1915. 

Scott, W. B. The Isthmus of Panama in Its Relation 
to the Animal Life of North and South America. Science, 
vol. 43, pp. 113-124, 1916. 

Troxell, E. L. An Early Pliocene One-Toed Horse, 
Pliohippus Lullianus. Am. Jour. Sci., vol. 42, pp. 335-348, 
7 figs., 1916. See also Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., vol. 27, pp. 
151-152, 1916. 

Troxell, E. L. Oligocene Fossil Eggs. Wash. Acad. 
Sci., Jour., vol. 6, pp. 442-445, 5 figs., 1916. 

O'Harra, Cleophas C. A Bibliography of the Geology 
and Mining Interests of the Black Hills Region. So. Dak. 
State Sch. of Mines Bull. No. 11, 223 pp., 1917. 


OsBORN^ H. F. Observations on the Skeletons of 
Moropus Cooki in the American Museum. Geol. Soc. Am. 
Bull., vol. 29, pp. 131-133, 1918. 

OsBORN^ H. F. Equidae of the Oligocene, Miocene and 
Pliocene of North America, Iconographic Type Revision. 
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Mem., vol. 2, pt. 1 (new series), 217 
pp., 173 figs., 54 pis., 1918. 

Geologic Atlas Folios: 

Darton, N. H. Oelrichs Folio, No. 85, 1902. 

Darton N. H. and Smith_, U. S. T. Edgemont Folio, 
No. 107, 1904. 

Darton, N. H. Sundance Folio, No. 127, 1905. 

Darton, N. H. and O'Harra, C. C. Aladdin Folio, No. 
128, 1905. 

Darton, N. H. and O'Harra, C. C. Devils Tower Folio, 
No. 150, 1907. 

Darton, N. H. and O'Harra, C. C. Belle Fourche 
Folio, No. 164, 1909. 

Books. (Latest Editions.) 

Scotts Introduction to Geology. 

Chamberlain and Salisbury's Geology. (College Edi- 
tion, one vol. or vol. 3 of the larger work.) 

Le Conte's Elements of Geology. 

Pirsson and Schuchert's Textbook of Geology. 

Woodward's Outline of Vertebrate Paleontology. 

Beddard's Mammalia. 

Palmer, T. S. Index Generum Mammalium; a list of 
the Genera and Families of Mammals. U. S. Dept. of Agr., 
Biolog. Surv., 1904. 

Osborn, H. F. Evolution of Mammalian Molar Teeth. 


U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 127. (1732-1891). 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 188-189 (1892-1900). 
U. S. Geol. Suv. Bull. 301 (1901-1905). 


U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 372 (1906-1907). 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 409 (1908). 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 444 (1909). 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 495 (1910). 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 524 (1911). 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull 545 (1912). 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 584 (1913). 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 617 (1914). 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 645 (1915). 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 665 (1916). 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 684 (1917). 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Buell. 698 (1918). 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 22 (Hayden, King, Powell, 
Wheeler Surveys). 

U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 179 (Fossil Vertebrata of North 

U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 191 (Geologic Formation 
Names ) . 


A Page 

Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences, Philadelphia 23, 24, 136 

Aceratheres 94, 96 

^ceratheriuin ....149, 152, 153 

Aciprion 160 

Adams, Geo. 1 85. 165 

Adelia (Neb.) 38, 40 

Aelurocyon 46, 155 

Aelurodon 158 

Agate Springs 27 

28, 29, 47, 98, 136 
Agriochoeridae ...150, 153, 154 

Agriochoerus 124 

136, 153 154 

Agriomeryx 154 

Aletomeryx 15 9 

Allops Ill, 150 

Alluvial fans 54 

American Fur Company ... 23 
American Journal Science, 23, 110 
American Museum Natural 

History 8 

25, 26, 27, 42, 45, 85, 89 

94, 98, 103, 110, 113, 114 

117, 135, 142 

Amherst College 25, 28 

Amherst Hill 29 

Amynodontidae 91 

92, 94, 152 

Fossils 63, 64 

Fullers Earth 62 

Anatidae 160 

Anchitherium 149 

Ancodon 150 

152, 154, 157 

Ancodus 123 

Anisacodon 150 

Antelopes 7 4 

Anthracotheridae 122 

123, 150, 152, 154 157 

Anthracotherium 123 

152, 154 

Aphelops 158 

Archaeotherium 63 

Arctoryctes 46, 155 

Argyle 61 

Arikaree 32 

36, 40, 42, 43, 45, 46 

Artiodactyla 76, 90 

118, 150, 152. 154, 157, 159 

*The plates are not indexed. 

B Page 

Badlands, Meaning of 19 

Bad river 53 

Barbour, E. H 27. 44. 57 

59, 60, 97, 131, 165, 167, 168 

Bassler, R. S 171 

Bear creek 52, 54 

Bear in the Ledge creek. . . 53 

Beavers 22 

Bibliography ..8, 149, 173, 174 

Big Badlands 20, 36 

38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 45, 53, 59 

64, 89, 91, 94, 100, 117, 129 

135, 143, 147, 149 

Big Corral draw 52 

Big Foot pass 53 

Big Foot wall 53 

Birds (present day) 145 

Birds eggs (fossil) ...139. 140 

143. 160 

Bird's Eye view 37 

Black Hills 20, 21 

38, 47, 49, 50. 51. 52.. 62 

94, 140, 149 

Blastomeryx 46, 138 

139, 158. 159 

Bone phosphate 63 

Borocyon 155 

Bothrodon 123, 157 

Brachypsalis 155 

Brontops ....111, 117, 149, 150 

Brontotheridae 149 

Brontotherium. . 11, 64, 116, 150 

Bruce 163 

Brule formation 32. 36 

39. 40, 43, 46 

Buffalo creek 53 

Building stone 61 

Bull creek 52, 54 


Caenopus.. 95, 96, 149. 152. 153 

Caimanoides 143. 160 

Cain creek 53 

Calops 154 

Camelidae 132-137 

153. 154, 157, 159 

Camels 22, 71, 132-137 

Canidae 77, 78-82 

149, 151, 153, 155. 158 

Carnegie Hill 29 

Carnegie Museum 25, 27 

71, 89, 98, 117, 141 



Carnivores 76, 77-87, 90 

149, 150, 151, 153, 155, 158 

Case, E. C 165, 166 

Castoridae. . .151, 153, 155, 158 

Causes of badlands 54 

Cedar draw 53 

Cedar pass 53 

Cedar point 147 

Cenozoic 31, 32 

Cervidae 138-139, 158, 159 

Chadron (Neb.) ...38, 117, 147 

Cbadron formation 32, 36 

38, 40 

Chalcedony viens 36, 58 

Cbalicotheridae 96-98 156 

Chamberlain pass 53 

Cheyenne river 20, 29 

38, 52, 53, 55 

Chrysochloridae 88, 155 

Classification of animals. .. 72-76 
Classification of formations. 31 

Clay dikes 3 6 

Clays 36, 42, 61 

Climate 50, 51, 144 

Collecting 70-72 

Colodon 149, 152, 154 

Color banding 40 

Columns 5 5 

Concretions. .36, 42, 43, 54, 56 

Conglomerates 3 6 

Continental outlines. (See 

Paleogeography. ) 

Cook, H. J 29, 44 

47, 103, 159, 171, 172 

Cook's ranch 29 

Cope, E. D 60, 79 

102, 123, 163 

Corn creek 53, 57 

Corral draw 113 

(See Little Corral draw and 

Big Corral draw.) 

Correlation 31 

Cottonwood creek 53, 54 

Crawford (Neb.) 147 

Creodonta 77, 78, 80. 150 

Cretaceous 30, 50, 66 

Crocodiles 22, 139 

140, 142-143, 160 

Crocodilus 142, 160 

Crooked creek 52 

Crooked creek table 54 

Culbertson, Alex 91, 135 

Culbertson, T. A 24, 161 

Cuvier 102 

Cynodesmus 46, 155 

Cynodictis 82, 83, 151, 153 

D Page 

Daemonelix 44, 59, 60 

Daemonelix beds ... .36, 44, 89 

Dairying 20 

Dall, W. H 164 

Daphoenus 82, 149, 151 

Daphoenodon. . . 79, 80, 81, 155 

Darton, N. H 26, 28, 38 

39, 40, 42-43, 167, 168, 169 

170, 173 

Davis, W. M 167 

Day, P. C 170 

Deers 28, 138-139 

Deposition 22 

Depranodon 87, 151 

Desmathyus 46, 121, 157 

Devils Corkscrews 59, 90 

Devils Hill 57 

Diceratheres 94 

Diceratherium 46, 96, 156 

Dicotylidae. . .152, 154, 157 159 

Dikes 57, 58 

Dinictis 83, 84 

87, 149, 151, 153 

Dinohyus. .46, 118, 119, 120, 157 

Dipoides 158 

Distribution of animals. ... 65-69 

Dog3 22 

Diploclonus 150 


Eagle Nest butte....53, 60, 126 

Eagle Nest creek 53 

Early explorers 20 

Earth pillars 36 

Economic mineral products. . 61 

Edentates 9 6 


Birds 143 

Turtles 141 

Elotheres 118-122 

Elotheridae 118-122, 150 

152, 154, 157 

Elotherium. . . .46, 63, 118, 119 

150, 154 

Enhydrocyon 155 

Enos, George 63, 64 

Entelodon. . .119, 150, 152, 154 

Entelodontidae ....118-133, 150 

152, 154, 157 

Entoptychus 46, 89, 156 

Eocene 31, 32, 100 

Eohippus 100 

Eolian 50 

Eotitanops 117 

Epaiphelops 156 

Eporeodon 128, 154 

Equus 110 




Equidae 91, 100-110 

149, 152, 154, 156, 158, 159 

Erinaceidae 151 

Erosion 54 

Eucastor 158 

Eucrotaphus 154 

Euhapsis 155 

Eumys 151 

Eusmilus 87, 153 

Eutheria 76 

Eutypomys 151 

Evans, John 24, 140 

Evolution 65, 109, 137 

Exploration 20, 23 

Extinction 65, 66 


Fairburn 61 

Farming 20 

Farr, M. S 101, 165 

Farrington, O. C. ..28, 143, 166 
Felidae 77, 80, 83-87 

149, 151, 153, 155 
Field Columbian Museum.. 25 

28, 143 

Filhol 98 

Finney breaks 142 

Fissipedia 77, 149 

151, 153 

Flowers 144 

Folsom 142 

Ford, W. E 167 

Fort Union beds 32 

Fossils, definition of ...64, 65 

Fossils, list of 149-160 

Fruits 144 

Fuchs, Theodore 60 

Fullers Earth ...39, 48, 61, 62 

Geodes 58, 59 

Geographical changes. (See 
Paleogeography. ) 

Geologic divisions 3 2 

Geologic history 50 

Geologic sections 36 

Geomyidae 156 

Gering formation. .36, 40, 43 44 
Gidley, J. W 45, 91, 102 

103, 110, 122, 169 

Gilmore, C. W 128 

Golden moles 88 

Gomphotherium 157 

Gophers 22 

Grand river 

Granger, Walter 103 

Grant, Madison 168 

Graptemys 160 


Grasses 144 

Gravels 36 

Grazing 20 

Great Plains deposits 35 

Great Wall 20, 21 

29, 53, 147, 148 

Greene, F. V 63, 161 


Hall, Prof. James 142 

Harrison, (Neb.) 44, 45 

Harrison beds 36, 43 

44, 47, 59, 89, 90, 98 

Hart table 54 

Hatcher, J. B 27, 39, 43 

44, 47, 111, 112, 117, 129 
164, 165, 168 

Hat creek 53 

Hay, O. P 149, 170 

Hay, Robert 164 

Hay creek 52, 54 

Hayden, F. V 24, 89 

126, 161, 162, 163 

Hedgehogs 22 

Heilprin, Angelo 165 

Heptacodon 152 

Herbivores 76, 77, 90 

Herman, A 170 

Heteromeryx 150 

Hipparion 159 

Hipparion Zone 36 

History, Geologic 31 

History of exploration 23 

Holland, W. J 28, 98, 172 

Homesteaders 21 

Hoplophoneus 83, 84 

85, 86, 87, 151 

Horses 22, 91, 100-110 

Huxley, Prof. Thos 102 

Hyaenodon 77, 78, 150, 151 

Hyaenodontidae 150 

Hyopotamus 122, 123 

150, 152, 154 
Hypertragulidae 128-131 

150, 153, 154, 158 
Hypertragulus ....46, 153, 158 

Hypisodus 153 

Hypohippus 110, 158 

Hyporhina 160 

Hyracodon 93, 152 

Hyracodontidae 91, 92 

93, 94, 152 

Hyracotheres 103 

Hyracotherium 100 


Ictops 151 

Imlay 59 




Indians 145, 146 

Indian creek 29, 52, 54 

Indian draw 142 

Indian outbreak 54, 145 

Indian reservations 146 

Interior 148 

Insectivores ... .76, 88, 151, 155 

Ischyrocyon 82, 158 

Ischyromyidae 151 

Ischyromys 151 


Jenney, W. P 163 


Kadoka 147 

Kalobatippus 157 

Knipe, Henry R 171 

Kowalevsky 102 

Kube table 54 


Lacustrine theory 49 

Lake flat 54 

Lance creek 53 

Le Conte, Joseph 31 

Leidy, Joseph 23, 24 

33, 89, 91, 111, 124, 128, 136 

140, 141, 161, 162, 163 

Leonard, A. G 170 

Leporidae 151, 156 

Leptaceratherium 149, 152 

Leptauchenia 42, 46 

124, 126, 127, 157 

Leptauchenia beds . . 45, 46, 48 

Leptauchenia zone 36, 37 

42, 46, 126, 153 

Leptictidae 151 

Leptictis 151 

Leptochoeridae 152 

Leptochoerus 152 

Leptomeryx. .128, 129, 138, 153 

Lepus 46, 156 

Life of today 144-145 

Limestones 36 

Little Corral draw 52 

Little White river 47, 48 

53, 89, 105, 110 

Little White river beds.... 36 

Lizards 139, 160 

Llamas 132, 134 

Loomis, F. B 28, 142 

168, 170, 171 

Lophiodontidae 91, 96 

149, 152 

Lower Miocene 42, 160 

Lower Oligocene 149, 160 

Lower Pliocene 48, 107 

Lower Rosebud beds 89 


Lucas, F. A 167, 168 

Lull, R. S 108, 135, 137, 170 

Lusk, Wyoming 60 

Lutra 158 


Macmillan Company 8 

Machaerodonts 83-87 

Machaerodus 87 

Macrotherium 96, 98 

Mammalia 75, 76 

Mammals (present day) . . 144-145 

Manderson 53 

Manner of deposition 49 

Marsh, O. C 25, 102 

104, 105, 129, 163, 164, 166 

Matthew, W. D 26, 45 

46, 47, 66, 67, 68, 69, 83, 84 

85, 89, 103, 109, 122, 135 

138, 139, 149, 159, 166, 168 

169, 170, 171, 172 

Mauvaises Terres 19, 149 

Medicine Root creek 53 

Megacerops Ill, 113 

114, 149, 150 

Megalictis 46, 87, 155 

Mehl, M. G 142 

Menodus Ill, 150 

Merrill, S. P 168, 169 

Merychyus 46, 157 

Merycochoerus 46 

Merycochoerus zone ....36, 37 

46, 126 

Merycoidodon 150, 153 

Mesas 53 

Mesaxonic 90 

Mesocyon 155 

Mesohippus 101, 103 

106, 110, 149, 152, 154 

Mesoreodon 46, 157 

Mesotapirus 149, 152 

Messiah craze 145 

Metacaenopus 156 

Metamynodon. . . 41, 92, 94, 152 

Metamynodon sandstone . . 36 

41, 43, 48 

Metatheria 76 

Middle Miocene 47 

Middle Oligocene 150, 160 

Migration 68 

Mineral products 61 

Miocene 26, 27 

31, 32, 33, 34, 68 

Miohippus 154, 156 

Mission, S. D 107 

Moles 22 

Monroe Creek beds.. 36, 43, 44 



Moropus..46, 66, 97, 98, 99 156 

Mountain sheep 21 

Mounting of skeletons ....70-72 

Muridae 151 

Mustelidae 87-88, 155, 158 

Mylagaulidae 158 

Mylagaulus 158 


Naming of extinct animals, 72-76 

Nebraska (Northwestern)... 27 

28, 38, 43, 59, 60, 71, 89, 94 

98, 103, 111, 117, 126, 136 

148, 147 

Nebraska beds 32, 36, 47 

Neohipparion ....102, 110, 159 

Newberry, J. S 5, 162 

Newton, Henry 163 

Nimravus 46, 155 

Niobrara river 29, 47 

48, 53, 60, 105 

Nodular layer 41, 42, 126 

Nomenclature 75 

Nothocyon 155 


Oak creek 48 

Oglala formation 47 

O'Harra, C. C 171, 172, 173 

Old Woman creek 53 

Oligobunis 46, 155 

Oligocene.26, 31, 32, 34, 51, 67 

Oreodon beds 36, 37 

39, 40, 41, 48, 55, 150 

Oreodons 40, 64 

66, 123-^28, 153, 154 

Oreodontidae 123-128 

150, 152, 154, 157 

Osborn 8, 27, 29 

34, 35, 36, 37, 44, 46, 66, 68 
69, 86, 92, 93, 94, 95, 99, 102 
103, 104, 106, 107, 111, 112 
113, 114, 115, 117, 164, 165 
166, 167, 168, 169, 171, 173 

Owen, D. D 24, 161 

Owen Gelog. Survey, 24, 63, 140 

Oxydactylus 46, 133 

136, 157, 158 

Pachyderms 90 

Paleochoerus 154 

Palaeolagus 151 

Paleogeography 33, 66 

67, 68, 69, 138 

Paleotherium 23, 111 

Palmer, T. S 149, 173 

Parahippus 46, 106 

110, 154, 156, 157 


Paratylopus 153 

Paraxonic 90 

Paroligobunis 155 

Pass creek 53 

Passes 53 

Peabody Museum 102 

Peccaries 122 

Penfield, S. L 167 

Perchoerus 153, 154 

Perisho, E. C 172 

Perissodactyls 76, 90, 91 

149, 152, 153, 156, 158, 159 

Peterson, O. A 27 

28, 44, 47, 60, 61, 70 
71, 79, 80, 81, 89, 90, 98 
118, 119, 120, 121, 125, 126 
133, 136, 169, 170, 171, 172 

Phenacocoelus 157 

Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci. (See 
Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila.) 

Phlaocyon 46 

Phosphate 63 

Phylogeny 108, 135 

Physiographic development. . 51 

Pierre shales 30 

Pine Ridge 19, 38, 39 

42, 43, 44, 46, 52, 53, 144, 147 
Pine Ridge Indian Reserva- 
tion 53, 57 

Pinnipedia 77 

Plants (present day) 144 

Platte river 38 

Pliocene. .31, 32, 33, 47, 69, 159 

Pliohippus 105, 107, 159 

Pocket gophers 89 

Poebrotherium 23, 132 

135, 136, 153 
Porcupine butte . .37, 45, 46, 53 

Porcupine creek 45, 53 

Potamotherium 158 

Princeton Museum ....117, 141 
Princeton University .... 25, 26 

27, 136 

Proboscidea 157 

Procamelus 136, 159 

Procamelus zone 36 

Promerycochoerus 44, 46 

70, 124, 125, 126, 157 

Promerycochoerus zone .... 36 

37, 44, 46, 126 

Prosthemnops 159 

Protapirus 100, 152, 153 

Proterix 151 

Protoceras 128, 129 

130, 131, 154 




Protoceras beds 36, 37, 39 

42, 43, 48, 54, 64, 128, 129 

Protoceras zone 153 

Protohippus 110, 158, 159 

Protomeryx 46, 15 7 

Protosorex 151 

Prototheria 76 

Protylopus 135 

Prout, H. A 23, 110, 161 

Pseudolabis 154 

Pumpkin creek 53 


Quinn draw 52, 54 

Quinn table 54 


Railroads 147 

Railroad buttes 140 

Rainfall 144 

Reagan, A. B 169 

Recent history 145-146 

Red layer 41, 48, 126 

Rhineura 160 

Rhinoceroses 22, 74, 91-96 

Rhinocerotidae 91, 92 

149, 152, 153, 156, 158 

Rhinocerotoidea 91-9 6 

Ries, Henry 61, 166 

Riggs, E. S 128 

Roads 147 

Robinson, Kelly 143 

Rocky Mountains 19, 21 

49, 50, 51 

Rodents 76, 77 


Rodentia 151, 153, 155, 158 

Rosebud beds 45, 46 

Rosebud Indian Reserva- 
tion 46, 53, 105, 106, 107 

Round Top 40 

Ruminants 90 


Sabertooth tiger 83-87 

Sage creek 52, 54 

Sage Creek pass 53 

Sage Creek wall 53 

Sand-calcite crystals ...43, 56 

Sandstones ....36, 41, 42, 54 

Scenic 23, 54, 147, 148 

Schlosser 102 

School of Mines ....25, 29, 63 

School of Mines canyon. .29, 148 

Schuchert, Charles 30 

Scott, W. B.. .8, 26, 27, 33, 47 

82, 86. 100, 102, 107, 115, 122 

123, 126, 129, 130, 132, 136 

137, 164, 165, 166, 172, 173 

Sections (Geologic) ....34, 35 

36, 37, 40, 43, 44, 46, 48 
Seeing the Badlands. ... 147-148 

Settlers 146 

Seventy-one table 54 

Sheep Creek beds... 32, 36, 47 
Sheep Mountain 20, 21 

29, 41, 45, 53, 62, 142, 147 
Sheep Mountain table .... 54 

Sinclair, W. J 127 

Sioux county. Neb.. . .40, 43, 44 

Smith, U. S. T 173 

Smithsonian Institution ... 24 

Snake creek 48 

Soil 144 

Soricidae 151 

Spoon butte 48 

Spring creek 52, 54 

Squirrels 22 

Steneofiber 37, 46 

61, 89-90, 153, 155, 156 

Stenomylus 136, 157 

Stenomylus quarry 71 

Stibarus 152 

Stylemys 140, 141, 160 

Subhyracodon 152 

Suidae 122 

Swine 22, 122 

Symborodon 150 

Syndyoceras 131, 158 

Table of geologic divisions 

32, 36 

Tables (Mesas) 53 

Tagassuidae. .152, 154, 157, 159 
Tapiridae. .91, 99-100, 152, 153 

Tapirs 22, 91, 99-100 

Temnocyon 155 

Tertiary 31, 33 

Testudo 160 

Thinohyus. . .121, 152, 154, 157 

Thomson, Albert 26, 46 

Titanotheres 22, 23, 39 

66, 110-117 
Titanotheridae.91, 110-117, 149 

Titanotherium 63, 64 

111, 112, 115, 149 
Titanotherium beds.. 36, 37, 38 

39, 43, 48, 55, 61. 62, 142 

Titanotherium zone 149 

Todd, J. E 27, 165, 166 

Topography 20, 21 

Tortoise (See turtles) 

Trees 144 

Trigonias 96, 149 

Troxell, E. L 105, 107, 172 



Turtles. . .22, 139, 140-102, 160 
Turtle eggs 141, 143 


Ungulates 76,77, 90 

University Hill 29 

University of Nebraska. . 25, 27 
University of South Da- 
kota 25, 27 

Upper Miocene. ... 47, 158, 160 

Upper Oligocene 153, 160 

U. S. Geological Survey.. 25, 28 
U. S. National Museum.. 26, 128 


Vegetation 54, 144 

Veins 57, 58 

Vertebrata 75 

Visher, S. S 172 

Volcanic ash.. 38, 40, 45, 46, 62 


Wall, S. D 23 

Wall, The great 20 

War Bonnet creek 117 

Warren, Lieut 162 

Wells, H. F 110 

White Clay creek 53 


Whitney, W. C 75 

White river 19, 20, 38 

45, 52, 53, 55, 57, 60, 147 
White River formation (or 

group) 34 

White River creek 53 

White River table 54 

White River wall 53 

Wieland, Geo. R 140 

Wild fruits 144 

Wind Springs 44 

Wortman, J. L 41, 42, 102 

103, 113, 114, 115, 124, 132 

164, 165, 166 

Wounded Knee affair 145 

Wounded Knee creek 53 

Wyoming (Southeastern) . . 27 

28, 43, 60, 89, 126, 147, 148 


Xenochelys 160 


Yale Scientific expedition.. 25 

Yale University ...25, 102, 117 

Yellow Medicine creek .... 53 

Hippie Printing Co., Pierre, S. D. 









South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin No. IH. Tlate No. 6. 


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Reproduction of Hayden's Earliest Geological Map of the Upper Missouri 
country. The original map is colored to show the several rock divi- 
sions as then Known. Note the erroneous extension of the Black 
Hills to the Yellowstone river, Hayden, 1857. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate No. 7. 

Reproduction of Hayden's second Geological Map of the Upper Missouri 
country. This map is the first ever published showing any details of 
the geology of the Black Hills. The geology of the surrounding 
country, including the Badlands, is more fully indicated than in 
Hayden's earlier map. Hayden, 185S. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin No. 13. Plate No. 8. 

Some of the men who have done noteworthy work in tmravelling the 
history of the White River Badlands. For description of their work 
see the text pages. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate No. 9. 




n I'Kirjs] i.\m: iusins j'.||*Jj iiukm ii iimii msmm\i> 

PlIOCfNE FuWco >s-. PAir, iHJCO pso' ■ ^ ■■ - • 

Divisions of the Age of Mammals. Characteristic fossil mammals, and 
the geological formations in which they are found. Matthew, 1903. 


South Dakota School of :Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. I'late No. lU. 

A. Matrix contains skeletons of one adult and four young individuals of 
Merycoclioerns proprius. Matthew, 1901. 

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B. Bones are chiefly those of Diccratherium. Moropus. Dinohyus. and 
Dinocyon. Barbour, 1909. 

Rock slabs showing abundance and arrangement of fossil bones as found 
in the quarry and indicating some of the difficulties of restoration. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin No. 13. Plate Xo. 11. 

A. Head of Hoplophoiicu.s pi-iniacvus. Leidy 1S69. 

B. Head of Sinidyoceras Cooki. Barbour. 1905. 

South Dakota School of Mines Bulletin No. 13. Plate No. 12. 

A. Restoration of head of the Titanothere Megacerops. Lull, 1905. 

B. Outline restoration of head of the Saber-tooth tiger, Smilodou, to 
show the wide open jaw and the opportunity the animal had of us- 
ing the great canine fangs for stabbing and ripping its prey. 
Matthew, 1905. 

South Dakota School of Mines Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate Xo. 13. 

A. Head of Daphoenus feJinus. Hatcher, 1902. 

B. Fossil rodents from the Harrison Beds. (Upper Miocene). Peterson. 

South Dakota Scliool of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate No. 14. 

A. Head of Hyrocodon nebrascensis. An oligocene rhinoceros. Scott, 1896. 

B. Head of the White River tapir, Protapirus i-alidus. Restored from a 
skull in the museum of Princeton University. W. B. Scott, A His- 
tory of Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere, 1913. Pub- 
lished by the Macmillan Company. Reprinted by permission. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate No. 15. 





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Skull of White River rhinoceros, Caviiopus (Aceratherium) occidentalis. 
Upper view, side view, and palatal view. Osborn, 1898. 

South Dakota Scliool of Mines 

Bulletin No. 13. Plate No. 16. 

A. Head of Mcsohippus bairdi. Scott. 1891. 

B. Head of the Oligocene three toed horse, Mcsohippus hairdi compared 
with that of the present day horse Equiis cahallus. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin No. 13. Plate No. 17. 

A. Right hind foot of Moropus clatus 1. External view. 2. Anterior view. 
Holland and Peterson, 1914. 

B. Fore foot of Moropus clatHs. 1. Ulnar view. 2. Anterior view. Hol- 
land and Peterson, 1914. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin No. 13. Plate Xo. 18. 

A. Right hind foot of Titanothere. Marsh, 1876. 

B. Right fore foot of Titanothere, Marsh, 1876. 

C. Right hind limb of Titanothere (Megacerops), Lull. 1905. 


t~ r^ 


South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. liJ. Plate Xo. 20. 

Skull of TitanotJicrium iiigeus viewed from above. The anterior end is 
toward the top of the plate. Marsh, 1874. 

South Dakota School of Mines Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate Xo. 21. 

A. Head of Merycoidodon {Oreodon) gracile. Leidy. 1S69. 

B. Head of Merycoidodon (Oreodon) culbcrtsoni. Leidy. 1S69. 

South Dakota School ot Mines Bulletin No. 13. Plate No. 22. 

A. Skull of Eijoreodon major. Leidy, 1869. 

B. Left half of skull of Eporcodon major, as seen from above. Leidy, 1869. 

C. Right half of skull of E^orcodon major, as seen from below. Leidy, 

South Dakota School of Mines Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate No. 23. 

A. Head of Protoceras < . /. / . Alarc-h, 1897. 

B. Skull of Protoceras celer as seen from above. Marsh, 1897. 

C. Skull of Protoceras cclcr as seen from below. Marsh, 1S97. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. i:?. Plate Xo. 24. 

A. Skeleton of the Upper Miocene three toed horse Neohipimrion xcMtneyi. 
Osborn. Copyrighted by the American Museum of Natural History. 
Reprinted by permission. 










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B. Skeleton of the primitive antiodactyl Mcrycoidodon (Orcodon) cul- 
hertsoni of the Oligocene. Osborn. Copyrighted by the American 
Museum of Natural History. Reprinted by permission. 

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South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate No. 26. 


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A. The small paired-horned rhinoceros, Biceratlierhim cooki of the Lower 
Miocene. Restored from a skeleton in the Carnegie Museum. Pitts- 
burgh, W. B. Scott. A History of Land Mammals in the Western 
Hemisphere, 1913. Published by The Macmillan Company. Reprint- 
ed by permission. 

B. The Lower Miocene bear dog Daphocnodon siipcrhus. Restored from 
a skeleton in the Carnegie Museum. Pittsburgh. W. B. Scott. A 
History of the Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere, 1913. 
Published by The Macmillan Company. Reprinted by permission. 


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South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate Xo. 31. 

A. Skeleton of Hyracodon nehrascensis. Restoration in Museum of 
Princeton University. Sinclair. Head of same shown enlarged in 
Plate 14 A. 


B. Moropus cooki. as restored by Barbour, 1909. 



























































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South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin No. 13. Plate No. 37. 

A. The giant pig Archaeotheriiim ingens. Restored from a skeleton in 
the museum of Princeton University. W. B. Scott. A. History of 
Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere. 1913. Published by 
The Macmillan Company. Reprinted by permission. 

B. Model of the giant entelodont, Dinohyus hoUandi of the Oligocene. 
From a skeleton in the Carnegie Museum. Peterson, 1909. 











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South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate No. 41. 

A. Agrioclwerus antiquus. Restored from a skeleton in the American 
Museum of Natural History. W. B. Scott. A History of Land Mam- 
mals in the Western Hemisphere, 1913. Published by The Macmil- 
lan Company. Reprinted by permission. 

B. Lcpt a lichen ia nitida. Restored from a skeleton in the American 
Museum of Natural History. W. B. Scott. A History of Land Mam- 
mals in the Western Hemisphere. 1913. Published by The Macmil- 
lan Company. Reprinted by permission. 

South L>akota Si-houl Ol Mines 

Bulletin Xo. Ki. Plate Xo. 1' 

A. Model of Promerycoclioerus carrikeri. From a skeleton in the Car- 
negie Museum. Peterson, 1914. 

B. The Lower Miocene hornless deer, Blastomeryx advena. Restored 
from a skeleton in the American Museum of Natural History. W. B. 
Scott. A History of Land Mammals in the Western Hemisphere. 
1913. Published by The Macmillan Company. Reprinted by per- 


South Dakota School of INlines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate No. 44. 

Restoration of the six horned herbivore Protoceras ccler of the Upper Oligocene. 

Osborn. Copyrighted by the American Musetim of Nattiral History. 

Reprinted by permission. 

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South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate Xo. 47. 

A. Daemonelix or "Devils corkscrews" in the Daemonelix beds near 
Harrison, Sioux county, Nebraska. Photograph by Barbour. 

B. Anterior portion of head of the Oligocene crocodile, Crocodilus pre- 
nasalis found in Indian draw, 1899. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin No. 13. Plate No. 48. 

A. Petrified egg of a supposed anatine (duck like) bird of Oligocene 
age. Farrington, 1S99. 

B. Stylemys nehi'ascensis. the commonest fossil lurilt- ui' the Big Bad- 
lands, Leidy, 1853. 


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South Dakota Si'hool of INIines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate Xo. 52. 


Sand-Calcite Crystals from the Miocene of Devils Hill. Foote ;\Iineral 

Co., Philadelphia. 

Soutli Dakota Scliool of Mines 

Biilk'tin Xo. 13. Plate Xo. 53. 

Photograph by O'Harra, 1909. 

A. White River at wagon bridge near Interior. 

Photograph by O'Harra, 1899. 

B. Cheyenne River near mouth of Sage Creelv. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate Xo. 54. 

Photograph by O'Harra, 1909. 

A. Sun-cracked surface of an alluvial flat showing loosening and curling 

of the drying mud. 

Photograph by Todd. 

B. Spongy surface of disintegrating Titanotherium clay. The gumbo lily, 
as here shown, not infrequently finds root in the porous material. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate No. 55. 

5B. .:. --, 

A. The old postoffice of Interior on White River in the heart of the 
Badlands before the coming of the railroads and the days of the 

1 If rfii if^iAiaSSjPp^l 





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B. A cowboy home in Corral Draw in the early days of Badlands 


South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. i:?. Plate No. 56. 

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Photograph by O'Harra, 1911. 

A. A new ranch home near the Great Wall north of Interior. 

Photograph by O'Harra. 1911. 

B. The beginning of a farm near the Great Wall northwest of Interior. 
Newly plowed sod in the foreground. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin No. 13. Plate No. 57. 

Photograph by O'Harra. 1911. 

A. Detail of the Great Wall north of Interior. 

Photograph by O'Harra, 1912. 

B. The Great Wall at Cedar Pass northeast of Interior. A roadway suit- 
able for automobiles winds up this slope and reaches the top at the 
lowest skyline depression to the left of the center. See Plate 8S. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate Xo. oS 

A. Cattle descending from grass-covered table land to grass-covered 
valley below. Rlcard Art Co., Quinn, S. D. 

B. The 6L Ranch near Imlay showing success in soil cultivation. 
McNamara's Book Store, Rapid City. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Tlate Xo. 59. 

A. Geology class of South Dakota State School of Mines in Indian 

Creek Basin, 1900. 

Photograph by O'Harra. 

B. Geology class of South Dakota Sta;te School of Mines at top of Sheep 
Mountain (Cedar Point I the highest part of the Big Badlands. 






















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South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin No. 13. Plate No. 64. 

Photograph by O'Harra, 1899. 

A. Rtigged wall approximately 350 feet high separating the grassy valley 
of Indian Draw from the grass covered flat known as Sheep Moun- 
tain Table. Site of the School of Mines camp in the early overland 
trips of the Geology class to the Big Badlands. For a more general 
view see Plate 87. 

Photograph by C. A. Best. 1920. 

B. South Dikota State School of Mines students on Sheep Mountain 
Table. A short distance from the edge of the Wall shown in A. 

South Dakota School of Klines 

Bulletin No. 13. Plate No. 65. 

A. Balanced rock on Great Wall near Big Foot Pass. 

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rhotograph by 0'H:i i i 

B. Balanced rock near head of Indian Draw. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin No. 13. Plate Xo. 66. 


Photograph by O'Harra, 1910. 

A. Oreodon Beds near Big Foot Pass showing color bands. 


Photograph by O'Harra, 1912. 

B. Erosion forms near head of Corral Draw. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate No. 6; 

fr'/ ; 




Photograph by O'Harra. 1909. 

A. Erosion detail of Titanotherium Beds near B:g Foot Pass. 

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Photograph by O'Harra. 1899. 
B. Erosion detail of Oreodon Beds in the vallev of Indian Creek. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin No. 13. Plate No. 68. 

Photograph by O'Harra, 1910. 

A. Erosion forms north of the Great Wall near Cedar Pass. 


Photograph by O'Harra, HtlO. 

B. Erosion forms north of the Great Wall near Big Foot Pass. The flat 
remnants are protected by a thin covering of well-rooted grasses. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate Xo. 60. 



riKitdgraiih liy O'Harra. lS;i;i. 

A. Looking southeast toward Sheep Mountain from Valley of Indian 


Photograph by O'Harra, 1912. 

B. Erosion forms in Corral Draw. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate No. 70. 


Photograph by O'Harra. 1910. 

A. Detail of Great Wall north of Interior chiefly Protoceras Beds. 

Photograph by O'Harra, 1910. 

B. Detail of Great Wall north of Interior chiefly Protoceras Beds. 

Soutli Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin No. 13. Plate Xo. 71. 

Photograph by O'Harra, 1909. 

)h by O'Hi 
A. Clay balls in bed of little ravine near Big Foot Pass. 

Photograph by O'Harra, 1899. 

B. Conglomerate dike in valley ol' Indian Creek. 

South Dakota School of Mines Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate No. 72. 

Photograph by O'Harra, 1899. 
A. General view of Titanotheriiim Beds, Valley of Indian Creek. 




Photograph by O'Harra, 1899. 

B. Oreodon Beds. Valley of Indian Creek. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate Xo. 73. 

Photograph by O'Harra, 1899. 

A. Protoceras Beds near top of Sheep Mountain. 

Photograph by O'Harra, 1899. 

B. Protoceras Beds near top of Sheep MouDtain. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin No. 13. I'late Xo. 74. 


■ > ■■i^*f* 

Photograph by O'Harra. 1912. 
A. Oreodon Beds along the Indian Draw — Corral Draw divide. 



^A^(^'^ ^/^ 


Photograph bj' Best, 19 20. 

B. Erosion detail of the wall of School of Mines Canyon. 

South Dakota School of :\Iines 

liulletin Xo. 13. Plate Xo. 75. 

A. Agate Springs Fossil Quarries looking Southeast. University Hill on 
the left; Carnegie Hill on the right. 

Photographs by Cook, 1915. 

B. Stenomylus quarry of Amherst Hill, one of the Agate Springs fossil 


South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin No. 13. Plate No. 76. 


.\ uUai-ra, 1915 

A. General view of Slim Buttes, Perkins county, South Dakota, capped 
by White River Tertiary deposits. 

I'hotograph by O'Harra, 11118. 

B. Detail of the southern end of South Cave Hills, Harding county. 
South Dakota. Shows Fort Union sandstone of einiier Tertiary age 
than the White River Beds. 


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South Dakota School of Mines Bulletin No. 13. Plate N'o. 93. 

l'hotog:rai)]i by O'Harra. i;ilu. 

Details of Great Wall north of Interior. Chiefly Protoceras Beds. 

South Dakota School of Mines 

Bulletin Xo. 13. T'late Xo. 94. 



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Photosrai)h by O'Harra. 1915. 

Protoceras Beds and Oredon Beds of School of Mines Canvon. 


South Dakota School of Mines Bulletin Xo. 13. Plate No. 95. 

Photograph by O'Harra. 101.". 

A Geological party descending School of Mines Canyon. 

South Dakota School of Mines Bulletin Xo. 18. Plate No. 96. 

Photograph by O'Harra. T.n'ii 

A Guardian of the Gateway, School of Mines Canyon. 


University of Toronto 








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