DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
FRANKLIN K. LANE. Sbcrbtary
BUREAU OF MINES
\. VAN. H. MANNING. Director
I HE MINING INDUSTRY IN THE TERRITORY OF ALASKA
DURING THE CALENDAR YEAR 1915
SUMNER S. SMITH
United States Mine Inspector for Alaska
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
FRANKLIN K. LANE, Secretary
BUREAU OF MINES
VAN. H. MANNING. Director
THE MINING INDUSTRY IN THE TERRITORY OF ALASKA
DURING THE CALENDAR YEAR 1915
SUMNER S. SMITH
United Stales Mine Inspector for Alaska
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
The Bureau of Mines, in carrying out one of the provisions of its organic act —
to disseminate information concerning investigations made — prints a limited
free edition of each of its publications.
When this edition is exhausted, copies may be obtained at cost price only
through the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Wash-
ington, D. C.
The Superintendent of Documents is not an official of the Bureau of Mines.
His is an entirely separate office, and he should be addressed :
Superintendent of Documents,
Government Printing Office,
Washington, D. C.
The general law under which publications are distributed prohibits the
giving of more than one copy of a publication to one person.
The price of this publication is 10 cents.
First edition. May, 1917.
New gold-mining districts 5
Mineral production 6
Placer gold 7
Lode gold 7
Mineral fuels 8
Work of the Federal mine inspector 8
Clerical assistance 9
Needs of office 9
Mining experiment station 10
New Territorial laws 10
Prosecutions for violations of mining acts 11
Coal leasing act 12
Coal fields 12
Government railroad 13
First-aid and mine rescue training 14
To the experienced man 15
To the inexperienced man 15
Safety first 16
Shafts and cages 16
Stoping and development 17
First-aid training 21
Mines and districts 22
Yukon basin 22
Fairbanks district 22
Placer mining 22
Lode mining 23
Tolovana district 24
Circle district 25
Tenderfoot district 25
Mines and districts — Continued.
Yukon basin — Continued. Page.
Manley Hot Springs district 25
Ruby district , 25
Koyukuk district 25
Innoko district : 25
Iditarod district : 26
Marshall district 26
Chisana district 26
Seward Peninsula 26
Nome district 27
Solomon district 27
Casadepaga district 27
Council district 2S
Fairhaven district 28
Port Clarence district 28
Kougarok district 28
Southeastern Alaska 28
Ketchikan district 29
Alaska Industrial Co 29
Dunton mine 29
Goodro Mining Co 29
Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting & Power Co 30
Mount Andrew Iron & Copper Co , 30
Princeton Mining & Milling Co 30
Ready Bullion mine 30
Rush «& Brown mine 30
Juneau district 31
The Alaska-Gastineau Mining Co 31
Alaska Gold Belt Mining Co 32
Alaska-Juneau Gold Mining Co 32
Alaska Treadwell Gold Mining Co 33
Alaska Treasure Gold Mining Co 35
Algunican Development Co — 35
Eagle River Mining Co 35
Ebner Gold Mining Co 35
Kensington Mining Co 36
Sitka district 36
Chichagof Mining Co 36
Pacific Coast Gypsum Co 36
Southwestern Alaska 36
(.'upper River district 37
Alaska Consolidated Copper Co 37
Great Northern Development Co 37
Hubbard-Elliott Copper Co 37
Kennecott Copper Corporation 37
Mother Lode Copper Mines Co 38
Prince William Sound 38
Alaska Mines Corporation 38
Big Four mine 39
Cliff mine 39
Ellamar Mining Co 39
Fidalgo Mining Co 39
Mines and districts — Continued.
Prince William Sound — Continued. Page.
Galena Bay Mining Co 40
Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting & Power Co 40
Gold King mine 40
Granite Gold Mining Co 40
Cameron-Johnson Gold Mining Co 41
Kennecott Copper Corporation 41
Landlock Bay Copper Co 41
Mineral King Mining Co 41
Mountain King mine 42
Ramsay-Rutherford Mining Co 42
Sealey-Davis Mining Co 42
Thomas-Culross Mining Co 42
Three Man Mining Co 43
Kenai Peninsula 43
Willow Creek (Susitna drainage) 43
Alaska Free Gold Mining Co 43
Independence Mining Co 44
Gold Bullion mine 44
Accidents at mines, quarries, and dredges in Alaska during 1915 45
Data on dredges 49
Mine-inspection laws of Alaska 53
Original act 53
Table 1. Fatalities inside and outside the mines, quarries, and dredges in
the Territory of Alaska during the calendar year 1915 46
2. Accidents in Alaska metal mines during the year ended Decem-
ber 31, 1915 48
3. Accidents in Alaska metallurgical plants during the year ended
December 31, 1915 49
4. Data on dredges in Alaska, 1915 50
5. Data on lode mines in Alaska, 1915 52
Plate I. Flow sheet of Kennecott concentrating plant . 38
THE MINING INDUSTRY IN THE TERRITORY OF ALASKA
DURING THE CALENDAR YEAR 1915.
By Sumner S. Smith.
Mine inspection in Alaska by the Federal mine inspector was some-
what handicapped during 1915. the inspector having to spend a large
part of the summer and fall in examining the Matanuska coal field in
connection with the designation of the Government reservations and
the leasing units in that field. However, in addition to this work,
the mines in southeastern and southwestern Alaska were inspected by
both Federal and Territorial inspectors, a considerable number of
men near the Federal inspector's office at Juneau were trained in first
aid to the injured and in the use of mine rescue apparatus, the mines
of the interior and of Seward Peninsula were inspected by the Terri-
torial inspector, and a suit was brought in the name of the Territorial
inspector for the nonreporting of serious accidents under the Terri-
torial inspection law.
The work of the Federal inspector was handicapped also by a
lack of field assistants. This condition is likely to be serious, as
preparations have been made for opening the Matanuska, Bering
River, and Xenana coal fields, and a number of permits granting the
free use of 10-acre tracts in other fields throughout the Territory
have been issued. The need of a comprehensive inspection law and
experienced engineers to safeguard the opening of coal mines by
operators who are not familiar with coal mining and are using
inexperienced help is obvious.
NEW GOLD-MINING DISTRICTS.
The only new gold-mining district that has seemed to give promise
of a definite future is the Tolovana, although operations there have
not been extensive enough to indicate its life with certainty. About
$60,000 in placer gold was produced during 1915. The camp is
northwest of Fairbanks and is reached in winter by a road 55 miles
long from Olnes. In the summer the road serves as a pack trail, or
the trip may be made up the Tolovana River.
MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
The Nelchina, Chisana, and Wade Hampton districts, which showed
considerable prominence in 1914, have all proved disappointing. The
production in the Nelchina and Wade Hampton districts was negli-
gible; in Chisana about $135,000 in placer gold was recovered, but
the expense of freighting to this district is so high that the net
profit was small.
During the fall, reports of new discoveries on the Innoko were
frequent, but no authentic news was available at the time this report
The figures on mineral production collected by the United States
Geological Survey and the Customs Division of the Treasury De-
partment indicate that the past year was the most productive since
1906, when the placers of the interior and of Seward Peninsula were
at their height, the total for that year being $23,378,428. The value
of the minerals mined in 1915 is about $32,800,000, as compared with
$19,064,963 for 1914.
The high price of copper has been a great stimulus to mining and
is largely responsible for the increased output. In 1914 21,450,628
pounds of copper was mined, valued at $2,852,934; in 1915 about
86,500,000 pounds was produced, valued at $15,139,129. The gold
production also increased in 1915, when the value was about $16,700,-
000, against $15,764,259 for the output of 1914. This is the largest
gold production since 1912, when the output was valued at $17,145,951.
As the production of silver is incidental to gold and copper mining,
this also increased. About $540,000 worth of silver was mined in
1915, against $218,327 worth in 1914.
The mineral output of the Territory for the calendar years 1913
and 1914, as compiled by the United States Geological Survey, 6 is as
Mineral output of Alaska, 1914 and 1915.
Increase in 1915.
Gold fine ounces..
Copper pounds . .
Tin tons of metallic tin . .
Antimony. . .tons of crude ore . .
15, 139, 129
12, 286, 195
Lead short tons. .
Marble, gypsum, petroleum, etc.
13, 788, 563
° Brooks, A. H., Mineral resources of Alaska, 1915 : Bull. 642, U. S. Geol. Survey,
1916, p. 17.
6 Brooks, A. H„ page cited.
MINERAL PRODUCTION. 7
The output of other minerals, including tin, antimony, marble,
gypsum, coal, and petroleum in 1915 had a value of about $170,000,
compared with $222,802 in 1914.°
The output of placer gold showed a slight decrease over 1911,
which was partly due to the partial exhaustion of the placers, but
also to the fact that many of the operators owning ground tributary
to the line of the Government railroad prefer to await the comple-
tion of the road, when comparatively cheap coal may be obtained,
rather than to pay the present excessive price for wood. As the cost
of fuel for thawing frozen placers constitutes a large part of the
total mining cost, the delay is warranted. The output of placer
gold for 1915 is valued at $10,180,000, as compared with $10,730,000
in 1911. &
More than 30 gold dredges were busy in the summer of 1915, and
the construction of several new ones was started. The value of the
output from dredging declined slightly, being $2,330,000 in 1915
and $2,350,000 in 1911.
Greater activity in lode gold mining at Juneau is responsible for a
marked increase in production, the total output for the Territory
being valued at about $6,070,000 in 1915 as compared with $1,863,028
in 1911. More than 30 lode gold mines were in active operation dur-
ing the year, though the bulk of the gold came from the Juneau dis-
trict. In that district one new mill treating 6,000 to 8,000 tons of ore
daily has been completed, and construction on another of similar
size has started. Several small mills were constructed in the dif-
ferent districts, and two cyanide plants were erected.
The increased price of copper led to a forced production from all
of the operating copper mines ; to the resumption of work at several
mines which had been closed for the past few years, putting them
again on the shipping list ; and to the prospecting of other numerous
There was practically four times as much copper produced in
Alaska in 1915 as in 1911, and the value of the 1915 production was
nearly five times as much as that of the 1911 production. The out-
put came from seven mines in the Ketchikan district, four on Prince
William Sound, and three in the Chitina district. Enough explora-
tion work has been done on other claims in these localities to insure a
° Brooks, A. II., work quoted, pp. 16, 17.
6 Brooks, A. H., work quoted, p. 21.
8 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
number of additional mines. With a number of excellent prospects
in the Broad Pass district, the opening of the Alaskan coal fields,
and the construction of the Government railroad connecting these
parts of the Territory, this branch of the industry should have a
steady and assured growth.
Two districts, the Manley Hot Springs in the Tanana Valley and
the York district on the Seward Peninsula, were exporters of tin
concentrate. Though there was some exploration work done for lode
tin, the entire product shipped was placer. At the Hot Springs the
tin is caught in the sluice boxes while the auriferous gravels are be-
ing washed. At York three dredges, one working exclusively for tin
and the other two for tin concentrate and gold, are responsible for
the output. Some 200 tons of concentrate was produced during the
year. The value of the tin was about $78,000.
As in the case of copper, the high price of antimony led to in-
creased production. Whereas a few years ago the smelters refused
to accept small shipments of antimony ores except at a prohibitive
figure, the ore buyers are now taking all they can obtain and are ask-
ing for more. The total production amounted to approximately 800
tons, 700 of which came from the Fairbanks district and the rest from
the Seward Peninsula, the total being valued at about $74,000.
About two dozen permits granting free use of 10-acre tracts for
two years have been granted, and a small quantity of coal has been
produced. At several points on Cook Inlet mining was started in a
small way to supply the demands of the new towns along the right
of way of the Government railroad.
A topographic and subdivisional survey was made of the Bering
River and Matanuska coal fields, and the fields were subdivided for
The usual small amount of oil was produced in the Katalla field
and was refined at Katalla, but, with this exception, nothing was done
toward the production of oil elsewhere, although seepages were re-
ported on the Arctic coast and along Cook Inlet.
WORK OF THE FEDERAL MINE INSPECTOR.
The inspection work of the calendar year covered the mines in
Ketchikan, Juneau, Prince William Sound, and the Copper River
districts. In the early spring, the Federal inspector spent consider-
able time in the Juneau district training the miners in first aid to
the injured and in the use of mine rescue apparatus.
WORK OF THE FEDERAL MINE INSPECTOR. 9
An examination was made of the Matanuska coal field to designate
the Government reservations and the leasing units in that field. The
field work, together with the writing of the report, consumed three
months in the summer and fall and prevented the inspector from
making the usual trips to the interior and to Seward Peninsula.
Suit for not reporting serious accidents was instituted against one
mining company by the Alaskan Territorial inspector, under the
Territorial mine-inspection law.
Letters have been written to the operators throughout the Terri-
tory requesting their assistance in compiling data on all accidents,
and most of them have given their cordial support. Printed forms
for the reporting of individual accidents have been mailed to the
operators with the request that they fill out the statements required
by the Territorial law and return a report promptly to the inspector
immediately following an accident.
The Territorial legislature, at the 1915 session, authorized the
Federal inspector in the absence of the Territorial inspector to en-
force the provisions of the new Territorial mining act.
The headquarters of the Federal inspector are in the courthouse
at Juneau, where he occupies, through the courtesy of the Depart-
ment of Justice, the grand jury room when that body is not in ses-
sion. This room is inadequate for the present needs of the office and
permanent quarters should be provided at an early date, especially
in view of the additional work that will be thrown on this office by
the opening of the coal mines throughout the Territory.
During the year Congress made the necessary appropriation for a
clerk for this office, and R. A. Dye was appointed to the position.
This appointment has taken from the inspector the burden of routine
work in the office and allowed him more time for inspection trips.
Mr. Dye also trains classes of miners in first aid to the injured, thus
relieving the inspector of these duties.
The Bureau of Mines has furnished the inspector with desks and
files for the care of records and correspondence.
NEEDS OF OFFICE.
The work of inspection is still handicapped by the lack of field
assistants, adequate office room, and funds for traveling expenses and
equipment. One inspector traveling continuously can not inspect all
the mines of the Territory during one year. To cover the Territory
10 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
properly four assistants are needed. With this number of men, the
mines of the Territory could be inspected several times annually, and
if orders were issued to any mine to make changes to conform with
the law, the inspector would have time to return to it to ascertain
whether the changes had been made.
MINING EXPERIMENT STATION.
The act of Congress authorizing the establishment of mining ex-
periment stations in the United States and Alaska should prove of
almost incalculable value to this Territory. The miner has been the
pioneer of the frontier, and the markets developed by the communi-
ties founded on his discoveries have led to permanent settlements and
the development of other resources. The new Government railroad,
for many years to come, will be dependent on freight carried for the
mining industry, and any effort to assist the miner will result in
additional traffic for the railroad. Alaska's future lies chiefly in
The establishment of an experiment station in Alaska will greatly
assist in the extension of its mining and metallurgical industries.
Many promising prospects can not be developed because of the diffi-
culty of raising funds on account of the uncertainties regarding the
best methods of concentrating and subsequently treating more or less
complex ores, the cost of transportation of supplies and of concen-
trates, and the best places for smelters.
There is a great demand by the Alaskan prospector that the
Government make free assays, more especially as it has been found
that custom assayers do not obtain enough work to warrant their
continuing in that business. However, as the act establishing the
Bureau of Mines does not authorize such free assays, the most that
can be done for the prospector is to make mineralogical or qualita-
tive determinations. It is probable that the establishment of a
mining experiment station will increase the business of custom assay-
ers, so that in this way local assay offices will be established and the
prospector will be benefited thereby, for the cost of individual assays
is small when considerable business is available.
NEW TERRITORIAL LAWS.
At the spring session (1915) of the Territorial legislature seven
laws and amendments to laws affecting the mining industry of the Ter-
ritory were passed. The eight-hour law was amended to include all
underground workers; an act to supplement the mining laws of the
United States and a laborer's lien act were passed; the Territorial
inspector's salary was raised ; the mine-inspection act was amended ;
and a compensation act and an act compelling the filing of grubstake
contracts were passed.
PROSECUTIONS FOR VIOLATIONS OF MINING ACTS. 11
As regards the eight-hour and compensation acts, no officials were
designated to see that the provisions of the laws were carried out.
Consequently these laws have been followed only where it suited the
convenience of the operator.
A conspicuous example of a violation of the eight-hour act was in
the Fairbanks district, where the wages were $5 per ten-hour day, and
board. "When the law became effective the operators paid the same
scale per hour, making the wages $1 per eight-hour day, and board.
The men struck, and a compromise was reached whereby the op-
erators paid $5.50 per ten-hour day, and board. The work con-
tinued at that figure throughout the rest of the season.
The compensation law provides for compensation only when the
operator has funds to cover the amount. There is no official having
authority to enforce payment of compensation, so that the injured
emplo} T ee receives nothing unless the operator chooses to pay him or
unless the employee brings suit. If an employee is injured in the
mine of an operator who is weak financially, neither the employee
nor his dependents are likely to receive anything.
PROSECUTIONS FOR VIOLATIONS OF MINING ACTS.
Under the Territorial inspection act (Session Laws of Alaska, 1913,
ch. 72, sec. 5) suit was brought in the name of the Territorial inspector
against the superintendent of a mining company for not reporting
serious accidents. The company is mining a deposit of copper ore
which has a graphitic slate for a hanging wall. This slate contains
much carbonaceous matter and generates considerable gas (methane).
About two years ago the company began driving raises in the hanging
wall to obtain waste for filling the stopes, and these raises gave off
sufficient methane to cause local explosions. Several men were burned,
but no reports were made to the inspector. The superintendent was
then notified that the inspector considered such accidents serious and
that they should be reported imder the law. The superintendent
was also instructed to obtain safety lamps and have all raises tested
for gas by one of the bosses before allowing the men to work there.
The lamps were obtained, but the testing, if done at all, was done
in a haphazard manner by the miners instead of by the mine
officials. On October 18 the surveyor and assayer and his assist-
ant started up a waste raise to measure it. They ignited a
pocket of gas at the top of the raise and were blown down to the
gangway. The surveyor's hands and face were seriously burned.
The assistants hands and •face were also severely burned and his
ankle so badly injured that he was in bed at the time of the inspector's
visit, three weeks after the accident. Neither accident was reported,
in spite of the request that the superintendent report such accidents.
A charge of not reporting the accident was brought against the super-
12 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
intendent and the case tried in the United States commissioner's court
at Valdez on November 26. As the Territorial mine inspection act
does not define a serious accident and the attorney for the defendant
pleaded that a serious accident was synonymous with a serious injury,
the court ruled that the defendant was entitled "to the benefit of
the doubt " and dismissed the case " on the evidence as presented,"
although both Federal and Territorial inspectors testified that, in
their opinion, the accident was serious.
Evidently the mine-inspection law should define a serious accident.
Effective prevention of accidents requires a study of the causes, and
it is obvious that all possible measures should be taken to obtain data
on accidents that involve great hazard, even though, by chance, no
injury may result.
COAL LEASING ACT.
During the year preparations were completed for opening the
Bering River and Matanuska fields under the leasing act of October
20, 1914 (38 Stat, 741). Subdivisional surveys were made by the
General Land Office during the summer of 1915. The fields were later
examined by engineers of the Bureau of Mines and the General Land
Office, who, in accordance with the leasing act, indicated the areas
to be reserved to the Government and divided the fields into leasing
blocks or units.
The full text of the leasing act and of the regulations thereunder,
copies of the leases and permits and applications therefor, descrip-
tions of the leasing units, and a large amount of information regard-
ing the fields and their development are given in a report entitled
" Regulations governing coal-land leases in the Territory of Alaska,"
issued by the Secretary of the Interior."
Through the work of the General Land Office and the Bureau of
Mines, Government reservations were designated in the Bering River
and Matanuska fields. These reservations were intended to cover
such ground as would provide coal for Government use, protect the
public from individuals attempting to monopolize coal lands or extort
exorbitant prices for coal, and still offer equally good areas in the
best-known parts of the fields for exploration by private enterprise.
The leasing units were laid out in comparatively small blocks,
which can be worked individually or combined into larger tracts up
to the maximum acreage permitted by law. Careful attention was
given to the amount of probable coal of workable thickness in each
of these areas, the relationship of the area to possible transportation
a Copies of this report may be obtained free by applying to the Secretary of the In-
terior, Washington, D. C.
GOVERNMENT RAILROAD. 13
lines, the quality of the coal, the topography of the country, and the
general conditions affecting mining.
The future of the Alaska coal fields is still somewhat problematical.
Along the entire coast the output will come in direct competition
with California oil, the coals of Oregon, Washington, and British
Columbia, and with hydroelectric power. Both the Bering River
and the Matanuska fields contain high-grade bituminous coal suitable
for coking and for use in the Navy, and the Nenana field contains an
excellent lignite suitable for power or domestic uses or as a powdered
fuel in reverberator^ furnaces.
Coals from other States on the coast have not proved satisfactory
for use by the Nav} r , so that for naval use Alaskan coals will have
to compete chiefly with Appalachian coals, shipped from Atlantic
ports by way of the Panama Canal. The domestic market is assured,
but it is doubtful whether Alaskan coals can compete success-
fully in the home markets of the British Columbia or Washington
coals. Possibilities in the manufacture of coke for the smelting in-
dustry appear promising. At present the large output of copper ore
is all shipped to points outside the Territory for treatment. Fairly
cheap coke would be an inducement for the erecting of local smelters
and ore samplers, which, in turn, would result in the development
of many metal mines now idle on account of the excessive cost of
shipping ore to outside points.
In the Fairbanks district wood costs $12 to $16 a cord, and is hard
to obtain at any figure. There still are, in that district, many acres
of frozen auriferous gravels that must remain unworked until mining
costs are reduced. Cheap coal, and the product of the Nenana field
would be excellent for this purpose, would materially lower these
costs, as the cost of fuel is a considerable part of the total cost in
mining frozen ground. These mines should supply a ready market
for the Nenana coal, which should also displace wood on the river
steamers and might even be shipped to Nome and compete with other
coals now retailing there at about $10 per ton.
During 1915 the Government took over the old Alaska Northern
Railroad from Seward, and undertook the construction of a stand-
ard-gage railroad from the coast at Seward to Fairbanks with a
branch line up the Matanuska River to the coal fields.
Work was started at Ship Creek on the east side of Knik Arm, a
branch of Cook Inlet, and the town of Anchorage was established.
Rails were laid for about 30 miles north of Anchorage, and the
rehabilitation of the road out of Seward was begun. During 1916
grading will be undertaken at Nenana, at the junction of the Nenana
14 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
and Tanana Rivers, toward Fairbanks, and up the Nenana toward
Broad Pass. The old line from Seward to Kern Creek will be re-
built, grading from this point to Anchorage started, the main line
continued from the end of the present construction toward the
Susitna River, and a branch built up the Matanuska River at the
head of Knik Arm to the coal fields.
During the year the supply of labor was considerably in excess of
the demand, owing to the large influx of men seeking employment
on the Government railroad and the prospect of the coal areas being
opened for leasing. Many of those who did not find employment
at once returned to the States. A large number, however, took up
homesteads, and others scattered to the towns throughout the Terri-
The eight-hour law, which went into effect at the middle of the
season, threatened to cause considerable trouble, as many operators
continued paying the same hourly schedule, thus reducing wages $1
a day, as the men, up to that time, had been receiving $5 a day
and board for a 10-hour shift. Small strikes at several of the in-
terior camps resulted in compromises. At Nome most of the opera-
tors continued paying $5 a day and board, though they cut the
hours from 10 to 8. In the Ruby district no definite settlement was
made. Some of the operators continued at one rate and some at
another, and others suspended mining altogether. At Fairbanks the
men struck and a compromise was effected, the men going back to
work on the 10-hour basis. The operators granted an increase of
50 cents a day, so that the men get $5.50 a day and board. This
arrangement was in open violation of the Territorial law, but no
official has been appointed to enforce the law, and there have been
no prosecutions for its violation.
Generally the scale of wages is the same as in 1911, miners on the
coast receiving $3 to $1 a day and boarding themselves, and those
in the interior and on the Seward Peninsula receiving $4 to $6 per
day and board. On the dredges the scale is from 50 to 75 cents an hour
and board. Living conditions remain about the same. The com-
panies operating on a fairly large and permanent scale provide good
living accommodations; those whose operations are more or less
temporary provide as little as possible.
FIRST-AID AND MINE RESCUE TRAINING.
More interest has been shown in first-aid and mine rescue training
than ever before. The Kennecott and Alaska-Gastineau mining com-
panies have installed oxygen mine rescue apparatus, and the Tread-
FIRST-AID AND MINE RESCUE TRAINING. 15
well company has trebled its equipment. A number of men have
been trained in the use of this apparatus and at the Treadwell a
safety engineer has been appointed. His duties are to inspect the
mines underground, train the men in first-aid and mine rescue work,
note that the apparatus is always available and in good working con-
dition, see that there is first-aid material at the proper places under-
ground, and investigate any possible changes underground that will
lead to greater safety. He is also a member of the safety committee
that investigates and makes a report on each accident. The com-
pany has begun the publication of a quarterly magazine entitled
" The Gold Bar," which contains articles on safety and gives lists of
accidents. A book of safety rules has also been published by the
company for the use of the miners, which includes directions regard-
ing the shafts and cages, stoping and development work, the use of
explosives, precautions in training, and general safety rules for
underground work and work in ore mills. The directions are re-
TO THE EXPERIENCED MAN.
Mining is a business that is hazardous under the best conditions.
You are constantly surrounded by dangers, many of which you are perhaps
disregarding daily, because you have become familiar with them and hardened
to them. But you must remember that any accident caused by carelessness on
your part may not only hurt you, but may also injure or possibly kill one of your
fellow workers, in spite of all the precautions he may have taken for his own
safety. You have, therefore, not only your own life and limbs to take care of,
but you are responsible for the safety of all the men working near you. Do not,
just because you have been working as a miner for many years, take chances
that you would be the first to condemn in anybody else. You may not know
that carelessness is more dangerous underground than ignorance, and that you,
the miner of 5 or 10 or 20 years' experience are more to be feared than a new
man, for you have become hardened to dangers and are willing to take chances
that a new man would be afraid to take. Do you realize that by far the great
majority of " accidents " are caused by carelessness on the part of experienced
men like yourself, and that it may be your turn to-morrow or next week? The
only way that you can reduce the dangers around you is to use extreme care
in doing your work and to urge every man working near you to do the same.
TO THE INEXPERIENCED MAN.
If you are inexperienced, you should apply yourself to the task of learning to
protect yourself and others. You can get this knowledge by constant observa-*
tion and by asking questions of those who know. Don't be ashamed to ask
questions. After you learn something of value, don't forget to use it. When
you become an experienced miner, don't take chances just because you have be-
come experienced. Remember that experienced miners are being killed or in-
jured because they take chances that a new or inexperienced man would be
afraid to take.
The object of the following rules is to obtain the greatest possible safety for
all, and it is your duty to take sufficient time to make the examinations required
78425°— 17 2
IQ MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
by them to guard against any dangers from accidents in the mine or its work-
ings. The best mine in the world, if worked by careless or indifferent miners,
will have more accidents than the worst one that is worked by miners who are
always thinking of preventing accidents to themselves and their fellow workmen.
The important part of any rule is the spirit of it. This is gained by under-
standing the wisdom and necessity of the rule, and not by mere obedience be-
cause it is a rule. No rule seems hard when you see that it is wise — worked out
from experience made necessary by existing conditions.
The object of a rule is not to abridge the rights of anyone, but to point out
the path which experience has taught is the wise one to follow.
Any flagrant or habitual disregard of these rules will result in your discharge.
SHAFTS AND CAGES. '
1. There shall be no pushing or crowding around collar of shafts or at sta-
tions, in loading or unloading cages. There shall be no " horseplay " on the
2. The cage man, stope boss, or other man delegated to load or unload cages,
when the shifts are being hoisted or lowered, shall see that the cage gates are
securely closed before giving the signal to move the cages, and shall be re-
sponsible for their closing.
3. No person but the cage man, stope boss, or other man regularly delegated
to this duty shall operate the pull-bell signals.
4. No person shall use the call or flash signal system unless he is certain that
he knows and understands same.
5. In lowering or hoisting shifts there shall be no lighted lamps, candles, or
torches on the cage except the cage man's, and that shall be placed high
enough to clear the heads of the men.
Smoking on the cage while shift is being lowered or hoisted is forbidden.
6. No man shall leave the shaft or any station without first seeing that the
bar or chain is properly placed in position to prevent anyone from walking
into the shaft opening.
7. Men shall not be hoisted or lowered at a greater speed than 800 feet per
minute, and cage must commence to slow down when within 100 feet of the
shaft collar or of the bottom bulkhead or sump covering.
8. Men shall not ride on the skips in vertical shafts under any circumstances
unless the skips have their bonnets in place.
9. Men shall not try to mount or leave skip or cage while same is in motion
or after the signal to move has been rung.
10. No tools shall be carried on the cage when shift is being handled. Tools,
steel, and other small material shall not be lowered or hoisted except when
placed inside skip or cage and made safe.
11. No explosives shall be carried on the cage when shift is being handled.
.Powder and primers shall not be handled on the cage at the same time.
12. Drills, timber, or other material shall not be placed within 10 feet of
any shaft opening, head of raise or winze.
13. No man shall, under any circumstances, cross a skip or cage compart-
ment unless the cage or skip is being held at the point of crossing.
14. When lowering or hoisting tools, timber, or other material that is long
enough to project above cage or skip, same material shall be securely lashed to
the hoisting cable or otherwise secured.
• Sec. 16, h. i., Alaska Code, 1915.
FIRST-AID AND MINE RESCUE TRAINING. 17
15. No person shall ride upon any cage, skip, or bucket that is loaded with
tools, timber, powder, or other material, except for the purpose of assisting in
passing these through the shaft; except that on double-deck cages, riding on
the deck unoccupied by tools, timber, or other materials is permissible.
STOPING AND DEVELOPMENT.
1. Each man must examine his working place on going on shift, and if same
is not safe he must make it so before proceeding to work.
This examination should particularly cover:
Loose or scaling rock ;
Missed or cut-off holes ;
Loose powder in muck pile;
If conditions are such that he can not make his working place safe, he must
immediately report same conditions to his foreman or shift boss.
2. No man shall take for granted that an unfinished set-up, or any unfinished
work, is safe. Conditions may have changed since departure of previous shift.
3. In returning to work after springing a hole, or after any sort of blasting
at or near your working place, make just as careful an examination as though
you were coming on shift.
4. If a set-up is to be left in a raise during any near-by blasting, always
slightly loosen the jack of your machine bar.
5. Keep your ladders and stagings free from loose rock.
6. When working in a raise, be sure that your steel and tools are securely
placed on your staging.
7. Before dropping drill steel down a raise be sure to give ample warning.
8. Do not climb a ladder under a man with a load of steel.
9. Machine men must see that their machines, hose, and tools are moved a
sufficient distance to escape injury from blasting or from falling ground.
10. Be sure that your air-line valve is closed before taking off your gooseneck
or other hose connection.
11. Before turning on air to clear an air line, be sure that no one is near the
open end of same.
12. When working in any place which is being driven to connect with any
other working place, do not blast when same face is within 20 feet of the con-
nection before having sent word to warn all men to keep away from the point
at which the connection is to be made.
13. Do not go into a stope or bulldoze chamber until the same is reasonably
clear of smoke.
14. When barring down loose ore or rock, always keep a sharp lookout for
missed " bulldozes," or any other loose powder.
15. When barring down, proceed with caution — be sure that the ground above
you is safe.
16. Never start setting up a machine until the place of setting up and the
approach to the same are well trimmed down.
17. Keep ladders and platforms in the manways clear of loose rock.
18. Do not place steel or tools where they may fall down a raise.
19. Do not drop steel down a drill pipe unless you have a man at the bottom
« Sec. 16, h. L, Alaska Code, 1915.
18 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
20. If you see a fellow workman doing something dangerous do not laugh at
him; give him advice — and a lift.
21. Do not misuse or abuse tools. Proper tools will be furnished for all work.
Using a wrench as a hammer, a shovel to bar down with, etc., are misuse.
Take care of tools.
1. Miners engaged in bulldozing or using powder in any way must never store
primers and powder together, even for a short time. Places will be provided
for their separate storage.
2. Never carry or transport powder and primers together. Always make a
special trip with primers and use extreme care in handling both primers and
3. Fuse at this mine burns at a rate of not less than 23 seconds per foot. In
blasting holes, no fuse must be used of a length shorter than 5 feet.
4. All powder and primers not used must be returned to the magazines and
not left lying around the mine.
5. Never take a lighted lamp or other open light into a powder or primer
6. Do not smoke in a magazine, or while handling explosives.
7. After spitting fuses, always stay within hearing distance to count the
number of shots, and carefully note the number of missed holes, if any.
8. In loading holes, no instrument other than a wooden loading stick shall be
9. All holes must be well tamped so that no powder is exposed.
10. Before lighting holes be absolutely certain that all men who must pass
this point on their way from work have already passed.
11. No man shall approach a missed hole within 20 minutes after spitting
12. When blasting on going off shift always report missed holes at your mine
office so that the on-coming shift may be notified. If three shifts are working,
notify the on-coming shift directly.
13. Do not use a pick as though it were a sledge hammer — scratch with it ;
there may be loose powder or a primer in any muck pile.
14. Never start drilling in a face in which there is a missed hole. Blast the
15. Never try to pick powder from a missed or cut-off hole. Blast it, and be
sure that all powder is well covered before lighting.
16. Never start a hole in the " gun " of a previous hole.
17. Never spring a hole on going off shift.
18. Never spring a hole without first clearing same of dust or mud.
19. Never spring a hole with more than a single primer.
20. For springing holes the shortest permissible fuse shall be 36 inches.
21. Springing holes is a practice that should be discouraged in so far as is
22. Missed holes within 10 feet of a set-up or in loose ground must be blasted
23. All blasting and bulldozing shall be under the direct supervision of the
stope boss or some other regularly delegated person. He shall see that all is
in readiness and shall be the person to give the signal for lighting.
24. Always cover your bulldozes with fine dirt so that there is no exposed
<■ Alaska Code, 27, i.
FIRST-AID AND MINE EESCUE TRAINING. 19
1. Scraps and refuse from lunch buckets must not be thrown at random in the
mine, but must be disposed of as directed by mine foreman.
2. You must use sanitary appliances which are provided.
1. On going on shift and when changing chutes make a thorough examination
of your working place.
2. Do not go into a chute that is hung up. Blasting poles are furnished to
place powder in position to blast rock down.
3. Be sure to warn in all possible avenues of approach before blasting in a
4. Examine your working place carefully each time after having blasted.
5. No fuse shorter than 36 inches shall be used in blasting in a chute.
6. Do not start drawing until smoke has cleared away so that you can see
clearly the condition of your working place or see any powder that may not
7. Before drawing a large rock be sure to brace your car so that it will not
be tipped over.
8. Use extreme caution in drawing a chute — know where your hands and feet
are; and do not get your bar in such position that it will knock you down if
struck by a rock.
9. Trainmen must not ride on the front end of a train or between the cars.
10. Persons not engaged on ore trains must not ride on them.
11. When rounding a curve or running through a foggy drift move your
train slowly and sound your gong.
12. Do not jump on or off a moving train.
1. Always keep your chain ladder within reach.
2. Keep the timbers above you free of loose rock.
3. Do not work above another man, no matter at what distance, unless there
is a proper bulkhead between.
4. For shaft firing, the shortest fuse must be 9 feet in length.
5. Before spitting fuses, the blasting signal must be given to the engineer,
and no fuse must be lighted until he replies by hoisting the bucket or skip a
few inches, and lowering it again.
1. Engineers must not move a cage or skip until sure of their signal — wait
for a repeat if there is any doubt.
2. A uniform code of rules and signals is provided for all shafts.
3. Posted rules and bell signals must be strictly obeyed.
4. Shaft rules and copy of bell-signal code must be posted in each engine
room and at each shaft station.
5. Do not go back of or over cables while drums are in motion.
1. Upon resuming work at points where, operations have been abandoned for
some time, a thorough investigation should be made as to the condition of walls,
20 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
stagings, ladders, timber, etc. This investigation should be directed by the
foreman or shift boss in charge, and should be demanded by any employee.
2. When a boss tells you that you are doing something dangerous, stop doing
it. He is responsible for your safety, and knows what he is talking about —
that's why he is a boss.
3. Remember that most accidents are caused by neglect of the little things,
by disobedience of rules or orders, or by carelessness.
4. Never attempt to go to work when you have been drinking, however little,
for then you are in no condition to go underground. Even a slight degree of
intoxication that might not be noticed when you get your check is dangerous
underground, because the heat or lack of fresh air increases the effect of liquor.
Do not hesitate to report any intoxicated man you see working, not only for
his sake, but for your own safety.
5. Be careful when around any electrical apparatus or wiring.
6. Do not give a man an electrical shock; a shock that would not bother you
might prove fatal to him.
7. Do not misuse the "first-aid" cabinets; they are there for humanitarian
purposes, and you may be the next man hurt.
8. Report all injuries no matter how slight, and do not neglect to have slight
wounds properly dressed.
9. Do not meddle with any machinery that you are not delegated to care for
10. Do not deface or destroy signs or other property.
11. Do not meddle with fire apparatus.
12. The use on the railway of push cars, hand cars, or other cars belonging
to outside parties is strictly prohibited except on that portion of the track
between the sawmill and the electrical repair shop. Cars belonging to the
various departments are for department use only, and must not be loaned for
other purposes. A car may be obtained, when necessary, from the steward,
for handling personal baggage only, between points on the line.
13. Persons other than employees in the performance of their duties are
forbidden to ride on the trains.
14. Keep a lookout for trains when crossing tracks.
15. When walking near tracks, keep in the clear at all times.
Persons other than those engaged in track repair are forbidden to walk on
trestles where walks are not provided.
1. Wear goggles when using a hammer.
2. Do not stand under a cam shaft or other machinery being lowered from
cam floor — stand to one side until it is near the floor.
3. Do not put your hand on top of shoe when under stamp ; take hold of sides
of shoe neck to straighten shoe.
4. Never poke burlap into boss head when under stamp without pulling top
of boss head to one side.
5. When setting tappets do not put your hand between the tappets or hold
on top of collar when the next stem is dropping, as the moving stem may catch
under the tappet and crush the hand between the collar and girt.
6. When working in the battery do not lower or drop stamp without the
parties working in battery giving signal so to do.
7. When at chain blocks always be sure that the sling or chain is in good
order before using them.
8. Never put your hand under a stamp when it is being raised with the
blocks, as the chain or sling may slip.
FIRST-AID AND MINE RESCUE TRAINING. 21
9. Never put your foot on the earns to brace yourself when holding a stem
out while lowering it into the battery, as you may get your foot crushed.
10. When you hang up the stamps to work in the battery see to it that the
fingers set squarely under the tappets, so that no one will get caught by their
11. When keys are being driven out of tappet to drop stem into boss head
don't hold the hand on the stem, as it will roll the fingers into the top of the
tappet and pull the flesh off the fingers.
12. When putting a battery belt on never stand on the bridge between the two
pulleys, as the belt may pull the bridge down.
In the preparation of these rules the committee is fully aware that there are
many special cases and conditions that have not been covered. The cooperation
of every employee is necessary for the proper enforcement of these rules. Bear
in mind that a strict compliance with these rules and of other reasonable pre-
cautions for safety will result in increased efficiency in your work as well as
in a smaller number of accidents.
Recognition of this fact will result in a better understanding between the
workman and those in supervision of the work, thereby creating better working
conditions. Remember that the workman who advances is the one who takes
a lively interest in his work. Many of the most practical ideas have been ad-
vanced by workmen actively engaged in their work.
If you have an idea that you think will increase the safety or efficiency of
the work do not hesitate to tell your boss or some member of the Safety Com-
It will be apparent to all that all ideas advanced can not be adopted, but
by an intelligent discussion of these matters definite results may be obtained.
A first-aid meet was held on July 5, 1915, at Treadwell, which
brought into competition a number of teams from the Treadwell
underground and surface employees. From these men a team was
picked and sent to the competition at the San Francisco Panama-
Pacific Exposition. The men representing Treadwell are deserving
of the highest praise for their conscientious work in this event. In
competition with 25 other teams, coming from all parts of the United
States, they tied for fourth place, though many of the other teams
were composed of men who had specialized in this work for years
and had had the benefit of past experience in many first-aid meets.
As previously stated, R. A. Dye, clerk to the mine inspector, has
been training the miners at properties near Juneau in mine rescue and
first aid. There is a demand that a man especially trained in such
work shall spend a part of his time visiting the mining districts of the
Territory, as there are far more men anxious to receive training
than this office can handle. When coal mining in the Bering River
and Matanuska fields becomes active there will be need of more
facilities, possibly a mine safety station, for such training.
22 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
MINES AND DISTRICTS.
The Yukon basin includes the Fairbanks, Tolovana, Forty-Mile,
Eagle, Circle, Rampart, Ruby, Iditarod, Manley Hot Springs, Chis-
ana, Koyukuk, Innoko, and Marshall districts.
Although there was a slight decline in the output of the Fair-
banks district, about the same number of men were employed and
the same number of mines operated as in 1914. The largest produc-
tion was made from Cleary, Ester, Fairbanks, Dome, and Vault
Creeks and their tributaries. The two principal methods in this
district were mining with steam-operated scrapers and drift mining.
One dredge was in operation on Fairbanks Creek.
The dredge was an old one and can not be said to have been a suc-
The following description of mining operations in the Fairbanks
and other districts is taken from the report of the Territorial mine
inspector for 1915. a
Cleary Creek. — Cleary Creek and the section of Chatanika River valley
adjacent to its lower course form the most productive placer-mining center of
the district. Twenty plants were operated on Cleary Creek during the mining
season from Claim No. 8, above Discovery, to No. 17, below Discovery, employing
Little El Dorado Creek. — Five plants were working on Little El Dorado
Creek during the season, employing 30 men. Most of the plants were operated
by partnership agreements. Few men were employed that were not interested
Dome Creek. — Eight plants were operated on Dome Creek from No. 3 above
Discovery to No. 7 below Discovery, employing 48 men. On lower Dome, which
is part of the Chatanika River valley, there were two plants on the Niggerhead
claim, one on the Shakespeare and one on the Day Dawn Association, employ-
ing 50 men.
Vault Creek. — Four claims were operated during 1915, employing 80 men.
Three of these were on upper Vault and one on the Oregon Association.
Wolf Creek. — Five claims were operated on Wolf Creek, employing 22 men.
This creek is a tributary to Cleary Creek.
Fairbanks Creek. — Four underground placer, three steam-scraper plants, and
one dredge were operated on Fairbanks Creek during the season, employing 67
men. The dredge, which is the only one in this district, is operated by the
Fairbanks Gold Mining Co. One steam-scraper plant was operated on Alder
Creek, a tributary of Fairbanks Creek.
Pedro Creek. — On Pedro Creek several steam scrapers were at work during
the season. The Hanot brothers installed a new mechanical scraper with an
overhead trolley system. The scraper is loaded by the usual system of hauling
° Report of Territorial Mine Inspector, 1915, pp. 12-21, 27.
MINES AND DISTRICTS. 23
by cable. After the scraper is loaded it is hoisted and carried to the dump box
by an overhead trolley instead of being dragged up an incline to the dump box,
the system used by the ordinary scraper plant, thereby saving not only the wear
on the scraper but also the extra steam necessary to drag a loaded scraper up
an incline over rough ground.
Goldstream. — Fifteen underground placers and four steam-scraper plants were
operated on Goldstream, employing 100 men. On First Chance and Gilmore
Creeks, both tributaries of Goldstream Creek, placer mines were worked in a
Ester Creek. — Twelve underground placer mines were operated on Ester
Creek during the year, employing 150 men.
Happy Creek. — Two plants were operated on Happy Creek with considerable
success, new pay having been struck during the winter on the left limit of the
creek at a depth of 140 feet. The ground was thawed, but stood well and could
be worked economically, there being no water underground.
Other streams. — St. Patrick Creek. Smallwood Creek, and Fish Creek were
worked to some extent during the season, but no very extensive mining was
The most important lode operations in the district were the Rhoades-Hall
mine, on Bedrock Creek, and the. Crites & Feldman mine, on Moose Creek.
The Rhoades-Hall mine closed on the 1st of September, and will remain closed
for the winter. This is the first time that this mine has closed since its incep-
tion. The Rhoades-Hall mine employed an average of 25 men. The Crites &
Feldman property employed five men in the mine and one in the mill, and
mined and milled on an average seven tons of ore a day from a ledge with an
average width of 8 inches, working one 8-hour shift. A new five-stamp mill
was installed on Fairbanks Creek for the Mayflower and Ohio quartz mines.
There was also a small Huntington mill installed early in the year on Fair-
banks Creek near the same property doing custom milling. Both helped
to encourage development work in this vicinity. The Mizpah was operated
during the winter, and some very good ore was milled at the Heilig mill on
Fairbanks Creek, and later a headframe and steam hoist were installed at the
mine and development work continued. On the Whitehorse and Yellowjacket
some development work was done during the winter months and about 30 tons
of ore was shipped to the mill.
At the, head of Too Much Gold Creek, McNeil & Huddelson took out con-
siderable ore and did extensive development work on a very promising ledge
of gold-bearing ore.
The American Eagle claim, Fairhaven & Foss, drove an adit 450 feet to
undercut the lode during the winter and extracted considerable ore in the
On the, McCarthy property on the divide between Fairbanks Creek and
Chatham Creek 30 tons of gold-bearing ore was mined during the winter and
early spring of 1915 and shipped to the mill.
The Homestake mine, at the head of Wolf Creek, was worked under a lease.
The ore produced was from a rich vein that averaged only 5 inches in width.
About 50 tons was mined and milled, which is said to have yielded over .$100
The Chatham mine was operated for antimony, there being a lode of that
ore having an average width of 4 feet. One hundred tons was shipped from
this mine to San Francisco during the summer. The ore was hauled to the
24 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
railroad by team, and from there to Fairbanks by the Tanana Valley Railway.
From there it was shipped on barges to St. Michael and loaded on steamship
for San Francisco.
The Wild Rose and Soo mines. were worked during the winter months and
the mill ran whenever ore was available. Twenty-four tons of ore was milled.
On the Wyoming and Colorado mines, development work was done during
the winter, and 39 tons of ore shipped to the Chatham mill and milled.
In the Ester district the most important work done was that of Tyndall,
Finn & McLaughlin on the Bondholder and Yellow Jacket claims, near the
head of St. Patricks Creek. In June, 1914, an adit was started 280 feet lower
than the collar of the main Bondholder shaft, and work was continued on it
until June 1. 1915, when it was driven over GOO feet ; work was suspended for
the summer on account of poor air. From surveys made the adit should under-
cut the Bondholder lode at a distance from the portal of 700 feet. The tunnel
is 6J feet high, has 6-foot sills and 4-foot caps, with an lS-inch gage track of
8-pound rails. Steel cars of 10 cubic feet capacity are in use. Tyndall & Finn
also did some development work on the Mohawk lode claim. A 6-foot vein was
discovered carrying very good values. Three shafts were sunk to a depth of
25 or 30 feet along the strike of the vein.
Antimony was also mined on Treasure Creek. The mining here was done
by open-cutting the formation, and digging out the ore which occurred in shoots,
kidneys, and irregular masses along the Assuring. The ore was broken and
hand sorted, and no ore carrying less than 50 per cent antimony was shipped.
A tramway was built from the mine to the Tanana Valley Railway and the
ore trammed to the railway, where it was loaded for shipment to Fairbanks to
be loaded on barges for shipment via St. Michael to San Francisco. This mine
produced 600 tons of antimony ore. Considerable prospecting was done on a
number of other stibnite lodes in the Fairbanks district. If the present high
price of antimony continues, antimony ores will become quite a factor in the
mineral output of this Territory.
The newly discovered Tolovana district is located about 70 miles from Fair-
banks, in a northerly direction, and is connected with Olnes, a station on the
Tanana Valley Railroad, by a road 60 miles long. Another route of access is
by launch up the Tolovana River to a log jam, around which a tram has been
built. The distance to the log jam, by the windings of the river, from the
Tanana is about 200 miles. Above the log jam a launch can be used for an-
other 20 miles to the head of navigation ; thence a wagon can go up the river
bars to Brooks, the principal settlement of the district, where there is a post
office and a wireless telegraph station. The Tolovana district was visited early
in April by way of the Olnes route ; several properties on Livengood, Olive, and
Ester Creeks and Tolovana River were also visited. The richest deposits
found up to that time were on the first and third tier benches off No. 5
above on Livengood Creek and off Discovery on Olive Creek. It has since de-
veloped that most of the gold mined during the season was taken from the
bench off No. 5 above on Livengood, third tier. The depth to bedrock on this
claim was 97 feet, while on No. 28 above, third tier benches, it was 32 feet,
and on the third tier benches off Discovery the depth was 102 feet. The depth
to bedrock on the first tier benches off No. 5 above Discovery was 28 to 30
feet. There were several holes sunk on those claims. On the present creek
bed of Livengood several claims were visited where work was being done, but
MINES AND DISTRICTS. 25
up to the time of visit no pay had been found. The auriferous gravels are
widely distributed in the district, and the work already done has proved tbe
presence of workable placers. The value of the gold output for the year, 1915,
was approximately $40,000.
The principal operation in the Circle district was the installation and opera-
tion of a dredge on Mastodon Creek. A number of hydraulic plants were also
operated, as well as a large number of smaller placers.
The Tenderfoot district was visited early in May. The principal productive
creeks of this district in 1915 were Tenderfoot, Democrat, Banner, and Buck-
eye. Nos. 4 and 5, Tenderfoot Creek, were the principal producing claims.
The ground is 70 feet deep and drifting methods were used. The ground is
frozen. There were about 75 men employed in this district.
MANLEY HOT SPRINGS DISTRICT.
The Hot Springs district was visited in January. Very little work was
under way at the time. Development work was being done on Woodchopper
Creek, where good prospects were found and the ground was being blocked out
for summer operations. The other principal creeks where work was being done
were Deep Miller, Sullivan, and Cache. Reports after the close of the season
would indicate an output of gold to the value of approximately $600,000. There
was a small production of stream tin in connection with the gold mining.
The Ruby district was visited in June and 16 properties were inspected. The
principal creeks are Poorman and Flat, in the Poorman district, and Long
Creek, in the Long Creek district. Placer mining was done also on Birch,
Trail, Tamarack, Spruce, Tenderfoot, and Duncan Creeks. New pay was found
on Spruce Creek early in the spring and several operators were preparing to
hoist pay on that creek. Extensive prospecting was done on Greenstone
Creek with a drill, and a dredge will be installed in the spring of 1916. The
value of the gold output for the year 1915 was approximately $800,000 or about
the same as 1914.
The Koyukuk district was not visited during 1915 by the [Territorial] inspec-
tor. The estimated production of gold from that district for the year is $300.-
000. The most of this was taken from Hammond River and Nolan Creek. A
new discovery of placer gold was made on Jay Creek, a tributary of Wild
River, and here considerable gold was mined.
* The Innoko district is estimated to have produced gold to the value of $190,-
000 in 1915. The principal producing creeks were Ophir, Yankee, Little, Spruce,
and Gaines. Two scraper plants were operated on Gaines and two on Yankee
Creeks, during the mining season.
26 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915,
The Iditarod district was visited during the month of June. Eleven placer
mines and two dredges were inspected. All of the placer mines were operated
by the open-cut method. Four steam-scraper plants were operated; two on
Otter, one on Glen, and one on Flat Creeks. Open-cut hydraulic mining was
done at the heads of Flat Creek, Chicken Creek, and Happy Creek. One of the
dredges was operated on Flat Creek and one on Otter Creek. The principal
creeks are Flat, Otter, Glen, Willow, and Black, where about 500 men were
employed. A drag-line scraper was installed on Willow Creek during the
summer, the first to be used in placer mining in Alaska. It is reported to be
very successful. The gold output for this district was $2,050,000 or practically
the same as 1914. The high cost of fuel is one of the greatest drawbacks of
this district. Wood costs from $10 to $18 per cord delivered at the boilers.
Distillate, which is used on one of the dredges, costs 52 cents per gallon, de-
livered at the dredge. At the power plant of the Yukon Gold Co., on Flat
Creek, the supply of wood in the vicinity of the power plant became so small
that a new location on the Iditarod River was selected and a power plant
constructed. New boiler equipment was installed, consisting of three 200-horse-
power units. The electric equipment used at the Flat Creek power plant was
moved during the winter and installed. It was ready for operation at the
opening of the mining season. The new plant will have the benefit of cheaper
fuel and improved water conditions, which will not only lower the power cost
but will make it possible to operate later in the season, if the weather condi-
The Marshall district was visited in the latter part of June. One placer
claim on Wilson Creek and one on Disappointment Creek were being operated
by the open-cut, ground-sluicing, and pick-and-shovel methods. Gold was dis-
covered on those creeks in 1913. In 1915 gold was discovered on Willow Creek,
in this district, and active prospecting and development work was being done
on four claims on that creek at the time of visit. These were being worked by
the open-cut methods. One bench claim was being worked by the underground
drifting method. The ground being frozen on the bench, the ground in the
creek bottoms was thawed. Some development work was done on a quartz
vein near the head of Willow Creek. A return of $80 per ton was received from
the mill test of the ore. There were 150 men in the district. The gold output
for the year is estimated at $10,000.
The value of the gold output of the Chisana district for the year 1915 is esti-
mated at $135,000, or about half that of last year. The principal operations
were on Bonanza Creek. New discoveries of placer gold are reported to have
been made on Dry Gulch, a tributary of Johnson Creek.
The Seward Peninsula mines produced gold to the value of $2,900,000 in 1915,
against $2,705,000 in 1914, an increase of $195,000. In addition to the gold
production there was shipped 157 tons of tin ore, valued at $79,471, and 132
tons of antimony ore, valued at $3Q,360. There were 33 dredges operated on
Seward Peninsula in 1915, against 39 in 1914. The reason assigned for the
decrease is that a number of dredges have worked all of the gravel that could
MINES AND DISTRICTS. 27
be worked at a profit in the immediate vicinity and, no new ground having
been acquired, are necessarily idle. There were four dredges installed on
Seward Peninsula during the year, one on the Kougarok River, one on Camp
Creek, one on Center Creek, and one on Buck Creek. The first three were gold
dredges ; the other was used for tin only, in the York district.
There was a new discovery of placer gold on Dime Creek in the Council
district, a tributary of the Koyuk River, but there was no output of gold this
season. Late in the fall a gold quartz strike, which promises to be of some
importance, was made on Boulder Creek, a tributary of Snake River, at a dis-
tance of about 12 miles from Nome. Some of the ore showed an abundance
of free gold, visible to the naked eye. There was 157 tons of cassiterite, or
tin ore, shipped from the York district. In this district development work
was continued on the cassiterite lode-tin mine on Lost River, 80 feet being
driven on the lower adit. Some development work was done on the Bartels
lode-tin mine, on Cape Mountain, also a new lode. On Potato Mountain,
near the head of Sutter Creek, a tributary of Buck Creek, some placer tin was
recovered by the sluice-box method during the summer season.
Late in the season work was started and mining continued on the Sliscovich
antimony mine on Manila Creek, a tributary of Nome River, and a small ship-
ment of stibnite made. This ore carries considerable gold. Some stibnite was
mined at the Hed & Strom properties, a few miles north of the Sliscovich prop-
erty, and shipped.
A placer-gold strike was made on the coastal plain near Solomon River,
supposedly the continuation of the third beach pay streak at Nome. It is
located about 6 miles back from the present beach and lies at a depth of 40 to
50 feet below the surface. The bedrock elevation above the present beach is
from 62 to 70 feet. The bedrock elevation of the third beach at Nome is 68 feet
above the present beach level. The ground had been drilled during the summer
season, and some very good values found. Fuel and supplies were /landed at
Solomon before the close <>f navigation, anil developments during the winter
should prove the value of the placer-gold deposits.
The Nome district was visited during July and August. Fourteen under-
ground placer mines, four hydraulic mines, and nine dredges Were inspected.
The principal creeks are Little, Anvil, Dry, Bangor. Boulder. Center, Dexter,
Hastings, and Hobson. Most of the underground placer mines were situated on
the tundra, adjacent to Nome, within a radius of 3 miles. In addition to the
creeks named, there were several operations on smaller creeks. The present
beach claimed considerable attention, about 100 men being employed with surf
washers, gasoline plants, and sluicing with water gathered from the adjacent
In the Solomon district five dredges were operated, against nine in 1914. Two
hydraulic mines were operated on the tributaries of Solomon River. The beach
gold discovery is referred to elsewhere.
Two dredges were inspected in the Casadepaga district. Three were operated
in 1914. The Willow Creek dredge suspended operations. In addition to the
two dredges, there was some work done on several small creeks, tributaries of
the Casadepaga River.
28 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
There were six dredges operated in the Council district — two on Ophir Creek
and one each on Crooked, Melsing, Camp, and Elkhorn Creeks. The Warm
Creek and Mystery Creek dredges were idle during 1915. The Camp Creek
dredge was a new dredge, installed during the summer, and started operations
the first of September. There were two hydraulic plants operated on Ophir
Creek and one on Crooked Creek. In addition to these, there were several
smaller operations on the different creeks of the district.
There were three dredges operated in the Fairhaven district during the
season, against four last year. One of the dredges on the Inmachuck River
was idle. The Fairhaven Ditch & Hydraulic Co. operated its property on the
Imnanchuck, and the Candle Ditch Co. its property on Candle Creek. Hydraulic
operations were continued on Bear Creek. There were many smaller operations
during the season. About 200 men were employed.
PORT CLARENCE DISTRICT.
Six dredges operated in the Port Clarence district in 1915. The dredge on
Windy Creek and the one on Sunset operated for gold only; the two on the
Anikovik River operated for tin and gold together. The York Dredging Co.'s
dredge continued working for tin alone on lower Buck Creek. The American
Gold Dredging Co. installed a new dredge on upper Buck Creek to dredge for
tin. This dredge was started the first of September, and consequently operated
but a short period during the season. It has a bucket holding 2 cubic feet in
an open-connected line, develops 80 horsepower by distillate engines, and has
an estimated capacity of 800 cubic yards.
The Kelleher dredge was operated successfully on the upper Kougarok River
during the season. The Bering Dredge Co. installed a new dredge on the
Kougarok River, near the mouth of Henry Creek, and started operations the
first of August. A hydraulic plant was operated on Macklin Creek. Five
claims were operated above Taylor Creek by ground sluicing and pick and
shovel methods. Two were on Dahl Creek, and two on Coffee Creek. Drilling
was done on the lower Kougarok and on Quartz Creek with a view to installing
dredges. One hundred men were employed in this district.
Mining throughout southeastern Alaska, which includes the
Ketchikan, Wrangell, Petersburg, Juneau, Skagway, and Sitka dis-
tricts, was particularly prosperous.
The opening of two large low-grade mines at Juneau has stimulated
the search for other ore bodies of a like nature; and the high price
of copper resulted in operations being resumed at a number of copper
properties in the Ketchikan district that had been idle for some years.
The gold production, including the placer gold of the Porcupine
district, amounted approximately to $5,435,000, according to figures
collected by the United States Geological Survey. The copper
° Brooks, A. H., Mineral Resources of Alaska, 1915, TJ. S. Geol. Survey, 1916, p. 74,
MINES AND DISTRICTS. 29
production, 4,500 pounds, which all came from the neighborhood of
Ketchikan, is valued at about $300,000. The value of the silver,
marble, lead, and gypsum amounted to a little over $350,000.
ALASKA INDUSTRIAL CO.
The Jumbo mine of the Alaska Industrial Co., more commonly
known as the Sulzer mine, is on Hetta Inlet on the west coast of
Prince of Wales Island.
The main entrance to this mine is a crosscut at an elevation of 1,500
feet. The ore bodies so far opened have been near the surface and
many of them have been worked as open cuts during the summer
months. A winze has been sunk from the crosscut from which
several sublevels have been driven with connections through to the
surface for oreways and ventilation. The ore, which is mainly clnil-
copyrite, lies in an altered zone between granite and limestone, or in
plain schist, in irregular lenses which have but little continuity and
make mining difficult. An air hoist has been installed at the winze.
The ore is raised in buckets and dumped into cars which are trammed
b} 7 hand to the entrance of the crosscut, where the ore is sorted before
going into the bunkers. The bunkers constitute the upper terminal
of an 8,000-foot aerial tram, the lower terminal being at the bunkers
on the wharf of the company at tidewater. Power is furnished by a
hydroelectric plant on the beach.
At the Dunton mine, near Hollis, on the eastern coast of Prince of
Wales Island, an inclined shaft has been sunk over 200 feet on the
ore and several levels and sublevels opened from this shaft. The vein
strikes almost north and dips about 30° west. The footwall is slate
and the hanging wall is in some places slate and in others a porphy-
ritic rock. The ore, which occurs in quartz stringers and veins, is
trammed in wheelbarrows to the shaft, hoisted in a self-dumping
skip, and crushed in a 5-stamp battery. The pulp flows over amal-
gamating plates and concentrating tables, the concentrate being
shipped to the smelter.
GOODKO MINING CO.
Work was resumed the past season at the Goodro mine, under the
direction of S. J. Goodro. The property is at the head of the " Salt
Chuck," on the north side of Karta Bay. The principal mineral in
the ore is bornite, which occurs in small masses and disseminated
particles associated with epidote. feldspar, and biotite, and is inclosed
in gabbro. Xative gold and considerable chalcopyrite also occur
with the ore, and near the surface small amounts of chalcocite and
native copper have been found.
30 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DUEING 1915.
GBANBY CONSOLIDATED MINING, SMELTING & POWER CO.
The Granby company has continued developments on the Mamie
mine at Hadley, on the east coast of Prince of Wales Island, which
it took over in 1913, the It mine, and several groups of claims in
the same locality. Ore bunkers have been erected on tidewater and
trams built to the mine. The ore is shipped to the company's smelter
at Anyox, British Columbia, on the Portland Canal.
The ore bodies at the Mamie mine are contact metamorphic deposits
of copper ore included in a zone lying between intrusive diorite and
limestone. The chief copper mineral is chalcopyrite; the gangue con-
sists of magnetite, garnet, epidote, pyroxene, and hornblende.
MOLTNT ANDREW IRON & COPPER CO.
Work has been resumed at the Mount Andrew mine of the Mount
Andrew Iron & Copper Co., 3,600 feet from tidewater on the north
shore of Kasaan Bay on the east side of Prince of Wales Island.
The ore consists of chalcopyrite associated with magnetite and occurs
in irregular deposits in altered limestone. The deposit has been
opened by a crosscut with raises to the surface. A winze has also
been sunk to prospect one of the ore bodies and a crosscut has been
started that will tap the mineralized zone several hundred feet loAver
than the present workings. A steam-power plant is situated on the
beach, and the bunkers at the mine are connected with those on the
wharf by an aerial tram.
PRINCETON MINING & MILLING CO.
The Valpariso mine, of the Princeton Mining & Milling Co., is
situated at Dolomi, on the eastern side of Prince of Wales Island.
The ore, a high-grade gold-bearing quartz ore, lies at the contact of
a schist and a dolomitic limestone. The ore body has been opened to
a depth of several hundred feet by a shaft on the vein, and drifts
have been run on the ore, with stopes through to the surface for
ventilation. The property is equipped with a ten-stamp mill, air
compressor, and machine drills.
READY BULLION MINE.
The Ready Bullion group of claims is situated about a mile and a
quarter from Hollis on Twelve-Mile Arm. A horse tram has been
built from the beach to the mine and a 5-stamp mill erected. The
vein, which is gold-bearing quartz, strikes north 25° west and dips
50° northeast. The richer part of the vein, 6 to 14 inches, is mined by
overhand stoping and trammed by hand in cars to the mill, which is
driven by water power.
RUSH & BROWN MINE.
The Rush & Brown property is situated on Prince of Wales Island
near the head of Kasaan Bay on the northern side. Two main ore
MINES AND DISTRICTS. 31
bodies have been developed. One is a sulphide body consisting of
chalcopyrite and pyrite in a gangne of altered graywacke, quartz,
and calcite ; it is a shear-zone deposit in sedimentary rock. The other
ore body is chalcopyrite and magnetite, and occurs at or near a
contact zone between granitoid rock and a greenstone tuff or con-
glomerate. The deposits have been opened by a shaft and several
levels, from which stopes have been driven through to the surface,
affording excellent ventilation. The ore is hand sorted at the mine
bunkers and run down a balanced tramway 300 yards to the main
bunkers. From here it is hauled over the railroad some 3 miles to
the wharf bunkers, where it is stored for shipment to the smelter.
THE ALASKA-GASTINEAU MINING CO.
The Alaska-Gastineau Mining Co., which operates the Perseverance
mine, in Silver Bow Basin, about 4 miles from Juneau, is the operat-
ing company for the Alaska Gold Mines Co.
The mine is in a large fissured zone of slate and metagabbro, cemented
together by a network of quartz lenses and veinlets. It was opened
in early days by what was known as the Gilbert workings, which are
the present fifth level, and later by a 1,400-foot crosscut, approxi-
mately 1,000 feet below the Gilbert development. This is known as
the Alexander crosscut. When the Alaska Gold Mines Co. assumed
control of the property plans were formulated for developing the
mine on an extensive scale. The shaft was sunk from the Alexander
crosscut to the thirteenth level, stations cut every 200 feet, and the de-
velopment of the previously opened levels (every 200 feet) between
the Alexander crosscut and the Gilbert workings was continued. A
12,000-foot tunnel was driven from Sheep Creek to connect with the
bottom of the shaft, and the mine was opened by a system of ore-
ways, raises, and stopes that would permit the rapid handling of an
The stopes are worked on a full-breast shrinkage system, just
enough ore being drawn to give headroom for the machines. Pillars
are left at varying intervals, and the ore is blasted out along the
footwall of the stope; from there to the hanging wall the ore caves
with little additional blasting. From the stopes the ore passes over
grizzlies into the chutes, the oversize being " bulldozed " in bulldoze
chambers. From the chutes it is drawn into 4-ton cars of the Granby
self-dumping type and hauled by storage-battery motors to the main
ore way si The ore is drawn through the ore ways into 10-ton cars
and hauled by electric motors to the mill, which is 6,000 feet from
the portal of the tunnel.
78425°— 17 3
32 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
The mill was designed to treat 6,000 tons of ore per day, but is
capable of handling 25 to 50 per cent more than the original plans
called for. The cars are dumped four at a time by a revolving tipple,
the oversize from the grizzlies passes through gyratory and jaw
crushers and unites with the undersize in a 10,000-ton storage bin
cut in the solid rock. From this bin it is conveyed by a belt con-
veyor to the mill and distributed by a second conveyor to the ore bins.
From these it passes to large rolls and impact screens, the oversize
being returned by automatic self-dumping skips to the first set of
mill bins and the undersize passing to a second set of bins to be
drawn into smaller rolls and impact screens, also set in a closed
circuit. From the last-mentioned bins the dry pulp is drawn to
double-deck Garfield tables, where it is concentrated, reground in
tube mills, and passed to Wilfley tables, the concentrate going to the
re-treating plant. One of the noteworthy features of the mill is the
independence of each unit, the bins being so arranged that stopping
one unit of the mill does not affect another unit until the bins between
Power for the mine and mill is supplied from several sources. At
the mine a small hydroelectric plant furnishes power from the water
of Gold and Survey Creeks. Also, a large reservoir and hydroelectric
plant have been constructed on Salmon Creek, about 4 miles from
Juneau. The dam, which is of the radial arch type, is 165 feet in
height and 720 feet in length along the crest. The water-storage
capacity permits the delivery of 6,000 horsepower the year around.
Another plant is under construction on Annex Creek, a tributary to
Taku Inlet, that will have an initial capacity of 4,000 horsepower
and an ultimate capacity of 12,000 horsepower.
ALASKA GOLD BELT MINING CO.
The Alaska Gold Belt Mining Co. is developing the Nelson-Lott
group of claims at the head of Sheep Creek Basin, about 5 miles
southeast from Juneau. A crosscut is being driven to intersect the ore
bodies, and plans have been made for the erection of mine buildings
and a reduction plant.
ALASKA-JUNEAU GOLD MINING CO.
The Alaska-Juneau Gold Mining Co., which owns the Alaska
Juneau mine in Silver Bow Basin, about 3 miles from Juneau, is
under the same management as the Treadwell properties on Douglas
The ore body is a large fissured zone in metagabbro and slate
traversed by a network of quartz lenses and veinlets. The ore first
mined was treated in a 30-scamp mill near the upper workings until
the value of the ore had been fully determined. The grade of ore
having been found satisfactory, a 6,538-foot tunnel was driven to cut
MINES AND DISTRICTS. 33
the ore body and an incline raise was driven through to the surface.
From these workings the mine has been opened to supply a mill that,
when completed, will have a capacity of from 6,000 to 8,000 tons per
day. From the mouth of the Gold Creek tunnel a tram which passes
through several smaller tunnels has been run along the hillside over-
looking the town of Juneau to the pilot plant on the shore of Gas-
tineau Channel. With this plant experiments were conducted to
determine the advisability of wholesale or selective mining. From
some of the stopes all of the ore drawn was run-of-mine, whereas
from others the quartz was thrown into cribbed chutes and the waste
used for filling. A new mill is now being constructed.
ALASKA-TKEADWELL GOLD MINING CO.
The Treadwell group of mines is situated on the northeast side of
Douglas Island, about 2^ miles southeast of the city of Juneau, which
is located on the mainland on the other side of Gastineau Channel.
The group consists of four mines, which, beginning at the northwest
end, are as follows: Treadwell, Seven Hundred Foot, Mexican, and,
with a 2,000-foot interval, Beady Bullion. Three separate companies
work these mines, as follows : Alaska Treadwell Gold Mining Co., the
Treadwell mine; Alaska Mexican Gold Mining Co., Mexican mine;
Alaska United Gold Mining Co., Seven Hundred Foot and Eeady
As regards operation, these mines may be considered one enter-
prise, and steps have been taken to consolidate the stocks of the
various companies into one corporation.
The ore on Douglas Island occurs in two separate and distinct
dikes of albite-diorite, a deep-seated intrusive rock related to the
so-called granites which form the backbone of the coast range of
mountains. The ore dikes lie between a hanging wall of metagabbro,
or greenstone, and a footwall of black slate. The ore contains occa-
sional horses of schist. The larger of the two dikes provides the ore
of the Treadwell, Mexican, and Seven Hundred Foot mines, and be-
low the 750- foot level the workings of the three mines are prac-
tically continuous. The Ready Bullion dike lies about 2,000 feet
southeast of the end of the Treadwell-Mexican dike and its extent is
much smaller. However, the character of the ore varies little from
place to place.
The mines are about 2,400 feet deep and the method used in mining
is the shrinkage system, or back-stoping in ore-filled stopes. Levels
are driven from the shafts at vertical intervals of about 110 to 200
feet. At an elevation of 25 feet above the level, stopes are cut the
full width of the ore, but vary in length from 60 to 100 feet. Pillars
25 feet thick are left between stopes. Chute raises are driven from
the levels into the bottom of the stopes. The broken ore is drawn
34 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
through these chutes and trammed to pockets at the shaft. When
the stopes have been cut out, back-stoping begins. The top of the
broken ore is kept about 7 feet below the back as the stope pro
gresses through to the level above. After the stope is finished the
broken ore is drawn and the pillars allowed to cave. It is often
possible to recover a large proportion of this caved ore.
The 2-ton cats in which the ore goes to the shaft pockets are hauled i
by horses, storage-battery locomotives, gasoline locomotives, or sta-
tionary tram engines with endless rope. From the ore pockets at
the various shafts the ore is drawn into skips and hoisted to the
surface. The skips are dumped automatically, the ore falling into
gyratory crushers and thence to the various bins from which it goes
to the various mills.
The milling plant consists of five mills having a total of 930
stamps with 30 additional stamps under construction. The tonnage
treated is approximately 5,000 tons per day. The treatment is stamp-
ing, amalgamation, and concentration on Frue vanners. The con-
centrates, which amount to about 100 tons per day, are treated at the
cyanide plant. This plant also retorts the amalgam from the mills
and refines all of the bullion. The treatment at this plant is as
follows: Regrinding in tube mills in cyanide solution, agitation in
Pachuca tanks to dissolve the gold, filtering off the pulp, precipi-
tating the gold from the solution by means of zinc dust, and refin-
ing the precipitated gold bullion.
The total production to January 1, 1915, was 21,117,633 tons of
ore, which yielded $58,366,937.88, or $2.42 per ton of ore milled.
The number of men employed is about 1,300 and the average earning
capacity per man is $100 per month.
The power requirements of the operating companies are supplied
from four sources. The original and cheapest source is from water-
power wheels at the various mills and compressors. The water is
collected on Douglas Island by a system of dams, canals, ditches, and
pipe lines extending from Fish Creek. 14 miles northwest of Tread-
well, to Ready Bullion Creek, 3 miles southeast. Over 4,000 horse-
power is obtained from this source during the wet season. Up to
1910 the only other power available was supplied by direct-connected
steam engines, which were operated as alternatives for direct water
power. Ore hoisting is done by steam power only.
In 1910 electrification of the power system began, and as a result
the Sheep Creek hydroelectric plant, a flood-water plant having a
capacity of 2,500 kilowatts, and the Nugget Creek plant, having a
capacity of 3,000 kilowatts, were constructed. These plants are
situated on the mainland, the Sheep Creek plant being 4 miles south-
east of Juneau, and the Nugget Creek plant at the foot of Menden-
hall Glacier, 12 miles northwest of Juneau.
MINES AND DISTRICTS. 35
Electrical power is also generated by steam at the central power
plant at Treadwell. This plant contains four generators, each di-
rectly connected to a steam turbine running at a speed of 3,600 revo-
lutions per minute, and is used when the power supply from the
hydroelectric plants fails. The capacity of the plant when the power
is taken at Treadwell is equal to that of both the hydroelectric plants.
The present policy is to eliminate direct steam power where possible.
Crude oil is used under all boilers for generating steam for power
or heat. It is brought from California in tank ships and is stored at
Treadwell in eight tanks having a storage capacity of 180,000 barrels.
The annual consumption is a little over 200,000 barrels.
ALASKA TREASURE GOLD MINING CO.
Work has been continued intermittently at the Alaska Treasure
mine on Douglas Island, about 3 miles southeast from Treadwell. A
crosscut has been driven to cut the mineralized zone and a small
steam plant and a 5-stamp mill are situated near the beach.
ALGUNICAN DEVELOPMENT CO.
The Algunican Development Co. is operating the Jualin mine on
Johnson Creek, about 7 miles from Berners Bay. A crosscut has
opened three veins in diorite which strike about north 40° west, dip
60° to 90° northeast, and have an average width, as stoped, of about
5 feet. A compressor plant driven by water power has been in-
stalled, with additional mining machinery, and a deep crosscut is
being driven to tap the ore body. The crosscut is necessary because
the diorite is "blocky'" and the joints carry a considerable volume
of water which makes the expense of pumping prohibitive. The
property is equipped with a 10-stamp mill.
EAGLE RIVER MINING CO.
The Eagle River Mining Co. owns the Eagle River group of claims
at Amalga, about 7 miles from tidewater on the Lynn Canal, where
10 adit levels with connections for ore handling and ventilation have
been driven. The mine is equipped with a 20-stamp mill.
EBNER GOLD MINING CO.
The Ebner Gold Mining Co. continued exploration work at the
Ebner mine, which joins the Alaska-Juneau, in Silver Bow Basin.
The deep crosscut, begun a few years ago, was completed. Its total
length is 3,400 feet. This crosscut intersected the ore body under
the old workings, and over 8,000 feet of development work has been
done on the crosscut level.
A testing plant, consisting of five stamps, amalgamating plates,
Wilfley table, and regrinding apparatus, was installed, as well as a
12-drill two-stage Ingersoll-Rand compressor. . Power is furnished
by a Pelton wheel under a 480-foot head.
36 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
KENSINGTON MINING CO.
A few years ago the Kensington Mining Co. consolidated a num-
ber of claims in the neighborhood of Berners Bay, about GO miles
north of Juneau. One of the old mills was rehabilitated for use as |
a pilot plant and development advanced steadily. Sufficient progress
has been made to warrant the erection of a mill and a 500-ton
plant will probably be constructed during the coming season.
CHICHAGOF MINING CO.
The Chichagof mine is working a vein of high-grade gold quartz
in a shear zone in a graywacke. The company's claims, which are
on Klag Bay on the west coast of Chichagof Island, about 50 miles
north of Sitka, embrace the original Chichagof mine and the adjoin-
ing Golden Gate ground. The claims have been opened by a 4,000-
foot drift from which two shafts, one 840 feet and one 2,500 feet
from the tunnel mouth, have been sunk 800 feet on the ore. A 634-
foot raise has been driven from this drift to the Golden Gate work-
ings to provide an ore way and ventilation. Eight levels have been
opened from the first incline and six from the second, and at the
face of the main drift there is approximately 1,800 feet of backs.
There are two mills on the ground, the Chichagof and the Golden
Gate. In the former, which contains 20 stamps, the crushed ore from
the batteries passes over plates to a tube mill, from which it goes to
a second set of plates, thence to Diester tables, and finally is treated
by flotation. In the Golden Gate mill there are 10 stamps and the
battery pulp, after flowing over amalgamating plates, is treated on
PACIFIC COAST GYPSUM CO.
The Gypsum mine of the Pacific Coast Gypsum Co., which is situ-
ated at Gypsum, on Chichagof Island, is connected to ore bunkers
at tidewater by a railroad 1 mile long. The mine is opened by a
shaft from which levels have been driven and raises made to the
surface for ventilation. The stopes, which alternate with pillars, are
worked on the full-breast system, only enough of the broken ore
being drawn through the chute to give working room between the
ore and the roof. The ore is shipped to the company's plant at
The Kenai Peninsula, Alaska Peninsula, Cook Inlet, Matanuska
and Susitna Rivers, Prince William Sound, and the Copper River
MINES AND DISTRICTS. 37
Basin constitute the principal mining districts throughout south-
By far the most important output from these districts was the
copper ore from the Copper River Basin and Prince William
Sound, although a number of small lode-gold properties were in
operation and considerable placer gold taken out. A dredge was in-
stalled near Hope at the head of Turnagain Arm.
COPPER RIVER DISTRICT.
ALASKA CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO.
Development work was continued under bond on the property of
the Alaska Consolidated Copper Co. on Nugget Creek, a tributary
of the Kuskulana. It was planned to install a compressor and power
plant and equip the property with proper mining machinery during
GREAT NORTHERN DEVELOPMENT CO.
The assessment work only was done on the Great Northern Devel-
opment Co. property on Clear Creek, a tributary of the Kuskulana
HUBBARD-ELLIOTT COPPER CO.
Development was continued at the property of the Hubbard-
Elliott Copper Co., on Elliott Creek, a tributary of the Kotsina.
KENNECOTT COPPER CORPORATION.
The Kennecott Copper Corporation is operating two mines, the
Bonanza and the Jumbo, and developing a number of other claims in
the Copper River district. The mines are close together and about
3 miles from the concentrator at the terminal of the. Copper River
& North Western Railroad. Both are connected with the concen-
trator by Bleichert aerial tramways.
The ore at each of the properties is largely chalcocite, with smaller
amounts of covelite and copper carbonates. It occurs in irregular
bodies and veinlets in a limestone.
The Jumbo is opened by a shaft inclined 33°, and the Bonanza
by a crosscut and inclined shaft of approximately the same angle.
Both shafts are down to the seventh level, the stations being 100 feet
apart vertically. The ore bodies are irregular, so no one system of
mining is followed, but in each part of the mine the system that
seems the best fitted for the work is utilized. The hanging wall being
extremely hard, the larger bodies are worked off in benches, whereas
at the surface workings of the Bonanza the first large ore body was
38 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
mined through a " glory hole.'* The ventilation throughout most of
the mine is natural, although in advanced workings the air is forced
through a 9-inch pipe with 6-inch splits.
The Jumbo tramway, which was completed this year, is 16,600 feet
long, has 19 towers, 3 break-overs, and 3 tension stations. The track
cable on the loaded side is 1% inches in diameter, the one on the
empty side is 1 inch, and the haulage cable is $ inch in diameter.
The buckets have a capacity of 6 cubic feet, and the tram has a
capacity of 25 tons per hour when running at a speed of 500 feet per
The company provides excellent living quarters for the men, with
pool, billiard, and reading rooms, at each of the properties and at the
A new leaching plant to treat the carbonate ore has been installed
this season, though all of the details of the process have not been
finally determined. A flow sheet of the concentrator is shown in
MOTHER LODE COPPER MINES CO.
The property of the Mother Lode Copper Mines Co. is about 1$
miles from the Kennecott Bonanza mine and 14 miles from Mc-
Carthy, a station on the Copper River & North Western Railroad.
A wagon road has been graded to the railroad, and considerable ore
has been shipped each winter while sledding was good. The property
has been opened by a crosscut and an inclined shaft on the ore, which
is largely chalcocite. A • 7,000-foot tramway has been built from
the mine to the bunkers on McCarthy Creek, and plans have been
completed for the installation of more machinery and a concentrator.
PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND.
More interest in mining was manifested in the Prince William
Sound district' this year than for a number of seasons, owing to the
high price of copper. The producing mines worked to full capacity,
and shipments were resumed at a number of properties where only
assessment work had been done for a few years. The tramway from
the Midas mine to the beach was completed, and the new concentrator
at Latouche was put in continuous operation.
ALASKA MINES CORPORATION.
The Alaska Mines Corporation has taken over the Schlosser prop-
erty on Fidalgo Bay, formerly operated by the Fidalgo- Alaska Cop-
per Co. The 2,800-foot aerial tram was repaired and new accom-
modations for the men provided. Underground development opened
several bodies of chalcopyrite.
BUREAU OF MINES
BULLETIN 142 PLATE I
1, 2, two 20-foot settling tanks ; 3,
4, two Bleichert aerial trams ; 5,
grizzly, bars spaced 2i inches apart ;
6', 13-inch by 24-inch Buchanan
crusher ; 7, 20-inch belt conveyor ; 8,
1.200-ton storage bin; U, 30-inch belt
conveyor, inclination 1S°, speed 35 r.
p. m. ; 10, electric belt weigher ; 11,
00-inch Snyder sampler, cuts out 1/20
part for sample ; 12, shaking screen,
1 i -inch holes, for sorting free min-
eral ; 13, 36-inch Symons disk crusher ;
14, 16-inch bucket elevator, 70 feet,
center to center of pulleys, with 14-
inch by 7-iuch by 52-inch cups ; 15,
48-inch by lOS-inch trommel, with
round holes 18 mm. in diameter; 16,
4S-inch by lOS-inch trommel, with round
holes 11 mm. in diameter; 27, bull jig;
18, double, three-compartment Harz jig ;
19, one set of 36-inch by 16-inch Tray-
lor rolls ; 20, 4S-inch by lOS-inch trom-
mel with round holes 1 mm. in diam-
eter ; 21, 25-foot Hancock jig; 22, 14-
inch elevator ; 23, Esperanza drag
classifier ; 24, simplex Callow screen ;
25, Callow tank ; 26, single-spigot
classifier ; 21, 2S, two one-compartment
Harz jigs ; 20, three-spigot Richards
classifier ; 30, Esperanza dewaterer ; 32,
one set of 36-inch by 16-inch Traylor
rolls ; 33, 34, two No. 6 Wilfley tables ;
85, 36, 37, 3S, 39, five No. 6 Wilfley
tables; 40, Wilfley table; J,l, .',2, J,3,
three James sand tables ; 4-h 2-inch
centrifugal pump; J f 5, 4$, 41, 48, four
6-inch Callow tanks ; -}9, Esperanza
dewaterer ; 50, 51, 52, three Deister
slime tables ; 53, 54, two James slime
tables ; 55, 2-inch centrifugal pump ;
56, 5-inch by 8-inch dewatering tank ;
57, 6-inch Frue vanner ; 58, 59, two
Deister slime tables ; 60, 61, 62, con-
centrating bins ; 63, 64, 65, three con-
centrate settling tanks ; 66, overflow
tank; 67, 68, two 250-gallon per min-
ute triplex pumps for returning mill
overflows to upper settling tanks.
t,^ V 68 i i — -
FLOW SHEET OF KENNECOTT CONCENTRATING PLANT.
78425—17. (To face page 38.)
MIXES AND DISTRICTS. 39
BIG FOUR MINE.
Only the assessment work was done on the Big Four property
on Brevier, a tributary of Mineral Creek.
The Cliff mine has been taken over by the owner, H. E. Ellis,
and work has been resumed on the Mystic No. 1 claim. The ore
was trammed to the mill, which was run intermittently. The mill is
equipped with a 6-stamp Nissen plant, six concentrating tables, and
three boilers totaling 200 horsepower.
ELLAMAR MINING CO.
The Ellamar Mining Co. works the Ellamar mine at Ellamar, on
the eastern shore of Virgin Bay, about 20 miles southwest of Valdez.
The mine is opened on seven levels from a three-compartment, ver-
tical shaft 600 feet deep, crosscuts being driven from the shaft to the
ore. A cofferdam has been constructed about the outcrop to prevent
the mine from being flooded at high tide. The ore body, which on the
200-foot level is about 250 feet long and over 50 feet wide, fills a frac-
ture zone in sedimentary rocks, chiefly slates. The principal levels
have been worked as an open-cut and the lower levels by the shrinkage
system. As all of these stopes have been emptied and as considerable
ore remained on the walls and in the pillars, a system of filling has
been introduced by which the old openings are cribbed and filled and
the adjoining ore bodies- mined. Crosscuts have been run in the hang-
ing wall and raises driven to obtain waste rock with which the levels
are filled as the cribs are built up. The ore is then mined and dropped
through cribbed chutes to the level below. After being hand sorted
the ore is stored in bins, from which it is loaded by an aerial
tramway directly to ships. The ore is mined largely for its copper
content, although it contains a high percentage of iron and some gold.
FIDALGO MIXING CO.
The Fidalgo Mining Co. owns a group of 24. lode claims on the
southeastern shore of Fidalgo Bay.
The ore, chiefly chalcopyrite, lies in a sheared zone through slate,
graywacke, and greenstone, that strikes northwest and dips 67° north-
east. Two drifts connected by a raise have been driven, the upper
one being 130 feet long and the lower one 450 feet long. A 50-ton
ore bin has been built at the mine and is connected with a 500-ton bin
at the wharf by a 2,000-foot aerial tram.
40 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
GALENA HAY MINING CO.
The assessment work was the only development reported at the
Galena Bay mine, on the ridge between Galena and Boulder Bays.
GRANBY CONSOLIDATED MINING, SMELTING & POWER CO.
The Granby property is situated near the head of Solomon Gulch,
just across the bay from Valdez. Owing to the war in Europe, it
was difficult for the company to obtain ships to convey ore from the
Midas mine to the company's smelter at Anyox, on the Portland
Canal, so that only a small amount of work was done at the mine
other than advancing the drifts and completing the tramway.
The ore is principally chalcopyrite, in a quartz and pyritic gangue.
The ore body strikes nearly east and west and dips 45° north; it
varies from 1 to 20 feet in width, with an average of approximately
4| feet, and has been opened by three drifts with crosscuts and raises,
giving over 200 feet of backs. An aerial tramway, 5^ miles long,
with a capacity of 20 tons per hour, connects the mine and wharf.
The track cable on the loaded side is 1% inches in diameter; the one
on the empty side is f- inch in diameter, with a -£-inch haulage
rope. The cable system is driven by a 30-horsepower Foos gas en-
gine. The bunkers on the wharf have a capacity of 3,000 tons and
load directly on ocean-going vessels with a belt conveyor, which is
driven by a 15-horsepower Fairbanks-Morse gas engine.
GOLD KING MINE.
The Gold King mine, which has been operated under bond by the
Gold King Mining Co., was taken over by the oridginal owners and
worked in a small way, the mill being run for a short time during
the summer. The property is situated near the head of one of the
eastern arms of the Columbia Glacier.
GRANITE GOLD MINING CO.
The Granite Gold Mining Co. is working the Granite mine, which
is about a mile from the beach at Hobo Bay, on Port Wells. An
oil-burning steam plant was installed in 1915 on the beach to generate
electric power to replace the gasoline-driven equipment formerly used
at the mine and mill. The plant contains two 80-horsepower boilers,
a steam engine, and a 160-kilowatt generator.
The vein is 1| to 8 feet wide, the average width being approximately
26 inches. Its strike is irregular and the dip is roughly 45° north.
The fissure cuts a slate-granite contact, so that the walls are variable.
The mine is opened with a crosscut and a shaft. A second crosscut
has been driven on the mill level, 125 feet below the upper workings,
and a raise put up on the vein to connect with the shaft. This pro-
MINES AND DISTRICTS. 41
vides ventilation and an ore way to the mill level. To the original
7-foot Lane mill have been added 10 stamps driven by a 60-horse-
power motor. The battery pulp from both mills passes over amal-
gamating plates to tables, the tailing being impounded for future
CAMERON-JOHNSON GOLD MINING CO.
The Cameron-Johnson property is about 10 miles from Valdez.
near the head of one of the arms of the Shoup Glacier. No work was
done in 1915 except the assessment work.
KENNECOTT COPPER CORPORATION.
The Beatson Copper Co., working the Beatson-Bonanza mine at
Latouche, on Latouche Island, is now part of the Kennecott Copper
Corporation, which owns the Kennecott mine on Copper River and
the Braden mine in Chile.
The ore body, a large lenticular deposit of chalcopyrite, in a slate
and graywacke gangue, has been mined through a " glory hole " and
stopes. A main tunnel, with crosscuts, opened the ore body on the
level of the bunkers, and approximately 140 feet above this, the open
cut, roughly 400 by 100 feet, is worked in benches. The ore is blasted
into chutes, " bulldozed," and drawn out on the bunker level. Part
of the ore is mined by stopes from the main level, a shrinkage system
being employed. Below this level a shaft has been sunk 100 feet and
drifts started, but no stopes have been opened on these drifts. A new
power plant and concentrator, employing a flotation process, has been
completed during the past season. Crude oil is used for fuel in the
power plant, which contains three 305-horsepower boilers and two
500-kilowatt turbo generators. A seven-drill, two-stage compressor
furnishes air for the machines in the mine.
LANDLOCK BAT COPPER CO.
The Landlock Bay Copper Co. owns a group of seven lode claims
on the south side of Landlock Bay. The ores occupy shear zones in
slate, graywacke, and " greenstone." On the west side of the ridge,
on which the claims are located, two crosscuts have intersected the
ore, on which shallow winzes have been sunk. A wharf and 800-ton
bunkers have been constructed near the entrance to the lower crosscut,
which is about 80 feet above sea level.
MINERAL. KING MINING CO.
The Mineral King mine, of the Mineral King Mining Co., is a mile
east of Bettles Bay, on Port Wells. Only assessment work was done
42 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
There are three veins on the property, but except for a few open
cuts the exploration work has been confined to one. This vein, which
cuts a slate-gray wacke series, strikes north 40° west and dips 53°
northeast, and varies from 6 inches to 4 feet in width, with an aver-
age of 18 inches. A shaft has been sunk 110 feet on the ore, and
drifts run on the vein about 200 feet from the 100-foot point. The
mine, which is at an elevation of 700 feet, is equipped with a
16-horsepower boiler and a 12-horsepower hoist. A mill site has been
staked on the flat near tide where water power is available for power.
MOUNTAIN KING MINE.
The only work done at the Mountain King mine, on Mineral Creek,
by the owners during 1915, was the assessment work.
RAMSAY-RUTHERFORD MINING CO.
The Ramsay-Rutherford Mining Co. is working high-grade gold
ore located about 11 miles northeast of Valdez. The claims are situ-
ated on a ridge east of the main Valdez Glacier, at an elevation of
about 3,500 feet. A crosscut was completed this year, tapping the
ore on the mill level, and a raise driven to the workings above where
several short levels had been opened.
At the mill the ore passes over a H-inch grizzly, the oversize going
to a 7-inch by 9-inch Blake crusher, driven by a 10-horsepower Foos
gasoline engine. From the bins the ore is fed to a five-stamp Hendy
mill by a Challenge feeder and is crushed to 40-mesh size. The
stamps weigh 1,000 pounds each, have a 6-inch drop, and fall about
110 times per minute. The pulp flows from amalgamating plates to
a Deister table, which is driven by a 3-horsepower gasoline engine.
Power is furnished for the stamps by a 20-horsepower Foos engine.
Another 20-horsepower Foos engine drives a 9 by 11 inch compressor
to furnish air for the stopers underground.
SEALET-DAVIS MINING CO.
The Sealey-Davis Mining Co. owns a group of 13 lode claims,
bordering on the eastern shore of Shoup Bay, about 14 miles from
Valdez. The vein, which cuts a slate-gray wacke series, and has an
average width of about 42 inches, strikes north 50° west and dips
61° southwest. It has been opened by a 60-foot open cut, two drifts,
and a crosscut, giving a total depth of about 450 feet on the vein.
THOMAS-CUXROSS MINING CO.
The Thomas-Culross Mining Co. is developing a group of claims
at Thomas Bay, but did little more than the assessment work during
MINES AND DISTRICTS. 43
THREE MAN MINING CO.
The Three Man Mining Co. owns about 40 lode claims tributary to
Landlock Bay. The main group, known locally as the Dickey claims,
is at the head of the bay, the Alaska Commercial group is a little
to the west of these, and the Montezuma group is on the Copper
The ore bodies at the Dickey group lie in shear zones in a slate-
graywacke-" greenstone " series, have a general west-northwest strike,
and dip 45° to 90° north. They have been opened on five levels,
with over 2,000 feet of development. The ore is carried on a short
jig-back aerial tram from the lower openings to the bunkers on the
wharf. The bunkers have a capacity of 800 tons.
The amount of mining on the Kenai Peninsula was about the same
during 1915 as in 1914, the operations being mostly on a compara-
tively small scale. The Kenai-Alaska Gold Co. operated its mill
during part of the year and continued development work under-
ground. Some work was done on the Gilpatrick property by outside
parties who have a bond on the mine, and the assessment work was
done on the Primrose, Scheen-Lechner, Moose Pass, Grant Lake,
Blue Bell, and a number of other smaller prospects. A dredge was
also installed by Charles Herron on the Six-Mile River near Hope.
WILLOW CREEK (SUSITNA DRAINAGE).
ALASKA FREE GOLD MINING CO.
The group of 16 lode claims, owned by the Alaska Free Gold Min-
ing Co. and leased by William Martin, of Seattle, is situated near the
head of Fishhook Creek, on the southern side of the Willow Creek
Valley, about 35 miles from Knik.
Several veins have been opened by cuts and short drifts from
which the ore is carried to the mill over two aerial tramways. The
largest vein is 3 to 10 feet wide, strikes north 20° west and dips
about 40° southwest. Both the hanging and the foot walls are blocky
quartz-ore diorite which is cut by numerous small quartz stringers
containing gold. The mill, 1,800 feet below the mine, is connected
to the main mine bunkers by a 2,250- foot span, and these are in turn
connected to the mine by a 1,100-foot span. Both tramways are of
the jig-back type, using buckets with a capacity of 450 to 500 pounds.
The track cables are five-eighths inch in diameter and the pull-back
cable is one-fourth inch in diameter.
The mill contains two 10-foot slow-speed Lane mills, run at a
speed of eight revolutions per minute, the size of the discharge
44 MINING 1NDUSTBY IN ALASKA DUBING 1915.
product being regulated by the height of discharge and flow of
water. Power is furnished by a 10-inch turbine under a 30- foot head
and two gasoline engines of 15 and 25 horsepower, respectively. The
pulp flows over Wilfley tables to a cyanide plant, which was erected
INDEPENDENCE MINING CO.
The Independence Mining Co. is operating the mine formerly con-
trolled by the Alaska Gold Quartz Mining Co. The mine joins the
Free Gold mine on Fishhook Creek.
There are two veins known as the Granite Mountain and the Inde-
pendence in a quartz-diorite. The Granite Mountain strikes north
20° west and dips 16 to 17° southwest, and varies from 2 inches to 4
feet in width, with an average of about 18 inches. The Independence
vein strikes parallel to that of the Granite Mountain, but dips
more steeply, between 28° and 42° southwest, and averages 30 inches
in width. The ore is conveyed to the mill by two jig-back aerial
tramways, which have five-eighths inch track and one-fourth inch
haulage cables, the buckets holding about 450 pounds of ore.
The mill contains one Nissen 1,000-pound stamp and a battery of
three 350-pound stamps. Power is furnished by a Pelton wheel
under a 110-foot head.
GOLD BULLION MINE.
The Gold Bullion mine, under bond to Hugh Doheny and L. C.
Tomson, of Montreal, Quebec, is on the divide between Willow and
Craigie Creeks, about 33 miles from Knik. The vein is a high-grade
gold-bearing quartz in a blocky quartz-diorite. Its width, strike,
and dip are irregular, though the larger stopes are so flat that all of
the ore has to be shoveled.
The ore is conveyed by car and short aerial trams from several
openings to the mine bunkers, from there by a jig-back aerial tram
to an intermediate bin, and thence by a second jig-back aerial tram
to the mill. The tram from the mine bunkers to the intermediate bin
is one 1,200-foot span with f-inch track and £-inch haulage cables
with 400-pound buckets. The lower tram is 3,600 feet long and has
seven towers. The track cable is 1 inch in diameter, and the haulage
cable is $ inch, with 700-pound buckets.
At the mill the ore passes over a 1^-inch grizzly and through a
7-inch by 9-inch jaw crusher to the bins, whence it is fed to a five-
stamp and a two-stamp battery. The stamps in both batteries weigh
1,050 pounds each, have a drop of 6£ inches, and fall 100 times per
minute. The pulp flows over amalgamating plates, Wilfley tables,
and canvas, and then to a sand-leaching plant, where it receives a
four-day treatment. The concentrate is shipped to the Tacoma
ACCIDENTS AT MINES, QUARRIES, AND DREDGES. 45
ACCIDENTS AT MINES, QUARRIES, AND DREDGES IN ALASEA
In and about the mines, quarries, and dredges of the Territory,
between 7,000 and 8,000 persons are employed, over 50 per cent of
whom are at the lode mines. On account of the great distances to be
traveled and the time necessary for visiting all of the mines, an
accurate count of all employees and accidents is at present impos-
sible. During 1915 there were 22 fatalities (see Table 1, p. 46) in
all branches of the mining industry, which would give a death ratio
of about 3 per 1,000 employees. It is manifestly unfair to compute
the death ratio on this basis, as most of the lode mines are in opera-
tion during the entire year, whereas the season for the placer mines
and dredges is between four and six months.
It has been impossible with the available resources to obtain
accurate data on accidents in the placer mines except fatal accidents,
but for the lode mines fairly complete statistics are at hand. In 28
lode mines, employing 3,617 men, both underground and on the sur-
face, there were reported 18 fatal, 97 serious, and 415 slight accidents
underground and in shops. On the basis of these figures the rates
per 1,000 men employed at lode mines are as follows : Fatalities, 4.98;
serious accidents underground and in shops, 26.74; slight accidents
underground and in shops, 114.74.
In addition there were 22 serious and 51 slight injuries at mills
and metallurgical plants at which 520 men were employed. The
accident ratios at the mills were therefore 42.31 per 1,000 men em-
ployed for serious and 98.08 for slight injuries.
There were four fatalities in the placer mines. There are approxi-
mately 3,500 men in the placer mines and on the dredges, and, assum-
ing that each man in a year averages six months' employment, prob-
ably a high figure, the fatality rate would be 2.29 per 1,000 men
employed. This ratio compares favorably with 4.98 for the lode
mines, especially if the intermittent character of the work is taken
Eight men were killed by falls of rock in lode mines. This num-
ber was nearly 50 per cent of the total number of fatalities at such
mines and indicates the care needed to prevent falls. Constant
vigilance by both men and bosses is necessary. Every man going on
shift should make sure that his working place is safe, regardless
of what the men in the off-coming shift or the foreman has said.
With the limited information available, the accidents can not be
classified so as to show which were preventable, but it is certain that
a large proportion of them might have been avoided through the
use of proper caution by the men and the mine officials.
Tables 1 to 3 contain statistics on accidents at mines, quarries, and
dredges in Alaska during 1915.
MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1015.
Table 1. — Fatalities inside and outside the mines, quarries, and
Name of person.
Peter Erickson .
Ralph Maritini .
John Canale .
Louis Tabacovich .
Andro Del Castel . .
John C. Byard.
Edw. Shanda . .
Italian . . .
Italian . . .
Laborer. . .
ACCIDENTS AT MIXES, QUARRIES, AND DREDGES.
dredges in the Territory of Alaska during the calendar year 1915.
Name of company and mine.
Nature and cause of accident.
Ed. Hearn, No. 5, below Tenderfoot •
Alaska United Gold Mining Co., Ready !
Beatson Copper Co., Bonanza
Alaska Treadwell Gold Mining Co.,
Alaska-Gastineau Mining Co., Perse-
Pacific Coast Gypsum Co., Gypsum. . .
GranbyConsolidated Mg., Sm. & P. Co.
U. S. Smelting & Refining Co., Ebner.
Ellamar Mining Co., Ellamar.
Attempted to climb out of shaft without signaling engineer.
He either fell or was knocked off the ladder by a descending
Fell down shaft while prospecting.
Fell down shaft on Seventy-Mile Creek.
Spine broken by slab falling from the roof.
Hasselberg had crossed the stope and was approaching a
machine when a slab fell, breaking his leg and injuring him
internally. He died the following day.
While Bonar was working in a drift, a small rock dropped. It
is supposed that in trying to escape he stumbled and fell, as
the rock did not strike ham. Physician pronounced death
due to heart failure.
Injured by fall of roof while barring down'loose rock in a stope.
Opitz had gone for powder. On returning across stope he set
the box on a muck pile. While stooping over to take powder
out of the box, a rock fell from the roof, fatally injuring him.
Three men were sinking a shaft. Two went below while the
third was to lower some planks. Maritini stood in bottom
of shaft instead of in drift and was bit by plank which slipped
Milke drilled into a missed hole in a bowlder.
Canale and two others, working in open cut, had loaded three
holes, lit them, and gone to place of safety. Two reports
were heard. Canale said he had not lighted his fuse and
returned, when blast exploded and killed him.
While working in a stope, rock fell and crushed right leg.
Taken to Valdez, 30 miles, to physician; lost so much blood
en route that he was unable to withstand amputation of leg.
Crushed while crossing stope by rock falling from roof.
Two men had started a crosscut on the fifth level. They lit
the second round of holes and went in both directions along
the drift, leaving unguarded the manway from the sixth
level. Ujcich came up this manway and walked into blast.
Stevens and his partner fired a round in the shaft. They
returned to shoot a missed hole, gave blasting signal, but
before giving hoisting signal there was an explosion. Pre-
sumably powder caught fire, causing premature explosion.
Libbreck crawled up the chute to start the ore when the jar
from blasting in other parts of the mine started the ore, which
crushed him to death.
Tabacovich, who was working night shift in the "glory hole."
went to look for bis hat which had blown off. He slipped on
the snow and ice and fell 60 feet to the pit below.
Was drilling in stope when roof fell, burying him.
Moore was carrying chuck in stope when roof fell, burying him.
do Rogulj was walking along the level to get water; train was
coming from behind; foreman saw him and called to step
aside. He started for the manway, slipped, and fell in front
of trip, which crushed him.
Deceased was working at grading a mill site. Without warn-
ing a slide fell from the cliff, completely burying him.
Went under hoist to adjust machinery. * Engineer asked if he
was in safe place; reply affirmative. Hoisted, put on reverse,
heard cry, stopped. Injured crushed by counterweight when
reverse was thrown.
Alaska United G. Mng. Co., 700-Foot. ..
Alaska-Gastineau Mining Co., Perse-
Alaska Mexican Gold Mining Co.,
Alaska United Gold Mng. Co., 700-Foot.
Kennecott Copper Corporation., Beat-
Alaska-Gastineau Mining Co., Perse-
Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co., Alaska
Juneau Mill Site.
Alaska Mexican Gold Mining Co
MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
Table 2.-Accidents m Alaska mem mines during the year ended December
Number killed or injured by—
1. Fall of rock or ore from roof or wall
I T&lSSW^^ at WOT ^"<^ °'"ci.ut.e
5 - Ha t u c la , ge s y steI » (mine cars," m'm'e' locomotives! br'i
6. Falling down chute,' winze,' raise," or'stope
I' £ tm 1 .°' ore from chute or pocket.
9.' Ei r ictridty cidents (by raachlne or iand ' aViiis).'; ; :
ll' Muie^r^ 7 (0t * er *^ an ' oco ™ otive s or drills) ." ! ! ! !
12. Suffocation from natural eases
13. Inrush of water
14. Nails, splinters, etc
15. Other causes
Total number killed or injured underground.
Number killed or injured by—
16. Falling down shafts
ll' Sheets falling down shafts
18. Breaking of cables
19. Overwinding "
20. Skip.cage, or bucket!!!!!!
21. Other causes
Total number killed or injured by shaft accidents
(At surface yards and shops.)
Number killed or injured by—
| S^eSSS/SSKSSf ' ""^ or aerial *■»■
£ F a u .ro r fZ on° s r . ein or frora «"^v::::::::::;::::::
26. Nails, splinters, etc. .
ol' ¥. an ? * ools > axes > ba rs, etc. ."."
29. Machinery _"."..'
30. Other causes. .!!!!!!!.!!!.
Total number killed or injured by surface accidents,
Number killed or injured in pit bv-
lo l! all f o rsl'desofrockorore....
35. Falls of persons
36. Falls of derricks, booms! etc"
«• S un u 0r fal1 of ore in or from ore bins"
40. Hand tools !
41. Other causes !!!!!.
TotalnumberMIledorinjured by open-pit accidents
Grand total a
&& 2IS.T2? Mt w !dows, 8.
mines, but does not include serious and slight
injuries. Complete data
Number of children under 16
years of age left fatherless, 9.
ACCIDENTS AT MINES, QUARRIES, AND DREDGES.
Table 3. — Accidents in Alaska metallurgical plants during the year ended
December SI, 1915.
ORE-DEESSING AND MILLING ACCIDENTS.
Number killed or injured by—
1. Haulage system (cars, motors, etc.)
2. Railway cars or locomotives
4. Rolls or stamps
5. Tables, jigs, etc
6. Other machinery
7. Falls of persons
B. Suffocation in ore bins
9. Falling objects (rocks, timbers, etc.)
10. Cyanide or other poisoning
11. Scalding (steam or water)
13. Hand tools, axes, bars, etc
14. Nails, splinters, etc
15. Flying pieces of rock from sledging or crusher .
16. Other causes
Total number killed or injured at mills.
DATA ON DREDGES.
Table 4 following shows the number of dredges operating in
Alaska during 1915, and various details of the construction and
operation of the dredges:
MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
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ffi > tie
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aTea beg 2-* g bpH SifSMfO
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ACCIDENTS AT MINES, QUARRIES, AND DREDGES.
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MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
Table 5. — Data on lode mines in Alaska, 1915.
Name of company.
Name of mine.
Alaska Free Gold Mining Co
Alaska-Gastineau Mining Co
Alaska Gold Belt Mining Co
Alaska Industrial Co
Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co
Alaska Mexican Gold Mining Co. . .
Alaska Treadwell Gold Mining Co.
Alaska Treasure Gold Mining Co. . .
Alaska United Gold Mining Co
Algunican Development Co
Chichagof Mining Co
Eagle River Mining Co
Ebner Gold Mining Co
Goodro Mining Co
Granby Con. M., S. & P. Co
Kensington Mining Co
Mount Andrew Iron & Copper Co.
Pacific Coast Gypsum Co
Princeton Mining & Milling Co
Ready Bullion mine
1700 Foot ,
It and Mamie..,
Rush & Brown.
B. L. Thane.
A. B. Dodd.
C. A. Sulzer.
P. R. Bradley.
P. R. Bradley.
H. G. Young.
J. R. Freeburn.
B. L. Thane.
S. J. Goodro.
B. L. Thane.
W. J. Rogers.
D. C. Stapleton.
B. A. Eardley.
U. S. Rush.
Alaska Consolidated Copper Co. .
Great Northern Development Co
Hubbard-Elliott Copper Co
Kennecott Copper Corporation...
Mother Lode Copper Mines Co. . .
Nugget Creek . . .
Alfred B. lies.
E. F. Gray.
A. J. Elliott.
W. B. Hahdcock.
PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND.
Alaska Mines Corporation Schlosser
Big Four mine Big Four
Cameron-Johnson Gold Mining Co Cameron-Johnson . . .
Cliff mine Cliff
Ellamar Mining Co Ellamar
Fildalgo Mining Co Fildalgo
Galena Bay Mining Co Galena Bay
Gold King mine Gold King
Granby Con. M., S. & P. Co., Ltd Midas
Granite Gold Mining Co Granite
Irish Cove Copper Co Irish Cove
Kennecott Copper Corporation Beatson-Bonanza . . .
Landlock Bay Copper Co Landlock Bay
Mineral King Mining Co Mineral King
Mountain Kmg mine Mountain King
Ramsay-Rutherford Mining Co Ramsey-Rutherford.
Sealey-Davis Mining Co Sealey-Davis
Thomas-Culross Mining Co Bugaboo
Three Man Mining Co Three Man
E. E. Reitter.
H. E. Ellis.
L. L. Middelkamp.
Geo. E. H. Smith.
W. R. Millard.
W. A. Dickey.
F. R. Van Campen.
W. A. Rystrom.
W. L. Smith.
E. C. Sealey-J. M.Davis.
W. A. Dickey.
Kenai-Alaska Gold Co
Porcupine Gold Mining Co.
Primrose Mining Co
J. R. Hayden.
J. R. Pringle.
WILLOW CREEK (SUSITNA DRAINAGE).
Alaska Free Gold Mining Co
Gold Bullion mine
Independence Mining Co
Alaska Free Gold . .
L. S. Robe.
MINE-INSPECTION LAWS OF ALASKA.
Table 5. — Data on lode mines in Alaska, 1915.
Name of company.
Name of mine.
American Eagle mine
Bond Holder mine
Chatham Mining Co
Homestake Mining Co
Newsboy Mining Co
Reliance Mining Co
Wyoming & Colorado mine.
Wyoming & Col
G. St. George.
MINE-INSPECTION LAWS OF ALASKA.
The following act (Session Laws of Alaska, 1913, chap. 72, p. 274)
relating to mine inspection in Alaska was passed by the Territorial
Legislature on April 30, 1913:
An Act to divide the Territory into mine inspection districts ; to establish the office of
mine inspector ; to prescribe the duties, powers, qualifications and compensation
thereof ; to regulate the operation of mines in the Territory of Alaska ; to provide
for the health, and safety of mine workers in the Territory ; to declare the violation
of any of the provisions hereof a misdemeanor and prescribing punishment therefor.
Be it enacted by the Legislature of the Territory of Alaska:
Section 1. As soon as practicable after the passage of this act, and not later
than the first day of April, nineteen hundred and fourteen, the Governor of
the Territory of Alaska shall appoint one qualified person to be inspector of
mines ; such inspector shall be known as the Territorial Mine Inspector, and
he shall be under the supervision and subject to the instructions of 'the Federal
mine inspectors now appointed as provided by law.
No person shall be appointed a mine inspector who shall not be a citizen
of the United States, and who has not been a resident of the Territory of
Alaska for at least three years. Every person appointed to the office of mine
inspector must be theoretically and practically acquainted with mines and
mining in all its branches, and he shall hold his office for the period of two
years unless sooner removed by the Governor. No person shall hold the posi-
tion of inspector of mines while an employee or officer of any company or cor-
poration. Each inspector of mines shall devote his entire time and attention
to the duties of his office, and the salary of each inspector shall be $2,500 per
annum, and he shall be allowed his actual and necessary traveling expenses
while in the performance of his duties under the provisions of this act and
such salary and expenses shall be paid monthly.
Sec. 2. It is the duty of the Territorial mine inspector to visit the mining
sections assigned to him by the Federal mine inspector or the governor of the
Territory, and examine as many mines therein as practicable, inspect their
workings, timbering, ventilation, means of ingress and egress, and the means
adopted and in use for the preservation of the lives and safety of the miners
employed therein. For this purpose the inspector at all times shall have access
to any mine and all parts thereof. All mine owners, lessees, lessors, agents,
operators, managers, or superintendents must render such assistance as may
be necessary to enable the inspector to make the examination. When upon
54 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
such examination any mine or portion thereof is found to ho in an unsafe or in-
secure condition, the inspector shall at once serve a notice iu writing upon the
owner, lessees, lessors, agent, operator, manager, or superintendent thereof,
setting forth the nature of the defects which render such mine unsafe or in-
secure and the point or place in such mine where such defect exists, and
requiring the repairs necessary to remedy such defects to be made within a
specified time, and, if in his judgment the circumstances so reqiure, he shall
forbid the operation of such mine or portion thereof as has been declared
unsafe or insecure, save and except for the purpose of making the repairs
necessary for the purpose of remedying such defects and making such mine
safe and secure for the laborers employed therein.
Sec. 3. Whenever the inspector of mines receives a complaint in writing
signed by three or more parties setting forth that any mine is dangerous in any
respect, the inspector must, as soon as possible, visit and examine such mine.
Every such complaint must set forth the nature of the danger existing at the
mine and (when) the time and cause of such danger was first discovered.
Sec. 4. If upon such examination the inspector of mines ascertains that the
mine is from any cause in a dangerous condition, he must at once notify the
owner, lessor, lessee, agent, manager, operator, or superintendent. Such notice
must state fully and in detail in what particular manner such mine is dan-
gerous or insecure, and require all necessary changes to be made without de-
lay, for the purpose of making such mine safe and secure for the laborers em-
ployed therein ; and in any criminal or civil proceeding at law against the
party or parties so notified, on account of loss of life or bodily injury sus-
tained by the employee subsequent to the service of such notice and in con-
sequence of a neglect to obey the inspector's requirements, a certified copy
of the notice served by the inspector is prima facie evidence of the gross negli-
gence of the party or parties so complained of. If the owner, lessee, lessor,
agent, operator, manager, or superintendent of any such mine shall neglect or
refuse to cause the repairs necessary to remedy such defect to be made within
a reasonable time, or shall refuse to cause work to be stopped when so ordered,
such party or parties shall be prosecuted criminally by the inspector.
Sec. 5. Whenever a serious or fatal accident occurs in any mine it is the
duty of the person in charge thereof to immediately notify the inspector of the
mining inspection district wherein such mines is located, in the quickest manner
possible, and upon receiving such notice the inspector of mines must, if possible,
at once repair to the place of accident and investigate fully the cause of such
accident, and whenever possible to do so the inspector shall be present at the
coroner's inquest held over the remains of the person or persons killed by such
accident and testify as to the cause thereof, and state whether, in his opinion,
the accident was due to the negligence or mismanagement of the owner or per-
son in charge. If the inspector can not be immediately present in case of a
fatal or serious accident occurring, it is the duty of the owner or person in
charge of the mine to have written statements made by those witnessing the
same and sworn to. In case no person was present at the time of the accident,
then the verified statement of those first present after the accident must be
taken and such statement must be forwarded to the inspector. If after making
such investigation the inspector deems the facts warrant it, he may prosecute
criminally the owner, lessee, lessor, agent, operator, manager, or superintendent
of the mine in which such accident occurred.
Sec. 6. Each inspector of mines must make a monthly report to the governor,
and the report must give a statement of all mines visited by him ; a statement
of all the accidents that have occurred in his inspection district which have
occasioned serious injury or resulted fatally, together with the nature and
MINE-INSPECTION LAWS OF ALASKA. 55
cause of such accidents. Such report shall ;ilso contain such additional in-
formation as the governor may require, and must set forth the result of the
Sec. 7. The provisions in this act do not apply to mines in which less than
six people are employed.
Sec. 8. Any person or corporation failing to comply with any of the pro-
visions of this act is punishable by a fine of not less than ,$25 nor more than
$500, or by imprisonment in the Federal jail not less than ten days nor more
than six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
The following amendment (Session Laws of Alaska, 1915, chap.
71, p. 130) was passed by the Territorial Legislature on April 29,
An Act to repeal section eight of chapter seventy-two of the Session Laws of Alaska for
nineteen hundred and thirteen entitled, " An Act to divide the Territory into mine
inspection districts ; to establish the office of mine inspector ; to prescribe the duties,
powers, qualifications, and compensation thereof ; to regulate the operation of mines
in the Territory of Alaska ; to provide for the health and safety of mine workers in
the Territory ; to declare the violation of any of the provisions hereof a misdemeanor
and prescribing punishment therefor," approved April thirtieth, nineteen hundred and
thirteen, to amend sections one and two thereof ; to add sections eight to thirty,
inclusive, prescribing further duties and powers for Territorial and Federal mine
inspectors ; and to repeal all acts and parts of acts inconsistent or in conflict herewith.
Be it enacted by the Legislature of the Territory of Alaska:
Sec. 1. That section eight of chapter seventy-two of the Session Laws of
Alaska for nineteen hundred and thirteen, entitled "An act to divide the Terri-
tory into mine inspection districts ; to establish the office of mine inspector ; to
prescribe the duties, powers, qualifications, and compensation thereof ; to regu-
late the operation of mines in the Territory of Alaska; to provide for the
health and safety of mine workers in the Territory; to declare the violation
of any of the provisions hereof a misdemeanor and prescribing punishment
therefor," approved April thirtieth, nineteen hundred and thirteen, be, and the
same hereby is, repealed.
Sec. 2. That section one (1) of said chapter seventy-two of the Session Laws
of Alaska for nineteen hundred and thirteen, be amended by striking out in
lines five, six, seven, and eight thereof the words " and he shall be under
the supervision and subject to the instruction of the Federal mine inspec-
tors now appointed as provided by law."
Sec. 3. That section two (2) of said chapter seventy-two of the Session Laws
of Alaska for nineteen hundred and thirteen, be amended by striking out in
line three (3) of said section the words " Federal mine inspector or the."
Provided, however, that the exercise of the jurisdiction of the Territorial mine
inspector or inspectors shall be subject to the revision and review of the
governor of the Territory of Alaska, and that through him an appeal may
be taken subject to the review and revision by the United States Bureau
Sec. 4. That the following sections be, and they are hereby, added to said
chapter seventy-two of the Session Laws of Alaska for nineteen hundred and
" Sec. 8. Definitions : That the term ' mine,' when used in this act, shall in-
clude any and all parts of any mine within the Territory, and any mining
plant or equipment connected therewith underground or on the surface, which
contributes, or may contribute, to the mining of ore, coal, or other metal-
liferous or nonmetalliferous mineral product.
56 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1015.
"That the term 'operator,' when used in this act, shall mean the person,
firm, association, company, or corporation in immediate possession of any
mine or mining claim, or accessories thereof, as owner or lessee thereof, and
as such, responsible for the management and condition thereof.
" That the words ' excavation ' and * workings,' when used in this act, signify
any or all parts of a mine excavated, including shafts, tunnels, entries, winzes,
raises, stopes, open-cuts, and all working places, whether abandoned or in use.
"Sec. 9. Jurisdiction of inspectors: That the jurisdiction of the mine in-
spectors shall cover all branches of mining, shaft sinking, tunneling, quarrying,
and dredging, and the machinery incident to the reduction of ores or the treat-
ment of the material : Provided, however, That such jurisdiction shall apply only
to the safety of the workers employed in such mining, shaft sinking, tunneling,
quarrying, and dredging, and around machinery incident to the reduction of
ores and treatment of the material: Provided, however, That the Territorial
mine inspector shall have no jurisdiction under this act over coal mines to be
worked under lease from the United States Government.
" Sec. 9£. The Federal mining inspector or inspectors shall have authority
in the absence of the Territorial mining inspector to enforce the provisions of
this act. In all such cases the Federal mining inspector shall report in detail
to the governor of the Territory of Alaska all cases wherein he has invoked
the aid of the Territorial mine inspection act.
" Sec. 10. Statistical records : That the mine inspector shall distribute blank
forms, requiring statistics of accidents, labor and production, or such other
information as the governor may require, which shall be filled in and returned
to the mine inspector's office, to be made and used under the same conditions
and restrictions as now required by the United States Geological Survey and
the United States Bureau of Mines by the persons in charge of mines or mine
workings, on or before the thirty-first day of December each year.
"Sec. 11. Sanitation: That in any working mine the inspector may require
a sufficient number of portable, water-tight privies to be provided for the
underground employees, such privies to be taken to the surface and cleaned
every twenty-four hours.
" Sec. 12. Guards for dangerous machinery : That any owner, lessee, agent,
operator, manager, or superintendent of any mine, mill, tunnel, shaft, quarry,
or metallurgical works, wherein laborers are employed or machinery used,
shall provide and maintain reasonable safeguards for all cogs, gearing, belting,
shafting, couplings, set screws, conveyors, vats, rolls, and machinery of other
or similar description, which it is practicable to guard, and which can be
effectively guarded with due regard to the ordinary use of such machinery
and appliances and to the employees therefrom, and with which the employees
of any such mine, mill, tunnel, shaft, quarry, dredge, or metallurgical works are
to come in contact while in the performance of their duties; and if any ma-
chinery or any part thereof is in a defective condition and its operation would
be extra hazardous because of such defect, or if any machinery is not safe-
guarded as provided for in this act, the use thereof is prohibited, and a notice
to that effect shall be attached thereto by the employer immediately upon receiv-
ing notice of such defect or lack of safeguard, and such notice shall not be
removed until such defect has been remedied or machine safeguarded as herein
" Sec. 13. Safety of shafts :
(a) That when any shaft is sunk on any vein or ore chute, or body of ore,
or any shaft sunk for the purpose of mining ore, a pillar of ground shall be
left standing on each side of the shaft, of sufficient dimensions to protect and
secure the same, and in no case shall stoping be permitted up to or within such
MINE-INSPECTION LAWS OP ALASKA. 57
proximity to the shaft as to render the same insecure, until such time as the
shaft is to be abandoned, when said pillar may be withdrawn.
(ft) All abandoned mine-shafts, pits, or other excavations, endangering the
life of man or beast, shall be securely covered or fenced.
"Sec. 14. Ladderways: That every shaft, winze, raise or incline of steeper
slope than forty degrees from the horizontal, and deeper than forty feet,
through which men are obliged to travel, shall be provided with a ladderway.
Suitable ladders, or footways, shall be provided to connect floors or sets in
stopes and other places requiring communication in mines. Every mine shall
have in addition to any mechanical means of ingress or egress, at least one
proper ladder or footway communicating from the lowest workings of the
mine to the surface.
That permanent ladderways, used for ascent or descent of persons in the
mine, shall be sufficiently strong for the purpose demanded, and shall be
firmly fastened and kept in good repair. In a vertical shaft, the mine in-
spector may, at his discretion, by an order in writing, direct that the ladder
shall be inclined at the most convenient angle which the space in which the
ladder is fixed allows, and every such ladder shall have a platform at intervals
of not more than fifty (50) nor less than twenty (20) feet. The said plat-
forms shall be closely covered, with the exception of any opening large enough
to permit the passage of a man, and shall be so arranged that by no means
could a person fall from one ladder through the opening to the next ladder.
This shall not apply to placer mines.
" Sec. 15. Passageways around shafts, guard rails for shaft stations, etc. :
That all stations or levels shall have a passageway around the working shaft
so that crossing over the hoisting compartments may be avoided. All sumps
shall be securely planked over. At all shaft stations a gate or guard rail
must be provided and kept in place across the shaft, except when cage, skip,
or bucket is being loaded ; but this prohibition shall not forbid the temporary
removal of the gate or rail for the purpose of repairs or other operations, if
the proper precautions to prevent danger to persons are taken. This shall
not apply to underground placer mining.
"Sec. 16. Hoisting of men or materials, (a) Hoisting engineers: That no
person addicted to the use of intoxicating liquors or drugs, or under the
age of eighteen years, shall be employed as a hoisting engineer.
(ft) Hoisting machinery: That all hoisting machinery, using steam, elec-
tricity, air, gasoline, or hydraulic motive power, for the purpose of hoisting
from, or lowering into, mines of employees and materials, except shafts not
exceeding three hundred (300) feet in depth, shall be equipped with an in-
dicator, said indicator to be placed near to and in clear view or hearing of
the engineer. This indicator must be in addition to the marks on the rope,
cable, or drum.
(c) Rate of hoisting speed: That it shall be unlawful to hoist men out
of or lower men into a mine at a speed greater than eight hundred (800)
feet per minute. When in running his engine at a speed greater than eight
hundred (800) feet per minute, an engineer violates the express order of
his employers, he, the engineer, shall be subject to the penalty herein provided.
(d) Ropes or cables used for hoisting: That all ropes or cables used for
hoisting purposes shall be of approved quality and manufacture: Provided,
That in shafts and winzes of over two hundred (200) feet in depth only
wire ropes or cables shall be used for hoisting purposes.
(e) Construction of headframes: That all headframes, where men are
hoisted in places where more than twenty-five (25) men are employed, shall
be so constructed as to allow at least twenty-five (25) feet above the hoist
58 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
lauding stage in which the cage, skip, or hucket can travel freely in case of
an overwind. The mine inspector may grant permission for the use of any
headframe, erected previous to the enactment of this law, which does not
comply with the above conditions. This shall not apply to placer mines.
(/) Safety cages: That it shall be unlawful for the operator of any mine
to permit the hoisting or lowering of men in any shaft deeper than three
hundred (300) feet, unless an iron-bonneted safety cage, equipped with gates
or doors, of sufficient size and strength to prevent a man falling onto the
timbers, be used: Provided, however, That this provision shall not apply to
shafts in the process of sinking. Every cage must have overhead bars of such
arrangement as to give every man on the cage an easy and secure handhold.
Every cage or skip used for hoisting men must be provided with a safety catch
or catches of sufficient strength to hold the cage or skip with its maximum
load at any point in the shaft in the event that the hoisting cable should break.
The inspector must see that all cages and skips are equipped in compliance
with this paragraph, and that on all cages the safety catches are kept well
oiled and in good working condition.
(g) Hoisting buckets, guides, and crossheads: That all vertical shafts, more
than two hundred (200) feet in depth, from which hoisting of men is done by
means of buckets, must be provided with suitable guides, and in connection
with the bucket there must be a crosshead traveling upon these guides. The
height of the crosshead shall be at least one and one-half times its width. If
the crosshead be a type that is not secured to the hoisting rope, a stopper of
a design approved by the mine inspector must be securely and rigidly fastened
to the hoisting rope at a suitable point above the rim of the bucket.
(h) Persons riding in cages or buckets: That the number of persons per-
mitted to ride on the deck of a cage, in or on a skip or bucket, shall be de-
termined by the mine inspector, and in no case shall more than the number of
men permitted by the mine inspector be allowed to ride on the deck of such
cage, or in or on such bucket or skip. No person shall ride on a cage or in or
on a skip or bucket when loaded with rock or ore, unless the owner or operator
of the mine shall have provided double-deck cages, in which case the employees
may be permitted to ride upon the deck not occupied by such tools, timbers, or
(i) Riding on loaded cage: That no person shall ride upon any cage, skip,
or bucket that is loaded with tools, timber, powder, or other material, except
for the purpose of assisting in passing these through the shaft.
(;') Lowering cage to bottom of shaft: That in no case shall a cage, skip, or
bucket, or other vehicle be lowered directly to the bottom of a shaft when
men are working there, but must be stopped at least fifteen (15) feet above the
bottom until the signal to lower further is given by one of the men at the
bottom of the shaft: Provided, however, That this section shall not apply to
shafts less than fifty (50) feet in depth.
(fc) Protection from falling material in shaft: That persons engaged in
deepening a shaft, in which regular hoisting from any upper level is going on,
shall be protected from the danger of falling material by a suitable covering,
sufficient opening in the covering being left only for the passage of the bucket
or other conveyance used in sinking operations.
(I) Bulkheads between two working crews: That in shafts, winzes, or
raises where two or more crews of men are working, one crew above another,
there shall be a bulkhead between the two crews of men strong enough to stop
any tools or other material that may fall from the men working above, and only
the cage, skip, or bucket compartment be left open.
MINE-INSPECTION LAWS OF ALASKA. 59
(in) Plugs for windlasses: That windlasses and whims in use in mines shall
be provided with suitable plugs or other reliable devices to prevent running
back of the bucket or other conveyance used.
(n) Hooks for buckets: That no open hooks shall be used with buckets
when hoisting, but some form of safety or shackle hook, approved by the mine
(o) Hoistmen: At any mine, where men are hoisted by mechanical means, a
hoistman, charged with the care of such hoist, shall be kept on duty thereat
at all times when men are underground, and he shall be charged with the actual
hoisting of the men.
" Sec. 17. Mine outlets :
(a) Divided shafts: That at every mine where a single shaft affords the
means of ingress and egress to the persons employed underground such shaft,
if more than three hundred (300) feet deep, shall be divided into at least two
compartments, and one of the compartments shall be set aside for a ladderway,
which must be equipped as hereinbefore provided. Whenever such single shaft
shall be covered by a building not absolutely fireproof the ladderway shall
be securely bulkheaded at a point at least twenty-five feet below the collar of
the shaft, and below this bulkhead, if the shaft is situated on a hillside, a drift
shall be driven to the surface ; if the shaft is situated in a level country the
drift shall be driven to a safe distance beyond the walls of the building, but
in no case less than thirty (30) feet, and from there a raise shall be made to
the surface. This raise shall be equipped with ladderways, and it, together
with the drift connecting with the main shaft, shall be kept in good repairs
and shall afford a safe escape in case of fire.
(ft) Fireproof doors near mouth of adit: That every adit on which the mouth
is covered by a house or building of any kind shall be provided with a fireproof
door near the mouth of the adit that can be closed from the outside of the build-
ing by means of a pull wire or cable, so as to keep the gases or combustion from
entering the mine in the event that fire destroys the building at the mouth of
(c) Covering for sumps and other openings: That existing winzes, sumps,
and all other openings in the floor of a drift or stope must be kept covered by
a substantial hatch, or planking, or provided with guardrails.
" Sec. 18. Stationary lights :
(a) Stationary lights to be provided: That lights shall be provided during
working hours at all stations in vertical and incline shafts during the time while
in actual use, and also at all stations in levels where hoisting or hauling is
effected by machinery, and also at night at all working places on the surface.
(b) No candles to be left burning: That no candles shall be left burning in
a mine, or any part of a mine, when the person using the candle departs from
his work for the day.
" Sec. 19. Accumulation of water :
(a) That when advancing a drift, adit, level, or incline toward a working
suspected to be filled with water, a bore hole must be kept at least ten feet in
advance of the breast of the drive and also, if necessary, in directions laterally
from the course of the drive. Such additional precautionary measures shall be
taken as may be deemed necessary by the mine inspector to obviate the danger
of a sudden breaking through of water.
(ft) That no raise shall be allowed to approach within ten feet of any portion
of a winze or a stope in which there is a dangerous accumulation of water.
(c) That in every mine where, in the opinion of the mine inspector, there is
danger of a sudden inrush of water such additional raises, drifts, or other work-
60 MINING INDUSTEY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
ings shall be constructed as are necessary to insure the escape of workmen from
the lower workings, and all sumps and places for the storage of water in mines
shall be so constructed as to prevent leakage, as far as possible, and insure the
safety of the men working below the same.
(d) That it shall be unlawful for any operator to impound water within any
mine in which men are working below the water so impounded in such a man-
ner as to endanger the safety of such men unless such water be impounded by
a dam or dams or wall or walls approved by the mine inspector.
" Sec. 20. Minors not to be employed : That boys under the age of sixteen
years shall not be employed underground in a mine.
" Sec. 21. Intoxicated persons not allowed in mines : That no intoxicated per-
son shall be allowed to enter a mine. Nor shall any intoxicated person be
allowed to remain in any mine. Nor shall any intoxicating liquors be taken,
or allowed to be taken, into any mine.
" Sec. 22. Visitors : That strangers and visitors shall not be allowed under-
ground in any mine, unless accompanied by the owner, official, or employee
deputized to accompany them.
" Sec. 23. Ventilations : An adequate amount of ventilation shall at all
times be produced, so that all mine workings and the roads to and from such
workings shall be free from any offensive gases. The air must be in such a
state that a light will burn freely at all times in any working portion of the
mine. That all old timbers shall be as soon as practicable taken from the mine,
and shall not be piled up and permitted to decay underground.
" Sec. 24. Signal system :
(a) That each mine shall adopt its own set of station signals, and that such
station signals shall be given before the hoist or lower signals provided herein ;
that the engineer shall not move the cage, skip, or bucket unless he under-
stands the signal.
(6) That the official code of signals herein provided for and the station
signals adopted or to be adopted by each mine shall be posted at all hoist
engines in plain sight of engineer at the collar of each shaft and at every
station, the letters or figures thereon to be not less than one-half inch in
" Sec 25. Code of signals : That the following shall be the official code of
signals for underground work throughout the Territory :
One bell — hoist.
One bell — stop, if in motion.
Two bells — lower.
Three bells — hoist men, run slow.
Two slow bells — lower very slow.
Three slow bells — hoist very slow.
Four bells — blasting signal. This is a caution signal, and if the engineer
is prepared to accept it he must acknowledge by raising the bucket or cage a
few feet, then lowering it again. After accepting this signal an engineer must
be prepared to hoist the men away from the blast as soon as the signal (one
bell) is given, and must accept no other signal in the meantime.
Six bells — skip or cage call. To be followed by the station signal, when
the skip or cage is desired.
Nine bells — danger signal. Followed by the station signal, calls cage to
that station. This signal takes precedence over all others, except an accepted
" Sec. 26. First aid to the injured :
MINE-INSPECTION LAWS OF ALASKA. 61
(a) That a supply of articles suitable for first-aid treatmeut shall be kept
at every mine, the list to include a book of instructions, antiseptic gauze, car-
bolated vaseline, carbolic acid, tablets of bichloride of mercury, linseed oil,
bandages, soap, wash basin, and towels or the equivalents.
(ft) That at every mine or metallurgical works where there are poisonous
gases or solutions there shall be kept in a conspicuous place the proper anti-
dotes, properly labeled, with the instructions for their use.
" Sec. 27. Explosives :
(a) That no inexperienced man shall be allowed to use high explosives,
except for the purposes of instruction, and then only under the supervision of a
(ft) That no explosives shall be used in any mine unless there is plainly
printed or marked on every original package containing such explosives the
name and place of business of the manufacturer and the strength and date of
manufacture of such explosive.
(c) That no explosives shall be stored in any mine: Provided, however,
That this shall not be construed to prevent the operator of any mine from
keeping sufficient explosives within such mines as may be required within the
next twenty-four hours.
(d) That such temporary supply shall not be kept in any place within such
mine, where its accidental explosion would cut off the escape of the miners
(e) That no open lights shall be taken into the magazine or held where the
spark could fall in the box, or on to the explosives.
(/) That no caps or oil shall be stored in any powder magazine.
(g) That all magazines shall be placed at a safe distance from the entrance
to a mine or public highway.
(h) That no iron or steel tamping bars shall be used.
(i) That if after blasting and before work is resumed a charge is known to
have missed fire or cut off, the same shall not be withdrawn, but shall be
blasted, and that no drilling shall be done on the same working face where
there is so known to be a missed or cut-off hole containing explosives, until the
same has been blasted, provided that where a missed or cut-off hole is dis-
covered in the face of a stope after blasting, no drilling shall be done within
ten feet of said missed or cut-off hole, but drilling may be done at a distance
of ten feet or more from such missed or cut-off hole.
(/) That a suitable house, in which to thaw explosives shall be built sep-
arate from the other mine buildings and shall be equipped with suitable appa-
ratus for thawing explosives, approved by the mine inspector. The key or
keys to such powder magazine shall be held by some competent person or
persons who shall be responsible for the distribution of the powder, and shall
be under the direction of the mine foreman or some other careful and ex-
perienced person. Whenever deemed necessary by the mine inspector, suit-
able apparatus for thawing explosives shall also be provided for use in the
mine and shall be under the immediate charge of the mine foreman or some
other careful and experienced person.
" Sec. 28. Machinery :
(a) That all boilers, used for the generation of steam, shall be equipped
with a safety valve, water gage and water glass, and shall be inspected at
least once every year by a competent person and a written report of such in-
spection shall be kept, and such boilers shall be hydraulicly tested, annually,
to a pressure exceeding the working steam pressure by 40 per cent.
(ft) That all gears shall be covered or inclosed.
62 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915.
(c) That all exposed set screws shall he countersunk or covered.
(d) That all belts, through which it is necessary for employees to travel,
shall be suitably protected so as to comply with the provisions of section 12.
(e) That all keys on shafting shall be covered or protected by railing.
(/) That shafting in exposed places shall be protected by railing or housed.
(g) That hoisting engines shall be equipped with brakes of sufficient strength
to hold the loaded cage or skip at any point in the shaft.
(ft) That all hoists shall be equipped with efficient indicators.
(i) That hoisting ropes shall have at least three turns around the drum
when the cage or skip is at the lowest point in the shaft.
(/) That no ropes shall be used for hoisting men, when 10 per cent of the
wires in any running foot are broken.
(fc) That hoisting ropes shall have a factor of safety not less than five, to
be calculated by dividing the breaking strength as published in the manu-
facturer's tables by the sum of the maximum load to be hoisted, plus the
weight of the rope, plus 10 per cent of such values, to take into account the
shock of striking and of starting and stopping.
(I) That haulage locomotives shall be equipped with gongs or whistles.
" Sec. 29. Laws to be accessible : That it shall be the duty of the superin-
tendent of any mine within the provisions of this act to keep at all times in
the office of said mine, and in the timekeeper's office thereof, in an accessible
place, and subject to inspection by all workmen and persons interested in the
same, at least one printed copy of this act.
" Whenever the approval, order, or direction of the mine inspector is provided
for or contemplated in this act, the same shall be in writing and signed by
the mine inspector, and a duplicate of the same delivered to the person or
corporation operating said mine ; and wherever any apparatus is now installed
in any of said mines or workings, and the approval of the mine inspector is
contemplated or provided for in this act, the said approval shall not be con-
strued or deemed necessary until after such mines shall have actually been
inspected by such mine inspector and until a written order or approval or
disapproval shall have been signed by the mine inspector and a copy thereof
delivered to the owners or operators of the mine.
" Sec. 30. Penalty for violations : Any persons or corporations failing to
comply with any of the provisions of this act shall be deemed guilty of a
misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be fined in any sum not less
than $50 nor more than $1,000 or be imprisoned in the Federal jail for a
period of not less than thirty days nor more than one year, or punished by
both such fine and imprisonment, at the discretion of the court."
Sec. 5. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent or in conflict with the provi-
sions of this act are hereby repealed.
Accidents at metal mines, by causes. 48
at metallurgical plants, by
reporting of, failure in 11, 12
regulations regarding 54
See also Fatalities.
Alaska Commercial claims, opera-
tions at i 43
Alaska Free Gold claims, opera-
tions at 43, 44
Alaska Juneau mine, operations at- 32, 33
Alaska Treasure mine, operations at_ 35
American Eagle claim, operations
Antimony, mining of 23, 24
production of 6, 8
Bartels mine, operations at 27
■ Bcatson-Bonanza mine, fatality at_ 40, 47
operations at 41
Bering River coal field, Government
reservations in 12
opening of 12
quality of coal from 13
Big Four mine, operations at 39
Bonanza mine, fatality at 40, 47
operations at 37
Bondholder claim, operations at 24
Bureau of Mines, work of 12
Cages, operation of, regulations re-
garding 16, 58
Cameron-Johnson mine, operations
Casadepaga district, mining opera-
tions in 27
Chatham mine, operations at 23
Chichagof mine, operations at . 36
Chisana district, mining operations
production of gold in 6, 26
Chitina district, output of copper
Circle district, mining operations in_ 25. 51
Cliff mine, operations at -39
Coal fields in Alaska, future of, fac-
tors governing 13
Government reservations on,
purpose of 12
leasing units in, considerations
governing 12, 13
Coal in Alaska, output of 6
suitability for Navy 13
78425°— 17 5
Colorado mine, operations at 24
Compensation law in Alaska, de-
fects of 11
Copper mines in Alaska, list 52
production of 6, 7, 8, 28
See also mines named.
Copper River district, lode mines in_ 52
mining operations in 37,38
Council district, mining operations
in 27. 28
Crites & Feldman mine, operations
Dickey claims, operations at 43
Dredges in Alaska, operation of 50, 51
Dunton mine, operations in 29
Dye, R. A., work of 9, 21
Ebner mine, fatality at 46, 47
mining operations at 35
Kllamar mine, fetality at 46, 47
operations ati 39
Excavation, definition of 56
Explosives, storage of, regulations
use of, regulations regarding 18. 01
Fairbanks district, mining opera-
tions in 22-24, 51
need of fuel in 13
production of antimony from__ 8
Fairhaven district, mining opera-
tions in 28
Falls of rock, fatalities from 4.">
Fatalities in mining industry, list of_ 40, 47
Hidalgo claims, operations at 39
First aid, training of miners in 9, 21
First-aid equipment, regulations re-
Fuel. See Coal ; Mineral fuels.
Galena Bay mine, operations at 40
General Land Office, work of 12
Gold Bullion mine, operations at 44
Gold King mine, operations at 40
Gold mines in Alaska, development
of 5, 6
list of 52,53
output of 6, 7, 28
See also mines named.
Goodro mine, operations at 29
Granby mines, operations at 40
Granite mine, operations at 40
Great Northern Development claims,
operations at 37
■Gypsum mine in Alaska, fatality
at 40. 47
operations at 36
output of 6
Hoisting, regulations regarding-- 10. 57, 58
Hoisting apparatus, regulations re-
garding 57, 58, 59, 62
Hoisting engineers, qualifications of_ 57
Homestake mine, operations at 2:!
Hubbard-Elliott claims, operations
Iditarod district, mining opera-
tions in 26, 51
output of gold from 26
Independence mine, operations at__ 44
Injuries at metal mines, by causes 48
Innoko district, mining operations
output of gold from 6, 25
Intoxicants in mines, regulations
Intoxication, dangers from 20
It mine, operations at 30
Jumbo mine, concentrator at, view
operations in 29, 37, 38
Juneau district, mining opera-
tions in 28, 31-36
production of gold at 7
Kenai Peninsula district, mining
operations in 43,44,51
Kensington claims, operations at 36
Ketchikan district, mining opera-
tions in 28-30
production of copper from 7, 28, 29
Kougarok district, mining operations
Koyukuk district, mining opera-
tions in 25
output of gold from 25
Labor conditions in Alaska 14
Ladderways in mines, regulations
regarding 57, 59
Landlock Bay claims, operations at_ 41
Lead in Alaska, output of 6
Lighting in mines, regulations re-
Linda claim, fatality at 46, 47
Lode mines in Alaska, accidents at__ 45
list of 52, 53
Lode mining, in Fairbanks district,
extent of 23, 24
McCarthy mine, operations at 23
.Machinery, hoisting, regulations re-
garding ^ 57
protection of, regulations re-
garding 50, 61, 62
Mamie mine, fatality at 46, 47
operations at 29
Mauley Hot Springs district, mining-
operations in 25
output of gold from 25
ontput of tin from 8
Marole in Alaska, output of 6
Marshall district, mining operations
output of gold from 26
Matanuska coal field. Government
reservations in 12
opening of 12
quality of coal fiioni 13
Mayflower mine, operation* at 23
Metal mines, accidents at, by
Metallurgical plants, accidents at 45
by causes 49
Mexican mine, fatality at 40, 47
operations at 33, 34
Midas mine, operations at 40
Mills, accidents at 45
safety precautions iu, rules for. 20,21
Mine, definition of 55
records of, regulations regard-
Mine cars, riding on, precautious
in 19, 20
Mine fires, protection against, regu-
lations regarding 59
Mine inspection, comprehensive, need
extent of 5
regulations regarding 53, 54
Mine inspector, Federal, authority
headquarters of 9
need of assistance for 9, 10
work of 5,8,9
Territorial, appointment of 53
duties of 5, 53, 54
jurisdiction of 56
qualifications of 53
reports of 54, 55
supervision of 55
Mine rescue apparatus, increased
use of 14, 15
Mine rescue training, development
Miueral fuels in Alaska, produc-
tion of 8
Mineral King mine, operations at-. 41.42
Miners, safety instructions to 15, 16
Mining experiment station, value of_ 10
Mining law of Alaska, accessibility
of, regulations regard-
scope of 10,11
violations of, penalty for 02
Minors, employment of, regulations
Mizpah mine, operations at 23
Mohawk claim, operations at 24
Montezuma claims, operations at 43
Mount Andrew mine, operations at_ 30
Mountain King mine, operations at_ 42
Mystic No. 1 claim, operations at — 39
Nelchina district, production of
Nelson-Lott claims, operations at 32
Nome district, mining operations in_ 27
Nugget Creek mine, operator of 52
Ohio mine, operations at 23
Operator, definition of 5G
Outlets, mine, regulations regard-
Perseverance mine, fatality at 40, 47
operations at 31, 32
Petroleum in Alaska, output of__ 6
Placer mines, accidents at 45
Placer mining, in Fairbanks dis-
trict, extent of 22, 23
Port Clarence district, mining oper-
ations in 28
Prince William Sound district, min-
ing operations in 38—43
output of copper from 7
Railroad. Government, work on.._ 13, 14
Ramsay-Rutherford mine. opera-
tions at 42
Ready Bullion claims, fatality at 40, 47
operations at 30,33,34
Rhoades-Hall mine, operations at — '-■'>
Ruby district, mining- operations in_ l'.'i
output of gold from 25
Rush & Brown mine, operations at- 30, 31
Safety engineer, duties of 15
Safety first, rules for 15,16,19,20
Sanitation in mines, regulations re-
garding 19, 56
Schlosser mines, operations at 38
Sealey-Davis claims, operations at_ 42
Seven hundred foot mine, fatality
operations at 33, 34
Seward Peninsula, mines in, pro-
duction of metals from_ 8, 26
Shafts, passageways around, regu-
lations regarding 57
protection of, regulations re-
Signal code, regulations regarding- 60
Signaling in mines, regulations re-
Silver in Alaska, output of 6
Sitka district, mining operations in_ 36
Solomon district, mining opera-
tions in 27
Soo mine, operations at 24
Sulzer mine, operations in 29
Stoping, rules for 17
Tenderfoot district, mining opera-
tions in , 25
Thomas-Culross claims, operations
Tin in Alaska, output of 6, 8
Tolovana district, development of_ 24
output of gold from 5, 24
Tramming, rules for 19
Treadwell, Alaska, first-aid meet at_ 21
Treadwell mine, fatality at 46, 47
operations at 33, 34
Treasury Department, on mineral
production of Alaska 6
United States Geological Survey,
on mineral production of
Valpariso mine, operations at 30
Ventilation of mines, regulations
Wade Hampton district, production
of gold in 6
Water in mines, regulations regard-
Whitehorse mine, operations at 23
Wild Rose mine, operations at 24
Workings, definition of 56
Wyoming mine, operations at 24
Yellow Jacket claim, operations at- 23, 24
York district, mining operations in_ 27
production of tin from 8