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Bulletin 142 



6 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

FRANKLIN K. LANE. Sbcrbtary 

BUREAU OF MINES 
\. VAN. H. MANNING. Director 



I HE MINING INDUSTRY IN THE TERRITORY OF ALASKA 
DURING THE CALENDAR YEAR 1915 




BY 

SUMNER S. SMITH 

United States Mine Inspector for Alaska 



ENGINEERING 




\Y* 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1917 



i 



+m 








Bulletin 142 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

FRANKLIN K. LANE, Secretary 

BUREAU OF MINES 

VAN. H. MANNING. Director 



THE MINING INDUSTRY IN THE TERRITORY OF ALASKA 
DURING THE CALENDAR YEAR 1915 



BY 



SUMNER S. SMITH 

United Stales Mine Inspector for Alaska 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1917 



The Bureau of Mines, in carrying out one of the provisions of its organic act — 
to disseminate information concerning investigations made — prints a limited 
free edition of each of its publications. 

When this edition is exhausted, copies may be obtained at cost price only 
through the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

The Superintendent of Documents is not an official of the Bureau of Mines. 
His is an entirely separate office, and he should be addressed : 

Superintendent of Documents, 

Government Printing Office, 

Washington, D. C. 

The general law under which publications are distributed prohibits the 
giving of more than one copy of a publication to one person. 
The price of this publication is 10 cents. 



First edition. May, 1917. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introduction 5 

New gold-mining districts 5 

Mineral production 6 

Placer gold 7 

Lode gold 7 

Copper 7 

Tin 8 

Antimony 8 

Mineral fuels 8 

Work of the Federal mine inspector 8 

Headquarters 9 

Clerical assistance 9 

Needs of office 9 

Mining experiment station 10 

New Territorial laws 10 

Prosecutions for violations of mining acts 11 

Coal leasing act 12 

Coal fields 12 

Government railroad 13 

Labor 14 

First-aid and mine rescue training 14 

Foreword 15 

To the experienced man 15 

To the inexperienced man 15 

Safety first 16 

Shafts and cages 16 

Stoping and development 17 

Explosives 18 

Sanitation 19 

Tramming 19 

Sinking 19 

Hoisting 19 

General 19 

Mills 20 

Conclusion 21 

First-aid training 21 

Mines and districts 22 

Yukon basin 22 

Fairbanks district 22 

Placer mining 22 

Lode mining 23 

Tolovana district 24 

Circle district 25 

Tenderfoot district 25 

1 



2 CONTENTS. 

Mines and districts — Continued. 

Yukon basin — Continued. Page. 

Manley Hot Springs district 25 

Ruby district , 25 

Koyukuk district 25 

Innoko district : 25 

Iditarod district : 26 

Marshall district 26 

Chisana district 26 

Seward Peninsula 26 

Nome district 27 

Solomon district 27 

Casadepaga district 27 

Council district 2S 

Fairhaven district 28 

Port Clarence district 28 

Kougarok district 28 

Southeastern Alaska 28 

Ketchikan district 29 

Alaska Industrial Co 29 

Dunton mine 29 

Goodro Mining Co 29 

Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting & Power Co 30 

Mount Andrew Iron & Copper Co , 30 

Princeton Mining & Milling Co 30 

Ready Bullion mine 30 

Rush «& Brown mine 30 

Juneau district 31 

The Alaska-Gastineau Mining Co 31 

Alaska Gold Belt Mining Co 32 

Alaska-Juneau Gold Mining Co 32 

Alaska Treadwell Gold Mining Co 33 

Alaska Treasure Gold Mining Co 35 

Algunican Development Co — 35 

Eagle River Mining Co 35 

Ebner Gold Mining Co 35 

Kensington Mining Co 36 

Sitka district 36 

Chichagof Mining Co 36 

Pacific Coast Gypsum Co 36 

Southwestern Alaska 36 

(.'upper River district 37 

Alaska Consolidated Copper Co 37 

Great Northern Development Co 37 

Hubbard-Elliott Copper Co 37 

Kennecott Copper Corporation 37 

Mother Lode Copper Mines Co 38 

Prince William Sound 38 

Alaska Mines Corporation 38 

Big Four mine 39 

Cliff mine 39 

Ellamar Mining Co 39 

Fidalgo Mining Co 39 



CONTENTS. 3 

Mines and districts — Continued. 

Prince William Sound — Continued. Page. 

Galena Bay Mining Co 40 

Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting & Power Co 40 

Gold King mine 40 

Granite Gold Mining Co 40 

Cameron-Johnson Gold Mining Co 41 

Kennecott Copper Corporation 41 

Landlock Bay Copper Co 41 

Mineral King Mining Co 41 

Mountain King mine 42 

Ramsay-Rutherford Mining Co 42 

Sealey-Davis Mining Co 42 

Thomas-Culross Mining Co 42 

Three Man Mining Co 43 

Kenai Peninsula 43 

Willow Creek (Susitna drainage) 43 

Alaska Free Gold Mining Co 43 

Independence Mining Co 44 

Gold Bullion mine 44 

Accidents at mines, quarries, and dredges in Alaska during 1915 45 

Data on dredges 49 

Mine-inspection laws of Alaska 53 

Original act 53 

Amendment 55 

Index 63 



TABLES. 



Page. 
Table 1. Fatalities inside and outside the mines, quarries, and dredges in 

the Territory of Alaska during the calendar year 1915 46 

2. Accidents in Alaska metal mines during the year ended Decem- 

ber 31, 1915 48 

3. Accidents in Alaska metallurgical plants during the year ended 

December 31, 1915 49 

4. Data on dredges in Alaska, 1915 50 

5. Data on lode mines in Alaska, 1915 52 



ILLUSTRATION. 



Page. 
Plate I. Flow sheet of Kennecott concentrating plant . 38 



THE MINING INDUSTRY IN THE TERRITORY OF ALASKA 
DURING THE CALENDAR YEAR 1915. 



By Sumner S. Smith. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Mine inspection in Alaska by the Federal mine inspector was some- 
what handicapped during 1915. the inspector having to spend a large 
part of the summer and fall in examining the Matanuska coal field in 
connection with the designation of the Government reservations and 
the leasing units in that field. However, in addition to this work, 
the mines in southeastern and southwestern Alaska were inspected by 
both Federal and Territorial inspectors, a considerable number of 
men near the Federal inspector's office at Juneau were trained in first 
aid to the injured and in the use of mine rescue apparatus, the mines 
of the interior and of Seward Peninsula were inspected by the Terri- 
torial inspector, and a suit was brought in the name of the Territorial 
inspector for the nonreporting of serious accidents under the Terri- 
torial inspection law. 

The work of the Federal inspector was handicapped also by a 
lack of field assistants. This condition is likely to be serious, as 
preparations have been made for opening the Matanuska, Bering 
River, and Xenana coal fields, and a number of permits granting the 
free use of 10-acre tracts in other fields throughout the Territory 
have been issued. The need of a comprehensive inspection law and 
experienced engineers to safeguard the opening of coal mines by 
operators who are not familiar with coal mining and are using 
inexperienced help is obvious. 

NEW GOLD-MINING DISTRICTS. 

The only new gold-mining district that has seemed to give promise 
of a definite future is the Tolovana, although operations there have 
not been extensive enough to indicate its life with certainty. About 
$60,000 in placer gold was produced during 1915. The camp is 
northwest of Fairbanks and is reached in winter by a road 55 miles 
long from Olnes. In the summer the road serves as a pack trail, or 
the trip may be made up the Tolovana River. 

5 



G 



MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 



The Nelchina, Chisana, and Wade Hampton districts, which showed 
considerable prominence in 1914, have all proved disappointing. The 
production in the Nelchina and Wade Hampton districts was negli- 
gible; in Chisana about $135,000 in placer gold was recovered, but 
the expense of freighting to this district is so high that the net 
profit was small. 

During the fall, reports of new discoveries on the Innoko were 
frequent, but no authentic news was available at the time this report 
was written. 

MINERAL PRODUCTION. 

The figures on mineral production collected by the United States 
Geological Survey and the Customs Division of the Treasury De- 
partment indicate that the past year was the most productive since 
1906, when the placers of the interior and of Seward Peninsula were 
at their height, the total for that year being $23,378,428. The value 
of the minerals mined in 1915 is about $32,800,000, as compared with 
$19,064,963 for 1914. 

The high price of copper has been a great stimulus to mining and 
is largely responsible for the increased output. In 1914 21,450,628 
pounds of copper was mined, valued at $2,852,934; in 1915 about 
86,500,000 pounds was produced, valued at $15,139,129. The gold 
production also increased in 1915, when the value was about $16,700,- 
000, against $15,764,259 for the output of 1914. This is the largest 
gold production since 1912, when the output was valued at $17,145,951. 
As the production of silver is incidental to gold and copper mining, 
this also increased. About $540,000 worth of silver was mined in 
1915, against $218,327 worth in 1914. 

The mineral output of the Territory for the calendar years 1913 
and 1914, as compiled by the United States Geological Survey, 6 is as 
follows : 

Mineral output of Alaska, 1914 and 1915. 





1914 


1915 


Increase in 1915. 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Gold fine ounces.. 

Silver do 

Copper pounds . . 

Tin tons of metallic tin . . 

Antimony. . .tons of crude ore . . 


762, 596 

394,805 

21,450,628 

104 


$15,764,259 

218, 327 

2,852,934 

66,560 


807,966 

1,071,782 

86,509,312 

102 

833 

437 

1,400 


$16,702,144 

543,393 

15, 139, 129 

78,846 

74,000 

41,118 

3,300 

272,299 


45,370 

676,977 

65,058,684 

c2 

833 

409 

1,400 


$937,885 

325,066 

12, 286, 195 

12,286 

74,000 


Lead short tons. . 


28 


1,344 


39,774 
3,300 


Marble, gypsum, petroleum, etc. 




162, 242 


110,057 












Total 




19,065,666 




32,854,229 




13, 788, 563 













° Brooks, A. H., Mineral resources of Alaska, 1915 : Bull. 642, U. S. Geol. Survey, 
1916, p. 17. 

6 Brooks, A. H„ page cited. 
c Decrease. 



MINERAL PRODUCTION. 7 

The output of other minerals, including tin, antimony, marble, 
gypsum, coal, and petroleum in 1915 had a value of about $170,000, 
compared with $222,802 in 1914.° 

PLACER GOLD. 

The output of placer gold showed a slight decrease over 1911, 
which was partly due to the partial exhaustion of the placers, but 
also to the fact that many of the operators owning ground tributary 
to the line of the Government railroad prefer to await the comple- 
tion of the road, when comparatively cheap coal may be obtained, 
rather than to pay the present excessive price for wood. As the cost 
of fuel for thawing frozen placers constitutes a large part of the 
total mining cost, the delay is warranted. The output of placer 
gold for 1915 is valued at $10,180,000, as compared with $10,730,000 
in 1911. & 

More than 30 gold dredges were busy in the summer of 1915, and 
the construction of several new ones was started. The value of the 
output from dredging declined slightly, being $2,330,000 in 1915 
and $2,350,000 in 1911. 

LODE GOLD. 

Greater activity in lode gold mining at Juneau is responsible for a 
marked increase in production, the total output for the Territory 
being valued at about $6,070,000 in 1915 as compared with $1,863,028 
in 1911. More than 30 lode gold mines were in active operation dur- 
ing the year, though the bulk of the gold came from the Juneau dis- 
trict. In that district one new mill treating 6,000 to 8,000 tons of ore 
daily has been completed, and construction on another of similar 
size has started. Several small mills were constructed in the dif- 
ferent districts, and two cyanide plants were erected. 

COPPER. 

The increased price of copper led to a forced production from all 
of the operating copper mines ; to the resumption of work at several 
mines which had been closed for the past few years, putting them 
again on the shipping list ; and to the prospecting of other numerous 
deposits. 

There was practically four times as much copper produced in 
Alaska in 1915 as in 1911, and the value of the 1915 production was 
nearly five times as much as that of the 1911 production. The out- 
put came from seven mines in the Ketchikan district, four on Prince 
William Sound, and three in the Chitina district. Enough explora- 
tion work has been done on other claims in these localities to insure a 

° Brooks, A. II., work quoted, pp. 16, 17. 
6 Brooks, A. H., work quoted, p. 21. 



8 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

number of additional mines. With a number of excellent prospects 
in the Broad Pass district, the opening of the Alaskan coal fields, 
and the construction of the Government railroad connecting these 
parts of the Territory, this branch of the industry should have a 
steady and assured growth. 

TIN. 

Two districts, the Manley Hot Springs in the Tanana Valley and 
the York district on the Seward Peninsula, were exporters of tin 
concentrate. Though there was some exploration work done for lode 
tin, the entire product shipped was placer. At the Hot Springs the 
tin is caught in the sluice boxes while the auriferous gravels are be- 
ing washed. At York three dredges, one working exclusively for tin 
and the other two for tin concentrate and gold, are responsible for 
the output. Some 200 tons of concentrate was produced during the 
year. The value of the tin was about $78,000. 

ANTIMONY. 

As in the case of copper, the high price of antimony led to in- 
creased production. Whereas a few years ago the smelters refused 
to accept small shipments of antimony ores except at a prohibitive 
figure, the ore buyers are now taking all they can obtain and are ask- 
ing for more. The total production amounted to approximately 800 
tons, 700 of which came from the Fairbanks district and the rest from 
the Seward Peninsula, the total being valued at about $74,000. 

MINERAL FUELS. 

About two dozen permits granting free use of 10-acre tracts for 
two years have been granted, and a small quantity of coal has been 
produced. At several points on Cook Inlet mining was started in a 
small way to supply the demands of the new towns along the right 
of way of the Government railroad. 

A topographic and subdivisional survey was made of the Bering 
River and Matanuska coal fields, and the fields were subdivided for 
leasing. 

The usual small amount of oil was produced in the Katalla field 
and was refined at Katalla, but, with this exception, nothing was done 
toward the production of oil elsewhere, although seepages were re- 
ported on the Arctic coast and along Cook Inlet. 

WORK OF THE FEDERAL MINE INSPECTOR. 

The inspection work of the calendar year covered the mines in 
Ketchikan, Juneau, Prince William Sound, and the Copper River 
districts. In the early spring, the Federal inspector spent consider- 
able time in the Juneau district training the miners in first aid to 
the injured and in the use of mine rescue apparatus. 



WORK OF THE FEDERAL MINE INSPECTOR. 9 

An examination was made of the Matanuska coal field to designate 
the Government reservations and the leasing units in that field. The 
field work, together with the writing of the report, consumed three 
months in the summer and fall and prevented the inspector from 
making the usual trips to the interior and to Seward Peninsula. 

Suit for not reporting serious accidents was instituted against one 
mining company by the Alaskan Territorial inspector, under the 
Territorial mine-inspection law. 

Letters have been written to the operators throughout the Terri- 
tory requesting their assistance in compiling data on all accidents, 
and most of them have given their cordial support. Printed forms 
for the reporting of individual accidents have been mailed to the 
operators with the request that they fill out the statements required 
by the Territorial law and return a report promptly to the inspector 
immediately following an accident. 

The Territorial legislature, at the 1915 session, authorized the 
Federal inspector in the absence of the Territorial inspector to en- 
force the provisions of the new Territorial mining act. 

HEADQUARTERS. 

The headquarters of the Federal inspector are in the courthouse 
at Juneau, where he occupies, through the courtesy of the Depart- 
ment of Justice, the grand jury room when that body is not in ses- 
sion. This room is inadequate for the present needs of the office and 
permanent quarters should be provided at an early date, especially 
in view of the additional work that will be thrown on this office by 
the opening of the coal mines throughout the Territory. 

CLERICAL ASSISTANCE. 

During the year Congress made the necessary appropriation for a 
clerk for this office, and R. A. Dye was appointed to the position. 
This appointment has taken from the inspector the burden of routine 
work in the office and allowed him more time for inspection trips. 
Mr. Dye also trains classes of miners in first aid to the injured, thus 
relieving the inspector of these duties. 

The Bureau of Mines has furnished the inspector with desks and 
files for the care of records and correspondence. 

NEEDS OF OFFICE. 

The work of inspection is still handicapped by the lack of field 
assistants, adequate office room, and funds for traveling expenses and 
equipment. One inspector traveling continuously can not inspect all 
the mines of the Territory during one year. To cover the Territory 



10 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

properly four assistants are needed. With this number of men, the 
mines of the Territory could be inspected several times annually, and 
if orders were issued to any mine to make changes to conform with 
the law, the inspector would have time to return to it to ascertain 
whether the changes had been made. 

MINING EXPERIMENT STATION. 

The act of Congress authorizing the establishment of mining ex- 
periment stations in the United States and Alaska should prove of 
almost incalculable value to this Territory. The miner has been the 
pioneer of the frontier, and the markets developed by the communi- 
ties founded on his discoveries have led to permanent settlements and 
the development of other resources. The new Government railroad, 
for many years to come, will be dependent on freight carried for the 
mining industry, and any effort to assist the miner will result in 
additional traffic for the railroad. Alaska's future lies chiefly in 
her mines. 

The establishment of an experiment station in Alaska will greatly 
assist in the extension of its mining and metallurgical industries. 
Many promising prospects can not be developed because of the diffi- 
culty of raising funds on account of the uncertainties regarding the 
best methods of concentrating and subsequently treating more or less 
complex ores, the cost of transportation of supplies and of concen- 
trates, and the best places for smelters. 

There is a great demand by the Alaskan prospector that the 
Government make free assays, more especially as it has been found 
that custom assayers do not obtain enough work to warrant their 
continuing in that business. However, as the act establishing the 
Bureau of Mines does not authorize such free assays, the most that 
can be done for the prospector is to make mineralogical or qualita- 
tive determinations. It is probable that the establishment of a 
mining experiment station will increase the business of custom assay- 
ers, so that in this way local assay offices will be established and the 
prospector will be benefited thereby, for the cost of individual assays 
is small when considerable business is available. 

NEW TERRITORIAL LAWS. 

At the spring session (1915) of the Territorial legislature seven 
laws and amendments to laws affecting the mining industry of the Ter- 
ritory were passed. The eight-hour law was amended to include all 
underground workers; an act to supplement the mining laws of the 
United States and a laborer's lien act were passed; the Territorial 
inspector's salary was raised ; the mine-inspection act was amended ; 
and a compensation act and an act compelling the filing of grubstake 
contracts were passed. 



PROSECUTIONS FOR VIOLATIONS OF MINING ACTS. 11 

As regards the eight-hour and compensation acts, no officials were 
designated to see that the provisions of the laws were carried out. 
Consequently these laws have been followed only where it suited the 
convenience of the operator. 

A conspicuous example of a violation of the eight-hour act was in 
the Fairbanks district, where the wages were $5 per ten-hour day, and 
board. "When the law became effective the operators paid the same 
scale per hour, making the wages $1 per eight-hour day, and board. 
The men struck, and a compromise was reached whereby the op- 
erators paid $5.50 per ten-hour day, and board. The work con- 
tinued at that figure throughout the rest of the season. 

The compensation law provides for compensation only when the 
operator has funds to cover the amount. There is no official having 
authority to enforce payment of compensation, so that the injured 
emplo} T ee receives nothing unless the operator chooses to pay him or 
unless the employee brings suit. If an employee is injured in the 
mine of an operator who is weak financially, neither the employee 
nor his dependents are likely to receive anything. 

PROSECUTIONS FOR VIOLATIONS OF MINING ACTS. 

Under the Territorial inspection act (Session Laws of Alaska, 1913, 
ch. 72, sec. 5) suit was brought in the name of the Territorial inspector 
against the superintendent of a mining company for not reporting 
serious accidents. The company is mining a deposit of copper ore 
which has a graphitic slate for a hanging wall. This slate contains 
much carbonaceous matter and generates considerable gas (methane). 
About two years ago the company began driving raises in the hanging 
wall to obtain waste for filling the stopes, and these raises gave off 
sufficient methane to cause local explosions. Several men were burned, 
but no reports were made to the inspector. The superintendent was 
then notified that the inspector considered such accidents serious and 
that they should be reported imder the law. The superintendent 
was also instructed to obtain safety lamps and have all raises tested 
for gas by one of the bosses before allowing the men to work there. 
The lamps were obtained, but the testing, if done at all, was done 
in a haphazard manner by the miners instead of by the mine 
officials. On October 18 the surveyor and assayer and his assist- 
ant started up a waste raise to measure it. They ignited a 
pocket of gas at the top of the raise and were blown down to the 
gangway. The surveyor's hands and face were seriously burned. 
The assistants hands and •face were also severely burned and his 
ankle so badly injured that he was in bed at the time of the inspector's 
visit, three weeks after the accident. Neither accident was reported, 
in spite of the request that the superintendent report such accidents. 
A charge of not reporting the accident was brought against the super- 



12 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

intendent and the case tried in the United States commissioner's court 
at Valdez on November 26. As the Territorial mine inspection act 
does not define a serious accident and the attorney for the defendant 
pleaded that a serious accident was synonymous with a serious injury, 
the court ruled that the defendant was entitled "to the benefit of 
the doubt " and dismissed the case " on the evidence as presented," 
although both Federal and Territorial inspectors testified that, in 
their opinion, the accident was serious. 

Evidently the mine-inspection law should define a serious accident. 
Effective prevention of accidents requires a study of the causes, and 
it is obvious that all possible measures should be taken to obtain data 
on accidents that involve great hazard, even though, by chance, no 
injury may result. 

COAL LEASING ACT. 

During the year preparations were completed for opening the 
Bering River and Matanuska fields under the leasing act of October 
20, 1914 (38 Stat, 741). Subdivisional surveys were made by the 
General Land Office during the summer of 1915. The fields were later 
examined by engineers of the Bureau of Mines and the General Land 
Office, who, in accordance with the leasing act, indicated the areas 
to be reserved to the Government and divided the fields into leasing 
blocks or units. 

The full text of the leasing act and of the regulations thereunder, 
copies of the leases and permits and applications therefor, descrip- 
tions of the leasing units, and a large amount of information regard- 
ing the fields and their development are given in a report entitled 
" Regulations governing coal-land leases in the Territory of Alaska," 
issued by the Secretary of the Interior." 

COAL FIELDS. 

Through the work of the General Land Office and the Bureau of 
Mines, Government reservations were designated in the Bering River 
and Matanuska fields. These reservations were intended to cover 
such ground as would provide coal for Government use, protect the 
public from individuals attempting to monopolize coal lands or extort 
exorbitant prices for coal, and still offer equally good areas in the 
best-known parts of the fields for exploration by private enterprise. 

The leasing units were laid out in comparatively small blocks, 
which can be worked individually or combined into larger tracts up 
to the maximum acreage permitted by law. Careful attention was 
given to the amount of probable coal of workable thickness in each 
of these areas, the relationship of the area to possible transportation 

a Copies of this report may be obtained free by applying to the Secretary of the In- 
terior, Washington, D. C. 



GOVERNMENT RAILROAD. 13 

lines, the quality of the coal, the topography of the country, and the 
general conditions affecting mining. 

The future of the Alaska coal fields is still somewhat problematical. 
Along the entire coast the output will come in direct competition 
with California oil, the coals of Oregon, Washington, and British 
Columbia, and with hydroelectric power. Both the Bering River 
and the Matanuska fields contain high-grade bituminous coal suitable 
for coking and for use in the Navy, and the Nenana field contains an 
excellent lignite suitable for power or domestic uses or as a powdered 
fuel in reverberator^ furnaces. 

Coals from other States on the coast have not proved satisfactory 
for use by the Nav} r , so that for naval use Alaskan coals will have 
to compete chiefly with Appalachian coals, shipped from Atlantic 
ports by way of the Panama Canal. The domestic market is assured, 
but it is doubtful whether Alaskan coals can compete success- 
fully in the home markets of the British Columbia or Washington 
coals. Possibilities in the manufacture of coke for the smelting in- 
dustry appear promising. At present the large output of copper ore 
is all shipped to points outside the Territory for treatment. Fairly 
cheap coke would be an inducement for the erecting of local smelters 
and ore samplers, which, in turn, would result in the development 
of many metal mines now idle on account of the excessive cost of 
shipping ore to outside points. 

In the Fairbanks district wood costs $12 to $16 a cord, and is hard 
to obtain at any figure. There still are, in that district, many acres 
of frozen auriferous gravels that must remain unworked until mining 
costs are reduced. Cheap coal, and the product of the Nenana field 
would be excellent for this purpose, would materially lower these 
costs, as the cost of fuel is a considerable part of the total cost in 
mining frozen ground. These mines should supply a ready market 
for the Nenana coal, which should also displace wood on the river 
steamers and might even be shipped to Nome and compete with other 
coals now retailing there at about $10 per ton. 

GOVERNMENT RAILROAD. 

During 1915 the Government took over the old Alaska Northern 
Railroad from Seward, and undertook the construction of a stand- 
ard-gage railroad from the coast at Seward to Fairbanks with a 
branch line up the Matanuska River to the coal fields. 

Work was started at Ship Creek on the east side of Knik Arm, a 
branch of Cook Inlet, and the town of Anchorage was established. 
Rails were laid for about 30 miles north of Anchorage, and the 
rehabilitation of the road out of Seward was begun. During 1916 
grading will be undertaken at Nenana, at the junction of the Nenana 



14 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

and Tanana Rivers, toward Fairbanks, and up the Nenana toward 
Broad Pass. The old line from Seward to Kern Creek will be re- 
built, grading from this point to Anchorage started, the main line 
continued from the end of the present construction toward the 
Susitna River, and a branch built up the Matanuska River at the 
head of Knik Arm to the coal fields. 

LABOR. 

During the year the supply of labor was considerably in excess of 
the demand, owing to the large influx of men seeking employment 
on the Government railroad and the prospect of the coal areas being 
opened for leasing. Many of those who did not find employment 
at once returned to the States. A large number, however, took up 
homesteads, and others scattered to the towns throughout the Terri- 
tory. 

The eight-hour law, which went into effect at the middle of the 
season, threatened to cause considerable trouble, as many operators 
continued paying the same hourly schedule, thus reducing wages $1 
a day, as the men, up to that time, had been receiving $5 a day 
and board for a 10-hour shift. Small strikes at several of the in- 
terior camps resulted in compromises. At Nome most of the opera- 
tors continued paying $5 a day and board, though they cut the 
hours from 10 to 8. In the Ruby district no definite settlement was 
made. Some of the operators continued at one rate and some at 
another, and others suspended mining altogether. At Fairbanks the 
men struck and a compromise was effected, the men going back to 
work on the 10-hour basis. The operators granted an increase of 
50 cents a day, so that the men get $5.50 a day and board. This 
arrangement was in open violation of the Territorial law, but no 
official has been appointed to enforce the law, and there have been 
no prosecutions for its violation. 

Generally the scale of wages is the same as in 1911, miners on the 
coast receiving $3 to $1 a day and boarding themselves, and those 
in the interior and on the Seward Peninsula receiving $4 to $6 per 
day and board. On the dredges the scale is from 50 to 75 cents an hour 
and board. Living conditions remain about the same. The com- 
panies operating on a fairly large and permanent scale provide good 
living accommodations; those whose operations are more or less 
temporary provide as little as possible. 

FIRST-AID AND MINE RESCUE TRAINING. 

More interest has been shown in first-aid and mine rescue training 
than ever before. The Kennecott and Alaska-Gastineau mining com- 
panies have installed oxygen mine rescue apparatus, and the Tread- 



FIRST-AID AND MINE RESCUE TRAINING. 15 

well company has trebled its equipment. A number of men have 
been trained in the use of this apparatus and at the Treadwell a 
safety engineer has been appointed. His duties are to inspect the 
mines underground, train the men in first-aid and mine rescue work, 
note that the apparatus is always available and in good working con- 
dition, see that there is first-aid material at the proper places under- 
ground, and investigate any possible changes underground that will 
lead to greater safety. He is also a member of the safety committee 
that investigates and makes a report on each accident. The com- 
pany has begun the publication of a quarterly magazine entitled 
" The Gold Bar," which contains articles on safety and gives lists of 
accidents. A book of safety rules has also been published by the 
company for the use of the miners, which includes directions regard- 
ing the shafts and cages, stoping and development work, the use of 
explosives, precautions in training, and general safety rules for 
underground work and work in ore mills. The directions are re- 
printed herewith. 

FOREWORD. 

TO THE EXPERIENCED MAN. 

Mining is a business that is hazardous under the best conditions. 

You are constantly surrounded by dangers, many of which you are perhaps 
disregarding daily, because you have become familiar with them and hardened 
to them. But you must remember that any accident caused by carelessness on 
your part may not only hurt you, but may also injure or possibly kill one of your 
fellow workers, in spite of all the precautions he may have taken for his own 
safety. You have, therefore, not only your own life and limbs to take care of, 
but you are responsible for the safety of all the men working near you. Do not, 
just because you have been working as a miner for many years, take chances 
that you would be the first to condemn in anybody else. You may not know 
that carelessness is more dangerous underground than ignorance, and that you, 
the miner of 5 or 10 or 20 years' experience are more to be feared than a new 
man, for you have become hardened to dangers and are willing to take chances 
that a new man would be afraid to take. Do you realize that by far the great 
majority of " accidents " are caused by carelessness on the part of experienced 
men like yourself, and that it may be your turn to-morrow or next week? The 
only way that you can reduce the dangers around you is to use extreme care 
in doing your work and to urge every man working near you to do the same. 

TO THE INEXPERIENCED MAN. 

If you are inexperienced, you should apply yourself to the task of learning to 
protect yourself and others. You can get this knowledge by constant observa-* 
tion and by asking questions of those who know. Don't be ashamed to ask 
questions. After you learn something of value, don't forget to use it. When 
you become an experienced miner, don't take chances just because you have be- 
come experienced. Remember that experienced miners are being killed or in- 
jured because they take chances that a new or inexperienced man would be 
afraid to take. 

The object of the following rules is to obtain the greatest possible safety for 
all, and it is your duty to take sufficient time to make the examinations required 
78425°— 17 2 



IQ MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

by them to guard against any dangers from accidents in the mine or its work- 
ings. The best mine in the world, if worked by careless or indifferent miners, 
will have more accidents than the worst one that is worked by miners who are 
always thinking of preventing accidents to themselves and their fellow workmen. 

The important part of any rule is the spirit of it. This is gained by under- 
standing the wisdom and necessity of the rule, and not by mere obedience be- 
cause it is a rule. No rule seems hard when you see that it is wise — worked out 
from experience made necessary by existing conditions. 

The object of a rule is not to abridge the rights of anyone, but to point out 
the path which experience has taught is the wise one to follow. 

SAFETY FIRST. 
Any flagrant or habitual disregard of these rules will result in your discharge. 

SHAFTS AND CAGES. ' 

1. There shall be no pushing or crowding around collar of shafts or at sta- 
tions, in loading or unloading cages. There shall be no " horseplay " on the 
cages. 

2. The cage man, stope boss, or other man delegated to load or unload cages, 
when the shifts are being hoisted or lowered, shall see that the cage gates are 
securely closed before giving the signal to move the cages, and shall be re- 
sponsible for their closing. 

3. No person but the cage man, stope boss, or other man regularly delegated 
to this duty shall operate the pull-bell signals. 

4. No person shall use the call or flash signal system unless he is certain that 
he knows and understands same. 

5. In lowering or hoisting shifts there shall be no lighted lamps, candles, or 
torches on the cage except the cage man's, and that shall be placed high 
enough to clear the heads of the men. 

Smoking on the cage while shift is being lowered or hoisted is forbidden. 

6. No man shall leave the shaft or any station without first seeing that the 
bar or chain is properly placed in position to prevent anyone from walking 
into the shaft opening. 

7. Men shall not be hoisted or lowered at a greater speed than 800 feet per 
minute, and cage must commence to slow down when within 100 feet of the 
shaft collar or of the bottom bulkhead or sump covering. 

8. Men shall not ride on the skips in vertical shafts under any circumstances 
unless the skips have their bonnets in place. 

9. Men shall not try to mount or leave skip or cage while same is in motion 
or after the signal to move has been rung. 

10. No tools shall be carried on the cage when shift is being handled. Tools, 
steel, and other small material shall not be lowered or hoisted except when 
placed inside skip or cage and made safe. 

11. No explosives shall be carried on the cage when shift is being handled. 
.Powder and primers shall not be handled on the cage at the same time. 

12. Drills, timber, or other material shall not be placed within 10 feet of 
any shaft opening, head of raise or winze. 

13. No man shall, under any circumstances, cross a skip or cage compart- 
ment unless the cage or skip is being held at the point of crossing. 

14. When lowering or hoisting tools, timber, or other material that is long 
enough to project above cage or skip, same material shall be securely lashed to 
the hoisting cable or otherwise secured. 

• Sec. 16, h. i., Alaska Code, 1915. 



FIRST-AID AND MINE RESCUE TRAINING. 17 

15. No person shall ride upon any cage, skip, or bucket that is loaded with 
tools, timber, powder, or other material, except for the purpose of assisting in 
passing these through the shaft; except that on double-deck cages, riding on 
the deck unoccupied by tools, timber, or other materials is permissible. 

STOPING AND DEVELOPMENT. 

1. Each man must examine his working place on going on shift, and if same 
is not safe he must make it so before proceeding to work. 

This examination should particularly cover: 
Loose or scaling rock ; 
Missed or cut-off holes ; 
Loose powder in muck pile; 
Stagings ; 
Ladders ; 
Machine bars. 
If conditions are such that he can not make his working place safe, he must 
immediately report same conditions to his foreman or shift boss. 

2. No man shall take for granted that an unfinished set-up, or any unfinished 
work, is safe. Conditions may have changed since departure of previous shift. 

3. In returning to work after springing a hole, or after any sort of blasting 
at or near your working place, make just as careful an examination as though 
you were coming on shift. 

4. If a set-up is to be left in a raise during any near-by blasting, always 
slightly loosen the jack of your machine bar. 

5. Keep your ladders and stagings free from loose rock. 

6. When working in a raise, be sure that your steel and tools are securely 
placed on your staging. 

7. Before dropping drill steel down a raise be sure to give ample warning. 

8. Do not climb a ladder under a man with a load of steel. 

9. Machine men must see that their machines, hose, and tools are moved a 
sufficient distance to escape injury from blasting or from falling ground. 

10. Be sure that your air-line valve is closed before taking off your gooseneck 
or other hose connection. 

11. Before turning on air to clear an air line, be sure that no one is near the 
open end of same. 

12. When working in any place which is being driven to connect with any 
other working place, do not blast when same face is within 20 feet of the con- 
nection before having sent word to warn all men to keep away from the point 
at which the connection is to be made. 

13. Do not go into a stope or bulldoze chamber until the same is reasonably 
clear of smoke. 

14. When barring down loose ore or rock, always keep a sharp lookout for 
missed " bulldozes," or any other loose powder. 

15. When barring down, proceed with caution — be sure that the ground above 
you is safe. 

16. Never start setting up a machine until the place of setting up and the 
approach to the same are well trimmed down. 

17. Keep ladders and platforms in the manways clear of loose rock. 

18. Do not place steel or tools where they may fall down a raise. 

19. Do not drop steel down a drill pipe unless you have a man at the bottom 
of same. 

« Sec. 16, h. L, Alaska Code, 1915. 



18 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

20. If you see a fellow workman doing something dangerous do not laugh at 
him; give him advice — and a lift. 

21. Do not misuse or abuse tools. Proper tools will be furnished for all work. 
Using a wrench as a hammer, a shovel to bar down with, etc., are misuse. 
Take care of tools. 

EXPLOSIVES. 

1. Miners engaged in bulldozing or using powder in any way must never store 
primers and powder together, even for a short time. Places will be provided 
for their separate storage. 

2. Never carry or transport powder and primers together. Always make a 
special trip with primers and use extreme care in handling both primers and 
powder. 

3. Fuse at this mine burns at a rate of not less than 23 seconds per foot. In 
blasting holes, no fuse must be used of a length shorter than 5 feet. 

4. All powder and primers not used must be returned to the magazines and 
not left lying around the mine. 

5. Never take a lighted lamp or other open light into a powder or primer 
magazine. 

6. Do not smoke in a magazine, or while handling explosives. 

7. After spitting fuses, always stay within hearing distance to count the 
number of shots, and carefully note the number of missed holes, if any. 

8. In loading holes, no instrument other than a wooden loading stick shall be 
used. 

9. All holes must be well tamped so that no powder is exposed. 

10. Before lighting holes be absolutely certain that all men who must pass 
this point on their way from work have already passed. 

11. No man shall approach a missed hole within 20 minutes after spitting 
the fuse. 

12. When blasting on going off shift always report missed holes at your mine 
office so that the on-coming shift may be notified. If three shifts are working, 
notify the on-coming shift directly. 

13. Do not use a pick as though it were a sledge hammer — scratch with it ; 
there may be loose powder or a primer in any muck pile. 

14. Never start drilling in a face in which there is a missed hole. Blast the 
missed hole. 

15. Never try to pick powder from a missed or cut-off hole. Blast it, and be 
sure that all powder is well covered before lighting. 

16. Never start a hole in the " gun " of a previous hole. 

17. Never spring a hole on going off shift. 

18. Never spring a hole without first clearing same of dust or mud. 

19. Never spring a hole with more than a single primer. 

20. For springing holes the shortest permissible fuse shall be 36 inches. 

21. Springing holes is a practice that should be discouraged in so far as is 
possible. 

22. Missed holes within 10 feet of a set-up or in loose ground must be blasted 
immediately. 

23. All blasting and bulldozing shall be under the direct supervision of the 
stope boss or some other regularly delegated person. He shall see that all is 
in readiness and shall be the person to give the signal for lighting. 

24. Always cover your bulldozes with fine dirt so that there is no exposed 
powder. 

<■ Alaska Code, 27, i. 



FIRST-AID AND MINE EESCUE TRAINING. 19 

SANITATION. 

1. Scraps and refuse from lunch buckets must not be thrown at random in the 
mine, but must be disposed of as directed by mine foreman. 

2. You must use sanitary appliances which are provided. 

TRAMMING. 

1. On going on shift and when changing chutes make a thorough examination 
of your working place. 

2. Do not go into a chute that is hung up. Blasting poles are furnished to 
place powder in position to blast rock down. 

3. Be sure to warn in all possible avenues of approach before blasting in a 
chute. 

4. Examine your working place carefully each time after having blasted. 

5. No fuse shorter than 36 inches shall be used in blasting in a chute. 

6. Do not start drawing until smoke has cleared away so that you can see 
clearly the condition of your working place or see any powder that may not 
have exploded. 

7. Before drawing a large rock be sure to brace your car so that it will not 
be tipped over. 

8. Use extreme caution in drawing a chute — know where your hands and feet 
are; and do not get your bar in such position that it will knock you down if 
struck by a rock. 

9. Trainmen must not ride on the front end of a train or between the cars. 

10. Persons not engaged on ore trains must not ride on them. 

11. When rounding a curve or running through a foggy drift move your 
train slowly and sound your gong. 

12. Do not jump on or off a moving train. 

SINKING. 

1. Always keep your chain ladder within reach. 

2. Keep the timbers above you free of loose rock. 

3. Do not work above another man, no matter at what distance, unless there 
is a proper bulkhead between. 

4. For shaft firing, the shortest fuse must be 9 feet in length. 

5. Before spitting fuses, the blasting signal must be given to the engineer, 
and no fuse must be lighted until he replies by hoisting the bucket or skip a 
few inches, and lowering it again. 

HOISTING. 

1. Engineers must not move a cage or skip until sure of their signal — wait 
for a repeat if there is any doubt. 

2. A uniform code of rules and signals is provided for all shafts. 

3. Posted rules and bell signals must be strictly obeyed. 

4. Shaft rules and copy of bell-signal code must be posted in each engine 
room and at each shaft station. 

5. Do not go back of or over cables while drums are in motion. 

GENERAL. 

1. Upon resuming work at points where, operations have been abandoned for 
some time, a thorough investigation should be made as to the condition of walls, 



20 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

stagings, ladders, timber, etc. This investigation should be directed by the 
foreman or shift boss in charge, and should be demanded by any employee. 

2. When a boss tells you that you are doing something dangerous, stop doing 
it. He is responsible for your safety, and knows what he is talking about — 
that's why he is a boss. 

3. Remember that most accidents are caused by neglect of the little things, 
by disobedience of rules or orders, or by carelessness. 

4. Never attempt to go to work when you have been drinking, however little, 
for then you are in no condition to go underground. Even a slight degree of 
intoxication that might not be noticed when you get your check is dangerous 
underground, because the heat or lack of fresh air increases the effect of liquor. 
Do not hesitate to report any intoxicated man you see working, not only for 
his sake, but for your own safety. 

5. Be careful when around any electrical apparatus or wiring. 

6. Do not give a man an electrical shock; a shock that would not bother you 
might prove fatal to him. 

7. Do not misuse the "first-aid" cabinets; they are there for humanitarian 
purposes, and you may be the next man hurt. 

8. Report all injuries no matter how slight, and do not neglect to have slight 
wounds properly dressed. 

9. Do not meddle with any machinery that you are not delegated to care for 

10. Do not deface or destroy signs or other property. 

11. Do not meddle with fire apparatus. 

12. The use on the railway of push cars, hand cars, or other cars belonging 
to outside parties is strictly prohibited except on that portion of the track 
between the sawmill and the electrical repair shop. Cars belonging to the 
various departments are for department use only, and must not be loaned for 
other purposes. A car may be obtained, when necessary, from the steward, 
for handling personal baggage only, between points on the line. 

13. Persons other than employees in the performance of their duties are 
forbidden to ride on the trains. 

14. Keep a lookout for trains when crossing tracks. 

15. When walking near tracks, keep in the clear at all times. 

Persons other than those engaged in track repair are forbidden to walk on 
trestles where walks are not provided. 

MILLS. 

1. Wear goggles when using a hammer. 

2. Do not stand under a cam shaft or other machinery being lowered from 
cam floor — stand to one side until it is near the floor. 

3. Do not put your hand on top of shoe when under stamp ; take hold of sides 
of shoe neck to straighten shoe. 

4. Never poke burlap into boss head when under stamp without pulling top 
of boss head to one side. 

5. When setting tappets do not put your hand between the tappets or hold 
on top of collar when the next stem is dropping, as the moving stem may catch 
under the tappet and crush the hand between the collar and girt. 

6. When working in the battery do not lower or drop stamp without the 
parties working in battery giving signal so to do. 

7. When at chain blocks always be sure that the sling or chain is in good 
order before using them. 

8. Never put your hand under a stamp when it is being raised with the 
blocks, as the chain or sling may slip. 



FIRST-AID AND MINE RESCUE TRAINING. 21 

9. Never put your foot on the earns to brace yourself when holding a stem 
out while lowering it into the battery, as you may get your foot crushed. 

10. When you hang up the stamps to work in the battery see to it that the 
fingers set squarely under the tappets, so that no one will get caught by their 
slipping off. 

11. When keys are being driven out of tappet to drop stem into boss head 
don't hold the hand on the stem, as it will roll the fingers into the top of the 
tappet and pull the flesh off the fingers. 

12. When putting a battery belt on never stand on the bridge between the two 
pulleys, as the belt may pull the bridge down. 

CONCLUSION. 

In the preparation of these rules the committee is fully aware that there are 
many special cases and conditions that have not been covered. The cooperation 
of every employee is necessary for the proper enforcement of these rules. Bear 
in mind that a strict compliance with these rules and of other reasonable pre- 
cautions for safety will result in increased efficiency in your work as well as 
in a smaller number of accidents. 

Recognition of this fact will result in a better understanding between the 
workman and those in supervision of the work, thereby creating better working 
conditions. Remember that the workman who advances is the one who takes 
a lively interest in his work. Many of the most practical ideas have been ad- 
vanced by workmen actively engaged in their work. 

If you have an idea that you think will increase the safety or efficiency of 
the work do not hesitate to tell your boss or some member of the Safety Com- 
mittee. 

It will be apparent to all that all ideas advanced can not be adopted, but 
by an intelligent discussion of these matters definite results may be obtained. 

FIRST-AID TRAINING. 

A first-aid meet was held on July 5, 1915, at Treadwell, which 
brought into competition a number of teams from the Treadwell 
underground and surface employees. From these men a team was 
picked and sent to the competition at the San Francisco Panama- 
Pacific Exposition. The men representing Treadwell are deserving 
of the highest praise for their conscientious work in this event. In 
competition with 25 other teams, coming from all parts of the United 
States, they tied for fourth place, though many of the other teams 
were composed of men who had specialized in this work for years 
and had had the benefit of past experience in many first-aid meets. 

As previously stated, R. A. Dye, clerk to the mine inspector, has 
been training the miners at properties near Juneau in mine rescue and 
first aid. There is a demand that a man especially trained in such 
work shall spend a part of his time visiting the mining districts of the 
Territory, as there are far more men anxious to receive training 
than this office can handle. When coal mining in the Bering River 
and Matanuska fields becomes active there will be need of more 
facilities, possibly a mine safety station, for such training. 



22 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

MINES AND DISTRICTS. 

YUKON BASIN. 

The Yukon basin includes the Fairbanks, Tolovana, Forty-Mile, 
Eagle, Circle, Rampart, Ruby, Iditarod, Manley Hot Springs, Chis- 
ana, Koyukuk, Innoko, and Marshall districts. 

FAIRBANKS DISTRICT. 

Although there was a slight decline in the output of the Fair- 
banks district, about the same number of men were employed and 
the same number of mines operated as in 1914. The largest produc- 
tion was made from Cleary, Ester, Fairbanks, Dome, and Vault 
Creeks and their tributaries. The two principal methods in this 
district were mining with steam-operated scrapers and drift mining. 
One dredge was in operation on Fairbanks Creek. 

The dredge was an old one and can not be said to have been a suc- 
cess. 

The following description of mining operations in the Fairbanks 
and other districts is taken from the report of the Territorial mine 
inspector for 1915. a 

PLACER MINING. 

Cleary Creek. — Cleary Creek and the section of Chatanika River valley 
adjacent to its lower course form the most productive placer-mining center of 
the district. Twenty plants were operated on Cleary Creek during the mining 
season from Claim No. 8, above Discovery, to No. 17, below Discovery, employing 
275 men. 

Little El Dorado Creek. — Five plants were working on Little El Dorado 
Creek during the season, employing 30 men. Most of the plants were operated 
by partnership agreements. Few men were employed that were not interested 
as partners. 

Dome Creek. — Eight plants were operated on Dome Creek from No. 3 above 
Discovery to No. 7 below Discovery, employing 48 men. On lower Dome, which 
is part of the Chatanika River valley, there were two plants on the Niggerhead 
claim, one on the Shakespeare and one on the Day Dawn Association, employ- 
ing 50 men. 

Vault Creek. — Four claims were operated during 1915, employing 80 men. 
Three of these were on upper Vault and one on the Oregon Association. 

Wolf Creek. — Five claims were operated on Wolf Creek, employing 22 men. 
This creek is a tributary to Cleary Creek. 

Fairbanks Creek. — Four underground placer, three steam-scraper plants, and 
one dredge were operated on Fairbanks Creek during the season, employing 67 
men. The dredge, which is the only one in this district, is operated by the 
Fairbanks Gold Mining Co. One steam-scraper plant was operated on Alder 
Creek, a tributary of Fairbanks Creek. 

Pedro Creek. — On Pedro Creek several steam scrapers were at work during 
the season. The Hanot brothers installed a new mechanical scraper with an 
overhead trolley system. The scraper is loaded by the usual system of hauling 

° Report of Territorial Mine Inspector, 1915, pp. 12-21, 27. 



MINES AND DISTRICTS. 23 

by cable. After the scraper is loaded it is hoisted and carried to the dump box 
by an overhead trolley instead of being dragged up an incline to the dump box, 
the system used by the ordinary scraper plant, thereby saving not only the wear 
on the scraper but also the extra steam necessary to drag a loaded scraper up 
an incline over rough ground. 

Goldstream. — Fifteen underground placers and four steam-scraper plants were 
operated on Goldstream, employing 100 men. On First Chance and Gilmore 
Creeks, both tributaries of Goldstream Creek, placer mines were worked in a 
small way. 

Ester Creek. — Twelve underground placer mines were operated on Ester 
Creek during the year, employing 150 men. 

Happy Creek. — Two plants were operated on Happy Creek with considerable 
success, new pay having been struck during the winter on the left limit of the 
creek at a depth of 140 feet. The ground was thawed, but stood well and could 
be worked economically, there being no water underground. 

Other streams. — St. Patrick Creek. Smallwood Creek, and Fish Creek were 
worked to some extent during the season, but no very extensive mining was 
done. 

LODE MINING. 

The most important lode operations in the district were the Rhoades-Hall 
mine, on Bedrock Creek, and the. Crites & Feldman mine, on Moose Creek. 
The Rhoades-Hall mine closed on the 1st of September, and will remain closed 
for the winter. This is the first time that this mine has closed since its incep- 
tion. The Rhoades-Hall mine employed an average of 25 men. The Crites & 
Feldman property employed five men in the mine and one in the mill, and 
mined and milled on an average seven tons of ore a day from a ledge with an 
average width of 8 inches, working one 8-hour shift. A new five-stamp mill 
was installed on Fairbanks Creek for the Mayflower and Ohio quartz mines. 
There was also a small Huntington mill installed early in the year on Fair- 
banks Creek near the same property doing custom milling. Both helped 
to encourage development work in this vicinity. The Mizpah was operated 
during the winter, and some very good ore was milled at the Heilig mill on 
Fairbanks Creek, and later a headframe and steam hoist were installed at the 
mine and development work continued. On the Whitehorse and Yellowjacket 
some development work was done during the winter months and about 30 tons 
of ore was shipped to the mill. 

At the, head of Too Much Gold Creek, McNeil & Huddelson took out con- 
siderable ore and did extensive development work on a very promising ledge 
of gold-bearing ore. 

The American Eagle claim, Fairhaven & Foss, drove an adit 450 feet to 
undercut the lode during the winter and extracted considerable ore in the 
summer. 

On the, McCarthy property on the divide between Fairbanks Creek and 
Chatham Creek 30 tons of gold-bearing ore was mined during the winter and 
early spring of 1915 and shipped to the mill. 

The Homestake mine, at the head of Wolf Creek, was worked under a lease. 
The ore produced was from a rich vein that averaged only 5 inches in width. 
About 50 tons was mined and milled, which is said to have yielded over .$100 
per ton. 

The Chatham mine was operated for antimony, there being a lode of that 
ore having an average width of 4 feet. One hundred tons was shipped from 
this mine to San Francisco during the summer. The ore was hauled to the 



24 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

railroad by team, and from there to Fairbanks by the Tanana Valley Railway. 
From there it was shipped on barges to St. Michael and loaded on steamship 
for San Francisco. 

The Wild Rose and Soo mines. were worked during the winter months and 
the mill ran whenever ore was available. Twenty-four tons of ore was milled. 

On the Wyoming and Colorado mines, development work was done during 
the winter, and 39 tons of ore shipped to the Chatham mill and milled. 

In the Ester district the most important work done was that of Tyndall, 
Finn & McLaughlin on the Bondholder and Yellow Jacket claims, near the 
head of St. Patricks Creek. In June, 1914, an adit was started 280 feet lower 
than the collar of the main Bondholder shaft, and work was continued on it 
until June 1. 1915, when it was driven over GOO feet ; work was suspended for 
the summer on account of poor air. From surveys made the adit should under- 
cut the Bondholder lode at a distance from the portal of 700 feet. The tunnel 
is 6J feet high, has 6-foot sills and 4-foot caps, with an lS-inch gage track of 
8-pound rails. Steel cars of 10 cubic feet capacity are in use. Tyndall & Finn 
also did some development work on the Mohawk lode claim. A 6-foot vein was 
discovered carrying very good values. Three shafts were sunk to a depth of 

25 or 30 feet along the strike of the vein. 

Antimony was also mined on Treasure Creek. The mining here was done 
by open-cutting the formation, and digging out the ore which occurred in shoots, 
kidneys, and irregular masses along the Assuring. The ore was broken and 
hand sorted, and no ore carrying less than 50 per cent antimony was shipped. 
A tramway was built from the mine to the Tanana Valley Railway and the 
ore trammed to the railway, where it was loaded for shipment to Fairbanks to 
be loaded on barges for shipment via St. Michael to San Francisco. This mine 
produced 600 tons of antimony ore. Considerable prospecting was done on a 
number of other stibnite lodes in the Fairbanks district. If the present high 
price of antimony continues, antimony ores will become quite a factor in the 
mineral output of this Territory. 

TOLOVANA DISTRICT. 

The newly discovered Tolovana district is located about 70 miles from Fair- 
banks, in a northerly direction, and is connected with Olnes, a station on the 
Tanana Valley Railroad, by a road 60 miles long. Another route of access is 
by launch up the Tolovana River to a log jam, around which a tram has been 
built. The distance to the log jam, by the windings of the river, from the 
Tanana is about 200 miles. Above the log jam a launch can be used for an- 
other 20 miles to the head of navigation ; thence a wagon can go up the river 
bars to Brooks, the principal settlement of the district, where there is a post 
office and a wireless telegraph station. The Tolovana district was visited early 
in April by way of the Olnes route ; several properties on Livengood, Olive, and 
Ester Creeks and Tolovana River were also visited. The richest deposits 
found up to that time were on the first and third tier benches off No. 5 
above on Livengood Creek and off Discovery on Olive Creek. It has since de- 
veloped that most of the gold mined during the season was taken from the 
bench off No. 5 above on Livengood, third tier. The depth to bedrock on this 
claim was 97 feet, while on No. 28 above, third tier benches, it was 32 feet, 
and on the third tier benches off Discovery the depth was 102 feet. The depth 
to bedrock on the first tier benches off No. 5 above Discovery was 28 to 30 
feet. There were several holes sunk on those claims. On the present creek 
bed of Livengood several claims were visited where work was being done, but 



MINES AND DISTRICTS. 25 

up to the time of visit no pay had been found. The auriferous gravels are 
widely distributed in the district, and the work already done has proved tbe 
presence of workable placers. The value of the gold output for the year, 1915, 
was approximately $40,000. 

CIRCLE DISTRICT. 

The principal operation in the Circle district was the installation and opera- 
tion of a dredge on Mastodon Creek. A number of hydraulic plants were also 
operated, as well as a large number of smaller placers. 

TENDERFOOT DISTRICT. 

The Tenderfoot district was visited early in May. The principal productive 
creeks of this district in 1915 were Tenderfoot, Democrat, Banner, and Buck- 
eye. Nos. 4 and 5, Tenderfoot Creek, were the principal producing claims. 
The ground is 70 feet deep and drifting methods were used. The ground is 
frozen. There were about 75 men employed in this district. 

MANLEY HOT SPRINGS DISTRICT. 

The Hot Springs district was visited in January. Very little work was 
under way at the time. Development work was being done on Woodchopper 
Creek, where good prospects were found and the ground was being blocked out 
for summer operations. The other principal creeks where work was being done 
were Deep Miller, Sullivan, and Cache. Reports after the close of the season 
would indicate an output of gold to the value of approximately $600,000. There 
was a small production of stream tin in connection with the gold mining. 

RUBY DISTRICT. 

The Ruby district was visited in June and 16 properties were inspected. The 
principal creeks are Poorman and Flat, in the Poorman district, and Long 
Creek, in the Long Creek district. Placer mining was done also on Birch, 
Trail, Tamarack, Spruce, Tenderfoot, and Duncan Creeks. New pay was found 
on Spruce Creek early in the spring and several operators were preparing to 
hoist pay on that creek. Extensive prospecting was done on Greenstone 
Creek with a drill, and a dredge will be installed in the spring of 1916. The 
value of the gold output for the year 1915 was approximately $800,000 or about 
the same as 1914. 

KOYUKUK DISTRICT. 

The Koyukuk district was not visited during 1915 by the [Territorial] inspec- 
tor. The estimated production of gold from that district for the year is $300.- 
000. The most of this was taken from Hammond River and Nolan Creek. A 
new discovery of placer gold was made on Jay Creek, a tributary of Wild 
River, and here considerable gold was mined. 

INNOKO DISTRICT. 

* The Innoko district is estimated to have produced gold to the value of $190,- 
000 in 1915. The principal producing creeks were Ophir, Yankee, Little, Spruce, 
and Gaines. Two scraper plants were operated on Gaines and two on Yankee 
Creeks, during the mining season. 



26 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915, 

ID1TAR0D DISTRICT. 

The Iditarod district was visited during the month of June. Eleven placer 
mines and two dredges were inspected. All of the placer mines were operated 
by the open-cut method. Four steam-scraper plants were operated; two on 
Otter, one on Glen, and one on Flat Creeks. Open-cut hydraulic mining was 
done at the heads of Flat Creek, Chicken Creek, and Happy Creek. One of the 
dredges was operated on Flat Creek and one on Otter Creek. The principal 
creeks are Flat, Otter, Glen, Willow, and Black, where about 500 men were 
employed. A drag-line scraper was installed on Willow Creek during the 
summer, the first to be used in placer mining in Alaska. It is reported to be 
very successful. The gold output for this district was $2,050,000 or practically 
the same as 1914. The high cost of fuel is one of the greatest drawbacks of 
this district. Wood costs from $10 to $18 per cord delivered at the boilers. 
Distillate, which is used on one of the dredges, costs 52 cents per gallon, de- 
livered at the dredge. At the power plant of the Yukon Gold Co., on Flat 
Creek, the supply of wood in the vicinity of the power plant became so small 
that a new location on the Iditarod River was selected and a power plant 
constructed. New boiler equipment was installed, consisting of three 200-horse- 
power units. The electric equipment used at the Flat Creek power plant was 
moved during the winter and installed. It was ready for operation at the 
opening of the mining season. The new plant will have the benefit of cheaper 
fuel and improved water conditions, which will not only lower the power cost 
but will make it possible to operate later in the season, if the weather condi- 
tions permit. 

MARSHALL DISTRICT. 

The Marshall district was visited in the latter part of June. One placer 
claim on Wilson Creek and one on Disappointment Creek were being operated 
by the open-cut, ground-sluicing, and pick-and-shovel methods. Gold was dis- 
covered on those creeks in 1913. In 1915 gold was discovered on Willow Creek, 
in this district, and active prospecting and development work was being done 
on four claims on that creek at the time of visit. These were being worked by 
the open-cut methods. One bench claim was being worked by the underground 
drifting method. The ground being frozen on the bench, the ground in the 
creek bottoms was thawed. Some development work was done on a quartz 
vein near the head of Willow Creek. A return of $80 per ton was received from 
the mill test of the ore. There were 150 men in the district. The gold output 
for the year is estimated at $10,000. 

CHISANA DISTRICT. 

The value of the gold output of the Chisana district for the year 1915 is esti- 
mated at $135,000, or about half that of last year. The principal operations 
were on Bonanza Creek. New discoveries of placer gold are reported to have 
been made on Dry Gulch, a tributary of Johnson Creek. 

SEWARD PENINSULA. 

The Seward Peninsula mines produced gold to the value of $2,900,000 in 1915, 
against $2,705,000 in 1914, an increase of $195,000. In addition to the gold 
production there was shipped 157 tons of tin ore, valued at $79,471, and 132 
tons of antimony ore, valued at $3Q,360. There were 33 dredges operated on 
Seward Peninsula in 1915, against 39 in 1914. The reason assigned for the 
decrease is that a number of dredges have worked all of the gravel that could 



MINES AND DISTRICTS. 27 

be worked at a profit in the immediate vicinity and, no new ground having 
been acquired, are necessarily idle. There were four dredges installed on 
Seward Peninsula during the year, one on the Kougarok River, one on Camp 
Creek, one on Center Creek, and one on Buck Creek. The first three were gold 
dredges ; the other was used for tin only, in the York district. 

There was a new discovery of placer gold on Dime Creek in the Council 
district, a tributary of the Koyuk River, but there was no output of gold this 
season. Late in the fall a gold quartz strike, which promises to be of some 
importance, was made on Boulder Creek, a tributary of Snake River, at a dis- 
tance of about 12 miles from Nome. Some of the ore showed an abundance 
of free gold, visible to the naked eye. There was 157 tons of cassiterite, or 
tin ore, shipped from the York district. In this district development work 
was continued on the cassiterite lode-tin mine on Lost River, 80 feet being 
driven on the lower adit. Some development work was done on the Bartels 
lode-tin mine, on Cape Mountain, also a new lode. On Potato Mountain, 
near the head of Sutter Creek, a tributary of Buck Creek, some placer tin was 
recovered by the sluice-box method during the summer season. 

Late in the season work was started and mining continued on the Sliscovich 
antimony mine on Manila Creek, a tributary of Nome River, and a small ship- 
ment of stibnite made. This ore carries considerable gold. Some stibnite was 
mined at the Hed & Strom properties, a few miles north of the Sliscovich prop- 
erty, and shipped. 

A placer-gold strike was made on the coastal plain near Solomon River, 
supposedly the continuation of the third beach pay streak at Nome. It is 
located about 6 miles back from the present beach and lies at a depth of 40 to 
50 feet below the surface. The bedrock elevation above the present beach is 
from 62 to 70 feet. The bedrock elevation of the third beach at Nome is 68 feet 
above the present beach level. The ground had been drilled during the summer 
season, and some very good values found. Fuel and supplies were /landed at 
Solomon before the close <>f navigation, anil developments during the winter 
should prove the value of the placer-gold deposits. 

NOME DISTRICT. 

The Nome district was visited during July and August. Fourteen under- 
ground placer mines, four hydraulic mines, and nine dredges Were inspected. 
The principal creeks are Little, Anvil, Dry, Bangor. Boulder. Center, Dexter, 
Hastings, and Hobson. Most of the underground placer mines were situated on 
the tundra, adjacent to Nome, within a radius of 3 miles. In addition to the 
creeks named, there were several operations on smaller creeks. The present 
beach claimed considerable attention, about 100 men being employed with surf 
washers, gasoline plants, and sluicing with water gathered from the adjacent 
tundra. 

SOLOMON DISTRICT. 

In the Solomon district five dredges were operated, against nine in 1914. Two 
hydraulic mines were operated on the tributaries of Solomon River. The beach 
gold discovery is referred to elsewhere. 

CASADEPAGA DISTRICT. 

Two dredges were inspected in the Casadepaga district. Three were operated 
in 1914. The Willow Creek dredge suspended operations. In addition to the 
two dredges, there was some work done on several small creeks, tributaries of 
the Casadepaga River. 



28 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

COUNCIL DISTRICT. 

There were six dredges operated in the Council district — two on Ophir Creek 
and one each on Crooked, Melsing, Camp, and Elkhorn Creeks. The Warm 
Creek and Mystery Creek dredges were idle during 1915. The Camp Creek 
dredge was a new dredge, installed during the summer, and started operations 
the first of September. There were two hydraulic plants operated on Ophir 
Creek and one on Crooked Creek. In addition to these, there were several 
smaller operations on the different creeks of the district. 

FAIRHAVEN DISTRICT. 

There were three dredges operated in the Fairhaven district during the 
season, against four last year. One of the dredges on the Inmachuck River 
was idle. The Fairhaven Ditch & Hydraulic Co. operated its property on the 
Imnanchuck, and the Candle Ditch Co. its property on Candle Creek. Hydraulic 
operations were continued on Bear Creek. There were many smaller operations 
during the season. About 200 men were employed. 

PORT CLARENCE DISTRICT. 

Six dredges operated in the Port Clarence district in 1915. The dredge on 
Windy Creek and the one on Sunset operated for gold only; the two on the 
Anikovik River operated for tin and gold together. The York Dredging Co.'s 
dredge continued working for tin alone on lower Buck Creek. The American 
Gold Dredging Co. installed a new dredge on upper Buck Creek to dredge for 
tin. This dredge was started the first of September, and consequently operated 
but a short period during the season. It has a bucket holding 2 cubic feet in 
an open-connected line, develops 80 horsepower by distillate engines, and has 
an estimated capacity of 800 cubic yards. 

KOUGAROK DISTRICT. 

The Kelleher dredge was operated successfully on the upper Kougarok River 
during the season. The Bering Dredge Co. installed a new dredge on the 
Kougarok River, near the mouth of Henry Creek, and started operations the 
first of August. A hydraulic plant was operated on Macklin Creek. Five 
claims were operated above Taylor Creek by ground sluicing and pick and 
shovel methods. Two were on Dahl Creek, and two on Coffee Creek. Drilling 
was done on the lower Kougarok and on Quartz Creek with a view to installing 
dredges. One hundred men were employed in this district. 

SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA. 

Mining throughout southeastern Alaska, which includes the 
Ketchikan, Wrangell, Petersburg, Juneau, Skagway, and Sitka dis- 
tricts, was particularly prosperous. 

The opening of two large low-grade mines at Juneau has stimulated 
the search for other ore bodies of a like nature; and the high price 
of copper resulted in operations being resumed at a number of copper 
properties in the Ketchikan district that had been idle for some years. 
The gold production, including the placer gold of the Porcupine 
district, amounted approximately to $5,435,000, according to figures 
collected by the United States Geological Survey. The copper 

° Brooks, A. H., Mineral Resources of Alaska, 1915, TJ. S. Geol. Survey, 1916, p. 74, 



MINES AND DISTRICTS. 29 

production, 4,500 pounds, which all came from the neighborhood of 
Ketchikan, is valued at about $300,000. The value of the silver, 
marble, lead, and gypsum amounted to a little over $350,000. 

KETCHIKAN DISTRICT. 
ALASKA INDUSTRIAL CO. 

The Jumbo mine of the Alaska Industrial Co., more commonly 
known as the Sulzer mine, is on Hetta Inlet on the west coast of 
Prince of Wales Island. 

The main entrance to this mine is a crosscut at an elevation of 1,500 
feet. The ore bodies so far opened have been near the surface and 
many of them have been worked as open cuts during the summer 
months. A winze has been sunk from the crosscut from which 
several sublevels have been driven with connections through to the 
surface for oreways and ventilation. The ore, which is mainly clnil- 
copyrite, lies in an altered zone between granite and limestone, or in 
plain schist, in irregular lenses which have but little continuity and 
make mining difficult. An air hoist has been installed at the winze. 
The ore is raised in buckets and dumped into cars which are trammed 
b} 7 hand to the entrance of the crosscut, where the ore is sorted before 
going into the bunkers. The bunkers constitute the upper terminal 
of an 8,000-foot aerial tram, the lower terminal being at the bunkers 
on the wharf of the company at tidewater. Power is furnished by a 
hydroelectric plant on the beach. 

DUNTON MINE. 

At the Dunton mine, near Hollis, on the eastern coast of Prince of 
Wales Island, an inclined shaft has been sunk over 200 feet on the 
ore and several levels and sublevels opened from this shaft. The vein 
strikes almost north and dips about 30° west. The footwall is slate 
and the hanging wall is in some places slate and in others a porphy- 
ritic rock. The ore, which occurs in quartz stringers and veins, is 
trammed in wheelbarrows to the shaft, hoisted in a self-dumping 
skip, and crushed in a 5-stamp battery. The pulp flows over amal- 
gamating plates and concentrating tables, the concentrate being 
shipped to the smelter. 

GOODKO MINING CO. 

Work was resumed the past season at the Goodro mine, under the 
direction of S. J. Goodro. The property is at the head of the " Salt 
Chuck," on the north side of Karta Bay. The principal mineral in 
the ore is bornite, which occurs in small masses and disseminated 
particles associated with epidote. feldspar, and biotite, and is inclosed 
in gabbro. Xative gold and considerable chalcopyrite also occur 
with the ore, and near the surface small amounts of chalcocite and 
native copper have been found. 



30 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DUEING 1915. 

GBANBY CONSOLIDATED MINING, SMELTING & POWER CO. 

The Granby company has continued developments on the Mamie 
mine at Hadley, on the east coast of Prince of Wales Island, which 
it took over in 1913, the It mine, and several groups of claims in 
the same locality. Ore bunkers have been erected on tidewater and 
trams built to the mine. The ore is shipped to the company's smelter 
at Anyox, British Columbia, on the Portland Canal. 

The ore bodies at the Mamie mine are contact metamorphic deposits 
of copper ore included in a zone lying between intrusive diorite and 
limestone. The chief copper mineral is chalcopyrite; the gangue con- 
sists of magnetite, garnet, epidote, pyroxene, and hornblende. 

MOLTNT ANDREW IRON & COPPER CO. 

Work has been resumed at the Mount Andrew mine of the Mount 
Andrew Iron & Copper Co., 3,600 feet from tidewater on the north 
shore of Kasaan Bay on the east side of Prince of Wales Island. 
The ore consists of chalcopyrite associated with magnetite and occurs 
in irregular deposits in altered limestone. The deposit has been 
opened by a crosscut with raises to the surface. A winze has also 
been sunk to prospect one of the ore bodies and a crosscut has been 
started that will tap the mineralized zone several hundred feet loAver 
than the present workings. A steam-power plant is situated on the 
beach, and the bunkers at the mine are connected with those on the 
wharf by an aerial tram. 

PRINCETON MINING & MILLING CO. 

The Valpariso mine, of the Princeton Mining & Milling Co., is 
situated at Dolomi, on the eastern side of Prince of Wales Island. 
The ore, a high-grade gold-bearing quartz ore, lies at the contact of 
a schist and a dolomitic limestone. The ore body has been opened to 
a depth of several hundred feet by a shaft on the vein, and drifts 
have been run on the ore, with stopes through to the surface for 
ventilation. The property is equipped with a ten-stamp mill, air 
compressor, and machine drills. 

READY BULLION MINE. 

The Ready Bullion group of claims is situated about a mile and a 
quarter from Hollis on Twelve-Mile Arm. A horse tram has been 
built from the beach to the mine and a 5-stamp mill erected. The 
vein, which is gold-bearing quartz, strikes north 25° west and dips 
50° northeast. The richer part of the vein, 6 to 14 inches, is mined by 
overhand stoping and trammed by hand in cars to the mill, which is 
driven by water power. 

RUSH & BROWN MINE. 

The Rush & Brown property is situated on Prince of Wales Island 
near the head of Kasaan Bay on the northern side. Two main ore 



MINES AND DISTRICTS. 31 

bodies have been developed. One is a sulphide body consisting of 
chalcopyrite and pyrite in a gangne of altered graywacke, quartz, 
and calcite ; it is a shear-zone deposit in sedimentary rock. The other 
ore body is chalcopyrite and magnetite, and occurs at or near a 
contact zone between granitoid rock and a greenstone tuff or con- 
glomerate. The deposits have been opened by a shaft and several 
levels, from which stopes have been driven through to the surface, 
affording excellent ventilation. The ore is hand sorted at the mine 
bunkers and run down a balanced tramway 300 yards to the main 
bunkers. From here it is hauled over the railroad some 3 miles to 
the wharf bunkers, where it is stored for shipment to the smelter. 

JUNEAU DISTRICT. 
THE ALASKA-GASTINEAU MINING CO. 

The Alaska-Gastineau Mining Co., which operates the Perseverance 
mine, in Silver Bow Basin, about 4 miles from Juneau, is the operat- 
ing company for the Alaska Gold Mines Co. 

The mine is in a large fissured zone of slate and metagabbro, cemented 
together by a network of quartz lenses and veinlets. It was opened 
in early days by what was known as the Gilbert workings, which are 
the present fifth level, and later by a 1,400-foot crosscut, approxi- 
mately 1,000 feet below the Gilbert development. This is known as 
the Alexander crosscut. When the Alaska Gold Mines Co. assumed 
control of the property plans were formulated for developing the 
mine on an extensive scale. The shaft was sunk from the Alexander 
crosscut to the thirteenth level, stations cut every 200 feet, and the de- 
velopment of the previously opened levels (every 200 feet) between 
the Alexander crosscut and the Gilbert workings was continued. A 
12,000-foot tunnel was driven from Sheep Creek to connect with the 
bottom of the shaft, and the mine was opened by a system of ore- 
ways, raises, and stopes that would permit the rapid handling of an 
enormous tonnage. 

The stopes are worked on a full-breast shrinkage system, just 
enough ore being drawn to give headroom for the machines. Pillars 
are left at varying intervals, and the ore is blasted out along the 
footwall of the stope; from there to the hanging wall the ore caves 
with little additional blasting. From the stopes the ore passes over 
grizzlies into the chutes, the oversize being " bulldozed " in bulldoze 
chambers. From the chutes it is drawn into 4-ton cars of the Granby 
self-dumping type and hauled by storage-battery motors to the main 
ore way si The ore is drawn through the ore ways into 10-ton cars 
and hauled by electric motors to the mill, which is 6,000 feet from 
the portal of the tunnel. 
78425°— 17 3 



32 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

The mill was designed to treat 6,000 tons of ore per day, but is 
capable of handling 25 to 50 per cent more than the original plans 
called for. The cars are dumped four at a time by a revolving tipple, 
the oversize from the grizzlies passes through gyratory and jaw 
crushers and unites with the undersize in a 10,000-ton storage bin 
cut in the solid rock. From this bin it is conveyed by a belt con- 
veyor to the mill and distributed by a second conveyor to the ore bins. 
From these it passes to large rolls and impact screens, the oversize 
being returned by automatic self-dumping skips to the first set of 
mill bins and the undersize passing to a second set of bins to be 
drawn into smaller rolls and impact screens, also set in a closed 
circuit. From the last-mentioned bins the dry pulp is drawn to 
double-deck Garfield tables, where it is concentrated, reground in 
tube mills, and passed to Wilfley tables, the concentrate going to the 
re-treating plant. One of the noteworthy features of the mill is the 
independence of each unit, the bins being so arranged that stopping 
one unit of the mill does not affect another unit until the bins between 
are empty. 

Power for the mine and mill is supplied from several sources. At 
the mine a small hydroelectric plant furnishes power from the water 
of Gold and Survey Creeks. Also, a large reservoir and hydroelectric 
plant have been constructed on Salmon Creek, about 4 miles from 
Juneau. The dam, which is of the radial arch type, is 165 feet in 
height and 720 feet in length along the crest. The water-storage 
capacity permits the delivery of 6,000 horsepower the year around. 
Another plant is under construction on Annex Creek, a tributary to 
Taku Inlet, that will have an initial capacity of 4,000 horsepower 
and an ultimate capacity of 12,000 horsepower. 

ALASKA GOLD BELT MINING CO. 

The Alaska Gold Belt Mining Co. is developing the Nelson-Lott 
group of claims at the head of Sheep Creek Basin, about 5 miles 
southeast from Juneau. A crosscut is being driven to intersect the ore 
bodies, and plans have been made for the erection of mine buildings 
and a reduction plant. 

ALASKA-JUNEAU GOLD MINING CO. 

The Alaska-Juneau Gold Mining Co., which owns the Alaska 
Juneau mine in Silver Bow Basin, about 3 miles from Juneau, is 
under the same management as the Treadwell properties on Douglas 
Island. 

The ore body is a large fissured zone in metagabbro and slate 
traversed by a network of quartz lenses and veinlets. The ore first 
mined was treated in a 30-scamp mill near the upper workings until 
the value of the ore had been fully determined. The grade of ore 
having been found satisfactory, a 6,538-foot tunnel was driven to cut 



MINES AND DISTRICTS. 33 

the ore body and an incline raise was driven through to the surface. 
From these workings the mine has been opened to supply a mill that, 
when completed, will have a capacity of from 6,000 to 8,000 tons per 
day. From the mouth of the Gold Creek tunnel a tram which passes 
through several smaller tunnels has been run along the hillside over- 
looking the town of Juneau to the pilot plant on the shore of Gas- 
tineau Channel. With this plant experiments were conducted to 
determine the advisability of wholesale or selective mining. From 
some of the stopes all of the ore drawn was run-of-mine, whereas 
from others the quartz was thrown into cribbed chutes and the waste 
used for filling. A new mill is now being constructed. 

ALASKA-TKEADWELL GOLD MINING CO. 

The Treadwell group of mines is situated on the northeast side of 
Douglas Island, about 2^ miles southeast of the city of Juneau, which 
is located on the mainland on the other side of Gastineau Channel. 
The group consists of four mines, which, beginning at the northwest 
end, are as follows: Treadwell, Seven Hundred Foot, Mexican, and, 
with a 2,000-foot interval, Beady Bullion. Three separate companies 
work these mines, as follows : Alaska Treadwell Gold Mining Co., the 
Treadwell mine; Alaska Mexican Gold Mining Co., Mexican mine; 
Alaska United Gold Mining Co., Seven Hundred Foot and Eeady 
Bullion mines. 

As regards operation, these mines may be considered one enter- 
prise, and steps have been taken to consolidate the stocks of the 
various companies into one corporation. 

The ore on Douglas Island occurs in two separate and distinct 
dikes of albite-diorite, a deep-seated intrusive rock related to the 
so-called granites which form the backbone of the coast range of 
mountains. The ore dikes lie between a hanging wall of metagabbro, 
or greenstone, and a footwall of black slate. The ore contains occa- 
sional horses of schist. The larger of the two dikes provides the ore 
of the Treadwell, Mexican, and Seven Hundred Foot mines, and be- 
low the 750- foot level the workings of the three mines are prac- 
tically continuous. The Ready Bullion dike lies about 2,000 feet 
southeast of the end of the Treadwell-Mexican dike and its extent is 
much smaller. However, the character of the ore varies little from 
place to place. 

The mines are about 2,400 feet deep and the method used in mining 
is the shrinkage system, or back-stoping in ore-filled stopes. Levels 
are driven from the shafts at vertical intervals of about 110 to 200 
feet. At an elevation of 25 feet above the level, stopes are cut the 
full width of the ore, but vary in length from 60 to 100 feet. Pillars 
25 feet thick are left between stopes. Chute raises are driven from 
the levels into the bottom of the stopes. The broken ore is drawn 



34 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

through these chutes and trammed to pockets at the shaft. When 
the stopes have been cut out, back-stoping begins. The top of the 
broken ore is kept about 7 feet below the back as the stope pro 
gresses through to the level above. After the stope is finished the 
broken ore is drawn and the pillars allowed to cave. It is often 
possible to recover a large proportion of this caved ore. 

The 2-ton cats in which the ore goes to the shaft pockets are hauled i 
by horses, storage-battery locomotives, gasoline locomotives, or sta- 
tionary tram engines with endless rope. From the ore pockets at 
the various shafts the ore is drawn into skips and hoisted to the 
surface. The skips are dumped automatically, the ore falling into 
gyratory crushers and thence to the various bins from which it goes 
to the various mills. 

The milling plant consists of five mills having a total of 930 
stamps with 30 additional stamps under construction. The tonnage 
treated is approximately 5,000 tons per day. The treatment is stamp- 
ing, amalgamation, and concentration on Frue vanners. The con- 
centrates, which amount to about 100 tons per day, are treated at the 
cyanide plant. This plant also retorts the amalgam from the mills 
and refines all of the bullion. The treatment at this plant is as 
follows: Regrinding in tube mills in cyanide solution, agitation in 
Pachuca tanks to dissolve the gold, filtering off the pulp, precipi- 
tating the gold from the solution by means of zinc dust, and refin- 
ing the precipitated gold bullion. 

The total production to January 1, 1915, was 21,117,633 tons of 
ore, which yielded $58,366,937.88, or $2.42 per ton of ore milled. 
The number of men employed is about 1,300 and the average earning 
capacity per man is $100 per month. 

The power requirements of the operating companies are supplied 
from four sources. The original and cheapest source is from water- 
power wheels at the various mills and compressors. The water is 
collected on Douglas Island by a system of dams, canals, ditches, and 
pipe lines extending from Fish Creek. 14 miles northwest of Tread- 
well, to Ready Bullion Creek, 3 miles southeast. Over 4,000 horse- 
power is obtained from this source during the wet season. Up to 
1910 the only other power available was supplied by direct-connected 
steam engines, which were operated as alternatives for direct water 
power. Ore hoisting is done by steam power only. 

In 1910 electrification of the power system began, and as a result 
the Sheep Creek hydroelectric plant, a flood-water plant having a 
capacity of 2,500 kilowatts, and the Nugget Creek plant, having a 
capacity of 3,000 kilowatts, were constructed. These plants are 
situated on the mainland, the Sheep Creek plant being 4 miles south- 
east of Juneau, and the Nugget Creek plant at the foot of Menden- 
hall Glacier, 12 miles northwest of Juneau. 



MINES AND DISTRICTS. 35 

Electrical power is also generated by steam at the central power 
plant at Treadwell. This plant contains four generators, each di- 
rectly connected to a steam turbine running at a speed of 3,600 revo- 
lutions per minute, and is used when the power supply from the 
hydroelectric plants fails. The capacity of the plant when the power 
is taken at Treadwell is equal to that of both the hydroelectric plants. 
The present policy is to eliminate direct steam power where possible. 

Crude oil is used under all boilers for generating steam for power 
or heat. It is brought from California in tank ships and is stored at 
Treadwell in eight tanks having a storage capacity of 180,000 barrels. 
The annual consumption is a little over 200,000 barrels. 

ALASKA TREASURE GOLD MINING CO. 

Work has been continued intermittently at the Alaska Treasure 
mine on Douglas Island, about 3 miles southeast from Treadwell. A 
crosscut has been driven to cut the mineralized zone and a small 
steam plant and a 5-stamp mill are situated near the beach. 

ALGUNICAN DEVELOPMENT CO. 

The Algunican Development Co. is operating the Jualin mine on 
Johnson Creek, about 7 miles from Berners Bay. A crosscut has 
opened three veins in diorite which strike about north 40° west, dip 
60° to 90° northeast, and have an average width, as stoped, of about 
5 feet. A compressor plant driven by water power has been in- 
stalled, with additional mining machinery, and a deep crosscut is 
being driven to tap the ore body. The crosscut is necessary because 
the diorite is "blocky'" and the joints carry a considerable volume 
of water which makes the expense of pumping prohibitive. The 
property is equipped with a 10-stamp mill. 

EAGLE RIVER MINING CO. 

The Eagle River Mining Co. owns the Eagle River group of claims 
at Amalga, about 7 miles from tidewater on the Lynn Canal, where 
10 adit levels with connections for ore handling and ventilation have 
been driven. The mine is equipped with a 20-stamp mill. 

EBNER GOLD MINING CO. 

The Ebner Gold Mining Co. continued exploration work at the 
Ebner mine, which joins the Alaska-Juneau, in Silver Bow Basin. 
The deep crosscut, begun a few years ago, was completed. Its total 
length is 3,400 feet. This crosscut intersected the ore body under 
the old workings, and over 8,000 feet of development work has been 
done on the crosscut level. 

A testing plant, consisting of five stamps, amalgamating plates, 
Wilfley table, and regrinding apparatus, was installed, as well as a 
12-drill two-stage Ingersoll-Rand compressor. . Power is furnished 
by a Pelton wheel under a 480-foot head. 



36 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 



KENSINGTON MINING CO. 



A few years ago the Kensington Mining Co. consolidated a num- 
ber of claims in the neighborhood of Berners Bay, about GO miles 
north of Juneau. One of the old mills was rehabilitated for use as | 
a pilot plant and development advanced steadily. Sufficient progress 
has been made to warrant the erection of a mill and a 500-ton 
plant will probably be constructed during the coming season. 

SITKA DISTRICT. 
CHICHAGOF MINING CO. 

The Chichagof mine is working a vein of high-grade gold quartz 
in a shear zone in a graywacke. The company's claims, which are 
on Klag Bay on the west coast of Chichagof Island, about 50 miles 
north of Sitka, embrace the original Chichagof mine and the adjoin- 
ing Golden Gate ground. The claims have been opened by a 4,000- 
foot drift from which two shafts, one 840 feet and one 2,500 feet 
from the tunnel mouth, have been sunk 800 feet on the ore. A 634- 
foot raise has been driven from this drift to the Golden Gate work- 
ings to provide an ore way and ventilation. Eight levels have been 
opened from the first incline and six from the second, and at the 
face of the main drift there is approximately 1,800 feet of backs. 

There are two mills on the ground, the Chichagof and the Golden 
Gate. In the former, which contains 20 stamps, the crushed ore from 
the batteries passes over plates to a tube mill, from which it goes to 
a second set of plates, thence to Diester tables, and finally is treated 
by flotation. In the Golden Gate mill there are 10 stamps and the 
battery pulp, after flowing over amalgamating plates, is treated on 
Wilfley tables. 

PACIFIC COAST GYPSUM CO. 

The Gypsum mine of the Pacific Coast Gypsum Co., which is situ- 
ated at Gypsum, on Chichagof Island, is connected to ore bunkers 
at tidewater by a railroad 1 mile long. The mine is opened by a 
shaft from which levels have been driven and raises made to the 
surface for ventilation. The stopes, which alternate with pillars, are 
worked on the full-breast system, only enough of the broken ore 
being drawn through the chute to give working room between the 
ore and the roof. The ore is shipped to the company's plant at 
Tacoma, Wash. 

SOUTHWESTERN ALASKA. 

The Kenai Peninsula, Alaska Peninsula, Cook Inlet, Matanuska 
and Susitna Rivers, Prince William Sound, and the Copper River 



By 
I 



MINES AND DISTRICTS. 37 

Basin constitute the principal mining districts throughout south- 
western Alaska. 

By far the most important output from these districts was the 
copper ore from the Copper River Basin and Prince William 
Sound, although a number of small lode-gold properties were in 
operation and considerable placer gold taken out. A dredge was in- 
stalled near Hope at the head of Turnagain Arm. 

COPPER RIVER DISTRICT. 
ALASKA CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO. 

Development work was continued under bond on the property of 
the Alaska Consolidated Copper Co. on Nugget Creek, a tributary 
of the Kuskulana. It was planned to install a compressor and power 
plant and equip the property with proper mining machinery during 
the winter. 

GREAT NORTHERN DEVELOPMENT CO. 

The assessment work only was done on the Great Northern Devel- 
opment Co. property on Clear Creek, a tributary of the Kuskulana 
River. 

HUBBARD-ELLIOTT COPPER CO. 

Development was continued at the property of the Hubbard- 
Elliott Copper Co., on Elliott Creek, a tributary of the Kotsina. 

KENNECOTT COPPER CORPORATION. 

The Kennecott Copper Corporation is operating two mines, the 
Bonanza and the Jumbo, and developing a number of other claims in 
the Copper River district. The mines are close together and about 
3 miles from the concentrator at the terminal of the. Copper River 
& North Western Railroad. Both are connected with the concen- 
trator by Bleichert aerial tramways. 

The ore at each of the properties is largely chalcocite, with smaller 
amounts of covelite and copper carbonates. It occurs in irregular 
bodies and veinlets in a limestone. 

The Jumbo is opened by a shaft inclined 33°, and the Bonanza 
by a crosscut and inclined shaft of approximately the same angle. 
Both shafts are down to the seventh level, the stations being 100 feet 
apart vertically. The ore bodies are irregular, so no one system of 
mining is followed, but in each part of the mine the system that 
seems the best fitted for the work is utilized. The hanging wall being 
extremely hard, the larger bodies are worked off in benches, whereas 
at the surface workings of the Bonanza the first large ore body was 



38 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

mined through a " glory hole.'* The ventilation throughout most of 
the mine is natural, although in advanced workings the air is forced 
through a 9-inch pipe with 6-inch splits. 

The Jumbo tramway, which was completed this year, is 16,600 feet 
long, has 19 towers, 3 break-overs, and 3 tension stations. The track 
cable on the loaded side is 1% inches in diameter, the one on the 
empty side is 1 inch, and the haulage cable is $ inch in diameter. 
The buckets have a capacity of 6 cubic feet, and the tram has a 
capacity of 25 tons per hour when running at a speed of 500 feet per 
minute. 

The company provides excellent living quarters for the men, with 
pool, billiard, and reading rooms, at each of the properties and at the 
concentrator. 

A new leaching plant to treat the carbonate ore has been installed 
this season, though all of the details of the process have not been 
finally determined. A flow sheet of the concentrator is shown in 
Plate I. 

MOTHER LODE COPPER MINES CO. 

The property of the Mother Lode Copper Mines Co. is about 1$ 
miles from the Kennecott Bonanza mine and 14 miles from Mc- 
Carthy, a station on the Copper River & North Western Railroad. 
A wagon road has been graded to the railroad, and considerable ore 
has been shipped each winter while sledding was good. The property 
has been opened by a crosscut and an inclined shaft on the ore, which 
is largely chalcocite. A • 7,000-foot tramway has been built from 
the mine to the bunkers on McCarthy Creek, and plans have been 
completed for the installation of more machinery and a concentrator. 

PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND. 

More interest in mining was manifested in the Prince William 
Sound district' this year than for a number of seasons, owing to the 
high price of copper. The producing mines worked to full capacity, 
and shipments were resumed at a number of properties where only 
assessment work had been done for a few years. The tramway from 
the Midas mine to the beach was completed, and the new concentrator 
at Latouche was put in continuous operation. 

ALASKA MINES CORPORATION. 

The Alaska Mines Corporation has taken over the Schlosser prop- 
erty on Fidalgo Bay, formerly operated by the Fidalgo- Alaska Cop- 
per Co. The 2,800-foot aerial tram was repaired and new accom- 
modations for the men provided. Underground development opened 
several bodies of chalcopyrite. 



BUREAU OF MINES 



BULLETIN 142 PLATE I 



1, 2, two 20-foot settling tanks ; 3, 
4, two Bleichert aerial trams ; 5, 
grizzly, bars spaced 2i inches apart ; 
6', 13-inch by 24-inch Buchanan 
crusher ; 7, 20-inch belt conveyor ; 8, 
1.200-ton storage bin; U, 30-inch belt 
conveyor, inclination 1S°, speed 35 r. 
p. m. ; 10, electric belt weigher ; 11, 
00-inch Snyder sampler, cuts out 1/20 
part for sample ; 12, shaking screen, 
1 i -inch holes, for sorting free min- 
eral ; 13, 36-inch Symons disk crusher ; 
14, 16-inch bucket elevator, 70 feet, 
center to center of pulleys, with 14- 
inch by 7-iuch by 52-inch cups ; 15, 
48-inch by lOS-inch trommel, with 
round holes 18 mm. in diameter; 16, 
4S-inch by lOS-inch trommel, with round 
holes 11 mm. in diameter; 27, bull jig; 

18, double, three-compartment Harz jig ; 

19, one set of 36-inch by 16-inch Tray- 
lor rolls ; 20, 4S-inch by lOS-inch trom- 
mel with round holes 1 mm. in diam- 
eter ; 21, 25-foot Hancock jig; 22, 14- 
inch elevator ; 23, Esperanza drag 
classifier ; 24, simplex Callow screen ; 
25, Callow tank ; 26, single-spigot 
classifier ; 21, 2S, two one-compartment 
Harz jigs ; 20, three-spigot Richards 
classifier ; 30, Esperanza dewaterer ; 32, 
one set of 36-inch by 16-inch Traylor 
rolls ; 33, 34, two No. 6 Wilfley tables ; 
85, 36, 37, 3S, 39, five No. 6 Wilfley 
tables; 40, Wilfley table; J,l, .',2, J,3, 
three James sand tables ; 4-h 2-inch 
centrifugal pump; J f 5, 4$, 41, 48, four 
6-inch Callow tanks ; -}9, Esperanza 
dewaterer ; 50, 51, 52, three Deister 
slime tables ; 53, 54, two James slime 
tables ; 55, 2-inch centrifugal pump ; 

56, 5-inch by 8-inch dewatering tank ; 

57, 6-inch Frue vanner ; 58, 59, two 
Deister slime tables ; 60, 61, 62, con- 
centrating bins ; 63, 64, 65, three con- 
centrate settling tanks ; 66, overflow 
tank; 67, 68, two 250-gallon per min- 
ute triplex pumps for returning mill 
overflows to upper settling tanks. 





t,^ V 68 i i — - 

|-|o|o|ohMoToToK 66? 



FLOW SHEET OF KENNECOTT CONCENTRATING PLANT. 
78425—17. (To face page 38.) 



MIXES AND DISTRICTS. 39 

BIG FOUR MINE. 

Only the assessment work was done on the Big Four property 
on Brevier, a tributary of Mineral Creek. 

CLJFF MINE. 

The Cliff mine has been taken over by the owner, H. E. Ellis, 
and work has been resumed on the Mystic No. 1 claim. The ore 
was trammed to the mill, which was run intermittently. The mill is 
equipped with a 6-stamp Nissen plant, six concentrating tables, and 
three boilers totaling 200 horsepower. 

ELLAMAR MINING CO. 

The Ellamar Mining Co. works the Ellamar mine at Ellamar, on 
the eastern shore of Virgin Bay, about 20 miles southwest of Valdez. 

The mine is opened on seven levels from a three-compartment, ver- 
tical shaft 600 feet deep, crosscuts being driven from the shaft to the 
ore. A cofferdam has been constructed about the outcrop to prevent 
the mine from being flooded at high tide. The ore body, which on the 
200-foot level is about 250 feet long and over 50 feet wide, fills a frac- 
ture zone in sedimentary rocks, chiefly slates. The principal levels 
have been worked as an open-cut and the lower levels by the shrinkage 
system. As all of these stopes have been emptied and as considerable 
ore remained on the walls and in the pillars, a system of filling has 
been introduced by which the old openings are cribbed and filled and 
the adjoining ore bodies- mined. Crosscuts have been run in the hang- 
ing wall and raises driven to obtain waste rock with which the levels 
are filled as the cribs are built up. The ore is then mined and dropped 
through cribbed chutes to the level below. After being hand sorted 
the ore is stored in bins, from which it is loaded by an aerial 
tramway directly to ships. The ore is mined largely for its copper 
content, although it contains a high percentage of iron and some gold. 

FIDALGO MIXING CO. 

The Fidalgo Mining Co. owns a group of 24. lode claims on the 
southeastern shore of Fidalgo Bay. 

The ore, chiefly chalcopyrite, lies in a sheared zone through slate, 
graywacke, and greenstone, that strikes northwest and dips 67° north- 
east. Two drifts connected by a raise have been driven, the upper 
one being 130 feet long and the lower one 450 feet long. A 50-ton 
ore bin has been built at the mine and is connected with a 500-ton bin 
at the wharf by a 2,000-foot aerial tram. 



40 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

GALENA HAY MINING CO. 

The assessment work was the only development reported at the 
Galena Bay mine, on the ridge between Galena and Boulder Bays. 

GRANBY CONSOLIDATED MINING, SMELTING & POWER CO. 

The Granby property is situated near the head of Solomon Gulch, 
just across the bay from Valdez. Owing to the war in Europe, it 
was difficult for the company to obtain ships to convey ore from the 
Midas mine to the company's smelter at Anyox, on the Portland 
Canal, so that only a small amount of work was done at the mine 
other than advancing the drifts and completing the tramway. 

The ore is principally chalcopyrite, in a quartz and pyritic gangue. 
The ore body strikes nearly east and west and dips 45° north; it 
varies from 1 to 20 feet in width, with an average of approximately 
4| feet, and has been opened by three drifts with crosscuts and raises, 
giving over 200 feet of backs. An aerial tramway, 5^ miles long, 
with a capacity of 20 tons per hour, connects the mine and wharf. 
The track cable on the loaded side is 1% inches in diameter; the one 
on the empty side is f- inch in diameter, with a -£-inch haulage 
rope. The cable system is driven by a 30-horsepower Foos gas en- 
gine. The bunkers on the wharf have a capacity of 3,000 tons and 
load directly on ocean-going vessels with a belt conveyor, which is 
driven by a 15-horsepower Fairbanks-Morse gas engine. 

GOLD KING MINE. 

The Gold King mine, which has been operated under bond by the 
Gold King Mining Co., was taken over by the oridginal owners and 
worked in a small way, the mill being run for a short time during 
the summer. The property is situated near the head of one of the 
eastern arms of the Columbia Glacier. 

GRANITE GOLD MINING CO. 

The Granite Gold Mining Co. is working the Granite mine, which 
is about a mile from the beach at Hobo Bay, on Port Wells. An 
oil-burning steam plant was installed in 1915 on the beach to generate 
electric power to replace the gasoline-driven equipment formerly used 
at the mine and mill. The plant contains two 80-horsepower boilers, 
a steam engine, and a 160-kilowatt generator. 

The vein is 1| to 8 feet wide, the average width being approximately 
26 inches. Its strike is irregular and the dip is roughly 45° north. 
The fissure cuts a slate-granite contact, so that the walls are variable. 
The mine is opened with a crosscut and a shaft. A second crosscut 
has been driven on the mill level, 125 feet below the upper workings, 
and a raise put up on the vein to connect with the shaft. This pro- 



MINES AND DISTRICTS. 41 

vides ventilation and an ore way to the mill level. To the original 
7-foot Lane mill have been added 10 stamps driven by a 60-horse- 
power motor. The battery pulp from both mills passes over amal- 
gamating plates to tables, the tailing being impounded for future 
treatment. 

CAMERON-JOHNSON GOLD MINING CO. 

The Cameron-Johnson property is about 10 miles from Valdez. 
near the head of one of the arms of the Shoup Glacier. No work was 
done in 1915 except the assessment work. 

KENNECOTT COPPER CORPORATION. 

The Beatson Copper Co., working the Beatson-Bonanza mine at 
Latouche, on Latouche Island, is now part of the Kennecott Copper 
Corporation, which owns the Kennecott mine on Copper River and 
the Braden mine in Chile. 

The ore body, a large lenticular deposit of chalcopyrite, in a slate 
and graywacke gangue, has been mined through a " glory hole " and 
stopes. A main tunnel, with crosscuts, opened the ore body on the 
level of the bunkers, and approximately 140 feet above this, the open 
cut, roughly 400 by 100 feet, is worked in benches. The ore is blasted 
into chutes, " bulldozed," and drawn out on the bunker level. Part 
of the ore is mined by stopes from the main level, a shrinkage system 
being employed. Below this level a shaft has been sunk 100 feet and 
drifts started, but no stopes have been opened on these drifts. A new 
power plant and concentrator, employing a flotation process, has been 
completed during the past season. Crude oil is used for fuel in the 
power plant, which contains three 305-horsepower boilers and two 
500-kilowatt turbo generators. A seven-drill, two-stage compressor 
furnishes air for the machines in the mine. 

LANDLOCK BAT COPPER CO. 

The Landlock Bay Copper Co. owns a group of seven lode claims 
on the south side of Landlock Bay. The ores occupy shear zones in 
slate, graywacke, and " greenstone." On the west side of the ridge, 
on which the claims are located, two crosscuts have intersected the 
ore, on which shallow winzes have been sunk. A wharf and 800-ton 
bunkers have been constructed near the entrance to the lower crosscut, 
which is about 80 feet above sea level. 

MINERAL. KING MINING CO. 

The Mineral King mine, of the Mineral King Mining Co., is a mile 
east of Bettles Bay, on Port Wells. Only assessment work was done 
in 1915. 



42 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

There are three veins on the property, but except for a few open 
cuts the exploration work has been confined to one. This vein, which 
cuts a slate-gray wacke series, strikes north 40° west and dips 53° 
northeast, and varies from 6 inches to 4 feet in width, with an aver- 
age of 18 inches. A shaft has been sunk 110 feet on the ore, and 
drifts run on the vein about 200 feet from the 100-foot point. The 
mine, which is at an elevation of 700 feet, is equipped with a 
16-horsepower boiler and a 12-horsepower hoist. A mill site has been 
staked on the flat near tide where water power is available for power. 

MOUNTAIN KING MINE. 

The only work done at the Mountain King mine, on Mineral Creek, 
by the owners during 1915, was the assessment work. 

RAMSAY-RUTHERFORD MINING CO. 

The Ramsay-Rutherford Mining Co. is working high-grade gold 
ore located about 11 miles northeast of Valdez. The claims are situ- 
ated on a ridge east of the main Valdez Glacier, at an elevation of 
about 3,500 feet. A crosscut was completed this year, tapping the 
ore on the mill level, and a raise driven to the workings above where 
several short levels had been opened. 

At the mill the ore passes over a H-inch grizzly, the oversize going 
to a 7-inch by 9-inch Blake crusher, driven by a 10-horsepower Foos 
gasoline engine. From the bins the ore is fed to a five-stamp Hendy 
mill by a Challenge feeder and is crushed to 40-mesh size. The 
stamps weigh 1,000 pounds each, have a 6-inch drop, and fall about 
110 times per minute. The pulp flows from amalgamating plates to 
a Deister table, which is driven by a 3-horsepower gasoline engine. 
Power is furnished for the stamps by a 20-horsepower Foos engine. 
Another 20-horsepower Foos engine drives a 9 by 11 inch compressor 
to furnish air for the stopers underground. 

SEALET-DAVIS MINING CO. 

The Sealey-Davis Mining Co. owns a group of 13 lode claims, 
bordering on the eastern shore of Shoup Bay, about 14 miles from 
Valdez. The vein, which cuts a slate-gray wacke series, and has an 
average width of about 42 inches, strikes north 50° west and dips 
61° southwest. It has been opened by a 60-foot open cut, two drifts, 
and a crosscut, giving a total depth of about 450 feet on the vein. 

THOMAS-CUXROSS MINING CO. 

The Thomas-Culross Mining Co. is developing a group of claims 
at Thomas Bay, but did little more than the assessment work during 
1915. 



MINES AND DISTRICTS. 43 

THREE MAN MINING CO. 

The Three Man Mining Co. owns about 40 lode claims tributary to 
Landlock Bay. The main group, known locally as the Dickey claims, 
is at the head of the bay, the Alaska Commercial group is a little 
to the west of these, and the Montezuma group is on the Copper 
Mountains. 

The ore bodies at the Dickey group lie in shear zones in a slate- 
graywacke-" greenstone " series, have a general west-northwest strike, 
and dip 45° to 90° north. They have been opened on five levels, 
with over 2,000 feet of development. The ore is carried on a short 
jig-back aerial tram from the lower openings to the bunkers on the 
wharf. The bunkers have a capacity of 800 tons. 

KENAI PENINSULA. 

The amount of mining on the Kenai Peninsula was about the same 
during 1915 as in 1914, the operations being mostly on a compara- 
tively small scale. The Kenai-Alaska Gold Co. operated its mill 
during part of the year and continued development work under- 
ground. Some work was done on the Gilpatrick property by outside 
parties who have a bond on the mine, and the assessment work was 
done on the Primrose, Scheen-Lechner, Moose Pass, Grant Lake, 
Blue Bell, and a number of other smaller prospects. A dredge was 
also installed by Charles Herron on the Six-Mile River near Hope. 

WILLOW CREEK (SUSITNA DRAINAGE). 
ALASKA FREE GOLD MINING CO. 

The group of 16 lode claims, owned by the Alaska Free Gold Min- 
ing Co. and leased by William Martin, of Seattle, is situated near the 
head of Fishhook Creek, on the southern side of the Willow Creek 
Valley, about 35 miles from Knik. 

Several veins have been opened by cuts and short drifts from 
which the ore is carried to the mill over two aerial tramways. The 
largest vein is 3 to 10 feet wide, strikes north 20° west and dips 
about 40° southwest. Both the hanging and the foot walls are blocky 
quartz-ore diorite which is cut by numerous small quartz stringers 
containing gold. The mill, 1,800 feet below the mine, is connected 
to the main mine bunkers by a 2,250- foot span, and these are in turn 
connected to the mine by a 1,100-foot span. Both tramways are of 
the jig-back type, using buckets with a capacity of 450 to 500 pounds. 
The track cables are five-eighths inch in diameter and the pull-back 
cable is one-fourth inch in diameter. 

The mill contains two 10-foot slow-speed Lane mills, run at a 
speed of eight revolutions per minute, the size of the discharge 



44 MINING 1NDUSTBY IN ALASKA DUBING 1915. 

product being regulated by the height of discharge and flow of 
water. Power is furnished by a 10-inch turbine under a 30- foot head 
and two gasoline engines of 15 and 25 horsepower, respectively. The 
pulp flows over Wilfley tables to a cyanide plant, which was erected 
during 1915. 

INDEPENDENCE MINING CO. 

The Independence Mining Co. is operating the mine formerly con- 
trolled by the Alaska Gold Quartz Mining Co. The mine joins the 
Free Gold mine on Fishhook Creek. 

There are two veins known as the Granite Mountain and the Inde- 
pendence in a quartz-diorite. The Granite Mountain strikes north 
20° west and dips 16 to 17° southwest, and varies from 2 inches to 4 
feet in width, with an average of about 18 inches. The Independence 
vein strikes parallel to that of the Granite Mountain, but dips 
more steeply, between 28° and 42° southwest, and averages 30 inches 
in width. The ore is conveyed to the mill by two jig-back aerial 
tramways, which have five-eighths inch track and one-fourth inch 
haulage cables, the buckets holding about 450 pounds of ore. 

The mill contains one Nissen 1,000-pound stamp and a battery of 
three 350-pound stamps. Power is furnished by a Pelton wheel 
under a 110-foot head. 

GOLD BULLION MINE. 

The Gold Bullion mine, under bond to Hugh Doheny and L. C. 
Tomson, of Montreal, Quebec, is on the divide between Willow and 
Craigie Creeks, about 33 miles from Knik. The vein is a high-grade 
gold-bearing quartz in a blocky quartz-diorite. Its width, strike, 
and dip are irregular, though the larger stopes are so flat that all of 
the ore has to be shoveled. 

The ore is conveyed by car and short aerial trams from several 
openings to the mine bunkers, from there by a jig-back aerial tram 
to an intermediate bin, and thence by a second jig-back aerial tram 
to the mill. The tram from the mine bunkers to the intermediate bin 
is one 1,200-foot span with f-inch track and £-inch haulage cables 
with 400-pound buckets. The lower tram is 3,600 feet long and has 
seven towers. The track cable is 1 inch in diameter, and the haulage 
cable is $ inch, with 700-pound buckets. 

At the mill the ore passes over a 1^-inch grizzly and through a 
7-inch by 9-inch jaw crusher to the bins, whence it is fed to a five- 
stamp and a two-stamp battery. The stamps in both batteries weigh 
1,050 pounds each, have a drop of 6£ inches, and fall 100 times per 
minute. The pulp flows over amalgamating plates, Wilfley tables, 
and canvas, and then to a sand-leaching plant, where it receives a 
four-day treatment. The concentrate is shipped to the Tacoma 
smelter. 



ACCIDENTS AT MINES, QUARRIES, AND DREDGES. 45 

ACCIDENTS AT MINES, QUARRIES, AND DREDGES IN ALASEA 

DURING 1915. 

In and about the mines, quarries, and dredges of the Territory, 
between 7,000 and 8,000 persons are employed, over 50 per cent of 
whom are at the lode mines. On account of the great distances to be 
traveled and the time necessary for visiting all of the mines, an 
accurate count of all employees and accidents is at present impos- 
sible. During 1915 there were 22 fatalities (see Table 1, p. 46) in 
all branches of the mining industry, which would give a death ratio 
of about 3 per 1,000 employees. It is manifestly unfair to compute 
the death ratio on this basis, as most of the lode mines are in opera- 
tion during the entire year, whereas the season for the placer mines 
and dredges is between four and six months. 

It has been impossible with the available resources to obtain 
accurate data on accidents in the placer mines except fatal accidents, 
but for the lode mines fairly complete statistics are at hand. In 28 
lode mines, employing 3,617 men, both underground and on the sur- 
face, there were reported 18 fatal, 97 serious, and 415 slight accidents 
underground and in shops. On the basis of these figures the rates 
per 1,000 men employed at lode mines are as follows : Fatalities, 4.98; 
serious accidents underground and in shops, 26.74; slight accidents 
underground and in shops, 114.74. 

In addition there were 22 serious and 51 slight injuries at mills 
and metallurgical plants at which 520 men were employed. The 
accident ratios at the mills were therefore 42.31 per 1,000 men em- 
ployed for serious and 98.08 for slight injuries. 

There were four fatalities in the placer mines. There are approxi- 
mately 3,500 men in the placer mines and on the dredges, and, assum- 
ing that each man in a year averages six months' employment, prob- 
ably a high figure, the fatality rate would be 2.29 per 1,000 men 
employed. This ratio compares favorably with 4.98 for the lode 
mines, especially if the intermittent character of the work is taken 
into consideration. 

Eight men were killed by falls of rock in lode mines. This num- 
ber was nearly 50 per cent of the total number of fatalities at such 
mines and indicates the care needed to prevent falls. Constant 
vigilance by both men and bosses is necessary. Every man going on 
shift should make sure that his working place is safe, regardless 
of what the men in the off-coming shift or the foreman has said. 
With the limited information available, the accidents can not be 
classified so as to show which were preventable, but it is certain that 
a large proportion of them might have been avoided through the 
use of proper caution by the men and the mine officials. 

Tables 1 to 3 contain statistics on accidents at mines, quarries, and 
dredges in Alaska during 1915. 



46 



MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1015. 
Table 1. — Fatalities inside and outside the mines, quarries, and 



Date 
of acci- 
dent. 
(1915) 



Name of person. 



National- 
ity. 



Occupation. 



Regular. 



When 
injured. 



Age. 



Married 
or single 



Dependents. 



Widow. 



Chil- 
dren 

under 
1*> 

years. 



Jan. 8 

29 
Feb. - 
May 4 

June 3 

7 

29 
July 10 



Sept. 15 
Oct. 8 



18 
Nov. 5 



15 

27 

27 
27 
30 

Dec. H 
18 



Stephen Naas. 



Peter Erickson . 

Otto Oman 

Axtel Hellund.. 



Richard Hasselberg. 



John Bonar. 



Anton Sepich.. 
Richard Opitz. 



Ralph Maritini . 



R. Milke 

John Canale . 



Mato Jono. 



Luigi Battelo. 
Tony Ujcich.. 



Chas. Stevens. 



Maurice Libbreck. 

Louis Tabacovich . 

Andro Del Castel . . 

George Moore 

Peter Rogulj 



John C. Byard. 
Edw. Shanda . . 



Canadian 
Swede 



Miner.. 
Prospector 



Miner. 



Single. 



Finn.. 
Swede. 



Russian. . 



Austrian . 

Swiss 



Italian . 



Canadian 
Italian . . . 



Austrian . 



Italian . . . 
Austrian . 



Belgian . 



Italian 

...do... ; 
Austrian . 

American 
....do 



Miner 

Stope boss 

Laborer. . . 
Miner 



Miner 

Stope boss 

Laborer... 
Miner 



31 

34 Single. 

21 Married 



Machine 
helper. 

Miner 



Machine 
helper. 

Miner 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 
.do. 



About 
30. 
24 



.do. 



.do. 



..do 

Nipper 



Machine 
man in 
shaft. 

Chute 
puncher . 

Chuck 
sender. 

Machine 

man. 
Chuck 

sender. 
Chute 

puncher. 



Laborer. 
Oiler.... 



..do.... 
Nipper. 



Machine 
man in 
shaft. 

Chute 
puncher 

Chuck 
sender. 

Machine 

man. 
Chuck 

sender. 
Chute 

puncher 



Laborer. 
Oiler.... 



38 



...do.. 
Single. 

...do... 



Married 
Single.. 



Yes. 



Married 
...do... 



.do. 



Single. 



Yes... 
Yes... 



Yes. 



Single . 
..do.. 
...do.. 



...do.... 
Married 



Yes.. 



ACCIDENTS AT MIXES, QUARRIES, AND DREDGES. 
dredges in the Territory of Alaska during the calendar year 1915. 



47 



Name of company and mine. 



Nature and cause of accident. 




Ed. Hearn, No. 5, below Tenderfoot • 

Creek. 
Alaska United Gold Mining Co., Ready ! 

Bullion Mine. 

Beatson Copper Co., Bonanza 



Alaska Treadwell Gold Mining Co., 
Treadwell. 

Alaska-Gastineau Mining Co., Perse- 
verance. 

Pacific Coast Gypsum Co., Gypsum. . . 



GranbyConsolidated Mg., Sm. & P. Co. 

Mamie. 
U. S. Smelting & Refining Co., Ebner. 



Ellamar Mining Co., Ellamar. 



Attempted to climb out of shaft without signaling engineer. 

He either fell or was knocked off the ladder by a descending 

bucket. 
Fell down shaft while prospecting. 
Fell down shaft on Seventy-Mile Creek. 
Spine broken by slab falling from the roof. 

Hasselberg had crossed the stope and was approaching a 
machine when a slab fell, breaking his leg and injuring him 
internally. He died the following day. 

While Bonar was working in a drift, a small rock dropped. It 
is supposed that in trying to escape he stumbled and fell, as 
the rock did not strike ham. Physician pronounced death 
due to heart failure. 

Injured by fall of roof while barring down'loose rock in a stope. 

Opitz had gone for powder. On returning across stope he set 
the box on a muck pile. While stooping over to take powder 
out of the box, a rock fell from the roof, fatally injuring him. 

Three men were sinking a shaft. Two went below while the 
third was to lower some planks. Maritini stood in bottom 
of shaft instead of in drift and was bit by plank which slipped 
from rope. 

Milke drilled into a missed hole in a bowlder. 

Canale and two others, working in open cut, had loaded three 
holes, lit them, and gone to place of safety. Two reports 
were heard. Canale said he had not lighted his fuse and 
returned, when blast exploded and killed him. 

While working in a stope, rock fell and crushed right leg. 
Taken to Valdez, 30 miles, to physician; lost so much blood 
en route that he was unable to withstand amputation of leg. 

Crushed while crossing stope by rock falling from roof. 

Two men had started a crosscut on the fifth level. They lit 
the second round of holes and went in both directions along 
the drift, leaving unguarded the manway from the sixth 
level. Ujcich came up this manway and walked into blast. 

Stevens and his partner fired a round in the shaft. They 
returned to shoot a missed hole, gave blasting signal, but 
before giving hoisting signal there was an explosion. Pre- 
sumably powder caught fire, causing premature explosion. 

Libbreck crawled up the chute to start the ore when the jar 
from blasting in other parts of the mine started the ore, which 
crushed him to death. 

Tabacovich, who was working night shift in the "glory hole." 
went to look for bis hat which had blown off. He slipped on 
the snow and ice and fell 60 feet to the pit below. 

Was drilling in stope when roof fell, burying him. 

Moore was carrying chuck in stope when roof fell, burying him. 

do Rogulj was walking along the level to get water; train was 

coming from behind; foreman saw him and called to step 
aside. He started for the manway, slipped, and fell in front 
of trip, which crushed him. 

Deceased was working at grading a mill site. Without warn- 
ing a slide fell from the cliff, completely burying him. 

Went under hoist to adjust machinery. * Engineer asked if he 
was in safe place; reply affirmative. Hoisted, put on reverse, 
heard cry, stopped. Injured crushed by counterweight when 
reverse was thrown. 



Alaska United G. Mng. Co., 700-Foot. .. 
Alaska-Gastineau Mining Co., Perse- 
verance. 



Alaska Mexican Gold Mining Co., 
Mexican. 



Alaska United Gold Mng. Co., 700-Foot. 



Kennecott Copper Corporation., Beat- 
son-Bonanza. 

Alaska-Gastineau Mining Co., Perse- 
verance. 
....do 



Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co., Alaska 

Juneau Mill Site. 
Alaska Mexican Gold Mining Co 



78425°— 17- 



48 



MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 



Table 2.-Accidents m Alaska mem mines during the year ended December 



UNDERGROUND. 



Number killed or injured by— 

1. Fall of rock or ore from roof or wall 

I T&lSSW^^ at WOT ^"<^ °'"ci.ut.e 

4. Explosives 

5 - Ha t u c la , ge s y steI » (mine cars," m'm'e' locomotives! br'i 

6. Falling down chute,' winze,' raise," or'stope 

I' £ tm 1 .°' ore from chute or pocket. 

9.' Ei r ictridty cidents (by raachlne or iand ' aViiis).'; ; : 

ll' Muie^r^ 7 (0t * er *^ an ' oco ™ otive s or drills) ." ! ! ! ! 

12. Suffocation from natural eases 

13. Inrush of water 

14. Nails, splinters, etc 

15. Other causes 



Total number killed or injured underground. 



SHAFT ACCIDENTS. 

Number killed or injured by— 

16. Falling down shafts 

ll' Sheets falling down shafts 

18. Breaking of cables 

19. Overwinding " 

20. Skip.cage, or bucket!!!!!! 

21. Other causes 

Total number killed or injured by shaft accidents 

SURFACE ACCIDENTS. 

(At surface yards and shops.) 
Number killed or injured by— 

| S^eSSS/SSKSSf ' ""^ or aerial *■»■ 
£ F a u .ro r fZ on° s r . ein or frora «"^v::::::::::;:::::: 

26. Nails, splinters, etc. . 

ol' ¥. an ? * ools > axes > ba rs, etc. ."." 

28. Electricity 

29. Machinery _"."..' 

30. Other causes. .!!!!!!!.!!!. 

Total number killed or injured by surface accidents, 

OPEN-PIT ACCIDENTS. 

Number killed or injured in pit bv- 

lo l! all f o rsl'desofrockorore.... 

a. Explosives 

35. Falls of persons 

36. Falls of derricks, booms! etc" 

«• S un u 0r fal1 of ore in or from ore bins" 

40. Hand tools ! 

41. Other causes !!!!!. 

TotalnumberMIledorinjured by open-pit accidents 
Grand total a 



&& 2IS.T2? Mt w !dows, 8. 



mines, but does not include serious and slight 




injuries. Complete data 



Number of children under 16 



years of age left fatherless, 9. 



ACCIDENTS AT MINES, QUARRIES, AND DREDGES. 



49 



Table 3. — Accidents in Alaska metallurgical plants during the year ended 

December SI, 1915. 



Killed. 



Seriously 
injured. 



Slightly 
injured. 



ORE-DEESSING AND MILLING ACCIDENTS. 



Number killed or injured by— 

1. Haulage system (cars, motors, etc.) 

2. Railway cars or locomotives 

3. Crushers 

4. Rolls or stamps 

5. Tables, jigs, etc 

6. Other machinery 

7. Falls of persons 

B. Suffocation in ore bins 

9. Falling objects (rocks, timbers, etc.) 

10. Cyanide or other poisoning 

11. Scalding (steam or water) 

12. Electricity 

13. Hand tools, axes, bars, etc 

14. Nails, splinters, etc 

15. Flying pieces of rock from sledging or crusher . 

16. Other causes 



Total number killed or injured at mills. 



DATA ON DREDGES. 



Table 4 following shows the number of dredges operating in 
Alaska during 1915, and various details of the construction and 
operation of the dredges: 



50 



MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 



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ACCIDENTS AT MINES, QUARRIES, AND DREDGES. 



51 



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52 



MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 
Table 5. — Data on lode mines in Alaska, 1915. 



SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA. 



Name of company. 



Name of mine. 



Mine address. 



Superintendent. 



Alaska Free Gold Mining Co 

Alaska-Gastineau Mining Co 

Alaska Gold Belt Mining Co 

Alaska Industrial Co 

Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co 

Alaska Mexican Gold Mining Co. . . 
Alaska Treadwell Gold Mining Co. 
Alaska Treasure Gold Mining Co. . . 

Alaska United Gold Mining Co 

Algunican Development Co 

Chichagof Mining Co 

Dunton mine 

Eagle River Mining Co 

Ebner Gold Mining Co 

Goodro Mining Co 

Granby Con. M., S. & P. Co 

Kensington Mining Co 

Mount Andrew Iron & Copper Co. 

Pacific Coast Gypsum Co 

Princeton Mining & Milling Co 

Ready Bullion mine 

Rush& Brown 



Perseverance. 



Jumbo 

Alaska Juneau.. 

Mexican 

Treadwell 

Treasure 

1700 Foot , 

\Ready Bullion.. 

Jualin 

Chichagof 

Dunton 

Eagle River 

Ebner 

Goodro 

It and Mamie.., 

Kensington 

Mount Andrew. 

Gypsum 

Vafpariso 

Ready Bullion.. 
Rush & Brown. 



Knik.... 
Juneau.. 
do... 



Sulzer. 

Juneau 

Treadwell. . 

....do 

Juneau 

JTreadwell . 

Jualin 

Chichagof. . 

Hollis 

Juneau 

....do 

Kasaan 

Hadley 

Juneau 

Ketchikan. 
Gypsum... 

Dolomi 

Hollis 

Kasaan 



Wm. Martin. 

B. L. Thane. 

A. B. Dodd. 

C. A. Sulzer. 
P. R. Bradley. 

Do. 

Do. 

M. Hudson. 

P. R. Bradley. 

H. G. Young. 
J. R. Freeburn. 

B. L. Thane. 
Geo. Oswell. 
S. J. Goodro. 
Wm. Sweetser. 
B. L. Thane. 
W. J. Rogers. 

D. C. Stapleton. 
B. A. Eardley. 

U. S. Rush. 



COPPER RIVER. 



Alaska Consolidated Copper Co. . 
Great Northern Development Co 
Hubbard-Elliott Copper Co 

Kennecott Copper Corporation... 
Mother Lode Copper Mines Co. . . 



Nugget Creek . . . 
Gray's Copper... 
Hubbard-Elliott 

Bonanza-Jumbo. 
Mother Lode 



Strelna 

Mt. Phillips. 
Elliott Creek 
via Strelna. 
Kennecott... 
McCarthy 



Alfred B. lies. 
E. F. Gray. 
A. J. Elliott. 



W. A. 

W. B. Hahdcock. 



PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND. 



Alaska Mines Corporation Schlosser 

Big Four mine Big Four 

Cameron-Johnson Gold Mining Co Cameron-Johnson . . . 

Cliff mine Cliff 

Ellamar Mining Co Ellamar 

Fildalgo Mining Co Fildalgo 

Galena Bay Mining Co Galena Bay 

Gold King mine Gold King 

Granby Con. M., S. & P. Co., Ltd Midas 

Granite Gold Mining Co Granite 

Irish Cove Copper Co Irish Cove 

Kennecott Copper Corporation Beatson-Bonanza . . . 

Landlock Bay Copper Co Landlock Bay 

Mineral King Mining Co Mineral King 

Mountain Kmg mine Mountain King 

Ramsay-Rutherford Mining Co Ramsey-Rutherford. 

Sealey-Davis Mining Co Sealey-Davis 

Thomas-Culross Mining Co Bugaboo 

Three Man Mining Co Three Man 



Valdez 

....do.... 
....do..... 
....do..... 
Ellamar... 
....do..... 

Valdez 

....do.... 
....do.... 
...do.... 
Ellamar.. 
Latouche. 
Ellamar.. 

Golden 

Valdez... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

Ellamar.. 



E. E. Reitter. 
A. Wilcox. 

H. E. Ellis. 
L. L. Middelkamp. 
Wm. Mackintosh. 
Chas. Simonstead. 

Geo. E. H. Smith. 
W. R. Millard. 
W. A. Dickey. 

F. R. Van Campen. 
W. A. Rystrom. 

W. L. Smith. 

H. Deyo. 

E. C. Sealey-J. M.Davis. 

W. A. Dickey. 



KENAI PENINSULA. 



Gilpatrick mine 

Kenai-Alaska Gold Co 

Porcupine Gold Mining Co. 
Primrose Mining Co 



Gilpatrick. 



Porcupine. 
Primrose. . 



Seward... 

do.... 

Porcupine. 
Seward 



John Gilpatrick. 
J. R. Hayden. 
J. R. Pringle. 



WILLOW CREEK (SUSITNA DRAINAGE). 



Alaska Free Gold Mining Co 

Gold Bullion mine 

Independence Mining Co 



Alaska Free Gold . . 

Gold Bullion 

Independence 



Knik.. 

do 

do 



Wm. Martin. 
Ronald Harris. 
L. S. Robe. 



MINE-INSPECTION LAWS OF ALASKA. 



53 



Table 5. — Data on lode mines in Alaska, 1915. 

FAIRBANKS. 



Name of company. 



Name of mine. 



Mine address. 



Superintendent. 



American Eagle mine 

Bond Holder mine 

Chatham Mining Co 

Crites-Feldman mine 

Homestake Mining Co 

Mayflower mine 

Mizpah mine 

McCarthy mine 

McNeil-Huddelson 

Newsboy Mining Co 

Reliance Mining Co 

Wyoming & Colorado mine. 



American Eagle. 
Bond Holder.... 



Crites-Feldman . 



Mayflower 

Mizpah 

McCarthy 

McNeil-Huddelson. 

Newsboy 

Reliance 

Wyoming & Col 



Fairbanks. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Cleary 



Chris. Foss. 
E. Tyndall. 
Si. Serafford. 
Henry Feldman. 
G. St. George. 
H. Kleinsmith. 
A. Hess. 
John McCarthy. 
Mike McNeil. 
Louis Golden. 

Spalding. 

Tony Goeseman. 



MINE-INSPECTION LAWS OF ALASKA. 

ORIGINAL ACT. 

The following act (Session Laws of Alaska, 1913, chap. 72, p. 274) 
relating to mine inspection in Alaska was passed by the Territorial 
Legislature on April 30, 1913: 

An Act to divide the Territory into mine inspection districts ; to establish the office of 
mine inspector ; to prescribe the duties, powers, qualifications and compensation 
thereof ; to regulate the operation of mines in the Territory of Alaska ; to provide 
for the health, and safety of mine workers in the Territory ; to declare the violation 
of any of the provisions hereof a misdemeanor and prescribing punishment therefor. 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the Territory of Alaska: 

Section 1. As soon as practicable after the passage of this act, and not later 
than the first day of April, nineteen hundred and fourteen, the Governor of 
the Territory of Alaska shall appoint one qualified person to be inspector of 
mines ; such inspector shall be known as the Territorial Mine Inspector, and 
he shall be under the supervision and subject to the instructions of 'the Federal 
mine inspectors now appointed as provided by law. 

No person shall be appointed a mine inspector who shall not be a citizen 
of the United States, and who has not been a resident of the Territory of 
Alaska for at least three years. Every person appointed to the office of mine 
inspector must be theoretically and practically acquainted with mines and 
mining in all its branches, and he shall hold his office for the period of two 
years unless sooner removed by the Governor. No person shall hold the posi- 
tion of inspector of mines while an employee or officer of any company or cor- 
poration. Each inspector of mines shall devote his entire time and attention 
to the duties of his office, and the salary of each inspector shall be $2,500 per 
annum, and he shall be allowed his actual and necessary traveling expenses 
while in the performance of his duties under the provisions of this act and 
such salary and expenses shall be paid monthly. 

Sec. 2. It is the duty of the Territorial mine inspector to visit the mining 
sections assigned to him by the Federal mine inspector or the governor of the 
Territory, and examine as many mines therein as practicable, inspect their 
workings, timbering, ventilation, means of ingress and egress, and the means 
adopted and in use for the preservation of the lives and safety of the miners 
employed therein. For this purpose the inspector at all times shall have access 
to any mine and all parts thereof. All mine owners, lessees, lessors, agents, 
operators, managers, or superintendents must render such assistance as may 
be necessary to enable the inspector to make the examination. When upon 



54 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

such examination any mine or portion thereof is found to ho in an unsafe or in- 
secure condition, the inspector shall at once serve a notice iu writing upon the 
owner, lessees, lessors, agent, operator, manager, or superintendent thereof, 
setting forth the nature of the defects which render such mine unsafe or in- 
secure and the point or place in such mine where such defect exists, and 
requiring the repairs necessary to remedy such defects to be made within a 
specified time, and, if in his judgment the circumstances so reqiure, he shall 
forbid the operation of such mine or portion thereof as has been declared 
unsafe or insecure, save and except for the purpose of making the repairs 
necessary for the purpose of remedying such defects and making such mine 
safe and secure for the laborers employed therein. 

Sec. 3. Whenever the inspector of mines receives a complaint in writing 
signed by three or more parties setting forth that any mine is dangerous in any 
respect, the inspector must, as soon as possible, visit and examine such mine. 
Every such complaint must set forth the nature of the danger existing at the 
mine and (when) the time and cause of such danger was first discovered. 

Sec. 4. If upon such examination the inspector of mines ascertains that the 
mine is from any cause in a dangerous condition, he must at once notify the 
owner, lessor, lessee, agent, manager, operator, or superintendent. Such notice 
must state fully and in detail in what particular manner such mine is dan- 
gerous or insecure, and require all necessary changes to be made without de- 
lay, for the purpose of making such mine safe and secure for the laborers em- 
ployed therein ; and in any criminal or civil proceeding at law against the 
party or parties so notified, on account of loss of life or bodily injury sus- 
tained by the employee subsequent to the service of such notice and in con- 
sequence of a neglect to obey the inspector's requirements, a certified copy 
of the notice served by the inspector is prima facie evidence of the gross negli- 
gence of the party or parties so complained of. If the owner, lessee, lessor, 
agent, operator, manager, or superintendent of any such mine shall neglect or 
refuse to cause the repairs necessary to remedy such defect to be made within 
a reasonable time, or shall refuse to cause work to be stopped when so ordered, 
such party or parties shall be prosecuted criminally by the inspector. 

Sec. 5. Whenever a serious or fatal accident occurs in any mine it is the 
duty of the person in charge thereof to immediately notify the inspector of the 
mining inspection district wherein such mines is located, in the quickest manner 
possible, and upon receiving such notice the inspector of mines must, if possible, 
at once repair to the place of accident and investigate fully the cause of such 
accident, and whenever possible to do so the inspector shall be present at the 
coroner's inquest held over the remains of the person or persons killed by such 
accident and testify as to the cause thereof, and state whether, in his opinion, 
the accident was due to the negligence or mismanagement of the owner or per- 
son in charge. If the inspector can not be immediately present in case of a 
fatal or serious accident occurring, it is the duty of the owner or person in 
charge of the mine to have written statements made by those witnessing the 
same and sworn to. In case no person was present at the time of the accident, 
then the verified statement of those first present after the accident must be 
taken and such statement must be forwarded to the inspector. If after making 
such investigation the inspector deems the facts warrant it, he may prosecute 
criminally the owner, lessee, lessor, agent, operator, manager, or superintendent 
of the mine in which such accident occurred. 

Sec. 6. Each inspector of mines must make a monthly report to the governor, 
and the report must give a statement of all mines visited by him ; a statement 
of all the accidents that have occurred in his inspection district which have 
occasioned serious injury or resulted fatally, together with the nature and 



MINE-INSPECTION LAWS OF ALASKA. 55 

cause of such accidents. Such report shall ;ilso contain such additional in- 
formation as the governor may require, and must set forth the result of the 
inspector's labors. 

Sec. 7. The provisions in this act do not apply to mines in which less than 
six people are employed. 

Sec. 8. Any person or corporation failing to comply with any of the pro- 
visions of this act is punishable by a fine of not less than ,$25 nor more than 
$500, or by imprisonment in the Federal jail not less than ten days nor more 
than six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment. 

AMENDMENT. 

The following amendment (Session Laws of Alaska, 1915, chap. 
71, p. 130) was passed by the Territorial Legislature on April 29, 
1915: 

An Act to repeal section eight of chapter seventy-two of the Session Laws of Alaska for 
nineteen hundred and thirteen entitled, " An Act to divide the Territory into mine 
inspection districts ; to establish the office of mine inspector ; to prescribe the duties, 
powers, qualifications, and compensation thereof ; to regulate the operation of mines 
in the Territory of Alaska ; to provide for the health and safety of mine workers in 
the Territory ; to declare the violation of any of the provisions hereof a misdemeanor 
and prescribing punishment therefor," approved April thirtieth, nineteen hundred and 
thirteen, to amend sections one and two thereof ; to add sections eight to thirty, 
inclusive, prescribing further duties and powers for Territorial and Federal mine 
inspectors ; and to repeal all acts and parts of acts inconsistent or in conflict herewith. 

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the Territory of Alaska: 

Sec. 1. That section eight of chapter seventy-two of the Session Laws of 
Alaska for nineteen hundred and thirteen, entitled "An act to divide the Terri- 
tory into mine inspection districts ; to establish the office of mine inspector ; to 
prescribe the duties, powers, qualifications, and compensation thereof ; to regu- 
late the operation of mines in the Territory of Alaska; to provide for the 
health and safety of mine workers in the Territory; to declare the violation 
of any of the provisions hereof a misdemeanor and prescribing punishment 
therefor," approved April thirtieth, nineteen hundred and thirteen, be, and the 
same hereby is, repealed. 

Sec. 2. That section one (1) of said chapter seventy-two of the Session Laws 
of Alaska for nineteen hundred and thirteen, be amended by striking out in 
lines five, six, seven, and eight thereof the words " and he shall be under 
the supervision and subject to the instruction of the Federal mine inspec- 
tors now appointed as provided by law." 

Sec. 3. That section two (2) of said chapter seventy-two of the Session Laws 
of Alaska for nineteen hundred and thirteen, be amended by striking out in 
line three (3) of said section the words " Federal mine inspector or the." 
Provided, however, that the exercise of the jurisdiction of the Territorial mine 
inspector or inspectors shall be subject to the revision and review of the 
governor of the Territory of Alaska, and that through him an appeal may 
be taken subject to the review and revision by the United States Bureau 
of Mines. 

Sec. 4. That the following sections be, and they are hereby, added to said 
chapter seventy-two of the Session Laws of Alaska for nineteen hundred and 
thirteen : 

" Sec. 8. Definitions : That the term ' mine,' when used in this act, shall in- 
clude any and all parts of any mine within the Territory, and any mining 
plant or equipment connected therewith underground or on the surface, which 
contributes, or may contribute, to the mining of ore, coal, or other metal- 
liferous or nonmetalliferous mineral product. 



56 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1015. 

"That the term 'operator,' when used in this act, shall mean the person, 
firm, association, company, or corporation in immediate possession of any 
mine or mining claim, or accessories thereof, as owner or lessee thereof, and 
as such, responsible for the management and condition thereof. 

" That the words ' excavation ' and * workings,' when used in this act, signify 
any or all parts of a mine excavated, including shafts, tunnels, entries, winzes, 
raises, stopes, open-cuts, and all working places, whether abandoned or in use. 

"Sec. 9. Jurisdiction of inspectors: That the jurisdiction of the mine in- 
spectors shall cover all branches of mining, shaft sinking, tunneling, quarrying, 
and dredging, and the machinery incident to the reduction of ores or the treat- 
ment of the material : Provided, however, That such jurisdiction shall apply only 
to the safety of the workers employed in such mining, shaft sinking, tunneling, 
quarrying, and dredging, and around machinery incident to the reduction of 
ores and treatment of the material: Provided, however, That the Territorial 
mine inspector shall have no jurisdiction under this act over coal mines to be 
worked under lease from the United States Government. 

" Sec. 9£. The Federal mining inspector or inspectors shall have authority 
in the absence of the Territorial mining inspector to enforce the provisions of 
this act. In all such cases the Federal mining inspector shall report in detail 
to the governor of the Territory of Alaska all cases wherein he has invoked 
the aid of the Territorial mine inspection act. 

" Sec. 10. Statistical records : That the mine inspector shall distribute blank 
forms, requiring statistics of accidents, labor and production, or such other 
information as the governor may require, which shall be filled in and returned 
to the mine inspector's office, to be made and used under the same conditions 
and restrictions as now required by the United States Geological Survey and 
the United States Bureau of Mines by the persons in charge of mines or mine 
workings, on or before the thirty-first day of December each year. 

"Sec. 11. Sanitation: That in any working mine the inspector may require 
a sufficient number of portable, water-tight privies to be provided for the 
underground employees, such privies to be taken to the surface and cleaned 
every twenty-four hours. 

" Sec. 12. Guards for dangerous machinery : That any owner, lessee, agent, 
operator, manager, or superintendent of any mine, mill, tunnel, shaft, quarry, 
or metallurgical works, wherein laborers are employed or machinery used, 
shall provide and maintain reasonable safeguards for all cogs, gearing, belting, 
shafting, couplings, set screws, conveyors, vats, rolls, and machinery of other 
or similar description, which it is practicable to guard, and which can be 
effectively guarded with due regard to the ordinary use of such machinery 
and appliances and to the employees therefrom, and with which the employees 
of any such mine, mill, tunnel, shaft, quarry, dredge, or metallurgical works are 
to come in contact while in the performance of their duties; and if any ma- 
chinery or any part thereof is in a defective condition and its operation would 
be extra hazardous because of such defect, or if any machinery is not safe- 
guarded as provided for in this act, the use thereof is prohibited, and a notice 
to that effect shall be attached thereto by the employer immediately upon receiv- 
ing notice of such defect or lack of safeguard, and such notice shall not be 
removed until such defect has been remedied or machine safeguarded as herein 
provided. 

" Sec. 13. Safety of shafts : 

(a) That when any shaft is sunk on any vein or ore chute, or body of ore, 
or any shaft sunk for the purpose of mining ore, a pillar of ground shall be 
left standing on each side of the shaft, of sufficient dimensions to protect and 
secure the same, and in no case shall stoping be permitted up to or within such 



MINE-INSPECTION LAWS OP ALASKA. 57 

proximity to the shaft as to render the same insecure, until such time as the 
shaft is to be abandoned, when said pillar may be withdrawn. 

(ft) All abandoned mine-shafts, pits, or other excavations, endangering the 
life of man or beast, shall be securely covered or fenced. 

"Sec. 14. Ladderways: That every shaft, winze, raise or incline of steeper 
slope than forty degrees from the horizontal, and deeper than forty feet, 
through which men are obliged to travel, shall be provided with a ladderway. 
Suitable ladders, or footways, shall be provided to connect floors or sets in 
stopes and other places requiring communication in mines. Every mine shall 
have in addition to any mechanical means of ingress or egress, at least one 
proper ladder or footway communicating from the lowest workings of the 
mine to the surface. 

That permanent ladderways, used for ascent or descent of persons in the 
mine, shall be sufficiently strong for the purpose demanded, and shall be 
firmly fastened and kept in good repair. In a vertical shaft, the mine in- 
spector may, at his discretion, by an order in writing, direct that the ladder 
shall be inclined at the most convenient angle which the space in which the 
ladder is fixed allows, and every such ladder shall have a platform at intervals 
of not more than fifty (50) nor less than twenty (20) feet. The said plat- 
forms shall be closely covered, with the exception of any opening large enough 
to permit the passage of a man, and shall be so arranged that by no means 
could a person fall from one ladder through the opening to the next ladder. 
This shall not apply to placer mines. 

" Sec. 15. Passageways around shafts, guard rails for shaft stations, etc. : 
That all stations or levels shall have a passageway around the working shaft 
so that crossing over the hoisting compartments may be avoided. All sumps 
shall be securely planked over. At all shaft stations a gate or guard rail 
must be provided and kept in place across the shaft, except when cage, skip, 
or bucket is being loaded ; but this prohibition shall not forbid the temporary 
removal of the gate or rail for the purpose of repairs or other operations, if 
the proper precautions to prevent danger to persons are taken. This shall 
not apply to underground placer mining. 

"Sec. 16. Hoisting of men or materials, (a) Hoisting engineers: That no 
person addicted to the use of intoxicating liquors or drugs, or under the 
age of eighteen years, shall be employed as a hoisting engineer. 

(ft) Hoisting machinery: That all hoisting machinery, using steam, elec- 
tricity, air, gasoline, or hydraulic motive power, for the purpose of hoisting 
from, or lowering into, mines of employees and materials, except shafts not 
exceeding three hundred (300) feet in depth, shall be equipped with an in- 
dicator, said indicator to be placed near to and in clear view or hearing of 
the engineer. This indicator must be in addition to the marks on the rope, 
cable, or drum. 

(c) Rate of hoisting speed: That it shall be unlawful to hoist men out 
of or lower men into a mine at a speed greater than eight hundred (800) 
feet per minute. When in running his engine at a speed greater than eight 
hundred (800) feet per minute, an engineer violates the express order of 
his employers, he, the engineer, shall be subject to the penalty herein provided. 

(d) Ropes or cables used for hoisting: That all ropes or cables used for 
hoisting purposes shall be of approved quality and manufacture: Provided, 
That in shafts and winzes of over two hundred (200) feet in depth only 
wire ropes or cables shall be used for hoisting purposes. 

(e) Construction of headframes: That all headframes, where men are 
hoisted in places where more than twenty-five (25) men are employed, shall 
be so constructed as to allow at least twenty-five (25) feet above the hoist 



58 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

lauding stage in which the cage, skip, or hucket can travel freely in case of 
an overwind. The mine inspector may grant permission for the use of any 
headframe, erected previous to the enactment of this law, which does not 
comply with the above conditions. This shall not apply to placer mines. 

(/) Safety cages: That it shall be unlawful for the operator of any mine 
to permit the hoisting or lowering of men in any shaft deeper than three 
hundred (300) feet, unless an iron-bonneted safety cage, equipped with gates 
or doors, of sufficient size and strength to prevent a man falling onto the 
timbers, be used: Provided, however, That this provision shall not apply to 
shafts in the process of sinking. Every cage must have overhead bars of such 
arrangement as to give every man on the cage an easy and secure handhold. 
Every cage or skip used for hoisting men must be provided with a safety catch 
or catches of sufficient strength to hold the cage or skip with its maximum 
load at any point in the shaft in the event that the hoisting cable should break. 
The inspector must see that all cages and skips are equipped in compliance 
with this paragraph, and that on all cages the safety catches are kept well 
oiled and in good working condition. 

(g) Hoisting buckets, guides, and crossheads: That all vertical shafts, more 
than two hundred (200) feet in depth, from which hoisting of men is done by 
means of buckets, must be provided with suitable guides, and in connection 
with the bucket there must be a crosshead traveling upon these guides. The 
height of the crosshead shall be at least one and one-half times its width. If 
the crosshead be a type that is not secured to the hoisting rope, a stopper of 
a design approved by the mine inspector must be securely and rigidly fastened 
to the hoisting rope at a suitable point above the rim of the bucket. 

(h) Persons riding in cages or buckets: That the number of persons per- 
mitted to ride on the deck of a cage, in or on a skip or bucket, shall be de- 
termined by the mine inspector, and in no case shall more than the number of 
men permitted by the mine inspector be allowed to ride on the deck of such 
cage, or in or on such bucket or skip. No person shall ride on a cage or in or 
on a skip or bucket when loaded with rock or ore, unless the owner or operator 
of the mine shall have provided double-deck cages, in which case the employees 
may be permitted to ride upon the deck not occupied by such tools, timbers, or 
other materials. 

(i) Riding on loaded cage: That no person shall ride upon any cage, skip, 
or bucket that is loaded with tools, timber, powder, or other material, except 
for the purpose of assisting in passing these through the shaft. 

(;') Lowering cage to bottom of shaft: That in no case shall a cage, skip, or 
bucket, or other vehicle be lowered directly to the bottom of a shaft when 
men are working there, but must be stopped at least fifteen (15) feet above the 
bottom until the signal to lower further is given by one of the men at the 
bottom of the shaft: Provided, however, That this section shall not apply to 
shafts less than fifty (50) feet in depth. 

(fc) Protection from falling material in shaft: That persons engaged in 
deepening a shaft, in which regular hoisting from any upper level is going on, 
shall be protected from the danger of falling material by a suitable covering, 
sufficient opening in the covering being left only for the passage of the bucket 
or other conveyance used in sinking operations. 

(I) Bulkheads between two working crews: That in shafts, winzes, or 
raises where two or more crews of men are working, one crew above another, 
there shall be a bulkhead between the two crews of men strong enough to stop 
any tools or other material that may fall from the men working above, and only 
the cage, skip, or bucket compartment be left open. 



MINE-INSPECTION LAWS OF ALASKA. 59 

(in) Plugs for windlasses: That windlasses and whims in use in mines shall 
be provided with suitable plugs or other reliable devices to prevent running 
back of the bucket or other conveyance used. 

(n) Hooks for buckets: That no open hooks shall be used with buckets 
when hoisting, but some form of safety or shackle hook, approved by the mine 
inspector. 

(o) Hoistmen: At any mine, where men are hoisted by mechanical means, a 
hoistman, charged with the care of such hoist, shall be kept on duty thereat 
at all times when men are underground, and he shall be charged with the actual 
hoisting of the men. 

" Sec. 17. Mine outlets : 

(a) Divided shafts: That at every mine where a single shaft affords the 
means of ingress and egress to the persons employed underground such shaft, 
if more than three hundred (300) feet deep, shall be divided into at least two 
compartments, and one of the compartments shall be set aside for a ladderway, 
which must be equipped as hereinbefore provided. Whenever such single shaft 
shall be covered by a building not absolutely fireproof the ladderway shall 
be securely bulkheaded at a point at least twenty-five feet below the collar of 
the shaft, and below this bulkhead, if the shaft is situated on a hillside, a drift 
shall be driven to the surface ; if the shaft is situated in a level country the 
drift shall be driven to a safe distance beyond the walls of the building, but 
in no case less than thirty (30) feet, and from there a raise shall be made to 
the surface. This raise shall be equipped with ladderways, and it, together 
with the drift connecting with the main shaft, shall be kept in good repairs 
and shall afford a safe escape in case of fire. 

(ft) Fireproof doors near mouth of adit: That every adit on which the mouth 
is covered by a house or building of any kind shall be provided with a fireproof 
door near the mouth of the adit that can be closed from the outside of the build- 
ing by means of a pull wire or cable, so as to keep the gases or combustion from 
entering the mine in the event that fire destroys the building at the mouth of 
the adit. 

(c) Covering for sumps and other openings: That existing winzes, sumps, 
and all other openings in the floor of a drift or stope must be kept covered by 
a substantial hatch, or planking, or provided with guardrails. 

" Sec. 18. Stationary lights : 

(a) Stationary lights to be provided: That lights shall be provided during 
working hours at all stations in vertical and incline shafts during the time while 
in actual use, and also at all stations in levels where hoisting or hauling is 
effected by machinery, and also at night at all working places on the surface. 

(b) No candles to be left burning: That no candles shall be left burning in 
a mine, or any part of a mine, when the person using the candle departs from 
his work for the day. 

" Sec. 19. Accumulation of water : 

(a) That when advancing a drift, adit, level, or incline toward a working 
suspected to be filled with water, a bore hole must be kept at least ten feet in 
advance of the breast of the drive and also, if necessary, in directions laterally 
from the course of the drive. Such additional precautionary measures shall be 
taken as may be deemed necessary by the mine inspector to obviate the danger 
of a sudden breaking through of water. 

(ft) That no raise shall be allowed to approach within ten feet of any portion 
of a winze or a stope in which there is a dangerous accumulation of water. 

(c) That in every mine where, in the opinion of the mine inspector, there is 
danger of a sudden inrush of water such additional raises, drifts, or other work- 



60 MINING INDUSTEY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

ings shall be constructed as are necessary to insure the escape of workmen from 
the lower workings, and all sumps and places for the storage of water in mines 
shall be so constructed as to prevent leakage, as far as possible, and insure the 
safety of the men working below the same. 

(d) That it shall be unlawful for any operator to impound water within any 
mine in which men are working below the water so impounded in such a man- 
ner as to endanger the safety of such men unless such water be impounded by 
a dam or dams or wall or walls approved by the mine inspector. 

" Sec. 20. Minors not to be employed : That boys under the age of sixteen 
years shall not be employed underground in a mine. 

" Sec. 21. Intoxicated persons not allowed in mines : That no intoxicated per- 
son shall be allowed to enter a mine. Nor shall any intoxicated person be 
allowed to remain in any mine. Nor shall any intoxicating liquors be taken, 
or allowed to be taken, into any mine. 

" Sec. 22. Visitors : That strangers and visitors shall not be allowed under- 
ground in any mine, unless accompanied by the owner, official, or employee 
deputized to accompany them. 

" Sec. 23. Ventilations : An adequate amount of ventilation shall at all 
times be produced, so that all mine workings and the roads to and from such 
workings shall be free from any offensive gases. The air must be in such a 
state that a light will burn freely at all times in any working portion of the 
mine. That all old timbers shall be as soon as practicable taken from the mine, 
and shall not be piled up and permitted to decay underground. 

" Sec. 24. Signal system : 

(a) That each mine shall adopt its own set of station signals, and that such 
station signals shall be given before the hoist or lower signals provided herein ; 
that the engineer shall not move the cage, skip, or bucket unless he under- 
stands the signal. 

(6) That the official code of signals herein provided for and the station 
signals adopted or to be adopted by each mine shall be posted at all hoist 
engines in plain sight of engineer at the collar of each shaft and at every 
station, the letters or figures thereon to be not less than one-half inch in 
height. 

" Sec 25. Code of signals : That the following shall be the official code of 
signals for underground work throughout the Territory : 

One bell — hoist. 

One bell — stop, if in motion. 

Two bells — lower. 

Three bells — hoist men, run slow. 

Two slow bells — lower very slow. 

Three slow bells — hoist very slow. 

Four bells — blasting signal. This is a caution signal, and if the engineer 
is prepared to accept it he must acknowledge by raising the bucket or cage a 
few feet, then lowering it again. After accepting this signal an engineer must 
be prepared to hoist the men away from the blast as soon as the signal (one 
bell) is given, and must accept no other signal in the meantime. 

Six bells — skip or cage call. To be followed by the station signal, when 
the skip or cage is desired. 

Nine bells — danger signal. Followed by the station signal, calls cage to 
that station. This signal takes precedence over all others, except an accepted 
blast signal. 

" Sec. 26. First aid to the injured : 



MINE-INSPECTION LAWS OF ALASKA. 61 

(a) That a supply of articles suitable for first-aid treatmeut shall be kept 
at every mine, the list to include a book of instructions, antiseptic gauze, car- 
bolated vaseline, carbolic acid, tablets of bichloride of mercury, linseed oil, 
bandages, soap, wash basin, and towels or the equivalents. 

(ft) That at every mine or metallurgical works where there are poisonous 
gases or solutions there shall be kept in a conspicuous place the proper anti- 
dotes, properly labeled, with the instructions for their use. 

" Sec. 27. Explosives : 

(a) That no inexperienced man shall be allowed to use high explosives, 
except for the purposes of instruction, and then only under the supervision of a 
competent person. 

(ft) That no explosives shall be used in any mine unless there is plainly 
printed or marked on every original package containing such explosives the 
name and place of business of the manufacturer and the strength and date of 
manufacture of such explosive. 

(c) That no explosives shall be stored in any mine: Provided, however, 
That this shall not be construed to prevent the operator of any mine from 
keeping sufficient explosives within such mines as may be required within the 
next twenty-four hours. 

(d) That such temporary supply shall not be kept in any place within such 
mine, where its accidental explosion would cut off the escape of the miners 
working therein. 

(e) That no open lights shall be taken into the magazine or held where the 
spark could fall in the box, or on to the explosives. 

(/) That no caps or oil shall be stored in any powder magazine. 

(g) That all magazines shall be placed at a safe distance from the entrance 
to a mine or public highway. 

(h) That no iron or steel tamping bars shall be used. 

(i) That if after blasting and before work is resumed a charge is known to 
have missed fire or cut off, the same shall not be withdrawn, but shall be 
blasted, and that no drilling shall be done on the same working face where 
there is so known to be a missed or cut-off hole containing explosives, until the 
same has been blasted, provided that where a missed or cut-off hole is dis- 
covered in the face of a stope after blasting, no drilling shall be done within 
ten feet of said missed or cut-off hole, but drilling may be done at a distance 
of ten feet or more from such missed or cut-off hole. 

(/) That a suitable house, in which to thaw explosives shall be built sep- 
arate from the other mine buildings and shall be equipped with suitable appa- 
ratus for thawing explosives, approved by the mine inspector. The key or 
keys to such powder magazine shall be held by some competent person or 
persons who shall be responsible for the distribution of the powder, and shall 
be under the direction of the mine foreman or some other careful and ex- 
perienced person. Whenever deemed necessary by the mine inspector, suit- 
able apparatus for thawing explosives shall also be provided for use in the 
mine and shall be under the immediate charge of the mine foreman or some 
other careful and experienced person. 

" Sec. 28. Machinery : 

(a) That all boilers, used for the generation of steam, shall be equipped 
with a safety valve, water gage and water glass, and shall be inspected at 
least once every year by a competent person and a written report of such in- 
spection shall be kept, and such boilers shall be hydraulicly tested, annually, 
to a pressure exceeding the working steam pressure by 40 per cent. 

(ft) That all gears shall be covered or inclosed. 



62 MINING INDUSTRY IN ALASKA DURING 1915. 

(c) That all exposed set screws shall he countersunk or covered. 

(d) That all belts, through which it is necessary for employees to travel, 
shall be suitably protected so as to comply with the provisions of section 12. 

(e) That all keys on shafting shall be covered or protected by railing. 

(/) That shafting in exposed places shall be protected by railing or housed. 

(g) That hoisting engines shall be equipped with brakes of sufficient strength 
to hold the loaded cage or skip at any point in the shaft. 

(ft) That all hoists shall be equipped with efficient indicators. 

(i) That hoisting ropes shall have at least three turns around the drum 
when the cage or skip is at the lowest point in the shaft. 

(/) That no ropes shall be used for hoisting men, when 10 per cent of the 
wires in any running foot are broken. 

(fc) That hoisting ropes shall have a factor of safety not less than five, to 
be calculated by dividing the breaking strength as published in the manu- 
facturer's tables by the sum of the maximum load to be hoisted, plus the 
weight of the rope, plus 10 per cent of such values, to take into account the 
shock of striking and of starting and stopping. 

(I) That haulage locomotives shall be equipped with gongs or whistles. 

" Sec. 29. Laws to be accessible : That it shall be the duty of the superin- 
tendent of any mine within the provisions of this act to keep at all times in 
the office of said mine, and in the timekeeper's office thereof, in an accessible 
place, and subject to inspection by all workmen and persons interested in the 
same, at least one printed copy of this act. 

" Whenever the approval, order, or direction of the mine inspector is provided 
for or contemplated in this act, the same shall be in writing and signed by 
the mine inspector, and a duplicate of the same delivered to the person or 
corporation operating said mine ; and wherever any apparatus is now installed 
in any of said mines or workings, and the approval of the mine inspector is 
contemplated or provided for in this act, the said approval shall not be con- 
strued or deemed necessary until after such mines shall have actually been 
inspected by such mine inspector and until a written order or approval or 
disapproval shall have been signed by the mine inspector and a copy thereof 
delivered to the owners or operators of the mine. 

" Sec. 30. Penalty for violations : Any persons or corporations failing to 
comply with any of the provisions of this act shall be deemed guilty of a 
misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be fined in any sum not less 
than $50 nor more than $1,000 or be imprisoned in the Federal jail for a 
period of not less than thirty days nor more than one year, or punished by 
both such fine and imprisonment, at the discretion of the court." 

Sec. 5. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent or in conflict with the provi- 
sions of this act are hereby repealed. 



INDEX. 



A. 

Page. 

Accidents at metal mines, by causes. 48 
at metallurgical plants, by 

causes 49 

reporting of, failure in 11, 12 

regulations regarding 54 

See also Fatalities. 
Alaska Commercial claims, opera- 
tions at i 43 

Alaska Free Gold claims, opera- 
tions at 43, 44 

Alaska Juneau mine, operations at- 32, 33 

Alaska Treasure mine, operations at_ 35 
American Eagle claim, operations 

at 2:: 

Antimony, mining of 23, 24 

production of 6, 8 

B. 

Bartels mine, operations at 27 

■ Bcatson-Bonanza mine, fatality at_ 40, 47 

operations at 41 

Bering River coal field, Government 

reservations in 12 

opening of 12 

quality of coal from 13 

Big Four mine, operations at 39 

Bonanza mine, fatality at 40, 47 

operations at 37 

Bondholder claim, operations at 24 

Bureau of Mines, work of 12 

C. 

Cages, operation of, regulations re- 
garding 16, 58 

Cameron-Johnson mine, operations 

at 41 

Casadepaga district, mining opera- 
tions in 27 

Chatham mine, operations at 23 

Chichagof mine, operations at . 36 

Chisana district, mining operations 

in 26 

production of gold in 6, 26 

Chitina district, output of copper 

from 7 

Circle district, mining operations in_ 25. 51 

Cliff mine, operations at -39 

Coal fields in Alaska, future of, fac- 
tors governing 13 

Government reservations on, 

purpose of 12 

leasing units in, considerations 

governing 12, 13 

Coal in Alaska, output of 6 

suitability for Navy 13 

78425°— 17 5 



Page. 

Colorado mine, operations at 24 

Compensation law in Alaska, de- 
fects of 11 

Copper mines in Alaska, list 52 

production of 6, 7, 8, 28 

See also mines named. 

Copper River district, lode mines in_ 52 

mining operations in 37,38 

Council district, mining operations 

in 27. 28 

Crites & Feldman mine, operations 

at 23 

D. 

Dickey claims, operations at 43 

Dredges in Alaska, operation of 50, 51 

Dunton mine, operations in 29 

Dye, R. A., work of 9, 21 

E. 

Ebner mine, fatality at 46, 47 

mining operations at 35 

Kllamar mine, fetality at 46, 47 

operations ati 39 

Excavation, definition of 56 

Explosives, storage of, regulations 

regarding 61 

use of, regulations regarding 18. 01 

F. 

Fairbanks district, mining opera- 
tions in 22-24, 51 

need of fuel in 13 

production of antimony from__ 8 
Fairhaven district, mining opera- 
tions in 28 

Falls of rock, fatalities from 4."> 

Fatalities in mining industry, list of_ 40, 47 

Hidalgo claims, operations at 39 

First aid, training of miners in 9, 21 

First-aid equipment, regulations re- 
garding 60.61 

Fuel. See Coal ; Mineral fuels. 

G. 

Galena Bay mine, operations at 40 

General Land Office, work of 12 

Gold Bullion mine, operations at 44 

Gold King mine, operations at 40 

Gold mines in Alaska, development 

of 5, 6 

list of 52,53 

output of 6, 7, 28 

See also mines named. 

Goodro mine, operations at 29 

Granby mines, operations at 40 

63 



64 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Granite mine, operations at 40 

Great Northern Development claims, 

operations at 37 

■Gypsum mine in Alaska, fatality 

at 40. 47 

operations at 36 

output of 6 

H. 

Hoisting, regulations regarding-- 10. 57, 58 
Hoisting apparatus, regulations re- 
garding 57, 58, 59, 62 

Hoisting engineers, qualifications of_ 57 

Homestake mine, operations at 2:! 

Hubbard-Elliott claims, operations 

at 37 

I. 

Iditarod district, mining opera- 
tions in 26, 51 

output of gold from 26 

Independence mine, operations at__ 44 

Injuries at metal mines, by causes 48 

Innoko district, mining operations 

in 25 

output of gold from 6, 25 

Intoxicants in mines, regulations 

regarding 60 

Intoxication, dangers from 20 

It mine, operations at 30 

J. 

Jumbo mine, concentrator at, view 

of 38 

operations in 29, 37, 38 

Juneau district, mining opera- 
tions in 28, 31-36 

production of gold at 7 

K. 

Kenai Peninsula district, mining 

operations in 43,44,51 

Kensington claims, operations at 36 

Ketchikan district, mining opera- 
tions in 28-30 

production of copper from 7, 28, 29 

Kougarok district, mining operations 

in 28 

Koyukuk district, mining opera- 
tions in 25 

output of gold from 25 

L. 

Labor conditions in Alaska 14 

Ladderways in mines, regulations 

regarding 57, 59 

Landlock Bay claims, operations at_ 41 

Lead in Alaska, output of 6 

Lighting in mines, regulations re- 
garding 59 

Linda claim, fatality at 46, 47 

Lode mines in Alaska, accidents at__ 45 

list of 52, 53 

Lode mining, in Fairbanks district, 

extent of 23, 24 



M. 

Page. 

McCarthy mine, operations at 23 

.Machinery, hoisting, regulations re- 
garding ^ 57 

protection of, regulations re- 
garding 50, 61, 62 

Mamie mine, fatality at 46, 47 

operations at 29 

Mauley Hot Springs district, mining- 
operations in 25 

output of gold from 25 

ontput of tin from 8 

Marole in Alaska, output of 6 

Marshall district, mining operations 

in 26 

output of gold from 26 

Matanuska coal field. Government 

reservations in 12 

opening of 12 

quality of coal fiioni 13 

Mayflower mine, operation* at 23 

Metal mines, accidents at, by 

causes 48 

Metallurgical plants, accidents at 45 

by causes 49 

Mexican mine, fatality at 40, 47 

operations at 33, 34 

Midas mine, operations at 40 

Mills, accidents at 45 

safety precautions iu, rules for. 20,21 

Mine, definition of 55 

records of, regulations regard- 
ing 56 

Mine cars, riding on, precautious 

in 19, 20 

Mine fires, protection against, regu- 
lations regarding 59 

Mine inspection, comprehensive, need 

of 5 

extent of 5 

regulations regarding 53, 54 

Mine inspector, Federal, authority 

of 56 

headquarters of 9 

need of assistance for 9, 10 

work of 5,8,9 

Territorial, appointment of 53 

duties of 5, 53, 54 

jurisdiction of 56 

qualifications of 53 

reports of 54, 55 

supervision of 55 

Mine rescue apparatus, increased 

use of 14, 15 

Mine rescue training, development 

of 14,15 

Miueral fuels in Alaska, produc- 
tion of 8 

Mineral King mine, operations at-. 41.42 

Miners, safety instructions to 15, 16 

Mining experiment station, value of_ 10 
Mining law of Alaska, accessibility 
of, regulations regard- 
ing 02 

scope of 10,11 

violations of, penalty for 02 



INDEX. 



65 



Page. 
Minors, employment of, regulations 

regarding 60 

Mizpah mine, operations at 23 

Mohawk claim, operations at 24 

Montezuma claims, operations at 43 

Mount Andrew mine, operations at_ 30 

Mountain King mine, operations at_ 42 

Mystic No. 1 claim, operations at — 39 

N. 

Nelchina district, production of 

gold in 

Nelson-Lott claims, operations at 32 

Nome district, mining operations in_ 27 

Nugget Creek mine, operator of 52 

0. 

Ohio mine, operations at 23 

Operator, definition of 5G 

Outlets, mine, regulations regard- 
ing 59 

P. 

Perseverance mine, fatality at 40, 47 

operations at 31, 32 

Petroleum in Alaska, output of__ 6 

Placer mines, accidents at 45 

Placer mining, in Fairbanks dis- 
trict, extent of 22, 23 

Port Clarence district, mining oper- 
ations in 28 

Prince William Sound district, min- 
ing operations in 38—43 

output of copper from 7 

R. 

Railroad. Government, work on.._ 13, 14 
Ramsay-Rutherford mine. opera- 
tions at 42 

Ready Bullion claims, fatality at 40, 47 

operations at 30,33,34 

Rhoades-Hall mine, operations at — '-■'> 

Ruby district, mining- operations in_ l'.'i 

output of gold from 25 

Rush & Brown mine, operations at- 30, 31 

S. 

Safety engineer, duties of 15 

Safety first, rules for 15,16,19,20 

Sanitation in mines, regulations re- 
garding 19, 56 

Schlosser mines, operations at 38 

Sealey-Davis claims, operations at_ 42 
Seven hundred foot mine, fatality 

at 46,47 

operations at 33, 34 



Page. 
Seward Peninsula, mines in, pro- 
duction of metals from_ 8, 26 
Shafts, passageways around, regu- 
lations regarding 57 

protection of, regulations re- 
garding 16,56,57 

Signal code, regulations regarding- 60 
Signaling in mines, regulations re- 
garding 60 

Silver in Alaska, output of 6 

Sitka district, mining operations in_ 36 
Solomon district, mining opera- 
tions in 27 

Soo mine, operations at 24 

Sulzer mine, operations in 29 

Stoping, rules for 17 

T. 

Tenderfoot district, mining opera- 
tions in , 25 

Thomas-Culross claims, operations 

at 42 

Tin in Alaska, output of 6, 8 

Tolovana district, development of_ 24 

output of gold from 5, 24 

Tramming, rules for 19 

Treadwell, Alaska, first-aid meet at_ 21 

Treadwell mine, fatality at 46, 47 

operations at 33, 34 

Treasury Department, on mineral 

production of Alaska 6 

U. 

United States Geological Survey, 

cited 28 

on mineral production of 

Alaska 6 

V. 

Valpariso mine, operations at 30 

Ventilation of mines, regulations 

regarding 60 

W. 

Wade Hampton district, production 

of gold in 6 

Water in mines, regulations regard- 
ing 59,60 

Whitehorse mine, operations at 23 

Wild Rose mine, operations at 24 

Workings, definition of 56 

Wyoming mine, operations at 24 

Y. 

Yellow Jacket claim, operations at- 23, 24 

York district, mining operations in_ 27 

production of tin from 8 



o 



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